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Sample records for actively forming stars

  1. NUCLEAR ACTIVITY IS MORE PREVALENT IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rosario, D. J.; Lutz, D.; Berta, S.; Popesso, P.; Genzel, R.; Saintonge, A.; Tacconi, L.; Wuyts, S. E-mail: lutz@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: popesso@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: amelie@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: swuyts@mpe.mpg.de; and others

    2013-07-01

    We explore the question of whether low and moderate luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are preferentially found in galaxies that are undergoing a transition from active star formation (SF) to quiescence. This notion has been suggested by studies of the UV-optical colors of AGN hosts, which find them to be common among galaxies in the so-called Green Valley, a region of galaxy color space believed to be composed mostly of galaxies undergoing SF quenching. Combining the deepest current X-ray and Herschel/PACS far-infrared (FIR) observations of the two Chandra Deep Fields with redshifts, stellar masses, and rest-frame photometry derived from the extensive and uniform multi-wavelength data in these fields, we compare the rest-frame U - V color distributions and star formation rate distributions of AGNs and carefully constructed samples of inactive control galaxies. The UV-to-optical colors of AGNs are consistent with equally massive inactive galaxies at redshifts out to z {approx} 2, but we show that such colors are poor tracers of SF. While the FIR distributions of both star-forming AGNs and star-forming inactive galaxies are statistically similar, we show that AGNs are preferentially found in star-forming host galaxies, or, in other words, AGNs are less likely to be found in weakly star-forming or quenched galaxies. We postulate that, among X-ray-selected AGNs of low and moderate accretion luminosities, the supply of cold gas primarily determines the accretion rate distribution of the nuclear black holes.

  2. Chemical Fingerprints of Star Forming Regions and Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Beaupuits, Juan-Pablo

    2010-10-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of the physical conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and Galactic star-forming regions, using mostly single-dish millimeter observations. I first study the excitation conditions of dense gas in a group of Seyfert galaxies using radiative transfer models (Chapter 2). I then study the galaxy NGC 1068, and try to distinguish signatures of the contributions from the AGN and the starburst ring by incorporating observations of high-J transitions of dense gas tracers (Chapter 3). Later, I venture into the mid-infrared spectral region to study different aspects of the AGN and starburst components in the galaxy NGC 4945 (Chapter 4). In Chapter 5 I delve into theoretical aspects of the dynamical evolution of gas in an AGN torus. I use a 3D hydrodynamic simulation with chemical abundances driven by X-rays. The aim is to understand the effects of X-ray irradiation by the AGN on the temperature, formation and destruction of the molecular gas. I finally explore a Galactic star-forming region, the Omega Nebula, with high resolution single dish observations, to study the properties of the warm gas and to constrain chemical models (Chapters 6 and 7).

  3. Mid- to far-infrared properties of star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdis, G. E.; Rigopoulou, D.; Helou, G.; Farrah, D.; Hurley, P.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Bock, J.; Burgarella, D.; Chapman, S.; Charmandaris, V.; Cooray, A.; Dai, Y. Sophia; Dale, D.; Elbaz, D.; Feltre, A.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Huang, J.-S.; Morrison, G.; Oliver, S.; Page, M.; Scott, D.; Shi, Y.

    2013-10-01

    We study the mid- to far-IR properties of a 24 μm-selected flux-limited sample (S24> 5 mJy) of 154 intermediate redshift (⟨ z ⟩ ~ 0.15), infrared luminous galaxies, drawn from the 5 Milli-Jansky Unbiased Spitzer Extragalactic Survey. By combining existing mid-IR spectroscopy and new Herschel SPIRE submm photometry from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, we derived robust total infrared luminosity (LIR) and dust mass (Mdust) estimates and infered the relative contribution of the AGN to the infrared energy budget of the sources. We found that the total (8-1000 μm) infrared emission of galaxies with weak 6.2 μm PAH emission (EW6.2 ≤ 0.2 μm) is dominated by AGN activity, while for galaxies with EW6.2> 0.2 μm more than 50% of the LIR arises from star formation. We also found that for galaxies detected in the 250-500 μm Herschel bands an AGN has a statistically insignificant effect on the temperature of the cold dust and the far-IR colours of the host galaxy, which are primarily shaped by star formation activity. For star-forming galaxies we reveal an anti-correlation between the LIR-to-rest-frame 8 μm luminosity ratio, IR8 ≡ LIR/L8 and the strength of PAH features. We found that this anti-correlation is primarily driven by variations in the PAHsemission, and not by variations in the 5-15 μm mid-IR continuum emission. Using the [Ne iii]/[Ne ii] line ratio as a tracer of the hardness of the radiation field, we confirm that galaxies with harder radiation fields tend to exhibit weaker PAH features, and found that they have higher IR8 values and higher dust-mass-weighted luminosities (LIR/Mdust), the latter being a proxy for the dust temperature (Td). We argue that these trends originate either from variations in the environment of the star-forming regions or are caused by variations in the age of the starburst. Finally, we provide scaling relations that will allow estimating LIR, based on single-band observations with the mid-infrared instrument

  4. WIDESPREAD AND HIDDEN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT REDSHIFT >0.3

    SciTech Connect

    Juneau, Stephanie; Bournaud, Frederic; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Alexander, David M.; Mullaney, James R.; Magnelli, Benjamin; Hwang, Ho Seong; Willner, S. P.; Coil, Alison L.; Rosario, David J.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Faber, S. M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Cooper, Michael C.; Frayer, David T.; and others

    2013-02-20

    We characterize the incidence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in 0.3 < z < 1 star-forming galaxies by applying multi-wavelength AGN diagnostics (X-ray, optical, mid-infrared, radio) to a sample of galaxies selected at 70 {mu}m from the Far-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy survey (FIDEL). Given the depth of FIDEL, we detect 'normal' galaxies on the specific star formation rate (sSFR) sequence as well as starbursting systems with elevated sSFR. We find an overall high occurrence of AGN of 37% {+-} 3%, more than twice as high as in previous studies of galaxies with comparable infrared luminosities and redshifts but in good agreement with the AGN fraction of nearby (0.05 < z < 0.1) galaxies of similar infrared luminosities. The more complete census of AGNs comes from using the recently developed Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic diagram. This optical diagnostic is also sensitive to X-ray weak AGNs and X-ray absorbed AGNs, and reveals that absorbed active nuclei reside almost exclusively in infrared-luminous hosts. The fraction of galaxies hosting an AGN appears to be independent of sSFR and remains elevated both on the sSFR sequence and above. In contrast, the fraction of AGNs that are X-ray absorbed increases substantially with increasing sSFR, possibly due to an increased gas fraction and/or gas density in the host galaxies.

  5. THE PRESENCE OF WEAK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN HIGH REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Shelley A.; Graham, James R.; Ma, C-P; Larkin, James E.

    2010-03-10

    We present [O III 5007 A] observations of the star-forming galaxy (SFG) HDF-BMZ1299 (z = 1.598) using Keck Observatory's adaptive optics system with the near-infrared {integral} field spectrograph OSIRIS. Using previous Halpha and [N II] measurements of the same source, we are able for the first time to use spatially resolved observations to place a high-redshift galaxy's substructure on a traditional H II diagnostic diagram. We find that HDF-BMZ1299's spatially concentrated nebular ratios in the central {approx}1.5 kpc (0.''2) are best explained by the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN): log ([N II]/Halpha) = -0.22 +- 0.05 and 2sigma limit of log ([O III]/Hbeta) {approx}>0.26. The dominant energy source of this galaxy is star formation, and integrating a single aperture across the galaxy yields nebular ratios that are composite spectra from both AGN and H II regions. The presence of an embedded AGN in HDF-BMZ1299 may suggest a potential contamination in a fraction of other high-redshift SFGs, and we suggest that this may be a source of the 'elevated' nebular ratios previously seen in seeing-limited metallicity studies. HDF-BMZ1299's estimated AGN luminosity is L{sub Halpha} = (3.7 +- 0.5) x 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} and L{sub [O{sub III}]} = (5.8 +- 1.9) x 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}, making it one of the lowest luminosity AGNs discovered at this early epoch.

  6. Star-forming galaxy models: Blending star formation into TREESPH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihos, J. Christopher; Hernquist, Lars

    1994-01-01

    We have incorporated star-formation algorithms into a hybrid N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (TREESPH) in order to describe the star forming properties of disk galaxies over timescales of a few billion years. The models employ a Schmidt law of index n approximately 1.5 to calculate star-formation rates, and explicitly include the energy and metallicity feedback into the Interstellar Medium (ISM). Modeling the newly formed stellar population is achieved through the use of hybrid SPH/young star particles which gradually convert from gaseous to collisionless particles, avoiding the computational difficulties involved in creating new particles. The models are shown to reproduce well the star-forming properties of disk galaxies, such as the morphology, rate of star formation, and evolution of the global star-formation rate and disk gas content. As an example of the technique, we model an encounter between a disk galaxy and a small companion which gives rise to a ring galaxy reminiscent of the Cartwheel (AM 0035-35). The primary galaxy in this encounter experiences two phases of star forming activity: an initial period during the expansion of the ring, and a delayed phase as shocked material in the ring falls back into the central regions.

  7. EVIDENCE FOR LOW EXTINCTION IN ACTIVELY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z > 6.5

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, F.; Decarli, R.; Carilli, C.; Riechers, D.; Bertoldi, F.; Weiss, A.; Cox, P.; Neri, R.; Maiolino, R.; Ouchi, M.; Egami, E.

    2012-06-20

    We present a search for the [C II] 158 {mu}m fine structure line (a main cooling line of the interstellar medium) and the underlying far-infrared (FIR) continuum in three high-redshift (6.6 < z < 8.2) star-forming galaxies using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We targeted two Ly{alpha}-selected galaxies (Ly{alpha} emitters, LAEs) with moderate UV-based star formation rates (SFRs {approx} 20 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}; Himiko at z = 6.6 and IOK-1 at z = 7.0) and a gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxy (GRB 090423 at z {approx} 8.2). Based on our 3{sigma} rest-frame FIR continuum limits, previous (rest-frame) UV continuum measurements and spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting, we rule out SED shapes similar to highly obscured galaxies (e.g., Arp 220, M 82) and less extreme dust-rich nearby spiral galaxies (e.g., M 51) for the LAEs. Conservatively assuming an SED shape typical of local spiral galaxies we derive upper limits for the FIR-based star formation rates (SFRs) of {approx}70 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, {approx}50 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and {approx}40 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for Himiko, IOK-1, and GRB 090423, respectively. For the LAEs these limits are only a factor {approx}3 higher than the published UV-based SFRs (uncorrected for extinction). This indicates that the dust obscuration in the z > 6 LAEs studied here is lower by a factor of a few than what has recently been found in some LAEs at lower redshift (2 < z < 3.5) with similar UV-based SFRs. A low obscuration in our z > 6 LAE sample is consistent with recent rest-frame UV studies of z {approx} 7 Lyman break galaxies.

  8. GOODS-HERSCHEL: SEPARATING HIGH-REDSHIFT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STAR-FORMING GALAXIES USING INFRARED COLOR DIAGNOSTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Daddi, Emmanuele; Elbaz, David; Pannella, Maurilio; Aussel, Herve; Dasyra, Kalliopi; Leiton, Roger; Scott, Douglas; Magnelli, Benjamin; Popesso, Paola; Altieri, Bruno; Coia, Daniela; Valtchanov, Ivan; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Dickinson, Mark; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Magdis, Georgios

    2013-02-15

    We have compiled a large sample of 151 high-redshift (z = 0.5-4) galaxies selected at 24 {mu}m (S {sub 24} > 100 {mu}Jy) in the GOODS-N and ECDFS fields for which we have deep Spitzer IRS spectroscopy, allowing us to decompose the mid-infrared spectrum into contributions from star formation and activity in the galactic nuclei. In addition, we have a wealth of photometric data from Spitzer IRAC/MIPS and Herschel PACS/SPIRE. We explore how effective different infrared color combinations are at separating our mid-IR spectroscopically determined active galactic nuclei from our star-forming galaxies. We look in depth at existing IRAC color diagnostics, and we explore new color-color diagnostics combining mid-IR, far-IR, and near-IR photometry, since these combinations provide the most detail about the shape of a source's IR spectrum. An added benefit of using a color that combines far-IR and mid-IR photometry is that it is indicative of the power source driving the IR luminosity. For our data set, the optimal color selections are S {sub 250}/S {sub 24} versus S {sub 8}/S {sub 3.6} and S {sub 100}/S {sub 24} versus S {sub 8}/S {sub 3.6}; both diagnostics have {approx}10% contamination rate in the regions occupied primarily by star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei, respectively. Based on the low contamination rate, these two new IR color-color diagnostics are ideal for estimating both the mid-IR power source of a galaxy when spectroscopy is unavailable and the dominant power source contributing to the IR luminosity. In the absence of far-IR data, we present color diagnostics using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-IR bands which can efficiently select out high-z (z {approx} 2) star-forming galaxies.

  9. Production and evolution of light elements in active star-forming regions.

    PubMed

    Cassé, M; Lehoucq, R; Vangioni-Flam, E

    1995-01-26

    Collisions between cosmic rays (energetic protons and alpha-particles) and carbon, nitrogen and oxygen in the interstellar medium have been considered to be the main source of lithium, beryllium and boron, through fragmentation of the larger nuclei. But this mechanism is unable to account for the observed Solar System abundances of the isotopes 7Li and 11B. The recent detection of an excess of gamma-rays in the direction of the star-forming region in the Orion cloud has been interpreted as arising from the excitation of carbon and oxygen nuclei ejected from supernovae when they collide with the surrounding gas, which is primarily molecular and atomic hydrogen. Here we investigate the consequences of the two-body interactions of the ejected carbon and oxygen nuclei (and the alpha-particles ejected with them) with the hydrogen and helium in the surrounding gas, using a model developed previously. We show that these interactions offer a way to make lithium, beryllium and boron that is independent of the abundance of heavy elements in the surrounding medium. Such supernova-driven interactions, combined with the effect of galactic cosmic rays, can explain the observed Solar System abundances of these light elements. PMID:7830765

  10. [Molecular spectral diagnosis of star forming regions].

    PubMed

    Xi, S; Qin, S; Deng, L; Yang, J

    2001-08-01

    Stars are the basic building blocks of our universe, therefore it is one of the most important research topics in astrophysics to understand the origin and the early evolution of these objects. The current picture is that stars are formed during the collapse of a large enough self-gravitating interstellar molecular cloud. The early collapse gives birth to a fetus of a star, which is surrounded by a rotating accretion disk. The proto-star accretes interstellar matter through the disk which in turn transfer the accumulated matter to the central proto-star, then the star gets weight during the process. Observation shows that gorgeous ejection of matter always come along with the accretion process. In the presence of disks, these outflows usually escape from the system along the axis of the disk, forming so called bipolar outflows. Typical tracers of these activities are rich molecules such as CO, SiC2, C3H, C3H2 etc. Observationally, such typical molecular outflows can be detected using Doppler effect by spectroscopic measurements. Using the 13.7 m radio telescope in Delingha station of Purple Mountain Observatory, we performed a survey for 12 low temperature IRAS objects, some of the sources show high velocity properties. Detailed analysis of the Doppler profiles of IRS34 is presented. Star forming activities are clearly seen in this field. PMID:12945260

  11. The Dust Content and Opacity of Actively Star-Forming Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calzetti, Daniela; Armus, Lee; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Kinney, Anne L.; Koornneef, Jan; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    2000-01-01

    ), UV - bright star-forming galaxies, these galaxies' FIR emission will be generally undetected in submillimeter surveys, unless: (1) their bolometric luminosity is comparable to or larger than that of ultraluminous FIR galaxies and (2) their FIR SED contains a cool dust component.

  12. The Dust Content and Opacity of Actively Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetti, Daniela; Armus, Lee; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Kinney, Anne L.; Koornneef, Jan; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    2000-04-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) photometry at 150 and 205 μm of eight low-redshift starburst galaxies obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) ISOPHOT. Five of the eight galaxies are detected in both wave bands, and these data are used, in conjunction with IRAS archival photometry, to model the dust emission at λ>~40 μm. The FIR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are best fitted by a combination of two modified Planck functions, with T~40-55 K (warm dust) and T~20-23 K (cool dust) and with a dust emissivity index ɛ=2. The cool dust can be a major contributor to the FIR emission of starburst galaxies, representing up to 60% of the total flux. This component is heated not only by the general interstellar radiation field, but also by the starburst itself. The cool dust mass is up to ~150 times larger than the warm dust mass, bringing the gas-to-dust ratios of the starbursts in our sample close to Milky Way values, once rescaled for the appropriate metallicity. The ratio between the total dust FIR emission in the range 1-1000 μm and the IRAS FIR emission in the range 40-120 μm is ~1.75, with small variations from galaxy to galaxy. This ratio is about 40% larger than previously inferred from data at millimeter wavelengths. Although the galaxies in our sample are generally classified as ``UV bright,'' for four of them the UV energy emerging shortward of 0.2 μm is less than 15% of the FIR energy. On average, about 30% of the bolometric flux is coming out in the UV-to-near-IR wavelength range; the rest is emitted in the FIR. Energy balance calculations show that the FIR emission predicted by the dust reddening of the UV-to-near-IR stellar emission is within a factor of ~2 of the observed value in individual galaxies and within 20% when averaged over a large sample. If our sample of local starbursts is representative of high-redshift (z>~1), UV-bright, star-forming galaxies, these galaxies' FIR emission will be generally undetected in submillimeter surveys

  13. Flare Activity on Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskanian, V. S.

    A review of the existing flare data analyses indicates that most probably the flare phenomenon should be considered as one of the manifestation forms of solar-type chromospheric activity on stars and therefore has to be investigated in common with other phenomena specifying this activity. In order to estimate the reliability of such an approach different types of observational data are discussed. It could be shown that most of the phenomena specifying the solar chromospheric activity (BY Dra syndrome, indicating the spottedness of the stellar surface, long-term cyclic variations of emission line intensities, variable local magnetic fields, flares, coronal phenomena, etc.) are observable on a constantly growing number of stars of almost all spectral types and luminosity classes. This fact indicates that the proposed approach could be the right way to solve the problem of the flare phenomenon.

  14. The Intrinsic Eddington Ratio Distribution of Active Galactic Nuclei in Star-forming Galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Mackenzie L.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Black, Christine S.; Hainline, Kevin N.; DiPompeo, Michael A.; Goulding, Andy D.

    2016-07-01

    An important question in extragalactic astronomy concerns the distribution of black hole accretion rates of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Based on observations at X-ray wavelengths, the observed Eddington ratio distribution appears as a power law, while optical studies have often yielded a lognormal distribution. There is increasing evidence that these observed discrepancies may be due to contamination by star formation and other selection effects. Using a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we test whether or not an intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution that takes the form of a Schechter function is consistent with previous work suggesting that young galaxies in optical surveys have an observed lognormal Eddington ratio distribution. We simulate the optical emission line properties of a population of galaxies and AGNs using a broad, instantaneous luminosity distribution described by a Schechter function near the Eddington limit. This simulated AGN population is then compared to observed galaxies via their positions on an emission line excitation diagram and Eddington ratio distributions. We present an improved method for extracting the AGN distribution using BPT diagnostics that allows us to probe over one order of magnitude lower in Eddington ratio, counteracting the effects of dilution by star formation. We conclude that for optically selected AGNs in young galaxies, the intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution is consistent with a possibly universal, broad power law with an exponential cutoff, as this distribution is observed in old, optically selected galaxies and X-rays.

  15. Activity in F stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, Sidney C.; Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; Simon, Theodore

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of He I 5876 A and IUE measurements of chromospheric and transition region lines in a large sample of F-type stars are presented. The data show that activity is detectable in nearly all early F-type stars and differs in several of its characteristics from that typically seen in cooler stars with slow rotation and fully developed convective zones. The onset of activity occurs near B-V = 0.28, which corresponds approximately to spectral type F0 and T(eff) = 7300 K. There is no correlation between the level of activity and the abundances of lithium and beryllium in F stars hotter than T(eff) = 6600 K. All but one of the stars in the 6600-7300 K temperature interval are active. The levels of activity in these stars are independent of Rossby number.

  16. The PEP survey: evidence for intense star-forming activity in the majority of radio-selected AGN at z ≳ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magliocchetti, M.; Lutz, D.; Santini, P.; Salvato, M.; Popesso, P.; Berta, S.; Pozzi, F.

    2016-02-01

    In order to investigate the far-infrared (FIR) properties of radio-active active galactic nuclei (AGN), we have considered three different fields where both radio and FIR observations are the deepest to date: GOODS-South, GOODS-North and the Lockman Hole. Out of a total of 92 radio-selected AGN, ˜64 per cent are found to have a counterpart in Herschel maps. The percentage is maximum in the GOODS-North (72 per cent) and minimum (˜50 per cent) in the Lockman Hole, where FIR observations are shallower. Our study shows that in all cases FIR emission is associated with star-forming activity within the host galaxy. Such an activity can even be extremely intense, with star-forming rates as high as ˜103-104 M⊙ yr-1. AGN activity does not inhibit star formation in the host galaxy, just as on-site star formation does not seem to affect AGN properties, at least those detected at radio wavelengths and for z ≳ 1. Given the very high rate of FIR detections, we stress that this refers to the majority of the sample: most radio-active AGN are associated with intense episodes of star formation. However, the two processes proceed independently within the same galaxy, at all redshifts but in the local universe, where powerful enough radio activity reaches the necessary strength to switch off the on-site star formation. Our data also show that for z ≳ 1 the hosts of radio-selected star-forming galaxies and AGN are indistinguishable from each other in terms of both mass and IR luminosity distributions. The two populations only differentiate in the very local universe, whereby the few AGN which are still FIR-active are found in galaxies with much higher masses and luminosities.

  17. Blue star-forming isolated elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacerna, I.; Hernández-Toledo, H. M.; Avila-Reese, V.; Abonza-Sane, J.; del Olmo, A.

    2016-06-01

    The isolated environment seems to favor the formation of blue, star-forming galaxies that are not observed in a high-density environment such as the Coma supercluster. These galaxies, with masses between 7 × 10^9 and 2 × 10^10 h‑2 Msun, are also the youngest galaxies from a sample of isolated elliptical galaxies with light-weighted stellar ages ˜1 < Gyr and exhibit bluer colors toward the galaxy center. Around 30-60% of their present-day luminosity, but only <5% of their present-day mass, is due to star formation in the last 1 Gyr. The color and star-formation activity in these galaxies could be explained by rejuvenation of ellipticals by recent (<1 Gyr) cold gas accretion.

  18. Understanding the star-forming environment in stellar clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiya

    The main goal of this thesis is to investigate the physical conditions of the star-forming environment in stellar clusters, especially for the formation of low-mass cluster members. Embedded, young, and intermediate-mass stellar clusters around Herbig Ae/Be stars are sampled. Mid- and near-infrared observations identifying young stars and millimeter interferometric observations probing dense molecular gas and dust continuum are presented. These observations are used to reveal the large-scale young stellar population around the vicinity where the sampled clusters form, probe the physical conditions of dense molecular clumps which are capable of forming individual low-mass cluster members, and examine the influence of the most massive star in the cluster on its siblings and natal cluster-forming cloud. This study shows that stars within the cluster tend to seem younger than those outside the cluster, suggesting a higher and continuous star-forming rate within the cluster than outside, or massive stars are initiated later than low-mass stars within the same cloud. A thorough investigation of young stars and dense gas toward the MWC 1080 cluster further suggests a domination of the most massive star in the cluster on both the natal cloud dispersal and its low-mass cluster members. As active outflows and winds from the Herbig Ae/Be stars increase the non-thermal motion in the cloud, low-mass cluster members are formed within denser and more turbulent cores, than isolated low-mass star-forming cores. In addition, the strong gas dispersal from the Herbig Ae/Be stars also helps the removal of the circumstellar material around nearby low-mass stars. This makes these low-mass cluster members appear older. In summary, this thesis provides the observational evidence showing how the most massive star in the cluster affects the formation and evolution of low-mass cluster members and the physical conditions of star formation in the cluster.

  19. Activity Cycles in Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Starspots and stellar activity can be detected in other stars using high precision photometric and spectrometric measurements. These observations have provided some surprises (starspots at the poles - sunspots are rarely seen poleward of 40 degrees) but more importantly they reveal behaviors that constrain our models of solar-stellar magnetic dynamos. The observations reveal variations in cycle characteristics that depend upon the stellar structure, convection zone dynamics, and rotation rate. In general, the more rapidly rotating stars are more active. However, for stars like the Sun, some are found to be inactive while nearly identical stars are found to be very active indicating that periods like the Sun's Maunder Minimum (an inactive period from 1645 to 1715) are characteristic of Sun-like stars.

  20. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the Southern Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, Danica; Gralla, Megan; Marriage, Tobias A.; Switzer, Eric R.; Partridge, Bruce; Massardi, Marcella; Morales, Gustavo; Addison, Graeme; Bond, J. Richard; Crichton, Devin; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark; Dunner, Rolando; Hajian, Amir; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent; Kosowsky, Arthur; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael; Page, Lyman; Reese, Erik D.; Wollack, Edward

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalogue of 191 extragalactic sources detected by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 and/or 218 GHz in the 2008 Southern survey. Flux densities span 14 - 1700 mJy, and we use source spectral indices derived using ACT-only data to divide our sources into two subpopulations: 167 radio galaxies powered by central active galactic nuclei (AGN) and 24 dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs). We cross-identify 97 per cent of our sources (166 of the AGN and 19 of the DSFGs) with those in currently available catalogues. When combined with flux densities from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz survey and follow-up observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the synchrotron-dominated population is seen to exhibit a steepening of the slope of the spectral energy distribution from 20 to 148 GHz, with the trend continuing to 218 GHz. The ACT dust-dominated source population has a median spectral index, alpha(sub 148-218), of 3.7 +0.62/-0.86), and includes both local galaxies and sources with redshift around 6. Dusty sources with no counterpart in existing catalogues likely belong to a recently discovered subpopulation of DSFGs lensed by foreground galaxies or galaxy groups.

  1. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the Southern Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, Danica; Gralla, Megan; Marriage, Tobias A.; Switzer, Eric R.; Partridge, Bruce; Massardi, Marcella; Morales, Gustavo; Addison, Graeme; Bond, J. Richard; Crichton, Devin; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark; Duenner, Rolando; Hajian, Amir; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent; Kosowsky, Arthur; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael; Page, Lyman; Reese, EriK D.; Wollack, Edward

    2013-01-01

    We present a catalog of 191 extragalactic sources detected by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 GHz and/or 218GHz in the 2008 Southern survey. Flux densities span 14-1700mJy, and we use source spectral indices derived using ACT-only data to divide our sources into two sub-populations: 167 radio galaxies powered by central active galactic nuclei (AGN), and 24 dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs). We cross-identify 97% of our sources (166 of the AGN and 19 of the DSFGs) with those in currently available catalogs. When combined with flux densities from the Australian Telescope 20 GHz survey and follow-up observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the synchrotron-dominated population is seen to exhibit a steepening of the slope of the spectral energy distribution from 20 to 148GHz, with the trend continuing to 218GHz. The ACT dust-dominated source population has a median spectral index, alpha(sub 148-218), of 3.7+0.62 or -0.86, and includes both local galaxies and sources with redshifts as great as 5.6. Dusty sources with no counterpart in existing catalogs likely belong to a recently discovered subpopulation of DSFGs lensed by foreground galaxies or galaxy groups.

  2. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the Southern Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, Danica; Gralla, Megan; Marriage, Tobias A.; Switzer, Eric R.; Partridge, Bruce; Massardi, Marcella; Morales, Gustavo; Addison, Graeme; Bond, J. Richard; Crighton, Devin; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark; Dunner, Rolando; Hajian, Amir; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent; Kosowsky, Arthur; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael; Page, Lyman; Reese, Erik D.; Schmitt, Benjamin; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, Johnathan; Staggs, Suzanne; Swetz, Daniel; Thornton, Robert; Wollack, Edward

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalogue of 191 extragalactic sources detected by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 and/or 218 GHz in the 2008 Southern survey. Flux densities span 14 -1700 mJy, and we use source spectral indices derived using ACT-only data to divide our sources into two subpopulations: 167 radio galaxies powered by central active galactic nuclei (AGN) and 24 dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs). We cross-identify 97 per cent of our sources (166 of the AGN and 19 of the DSFGs) with those in currently available catalogues. When combined with flux densities from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz survey and follow-up observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the synchrotron-dominated population is seen to exhibit a steepening of the slope of the spectral energy distribution from 20 to 148 GHz, with the trend continuing to 218 GHz. The ACT dust-dominated source population has a median spectral index, A(sub 148-218), of 3.7 (+0.62 or -0.86), and includes both local galaxies and sources with redshift around 6. Dusty sources with no counterpart in existing catalogues likely belong to a recently discovered subpopulation of DSFGs lensed by foreground galaxies or galaxy groups.

  3. Carbon Dioxide in Star-forming Regions.

    PubMed

    Charnley; Kaufman

    2000-02-01

    We consider the gas-phase chemistry of CO2 molecules in active regions. We show that CO2 molecules evaporated from dust in hot cores cannot be efficiently destroyed and are in fact copiously produced in cooler gas. When CO2-rich ices are sputtered in strong MHD shock waves, the increase in atomic hydrogen, due to H2 dissociation by ion-neutral streaming, means that CO2 can be depleted by factors of approximately 500 from its injected abundance. We find that a critical shock speed exists at higher preshock densities below which CO2 molecules can be efficiently sputtered but survive in the postshock gas. These calculations offer an explanation for the low gas/solid CO2 ratios detected by the Infrared Space Observatory in star-forming cores as being due to shock destruction followed by partial reformation in warm gas. The presence of high abundances of CO2 in the strongly shocked Galactic center clouds Sgr B2 and Sgr A also find a tentative explanation in this scenario. Shock activity plays an important role in determining the chemistry of star-forming regions, and we suggest that most hot cores are in fact shocked cores. PMID:10622767

  4. Forming Stars From the Cosmic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-09-01

    Scientists have recently identified a connection between metal-poor regions in a set of dwarf galaxies and bursts of star-formation activity within them. These observations provide long-awaited evidence supporting predictions of how stars formed in the early universe and in dwarf galaxies today. Metal-Poor Clues: The primary driver of star formation over cosmic history is thought to be the accretion onto galaxies of cold gas streaming from the cosmic web. The best way to confirm this model would be to observe a cloud of cosmic gas flowing into an otherwise-quiescent galaxy and launching a wave of star formation. But because cold gas doesnt emit much radiation, its difficult to detect directly.Now, a team of scientists have found a clever way around this problem: they searched galaxies for a correlation between areas of active star formation and metal-poor regions. Why? Because metal-poor regions could be a smoking gun indicating a recently accreted cloud of cold gas from the cosmic web. Impacting Clouds: Distribution of metallicity along the major axis of one of the target galaxies. The red bar in the top image shows the position of the spectrograph slit along the galaxy, with the arrow showing the direction of growing distance in the plot below. The plot shows the metallicity variation (red symbols) and star-formation rate (blue line) along the galaxys major axis. The metallicity drop coincides with the brightest knot of the galaxy. [Snchez Almeida et al. 2015]The authors of this study, led by Jorge Snchez Almeida (Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias and University of La Laguna, Spain), used the Great Canary Telescope to obtain high-quality spectra of ten dwarf galaxies with especially low average metallicities. They aligned the spectrograph slit along the major axes of the galaxies in order to measure abundances as a function of position within each galaxy.The team found that, in nine out of the ten cases, the galaxies displayed sharp drops (by factors of 310

  5. Cosmic rays in star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persic, Massimo; Rephaeli, Yoel

    2012-03-01

    The energy density of cosmic ray protons (CRp) in star-forming environments can be (i) measured from γ-ray πo-decay emission, (ii) inferred from the measured radio non-thermal synchrotron emission (once a theoretical p/e ratio and particle-field equipartition have been assumed), and (iii) estimated from the observed supernova rate and the deduced CRp residency time. For most of the currently available galaxies where these methods can be simultaneously applied, the results of the various methods agree and suggest that CRp energy densities range from Script O(10-1) eV cm-3 in very quiet environments up to Script O(102) eV cm-3 in very active ones. The only case for which the methods do not agree is the Small Magellanic Cloud, where the discrepancy between measured and estimated CRp energy density may be due to a smaller characteristic CR confinement volume.

  6. The ISO View of Star Forming Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helou, George

    1999-01-01

    ISO studies of normal galaxies in the local Universe have revealed basic new properties whose significant implications for the star formation process and cosmology are only starting to be understood. This review will touch on the general results of a statistical nature, and provide a quick summary of the profusion of exciting results on individual objects. In the mid-infrared, PHT-S has established that the spectra of star forming galaxies between 6 and-13microns are dominated by the Aromatic Features in Emission (AFE), and show little variation as a function of the heating intensity. The Carriers of the AFE (CAFE) are thus a universal component of dust with standard properties, and contribute between 10 and 25% of the total dust luminosity. In addition to AFE, the spectra show a low-level continuum detectable at wavelengths longer than 3.5microns whose origin is still under investigation. The mid-infrared colors formed as the ratio of flux densities in the 6.75micron and the 15micron bands of ISO-CAM remain essentially constant and near unity for quiescent and mildly active galaxies. As dust heating increases further, the 15micron flux increases steeply compared to 6.75microns, indicating that dust heated to 100Kactive in star formation, its [CII] flux weakens relative to total dust emission while the [OI] does not. This behavior has attracted much interest because it extrapolates to the most active galaxies, making them weaker in [CII

  7. Stellar populations in local star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.

    2003-11-01

    The main goal of this thesis work is studying the main properties of the stellar populations embedded in a statistically complete sample of local active star-forming galaxies: the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) Survey of emission-line galaxies. This sample contains 191 local star-forming galaxies at an average redshift of 0.026. The survey was carried out using an objective-prism technique centered at the wavelength of the Halpha nebular emission-line (a common tracer of recent star formation). (continues)

  8. Star-forming Substructure within Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francesco, James

    2013-03-01

    Wide-field far-infrared/submillimeter continuum maps of molecular clouds by the Herschel Space Observatory GBS and HOBYS surveys are revealing the star-forming substructures that lead to star formation in dense gas. In particular, these maps have revealed the central role in clouds of filaments, likely formed through turbulent motions. These filaments appear to be non-isothermal and fragment into cores only when their column densities exceed a stability threshold. Organizations of filament networks suggest the relative role of turbulence and gravity can be traced in different parts of a cloud, and filament intersections may lead to larger amounts of mass flow that form the precursors of high-mass stars or clusters.

  9. STAR-FORMING GALAXY EVOLUTION IN NEARBY RICH CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, K. D.; Rieke, G. H.; Bai, L.

    2013-08-20

    Dense environments are known to quench star formation in galaxies, but it is still unknown what mechanism(s) are directly responsible. In this paper, we study the star formation of galaxies in A2029 and compare it to that of Coma, combining indicators at 24 {mu}m, H{alpha}, and UV down to rates of 0.03 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. We show that A2029's star-forming galaxies follow the same mass-SFR relation as the field. The Coma cluster, on the other hand, has a population of galaxies with star formation rates (SFRs) significantly lower than the field mass-SFR relation, indicative of galaxies in the process of being quenched. Over half of these galaxies also host active galactic nuclei. Ram-pressure stripping and starvation/strangulation are the most likely mechanisms for suppressing the star formation in these galaxies, but we are unable to disentangle which is dominating. The differences we see between the two clusters' populations of star-forming galaxies may be related to their accretion histories, with A2029 having accreted its star-forming galaxies more recently than Coma. Additionally, many early-type galaxies in A2029 are detected at 24 {mu}m and/or in the far-UV, but this emission is not directly related to star formation. Similar galaxies have probably been classified as star forming in previous studies of dense clusters, possibly obscuring some of the effects of the cluster environment on true star-forming galaxies.

  10. Disk Evaporation in Star Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Young stars produce sufficient ultraviolet photon luminosity and mechanical luminosity in their winds to significantly affect the structure and evolution of the accretion disks surrounding them. The Lyman continuum photons create a nearly static, ionized, isothermal 10(exp 4) K atmosphere forms above the neutral disk at small distances from the star. Further out, they create a photoevaporative flow which relatively rapidly destroys the disk. The resulting slow (10-50 km/s) ionized outflow, which persists for approx. greater than 10(exp 5) years for disk masses M(sub d) approx. 0.3M(sub *), may explain the observational characteristics of many ultracompact HII regions. We compare model results to the observed radio free-free spectra and luminosities of ultracompact HII regions and to the interesting source MWC349, which is observed to produce hydrogen masers. We apply the results to Ae and Be stars in order to determine the lifetimes of disks around such stars. We also apply the results to the early solar nebula to explain the the dispersal of the solar nebula and the differences in hydrogen content in the giant planets. Finally, we model the small bright objects ("proplyds") observed in the Orion Nebula as disks around young, low mass stars which are externally illuminated by the UV photons from the nearby massive star Theta(sup 1) C.

  11. Characteristic Structure of Star-forming Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a new method to diagnose the star-forming potential of a molecular cloud region from the probability density function of its column density (N-pdf). This method provides expressions for the column density and mass profiles of a symmetric filament having the same N-pdf as a filamentary region. The central concentration of this characteristic filament can distinguish regions and can quantify their fertility for star formation. Profiles are calculated for N-pdfs which are pure lognormal, pure power law, or a combination. In relation to models of singular polytropic cylinders, characteristic filaments can be unbound, bound, or collapsing depending on their central concentration. Such filamentary models of the dynamical state of N-pdf gas are more relevant to star-forming regions than are spherical collapse models. The star formation fertility of a bound or collapsing filament is quantified by its mean mass accretion rate when in radial free fall. For a given mass per length, the fertility increases with the filament mean column density and with its initial concentration. In selected regions the fertility of their characteristic filaments increases with the level of star formation.

  12. Acceptance of Ideas of Others [Number Form and Star Form].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, James R.; Laverty, Grace E.

    As part of the instrumentation to assess the effectiveness of the Schools Without Failure (SWF) program in 10 elementary schools in the New Castle, Pa. School District, the Acceptance of Ideas of Others (Number and Star Forms) were developed to determine pupils' attitudes toward classmates. Given a list of all class members, pupils are asked to…

  13. Chemistry of star-forming regions.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Eric

    2005-05-12

    The space between stars is not empty but contains gas-phase and particulate matter under varying conditions. Neutral matter is found mainly in large regions of the interstellar medium known as "clouds", the largest of which, termed "giant molecular clouds", are essentially molecular in nature. Stars and planetary systems form inside these giant clouds when portions collapse and heat up. The details of the collapse can be followed by observation of the chemical changes in the molecular composition of the gas and dust particles. Moreover, an understanding of the chemical processes yields much information on the time scales and histories of the assorted stages. Among the most recent additions to our chemical knowledge of star formation are a deeper understanding of isotopic fractionation, especially involving deuterium, and a realization that the role of neutral-neutral reactions is more salient than once thought possible. PMID:16833724

  14. Star Formation in Isolated LIRGs: Clues to Star-forming Processes at Higher z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura; Olguín, Lorenzo; Ambrocio-Cruz, Patricia; Verley, Simon; Rosado, Margarita; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Repetto, Paolo; Vázquez, Celia; Aguilera, Verónica

    2011-12-01

    Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) are galaxies with LIR > 1011 L⊙. For a star-forming galaxy to emit at a LIRG level, it must have a very high star formation rate (SFR). In the local Universe, the star formation (SF) is primarily triggered by interactions. However, at intermediate redshift, a large fraction of LIRGs are disk galaxies with little sign of recent merger activity. The question arises whether the intermediate redshift LIRGs are ``triggered'' or experiencing ``normal'', if elevated, SF. Understanding these SF processes is important since this type of systems may have contributed to 20% or more of the cosmic SFR in the early Universe. In order to address this issue we study similar systems in the Local Universe, that is isolated late-type galaxies displaying LIRG activity. We use different observational techniques in order to trace the star-forming history of these systems. Here we present preliminary results.

  15. Lithopanspermia in star-forming clusters.

    PubMed

    Adams, Fred C; Spergel, David N

    2005-08-01

    This paper considers the lithopanspermia hypothesis in star-forming groups and clusters, where the chances of biological material spreading from one solar system to another is greatly enhanced (relative to action in the field) because of the close proximity of the systems and lower relative velocities. These effects more than compensate for the reduced time spent in such crowded environments. This paper uses approximately 300,000 Monte Carlo scattering calculations to determine the cross sections for rocks to be captured by binaries and provides fitting formulae for other applications. We assess the odds of transfer as a function of the ejection speed v (eject) and number N(.) of members in the birth aggregate. The odds of any given ejected meteoroid being recaptured by another solar system are relatively low, about 1:10(3)-10(6) over the expected range of ejection speeds and cluster sizes. Because the number of ejected rocks (with mass m > 10 kg) per system can be large, N (R) approximately 10(16), virtually all solar systems are likely to share rocky ejecta with all of the other solar systems in their birth cluster. The number of ejected rocks that carry living microorganisms is much smaller and less certain, but we estimate that N (B) approximately 10(7) rocks can be ejected from a biologically active solar system. For typical birth environments, the capture of life-bearing rocks is expected to occur N (bio) asymptotically equal to 10-16,000 times (per cluster), depending on the ejection speeds. Only a small fraction (f (imp) approximately 10(4)) of the captured rocks impact the surfaces of terrestrial planets, so that N (lps) asymptotically equal to 10(3)-1.6 lithopanspermia events are expected per cluster (under favorable conditions). Finally, we discuss the question of internal versus external seeding of clusters and the possibility of Earth seeding young clusters over its biologically active lifetime. PMID:16078868

  16. STAR-FORMING GAS IN YOUNG CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Philip C.

    2010-05-10

    Initial conditions for star formation in clusters are estimated for protostars whose masses follow the initial mass function from 0.05 to 10 solar masses. Star-forming infall is assumed equally likely to stop at any moment, due to gas dispersal dominated by stellar feedback. For spherical infall, the typical initial condensation must have a steep density gradient, as in low-mass cores, surrounded by a shallower gradient, as in the clumps around cores. These properties match observed column densities in cluster-forming regions when the mean infall stopping time is 0.05 Myr and the accretion efficiency is 0.5. The infall duration increases with final protostar mass, from 0.01 to 0.3 Myr, and the mass accretion rate increases from 3 to 300 x 10{sup -6} solar masses yr{sup -1}. The typical spherical accretion luminosity is {approx}5 solar luminosities, reducing the 'luminosity problem' to a factor of {approx}3. The initial condensation density gradient changes from steep to shallow at radius 0.04 pc, enclosing 0.9 solar masses, with mean column density 2 x 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} and with effective central temperature 16 K. These initial conditions are denser and warmer than those for isolated star formation.

  17. Modeling abundances in star forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki

    2015-08-01

    Heavy elements are produced from various types of supernovae (and AGB stars). I first show that elemental abundances of extremely metal-poor stars are consistent not with pair-instability supernovae but with faint supernovae. Then I introduce subclasses of Type Ia supernovae such as SN 2002cx-like objects and sub-Chandrasekhar mass explosions. These "minor" supernovae are important in the early Universe or metal-poor systems such as dwarf spheroidal galaxies. With "major" chemical enrichment sources, I show cosmic chemical enrichment in our cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations. The feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is also included with a new model for the formation of black holes motivated by the first star formation. AGN-driven outflows transport metals into the circumgalactic medium and the intergalactic medium. Nonetheless, the metallicity changes of galaxies are negligible, and the mass-metallicity relations, which are mainly generated by supernova feedback at the first star burst, are preserved. Within galaxies, metallicity radial gradients are produced, which can be affected by AGN feedback but are more sensitive to the merging histories. We find a weak correlation between the gradients and galaxy mass, which is consistent with available observations. These simulations also provide predictions of supernova/hypernova/GRB rates and the properties of their host galaxies.

  18. Molecular Outflows in Massive Star Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Nichol

    2015-11-01

    This thesis presents millimetre continuum and molecular line observations exploring the properties of molecular outflows towards massive star forming regions. Massive stars produce some of the most energetic phenomena in the Galaxy, yet we still do not have a comprehensive understanding of how they actually form. Outflows are known to play a key role in this formation process and their properties, particularly how they change depending on the mass, luminosity and evolution of the driving source can shed light on how massive stars actually form. This thesis presents observations at both high (SMA 3 arcsecond) and low (JCMT 15 arcsecond) spatial resolution of the known jet/outflow tracers, SiO and 12CO, towards a sample massive star forming region drawn from the RMS survey. Furthermore, the presence of infall signatures is explored through observations of HCO+ and H13CO+, and the hot core nature of the regions is probed using tracers such as CH3CN, HC3N and CH3OH. SiO is detected towards approximately 50% of the massive young stellar objects and HII regions in the JCMT sample. The detection of SiO appears to be linked to the age of the RMS source, with the likely younger sources showing a stronger dependence with SiO. The presence of SiO also appears to be linked to the CO velocity, with SiO more efficiently tracing sources with higher velocity dispersions. In the MOPRA observations towards a sample of 33 RMS sources, CH3CN is detected towards 66% of the sources, with the redder likely younger sources having the largest rotational temperatures. This thesis presents the first interferometric SiO (5-4) and 12CO (2-1) observations, taken with the SMA, towards the massive star forming region G203.3166/NGC 2264-C. In this intermediate/massive star forming cluster, SiO is again tracing the youngest sources. Both the SiO and 12CO emission trace two bipolar, high velocity outflows towards the mm brightest, IR-dark, likely youngest sources in this reg! ion. In contrast the IR

  19. Evidence for wide-spread active galactic nucleus-driven outflows in the most massive z ∼ 1-2 star-forming galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Genzel, R.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Rosario, D.; Lang, P.; Lutz, D.; Wisnioski, E.; Wuyts, E.; Wuyts, S.; Bandara, K.; Bender, R.; Berta, S.; Kurk, J.; Mendel, J. T.; Tacconi, L. J.; Wilman, D.; Beifiori, A.; Burkert, A.; Buschkamp, P.; Chan, J.; Brammer, G. E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de; and others

    2014-11-20

    In this paper, we follow up on our previous detection of nuclear ionized outflows in the most massive (log(M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ≥ 10.9) z ∼ 1-3 star-forming galaxies by increasing the sample size by a factor of six (to 44 galaxies above log(M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ≥ 10.9) from a combination of the SINS/zC-SINF, LUCI, GNIRS, and KMOS{sup 3D}spectroscopic surveys. We find a fairly sharp onset of the incidence of broad nuclear emission (FWHM in the Hα, [N II], and [S II] lines ∼450-5300 km s{sup –1}), with large [N II]/Hα ratios, above log(M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ∼ 10.9, with about two-thirds of the galaxies in this mass range exhibiting this component. Broad nuclear components near and above the Schechter mass are similarly prevalent above and below the main sequence of star-forming galaxies, and at z ∼ 1 and ∼2. The line ratios of the nuclear component are fit by excitation from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or by a combination of shocks and photoionization. The incidence of the most massive galaxies with broad nuclear components is at least as large as that of AGNs identified by X-ray, optical, infrared, or radio indicators. The mass loading of the nuclear outflows is near unity. Our findings provide compelling evidence for powerful, high-duty cycle, AGN-driven outflows near the Schechter mass, and acting across the peak of cosmic galaxy formation.

  20. The Sins/zC-Sinf Survey of z ~ 2 Galaxy Kinematics: Evidence for Powerful Active Galactic Nucleus-Driven Nuclear Outflows in Massive Star-Forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Newman, S. F.; Kurk, J. D.; Lutz, D.; Tacconi, L. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bandara, K.; Burkert, A.; Buschkamp, P.; Carollo, C. M.; Cresci, G.; Daddi, E.; Davies, R.; Eisenhauer, F.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Lang, P.; Lilly, S. J.; Mainieri, V.; Mancini, C.; Naab, T.; Peng, Y.; Renzini, A.; Rosario, D.; Shapiro Griffin, K.; Shapley, A. E.; Sternberg, A.; Tacchella, S.; Vergani, D.; Wisnioski, E.; Wuyts, E.; Zamorani, G.

    2014-05-01

    We report the detection of ubiquitous powerful nuclear outflows in massive (>=1011 M ⊙) z ~ 2 star-forming galaxies (SFGs), which are plausibly driven by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The sample consists of the eight most massive SFGs from our SINS/zC-SINF survey of galaxy kinematics with the imaging spectrometer SINFONI, six of which have sensitive high-resolution adaptive optics-assisted observations. All of the objects are disks hosting a significant stellar bulge. The spectra in their central regions exhibit a broad component in Hα and forbidden [N II] and [S II] line emission, with typical velocity FWHM ~ 1500 km s-1, [N II]/Hα ratio ≈ 0.6, and intrinsic extent of 2-3 kpc. These properties are consistent with warm ionized gas outflows associated with Type 2 AGN, the presence of which is confirmed via independent diagnostics in half the galaxies. The data imply a median ionized gas mass outflow rate of ~60 M ⊙ yr-1 and mass loading of ~3. At larger radii, a weaker broad component is detected but with lower FWHM ~485 km s-1 and [N II]/Hα ≈ 0.35, characteristic for star formation-driven outflows as found in the lower-mass SINS/zC-SINF galaxies. The high inferred mass outflow rates and frequent occurrence suggest that the nuclear outflows efficiently expel gas out of the centers of the galaxies with high duty cycles and may thus contribute to the process of star formation quenching in massive galaxies. Larger samples at high masses will be crucial in confirming the importance and energetics of the nuclear outflow phenomenon and its connection to AGN activity and bulge growth. Based on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO program IDs 074.A-0911, 075.A-0466, 076.A-0527, 078.A-0600, 082.A-0396, 183.A-0781, 088.A-0202, 091.A-0126). Also based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the

  1. Unbound star-forming molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Rachel L.; Wadsley, James; Sills, Alison

    2014-03-01

    We explore whether observed molecular clouds could include a substantial population of unbound clouds. Using simulations which include only turbulence and gravity, we are able to match observed relations and naturally reproduce the observed scatter in the cloud size-linewidth coefficient, at fixed surface density. We identify the source of this scatter as a spread in the intrinsic virial parameter. Thus, these observational trends do not require that clouds exist in a state of dynamical equilibrium. We demonstrate that cloud virial parameters can be accurately determined observationally with an appropriate size estimator. All our simulated clouds eventually form collapsing cores, regardless of whether the cloud is bound overall. This supports the idea that molecular clouds do not have to be bound to form stars or to have observed properties like those of nearby low-mass clouds.

  2. Using Cosmic Telescopes to Study Dusty, Star-Forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walth, Gregory; Egami, Eiichi; Clément, Benjamin; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Rawle, Tim; Rex, Marie; Richard, Johan; Dessauges, Miroslava; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Stark, Daniel; Herschel Lensing Survey

    2016-06-01

    Dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs), characterized by their far-infrared (far-IR) emission, undergo the largest starbursts in the Universe, contributing to the majority of the cosmic star formation rate density at z = 1 ‑ 4. These starbursts have important implications for galaxy evolution and feedback as these galaxies build up much of their stellar mass during this time and may experience strong stellar driven winds. For the first time the Herschel Space Observatory was able observe the full far-IR dust emission for a large population of high-redshift DSFGs. However, Herschel reaches the confusion limit quickly and only the brightest galaxies at redshifts z > 2 can be detected. With gravitational lensing, we are able to surpass the Herschel confusion limit and probe intrinsically less luminous and therefore more normal star-forming galaxies. With this goal in mind, we have conducted a large Herschel survey, the Herschel Lensing Survey, of the cores of almost 600 massive galaxy clusters, where the effects of gravitational lensing are the strongest. In this presentation I will discuss how using one of largest gravitational lenses enables the detailed study of star forming regions at high redshift by investigating a giant (D ~ 1 kpc) luminous star forming region in aDSFG at z=0.6. Next, I will discuss how using one of the brightest sources from our sample allows us to investigate the molecular gas and dust properties of a typical DSFG with a CO outflow at z~2. Finally, I will discuss ongoing work using the brightest DSFGs in our sample to detect rest-frame optical nebular emission lines, using near-infrared spectroscopy with Keck/MOSFIRE, LBT/LUCI, and Magellan/MMIRS, which reveal conditions of their ISM; specifically ionization, star formation, metallicity, AGN activity, and dust attenuation.

  3. Extreme Variables in Star Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras Peña, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    in two multi-epoch infrared surveys: the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey (GPS) and the Vista Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV). In order to further investigate the nature of the selected variable stars, we use photometric information arising from public surveys at near- to far-infrared wavelengths. In addition we have performed spectroscopic and photometric follow-up for a large subset of the samples arising from GPS and VVV. We analyse the widely separated two-epoch K-band photometry in the 5th, 7th and 8th data releases of the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey. We find 71 stars with ΔK > 1 mag, including 2 previously known OH/IR stars and a Nova. Even though the mid-plane is mostly excluded from the dataset, we find the majority (66%) of our sample to be within known star forming regions (SFRs), with two large concentrations in the Serpens OB2 association (11 stars) and the Cygnus-X complex (27 stars). The analysis of the multi-epoch K-band photometry of 2010-2012 data from VVV covering the Galactic disc at |b| < 1° yields 816 high amplitude variables, which include known variables of different classes such as high mass X-ray binaries, Novae and eclipsing binaries among others. Remarkably, 65% of the sample are found concentrated towards areas of star formation, similar to the results from GPS. In both surveys, sources in SFRs show spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that support classification as YSOs. This indicates that YSOs dominate the Galactic population of high amplitude infrared variable stars at low luminosities and therefore likely dominate the total high amplitude population. Spectroscopic follow-up allows us to confirm the pre-main sequence nature of several GPS and VVV Objects. Most objects in both samples show spectroscopic signatures that can be attributed to YSOs undergoing high states of accretion, such as veiling of photospheric features and CO emission, or show FUor-like spectra. We also find a large fraction of objects with 2.12 μm H2 emission that

  4. HIRES Dust Imaging of the NGC 6334 Star Forming Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, James M.

    1997-01-01

    We present here our final report for the NASA grant "HIRES Dust Imaging of the NGC 6334 Star Forming Complex." This project was designed to study the photodissociation regions surrounding several OB stars in this cloud complex. NGC 6334 is unique in having at least seven distinct massive star forming regions in the same molecular cloud complex. The obvious advantage of studying young stars in the same molecular complex is that the stars all formed in the same global environment. Consequently, global factors like density waves, abundances, global magnetic field strength, and age of the parental molecular cloud cannot contribute to the differences among the star forming regions. Instead, the differences must arise only from local effects such as the mass, age, and UV fields of the individual stars. A study of NGC 6334 will greatly simplify the general problem of comparing different star formation regions by eliminating global effects.

  5. Chemistry of Star-Forming Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.

    1994-01-01

    Chemical effects arising from the exchange of molecules between dust and gas in dense clumps are described. Selective desorption of CO and N2 from grains in cool cores can account for the presence of ammonia in several cores in the NGC 2024 cloud. Evaporation of ices containing methanol and ethanol can lead to detectable abundances of (C2H5)(sub 2)O and CH3OC2H5. Results are presented for the hot core chemistries of sulphur and phosphorus which are initiated by evaporated hydrogen sulphide and phosphine. The implications of these studies for understanding the nature of molecular mantles, the evolution of molecular complexity in the gas phase, and the presence of small-scale abundance gradients in star-forming regions, are briefly discussed.

  6. Chemical Models of Star-Forming Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikawa, Y.

    2013-10-01

    We review chemical models of low-mass star forming cores including our own work. Chemistry in molecular clouds are not in equilibrium. Molecular abundances in star forming cores change not only with physical conditions in cores but also with time. In prestellar cores, temperature stays almost constant ˜ 10 K, while the gas density increases as the core collapses. Three chemical phenomena are observed in this cold phase: molecular depletion, chemical fractionation, and deuterium enrichment. They are reproduced by chemical models combined with isothermal gravitational collapse. The collapse timescale of prestellar cores depends on the initial ratios of thermal, turbulent and magnetic pressure to gravitational energy. Since the chemical timescales, such as adsorption timescale of gas particle onto grains, are comparable to the collapse timescale, molecular abundances in cores should vary depending on the collapse timescale. Observations found that molecular abundances in some cores deviate from those in other cores, in spite of their similar central densities; it could originate in the pressure to gravity ratio in the cores. As the core contraction proceeds, compressional heating eventually overwhelms radiative cooling, and the core starts to warm up. Temperature of the infalling gas rises, as it approaches the central region. Grain-surface reactions of adsorbed molecules occur in this warm-up phase, as well as in prestellar phase. Hydrogenation is efficient at T ≤ 20 K, whereas radicals can migrate on grain surface and react with each other to form complex organic molecules (COMs) at T ≥ 30 K. Grain-surface species are sublimated to the gas phase and re-start gas-phase reactions; e.g. unsaturated carbon chains are formed from sublimated methane. Our model calculation predicts that COMs increases as the warm region extends outwards and the abundances of unsaturated carbon chains depend on the gas density in the CH4 sublimation zone. Recent detection of COMs in

  7. Ammonia thermometry of star-forming galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Mangum, Jeffrey G.; MacGregor, Meredith; Svoboda, Brian E.; Darling, Jeremy; Henkel, Christian; Menten, Karl M.; Schinnerer, Eva E-mail: mmacgreg@fas.harvard.edu E-mail: jdarling@origins.colorado.edu E-mail: kmenten@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de

    2013-12-10

    With a goal toward deriving the physical conditions in external galaxies, we present a study of the ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emission and absorption in a sample of star-forming systems. Using the unique sensitivities to kinetic temperature afforded by the excitation characteristics of several inversion transitions of NH{sub 3}, we have continued our characterization of the dense gas in star-forming galaxies by measuring the kinetic temperature in a sample of 23 galaxies and one galaxy offset position selected for their high infrared luminosity. We derive kinetic temperatures toward 13 galaxies, 9 of which possess multiple kinetic temperature and/or velocity components. Eight of these galaxies exhibit kinetic temperatures >100 K, which are in many cases at least a factor of two larger than kinetic temperatures derived previously. Furthermore, the derived kinetic temperatures in our galaxy sample, which are in many cases at least a factor of two larger than derived dust temperatures, point to a problem with the common assumption that dust and gas kinetic temperatures are equivalent. As previously suggested, the use of dust emission at wavelengths greater than 160 μm to derive dust temperatures, or dust heating from older stellar populations, may be skewing derived dust temperatures in these galaxies to lower values. We confirm the detection of high-excitation OH {sup 2}Π{sub 3/2} J = 9/2 absorption toward Arp 220. We also report the first detections of non-metastable NH{sub 3} inversion transitions toward external galaxies in the (2,1) (NGC 253, NGC 660, IC 342, and IC 860), (3,1), (3,2), (4,3), (5,4) (all in NGC 660), and (10,9) (Arp 220) transitions.

  8. Ammonia Thermometry of Star-Forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangum, Jeffrey G.; Darling, Jeremy; Henkel, Christian; Menten, Karl M.; MacGregor, Meredith; Svoboda, Brian E.; Schinnerer, Eva

    2013-12-01

    With a goal toward deriving the physical conditions in external galaxies, we present a study of the ammonia (NH3) emission and absorption in a sample of star-forming systems. Using the unique sensitivities to kinetic temperature afforded by the excitation characteristics of several inversion transitions of NH3, we have continued our characterization of the dense gas in star-forming galaxies by measuring the kinetic temperature in a sample of 23 galaxies and one galaxy offset position selected for their high infrared luminosity. We derive kinetic temperatures toward 13 galaxies, 9 of which possess multiple kinetic temperature and/or velocity components. Eight of these galaxies exhibit kinetic temperatures >100 K, which are in many cases at least a factor of two larger than kinetic temperatures derived previously. Furthermore, the derived kinetic temperatures in our galaxy sample, which are in many cases at least a factor of two larger than derived dust temperatures, point to a problem with the common assumption that dust and gas kinetic temperatures are equivalent. As previously suggested, the use of dust emission at wavelengths greater than 160 μm to derive dust temperatures, or dust heating from older stellar populations, may be skewing derived dust temperatures in these galaxies to lower values. We confirm the detection of high-excitation OH 2Π3/2 J = 9/2 absorption toward Arp 220. We also report the first detections of non-metastable NH3 inversion transitions toward external galaxies in the (2,1) (NGC 253, NGC 660, IC 342, and IC 860), (3,1), (3,2), (4,3), (5,4) (all in NGC 660), and (10,9) (Arp 220) transitions.

  9. Intermediate-Mass Star-Forming Regions: What are the Most Massive Stars Formed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobulnicky, Chip; Vargas, Carlos; Kerton, Charles; Arvidsson, Kim

    2010-08-01

    High-mass star formation cannot be viewed as simply a scaled-up version of the paradigm for low-mass star formation. The high-mass regime (M> 10 Msun) appears to require significant differences in cloud fragmentation, accretion, radiation, turbulence, and overall molecular density compared to the low-mass regime. We have identified a sample of intermediate-mass star-forming regions (IM SFRs) hosting embedded clusters that straddle the boundary of these two regimes and can be used to understand the factors that govern the transition between these extremes. Most notable among these factors is the possibility of a critical cloud mass column density that appears to divide high-mass SFRs from IM SFRs. Yet, the very nature of IM SFRs and their stellar content are almost completely unknown, primarily because of the previous difficulty in identifying such objects. We propose HK band spectroscopy of the brightest stellar sources near nine IM SFRs to identify probable members, confirm the IM nature of the most massive stars, and characterize their evolutionary state. Three nights with FLAMINGOS on the 4 m (or equivalent IR spectrograph) will suffice to obtain classification spectra and several spectral diagnostics sensitive to accretion for at least 8-10 stars per object.

  10. Evidence for Wide-spread Active Galactic Nucleus-driven Outflows in the Most Massive z ~ 1-2 Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzel, R.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Rosario, D.; Lang, P.; Lutz, D.; Wisnioski, E.; Wuyts, E.; Wuyts, S.; Bandara, K.; Bender, R.; Berta, S.; Kurk, J.; Mendel, J. T.; Tacconi, L. J.; Wilman, D.; Beifiori, A.; Brammer, G.; Burkert, A.; Buschkamp, P.; Chan, J.; Carollo, C. M.; Davies, R.; Eisenhauer, F.; Fabricius, M.; Fossati, M.; Kriek, M.; Kulkarni, S.; Lilly, S. J.; Mancini, C.; Momcheva, I.; Naab, T.; Nelson, E. J.; Renzini, A.; Saglia, R.; Sharples, R. M.; Sternberg, A.; Tacchella, S.; van Dokkum, P.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we follow up on our previous detection of nuclear ionized outflows in the most massive (log(M */M ⊙) >= 10.9) z ~ 1-3 star-forming galaxies by increasing the sample size by a factor of six (to 44 galaxies above log(M */M ⊙) >= 10.9) from a combination of the SINS/zC-SINF, LUCI, GNIRS, and KMOS3Dspectroscopic surveys. We find a fairly sharp onset of the incidence of broad nuclear emission (FWHM in the Hα, [N II], and [S II] lines ~450-5300 km s-1), with large [N II]/Hα ratios, above log(M */M ⊙) ~ 10.9, with about two-thirds of the galaxies in this mass range exhibiting this component. Broad nuclear components near and above the Schechter mass are similarly prevalent above and below the main sequence of star-forming galaxies, and at z ~ 1 and ~2. The line ratios of the nuclear component are fit by excitation from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or by a combination of shocks and photoionization. The incidence of the most massive galaxies with broad nuclear components is at least as large as that of AGNs identified by X-ray, optical, infrared, or radio indicators. The mass loading of the nuclear outflows is near unity. Our findings provide compelling evidence for powerful, high-duty cycle, AGN-driven outflows near the Schechter mass, and acting across the peak of cosmic galaxy formation. Based on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Paranal, Chile (ESO program IDs 073.B-9018, 074.A-9011, 075.A-0466, 076.A-0527, 078.A-0660, 079.A-0341, 080.A-0330, 080.A-0339, 080.A-0635, 081.A-0672, 082.A-0396, 183.A-0781, 087.A-0081, 088.A-0202, 088.A-0209, 091.A-0126, 092.A-0082, 092.A-0091, 093.A-0079). Also based on observations at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) on Mt. Graham in Arizona.

  11. Infrared Properties of Star Forming Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaduvescu, Ovidiu

    2005-11-01

    Dwarf galaxies are the most common galaxies in the Universe. They are systems believed to consist of matter in a near-primordial state, from which giant galaxies probably form. As such, they are important probes for studying matter in its near-primordial state. In an effort to study the main physical and chemical properties of dwarfs, the present thesis focuses upon the main physical properties of dwarfs. Two classes of star forming dwarf galaxies are considered: dwarf irregulars (dIs), and blue compact dwarfs (BCDs). A third class, dwarf ellipticals (dEs), is studied based on its structural properties and compared with dIs. Possible evolutionary connections are addressed between dIs and BCDs. To measure the luminosity, deep imaging in the near-infrared (NIR) is considered. Compared with the visible, the NIR domain gives a better gauge of the galaxy mass contained in the old stellar populations, minimising the starburst contribution and also the effects of extinction. Two observing samples of star-forming dwarf galaxies are considered. The first includes 34 dIs in the Local Volume closer than 5 Mpc. The second sample includes 16 BCDs in the Virgo Cluster. In six observing runs between 2001 and 2004, we acquired deep NIR images (J and K_s) using the 3.6m Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope (CFHT) in Hawaii and the 2.1m telescope at the National Astronomical Observatory ''San Pedro Martir'' (OAN-SPM) in Mexico. Deep spectrocopy was acquired in 2003 on the 8.1m Gemini-North telescope in Hawaii. We completed the observed samples with spectroscopic data from the literature, and photometry from the 2MASS survey and GOLDMine database. From a statistical study at CFHT, we derived some strategies necessary to image optimally faint extended sources in the NIR. Due to the airglow variation in the atmosphere and the thermal contribution of the dome, telescope and the instrumentation, repeated observations of the sky must be alternated every 3-4 minutes with the science images, in

  12. Outflow Driven Turbulence in Star Forming Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Adam

    Setting young stellar object jets and outflows in their broadest context requires an understanding of outflows as “feedback” in the development of molecular cloud turbulence and the determination of star formation efficiencies. In this contribution I review our group’s recent studies exploring relationships between protostellar outflows and turbulence in molecular clouds. We first present studies of turbulence and fossil cavities driven by YSO outflows using numerical simulations which track the evolution of single transient jets driven into a turbulent medium. Our simulations show both the effect of turbulence on outflow structures and, conversely, the effect of outflows on the ambient turbulence. These studies demonstrate that individual transient outflows have the capacity to re-energize decaying turbulence. Next we present simulations of multiple interacting jets. We show that turbulence can readily be sustained by these interactions and show that it is possible to broadly characterize an effective driving scale of the outflows. Comparing the velocity spectrum obtained in our studies to that of an isotropically forced control we show that in outflow driven turbulence a power law of the form E(k) ∝ k - β is indeed achieved. However we find a steeper spectrum β ˜ 3 is obtained in outflow driven turbulence models than in isotropically forced simulations β ˜ 2. 0. Taken together both studies provide broad support for the conclusion that fossil cavities driven by decaying jets can provide a source of turbulence and feedback which mediate star formation processes in molecular clouds. Whether this does obtain in real clouds remains a point which must be demonstrated

  13. A kinematic study of the Lupus star-forming region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, P. A. B.; Bertout, C.; Teixeira, R.; Ducourant, C.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we study the southern star-forming region located in Lupus that constitutes one of the richest associations of T Tauri stars. Based on the convergent point (CP) method combined with a k-NN analysis we identify 109 pre-main sequence stars in this region that define the Lupus association of comoving stars, and derive individual distances for all group members.

  14. The Orion star-forming complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Tetsuo

    High-resolution images of the Orion Nebula in the millimeter wave emission lines of CS (49 GHz and 98 GHz), and CO (115 GHz) obtained with the Nobeyama telescope are presented and compared with optical, IR, and interferometric radio images. The images reveal activities associated with star formation. The images of the 49-GHz and 98-GHz lines of CS show a long and narrow N-S ridge of dense molecular gas. Two major clumps are recognized on the ridge: one is associated with the KL object, and the other is 100 arcsec south of it. The images of the 115 GHz CO line indicate interaction between the molecular cloud and the H II region, with shocks observed at the interaction between the two regions. The CO images reveal filamentary structures ('streamers') stretching radially from the KL region. They run far beyond the boundary of the molecular high-velocity flow and are accompanied by HH objects. They may manifest mostly unseen high-velocity flows driven by the activity of young stellar objects.

  15. The magnetic activity sunlike stars.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, A H

    1984-08-24

    Sunspots, flares, and the myriad time-varying "events" observable in the Sun-the only star whose surface we can examine in detail-are testimony that the Sun is a magnetically variable or active star. Its magnetic field, carried into interplanetary space by the solar wind, produces observable changes in Earth's magnetosphere and variations in the flux of galactic cosmic-ray particles incident upon Earth's upper atmosphere. Centuries of observation have enabled solar scientists to recognize that the Sun's magnetism exists and varies in a globally organized pattern that is somehow coupled to the Sun's rotation. Within the past decade O. C. Wilson demonstrated that analogs of solar activity exist and can be studied in many other dwarf stars. From the continuing study, knowledge of the precise rates of rotation of the stars under investigation is being gained for the first time. The results are expected to increase our understanding of the origin of solar activity and stellar activity in general. PMID:17801135

  16. An atlas of ultraviolet spectra of star-forming galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, A. L.; Bohlin, R. C.; Calzetti, D.; Panagia, N.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1993-01-01

    A systematic study is presented of the UV spectra of star-forming galaxies of different morphological type and activity class using a sample drawn from a uniformly reduced IUE data set. The spectra for a wide variety of galaxies, including normal spiral, LINER, starburst, blue compact, blue compact dwarf, and Seyfert 2 galaxies, are presented in the form of spectral energy distributions to demonstrate the overall characteristics according to morphology and activity class and in the form of absolute flux distributions to better show the absorption and emission features of individual objects. The data support the picture based on UV spectra of the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory and of the Astronautical Netherlands Satellite that spiral galaxies of later Hubble class have more flux at the shortest UV wavelengths than do spiral galaxies of earlier Hubble class.

  17. A Sample of OB Stars that Formed in the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oey, M. S.; Lamb, J. B.; Kushner, C. T.; Pellegrini, E. W.; Graus, A. S.

    2013-05-01

    We present a sample of 14 OB stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud that meet strong criteria for having formed under extremely sparse star-forming conditions in the field. These stars are a minimum of 28 pc in projection from other OB stars, and they are centered within symmetric, round H II regions. They show no evidence of bow shocks, implying that the targets are not transverse runaway stars. Their radial velocities relative to local H I also indicate that they are not line-of-sight runaway stars. A friends-of-friends analysis shows that nine of the objects present a few low-mass companion stars, with typical mass ratios for the two highest-mass stars of around 0.1. This further substantiates that these OB stars formed in place, and that they can and do form in extremely sparse conditions. This poses strong constraints on theories of star formation and challenges proposed relations between cluster mass and maximum stellar mass.

  18. A SAMPLE OF OB STARS THAT FORMED IN THE FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Oey, M. S.; Lamb, J. B.; Kushner, C. T.; Pellegrini, E. W.; Graus, A. S.

    2013-05-01

    We present a sample of 14 OB stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud that meet strong criteria for having formed under extremely sparse star-forming conditions in the field. These stars are a minimum of 28 pc in projection from other OB stars, and they are centered within symmetric, round H II regions. They show no evidence of bow shocks, implying that the targets are not transverse runaway stars. Their radial velocities relative to local H I also indicate that they are not line-of-sight runaway stars. A friends-of-friends analysis shows that nine of the objects present a few low-mass companion stars, with typical mass ratios for the two highest-mass stars of around 0.1. This further substantiates that these OB stars formed in place, and that they can and do form in extremely sparse conditions. This poses strong constraints on theories of star formation and challenges proposed relations between cluster mass and maximum stellar mass.

  19. Characterizing Nearby Stars: Age and Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, David

    2001-01-01

    The funds in this grant were used to support costs for observing and data analysis over the past two years. During this time I have been obtaining low-resolution (R-2,000) spectra for about 5,000 solar-type stars (late-F and G dwarfs) that are within 60 parsecs of the Sun. The sample was defined with results from the Hipparcos mission, and the spectra were obtained at Kitt Peak National Observatory, using the Coude Feed telescope, and at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, using their 1.5 m telescopes for stars below -40 declination. Nearly all the observed spectra have been reduced and analyzed. What is determined is R-prime, an index of the chromospheric emission in the cores of the Ca II H and K lines relative to the nearby continuum, and normalized for the color of the star. Chromospheric emission arises from magnetic activity on the star, and that is turn is driven by rotation. Solar-type stars spin down as they age, and so they get weaker in their chromospheric emission as well. Thus this R-prime index can be used to estimate the ages of stars. A few stars remain to be observed at Kitt Peak, and follow-up high-resolution spectra are being obtained of the most active stars seen, but the majority of the starting sample have been completed. The spectra obtained are also being analyzed to yield an index of overall metallicity for each star, and this will be used to study Galactic evolution questions. These metallicities will form the first large dataset of high and consistent quality. Initial results from this work have been used to define targets for a SIRTF Legacy program, for stars to study for planetary transits, and for SETI efforts. Because of the large number of stars involved, most of the data will be made available on the web, although some specific papers about the results are in preparation. The web database is being constructed.

  20. On the massive star-forming capacity of molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, Jose; Shore, Steven N.; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo

    1994-01-01

    Assuming that photoionization is the self-limiting process for continued star formation, we estimate the maximum number of massive (OB) stars that can form within a molecular cloud. The most efficient cloud destruction mechanism in the early stages of H II region evolution is the evaporation of the cloud by stars located near the cloud boundary. The maximum number of OB stars is of order 1 per 10(exp 4) solar mass of average molecular gas, or 10 per 10(exp 4) solar mass of dense molecular gas. The resulting star-forming efficiencies within cloud complexes range from 2% to 16% depending on both the location of the stars in the cloud and the details of the initial mass function, with an overall value of about 5% for average molecular gas.

  1. A CORRELATION BETWEEN STAR FORMATION RATE AND AVERAGE BLACK HOLE ACCRETION IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chien-Ting J.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Alberts, Stacey; Pope, Alexandra; Brodwin, Mark; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Goulding, Andrew D.; Murray, Stephen S.; Alexander, David M.; Mullaney, James R.; Assef, Roberto J.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Brown, Michael J. I.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Le Floc'h, Emeric

    2013-08-10

    We present a measurement of the average supermassive black hole accretion rate (BHAR) as a function of the star formation rate (SFR) for galaxies in the redshift range 0.25 < z < 0.8. We study a sample of 1767 far-IR-selected star-forming galaxies in the 9 deg{sup 2} Booetes multi-wavelength survey field. The SFR is estimated using 250 {mu}m observations from the Herschel Space Observatory, for which the contribution from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) is minimal. In this sample, 121 AGNs are directly identified using X-ray or mid-IR selection criteria. We combined these detected AGNs and an X-ray stacking analysis for undetected sources to study the average BHAR for all of the star-forming galaxies in our sample. We find an almost linear relation between the average BHAR (in M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}) and the SFR (in M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}) for galaxies across a wide SFR range 0.85 < log SFR < 2.56: log BHAR = (- 3.72 {+-} 0.52) + (1.05 {+-} 0.33)log SFR. This global correlation between SFR and average BHAR is consistent with a simple picture in which SFR and AGN activity are tightly linked over galaxy evolution timescales.

  2. Chemical Evolution of Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Blake, Geoffrey A.

    Recent advances in the understanding of the chemical processes that occur during all stages of the formation of stars, from the collapse of molecular clouds to the assemblage of icy planetesimals in protoplanetary accretion disks, are reviewed. Observational studies of the circumstellar material within 100-10,000 AU of the young star with (sub)millimeter single-dish telescopes, millimeter interferometers, and ground-based as well as space-borne infrared observatories have only become possible within the past few years. Results are compared with detailed chemical models that emphasize the coupling of gas-phase and grain-surface chemistry. Molecules that are particularly sensitive to different routes of formation and that may be useful in distinguishing between a variety of environments and histories are outlined. In the cold, low-density prestellar cores, radicals and long unsaturated carbon chains are enhanced. During the cold collapse phase, most species freeze out onto the grains in the high-density inner region. Once young stars ignite, their surroundings are heated through radiation and/or shocks, whereupon new chemical characteristics appear. Evaporation of ices drives a "hot core" chemistry rich in organic molecules, whereas shocks propagating through the dense envelope release both refractory and volatile grain material, resulting in prominent SiO, OH, and H_2O emission. The role of future instrumentation in further developing these chemical and temporal diagnostics is discussed.

  3. HUBBLE SPIES HUGE CLUSTERS OF STARS FORMED

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    BY ANCIENT ENCOUNTER This stunningly beautiful image [right] taken with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope shows the heart of the prototypical starburst galaxy M82. The ongoing violent star formation due to an ancient encounter with its large galactic neighbor, M81, gives this galaxy its disturbed appearance. The smaller picture at upper left shows the entire galaxy. The image was taken in December 1994 by the Kitt Peak National Observatory's 0.9-meter telescope. Hubble's view is represented by the white outline in the center. In the Hubble image, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, the huge lanes of dust that crisscross M82's disk are another telltale sign of the flurry of star formation. Below the center and to the right, a strong galactic wind is spewing knotty filaments of hydrogen and nitrogen gas. More than 100 super star clusters -- very bright, compact groupings of about 100,000 stars -- are seen in this detailed Hubble picture as white dots sprinkled throughout M82's central region. The dark region just above the center of the picture is a huge dust cloud. A collaboration of European and American scientists used these clusters to date the ancient interaction between M82 and M81. About 600 million years ago, a region called 'M82 B' (the bright area just below and to the left of the central dust cloud) exploded with new stars. Scientists have discovered that this ancient starburst was triggered by the violent encounter with M81. M82 is a bright (eighth magnitude), nearby (12 million light-years from Earth) galaxy in the constellation Ursa Major (the Great Bear). The Hubble picture was taken Sept. 15, 1997. The natural-color composite was constructed from three Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 exposures, which were combined in chromatic order: 4,250 seconds through a blue filter (428 nm); 2,800 seconds through a green filter (520 nm); and 2,200 seconds through a red (820 nm) filter. Credits for Hubble image: NASA, ESA, R. de Grijs (Institute of

  4. A WIYN Lithium Survey for Young Stars in the λ Orionis Star-Forming Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, Christopher J.; Mathieu, Robert D.

    1999-11-01

    We have found 72 pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars near the center of the λ Orionis star-forming region by spectroscopically testing a magnitude-limited sample for the presence of lithium λ6708 absorption, a diagnostic of youth. All of these stars show large lithium equivalent widths and radial velocities consistent with Orion membership, but only two were discovered previously via Hα or X-ray surveys. Comparison with PMS evolutionary tracks show that the low-mass star formation did not begin prior to the initiation of high-mass star formation 5-7 Myr ago. However, the subsequent detailed star formation history is model dependent. Baraffe et al. isochrones imply that high- and low-mass stars began to form together 5-7 Myr ago, with the low-mass stellar formation ceasing abruptly 1 Myr ago. On the other hand, D'Antona & Mazzitelli isochrones indicate a narrow spread of PMS ages, which suggests a burst of low-mass star formation 1-2 Myr ago. Furthermore, kinematic arguments require that the parent molecular cloud gravitationally bound the stars together until recently, but at present the requisite gas mass is not visible. This leads us to conjecture that both the high- and low-mass stars were in a tightly bound cluster until a supernova blast about 1 Myr ago disrupted the parent cloud. This supernova also impacted on the PMS formation process by either (1) ceasing formation through removal of the gas supply or (2) triggering star births via cloud compression, depending on choice of stellar evolution models. Finally, we find that despite their youth, only four of the 72 PMS stars have T Tauri-like Hα emission, suggesting the absence of accretion disks. We conjecture that this may be the result of photoevaporation of the disks while the low-mass stars were in much closer proximity to the OB stars prior to becoming gravitationally unbound.

  5. Stars Form Surprisingly Close to Milky Way's Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way has surprisingly helped spawn a new generation of stars, according to observations from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This novel mode of star formation may solve several mysteries about the supermassive black holes that reside at the centers of nearly all galaxies. "Massive black holes are usually known for violence and destruction," said Sergei Nayakshin of the University of Leicester, United Kingdom, and coauthor of a paper on this research in an upcoming issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. "So it's remarkable that this black hole helped create new stars, not just destroy them." Black holes have earned their fearsome reputation because any material -- including stars -- that falls within the so-called event horizon is never seen again. However, these new results indicate that the immense disks of gas known to orbit many black holes at a "safe" distance from the event horizon can help nurture the formation of new stars. Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole This conclusion came from new clues that could only be revealed in X-rays. Until the latest Chandra results, astronomers have disagreed about the origin of a mysterious group of massive stars discovered by infrared astronomers to be orbiting less than a light year from the Milky Way's central black hole, a.k.a. Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A*. At such close distances to Sgr A*, the standard model for star formation predicts that gas clouds from which stars form should have been ripped apart by tidal forces from the black hole. Two models to explain this puzzle have been proposed. In the disk model, the gravity of a dense disk of gas around Sgr A* offsets the tidal forces and allows stars to form; in the migration model, the stars formed in a star cluster far away from the black hole and migrated in to form the ring of massive stars. The migration scenario predicts about a

  6. Star-forming filaments in warm dark matter models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang; Theuns, Tom; Springel, Volker

    2015-06-01

    We performed a hydrodynamical cosmological simulation of the formation of a Milky Way-like galaxy in a warm dark matter (WDM) cosmology. Smooth and dense filaments, several comoving mega parsec long, form generically above z ˜ 2 in this model. Atomic line cooling allows gas in the centres of these filaments to cool to the base of the cooling function, resulting in a very striking pattern of extended Lyman-limit systems (LLSs). Observations of the correlation function of LLSs might hence provide useful limits on the nature of the dark matter. We argue that the self-shielding of filaments may lead to a thermal instability resulting in star formation. We implement a sub-grid model for this, and find that filaments rather than haloes dominate star formation until z ˜ 6, although this depends on how stars form in WDM. Reionization decreases the gas density in filaments, and the more usual star formation in haloes dominates below z ˜ 6, although star formation in filaments continues until z = 2. 15 per cent of the stars of the z = 0 galaxy formed in filaments. At higher redshift, these stars give galaxies a stringy appearance, which, if observed, might be a strong indication that the dark matter is warm.

  7. B- AND A-TYPE STARS IN THE TAURUS-AURIGA STAR-FORMING REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Mooley, Kunal; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rebull, Luisa; Padgett, Deborah; Knapp, Gillian

    2013-07-10

    We describe the results of a search for early-type stars associated with the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex, a diffuse nearby star-forming region noted as lacking young stars of intermediate and high mass. We investigate several sets of possible O, B, and early A spectral class members. The first is a group of stars for which mid-infrared images show bright nebulae, all of which can be associated with stars of spectral-type B. The second group consists of early-type stars compiled from (1) literature listings in SIMBAD, (2) B stars with infrared excesses selected from the Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the Taurus cloud, (3) magnitude- and color-selected point sources from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and (4) spectroscopically identified early-type stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey coverage of the Taurus region. We evaluated stars for membership in the Taurus-Auriga star formation region based on criteria involving: spectroscopic and parallactic distances, proper motions and radial velocities, and infrared excesses or line emission indicative of stellar youth. For selected objects, we also model the scattered and emitted radiation from reflection nebulosity and compare the results with the observed spectral energy distributions to further test the plausibility of physical association of the B stars with the Taurus cloud. This investigation newly identifies as probable Taurus members three B-type stars: HR 1445 (HD 28929), {tau} Tau (HD 29763), 72 Tau (HD 28149), and two A-type stars: HD 31305 and HD 26212, thus doubling the number of stars A5 or earlier associated with the Taurus clouds. Several additional early-type sources including HD 29659 and HD 283815 meet some, but not all, of the membership criteria and therefore are plausible, though not secure, members.

  8. B- and A-Type Stars in the Taurus-Auriga Star-Forming Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooley, Kunal; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rebull, Luisa; Padgett, Deborah; Knapp, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    We describe the results of a search for early-type stars associated with the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex, a diffuse nearby star-forming region noted as lacking young stars of intermediate and high mass. We investigate several sets of possible O, B, and early A spectral class members. The first is a group of stars for which mid-infrared images show bright nebulae, all of which can be associated with stars of spectral-type B. The second group consists of early-type stars compiled from (1) literature listings in SIMBAD, (2) B stars with infrared excesses selected from the Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the Taurus cloud, (3) magnitude- and color-selected point sources from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and (4) spectroscopically identified early-type stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey coverage of the Taurus region. We evaluated stars for membership in the Taurus-Auriga star formation region based on criteria involving: spectroscopic and parallactic distances, proper motions and radial velocities, and infrared excesses or line emission indicative of stellar youth. For selected objects, we also model the scattered and emitted radiation from reflection nebulosity and compare the results with the observed spectral energy distributions to further test the plausibility of physical association of the B stars with the Taurus cloud. This investigation newly identifies as probable Taurus members three B-type stars: HR 1445 (HD 28929), t Tau (HD 29763), 72 Tau (HD 28149), and two A-type stars: HD 31305 and HD 26212, thus doubling the number of stars A5 or earlier associated with the Taurus clouds. Several additional early-type sources including HD 29659 and HD 283815 meet some, but not all, of the membership criteria and therefore are plausible, though not secure, members.

  9. Chemical Abundance Gradients in the Star-forming Ring Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korchagin, Vladimir; Vorobyov, Eduard; Mayya, Y. D.

    1999-09-01

    Ring waves of star formation, propagating outward in the galactic disks, leave chemical abundance gradients in their wakes. We show that the relative [Fe/O] abundance gradients in ring galaxies can be used as a tool for determining the role of the SN Ia explosions in their chemical enrichment. We consider two mechanisms--a self-induced wave and a density wave--that can create outwardly propagating star-forming rings in a purely gaseous disk and demonstrate that the radial distribution of the relative [Fe/O] abundance gradients depends neither on the particular mechanism of the wave formation anor on the parameters of the star-forming process. We show that the [Fe/O] profile is determined by the velocity of the wave, the initial mass function, and the initial chemical composition of the star-forming gas. If the role of SN Ia explosions is negligible in the chemical enrichment, the ratio [Fe/O] remains constant throughout the galactic disk with a steep gradient at the wave front. If SN Ia stars are important in the production of cosmic iron, the [Fe/O] ratio has a gradient in the wake of the star-forming wave with the value depending on the frequency of SN Ia explosions.

  10. Merger Signatures in the Dynamics of Star-forming Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Chao-Ling; Hayward, Christopher C.; Smith, Howard A.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Lanz, Lauranne; Martínez-Galarza, Juan R.; Sanders, D. B.; Zezas, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The recent advent of integral field spectrographs and millimeter interferometers has revealed the internal dynamics of many hundreds of star-forming galaxies. Spatially resolved kinematics have been used to determine the dynamical status of star-forming galaxies with ambiguous morphologies, and constrain the importance of galaxy interactions during the assembly of galaxies. However, measuring the importance of interactions or galaxy merger rates requires knowledge of the systematics in kinematic diagnostics and the visible time with merger indicators. We analyze the dynamics of star-forming gas in a set of binary merger hydrodynamic simulations with stellar mass ratios of 1:1 and 1:4. We find that the evolution of kinematic asymmetries traced by star-forming gas mirrors morphological asymmetries derived from mock optical images, in which both merger indicators show the largest deviation from isolated disks during strong interaction phases. Based on a series of simulations with various initial disk orientations, orbital parameters, gas fractions, and mass ratios, we find that the merger signatures are visible for ˜0.2-0.4 Gyr with kinematic merger indicators but can be approximately twice as long for equal-mass mergers of massive gas-rich disk galaxies designed to be analogs of z ˜ 2-3 submillimeter galaxies. Merger signatures are most apparent after the second passage and before the black holes coalescence, but in some cases they persist up to several hundred Myr after coalescence. About 20%-60% of the simulated galaxies are not identified as mergers during the strong interaction phase, implying that galaxies undergoing violent merging process do not necessarily exhibit highly asymmetric kinematics in their star-forming gas. The lack of identifiable merger signatures in this population can lead to an underestimation of merger abundances in star-forming galaxies, and including them in samples of star-forming disks may bias the measurements of disk properties such

  11. VLBA Helps Build New Picture of Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    New, high-precision distance measurements by the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope are providing a major advance for astronomers trying to understand how stars form. "A large improvement in measuring the distance to a young, still-forming star means a large improvement in measuring characteristics such as its mass and intrinsic brightness," said Laurent Loinard, of the National University of Mexico (UNAM). Loinard, Amy Mioduszewski of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, UNAM graduate student Rosa Torres and UNAM professor Luis Rodriguez presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Seattle, Washington. Parallax Diagram Trigonometric Parallax method determines distance to star by measuring its slight shift in apparent position as seen from opposite ends of Earth's orbit. CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Image and Animation Files Parallax Diagram (above image, JPEG, 153K) Animation of apparant motion on sky of young star T Tauri S (MPEG, 891K) Still Frame from above animation (JPEG, 14K) B&W Plot of T Tauri S Parallax motion (JPEG, 51K) "Most of what we know about the processes of star formation has come from studying young stars in a few, relatively nearby regions," Loinard said. "However, estimates of the distance to these regions have been imprecise. That imprecision has limited the ability of real-world observations to improve theoretical models for star formation," he added. The new VLBA distance measurements are great improvements over earlier estimates. For example, earlier work placed a famous young stellar system in the constellation Taurus between 423 and 489 light-years from Earth. The new VLBA measurements narrow the range to 418-422 light-years. "Our observations brought the error in this measurement down from 66 light-years to four," Mioduszewski said. The new VLBA observations also refined the distance estimate to another star-forming region in the constellation Ophiuchus

  12. ROSAT observations of the Chamaeleon star forming cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, E. D.; Casanova, S.; Montmerle, T.; Guibert, J.

    1993-01-01

    Two-soft X-ray images of the Chamaeleon I star forming cloud obtained with the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) are presented. Seventy reliable, and perhaps 19 additional, X-ray sources are found. Up to Ninety percent of these sources are certainly or probably identified with T Tauri stars formed in the cloud. Twenty to 35 are probably previously unrecognized 'weak' T Tauri (WTT) stars. T Tauri X-ray luminosities range from log bar-L(sub x) less than 28.8 to 31.1 erg/s, or 10(exp 2) - 10(exp 4) times solar levels, with mean value of log bar-L(sub x) = 10(exp 29.2) erg/s in the 0.2-2.5 keV band. The X-ray luminosities of well-studied Chamaeleon cloud members are correlated with a complex of four stellar properties: effective temperature, mass, radius and bolometric luminosity. The spatial distribution, Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram locations of the stars indicate WTT and CTT are coeval. The total premain sequence population of the cloud is likely to be greater than 100 stars, with WTT stars outnumbering 'classical' T Tauri (CTT) stars by approximately 2:1.

  13. ASSESSING RADIATION PRESSURE AS A FEEDBACK MECHANISM IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Brett H.; Thompson, Todd A.

    2011-02-01

    Radiation pressure from the absorption and scattering of starlight by dust grains may be an important feedback mechanism in regulating star-forming galaxies. We compile data from the literature on star clusters, star-forming subregions, normal star-forming galaxies, and starbursts to assess the importance of radiation pressure on dust as a feedback mechanism, by comparing the luminosity and flux of these systems to their dust Eddington limit. This exercise motivates a novel interpretation of the Schmidt law, the L{sub IR}-L'{sub CO} correlation, and the L{sub IR}-L'{sub HCN} correlation. In particular, the linear L{sub IR}-L'{sub HCN} correlation is a natural prediction of radiation pressure regulated star formation. Overall, we find that the Eddington limit sets a hard upper bound to the luminosity of any star-forming region. Importantly, however, many normal star-forming galaxies have luminosities significantly below the Eddington limit. We explore several explanations for this discrepancy, especially the role of 'intermittency' in normal spirals-the tendency for only a small number of subregions within a galaxy to be actively forming stars at any moment because of the time dependence of the feedback process and the luminosity evolution of the stellar population. If radiation pressure regulates star formation in dense gas, then the gas depletion timescale is 6 Myr, in good agreement with observations of the densest starbursts. Finally, we highlight the importance of observational uncertainties, namely, the dust-to-gas ratio and the CO-to-H{sub 2} and HCN-to-H{sub 2} conversion factors, that must be understood before a definitive assessment of radiation pressure as a feedback mechanism in star-forming galaxies.

  14. NUCLEAR STAR-FORMING RING OF THE MILKY WAY: SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sungsoo S.; Jeon, Myoungwon; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Figer, Donald F.; Merritt, David; Wada, Keiichi

    2011-07-01

    We present hydrodynamic simulations of gas clouds in the central kpc region of the Milky Way that is modeled with a three-dimensional bar potential. Our simulations consider realistic gas cooling and heating, star formation, and supernova feedback. A ring of dense gas clouds forms as a result of X{sub 1}-X{sub 2} orbit transfer, and our potential model results in a ring radius of {approx}200 pc, which coincides with the extraordinary reservoir of dense molecular clouds in the inner bulge, the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ). The gas clouds accumulated in the CMZ can reach high enough densities to form stars, and with an appropriate choice of simulation parameters, we successfully reproduce the observed gas mass and the star formation rate (SFR) in the CMZ, {approx}2 x 10{sup 7} M{sub sun} and {approx}0.1 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. Star formation in our simulations takes place mostly in the outermost X{sub 2} orbits, and the SFR per unit surface area outside the CMZ is much lower. These facts suggest that the inner Galactic bulge may harbor a mild version of the nuclear star-forming rings seen in some external disk galaxies. Furthermore, from the relatively small size of the Milky Way's nuclear bulge, which is thought to be a result of sustained star formation in the CMZ, we infer that the Galactic inner bulge probably had a shallower density profile or stronger bar elongation in the past.

  15. HUBBLE'S PANORAMIC PORTRAIT OF A VAST STAR-FORMING REGION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a panoramic portrait of a vast, sculpted landscape of gas and dust where thousands of stars are being born. This fertile star-forming region, called the 30 Doradus Nebula, has a sparkling stellar centerpiece: the most spectacular cluster of massive stars in our cosmic neighborhood of about 25 galaxies. The mosaic picture shows that ultraviolet radiation and high-speed material unleashed by the stars in the cluster, called R136 [the large blue blob left of center], are weaving a tapestry of creation and destruction, triggering the collapse of looming gas and dust clouds and forming pillar-like structures that are incubators for nascent stars. The photo offers an unprecedented, detailed view of the entire inner region of 30 Doradus, measuring 200 light-years wide by 150 light-years high. The nebula resides in the Large Magellanic Cloud (a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way), 170,000 light-years from Earth. Nebulas like 30 Doradus are the 'signposts' of recent star birth. High-energy ultraviolet radiation from the young, hot, massive stars in R136 causes the surrounding gaseous material to glow. Previous Hubble telescope observations showed that R136 contains several dozen of the most massive stars known, each about 100 times the mass of the Sun and about 10 times as hot. These stellar behemoths all formed at the same time about 2 million years ago. The stars in R136 are producing intense 'stellar winds' (streams of material traveling at several million miles an hour), which are wreaking havoc on the gas and dust in the surrounding neighborhood. The winds are pushing the gas away from the cluster and compressing the inner regions of the surrounding gas and dust clouds [the pinkish material]. The intense pressure is triggering the collapse of parts of the clouds, producing a new generation of star formation around the central cluster. The new stellar nursery is about 30 to 50 light-years from R136. Most of the stars in the

  16. THE STRUCTURE OF THE STAR-FORMING CLUSTER RCW 38

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, E.; Wolk, S. J.; Bourke, T. L.; Spitzbart, B.; Megeath, S. T.; Gutermuth, R.

    2011-12-20

    We present a study of the structure of the high-mass star-forming region RCW 38 and the spatial distribution of its young stellar population. Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) photometry (3-8 {mu}m) is combined with Two Micron All Sky Survey near-IR data to identify young stellar objects (YSOs) by IR-excess emission from their circumstellar material. Chandra X-ray data are used to identify class III pre-main-sequence stars lacking circumstellar material. We identify 624 YSOs: 23 class 0/I and 90 flat spectrum protostars, 437 class II stars, and 74 class III stars. We also identify 29 (27 new) O star candidates over the IRAC field. Seventy-two stars exhibit IR-variability, including 7 class 0/I and 12 flat spectrum YSOs. A further 177 tentative candidates are identified by their location in the IRAC [3.6] versus [3.6]-[5.8] color-magnitude diagram. We find strong evidence of subclustering in the region. Three subclusters were identified surrounding the central cluster, with massive and variable stars in each subcluster. The central region shows evidence of distinct spatial distributions of the protostars and pre-main-sequence stars. A previously detected IR cluster, DB2001{sub O}bj36, has been established as a subcluster of RCW 38. This suggests that star formation in RCW 38 occurs over a more extended area than previously thought. The gas-to-dust ratio is examined using the X-ray derived hydrogen column density, N{sub H} and the K-band extinction, and found to be consistent with the diffuse interstellar medium, in contrast with Serpens and NGC 1333. We posit that the high photoionizing flux of massive stars in RCW 38 affects the agglomeration of the dust grains.

  17. Numerical Simulations of Self-Regulated, Star Forming Galactic Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. C.; Struck, C.

    2000-12-01

    While star formation feedback models have been used in the study of galaxy formation, the effects of these processes on the global structure of disks have received less attention. We have adapted Hydra, the adaptive particle-particle, particle-mesh with smoothed particle hydrodynamics code by Couchman et al., to include heating processes deriving from star formation in order to study the effects of this heating on the structure of the disk and on the star formation itself. These processes include mechanical heating from strong stellar winds and supernovae, as well as heating due to photoelectric removal of electrons from grains by UV flux from young OB stars. Mechanisms of this type can be implemented in a simple way within the Hydra code, allowing us to study the density and temperature profiles of the gas, the balance among the multiple thermal phases generated in the disk, and the kinematics of the disk. Preliminary results from numerical simulations of star-forming gas disks of late type spirals are presented. Self-regulating effects of star formation on the global structure of the disk are discussed. We describe and compare the results of different star formation criteria and discuss the effects of particle resolution. This study was funded, in part, by a grant from the George Washington Carver Charitable Trust.

  18. Chandra Discoveries in High-mass Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsley, L. K.; Broos, P. S.; Feigelson, E. D.; Garmire, G. P.

    2004-08-01

    Chandra is providing remarkable new views of high-mass star-forming regions, revealing all stages in the life cycle of high-mass stars and their effects on their surroundings. We present a Chandra/ACIS tour of several high-mass star-forming regions, highlighting physical processes that characterize the life of a cluster of high-mass stars, from deeply-embedded cores too young to have established an HII region to superbubbles so large that they shape our views of galaxies. Along the way we see that X-ray observations reveal hundreds of stellar sources powering great HII region complexes, suffused by both hard and soft diffuse X-ray structures caused by fast O-star winds thermalized in wind-wind collisions or by termination shocks against the surrounding media. Finally, we examine the effects of the deaths of high-mass stars that remained close to their birthplaces, exploding as supernovae within the superbubbles that these clusters created.

  19. Search for OB stars running away from young star clusters. II. The NGC 6357 star-forming region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Kroupa, P.; Oh, S.

    2011-11-01

    Dynamical few-body encounters in the dense cores of young massive star clusters are responsible for the loss of a significant fraction of their massive stellar content. Some of the escaping (runaway) stars move through the ambient medium supersonically and can be revealed via detection of their bow shocks (visible in the infrared, optical or radio). In this paper, which is the second of a series of papers devoted to the search for OB stars running away from young ( ≲ several Myr) Galactic clusters and OB associations, we present the results of the search for bow shocks around the star-forming region NGC 6357. Using the archival data of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite and the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the preliminary data release of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we discovered seven bow shocks, whose geometry is consistent with the possibility that they are generated by stars expelled from the young (~1-2 Myr) star clusters, Pismis 24 and AH03 J1725-34.4, associated with NGC 6357. Two of the seven bow shocks are driven by the already known OB stars, HD 319881 and [N78] 34. Follow-up spectroscopy of three other bow-shock-producing stars showed that they are massive (O-type) stars as well, while the 2MASS photometry of the remaining two stars suggests that they could be B0 V stars, provided that both are located at the same distance as NGC 6357. Detection of numerous massive stars ejected from the very young clusters is consistent with the theoretical expectation that star clusters can effectively lose massive stars at the very beginning of their dynamical evolution (long before the second mechanism for production of runaway stars, based on a supernova explosion in a massive tight binary system, begins to operate) and lends strong support to the idea that probably all field OB stars have been dynamically ejected from their birth clusters. A by-product of our search for bow shocks around NGC 6357 is the detection of three circular

  20. Locating star-forming regions in quasar host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J. E.; Eracleous, M.; Shemmer, O.; Netzer, H.; Gronwall, C.; Lutz, Dieter; Ciardullo, R.; Sturm, Eckhard

    2014-02-01

    We present a study of the morphology and intensity of star formation in the host galaxies of eight Palomar-Green quasars using observations with the Hubble Space Telescope. Our observations are motivated by recent evidence for a close relationship between black hole growth and the stellar mass evolution in its host galaxy. We use narrow-band [O II]λ3727, Hβ, [O III]λ5007 and Paα images, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 and NICMOS instruments, to map the morphology of line-emitting regions, and, after extinction corrections, diagnose the excitation mechanism and infer star-formation rates. Significant challenges in this type of work are the separation of the quasar light from the stellar continuum and the quasar-excited gas from the star-forming regions. To this end, we present a novel technique for image decomposition and subtraction of quasar light. Our primary result is the detection of extended line-emitting regions with sizes ranging from 0.5 to 5 kpc and distributed symmetrically around the nucleus, powered primarily by star formation. We determine star-formation rates of the order of a few tens of M⊙ yr-1. The host galaxies of our target quasars have stellar masses of the order of 1011 M⊙ and specific star-formation rates on a par with those of M82 and luminous infrared galaxies. As such they fall at the upper envelope or just above the star-formation mass sequence in the specific star formation versus stellar mass diagram. We see a clear trend of increasing star-formation rate with quasar luminosity, reinforcing the link between the growth of the stellar mass of the host and the black hole mass found by other authors.

  1. Chromospheric activity of cool giant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiman-Cameron, T. Y.

    1986-01-01

    During the seventh year of IUE twenty-six spectra of seventeen cool giant stars ranging in spectral type from K3 thru M6 were obtained. Together with spectra of fifteen stars observed during the sixth year of IUE, these low-resolution spectra have been used to: (1) examine chromospheric activity in the program stars and late type giants in general, and (2) evaluate the extent to which nonradiative heating affects the upper levels of cool giant photospheres. The stars observed in this study all have well determined TiO band strengths, angular diameters (determined from lunar occulations), bolometric fluxes, and effective temperatures. Chromospheric activity can therefore be related to effective temperatures providing a clearer picture of activity among cool giant stars than previously available. The stars observed are listed.

  2. Stellar Clusters in the NGC 6334 Star-Forming Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Martin, Amanda L.; McNeill, Collin J.; Broos, Patrick S.; Garmire, Gordon P.

    2009-07-01

    The full stellar population of NGC 6334, one of the most spectacular regions of massive star formation in the nearby Galaxy, has not been well sampled in past studies. We analyze here a mosaic of two Chandra X-ray Observatory images of the region using sensitive data analysis methods, giving a list of 1607 faint X-ray sources with arcsecond positions and approximate line-of-sight absorption. About 95% of these are expected to be cluster members, most lower mass pre-main-sequence stars. Extrapolating to low X-ray levels, the total stellar population is estimated to be 20,000-30,000 pre-main-sequence stars. The X-ray sources show a complicated spatial pattern with ~10 distinct star clusters. The heavily obscured clusters are mostly associated with previously known far-infrared sources and radio H II regions. The lightly obscured clusters are mostly newly identified in the X-ray images. Dozens of likely OB stars are found, both in clusters and dispersed throughout the region, suggesting that star formation in the complex has proceeded over millions of years. A number of extraordinarily heavily absorbed X-ray sources are associated with the active regions of star formation.

  3. STELLAR CLUSTERS IN THE NGC 6334 STAR-FORMING COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Martin, Amanda L.; McNeill, Collin J.; Broos, Patrick S.; Garmire, Gordon P.

    2009-07-15

    The full stellar population of NGC 6334, one of the most spectacular regions of massive star formation in the nearby Galaxy, has not been well sampled in past studies. We analyze here a mosaic of two Chandra X-ray Observatory images of the region using sensitive data analysis methods, giving a list of 1607 faint X-ray sources with arcsecond positions and approximate line-of-sight absorption. About 95% of these are expected to be cluster members, most lower mass pre-main-sequence stars. Extrapolating to low X-ray levels, the total stellar population is estimated to be 20,000-30,000 pre-main-sequence stars. The X-ray sources show a complicated spatial pattern with {approx}10 distinct star clusters. The heavily obscured clusters are mostly associated with previously known far-infrared sources and radio H II regions. The lightly obscured clusters are mostly newly identified in the X-ray images. Dozens of likely OB stars are found, both in clusters and dispersed throughout the region, suggesting that star formation in the complex has proceeded over millions of years. A number of extraordinarily heavily absorbed X-ray sources are associated with the active regions of star formation.

  4. Magnetic activity of planet-hosting stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppenhaeger, Katja

    2011-05-01

    Magnetic activity in cool stars is a widely observed phenomenon, however it is still far from being understood. How fundamental stellar parameters like mass and rotational period quantitatively cause a stellar magnetic field which manifests itself in features such as spots, flares and high-energy coronal emission is a lively area of research in solar and stellar astrophysics. Especially for planet-hosting stars, stellar activity profiles are very interesting as exoplanets are affected by high-energy radiation, both at the time of planet formation as well as during the further lifetime of a star-planet system. In extreme cases, the atmosphere of a planet very close to its host star can be strongly heated by the stellar X-ray and EUV emission and finally escape the planet's gravitational attraction, so that the atmosphere of the planet evaporates over time. Theoretically, planets can also affect their host star's magnetic activity. In analogy to processes in binary stars which lead to enhanced - both overall and periodically varying - activity levels, also giant planets might influence the stellar activity by tidal or magnetic interaction processes, however on a weaker level than in binaries. Some indications for such interactions exist from chromospheric measurements in stars with Hot Jupiters. In this thesis I investigate the magnetic activity of planet-hosting stars and especially possible effects from star-planet interactions with an emphasis on stellar coronae in X-rays. I tested a complete sample of all known planet-hosting stars within 30 pc distance from the Sun for correlations of stellar X-ray properties with planetary parameters. A significant correlation exists between the stellar X-ray luminosity and the product of planetary mass and inverse semimajor axis. However, this could be traced back to a selection effect introduced by planetary detection methods. For stars in the solar neighborhood, planets are mainly detected by radial velocity shifts in the

  5. Activity in A-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balona, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Kepler photometry shows that most A-type stars have low frequency variations which can be understood in terms of rotational modulation. Indeed, the distribution of equatorial velocities derived from the photometric periods agrees with the distribution of equatorial velocities of A-type stars in the general field. The amplitude of the rotational frequency varies by 20-30 percent as might be expected of star spots. From the light amplitudes we estimate that most spots are considerably larger than typical sunspots but generally smaller than the largest sunspots. The rotation peaks in the periodograms of a significant fraction of A-type stars have a peculiar structure which is not understood. Although peaks corresponding to the rotation frequency can be identified in many δ Scuti stars, the low frequency peaks in these stars are too numerous to be caused by rotational modulation. It thus appears that while the variability of non-pulsating A stars can be explained by rotation, the low-frequency variability in A-type δ Sct stars requires a new pulsation mechanism. We also find several γ Dor stars much hotter than the theoretical hot edge of the instability strip. We find 13 new A-type flare stars, which means that about 1.5 percent of A stars flare. Less dramatic flares may be common in all A-type stars. We show that these superflares cannot be attributed to normal flares on a cool companion. We conclude that A-type stars are active and, like cooler stars, have starspots and flares. Surprisingly, there does not seem to be a drop in activity as the granulation boundary is crossed.

  6. Kinematic Distances of Pre-main Sequence Stars in the Lupus Star-Forming Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, P. A. B.; Teixeira, R.; Ducourant, C.; Bertout, C.

    2014-06-01

    The problem of the determination of distances has always played a central role in astronomy. However, little recent progress has been made in the distance determination of faint young stellar objects such as pre-main sequence (PMS) stars. Many of the PMS stars were neither observed by the Hipparcos satellite due to their magnitude nor have any trigonometric parallax measured from the ground due to their distance. Here we investigate the kinematic properties of the Lupus moving group with the primary objective of deriving individual parallaxes for each group member of this star-forming region.

  7. Narrow-band Imaging of Massive Star-Forming Regions: Tracing Outflows and the Rate of Star-Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Kendall; Willis, Sarah; Hora, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    Narrowband images targeting ionized hydrogen (Brackett gamma, 2.17 microns) and molecular hydrogen (2.12 microns) were obtained for six massive star-forming regions within the Milky Way, NGC 6334, G305, G3333, G3264, G3266, and G351. These regions are within 1-4 kpc from our solar system. The narrowband flux in Brackett gamma was used as a star-formation tracer to calculate a star-formation rate for each region. This is compared with other star-formation rates found using other methods such as the count of young stars and YSOs, and rates calculated from using other tracers (e.g. 70 micron monochromatic luminosity). The molecular hydrogen narrowband images were manually searched to locate outflows from young stars. Once these outflows are identified, it may help to get a better survey of the young stellar population. A better understanding of the stellar population distribution can lead to more accurate star-formation rates to compare to those calculated from star-formation tracers. We found the regions NGC 6334 and G3266 to have the highest levels of ongoing star formation activity as indicated by the number of molecular hydrogen objects (MHOs) detected. There are a total of 279 cataloged MHOs in 181 categorized systems for the six regions. There are a total of 150 identified potential driving sources.This work was supported in part by the NSF REU and DoD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  8. Chandra Observations of the RCW 108 Star Forming Region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolk, S. J.; Vigil, M.; Bourke, T. L.; Spitzbart, B. D.

    2004-12-01

    We present our recent (October 2004) Chandra observations of the embedded star forming region RCW 108. RCW 108 contains a deeply embedded young cluster lying in a dark cloud to the west of the young open cluster NGC 6193 (excited by two early O stars). Our motivation for this obsrvation was to followup on our discovery of diffuse X-ray emission in the older less embedded RCW 38. If the diffuse emission seen in RCW 38 is the result of plasma being trapped within the star forming region by overlaying molecular material, then RCW 108 should contain even more trapped plasma. At 8-20 μ m microns, the Midcourse Space Experiment Galactic Plane Survey data shows a ridge of warm dust passing through the eastern edge of the emission peak parallel to but west of an optical ridge. Our SEST mm continuum observations show a cold component to this dust ridge peaking strongly at the cluster. The far infrared luminosity suggests that there is more than one significant heating source, i.e., OB stars and/or intermediate mass protostars. The extended infrared nebulosity to the east of the main cluster is due to emission and not reflection, suggesting a break-out of radiation in this direction. The goals of the observations are to: 1) Study triggered star formation. 2) Investigate the origin and nature of diffuse X-ray emission within regions of massive star formation. 3) Identify deeply embedded PMS stars via their X-ray emission and derive an IMF and XLF. 4) Investigate the X-ray properties of the embedded sources. This work is supported by the Chandra X-ray Center NASA contact NAS8-39073 and by the Chandra guest observer program.

  9. Structure, Motion, and Evolution of Star-Forming Dense Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2003-01-01

    We have pursued spectral-line observations of star-forming regions over size scales from 0.01 pc to 0.5 pc. Our main goal has been to measure the systematic and turbulent motions of condensing and collapsing gas.

  10. Stellar Feedback in Massive Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Jack; Pellegrini, Eric; Ferland, Gary; Murray, Norm; Hanson, Margaret

    2008-02-01

    Star formation rates and chemical evolution are controlled in part by the interaction of stellar radiation and winds with the remnant molecular gas from which the stars have formed. We are carrying out a detailed, panchromatic study in the two nearest giant star-forming regions to nail down the physics that produces the 10-20 parsec bubbles seen to surround young massive clusters in the Milky Way. This will determine if and how the clusters disrupt their natal giant molecular clouds (GMCs). Here we request 4 nights on the Blanco telescope to obtain dense grids of optical long-slit spectra criss-crossing each nebula. These will cover the [S II] doublet (to measure N_e) and also [O III], H(beta), [O I], H(alpha) and [N II] to measure the ionization mechanism and ionization parameter, at ~3000 different spots in each nebula. From this we can determine a number of dynamically important quantities, such as the gas density and temperature, hence pressure in and around these bubbles. These quantities can be compared to the dynamical (gravitationally induced) pressure, and the radiation pressure. All can be employed in dynamical models for the evolution of a GMC under the influence of an embedded massive star cluster. This research will elucidate the detailed workings of the star-forming regions which dominate the star formation rate in the Milky Way, and also will steadily improve our calibration and understanding of more distant, less well-resolved objects such as ULIRGS, Lyman break, and submillimeter galaxies.

  11. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dishoeck, Ewine

    2015-08-01

    Water is a key molecule in the physics and chemistry of regions in which new stars and planets are born. This poster summarizes recent results on the chemistry of water in protostellar envelopes and protoplanetary disks obtained with the Herschel-HIFI and PACS instruments in the context of the 'Water in Star-forming Regions with Herschel' (WISH) Key Program. About 80 sources have been observed, covering a wide range of masses as well as evolutionary stages -from the earliest stages represented by pre-stellar cores to the late stages represented by the pre-main sequence stars surrounded only by disks. The data elucidate the physical and dynamical processes associated with forming stars and planets (outflow, infall, expansion), test basic gas-phase and gas-grain chemical processes, and reveal the chemical evolution of water and the oxygen-reservoir into planet-forming disks.This poster is presented on behalf of the WISH team. See http://www.strw.leidenuniv.nl/WISH for list of papers and results.

  12. Mapping Magnetic Fields in Star Forming Regions with BLASTPol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fissel, Laura M.; Ade, Peter; Angilè, Francesco E.; Ashton, Peter; Benton, Steven J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dober, Bradley; Fukui, Yasuo; Galitzki, Nicholas B.; Gandilo, Natalie; Klein, J. R.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Korotkov, Andrei; Martin, Peter G.; Matthews, Tristan; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; nakamura, fumitaka; Barth Netterfield, Calvin; Novak, Giles; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Pereira Santos, Fábio; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil; Soler, Juan D.; Thomas, Nicholas; tucker, carole; Tucker, Gregory S.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2016-01-01

    A key outstanding question in our understanding of star formation is whether magnetic fields provide support against the gravitational collapse of their parent molecular clouds and cores. Direct measurement of magnetic field strength is observationally challenging, however observations of polarized thermal emission from dust grains aligned with respect to the local cloud magnetic field can be used to map out the magnetic field orientation in molecular clouds. Statistical comparisons between these submillimeter polarization maps and three-dimensional numerical simulations of magnetized star-forming clouds provide a promising method for constraining magnetic field strength. We present early results from a BLASTPol study of the nearby giant molecular cloud (GMC) Vela C, using data collected during a 2012 Antarctic flight. This sensitive balloon-borne polarimeter observed Vela C for 57 hours, yielding the most detailed submillimeter polarization map ever made of a GMC forming high mass stars. We find that most of the structure in p can be modeled by a power-law dependence on two quantities: the hydrogen column density and the local dispersion in magnetic field orientation. Our power-law model for p(N,S) provides new constraints for models of magnetized star-forming clouds and an important first step in the interpretation of the BLASTPol 2012 data set.

  13. Star-forming region BBW 36 in puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyulbudahgian, A. L.; May, J.

    2008-07-01

    Recent studies of the star formation region BBW 36 and associated molecular clouds are presented. The 12CO (1-0) observations, carried out with the 15-m SEST (Swedish-ESO) telescope (Cerro La Silla, Chile), revealed the existence of cloud a, connected with BBW 36 and of cloud b, having elongation in SE-NW direction. A red-shifted molecular outflow with velocity ˜+5 km/s (with respect to cloud a), having a direction parallel to the line of sight, was also observed. VLA observations showed the presence of a source VLA 2 at 3.6 cm with an elongation in the N-S direction. It is suggested that the VLA 2 source coincides with a dust disc (surrounding the object BBW 36). The star 3, which is one of the YSOs in the star-forming region BBW 36 and is connected with a bright comma-like nebula, can be the source of the molecular outflow. The star 3 has very high IR colors and is associated with an IRAS point source IRAS 07280-1829, which has IR colors, typical for an IRAS point source, connected with a water maser. On the 2MASS K image of BBW 36 we can see the existence of a bright nebula; a group of stars is embedded in that nebula, and among these stars there are stars with dust discs (or envelopes). On the 2MASS K image several spiral jets are also present, some of them with a condensation at the end.

  14. ATLASGAL - towards a complete sample of massive star forming clumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquhart, J. S.; Moore, T. J. T.; Csengeri, T.; Wyrowski, F.; Schuller, F.; Hoare, M. G.; Lumsden, S. L.; Mottram, J. C.; Thompson, M. A.; Menten, K. M.; Walmsley, C. M.; Bronfman, L.; Pfalzner, S.; König, C.; Wienen, M.

    2014-09-01

    By matching infrared-selected, massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and compact H II regions in the Red MSX Source survey to massive clumps found in the submillimetre ATLASGAL (APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy) survey, we have identified ˜1000 embedded young massive stars between 280° < ℓ < 350° and 10° < ℓ < 60° with | b | < 1.5°. Combined with an existing sample of radio-selected methanol masers and compact H II regions, the result is a catalogue of ˜1700 massive stars embedded within ˜1300 clumps located across the inner Galaxy, containing three observationally distinct subsamples, methanol-maser, MYSO and H II-region associations, covering the most important tracers of massive star formation, thought to represent key stages of evolution. We find that massive star formation is strongly correlated with the regions of highest column density in spherical, centrally condensed clumps. We find no significant differences between the three samples in clump structure or the relative location of the embedded stars, which suggests that the structure of a clump is set before the onset of star formation, and changes little as the embedded object evolves towards the main sequence. There is a strong linear correlation between clump mass and bolometric luminosity, with the most massive stars forming in the most massive clumps. We find that the MYSO and H II-region subsamples are likely to cover a similar range of evolutionary stages and that the majority are near the end of their main accretion phase. We find few infrared-bright MYSOs associated with the most massive clumps, probably due to very short pre-main-sequence lifetimes in the most luminous sources.

  15. 3-D reconstructions of active stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Heidi

    2015-03-01

    Stars are usually faint point sources and investigating their surfaces and interiors observationally is very demanding. Here I give a review on the state-of-the-art observing techniques and recent results on studying interiors and surface features of active stars.

  16. THE STAR FORMATION IN RADIO SURVEY: GBT 33 GHz OBSERVATIONS OF NEARBY GALAXY NUCLEI AND EXTRANUCLEAR STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E. J.; Bremseth, J.; Mason, B. S.; Condon, J. J.; Schinnerer, E.; Aniano, G.; Armus, L.; Helou, G.; Turner, J. L.; Jarrett, T. H.

    2012-12-20

    We present 33 GHz photometry of 103 galaxy nuclei and extranuclear star-forming complexes taken with the Green Bank Telescope as part of the Star Formation in Radio Survey. Among the sources without evidence for an active galactic nucleus, and also having lower frequency radio data, we find a median thermal fraction at 33 GHz of Almost-Equal-To 76% with a dispersion of Almost-Equal-To 24%. For all sources resolved on scales {approx}<0.5 kpc, the thermal fraction is even larger, being {approx}>90%. This suggests that the rest-frame 33 GHz emission provides a sensitive measure of the ionizing photon rate from young star-forming regions, thus making it a robust star formation rate (SFR) indicator. Taking the 33 GHz SFRs as a reference, we investigate other empirical calibrations relying on different combinations of warm 24 {mu}m dust, total infrared (IR; 8-1000 {mu}m), H{alpha} line, and far-UV continuum emission. The recipes derived here generally agree with others found in the literature, albeit with a large dispersion that most likely stems from a combination of effects. Comparing the 33 GHz to total IR flux ratios as a function of the radio spectral index, measured between 1.7 and 33 GHz, we find that the ratio increases as the radio spectral index flattens which does not appear to be a distance effect. Consequently, the ratio of non-thermal to total IR emission appears relatively constant, suggesting only moderate variations in the cosmic-ray electron injection spectrum and ratio of synchrotron to total cooling processes among star-forming complexes. Assuming that this trend solely arises from an increase in the thermal fraction sets a maximum on the scatter of the non-thermal spectral indices among the star-forming regions of {sigma}{sub {alpha}{sup N}{sup T}}{approx}<0.13.

  17. A Hard X-Ray Study of the Normal Star-forming Galaxy M83 with NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukita, M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Lehmer, B. D.; Ptak, A.; Wik, D. R.; Zezas, A.; Antoniou, V.; Maccarone, T. J.; Replicon, V.; Tyler, J. B.; Venters, T.; Argo, M. K.; Bechtol, K.; Boggs, S.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Hailey, C.; Harrison, F.; Krivonos, R.; Kuntz, K.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.

    2016-06-01

    We present the results from sensitive, multi-epoch NuSTAR observations of the late-type star-forming galaxy M83 (d = 4.6 Mpc). This is the first investigation to spatially resolve the hard (E\\gt 10 keV) X-ray emission of this galaxy. The nuclear region and ˜20 off-nuclear point sources, including a previously discovered ultraluminous X-ray source, are detected in our NuSTAR observations. The X-ray hardnesses and luminosities of the majority of the point sources are consistent with hard X-ray sources resolved in the starburst galaxy NGC 253. We infer that the hard X-ray emission is most likely dominated by intermediate accretion state black hole binaries and neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (Z-sources). We construct the X-ray binary luminosity function (XLF) in the NuSTAR band for an extragalactic environment for the first time. The M83 XLF has a steeper XLF than the X-ray binary XLF in NGC 253, which is consistent with previous measurements by Chandra at softer X-ray energies. The NuSTAR integrated galaxy spectrum of M83 drops quickly above 10 keV, which is also seen in the starburst galaxies NGC 253, NGC 3310, and NGC 3256. The NuSTAR observations constrain any active galactic nucleus (AGN) to be either highly obscured or to have an extremely low luminosity of ≲1038 erg s‑1 (10–30 keV), implying that it is emitting at a very low Eddington ratio. An X-ray point source that is consistent with the location of the nuclear star cluster with an X-ray luminosity of a few times 1038 erg s‑1 may be a low-luminosity AGN but is more consistent with being an X-ray binary.

  18. A Hard X-Ray Study of the Normal Star-forming Galaxy M83 with NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukita, M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Lehmer, B. D.; Ptak, A.; Wik, D. R.; Zezas, A.; Antoniou, V.; Maccarone, T. J.; Replicon, V.; Tyler, J. B.; Venters, T.; Argo, M. K.; Bechtol, K.; Boggs, S.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Hailey, C.; Harrison, F.; Krivonos, R.; Kuntz, K.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.

    2016-06-01

    We present the results from sensitive, multi-epoch NuSTAR observations of the late-type star-forming galaxy M83 (d = 4.6 Mpc). This is the first investigation to spatially resolve the hard (E\\gt 10 keV) X-ray emission of this galaxy. The nuclear region and ∼20 off-nuclear point sources, including a previously discovered ultraluminous X-ray source, are detected in our NuSTAR observations. The X-ray hardnesses and luminosities of the majority of the point sources are consistent with hard X-ray sources resolved in the starburst galaxy NGC 253. We infer that the hard X-ray emission is most likely dominated by intermediate accretion state black hole binaries and neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (Z-sources). We construct the X-ray binary luminosity function (XLF) in the NuSTAR band for an extragalactic environment for the first time. The M83 XLF has a steeper XLF than the X-ray binary XLF in NGC 253, which is consistent with previous measurements by Chandra at softer X-ray energies. The NuSTAR integrated galaxy spectrum of M83 drops quickly above 10 keV, which is also seen in the starburst galaxies NGC 253, NGC 3310, and NGC 3256. The NuSTAR observations constrain any active galactic nucleus (AGN) to be either highly obscured or to have an extremely low luminosity of ≲1038 erg s‑1 (10–30 keV), implying that it is emitting at a very low Eddington ratio. An X-ray point source that is consistent with the location of the nuclear star cluster with an X-ray luminosity of a few times 1038 erg s‑1 may be a low-luminosity AGN but is more consistent with being an X-ray binary.

  19. The SINS/zC-SINF survey of z ∼ 2 galaxy kinematics: Evidence for powerful active galactic nucleus-driven nuclear outflows in massive star-forming galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Kurk, J. D.; Lutz, D.; Tacconi, L. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bandara, K.; Buschkamp, P.; Davies, R.; Eisenhauer, F.; Lang, P.; Newman, S. F.; Burkert, A.; Carollo, C. M.; Lilly, S. J.; Cresci, G.; Daddi, E.; Mainieri, V.; Mancini, C.; and others

    2014-05-20

    We report the detection of ubiquitous powerful nuclear outflows in massive (≥10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}) z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies (SFGs), which are plausibly driven by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The sample consists of the eight most massive SFGs from our SINS/zC-SINF survey of galaxy kinematics with the imaging spectrometer SINFONI, six of which have sensitive high-resolution adaptive optics-assisted observations. All of the objects are disks hosting a significant stellar bulge. The spectra in their central regions exhibit a broad component in Hα and forbidden [N II] and [S II] line emission, with typical velocity FWHM ∼ 1500 km s{sup –1}, [N II]/Hα ratio ≈ 0.6, and intrinsic extent of 2-3 kpc. These properties are consistent with warm ionized gas outflows associated with Type 2 AGN, the presence of which is confirmed via independent diagnostics in half the galaxies. The data imply a median ionized gas mass outflow rate of ∼60 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and mass loading of ∼3. At larger radii, a weaker broad component is detected but with lower FWHM ∼485 km s{sup –1} and [N II]/Hα ≈ 0.35, characteristic for star formation-driven outflows as found in the lower-mass SINS/zC-SINF galaxies. The high inferred mass outflow rates and frequent occurrence suggest that the nuclear outflows efficiently expel gas out of the centers of the galaxies with high duty cycles and may thus contribute to the process of star formation quenching in massive galaxies. Larger samples at high masses will be crucial in confirming the importance and energetics of the nuclear outflow phenomenon and its connection to AGN activity and bulge growth.

  20. The Massive Star Forming Region Cygnus OB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Nicholas James; Drake, J. J.; Drew, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the massive star forming Cygnus OB2. Cygnus OB2 is the northern hemisphere's most massive star forming region and hosts a tremendously rich and diverse stellar population, with thousands of OB stars. The strong and highly variable extinction in the direction of the association have hindered previous studies of the region, but recent deep photometric surveys in the optical and near-infrared are opening the region up for study. The appreciation of the pivotal status of Cyg OB2 has led to a number of recent ambitious surveys of the cluster and its setting within the Cygnus-X region at X-ray, infrared and radio wavelengths. Chandra X-ray observations of two fields in the center of the association reveal 1720 X-ray sources, which we have combined with optical and near-IR photometry from the IPHAS and UKIDSS surveys. Near-IR photometry reveals a stellar population with a spread of ages greater than previously thought, overturning the picture of coeval star formation in the region. The distribution of young sources in the region shows evidence for clustering and significant mass segregation, which we judge to be primordial given the cluster's age.

  1. Dust temperature distributions in star-forming condensations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Taoling; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Snell, Ronald L.; Zhou, Weimin

    1993-01-01

    The FIR spectra of the central IR condensations in the dense cores of molecular clouds AFGL 2591. B335, L1551, Mon R2, and Sgr B2 are reanalyzed here in terms of the distribution of dust mass as a function of temperature. FIR spectra of these objects can be characterized reasonably well by a given functional form. The general shapes of the dust temperature distributions of these objects are similar and closely resemble the theoretical computations of de Muizon and Rouan (1985) for a sample of 'hot centered' clouds with active star formation. Specifically, the model yields a 'cutoff' temperature below which essentially no dust is needed to interpret the dust emission spectra, and most of the dust mass is distributed in a broad temperature range of a few tens of degrees above the cutoff temperature. Mass, luminosity, average temperature, and column density are obtained, and it is found that the physical quantities differ considerably from source to source in a meaningful way.

  2. THE STRUCTURAL EVOLUTION OF FORMING AND EARLY STAGE STAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jaehnig, Karl O.; Da Rio, Nicola; Tan, Jonathan C. E-mail: ndario@ufl.edu

    2015-01-10

    We study the degree of angular substructure in the stellar position distribution of young members of Galactic star-forming regions, looking for correlations with distance from cluster center, surface number density of stars, and local dynamical age. To this end we adopt the catalog of members in 18 young (∼1-3 Myr) clusters from the Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray Survey and the statistical analysis of the angular dispersion parameter, δ{sub ADP,} {sub N}. We find statistically significant correlation between δ{sub ADP,} {sub N} and physical projected distance from the center of the clusters, with the centers appearing smoother than the outskirts, consistent with more rapid dynamical processing on local dynamical, free-fall or orbital timescales. Similarly, smoother distributions are seen in regions of higher surface density, or older dynamical ages. These results indicate that dynamical processing that erases substructure is already well-advanced in young, sometimes still-forming, clusters. Such observations of the dissipation of substructure have the potential to constrain theoretical models of the dynamical evolution of young and forming clusters.

  3. The Structural Evolution of Forming and Early Stage Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaehnig, Karl; Da Rio, Nicola; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2016-05-01

    We study the degree of angular substructure in the stellar position distribution of young members of Galactic star-forming regions, looking for correlations with distance from cluster center, surface number density of stars, and local dynamical age. To this end we adopt the catalog of members in 18 young (∼1-3 Myr) clusters from the Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX) Survey and the statistical analysis of the Angular Dispersion Parameter, δADP. We find statistically significant correlation between δADP and physical projected distance from the center of the clusters, with the centers appearing smoother than the outskirts, consistent with more rapid dynamical processing on local dynamical, free-fall or orbital timescales. Similarly, smoother distributions are seen in regions of higher surface density, or older dynamical ages. These results indicate that dynamical processing that erases substructure is already well-advanced in young, sometimes still-forming, clusters. Such observations of the dissipation of substructure have the potential to constrain theoretical models of the dynamical evolution of young and forming clusters.

  4. MODELING THE STAR-FORMING UNIVERSE AT z = 2: IMPACT OF COLD ACCRETION FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Khochfar, Sadegh; Silk, Joseph

    2009-07-20

    We present results of a semianalytic model (SAM) that includes cold accretion and a porosity-based prescription for star formation. We can recover the puzzling observational results of low V/{sigma} seen in various massive disk or disk-like galaxies, if we allow 18% of the accretion energy from cold flows to drive turbulence in gaseous disks at z = 2. The increase of gas mass through cold flows is by itself not sufficient to increase the star formation rate sufficiently to recover the number density of M-dot{sub *}>120 M{sub odot} yr{sup -1} galaxies in our model. In addition, it is necessary to increase the star formation efficiency. This can be achieved naturally in the porosity model, where star formation efficiency scales {proportional_to}{sigma}, which scales as cloud velocity dispersion. As cold accretion is the main driver for gas velocity dispersion in our model, star formation efficiency parallels cold accretion rates and allows fast conversion into stars. At z {approx} 2, we find a space density 10{sup -4} Mpc{sup -3} in star-forming galaxies with M-dot{sub *}>120 M{sub odot} yr{sup -1}, in better agreement than earlier estimates from SAMs. However, the fundamental relation between M-dot{sub *} and M {sub *} is still offset from the observed relation, indicating the need for possibly more efficient star formation at high-z perhaps associated with a role for active galactic nucleus (AGN) triggering.

  5. VLBA Changes Picture of Famous Star-Forming Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-10-01

    Using the supersharp radio "vision" of the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), astronomers have made the most precise measurement ever of the distance to a famous star-forming region. The measurement -- to the heavily studied Orion Nebula -- changes scientists' understanding of the characteristics of the young stars in the region. Parallax Diagram Trigonometric Parallax method determines distance to star by measuring its slight shift in apparent position as seen from opposite ends of Earth's orbit. CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Star Track Apparent track of star GMR A in the Orion Nebula Cluster, showing shift caused by Earth's orbital motion and star's movement in space. CREDIT: Sandstrom et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on Images for Larger Files "This measurement is four times more precise than previous distance estimates. Because our measurement reduces the distance to this region, it tells us that the stars there are less bright than thought before, and changes the estimates of their ages," said Geoff Bower, an astronomer at the University of California at Berkeley. Bower, along with Karin Sandstrom, J.E.G. Peek, Alberto Bolatto and Richard Plambeck, all of Berkeley, published their findings in the October 10 edition of the Astrophysical Journal. The scientists determined the distance to a star called GMR A, one of a cluster of stars in the Orion Nebula, by measuring the slight shift in the star's apparent position in the sky caused by the Earth's motion around the Sun. Observing the star when the Earth is on opposite sides of its annual orbit allows astronomers to measure the angle of this small shift and thus provides a direct trigonometric calculation of its distance. "By using this technique, called parallax, we get a direct measurement that does not depend on various assumptions that are required to use less-direct methods," Bower said. "Only a telescope with the remarkable ability to see fine detail that is provided by the VLBA is

  6. Herschel observation of C3 in star forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mookerjea, B.; Giesen, T.; Stutzki, J.; Cernicharo, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Black, J. H.

    2011-05-01

    We present spectrally resolved observations of triatomic carbon (C3) in several ro-vibrational transitions between the vibrational ground state and the low-energy ν2 bending mode at frequencies above 1.6 THz using HIFI onboard Herschel, towards several Galactic star forming regions including W31C, W49N, DR21(OH), W33A and W51. These observations have been performed as part of the Herschel key programme PRISMAS. C3 lines arising from the warm envelopes surrounding the hot cores associated with these star forming regions are detected in absorption. We shall present results of detailed radiative transfer models in which the C3 lines are excited by FIR pumping by the dust continuum.

  7. The role of low-mass star clusters in forming the massive stars in DR 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Sanz-Forcada, J.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the young low-mass pre-main sequence (PMS) stellar population associated with the massive star-forming region DR 21 by using archival X-ray Chandra observations and by complementing them with existing optical and infrared (IR) surveys. The Chandra observations have revealed for the first time a new highly extincted population of PMS low-mass stars previously missed in observations at other wavelengths. The X-ray population exhibits three main stellar density peaks, coincident with the massive star-forming regions, being the DR 21 core the main peak. The cross-correlated X-ray/IR sample exhibits a radial `Spokes-like' stellar filamentary structure that extends from the DR 21 core towards the northeast. The near-IR data reveal a centrally peaked structure for the extinction, which exhibits its maximum in the DR 21 core and gradually decreases with the distance to the N-S cloud axis and to the cluster centre. We find evidence of a global mass segregation in the full low-mass stellar cluster, and of a stellar age segregation, with the youngest stars still embedded in the N-S cloud, and more evolved stars more spatially distributed. The results are consistent with the scenario where an elongated overall potential well created by the full low-mass stellar cluster funnels gas through filaments feeding stellar formation. Besides the full gravitational well, smaller scale local potential wells created by dense stellar sub-clusters of low-mass stars are privileged in the competition for the gas of the common reservoir, allowing the formation of massive stars. We also discuss the possibility that a stellar collision in the very dense stellar cluster revealed by Chandra in the DR 21 core is the origin of the large-scale and highly energetic outflow arising from this region.

  8. Covariant Star Product for Exterior Differential Forms on Symplectic Manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    McCurdy, Shannon; Zumino, Bruno

    2010-02-10

    After a brief description of the Z-graded differential Poisson algebra, we introduce a covariant star product for exterior differential forms and give an explicit expression for it up to second order in the deformation parameter h, in the case of symplectic manifolds. The graded differential Poisson algebra endows the manifold with a connection, not necessarily torsion-free, and places upon the connection various constraints.

  9. Structure, Motion, and Evolution of Star-Forming Dense Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2002-01-01

    Under this grant in the past year we have pursued spectral-line observations of star-forming regions over size scales from 0.01 pc to 0.5 pc. Our main goal has been to measure the systematic and turbulent motions of condensing and collapsing gas. The following summary is excerpted from our recent application for a new three-year grant, submitted in June, 2002.

  10. Study of the Cygnus Star-Forming Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopherson, Christopher; Kaltcheva, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    The star-forming complexes in Cygnus extend nearly 30 deg in Galactic longitude and 20 deg in latitude, and most probably include star-formation sites located between 600 and 4000 pc. We combine the catalog by Heiles (2000) with uvbyβ photometric data from the catalog of Paunzen (2015) to collate a sample of O and B-type stars with precise homogeneous distances, color excess and available polarimetry. This allows us to identify star-forming sites at different distances along the line of sight and to investigate their spatial correlation to the interstellar matter. Further, we use this sample to study the orientation of the polarization as revealed by the polarized light of the bright early-type stars and analyze the polarization-extinction correlation for this field. Since dust grains align in the presence of a magnetic field cause the observed polarization at optical wavelengths, the data contain information about the large-scale component of the Galactic magnetic field. In addition, wide-field astrophotography equipment was used to image the Cygnus field in Hydrogen-alpha, Hydrogen-beta and the [OIII] line at 500.7 nm. This allows us to map the overall distribution of ionized material and the interstellar dust and trace large-scale regions where the physical conditions change rapidly due to supernova shock fronts and strong stellar winds. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by NSF grant AST- 1516932 and the Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium, NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship Program, NASA Training Grant #NNX14AP22H.

  11. The G305 star-forming complex: the central star clusters Danks 1 and Danks 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Ben; Clark, J. S.; Trombley, Christine; Figer, Donald F.; Najarro, Francisco; Crowther, Paul A.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Thompson, Mark; Urquhart, James S.; Hindson, Luke

    2012-01-01

    The G305 H II complex (G305.4+0.1) is one of the most massive star-forming structures yet identified within the Galaxy. It is host to many massive stars at all stages of formation and evolution, from embedded molecular cores to post-main-sequence stars. Here, we present a detailed near-infrared analysis of the two central star clusters Danks 1 and Danks 2, using Hubble Space Telescope+NICMOS imaging and Very Large Telescope+ISAAC spectroscopy. We find that the spectrophotometric distance to the clusters is consistent with the kinematic distance to the G305 complex, an average of all measurements giving a distance of 3.8 ± 0.6 kpc. From analysis of the stellar populations and the pre-main-sequence stars, we find that Danks 2 is the elder of the two clusters, with an age of 3+3- 1 Myr. Danks 1 is clearly younger with an age of 1.5+1.5- 0.5 Myr, and is dominated by three very luminous H-rich Wolf-Rayet stars which may have masses ≳100 M⊙. The two clusters have mass functions consistent with the Salpeter slope, and total cluster masses of 8000 ± 1500 and 3000 ± 800 M⊙ for Danks 1 and Danks 2, respectively. Danks 1 is significantly the more compact cluster of the two, and is one of the densest clusters in the Galaxy with log (ρ/M⊙ pc-3) = 5.5+0.5- 0.4. In addition to the clusters, there is a population of apparently isolated Wolf-Rayet stars within the molecular cloud's cavity. Our results suggest that the star-forming history of G305 began with the formation of Danks 2, and subsequently Danks 1, with the origin of the diffuse evolved population currently uncertain. Together, the massive stars at the centre of the G305 region appear to be clearing away what is left of the natal cloud, triggering a further generation of star formation at the cloud's periphery.

  12. The Compact Star-forming Complex at the Heart of NGC 253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidge, T. J.

    2016-02-01

    We discuss integral field spectra of the compact star-forming complex that is the brightest near-infrared (NIR) source in the central regions of the starburst galaxy NGC 253. The spectra cover the H and K passbands and were recorded with the Gemini NIR Spectrograph during subarcsecond seeing conditions. Absorption features in the spectrum of the star-forming complex are weaker than in the surroundings. An absorption feature is found near 1.78 μm that coincides with the location of a C2 bandhead. If this feature is due to C2 then the star-forming complex has been in place for at least a few hundred Myr. Emission lines of Brγ, [Fe ii], and He i 2.06 μm do not track the NIR continuum light. Pockets of star-forming activity that do not have associated concentrations of red supergiants, and so likely have ages <8 Myr, are found along the western edge of the complex, and there is evidence that one such pocket contains a rich population of Wolf-Rayet stars. Unless the star-forming complex is significantly more metal-poor than the surroundings, then a significant fraction of its total mass is in stars with ages <8 Myr. If the present-day star formation rate is maintained then the timescale to double its stellar mass ranges from a few Myr to a few tens of Myr, depending on the contribution made by stars older than ˜8 Myr. If—as suggested by some studies—the star-forming complex is centered on the galaxy’s nucleus, which presumably contains a large population of old and intermediate-age stars, then the nucleus of NGC 253 is currently experiencing a phase of rapid growth in its stellar mass. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  13. Separating Form from Function; the StarView Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollizzi, J.

    The advent of various display building tools has brought the use of advanced windowing techniques to even casual software developers. This has quickened the development cycle from conception to implementation for many applications. Such approaches are extremely attractive and cost effective when a common application is to be deployed to a number of users. There is however a side effect when using such approaches. The inherent problem is that while the tools allow for a clean separation of user interaction from specific application code, it still closely ties the presentation mechanism to the functional use. StarView, the user interface to the Hubble Data Archives, was developed to expressly distinguish presentation aspects from the functional capabilities needed in the interface. StarView's functional capabilities: creating queries, identifying database fields, data display, archive requests, help,... represent that part of the application that is common to all users. These capabilities are independent of the database to be interrogated or the actual displays or interactions to be used. The presentation aspects: forms, menus, buttons, help text, navigation, even key-bindings, are all defined through symbolic notations. By imposing this distinction as a fundamental design goal, StarView is able to support rapid independent evolution of its forms, - and yet maintain a highly stable core system that implements the common functions needed by all users. The need for this flexibility has been borne out by our experiences. The majority of recent StarView iterations, made by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) scientists, have been on presentation format. There has been little modification of StarView's existing capabilities, but nearly 100 person-hours have gone into tuning the displays for the initial public release. Further, history tells us that regardless of this effort, there will still be a call for changes or requests for personalized formats. This paper

  14. Water in star- and planet-forming regions.

    PubMed

    Bergin, Edwin A; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2012-06-13

    In this paper, we discuss the astronomical search for water vapour in order to understand the disposition of water in all its phases throughout the processes of star and planet formation. Our ability to detect and study water vapour has recently received a tremendous boost with the successful launch and operation of the Herschel Space Observatory. Herschel spectroscopic detections of numerous transitions in a variety of astronomical objects, along with previous work by other space-based observatories, will be threaded throughout this paper. In particular, we present observations of water tracing the earliest stage of star birth where it is predominantly frozen as ice. When a star is born, the local energy release by radiation liberates ices in its surrounding envelope and powers energetic outflows that appear to be water factories. In these regions, water plays an important role in the gas physics. Finally, we end with an exploration of water in planet-forming discs surrounding young stars. The availability of accurate molecular data (frequencies, collisional rate coefficients and chemical reaction rates) is crucial to analyse the observations at each of these steps. PMID:22547244

  15. Looking Closely at "Medusa": Star Forming Regions in NGC 4194

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weistrop, D.; Eggers, D.; Nelson, C. H.; Kaiser, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    The "Medusa" (NGC 4194, Mrk 201) is a blue compact galaxy, with strong far infrared and radio emission. Ground-based observations exhibit a distorted image with a tidal tail and regions of strong star formation. A population of massive O and early B stars is evident from the IUE spectra HST survey of Seyfert and starburst galaxies notes NCG 4194 is an HII galaxy with lumpy HII regions and knots. The central starburst is apparently produced by a galaxy merger. As part of an investigation of star formation in interacting galaxies, we have obtained ultraviolet and visible images of the central regions of NGC 4194 with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on HST. Imaging was obtained in two ultraviolet (FUV-MAMA+F25QTZ, NUV-MAMA+F25CN182) and one visible (CCD+F28X50LP) band. Individual star forming knots (at HST resolution) have been identified. We present sized and luminosities for the individual knots, and the knot luminosity function. We compare our data to current starburst models to constrain stellar ages and populations. Knot characteristics as a function of location in the galaxy will also be discussed.

  16. Looking Closely at ``Medusa": Star Forming Regions in NGC 4194

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weistrop, D.; Eggers, D.; Nelson, C. H.; Kaiser, M. E.

    2000-05-01

    The ``Medusa" (NGC 4194, Mrk 201) is a blue compact galaxy, with strong far infrared and radio emission. Ground-based observations exhibit a distorted image with a tidal tail and regions of strong star formation. A population of massive O and early B stars is evident from the IUE spectra (Kinney, et al. 1993). Malkan et al.'s (1998) HST survey of Seyfert and starburst galaxies notes NGC 4194 is an HII galaxy with lumpy HII regions and knots. The central starburst is apparently produced by a galaxy merger. As part of an investigation of star formation in interacting galaxies, we have obtained ultraviolet and visible images of the central regions of NGC 4194 with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on HST. Imaging was obtained in two ultraviolet (FUV-MAMA+F25QTZ, NUV-MAMA+F25CN182) and one visible (CCD+F28X50LP) band. Individual star forming knots (at HST resolution) have been identified. We present sizes and luminosities for the individual knots, and the knot luminosity function. We compare our data to current starburst models to constrain stellar ages and populations. Knot characteristics as a function of location in the galaxy will also be discussed. This work has been supported in part by NASA, under contract NAS5-31231.

  17. The Suppression of Star Formation by Powerful Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, E.

    2012-01-01

    The old, red stars that constitute the bulges of galaxies, and the massive black holes at their centres, are the relics of a period in cosmic history when galaxies formed stars at remarkable rates and active galactic nuclei (AGN) shone brightly as a result of accretion onto black holes. It is widely suspected, but unproved, that the tight corre1ation between the mass of the black hole and the mas. of the stellar bulge results from the AGN quenching the surrounding star formation as it approaches its peak luminosity. X-rays trace emission from AGN unambiguously, whereas powerful star-forming ga1axies are usually dust-obscured and are brightest at infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. Here we report submillimetre and X-ray observations that show that rapid star formation was common in the host galaxies of AGN when the Universe was 2-6 billion years old, but that the most vigorous star formation is not observed around black holes above an X-ray luminosity of 10(exp 44) ergs per second. This suppression of star formation in the host galaxy of a powerful AGN is a key prediction of models in which the AGN drives an outflow, expe11ing the interstellar medium of its host and transforming the galaxy's properties in a brief period of cosmic time.

  18. The suppression of star formation by powerful active galactic nuclei.

    PubMed

    Page, M J; Symeonidis, M; Vieira, J D; Altieri, B; Amblard, A; Arumugam, V; Aussel, H; Babbedge, T; Blain, A; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Castro-Rodríguez, N; Cava, A; Chanial, P; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Cooray, A; Dowell, C D; Dubois, E N; Dunlop, J S; Dwek, E; Dye, S; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Farrah, D; Fox, M; Franceschini, A; Gear, W; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Ibar, E; Isaak, K; Ivison, R J; Lagache, G; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Mainetti, G; Marchetti, L; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Pérez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rawlings, J I; Rigopoulou, D; Riguccini, L; Rizzo, D; Rodighiero, G; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Sánchez Portal, M; Schulz, B; Scott, D; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Stevens, J A; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K E; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Viero, M; Vigroux, L; Wang, L; Ward, R; Wright, G; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2012-05-10

    The old, red stars that constitute the bulges of galaxies, and the massive black holes at their centres, are the relics of a period in cosmic history when galaxies formed stars at remarkable rates and active galactic nuclei (AGN) shone brightly as a result of accretion onto black holes. It is widely suspected, but unproved, that the tight correlation between the mass of the black hole and the mass of the stellar bulge results from the AGN quenching the surrounding star formation as it approaches its peak luminosity. X-rays trace emission from AGN unambiguously, whereas powerful star-forming galaxies are usually dust-obscured and are brightest at infrared and submillimetre wavelengths. Here we report submillimetre and X-ray observations that show that rapid star formation was common in the host galaxies of AGN when the Universe was 2-6 billion years old, but that the most vigorous star formation is not observed around black holes above an X-ray luminosity of 10(44) ergs per second. This suppression of star formation in the host galaxy of a powerful AGN is a key prediction of models in which the AGN drives an outflow, expelling the interstellar medium of its host and transforming the galaxy's properties in a brief period of cosmic time. PMID:22575961

  19. Diffuse X-Ray Emission from Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Kartick C.; Nath, Biman B.; Sharma, Prateek; Shchekinov, Yuri

    2016-02-01

    We study the diffuse X-ray luminosity (LX) of star-forming galaxies using two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations and analytical considerations of supernovae-(SNe-)driven galactic outflows. We find that the mass loading of the outflows, a crucial parameter for determining the X-ray luminosity, is constrained by the availability of gas in the central star-forming region, and a competition between cooling and expansion. We show that the allowed range of the mass loading factor can explain the observed scaling of LX with star formation rate (SFR) as {L}{{X}}\\quad \\propto SFR2 for SFR ≳ \\quad 1 {M}⊙ yr-1, and a flatter relation at low SFRs. We also show that the emission from the hot circumgalactic medium (CGM) in the halo of massive galaxies can explain the large scatter in the {L}{{X}}{--}{SFR} relation for low SFRs (≲few {M}⊙ yr-1). Our results suggest that galaxies with small SFRs and large diffuse X-ray luminosities are excellent candidates for the detection of the elusive CGM.

  20. Gas inflow and metallicity drops in star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceverino, Daniel; Sánchez Almeida, Jorge; Muñoz Tuñón, Casiana; Dekel, Avishai; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Primack, Joel

    2016-04-01

    Gas inflow feeds galaxies with low-metallicity gas from the cosmic web, sustaining star formation across the Hubble time. We make a connection between these inflows and metallicity inhomogeneities in star-forming galaxies, by using synthetic narrow-band images of the Hα emission line from zoom-in AMR cosmological simulations of galaxies with stellar masses of M* ≃ 109 M⊙ at redshifts z = 2-7. In ˜50 per cent of the cases at redshifts lower than 4, the gas inflow gives rise to star-forming, Hα-bright, off-centre clumps. Most of these clumps have gas metallicities, weighted by Hα luminosity, lower than the metallicity in the surrounding interstellar medium by ˜0.3 dex, consistent with observations of chemical inhomogeneities at high and low redshifts. Due to metal mixing by shear and turbulence, these metallicity drops are dissolved in a few disc dynamical times. Therefore, they can be considered as evidence for rapid gas accretion coming from cosmological inflow of pristine gas.

  1. NTT Observations Indicate that Brown Dwarfs Form Like Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-06-01

    Dusty Disks Detected around Very Young Substellar Objects in the Orion Nebula Summary An international team of astronomers [2] is announcing today the discovery of dusty disks surrounding numerous very faint objects that are believed to be recently formed Brown Dwarfs in the Orion Nebula [3]. This finding is based on detailed observations with SOFI, a specialised infrared-sensitive instrument at the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope at the La Silla Observatory. It is of special interest because it sheds light on the origin and nature of substellar objects, known as "Brown Dwarfs" . In particular, these results suggest that Brown Dwarfs share a common origin with stars and that Brown Dwarfs are more similar in nature to stars than to planets and, like stars, have the potential to form with accompanying systems of planets. Moreover, the presence of dusty protoplanetary disks around the faintest objects in the Orion Nebula cluster confirms both the membership of these faint stars in the cluster and their nature as bona-fide substellar objects, making this the largest population of Brown Dwarf objects yet known . These important results are being reported today to the American Astronomical Society Meeting in Pasadena (California, USA). PR Photo 22a/01 : Infrared picture of the Orion Nebula (NTT + SOFI). PR Photo 22b/01 : "Finding Chart" for Very Young Brown Dwarfs in the Orion Nebula. PR Photo 22c/01 : Animated GIF presentation of PR Photos 22a+b/01. Faint substellar objects in the Milky Way Over the past 5 years, several groups of astronomers have identified a type of very faint, substellar objects within our Milky Way galaxy. These gaseous objects have very low masses and will never shine like normal stars because they cannot achieve central temperatures high enough for sustained thermal nuclear reactions to occur in their cores. Such objects weigh less than about 7% of our Sun and have been variously called "Brown Dwarfs" , "Failed Stars" or "Super Planets

  2. Astronomers Discover New Star-Forming Regions in Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-05-01

    Astronomers studying the Milky Way have discovered a large number of previously-unknown regions where massive stars are being formed. Their discovery provides important new information about the structure of our home Galaxy and promises to yield new clues about the chemical composition of the Galaxy. "We can clearly relate the locations of these star-forming sites to the overall structure of the Galaxy. Further studies will allow us to better understand the process of star formation and to compare the chemical composition of such sites at widely different distances from the Galaxy's center," said Thomas Bania, of Boston University. Bania worked with Loren Anderson of the Astrophysical Laboratory of Marseille in France, Dana Balser of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), and Robert Rood of the University of Virginia. The scientists presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Miami, Florida. The star-forming regions the astronomers sought, called H II regions, are sites where hydrogen atoms are ionized, or stripped of their electrons, by the intense radiation of the massive, young stars. To find these regions hidden from visible-light detection by the Milky Way's gas and dust, the researchers used infrared and radio telescopes. "We found our targets by using the results of infrared surveys done with NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and of surveys done with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope," Anderson said. "Objects that appear bright in both the Spitzer and VLA images we studied are good candidates for H II regions," he explained. The astronomers then used the NSF's giant Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, an extremely sensitive radio telescope. With the GBT, they were able to detect specific radio frequencies emitted by electrons as they recombined with protons to form hydrogen. This evidence of recombination confirmed that the regions contained ionized

  3. Massive star-forming regions across the galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygl, Kazi Lucie Jessica

    2010-04-01

    Star-forming regions trace the spiral structure of the Galaxy. They are regions of increased column density and therefore traced well by the extinction in the mid-infrared based on the Spitzer/GLIMPSE 3.6-4.5 micron color excess maps. A sample of 25 high extinction clouds (HECs) was studied in the 1.2 mm dust continuum emission, and followed up by observations of ammonia plus several other molecules using the Effelsberg 100m, IRAM 30m and APEX telescopes. With these data we want to investigate the most early stages of massive star formation, which are currently still largely unknown. Three cloud classes were defined from their morphology in the 1.2 mm continuum maps: the early diffuse HECs, with a low contrast between the clump and cloud emission; the peaked HECs, with an increased contrast; the late multiply peaked HECs, with more than one clump and a high contrast between the clump and the cloud emission. The clouds are cold (T 16 K) and massive (M 800 M_sun) and contain dense clumps (n 10^5 cm^{-3}) of 0.3 pc in size. These clumps were investigated for evidence of gravitational collapse or expansion, for high velocity outflows, and for the presence of young stellar objects. Based on these results we interpret the three cloud classes as an evolutionary sequence of star-forming clouds. Accurate distances are a crucial parameter for establishing the mass, size, and luminosity of an object. Also, for understanding the spiral structure of the Galaxy trustworthy distances are necessary. The most accurate method to measure these is the trigonometric parallax. Using the European Very Large Baseline Interferometry Network of radio antennas we measured, for the first time, parallaxes of 6.7 GHz methanol masers. This transition belongs to the strongest maser species in the Galaxy, it is stable and observed toward numerous massive star-forming regions. We measured distances and proper motions toward L 1287, L 1206, NGC 281-W, ON 1 and S 255, and obtained their 3-dimensional

  4. An Isolated Forming Star in the Galactic Bulge Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britt, Christopher; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Green, Joel D.

    2014-08-01

    We present photometry and spectroscopy of a candidate new FU Orionis object in the Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS). The GBS is an X-ray survey of the Galactic Bulge region targeted at identifying new Low Mass X-ray Binaries in quiescence. It is a wide field survey, covering 12 square degrees above and below the Galactic Plane, and as such we have many different types of X-ray sources with implications for a broad cross-section of astronomy. One such object undergoes an optical and infrared outburst of at least 6 magnitudes which lasts for at least 4 years. It has a strong infrared excess, indicating the presence of a cloud of dust around it. We propose that this object is a protostar undergoing an FU Orionis outburst, despite being in a region far from molecular clouds or large star forming regions. We discuss implications of this isolation for models of star formation in the Galaxy.

  5. Abundances in "Green Pea" Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    He II λ4686 is identified in the spectra of nine of the original "Green Peas," a type of compact star-forming galaxy characterized by low mass; low metallicity; strong [O III] λλ4959, 5007; and redshifts in the range of ~0.1-0.4. Measured λ4686/Hβ ratios are roughly 1-2%, consistent with photoionization by Wolf-Rayet stars. Emission-line intensities are measured from Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra for 71 Green Peas and are used to determine Te-based abundances of O, N, Ne, S, and He. Neon abundances confirm the mass-metallicity relation inferred from O/H. The N/O ratio is roughly constant with O/H, and the average N/O is evidence of a modest nitrogen enhancement compared with other low-metallicity galaxies. Nitrogen enrichment could be due to Wolf-Rayet stars or to intermediate-mass stars during a previous quiescent period. The Te-based abundances allow a reevaluation of some of the strong-line methods favored for estimating O/H or N/O in large spectroscopic surveys of star-forming galaxies. Photoionization by Wolf-Rayet stars raises questions about the validity of strong-line methods based on [N II]/Hα, [N II]/[O III], or [N II]/[S II], as those line ratios are known to be ionization-sensitive. Analysis of these measurements shows that ionization, low metallicity, and the small variation in important line ratios in the Green Pea spectra all affect the behavior of one or more of the N2, O3N2, N2O2 and N2S2 strong-line methods. The previous findings for trends in O/H and N/O in the Green Peas can be reproduced and the discrepancies can be explained. In particular, the reported increase of N/O with O/H appears to be a bias introduced by combining N2 with N2S2. N2O2 does not give valid results in the Green Peas, while N2 and N2S2 do, although the calibrations of the N2 and N2S2 methods based on Green Pea abundances are different from the existing calibrations based primarily on abundances in extragalactic H II regions and H II galaxies.

  6. The mean star-forming properties of QSO host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosario, D. J.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Lutz, D.; Netzer, H.; Trump, J. R.; Silverman, J. D.; Schramm, M.; Lusso, E.; Berta, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Brusa, M.; Förster-Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Lilly, S.; Magnelli, B.; Mainieri, V.; Maiolino, R.; Merloni, A.; Mignoli, M.; Nordon, R.; Popesso, P.; Salvato, M.; Santini, P.; Tacconi, L. J.; Zamorani, G.

    2013-12-01

    Quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) occur in galaxies in which supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are growing substantially through rapid accretion of gas. Many popular models of the co-evolutionary growth of galaxies and black holes predict that QSOs are also sites of substantial recent star formation (SF), mediated by important processes, such as major mergers, which rapidly transform the nature of galaxies. A detailed study of the star-forming properties of QSOs is a critical test of these models. We present a far-infrared Herschel/PACS study of the mean star formation rate (SFR) of a sample of spectroscopically observed QSOs to z ~ 2 from the COSMOS extragalactic survey. This is the largest sample to date of moderately luminous QSOs (with nuclear luminosities that lie around the knee of the luminosity function) studied using uniform, deep far-infrared photometry. We study trends of the mean SFR with redshift, black hole mass, nuclear bolometric luminosity, and specific accretion rate (Eddington ratio). To minimize systematics, we have undertaken a uniform determination of SMBH properties, as well as an analysis of important selection effects of spectroscopic QSO samples that influence the interpretation of SFR trends. We find that the mean SFRs of these QSOs are consistent with those of normal massive star-forming galaxies with a fixed scaling between SMBH and galaxy mass at all redshifts. No strong enhancement in SFR is found even among the most rapidly accreting systems, at odds with several co-evolutionary models. Finally, we consider the qualitative effects on mean SFR trends from different assumptions about the SF properties of QSO hosts and from redshift evolution of the SMBH-galaxy relationship. While currently limited by uncertainties, valuable constraints on AGN-galaxy co-evolution can emerge from our approach.

  7. MYStIX: Subclusters of Young Stars in Massive Star Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Michael A.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Getman, Konstantin V.; Baddeley, Adrian; Townsley, Leisa K.; Broos, Patrick S.; Povich, Matthew S.; Luhman, Kevin L.; Busk, Heather A.; Naylor, Tim; King, Robert R.; Garmire, Gordon P.

    2013-07-01

    The MYStIX (Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray; Feigelson et al. 2013) project provides improved censuses of young stars in 20 nearby OB-dominated star-forming regions that were observed by the Chandra X-ray observatory, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the UKIRT/UKIDSS and 2MASS surveys. The sample of >33,000 members reveals new details about the structure of clusters in these regions. Clusters of young stars are identified using finite mixture models -\\ the sums of isothermal ellipsoids used to model individual (sub)clusters. Maximum likelihood estimation is used to estimate the model parameters and the Akaike Information Criterion is used to detemine the number of subclusters. In the MYStIX star-forming regions, ˜150 subclusters are found (1 to >10 per region). The distribution of cluster core radii is log-normal, peaked at 0.18 pc (similar to the ONC) with a standard deviation of 0.4 dex. The locations of subclusters are often correlated with molecular-cloud clumps or cores. We also recover several well-known embedded subclusters such as the BN-KL region in Orion and the KW Object cluster in M 17. MYStIX star-forming regions typically have one dominant cluster surrounded by smaller subclusters and filamentary groups of young stars. Some clusters are well fit by the ellipsoid model (e.g. Flame Nebula), but others have lumpy structure and are poorly fit (e.g. M 17). A few clusters have a core-halo structure modeled with two overlapping ellipsoids (e.g. RCW 36). Clumpy and core-halo structures could originate in the merger of subclusters. There is a power-law relation between the fitted cluster central density and core radius (index slightly shallower than -3), which may be an effect of cluster expansion. There is also a statistically significant negative relation between median gas/dust absorption of a subcluster and the subcluster's size that can also be explained by cluster expansion if absorption acts as a proxy for age.

  8. STAR CLUSTERS IN A NUCLEAR STAR FORMING RING: THE DISAPPEARING STRING OF PEARLS

    SciTech Connect

    Väisänen, Petri; Barway, Sudhanshu; Randriamanakoto, Zara

    2014-12-20

    An analysis of the star cluster population in a low-luminosity early-type galaxy, NGC 2328, is presented. The clusters are found in a tight star forming nuclear spiral/ring pattern and we also identify a bar from structural two-dimensional decomposition. These massive clusters are forming very efficiently in the circumnuclear environment and they are young, possibly all less than 30 Myr of age. The clusters indicate an azimuthal age gradient, consistent with a ''pearls-on-a-string'' formation scenario, suggesting bar-driven gas inflow. The cluster mass function has a robust down turn at low masses at all age bins. Assuming clusters are born with a power-law distribution, this indicates extremely rapid disruption at timescales of just several million years. If found to be typical, it means that clusters born in dense circumnuclear rings do not survive to become old globular clusters in non-interacting systems.

  9. Modelling the chemical evolution of star forming filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifried, D.; Walch, S.

    2016-05-01

    We present simulations of star forming filaments incorporating - to our knowledge - the largest chemical network used to date on-the-fly in a 3D-MHD simulation. The network contains 37 chemical species and about 300 selected reaction rates. For this we use the newly developed package KROME (Grassi et al. [4]). Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using such a complex chemical network in 3D-MHD simulations on modern supercomputers. We perform simulations with different strengths of the interstellar radiation field and the cosmic ray ionisation rate and find chemical and physical results in accordance with observations and other recent numerical work.

  10. The Role of Star-forming Galaxies in Cosmic Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehagen, Robin Eileen Mostardi

    One of the foremost goals in the study of cosmological reionization is understanding the nature of the sources of the ionizing photons. The search for leaking ionizing radiation from high-redshift star-forming galaxies has resulted in dozens of promising candidates, yet few confirmed detections. In this thesis, I present results from a survey for z ˜ 2.85 ionizing Lyman-Continuum (LyC) emission in the HS1549 + 1933 field and place constraints on the amount of ionizing radiation escaping from star-forming galaxies. Using a custom narrowband filter (NB3420) tuned to wavelengths just below the Lyman limit at z > = 2.82, I probe the LyC spectral region of 49 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) and 91 Lyman-alpha emitters (LAEs) spectroscopically confirmed at z > =2.82. I also present high-resolution, UVJH follow-up HST observations of 16 z ˜ 3 candidate LyC emitters identified with the NB3420 filter. With these follow-up data, I obtain high spatial-resolution photometric redshifts of all subarcsecond components of the high-redshift galaxies in order to eliminate foreground contamination and identify robust candidates for leaking LyC emission. I find only one object with a robust LyC detection that is not due to foreground contamination. A comparison with representative samples of LBGs indicates that the most exceptional aspect of the stellar population fit to this object is its young age (< 50 Myr). I obtain a contamination-free estimate for the comoving specific ionizing emissivity at z = 2.85, indicating (with large uncertainties) that star-forming galaxies provide roughly the same contribution as QSOs to the ionizing background at this redshift. The results of my thesis work show that foreground contamination prevents ground-based LyC studies from obtaining a full understanding of LyC emission from z ˜ 3 star-forming galaxies. Future progress in direct LyC searches is contingent upon the elimination foreground contaminants through high spatial-resolution observations

  11. Star and jet multiplicity in the high-mass star forming region IRAS 05137+3919

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaroni, R.; Massi, F.; Arcidiacono, C.; Beltrán, M. T.; Persi, P.; Tapia, M.; Molinari, S.; Testi, L.; Busoni, L.; Riccardi, A.; Boutsia, K.; Bisogni, S.; McCarthy, D.; Kulesa, C.

    2015-09-01

    Context. We present a study of the complex high-mass star forming region IRAS 05137+3919 (also known as Mol8), where multiple jets and a rich stellar cluster have been described in previous works. Aims: Our goal is to determine the number of jets and shed light on their origin, and thus determine the nature of the young stars powering these jets. We also wish to analyse the stellar clusters by resolving the brightest group of stars. Methods: The star forming region was observed in various tracers and the results were complemented with ancillary archival data. The new data represent a substantial improvement over previous studies both in resolution and frequency coverage. In particular, adaptive optics provides us with an angular resolution of 80 mas in the near IR, while new mid- and far-IR data allow us to sample the peak of the spectral energy distribution and thus reliably estimate the bolometric luminosity. Results: Thanks to the near-IR continuum and millimetre line data we can determine the structure and velocity field of the bipolar jets and outflows in this star forming region. We also find that the stars are grouped into three clusters and the jets originate in the richest of these, whose luminosity is ~ 2.4 × 104L⊙. Interestingly, our high-resolution near-IR images allow us to resolve one of the two brightest stars (A and B) of the cluster into a double source (A1+A2). Conclusions: We confirm that there are two jets and establish that they are powered by B-type stars belonging to cluster C1. On this basis and on morphological and kinematical arguments, we conclude that the less extended jet is almost perpendicular to the line of sight and that it originates in the brightest star of the cluster, while the more extended one appears to be associated with the more extincted, double source A1+A2. We propose that this is not a binary system, but a small bipolar reflection nebula at the root of the large-scale jet, outlining a still undetected circumstellar

  12. Young, Star Forming Regions in NGC 3994 and NGC 3995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weistrop, D.; Eggers, D.; Stone, A.; Nelson, C. H.; Bachilla, R.

    2000-12-01

    NGC 3991, NGC 3994, and NGC 3995 comprise a small group of interacting galaxies. Groundbased images indicate significantly distorted morphology in NGC 3991 and NGC 3995, while NGC 3994 appears to be a normal, inclined spiral. Spectra of NGC 3991 and NGC 3995 have features typical of strong HII regions. NGC 3994 is a LINER. All three galaxies have strong ultraviolet emission and have been observed with IUE (Kinney, et al. 1993). As part of an investigation of star formation in interacting galaxies, we have obtained ultraviolet and visible images of the central regions of NGC 3994 and 3995 with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on HST. Imaging was obtained in two ultraviolet (FUV-MAMA+F25QTZ, NUV-MAMA+F25CN182) and one visible (CCD+F28X50LP) band. Individual star forming knots (at HST resolution) have been identified in both galaxies. In NGC 3994 star-forming knots are found tracing the spiral arms. Results from ground based spectroscopy indicate nuclear reddening of E(B-V) ~ 0.3- 0.4, suggesting that the lack of UV-bright knots in the center is real and not due to extinction. The knots in NGC 3995 have a distorted, 'hook shaped' distribution. The knots are typically 12 - 45 pc in diameter (FWHM), with observed FUV fluxes of approximately 10-17 to 10-16 ergs cm-2sec-1 Å-1. We compare our imaging and spectroscopy data to current starburst models to constrain knot ages and masses. Knot characteristics as a function of location in the galaxy will also be discussed. This work has been supported in part by NASA, under contract NAS5-31231, and through the Nevada Space Grant Consortium.

  13. EXTENDED Ly{alpha} EMISSION AROUND STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Zheng; Cen Renyue; Weinberg, David; Trac, Hy; Miralda-Escude, Jordi

    2011-10-01

    Ly{alpha} photons that escape the interstellar medium of star-forming galaxies may be resonantly scattered by neutral hydrogen atoms in the circumgalactic and intergalactic media, thereby increasing the angular extent of the galaxy's Ly{alpha} emission. We present predictions of this extended, low surface brightness Ly{alpha} emission based on radiative transfer modeling in a cosmological reionization simulation. The extended emission can be detected from stacked narrowband images of Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) or of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). Its average surface brightness profile has a central cusp, then flattens to an approximate plateau beginning at an inner characteristic scale below {approx}0.2 Mpc (comoving), then steepens again beyond an outer characteristic scale of {approx}1 Mpc. The inner scale marks the transition from scattered light of the central source to emission from clustered sources, while the outer scale marks the spatial extent of scattered emission from these clustered sources. Both scales tend to increase with halo mass, UV luminosity, and observed Ly{alpha} luminosity. The extended emission predicted by our simulation is already within reach of deep narrowband photometry using large ground-based telescopes. Such observations would test radiative transfer models of emission from LAEs and LBGs, and they would open a new window on the circumgalactic environment of high-redshift star-forming galaxies.

  14. Motions and Initial Conditions in Star-Forming Dense Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    The main focus was the study of star-forming regions through high spectral- and spatial resolution observations of mm-wavelength lines, and through models of the observations. The main accomplishments were a) demonstration that more than 15 starless cores show substantial evidence of extended inward motion at about half the sound speed; b) observations of infall asymmetry in several cores, in lines of N2H(+) and DCO(+), low- depletion tracers of the "inner core"; c) observation of "infall asymmetry" of spectral lines over approx. 0.5 pc in the NGC1333 cluster-forming region; d) observations indicating that cores are nearly at rest with respect to their envelopes; and e) development of analytic, power-series solutions to the equations of motions for condensing 1-D systems (layers, cylinders and spheres).

  15. THE STAR FORMATION LAWS OF EDDINGTON-LIMITED STAR-FORMING DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Ballantyne, D. R.; Armour, J. N.; Indergaard, J.

    2013-03-10

    Two important avenues into understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies are the Kennicutt-Schmidt (K-S) and Elmegreen-Silk (E-S) laws. These relations connect the surface densities of gas and star formation ({Sigma}{sub gas} and {Sigma}-dot{sub *}, respectively) in a galaxy. To elucidate the K-S and E-S laws for disks where {Sigma}{sub gas} {approx}> 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}, we compute 132 Eddington-limited star-forming disk models with radii spanning tens to hundreds of parsecs. The theoretically expected slopes ( Almost-Equal-To 1 for the K-S law and Almost-Equal-To 0.5 for the E-S relation) are relatively robust to spatial averaging over the disks. However, the star formation laws exhibit a strong dependence on opacity that separates the models by the dust-to-gas ratio that may lead to the appearance of a erroneously large slope. The total infrared luminosity (L{sub TIR}) and multiple carbon monoxide (CO) line intensities were computed for each model. While L{sub TIR} can yield an estimate of the average {Sigma}-dot{sub *} that is correct to within a factor of two, the velocity-integrated CO line intensity is a poor proxy for the average {Sigma}{sub gas} for these warm and dense disks, making the CO conversion factor ({alpha}{sub CO}) all but useless. Thus, observationally derived K-S and E-S laws at these values of {Sigma}{sub gas} that uses any transition of CO will provide a poor measurement of the underlying star formation relation. Studies of the star formation laws of Eddington-limited disks will require a high-J transition of a high density molecular tracer, as well as a sample of galaxies with known metallicity estimates.

  16. Young, Ultraviolet-bright Stars Dominate Dust Heating in Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Ka-Hei; Gordon, Karl D.; Misselt, K. A.

    2011-09-01

    In star-forming galaxies, dust plays a significant role in shaping the ultraviolet (UV) through infrared (IR) spectrum. Dust attenuates the radiation from stars, and re-radiates the energy through equilibrium and non-equilibrium emission. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), graphite, and silicates contribute to different features in the spectral energy distribution; however, they are all highly opaque in the same spectral region—the UV. Compared to old stellar populations, young populations release a higher fraction of their total luminosity in the UV, making them a good source of the energetic UV photons that can power dust emission. However, given their relative abundance, the question of whether young or old stellar populations provide most of these photons that power the IR emission is an interesting question. Using three samples of galaxies observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope and our dusty radiative transfer model, we find that young stellar populations (on the order of 100 million years old) dominate the dust heating in star-forming galaxies, and old stellar populations (13 billion years old) generally contribute less than 20% of the far-IR luminosity.

  17. YOUNG, ULTRAVIOLET-BRIGHT STARS DOMINATE DUST HEATING IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Ka-Hei; Gordon, Karl D.; Misselt, K. A. E-mail: kgordon@stsci.edu

    2011-09-10

    In star-forming galaxies, dust plays a significant role in shaping the ultraviolet (UV) through infrared (IR) spectrum. Dust attenuates the radiation from stars, and re-radiates the energy through equilibrium and non-equilibrium emission. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), graphite, and silicates contribute to different features in the spectral energy distribution; however, they are all highly opaque in the same spectral region-the UV. Compared to old stellar populations, young populations release a higher fraction of their total luminosity in the UV, making them a good source of the energetic UV photons that can power dust emission. However, given their relative abundance, the question of whether young or old stellar populations provide most of these photons that power the IR emission is an interesting question. Using three samples of galaxies observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope and our dusty radiative transfer model, we find that young stellar populations (on the order of 100 million years old) dominate the dust heating in star-forming galaxies, and old stellar populations (13 billion years old) generally contribute less than 20% of the far-IR luminosity.

  18. Adolescent Interstellar Cloud Poised to Make Star-forming Debut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-06-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's (NSF) 140-foot radio telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, W.Va., have discovered a highly unusual, massive interstellar cloud that appears poised to begin a burst of star formation. The cloud may be the first ever to be detected in the transition between atomic and molecular states. NRAO scientists Felix J. Lockman and Anthony H. Minter presented their findings at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Pasadena, Calif. Radio Image of G28.17+0.05 The scientists discovered the cloud, identified as G28.17+0.05, lying along the inner plane of the Milky Way Galaxy, approximately 16,300 light-years from Earth. Observations of the cloud indicate that it is near one of the Galaxy's sweeping spiral arms, which are outlined by young stars and the massive clouds that form them. Lockman and Minter speculate that as the interstellar cloud slams into the Galactic arm, the resulting shock wave may be precipitating the conversion of the neutral hydrogen atoms into heavier molecules, which could herald the onset of star formation. "These may be the first observations of a cloud that is in the transition between the neutral atomic hydrogen and molecular phases," said Lockman. "This provides astronomers a unique opportunity to study the chemistry of very young interstellar clouds, which could give us significant insights into the early stages of star formation and the structure of the Galaxy." Interstellar clouds that contain neutral atomic hydrogen, called HI (H-one) clouds, are thought of as giant, cold blobs of gas. Researchers study these objects because they offer intriguing glimpses of the composition of our Galaxy and the cosmos, and reveal much about how stars and planets are born. Hydrogen atoms in these clouds give off natural signals (at the 21-cm wavelength), which can be detected only by radio telescopes. The scientists discovered that this HI cloud was unusual in many

  19. The Star Formation Activity in the Shapley Supercluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, P.-L.; Chen, L.-W.

    2013-10-01

    The Shapley supercluster (SSC) is the densest region in the local universe (z < 0.1)(Zucca et al. 1993), it hosts a wide variety of environments from massive clusters to filamentary structure. A total of 81 clusters and groups are identified in this region. In this study, a sample of 208 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) are used to study the effects of local galaxy density and cluster dynamic state on galaxy star formation activity. Our results show that the SFG fraction is highly suppressed in denser regions, for early type SFGs, they especially prefer the low density regions. As for the star formation activity in clusters/groups environment, higher SFG fractions are only detected in clusters/groups with velocity dispersion lower than ˜400 km sec-1, no matter the clusters/groups show merging evidence or not. These results may imply that the gas supply for star formation activity in denser and richer cluster/group regions has been removed by some cluster-specific processes, such as strangulation, ram pressure stripping and harassment, and thus the star formation activity is reduced.

  20. Dynamical Properties of z ~ 2 Star-forming Galaxies and a Universal Star Formation Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouché, N.; Cresci, G.; Davies, R.; Eisenhauer, F.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Gillessen, S.; Lehnert, M.; Lutz, D.; Nesvadba, N.; Shapiro, K. L.; Sternberg, A.; Tacconi, L. J.; Verma, A.; Cimatti, A.; Daddi, E.; Renzini, A.; Erb, D. K.; Shapley, A.; Steidel, C. C.

    2007-12-01

    We present the first comparison of the dynamical properties of different samples of z~1.4-3.4 star-forming galaxies from spatially resolved imaging spectroscopy from SINFONI/VLT integral field spectroscopy and IRAM CO millimeter interferometry. Our samples include 16 rest-frame UV-selected, 16 rest-frame optically selected, and 13 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). We find that rest-frame UV and optically bright (K<20) z~2 star forming galaxies are dynamically similar, and follow the same velocity-size relation as disk galaxies at z~0. In the theoretical framework of rotating disks forming from dissipative collapse in dark matter halos, the two samples require a spin parameter <λ> ranging from 0.06 to 0.2. In contrast, bright SMGs (S850μm>=5 mJy) have larger velocity widths and are much more compact. Hence, SMGs have lower angular momenta and higher matter densities than either the UV or optically selected populations. This indicates that dissipative major mergers may dominate the SMGs population, resulting in early spheroids, and that a significant fraction of the UV/optically bright galaxies have evolved less violently, either in a series of minor mergers, or in rapid dissipative collapse from the halo, given that either process may leads to the formation of early disks. These early disks may later evolve into spheroids via disk instabilities or mergers. Because of their small sizes and large densities, SMGs lie at the high surface density end of a universal (out to z=2.5) ``Schmidt-Kennicutt'' relation between gas surface density and star formation rate surface density. The best-fit relation suggests that the star formation rate per unit area scales as the surface gas density to a power of ~1.7, and that the star formation efficiency increases by a factor of 4 between non-starbursts and strong starbursts. Based on observations at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Paranal, Chile, under programs GTO 073.B-9018, 074.A-9011

  1. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY AND CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES IN THE NEARBY UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Torres-Papaqui, J. P.; Coziol, R.; Ortega-Minakata, R. A.; Neri-Larios, D. M. E-mail: rcoziol@astro.ugto.mx E-mail: daniel@astro.ugto.mx

    2012-08-01

    We have determined the metallicity (O/H) and nitrogen abundance (N/O) of a sample of 122,751 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) from the Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. For all these galaxies we have also determined their morphology and obtained a comprehensive picture of their star formation history (SFH) using the spectral synthesis code STARLIGHT. The comparison of the chemical abundance with the SFH allows us to describe the chemical evolution of the SFGs in the nearby universe (z {<=} 0.25) in a manner consistent with the formation of their stellar populations and morphologies. A high fraction (45%) of the SFGs in our sample show an excess abundance of nitrogen relative to their metallicity. We also find this excess to be accompanied by a deficiency of oxygen, which suggests that this could be the result of effective starburst winds. However, we find no difference in the mode of star formation of the nitrogen-rich and nitrogen-poor SFGs. Our analysis suggests that they all form their stars through a succession of bursts of star formation extended over a period of few Gyr. What produces the chemical differences between these galaxies seems therefore to be the intensity of the bursts: the galaxies with an excess of nitrogen are those that are presently experiencing more intense bursts or have experienced more intense bursts in their past. We also find evidence relating the chemical evolution process to the formation of the galaxies: the galaxies with an excess of nitrogen are more massive, and have more massive bulges and earlier morphologies than those showing no excess. Contrary to expectation, we find no evidence that the starburst wind efficiency decreases with the mass of the galaxies. As a possible explanation we propose that the loss of metals consistent with starburst winds took place during the formation of the galaxies, when their potential wells were still building up, and consequently were weaker than today, making starburst winds more

  2. Modeling the winds and magnetospheres of active OB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Richard H. D.

    2011-07-01

    After briefly reviewing the theory behind the radiative line-driven winds of OB stars, I examine the processes that can generate structure in them; these include both intrinsic instabilities, and surface perturbations such as pulsation and rotation. I then delve into wind channeling and confinement by magnetic fields as a mechanism for forming longer-lived circumstellar structures. With a narrative that largely follows the historical progression of the field, I introduce the key insights and results that link the first detection of a magnetosphere, over three decades ago, to the recent direct measurement of magnetic braking in a number of active OB stars.

  3. The Fragmentation of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodon, Javier Adrian

    2009-11-01

    Since its discovery by E. Salpeter in 1955, the high-mass end of the Initial Mass Function (IMF) has been continuously tested, and its slope has not changed from the value -2.35 originally calculated by Salpeter, the "Salpeter value". Furthermore, it is found that this value is universal. It not only describes the mass distribution of stellar masses in the Milky Way but also in other galaxies. Stars form individually or in systems within molecular clouds, from local condensations of sizes on the order of ~0.01 pc, the so-called "dense cores". In the case of low-mass star-forming regions, it is found that the Core Mass Function (CMF) resembles the Salpeter IMF. However, in the case of massive star-forming (MSF) regions, the answer is not that clear. The first CMF for a MSF region was derived in 2004 by H. Beuther and P. Schilke for the MSF IRAS 19410+2336. They found that this CMF also resembled the Salpeter IMF. Since then, a few more CMFs for MSF regions have been derived, always with exponents comparable to Salpeter. This suggested that the CMF and the IMF are related in a one-to-one or nearly one-to-one relationship, and that the fragmentation processes within a molecular cloud would set the shape of the IMF at an early evolutionary stage. Attempting to test that scenario, in this thesis I present and analyse high angular resolution interferometric observations of several MSF regions at millimeter wavelengths, describing their protostellar content and deriving their CMF whenever is possible. We confirm the result of Beuther & Schilke (2004) and obtain a CMF with a power-law slope similar to the Salpeter IMF, however for other MSF regions we obtain a CMF with a power-law slope flatter than Salpeter. This difference suggests that the IMF might not be set at the moment of the fragmentation of the cloud, but instead would be a result of the evolution of the cloud, starting with a flatter mass distribution that becomes steeper at later evolutionary stages. This

  4. Kinematic Evolution of Simulated Star-Forming Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassin, Susan A.; Brooks, Alyson; Governato, Fabio; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations have shown that star-forming galaxies like our own Milky Way evolve kinematically into ordered thin disks over the last approximately 8 billion years since z = 1.2, undergoing a process of "disk settling." For the first time, we study the kinematic evolution of a suite of four state of the art "zoom in" hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation and evolution in a fully cosmological context and compare with these observations. Until now, robust measurements of the internal kinematics of simulated galaxies were lacking as the simulations suffered from low resolution, overproduction of stars, and overly massive bulges. The current generation of simulations has made great progress in overcoming these difficulties and is ready for a kinematic analysis. We show that simulated galaxies follow the same kinematic trends as real galaxies: they progressively decrease in disordered motions (sigma(sub g)) and increase in ordered rotation (V(sub rot)) with time. The slopes of the relations between both sigma(sub g) and V(sub rot) with redshift are consistent between the simulations and the observations. In addition, the morphologies of the simulated galaxies become less disturbed with time, also consistent with observations. This match between the simulated and observed trends is a significant success for the current generation of simulations, and a first step in determining the physical processes behind disk settling.

  5. Kinematic evolution of simulated star-forming galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Kassin, Susan A.; Brooks, Alyson; Governato, Fabio; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2014-08-01

    Recent observations have shown that star-forming galaxies like our own Milky Way evolve kinematically into ordered thin disks over the last ∼8 billion years since z = 1.2, undergoing a process of 'disk settling'. For the first time, we study the kinematic evolution of a suite of four state of the art 'zoom in' hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation and evolution in a fully cosmological context and compare with these observations. Until now, robust measurements of the internal kinematics of simulated galaxies were lacking because the simulations suffered from low resolution, overproduction of stars, and overly massive bulges. The current generation of simulations has made great progress in overcoming these difficulties and is ready for a kinematic analysis. We show that simulated galaxies follow the same kinematic trends as real galaxies: they progressively decrease in disordered motions (σ{sub g}) and increase in ordered rotation (V{sub rot}) with time. The slopes of the relations between both σ{sub g} and V{sub rot} with redshift are consistent between the simulations and the observations. In addition, the morphologies of the simulated galaxies become less disturbed with time, also consistent with observations. This match between the simulated and observed trends is a significant success for the current generation of simulations, and a first step in determining the physical processes behind disk settling'.

  6. Kinematic Evolution of Simulated Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassin, Susan A.; Brooks, Alyson; Governato, Fabio; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2014-08-01

    Recent observations have shown that star-forming galaxies like our own Milky Way evolve kinematically into ordered thin disks over the last ~8 billion years since z = 1.2, undergoing a process of "disk settling." For the first time, we study the kinematic evolution of a suite of four state of the art "zoom in" hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation and evolution in a fully cosmological context and compare with these observations. Until now, robust measurements of the internal kinematics of simulated galaxies were lacking because the simulations suffered from low resolution, overproduction of stars, and overly massive bulges. The current generation of simulations has made great progress in overcoming these difficulties and is ready for a kinematic analysis. We show that simulated galaxies follow the same kinematic trends as real galaxies: they progressively decrease in disordered motions (σ g ) and increase in ordered rotation (V rot) with time. The slopes of the relations between both σ g and V rot with redshift are consistent between the simulations and the observations. In addition, the morphologies of the simulated galaxies become less disturbed with time, also consistent with observations. This match between the simulated and observed trends is a significant success for the current generation of simulations, and a first step in determining the physical processes behind disk settling.

  7. Boxy Hα emission profiles in star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan-Mei; Gu, Qiu-Sheng; Tremonti, Christy A.; Shi, Yong; Jin, Yifei

    2016-07-01

    We assemble a sample of disc star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, studying the structure of Hα emission lines, finding a large fraction of this sample contains boxy Hα line profiles. This fraction depends on galaxy physical and geometric parameters in the following way: (1) it increases monotonically with star formation rate per unit area (ΣSFR), and stellar mass (M*), with the trend being much stronger with M*, from ˜0 per cent at M* = 1010 M⊙ to about 50 per cent at M* = 1011 M⊙; (2) the fraction is much smaller in face-on systems than in edge-on systems. It increases with galaxy inclination (i) while i < 60° and is roughly a constant of 25 per cent beyond this range; (3) for the sources which can be modelled well with two velocity components, blueshifted and redshifted from the systemic velocity, these is a positive correlation between the velocity difference of these two components and the stellar mass, with a slope similar to the Tully-Fisher relation; (4) the two components are very symmetric in the mean, both in velocity and in amplitude. The four findings listed above can be understood as a natural result of a rotating galaxy disc with a kpc-scale ring-like Hα emission region.

  8. Photometric and spectroscopic studies of star-forming regions within Wolf-Rayet galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthick, M. Chrisphin; López-Sánchez, Ángel R.; Sahu, D. K.; Sanwal, B. B.; Bisht, Shuchi

    2014-03-01

    We present a study of the properties of star-forming regions within a sample of seven Wolf-Rayet (WR) galaxies. We analyse their morphologies, colours, star-formation rates (SFRs), metallicities and stellar populations, combining broad-band and narrow-band photometry with low-resolution optical spectroscopy. The UBVRI observations were made with the 2-m HCT (Himalayan Chandra Telescope) and 1-m ARIES telescope. The spectroscopic data were obtained using the Hanle Faint Object Spectrograph Camera (HFOSC) mounted on the 2-m HCT. The observed galaxies are NGC 1140, IRAS 07164+5301, NGC 3738, UM 311, NGC 6764, NGC 4861 and NGC 3003. The optical spectra were used to search for the faint WR features, to confirm that the ionization of the gas is caused by the massive stars, and to quantify the oxygen abundance of each galaxy using several independent empirical calibrations. We detected broad features originating in WR stars in NGC 1140 and 4861 and used them to derive the massive star populations. For these two galaxies we also derived the oxygen abundance using a direct estimation of the electron temperature of the ionized gas. The N/O ratio in NGC 4861 is ˜0.25-0.35 dex higher than expected, which may be a consequence of the chemical pollution by N-rich material released by WR stars. Using our Hα images we identified tens of star-forming regions within these galaxies, for which we derived the SFR. Our Hα-based SFR usually agrees with the SFR computed using the far-infrared and the radio-continuum flux. For all regions we found that the most recent star-formation event is 3-6 Myr old. We used the optical broad-band colours in combination with Starburst99 models to estimate the internal reddening and the age of the dominant underlying stellar population within all these regions. Knots in NGC 3738, 6764 and 3003 generally show the presence of an important old (400-1000 Myr) stellar population. However, the optical colours are not able to detect stars older than 20

  9. The Physics of Molecular Shocks in Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David; Cuzzi, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Molecular shocks are produced by the impact of the supersonic infall of gas and dust onto protostars and by the interaction of the supersonic outflow from the protostar with the circumstellar material. Infalling gas creates an accretion shock around the circumstellar disk which emits a unique infrared spectrum and which processes the interstellar dust as it enters the disk. The winds and jets from protostars also impact the disk, the infalling material, and the ambient molecular cloud core creating shocks whose spectrum and morphology diagnose the mass loss processes of the protostar and the orientation and structure of the star forming system. We discuss the physics of these shocks, the model spectra derived from theoretical models, and comparisons with observations of H2O masers, H2 emission, as well as other shocks tracers. We show the strong effect of magnetic fields on molecular shock structure, and elucidate the chemical changes induced by the shock heating and compression.

  10. TESTING 24 {mu}m AND INFRARED LUMINOSITY AS STAR FORMATION TRACERS FOR GALACTIC STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Vutisalchavakul, Nalin; Evans, Neal J. II

    2013-03-10

    We have tested some relations for star formation rates used in extragalactic studies for regions within the Galaxy. In nearby molecular clouds, where the initial mass function is not fully sampled, the dust emission at 24 {mu}m greatly underestimates star formation rates (by a factor of 100 on average) when compared to star formation rates determined from counting young stellar objects. The total infrared emission does no better. In contrast, the total far-infrared method agrees within a factor of two on average with star formation rates based on radio continuum emission for massive, dense clumps that are forming enough massive stars to have L{sub TIR} exceed 10{sup 4.5} L{sub Sun }. The total infrared and 24 {mu}m also agree well with each other for both nearby, low-mass star-forming regions and the massive, dense clump regions.

  11. Uncovering the monster stars in W49: the most luminous star-forming region in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shiwei; Bik, Arjan; Henning, Thomas; Pasquali, Anna; Brandner, Wolfgang; Stolte, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    As a part of the LOBSTAR project (Luci OBservations of STARburst regions), which aims at understanding the stellar content of some of the most massive star-forming regions, we present our result on the high-mass stellar content of W49. K-band spectra of the candidate massive stars from VLT/ISAAC and LBT/LUCI provide us with reliable spectral types of dozens of massive stars in this HII region.The first results show that this region hosts several of the most massive stars in our galaxy. Two most brightest stars, one in the core of the central cluster and one in W49 South, were identified as very massive stars (M > 100 M⊙). Their K-band spectra exhibit strong stellar wind features, and they are classified as O2-3.5If* supergiant stars. After comparison to the Geneva evolutionary models, the mass range of W49nr1 was estimated to be between 100 M⊙ and 180 M⊙. Additionally we find 12 O stars with spectral types between O7V and O3V and masses from 25 M⊙ to 125 M⊙, respectively.These results allow us to derive the fundamental parameters of the cluster (mass, age) as well as the total energy output in the form of ionising photons. This will enable us to study the feedback effects of this extreme star forming region in great detail. To our surprise, two young stellar objects with infrared excess feature showing CO emission lines in their spectra are identified. This suggests that circumstellar disks can survive even in this extreme environment. Finally the spatial distribution of the massive stars is analysed to discuss the star formation history and identify potential runaway stars. The extreme properties of this region makes it a good template for more extreme star formation outside our galaxy.

  12. Chemical Herschel Surveys of Star Forming Regions (chess)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emprechtinger, Martin

    2011-06-01

    CHESS is an unbiased line survey of low-, intermediate-, and high-mass star forming regions at different stages of their evolution. The eight sources in the CHESS program are observed with the HIFI instrument on board of the Herschel Space Telescope, which provides a high spectral resolution (R˜ 10^6) and covers a frequency range from 480 to 1910 GHz. The objective of CHESS is to study the chemical composition and physical conditions in star forming regions and their variation with mass and evolutionary stage. To date about 50% of the program have been completed. One of the eight objects in the CHESS program is the hot core NGC 6334 I. With an envelope mass of 200 M_⊙ and temperatures 100 K, NGC 6334 I is very line rich. In this object emission lines of more than 40 species have been identified, including first detections of H_2Cl^+ (Lis et al. 2010) and H_2O^+ (Ossenkopf et al. 2010). Furthermore, several lines of ortho and para water and ammonia have been detected, allowing to determine the ortho/para ratio of these crucial species. In addition many hydrides (HF, CH) and hydride ions (SH^+, OH^+, CH^+) have been found. In the low mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422, another source of our sample, several deuterated species, including the first detection of ND (Bacmann et al. 2010), were found. The data allowed also the first determination of the ortho/para ratio of D_2H^+ (>2.6) (Vastel et al. 2010). In this talk I will give a summary of the conducted observation and highlight the most important results.

  13. Ultraviolet to optical spectral distributions of northern star-forming galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcquade, Kerry; Calzetti, Daniela; Kinney, Anne L.

    1995-01-01

    We report spectral energy distribution from the UV to the optical for a sample of 31 northern star-forming galaxies. We also present measurements for emission-line fluxes, continuum levels, and equivalent widths of absorption features for each individual spectrum as well as averages for the eight galactic activity classes, including normal, starburst, Seyfert 2, blue compact dwarf, blue compact, Low-Inonization Nuclear Emission Regions (LINER), H II, and combination LINER-H II galaxies.

  14. A Comparative Study of Star-forming and Quiescent Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Caroline E.; Gottesman, S. T.

    2000-12-01

    We present the results from a comparative study of the atomic hydrogen (H I) and optical properties of a sample of 16 dwarf galaxies, chosen to investigate the effects of star formation on the properties of low-mass systems. The violent star formation bursts believed to occur in these low-mass systems suggest a possible connection between the actively star-forming blue compact dwarfs (BCDs), and the quiescent low surface brightness dwarfs (LSBDs). It has been suggested that LSBDs, upon undergoing a burst of star formation, will evolve into BCDs and then back into LSBDs when the star formation slows or stops as the H I column density falls below the critical threshold necessary to support it. We have examined the location and kinematics of H I in eight BCDs and eight LSBDs of similar H I masses and a range of color indices to investigate this ``evolutionary'' sequence. The starburst episodes in these low-mass galaxies should lead to (1) a dispersal/depletion of the H I seen in the eight LSB dwarfs and (2) more centrally concentrated and agitated H I in the eight BCDs. The results of this project indicate that the quiescent LSBD galaxies have more diffuse H I distributions and often show a ringlike structure, while the active galaxies have more highly centrally concentrated H I reservoirs. The bluer, more recently active systems of both types also have higher internal H I velocity dispersions, indicating that energy has been pumped into the interstellar medium of these galaxies. These observations are consistent with an evolutionary scheme wherein the H I reservoirs in these galaxies take on different characteristics depending upon their star formation histories.

  15. The Extended Star-Forming Environments of Galactic H II Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povich, Matthew S.

    2009-01-01

    H II regions are the bright beacons marking active sites of star formation throughout the Milky Way and other galaxies. The GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL Galactic plane surveys with the Spitzer Space Telescope have provided new views of the structure of H II regions and their relationship to extended star-forming environments in molecular cloud complexes. M17 is an excellent example of a well-studied H II region that is the most prominent part of a much larger star-formation event. We have found that the M17 H II region lies on the rim of a large shell structure, 0.5° in diameter ( 18 pc at 2.1 kpc), that is outlined both in diffuse IR emission from dust and in CO line emission near v=20 km/s. The molecular shell is best interpreted as an extended, expanding bubble outlining the photodissociation region of a faint, diffuse H II region several Myr old. We identify several candidate ionizing stars lying inside the bubble. We also find a concentration of candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) on the rim of the bubble. These location of these YSOs with respect to the diffuse IR and CO line emission indicates that star formation was triggered when the expanding bubble compressed one edge of an otherwise quiescent molecular cloud. The expansion of this precursor H II region may also have helped trigger the formation of the massive cluster ionizing the M17 H II region itself. The star formation history of the M17 extended molecular cloud environment has been punctuated by successive waves of massive star formation propagating through a giant molecular cloud complex.

  16. Activity Cycles in Stars with Highly Active Chromospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward F.

    The extended lifetime of the IUE satellite has provided an unique and unanticipated opportunity to examine the long-term evolution of magnetic activity on active chromospheric stars. We propose to obtain further IUE observations of the highly active RS CVn stars V711 Tauri, lambda Andromedae, II Pegasi, and UX Arietis in conjunction with groundbased optical and radio observations, and possibly ROSAT X-ray observations. In addition we would continue IUE observations of the unusual rapidly rotating early G giant, FK Comae, which, although not in the RS CVn category, shares a similarly high level of magnetic activity. These five stars have the most extensive IUE archival coverage for stars of their type and have almost continuous ground-based photometric coverage from about 1975 onward. We aim to trace the long-term development of magnetic activity on these stars: a detailed study of the UV emission-like fluxes will enable us to follow the variations in chromospheric and transition-region activity over an interval of 12-16 years. Optical observations reveal variations in photospheric (starspot) activity: the starspot regions are large (up to 30% of the stellar surface) and vary significantly with time. The main aim of the proposed research is to examine the relationship between chromospheric, transition-region, and photospheric active regions. Elucidation of the role of white-light faculae vis-a-vis spots in effecting stellar irradiance changes is also desirable.

  17. VLA's Sharpened Vision Shows Details of Still-Forming Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    Using a new observing capability of the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope, astronomers have discovered a solar-system-sized disk of gas and dust feeding material onto a young star with 8 to 10 times the mass of the Sun. This is the first time an inner "accretion disk" has been seen around such a massive star. The VLA images also revealed the inner portion of an energetic outflow of material powered by the accretion disk. Artist's conception "Disks and outflows in young stars increase dramatically in mass and energy as the mass of the young star increases. We don't know if the same process is at work in all young stars or how the disks can both power an outflow that extends more than 15 light-years and also start the process of forming planets," said Debra Shepherd, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico. "By studying the birth of massive young stars, we're pushing the limits of our understanding and trying to learn if there are critical differences between the outflows from high and low mass young stars," she added Shepherd and Mark Claussen, also from the NRAO in Socorro, and Stan Kurtz of the National Autonomous University in Mexico, presented their findings today at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in San Diego, CA. The scientists made the discovery using the VLA connected by a newly- operational fiber-optic link to one of the radio-telescope antennas of the NSF's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), located at Pie Town, NM, 32 miles away from the VLA. Linking the VLA to the Pie Town antenna almost doubled the resolving power, or ability to see fine detail, available to the astronomers. "We could not have seen these structures without using the Pie Town antenna connected to the VLA," said Claussen. Work on the VLA-Pie Town fiber-optic link, financed by the NSF and Associated Universities, Inc., which operates NRAO for the NSF, began in late 1997. The linked facilities first were

  18. Motions and Initial Conditions in Star-Forming Dense Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2001-01-01

    Under this grant in the past year we have pursued spectral-line observations of star-forming regions over size scales from 0.01 pc to 0.5 pc. Our main goal has been to measure the systematic and turbulent motions of condensing and collapsing gas. In this area, our results include (1) in 67 starless dense cores, some 19 show clear evidence of spatially extended inward motions, with typical line-of-sight inward speed 0.05-0.09 km s(sup -1) and with typical plane-of-the-sky extent 0.1-0.3 pc, (2) In some 40 nearby regions with embedded groups and clusters, we see extended infall asymmetry in lines of CS and HCO(+) clearly in 4 regions and less clearly in 4 others, (3) Using finer resolution (15 arcsec or 0.01-0.02 pc) and lines tracing higher density, we see spatial concentration of infall asymmetry near the protostars in NGC 1333 IRS 4A and B, L483, and L1251B, and with still finer resolution (2 arcsec or 0.003 pc or 600 AU) we detect inverse P Cyg profiles, indicating absorption of continuum emission from the protostellar envelope by infalling gas in NGC 1333 IRS 4A and 4B. Further, at high resolution we identify regions of stellar mass and low turbulence ("kernels") which are good candidates to become the next generation of stars in embedded clusters. In addition we have completed a survey for the OH Zeeman effect in absorption against nearby H II regions, indicating that the large-scale magnetic field may be nearly critical if it typically threads a flattened structure. We have also developed a model of spatially extended infall motions based on dissipation of turbulence in a magnetized, selfgravitating layer. In the following we describe some of these results in more detail.

  19. Mass-metallicity relation for local star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Zhong; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Zhao, Yong-Heng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the evolution of the mass-metallicity (M-Z) relation with a large sample of 53 444 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at 0.04 < z < 0.12, selected from the catalogue of Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics-John Hopkins University (MPA-JHU) emission-line measurements for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. Regarding the sample of SFGs, we correct the observational bias and raise the aperture covering fractions to check the reliability of the metallicity evolution. (i) We show that the redshift evolution of the log (Hα) and log([O III]) luminosities is displayed in our sample. (ii) We find the metallicity evolution of ˜0.15 dex at log (M*/M⊙) ˜ 9.3 in SFGs at 0.04 < z < 0.12. (iii) After applying the luminosity thresholds of log (LHα) > 41.0 and log (L_[O III])>39.7, we find that the metallicity evolution is shown well, and that the evolution of the star formation rate (SFR) is still shown well under the latter luminosity threshold, but the evolution is not observed under the former. (iv) The evolution of the M-Z relation seems to disappear at about log (M*/M⊙) > 10.0 after applying the luminosity threshold of log (LHα) > 41.0 or log (L_[O III])>39.7. (v) We find α = 0.09 and α = 0.07 in the equation, μ = log M* - αlog (SFR), for log (LHα) > 41.0 and log (L_[O III])>39.7 samples, respectively, and these imply that the evolution of the M-Z relation might have a weaker dependence on the SFR in our sample.

  20. THE CLUSTERING AND HALO MASSES OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z < 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dolley, Tim; Brown, Michael J. I.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Palamara, David P.; Beare, Richard; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Brodwin, Mark; Kochanek, C. S.; Dey, Arjun; Atlee, David W.

    2014-12-20

    We present clustering measurements and halo masses of star-forming galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0. After excluding active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we construct a sample of 22,553 24 μm sources selected from 8.42 deg{sup 2} of the Spitzer MIPS AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey of Boötes. Mid-infrared imaging allows us to observe galaxies with the highest star formation rates (SFRs), less biased by dust obscuration afflicting the optical bands. We find that the galaxies with the highest SFRs have optical colors that are redder than typical blue cloud galaxies, with many residing within the green valley. At z > 0.4 our sample is dominated by luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, L {sub TIR} > 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉}) and is composed entirely of LIRGs and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs, L {sub TIR} > 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}) at z > 0.6. We observe weak clustering of r {sub 0} ≈ 3-6 h {sup –1} Mpc for almost all of our star-forming samples. We find that the clustering and halo mass depend on L {sub TIR} at all redshifts, where galaxies with higher L {sub TIR} (hence higher SFRs) have stronger clustering. Galaxies with the highest SFRs at each redshift typically reside within dark matter halos of M {sub halo} ≈ 10{sup 12.9} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}. This is consistent with a transitional halo mass, above which star formation is largely truncated, although we cannot exclude that ULIRGs reside within higher mass halos. By modeling the clustering evolution of halos, we connect our star-forming galaxy samples to their local descendants. Most star-forming galaxies at z < 1.0 are the progenitors of L ≲ 2.5 L {sub *} blue galaxies in the local universe, but star-forming galaxies with the highest SFRs (L {sub TIR} ≳ 10{sup 11.7} L {sub ☉}) at 0.6 < z < 1.0 are the progenitors of early-type galaxies in denser group environments.

  1. On the determination of oxygen abundances in chromospherically active stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, T.; Micela, G.

    2004-08-01

    We discuss oxygen abundances derived from [O I] λ6300s and the O I triplet in stars spanning a wide range in chromospheric activity level, and show that these two indicators yield increasingly discrepant results with higher chromospheric/coronal activity measures. While the forbidden and permitted lines give fairly consistent results for solar-type disk dwarfs, spuriously high O I triplet abundances are observed in young Hyades and Pleiades stars, as well as in individual components of RS CVn binaries (up to 1.8 dex). The distinct behaviour of the [O I]-based abundances which consistently remain near-solar suggests that this phenomenon mostly results from large departures from LTE affecting the O I triplet at high activity level that are currently unaccounted for, but also possibly from a failure to adequately model the atmospheres of K-type stars. These results suggest that some caution should be exercised when interpreting oxygen abundances in active binaries or young open cluster stars. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (Proposals 64.L-0249 and 071.D-0260). Table \\ref{tab_data} is only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  2. The dependence of protostellar luminosity on environment in the Cygnus-X star-forming complex

    SciTech Connect

    Kryukova, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Hora, J. L.; Smith, Howard A.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Bontemps, S.; Schneider, N.; Kraemer, K.; Hennemann, M.; Motte, F.

    2014-07-01

    The Cygnus-X star-forming complex is one of the most active regions of low- and high-mass star formation within 2 kpc of the Sun. Using mid-infrared photometry from the IRAC and MIPS Spitzer Cygnus-X Legacy Survey, we have identified over 1800 protostar candidates. We compare the protostellar luminosity functions of two regions within Cygnus-X: CygX-South and CygX-North. These two clouds show distinctly different morphologies suggestive of dissimilar star-forming environments. We find the luminosity functions of these two regions are statistically different. Furthermore, we compare the luminosity functions of protostars found in regions of high and low stellar density within Cygnus-X and find that the luminosity function in regions of high stellar density is biased to higher luminosities. In total, these observations provide further evidence that the luminosities of protostars depend on their natal environment. We discuss the implications this dependence has for the star formation process.

  3. Distributions of Long-lived Radioactive Nuclei Provided by Star-forming Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatuzzo, Marco; Adams, Fred C.

    2015-11-01

    Radioactive nuclei play an important role in planetary evolution by providing an internal heat source, which affects planetary structure and helps facilitate plate tectonics. A minimum level of nuclear activity is thought to be necessary—but not sufficient—for planets to be habitable. Extending previous work that focused on short-lived nuclei, this paper considers the delivery of long-lived radioactive nuclei to circumstellar disks in star forming regions. Although the long-lived nuclear species are always present, their abundances can be enhanced through multiple mechanisms. Most stars form in embedded cluster environments, so that disks can be enriched directly by intercepting ejecta from supernovae within the birth clusters. In addition, molecular clouds often provide multiple episodes of star formation, so that nuclear abundances can accumulate within the cloud; subsequent generations of stars can thus receive elevated levels of radioactive nuclei through this distributed enrichment scenario. This paper calculates the distribution of additional enrichment for 40K, the most abundant of the long-lived radioactive nuclei. We find that distributed enrichment is more effective than direct enrichment. For the latter mechanism, ideal conditions lead to about 1 in 200 solar systems being directly enriched in 40K at the level inferred for the early solar nebula (thereby doubling the abundance). For distributed enrichment from adjacent clusters, about 1 in 80 solar systems are enriched at the same level. Distributed enrichment over the entire molecular cloud is more uncertain, but can be even more effective.

  4. Two New SiO Maser Sources in High-Mass Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Se-Hyung; Yun, Youngjoo; Kim, Jaeheon; Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Choi, Minho

    2016-08-01

    Silicon monoxide (SiO) masers are rare in star-forming regions, with the exception of five known SiO maser sources. However, we detected two new SiO maser sources from infrared-loud clumps of the high-mass star-forming regions G19.61‑0.23 and G75.78+0.34. High angular resolution observations toward G19.61‑0.23 suggest that the deeply embedded young stellar object (YSO) of SMA1 is powering the SiO masers. In addition, the SiO v = 1, J = 1 \\to 0 line shows four spike features, while the v = 2 maser shows combined features of one spike and broad wing components, implying energetic activities of the YSO of SMA1 in the G19.61‑0.23 hot molecular core. The SiO v = 0, J = 2 \\to 1 emission shows bipolar outflows in the NE–SW direction with respect to the center of the SiO maser source. A high angular resolution map of the SiO v = 1, J = 2 \\to 1 maser in G75.78+0.34 shows that the SiO maser is associated with the CORE source at the earliest stage of high-mass star formation. Therefore, the newly detected SiO masers and their associated outflows will provide good probes for investigating this early high-mass star formation.

  5. FROM BLUE STAR-FORMING TO RED PASSIVE: GALAXIES IN TRANSITION IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Vulcani, Benedetta; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Fasano, Giovanni; Moretti, Alessia; Fritz, Jacopo; Calvi, Rosa; Paccagnella, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting a mass-complete (M {sub *} > 10{sup 10.25} M {sub ☉}) sample at 0.03 star-formation activity and/or morphology: green galaxies, red passive late types, and blue star-forming early types. Color fractions depend on mass and only for M {sub *} < 10{sup 10.7} M {sub ☉} on environment. The incidence of red galaxies increases with increasing mass, and, for M {sub *} < 10{sup 10.7} M {sub ☉}, decreases toward the group outskirts and in binary and single galaxies. The relative abundance of green and blue galaxies is independent of environment and increases monotonically with galaxy mass. We also inspect galaxy structural parameters, star-formation properties, histories, and ages and propose an evolutionary scenario for the different subpopulations. Color transformations are due to a reduction and suppression of the star-formation rate in both bulges and disks that does not noticeably affect galaxy structure. Morphological transitions are linked to an enhanced bulge-to-disk ratio that is due to the removal of the disk, not to an increase of the bulge. Our modeling suggests that green colors might be due to star-formation histories declining with long timescales, as an alternative scenario to the classical ''quenching'' processes. Our results suggest that galaxy transformations in star-formation activity and morphology depend neither on the environment nor on being a satellite or the most massive galaxy of a halo. The only environmental dependence we find is the higher fast quenching efficiency in groups giving origin to poststarburst signatures.

  6. SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SURVEY OF YOUNG STARS IN THE CHAMAELEON I STAR-FORMING REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Manoj, P.; Kim, K. H.; Watson, Dan M.; Forrest, W. J.; Bohac, C.; Arnold, L. A.; Furlan, E.; McClure, M. K.; Calvet, N.; Luhman, K. L.; Espaillat, C.; Najita, J. R.; D'Alessio, P.; Adame, L.; Sargent, B. A.; Green, J. D.

    2011-03-15

    We present 5-36 {mu}m mid-infrared spectra of 82 young stars in the {approx}2 Myr old Chamaeleon I star-forming region, obtained with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). We have classified these objects into various evolutionary classes based on their spectral energy distributions and the spectral features seen in the IRS spectra. We have analyzed the mid-IR spectra of Class II objects in Chamaeleon I in detail, in order to study the vertical and radial structure of the protoplanetary disks surrounding these stars. We find evidence for substantial dust settling in most protoplanetary disks in Chamaeleon I. We have identified several disks with altered radial structures in Chamaeleon I, among them transitional disk candidates which have holes or gaps in their disks. Analysis of the silicate emission features in the IRS spectra of Class II objects in Cha I shows that the dust grains in these disks have undergone significant processing (grain growth and crystallization). However, disks with radial holes/gaps appear to have relatively unprocessed grains. We further find the crystalline dust content in the inner ({approx}<1-2 AU) and the intermediate ({approx}<10 AU) regions of the protoplanetary disks to be tightly correlated. We also investigate the effects of accretion and stellar multiplicity on the disk structure and dust properties. Finally, we compare the observed properties of protoplanetary disks in Cha I with those in slightly younger Taurus and Ophiuchus regions and discuss the effects of disk evolution in the first 1-2 Myr.

  7. A new star-forming region in Canis Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magakian, T. Yu.; Movsessian, T. A.; Bally, J.

    2016-07-01

    A new southern star-formation region, located at an estimated distance of ˜1.5 kpc in the Lynds 1664 dark cloud in Canis Major, is described. Lynds 1664 contains several compact star clusters, small stellar groups and young stars associated with reflection nebulae. Narrow-band H α and [S II] images obtained with the 4-m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory reveal more than 20 new Herbig-Haro objects associated with several protostellar outflows.

  8. Far-ultraviolet morphology of star-forming filaments in cool core brightest cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, G. R.; O'Dea, C. P.; Baum, S. A.; Mittal, R.; McDonald, M. A.; Combes, F.; Li, Y.; McNamara, B. R.; Bremer, M. N.; Clarke, T. E.; Donahue, M.; Edge, A. C.; Fabian, A. C.; Hamer, S. L.; Hogan, M. T.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Quillen, A. C.; Sanders, J. S.; Salomé, P.; Voit, G. M.

    2015-08-01

    We present a multiwavelength morphological analysis of star-forming clouds and filaments in the central (≲50 kpc) regions of 16 low-redshift (z < 0.3) cool core brightest cluster galaxies. New Hubble Space Telescope imaging of far-ultraviolet continuum emission from young (≲10 Myr), massive (≳5 M⊙) stars reveals filamentary and clumpy morphologies, which we quantify by means of structural indices. The FUV data are compared with X-ray, Lyα, narrow-band Hα, broad-band optical/IR, and radio maps, providing a high spatial resolution atlas of star formation locales relative to the ambient hot (˜107-8 K) and warm ionized (˜104 K) gas phases, as well as the old stellar population and radio-bright active galactic nucleus (AGN) outflows. Nearly half of the sample possesses kpc-scale filaments that, in projection, extend towards and around radio lobes and/or X-ray cavities. These filaments may have been uplifted by the propagating jet or buoyant X-ray bubble, or may have formed in situ by cloud collapse at the interface of a radio lobe or rapid cooling in a cavity's compressed shell. The morphological diversity of nearly the entire FUV sample is reproduced by recent hydrodynamical simulations in which the AGN powers a self-regulating rain of thermally unstable star-forming clouds that precipitate from the hot atmosphere. In this model, precipitation triggers where the cooling-to-free-fall time ratio is tcool/tff ˜ 10. This condition is roughly met at the maximal projected FUV radius for more than half of our sample, and clustering about this ratio is stronger for sources with higher star formation rates.

  9. Star formation around active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keel, William C.

    1987-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (Seyfert nuclei and their relatives) and intense star formation can both deliver substantial amounts of energy to the vicinity of a galactic nucleus. Many luminous nuclei have energetics dominated by one of these mechanisms, but detailed observations show that some have a mixture. Seeing both phenomena at once raises several interesting questions: (1) Is this a general property of some kinds of nuclei? How many AGNs have surround starbursts, and vice versa? (2) As in 1, how many undiscovered AGNs or starbursts are hidden by a more luminous instance of the other? (3) Does one cause the other, and by what means, or do both reflect common influences such as potential well shape or level of gas flow? (4) Can surrounding star formation tell us anything about the central active nuclei, such as lifetimes, kinetic energy output, or mechanical disturbance of the ISM? These are important points in the understanding of activity and star formation in galactic nuclei. Unfortunately, the observational ways of addressing them are as yet not well formulated. Some preliminary studies are reported, aimed at clarifying the issues involved in study of the relationships between stellar and nonstellar excitement in galactic nuclei.

  10. From star-forming spirals to passive spheroids: integral field spectroscopy of E+A galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinbank, A. M.; Balogh, M. L.; Bower, R. G.; Zabludoff, A. I.; Lucey, J. R.; McGee, S. L.; Miller, C. J.; Nichol, R. C.

    2012-02-01

    We present three-dimensional spectroscopy of 11 E+A galaxies at z= 0.06-0.12. These galaxies were selected for their strong Hδ absorption but weak (or non-existent) [O II] λ3727 and Hα emission. This selection suggests that a recent burst of star formation was triggered but subsequently abruptly ended. We probe the spatial and spectral properties of both the young (≲1 Gyr) and old (≳few Gyr) stellar populations. Using the Hδ equivalent widths we estimate that the burst masses must have been at least 10 per cent by mass (Mburst≳ 1010 M⊙), which is also consistent with the star formation history inferred from the broad-band spectral energy distributions. On average the A stars cover ˜33 per cent of the galaxy image, extending over 2-15 kpc2, indicating that the characteristic E+A signature is a property of the galaxy as a whole and not due to a heterogeneous mixture of populations. In approximately half of the sample, we find that the A stars, nebular emission and continuum emission are not co-located, suggesting that the newest stars are forming in a different place than those that formed ≲1 Gyr ago, and that recent star formation has occurred in regions distinct from the oldest stellar populations. At least 10 of the galaxies (91 per cent) have dynamics that class them as 'fast rotators' with magnitudes, v/σ, λR and bulge-to-total (B/T) ratio comparable to local, representative ellipticals and S0s. We also find a correlation between the spatial extent of the A stars and the dynamical state of the galaxy such that the fastest rotators tend to have the most compact A star populations, providing new constraints on models that aim to explain the transformation of later type galaxies into early types. Finally, we show that there are no obvious differences between the line extents and kinematics of E+A galaxies detected in the radio (active galactic nucleus, AGN) compared to non-radio sources, suggesting that AGN feedback does not play a dramatic role in

  11. Magnetic fields in star-forming regions - Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiles, Carl; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Mckee, Christopher F.; Zweibel, Ellen G.

    1993-01-01

    We review the observational aspects of magnetic fields in dense, star-forming regions. First we discuss ways to observe the field. These include direct methods, which consist of the measurement of both linear and circular polarization of spectral line and continuum radiation; and indirect methods, consisting of the angular distribution of H2O masers on the sky and the measurement of ambipolar diffusion. Next we discuss selected observational results, focusing on detailed discussions of a small number of points rather than a generalized discussion that covers the waterfront. We discuss the Orion/BN-KL region in detail, both on the small and large scales. Next we discuss the derivation of the complete magnetic vector, including both the systematic and fluctuating component, from a large sample of Zeeman and linear polarization measurements for the L204 dark cloud. We examine the virial theorem as it applies to dark clouds in general and one dark cloud, Barnard 1, in particular. We critically discuss the numerous claims for alignment of cloud structural features with the plane-of-the-sky component of the magnetic field, and find that many of these have not been definitively established.

  12. Chromospherically active stars. I - HD 136905

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, F. C.; Hall, D. S.; Africano, J. L.; Gillies, K.; Quigley, R.

    1985-01-01

    The variable star HD 136905, recently designated GX Librae, is a chromospherically active K1 III single-lined spectroscopic binary with a period of 11.1345 days. It has moderate strength Ca II H and K and ultraviolet emission features, while H-alpha is strongly in absorption. The inclination of the system is 58 + or - 17 deg and the unseen secondary is most likely a G or K dwarf. The v sin i of the primary, 32 + or - 2 km/s, results in a minimum radius of 7.0 + or - 0.4 solar radii. Since the star fills a substantial fracture of its Roche lab, the double-peaked limit curve seen by photometric observers is predominantly ellipsoidal in nature. Both the photometry and the spectroscopy yield values for the period and the time of conjunction that are identical within their uncertainties.

  13. Rapid growth of black holes in massive star-forming galaxies.

    PubMed

    Alexander, D M; Smail, I; Bauer, F E; Chapman, S C; Blain, A W; Brandt, W N; Ivison, R J

    2005-04-01

    The tight relationship between the masses of black holes and galaxy spheroids in nearby galaxies implies a causal connection between the growth of these two components. Optically luminous quasars host the most prodigious accreting black holes in the Universe, and can account for greater than or approximately equal to 30 per cent of the total cosmological black-hole growth. As typical quasars are not, however, undergoing intense star formation and already host massive black holes (> 10(8)M(o), where M(o) is the solar mass), there must have been an earlier pre-quasar phase when these black holes grew (mass range approximately (10(6)-10(8))M(o)). The likely signature of this earlier stage is simultaneous black-hole growth and star formation in distant (redshift z > 1; >8 billion light years away) luminous galaxies. Here we report ultra-deep X-ray observations of distant star-forming galaxies that are bright at submillimetre wavelengths. We find that the black holes in these galaxies are growing almost continuously throughout periods of intense star formation. This activity appears to be more tightly associated with these galaxies than any other coeval galaxy populations. We show that the black-hole growth from these galaxies is consistent with that expected for the pre-quasar phase. PMID:15815623

  14. The Connection Between Galaxy Environment and the Luminosity Function Slopes of Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, David O.; Dale, Daniel A.; Lee, Janice C.; Thilker, David A.; Calzetti, Daniela; Kennicutt, Robert

    2016-06-01

    We present the first study of GALEX far ultra-violet (FUV) luminosity functions of individual star-forming regions within a sample of 258 nearby galaxies spanning a large range in total stellar mass and star formation properties. We identify ~65,000 star-forming regions (i.e., FUV sources), measure each galaxy's luminosity function, and characterize the relationships between the luminosity function slope (α) and several global galaxy properties. A final sample of \

  15. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. XVIII. Star-forming dwarf galaxies in a cluster environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, M.; Hunt, L. K.; Madden, S. C.; Hughes, T. M.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Bizzocchi, L.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Clemens, M.; Corbelli, E.; Cortese, L.; Davies, J.; De Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fritz, J.; Pappalardo, C.; Pierini, D.; Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Smith, M. W. L.; Verstappen, J.; Viaene, S.; Vlahakis, C.

    2015-02-01

    To assess the effects of the cluster environment on the different components of the interstellar medium, we analyse the far-infrared (FIR) and submillimetre (submm) properties of a sample of star-forming dwarf galaxies detected by the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS). We determine dust masses and dust temperatures by fitting a modified black body function to the spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Stellar and gas masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and metallicities are obtained from the analysis of a set of ancillary data. Dust is detected in 49 out of a total 140 optically identified dwarfs covered by the HeViCS field; considering only dwarfs brighter than mB = 18 mag, this gives a detection rate of 43%. After evaluating different emissivity indices, we find that the FIR-submm SEDs are best-fit by β = 1.5, with a median dust temperature Td = 22.4 K. Assuming β = 1.5, 67% of the 23 galaxies detected in all five Herschel bands show emission at 500 μm in excess of the modified black-body model. The fraction of galaxies with a submillimetre excess decreases for lower values of β, while a similarly high fraction (54%) is found if a β-free SED modelling is applied. The excess is inversely correlated with SFR and stellar masses. To study the variations in the global properties of our sample that come from environmental effects, we compare the Virgo dwarfs to other Herschel surveys,such as the Key Insights into Nearby Galaxies: Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH), the Dwarf Galaxy Survey (DGS), and the HeViCS Bright Galaxy Catalogue (BGC). We explore the relations between stellar mass and Hi fraction, specific star formation rate, dust fraction, gas-to-dust ratio over a wide range of stellar masses (from 107 to 1011 M⊙) for both dwarfs and spirals. Highly Hi-deficient Virgo dwarf galaxies are mostly characterised by quenched star formation activity and lower dust fractions giving hints for dust stripping in cluster dwarfs. However, to explain the

  16. Are passive red spirals truly passive?. The current star formation activity of optically red disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortese, L.

    2012-07-01

    We used GALEX ultraviolet and WISE 22 μm observations to investigate the current star formation activity of the optically red spirals recently identified as part of the Galaxy Zoo project. These galaxies were accurately selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as pure discs with low or no current star formation activity, representing one of the best optically selected samples of candidate passive spirals. However, we show that these galaxies are not only still forming stars at a significant rate (≳1 M⊙ yr-1) but, more importantly, their star formation activity is not different from that of normal star-forming discs of the same stellar mass (M∗ ≳ 1010.2 M⊙). Indeed, these systems lie on the UV-optical blue sequence, even without any corrections for internal dust attenuation, and they follow the same specific star formation rate vs. stellar mass relation of star-forming galaxies. Our findings clearly show that at high stellar masses, optical colours do not allow to distinguish between actively star-forming and truly quiescent systems.

  17. The Formation of the First Stars. I. The Primordial Star-forming Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromm, Volker; Coppi, Paolo S.; Larson, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    To constrain the nature of the very first stars, we investigate the collapse and fragmentation of primordial, metal-free gas clouds. We explore the physics of primordial star formation by means of three-dimensional simulations of the dark matter and gas components, using smoothed particle hydrodynamics, under a wide range of initial conditions, including the initial spin, the total mass of the halo, the redshift of virialization, the power spectrum of the DM fluctuations, the presence of HD cooling, and the number of particles employed in the simulation. We find characteristic values for the temperature, T~a few 100 K, and the density, n~103-104 cm-3, characterizing the gas at the end of the initial free-fall phase. These values are rather insensitive to the initial conditions. The corresponding Jeans mass is MJ~103 Msolar. The existence of these characteristic values has a robust explanation in the microphysics of H2 cooling, connected to the minimum temperature that can be reached with the H2 coolant, and to the critical density at which the transition takes place between levels being populated according to non-LTE (NLTE), and according to LTE. In all cases, the gas dissipatively settles into an irregular, central configuration that has a filamentary and knotty appearance. The fluid regions with the highest densities are the first to undergo runaway collapse due to gravitational instability, and to form clumps with initial masses ~103 Msolar, close to the characteristic Jeans scale. These results suggest that the first stars might have been quite massive, possibly even very massive with M*>~100 Msolar. After a gas element has undergone runaway collapse, and has reached densities in excess of 108 cm-3, a sink particle is created. This procedure allows us to follow the evolution of the overall system beyond the point where the first nonlinear region would otherwise force the calculation to a halt. These later evolutionary stages, during which the clumps grow in

  18. Dynamical evolution of star-forming regions - II. Basic kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Richard J.; Wright, Nicholas J.

    2016-04-01

    We follow the dynamical evolution of young star-forming regions with a wide range of initial conditions and examine how the radial velocity dispersion, σ, evolves over time. We compare this velocity dispersion to the theoretically expected value for the velocity dispersion if a region were in virial equilibrium, σvir and thus assess the virial state (σ/σvir) of these systems. We find that in regions that are initially subvirial, or in global virial equilibrium but subvirial on local scales, the system relaxes to virial equilibrium within several million years, or roughly 25-50 crossing times, according to the measured virial ratio. However, the measured velocity dispersion, σ, appears to be a bad diagnostic of the current virial state of these systems as it suggests that they become supervirial when compared to the velocity dispersion estimated from the virial mass, σvir. We suggest that this discrepancy is caused by the fact that the regions are never fully relaxed, and that the early non-equilibrium evolution is imprinted in the one-dimensional velocity dispersion at these early epochs. If measured early enough (<2 Myr in our simulations, or ˜20 crossing times), the velocity dispersion can be used to determine whether a region was highly supervirial at birth without the risk of degeneracy. We show that combining σ, or the ratio of σ to the interquartile range (IQR) dispersion, with measures of spatial structure, places stronger constraints on the dynamical history of a region than using the velocity dispersion in isolation.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Star-forming galaxies in near-IR (Martins+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, L. P.; Rodriguez-Ardila, A.; Diniz, S.; Riffel, R.; de Souza, R.

    2014-10-01

    The sample used here was presented in Martins et al. (2013MNRAS.431.1823M) and is a subset of the one presented in the magnitude-limited optical spectroscopic survey of nearby bright galaxies of Ho, Filippenko & Sargent (1995, Cat. J/ApJS/98/477, hereafter HO95). These galaxies are sources defined by Ho, Filippenko & Sargent (1997, Cat. J/ApJS/112/315, hereafter HO97) as those composed of 'nuclei dominated by emission lines from regions of active star formation (HII or starburst nuclei)'. In addition, five galaxies, classified as non-star forming in the optical, dominated by old stellar population and with no detected emission lines, were included as a control sample. All spectra were obtained at the NASA 3m Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) in two observing runs (2007 and 2008) - the same data from Martins et al. (2013MNRAS.431.1823M). (2 data files).

  20. Hydride Ions, HCO+ and Ionizing Irradiation in Star Forming Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, Arnold O.; Bruderer, Simon; van Dishoeck, Ewine

    2016-06-01

    Hydrides are fundamental precursor molecules in cosmic chemistry and many hydride ions have become observable in high quality for the first time thanks to the Herschel Space Observatory. Ionized hydrides, such as CH+ and OH+ and also HCO+ affect the chemistry of molecules such as water. They also provide complementary information on irradiation by far UV (FUV) or X-rays and gas temperature.We explore hydrides of the most abundant heavier elements in an observational survey covering star forming regions with different mass and evolutionary state. Twelve YSOs were observed with HIFI on Herschel in 6 spectral settings providing fully velocity-resolved line profiles. The YSOs include objects of low (Class 0 and I), intermediate, and high mass, with luminosities ranging from 4 Ls to 2 105 Ls.The targeted lines of CH+, OH+, H2O+, and C+ are detected mostly in blue-shifted absorption. H3O+ and SH+ are detected in emission and only toward some high-mass objects. For the low-mass YSOs the column density ratios of CH+/OH+ can be reproduced by simple chemical models implying an FUV flux of 2 – 400 times the ISRF at the location of the molecules. In two high-mass objects, the UV flux is 20 – 200 times the ISRF derived from absorption lines, and 300 – 600 ISRF using emission lines. Upper limits for the X-ray luminosity can be derived from H3O+ observations for some low-mass objects.If the FUV flux required for low-mass objects originates at the central protostar, a substantial FUV luminosity, up to 1.5 Ls, is required. For high-mass regions, the FUV flux required to produce the observed molecular ratios is smaller than the unattenuated flux expected from the central object(s) at the Herschel beam radius. This is consistent with an FUV flux reduced by circumstellar extinction or by bloating of the protostar.The ion molecules are proposed to form in FUV irradiated cavity walls that are shocked by the disk wind. The shock region is turbulent, broadening the lines to some 1

  1. THE CLUSTERED NATURE OF STAR FORMATION. PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE CLUSTERS IN THE STAR-FORMING REGION NGC 602/N90 IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Gennaro, Mario; Schmeja, Stefan; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Tognelli, Emanuele; Prada Moroni, Pier Giorgio

    2012-03-20

    Located at the tip of the wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), the star-forming region NGC 602/N90 is characterized by the H II nebular ring N90 and the young cluster of pre-main-sequence (PMS) and early-type main-sequence stars NGC 602, located in the central area of the ring. We present a thorough cluster analysis of the stellar sample identified with Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys in the region. We show that apart from the central cluster low-mass PMS stars are congregated in 13 additional small, compact sub-clusters at the periphery of NGC 602, identified in terms of their higher stellar density with respect to the average background density derived from star counts. We find that the spatial distribution of the PMS stars is bimodal, with an unusually large fraction ({approx}60%) of the total population being clustered, while the remaining is diffusely distributed in the intercluster area, covering the whole central part of the region. From the corresponding color-magnitude diagrams we disentangle an age difference of {approx}2.5 Myr between NGC 602 and the compact sub-clusters, which appear younger, on the basis of comparison of the brighter PMS stars with evolutionary models, which we accurately calculated for the metal abundance of the SMC. The diffuse PMS population appears to host stars as old as those in NGC 602. Almost all detected PMS sub-clusters appear to be centrally concentrated. When the complete PMS stellar sample, including both clustered and diffused stars, is considered in our cluster analysis, it appears as a single centrally concentrated stellar agglomeration, covering the whole central area of the region. Considering also the hot massive stars of the system, we find evidence that this agglomeration is hierarchically structured. Based on our findings, we propose a scenario according to which the region NGC 602/N90 experiences an active clustered star formation for the last {approx}5 Myr. The central cluster NGC 602 was

  2. VARIABILITY AND STAR FORMATION IN LEO T, THE LOWEST LUMINOSITY STAR-FORMING GALAXY KNOWN TODAY

    SciTech Connect

    Clementini, Gisella; Cignoni, Michele; Ramos, Rodrigo Contreras; Federici, Luciana; Tosi, Monica; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Marconi, Marcella; Musella, Ilaria E-mail: rodrigo.contreras@oabo.inaf.it E-mail: monica.tosi@oabo.inaf.it E-mail: ripepi@na.astro.it E-mail: ilaria@na.astro.it

    2012-09-10

    We present results from the first combined study of variable stars and star formation history (SFH) of the Milky Way 'ultra-faint' dwarf (UFD) galaxy Leo T, based on F606W and F814W multi-epoch archive observations obtained with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We have detected 14 variable stars in the galaxy. They include one fundamental-mode RR Lyrae star and 11 Anomalous Cepheids with periods shorter than 1 day, thus suggesting the occurrence of multiple star formation episodes in this UFD, of which one about 10 Gyr ago produced the RR Lyrae star. A new estimate of the distance to Leo T of 409{sup +29}{sub -27} kpc (distance modulus of 23.06 {+-} 0.15 mag) was derived from the galaxy's RR Lyrae star. Our V, V - I color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of Leo T reaches V {approx} 29 mag and shows features typical of a galaxy in transition between dwarf irregular and dwarf spheroidal types. A quantitative analysis of the SFH, based on the comparison of the observed V, V - I CMD with the expected distribution of stars for different evolutionary scenarios, confirms that Leo T has a complex SFH dominated by two enhanced periods about 1.5 and 9 Gyr ago, respectively. The distribution of stars and gas shows that the galaxy has a fairly asymmetric structure.

  3. Star-forming Galaxies as the Origin of the IceCube PeV Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Xiao-Chuan; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2015-06-01

    Star-forming galaxies, due to their high star formation rates, and hence large number of supernova remnants (SNRs) therein, are huge reservoirs of cosmic rays (CRs). These CRs collide with gases in galaxies and produce high-energy neutrinos through proton-proton collisions. In this paper, we calculate the neutrino production efficiency in star-forming galaxies by considering realistic galaxy properties, such as the gas density and galactic wind in star-forming galaxies. To calculate the accumulated neutrino flux, we use the infrared luminosity function of star-forming galaxies recently obtained by the Herschel PEP/HerMES survey. The intensity of CRs producing PeV neutrinos in star-forming galaxies is normalized with the observed CR flux at EeV (1 EeV = {{10}18} eV), assuming that SNR or hypernova remnants in star-forming galaxies can accelerate protons to EeV energies. Our calculations show that the accumulated neutrino emission produced by CRs in star-forming galaxies can account for the flux and spectrum of the sub-PeV/PeV neutrinos under reasonable assumptions on the CR confinement time in these galaxies.

  4. Obscuration of LY alpha Photons in Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giavalisco, Mauro; Koratkar, Anuradha; Calzetti, Daniela

    1996-08-01

    We present a new study of the correlations between the Lyα emission, the UV extinction, and the metal content in a sample of 21 local, low-metallicity starburst galaxies from archival IUE spectra. We have consistently reextracted all the spectra using the optimal extraction algorithm by Kinney and coworkers, and we have also included galaxies not previously studied. In 40% of the cases our new measures of the Lyα equivalent width, Walpha_, differ from those reported in the literature by up to 50% of their value. The new measures show no significant correlation with either the obscuration of the UV continuum or the Balmer decrement, and only a very weak correlation with the metal index [O/H]. Using the flux ratio Lyα/Hβ instead of Walpha_ to take into account differences in the ionizing conditions of the nebular gas does not change these results. This shows that the extinction vicissitudes of the Lyα and nonresonant radiations have been decoupled during their propagations through the ISM. We interpret this as evidence that the ISM in the sample galaxies is, on average, highly inhomogeneous and that the transport of Lyα photons is primarily controlled by the ISM geometry rather than by the amount of dust. If the ISM geometry is mainly the result of the energy release from the star formation activity, we speculate that a similar phenomenology was also present at high redshifts. As the median of the absolute value of Walpha_ in our sample is relatively large, the line can be efficiently used to measure the redshifts of primeval galaxy candidates at redshifts 2 <~ z <~ 7 via optical spectroscopy with the 10 m class telescopes.

  5. A CENSUS OF OXYGEN IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: AN EMPIRICAL MODEL LINKING METALLICITIES, STAR FORMATION RATES, AND OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Zahid, H. J.; Dima, G. I.; Kewley, L. J.; Erb, D. K.; Dave, R.

    2012-09-20

    In this contribution, we present the first census of oxygen in star-forming galaxies in the local universe. We examine three samples of galaxies with metallicities and star formation rates (SFRs) at z = 0.07, 0.8, and 2.26, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and DEEP2 survey. We infer the total mass of oxygen produced and mass of oxygen found in the gas-phase from our local SDSS sample. The star formation history is determined by requiring that galaxies evolve along the relation between stellar mass and SFR observed in our three samples. We show that the observed relation between stellar mass and SFR for our three samples is consistent with other samples in the literature. The mass-metallicity relation is well established for our three samples, and from this we empirically determine the chemical evolution of star-forming galaxies. Thus, we are able to simultaneously constrain the SFRs and metallicities of galaxies over cosmic time, allowing us to estimate the mass of oxygen locked up in stars. Combining this work with independent measurements reported in the literature, we conclude that the loss of oxygen from the interstellar medium of local star-forming galaxies is likely to be a ubiquitous process with the oxygen mass loss scaling (almost) linearly with stellar mass. We estimate the total baryonic mass loss and argue that only a small fraction of the baryons inferred from cosmological observations accrete onto galaxies.

  6. Chemical Pollution and Evolution of Massive Starbursts: Cleaning up the Environment in Star-Forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobulnicky, C.

    1996-12-01

    I present the results of a research program seeking to characterize the impact of massive star-clusters on the chemical and dynamical evolution of metal-poor, irregular and blue compact galaxies. The evolution of high mass stars is thought to contribute the bulk of heavy element enrichment in the interstellar medium, especially alpha -process elements like O, Si, etc. Yet, in actively star-forming galaxies, localized chemical inhomogeneities are seldom observed. Spatially-resolved optical and ultraviolet spectroscopy from the Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based observatories is used to search for chemical enrichment in the vicinity of young star clusters in nearby galaxies. VLA aperture synthesis maps are used to examine the neutral hydrogen content, dynamics, and local environment of the sample galaxies. Despite the spread in evolutionary state of the starbursts determined by the EW of Balmer emission lines and the radio continuum spectral index, few instances of localized enrichment are found. In light of these data, the ``instantaneous enrichment'' scenario for extragalactic HII regions appears less probable than one which operates on long timescales and global spatial scales. The results are consistent with the idea that starburst driven winds expel freshly synthesized metals in a hot 10(6) K phase into the halos of galaxies where they cool, condense into globules, and mix homogeneously with the rest of the galaxy on long (dynamical) timescales. The C/O and N/O ratios of the galaxies are used as new tools for measuring the recent star formation history. Implications for chemical evolution of galaxies both locally and cosmologically are developed.

  7. A quest for rotating disks in high-mass star forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Beltrán, M. T.; Cesaroni, R.

    2016-05-01

    We present ALMA observations towards two high-mass star forming regions. These reveal extended filamentary structures fragmenting into a number of dense cores. The detection of a multitude of lines from complex molecular species permits to study the physical and kinematic properties of three dense cores. Signposts of Keplerian rotation are identified and suggest the presence of disks rotating about stars with masses 4-18 M⊙. These results likely confirm that B-type stars form via disk-mediated accretion, and set the stage for the quest for similar structures toward the most massive O-type stars.

  8. The slow flow model of dust efflux in local star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahid, H. J.; Torrey, P.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Kewley, L. J.; Davé, R.; Geller, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    We develop a dust efflux model of radiation pressure acting on dust grains which successfully reproduces the relation between stellar mass, dust opacity and star formation rate observed in local star-forming galaxies. The dust content of local star-forming galaxies is set by the competition between the physical processes of dust production and dust loss in our model. The dust loss rate is proportional to the dust opacity and star formation rate. Observations of the relation between stellar mass and star formation rate at several epochs imply that the majority of local star-forming galaxies are best characterized as having continuous star formation histories. Dust loss is a consequence of sustained interaction of dust with the radiation field generated by continuous star formation. Dust efflux driven by radiation pressure rather than dust destruction offers a more consistent physical interpretation of the dust loss mechanism. By comparing our model results with the observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction and star formation rate in local star-forming galaxies, we are able to constrain the time-scale and magnitude of dust loss. The time-scale of dust loss is long and therefore dust is effluxed in a `slow flow'. Dust loss is modest in low-mass galaxies but massive galaxies may lose up to 70-80 per cent of their dust over their lifetime. Our slow flow model shows that mass-loss driven by dust opacity and star formation may be an important physical process for understanding normal star-forming galaxy evolution.

  9. The role of ices in star-forming clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocuk, S.

    2016-05-01

    Ices play a critical role during the evolution of interstellar clouds. Their presence is ubiquitous in the dense molecular medium and their impact is not only limited to chemistry. Species adsorbed onto dust grains also affect cloud thermodynamics. It all depends on the interstellar conditions, the chemical parameters, and the composition of ice layers. In this work, I study the formation of ices by focusing on the interplay between gas and solid phase to determine their role on cloud evolution and star formation. I show that while the formation of ices greatly impacts the cloud chemistry, their role on the thermodynamics is more conservative, and their influence on star formation is only marginal.

  10. HUBBLE SPIES HUGE CLUSTERS OF STARS FORMED BY ANCIENT ENCOUNTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope snapped these two views of the heart of the galaxy M82. The image at left was taken in visible light; the picture at right, in infrared light. In the infrared view, the telescope's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer peered through thick dust lanes to find some of the galaxy's more than 100 super star clusters. The clusters are the larger pink and yellow dots scattered throughout the picture. They were formed during a violent collision with the galaxy M81 about 600 million years ago. The galaxy is 12 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Ursa Major. The pictures were taken Sept. 15, 1997. Credits: NASA, ESA, R. de Grijs (Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, UK) NOTE TO EDITORS: For additional information, please contact Richard de Grijs, Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK, +44(0)1223-337528 (phone), +44(0)1223-337523 (fax), grijs@ast.cam.ac.uk (e-mail). The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA), for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). This image is issued jointly by NASA and ESA. Electronic images, animation and additional information are available at: http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2001/08 and via links in http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/latest.html http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pictures.html http://hubble.stsci.edu/go/news http://hubble.esa.int To receive STScI press releases electronically, send an Internet electronic mail message to public-request@stsci.edu. Leave the subject line blank, and type the word subscribe in the body of the message. The system will respond with a confirmation of the subscription, and you will receive new press releases as they are issued. Please subscribe using the email account

  11. Star Formation in the Perseus Molecular Cloud: A Detailed Look at Star-Forming Clumps with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadavoy, Sarah I.

    2013-08-01

    This dissertation presents new Herschel observations at 70 micron, 160 micron, 250 micron, 350 micron, and 500 micron of the Perseus molecular cloud from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. The Perseus molecular cloud is a nearby star-forming region consisting of seven main star-forming clumps. The Herschel observations are used to characterize and contrast the properties of these clumps, and to study their embedded core populations. First, we probed the exceptionally young clump, B1-E. Using complementary molecular line data, we demonstrate that B1-E is likely fragmenting into a first generation of dense cores in relative isolation. Such a core formation region has never been observed before. Second, we use complementary long wavelength observations at 850 micron to study the dust properties in the larger, more active B1 clump. We find that Herschel data alone cannot constrain well the dust properties of cold dust emission and that long wavelength observations are needed. Additionally, we find evidence of dust grain growth towards the dense cores in B1, where the dust emissivity index, beta, varies from the often assumed value of beta = 2. In the absence of long wavelength observations, however, assuming beta = 2 is preferable over measuring beta with the Herschel-only bands. Finally, we use the source extraction code, getsources, to identify the core populations within each clump from the Herschel data. In addition, we use complementary archival infrared observations to study their populations of young stellar objects (YSOs). We find that the more massive clumps have an excess of older stage YSOs, suggesting that these regions contracted first. Starless cores are typically associated with peaks in the column density, where those found towards regions of higher column density also have higher average densities and colder temperatures. Starless cores associated with a strong, local interstellar radiation field, however, have higher temperatures. We find that the clumps

  12. Metal transport and chemical heterogeneity in early star forming systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Jeremy S.; Sluder, Alan; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Milosavljević, Miloš; Bromm, Volker

    2015-08-01

    To constrain the properties of the first stars with the chemical abundance patterns observed in metal-poor stars, one must identify any non-trivial effects that the hydrodynamics of metal dispersal can imprint on the abundances. We use realistic cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to quantify the distribution of metals resulting from one Population III supernova and from a small number of such supernovae exploding in close succession. Overall, supernova ejecta are highly inhomogeneously dispersed throughout the simulations. When the supernova bubbles collapse, quasi-virialized metal-enriched clouds, fed by fallback from the bubbles and by streaming of metal-free gas from the cosmic web, grow in the centres of the dark matter haloes. Partial turbulent homogenization on scales resolved in the simulation is observed only in the densest clouds where the vortical time-scales are short enough to ensure true homogenization on subgrid scales. However, the abundances in the clouds differ from the gross yields of the supernovae. Continuing the simulations until the cloud have gone into gravitational collapse, we predict that the abundances in second-generation stars will be deficient in the innermost mass shells of the supernova (if only one has exploded) or in the ejecta of the latest supernovae (when multiple have exploded). This indicates that hydrodynamics gives rise to biases complicating the identification of nucleosynthetic sources in the chemical abundance spaces of the surviving stars.

  13. Fundamental stellar parameters for selected T-Tauri stars in the Chamaeleon and Rho Ophiuchus star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, D. J.; Aarnio, A. N.; Richert, A. J. W.; Cargile, P. A.; Santos, N. C.; Melo, C. H. F.; Bouvier, J.

    2016-06-01

    We present the results of an optical photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy campaign for a modest sample of X-ray selected stars in the Chamaeleon and Rho Ophiuchus star-forming regions. With R˜ 50 000 optical spectra, we establish kinematic membership of the parent association and confirm stellar youth for each star in our sample. With the acquisition of new standardized BVIc photometry, in concert with near-infrared data from the literature, we derive age and mass from stellar positions in model-dependent Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams. We compare isochronal ages derived using colour-dependent extinction values finding that, within error bars, ages are the same irrespective of whether E(B - V), E(V - Ic), E(J - H) or E(H - K) is used to establish extinction, although model ages tend to be marginally younger for redder Ecolour values. For Cham I and η Cham members, we derive ages of ≲5-6 Myr, whereas our three η Cha candidates are more consistent with a ≳25 Myr post-T Tauri star population. In Rho Ophiuchus, most stars in our sample have isochronal ages <10 Myr. Five objects show evidence of strong infrared excess (Av > 5) in the Two Micron All Sky Survey colour-colour diagram, however in terms of Hα emission, all stars except RXJ1625.6-2613 are consistent with being weak-lined T-Tauri stars. Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) over the range ≃4000 Å <λ < 1000 μm, show that only one Chamaeleon star (RXJ1112.7 -7637) and three Rho Ophiuchus stars (ROXR1 13, RXJ1625.6-2613 & RXJ1627.1-2419) reveal substantial departures from a bare photosphere.

  14. The evolution of the star-forming sequence in hierarchical galaxy formation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Peter D.; Lacey, Cedric G.; Cole, Shaun; Baugh, Carlton M.

    2014-11-01

    It has been argued that the specific star formation rates of star-forming galaxies inferred from observational data decline more rapidly below z = 2 than is predicted by hierarchical galaxy formation models. We present a detailed analysis of this problem by comparing predictions from the GALFORM semi-analytic model with an extensive compilation of data on the average star formation rates of star-forming galaxies. We also use this data to infer the form of the stellar mass assembly histories of star-forming galaxies. Our analysis reveals that the currently available data favour a scenario where the stellar mass assembly histories of star-forming galaxies rise at early times and then fall towards the present day. In contrast, our model predicts stellar mass assembly histories that are almost flat below z = 2 for star-forming galaxies, such that the predicted star formation rates can be offset with respect to the observational data by factors of up to 2-3. This disagreement can be explained by the level of coevolution between stellar and halo mass assembly that exists in contemporary galaxy formation models. In turn, this arises because the standard implementations of star formation and supernova feedback used in the models result in the efficiencies of these process remaining approximately constant over the lifetime of a given star-forming galaxy. We demonstrate how a modification to the time-scale for gas ejected by feedback to be reincorporated into galaxy haloes can help to reconcile the model predictions with the data.

  15. EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS IN THE MILKY WAY: A SECOND GENERATION FORMED AFTER REIONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Trenti, Michele; Shull, J. Michael E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.ed

    2010-03-20

    Cosmological simulations of Population III star formation suggest an initial mass function (IMF) biased toward very massive stars (M {approx}> 100 M{sub sun}) formed in minihalos at redshift z {approx}> 20, when the cooling is driven by molecular hydrogen. However, this result conflicts with observations of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars in the Milky Way (MW) halo, whose r-process elemental abundances appear to be incompatible with those expected from very massive Population III progenitors. We propose a new solution to the problem in which the IMF of second-generation stars formed at z {approx}> 10, before reionization, is deficient in sub-solar mass stars, owing to the high cosmic microwave background temperature floor. The observed EMP stars are formed preferentially at z {approx}< 10 in pockets of gas enriched to metallicity Z {approx}> 10{sup -3.5} Z{sub sun} by winds from Population II stars. Our cosmological simulations of dark matter halos like the MW show that current samples of EMP stars can only constrain the IMF of late-time Population III stars, formed at z {approx}< 13 in halos with virial temperature T{sub vir} {approx} 10{sup 4} K. This suggests that pair instability supernovae were not produced primarily by this population. To begin probing the IMF of Population III stars formed at higher redshift will require a large survey, with at least 500 and probably several thousand EMP stars of metallicities Z {approx} 10{sup -3.5} Z{sub sun}.

  16. Hα Surface Brightness Profiles of Star-Forming Galaxies and Dependence on Halo Mass Using the HAGGIS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S.; Wilman, D.; Erwin, P.; Koppenhöfer, J.; Gutierrez, L.; Beckman, J.; Saglia, R.; Bender, R.

    2014-03-01

    We present the first results from the Hα Galaxy Groups Imaging Survey (HAGGIS), a narrow-band imaging survey of SDSS groups at z < 0.05 conducted using the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the ESO/MPG 2.2-meter telescope and the Wide Field Camera (WFC) on the Issac Newton Telescope (INT). In total, we observed 100 galaxy groups with a wide range of halo mass (1012 - 1014 M⊙) in pairs of narrow-band filters selected to get continuum subtracted rest-frame Hα images for each galaxy. The excellent data allows us to detect Hα down to the 10-18 ergs/s/cm2/arcsec2 level. Here, we examine the role played by halo mass and galaxy stellar mass in deciding the overall star formation activity in star forming disks by comparing stacked Hα profiles of galaxies in different halo mass and stellar mass bins. With this preliminary study, we have found that the star-formation activity in star-forming galaxies decreases in larger halos compared to the field galaxies. Using median equivalent width profiles, we can infer how environmental processes affect star-forming galaxies differently at different radii.

  17. THE EFFECTS OF EPISODIC STAR FORMATION ON THE FUV-NUV COLORS OF STAR FORMING REGIONS IN OUTER DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Kate L.; Van Zee, Liese; Dowell, Jayce D. E-mail: vanzee@astro.indiana.edu

    2013-09-20

    We run stellar population synthesis models to examine the effects of a recently episodic star formation history (SFH) on UV and Hα colors of star forming regions. Specifically, the SFHs we use are an episodic sampling of an exponentially declining star formation rate (SFR; τ model) and are intended to simulate the SFHs in the outer disks of spiral galaxies. To enable comparison between our models and observational studies of star forming regions in outer disks, we include in our models sensitivity limits that are based on recent deep UV and Hα observations in the literature. We find significant dispersion in the FUV-NUV colors of simulated star forming regions with frequencies of star formation episodes of 1 × 10{sup –8} to 4 × 10{sup –9} yr{sup –1}. The dispersion in UV colors is similar to that found in the outer disk of nearby spiral galaxies. As expected, we also find large variations in L{sub H{sub α}}/L{sub FUV}. We interpret our models within the context of inside-out disk growth, and find that a radially increasing τ and decreasing metallicity with an increasing radius will only produce modest FUV-NUV color gradients, which are significantly smaller than what is found for some nearby spiral galaxies. However, including moderate extinction gradients with our models can better match the observations with steeper UV color gradients. We estimate that the SFR at which the number of stars emitting FUV light becomes stochastic is ∼2 × 10{sup –6} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, which is substantially lower than the SFR of many star forming regions in outer disks. Therefore, we conclude that stochasticity in the upper end of the initial mass function is not likely to be the dominant cause of dispersion in the FUV-NUV colors of star forming regions in outer disks. Finally, we note that if outer disks have had an episodic SFH similar to that used in this study, this should be taken into account when estimating gas depletion timescales and modeling chemical

  18. A comprehensive photometric study of circumnuclear star-forming rings - I. The sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Álvarez, Mar; Díaz, Angeles I.; Terlevich, Elena; Terlevich, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    We present photometry in U, B, V, R and I continuum bands and in Hα and Hβ emission lines for a sample of 336 circumnuclear star-forming regions located in early-type spiral galaxies with different levels of activity in their nuclei. They are nearby galaxies, with distances less than 100 Mpc, 60 per cent of which are considered as interacting objects. This survey of 20 nuclear rings aims to provide insight into their star formation properties as age, stellar population and star formation rate. Extinction-corrected Hα luminosities range from 1.3 × 1038 to 4 × 1041 erg s-1, with most of the regions showing values between 39.5 ≤ logL(Hα) ≤ 40, which implies masses for the ionizing clusters higher than 2 × 105 M⊙. Hα and Hβ images have allowed us to obtain an accurate measure of extinction. We have found an average value of AV = 1.85 mag. (U - B) colour follows a two maximum distribution around (U - B) ≃ -0.7, and -0.3; (R - I) also presents a bimodal behaviour, with maximum values of 0.6 and 0.9. Reddest (U - B) and (R - I) regions appear in non-interacting galaxies. Reddest (R - I) regions lie in strongly barred galaxies. For a significant number of H II regions, the observed colours and equivalent widths are not well reproduced by single burst evolutionary theoretical models.

  19. Activity in X-ray-selected late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takalo, Leo O.; Nousek, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    A spectroscopic study has been conducted of nine X-ray bright late-type stars selected from two Einstein X-ray surveys: the Columbia Astrophysical Laboratory Survey (five stars) and the CFA Medium Sensitivity Survey (MSS; four stars). Spectral classes were determined and radial and V sin(i) velocities were measured for the stars. Four of the Columbia Survey stars were found to be new RS CVn-type binaries. The fifth Columbia survey star was found to be an active G dwarf star without evidence for binarity. None of the four MSS stars were found to be either binaries or optically active stars. Activity in these stars was assessed by measuring the excess emission in H-alpha and the Ca II IRT (8498, 8542) lines in comparison with inactive stars of similar spectral types. A correlation was found between X-ray luminosity and V sin(i) and H-alpha line excess. The measured excess line emission in H-alpha was also correlated with V sin(i) but not with the IRT line excess.

  20. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Asslef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of II outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  1. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Assef, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars.We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks.We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  2. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Padgett, D. L.; Rebull, L. M.

    2012-01-10

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the 'fireworks hypothesis' since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  3. R Coronae Borealis Stars formed from Double White Dwarf Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staff, Jan E.; Herwig, F.; Menon, A.; Even, W.; Tohline, J.; Clayton, G.; Motl, P.; Fryer, C.; Geballe, T.

    2011-01-01

    R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are hydrogen-deficient variable stars that suddenly fade by several magnitudes at irregular intervals whereafter they gradually return to their original brightness over a period of some months. The origin of RCBs remain a mystery. It is often thought that they are the result of the merger of a He and a CO white dwarf, while the fading is thought to be due to the formation of dust blocking light from the star. We are working on revealing the secrets behind the origin of RCBs. Here we present the results of 3 dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the merger of a double white dwarf system where total mass is 0.9 M⊙ and initial mass ratio is q=0.7. We use a zero-temperature plus ideal gas equation of state that allows for heating through shocks. These simulations allow us to follow the evolution of the system for 10-20 initial orbital periods (1000-2000 seconds), from the onset of mass-transfer to a point after merger when the combined object has settled into a nearly axisymmetric, rotationally flattened configuration. The final merged object from the hydrodynamics simulation is then used as input for a stellar evolution code where the object's evolution can be followed over a much longer (thermal and/or nuclear) timescale. A preliminary post-merger stellar evolution simulation shows how an initial configuration of a 0.7 CO WD surrounded by 0.3 M⊙ of dynamically accreted He evolves on a time scale of 105 years to the location of the RCB stars in the H-R diagram at an effective temperature Teff<7000 K and log L 4. We acknowledge support from NASA Astrophysics Theory Program grant number NNX10AC72G.

  4. Popularizing a scientific project: star forming rate in different ages of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamorano, J.; Jáuregui, F.; Fernández-Castro, T.; Gallego, J.; Armentia, J.

    In Spain we have to make a big effort in order to produce more activities dedicated to the popularization of Science. In this paper we show the activities we have developped, and others that will be done soon, in order to show to the general public, an example of how science is made. The project Star Forming Rate at Different z's is paid with public founds and included in its objectives, are some actions directed to the popularization of the science made in it. Exhibitions, public talks and planetarium shows are part of these activities presented to the general public in two of the main Science Centers of Spain, the Madrid and Pamplona planetaria.

  5. Interactions Between Forming Stars and Dense Gas in a Small Low Mass Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, Edwin F.; Wong, T.; Bourke, T. L.; Thompson, K. L.

    2011-05-01

    We present observations of dense gas and outflow activity in the Cederblad 110 region of the Chamaleleon I Dark Cloud. The region contains eight forming low mass stars in evolutionary stages ranging from Class 0 to Class II/III crowded into a 0.2 pc region with high surface density (Σ_YSO 150 pc^-2). The analysis of our N2H+ (J=1-0) maps indicates the presence of 15 solar masses of dense (n 10^5 cm^-3) gas in this region, much of which is unstable against gravitational collapse. The most unstable material is located near the Class 0 source MMS 1. Smaller column densities of more stable dense gas are found toward the region's Class I sources. Little or no dense gas is colocated with the Class II and III sources in the region. The outflow from the Class I source IRS 4 is interacting with the dense core associated with MMS 1. The molecular component of the outflow appears to be deflected by the densest part of the core, after which it plows through some of the lower column density portions of the core. The working surface at the head of the outflow lobe can be seen in the enhanced velocity dispersion of the dense gas. The Class III source IRS 2 may also be influencing the dense gas in the region. A dust temperature gradient across the core is consistent with warming from the 3.4 Lo source, and a sharp gradient in dense gas column density may be caused by winds from this source. Taken together, our data indicate that this region has been producing several young stars in the recent past, and that sources which began forming first are interacting with the remaining dense gas in the region, thereby influencing current and future star formation activity.

  6. On the Onset of Secondary Stellar Generations in Giant Star-forming Regions and Massive Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palouš, J.; Wünsch, R.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.

    2014-09-01

    Here we consider the strong evolution experienced by the matter reinserted by massive stars, both in giant star-forming regions driven by a constant star formation rate and in massive and coeval superstar clusters. In both cases we take into consideration the changes induced by stellar evolution on the number of massive stars, the number of ionizing photons, and the integrated mechanical luminosity of the star-forming regions. The latter is at all times compared with the critical luminosity that defines, for a given size, the lower mechanical luminosity limit above which the matter reinserted via strong winds and supernova explosions suffers frequent and recurrent thermal instabilities that reduce its temperature and pressure and inhibit its exit as part of a global wind. Instead, the unstable reinserted matter is compressed by the pervasive hot gas, and photoionization maintains its temperature at T ~ 104 K. As the evolution proceeds, more unstable matter accumulates and the unstable clumps grow in size. Here we evaluate the possible self-shielding of thermally unstable clumps against the UV radiation field. Self-shielding allows for a further compression of the reinserted matter, which rapidly develops a high-density neutral core able to absorb in its outer skin the incoming UV radiation. Under such conditions the cold (T ~ 10 K) neutral cores soon surpass the Jeans limit and become gravitationally unstable, creating a new stellar generation with the matter reinserted by former massive stars. We present the results of several calculations of this positive star formation feedback scenario promoted by strong radiative cooling and mass loading.

  7. On the onset of secondary stellar generations in giant star-forming regions and massive star clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Palouš, J.; Wünsch, R.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.

    2014-09-10

    Here we consider the strong evolution experienced by the matter reinserted by massive stars, both in giant star-forming regions driven by a constant star formation rate and in massive and coeval superstar clusters. In both cases we take into consideration the changes induced by stellar evolution on the number of massive stars, the number of ionizing photons, and the integrated mechanical luminosity of the star-forming regions. The latter is at all times compared with the critical luminosity that defines, for a given size, the lower mechanical luminosity limit above which the matter reinserted via strong winds and supernova explosions suffers frequent and recurrent thermal instabilities that reduce its temperature and pressure and inhibit its exit as part of a global wind. Instead, the unstable reinserted matter is compressed by the pervasive hot gas, and photoionization maintains its temperature at T ∼ 10{sup 4} K. As the evolution proceeds, more unstable matter accumulates and the unstable clumps grow in size. Here we evaluate the possible self-shielding of thermally unstable clumps against the UV radiation field. Self-shielding allows for a further compression of the reinserted matter, which rapidly develops a high-density neutral core able to absorb in its outer skin the incoming UV radiation. Under such conditions the cold (T ∼ 10 K) neutral cores soon surpass the Jeans limit and become gravitationally unstable, creating a new stellar generation with the matter reinserted by former massive stars. We present the results of several calculations of this positive star formation feedback scenario promoted by strong radiative cooling and mass loading.

  8. The Evolution of the Fractions of Quiescent and Star-forming Galaxies as a Function of Stellar Mass Since z = 3: Increasing Importance of Massive, Dusty Star-forming Galaxies in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martis, Nicholas S.; Marchesini, Danilo; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Muzzin, Adam; Labbé, Ivo; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Stefanon, Mauro; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2016-08-01

    Using the UltraVISTA DR1 and 3D-HST catalogs, we construct a stellar-mass-complete sample, unique for its combination of surveyed volume and depth, to study the evolution of the fractions of quiescent galaxies, moderately unobscured star-forming galaxies, and dusty star-forming galaxies as a function of stellar mass over the redshift interval 0.2 ≤ z ≤ 3.0. We show that the role of dusty star-forming galaxies within the overall galaxy population becomes more important with increasing stellar mass and grows rapidly with increasing redshift. Specifically, dusty star-forming galaxies dominate the galaxy population with {log}({M}{{star}}/{M}ȯ )≳ 10.3 at z ≳ 2. The ratio of dusty and non-dusty star-forming galaxies as a function of stellar mass changes little with redshift. Dusty star-forming galaxies dominate the star-forming population at {log}({M}{{star}}/{M}ȯ )≳ 10.0{--}10.5, being a factor of ˜3–5 more common, while unobscured star-forming galaxies dominate at {log}({M}{{star}}/{M}ȯ )≲ 10. At {log}({M}{{star}}/{M}ȯ )\\gt 10.5, red galaxies dominate the galaxy population at all redshift z < 3, either because they are quiescent (at late times) or dusty star-forming (in the early universe).

  9. The Evolution of the Fractions of Quiescent and Star-forming Galaxies as a Function of Stellar Mass Since z = 3: Increasing Importance of Massive, Dusty Star-forming Galaxies in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martis, Nicholas S.; Marchesini, Danilo; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Muzzin, Adam; Labbé, Ivo; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Stefanon, Mauro; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2016-08-01

    Using the UltraVISTA DR1 and 3D-HST catalogs, we construct a stellar-mass-complete sample, unique for its combination of surveyed volume and depth, to study the evolution of the fractions of quiescent galaxies, moderately unobscured star-forming galaxies, and dusty star-forming galaxies as a function of stellar mass over the redshift interval 0.2 ≤ z ≤ 3.0. We show that the role of dusty star-forming galaxies within the overall galaxy population becomes more important with increasing stellar mass and grows rapidly with increasing redshift. Specifically, dusty star-forming galaxies dominate the galaxy population with {log}({M}{{star}}/{M}ȯ )≳ 10.3 at z ≳ 2. The ratio of dusty and non-dusty star-forming galaxies as a function of stellar mass changes little with redshift. Dusty star-forming galaxies dominate the star-forming population at {log}({M}{{star}}/{M}ȯ )≳ 10.0{--}10.5, being a factor of ∼3–5 more common, while unobscured star-forming galaxies dominate at {log}({M}{{star}}/{M}ȯ )≲ 10. At {log}({M}{{star}}/{M}ȯ )\\gt 10.5, red galaxies dominate the galaxy population at all redshift z < 3, either because they are quiescent (at late times) or dusty star-forming (in the early universe).

  10. Gravity as main driver of non-thermal motions in massive star forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traficante, A.; Fuller, G. A.; Smith, R.; Billot, N.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Peretto, N.; Molinari, S.; Pineda, J. E.

    2016-05-01

    The origin of the observed non-thermal motions in massive star forming regions is still unclear. These motions can originate from local turbulence or from self-gravity and the two scenarios lead to two different star formation mechanisms. The recent findings of Heyer et al. ([5]) have supported self-gravity as main driver of the non-thermal motions, although without a clear interpretation of the results. In this contribution we introduce a new formalism to describe the relation between gravity and kinetic motion in massive star formation. We show that the Heyer findings are a particular result of this description and have a direct physical interpretation. We applied this formalism to different surveys of massive star forming regions covering all spatial scales from giant molecular clouds down to massive cores, including new data from massive candidate starless clumps. The results presented in this contribution strongly support a chaotic, gravitationally driven global collapse scenario as massive star formation mechanism.

  11. New Herbig-Haro objects in star-forming regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reipurth, BO; Graham, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    A list of 25 new Herbig-Haro objects, HH 58 to HH 82, in the Orion molecular clouds and in southern molecular cloud complexes has been compiled. CCD images in the S II 6717, 6731 forbidden lines are presented for the objects, together with a few spectra and some IR observations. The individual objects and, when identified, their energy sources are discussed. HH 65 is located in the red lobe of the bipolar outflow associated with the highly variable reflection nebula Re 50. HH 67 is a 22-arcsec long sinusoidal jet. HH 68/69 consists of a long, linear chain of four HH knots. HH 72 emerges from a 120-solar luminosity IRAS source embedded in a Bok globule. HH 79 is the first HH object discovered in the Ophiuchus clouds. HH 80/81 in Sagittarius are among the brightest HH objects known, have complex velocities, high excitation conditions and emerge from a 6000-solar luminosity young B-star. HH 82 is associated with the bright variable star S Coronae Australis.

  12. Star forming regions in gas-rich SO galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogge, Richard W.; Eskridge, Paul B.

    1987-01-01

    The first results of an H alpha imaging survey of HI rich SO galaxies, which were searched for HII regions and other sources of emission, are presented. The charge coupled device H alpha interference filter images were made of 16 galaxies. Eight of these galaxies show evidence for on-going star formation, one has nuclear emission but no HII regions, and the remaining seven have no emissions detected within well defined upper limits. With the exception of one notably peculiar galaxy in which the emission from HII regions appears pervasive, the HII regions are either organized into inner-disk rings or randomly distributed throughout the disk. A few of these galaxies are found to be clearly not SO's; or peculiar objects atypical of the SO class. Using simple models star formation rates (SFRs) and gas depletion times from the observed H alpha fluxes were estimated. In general, the derived SFRs are much lower than those found in isolated field spiral galaxies and the corresponding gas depletion time scales are also longer.

  13. An Integrated Spectrophotometric Survey of Nearby Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustakas, John; Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.

    2006-05-01

    We present integrated optical spectrophotometry for a sample of 417 nearby galaxies. Our observations consist of spatially integrated, S/N=10-100 spectroscopy between 3600 and 6900 Å at ~8 Å FWHM resolution. In addition, we present nuclear (2.5"×2.5") spectroscopy for 153 of these objects. Our sample targets a diverse range of galaxy types, including starbursts, peculiar galaxies, interacting/merging systems, dusty, infrared-luminous galaxies, and a significant number of normal galaxies. We use population synthesis to model and subtract the stellar continuum underlying the nebular emission lines. This technique results in emission-line measurements reliably corrected for stellar absorption. Here we present the integrated and nuclear spectra, the nebular emission-line fluxes and equivalent widths, and a comprehensive compilation of ancillary data available in the literature for our sample. In a series of subsequent papers we use these data to study optical star formation rate indicators, nebular abundance diagnostics, the luminosity-metallicity relation, the dust properties of normal and starburst galaxies, and the star formation histories of infrared-luminous galaxies.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Star-forming compact groups (Hernandez-Fernandez+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Fernandez, J. D.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.

    2016-03-01

    This article provides a local sample (z<~0.15) of compact groups of star-forming galaxies. In this type of groups, galaxies strongly interact among themselves and with the rest of the group components (ICM, dark matter halo). This induces morphological changes and star formation events which are currently taking place. The peculiar evolutionary stage of these groups provides a wealth of galaxy observables that may clarify the theoretical framework about galaxy evolution in groups. We have performed an all-sky search for compact groups of star-forming galaxies in the GALEX UV catalogues. (3 data files).

  15. Deep Imaging Surveys of Star-forming Clouds. III. Herbig-Haro Objects in the Perseus Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walawender, Josh; Bally, John; Reipurth, Bo

    2005-05-01

    We present a catalog of 72 new Herbig-Haro (HH) objects discovered in the Perseus molecular cloud. There are 69 previously cataloged HH objects in this region, and the new discoveries bring the total number of known HH objects in Perseus to 141. Individual outflows often contain several distinct HH objects. These observations demonstrate that the Perseus molecular cloud is one of the most active star-forming regions in the solar vicinity. We explore different methods for probing the momentum injection rate of outflows and examine whether outflows can drive turbulence within the molecular cloud. On the scale of the entire Perseus cloud, the shocks produced by outflows from young stars may not inject momentum at a sufficient rate to counter the rate at which momentum decays. However, intense outflow activity within individual cloud cores with high star formation rates, such as NGC 1333, may be sufficient to locally support or even disrupt the core.

  16. MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF TWO LENSED STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Fadely, Ross; Baker, Andrew J.; Allam, Sahar S.; Lin Huan; Tucker, Douglas L.; Lutz, Dieter; Shapley, Alice E.; Shin, Min-Su; Smith, J. Allyn; Strauss, Michael A. E-mail: ajbaker@physics.rutgers.ed E-mail: hlin@fnal.go E-mail: lutz@mpe.mpg.d E-mail: msshin@umich.ed E-mail: strauss@astro.princeton.ed

    2010-11-01

    We present low-resolution, rest-frame {approx}5-12 {mu}m Spitzer/IRS spectra of two lensed z {approx} 2 UV-bright star-forming galaxies, SDSS J120602.09+514229.5 and SDSS J090122.37+181432.3. Using the magnification boost from lensing, we are able to study the physical properties of these objects in greater detail than is possible for unlensed systems. In both targets, we detect strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission at 6.2, 7.7, and 11.3 {mu}m, indicating the presence of vigorous star formation. For J1206, we find a steeply rising continuum and significant [S IV] emission, suggesting that a moderately hard radiation field is powering continuum emission from small dust grains. The strength of the [S IV] emission also implies a sub-solar metallicity of {approx}0.5 Z{sub sun}, confirming published rest-frame optical measurements. In J0901, the PAH lines have large rest-frame equivalent widths (>1 {mu}m) and the continuum rises slowly with wavelength, suggesting that any active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution to L{sub IR} is insignificant, in contrast to the implications of optical emission-line diagnostics. Using [O III] line flux as a proxy for AGN strength, we estimate that the AGN in J0901 provides only a small fraction of its mid-infrared continuum flux. By combining the detection of [Ar II] with an upper limit on [Ar III] emission, we infer a metallicity of {approx}>1.3 Z{sub sun}. This work highlights the importance of combining rest-frame optical and mid-IR spectroscopy in order to understand the detailed properties of star-forming galaxies at high redshift.

  17. Physical Properties of Compact Star-forming Galaxies at z ˜ 2-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Guanwen; Ma, Zhongyang; Kong, Xu; Fan, Lulu

    2015-07-01

    We present a study on the physical properties of compact star-forming galaxies (cSFGs) with M* ≥ 1010M⊙ and 2 ≤ z ≤ 3 in the COSMOS (Cosmic Evolution Survey) and GOODS-S (Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South) fields. We find that massive cSFGs have a comoving number density of (1.0 ± 0.1) × 10-4 Mpc-3. The cSFGs are distributed at nearly the same locus on the main sequence as extended star-forming galaxies (eSFGs) and dominate the high-mass end. On the rest-frame U - V versus V-J and U-B versus {M}{{B}} diagrams, cSFGs are mainly distributed at the middle of eSFGs and compact quiescent galaxies (cQGs) in all colors, but are more inclined to “red sequence” than “green valley” galaxies. We also find that cSFGs have distributions similar to cQGs on the nonparametric morphology diagrams. The cQGs and cSFGs have larger Gini and smaller M20, while eSFGs have the reverse. About one-third of cSFGs show signatures of postmergers, and almost none of them can be recognized as disks. Moreover, those visually extended cSFGs all have lower Gini coefficients (Gini < 0.4), indicating that the Gini coefficient could be used to clean out noncompact galaxies in a sample of candidate cSFGs. The X-ray-detected counterparts are more frequent among cSFGs than in eSFGs and cQGs, implying that cSFGs have previously experienced violent gas-rich interactions (such as major mergers or disk instabilities), which could trigger both star formation and black hole growth in an active phase.

  18. The evolution of star formation activity in galaxy groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfanianfar, G.; Popesso, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Wuyts, S.; Wilman, D.; Biviano, A.; Ziparo, F.; Salvato, M.; Nandra, K.; Lutz, D.; Elbaz, D.; Dickinson, M.; Tanaka, M.; Mirkazemi, M.; Balogh, M. L.; Altieri, M. B.; Aussel, H.; Bauer, F.; Berta, S.; Bielby, R. M.; Brandt, N.; Cappelluti, N.; Cimatti, A.; Cooper, M.; Fadda, D.; Ilbert, O.; Le Floch, E.; Magnelli, B.; Mulchaey, J. S.; Nordon, R.; Newman, J. A.; Poglitsch, A.; Pozzi, F.

    2014-12-01

    We study the evolution of the total star formation (SF) activity, total stellar mass (ΣM*) and halo occupation distribution (HOD) in massive haloes by using one of the largest X-ray selected sample of galaxy groups with secure spectroscopic identification in the major blank field surveys (ECDFS, CDFN, COSMOS, AEGIS). We provide an accurate measurement of star formation rate (SFR) for the bulk of the star-forming galaxies using very deep mid-infrared Spitzer MIPS and far-infrared Herschel PACS observations. For undetected IR sources, we provide a well-calibrated SFR from spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. We observe a clear evolution in the level of SF activity in galaxy groups. The total SF activity in the high-redshift groups (0.5 < z < 1.1) is higher with respect to the low-redshift (0.15 < z < 0.5) sample at any mass by 0.8 ± 0.12 dex. A milder difference (0.35 ± 0.1 dex) is observed between the low-redshift bin and the groups at z ˜ 0. We show that the level of SF activity is declining more rapidly in the more massive haloes than in the more common lower mass haloes. We do not observe any evolution in the HOD and total stellar mass-halo mass relations in groups. The picture emerging from our findings suggests that the galaxy population in the most massive systems is evolving faster than galaxies in lower mass haloes, consistently with a `halo downsizing' scenario.

  19. Observational evidence for enhanced magnetic activity of superflare stars

    PubMed Central

    Karoff, Christoffer; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; De Cat, Peter; Bonanno, Alfio; Fogtmann-Schulz, Alexandra; Fu, Jianning; Frasca, Antonio; Inceoglu, Fadil; Olsen, Jesper; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Shi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Superflares are large explosive events on stellar surfaces one to six orders-of-magnitude larger than the largest flares observed on the Sun throughout the space age. Due to the huge amount of energy released in these superflares, it has been speculated if the underlying mechanism is the same as for solar flares, which are caused by magnetic reconnection in the solar corona. Here, we analyse observations made with the LAMOST telescope of 5,648 solar-like stars, including 48 superflare stars. These observations show that superflare stars are generally characterized by larger chromospheric emissions than other stars, including the Sun. However, superflare stars with activity levels lower than, or comparable to, the Sun do exist, suggesting that solar flares and superflares most likely share the same origin. The very large ensemble of solar-like stars included in this study enables detailed and robust estimates of the relation between chromospheric activity and the occurrence of superflares. PMID:27009381

  20. Observational evidence for enhanced magnetic activity of superflare stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karoff, Christoffer; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; De Cat, Peter; Bonanno, Alfio; Fogtmann-Schulz, Alexandra; Fu, Jianning; Frasca, Antonio; Inceoglu, Fadil; Olsen, Jesper; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Shi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Superflares are large explosive events on stellar surfaces one to six orders-of-magnitude larger than the largest flares observed on the Sun throughout the space age. Due to the huge amount of energy released in these superflares, it has been speculated if the underlying mechanism is the same as for solar flares, which are caused by magnetic reconnection in the solar corona. Here, we analyse observations made with the LAMOST telescope of 5,648 solar-like stars, including 48 superflare stars. These observations show that superflare stars are generally characterized by larger chromospheric emissions than other stars, including the Sun. However, superflare stars with activity levels lower than, or comparable to, the Sun do exist, suggesting that solar flares and superflares most likely share the same origin. The very large ensemble of solar-like stars included in this study enables detailed and robust estimates of the relation between chromospheric activity and the occurrence of superflares.

  1. Observational evidence for enhanced magnetic activity of superflare stars.

    PubMed

    Karoff, Christoffer; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; De Cat, Peter; Bonanno, Alfio; Fogtmann-Schulz, Alexandra; Fu, Jianning; Frasca, Antonio; Inceoglu, Fadil; Olsen, Jesper; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Shi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Superflares are large explosive events on stellar surfaces one to six orders-of-magnitude larger than the largest flares observed on the Sun throughout the space age. Due to the huge amount of energy released in these superflares, it has been speculated if the underlying mechanism is the same as for solar flares, which are caused by magnetic reconnection in the solar corona. Here, we analyse observations made with the LAMOST telescope of 5,648 solar-like stars, including 48 superflare stars. These observations show that superflare stars are generally characterized by larger chromospheric emissions than other stars, including the Sun. However, superflare stars with activity levels lower than, or comparable to, the Sun do exist, suggesting that solar flares and superflares most likely share the same origin. The very large ensemble of solar-like stars included in this study enables detailed and robust estimates of the relation between chromospheric activity and the occurrence of superflares. PMID:27009381

  2. RECONCILING THE OBSERVED STAR-FORMING SEQUENCE WITH THE OBSERVED STELLAR MASS FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Leja, Joel; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Franx, Marijn; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2015-01-10

    We examine the connection between the observed star-forming sequence (SFR ∝ M {sup α}) and the observed evolution of the stellar mass function in the range 0.2 < z < 2.5. We find that the star-forming sequence cannot have a slope α ≲ 0.9 at all masses and redshifts because this would result in a much higher number density at 10 < log (M/M {sub ☉}) < 11 by z = 1 than is observed. We show that a transition in the slope of the star-forming sequence, such that α = 1 at log (M/M {sub ☉}) < 10.5 and α = 0.7-0.13z (Whitaker et al.) at log (M/M {sub ☉}) > 10.5, greatly improves agreement with the evolution of the stellar mass function. We then derive a star-forming sequence that reproduces the evolution of the mass function by design. This star-forming sequence is also well described by a broken power law, with a shallow slope at high masses and a steep slope at low masses. At z = 2, it is offset by ∼0.3 dex from the observed star-forming sequence, consistent with the mild disagreement between the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) and recent observations of the growth of the stellar mass density. It is unclear whether this problem stems from errors in stellar mass estimates, errors in SFRs, or other effects. We show that a mass-dependent slope is also seen in other self-consistent models of galaxy evolution, including semianalytical, hydrodynamical, and abundance-matching models. As part of the analysis, we demonstrate that neither mergers nor hidden low-mass quiescent galaxies are likely to reconcile the evolution of the mass function and the star-forming sequence. These results are supported by observations from Whitaker et al.

  3. Did the Solar system form in a sequential triggered star formation event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Richard J.; Dale, James E.

    2016-02-01

    The presence and abundance of the short-lived radioisotopes (SLRs) 26Al and 60Fe during the formation of the Solar system is difficult to explain unless the Sun formed in the vicinity of one or more massive star(s) that exploded as supernovae. Two different scenarios have been proposed to explain the delivery of SLRs to the protosolar nebula: (i) direct pollution of the protosolar disc by supernova ejecta, and (ii) the formation of the Sun in a sequential star formation event in which supernovae shockwaves trigger further star formation which is enriched in SLRs. The sequentially triggered model has been suggested as being more astrophysically likely than the direct pollution scenario. In this paper, we investigate this claim by analysing a combination of N-body and smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of star formation. We find that sequential star formation would result in large age spreads (or even bi-modal age distributions for spatially coincident events) due to the dynamical relaxation of the first star formation event(s). Secondly, we discuss the probability of triggering spatially and temporally discrete populations of stars and find this to be only possible in very contrived situations. Taken together, these results suggest that the formation of the Solar system in a triggered star formation event is as improbable, if not more so, than the direct pollution of the protosolar disc by a supernova.

  4. High Mass X-ray Binaries in Nearby Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangelov, Blagoy

    High Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs), in which a compact object, either black hole or neutron star, is accreting material from a young, massive donor star, often dominate the high-energy emission from nearby star-forming galaxies. These high mass pairs are believed to form in star clusters, where most massive star formation takes place, but to become displaced from their parent clusters either because they are dynamically ejected or because their parent cluster has dissolved. We have conducted a systematic study of the formation and evolution of bright HMXBs in eight nearby galaxies, by detecting HMXBs from their X-ray emission in Chandra X-ray Observatory observations, and identifying their parent clusters and donor stars in optical observations taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. We use the X-ray and optical properties of these systems to determine the ages of the binaries, whether the compact objects are black holes or neutron stars, and to constrain the masses of the donor stars.

  5. Time-Resolved Spectroscopy of Active Binary Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    This NASA grant covered EUVE observing and data analysis programs during EUVE Cycle 5 GO observing. The research involved a single Guest Observer project 97-EUVE-061 "Time-Resolved Spectroscopy of Active Binary Stars". The grant provided funding that covered 1.25 months of the PI's salary. The activities undertaken included observation planning and data analysis (both temporal and spectral). This project was awarded 910 ksec of observing time to study seven active binary stars, all but one of which were actually observed. Lambda-And was observed on 1997 Jul 30 - Aug 3 and Aug 7-14 for a total of 297 ksec; these observations showed two large complex flares that were analyzed by Osten & Brown (1999). AR Psc, observed for 350 ksec on 1997 Aug 27 - Sep 13, showed only relatively small flares that were also discussed by Osten & Brown (1999). EUVE observations of El Eri were obtained on 1994 August 24-28, simultaneous with ASCA X-ray spectra. Four flares were detected by EUVE with one of these also observed simultaneously, by ASCA. The other three EUVE observations were of the stars BY Dra (1997 Sep 22-28), V478 Lyr (1998 May 18-27), and sigma Gem (1998 Dec 10-22). The first two stars showed a few small flares. The sigma Gem data shows a beautiful complete flare with a factor of ten peak brightness compared to quiescence. The flare rise and almost all the decay phase are observed. Unfortunately no observations in other spectral regions were obtained for these stars. Analysis of the lambda-And and AR Psc observations is complete and the results were published in Osten & Brown (1999). Analysis of the BY Dra, V478 Lyr and sigma Gem EUVE data is complete and will be published in Osten (2000, in prep.). The El Eri EUV analysis is also completed and the simultaneous EUV/X-ray study will be published in Osten et al. (2000, in prep.). Both these latter papers will be submitted in summer 2000. All these results will form part of Rachel Osten's PhD thesis.

  6. The distribution of warm gas in the G327.3-0.6 star forming region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leurini, S.; Wyrowski, F.; van der Tak, F.; Herpin, F.; Herschel WISH Team

    2011-05-01

    Water is a key molecule for determining the physical chemical structure of star forming regions because of its large abundance variations between warm and cold regions. As a part of the HIFI-led Key Program WISH (P.I. E. van Dishoeck), we are mapping six massive star forming region in different H2O lines with HIFI and PACS to investigate the effects of clustered star formation on feedback by protostellar outflow in such regions. Our Herschel observation are complemented by APEX CO and 13CO observations in mid- high-J transitions to study the distribution of warm gas and its physical conditions for comparison with the Herschel data. I will present large scale maps of the massive star forming region G327.3-0.6 obtained with APEX (CO isotopologues) and PACS (H2O) and report on our analysis of the region.

  7. The bursting nature of star formation in compact star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izotov, Y. I.; Guseva, N. G.; Fricke, K. J.; Henkel, C.

    2016-08-01

    We study integrated characteristics of ˜ 14000 low-redshift (0 < z < 1) compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs) selected from the Data Release 12 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. It is found that emission of these galaxies is dominated by strong young bursts of star formation, implying that their luminosities experience rapid variations on a time scale of a few Myr. Reducing integrated characteristics of these galaxies to zero burst age would result in a considerably tighter and almost linear relation between stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR). The same correction implies that the specific star formation rate (the ratio of SFR and stellar mass) is not dependent on the galaxy stellar mass. We conclude that the correction for rapid luminosity evolution must be taken into account in a similar way when comparing different samples of low- and high-redshift SFGs. If the bursting nature of star formation and young burst ages are characteristics of the galaxies selected at high redshifts, the age correction of observed SFRs derived from the Hβ emission line or UV continua would modify the derived SFR densities in the early universe.

  8. The Connection Between Galaxy Environment and the Luminosity Function Slopes of Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, David O.; Dale, Daniel A.; Lee, Janice C.; Thilker, David; Calzetti, Daniela; Kennicutt, Robert C.

    2016-08-01

    We present the first study of GALEX far ultra-violet (FUV) luminosity functions of individual star-forming regions within a sample of 258 nearby galaxies spanning a large range in total stellar mass and star formation properties. We identify ˜65,000 star-forming regions (i.e., FUV sources), measure each galaxy's luminosity function, and characterize the relationships between the luminosity function slope (α) and several global galaxy properties. A final sample of 82 galaxies with reliable luminosity functions are used to define these relationships and represent the largest sample of galaxies with the largest range of galaxy properties used to study the connection between luminosity function properties and galaxy environment. We find that α correlates with global star formation properties, where galaxies with higher star formation rates and star formation rate densities (ΣSFR) tend to have flatter luminosity function slopes. In addition, we find that neither stochastic sampling of the luminosity function in galaxies with low-number statistics nor the effects of blending due to distance can fully account for these trends. We hypothesize that the flatter slopes in high ΣSFR galaxies is due to higher gas densities and higher star formation efficiencies which result in proportionally greater numbers of bright star-forming regions. Finally, we create a composite luminosity function composed of star-forming regions from many galaxies and find a break in the luminosity function at brighter luminosities. However, we find that this break is an artifact of varying detection limits for galaxies at different distances.

  9. Revealing the nature of star forming blue early-type galaxies at low redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Koshy; Zingade, Kshama

    2015-11-01

    Context. Star forming early-type galaxies with blue optical colours at low redshift can be used to test our current understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. Aims: We want to reveal the fuel and triggering mechanism for star formation in these otherwise passively evolving red and dead stellar systems. Methods: We undertook an optical and ultraviolet study of 55 star forming blue early-type galaxies, searching for signatures of recent interactions that could be driving the molecular gas into the galaxy and potentially triggering the star formation. Results: We report here our results on star forming blue early-type galaxies with tidal trails and in close proximity to neighbouring galaxies that are evidence of ongoing or recent interactions between galaxies. There are 12 galaxies with close companions with similar redshifts, among which two galaxies are having ongoing interactions that potentially trigger the star formation. Two galaxies show a jet feature that could be due to the complete tidal disruption of the companion galaxy. The interacting galaxies have high star formation rates and very blue optical colours. Galaxies with no companion could have undergone a minor merger in the recent past. Conclusions: The recent or ongoing interaction with a gas-rich neighbouring galaxy could be responsible for bringing cold gas to an otherwise passively evolving early-type galaxy. The sudden gas supply could trigger the star formation, eventually creating a blue early-type galaxy. The galaxies with ongoing tidal interaction are blue and star forming, thereby implying that blue early-type galaxies can exist even when the companion is on flyby so does not end up in a merger. Based on data compiled from Galaxy Zoo project, and the volunteers contribution are acknowledged at http://www.galaxyzoo.org/Volunteers.aspx

  10. Outflow Feedback Regulated Massive Star Formation in Parsec-Scale Cluster Forming Clumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peng; Li, Zhi-Yun; Abel, Tom; Nakamura, Fumitaka; /Niigata U.

    2010-02-15

    We investigate massive star formation in turbulent, magnetized, parsec-scale clumps of molecular clouds including protostellar outflow feedback using three dimensional numerical simulations of effective resolution 2048{sup 3}. The calculations are carried out using a block structured adaptive mesh refinement code that solves the ideal MHD equations including self-gravity and implements accreting sink particles. We find that, in the absence of regulation by magnetic fields and outflow feedback, massive stars form readily in a turbulent, moderately condensed clump of {approx} 1,600 M{sub {circle_dot}} (containing {approx} 10{sup 2} initial Jeans masses), along with a cluster of hundreds of lower mass stars. The massive stars are fed at high rates by (1) transient dense filaments produced by large-scale turbulent compression at early times, and (2) by the clump-wide global collapse resulting from turbulence decay at late times. In both cases, the bulk of the massive star's mass is supplied from outside a 0.1 pc-sized 'core' that surrounds the star. In our simulation, the massive star is clump-fed rather than core-fed. The need for large-scale feeding makes the massive star formation prone to regulation by outflow feedback, which directly opposes the feeding processes. The outflows reduce the mass accretion rates onto the massive stars by breaking up the dense filaments that feed the massive star formation at early times, and by collectively slowing down the global collapse that fuel the massive star formation at late times. The latter is aided by a moderate magnetic field of strength in the observed range (corresponding to a dimensionless clump mass-to-flux ratio {lambda} {approx} a few); the field allows the outflow momenta to be deposited more efficiently inside the clump. We conclude that the massive star formation in our simulated turbulent, magnetized, parsec-scale clump is outflow-regulated and clump-fed (ORCF for short). An important implication is that the

  11. Active Longitudes and Flip-Flops in Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Heidi; Järvinen, Silva P.

    2007-08-01

    In many active stars the spots concentrate on two permanent active longitudes which are 180 degrees apart. In some of these stars the dominant part of the spot activity changes the longitude every few years. This so-called flip-flop phenomenon was first reported in the early 1990's in the single, late type giant FK Com. Since then flip-flops have been reported also on binary stars, young solar type stars and the Sun itself. Even though this phenomenon has been detected on many different kinds of active stars, still less than ten stars are known to exhibit this effect. Therefore no statistically significant correlation between the stellar parameters and the flip-flop phenomenon can be carried out. Here we present results from investigation where we have studied the long-term photometry of several magnetically active RS CVn binaries to see whether or not they show permanent active longitudes and the flip-flop phenomenon. We find that it is very common for the active regions to occur on permanent active longitudes, and some of these stars also show clear flip-flop phenomenon.

  12. Nearby Galaxy is a Hotbed of Star Birth Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This new image taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is of the nearby dwarf galaxy NGC 1569. This galaxy is a hotbed of vigorous star birth activity which blows huge bubbles that riddle its main body. The bubble structure is sculpted by the galactic super-winds and outflows caused by a colossal input of energy from collective supernova explosions that are linked with a massive episode of star birth. The bubbles seen in this image are made of hydrogen gas that glows when hit by the fierce wind and radiation from hot young stars and is racked by supernova shocks. Its 'star factories' are also manufacturing brilliant blue star clusters. NGC 1569 had a sudden onset of star birth about 25 million years ago, which subsided about the time the very earliest human ancestors appeared on Earth. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST.

  13. HYDROGEN FLUORIDE IN HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Emprechtinger, M.; Monje, R. R.; Lis, D. C.; Phillips, T. G.; Van der Tak, F. F. S.; Van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Neufeld, D.; Ceccarelli, C.

    2012-09-10

    Hydrogen fluoride (HF) has been established to be an excellent tracer of molecular hydrogen in diffuse clouds. In denser environments, however, the HF abundance has been shown to be approximately two orders of magnitude lower. We present Herschel/HIFI observations of HF J = 1-0 toward two high-mass star formation sites, NGC 6334 I and AFGL 2591. In NGC 6334 I the HF line is seen in absorption in foreground clouds and the source itself, while in AFGL 2591 HF is partially in emission. We find an HF abundance with respect to H{sub 2} of 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} in the diffuse foreground clouds, whereas in the denser parts of NGC 6334 I we derive a lower limit on the HF abundance of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10}. Lower HF abundances in dense clouds are most likely caused by freezeout of HF molecules onto dust grains in high-density gas. In AFGL 2591, the view of the hot core is obstructed by absorption in the massive outflow, in which HF is also very abundant (3.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}) due to the desorption by sputtering. These observations provide further evidence that the chemistry of interstellar fluorine is controlled by freezeout onto gas grains.

  14. The HNC/HCN ratio in star-forming regions

    SciTech Connect

    Graninger, Dawn M.; Öberg, Karin I.; Herbst, Eric; Vasyunin, Anton I.

    2014-05-20

    HNC and HCN, typically used as dense gas tracers in molecular clouds, are a pair of isomers that have great potential as a temperature probe because of temperature dependent, isomer-specific formation and destruction pathways. Previous observations of the HNC/HCN abundance ratio show that the ratio decreases with increasing temperature, something that standard astrochemical models cannot reproduce. We have undertaken a detailed parameter study on which environmental characteristics and chemical reactions affect the HNC/HCN ratio and can thus contribute to the observed dependence. Using existing gas and gas-grain models updated with new reactions and reaction barriers, we find that in static models the H + HNC gas-phase reaction regulates the HNC/HCN ratio under all conditions, except for very early times. We quantitatively constrain the combinations of H abundance and H + HNC reaction barrier that can explain the observed HNC/HCN temperature dependence and discuss the implications in light of new quantum chemical calculations. In warm-up models, gas-grain chemistry contributes significantly to the predicted HNC/HCN ratio and understanding the dynamics of star formation is therefore key to model the HNC/HCN system.

  15. The interstellar distance toolbox: deriving distances to star forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, D. J.; Montier, L. A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Juvela, M.; Grenier, I. A.; McGehee, P.; Montillaud, J.; Paladini, R.; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Remy, Q.; Planck Collaboration

    Fully characterising interstellar clouds requires reliable distance estimates. The study of a large number of clouds is therefore quite challenging, as the different methods do not always agree and furthermore are only able to provide an inhomogeneous sampling of the cloud population. Distances to cold dark clouds are particularly interesting as these constitute the population of pre-stellar cores. The Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC) is an all-sky catalogue of Galactic cold clump candidates detected by Planck . The PGCC catalogue is an observational catalogue consisting exclusively of Galactic cold sources, thus potentially sites of future star formation. The three highest Planck bands (857, 545, 353 GHz) have been combined with IRAS data at 3 THz to perform a multi-frequency detection of sources colder than their local environment. It contains 13188 Galactic sources spread across the entire sky. Using seven independent methods, reliable distance estimates have been obtained for 5574 sources, which allows us to derive their physical properties such as their mass, physical size, mean density and luminosity. The PGCC sources are located mainly in the solar neighbourhood, up to a distance of 10.5 kpc towards the Galactic centre, and range from low-mass cores to large molecular clouds. Modifications to existing methods along with entirely new ones open up the possibility to re-analyse the catalogue with more robust distance information.

  16. GALEX Observes Nearby Cool Stars: Constraints on Ultraviolet Coronal Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley, Jonathan; Welsh, Barry

    2016-01-01

    The GALEX ultraviolet mission (1350-2800A) has detected many late-type dwarf stars. Numerous M-type dwarf stars exhibit flaring and coronal activity; we use GALEX UV photometry to measure the variability of coronal emission in the GALEX NUV and FUV wavebands.

  17. Not Your Grandmother's HII Regions: An X-ray Tour of Massive Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsley, Leisa K.

    2006-09-01

    Chandra and XMM-Newton are providing remarkable new views of massive star-forming regions, revealing all stages in the life cycle of high-mass stars and their effects on their surroundings. We will tour several such regions, highlighting physical processes that characterize the life of a cluster of massive stars, from deeply-embedded cores too young to have established an HII region to superbubbles so large that they shape our views of galaxies. Along the way we see that X-ray observations reveal hundreds of pre-main sequence stars accompanying the massive stars that power great HII region complexes. The most massive stars themselves are often anomalously hard X-ray emitters; this may be a new indicator of close binarity. These complexes are sometimes suffused by diffuse X-ray structures, signatures of multi-million-degree plasmas created by fast O-star winds. In older regions we see the X-ray remains of the deaths of massive stars that stayed close to their birthplaces, exploding as cavity supernovae within the superbubbles that these clusters created.

  18. Metallicity inhomogeneities in local star-forming galaxies as a sign of recent metal-poor gas accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Elmegreen, B. G. E-mail: abml@iac.es E-mail: elmegreen@vassar.edu E-mail: jma20@st-andrews.ac.uk

    2014-03-01

    We measure the oxygen metallicity of the ionized gas along the major axis of seven dwarf star-forming galaxies. Two of them, SDSSJ1647+21 and SDSSJ2238+14, show ≅0.5 dex metallicity decrements in inner regions with enhanced star formation activity. This behavior is similar to the metallicity drop observed in a number of local tadpole galaxies by Sánchez Almeida et al., and was interpreted as showing early stages of assembling in disk galaxies, with the star formation sustained by external metal-poor gas accretion. The agreement with tadpoles has several implications. (1) It proves that galaxies other than the local tadpoles present the same unusual metallicity pattern. (2) Our metallicity inhomogeneities were inferred using the direct method, thus discarding systematic errors usually attributed to other methods. (3) Taken together with the tadpole data, our findings suggest a threshold around one-tenth the solar value for the metallicity drops to show up. Although galaxies with clear metallicity drops are rare, the physical mechanism responsible for them may sustain a significant part of the star formation activity in the local universe. We argue that the star formation dependence of the mass-metallicity relationship, as well as other general properties followed by most local disk galaxies, is naturally interpreted as side effects of pristine gas infall. Alternatives to the metal-poor gas accretion are examined as well.

  19. A Multi-Wavelength Survey of Intermediate-Mass Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Michael J.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Kerton, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Current research into Galactic star formation has focused on either massive star-forming regions or nearby low-mass regions. We present results from a survey of Galactic intermediate-mass star-forming regions (IM SFRs). These regions were selected from IRAS colors that specify cool dust and large PAH contribution, suggesting that they produce stars up to but not exceeding about 8 solar masses. Using WISE data we have classified 984 candidate IM SFRs as star-like objects, galaxies, filamentary structures, or blobs/shells based on their mid-infrared morphologies. Focusing on the blobs/shells, we combined follow-up observations of deep near-infrared (NIR) imaging with optical and NIR spectroscopy to study the stellar content, confirming the intermediate-mass nature of these regions. We also gathered CO data from OSO and APEX to study the molecular content and dynamics of these regions. We compare these results to those of high-mass star formation in order to better understand their role in the star-formation paradigm.

  20. Signatures of cool gas fueling a star-forming galaxy at redshift 2.3.

    PubMed

    Bouché, N; Murphy, M T; Kacprzak, G G; Péroux, C; Contini, T; Martin, C L; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M

    2013-07-01

    Galaxies are thought to be fed by the continuous accretion of intergalactic gas, but direct observational evidence has been elusive. The accreted gas is expected to orbit about the galaxy's halo, delivering not just fuel for star formation but also angular momentum to the galaxy, leading to distinct kinematic signatures. We report observations showing these distinct signatures near a typical distant star-forming galaxy, where the gas is detected using a background quasar passing 26 kiloparsecs from the host. Our observations indicate that gas accretion plays a major role in galaxy growth because the estimated accretion rate is comparable to the star-formation rate. PMID:23828935

  1. Submillimeter Array High-angular Resolution Observations of the Monoceros R2 Star-forming Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierickx, M.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Rivilla, V. M.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-04-01

    We present the first high-angular resolution study of the MonR2 star-forming complex carried out with the Submillimeter Array at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths. We image the continuum and molecular line emission toward the young stellar objects in MonR2 at 0.85 and 1.3 mm, with resolutions ranging from 0.″ 5 to ˜3″. While free-free emission dominates the IRS1 and IRS2 continuum, dust thermal emission prevails for IRS3 and IRS5, giving envelope masses of ˜0.1-0.3 {{M}⊙ }. IRS5 splits into at least two sub-arcsecond scale sources, IRS5B and the more massive IRS5A. Our 12CO(2-1) images reveal 11 previously unknown molecular outflows in the MonR2 clump. Comparing these outflows with known IR sources in the IRS5 and IRS3 subclusters allows for tentative identification of driving stars. Line images of molecular species such as CH3CN or CH3OH show that, besides IRS3 (a well-known hot molecular core), IRS5 is also a chemically active source in the region. The gas excitation temperature derived from CH3CN lines toward IRS5 is 144 ± 15 K, indicating a deeply embedded protostar at the hot-core evolutionary stage. Spectral energy distribution fitting of IRS5 gives a mass of ˜7 M ⊙ and a luminosity of 300 {{L}⊙ } for the central source. The derived physical properties of the CO outflows suggest that they contribute to the turbulent support of the MonR2 complex and to the gas velocity dispersion in the clump’s center. The detection of a large number of CO outflows widespread across the region supports the competitive accretion scenario as origin of the MonR2 star cluster.

  2. Non-linearity and environmental dependence of the star-forming galaxies main sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfanianfar, G.; Popesso, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Wilman, D.; Wuyts, S.; Biviano, A.; Salvato, M.; Mirkazemi, M.; Morselli, L.; Ziparo, F.; Nandra, K.; Lutz, D.; Elbaz, D.; Dickinson, M.; Tanaka, M.; Altieri, M. B.; Aussel, H.; Bauer, F.; Berta, S.; Bielby, R. M.; Brandt, N.; Cappelluti, N.; Cimatti, A.; Cooper, M. C.; Fadda, D.; Ilbert, O.; Le Floch, E.; Magnelli, B.; Mulchaey, J. S.; Nordon, R.; Newman, J. A.; Poglitsch, A.; Pozzi, F.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from four deep fields (COSMOS, AEGIS, ECDFS, and CDFN), we study the correlation between the position of galaxies in the star formation rate (SFR) versus stellar mass plane and local environment at z < 1.1. To accurately estimate the galaxy SFR, we use the deepest available Spitzer/MIPS 24 and Herschel/PACS data sets. We distinguish group environments (Mhalo ˜ 1012.5-14.2 M⊙) based on the available deep X-ray data and lower halo mass environments based on the local galaxy density. We confirm that the main sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies is not a linear relation and there is a flattening towards higher stellar masses (M* > 1010.4-10.6 M⊙), across all environments. At high redshift (0.5 < z < 1.1), the MS varies little with environment. At low redshift (0.15 < z < 0.5), group galaxies tend to deviate from the mean MS towards the region of quiescence with respect to isolated galaxies and less-dense environments. We find that the flattening of the MS towards low SFR is due to an increased fraction of bulge-dominated galaxies at high masses. Instead, the deviation of group galaxies from the MS at low redshift is caused by a large fraction of red disc-dominated galaxies which are not present in the lower density environments. Our results suggest that above a mass threshold (˜1010.4-1010.6 M⊙) stellar mass, morphology and environment act together in driving the evolution of the star formation activity towards lower level. The presence of a dominating bulge and the associated quenching processes are already in place beyond z ˜1. The environmental effects appear, instead, at lower redshifts and have a long time-scale.

  3. The complex high-mass star-forming region IRAS 15507-5359

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persi, P.; Tapia, M.; Roth, M.; Elia, D.; López-Vázquez, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    The far-infrared IRAS 15507-5359 source is known to be a medium-mass star-forming region associated with a compact H II region and a near-infrared embedded cluster. We present a survey of infrared-calibrated images ranging from 1.2 to 500 μm obtained with the Baade telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, and the Herschel space telescope with additional archive Spitzer data. We confirm the distance to the complex to be 5.0 kpc. Three Herschel far-infrared sources are found, I, II, III, identified with dense cores at different evolutionary stages. One (III) is a starless infrared dark cloud showing, near its edge, two infrared reflection nebulae (R1) and (R2) with dispersed young stellar populations, including a knot of shocked H2 line emission. Both show considerable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission. Core II has associated a radio H II region and a deeply embedded one-million-year-old cluster (Cl 1) that contains more than 45 young stellar objects, reddened by at least 20 visual magnitudes. About 20 per cent of them show considerable infrared excess emission. Core I appears void of a near-infrared population, and coincides with a long emission bar that resembles a photodissociation front. We determine the properties of the two most luminous Class I sources in the region by fitting models of young stars with accreting discs and envelopes to their 1-500 μm spectral energy distributions. This is another example of a medium-mass region with at least three well-defined active centres of star formation separated by about 1 pc and at different evolutionary stages.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Parallaxes of high mass star forming regions (Reid+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. J.; Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A.; Zheng, X. W.; Dame, T. M.; Xu, Y.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, B.; Sanna, A.; Sato, M.; Hachisuka, K.; Choi, Y. K.; Immer, K.; Moscadelli, L.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Bartkiewicz, A.

    2016-04-01

    Table1 lists the parallaxes and proper motions of 103 regions of high-mass star formation measured with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) techniques, using the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), the Japanese VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA; http://veraserver.mtk.nao.ac.jp) project, and the European VLBI Network (EVN). We have include three red supergiants (NML Cyg, S Per, VY CMa) as indicative of high-mass star forming regions. (2 data files).

  5. The role of energetic processing on solid-phase chemistry in star forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, M. E.; Urso, R. G.; Kaňuchová, Z.; Scirè, C.; Accolla, M.; Baratta, G. A.; Strazzulla, G.

    2016-05-01

    It is generally accepted that complex molecules observed in star forming regions are formed in the solid phase on icy grain mantles and are released to the gas-phase after desorption of icy mantles. Most of our knowledge on the physical and chemical properties of ices in star forming regions is based on the comparison between observations and laboratory experiments performed at low temperature (10-100 K). Here we present some recent laboratory experiments which show the formation of (complex) molecular species after ion bombardment of simple ices.

  6. X-ray and submillimetre observations of star-forming QSOs in the epoch of galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Mat; Stevens, Jason; Carrera, Francisco; Symeonidis, Myrto; Vieira, Joaquin; HerMES Collaboration

    2012-09-01

    The old, red stars that constitute the bulges of galaxies, and the massive black holes at their centres, are the relics of a period in cosmic history when galaxies formed stars at remarkable rates and active galactic nuclei (AGN) shone brightly as a result of accretion onto black holes. It is widely suspected, but unproved, that the tight correlation between the mass of the black hole and the mass of the stellar bulge results from the AGN quenching the surrounding star formation as it approaches its peak luminosity. The most promising mechanism to terminate star formation is a strong wind from the AGN that drives the interstellar medium out into intergalactic space. In the years leading up to the launch of Herschel, ground based submillimetre observations combined with X-ray surveys have shown that a subset of luminous QSOs, those with significant X-ray absorption (despite their strong UV emission), are embedded in powerful star-forming submillimetre galaxies. I will present the XMM-Newton spectroscopy that implicates highly-ionised winds in the role of X-ray absorber in these objects, and discuss the QSO/star formation evolutionary-sequence suggested by these observations. I will move on to describe the results obtained from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) observations of the Chandra Deep Field North which pairs the deepest submillimetre images ever obtained with one of the two deepest X-ray survey exposures ever taken (2012 Nature 485, 213). The Herschel data provide the first sensitive glimpse into the far-infrared and star formation properties of a large part of the AGN population at cosmological distances. We show that rapid star formation was common in the host galaxies of AGN at redshifts of 1-3 (when the Universe was 2-6 billion years old), but that the most vigorous star formation is not observed around AGN above an X-ray luminosity of 10^44 ergs per second. This suppression of star formation in the host galaxies of powerful AGN is

  7. The star-forming history of the young cluster NGC 2264

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, M. T.; Strom, K. M.; Strom, S. E.

    1983-01-01

    UBVRI H-alpha photographic photometry was obtained for a sample of low-mass stars in the young open cluster NGC 2264 in order to investigate the star-forming history of this region. A theoretical H-R diagram was constructed for the sample of probable cluster members. Isochrones and evolutionary tracks were adopted from Cohen and Kuhi (1979). Evidence for a significant age spread in the cluster was found amounting to over ten million yr. In addition, the derived star formation rate as a function of stellar mass suggests that the principal star-forming mass range in NGC 2264 has proceeded sequentially in time from the lowest to the highest masses. The low-mass cluster stars were the first cluster members to form in significant numbers, although their present birth rate is much lower now than it was about ten million yr ago. The star-formation rate has risen to a peak at successively higher masses and then declined.

  8. Grain surface chemistry in star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taquet, Vianney

    2012-12-01

    The first stages of star formation are accompanied by an evolution of the chemistry, starting from simple molecules in cold dark clouds to the detection of complex organic molecules around Class 0 protostars. Although mostly composed of gas, these clouds also contain small amounts of microscopic dust. The contribution of this dust is nevertheless important because it acts as a catalyst for the formation of key molecules seen in cold interstellar ices, such as water or methanol. These ices are believed to be the first step towards the rich chemistry seen in the warm envelope of protostars. During my thesis, I focused on this first step and I did so by taking a twofold approach. i) Modelling. I have developed an astrochemical model coupling the chemistry in the gas phase and on the grain surfaces. This model follows the multilayer formation of interstellar ices and allows us to investigate the influence of key physical, chemical, and surface parameters, such as the grain porosity, on the chemical composition of ices via a multiparameter approach. The model has been applied to predict the chemical differentiation and the deuteration of interstellar ices. To this end, I have built up a chemical network taking into account the most recent experimental and theoretical works. I applied then the model to various cases. For example, I showed that ices are heterogeneous and their composition are sensitive to the physical conditions as well as several grain surface parameters. The high deuteration of formaldehyde, and methanol observed around low-mass protostars has been predicted by a dense (nH ∼ 5 × 10^6 cm-3) and fast (∼ 5000 years) phase while the lower deuteration of water is predicted for typical molecular cloud conditions. The deuterium fractionation is very sensitive and can be used as a tracer of the physical conditions. ii) Observations. I have been involved in observational projects whose goals are related to the grain surface chemical problems. I obtained the

  9. Activity-Induced Radial Velocity Variation of M Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Jan Marie; Korhonen, Heidi

    2014-04-01

    Stellar magnetic activity manifests itself in a variety of ways including starspots-cool, dark regions on the stellar surface. Starspots can cause variations (`jitter') in spectral line-profiles which can mimic the radial velocity (RV) variations caused by an orbiting planet, or create RV noise that can drown out a planetary signature. Cool, low-mass M dwarf stars can be highly active, which can make detection of potentially habitable planets around these stars difficult. We investigate radial velocity variations caused by different activity (spot) patterns on M dwarf stars in order to determine the limits of detectability for small planets orbiting active M dwarfs. We report on our progress toward the aim of answering the following questions: What types of spot patterns are realistic for M dwarf stars? What effect will spots have on M dwarf RV measurements? Can jitter from M dwarf spots mimic planetary signals? What is the ideal observing wavelength to reduce M dwarf jitter?

  10. Class I methanol masers in low-mass star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenskii, S. V.; Kurtz, S.; Bergman, P.

    2013-02-01

    Results of observations of Class I methanol masers in regions of low-mass star formation (MMIL) are summarized and analyzed. Four masers were detected at 44, 84, and 95 GHz towards "chemically active" bipolar outflows in the low-mass star-forming regions NGC1333 I4A, NGC 1333 I2A, HH 25, and L1157. Another maser was found at 36 GHz towards a similar outflow in NGC 2023. Thus, all the detected MMILs are associated with chemically active outflows. The brightness temperatures of the strongest 44-GHz maser spots in NGC 1333 I4A, HH 25, and L1157 exceed 2000 K, whereas the brightness temperature in NGC 1333 I2A is only 176 K, although a rotational-diagram analysis shows that this last source is also amaser. The flux densities of the newly detectedmasers are no higher than 18 Jy, and are much lower than those of strong masers in regions of high-mass star formation (MMIH). The MMIL luminosities match the maser luminosity-protostar luminosity relation established earlier for MMIHs. No MMIL variability was detected in 2004-2011. The radial velocities of the newly detected masers are close to the systemic velocities of the associated regions, except for NGC 2023, where the maser radial velocity is lower than the systemic velocity by approximately 3.5 km/s. Thus, the main MMILproperties are similar to those of MMIHs. MMILs are likely to be an extension of the MMIH population toward lower luminosities of both the masers and the associated young stellar objects. The results of VLA observations of MMILs can be explained using a turbulent-cloud model, which predicts that compact maser spots can arise in extended sources because the coherence lengths along some directions randomly appear to be longer than the mean coherence length in a turbulent velocity field. However, one must assume that the column density of methanol towardM1, the strongest maser in L1157, is appreciably higher than the mean column density of the clump B0a where the maser arises. The shape of the maser lines

  11. GOODS-Herschel: Star Formation, Dust Attenuation, and the FIR-radio Correlation on the Main Sequence of Star-forming Galaxies up to z ≃4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannella, M.; Elbaz, D.; Daddi, E.; Dickinson, M.; Hwang, H. S.; Schreiber, C.; Strazzullo, V.; Aussel, H.; Bethermin, M.; Buat, V.; Charmandaris, V.; Cibinel, A.; Juneau, S.; Ivison, R. J.; Le Borgne, D.; Le Floc'h, E.; Leiton, R.; Lin, L.; Magdis, G.; Morrison, G. E.; Mullaney, J.; Onodera, M.; Renzini, A.; Salim, S.; Sargent, M. T.; Scott, D.; Shu, X.; Wang, T.

    2015-07-01

    We use deep panchromatic data sets in the GOODS-N field, from GALEX to the deepest Herschel far-infrared (FIR) and VLA radio continuum imaging, to explore the evolution of star-formation activity and dust attenuation properties of star-forming galaxies to z ≃ 4, using mass-complete samples. Our main results can be summarized as follows: (i) the slope of the star-formation rate-M* correlation is consistent with being constant ≃0.8 up to z ≃ 1.5, while its normalization keeps increasing with redshift; (ii) for the first time we are able to explore the FIR-radio correlation for a mass-selected sample of star-forming galaxies: the correlation does not evolve up to z ≃ 4; (iii) we confirm that galaxy stellar mass is a robust proxy for UV dust attenuation in star-forming galaxies, with more massive galaxies being more dust attenuated. Strikingly, we find that this attenuation relation evolves very weakly with redshift, with the amount of dust attenuation increasing by less than 0.3 mag over the redshift range [0.5-4] for a fixed stellar mass; (iv) the correlation between dust attenuation and the UV spectral slope evolves with redshift, with the median UV slope becoming bluer with redshift. By z ≃ 3, typical UV slopes are inconsistent, given the measured dust attenuations, with the predictions of commonly used empirical laws. (v) Finally, building on existing results, we show that gas reddening is marginally larger (by a factor of around 1.3) than the stellar reddening at all redshifts probed. Our results support a scenario where the ISM conditions of typical star-forming galaxies evolve with redshift, such that at z ≥ 1.5 Main Sequence galaxies have ISM conditions moving closer to those of local starbursts. Based on observations collected at the Herschel, Spitzer, Keck, NRAO-VLA, Subaru, KPNO, and CFHT observatories. Herschel is an European Space Agency Cornerstone Mission with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and

  12. The Unresolved Star-Forming Galaxy Component of the Extragalactic Gamma Ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venters, Tonia M.; Stecker, F. W.

    2011-01-01

    We present new theoretical estimates of the contribution of unresolved star-forming galaxies to the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) as measured by EGRET and the Fermi-LAT. We employ several methods for determining the star-forming galaxy contribution the the EGB, including a method positing a correlation between the gamma-ray luminosity of a galaxy and its rate of star formation as calculated from the total infrared luminosity, and a method that makes use of a model of the evolution of the galaxy gas mass with cosmic time. We find that depending on the model, unresolved star-forming galaxies could contribute significantly to the EGB as measured by the Fermi-LAT at energies between approx. 300 MeV and approx. few GeV. However, the overall spectrum of unresolved star-forming galaxies can explain neither the EGRET EGB spectrum at energies between 50 and 200 MeV nor the Fermi-LAT EGB spectrum at energies above approx. few GeV.

  13. High resolution NH3 studies of nearby star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, Rachel

    2014-07-01

    Stars form within dense molecular cores. These cores are often embedded within larger structures, such as clumps and filaments, particularly in clustered star-forming environments. Indeed, large-scale maps of the continuum emission from dust have revealed the ubiquity of filaments in star-forming regions. The condensation and fragmentation of cores within larger structures is therefore a critical step in the star formation process, but continuum data alone do not provide key information, such as the gas kinematics, needed to discern between evolutionary scenarios. I will present new results from large NH3 studies of nearby star-forming regions, including Taurus and Serpens South. While NH3 primarily traces high density gas, sensitive observations over Serpens South reveal extensive, low brightness emission between the prominent cores and filaments, and show directly the frequently (but not invariably) sharp transitions between turbulent and quiescent gas in the high density regions. I will discuss the hierarchical structure of the dense gas in Serpens South, with comparisons between two- and three-dimensional analysis, and analyze the importance of thermal fragmentation in the filaments and cores over a range of physical scales.

  14. Birthing star forming clouds in the grand design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Yusuke; Tasker, Elizabeth; Bryan, Greg L.; Habe, Asao

    2015-08-01

    This talk presents results of giant molecular clouds formed in a hydrodynamical model of the barred spiral galaxy, M83. To include the formation, evolution, and destruction processes of the giant molecular clouds with the global gas dynamics taken into account, we perform whole galactic disc simulations with thermal stellar feedback. Our global model resolves down to 1.5 pc and explores the properties of the clouds forming in the bar, spiral and disc environments. The property distributions of the GMCs show only a small dependence based on their environment, however we notice three distinct different cloud types emerging, whose relative number is environment dependent. These cloud types consist of typical clouds (ones whose mass and radius agrees well with observations), massive clouds (with radii larger than 30 pc and mass above 10^7 Msun) and transient clouds who are typically unbound with short life times. This talk discusses the environment dependence of these cloud types and effects of the thermal feedback on the clouds.

  15. 77 FR 46089 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR... this action are participants in EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors. Title: Information Collection Activities Associated with EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial...

  16. CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Star Tracker with Regional Electronic Shutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly; Pain, Bedabrata; Staller, Craig; Clark, Christopher; Fossum, Eric

    1996-01-01

    The guidance system in a spacecraft determines spacecraft attitude by matching an observed star field to a star catalog....An APS(active pixel sensor)-based system can reduce mass and power consumption and radiation effects compared to a CCD(charge-coupled device)-based system...This paper reports an APS (active pixel sensor) with locally variable times, achieved through individual pixel reset (IPR).

  17. From star-forming galaxies to AGN: the global HI content from a stacking experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geréb, K.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Hoppmann, L.; Staveley-Smith, L.

    2015-08-01

    We study the atomic neutral hydrogen (H I) content of ~1600 galaxies up to z ~ 0.1 using stacking techniques. The observations were carried out with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) in the area of the SDSS South Galactic Cap (SSGC), where we selected a galaxy sample from the SDSS spectroscopic catalog. Multi-wavelength information is provided by SDSS, NVSS, GALEX, and WISE. We use the collected information to study H I trends with color, star-forming, and active galactic nuclei (AGN) properties. Using near-UV (NUV) -r colors, galaxies are divided into blue cloud, green valley and red sequence galaxies. As expected based on previous observations, we detect H I in green valley objects with lower amounts of H I than blue galaxies, while stacking only produces a 3σ upper limit for red galaxies with MHI< (5 ± 1.5) × 108 M⊙ and MHI/Lr< 0.02 ± 0.006 M⊙/L⊙ (averaged over four redshift bins up to z ~ 0.1). We find that the H I content is more dependent on NUV -r color, and less on ionization properties, in the sense that regardless of the presence of an optical AGN (based on optical ionization line diagnostics), green-valley galaxies always show H I, whereas red galaxies only produce an upper limit. This suggests that feedback from optical AGN is not the (main) reason for depleting large-scale gas reservoirs. Low-level radio continuum emission in our galaxies can stem either from star formation, or from AGN. We use the WISE color-color plot to separate these phenomena by dividing the sample into IR late-type and IR early-type galaxies. We find that the radio emission in IR late-type galaxies stems from enhanced star formation, and this group is detected in H I. However, IR early-type galaxies lack any sign of H I gas and star formation activity, suggesting that radio AGN are likely to be the source of radio emission in this population. Future H I surveys will allow for extending our studies to higher redshift, and for testing any possible evolution

  18. Modeling tracers of young stellar population age in star-forming galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, Emily M.; Leitherer, Claus

    2013-12-20

    The young stellar population of a star-forming galaxy is the primary engine driving its radiative properties. As a result, the age of a galaxy's youngest generation of stars is critical for a detailed understanding of its star formation history, stellar content, and evolutionary state. Here we present predicted equivalent widths for the Hβ, Hα, and Brγ recombination lines as a function of stellar population age. The equivalent widths are produced by the latest generations of stellar evolutionary tracks and the Starburst99 stellar population synthesis code, and are the first to fully account for the combined effects of both nebular emission and continuum absorption produced by the synthetic stellar population. Our grid of model stellar populations spans six metallicities (0.001 < Z < 0.04), two treatments of star formation history (a 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} instantaneous burst and a continuous star formation rate of 1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}), and two different treatments of initial rotation rate (v {sub rot} = 0.0v {sub crit} and 0.4v {sub crit}). We also investigate the effects of varying the initial mass function. Given constraints on galaxy metallicity, our predicted equivalent widths can be applied to observations of star-forming galaxies to approximate the age of their young stellar populations.

  19. Physical properties of local star-forming analogues to z ˜ 5 Lyman-break galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greis, Stephanie M. L.; Stanway, Elizabeth R.; Davies, Luke J. M.; Levan, Andrew J.

    2016-07-01

    Intense, compact, star-forming galaxies are rare in the local Universe but ubiquitous at high redshift. We interpret the 0.1-22 μm spectral energy distributions of a sample of 180 galaxies at 0.05 < z < 0.25 selected for extremely high surface densities of inferred star formation in the ultraviolet. By comparison with well-established stellar population synthesis models, we find that our sample comprises young (˜60-400 Myr), moderate mass (˜6 × 109 M⊙) star-forming galaxies with little dust extinction (mean stellar continuum extinction Econt(B - V) ˜ 0.1) and find star formation rates of a few tens of solar masses per year. We use our inferred masses to determine a mean specific star formation rate for this sample of ˜10-9 yr-1, and compare this to the specific star formation rates in distant Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs), and in other low-redshift populations. We conclude that our sample's characteristics overlap significantly with those of the z ˜ 5 LBG population, making ours the first local analogue population well tuned to match those high-redshift galaxies. We consider implications for the origin and evolution of early galaxies.

  20. Parsec-scale X-ray flows in high-mass star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsley, L. K.; Broos, P. S.; Feigelson, E. D.; Garmire, G. P.

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is providing remarkable new views of massive star-forming regions, revealing all stages in the life cycle of high-mass stars and their effects on their surroundings. We present a Chandra tour of several high-mass star-forming regions, highlighting physical processes that characterize the life of a cluster of high-mass stars, from deeply-embedded cores too young to have established an HII region to superbubbles so large that they shape our views of galaxies. Along the way we see that X-ray observations reveal hundreds of stellar sources powering great HII region complexes, suffused by both hard and soft diffuse X-ray structures caused by fast O-star winds thermalized in wind-wind collisions or by termination shocks against the surrounding media. Finally, we examine the effects of the deaths of high-mass stars that remained close to their birthplaces, exploding as supernovae within the superbubbles that these clusters created. We present new X-ray results on W51 IRS2E and 30 Doradus and we introduce new data on Trumpler 14 in Carina and the W3 HII region complexes W3 Main and W3(OH).

  1. DUST EXTINCTION AND METALLICITIES OF STAR-FORMING Ly{alpha} EMITTING GALAXIES AT LOW REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Papovich, Casey; Cohen, Seth H.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Moustakas, John

    2011-06-01

    We present the results of an optical spectroscopic study of 12 GALEX-discovered star-forming Ly{alpha} emitting galaxies (LAEs) at z {approx} 0.3. We measure the emission-line fluxes from these galaxies by fitting their observed spectra to stellar population models in order to correct for underlying stellar absorption. We revisit earlier stellar population model fitting results, finding that excluding now-known active galactic nuclei lowers the typical stellar population age and stellar mass of this sample to {approx}300 Myr and {approx}4 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}, respectively. We calculate their dust extinction using the Balmer decrement, and find a typical visual attenuation of A{sub V} {approx} 0.3 mag, similar to that seen in some high-redshift LAEs. Comparing the ratios of Ly{alpha}/H{alpha} and the Ly{alpha} equivalent widths to the measured dust extinction, we find that the interstellar media (ISMs) in these objects appear to be neither enhancing nor seriously attenuating the Ly{alpha} equivalent widths, as would be the case in a quasi-clumpy ISM. Lastly, we perform a detailed analysis of the gas-phase metallicities of these galaxies, and we find that most galaxies in our sample have Z {approx}< 0.4 Z{sub sun}. We find that at a fixed stellar mass, these low-redshift LAE analogs are offset by {approx}0.3-0.6 dex lower metallicity from the general galaxy population at similar redshifts based on the local mass-metallicity relationship. This implies that galaxies with Ly{alpha} in emission may be systematically more metal-poor than star-forming galaxies at the same stellar mass and redshift, similar to preliminary results at z {approx} 2.

  2. The star formation rates of active galactic nuclei host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Sara L.; Teimoorinia, Hossen; Rosario, David J.; Mendel, J. Trevor

    2016-05-01

    Using artificial neural network predictions of total infrared luminosities (LIR), we compare the host galaxy star formation rates (SFRs) of ˜21 000 optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGN), 466 low-excitation radio galaxies (LERGs) and 721 mid-IR-selected AGN. SFR offsets (ΔSFR) relative to a sample of star-forming `main-sequence' galaxies (matched in M⋆, z and local environment) are computed for the AGN hosts. Optically selected AGN exhibit a wide range of ΔSFR, with a distribution skewed to low SFRs and a median ΔSFR = -0.06 dex. The LERGs have SFRs that are shifted to even lower values with a median ΔSFR = -0.5 dex. In contrast, mid-IR-selected AGN have, on average, SFRs enhanced by a factor of ˜1.5. We interpret the different distributions of ΔSFR amongst the different AGN classes in the context of the relative contribution of triggering by galaxy mergers. Whereas the LERGs are predominantly fuelled through low accretion rate secular processes which are not accompanied by enhancements in SFR, mergers, which can simultaneously boost SFRs, most frequently lead to powerful, obscured AGN.

  3. Exploring the Connection Between Star Formation and AGN Activity in the Local Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Heckman. T. M.; Ptak, Andrew; Schiminovich, D.; O'Dowd, M.; Bertincourt, B.

    2012-01-01

    We study a combined sample of 264 star-forming, 51 composite, and 73 active galaxies using optical spectra from SDSS and mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectra from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. We examine optical and mid-IR spectroscopic diagnostics that probe the amount of star formation and relative energetic con- tributions from star formation and an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Overall we find good agreement between optical and mid-IR diagnostics. Misclassifications of galaxies based on the SDSS spectra are rare despite the presence of dust obscuration. The luminosity of the [NeII] 12.8 micron emission-line is well correlated with the star formation rate (SFR) measured from the SDSS spectra, and this holds for the star forming, composite, and AGN-dominated systems. AGN show a clear excess of [NeIII] 15.6 micron emission relative to star forming and composite systems. We find good qualitative agreement between various parameters that probe the relative contributions of the AGN and star formation, including: the mid-IR spectral slope, the ratio of the [NeV] 14.3 micron to [NeII] micron 12.8 fluxes, the equivalent widths of the 7.7, 11.3, and 17 micron PAH features, and the optical "D" parameter which measures the distance a source lies from the locus of star forming galaxies in the optical BPT emission-line diagnostic diagram. We also consider the behavior of the three individual PAH features by examining how their flux ratios depend upon the degree of AGN-dominance. We find that the PAH 11.3 micron feature is significantly suppressed in the most AGN-dominated systems.

  4. Faint Lyα Emitters, Star-forming Galaxies, and Damped Lyα Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, M.; Haehnelt, M.; Bunker, A.; Becker, G.; Marleau, F.; Graham, J.; Cristiani, S.; Jarvis, M.; Lacey, C.; Morris, S.; Peroux, C.; Roettgering, H.; Theuns, T.

    2008-10-01

    We have discovered a population of faint single line emitters, likely to be identified with faint z˜ 3 Lyα emitters and with the host galaxies of damped Lyman alpha systems. The objects appear to constitute the bulk of the star-forming galaxies detected so far from the ground, and are likely to provide the gaseous reservoir from which present-day Milky way type galaxies have formed. Unlike color-selected (yman break galaxies, these objects appear to have low star-formation rates, relatively strong Lyalpha emission, and low masses, metallicities, and dust content (s.a. arXiv:0711.1354).

  5. The global chemical properties of high-mass star forming clumps at different evolutionary stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Jun; Esimbek, Jarken; He, Yu-Xin; Li, Da-Lei; Tang, Xin-Di; Ji, Wei-Guang; Yuan, Ye; Guo, Wei-Hua

    2016-06-01

    A total of 197 relatively isolated high-mass star-forming clumps were selected from the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey data and their global chemical evolution investigated using four molecular lines, N2H+ (1--0), HCO+ (1--0), HCN (1-0), and HNC (1-0). The results suggest that the global averaged integrated intensity ratios I(HCO+)/I(HNC), I(HCN)/I(HNC), I(N2H+)/I(HCO+), and I(N2H+)/ I(HCN) are promising tracers for evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. The global averaged column densities and abundances of N2H+, HCO+, HCN, and HNC increase as clumps evolve. The global averaged abundance ratios X(HCN)/X(HNC) could be used to trace evolution of high-mass star forming clumps, X(HCO+)/X(HNC) is more suitable for distinguishing high-mass star-forming clumps in prestellar (stage A) from those in protostellar (stage B) and HII/PDR region (stage C). These results suggest that the global averaged integrated intensity ratios between HCN (1-0), HNC (1-0), HCO+ (1--0) and N2H+ (1--0) are more suitable for tracing the evolution of high-mass star forming clumps. We also studied the chemical properties of the target high-mass star-forming clumps in each spiral arm of the Galaxy, and got results very different from those above. This is probably due to the relatively small sample in each spiral arm. For high-mass star-forming clumps in Sagittarius arm and Norma-Outer arm, comparing two groups located on one arm with different Galactocentric distances, the clumps near the Galactic Center appear to be younger than those far from the Galactic center, which may be due to more dense gas concentrated near the Galactic Center, and hence more massive stars being formed there.

  6. Preferential Pathway for Glycine Formation in Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilling, S.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Baptista, L.; Santos A. C., F.

    Interstellar clouds, similar to that from which the solar system was formed, contain many organic molecules including aldehydes, acids, ketones, and sugars Ehrenfreund & Charnley (2000). Those organic compounds have important functions in terrestrial biochemistry and could also have been important in prebiotic synthesis. The simplest amino acid, glycine (NH2CH2COOH), was recently detected in the hot molecular cores Sgr B2(N-LMH), Orion KL, and W51 e1/e2 Kuan et al. (2003). The formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid(CH3COOH) have also been detected in those regions Liu et al. (2002), Remijan et al. (2004). The goal of this work is to study experimentally photoionization and photodissociation processes of glycine precursor molecules, acetic acid and formic acid to elucidate a possible preferentially in the glycine synthesis between ice and gas phase. The measurements were taken at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), employing soft X-ray photons from a toroidal grating monochromator TGM) beamline (100 - 310 eV). The experimental set up consists of a high vacuum chamber with a Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TOF-MS). Mass spectra were obtained using PhotoElectron PhotoIon Coincidence (PEPICO) technique. Kinetic energy distributions and abundances for each ionic fragment have been obtained from the analysis of the corresponding peak shapes in the mass spectra. Dissociative and non-dissociative photoionization cross sections for both molecules were also determined Boechat-Roberty, Pilling & Santos (2005). Due to the high photodissociation cross section of formic acid it is possible that in PDRs regions, just after molecules evaporation from the grains surface, it is almost destructed by soft X-rays, justifying the observed low abundance of HCOOH in gaseous phase Ehrenfreund et al. (2001). Acetic acid have shown to be more stable to the ionizing field, and its main outcomes from dissociation process were the reactive ionic fragments COOH+ and CH3CO+. To

  7. Variations in the Star Formation Efficiency of the Dense Molecular Gas across the Disks of Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usero, Antonio; Leroy, Adam K.; Walter, Fabian; Schruba, Andreas; García-Burillo, Santiago; Sandstrom, Karin; Bigiel, Frank; Brinks, Elias; Kramer, Carsten; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; de Blok, W. J. G.

    2015-10-01

    We present a new survey of HCN(1-0) emission, a tracer of dense molecular gas, focused on the little-explored regime of normal star-forming galaxy disks. Combining HCN, CO, and infrared (IR) emission, we investigate the role of dense gas in star formation, finding systematic variations in both the apparent dense gas fraction (traced by the HCN-to-CO ratio) and the apparent star formation efficiency of dense gas (traced by the IR-to-HCN ratio). The latter may be unexpected, given the recent popularity of gas density threshold models to explain star formation scaling relations. Our survey used the IRAM 30 m telescope to observe HCN(1-0), CO(1-0), and several other emission lines across 29 nearby disk galaxies whose CO(2-1) emission has previously been mapped by the HERACLES survey. We detected HCN in 48 out of 62 observed positions. Because our observations achieve a typical resolution of ˜1.5 kpc and span a range of galaxies and galactocentric radii (56% lie at {r}{gal}\\gt 1 kpc), we are able to investigate the properties of the dense gas as a function of local conditions in a galaxy disk. We focus on how the ratios IR-to-CO, HCN-to-CO, and IR-to-HCN (observational cognates of the star formation efficiency, dense gas fraction, and dense gas star formation efficiency) depend on the stellar surface density, {{{Σ }}}{star}, and the molecular-to-atomic gas ratio, {{{Σ }}}{mol}/{{{Σ }}}{atom}. The HCN-to-CO ratio is low, often ˜1/30, and correlates tightly with both the molecular-to-atomic ratio and the stellar mass surface density across a range of 2.1 dex (factor of ≈125) in both parameters. Thus for the assumption of fixed CO-to-H2 and HCN-to-dense gas conversion factors, the dense gas fraction depends strongly on location in the disk, being higher in the high surface density, highly molecular parts of galaxies. At the same time, the IR-to-HCN ratio (closely related to the star formation efficiency of dense molecular gas) decreases systematically with these

  8. From H I to Stars: H I Depletion in Starbursts and Star-forming Galaxies in the ALFALFA Hα Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskot, A. E.; Oey, M. S.; Salzer, J. J.; Van Sistine, A.; Bell, E. F.; Haynes, M. P.

    2015-07-01

    H i in galaxies traces the fuel for future star formation and reveals the effects of feedback on neutral gas. Using a statistically uniform, H i-selected sample of 565 galaxies from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) Hα survey, we explore H i properties as a function of star formation activity. ALFALFA Hα provides R-band and Hα imaging for a volume-limited subset of the 21 cm ALFALFA survey. We identify eight starbursts based on Hα equivalent width and six with enhanced star formation relative to the main sequence. Both starbursts and non-starbursts have similar H i-to-stellar mass ratios ({M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}*), which suggests that feedback is not depleting the starbursts’ H i. Consequently, the starbursts do have shorter H i depletion times ({t}{dep}), implying more efficient H i-to-H2 conversion. While major mergers likely drive this enhanced efficiency in some starbursts, the lowest-mass starbursts may experience periodic bursts, consistent with enhanced scatter in {t}{dep} at low {M}*. Two starbursts appear to be pre-coalescence mergers; their elevated {M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}* suggest that H i-to-H2 conversion is still ongoing at this stage. By comparing with the GASS sample, we find that {t}{dep} anticorrelates with stellar surface density for disks, while spheroids show no such trend. Among early-type galaxies, {t}{dep} does not correlate with bulge-to-disk ratio; instead, the gas distribution may determine the star formation efficiency. Finally, the weak connection between galaxies’ specific star formation rates and {M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}* contrasts with the well-known correlation between {M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}* and color. We show that dust extinction can explain the H i-color trend, which may arise from the relationship between {M}*, {M}{{H} {{I}}}, and metallicity.

  9. From H I to Stars: H I Depletion in Starbursts and Star-forming Galaxies in the ALFALFA Hα Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskot, A. E.; Oey, M. S.; Salzer, J. J.; Van Sistine, A.; Bell, E. F.; Haynes, M. P.

    2015-07-01

    H i in galaxies traces the fuel for future star formation and reveals the effects of feedback on neutral gas. Using a statistically uniform, H i-selected sample of 565 galaxies from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) Hα survey, we explore H i properties as a function of star formation activity. ALFALFA Hα provides R-band and Hα imaging for a volume-limited subset of the 21 cm ALFALFA survey. We identify eight starbursts based on Hα equivalent width and six with enhanced star formation relative to the main sequence. Both starbursts and non-starbursts have similar H i-to-stellar mass ratios ({M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}*), which suggests that feedback is not depleting the starbursts’ H i. Consequently, the starbursts do have shorter H i depletion times ({t}{dep}), implying more efficient H i-to-H2 conversion. While major mergers likely drive this enhanced efficiency in some starbursts, the lowest-mass starbursts may experience periodic bursts, consistent with enhanced scatter in {t}{dep} at low {M}*. Two starbursts appear to be pre-coalescence mergers; their elevated {M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}* suggest that H i-to-H2 conversion is still ongoing at this stage. By comparing with the GASS sample, we find that {t}{dep} anticorrelates with stellar surface density for disks, while spheroids show no such trend. Among early-type galaxies, {t}{dep} does not correlate with bulge-to-disk ratio; instead, the gas distribution may determine the star formation efficiency. Finally, the weak connection between galaxies’ specific star formation rates and {M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}* contrasts with the well-known correlation between {M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}* and color. We show that dust extinction can explain the H i–color trend, which may arise from the relationship between {M}*, {M}{{H} {{I}}}, and metallicity.

  10. Molecular gas mass functions of normal star-forming galaxies since z ~ 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Nordon, R.; Genzel, R.; Magnelli, B.; Popesso, P.; Rosario, D.; Saintonge, A.; Wuyts, S.; Tacconi, L. J.

    2013-07-01

    We used deep far-infrared data from the PEP/GOODS-Herschel surveys and restframe ultraviolet photometry to study the evolution of the molecular gas mass function of normal star-forming galaxies. Computing the molecular gas mass, Mmol, by scaling star formation rates through depletion timescales, or combining infrared (IR) luminosity and obscuration properties as described in the literature, we obtained Mmol for roughly 700, z = 0.2-3.0 galaxies near the star-forming main sequence. The number density of galaxies follows a Schechter function of Mmol. The characteristic mass M ∗ is found to strongly evolve up to z ~ 1 and then flatten at earlier epochs, resembling the IR luminosity evolution of similar objects. At z ~ 1, our result is supported by an estimate based on the stellar mass function of star-forming galaxies and gas fraction scalings from the PHIBSS survey. We compared our measurements with results from current models, finding better agreement with those that are treating star formation laws directly rather than in post-processing. Integrating the mass function, we studied the evolution of the Mmol density and its density parameter Ωmol. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  11. C III] Emission in Star-forming Galaxies Near and Far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, J. R.; Bayliss, M. B.; Gladders, M. D.; Sharon, K.; Wuyts, E.; Dahle, H.; Johnson, T.; Peña-Guerrero, M.

    2015-11-01

    We measure [C iii] 1907, C iii] 1909 Å emission lines in 11 gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 1.6-3, finding much lower equivalent widths than previously reported for fainter lensed galaxies. While it is not yet clear what causes some galaxies to be strong C iii] emitters, C iii] emission is not a universal property of distant star-forming galaxies. We also examine C iii] emission in 46 star-forming galaxies in the local universe, using archival spectra from GHRS, FOS, and STIS on HST and IUE. Twenty percent of these local galaxies show strong C iii] emission, with equivalent widths < -5 Å. Three nearby galaxies show C iii] emission equivalent widths as large as the most extreme emitters yet observed in the distant universe; all three are Wolf-Rayet galaxies. At all redshifts, strong C iii] emission may pick out low-metallicity galaxies experiencing intense bursts of star formation. Such local C iii] emitters may shed light on the conditions of star formation in certain extreme high-redshift galaxies.

  12. C III] Emission in Star-Forming Galaxies Near and Far

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, J, R.; Bayliss, M. B.; Gladders, M. D.; Sharon, K.; Wuyts, E.; Dahle, H.; Johnson, T.; Pena-Guerrero, M.

    2015-01-01

    We measure C III Lambda Lambda 1907, 1909 Angstrom emission lines in eleven gravitationally-lensed star-forming galaxies at zeta at approximately 1.6-3, finding much lower equivalent widths than previously reported for fainter lensed galaxies (Stark et al. 2014). While it is not yet clear what causes some galaxies to be strong C III] emitters, C III] emission is not a universal property of distant star-forming galaxies. We also examine C III] emission in 46 star-forming galaxies in the local universe, using archival spectra from GHRS, FOS, and STIS on HST, and IUE. Twenty percent of these local galaxies show strong C III] emission, with equivalent widths less than -5 Angstrom. Three nearby galaxies show C III] emission equivalent widths as large as the most extreme emitters yet observed in the distant universe; all three are Wolf-Rayet galaxies. At all redshifts, strong C III] emission may pick out low-metallicity galaxies experiencing intense bursts of star formation. Such local C III] emitters may shed light on the conditions of star formation in certain extreme high-redshift galaxies.

  13. Metallicity gradients and newly created star-forming systems in interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia L.

    2015-08-01

    Interactions play an extremely important role in the evolution of galaxies, changing their morphologies and kinematics. Galaxy collisions may result in the formation of intergalactic star-forming objects, such as HII regions, young clusters and/or tidal dwarf galaxies. Several studies have found a wealth of newly created objects in interacting systems. We will exemplify the problems and challenges in this field and will describe observations of the interacting group NGC 6845, which contains four bright galaxies, two of which have extended tidal tails. We obtained Gemini/GMOS spectra for 28 of the regions located in the galaxies and in the tails. All regions in the latter are star-forming objects according to their line ratios, with ages younger than 10 Myr. A super luminous star forming complex is found in the brightest member of the group, NGC 6845A. Its luminosity reveals a star formation density of 0.19 solar masses, per year, per kpc^2, suggesting that this object is a localized starburst. We derived the gas-phase metallicity gradients across NGC 6845A and its two tails and we find that these are shallower than those for isolated galaxies. We speculate that the observed metallicity gradient may be related to one or more of the following mechanisms: (1) interaction induced inflow of fresh gas to the galaxy center, as seen in simulations, which is expected to dilute the metallicity of the central burst, (2) the formation of young metal-rich star forming regions in the tidal tails, which were born out of enriched gas expelled from the central regions of the system during the interaction and (3) the incremental growth of metals accumulated over time, due to the successful generations of star forming regions along the tails. Finally we will describe our plans to do a search for such objects on Halpha images that will soon be available for 17.5k degrees of the sky, with the A-PLUS survey.

  14. Massive star clusters in a z=1 star-forming galaxy seen at a 100 pc scale thanks to strong gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Cava, Antonio; Richard, Johan; Schaerer, Daniel; Egami, Eiichi

    2015-08-01

    Deep and high-resolution imaging has revealed clumpy, rest-frame UV morphologies among z=1-3 galaxies. The majority of these galaxies has been shown to be dominated by ordered disk rotation, which led to the conclusion that the observed giant clumps, resolved on kpc-scales, are generated from disk fragmentation due to gravitational instability. State-of-the-art numerical simulations show that they may occupy a relevant role in galaxy evolution, contributing to the galactic bulge formation. Despite the high resolution attained by the most advanced ground- and space-based facilities, as well as in numerical simulations, the intrinsic typical masses and scale sizes of these star-forming clumps remain unconstrained, since they are barely resolved at z=1-3.Thanks to the amplification and stretching power provided by strong gravitational lensing, we are likely to reach the spatial resolving power for unveiling the physics of these star-forming regions. We report on the study of clumpy star formation observed in the Cosmic Snake, a strongly lensed galaxy at z=1, representative of the typical star-forming population close to the peak of Universe activity. About 20 clumps are identified in the HST images. Benefiting from extreme amplification factors up to 100, they are resolved down to an intrinsic scale of 100 pc, never reached before at z=1.The HST multi-wavelength analysis of these individual star clusters allows us to determine their intrinsic physical properties, showing stellar masses (Ms) from 106 to 108.3 Msun, sizes from 100 to 400 pc, and ages from 106 to 108.5 yr. The masses we find are in line with the new, very high resolution numerical simulations, which also suggest that the massive giant clumps previously observed at high redshift with Ms as high as 109-10 Msun may suffer from low resolution effects, being unresolved conglomerates of less massive star clusters. We also compare our results with those of massive young clusters in nearby galaxies. Our approved

  15. HerMES: Cosmic Infrared Background Anisotropies and the Clustering of Dusty Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viero, M. P.; Wang, L.; Zemcov, M.; Addison, G.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Aussel, H.; Béthermin, M.; Bock, J.; Boselli, A.; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.; Casey, C. M.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; Cooray, A.; De Zotti, G.; Dowell, C. D.; Farrah, D.; Franceschini, A.; Glenn, J.; Griffin, M.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Heinis, S.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Lagache, G.; Levenson, L.; Marchetti, L.; Marsden, G.; Nguyen, H. T.; O'Halloran, B.; Oliver, S. J.; Omont, A.; Page, M. J.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pearson, C. P.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Pohlen, M.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Schulz, B.; Scott, D.; Seymour, N.; Shupe, D. L.; Smith, A. J.; Symeonidis, M.; Vaccari, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Vieira, J. D.; Wardlow, J.; Xu, C. K.

    2013-07-01

    We present measurements of the auto- and cross-frequency power spectra of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 250, 350, and 500 μm (1200, 860, and 600 GHz) from observations totaling ~70 deg2 made with the SPIRE instrument aboard the Herschel Space Observatory. We measure a fractional anisotropy δI/I = 14% ± 4%, detecting signatures arising from the clustering of dusty star-forming galaxies in both the linear (2-halo) and nonlinear (1-halo) regimes; and that the transition from the 2- to 1-halo terms, below which power originates predominantly from multiple galaxies within dark matter halos, occurs at k θ ~ 0.10-0.12 arcmin-1 (l ~ 2160-2380), from 250 to 500 μm. New to this paper is clear evidence of a dependence of the Poisson and 1-halo power on the flux-cut level of masked sources—suggesting that some fraction of the more luminous sources occupy more massive halos as satellites, or are possibly close pairs. We measure the cross-correlation power spectra between bands, finding that bands which are farthest apart are the least correlated, as well as hints of a reduction in the correlation between bands when resolved sources are more aggressively masked. In the second part of the paper, we attempt to interpret the measurements in the framework of the halo model. With the aim of fitting simultaneously with one model the power spectra, number counts, and absolute CIB level in all bands, we find that this is achievable by invoking a luminosity-mass relationship, such that the luminosity-to-mass ratio peaks at a particular halo mass scale and declines toward lower and higher mass halos. Our best-fit model finds that the halo mass which is most efficient at hosting star formation in the redshift range of peak star-forming activity, z ~ 1-3, is log(M peak/M ⊙) ~ 12.1 ± 0.5, and that the minimum halo mass to host infrared galaxies is log(M min/M ⊙) ~ 10.1 ± 0.6. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European

  16. HerMES: COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES AND THE CLUSTERING OF DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Viero, M. P.; Zemcov, M.; Bock, J.; Cooray, A.; Dowell, C. D.; Wang, L.; Addison, G.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Aussel, H.; Bethermin, M.; Casey, C. M.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; De Zotti, G.; Farrah, D.; and others

    2013-07-20

    We present measurements of the auto- and cross-frequency power spectra of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m (1200, 860, and 600 GHz) from observations totaling {approx}70 deg{sup 2} made with the SPIRE instrument aboard the Herschel Space Observatory. We measure a fractional anisotropy {delta}I/I = 14% {+-} 4%, detecting signatures arising from the clustering of dusty star-forming galaxies in both the linear (2-halo) and nonlinear (1-halo) regimes; and that the transition from the 2- to 1-halo terms, below which power originates predominantly from multiple galaxies within dark matter halos, occurs at k{sub {theta}} {approx} 0.10-0.12 arcmin{sup -1} (l {approx} 2160-2380), from 250 to 500 {mu}m. New to this paper is clear evidence of a dependence of the Poisson and 1-halo power on the flux-cut level of masked sources-suggesting that some fraction of the more luminous sources occupy more massive halos as satellites, or are possibly close pairs. We measure the cross-correlation power spectra between bands, finding that bands which are farthest apart are the least correlated, as well as hints of a reduction in the correlation between bands when resolved sources are more aggressively masked. In the second part of the paper, we attempt to interpret the measurements in the framework of the halo model. With the aim of fitting simultaneously with one model the power spectra, number counts, and absolute CIB level in all bands, we find that this is achievable by invoking a luminosity-mass relationship, such that the luminosity-to-mass ratio peaks at a particular halo mass scale and declines toward lower and higher mass halos. Our best-fit model finds that the halo mass which is most efficient at hosting star formation in the redshift range of peak star-forming activity, z {approx} 1-3, is log(M{sub peak}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 12.1 {+-} 0.5, and that the minimum halo mass to host infrared galaxies is log(M{sub min}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 10

  17. High angular resolution observations of star-forming regions with BETTII and SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Maxime; Rinehart, Stephen; Mundy, Lee G.; Benford, Dominic J.; Dhabal, Arnab; Fixsen, Dale J.; Leisawitz, David; Maher, Stephen F.; Mentzell, Eric; Silverberg, Robert F.; Staguhn, Johannes; Veach, Todd; Cardiff BETTII Team

    2016-01-01

    High angular resolution observations in the far-infrared are important to understand the star formation process in embedded star clusters where extinction is large and stars form in close proximity. The material taking part in the star forming process is heated by the young stars and emits primarily in the far-IR; hence observations of the far-IR dust emission yields vital information about the gravitational potential, the mass and energy distribution, and core/star formation process. Previous observatories, such as Herschel, Spitzer and WISE lack the angular resolution required to study these dense star forming cores and are further limited by saturation in bright cores.The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is pioneering the path to sub-arcsecond resolution at far-IR wavelengths. This thesis talk discusses the instrumental challenges in building BETTII, as well as results from our SOFIA survey to illustrate the potential of higher-angular resolution observations. The 8m-long two element interferometer is being tested at NASA GSFC and is scheduled for first flight in fall 2016. BETTII will provide 0.5 to 1 arcsecond spatial resolution and spectral resolving power of 10 to 100 between 30 and 90 microns, where most of the dust continuum emission peaks in local star forming regions. It will achieve spatially-resolved spectroscopy of bright, dense cores with unprecedented high definition. This talk focuses on the main challenges and solutions associated with building BETTII: thermal stability, attitude/pointing control, and path length stabilization. In each of these areas we look at the trade-off between design, control, and knowledge in order to achieve the best-possible instrumental capability and sensitivity.As a first step towards resolving cluster cores, we surveyed 10 nearby star-forming clusters with SOFIA FORCAST at 11, 19, 31 and 37 microns. The FORCAST instrument has the highest angular resolution currently available in

  18. INVERSE-COMPTON CONTRIBUTION TO THE STAR-FORMING EXTRAGALACTIC GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Nachiketa; Fields, Brian D.

    2013-08-20

    Fermi has resolved several star-forming galaxies, but the vast majority of the star-forming universe is unresolved, and thus contributes to the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB). Here, we calculate the contribution of star-forming galaxies to the EGB in the Fermi range from 100 MeV to 100 GeV due to inverse-Compton (IC) scattering of the interstellar photon field by cosmic-ray electrons. We first construct one-zone models for individual star-forming galaxies assuming that supernovae power the acceleration of cosmic rays. We develop templates for both normal and starburst galaxies, accounting for differences in the cosmic-ray electron propagation and in the interstellar radiation fields. For both types of star-forming galaxies, the same IC interactions leading to gamma rays also substantially contribute to the energy loss of the high-energy cosmic-ray electrons. Consequently, a galaxy's IC emission is determined by the relative importance of IC losses in the cosmic-ray electron energy budget ({sup p}artial calorimetry{sup )}. We calculate the cosmological contribution of star-forming galaxies to the EGB using our templates and the cosmic star formation rate distribution. For all of our models, we find that the IC EGB contribution is almost an order of magnitude less than the peak of the emission due to cosmic-ray ion interactions (mostly pionic p{sub cr} p{sub ism} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}); even at the highest Fermi energies, IC is subdominant. The flatter IC spectrum increases the high-energy signal of the pionic+IC sum, bringing it closer to the EGB spectral index observed by Fermi. Partial calorimetry ensures that the overall IC signal is relatively well constrained, with only uncertainties in the amplitude and spectral shape for plausible model choices. We conclude with a brief discussion on how the pionic spectral feature and other methods can be used to measure the star-forming component of the EGB.

  19. Magnetic activity of the star Corot-Exo-2a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savanov, I. S.

    2010-05-01

    Continuous photometric observations of the young active solar-type star Corot-Exo-2a using the “Corot” space telescope obtained over 142 days were used to analyze the star’s surface temperature inhomogeneities and to monitor their continuous evolution. This analysis was based on the iPH code, which reconstructs the distribution of temperature inhomogeneities on the surface of a star based on its light curve in a two-temperature approximation. We identified five time intervals in the positions of active areas, with corresponding flip-flop events, interpreted as activity periods. Their durations were between 55 and 15 days. The time scale for the active-longitude flip-flops of Corot-Exo-2a is a few tens of days, rather than years, as for other stars studied earlier. We detected motions of the active longitudes, possibly indicating differential rotation of the star. The phenomenon of flip-flops in the positions of active longitudes has a complex character. This is the first case apart fromthe Sun where we are able to follow the appearance and development of temperature inhomogeneities on a stellar surface in such detail. We determined typical timescales for variations of the activity parameter of the star in the ranges 17-20, 28-32, 33-38, and 51-55 days, which characterize changes of the brightness variation amplitude, the spotted surface area, positions of active areas, and brightness variations.

  20. THE PRESSURE OF THE STAR-FORMING INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Munshi, Ferah; Quinn, Thomas R.; Governato, Fabio; Christensen, Charlotte; Wadsley, James; Loebman, Sarah; Shen, Sijing

    2014-01-20

    We examine the pressure of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) of Milky-Way-sized disk galaxies using fully cosmological SPH+N-body, high-resolution simulations. These simulations include explicit treatment of metal-line cooling in addition to dust and self-shielding, H{sub 2}-based star formation. The four simulated halos have masses ranging from a few times 10{sup 10} to nearly 10{sup 12} solar masses. Using a kinematic decomposition of these galaxies into present-day bulge and disk components, we find that the typical pressure of the star-forming ISM in the present-day bulge is higher than that in the present-day disk by an order of magnitude. We also find that the pressure of the star-forming ISM at high redshift is, on average, higher than ISM pressures at low redshift. This explains why the bulge forms at higher pressures: the disk assembles at lower redshift when the ISM exhibits lower pressure and the bulge forms at high redshift when the ISM has higher pressure. If ISM pressure and IMF variation are tied together, these results could indicate a time-dependent IMF in Milky-Way-like systems as well as a different IMF in the bulge and the disk.

  1. Probing the brown dwarf population of the Chamaeleon I star forming region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerón, F.; Neuhäuser, R.; Kaas, A. A.

    2000-07-01

    We present observations of a sample of 13 very low mass stars and brown dwarfs in the central region of the Chamaeleon I star forming cloud. The observations include slitless spectroscopy around Hα to identify new members, low resolution long-slit visible and near-infrared spectroscopy, deep ROSAT PSPC X-ray observations, and ISOCAM mid-infrared observations. Our sample adds seven new objects to those discussed by Comerón, Rieke, and Neuhäuser (1999, A&A, 343, 477) and extends the range of spectral types up to M8. We study different narrow-band indices as a tool for detecting and classifying very late-type young stellar objects. As to K-band spectra, we find that the visible features are not appropriate to yield a spectral classification more accurate than a few subclasses at best beyond M6. None of our sources displays K-band excess emission, but four have excess at 6.7 mu m suggesting that, although circumstellar disks are common around young very low mass stars, their inner regions are in general not hot enough to radiate significantly in the K band. Mid-infrared emission loosely correlates with Hα emission: sources without mid-IR excesses are always weak Hα emitters, while mid-IR excess sources have a broad range of Hα equivalent widths. X-ray emission is detected for 7 objects with spectral type M6 or later, including one bona-fide brown dwarf and three objects near the border separating stars and brown dwarfs. X-ray to bolometric luminosity ratios are typical of low mass, fully convective stars. The non-detection of X-ray emission at comparable levels from more evolved brown dwarfs suggests that X-ray activity may be restricted to early stages of brown dwarf evolution. We discuss in detail the temperatures and luminosities of our objects based on their magnitudes and spectra, and use the derived values to estimate masses and ages according to two different sets of pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks. Both sets of models are in good agreement

  2. Herschel protocluster survey: a search for dusty star-forming galaxies in protoclusters at z = 2-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Y.; Matsuda, Y.; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Hatsukade, B.; Umehata, H.; Tanaka, I.; Saito, T.; Iono, D.; Tamura, Y.; Kohno, K.; Erb, D. K.; Lehmer, B. D.; Geach, J. E.; Steidel, C. C.; Alexander, D. M.; Yamada, T.; Hayashino, T.

    2016-08-01

    We present a Herschel/Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) survey of three protoclusters at z = 2-3 (2QZCluster, HS1700, SSA22). Based on the SPIRE colours (S350/S250 and S500/S350) of 250 μm sources, we selected high-redshift dusty star-forming galaxies potentially associated with the protoclusters. In the 2QZCluster field, we found a 4σ overdensity of six SPIRE sources around 4.5 arcmin (˜2.2 Mpc) from a density peak of H α emitters at z = 2.2. In the HS1700 field, we found a 5σ overdensity of eight SPIRE sources around 2.1 arcmin (˜1.0 Mpc) from a density peak of Lyman-break galaxies at z = 2.3. We did not find any significant overdensities in SSA22 field, but we found three 500 μm sources are concentrated 3 arcmin (˜1.4 Mpc) east to the Ly α emitters overdensity. If all the SPIRE sources in these three overdensities are associated with protoclusters, the inferred star formation rate densities are 103-104 times higher than the average value at the same redshifts. This suggests that dusty star formation activity could be very strongly enhanced in z ˜ 2-3 protoclusters. Further observations are needed to confirm the redshifts of the SPIRE sources and to investigate what processes enhance the dusty star formation activity in z ˜ 2-3 protoclusters.

  3. Herschel protocluster survey: A search for dusty star-forming galaxies in protoclusters at z = 2 - 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Y.; Matsuda, Y.; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Hatsukade, B.; Umehata, H.; Tanaka, I.; Saito, T.; Iono, D.; Tamura, Y.; Kohno, K.; Erb, D. K.; Lehmer, B. D.; Geach, J. E.; Steidel, C. C.; Alexander, D. M.; Yamada, T.; Hayashino, T.

    2016-05-01

    We present a Herschel/SPIRE survey of three protoclusters at z = 2 - 3 (2QZCluster, HS1700, SSA22). Based on the SPIRE colours (S350/S250 and S500/S350) of 250 μm sources, we selected high redshift dusty star-forming galaxies potentially associated with the protoclusters. In the 2QZCluster field, we found a 4σ overdensity of six SPIRE sources around 4.5' (˜ 2.2 Mpc) from a density peak of Hα emitters at z = 2.2. In the HS1700 field, we found a 5σ overdensity of eight SPIRE sources around 2.1' (˜ 1.0 Mpc) from a density peak of LBGs at z = 2.3. We did not find any significant overdensities in SSA22 field, but we found three 500 μm sources are concentrated 3' (˜1.4 Mpc) east to the LAEs overdensity. If all the SPIRE sources in these three overdensities are associated with protoclusters, the inferred star-formation rate densities are 103 - 104 times higher than the average value at the same redshifts. This suggests that dusty star-formation activity could be very strongly enhanced in z ˜ 2 - 3 protoclusters. Further observations are needed to confirm the redshifts of the SPIRE sources and to investigate what processes enhance the dusty star-formation activity in z ˜ 2 - 3 protoclusters.

  4. PHIBSS: MOLECULAR GAS, EXTINCTION, STAR FORMATION, AND KINEMATICS IN THE z = 1.5 STAR-FORMING GALAXY EGS13011166

    SciTech Connect

    Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Kurk, J.; Wuyts, S.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Combes, F.; Freundlich, J.; Bolatto, A.; Cooper, M. C.; Neri, R.; Nordon, R.; Bournaud, F.; Comerford, J.; Cox, P.; Davis, M.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Naab, T.; Lutz, D. E-mail: linda@mpe.mpg.de; and others

    2013-08-10

    We report matched resolution imaging spectroscopy of the CO 3-2 line (with the IRAM Plateau de Bure millimeter interferometer) and of the H{alpha} line (with LUCI at the Large Binocular Telescope) in the massive z = 1.53 main-sequence galaxy EGS 13011166, as part of the ''Plateau de Bure high-z, blue-sequence survey'' (PHIBSS: Tacconi et al.). We combine these data with Hubble Space Telescope V-I-J-H-band maps to derive spatially resolved distributions of stellar surface density, star formation rate, molecular gas surface density, optical extinction, and gas kinematics. The spatial distribution and kinematics of the ionized and molecular gas are remarkably similar and are well modeled by a turbulent, globally Toomre unstable, rotating disk. The stellar surface density distribution is smoother than the clumpy rest-frame UV/optical light distribution and peaks in an obscured, star-forming massive bulge near the dynamical center. The molecular gas surface density and the effective optical screen extinction track each other and are well modeled by a ''mixed'' extinction model. The inferred slope of the spatially resolved molecular gas to star formation rate relation, N = dlog{Sigma}{sub starform}/dlog{Sigma}{sub molgas}, depends strongly on the adopted extinction model, and can vary from 0.8 to 1.7. For the preferred mixed dust-gas model, we find N = 1.14 {+-} 0.1.

  5. Division Iv/v Working Group on Active B Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine J.; Jones, Carol E.; Townsend, Richard D.; Fabregat, Juan; Bjorkman, Karen S.; McSwain, M. Virginia; Mennickent, Ronald E.; Neiner, Coralie; Stee, Philippe; Fabregat, Juan

    2010-05-01

    The meeting of the Working Group on Active B Stars consisted of a business session followed by a scientific session containing nine talks. The titles of the talks and their presenters are listed below. We plan to publish a series of articles containing summaries of these talks in Issue No. 40 of the Be Star Newsletter. This report contains an account of the announcements made during the business session, an update on a forthcoming IAU Symposium on active B stars, a report on the status of the Be Star Newsletter, the results of the 2009 election of the SOC for the Working Group for 2009-12, a listing of the Working Group bylaws that were recently adopted, and a list of the scientific talks that we presented at the meeting.

  6. The luminosity function of star clusters in 20 star-forming galaxies based on Hubble legacy archive photometry

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmore, Bradley C.; Bowers, Ariel S.; Lindsay, Kevin; Ansari, Asna; Evans, Jessica; Chandar, Rupali; Larsen, Soeren

    2014-04-01

    Luminosity functions (LFs) have been determined for star cluster populations in 20 nearby (4-30 Mpc), star-forming galaxies based on Advanced Camera for Surveys source lists generated by the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA). These cluster catalogs provide one of the largest sets of uniform, automatically generated cluster candidates available in the literature at present. Comparisons are made with other recently generated cluster catalogs demonstrating that the HLA-generated catalogs are of similar quality, but in general do not go as deep. A typical cluster LF can be approximated by a power law, dN/dL∝L {sup α}, with an average value for α of –2.37 and rms scatter = 0.18 when using the F814W ('I') band. A comparison of fitting results based on methods that use binned and unbinned data shows good agreement, although there may be a systematic tendency for the unbinned (maximum likelihood) method to give slightly more negative values of α for galaxies with steeper LFs. We find that galaxies with high rates of star formation (or equivalently, with the brightest or largest numbers of clusters) have a slight tendency to have shallower values of α. In particular, the Antennae galaxy (NGC 4038/39), a merging system with a relatively high star formation rate (SFR), has the second flattest LF in the sample. A tentative correlation may also be present between Hubble type and values of α, in the sense that later type galaxies (i.e., Sd and Sm) appear to have flatter LFs. Hence, while there do appear to be some weak correlations, the relative similarity in the values of α for a large number of star-forming galaxies suggests that, to first order, the LFs are fairly universal. We examine the bright end of the LFs and find evidence for a downturn, although it only pertains to about 1% of the clusters. Our uniform database results in a small scatter (≈0.4 to 0.5 mag) in the correlation between the magnitude of the brightest cluster (M {sub brightest}) and log of the number

  7. A quest for activity cycles in low-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vida, K.; Kriskovics, L.; Oláh, K.

    2013-11-01

    Long-term photometric measurements in a sample of ultrashort-period (P≈0.5 days or less) single and binary stars of different interior structures are analysed. A loose correlation exists between the rotational rate and cycle lengths of active stars, regardless of their evolutionary state and the corresponding physical parameters. The shortest cycles are expected for the fastest rotators of the order of 1-2 years, which is reported in this paper.

  8. The SONYC survey: Towards a complete census of brown dwarfs in star forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzic, K.; Scholz, A.; Jayawardhana, R.; Geers, V. C.; Dawson, P.; Ray, T. P.; Tamura, M.

    2014-10-01

    Deep surveys of star forming regions are the backbone of observational studies on the origin of stars and planets: On one side, they provide large and homogeneous object samples required to study disks, accretion, and multiplicity. On the other side, such surveys determine the shape and the low-mass limit of the Initial Mass Function (IMF), which are fundamental constraints on star formation theory. SONYC, short for ``Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters", is an ongoing project to provide a census of the substellar population in nearby star forming regions. We have conducted deep optical and near-infrared photometry, combined with proper motions, and followed by extensive spectroscopic follow-up campaigns with Subaru and VLT, in which we have obtained more than 700 spectra of candidate objects in NGC1333, ρ Ophiuchi, Chamaeleon-I, Upper Sco, and Lupus-3. We have identified and characterized more than 60 new substellar objects, among them a handful of objects with masses close to, or below the Deuterium burning limit. Thanks to the SONYC survey and the efforts of other groups, the substellar IMF is now well characterized down to ˜ 5 - 10 M_{J}, and we find that the ratio of the number of stars with respect to brown dwarfs lies between 2 ad 6. Another important piece of information for the star formation theories is that, down to ˜ 5 M_J, the free-floating objects with planetary masses are 20-50 times less numerous than stars, so that their total contribution to the mass budget of the clusters can be neglected. In this contribution we will present the status of the SONYC survey, discuss its main results, and focus on the latest findings in NGC1333, Lupus-3 and Upper-Sco.

  9. THE FRAGMENTATION OF MAGNETIZED, MASSIVE STAR-FORMING CORES WITH RADIATIVE FEEDBACK

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Andrew T.; McKee, Christopher F.; Cunningham, Andrew J.; Klein, Richard I.; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2013-04-01

    We present a set of three-dimensional, radiation-magnetohydrodynamic calculations of the gravitational collapse of massive (300 M{sub Sun }), star-forming molecular cloud cores. We show that the combined effects of magnetic fields and radiative feedback strongly suppress core fragmentation, leading to the production of single-star systems rather than small clusters. We find that the two processes are efficient at suppressing fragmentation in different regimes, with the feedback most effective in the dense, central region and the magnetic field most effective in more diffuse, outer regions. Thus, the combination of the two is much more effective at suppressing fragmentation than either one considered in isolation. Our work suggests that typical massive cores, which have mass-to-flux ratios of about 2 relative to critical, likely form a single-star system, but that cores with weaker fields may form a small star cluster. This result helps us understand why the observed relationship between the core mass function and the stellar initial mass function holds even for {approx}100 M{sub Sun} cores with many thermal Jeans masses of material. We also demonstrate that a {approx}40 AU Keplerian disk is able to form in our simulations, despite the braking effect caused by the strong magnetic field.

  10. NEAR-INFRARED CIRCULAR POLARIZATION SURVEY IN STAR-FORMING REGIONS: CORRELATIONS AND TRENDS

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Jungmi; Tamura, Motohide; Hough, James H.; Lucas, Phil W.; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kandori, Ryo; Nagata, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Yasushi; Nagayama, Takahiro

    2014-11-01

    We have conducted a systematic near-infrared circular polarization (CP) survey in star-forming regions, covering high-mass, intermediate-mass, and low-mass young stellar objects. All the observations were made using the SIRPOL imaging polarimeter on the Infrared Survey Facility 1.4 m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory. We present the polarization properties of 10 sub-regions in 6 star-forming regions. The polarization patterns, extents, and maximum degrees of linear and circular polarizations are used to determine the prevalence and origin of CP in the star-forming regions. Our results show that the CP pattern is quadrupolar in general, the CP regions are extensive, up to 0.65 pc, the CP degrees are high, up to 20%, and the CP degrees decrease systematically from high- to low-mass young stellar objects. The results are consistent with dichroic extinction mechanisms generating the high degrees of CP in star-forming regions.

  11. VLBA Provides Best Detail Yet of Star-Forming Cloud's Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    Astronomers have used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope to do a very detailed map of the magnetic field within a star-forming cloud, an achievement that will help scientists unravel the mysterious first steps of the stellar birth process. "This study provides new and important data needed by theorists to understand how magnetic fields affect the early stages of star formation," said Anuj Sarma, an astronomer at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Sarma worked with Thomas Troland of the University of Kentucky and Jonathan Romney of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico. Their research results were published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. Stars are formed when gas in giant interstellar clouds collapses gravitationally. Magnetic fields are believed to support such gas clouds, helping them resist gravitational collapse, so the beginning stages of star formation arise from a complex interplay of the magnetic fields and gravity that is not yet well understood. "In order to understand how star formation gets started, we need to know in detail the structure of the magnetic fields in a star-forming cloud," Sarma said. "Our observations with the VLBA have provided one more big step in this direction," he added. The astronomers studied a cloud of molecular gas more than 5,000 light- years from Earth in a spiral arm of our own Milky Way Galaxy. The cloud, known as W3 IRS5, contains seven newly-formed stars. In addition, it contains a number of regions, somewhat smaller than the diameter of Earth's orbit, in which water vapor molecules act to amplify, or strengthen, radio emission. Such regions, called masers, are a radio- wave parallel to lasers, which amplify light. The scientists used the VLBA to make a detailed study of the radio waves coming from these maser regions in the gas cloud. They detected a phenomenon called the Zeeman effect, in which a very precise frequency

  12. The (Phased?) Activity of Stars Hosting Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott J.; Lopez-Santiago, J.; Sciortino, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    The activity of stars harboring hot Jupiters could be influenced by their close-in planets. Cases of enhanced chromospheric activity are reported in literature, suggesting magnetic interaction at well determined planetary phases. In X-rays and FUV, we have studied star-planet interaction (SPI) occurring in the system of HD 189733. In X-rays, HD 189733 shows features of high activity that can be ascribed to the influence of the magnetic field of its planetary companion. Through a wavelet analysis of a flare, we inferred a long magnetic loop of 2 R_* to 4 R_*, and a local magnetic field of strength in 40-100 G. The size of the flaring loop suggests a role of the hot Jupiter in triggering this kind of X-ray variability. In FUV, HST-COS spectra of HD 189733 shows temporal variations in intensity and Doppler shifts of Si III and Si IV lines that can be ascribed to plasma flowing from the planetary atmosphere and accreting onto the star under the action of the combined magnetic field of star and planet. The material from the planetary atmosphere can flow onto the parent star as predicted by MHD models. The foot point of the accretion on the stellar surface results in phased variability observed in X-rays and FUV, when the point, comoving with the planet, emerges at the limb of the star.

  13. A deep Chandra observation of the interacting star-forming galaxy Arp 299

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasopoulou, K.; Zezas, A.; Ballo, L.; Della Ceca, R.

    2016-08-01

    We present results from a 90 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation of the X-ray luminous interacting galaxy system Arp 299 (NGC 3690/IC 694). We detect 25 discrete X-ray sources with luminosities above ˜4.0 × 1038 erg s-1 covering the entire Ultra Luminous X-ray source (ULX) regime. Based on the hard X-ray spectra of the non-nuclear discrete sources identified in Arp 299, and their association with young, actively star-forming region of Arp 299 we identify them as HMXBs. We find in total 20 off-nuclear sources with luminosities above the ULX limit, 14 of which are point-like sources. Furthermore we observe a marginally significant deficit in the number of ULXs, with respect to the number expected from scaling relations of X-ray binaries with the star formation rate (SFR). Although the high metallicity of the galaxy could result in lower ULX numbers, the good agreement between the observed total X-ray luminosity of ULXs, and that expected from the relevant scaling relation indicates that this deficit could be the result of confusion effects. The integrated spectrum of the galaxy shows the presence of a hot gaseous component with kT = 0.72 ± 0.03 keV, contributing ˜20 per cent of the soft (0.1-2.0 keV) unabsorbed luminosity of the galaxy. A plume of soft X-ray emission in the west of the galaxy indicates a large scale outflow. We find that the AGN in NGC 3690 contributes only 22 per cent of the observed broad-band X-ray luminosity of Arp 299.

  14. A deep Chandra observation of the interacting star-forming galaxy Arp 299

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasopoulou, K.; Zezas, A.; Ballo, L.; Della Ceca, R.

    2016-05-01

    We present results from a 90 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation of the X-ray luminous interacting galaxy system Arp 299 (NGC 3690/IC 694). We detect 25 discrete X-ray sources with luminosities above ˜4.0 × 1038 erg s-1 covering the entire Ultra Luminous X-ray source (ULX) regime. Based on the hard X-ray spectra of the non-nuclear discrete sources identified in Arp 299, and their association with young, actively star-forming region of Arp 299 we identify them as HMXBs. We find in total 20 off-nuclear sources with luminosities above the ULX limit, 14 of which are point-like sources. Furthermore we observe a marginally significant deficit in the number of ULXs, with respect to the number expected from scaling relations of X-ray binaries with the star formation rate (SFR). Although the high metalicity of the galaxy could result in lower ULX numbers, the good agreement between the observed total X-ray luminosity of ULXs, and that expected from the relevant scaling relation indicates that this deficit could be the result of confusion effects. The integrated spectrum of the galaxy shows the presence of a hot gaseous component with kT = 0.72 ± 0.03 keV, contributing ˜20% of the soft (0.1-2.0 keV) unabsorbed luminosity of the galaxy. A plume of soft X-ray emission in the west of the galaxy indicates a large scale outflow. We find that the AGN in NGC 3690 contributes only 22% of the observed broad-band X-ray luminosity of Arp 299.

  15. ON THE LAST 10 BILLION YEARS OF STELLAR MASS GROWTH IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Samuel N.

    2012-02-01

    The star formation rate-stellar mass relation (SFR-M{sub *}) and its evolution (i.e., the SFR main sequence) describe the growth rate of galaxies of a given stellar mass and at a given redshift. Assuming that present-day star-forming galaxies (SFGs) were always star forming in the past, these growth rate observations can be integrated to calculate average star formation histories (SFHs). Using this Main Sequence Integration (MSI) approach, we trace present-day massive SFGs back to when they were 10%-20% of their current stellar mass. The integration is robust throughout those epochs: the SFR data underpinning our calculations are consistent with the evolution of stellar mass density in this regime. Analytic approximations to these SFHs are provided. Integration-based results reaffirm previous suggestions that current SFGs formed virtually all of their stellar mass at z < 2. It follows that massive galaxies observed at z > 2 are not the typical progenitors of SFGs today. We also check MSI-based SFHs against those inferred from analysis of the fossil record-from spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of SFGs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of resolved stars in dwarf irregular galaxies. Once stellar population age uncertainties are accounted for, the main sequence is in excellent agreement with SED-based SFHs (from VESPA). Extrapolating SFR main sequence observations to dwarf galaxies, we find differences between MSI results and SFHs from CMD analysis of Advanced Camera for Surveys Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury and Local Group galaxies. Resolved dwarfs appear to grow much slower than main sequence trends imply, and also slower than slightly higher mass SED-analyzed galaxies. This difference may signal problems with SFH determinations, but it may also signal a shift in star formation trends at the lowest stellar masses.

  16. KBSS-MOSFIRE: Abundances, star-formation, and physical conditions in star-forming galaxies at z~2-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, Allison; Steidel, Charles; Rudie, Gwen; Trainor, Ryan

    2015-08-01

    I will present new results from the MOSFIRE component of the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey (KBSS), the largest-ever rest-optical spectroscopic survey of star-forming galaxies at z~2-3, conducted using the recently-commissioned multi-object near-infrared spectrograph on Keck I. Currently, the KBSS comprises ~800 galaxies with rest-optical spectroscopy from MOSFIRE, with stellar masses ranging from 109 to 1011.5 M⊙ and star-formation rates down to a few M⊙/yr. The first results from KBSS-MOSFIRE have already confirmed that HII regions in high-redshift galaxies are physically distinct from those at z~0 our data suggest that both harder ionizing radiation and larger ionization parameters are needed to produce the observed nebular line emission in z~2 galaxies. In addition, our observations show that gas-phase abundances and abundance ratios in these galaxies likely differ greatly from local samples. Understanding the origin of these differences has important implications for galaxy evolution and requires observations of the entire suite of strong rest-optical diagnostic emission lines for a statistical sample of individual galaxies. A substantial fraction of the galaxies in our survey have robust measurements of the strongest rest-optical diagnostic lines (including H-alpha, H-beta, [OIII], [NII], and [OII]), which together facilitate a detailed analysis of the physical conditions in high-z galaxies. Nearly 2/3 of the KBSS-MOSFIRE sample also have complementary rest-UV spectra taken with Keck-LRIS that help constrain the properties of the massive stellar populations driving the rest-optical nebular emission. I will also report on measurements from deep co-averaged spectral stacks, which reveal weak emission and absorption features undetected in individual objects and offer another powerful tool for studying populations of high-redshift star-forming galaxies.

  17. Scaled up low-mass star formation in massive star-forming cores in the G333 giant molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiles, B.; Lo, N.; Redman, M. P.; Cunningham, M. R.; Jones, P. A.; Burton, M. G.; Bronfman, L.

    2016-06-01

    Three bright molecular line sources in G333 have recently been shown to exhibit signatures of infall. We describe a molecular line radiative transfer (RT) modelling process which is required to extract the infall signature from Mopra and Nanten2 data. The observed line profiles differ greatly between individual sources but are reproduced well by variations upon a common unified model where the outflow viewing angle is the most significant difference between the sources. The models and data together suggest that the observed properties of the high-mass star-forming regions such as infall, turbulence and mass are consistent with scaled-up versions of the low-mass case with turbulent velocities that are supersonic and an order of magnitude larger than those found in low-mass star-forming regions. Using detailed RT modelling, we show that the G333 cores are essentially undergoing a scaled-up version of low-mass star formation. This is an extension of earlier work in that the degree of infall and the chemical abundances are constrained by the RT modelling in a way that is not practical with a standard analysis of observational data. We also find high velocity infall and high infall mass rates, possibly suggesting accelerated collapse due to external pressure. Molecular depletion due to freeze-out on to dust grains in central regions of the cores is suggested by low molecular abundances of several species. Strong evidence for a local enhancement of 13C-bearing species towards the outflow cloud cores is discussed, consistent with the presence of shocks caused by the supersonic motions within them.

  18. An x-ray study of massive star forming regions with CHANDRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junfeng

    2007-08-01

    Massive stars are characterized by powerful stellar winds, strong ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and consequently devastating supernovae explosions, which have a profound influence on their natal clouds and galaxy evolution. However, the formation and evolution of massive stars themselves and how their low-mass siblings are affected in the wind-swept and UV-radiation-dominated environment are not well understood. Much of the stellar populations inside of the massive star forming regions (MSFRs) are poorly studied in the optical and IR wavelengths because of observational challenges caused by large distance, high extinction, and heavy contamination from unrelated sources. Although it has long been recognized that X-rays open a new window to sample the young stellar populations residing in the MSFRs, the low angular resolution of previous generation X-ray telescopes has limited the outcome from such studies. The sensitive high spatial resolution X-ray observations enabled by the Chandra X- ray Observatory and the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) have significantly improved our ability to study the X-ray-emitting populations in the MSFRs in the last few years. In this thesis, I analyzed seven high spatial resolution Chandra /ACIS images of two massive star forming complexes, namely the NGC 6357 region hosting the 1 Myr old Pismis 24 cluster (Chapter 3) and the Rosette Complex including the 2 Myr old NGC 2244 cluster immersed in the Rosette Nebula (Chapter 4), embedded clusters in the Rosette Molecular Cloud (RMC; Chapter 5), and a triggered cluster NGC 2237 (Chapter 6). The X-ray sampled stars were studied in great details. The unique power of X-ray selection of young stellar cluster members yielded new knowledge in the stellar populations, the cluster structures, and the star formation histories. The census of cluster members is greatly improved in each region. A large fraction of the X-ray detections have optical or near-infrared (NIR) stellar counterparts

  19. 13CO Survey of Northern Intermediate-Mass Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Michael J.; Kobulnicky, H. A.; Kerton, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a survey of 13CO with the OSO 20-m telescope toward 68 intermediate-mass star-forming regions (IM SFRs) visible in the northern hemisphere. These regions have mostly been excluded from previous CO surveys and were selected from IRAS colors that specify cool dust and large PAH contribution. These regions are known to host stars up to, but not exceeding, about 8 solar masses. We detect 13CO in 57 of the 68 IM SFRs down to a typical RMS of ~50 mK. We present kinematic distances, minimum column densities, and minimum masses for these IM SFRs.

  20. A Near-Infrared Study of the NGC 7538 Star-forming Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, D. K.; Tamura, M.; Nakajima, Y.; Fukagawa, M.; Sugitani, K.; Nagashima, C.; Nagayama, T.; Nagata, T.; Sato, S.; Vig, S.; Ghosh, S. K.; Pickles, A. J.; Momose, M.; Ogura, K.

    2004-12-01

    We present subarcsecond (FWHM~0.7"), near-infrared (NIR) JHKs-band images and a high-sensitivity radio continuum image at 1280 MHz, using SIRIUS on the University of Hawaii 88 inch (2.2 m) telescope and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). The NIR survey covers an area of ~24 arcmin2 with 10 σ limiting magnitudes of ~19.5, 18.4, and 17.3 in the J, H, and Ks bands, respectively. Our NIR images are deeper than any JHK surveys to date for the larger area of the NGC 7538 star-forming region. We construct JHK color-color and J-H/J and H-K/K color-magnitude diagrams to identify young stellar objects (YSOs) and to estimate their masses. Based on these color-color and color-magnitude diagrams, we identified a rich population of YSOs (Class I and Class II) associated with the NGC 7538 region. A large number of red sources (H-K>2) have also been detected around NGC 7538. We argue that these red stars are most probably pre-main-sequence stars with intrinsic color excesses. Most of the YSOs in NGC 7538 are arranged from the northwest toward the southeast regions, forming a sequence in age: a diffuse H II region (northwest and oldest, where most of the Class II and Class I sources are detected), a compact IR core (center), and regions with an extensive IR reflection nebula and a cluster of red young stars (southeast and south). We find that the slope of the Ks-band luminosity function of NGC 7538 is lower than the typical values reported for young embedded clusters, although equally low values have also been reported in the W3 Main star-forming region. From the slope of the Ks-band luminosity function and the analysis by Megeath and coworkers, we infer that the embedded stellar population is composed of YSOs with an age of ~1 Myr. Based on the comparison of models of pre-main-sequence stars with the observed color-magnitude diagram, we find that the stellar population in NGC 7538 is primarily composed of low-mass pre-main-sequence stars similar to those observed in the

  1. Radiative Feedback of Forming Star Clusters on Their GMC Environments: Theory and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, C. S.; Pudritz, R. E.; Harris, W. E.

    2013-07-01

    Star clusters form from dense clumps within a molecular cloud. Radiation from these newly formed clusters feeds back on their natal molecular cloud through heating and ionization which ultimately stops gas accretion into the cluster. Recent studies suggest that radiative feedback effects from a single cluster may be sufficient to disrupt an entire cloud over a short timescale. Simulating cluster formation on a large scale, however, is computationally demanding due to the high number of stars involved. For this reason, we present a model for representing the radiative output of an entire cluster which involves randomly sampling an initial mass function (IMF) as the cluster accretes mass. We show that this model is able to reproduce the star formation histories of observed clusters. To examine the degree to which radiative feedback shapes the evolution of a molecular cloud, we use the FLASH adaptive-mesh refinement hydrodynamics code to simulate cluster formation in a turbulent cloud. Unlike previous studies, sink particles are used to represent a forming cluster rather than individual stars. Our cluster model is then coupled with a raytracing scheme to treat radiative transfer as the clusters grow in mass. This poster will outline the details of our model and present preliminary results from our 3D hydrodynamical simulations.

  2. Timing the Evolution of Quiescent and Star-forming Local Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacifici, Camilla; Oh, Sree; Oh, Kyuseok; Lee, Jaehyun; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2016-06-01

    Constraining the star formation histories (SFHs) of individual galaxies is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that regulate their evolution. Here, we combine multi-wavelength (ultraviolet, optical, and infrared) measurements of a very large sample of galaxies (∼230,000) at z < 0.16, with physically motivated models of galaxy spectral energy distributions to extract constraints on galaxy physical parameters (such as stellar mass and star formation rate) as well as individual SFHs. In particular, we set constraints on the timescales in which galaxies form a certain percentage of their total stellar mass (namely, 10%, 50%, and 90%). The large statistics allows us to average such measurements over different populations of galaxies (quiescent and star-forming) and in narrow ranges of stellar mass. As in the downsizing scenario, we confirm that low-mass galaxies have more extended SFHs than high-mass galaxies. We also find that at the same observed stellar mass, galaxies that are now quiescent evolve more rapidly than galaxies that are currently still forming stars. This suggests that stellar mass is not the only driver of galaxy evolution, but plays along with other factors such as merger events and other environmental effects.

  3. No first ionization potential fractionation in the active stars AR Piscium and AY Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Forcada, J.; Affer, L.; Micela, G.

    2009-10-01

    Context: The comparison of coronal and photospheric abundances in cool stars is an essential question to resolve. In the Sun an enhancement of the elements with low first ionization potential (FIP) is observed in the corona with respect to the photosphere. Stars with high levels of activity seem to show a depletion of elements with low FIP when compared to solar standard values; however, the few cases of active stars in which photospheric values are available for comparison lead to confusing results, and an enlargement of the sample is mandatory for solving this longstanding problem. Aims: We calculate in this paper the photospheric and coronal abundances of two well known active binary systems, AR Psc and AY Cet, to get further insight into the complications of coronal abundances. Methods: Coronal abundances of 9 elements were calculated by means of the reconstruction of a detailed emission measure distribution, using a line-based method that considers the lines from different elements separately. Photospheric abundances of 8 elements were calculated using high-resolution optical spectra of the stars. Results: The results once again show a lack of any FIP-related effect in the coronal abundances of the stars. The presence of metal abundance depletion (MAD) or inverse FIP effects in some stars could stem from a mistaken comparison to solar photospheric values or from a deficient calculation of photospheric abundances in fast-rotating stars. Conclusions: The lack of FIP fractionation seems to confirm that Alfvén waves combined with pondermotive forces are dominant in the corona of active stars. Tables 2 and 3 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. Outflows and complex stellar kinematics in SDSS star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicone, C.; Maiolino, R.; Marconi, A.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the properties of star-formation-driven outflows by using a large spectroscopic sample of ~160 000 local "normal" star-forming galaxies drawn from the Sloan digital sky survey (SDSS), spanning a wide range of star formation rates (SFRs) and stellar masses (M∗). The galaxy sample is divided into a fine grid of bins in the M∗-SFR parameter space, for each of which we produced a composite spectrum by stacking the SDSS spectra of the galaxies contained in that bin together. We exploited the high signal-to-noise of the stacked spectra to study the emergence of faint features of optical emission lines that may trace galactic outflows and are otherwise too faint to detect in individual galaxy spectra. We have adopted a novel approach that relies on the comparison between the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LoSVD) of the ionised gas (as traced by the [OIII]λ5007 and Hα+[NII]λλ6548, 6583 emission lines) and the LoSVD of the stars, which are used as a reference for tracing virial motions. Significant deviations in the gas kinematics from the stellar kinematics in the high-velocity tail of the LoSVDs are interpreted as a signature of outflows. Our results suggest that the incidence of ionised outflows increases with SFR and specific SFR. The outflow velocity (vout) is found to correlate tightly with the SFR for SFR> 1 M⊙ yr-1, whereas the dependence of vout on SFR is nearly flat at lower SFRs. The outflow velocity appears to also increase with the stellar velocity dispersion (σ∗), although this relation has a much larger scatter than the one with SFR, and we infer velocities as high as vout ~ (6-8)σ∗. Strikingly, we detect the signature of ionised outflows only in galaxies located above the main sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies in the M∗-SFR diagram, and the incidence of such outflows increases sharply with the offset from the MS. This result suggests that star-formation-driven outflows may be responsible for shaping the upper

  5. The initial mass function of star clusters that form in turbulent molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, M. S.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2015-05-01

    We simulate the formation and evolution of young star clusters using the combination of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations and direct N-body simulations. We start by performing SPH simulations of the giant molecular cloud (GMC) with a turbulent velocity field, a mass of 4 × 104 to 5 × 106 M⊙, and a density between ρ ˜ 1.7 × 103 and 170 cm-3. We continue the hydrodynamical simulations for a free-fall time-scale (tff ≃ 0.83 and 2.5 Myr), and analyse the resulting structure of the collapsed cloud. We subsequently replace a density-selected subset of SPH particles with stars by adopting a local star formation efficiency proportional to ρ1/2. As a consequence, the local star formation efficiency exceeds 30 per cent, whereas globally only a few per cent of the gas is converted to stars. The stellar distribution by the time gas is converted to stars is very clumpy, with typically a dozen bound conglomerates that consist of 100-104 stars. We continue to evolve the stars dynamically using the collisional N-body method, which accurately treats all pairwise interactions, stellar collisions and stellar evolution. We analyse the results of the N-body simulations when the stars have an age of 2 and 10 Myr. During the dynamical simulations, massive clusters grow via hierarchical merging of smaller clusters. The shape of the cluster mass function that originates from an individual molecular cloud is consistent with a Schechter function with a power-law slope of β = -1.73 at 2 Myr and β = -1.67 at 10 Myr, which fits to observed cluster mass function of the Carina region. The superposition of mass functions have a power-law slope of ≲ -2, which fits the observed mass function of star clusters in the Milky Way, M31 and M83. We further find that the mass of the most massive cluster formed in a single molecular cloud with a mass of Mg scales with 6.1 M_g^{0.51} which also agrees with recent observation of the GMC and young clusters in M51.

  6. A CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF THE OBSCURED STAR-FORMING COMPLEX W40

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, Michael A.; Getman, Konstantin V.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Bo Reipurth; Rodney, Steven A.

    2010-12-20

    The young stellar cluster illuminating the W40 H II region, one of the nearest massive star-forming regions, has been observed with the ACIS detector on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Due to its high obscuration, this is a poorly studied stellar cluster with only a handful of bright stars visible in the optical band, including three OB stars identified as primary excitation sources. We detect 225 X-ray sources, of which 85% are confidently identified as young stellar members of the region. Two potential distances of the cluster, 260 pc and 600 pc, are used in the paper. Supposing the X-ray luminosity function to be universal, it supports a 600 pc distance as a lower limit for W40 and a total population of at least 600 stars down to 0.1 M{sub sun} under the assumption of a coeval population with a uniform obscuration. In fact, there is strong spatial variation in K{sub s} -band-excess disk fraction and non-uniform obscuration due to a dust lane that is identified in absorption in optical, infrared, and X-ray. The dust lane is likely part of a ring of material which includes the molecular core within W40. In contrast to the likely ongoing star formation in the dust lane, the molecular core is inactive. The star cluster has a spherical morphology, an isothermal sphere density profile, and mass segregation down to 1.5 M{sub sun}. However, other cluster properties, including a {approx}<1 Myr age estimate and ongoing star formation, indicate that the cluster is not dynamically relaxed. X-ray diffuse emission and a powerful flare from a young stellar object are also reported.

  7. Star formation and black hole accretion activity in rich local clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianconi, Matteo; Marleau, Francine R.; Fadda, Dario

    2016-04-01

    Context. We present a study of star formation and central black hole accretion activity of galaxies that are hosted in the two nearby (z ~ 0.2) rich galaxy clusters Abell 983 and 1731. Aims: We aim to quantify both the obscured and unobscured star formation rates, as well as the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGN) as a function of the environment in which the galaxy is located. Methods: We targeted the clusters with unprecedented deep infrared Spitzer observations (0.2 mJy at 24 micron), near-IR Palomar imaging and optical WIYN spectroscopy. The extent of our observations (~3 virial radii) covers the vast range of possible environments, from the very dense cluster centre to the very rarefied cluster outskirts and accretion regions. Results: The star-forming members of the two clusters present star formation rates that are comparable with those measured in coeval field galaxies. Analysis of the spatial arrangement of the spectroscopically confirmed members reveals an elongated distribution for A1731 with respect to the more uniform distribution of A983. The emerging picture is compatible with A983 being a fully evolved cluster, in contrast with the still actively accreting A1731. Conclusions: Analysis of the specific star formation rate reveals evidence of ongoing galaxy pre-processing along A1731's filament-like structure. Furthermore, the decrease in the number of star-forming galaxies and AGN towards the cluster cores suggests that the cluster environment is accelerating the ageing process of the galaxies and blocking further accretion of the cold gas that fuels both star formation and black hole accretion activity. The catalogue and the reduced images (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/588/A105

  8. Comparing ligo merger rate observations with theory: distribution of star-forming conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Belczynski, Kryzysztof; Kopparapu, R; O' Shaughnessy, R

    2008-01-01

    Within the next decade, ground based gravitational wave detectors are in principle capable of determining the compact object merger rate per unit volume of the local universe to better than 20% with more than 30 detections. Though these measurements can constrain our models of stellar, binary, and cluster evolution in the nearby present-day and ancient universe, we argue that the universe is sufficiently heterogeneous (in age and metallicity distribution at least) and that merger rates predicted by these models can be sufficiently sensitive to those heterogeneities so that a fair comparison of models per unit similar star forming mass necessarily introduces at least an additional 30%--50% systematic error into any constraints on compact binary evolution models. Without adding new electromagnetic constraints on massive binary evolution or relying on more information from each merger (e.g. , binary masses and spins), as few as the {approx_equal}5 merger detections could exhaust the information available in a naive comparison to merger rate predictions. As a concrete example immediately relevant to analysis of initial and enhanced LIGO results, we use a nearby-universe catalog to demonstrate that no one tracer of stellar content can be consistently used to constrain merger rates without introducing a systematic error of order 0(30%) at 90% confidence (depending on the type of binary involved). For example, though binary black holes typically take many Gyr to merge, binary neutron stars often merge rapidly; different tracers of stellar content are required for these two types. More generally, we argue that theoretical binary evolution can depend sufficiently sensitively on star-forming conditions -- even assuming no uncertainty in binary evolution model -- that the distribution of star forming conditions must be incorporated to reduce the systematic error in merger rate predictions below roughly 40%. We emphasize that the degree of sensitivity to star-forming

  9. An all-sky sample of intermediate-mass star-forming regions

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, Michael J.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Alexander, Michael J.; Kerton, Charles R.; Arvidsson, Kim

    2014-04-01

    We present an all-sky sample of 984 candidate intermediate-mass Galactic star-forming regions that are color selected from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Point Source Catalog and morphologically classify each object using mid-infrared Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) images. Of the 984 candidates, 616 are probable star-forming regions (62.6%), 128 are filamentary structures (13.0%), 39 are point-like objects of unknown nature (4.0%), and 201 are galaxies (20.4%). We conduct a study of four of these regions, IRAS 00259+5625, IRAS 00420+5530, IRAS 01080+5717, and IRAS 05380+2020, at Galactic latitudes |b| > 5° using optical spectroscopy from the Wyoming Infrared Observatory, along with near-infrared photometry from the Two-Micron All Sky Survey, to investigate their stellar content. New optical spectra, color-magnitude diagrams, and color-color diagrams reveal their extinctions, spectrophotometric distances, and the presence of small stellar clusters containing 20-78 M {sub ☉} of stars. These low-mass diffuse star clusters contain ∼65-250 stars for a typical initial mass function, including one or more mid-B stars as their most massive constituents. Using infrared spectral energy distributions we identify young stellar objects near each region and assign probable masses and evolutionary stages to the protostars. The total infrared luminosity lies in the range 190-960 L {sub ☉}, consistent with the sum of the luminosities of the individually identified young stellar objects.

  10. Large Binocular Telescope and Sptizer Spectroscopy of Star-forming Galaxies at 1 < z < 3: Extinction and Star Formation Rate Indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rujopakarn, W.; Rieke, G. H.; Papovich, C. J.; Weiner, B. J.; Rigby, Jane; Rex, M.; Bian, F.; Kuhn, O. P.; Thompson, D.

    2012-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations in the rest-frame optical and near- to mid-infrared wavelengths of four gravitationally lensed infrared (IR) luminous star-forming galaxies at redshift 1 < z < 3 from the LUCIFER instrument on the Large Binocular Telescope and the Infrared Spectrograph on Spitzer. The sample was selected to represent pure, actively star-forming systems, absent of active galactic nuclei. The large lensing magnifications result in high signal-to-noise spectra that can probe faint IR recombination lines, including Paa and Bra at high redshifts. The sample was augmented by three lensed galaxies with similar suites of unpublished data and observations from the literature, resulting in the final sample of seven galaxies. We use the IR recombination lines in conjunction with Ha observations to probe the extinction, Av, of these systems, as well as testing star formation rate (SFR) indicators against the SFR measured by fitting spectral energy distributions to far-IR photometry. Our galaxies occupy a range of Av from 0 to 5.9 mag, larger than previously known for a similar range of IR luminosities at these redshifts. Thus, estimates of SFR even at z 2 must take careful count of extinction in the most IR luminous galaxies.We also measure extinction by comparing SFR estimates from optical emission lines with those from far- IR measurements. The comparison of results from these two independent methods indicates a large variety of dust distribution scenarios at 1 < z < 3. Without correcting for dust extinction, the Ha SFR indicator underestimates the SFR; the size of the necessary correction depends on the IR luminosity and dust distribution scenario. Individual SFR estimates based on the 6.2µm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission line luminosity do not show a systematic discrepancy with extinction, although a considerable, 0.2 dex, scatter is observed.

  11. AN ULTRAVIOLET INVESTIGATION OF ACTIVITY ON EXOPLANET HOST STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.

    2013-03-20

    Using the far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) photometry from the NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), we searched for evidence of increased stellar activity due to tidal and/or magnetic star-planet interactions (SPI) in the 272 known FGK planetary hosts observed by GALEX. With the increased sensitivity of GALEX, we are able probe systems with lower activity levels and at larger distances than what has been done to date with X-ray satellites. We compared samples of stars with close-in planets (a < 0.1 AU) to those with far-out planets (a > 0.5 AU) and looked for correlations of excess activity with other system parameters. This statistical investigation found no clear correlations with a, M{sub p} , or M{sub p} /a, in contrast to some X-ray and Ca II studies. However, there is tentative evidence (at a level of 1.8{sigma}) that stars with radial-velocity-(RV)-detected close-in planets are more FUV-active than stars with far-out planets, in agreement with several published X-ray and Ca II results. The case is strengthened to a level of significance to 2.3{sigma} when transit-detected close-in planets are included. This is most likely because the RV-selected sample of stars is significantly less active than the field population of comparable stars, while the transit-selected sample is similarly active. Given the factor of 2-3 scatter in fractional FUV luminosity for a given stellar effective temperature, it is necessary to conduct a time-resolved study of the planet hosts in order to better characterize their UV variability and generate a firmer statistical result.

  12. OT2_dbrisbin_1: A z=1-2 oxygen survey. II. PAH-selected star forming and AGN sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisbin, D.

    2011-09-01

    We are conducting a survey of the [CII] 158um line from galaxies at redshifts 1-2 using our grating spectrometer, ZEUS on the CSO. Our first 13 galaxy survey showed that luminous star forming galaxies in this epoch have moderate intensity kpc-scale star formation likely an extension of the Schmidt-Kennicutt law to very high gas mass fractions. Our AGN dominated systems have similarly large scale, but significantly more intense star formation suggesting punctuated, collision-induced star formation. We were awarded OT1 PACS spectroscopy and PACS/SPIRE photometry of these sources to observe the oxygen [OI], [OIII], and [OIV] fine-structure lines and far-IR continuum to characterize the star formation and AGN activity in these sources. Only two of our sources have been observed to date, but with good astrophysical success. Since the OT1 submission, we have detected 11 more z ~1-2 sources in [CII] with ZEUS. Here we propose an OT2 oxygen line/far-IR continuum study for 10 of these new sources. The new source list significantly enhances our OT1 survey in that (1) we nearly double our sample greatly increasing statistical significance of the results (2) the new group includes 7 Spitzer/PAH sources. PAH emission arises from PDRs tracing the photo-electric heating, while the [CII] and [OI] lines trace the cooling. PAHS therefore trace star formation and, since the features are extremely bright, are excellent redshift indicators. Future missions (e.g. JWST and SPICA/SAFARI) will rely on PAH spectroscopy at high z. It is therefore vital to study PAH emission and its relationship to star formation. The proposed work explores this connection at redshifts 1-2, near the peak of star formation per unit co-moving volume over cosmic time. In this interval ZEUS and PACs share a great synergy with well-matched sensitivities enabling detections of [CII] and oxygen in a wide variety of systems.

  13. HerMES: disentangling active galactic nuclei and star formation in the radio source population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlings, J. I.; Page, M. J.; Symeonidis, M.; Bock, J.; Cooray, A.; Farrah, D.; Guo, K.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Ibar, E.; Oliver, S. J.; Roseboom, I. G.; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N.; Vaccari, M.; Wardlow, J. L.

    2015-10-01

    We separate the extragalactic radio source population above ˜50 μJy into active galactic nuclei (AGN) and star-forming sources. The primary method of our approach is to fit the infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs), constructed using Spitzer/IRAC (Infrared Array Camera) and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) and Herschel/SPIRE photometry, of 380 radio sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South. From the fitted SEDs, we determine the relative AGN and star-forming contributions to their infrared emission. With the inclusion of other AGN diagnostics such as X-ray luminosity, Spitzer/IRAC colours, radio spectral index and the ratio of star-forming total infrared flux to k-corrected 1.4 GHz flux density, qIR, we determine whether the radio emission in these sources is powered by star formation or by an AGN. The majority of these radio sources (60 per cent) show the signature of an AGN at some wavelength. Of the sources with AGN signatures, 58 per cent are hybrid systems for which the radio emission is being powered by star formation. This implies that radio sources which have likely been selected on their star formation have a high AGN fraction. Below a 1.4 GHz flux density of 1 mJy, along with finding a strong contribution to the source counts from pure star-forming sources, we find that hybrid sources constitute 20-65 per cent of the sources. This result suggests that hybrid sources have a significant contribution, along with sources that do not host a detectable AGN, to the observed flattening of the source counts at ˜1 mJy for the extragalactic radio source population.

  14. Kinematics in the Interacting, Star-Forming Galaxies NGC 3395/3396 and NGC 3991/3994/3995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weistrop, Donna; Nelson, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that induced star formation is more sensitive to galaxy dynamics than to local phenomena and that enhanced star formation is found in galaxies with disturbed velocity structures. We are studying the stellar populations of several UV-bright, interacting galaxies to try to understand the detailed star formation process in these systems. We present preliminary results of an investigation of the kinematics of star-forming regions in the interacting systems NGC 3395/3396 and NGC 3991/3994/3995. Regions of powerful star formation are observed throughout these galaxies. The observatation will be used to investigate rotation curves in the galaxies and motion in the tidal tails.

  15. The first Population II stars formed in externally enriched mini-haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Britton D.; Wise, John H.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Norman, Michael L.; Khochfar, Sadegh

    2015-09-01

    We present a simulation of the formation of the earliest Population II stars, starting from cosmological initial conditions and ending when metals created in the first supernovae are incorporated into a collapsing gas cloud. This occurs after a supernova blast-wave collides with a nearby mini-halo, inducing further turbulence that efficiently mixes metals into the dense gas in the centre of the halo. The gas that first collapses has been enriched to a metallicity of Z ˜ 2 × 10-5 Z⊙. Due to the extremely low metallicity, collapse proceeds similarly to metal-free gas until dust cooling becomes efficient at high densities, causing the cloud to fragment into a large number of low-mass objects. This external enrichment mechanism provides a plausible origin for the most metal-poor stars observed, such as SMSS J031300.36-670839.3, that appear to have formed out of gas enriched by a single supernova. This mechanism operates on shorter time-scales than the time for low-mass mini-haloes (M ≤ 5 × 105 M⊙) to recover their gas after experiencing a supernova. As such, metal-enriched stars will likely form first via this channel if the conditions are right for it to occur. We identify a number of other externally enriched haloes that may form stars in this manner. These haloes have metallicities as high as 0.01 Z⊙, suggesting that some members of the first generation of metal-enriched stars may be hiding in plain sight in current stellar surveys.

  16. Physical Conditions of the Interstellar Medium in Star-forming Galaxies at z1.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, Masao; Ly, Chun; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Motohara, Kentaro; Malkan, Matthew A.; Nagao, Tohru; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Goto, Ryosuke; Naito, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    We present results from Subaru/FMOS near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy of 118 star-forming galaxies at z approximately equal to 1.5 in the Subaru Deep Field. These galaxies are selected as [O II] lambda 3727 emitters at z approximately equal to 1.47 and 1.62 from narrow-band imaging. We detect H alpha emission line in 115 galaxies, [O III] lambda 5007 emission line in 45 galaxies, and H Beta, [N II] lambda 6584, and [S II]lambda lambda 6716, 6731 in 13, 16, and 6 galaxies, respectively. Including the [O II] emission line, we use the six strong nebular emission lines in the individual and composite rest-frame optical spectra to investigate physical conditions of the interstellar medium in star-forming galaxies at z approximately equal to 1.5. We find a tight correlation between H alpha and [O II], which suggests that [O II] can be a good star formation rate (SFR) indicator for galaxies at z approximately equal to 1.5. The line ratios of H alpha / [O II] are consistent with those of local galaxies. We also find that [O II] emitters have strong [O III] emission lines. The [O III]/[O II] ratios are larger than normal star-forming galaxies in the local Universe, suggesting a higher ionization parameter. Less massive galaxies have larger [O III]/[O II] ratios. With evidence that the electron density is consistent with local galaxies, the high ionization of galaxies at high redshifts may be attributed to a harder radiation field by a young stellar population and/or an increase in the number of ionizing photons from each massive star.

  17. The evolution of galaxy star formation activity in massive haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popesso, P.; Biviano, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Wilman, D.; Salvato, M.; Magnelli, B.; Gruppioni, C.; Pozzi, F.; Rodighiero, G.; Ziparo, F.; Berta, S.; Elbaz, D.; Dickinson, M.; Lutz, D.; Altieri, B.; Aussel, H.; Cimatti, A.; Fadda, D.; Ilbert, O.; Le Floch, E.; Nordon, R.; Poglitsch, A.; Xu, C. K.

    2015-02-01

    Context. There is now a large consensus that the current epoch of the cosmic star formation history (CSFH) is dominated by low mass galaxies while the most active phase, between redshifts 1 and 2, is dominated by more massive galaxies, which evolve more quickly. Aims: Massive galaxies tend to inhabit very massive haloes, such as galaxy groups and clusters. We aim to understand whether the observed "galaxy downsizing" could be interpreted as a "halo downsizing", whereas the most massive haloes, and their galaxy populations, evolve more rapidly than the haloes with lower mass. Methods: We studied the contribution to the CSFH of galaxies inhabiting group-sized haloes. This is done through the study of the evolution of the infra-red (IR) luminosity function of group galaxies from redshift 0 to redshift ~1.6. We used a sample of 39 X-ray-selected groups in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS), the Chandra Deep Field North (CDFN), and the COSMOS field, where the deepest available mid- and far-IR surveys have been conducted with Spitzer MIPS and with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) on board the Herschel satellite. Results: Groups at low redshift lack the brightest, rarest, and most star forming IR-emitting galaxies observed in the field. Their IR-emitting galaxies contribute ≤10% of the comoving volume density of the whole IR galaxy population in the local Universe. At redshift ≳1, the most IR-luminous galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) are mainly located in groups, and this is consistent with a reversal of the star formation rate (SFR) vs. density anti-correlation observed in the nearby Universe. At these redshifts, group galaxies contribute 60-80% of the CSFH, i.e. much more than at lower redshifts. Below z ~ 1, the comoving number and SFR densities of IR-emitting galaxies in groups decline significantly faster than those of all IR-emitting galaxies. Conclusions: Our results are consistent with a "halo downsizing" scenario and highlight the

  18. THE SINS SURVEY OF z {approx} 2 GALAXY KINEMATICS: PROPERTIES OF THE GIANT STAR-FORMING CLUMPS

    SciTech Connect

    Genzel, R.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Genel, S.; Tacconi, L. J.; Buschkamp, P.; Davies, R.; Eisenhauer, F.; Kurk, J.; Newman, S.; Jones, T.; Shapiro, K.; Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M.; Renzini, A.; Bouche, N.; Burkert, A.; Cresci, G.; Ceverino, D.; Dekel, A.; Hicks, E.

    2011-06-01

    We have studied the properties of giant star-forming clumps in five z {approx} 2 star-forming disks with deep SINFONI AO spectroscopy at the ESO VLT. The clumps reside in disk regions where the Toomre Q-parameter is below unity, consistent with their being bound and having formed from gravitational instability. Broad H{alpha}/[N II] line wings demonstrate that the clumps are launching sites of powerful outflows. The inferred outflow rates are comparable to or exceed the star formation rates, in one case by a factor of eight. Typical clumps may lose a fraction of their original gas by feedback in a few hundred million years, allowing them to migrate into the center. The most active clumps may lose much of their mass and disrupt in the disk. The clumps leave a modest imprint on the gas kinematics. Velocity gradients across the clumps are 10-40 km s{sup -1} kpc{sup -1}, similar to the galactic rotation gradients. Given beam smearing and clump sizes, these gradients may be consistent with significant rotational support in typical clumps. Extreme clumps may not be rotationally supported; either they are not virialized or they are predominantly pressure supported. The velocity dispersion is spatially rather constant and increases only weakly with star formation surface density. The large velocity dispersions may be driven by the release of gravitational energy, either at the outer disk/accreting streams interface, and/or by the clump migration within the disk. Spatial variations in the inferred gas phase oxygen abundance are broadly consistent with inside-out growing disks, and/or with inward migration of the clumps.

  19. The Dawes Review 1: Kinematic Studies of Star-Forming Galaxies Across Cosmic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazebrook, Karl

    2013-11-01

    The last seven years have seen an explosion in the number of Integral Field galaxy surveys, obtaining resolved 2D spectroscopy, especially at high-redshift. These have taken advantage of the mature capabilities of 8-10 m class telescopes and the development of associated technology such as AO. Surveys have leveraged both high spectroscopic resolution enabling internal velocity measurements and high spatial resolution from AO techniques and sites with excellent natural seeing. For the first time, we have been able to glimpse the kinematic state of matter in young, assembling star-forming galaxies and learn detailed astrophysical information about the physical processes and compare their kinematic scaling relations with those in the local Universe. Observers have measured disc galaxy rotation, merger signatures, and turbulence-enhanced velocity dispersions of gas-rich discs. Theorists have interpreted kinematic signatures of galaxies in a variety of ways (rotation, merging, outflows, and feedback) and attempted to discuss evolution vs. theoretical models and relate it to the evolution in galaxy morphology. A key point that has emerged from this activity is that substantial fractions of high-redshift galaxies have regular kinematic morphologies despite irregular photometric morphologies and this is likely due to the presence of a large number of highly gas-rich discs. There has not yet been a review of this burgeoning topic. In this first Dawes review, I will discuss the extensive kinematic surveys that have been done and the physical models that have arisen for young galaxies at high-redshift.

  20. Metal Abundances of KISS Galaxies. V. Nebular Abundances of 15 Intermediate Luminosity Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschauer, Alec S.; Salzer, John J.; Bresolin, Fabio; Saviane, Ivo; Yegorova, Irina

    2015-09-01

    We present high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopy of 15 emission-line galaxies cataloged in the KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey, selected for their possession of high equivalent width [O iii] lines. The primary goal of this study was to attempt to derive direct-method (Te) abundances for use in constraining the upper-metallicity branch of the {R}23 relation. The spectra cover the full optical region from [O ii]λλ3726,3729 to [S iii]λλ9069,9531 and include the measurement of [O iii]λ4363 in 13 objects. From these spectra, we determine abundance ratios of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sulfur, and argon. We find these galaxies to predominantly possess oxygen abundances in the range of 8.0 ≲ 12+log(O/H) ≲ 8.3. We present a comparison of direct-method abundances with empirical strong-emission-line techniques, revealing several discrepancies. We also present a comparison of direct-method oxygen abundance calculations using electron temperatures determined from emission lines of O++ and S++, finding a small systematic shift to lower Te (∼1184 K) and higher metallicity (∼0.14 dex) for sulfur-derived Te compared to oxygen-derived Te. Finally, we explore in some detail the different spectral activity types of targets in our sample, including regular star-forming galaxies, those with suspected AGN contamination, and a local pair of low-metallicity, high-luminosity compact objects.

  1. AN INFRARED/X-RAY SURVEY FOR NEW MEMBERS OF THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Mamajek, E. E.; Cruz, K. L.

    2009-09-20

    We present the results of a search for new members of the Taurus star-forming region using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the XMM-Newton Observatory. We have obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of 44 sources that exhibit red Spitzer colors that are indicative of stars with circumstellar disks and 51 candidate young stars that were identified by Scelsi and coworkers using XMM-Newton. We also performed spectroscopy on four possible companions to members of Taurus that were reported by Kraus and Hillenbrand. Through these spectra, we have demonstrated the youth and membership of 41 sources, 10 of which were independently confirmed as young stars by Scelsi and coworkers. Five of the new Taurus members are likely to be brown dwarfs based on their late spectral types (>M6). One of the brown dwarfs has a spectral type of L0, making it the first known L-type member of Taurus and the least massive known member of the region (M {approx} 4-7 M{sub Jup}). Another brown dwarf exhibits a flat infrared spectral energy distribution, which indicates that it could be in the protostellar class I stage (star+disk+envelope). Upon inspection of archival images from various observatories, we find that one of the new young stars has a large edge-on disk (r = 2.''5 = 350 AU). The scattered light from this disk has undergone significant variability on a timescale of days in optical images from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Using the updated census of Taurus, we have measured the initial mass function for the fields observed by XMM-Newton. The resulting mass function is similar to previous ones that we have reported for Taurus, showing a surplus of stars at spectral types of K7-M1 (0.6-0.8 M{sub sun}) relative to other nearby star-forming regions, such as IC 348, Chamaeleon I, and the Orion Nebula Cluster.

  2. Herschel spectral surveys of star-forming regions. Overview of the 555-636 GHz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccarelli, C.; Bacmann, A.; Boogert, A.; Caux, E.; Dominik, C.; Lefloch, B.; Lis, D.; Schilke, P.; van der Tak, F.; Caselli, P.; Cernicharo, J.; Codella, C.; Comito, C.; Fuente, A.; Baudry, A.; Bell, T.; Benedettini, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Blake, G. A.; Bottinelli, S.; Cabrit, S.; Castets, A.; Coutens, A.; Crimier, N.; Demyk, K.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Gerin, M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Helmich, F.; Hennebelle, P.; Henning, T.; Herbst, E.; Hily-Blant, P.; Jacq, T.; Kahane, C.; Kama, M.; Klotz, A.; Langer, W.; Lord, S.; Lorenzani, A.; Maret, S.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Nisini, B.; Pacheco, S.; Pagani, L.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J.; Phillips, T.; Salez, M.; Saraceno, P.; Schuster, K.; Tielens, X.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Vastel, C.; Viti, S.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.; Wyrowski, F.; Yorke, H.; Liseau, R.; Olberg, M.; Szczerba, R.; Benz, A. O.; Melchior, M.

    2010-10-01

    High resolution line spectra of star-forming regions are mines of information: they provide unique clues to reconstruct the chemical, dynamical, and physical structure of the observed source. We present the first results from the Herschel key project “Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions”, CHESS. We report and discuss observations towards five CHESS targets, one outflow shock spot and four protostars with luminosities bewteen 20 and 2 × 105 L_⊙: L1157-B1, IRAS 16293-2422, OMC2-FIR4, AFGL 2591, and NGC 6334I. The observations were obtained with the heterodyne spectrometer HIFI on board Herschel, with a spectral resolution of 1 MHz. They cover the frequency range 555-636 GHz, a range largely unexplored before the launch of the Herschel satellite. A comparison of the five spectra highlights spectacular differences in the five sources, for example in the density of methanol lines, or the presence/absence of lines from S-bearing molecules or deuterated species. We discuss how these differences can be attributed to the different star-forming mass or evolutionary status. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Figures [see full textsee full text]-[see full textsee full text] and Tables 3, 4 (pages 6 to 8) are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. Looking for phase-space structures in star-forming regions: an MST-based methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, Emilio J.; González, Marta

    2016-03-01

    We present a method for analysing the phase space of star-forming regions. In particular we are searching for clumpy structures in the 3D sub-space formed by two position coordinates and radial velocity. The aim of the method is the detection of kinematic segregated radial velocity groups, that is, radial velocity intervals whose associated stars are spatially concentrated. To this end we define a kinematic segregation index, tilde{Λ }(RV), based on the Minimum Spanning Tree graph algorithm, which is estimated for a set of radial velocity intervals in the region. When tilde{Λ }(RV) is significantly greater than 1 we consider that this bin represents a grouping in the phase space. We split a star-forming region into radial velocity bins and calculate the kinematic segregation index for each bin, and then we obtain the spectrum of kinematic groupings, which enables a quick visualization of the kinematic behaviour of the region under study. We carried out numerical models of different configurations in the sub-space of the phase space formed by the coordinates and the that various case studies illustrate. The analysis of the test cases demonstrates the potential of the new methodology for detecting different kind of groupings in phase space.

  4. IR Studies of dust and ices in star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittet, Douglas C. B.

    2009-05-01

    I will review the current status of research on the properties of interstellar dust and ices studied by infrared spectroscopy. Ongoing investigations of the thermal evolution of ices in molecular clouds and regions of active star formation will be described. Data from the infrared spectrometer on board the Spitzer Space Telescope will be compared with data for laboratory analogs to demonstrate the value of the analogs as an indispensable aid to interpretation of the observations. Data for reddened background field stars establish the properties of the ices in cold, quiescent clouds, and provide a benchmark for studying their physical and chemical evolution in the environments of young dust-embedded stars. I will conclude with a brief review of prospects for future research with new infrared facilities that will become available in the next few years. This research is supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Institute and from the NASA Exobiology and Evolutionary Biology program.

  5. A Star-forming Ring around κ Ori 250 pc from the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillitteri, I.; Wolk, S. J.; Megeath, S. T.

    2016-04-01

    X-rays are a powerful probe of activity in early stages of star formation. They allow us to identify young stars even after they have lost the IR signatures of circumstellar disks and provide constraints on their distance. Here, we report on XMM-Newton observations that detect 121 young stellar objects (YSOs) in two fields between L1641 S and κ Ori. These observations extend the Survey of Orion A with XMM and Spitzer (SOXS). The YSOs are contained in a ring of gas and dust apparent at millimeter wavelengths, and in far-IR and near-IR surveys. The X-ray luminosity function of the YSOs detected in the two fields indicates a distance of 250-280 pc, much closer than the Orion A cloud and similar to distance estimates of κ Ori. We propose that the ring is a 5-8 pc diameter shell that has been swept up by κ Ori. This ring contains several groups of stars detected by Spitzer and WISE including one surrounding the Herbig Ae/Be stars V1818 Ori. In this interpretation, the κ Ori ring is one of several shells swept up by massive stars within the Orion Eridanus Superbubble and is unrelated to the southern portion of Orion A/L1641 S.

  6. The symbiotic star TX CVn has entered an active state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munari, U.; Castellani, F.; Valisa, P.; Dallaporta, S.; Cherini, G.; Vagnozzi, A.; Righetti, G. L.; Belligoli, R.

    2014-01-01

    After the last active phase that begun in 2003, the symbiotic star TX CVn has now entered a new active phase. In 2003, TX CVn rose to B=10.5 and there it remained until the end of 2007 (Skopal 2007, AN 328, 909), when we started monitoring the variable with various ANS Collaboration telescopes in BVRI bands. Our observations show that the star has spent the following 6 years on a steady decline at a rate of 0.084 mag per year in the B band, that took it from B=10.55 on December 2007 to B=11.02 on September 2013, when the star begun a rapid brightening, reaching B=10.65 by early December 2013.

  7. SHOCKED SUPERWINDS FROM THE z {approx} 2 CLUMPY STAR-FORMING GALAXY, ZC406690

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Sarah F.; Genzel, Reinhard; Shapiro Griffin, Kristen; Davies, Ric; Foerster-Schreiber, Natascha M.; Tacconi, Linda J.; Kurk, Jaron; Wuyts, Stijn; Genel, Shy; Buschkamp, Peter; Eisenhauer, Frank; Lutz, Dieter; Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella; Renzini, Alvio; Mancini, Chiara; Bouche, Nicolas; Burkert, Andreas; Cresci, Giovanni; Hicks, Erin; and others

    2012-06-20

    We have obtained high-resolution data of the z {approx} 2 ring-like, clumpy star-forming galaxy (SFG) ZC406690 using the VLT/SINFONI with adaptive optics (in K band) and in seeing-limited mode (in H and J bands). Our data include all of the main strong optical emission lines: [O II], [O III], H{alpha}, H{beta}, [N II], and [S II]. We find broad, blueshifted H{alpha} and [O III] emission line wings in the spectra of the galaxy's massive, star-forming clumps ({sigma} {approx} 85 km s{sup -1}) and even broader wings (up to 70% of the total H{alpha} flux, with {sigma} {approx} 290 km s{sup -1}) in regions spatially offset from the clumps by {approx}2 kpc. The broad emission likely originates from large-scale outflows with mass outflow rates from individual clumps that are 1-8 Multiplication-Sign the star formation rate (SFR) of the clumps. Based on emission line ratio diagnostics ([N II]/H{alpha} and [S II]/H{alpha}) and photoionization and shock models, we find that the emission from the clumps is due to a combination of photoionization from the star-forming regions and shocks generated in the outflowing component, with 5%-30% of the emission deriving from shocks. In terms of the ionization parameter (6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 8} cm s{sup -1}, based on both the SFR and the O{sub 32} ratio), density (local electron densities of 300-1800 cm{sup -3} in and around the clumps, and ionized gas column densities of 1200-8000 M{sub Sun }pc{sup -2}), and SFR (10-40 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}), these clumps more closely resemble nuclear starburst regions of local ultraluminous infrared galaxies and dwarf irregulars than H II regions in local galaxies. However, the star-forming clumps are not located in the nucleus as in local starburst galaxies but instead are situated in a ring several kpc from the center of their high-redshift host galaxy, and have an overall disk-like morphology. The two brightest clumps are quite different in terms of their internal properties

  8. The role of mitochondrial fusion and StAR phosphorylation in the regulation of StAR activity and steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Ana F; Orlando, Ulises; Helfenberger, Katia E; Poderoso, Cecilia; Podesta, Ernesto J

    2015-06-15

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein regulates the rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis, i.e. the delivery of cholesterol from the outer (OMM) to the inner (IMM) mitochondrial membrane. StAR is a 37-kDa protein with an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence that is cleaved off during mitochondrial import to yield 30-kDa intramitochondrial StAR. StAR acts exclusively on the OMM and its activity is proportional to how long it remains on the OMM. However, the precise fashion and the molecular mechanism in which StAR remains on the OMM have not been elucidated yet. In this work we will discuss the role of mitochondrial fusion and StAR phosphorylation by the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) as part of the mechanism that regulates StAR retention on the OMM and activity. PMID:25540920

  9. Cosmic web and star formation activity in galaxies at z ∼ 1

    SciTech Connect

    Darvish, B.; Mobasher, B.; Sales, L. V.; Sobral, D.; Scoville, N. Z.; Best, P.; Smail, I.

    2014-11-20

    We investigate the role of the delineated cosmic web/filaments on star formation activity by exploring a sample of 425 narrow-band selected Hα emitters, as well as 2846 color-color selected underlying star-forming galaxies for a large-scale structure at z = 0.84 in the COSMOS field from the HiZELS survey. Using the scale-independent Multi-scale Morphology Filter algorithm, we are able to quantitatively describe the density field and disentangle it into its major components: fields, filaments, and clusters. We show that the observed median star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, specific SFR, the mean SFR-mass relation, and its scatter for both Hα emitters and underlying star-forming galaxies do not strongly depend on different classes of environment, in agreement with previous studies. However, the fraction of Hα emitters varies with environment and is enhanced in filamentary structures at z ∼ 1. We propose mild galaxy-galaxy interactions as the possible physical agent for the elevation of the fraction of Hα star-forming galaxies in filaments. Our results show that filaments are the likely physical environments that are often classed as the 'intermediate' densities and that the cosmic web likely plays a major role in galaxy formation and evolution which has so far been poorly investigated.

  10. SUB-STELLAR COMPANIONS AND STELLAR MULTIPLICITY IN THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Daemgen, Sebastian; Bonavita, Mariangela; Jayawardhana, Ray; Lafrenière, David; Janson, Markus

    2015-02-01

    We present results from a large, high-spatial-resolution near-infrared imaging search for stellar and sub-stellar companions in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The sample covers 64 stars with masses between those of the most massive Taurus members at ∼3 M {sub ☉} and low-mass stars at ∼0.2 M {sub ☉}. We detected 74 companion candidates, 34 of these reported for the first time. Twenty-five companions are likely physically bound, partly confirmed by follow-up observations. Four candidate companions are likely unrelated field stars. Assuming physical association with their host star, estimated companion masses are as low as ∼2 M {sub Jup}. The inferred multiplicity frequency within our sensitivity limits between ∼10-1500 AU is 26.3{sub −4.9}{sup +6.6}%. Applying a completeness correction, 62% ± 14% of all Taurus stars between 0.7 and 1.4 M {sub ☉} appear to be multiple. Higher order multiples were found in 1.8{sub −1.5}{sup +4.2}% of the cases, in agreement with previous observations of the field. We estimate a sub-stellar companion frequency of ∼3.5%-8.8% within our sensitivity limits from the discovery of two likely bound and three other tentative very low-mass companions. This frequency appears to be in agreement with what is expected from the tail of the stellar companion mass ratio distribution, suggesting that stellar and brown dwarf companions share the same dominant formation mechanism. Further, we find evidence for possible evolution of binary parameters between two identified sub-populations in Taurus with ages of ∼2 Myr and ∼20 Myr, respectively.

  11. Deep Near-Infrared Observations of the W3 Main Star-forming Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, D. K.; Tamura, M.; Nakajima, Y.; Fukagawa, M.; Sugitani, K.; Nagashima, C.; Nagayama, T.; Nagata, T.; Sato, S.; Pickles, A. J.; Ogura, K.

    2004-06-01

    We present a deep JHKs-band imaging survey of the W3 Main star-forming region, using the near-infrared camera SIRIUS mounted on the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope. The near-infrared survey covers an area of ~24 arcmin2 with 10 σ limiting magnitudes of ~19.0, 18.1, and 17.3 in the J, H, and Ks bands, respectively. We construct JHK color-color and J versus J-H and K versus H-K color-magnitude diagrams to identify young stellar objects and estimate their masses. Based on these color-color and color-magnitude diagrams, a rich population of young stellar objects is identified that is associated with the W3 Main region. A large number of previously unreported red sources (H-K>2) have also been detected around W3 Main. We argue that these red stars are most probably pre-main-sequence stars with intrinsic color excesses. We find that the slope of the Ks-band luminosity function (KLF) of W3 Main is lower than the typical values reported for young embedded clusters. The derived slope of the KLF is the same as that found in 1996 by Megeath and coworkers, from which analysis indicated that the W3 Main region has an age in the range of 0.3-1 Myr. Based on the comparison between models of pre-main-sequence stars and the observed color-magnitude diagram, we find that the stellar population in W3 Main is primarily composed of low-mass pre-main-sequence stars. We also report the detection of isolated young stars with large infrared excesses that are most probably in their earliest evolutionary phases.

  12. A form-factor method for determining the structure of distorted stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, R. H., Jr.; Kern, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The equilibrium equations of a uniformly rotating and tidally distorted star are reduced to the same form as for a spherical star except for the inclusion of two form factors. One factor, expressing the buoyancy effects of centrifugal force, is determined directly from the integrated structure variables. The other factor, expressing the deviation from spherical shape, is shown to be relatively insensitive to errors in the assumed shape, so that accurate solutions are obtained in spite of the use of an a priori shape. The method is employed by adding computations for the factors to an existing spherical model program. Upper Main Sequence models determined by this method compare closely with results from the double approximation method even for critical rotation and tidal distortion.

  13. Disks, Young Stars, and Radio Waves: The Quest for Forming Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, C. J.; Shepherd, D. S.

    2008-08-01

    Kant and Laplace suggested the Solar System formed from a rotating gaseous disk in the 18th century, but convincing evidence that young stars are indeed surrounded by such disks was not presented for another 200 years. As we move into the 21st century the emphasis is now on disk formation, the role of disks in star formation, and on how planets form in those disks. Radio wavelengths play a key role in these studies, currently providing some of the highest-spatial-resolution images of disks, along with evidence of the growth of dust grains into planetesimals. The future capabilities of EVLA and ALMA provide extremely exciting prospects for resolving disk structure and kinematics, studying disk chemistry, directly detecting protoplanets, and imaging disks in formation.

  14. Deuterated H3+ as a probe of isotope fractionation in star-forming regions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Helen; Millar, T J

    2006-11-15

    Observations of molecular D/H ratios in the interstellar medium are used to probe the physical conditions, such as temperature, ionization fraction and the importance of gas-grain reactions. In cold, dense regions, such as cores which are collapsing to form stars, the level of deuterium fractionation depends on the conversion of H3+ into its deuterated isotopologues (H2D+, D2H+ and D3+). The relative abundances of these molecules uniquely probe the centres of these cores where other, heavier, species have frozen onto dust grains. We present models of the deuterium chemistry close to the centre of a pre-stellar core, in the last stage before the star forms, showing the dependence of the observable molecular D/H ratios on the physical parameters and rate coefficients that are assumed. We compare model predictions with the latest observations of these regions. PMID:17015383

  15. PARALLAXES OF STAR-FORMING REGIONS IN THE OUTER SPIRAL ARM OF THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect

    Hachisuka, K.; Choi, Y. K.; Reid, M. J.; Dame, T. M.; Brunthaler, A.; Menten, K. M.; Sanna, A.

    2015-02-10

    We report parallaxes and proper motions of three water maser sources in high-mass star-forming regions in the Outer Spiral Arm of the Milky Way. The observations were conducted with the Very Long Baseline Array as part of Bar and Spiral Structure Legacy Survey and double the number of such measurements in the literature. The Outer Arm has a pitch angle of 14.°9 ± 2.°7 and a Galactocentric distance of 14.1 ± 0.6 kpc toward the Galactic anticenter. The average motion of these sources toward the Galactic center is 10.7 ± 2.1 km s{sup –1} and we see no sign of a significant fall in the rotation curve out to 15 kpc from the Galactic center. The three-dimensional locations of these star-forming regions are consistent with a Galactic warp of several hundred parsecs from the plane.

  16. Rotation, differential rotation, and gyrochronology of active Kepler stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhold, Timo; Gizon, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Context. In addition to the discovery of hundreds of exoplanets, the high-precision photometry from the CoRoT and Kepler satellites has led to measurements of surface rotation periods for tens of thousands of stars, which can potentially be used to infer stellar ages via gyrochronology. Aims: Our main goal is to derive ages of thousands of field stars using consistent rotation period measurements derived by different methods. Multiple rotation periods are interpreted as surface differential rotation (DR). We study the dependence of DR with rotation period and effective temperature. Methods: We reanalyze a previously studied sample of 24 124 Kepler stars using different approaches based on the Lomb-Scargle periodogram. Each quarter (Q1-Q14) is treated individually using a prewhitening approach. Additionally, the full time series and their different segments are analyzed. Results: For more than 18 500 stars our results are consistent with the rotation periods from McQuillan et al. (2014, ApJS, 211, 24). Of these, more than 12 300 stars show multiple significant peaks, which we interpret as DR. Dependencies of the DR with rotation period and effective temperature could be confirmed, e.g., the relative DR increases with rotation period. Gyrochronology ages between 100 Myr and 10 Gyr were derived for more than 17 000 stars using different gyrochronology relations, most of them with uncertainties dominated by period variations. We find a bimodal age distribution for Teff between 3200-4700 K. The derived ages reveal an empirical activity-age relation using photometric variability as stellar activity proxy. Additionally, we found 1079 stars with extremely stable (mostly short) periods. Half of these periods may be associated with rotation stabilized by non-eclipsing companions, the other half might be due to pulsations. Conclusions: The derived gyrochronology ages are well constrained since more than ~93.0% of the stars seem to be younger than the Sun where calibration is

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Star-forming regions deuteration (Gerner+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerner, T.; Shirley, Y. L.; Beuther, H.; Semenov, D.; Linz, H.; Albertsson, T.; Henning, T.

    2015-10-01

    The sources were taken from Gerner et al. (2014, Cat. J/A+A/563/A97) and were initially selected from different source lists. The total sample contains 59 high-mass star-forming regions, consisting of 19 IRDCs and 20 HMPOs as well as 11 HMCs and 9 UCHIIs. The sources were selected from well-known source catalogs of the literature without specific selection criteria such as spherical symmetry. (3 data files).

  18. Searching for star-forming dwarf galaxies in the Antlia cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaduvescu, O.; Kehrig, C.; Bassino, L. P.; Smith Castelli, A. V.; Calderón, J. P.

    2014-03-01

    Context. The formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies in clusters need to be understood, and this requires large aperture telescopes. Aims: In this sense, we selected the Antlia cluster to continue our previous work in the Virgo, Fornax, and Hydra clusters and in the Local Volume (LV). Because of the scarce available literature data, we selected a small sample of five blue compact dwarf (BCD) candidates in Antlia for observation. Methods: Using the Gemini South and GMOS camera, we acquired the Hα imaging needed to detect star-forming regions in this sample. With the long-slit spectroscopic data of the brightest seven knots detected in three BCD candidates, we derived their basic chemical properties. Using archival VISTA VHS survey images, we derived KS magnitudes and surface brightness profile fits for the whole sample to assess basic physical properties. Results: FS90-98, FS90-106, and FS90-147 are confirmed as BCDs and cluster members, based on their morphology, KS surface photometry, oxygen abundance, and velocity redshift. FS90-155 and FS90-319 did not show any Hα emission, and they could not be confirmed as dwarf cluster star-forming galaxies. Based on our data, we studied some fundamental relations to compare star forming dwarfs (BCDs and dIs) in the LV and in the Virgo, Fornax, Hydra, and Antlia clusters. Conclusions: Star-forming dwarfs in nearby clusters appear to follow same fundamental relations in the near infrared with similar objects in the LV, specifically the size-luminosity and the metallicity-luminosity, while other more fundamental relations could not be checked in Antlia due to lack of data. Based on observations acquired at Gemini South (GS-2010A-Q-51 and GS-2012A-Q-59) and ESO VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS).

  19. Early star-forming galaxies and the reionization of the Universe.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Brant E; Ellis, Richard S; Dunlop, James S; McLure, Ross J; Stark, Daniel P

    2010-11-01

    Star-forming galaxies trace cosmic history. Recent observational progress with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope has led to the discovery and study of the earliest known galaxies, which correspond to a period when the Universe was only ∼800 million years old. Intense ultraviolet radiation from these early galaxies probably induced a major event in cosmic history: the reionization of intergalactic hydrogen. PMID:21048759

  20. Spitzer Imaging of Strongly lensed Herschel-selected Dusty Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Brian; Cooray, Asantha; Calanog, J. A.; Nayyeri, H.; Timmons, N.; Casey, C.; Baes, M.; Chapman, S.; Dannerbauer, H.; da Cunha, E.; De Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; Farrah, D.; Fu, Hai; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Magdis, G.; Michałowski, M. J.; Oteo, I.; Riechers, D. A.; Scott, D.; Smith, M. W. L.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.; Vaccari, M.; Viaene, S.; Vieira, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    We present the rest-frame optical spectral energy distribution (SED) and stellar masses of six Herschel-selected gravitationally lensed dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) at 1 < z < 3. These galaxies were first identified with Herschel/SPIRE imaging data from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). The targets were observed with Spitzer/IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Due to the spatial resolution of the IRAC observations at the level of 2″, the lensing features of a background DSFG in the near-infrared are blended with the flux from the foreground lensing galaxy in the IRAC imaging data. We make use of higher resolution Hubble/WFC3 or Keck/NIRC2 Adaptive Optics imaging data to fit light profiles of the foreground lensing galaxy (or galaxies) as a way to model the foreground components, in order to successfully disentangle the foreground lens and background source flux densities in the IRAC images. The flux density measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, once combined with Hubble/WFC3 and Keck/NIRC2 data, provide important constraints on the rest-frame optical SED of the Herschel-selected lensed DSFGs. We model the combined UV- to millimeter-wavelength SEDs to establish the stellar mass, dust mass, star formation rate, visual extinction, and other parameters for each of these Herschel-selected DSFGs. These systems have inferred stellar masses in the range 8 × 1010-4 × 1011 M⊙ and star formation rates of around 100 M⊙ yr-1. This puts these lensed submillimeter systems well above the SFR-M* relation observed for normal star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. The high values of SFR inferred for these systems are consistent with a major merger-driven scenario for star formation.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF OTHER GALAXY PROPERTIES FOR THE SAME STAR FORMATION ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Xinfa; Bei Yang; He Jizhou; Tang Xiaoxun

    2010-01-01

    Using two volume-limited Main galaxy samples of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 above and below the value of M*, we have investigated the environmental dependence of other galaxy properties for the same star formation activities. Only in the luminous passive class, a strong environmental dependence of the g - r color is observed, but the environmental dependence of other properties in this class is very weak. In other classes, we can conclude that the local density dependence of luminosity, g - r color, concentration index ci, and morphologies for star-forming galaxies and passive ones is much weaker than that obtained in the volume-limited Main galaxy samples. This suggests that star formation activity is a galaxy property very predictive of the local environment. In addition, we also note that passive galaxies are more luminous, redder, highly concentrated, and preferentially 'early type'.

  2. SUB-MILLIMETER TELESCOPE CO (2-1) OBSERVATIONS OF NEARBY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xue-Jian; Gu, Qiusheng; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yu

    2015-01-20

    We present CO J = 2-1 observations toward 32 nearby gas-rich star-forming galaxies selected from the ALFALFA and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) catalogs, using the Sub-millimeter Telescope (SMT). Our sample is selected to be dominated by intermediate-M {sub *} galaxies. The scaling relations between molecular gas, atomic gas, and galactic properties (stellar mass, NUV – r, and WISE color W3 – W2) are examined and discussed. Our results show the following. (1) In the galaxies with stellar mass M {sub *} ≤10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, the H I fraction (f {sub H} {sub I} ≡ M {sub H} {sub I}/M {sub *}) is significantly higher than that of more massive galaxies, while the H{sub 2} gas fraction (f{sub H{sub 2}} ≡ M{sub H{sub 2}}/M {sub *}) remains nearly unchanged. (2) Compared to f{sub H{sub 2}}, f {sub H} {sub I} correlates better with both M {sub *} and NUV – r. (3) A new parameter, WISE color W3 – W2 (12-4.6 μm), is introduced, which is similar to NUV – r in tracing star formation activity, and we find that W3 – W2 has a tighter anti-correlation with log f{sub H{sub 2}} than the anti-correlation of (NUV – r)-f {sub H} {sub I}, (NUV – r)-f{sub H{sub 2}}, and (W3 – W2)-f {sub H} {sub I}. This indicates that W3 – W2 can trace the H{sub 2} fraction in galaxies. For the gas ratio M{sub H{sub 2}}/M {sub H} {sub I} , only in the intermediate-M {sub *} galaxies it appears to depend on M {sub *} and NUV – r. We find a tight correlation between the molecular gas mass M{sub H{sub 2}} and 12 μm (W3) luminosities (L {sub 12} {sub μm}), and the slope is close to unity (1.03 ± 0.06) for the SMT sample. This correlation may reflect that the cold gas and dust are well mixed on a global galactic scale. Using the all-sky 12 μm (W3) data available in WISE, this correlation can be used to estimate CO flux for molecular gas observations and can even predict H{sub 2} mass for star-forming galaxies.

  3. High Circular Polarization in the Star Forming Region NGC 6334: Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ménard, François; Chrysostomou, A.; Gledhill, T.; Hough, J. H.; Bailey, J.

    The amino-acids which form the building blocks of biological proteins are all left-handed molecules. By contrast, when these molecules are made in the laboratory equal numbers of the right and left-handed versions are made. This homochirality found in biological material may then well be a prerequisite for the origin of life and a number of processes have been proposed to produce the required enantiomeric excess in prebiotic organic molecules. We report here on the detection of high degrees of circular polarisation in the star forming complex NGC 6334, in the constellation Scorpius. This important finding suggests the widespread nature of a potentially efficient process to produce biomolecules with large chiral excess, namely selective (asymmetric) photolysis by circularly polarised light. The mechanism, well known in the laboratory, was first suggested to take place in a star forming region by Bailey et al. (1998) (Science, 281, 672; and this conference), following our discovery of high degrees of near-infrared circular polarisation in the Orion molecular cloud, OMC-1. NGC 6334 is a giant HII region and molecular cloud similar to Orion. These two detections of large circular polarisation, among the small number of sources surveyed so far, lead us to suggest that selective photolysis by circular polarisation may be quite widespread in massive star formation regions.

  4. [Ne III]/[O II] as an ionization parameter diagnostic in star-forming galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, Emily M.; Richardson, Mark L. A.

    2014-01-01

    We present our parameterizations of the log([Ne III]λ3869/[O II]λ3727) (Ne3O2) and log([O III]λ5007/[O II]λ3727) (O3O2) ratios as diagnostics of ionization parameter in star-forming galaxies. Our calibrations are based on the Starburst99/Mappings III photoionization models, which extend up to the extremely high values of ionization parameter found in high-redshift galaxies. While similar calibrations have been presented previously for O3O2, this is the first such calibration of Ne3O2. We illustrate the tight correlation between these two ratios for star-forming galaxies and discuss the underlying physics that dictates their very similar evolution. Based on this work, we propose the Ne3O2 ratio as a new and useful diagnostic of ionization parameter for star-forming galaxies. Given the Ne3O2 ratio's relative insensitivity to reddening, this ratio is particularly valuable for use with galaxies that have uncertain amounts of extinction. The short wavelengths of the Ne3O2 ratio can also be applied out to very high redshifts, extending studies of galaxies' ionization parameters out to z ∼ 1.6 with optical spectroscopy and z ∼ 5.2 with ground-based near-infrared spectra.

  5. The First Detections of the Key Prebiotic Molecule PO in Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Fontani, F.; Beltrán, M. T.; Vasyunin, A.; Caselli, P.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Cesaroni, R.

    2016-08-01

    Phosphorus is a crucial element in biochemistry, in particular the P‑O bond, which is key in the formation of the backbone of deoxyribonucleic acid. So far, PO has only been detected toward the envelope of evolved stars, but never toward star-forming regions. We report the first detection of PO toward two massive star-forming regions, W51 e1/e2 and W3(OH), using data from the IRAM 30 m telescope. PN has also been detected toward the two regions. The abundance ratio PO/PN is 1.8 and 3 for W51 and W3(OH), respectively. Our chemical model indicates that the two molecules are chemically related and are formed via gas-phase ion–molecule and neutral–neutral reactions during cold collapse. The molecules freeze out onto grains at the end of the collapse and desorb during the warm-up phase once the temperature reaches ∼35 K. Similar abundances of the two species are expected during a period of ∼5 × 104 yr at the early stages of the warm-up phase, when the temperature is in the range 35–90 K. The observed molecular abundances of 10‑10 are predicted by the model if a relatively high initial abundance of 5 × 10‑9 of depleted phosphorus is assumed.

  6. A spectral and photometric study of 102 star-forming regions in seven spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A. S.; Sakhibov, F.; Piskunov, A. E.; Kharchenko, N. V.; Bruevich, V. V.; Ezhkova, O. V.; Guslyakova, S. A.; Lang, V.; Shimanovskaya, E. V.; Efremov, Y. N.

    2016-04-01

    We present a study of complexes of young massive star clusters (YMCs), embedded in extragalactic giant H II regions, based on the coupling of spectroscopic with photometric and spectrophotometric observations of about 100 star-forming regions in seven spiral galaxies (NGC 628, NGC 783, NGC 2336, NGC 6217, NGC 6946, NGC 7331, and NGC 7678). The complete observational data base has been observed and accumulated within the framework of our comprehensive study of extragalactic star-forming regions. This paper presents the last part of either unpublished or refreshed photometric and spectrophotometric observations of the galaxies NGC 6217, NGC 6946, NGC 7331, and NGC 7678. We derive extinctions, chemical abundances, continuum, and line emissions of ionized gas, ages, and masses for cluster complexes. We find the YMC complexes to have ages no greater than 10 Myr and masses between 104 M⊙ and 107 M⊙, and the extinctions AV vary between ˜0 and 3 mag, while the impact of the nebular emission on integrated broad-band photometry mainly is not greater than 40 per cent of the total flux and is comparable with accuracies of dereddened photometric quantities. We also find evidence of differential extinction of stellar and gas emissions in some clusters, which hinders the photometric determination of ages and masses in these cases. Finally, we show that young massive cluster complexes in the studied galaxies and open clusters in the Milky Way form a continuous sequence of luminosities/masses and colour/ages.

  7. The First Detections of the Key Prebiotic Molecule PO in Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Fontani, F.; Beltrán, M. T.; Vasyunin, A.; Caselli, P.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Cesaroni, R.

    2016-08-01

    Phosphorus is a crucial element in biochemistry, in particular the P‑O bond, which is key in the formation of the backbone of deoxyribonucleic acid. So far, PO has only been detected toward the envelope of evolved stars, but never toward star-forming regions. We report the first detection of PO toward two massive star-forming regions, W51 e1/e2 and W3(OH), using data from the IRAM 30 m telescope. PN has also been detected toward the two regions. The abundance ratio PO/PN is 1.8 and 3 for W51 and W3(OH), respectively. Our chemical model indicates that the two molecules are chemically related and are formed via gas-phase ion–molecule and neutral–neutral reactions during cold collapse. The molecules freeze out onto grains at the end of the collapse and desorb during the warm-up phase once the temperature reaches ˜35 K. Similar abundances of the two species are expected during a period of ˜5 × 104 yr at the early stages of the warm-up phase, when the temperature is in the range 35–90 K. The observed molecular abundances of 10‑10 are predicted by the model if a relatively high initial abundance of 5 × 10‑9 of depleted phosphorus is assumed.

  8. The relation between star formation and active nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.

    1987-01-01

    Three questions relevant to the relation between an active nucleus and surrounding star formation are discussed. The infrared stellar CO absorption bands can be used to identify galaxies with large populations of young, massive stars and thus can identify strong starburst unambiguously, such as in NGC 6240, and can help identify composite active/starburst systems such as Arp 220. An active nucleus is probably not required for LINER spectral characteristics; dusty starburst galaxies, particularly if they are nearly edge-on, can produce LINER spectra through the shock heating of their interstellar media by supernovae combined with the obscuration of their nuclei in the optical. The Galactic Center would be an ideal laboratory for studying the interaction of starbursts and active nuclei, if both could be demonstrated to occur there. Failure to detect a cusp in the stellar distribution raises questions about the presence of an active nucleus, which should be answered by additional observations in the near future.

  9. Direct measurements of dust attenuation in z ∼ 1.5 star-forming galaxies from 3D-HST: Implications for dust geometry and star formation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Sedona H.; Kriek, Mariska; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Conroy, Charlie; Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster; Wuyts, Stijn; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundgren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2014-06-10

    The nature of dust in distant galaxies is not well understood, and until recently few direct dust measurements have been possible. We investigate dust in distant star-forming galaxies using near-infrared grism spectra of the 3D-HST survey combined with archival multi-wavelength photometry. These data allow us to make a direct comparison between dust around star-forming regions (A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II}) and the integrated dust content (A {sub V,} {sub star}). We select a sample of 163 galaxies between 1.36 ≤ z ≤ 1.5 with Hα signal-to-noise ratio ≥5 and measure Balmer decrements from stacked spectra to calculate A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II}. First, we stack spectra in bins of A {sub V,} {sub star}, and find that A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II} = 1.86 A {sub V,} {sub star}, with a significance of σ = 1.7. Our result is consistent with the two-component dust model, in which galaxies contain both diffuse and stellar birth cloud dust. Next, we stack spectra in bins of specific star formation rate (log SSFR), star formation rate (log SFR), and stellar mass (log M {sub *}). We find that on average A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II} increases with SFR and mass, but decreases with increasing SSFR. Interestingly, the data hint that the amount of extra attenuation decreases with increasing SSFR. This trend is expected from the two-component model, as the extra attenuation will increase once older stars outside the star-forming regions become more dominant in the galaxy spectrum. Finally, using Balmer decrements we derive dust-corrected Hα SFRs, and find that stellar population modeling produces incorrect SFRs if rapidly declining star formation histories are included in the explored parameter space.

  10. Chandra Sees Wealth Of Black Holes In Star-Forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-06-01

    -like galaxy as we watch. In NGC 253, Chandra may have found the causal connection between starburst activity and quasars." Chandra detected variability and a relatively large ratio of high- to low-energy X-rays in these sources - two characteristics of superheated gas falling into black holes. When combined with extreme luminosities, this tells astronomers that some of these objects must have masses many times greater than ordinary stellar black holes, if they radiate energy uniformly in all directions. Scenarios for the formation of such "intermediate-mass" black holes include the direct collapse of a single, massive cloud of gas into a black hole, or the coalescence of a cluster of stellar black holes, but no uniformly accepted model exists. M82-True Color Image True Color Image of M82 Credit: NASA/SAO/G.Fabbiano et al. Press Image and Caption An alternative possibility, mentioned by Giuseppina Fabbiano of the Harvard-Smithsonian team, is that the X-rays from such highly luminous sources are beamed toward us -- perhaps by a funnel formed by the infalling matter. This would imply that the mass of the underlying black hole is only about ten times the mass of the Sun, in line with the known black hole sources in our galaxy. In this event, they would represent a short-lived but common stage in the evolution of black holes in close binary star systems. Long-term monitoring of the very luminous X-ray sources should distinguish between these possibilities. Andrew Ptak, led a team from Carnegie-Mellon University in Pittsburgh, PA, and Penn State University, University Park, PA, that used Chandra data to survey 37 galaxies. Ptak’s team found that 25 percent of galaxies, which were chosen for their suspected central supermassive black holes and areas of star formation, had these very luminous X-ray sources. The team plans to expand their survey with Chandra to assess the probability of finding these very bright X-ray sources in other types of galaxies. NASA's Marshall Space Flight

  11. Activity trends in young solar-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtinen, J.; Jetsu, L.; Hackman, T.; Kajatkari, P.; Henry, G. W.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We study a sample of 21 young and active solar-type stars with spectral types ranging from late F to mid K and characterize the behaviour of their activity. Methods: We apply the continuous period search (CPS) time series analysis method on Johnson B- and V-band photometry of the sample stars, collected over a period of 16 to 27 years. Using the CPS method, we estimate the surface differential rotation and determine the existence and behaviour of active longitudes and activity cycles on the stars. We supplement the time series results by calculating new log R'HK = log F'HK/σTeff4 emission indices for the stars from high resolution spectroscopy. Results: The measurements of the photometric rotation period variations reveal a positive correlation between the relative differential rotation coefficient and the rotation period as k ∝ Prot1.36, but do not reveal any dependence of the differential rotation on the effective temperature of the stars. Secondary period searches reveal activity cycles in 18 of the stars and temporary or persistent active longitudes in 11 of them. The activity cycles fall into specific activity branches when examined in the log Prot/Pcyc vs. log Ro-1, where Ro-1 = 2Ωτc, or log Prot/Pcyc vs. log R'HK diagram. We find a new split into sub-branches within this diagram, indicating multiple simultaneously present cycle modes. Active longitudes appear to be present only on the more active stars. There is a sharp break at approximately log R'HK = -4.46 separating the less active stars with long-term axisymmetric spot distributions from the more active ones with non-axisymmetric configurations. In seven out of eleven of our stars with clearly detected long-term non-axisymmetric spot activity the estimated active longitude periods are significantly shorter than the mean photometric rotation periods. This systematic trend can be interpreted either as a sign of the active longitudes being sustained from a deeper level in the stellar interior

  12. Periods of activity cycles in late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliorin, N. I.; Ruzmaykin, A. A.; Sokolov, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    The mean magnetic field dynamo theory is utilized to obtain the qualitative dependence of the period of activity on the angular velocity of rotation for stars with sufficiently extensive convective shells. The dependence of the cycle period on the spectral class is also discussed.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the central star forming region in NGC 1140 (exp 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Deidre A.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Gallagher, John S. Iii

    1994-01-01

    We present broadband images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope's Planetary Camera of the central supergiant H II region in the amorphous galaxy NGC 1140. These images allow observations to a resolution of about 13 pc at the galaxy, and they reveal that its central 1/2 kpc contains 6-7 blue, luminous, compact super star clusters, many of which would be comparable in luminosity to globular clusters at the same age. A blue arc-shaped structure near the center may be a grouping of less luminous, R136/NGC 2070-sized clusters or a sheet of OB stars. Additional somewhat less luminous and redder clusters are also found farther out from the center. If these clusters are older, they too could have had luminosities comparable to those of the central six clusters at a comparable age. Thus, we find that NGC 1140 is remarkable in the number of extreme clusters that it has formed recently in a relatively small area of the galaxy. Since NGC 1140 exhibits global characteristics that are consistent with a recent merger, these clusters are likely to be a product of that event. This galaxy adds to the number of cases where rapid star formation has evidently produced super star clusters.

  14. Galaxy Zoo: spiral galaxy morphologies and their relation to the star-forming main sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Kyle; Schawinski, Kevin; Masters, Karen; Melvin, Tom; Skibba, Ramin A.; Nichol, Robert; Cheung, Edmond; Lintott, Chris; Simmons, Brooke D.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Keel, William C.; Fortson, Lucy; Galaxy Zoo volunteers

    2015-01-01

    We examine the relationship between stellar mass and star formation rate in disk galaxies at z<0.085, measuring different populations of spirals as classified by their kiloparsec-scale structure. The morphologies of disk galaxies are obtained from the Galaxy Zoo 2 project, which includes the number of spiral arms, the arm pitch angle, and the presence of strong galactic bars. We show that both the slope and dispersion of the star-forming main sequence (SFMS) is constant no matter what the morphology of the spiral disk. We also show that mergers (both major and minor), which represent the strongest conditions for increases in star formation at a constant mass, only boost the SFR above the main relation by 0.3 dex; this is a significant reduction over the increase seen in merging systems at higher redshifts (z > 1). Of the galaxies that do lie significantly above the SFMS in the local Universe, more than 50% are mergers, with a large contribution from the compact green pea galaxies. We interpret our results as evidence that the number and pitch angle of spiral arms, which are imperfect reflections of the galaxy's current gravitational potential, are either fully independent of the various quenching mechanisms for star formation or are completely overwhelmed by the combination of outflows and feedback.

  15. The Role of Grain Surface Reactions in the Chemistry of Star Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Roberge, W. G.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of reactions at the surfaces of dust grains has long been recognized to be one of the two main chemical processes that form molecules in cold, dark interstellar clouds where simple, saturated (fully-hydrogenated) molecules such as H2 water, methanol, H2CO, H2S, ammonia and CH4 are present in quantities far too high to be consistent with their extremely low gas phase formation rates. In cold dark regions of interstellar space, dust grains provide a substrate onto which gas-phase species can accrete and react. Grains provide a "third body" or a sink for the energy released in the exothermic reactions that form chemical bonds. In essence, the surfaces of dust grains open up alternative reaction pathways to form observed molecules whose abundances cannot be explained with gas-phase chemistry alone. This concept is taken one step further in this work: instead of merely acting as a substrate onto which radicals and molecules may physically adsorb, some grains may actively participate in the reaction itself, forming chemical bonds with the accreting species. Until recently, surface chemical reactions had not been thought to be important in warm circumstellar media because adspecies rapidly desorb from grains at very low temperatures; thus, the residence times of molecules and radicals on the surface of grains at all but the lowest temperatures are far too short to allow these reactions to occur. However, if the adspecies could adsorb more strongly, via a true chemical bond with surfaces of some dust grains, then grain surface reactions will play an important role in warm circumstellar regions as well. In this work, the surface-catalyzed reaction CO + 3 H2 yields CH4 + H2O is studied in the context that it may be very effective at converting the inorganic molecule CO into the simplest organic compound, methane. H2 and CO are the most abundant molecules in space, and the reaction converting them to methane, while kinetically inhibited in the gas phase under

  16. The Universe as Viewed from Star Forming Galaxies over the Past Ten Billion Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly, Chun; Malkan, M.; Lee, J. C.; Kashikawa, N.; Hayashi, M.; Motohara, K.; Subaru Deep Field Collaboration; NEWFIRM Narrow-band H-alpha Survey Team

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation talk, I will discuss my work to provide improved constraints on the star formation history of the universe by (1) using narrow-band filters to identify galaxies to z 2.2 and (2) extending the Lyman break technique to z=1.5-3. These techniques efficiently isolate a large population of star-forming galaxies and enable measurement of the star formation rate via emission line and ultraviolet indicators. With the SDF team, we have conducted a narrow-band optical survey which yields a sample of 5000 galaxies within 0.25 square degree to z 1.5 detected by H-alpha, [OIII], or [OII]. Diagnostics based on broad-band optical colors are developed to resolve ambiguities in emission-line identification. In addition, with the NEWFIRM H-alpha team, we are working to extend optical studies into the near-infrared with NEWFIRM. We target H-alpha emitting galaxies at z 0.8 and z 2.2, which probes a critical period in the history of the universe during which much of the star formation has occurred. The NEWFIRM H-alpha survey covers over 1 square degree. A total of 300 H-alpha emitting galaxies at z 0.8 has been identified for 60% of the survey volume. Preliminary results from the NEWFIRM H-alpha Survey will be discussed. Spectroscopy for both narrow-band surveys reveals a high reliability of the technique: contamination at the few percent level. Finally, I will describe the first Lyman break survey to select star-forming galaxies at z 2 (limiting magnitude of 27 AB), using deep, wide GALEX near-ultraviolet imaging. A total of 7000 LBGs was identified in 0.25 square degree. Spectroscopy indicates that the success of identifying z 2 galaxies is 80%. I will also compare different z 2 photometric techniques (BzK, DRG, BX/BM) to provide a more comprehensive view of the galaxy population, including dusty star-forming galaxies. The comparison reveals a good but imperfect ( 50%) overlap, indicating that these photometric techniques are complementary.

  17. Properties of dense cores in clustered massive star-forming regions at high angular resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Palau, Aina; Fontani, Francesco; Busquet, Gemma; Juárez, Carmen; Estalella, Robert; Tan, Jonathan C.; Sepúlveda, Inma; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang, Qizhou; Kurtz, Stan

    2013-07-01

    We aim at characterizing dense cores in the clustered environments associated with intermediate-/high-mass star-forming regions. For this, we present a uniform analysis of Very Large Array NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) observations towards a sample of 15 intermediate-/high-mass star-forming regions, where we identify a total of 73 cores, classify them as protostellar, quiescent starless, or perturbed starless, and derive some physical properties. The average sizes and ammonia column densities of the total sample are ˜0.06 pc and ˜1015 cm-2, respectively, with no significant differences between the starless and protostellar cores, while the linewidth and rotational temperature of quiescent starless cores are smaller, ˜1.0 km s-1 and 16 K, than linewidths and temperatures of protostellar (˜1.8 km s-1 and 21 K), and perturbed starless (˜1.4 km s-1 and 19 K) cores. Such linewidths and temperatures for these quiescent starless cores in the surroundings of intermediate-/high-mass stars are still significantly larger than the typical linewidths and rotational temperatures measured in starless cores of low-mass star-forming regions, implying an important non-thermal component. We confirm at high angular resolutions (spatial scales ˜0.05 pc) the correlations previously found with single-dish telescopes (spatial scales ≳ 0.1 pc) between the linewidth and the rotational temperature of the cores, as well as between the rotational temperature and the linewidth with respect to the bolometric luminosity. In addition, we find a correlation between the temperature of each core and the incident flux from the most massive star in the cluster, suggesting that the large temperatures measured in the starless cores of our sample could be due to heating from the nearby massive star. A simple virial equilibrium analysis seems to suggest a scenario of a self-similar, self-gravitating, turbulent, virialized hierarchy of structures from clumps (˜0.1-10 pc) to cores (˜0.05 pc). A closer

  18. Photometric study of the active binary star V1430 Aquilae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, A.; Sürgit, D.

    2006-05-01

    New BVR light curves and a photometric analysis of the eclipsing binary star V1430 Aql are presented. The light curves were obtained at the Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Observatory in 2004. The light curves are generally those of detached eclipsing binaries, but there are large asymmetries between maxima. New BVR light curves were analysed with an ILOT procedure. Light curve asymmetries of the system were explained in terms of large dark starspots on the primary component. The primary star shows a long-lived and quasi-poloidal spot distribution with active longitudes in opposite hemispheres. Absolute parameters of the system were derived. We also discuss the evolution of the system: the components are likely to be pre-main sequence stars, but a post-main sequence stage cannot be ruled out. More observations are needed to decide this point.

  19. Chromospherically active stars. 6: Giants with compact hot companions and the barium star scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Busby, Michael R.; Eitter, Joseph J.

    1993-01-01

    We have determined spectroscopic orbits for three chromospherically active giants that have hot compact companions. They are HD 160538 (K0 III + wd, P = 904 days), HD 165141 (G8 III + wd, P approximately 5200 days), and HD 185510 (K0 III + sdB, P = 20.6619 days). By fitting an IUE spectrum with theoretical models, we find the white dwarf companion of HD 165141 has a temperature of about 35000 K. Spectral types and rotational velocities have been determined for the three giants and distances have been estimated. These three systems and 39 Ceti are compared with the barium star mass-transfer scenario. The long-period mild barium giant HD 165141 as well as HD 185510 and 39 Ceti, which have relatively short periods and normal abundance giants, appear to be consistent with this scenario. The last binary, HD 160538, a system with apparently near solar abundances, a white dwarf companion, and orbital characteristics similar to many barium stars, demonstrates that the existence of a white-dwarf companion is insufficient to produce a barium star. The paucity of systems with confirmed white-dwarf companions makes abundance analyses of HD 160538 and HD 165141 of great value in examining the role of metallicity in barium star formation.

  20. Chromospherically active stars. 11: Giant with compact hot companions and the barium star scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Busby, Michael R.; Eitter, Joseph J.

    1993-01-01

    We have determined spectroscopic orbits for three chromsopherically active giants that have hot compact companions. They are HD 160538 (KO III + wd, P = 904 days), HD 165141 (G8 III + wd, P approximately 5200 days), and HD 185510 (KO III + sdB, P = 20.6619 days). By fitting an IUE spectrum with theoretical models, we find the white dwarf companion of HD 165141 has a temperature of about 35,000 K. Spectral types and rotational velocities have been determined for the three giants and distances have been estimated. These three systems and 39 Ceti are compared with the barium star mass-transfer scenario. The long-period mild barium giant HD 165141 as well as HD 185510 and 39 Ceti, which have relatively short periods and normal abundance giants, appear to be consistent with this scenario. The last binary, HD 160538, a system with apparently near solar abundances, a white dwarf companion, and orbital characteristics similar to many barium stars, demonstrates that the existence of a white dwarf companion is insufficient to produce a barium star. The paucity of systems with confirmed white dwarf companions makes abundance analyses of HD 160538 and HD 165141 of great value in examining the role of metallicity in barium star formation.

  1. Li abundance in the stars with solar-type activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishenina, T. V.; Soubiran, C.; Kovtyukh, V. V.; Katsova, M. M.; Livshits, M. A.

    Li abundances, atmospheric parameters and rotational velocities for 150 dwarfs have been determined from the high resolution, high signal to noise echelle spectra, obtained with the ELODIE spectrograph at the OHP (France). Among them, there are 101 stars with a determined level of activity, a large part of them being of the BY Dra type. The level of chromospheric and coronal activity of the targets has been evaluated through the logR'_HK index and X-ray flux. We examined the Li abundance behavior with T_eff, vsini and level of the activity. Some correlations between the Li abundances, level of the chromospheric activity and rotational velocities vsini are confirmed. The correlation between the Li abundances and index of the chromospheric activity logR'_HK was found, especially for dwarfs with 5700>T_eff> 5200 K. Those correlations mainly demonstrate that measurable values of the lithium content (higher than the upper limit) refer to the stars with large spot areas in their photospheres. Considering the wider set of stars with high activity levels one can affirm that such a conclusion is valid also for the cooler, earlier K dwarfs. Our results confirm that basic factors of formation of detectable Li abundance and high activity are determined principally by smaller age and fast axial rotation, respectively; and apparently by the depth of the convective zone.

  2. The SCUBA-2 cosmology legacy survey: Ultraluminous star-forming galaxies in a z = 1.6 cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Edge, A. C.; Simpson, J. M.; Geach, J. E.; Tadaki, K.; Arumugam, V.; Dunlop, J. S.; Ivison, R. J.; Hartley, W.; Almaini, O.; Conselice, C.; Bremer, M. N.; Chapin, E.; Chapman, S. C.; Scott, D.; Simpson, C. J.; Karim, A.; Kodama, T.; and others

    2014-02-10

    We analyze new SCUBA-2 submillimeter and archival SPIRE far-infrared imaging of a z = 1.62 cluster, Cl 0218.3–0510, which lies in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey/Ultra-Deep Survey field of the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey. Combining these tracers of obscured star-formation activity with the extensive photometric and spectroscopic information available for this field, we identify 31 far-infrared/submillimeter-detected probable cluster members with bolometric luminosities ≳10{sup 12} L {sub ☉} and show that by virtue of their dust content and activity, these represent some of the reddest and brightest galaxies in this structure. We exploit ALMA submillimeter continuum observations, which cover one of these sources, to confirm the identification of a SCUBA-2-detected ultraluminous star-forming galaxy in this structure. Integrating the total star-formation activity in the central region of the structure, we estimate that it is an order of magnitude higher (in a mass-normalized sense) than clusters at z ∼ 0.5-1. However, we also find that the most active cluster members do not reside in the densest regions of the structure, which instead host a population of passive and massive, red galaxies. We suggest that while the passive and active populations have comparable near-infrared luminosities at z = 1.6, M{sub H} ∼ –23, the subsequent stronger fading of the more active galaxies means that they will evolve into passive systems at the present day that are less luminous than the descendants of those galaxies that were already passive at z ∼ 1.6 (M{sub H} ∼ –20.5 and M{sub H} ∼ –21.5, respectively, at z ∼ 0). We conclude that the massive galaxy population in the dense cores of present-day clusters were already in place at z = 1.6 and that in Cl 0218.3–0510 we are seeing continuing infall of less extreme, but still ultraluminous, star-forming galaxies onto a pre-existing structure.

  3. Coronal Diagnostics of Intermediate Activity Star XI Boo A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of Xi Boo A proved difficult to adapt to our line-by-line approach because of the strong wings of the RGS instrumental profile, as has been detailed in earlier reports. While progress was also delayed because of problems in using SAS v4, we succeeded in the past year or so to bring the analysis to conclusion. Abundances have been derived using both EPIC and RGS data, confirming earlier EUVE findings of a mild solar-like FIP effect, though with some evidence of a turn-up in abundances of elements with higher FIP. Plasma densities appear normal for a moderately active stellar corona. Xi Boo A nicely bridges the gap between the very active stars and stars like the Sun, and it indeed does appear that these are the stars in which the solar-like FIP effects begins to change to the "inverse FIP" type of effect seen in the very active stars. Probing this divide was the main goal of the proposal. These results are in the process of being prepared for publication, though we have not decided the target journal as yet.

  4. Solar activity: The Sun as an X-ray star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.

    1981-01-01

    The existence and constant activity of the Sun's outer atmosphere are thought to be due to the continual emergence of magnetic fields from the Solar interior and the stressing of these fields at or near the surface layers of the Sun. The structure and activity of the corona are thus symptomatic of the underlying magnetic dynamo and the existence of an outer turbulent convective zone on the Sun. A sufficient condition for the existence of coronal activity on other stars would be the existence of a magnetic dynamo and an outer convective zone. The theoretical relationship between magnetic fields and coronal activity can be tested by Solar observations, for which the individual loop structures can be resolved. A number of parameters however, which enter into the alternative theoretical formulations remain fixed in all Solar observations. To determine whether these are truly parameters of the theory observations need to be extended to nearby stars on which suitable conditions may occur.

  5. Improving fold activation of small transcription activating RNAs (STARs) with rational RNA engineering strategies.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sarai; Chappell, James; Sankar, Sitara; Chew, Rebecca; Lucks, Julius B

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory RNAs have become integral components of the synthetic biology and bioengineering toolbox for controlling gene expression. We recently expanded this toolbox by creating small transcription activating RNAs (STARs) that act by disrupting the formation of a target transcriptional terminator hairpin placed upstream of a gene. While STARs are a promising addition to the repertoire of RNA regulators, much work remains to be done to optimize the fold activation of these systems. Here we apply rational RNA engineering strategies to improve the fold activation of two STAR regulators. We demonstrate that a combination of promoter strength tuning and multiple RNA engineering strategies can improve fold activation from 5.4-fold to 13.4-fold for a STAR regulator derived from the pbuE riboswitch terminator. We then validate the generality of our approach and show that these same strategies improve fold activation from 2.1-fold to 14.6-fold for an unrelated STAR regulator, opening the door to creating a range of additional STARs to use in a broad array of biotechnologies. We also establish that the optimizations preserve the orthogonality of these STARs between themselves and a set of RNA transcriptional repressors, enabling these optimized STARs to be used in sophisticated circuits. PMID:26134708

  6. On the nature of star-forming filaments - II. Subfilaments and velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Rowan J.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Fuller, Gary A.

    2016-02-01

    We show that hydrodynamic turbulent cloud simulations naturally produce large filaments made up of a network of smaller and coherent subfilaments. Such simulations resemble observations of filaments and fibres in nearby molecular clouds. The subfilaments are dynamical features formed at the stagnation points of the turbulent velocity field where shocks dissipate the turbulent energy. They are a ubiquitous feature of the simulated clouds, which appear from the beginning of the simulation and are not formed by gradual fragmentation of larger filaments. Most of the subfilaments are gravitationally subcritical and do not fragment into cores, however, there is also a significant fraction of supercritical subfilaments which break up into star-forming cores. The subfilaments are coherent along their length, and the residual velocities along their spine show that they are subsonically contracting without any ordered rotation on scales of ˜0.1 pc. Accretion flows along the subfilaments can feed material into star-forming cores embedded within the network. The overall mass in subfilaments and the number of subfilaments increases as the cloud evolves. We propose that the formation of filaments and subfilaments is a natural consequence of the turbulent cascade in the complex multiphase interstellar medium. Subfilaments are formed by the high wavenumber, small-scale modes in the turbulent velocity field. These are then stretched by local shear motions and gathered together by a combination of low wavenumber modes and gravitational contraction on larger scales, and by doing so build up the extended filaments observed in column density maps.

  7. Active superconducting devices formed of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S.; Beyer, James B.; Nordman, James E.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1991-05-28

    Active superconducting devices are formed of thin films of superconductor which include a main conduction channel which has an active weak link region. The weak link region is composed of an array of links of thin film superconductor spaced from one another by voids and selected in size and thickness such that magnetic flux can propagate across the weak link region when it is superconducting. Magnetic flux applied to the weak link region will propagate across the array of links causing localized loss of superconductivity in the links and changing the effective resistance across the links. The magnetic flux can be applied from a control line formed of a superconducting film deposited coplanar with the main conduction channel and weak link region on a substrate. The devices can be formed of any type to superconductor but are particularly well suited to the high temperature superconductors since the devices can be entirely formed from coplanar films with no overlying regions. The devices can be utilized for a variety of electrical components, including switching circuits, amplifiers, oscillators and modulators, and are well suited to microwave frequency applications.

  8. Do R Coronae Borealis Stars Form from Double White Dwarf Mergers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staff, Jan. E.; Menon, Athira; Herwig, Falk; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L.; Motl, Patrick M.; Geballe, Tom; Pignatari, Marco; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Tohline, Joel E.

    2012-09-01

    A leading formation scenario for R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars invokes the merger of degenerate He and CO white dwarfs (WDs) in a binary. The observed ratio of 16O/18O for RCB stars is in the range of 0.3-20 much smaller than the solar value of ~500. In this paper, we investigate whether such a low ratio can be obtained in simulations of the merger of a CO and a He WD. We present the results of five three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the merger of a double WD system where the total mass is 0.9 M ⊙ and the initial mass ratio (q) varies between 0.5 and 0.99. We identify in simulations with q <~ 0.7 a feature around the merged stars where the temperatures and densities are suitable for forming 18O. However, more 16O is being dredged up from the C- and O-rich accretor during the merger than the amount of 18O that is produced. Therefore, on the dynamical timescale over which our hydrodynamics simulation runs, an 16O/18O ratio of ~2000 in the "best" case is found. If the conditions found in the hydrodynamic simulations persist for 106 s the oxygen ratio drops to 16 in one case studied, while in a hundred years it drops to ~4 in another case studied, consistent with the observed values in RCB stars. Therefore, the merger of two WDs remains a strong candidate for the formation of these enigmatic stars.

  9. DO R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS FORM FROM DOUBLE WHITE DWARF MERGERS?

    SciTech Connect

    Staff, Jan. E.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Tohline, Joel E.; Menon, Athira; Herwig, Falk; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L.; Motl, Patrick M.; Geballe, Tom; Pignatari, Marco

    2012-09-20

    A leading formation scenario for R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars invokes the merger of degenerate He and CO white dwarfs (WDs) in a binary. The observed ratio of {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O for RCB stars is in the range of 0.3-20 much smaller than the solar value of {approx}500. In this paper, we investigate whether such a low ratio can be obtained in simulations of the merger of a CO and a He WD. We present the results of five three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the merger of a double WD system where the total mass is 0.9 M{sub Sun} and the initial mass ratio (q) varies between 0.5 and 0.99. We identify in simulations with q {approx}< 0.7 a feature around the merged stars where the temperatures and densities are suitable for forming {sup 18}O. However, more {sup 16}O is being dredged up from the C- and O-rich accretor during the merger than the amount of {sup 18}O that is produced. Therefore, on the dynamical timescale over which our hydrodynamics simulation runs, an {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratio of {approx}2000 in the 'best' case is found. If the conditions found in the hydrodynamic simulations persist for 10{sup 6} s the oxygen ratio drops to 16 in one case studied, while in a hundred years it drops to {approx}4 in another case studied, consistent with the observed values in RCB stars. Therefore, the merger of two WDs remains a strong candidate for the formation of these enigmatic stars.

  10. Improved Flat-Fielding for Crowded Field Imaging Polarimetry: The Star Forming BOK Globule B335

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J.; Ilardi, P.; Clemens, D.

    1996-05-01

    In order to achieve a qualitative improvement in descriptions of the magnetic fields associated with small, dense molecular clouds, traced via background starlight polarization, a CCD-based imaging polarimeter was built and operated. This instrument simultaneously measured the linear polarizations of 25 - 50 stars per 5 arcminute CCD frame (Clemens and Leach 1987, Optical Engineering, 29, 923). The instrument consisted of a rotating polaroid in front of a quarter-wave plate, broadband V filter, and a TI 800 x 800 pixel CCD. The observing mode involved polarization chopping and dual direction CCD charge shifting, resulting in images which contained two stellar objects for each star. However, decoupling of the flat-field response of the CCD from the shifted-and-added images is not trivial. One solution was to ignore the flat-field step and proceed to photometric and then polarimetric analysis of the star light, as was performed by Kane in his dissertation (1995, Boston University). Revisiting the flat-fielding problem, we have developed a new approach which borrows from techniques employed in ground-based infrared astronomy. In this method, we analyze the shape of the stellar background (sky) imaged onto the CCD, via comparison with dome flats, to develop a detailed sky model. Subtraction of this sky model from the raw images leaves sky corrected stellar images. Stellar pair matching and classification is used to extract the individual stellar PSFs for direct flat field correction before performing photometry. This detailed analysis results in lower random and systematic errors than our previous method. In this poster, we present the polarimetric map deduced from the light of stars behind the periphery of the star forming globule B335, and compare the polarimetric limits obtained using our two methods.

  11. Morphology, star formation, and nuclear activity in void galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedmann, Sophia; Miller, Brendan; Gallo, Elena; Pazar, Beni; Alfvin, Erik

    2015-01-01

    We report on new Chandra observations of six early-type galaxies located within cosmic voids, from a program examining the influence of Mpc-scale environment upon star formation and low-level supermassive black hole activity. Simple feedback prescriptions are predicted to operate independently of the surrounding density once outside the dark matter halo, and further link star formation quenching to black hole activity. Alternatively, mediation of the cold gas supply by the large-scale environment, for example through increased cold-stream accretion and reduced harassment or stripping within more isolated regions, could mutually enhance star formation and (perhaps indirectly) low-level supermassive black hole activity. The six targeted early-type galaxies have comparable stellar masses of 6-9e10 solar, chosen to be near the predicted "critical value" for efficient feedback, but span a wide range of star-formation rates. Specifically, they have SFRs of 6.5, 1.4, 0.45, 0.10, 0.04, and 0.03 solar masses per year. All galaxies are detected in the Chandra ACIS-S observations with 0.3-8 keV X-ray luminosities ranging from 2e39 to 1e41 erg/s. Specifically, they have log Lx values of 40.4, 41.1, 41.1, 39.3, 39.2, and 39.2, again ordered by decreasing SFR. The three galaxies with moderate-to-high star formation rates have nuclear X-ray luminosities that are significantly greater than those of the three galaxies with low star formation rates. This result is more consistent with a symbiotic relationship between current low-level star formation and supermassive black hole activity than with simple feedback quenching models. We additionally situate these galaxies in the context of void and cluster galaxies in the local universe, model their optical surface brightness profiles and color gradients, discuss caveats including the possibility of X-ray binary contamination, and consider other supermassive black hole activity indicators.

  12. Some stars are totally metal: a new mechanism driving dust across star-forming clouds, and consequences for planets, stars, and galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Philip F.

    2014-12-10

    Dust grains in neutral gas behave as aerodynamic particles, so they can develop large local density fluctuations entirely independent of gas density fluctuations. Specifically, gas turbulence can drive order-of-magnitude 'resonant' fluctuations in the dust density on scales where the gas stopping/drag timescale is comparable to the turbulent eddy turnover time. Here we show that for large grains (size ≳ 0.1 μm, containing most grain mass) in sufficiently large molecular clouds (radii ≳ 1-10 pc, masses ≳ 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}), this scale becomes larger than the characteristic sizes of prestellar cores (the sonic length), so large fluctuations in the dust-to-gas ratio are imprinted on cores. As a result, star clusters and protostellar disks formed in large clouds should exhibit significant abundance spreads in the elements preferentially found in large grains (C, O). This naturally predicts populations of carbon-enhanced stars, certain highly unusual stellar populations observed in nearby open clusters, and may explain the 'UV upturn' in early-type galaxies. It will also dramatically change planet formation in the resulting protostellar disks, by preferentially 'seeding' disks with an enhancement in large carbonaceous or silicate grains. The relevant threshold for this behavior scales simply with cloud densities and temperatures, making straightforward predictions for clusters in starbursts and high-redshift galaxies. Because of the selective sorting by size, this process is not necessarily visible in extinction mapping. We also predict the shape of the abundance distribution—when these fluctuations occur, a small fraction of the cores may actually be seeded with abundances Z ∼ 100 (Z) such that they are almost 'totally metal' (Z ∼ 1)! Assuming the cores collapse, these totally metal stars would be rare (1 in ∼10{sup 4} in clusters where this occurs), but represent a fundamentally new stellar evolution channel.

  13. A Multi-Wavelength Optical Imaging Study of a Unique Star-Forming Environment: Polar Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, Monique C.; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; Higdon, James L.; Higdon, Sarah J. U.

    2012-02-01

    In order to fully understand galaxy formation and evolution, it is essential to understand the star-formation (SF) processes occurring within galaxies. This requires studying not only SF in galaxies of regular morphology, but also locally-uncommon SF processes occurring within structures formed through mergers or accretion, which may be more prevalent at high-redshift. Polar ring galaxies (PRGs), which consist of a robustly star-forming ring of gas, dust, and stars orbiting in a plane perpendicular to the major axis of a central, host galaxy, provide such a unique SF environment. It has been hypothesized that stochastic processes, such as supernova shock propagation, stimulate the SF within the polar ring (PR). We propose to obtain Gemini GMOS imaging of 10 PRGs to trace the young stellar population in these structures. Combining these data with our existing Spitzer IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 micron data, and archival UV and HI maps, we will examine: (1) the stellar population, masses, and ages, as a function of spatial position, in the PRGs and their host galaxies; (2) the SF triggering mechanisms and gravitational stability in PRs; and (3) the opacity of the dust in PRs. We will also (4) place structural constraints on proposed PR formation mechanisms.

  14. Do R Coronae Borealis Stars Form from Double White Dwarf Mergers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motl, Patrick; Staff, Jan; Menon, Athira; Herwig, Falk; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris; Geballe, Tom; Pignatari, Marco; Clayton, Geoffrey; Tohline, Joel

    2013-04-01

    A leading formation scenario for the irregular variable R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars invokes the merger of a degenerate Helium white dwarf with a Carbon-Oxygen white dwarf in a binary. The observed ratio of ^16O / ^18O for RCB stars is in the range of 0.3 - 20, much smaller than the solar value of 500. We report on our investigations into whether such a low oxygen isotope ratio can be obtained in simulations of double white dwarf mergers. We identify a ``shell of fire'' feature in the simulations surrounding the merged object where temperatures and densities are favorable for forming ^18O for binaries with initial mass ratios near 0.7. However, the accretion stream's impact dredges up ^16O from the Carbon-Oxygen white dwarf which forms a competing process that raises the oxygen isotope ratio. We present the most favorable scenarios we have identified for creating RCB stars in light of these competing processes and outline steps for future progress.

  15. The Structure of the Nearby Giant Star-Forming Region 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Eric; Baldwin, Jack; Hanson, Margaret; Ferland, Gary; Troland, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    The rates of star formation and chemical evolution are controlled in part by the interaction of stellar radiation and winds with the remnant molecular gas from which the stars have formed. We are carrying out a detailed, panchromatic study of these processes in the two nearest giant star-forming regions, 30 Doradus and NGC 3603, as an aide in understanding the nature of Giant Extragalactic H II Regions, starbursts, and Ultra-Luminous IR Galaxies. We recently completed our observations of NGC 3603. Here we request 2 nights on the Blanco telescope to obtain a dense grid of optical long-slit spectra criss- crossing 30 Dor. These will cover the [S II] doublet (to measure N_e) and also [O III], H(beta), [O I], H(alpha) and [N II] to measure the ionization mechanism and ionization parameter, at ~3800 different spots in the nebula. We also request 3 nights on SOAR to take K-band long slit spectra covering H^+ Br(gamma) and several H_2 lines across three representative edge-on ionization fronts in 30 Dor. The IR spectra will be taken in locations also covered by the optical spectra, and will tell us about the structure, pressure support and heating mechanisms in the photo-dissociation regions (PDRs) at these points. Either half of this project can stand on its own, but both parts together will permit the PI to complete his PhD thesis.

  16. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Evidence for Dust Grain Evolution in Perseus Star-forming Clumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Michael Chun-Yuan; Di Francesco, J.; Johnstone, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Hatchell, J.; Mottram, J. C.; Kirk, H.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Pezzuto, S.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Schneider-Bontemps, N.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2016-07-01

    The dust emissivity spectral index, β, is a critical parameter for deriving the mass and temperature of star-forming structures and, consequently, their gravitational stability. The β value is dependent on various dust grain properties, such as size, porosity, and surface composition, and is expected to vary as dust grains evolve. Here we present β, dust temperature, and optical depth maps of the star-forming clumps in the Perseus Molecular Cloud determined from fitting spectral energy distributions to combined Herschel and JCMT observations in the 160, 250, 350, 500, and 850 μm bands. Most of the derived β and dust temperature values fall within the ranges of 1.0–2.7 and 8–20 K, respectively. In Perseus, we find the β distribution differs significantly from clump to clump, indicative of grain growth. Furthermore, we also see significant localized β variations within individual clumps and find low-β regions correlate with local temperature peaks, hinting at the possible origins of low-β grains. Throughout Perseus, we also see indications of heating from B stars and embedded protostars, as well evidence of outflows shaping the local landscape.

  17. OUTFLOW, INFALL, AND PROTOSTARS IN THE STAR-FORMING CORE W3-SE

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Lei; Zhao Junhui; Wright, M. C. H. E-mail: jzhao@cfa.harvard.edu

    2011-10-20

    We report new results on outflow and infall in the star-forming cores W3-SE SMA-1 and SMA-2 based on analysis of {approx}2.''5 resolution observations of the molecular lines HCN(3-2), HCO{sup +}(3-2), N{sub 2}H{sup +}(3-2), and CH{sub 3}OH(5{sub 2,3}-4{sub 1,3}) with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). A high-velocity bipolar outflow originating from the protostellar core SMA-1 was observed in the HCN(3-2) line, with a projected outflow axis at a position angle of 48{sup 0}. The detection of the outflow is confirmed from other molecular lines. An inverse P-Cygni profile in the HCN(3-2) line toward SMA-1 suggests that at least one of the double cores accretes matter from the molecular core. A filamentary structure in the molecular gas surrounds SMA-1 and SMA-2. Based on the SMA observations, our analysis suggests that the double pre-stellar cores SMA-1 and SMA-2 result from fragmentation in the collapsing massive molecular core W3-SE, and it is likely that they are forming intermediate- to high-mass stars which will be new members of a star cluster in the W3-SE region.

  18. Mass accretion flows in the high-mass star forming complex NGC 6334

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Schilke, P.; Zernickel, A.; Schmiedeke, A.; Möller, Th.; Qin, S.-L.

    2016-05-01

    The formation of high-mass stars is one of the major topics of astrophysical research, in particular the process of accretion from large-scale clouds down to small-scale cores. We have selected the nearby, filamentary, high-mass star forming complex NGC 6334 to study the gas velocity at different scales and probe the infall rates onto the protostellar cores embedded in the NGC 6334-I and I(N) clusters. This study makes use of single-dish and interferometric submillimeter observations, complemented with 3D numerical non-LTE radiative transfer modeling. We measure a mass accretion rate of 10-5 M⊙ yr-1 throughout the filament increasing up to 10-3 M⊙ yr-1 towards the densest regions where high-mass stars are forming. At smaller scales, our 3D model is consistent with accretion rates of 10-3 M⊙ yr-1 towards the clusters, and 10-4 M⊙ yr-1 onto the protostars.

  19. Sequential Star Formation in RCW 34: A Spectroscopic Census of the Stellar Content of High-Mass Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bik, A.; Puga, E.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Horrobin, M.; Henning, Th.; Vasyunina, T.; Beuther, H.; Linz, H.; Kaper, L.; van den Ancker, M.; Lenorzer, A.; Churchwell, E.; Kurtz, S.; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N.; Stolte, A.; de Koter, A.; Thi, W. F.; Comerón, F.; Waelkens, Ch.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we present VLT/SINFONI integral field spectroscopy of RCW 34 along with Spitzer/IRAC photometry of the surroundings. RCW 34 consists of three different regions. A large bubble has been detected in the IRAC images in which a cluster of intermediate- and low-mass class II objects is found. At the northern edge of this bubble, an H II region is located, ionized by 3 OB stars, of which the most massive star has spectral type O8.5V. Intermediate-mass stars (2-3 M sun) are detected of G- and K-spectral type. These stars are still in the pre-main-sequence (PMS) phase. North of the H II region, a photon-dominated region is present, marking the edge of a dense molecular cloud traced by H2 emission. Several class 0/I objects are associated with this cloud, indicating that star formation is still taking place. The distance to RCW 34 is revised to 2.5 ± 0.2 kpc and an age estimate of 2 ± 1 Myr is derived from the properties of the PMS stars inside the H II region. Between the class II sources in the bubble and the PMS stars in the H II region, no age difference could be detected with the present data. The presence of the class 0/I sources in the molecular cloud, however, suggests that the objects inside the molecular cloud are significantly younger. The most likely scenario for the formation of the three regions is that star formation propagated from south to north. First the bubble is formed, produced by intermediate- and low-mass stars only, after that, the H II region is formed from a dense core at the edge of the molecular cloud, resulting in the expansion similar to a champagne flow. More recently, star formation occurred in the rest of the molecular cloud. Two different formation scenarios are possible. (1) The bubble with the cluster of low- and intermediate-mass stars triggered the formation of the O star at the edge of the molecular cloud, which in its turn induces the current star formation in the molecular cloud. (2) An external triggering is

  20. NEAR-INFRARED PERIODIC AND OTHER VARIABLE FIELD STARS IN THE FIELD OF THE CYGNUS OB7 STAR-FORMING REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Wolk, Scott J.; Rice, Thomas S.; Aspin, Colin A.

    2013-04-15

    We present a subset of the results of a three-season, 124 night, near-infrared monitoring campaign of the dark clouds Lynds 1003 and Lynds 1004 in the Cygnus OB7 star-forming region. In this paper, we focus on the field star population. Using three seasons of UKIRT J, H, and K-band observations spanning 1.5 years, we obtained high-quality photometry on 9200 stars down to J = 17 mag, with photometric uncertainty better than 0.04 mag. After excluding known disk-bearing stars we identify 149 variables-1.6% of the sample. Of these, about 60 are strictly periodic, with periods predominantly <2 days. We conclude this group is dominated by eclipsing binaries. A few stars have long period signals of between 20 and 60 days. About 25 stars have weak modulated signals, but it was not clear if these were periodic. Some of the stars in this group may be diskless young stellar objects with relatively large variability due to cool starspots. The remaining {approx}60 stars showed variations which appear to be purely stochastic.

  1. Where stars form: inside-out growth and coherent star formation across the main sequence from HST Hα maps at z~1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Erica; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Franx, Marijn; Forster Schreiber, Natascha; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Brammer, Gabriel; 3D-HST Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Imaging surveys with HST have demonstrated that many galaxies attained their current forms at z~1. Key to understanding this process is a direct measurement of the distribution of star formation within galaxies at this crucial epoch. This is now possible with the WFC3 grism capability on HST, as it provides Hα maps of all galaxies at 0.7< z <1.5 in its field of view. Using Hα maps for 2727 galaxies, we show where star formation is distributed in galaxies across the star formation - mass plane (the "main sequence"). We find that the disk scale length of Hα is larger than that of the stellar continuum emission, consistent with inside-out assembly of galactic disks. Across the main sequence, we find evidence for 'coherent star formation': in galaxies with higher than average star formation rates, Hα is enhanced throughout the disk; similarly, in galaxies with low star formation rates Hα is depressed throughout the disk. I discuss these results in the context of several proposed mechanisms for enhancing and quenching star formation. I also show first results of the spatial distribution of star formation at z~2-3.

  2. Comparing Herschel dust emission structures, magnetic fields observed by Planck, and dynamics: high-latitude star forming cloud L1642

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinen, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The nearby high-latitude cloud L1642 is one of only two known very high latitude (|b| > 30 deg) clouds actively forming stars. This cloud is a rare example of star formation in isolated conditions, and can reveal important details of star formation in general, e.g., of the effect of magnetic fields. We compare Herschel dust emission structures and magnetic field orientation revealed by Planck polarization maps in L1642, and also combine these with dynamic information from molecular line observations. The high-resolution Herschel data reveal a complex structure including a dense, compressed central blob with elongated extensions, low density striations, "fishbone" like structures with a spine and perpendicular striations, and a spiraling "tail". The Planck polarization data reveal an ordered magnetic field that pervades the cloud and is aligned with the surrounding low density striations. We show that there is a complex interplay between the cloud structure and large scale magnetic fields revealed by Planck polarization data at 10' resolution. This suggests that the magnetic field is closely linked to the formation and evolution of the cloud. We see a clear transition from aligned to perpendicular structures approximately at a column density of NH = 2x10^21 cm-2. We conclude that Planck polarization data revealing the large scale magnetic field orientation can be very useful even when comparing to the finest structures in higher resolution data, e.g. Herschel at ~18" resolution.

  3. The distribution of warm dust in the star forming region Cepheus A: Infrared constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colome, Cecilia; Harvey, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    We have obtained new, high angular resolution far-infrared (FIR) maps (at 50 and 100 microns) of the star forming region Cepheus A and polarimetric images (1.65 and 2.2 microns) of the reflection nebulosity, IRS6, associated with this young stellar object. Our results are consistent with current star formation theories: a young stellar object surrounded by an infalling envelope with a characteristic density distribution of n(sub d)(r) proportional to r(exp -1.5), a circumstellar disk, and a cavity (R(sub i) approx. 0.07 pc) in which n(sub d) is constant, created by the dispersal of the initial dust cloud by a strong stellar wind.

  4. New fully empirical calibrations for strong-line metallicity indicators in star forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curti, M.; Cresci, G.; Mannucci, F.; Marconi, A.; Maiolino, R.; Esposito, S.

    2016-06-01

    We derive new empirical calibrations for strong-line diagnostics of gas phase metallicity in local star forming galaxies by uniformly applying the Te method over the full metallicity range probed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). To measure electron temperatures at high metallicity, where the auroral lines needed are not detected in single galaxies, we stacked spectra of more than 110000 galaxies from the SDSS in bins of log[O II]/Hβ and log[O III]/Hβ. This stacking scheme does not assume any dependence of metallicity on mass or star formation rate, but only that galaxies with the same line ratios have the same oxygen abundance. We provide calibrations which span more than 1 dex in metallicity and are entirely defined on a consistent absolute Te metallicity scale for galaxies. We apply our calibrations to the SDSS sample and find that they provide consistent metallicity estimates to within 0.05 dex.

  5. Internal and Relative Motions of the Taurus and Ophiuchus Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Juana L.; Loinard, Laurent; Dzib, Sergio A.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Torres, Rosa M.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the internal and relative motions of the Taurus and Ophiuchus star-forming regions using a sample of young stars with accurately measured radial velocities and proper motions. We find no evidence for expansion or contraction of the Taurus complex, but a clear indication of global rotation, resulting in velocity gradients of the order of 0.1 km s-1 pc-1 across the region. In the case of Ophichus, more data are needed to reliably establish its internal kinematics. Both Taurus and Ophiuchus, have a bulk motion relative to the LSR (i.e., a non-zero mean peculiar velocity) of the order of 5 km s-1. Interestingly, these velocities are roughly equal in magnitude, but nearly exactly opposite in direction. Moving back in time, we find that Taurus and Ophiuchus must have been very near each other 20-25 Myr ago. This suggests a common origin, possibly related to that of Gould's Belt.

  6. The Herschel-PEP survey: evidence for downsizing in the hosts of dusty star-forming systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magliocchetti, M.; Popesso, P.; Rosario, D.; Lutz, D.; Aussel, H.; Berta, S.; Altieri, B.; Andreani, P.; Cepa, J.; Castañeda, H.; Cimatti, A.; Elbaz, D.; Genzel, R.; Grazian, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Ilbert, O.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magnelli, B.; Maiolino, R.; Nordon, R.; Poglitsch, A.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Santini, P.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L.; Valtchanov, I.

    2013-07-01

    By making use of Herschel PACS Evolutionary Probe observations of the COSMOS and Extended Groth Strip fields, we have estimated the dependence of the clustering properties of FIR-selected sources on their 100 μm fluxes. Our analysis shows a tendency for the clustering strength to decrease with limiting fluxes. By assuming a power-law slope with γ = 1.8 for the two-point correlation function ξ(r) = (r/r0)-γ, we find: r0(S100 μm ≥ 8 mJy) = 4.3+0.7-0.7 Mpc and r0(S100 μ m ≥ 5 mJy) = 5.8+1.8-2.0. These values convert into minimum halo masses Mmin ˜ 1011.6 M⊙ for sources brighter than 8 mJy and Mmin ˜ 1012.4 M⊙ for fainter, S100 μm ≥ 5 mJy galaxies. We show such an increase of the clustering strength to be due to an intervening population of z ˜ 2 sources, which are very strongly clustered and whose relative contribution, equal to about 10 per cent of the total counts at S100 μm ≥ 2 mJy, rapidly decreases for brighter flux cuts. By removing such a contribution, we find that z ≲ 1 far-infrared (FIR) galaxies have approximately the same clustering properties, irrespective of their flux level. The above results were then used to investigate the intrinsic dependence on cosmic epoch of the clustering strength of dusty star-forming galaxies between z ˜ 0 and z ˜ 2.5. This was done by comparing our data set with IRAS in the local universe and with sources selected at 160 μm in the GOODS-South at z ≃ 2. In order to remove any bias in the selection process, the adopted sample only includes galaxies observed at the same rest-frame wavelength, λ ˜ 60 μm, which have comparable luminosities and therefore star formation rates (SFR ≳ 100 M⊙ yr-1). Our analysis shows that the same amount of (intense) star-forming activity takes place in extremely different environments at the different cosmological epochs. For z ≲ 1, the hosts of such star-forming systems are small, Mmin ˜ 1011 M⊙, isolated galaxies. High (z ˜ 2) redshift star formation

  7. Variations of the ISM Compactness Across the Main Sequence of Star Forming Galaxies: Observations and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Galarza, J. R.; Smith, H. A.; Lanz, L.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Zezas, A.; Rosenthal, L.; Weiner, A.; Hung, C.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Groves, B.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of star-forming galaxies follow a simple empirical correlation in the star formation rate (SFR) versus stellar mass (M*) plane, of the form {{SFR}}\\propto {M}*α , usually referred to as the star formation main sequence (MS). The physics that sets the properties of the MS is currently a subject of debate, and no consensus has been reached regarding the fundamental difference between members of the sequence and its outliers. Here we combine a set of hydro-dynamical simulations of interacting galactic disks with state-of-the-art radiative transfer codes to analyze how the evolution of mergers is reflected upon the properties of the MS. We present Chiburst, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo spectral energy distribution (SED) code that fits the multi-wavelength, broad-band photometry of galaxies and derives stellar masses, SFRs, and geometrical properties of the dust distribution. We apply this tool to the SEDs of simulated mergers and compare the derived results with the reference output from the simulations. Our results indicate that changes in the SEDs of mergers as they approach coalescence and depart from the MS are related to an evolution of dust geometry in scales larger than a few hundred parsecs. This is reflected in a correlation between the specific star formation rate, and the compactness parameter { C }, that parametrizes this geometry and hence the evolution of dust temperature ({T}{{dust}}) with time. As mergers approach coalescence, they depart from the MS and increase their compactness, which implies that moderate outliers of the MS are consistent with late-type mergers. By further applying our method to real observations of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), we show that the merger scenario is unable to explain these extreme outliers of the MS. Only by significantly increasing the gas fraction in the simulations are we able to reproduce the SEDs of LIRGs.

  8. A multiwavelength consensus on the main sequence of star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodighiero, G.; Renzini, A.; Daddi, E.; Baronchelli, I.; Berta, S.; Cresci, G.; Franceschini, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Lutz, D.; Mancini, C.; Santini, P.; Zamorani, G.; Silverman, J.; Kashino, D.; Andreani, P.; Cimatti, A.; Sánchez, H. Domínguez; Le Floch, E.; Magnelli, B.; Popesso, P.; Pozzi, F.

    2014-09-01

    We compare various star formation rate (SFR) indicators for star-forming galaxies at 1.4 < z < 2.5 in the COSMOS field. The main focus is on the SFRs from the far-IR (PACS-Herschel data) with those from the ultraviolet, for galaxies selected according to the BzK criterion. FIR-selected samples lead to a vastly different slope of the SFR-stellar mass (M*) relation, compared to that of the dominant main-sequence population as measured from the UV, since the FIR selection picks predominantly only a minority of outliers. However, there is overall agreement between the main sequences derived with the two SFR indicators, when stacking on the PACS maps the BzK-selected galaxies. The resulting logarithmic slope of the SFR-M* relation is ˜0.8-0.9, in agreement with that derived from the dust-corrected UV luminosity. Exploiting deeper 24 μm Spitzer data, we have characterized a subsample of galaxies with reddening and SFRs poorly constrained, as they are very faint in the B band. The combination of Herschel with Spitzer data has allowed us to largely break the age/reddening degeneracy for these intriguing sources, by distinguishing whether a galaxy is very red in B-z because of being heavily dust reddened, or whether because star formation has been (or is being) quenched. Finally, we have compared our SFR(UV) to the SFRs derived by stacking the radio data and to those derived from the Hα luminosity of a sample of star-forming galaxies at 1.4 < z < 1.7. The two sets of SFRs are broadly consistent as they are with the SFRs derived from the UV and by stacking the corresponding PACS data in various mass bins.

  9. Direct Measurement of Dust Attenuation in z approx. 1.5 Star-Forming Galaxies from 3D-HST: Implications for Dust Geometry and Star Formation Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Sedona H.; Kriek, Mariska; Brammer, Gabriel B; Conroy, Charlie; Schreiber, Natascha M. Foerster; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind E.; VanDokkum, Pieter G.; Tease, Katherine Whitaker; Wuyts, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    The nature of dust in distant galaxies is not well understood, and until recently few direct dust measurements have been possible. We investigate dust in distant star-forming galaxies using near-infrared grism spectra of the 3D-HST survey combined with archival multi-wavelength photometry. These data allow us to make a direct comparison between dust towards star-forming regions (measured using Balmer decrements) and the integrated dust properties (derived by comparing spectral energy distributions [SEDs] with stellar population and dust models) for a statistically significant sample of distant galaxies. We select a sample of 163 galaxies between 1.36< or = z< or = 1.5 with H(alpha) SNR > or = 5 and measure Balmer decrements from stacked spectra. First, we stack spectra in bins of integrated stellar dust attenuation, and find that there is extra dust extinction towards star-forming regions (AV,HII is 1.81 times the integrated AV, star), though slightly lower than found for low-redshift starburst galaxies. Next, we stack spectra in bins of specific star formation rate (log sSFR), star formation rate (log SFR), and stellar mass (logM*). We find that on average AV,HII increases with SFR and mass, but decreases with increasing sSFR. The amount of extra extinction also decreases with increasing sSFR and decreasing stellar mass. Our results are consistent with the two-phase dust model - in which galaxies contain both a diffuse and a stellar birth cloud dust component - as the extra extinction will increase once older stars outside the star-forming regions become more dominant. Finally, using our Balmer decrements we derive dust-corrected H(alpha) SFRs, and find evidence that SED fitting produces incorrect SFRs if very rapidly declining SFHs are included in the explored parameter space. Subject headings: dust, extinction- galaxies: evolution- galaxies: high-redshift

  10. Connecting AGN Feedback, the Star-Forming Interstellar Medium, and Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Philip

    The biggest shortcoming in our models of star, supermassive black hole, and galaxy formation is our poor and incomplete understanding of 'feedback' processes. In nearly all models, strong feedback from stars and black holes plays a critical role in regulating the nature of the interstellar medium (ISM) and subsequent generations of star formation and black hole growth. But our theoretical understanding of these processes has largely been restricted to either idealized cases, or simple phenomenological 'sub-grid' prescriptions. These have limited predictive power, and invoke highly uncertain assumptions for the unresolved ISM physics. As such, developing more realistic, explicit treatment of these processes is critical, and one of the primary challenges facing models of both galaxy and star formation. In this proposal, we focus on improving our understanding of AGN feedback by combining novel, high-resolution studies of both black hole growth and galaxy evolution. Critically, these will simultaneously resolve the ISM and both fueling and feedback from black holes, and include fundamentally new physics on galactic scales. Our goal is to anchor these calculations as much as possible in first principles, eliminating large uncertainties in the current models, and enable new predictions on galactic scales. Recently, we developed new numerical models to resolve star formation and feedback on scales from molecular cloud star-forming regions through galaxies. These simulations explicitly follow the energy, momentum, mass, and metal fluxes from stellar radiation pressure, photo-heating, supernovae, and stellar winds; in all cases feedback is tied directly to stellar evolution models. Unlike those previous, the models naturally produce an ISM in which molecular clouds form and disperse rapidly, with realistic phase structure and turbulence. These mechanisms simultaneously drive large galactic outflows; the galactic environment is radically different from the smooth medium of

  11. MAGNETIC ACTIVITY CYCLES IN THE EXOPLANET HOST STAR {epsilon} ERIDANI

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, T. S.; Mathur, S.; Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.; Petrucci, R.; Brown, B. P.; Soderblom, D. R.; Henry, T. J.; Hall, J. C.; Basu, S.

    2013-02-01

    The active K2 dwarf {epsilon} Eri has been extensively characterized both as a young solar analog and more recently as an exoplanet host star. As one of the nearest and brightest stars in the sky, it provides an unparalleled opportunity to constrain stellar dynamo theory beyond the Sun. We confirm and document the 3-year magnetic activity cycle in {epsilon} Eri originally reported by Hatzes and coworkers, and we examine the archival data from previous observations spanning 45 years. The data show coexisting 3-year and 13-year periods leading into a broad activity minimum that resembles a Maunder minimum-like state, followed by the resurgence of a coherent 3-year cycle. The nearly continuous activity record suggests the simultaneous operation of two stellar dynamos with cycle periods of 2.95 {+-} 0.03 years and 12.7 {+-} 0.3 years, which, by analogy with the solar case, suggests a revised identification of the dynamo mechanisms that are responsible for the so-called 'active' and 'inactive' sequences as proposed by Boehm-Vitense. Finally, based on the observed properties of {epsilon} Eri, we argue that the rotational history of the Sun is what makes it an outlier in the context of magnetic cycles observed in other stars (as also suggested by its Li depletion), and that a Jovian-mass companion cannot be the universal explanation for the solar peculiarities.

  12. Water in Star-forming Regions with Herschel (WISH): recent results and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2012-03-01

    Water is a key molecule in the physics and chemistry of star- and planet-forming regions. In the `Water in Star-forming Regions with Herschel' (WISH) Key Program, we have obtained a comprehensive set of water data toward a large sample of well-characterized protostars, covering a wide range of masses and luminosities --from the lowest to the highest mass protostars--, as well as evolutionary stages --from pre-stellar cores to disks. Lines of both ortho- and para-H_2O and their isotopologues, as well as chemically related hydrides, are observed with the HIFI and PACS instruments. The data elucidate the physical processes responsible for the warm gas, probe dynamical processes associated with forming stars and planets (outflow, infall, expansion), test basic chemical processes and reveal the chemical evolution of water and the oxygen-reservoir into planet-forming disks. In this brief talk a few recent WISH highlights will be presented, including determinations of the water abundance in each of the different physical components (inner and outer envelope, outflow) and constraints on the ortho/para ratio. Special attention will be given to trends found across the sample, especially the similarity in profiles from low to high-mass protostars and the evolution of the gas-phase water abundance from prestellar cores to disks. More details can be found at http://www.strw.leidenuniv.nl/WISH, whereas overviews are given in van Dishoeck et al. (2011, PASP 123, 138), Kristensen & van Dishoeck (2011, Astronomische Nachrichten 332, 475) and Bergin & van Dishoeck (2012, Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. A).

  13. A 13CO Survey of Intermediate-mass Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Michael J.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Kerton, Charles R.; Arvidsson, Kim

    2015-06-01

    We have conducted a 13CO survey of a sample of 128 infrared color-selected intermediate-mass star-forming region (IM SFR) candidates. We utilized the Onsala 20 m telescope to observe 13CO (1-0) toward 67 northern IM SFRs, used the 12 m Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope to observe 13CO (2-1) toward 22 southern IM SFRs, and incorporated an additional 39 sources from the Boston University Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey which observed 13CO (1-0). We detect 13CO (1-0) in 58 of the 67 northern sources and 13CO (2-1) in 20 of the 22 southern sources. The mean molecular column densities and 13CO linewidths in the inner Galaxy are higher by factors of 3.4 and 1.5, respectively, than the outer Galaxy. We attribute this difference to molecular clouds in the inner Galaxy being more massive and hosting star forming regions with higher luminosities on average than the outer Galaxy. IM SFRs have mean a molecular column density of 7.89 × 1021 cm-2, a factor of 3.1 lower than that for a sample of high-mass regions, and have a mean 13CO linewidth of 1.84 km s-1, a factor of 1.5 lower than that for high-mass regions. We demonstrate a correlation between 13CO linewidth and infrared luminosity as well as between molecular column density and infrared luminosity for the entire sample of intermediate-mass and high-mass regions. IM SFRs appear to form in distinctly lower-density environments with mean linewidths and beam-averaged column densities a factor of several lower than high-mass star-forming regions.

  14. Physical properties of low-mass star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshifts (z <1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, J.; Rodríguez-Muñoz, L.; Pacifici, C.; Tresse, L.; Charlot, S.; Gil de Paz, A.; Barro, G.; Villar, V.

    2015-05-01

    In this poster we present the physical properties of a sample of low-mass star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshifts (z<1). We selected a population of dwarf galaxies because dwarf galaxies play a key role in galaxy formation and evolution: (1) they resemble the first structures that hierarchical models predict to form first in the Universe (Dekel & Silk 1986) and that are responsible for the reionization process (Bouwens et al. 2012); and (2) the way or epoch they form and how they evolve are still open questions of modern astrophysics. We selected the sample on the CDFS field. Photometry (40 bands, from UV to far-IR) and preliminary photometric redshifts and stellar masses were obtained from RAINBOW database (Pérez-González et al. 2008). Morphology fom Griffith et al. (2012). Main selection was done by stellar mass, selecting those galaxies with stellar mass M_*<10^8 {M}_⊙. Spectroscopic redshifts were obtained from deep (4 h) MOS spectroscopy with the VIMOS spectrograph at VLT. The average spectrum is characterized by a faint, blue and flat continuum and strong emission lines, revealing that the systems are dominated by an undergoing star formation burst. SFRs and stellar masses are consistent with the SF main-squence over a 2 dex range. More massive objects show higher SFRs than low-mass objects, following the SF main sequence. Distant dwarfs and BCDs follow the overall star-forming sequence in the excitation-luminosity diagram, populating the high excitation, low metallicity and high strength region.

  15. An x-ray study of massive star forming regions with CHANDRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junfeng

    2007-08-01

    Massive stars are characterized by powerful stellar winds, strong ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and consequently devastating supernovae explosions, which have a profound influence on their natal clouds and galaxy evolution. However, the formation and evolution of massive stars themselves and how their low-mass siblings are affected in the wind-swept and UV-radiation-dominated environment are not well understood. Much of the stellar populations inside of the massive star forming regions (MSFRs) are poorly studied in the optical and IR wavelengths because of observational challenges caused by large distance, high extinction, and heavy contamination from unrelated sources. Although it has long been recognized that X-rays open a new window to sample the young stellar populations residing in the MSFRs, the low angular resolution of previous generation X-ray telescopes has limited the outcome from such studies. The sensitive high spatial resolution X-ray observations enabled by the Chandra X- ray Observatory and the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) have significantly improved our ability to study the X-ray-emitting populations in the MSFRs in the last few years. In this thesis, I analyzed seven high spatial resolution Chandra /ACIS images of two massive star forming complexes, namely the NGC 6357 region hosting the 1 Myr old Pismis 24 cluster (Chapter 3) and the Rosette Complex including the 2 Myr old NGC 2244 cluster immersed in the Rosette Nebula (Chapter 4), embedded clusters in the Rosette Molecular Cloud (RMC; Chapter 5), and a triggered cluster NGC 2237 (Chapter 6). The X-ray sampled stars were studied in great details. The unique power of X-ray selection of young stellar cluster members yielded new knowledge in the stellar populations, the cluster structures, and the star formation histories. The census of cluster members is greatly improved in each region. A large fraction of the X-ray detections have optical or near-infrared (NIR) stellar counterparts

  16. Dating the Stars Next Door: Ages and Coronal X-Ray Activities of Local K-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katynski, Marcus; Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.

    2016-01-01

    Age is one of the most difficult (but important) basic stellar physical property to determine. One possible means to estimate stellar age is from rotational period; it is known that as cool stars age, they lose angular momentum from magnetic braking and slow-down. Thus, good Rotation-Age relationships exist, which are calibrated with stars possessing reliable ages from: evolutionary tracks and/or memberships in clusters/moving groups or binary star systems. Further, ages of older stars can be estimated from (low) metal abundances and kinematics (high space motions). More recently, age determinations from asteroseismology are also becoming more reliable. Except for the many G, K, M stars in the Kepler/K2 fields, rotational periods are difficult to measure photometrically for older, less active stars since star spots and active regions are smaller & less prominent. Thus measuring the coronal X-ray activity of a star is an appealing alternative. Coronal X-ray emission is generated by the stellar dynamo, and so is directly related to the stars' rotation (and age). Measurement of X-ray fluxes (or upper limits) have been made for most of the nearby stars (within ~20 pc) with data available in the HEASARC archives. During the 1990's the ROSAT X-Ray Satellite carried out an all-sky survey of thousands of X-ray sources, including hundreds of nearby stars, producing a large archival database. Using these and other available X-ray data from XMM-Newton & Chandra, we explore the relation between coronal X-ray activity and stellar age of all stars within 10 pc (32.6 LY), with special emphasis on dK and early dM stars that make up ~85% of the sample. Here we report the progress made in determination the ages these nearby stars. We focused on nearby dK-stars, due to their long lifetimes (>20 Gyr) and habitable zones that lie ~0.5 -1.5 AU from their host stars. They appear to be ideal candidates for hosting potentially habitable planets, making them interesting targets. We present

  17. What is the nature of high-redshift, dusty, star-forming galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethermin, Matthieu

    2015-08-01

    Herschel deep surveys (HerMES, PEP, H-GOODS) revealed that a large fraction of the star formation up to at least z=4 is hosted by massive, dusty, star-forming, galaxies (DSFGs). These galaxies are often missed by optical and near infrared surveys, because the majority of the light produced by their stars is absorbed by dust and re-emitted in the far-infrared and submillimeter domains. These galaxies are massive and gas-rich and some of them form several hundreds of solar masses of stars per year (e.g., Béthermin et al. 2015a). Using the fluctuations of the cosmic infrared background and the clustering of the brightest high-redshift galaxies detected by Herschel, we can also put constraints on their halo mass. They live in dark matter halos of a few 1012 Msun and should be the progenitors of today’s elliptical galaxies (e.g., Béthermin et al. 2013, 2014).I will discuss the best strategy to select samples of these high-redshift star-forming galaxies from (sub-)millimeter photometric surveys. This discussion will be based on a phenomenological model of galaxy evolution, which reproduces well the current observations (Béthermin et al. 2012c, 2015b). This model can predict how the wavelength and the depth the surveys impact the properties of the detected sources (redshift, sSFR, stellar mass). I will in particular focus on ALMA deep surveys. Surprisingly, going deeper and to longer wavelengths does not guarantee to build larger samples of high redshift galaxies.The strong galaxy-galaxy lensing also offers possibilities to study high-z DSFGs in depth. In particular, I will discuss the nature of the population discovered by the South Pole Telescope. Our model predicts that these objects are mainly massive, gas-rich galaxies rather than starbursts. The important magnification (~20) of these objects is a unique opportunity to detect a large set of (sub-)millimeter lines (CO, CII, CI, NII) and study the properties of the interstellar medium of galaxies up to z=6. I will

  18. Chemical characterization of the early evolutionary phases of high-mass star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerner, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    The formation of high-mass stars is a very complex process and up to date no comprehensive theory about it exists. This thesis studies the early stages of high-mass star-forming regions and employs astrochemistry as a tool to probe their different physical conditions. We split the evolutionary sequence into four observationally motivated stages that are based on a classification proposed in the literature. The sequence is characterized by an increase of the temperatures and densities that strongly influences the chemistry in the different stages. We observed a sample of 59 high-mass star-forming regions that cover the whole sequence and statistically characterized the chemical compositions of the different stages. We determined average column densities of 18 different molecular species and found generally increasing abundances with stage. We fitted them for each stage with a 1D model, such that the result of the best fit to the previous stage was used as new input for the following. This is a unique approach and allowed us to infer physical properties like the temperature and density structure and yielded a typical chemical lifetime for the high-mass star-formation process of 1e5 years. The 18 analyzed molecular species also included four deuterated molecules whose chemistry is particularly sensitive to thermal history and thus is a promising tool to infer chemical ages. We found decreasing trends of the D/H ratios with evolutionary stage for 3 of the 4 molecular species and that the D/H ratio depends more on the fraction of warm and cold gas than on the total amount of gas. That indicates different chemical pathways for the different molecules and confirms the potential use of deuterated species as chemical age indicators. In addition, we mapped a low-mass star forming region in order to study the cosmic ray ionization rate, which is an important parameter in chemical models. While in chemical models it is commonly fixed, we found that it ! strongly varies with

  19. Discovery of Extremely Embedded X-ray Sources in the R Coronae Australis Star Forming Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaguchi, Ken-Ji; Corcoran, Michael F.; Petre, Rob; White, Nicholas E.; Stelzer, Beate; Nedachi, Ko; Kobayashi, Naoto

    2004-01-01

    We detected three extremely embedded X-ray sources in the R Corona Australis (R CrA) star forming core, IRS 7 region. Two weak X-ray sources are associated with the VLA centimeter radio sources 10E & W, whereas the third brightest source detected in the two XMM-Newton observations on March 2003 has no counterpart at any wavelengths. The large K-band upper-limit (19.4m) measured with the University of Hawaii 88-inch Telescope and strong absorption derived in X-rays (N(sub H) approx. 2.8 x 10(exp 23)/sq cm equivalent to A(sub v) approx. 180 m) indicate that the source is younger than typical Class I protostars, i.e. a Class 0 protostar or an intermittent phase between Class 0 and Class I protostars. The X-ray luminosity was less than one thirtieth (log L(sub x) less than or approx. equals 29.3 ergs/s) in the former Chandra observation in October 2000, which suggests that the X-ray activity, probably generated by magnetic activity, is triggered by an intermittent mass accretion episode such as FU Ori type outbursts. Because the source was detected at high significance in the XMM-Newton observations (approx. 2,000 cnts), X-ray properties of such young protostars can be well investigated for the first time. The light curves were constant in the 1st observation and increased linearly by a factor of two during 30 ksec in the 2nd observation. Both spectra showed iron K lines originated in hot thin-thermal plasma and fluorescence by cold gas. They can be reproduced by an absorbed thin-thermal plasma model with a Gaussian component at 6.4 keV (kT approx. 3-4 keV, L(sub x) approx. 7-20 x 10(exp 30) ergs/s). The rising timescale of the light curves in the 2nd observation was too slow for magnetically generated X-ray flares, whereas large equivalent width of the fluorescence iron K line in the 1st observation (approx. 810 eV) requires strong partial covering of the X-ray source. These results suggest that a confined hot (perhaps accretion) spot on the protostellar core was

  20. Diversity of chemistry and excitation conditions in the high-mass star forming complex W33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immer, K.; Galván-Madrid, R.; König, C.; Liu, H. B.; Menten, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    The object W33 is a giant molecular cloud that contains star forming regions at various evolutionary stages from quiescent clumps to developed H ii regions. Since its star forming regions are located at the same distance and the primary material of the birth clouds is probably similar, we conducted a comparative chemical study to trace the chemical footprint of the different phases of evolution. We observed six clumps in W33 with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope at 280 GHz and the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at 230 GHz. We detected 27 transitions of 10 different molecules in the APEX data and 52 transitions of 16 different molecules in the SMA data. The chemistry on scales larger than ~0.2 pc, which are traced by the APEX data, becomes more complex and diverse the more evolved the star forming region is. On smaller scales traced by the SMA data, the chemical complexity and diversity increase up to the hot core stage. In the H ii region phase, the SMA spectra resemble the spectra of the protostellar phase. Either these more complex molecules are destroyed or their emission is not compact enough to be detected with the SMA. Synthetic spectra modelling of the H2CO transitions, as detected with the APEX telescope, shows that both a warm and a cold component are needed to obtain a good fit to the emission for all sources except for W33 Main1. The temperatures and column densities of the two components increase during the evolution of the star forming regions. The integrated intensity ratios N2H+(3-2)/CS(6-5) and N2H+(3-2)/H2CO(42,2-32,1) show clear trends as a function of evolutionary stage, luminosity, luminosity-to-mass ratio, and H2 peak column density of the clumps and might be usable as chemical clocks. The integrated intensity line and continuum maps of the APEX telescope and the SMA are only available as FITS files at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  1. The Complex Physics of Dusty Star-forming Galaxies at High Redshifts as Revealed by Herschel and Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Faro, B.; Franceschini, A.; Vaccari, M.; Silva, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Berta, S.; Bock, J.; Burgarella, D.; Buat, V.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Farrah, D.; Feltre, A.; González Solares, E. A.; Hurley, P.; Lutz, D.; Magdis, G.; Magnelli, B.; Marchetti, L.; Oliver, S. J.; Page, M. J.; Popesso, P.; Pozzi, F.; Rigopoulou, D.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Roseboom, I. G.; Scott, Douglas; Smith, A. J.; Symeonidis, M.; Wang, L.; Wuyts, S.

    2013-01-01

    We combine far-infrared photometry from Herschel (PEP/HerMES) with deep mid-infrared spectroscopy from Spitzer to investigate the nature and the mass assembly history of a sample of 31 luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) at z ~ 1 and 2 selected in GOODS-S with 24 μm fluxes between 0.2 and 0.5 mJy. We model the data with a self-consistent physical model (GRASIL) which includes a state-of-the-art treatment of dust extinction and reprocessing. We find that all of our galaxies appear to require massive populations of old (>1 Gyr) stars and, at the same time, to host a moderate ongoing activity of star formation (SFR <= 100 M ⊙ yr-1). The bulk of the stars appear to have been formed a few Gyr before the observation in essentially all cases. Only five galaxies of the sample require a recent starburst superimposed on a quiescent star formation history. We also find discrepancies between our results and those based on optical-only spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting for the same objects; by fitting their observed SEDs with our physical model we find higher extinctions (by ΔA V ~ 0.81 and 1.14) and higher stellar masses (by Δlog(M sstarf) ~ 0.16 and 0.36 dex) for z ~ 1 and z ~ 2 (U)LIRGs, respectively. The stellar mass difference is larger for the most dust-obscured objects. We also find lower SFRs than those computed from L IR using the Kennicutt relation due to the significant contribution to the dust heating by intermediate-age stellar populations through "cirrus" emission (~73% and ~66% of the total L IR for z ~ 1 and z ~ 2 (U)LIRGs, respectively). Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  2. The Spatially Resolved NUV-r Color of Local Star-forming Galaxies and Clues for Quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhizheng; Zheng, Xianzhong; Lin, Weipeng; Li, Jinrong; Wang, Jing; Fan, Lulu; Kong, Xu

    2016-03-01

    Using a sample of ˜6000 local face-on star-forming galaxies (SFGs) we examine the correlations between the NUV-r colors both inside and outside the half-light radius, stellar mass M*, and Sérsic index n to understand how the quenching of star formation is linked to galaxy structure. For these less dust-attenuated galaxies, NUV-r is found to be linearly correlated with {D}n4000, supporting NUV-r as a good photometric indicator of stellar age (or specific star formation rate). First, we find that at {M}*\\lt {10}10.2{M}⊙ the central NUV-r is on average only ˜0.25 mag redder than the outer NUV-r the intrinsic value would be even smaller after accounting for dust correction. However, the central NUV-r becomes systematically much redder than the outer NUV-r for more massive galaxies at {M}*\\gt {10}10.2{M}⊙ . Second, the central NUV-r shows no dependence on Sérsic index n at {M}*\\lt {10}10.2{M}⊙ , while above this mass galaxies with a higher n tend to be redder in the central NUV-r color. These results suggest that galaxies with {M}*\\lt {10}10.2{M}⊙ exhibit similar star formation activity from the inner R\\lt {R}50 region to the R\\gt {R}50 region. In contrast, a considerable fraction of the {M}*\\gt {10}10.2{M}⊙ galaxies, especially those with a high n, have harbored a relatively inactive bulge component.

  3. THE COMPLEX PHYSICS OF DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFTS AS REVEALED BY HERSCHEL AND SPITZER

    SciTech Connect

    Lo Faro, B.; Franceschini, A.; Vaccari, M.; Rodighiero, G.; Feltre, A.; Marchetti, L.; Silva, L.; Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Magnelli, B.; Bock, J.; Burgarella, D.; Buat, V.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Farrah, D.; Hurley, P.; Solares, E. A. Gonzalez; Magdis, G.; and others

    2013-01-10

    We combine far-infrared photometry from Herschel (PEP/HerMES) with deep mid-infrared spectroscopy from Spitzer to investigate the nature and the mass assembly history of a sample of 31 luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) at z {approx} 1 and 2 selected in GOODS-S with 24 {mu}m fluxes between 0.2 and 0.5 mJy. We model the data with a self-consistent physical model (GRASIL) which includes a state-of-the-art treatment of dust extinction and reprocessing. We find that all of our galaxies appear to require massive populations of old (>1 Gyr) stars and, at the same time, to host a moderate ongoing activity of star formation (SFR {<=} 100 M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}). The bulk of the stars appear to have been formed a few Gyr before the observation in essentially all cases. Only five galaxies of the sample require a recent starburst superimposed on a quiescent star formation history. We also find discrepancies between our results and those based on optical-only spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting for the same objects; by fitting their observed SEDs with our physical model we find higher extinctions (by {Delta}A {sub V} {approx} 0.81 and 1.14) and higher stellar masses (by {Delta}log(M {sub *}) {approx} 0.16 and 0.36 dex) for z {approx} 1 and z {approx} 2 (U)LIRGs, respectively. The stellar mass difference is larger for the most dust-obscured objects. We also find lower SFRs than those computed from L {sub IR} using the Kennicutt relation due to the significant contribution to the dust heating by intermediate-age stellar populations through 'cirrus' emission ({approx}73% and {approx}66% of the total L {sub IR} for z {approx} 1 and z {approx} 2 (U)LIRGs, respectively).

  4. Time-Dependent, One and Two-sided Jets From Forming Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelace, Richard

    Jets are observed in many star-forming regions and may play a critical role in the star formation process by removing angular momentum from the star-disk system. High- resolution maps of young stellar jets obtained by Hubble Space Telescope (HST) show that the matter ejection is non-stationary and flows away from the star in clumps or blobs which propagate to larger distances to form the clumpy structure of observed jets. Both symmetric, two-sided jets and asymmetric, dominantly one-sided jets are observed with HST and ground based telescopes. The origin of jets and the nature of non-stationary ejections continues to be an open question in astrophysics. These non-stationary outflows are likely connected with non- stationary processes in the accretion disk. However, this important connection has not been systematically investigated. In a prior NASA proposal, we investigated mechanisms of launching and collimation of outflows from the disk-magnetosphere boundary of young magnetized stars. In this proposal, we concentrate on the non-stationary, episodic nature of jets and their connection with non-stationary processes in accretion disks. First, we will model non-stationary ejections at small scales and then we will enlarge the simulation region to scales observable by HST. We will make a systematic study of the relation between the jet variability time-scales and the physical properties of the accretion disks such as magnetic field strengths and accretion rates. Further, we plan to characterize dependence of the symmetry/asymmetry of the jets on the symmetry/asymmetry of the stellar magnetic field and the time-scales of flipping of the jet direction. We will compute synthetic emission maps of jets in forbidden spectral lines and will compare the calculated maps with HST observations. Our group has developed a number of new state-of-the-art 3D Godunov-type parallelized numerical codes which will be used for modeling non-stationary jets. Our new cylindrical coordinate

  5. ACTIVITY ON THE M STAR OF QS Vir

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, T.; Baptista, R.; Kafka, S.; Tappert, C.

    2010-03-15

    We report analysis of VRIJH photometry and phase-resolved optical spectroscopy of the eclipsing DA white dwarf (WD) plus dMe dwarf binary QS Vir. Modeling of the photometric data yields an inclination of i = 74.9 {+-} 0.6 and a mass ratio of q = M {sub 2}/M {sub 1} = 0.50 {+-} 0.05. Our Doppler maps indicate the presence of material in the Roche lobe of the WD, at a location near the M star, likely due to accretion from the stellar wind of the M star (as opposed to Roche-lobe overflow accretion). We also constructed images of the brightness distribution of the M star at different epochs which reveal the location of two stable active regions. Doppler tomography shows that the majority of the hydrogen and Ca II H and K emission originates on the active M dwarf, likely distributed in two preferred activity longitudes, similar to active regions on BY Dra and FK Comae systems.

  6. Optical studies of X-ray peculiar chromosphereically active stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, J. C.

    2006-02-01

    A multiwavelength study of the late-type active stars, selected on the basis of their X-ray and radio luminosities is presented in this thesis. For FR Cnc, a photometric period 0.8267 +/- 0.0004 d has been established. The strong variation in the phase and amplitude of the FR Cnc light curves when folded on this period implies the presence of evolving and migrating spots or spot groups on its surface. A photometric period of 18.802 +/- 0.074 has been discovered in the star HD 81032. The shape and amplitude of the photometric light curves of FR Cnc, HD 81032, HD 95559 and LO Peg are observed to be changing from one epoch to another. The change in the amplitude is mainly due to a change in the minimum of the light curve, and this May be due to a change in the spot coverage. This indicates that photometric variability is due to the presence of dark spots on the surface of active star. Two groups of spots are identified for FR Cnc and LO Peg. The spots are found to migrate, and migration periods of 0.97 year and 0.93 year are determined from the 4 years of data. A migration period of 1.12 years for one group of spots in LO Peg is also determined. Formation of a new group of spots in the star HD 95559 was also seen during our observations. A single large group of spots is found to migrate, and a migration period of 7.32 +/- 0.04 years is determined for HD 81032. The stars FR Cnc, HD 81032, HD 160934 and LO Peg are seen to be redder at the light minimum and we interpret this is due to the relatively cooler temperature of the darker regions present in the visible hemisphere. We find the lack of color-brightness correlation in the star HD 95559 and this May be due to the presence of bright faculae and plages like regions accompanied by dark spots in any one component of the this binary system. The optical spectroscopy of FR Cnc and HD 81032 carried out during 2002-2003, reveals the presence of strong and variable Ca II H and K, Halpha and Hbeta emission features indicative

  7. Selection and mid-infrared spectroscopy of ultraluminous star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 2

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Guanwen; Kong, Xu; Chen, Yang; Lin, Xuanbin; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Willner, S. P.; Wang, Tao E-mail: jhuang@cfa.harvard.edu

    2014-02-01

    Starting from a sample of 24 μm sources in the Extended Groth Strip, we use 3.6-8 μm color criteria to select ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z ∼ 2. Spectroscopy from 20-38 μm of 14 objects verifies their nature and gives their redshifts. Multi-wavelength data for these objects imply stellar masses >10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} and star formation rates ≥410 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. Four objects of this sample observed at 1.6 μm (rest-frame visible) with Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 show diverse morphologies, suggesting that multiple formation processes create ULIRGs. Of the 14 objects, 4 show signs of active galactic nuclei, but the luminosity appears to be dominated by star formation in all cases.

  8. OUTSIDE-IN SHRINKING OF THE STAR-FORMING DISK OF DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Hongxin; Hunter, Deidre A.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Gao Yu; Schruba, Andreas E-mail: dah@lowell.edu E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com

    2012-02-15

    We have studied multi-band surface brightness profiles of a representative sample of 34 nearby dwarf irregular galaxies. Our data include Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) FUV/NUV, UBV, and H{alpha} and Spitzer 3.6 {mu}m images. These galaxies constitute the majority of the LITTLE THINGS survey (Local Irregulars That Trace Luminosity Extremes-The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey). By modeling the azimuthal averages of the spectral energy distributions with a complete library of star formation histories, we derived the stellar mass surface density distributions and the star formation rate averaged over three different timescales: the recent 0.1 Gyr, 1 Gyr, and a Hubble time. We find that, for {approx}80% (27 galaxies) of our sample galaxies, radial profiles (at least in the outer part) at shorter wavelengths, corresponding to younger stellar populations, have shorter disk scale lengths than those at longer wavelengths, corresponding to older stellar populations. This indicates that the star-forming disk has been shrinking. In addition, the radial distributions of the stellar mass surface density are well described as piece-wise exponential profiles, and {approx}80% of the galaxies have steeper mass profiles in the outer disk than in the inner region. The steep radial decline of the star formation rate in the outer parts compared to that in the inner disks gives a natural explanation for the down-bending stellar mass surface density profiles. Within the inner disks, our sample galaxies on average have constant ratios of recent star formation rate to stellar mass with radius. Nevertheless, {approx}35% (12 galaxies, among which 7 have baryonic mass {approx}<10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} ) of the sample exhibit negative slopes across the observed disk, which is in contrast with the so-called inside-out disk growth scenario suggested for luminous spiral galaxies. The tendency of star formation to become concentrated toward the inner disks in low-mass dwarf irregular galaxies is

  9. MAXIMALLY STAR-FORMING GALACTIC DISKS. II. VERTICALLY RESOLVED HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF STARBURST REGULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Shetty, Rahul; Ostriker, Eve C. E-mail: ostriker@astro.umd.edu

    2012-07-20

    We explore the self-regulation of star formation using a large suite of high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations, focusing on molecule-dominated regions (galactic centers and [U]LIRGS) where feedback from star formation drives highly supersonic turbulence. In equilibrium, the total midplane pressure, dominated by turbulence, must balance the vertical weight of the interstellar medium. Under self-regulation, the momentum flux injected by feedback evolves until it matches the vertical weight. We test this flux balance in simulations spanning a wide range of parameters, including surface density {Sigma}, momentum injected per stellar mass formed (p{sub *}/m{sub *}), and angular velocity. The simulations are two-dimensional radial-vertical slices, and include both self-gravity and an external potential that helps to confine gas to the disk midplane. After the simulations reach a steady state in all relevant quantities, including the star formation rate {Sigma}{sub SFR}, there is remarkably good agreement between the vertical weight, the turbulent pressure, and the momentum injection rate from supernovae. Gas velocity dispersions and disk thicknesses increase with p{sub *}/m{sub *}. The efficiency of star formation per free-fall time at the midplane density, {epsilon}{sub ff}(n{sub 0}), is insensitive to the local conditions and to the star formation prescription in very dense gas. We measure {epsilon}{sub ff}(n{sub 0}) {approx} 0.004-0.01, consistent with low and approximately constant efficiencies inferred from observations. For {Sigma} in (100-1000) M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}, we find {Sigma}{sub SFR} in (0.1-4) M{sub Sun} kpc{sup -2} yr{sup -1}, generally following a {Sigma}{sub SFR} {proportional_to} {Sigma}{sup 2} relationship. The measured relationships agree very well with vertical equilibrium and with turbulent energy replenishment by feedback within a vertical crossing time. These results, along with the observed {Sigma}-{Sigma}{sub SFR} relation in high

  10. The Life Cycles of Stars: An Information & Activity Booklet Grades K-8, 1997-1998. Star-Child--A Learning Center for Young Astronomers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truelove, Elizabeth; Dejoie, Joyce

    This booklet contains information and activities on the life cycle of stars. Materials can be adapted for kindergarten through grade 8 classrooms. Background information on massive stars and medium stars and activities with subjects such as star life, constellation shapes, nebula terminology, astronomical distances, and pulsars is included. The 12…

  11. The Massive Star-Forming Regions Omnibus X-Ray Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsley, Leisa K.; Broos, Patrick S.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Bouwman, Jeroen; Povich, Matthew S.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Getman, Konstantin V.; Kuhn, Michael A.

    2014-07-01

    We present the Massive Star-forming Regions (MSFRs) Omnibus X-ray Catalog (MOXC), a compendium of X-ray point sources from Chandra/ACIS observations of a selection of MSFRs across the Galaxy, plus 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. MOXC consists of 20,623 X-ray point sources from 12 MSFRs with distances ranging from 1.7 kpc to 50 kpc. Additionally, we show the morphology of the unresolved X-ray emission that remains after the cataloged X-ray point sources are excised from the ACIS data, in the context of Spitzer and WISE observations that trace the bubbles, ionization fronts, and photon-dominated regions that characterize MSFRs. In previous work, we have found that this unresolved X-ray emission is dominated by hot plasma from massive star wind shocks. This diffuse X-ray emission is found in every MOXC MSFR, clearly demonstrating that massive star feedback (and the several-million-degree plasmas that it generates) is an integral component of MSFR physics.

  12. Nearby Clumpy, Gas Rich, Star-forming Galaxies: Local Analogs of High-redshift Clumpy Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, C. A.; Pisano, D. J.; Mac Low, M.-M.; Kreckel, K.; Rabidoux, K.; Guzmán, R.

    2015-07-01

    Luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) have enhanced star formation rates (SFRs) and compact morphologies. We combine Sloan Digital Sky Survey data with H i data of 29 LCBGs at redshift z ∼ 0 to understand their nature. We find that local LCBGs have high atomic gas fractions (∼50%) and SFRs per stellar mass consistent with some high-redshift star-forming galaxies (SFGs). Many local LCBGs also have clumpy morphologies, with clumps distributed across their disks. Although rare, these galaxies appear to be similar to the clumpy SFGs commonly observed at z ∼ 1–3. Local LCBGs separate into three groups: (1) interacting galaxies (∼20%) (2) clumpy spirals (∼40%) and (3) non-clumpy, non-spirals with regular shapes and smaller effective radii and stellar masses (∼40%). It seems that the method of building up a high gas fraction, which then triggers star formation, is not the same for all local LCBGs. This may lead to a dichotomy in galaxy characteristics. We consider possible gas delivery scenarios and suggest that clumpy spirals, preferentially located in clusters and with companions, are smoothly accreting gas from tidally disrupted companions and/or intracluster gas enriched by stripped satellites. Conversely, as non-clumpy galaxies are preferentially located in the field and tend to be isolated, we suggest clumpy, cold streams, which destroy galaxy disks and prevent clump formation, as a likely gas delivery mechanism for these systems. Other possibilities include smooth cold streams, a series of minor mergers, or major interactions.

  13. DIFFERENT EVOLUTIONARY STAGES IN THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGION W3 MAIN COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuan; Jiang Zhibo; Beuther, Henrik; Bik, Arjan; Zhang Qizhou; Rodon, Javier A.; Fallscheer, Cassandra

    2012-08-01

    We observed three high-mass star-forming regions in the W3 high-mass star formation complex with the Submillimeter Array and IRAM 30 m telescope. These regions, i.e., W3 SMS1 (W3 IRS5), SMS2 (W3 IRS4) and SMS3, are in different evolutionary stages and are located within the same large-scale environment, which allows us to study rotation and outflows as well as chemical properties in an evolutionary sense. While we find multiple millimeter continuum sources toward all regions, these three subregions exhibit different dynamical and chemical properties, which indicate that they are in different evolutionary stages. Even within each subregion, massive cores of different ages are found, e.g., in SMS2, sub-sources from the most evolved ultracompact H II region to potential starless cores exist within 30,000 AU of each other. Outflows and rotational structures are found in SMS1 and SMS2. Evidence for interactions between the molecular cloud and the H II regions is found in the {sup 13}CO channel maps, which may indicate triggered star formation.

  14. VLBA Surveys of OH Masers in Star-forming Regions. I. Satellite Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Velasco, A. E.; Felli, D.; Migenes, V.; Wiggins, B. K.

    2016-05-01

    Using the Very Long Baseline Array we performed a high-resolution OH maser survey in Galactic star-forming regions (SFRs). We observed all the ground state spectral lines: the main lines at 1665 and 1667 MHz and the satellite lines at 1612 and 1720 MHz. Due to the exceptionality of finding satellite lines in SFRs, we will focus our discussion on those lines. In our sample of 41 OH maser sources, five (12%) showed the 1612 MHz line and ten (24%) showed the 1720 MHz line, with only one source showing both lines. We find that 1720 MHz emission is correlated with the presence of H ii regions, suggesting that this emission could be used to diagnose or trace high-mass star formation. We include an analysis of the possible mechanisms that could be causing this correlation as well as assessing the possible relationships between lines in our sample. In particular, the presence of magnetic fields seems to play an important role as we found Zeeman splitting in four of our sources (W75 N, W3(OH), W51 and NGC 7538). Our results have implications for current understanding of the formation of high-mass stars as well as on the masing processes present in SFRs.

  15. THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS OMNIBUS X-RAY CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Townsley, Leisa K.; Broos, Patrick S.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Getman, Konstantin V.; Kuhn, Michael A.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Bouwman, Jeroen; Povich, Matthew S.

    2014-07-01

    We present the Massive Star-forming Regions (MSFRs) Omnibus X-ray Catalog (MOXC), a compendium of X-ray point sources from Chandra/ACIS observations of a selection of MSFRs across the Galaxy, plus 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. MOXC consists of 20,623 X-ray point sources from 12 MSFRs with distances ranging from 1.7 kpc to 50 kpc. Additionally, we show the morphology of the unresolved X-ray emission that remains after the cataloged X-ray point sources are excised from the ACIS data, in the context of Spitzer and WISE observations that trace the bubbles, ionization fronts, and photon-dominated regions that characterize MSFRs. In previous work, we have found that this unresolved X-ray emission is dominated by hot plasma from massive star wind shocks. This diffuse X-ray emission is found in every MOXC MSFR, clearly demonstrating that massive star feedback (and the several-million-degree plasmas that it generates) is an integral component of MSFR physics.

  16. The formation and assembly of a typical star-forming galaxy at redshift z approximately 3.

    PubMed

    Stark, Daniel P; Swinbank, A Mark; Ellis, Richard S; Dye, Simon; Smail, Ian R; Richard, Johan

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies of galaxies approximately 2-3 Gyr after the Big Bang have revealed large, rotating disks, similar to those of galaxies today. The existence of well-ordered rotation in galaxies during this peak epoch of cosmic star formation indicates that gas accretion is likely to be the dominant mode by which galaxies grow, because major mergers of galaxies would completely disrupt the observed velocity fields. But poor spatial resolution and sensitivity have hampered this interpretation; such studies have been limited to the largest and most luminous galaxies, which may have fundamentally different modes of assembly from those of more typical galaxies (which are thought to grow into the spheroidal components at the centres of galaxies similar to the Milky Way). Here we report observations of a typical star-forming galaxy at z = 3.07, with a linear resolution of approximately 100 parsecs. We find a well-ordered compact source in which molecular gas is being converted efficiently into stars, likely to be assembling a spheroidal bulge similar to those seen in spiral galaxies at the present day. The presence of undisrupted rotation may indicate that galaxies such as the Milky Way gain much of their mass by accretion rather than major mergers. PMID:18843363

  17. On the formation redshift of Low-Mass Star-Forming Galaxies at intermediate redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Jesus; Rodriguez-Muñoz, Lucía; Pacifici, Camilla; Tresse, Laurence; Charlot, Stéphane; Gil de Paz, Armando; Barro, Guillermo; Gomez-Guijarro, Carlos; Villar, Víctor

    2015-08-01

    Dwarf galaxies play a key role in galaxy formation and evolution: (1) hierarchical models predict that low-mass systems merged to form massive galaxies (building block paradigm; Dekel & Silk 1986); (2) dwarf systems might have been responsible for the reionization of the Universe (Wyithe & Loeb 2006); (3) theoretical models are particularly sensitive to the density of low-mass systems at diferent redshifts (Mamon et al. 2011), being one of the key science cases for the future E-ELT (Evans et al. 2013). While the history of low-mass dark matter halos is relatively well understood, the formation history of dwarf galaxies is still poorly reproduced by the models due to the distinct evolution of baryonic and dark matter.We present constraints on the star formation histories (SFHs) of a sample of low-mass Star-Forming Galaxies (LMSFGs; 7.3 < log M∗/Mo < 8.0, at 0.3 < zspec < 0.9) selected by photometric stellar mass and apparent magnitude. The SFHs were obtained through the analysis of their spectral energy distributions using a novel approach (Pacifici et al. 2012) that (1) consistently combines photometric (HST and ground-based multi-broadband) and spectroscopic (equivalent widths of emission lines from VLT and GTC spectroscopy) data, and (2) uses physically motivated SFHs with non-uniform variations of the star formation rate (SFR) as a function of time.The median SFH of our LMSFGs appears to form 90% of the median stellar mass inferred for the sample in the ˜0.5-1.8 Gyr immediately preceding the observation. These results suggest a recent stellar mass assembly for dwarf SFGs, consistent with the cosmological downsizing trends. We find similar median SFH timescales for a slightly more massive secondary sample 8.0 < log M∗/Mo < 9.1).This is a pilot study for future surveys on dwarf galaxies at high redshift.

  18. Age-dating Low-Mass Star-Forming Galaxies at intermediate redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Jesus; Rodriguez-Muñoz, Lucía; Pacifici, Camilla; Tresse, Laurence; Charlot, Stéphane; Gil de Paz, Armando; Barro, Guillermo; Gomez-Guijarro, Carlos; Villar, Víctor

    2015-08-01

    Dwarf galaxies play a key role in galaxy formation and evolution: (1) hierarchical models predict that low-mass systems merged to form massive galaxies (building block paradigm; Dekel & Silk 1986); (2) dwarf systems might have been responsible for the reionization of the Universe (Wyithe & Loeb 2006); (3) theoretical models are particularly sensitive to the density of low-mass systems at diferent redshifts (Mamon et al. 2011), being one of the key science cases for the future E-ELT (Evans et al. 2013). While the history of low-mass dark matter halos is relatively well understood, the formation history of dwarf galaxies is still poorly reproduced by the models due to the distinct evolution of baryonic and dark matter.We present physical properties and constraints on the star formation histories (SFHs) of a sample of low-mass Star-Forming Galaxies (LMSFGs; 7.3 < log M∗/Mo < 8.0, at 0.3 < zspec < 0.9) selected by photometric stellar mass and apparent magnitude. The SFHs were obtained through the analysis of their spectral energy distributions using a novel approach (Pacifici et al. 2012) that (1) consistently combines photometric (HST and ground-based multi-broadband) and spectroscopic (equivalent widths of emission lines from VLT and GTC spectroscopy) data, and (2) uses physically motivated SFHs with non-uniform variations of the star formation rate (SFR) as a function of time.The median SFH of our LMSFGs appears to form 90% of the median stellar mass inferred for the sample in the ˜0.5-1.8 Gyr immediately preceding the observation. These results suggest a recent stellar mass assembly for dwarf SFGs, consistent with the cosmological downsizing trends. We find similar median SFH timescales for a slightly more massive secondary sample 8.0 < log M∗/Mo < 9.1).

  19. On the effects of rotation in primordial star-forming clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Jayanta

    2016-01-01

    Context. The thermodynamical evolution of gas during the collapse of the primordial star-forming cloud depends significantly on the initial degree of rotation. Aims: However, there is no clear understanding of how the initial rotation can affect the heating and cooling process and hence the temperature that leads to the fragmentation of the gas during Population III star formation. Methods: We report the results from three-dimensional, smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of a rotating self-gravitating primordial gas cloud with a modified version of the Gadget-2 code, in which the initial ratio of the rotational to the gravitational energy (β0) is varied over two orders of magnitude. Results: We find that despite the lack of any initial turbulence and magnetic fields in the clouds, the angular momentum distribution leads to the formation and build-up of a disk that fragments into several clumps. We further examine the behavior of the protostars that form in both idealized as well as more realistic minihalos from the cosmological simulations. The thermodynamical evolution and the fragmentation behavior of the cosmological minihalos are similar to that of the artificial cases, especially in those with a similar β0-parameter. Protostars with a higher rotation support exhibit spiral-arm-like structures on several scales, and have lower accretion rates. These type of clouds tend to fragment more, while some of the protostars escape from the cluster with the possibility of surviving until the present day. They also take much longer to form compared to their slowly rotating counterparts. Conclusions: We conclude that the use of appropriate initial conditions of the gas in minihalos is a pivotal and decisive quantity to study the evolution and final fate of the primordial stars.

  20. Neutral and ionized hydrides in star-forming regions. Observations with Herschel/HIFI.

    PubMed

    Benz, Arnold O; Bruderer, Simon; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Stäuber, Pascal; Wampfler, Susanne F

    2013-10-01

    The cosmic abundance of hydrides depends critically on high-energy UV, X-ray, and particle irradiation. Here we study hydrides in star-forming regions where irradiation by the young stellar object can be substantial, and density and temperature can be much enhanced over interstellar values. Lines of OH, CH, NH, and SH and their ions OH(+), CH(+), NH(+), SH(+), H2O(+), and H3O(+) were observed in star-forming regions by the HIFI spectrometer onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. Molecular column densities are derived from observed ground-state lines, models, or rotational diagrams. We report here on two prototypical high-mass regions, AFGL 2591 and W3 IRS5, and compare them to chemical calculations by making assumptions on the high-energy irradiation. A model assuming no ionizing protostellar emission is compared with (i) a model assuming strong protostellar X-ray emission and (ii) a two-dimensional (2D) model including emission in the far UV (FUV, 6-13.6 eV), irradiating the outflow walls that separate the outflowing gas and infalling envelope material. We confirm that the effect of FUV in two-dimensional models with enlarged irradiated surfaces is clearly noticeable. A molecule that is very sensitive to FUV irradiation is CH(+), enhanced in abundance by more than 5 orders of magnitude. The HIFI observations of CH(+) lines agree with the two-dimensional FUV model by Bruderer et al., which computes abundances, non-LTE excitation, and line radiative transfer.20 It is concluded that CH(+) is a good FUV tracer in star-forming regions. The effect of potential X-ray irradiation is not excluded but cannot be demonstrated by the present data. PMID:23862691

  1. The correlation of dust and gas emission in star-forming environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, L. K.; Moore, T. J. T.; Eden, D. J.; Hatchell, J.; Urquhart, J. S.

    2014-05-01

    We present ammonia maps of portions of the W3 and Perseus molecular clouds in order to compare gas emission with submillimetre continuum thermal emission which are commonly used to trace the same mass component in star-forming regions, often under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The Perseus and W3 star-forming regions are found to have significantly different physical characteristics consistent with the difference in size scales traced by our observations. Accounting for the distance of the W3 region does not fully reconcile these differences, suggesting that there may be an underlying difference in the structure of the two regions. Peak positions of submillimetre and ammonia emission do not correlate strongly. Also, the extent of diffuse emission is only moderately matched between ammonia and thermal emission. Source sizes measured from our observations are consistent between regions, although there is a noticeable difference between the submillimetre source sizes with sources in Perseus being significantly smaller than those in W3. Fractional abundances of ammonia are determined for our sources which indicate a dip in the measured ammonia abundance at the positions of peak submillimetre column density. Virial ratios are determined which show that our sources are generally bound in both regions, although there is considerable scatter in both samples. We conclude that sources in Perseus are bound on smaller scales than in W3 in a way that may reflect their previous identification as low- and high-mass, respectively. Our results indicate that assumptions of local thermal equilibrium and/or the coupling of the dust and gas phases in star-forming regions may not be as robust as commonly assumed.

  2. The rest-frame submillimeter spectrum of high-redshift, dusty, star-forming galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Spilker, J. S.; Marrone, D. P.; Aguirre, J. E.; Aravena, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Béthermin, M.; Bothwell, M. S.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Crawford, T. M.; Chapman, S. C.; De Breuck, C.; Gullberg, B.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Greve, T. R.; Hezaveh, Y.; Holzapfel, W. L.; and others

    2014-04-20

    We present the average rest-frame spectrum of high-redshift dusty, star-forming galaxies from 250 to 770 GHz. This spectrum was constructed by stacking Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 3 mm spectra of 22 such sources discovered by the South Pole Telescope and spanning z = 2.0-5.7. In addition to multiple bright spectral features of {sup 12}CO, [C I], and H{sub 2}O, we also detect several faint transitions of {sup 13}CO, HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and CN, and use the observed line strengths to characterize the typical properties of the interstellar medium of these high-redshift starburst galaxies. We find that the {sup 13}CO brightness in these objects is comparable to that of the only other z > 2 star-forming galaxy in which {sup 13}CO has been observed. We show that the emission from the high-critical density molecules HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and CN is consistent with a warm, dense medium with T {sub kin} ∼ 55 K and n{sub H{sub 2}}≳10{sup 5.5} cm{sup –3}. High molecular hydrogen densities are required to reproduce the observed line ratios, and we demonstrate that alternatives to purely collisional excitation are unlikely to be significant for the bulk of these systems. We quantify the average emission from several species with no individually detected transitions, and find emission from the hydride CH and the linear molecule CCH for the first time at high redshift, indicating that these molecules may be powerful probes of interstellar chemistry in high-redshift systems. These observations represent the first constraints on many molecular species with rest-frame transitions from 0.4 to 1.2 mm in star-forming systems at high redshift, and will be invaluable in making effective use of ALMA in full science operations.

  3. Stars Take Longer to Form, Need a 'Kick' to Get Started, Astronomers Say

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    Star formation is a longer process than previously thought, and is heavily dependent on outside events, such as supernova explosions, to trigger it, a team of astronomers has concluded. The scientists reached their conclusions after making a detailed study of a number of the dark gas clouds in which new stars are formed. Optical and mm-wave overlay of dark cloud Optical image of the dark cloud L57, with white contours indicating submillimeter-wave emission from dust within the dark cloud. "Our observations indicate that we need to drastically revise our ideas about the very early stages of star formation," said Claire Chandler, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico. Chandler, who worked with John Richer and Anja Visser at the Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory in the United Kingdom, presented the results at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Washington, D.C. The astronomers observed the gas clouds with the SCUBA camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. This instrument is sensitive to submillimeter-wavelength radiation, which lies between radio waves and infrared waves in the electromagnetic spectrum. They studied clouds that previously had been observed with optical and infrared telescopes. The SCUBA images allowed them to see aspects of the clouds not visible at other wavelengths. Some young "protostars" are so deeply embedded in their parent gas clouds that they are invisible to infrared telescopes, while others have become visible by consuming and blowing away much of their surrounding clouds. Earlier studies had indicated that the "invisible" stars are only about one-tenth as common as those visible to infrared telescopes. "What we see in our study, however, is equal numbers of both types," said Chandler, who added, "This means that both stages probably have about the same lifetime -- roughly 200,000 years each." Another conclusion coming from the study is that star

  4. Large Binocular Telescope and Spitzer Spectroscopy of Star-forming Galaxies at 1 Star Formation Rate Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rujopakarn, W.; Rieke, G. H.; Papovich, C. J.; Weiner, B. J.; Rigby, J. R.; Rex, M.; Bian, F.; Kuhn, O. P.; Thompson, D.

    2012-08-01

    We present spectroscopic observations in the rest-frame optical and near- to mid-infrared wavelengths of four gravitationally lensed infrared (IR) luminous star-forming galaxies at redshift 1 actively star-forming systems, absent of active galactic nuclei. The large lensing magnifications result in high signal-to-noise spectra that can probe faint IR recombination lines, including Paα and Brα at high redshifts. The sample was augmented by three lensed galaxies with similar suites of unpublished data and observations from the literature, resulting in the final sample of seven galaxies. We use the IR recombination lines in conjunction with Hα observations to probe the extinction, Av , of these systems, as well as testing star formation rate (SFR) indicators against the SFR measured by fitting spectral energy distributions to far-IR photometry. Our galaxies occupy a range of Av from ~0 to 5.9 mag, larger than previously known for a similar range of IR luminosities at these redshifts. Thus, estimates of SFR even at z ~ 2 must take careful count of extinction in the most IR luminous galaxies. We also measure extinction by comparing SFR estimates from optical emission lines with those from far-IR measurements. The comparison of results from these two independent methods indicates a large variety of dust distribution scenarios at 1 < z < 3. Without correcting for dust extinction, the Hα SFR indicator underestimates the SFR; the size of the necessary correction depends on the IR luminosity and dust distribution scenario. Individual SFR estimates based on the 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission line luminosity do not show a systematic discrepancy with extinction, although a considerable, ~ 0.2 dex, scatter is observed. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy

  5. Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelato, Hugo Vicente

    1999-01-01

    We will begin our study with a more or less superficial inspection of the "forest" of stars that we see in the skies. The first thing we notice is that, as sources of light, they are much weaker than the Sun. Second, their apparent colors vary; from a bluish-white in most of them to a reddish-yellow, which is rarer. There is also a third aspect, though it is not very obvious to the naked eye: most of the stars group themselves in small families of two, three or more members. A good example is the Alpha Centauri, the closest star to us, which, in fact, is a triple system of stars. Another is the group of 7 stars that make up the Pleiades, which will be discussed later on. In fact, almost half of the stars are double systems with only two members, called binary stars. Most of these double stars, though together, are separated by several astronomical units (one astronomical unit, AU, is the distance from Earth to the sun: see Chapter 1), and revolve around each other over periods of several years. And yet the revolutions of some binary stars, separated by much smaller distances, occur in only a few hours! These stars are so close to each other that they can share enveloping material. Often this exchange occurs in a somewhat violent manner. Local explosions may occur, expelling matter away from the system. In other binary systems, where one of the components is a very compact, dense star, companion material flows more calmly, making up a light disk around the compact star.

  6. How Do Multiple-Star Systems Form? VLA Study Reveals "Smoking Gun"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Astronomers have used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to image a young, multiple-star system with unprecedented detail, yielding important clues about how such systems are formed. Most Sun-sized or larger stars in the Universe are not single, like our Sun, but are members of multiple-star systems. Astronomers have been divided on how such systems can form, producing competing theoretical models for this process. Multiple Star Formation Graphic Proposed Formation Process for L1551 IRS5 CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for page of graphics and full information The new VLA study produced a "smoking gun" supporting one of the competing models, said Jeremy Lim, of the Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, in Taipei, Taiwan, whose study, done with Shigehisa Takakuwa of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, is published in the December 10 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. Ironically, their discovery of a third, previously-unknown, young star in the system may support a second theoretical model. "There may be more than one way to make a multiple-star system," Lim explained. The astronomers observed an object called L1551 IRS5, young, still-forming protostars enshrouded in a cloud of gas and dust, some 450 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Taurus. Invisible to optical telescopes because of the gas and dust, this object was discovered in 1976 by astronomers using infrared telescopes. A VLA study in 1998 showed two young stars orbiting each other, each surrounded by a disk of dust that may, in time, congeal into a system of planets. Lim and Takakuwa re-examined the system, using improved technical capabilities that greatly boosted the quality of their images. "In the earlier VLA study, only half of the VLA's 27 antennas had receivers that could collect the radio waves, at a frequency of 43 GigaHertz (GHz), coming from the dusty disks. When we re-observed this

  7. Trigonometric parallaxes of star forming regions in the Perseus spiral arm

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Y. K.; Brunthaler, A.; Menten, K. M.; Hachisuka, K.; Reid, M. J.; Dame, T. M.; Xu, Y. E-mail: ykchoi@kasi.re.kr

    2014-08-01

    We report trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of water masers for 12 massive star forming regions in the Perseus spiral arm of the Milky Way as part of the Bar and Spiral Structure Legacy (BeSSel) Survey. Combining our results with 14 parallax measurements in the literature, we estimate a pitch angle of 9.°9 ± 1.°5 for a section of the Perseus arm. The three-dimensional Galactic peculiar motions of these sources indicate that on average they are moving toward the Galactic center and slower than the Galactic rotation.

  8. 15N Fractionation in Star-Forming Regions and Solar System Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirstrom, Eva; Milam, Stefanie; Adande, GIlles; Charnley, Steven; Cordiner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A central issue for understanding the formation and evolution of matter in the early Solar System is the relationship between the chemical composition of star-forming interstellar clouds and that of primitive Solar System materials. The pristinemolecular content of comets, interplanetary dust particles and carbonaceous chondrites show significant bulk nitrogen isotopic fractionation relative to the solar value, 14N15N 440. In addition, high spatial resolution measurements in primitive materials locally show even more extreme enhancements of 14N15N 100.

  9. VLBI Water Maser Proper Motion Measurements in Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrelles, J. M.; Patel, N.; Gómez, J. F.; Anglada, G.; Uscanga, L.

    We review some of the recent water maser proper motion measurements in star-forming regions performed through VLBI multi-epoch observations. These observations are starting to reveal exciting perspectives, providing the full kinematics of the gas within the outflows/circumstellar disks around YSOs at scales of AUs, discovering new phenomena (e.g., isotropic mass ejections, watermaser "micro-structures" exhibiting remarkable coherent and well ordered spatio-kinematical behavior at AU scale), and opening new, puzzling questions related to the early stellar evolution.

  10. Vlbi Water Maser Proper Motion Measurements in Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrelles, J. M.; Patel, N.; Gómez, J. F.; Anglada, G.; Uscanga, L.

    2005-01-01

    We review some of the recent water maser proper motion measurements in star-forming regions performed through VLBI multi-epoch observations. These observations are starting to reveal exciting perspectives, providing the full kinematics of the gas within the outflows/circumstellar disks around YSOs at scales of AUs, discovering new phenomena (e.g., isotropic mass ejections, water maser "micro-structures" exhibiting remarkable coherent and well ordered spatio-kinematical behavior at AU scale), and opening new, puzzling questions related to the early stellar evolution.

  11. Cluster and nebular properties of the central star-forming region of NGC 1140

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moll, S. L.; Mengel, S.; de Grijs, R.; Smith, L. J.; Crowther, P. A.

    2007-12-01

    We present new high spatial resolution Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging of NGC 1140 and high spectral resolution Very Large Telescope/Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph spectroscopy of its central star-forming region. The central region contains several clusters, the two brightest of which are clusters 1 and 6 from Hunter, O'Connell & Gallagher, located within star-forming knots A and B, respectively. A nebular analysis indicates that the knots have a Large Magellanic Cloud-like metallicity of 12 + logO/H = 8.29 +/-0.09. According to continuum-subtracted Hα ACS imaging, cluster 1 dominates the nebular emission of the brighter knot A. Conversely, negligible nebular emission in knot B originates from cluster 6. Evolutionary synthesis modelling implies an age of 5 +/-1 Myr for cluster 1, from which a photometric mass of (1.1 +/-0.3) × 106Msolar is obtained. For this age and photometric mass, the modelling predicts the presence of ~5900 late O stars within cluster 1. Wolf-Rayet (WR) features are observed in knot A, suggesting 550 late-type nitrogen-rich (WNL) and 200 early-type carbon-rich (WCE) stars. Therefore, N(WR)/N(O) ~ 0.1, assuming that all the WR stars are located within cluster 1. The velocity dispersions of the clusters were measured from constituent red supergiants as σ ~ 23 +/-1kms-1 for cluster 1 and σ ~ 26 +/-1kms-1 for cluster 6. Combining σ with half-light radii of 8 +/- 2 and 6.0 +/-0.2 pc measured from the F625W ACS image implies virial masses of (10 +/-3) × 106 and (9.1 +/-0.8) × 106Msolar for clusters 1 and 6, respectively. The most likely reason for the difference between the dynamical and photometric masses of cluster 1 is that the velocity dispersion of knot A is not due solely to cluster 1, as assumed, but has an additional component associated with cluster 2. E-mail: s.moll@sheffield.ac.uk Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, under programme ESO 71.B-0058(A

  12. Ultraviolet to near-infrared spectral distributions of star-forming galaxies: Metallicity and age effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Calzetti, Daniela; Kinney, Anne L.

    1994-01-01

    Spectral distributions from the UV to the near-IR of a sample of 44 star-forming galaxies are used to calculate the metallicity (O/H), star-formation rate (SFR) and age of the starbursts. The oxygen abundance covers the range 8.3 less than O/H less than 9.4 and nitrogen (N) is found to be mostly a product of secondary nucleosynthesis for O/H greater than 8.4. Due to its secondary origin, N/O ratios up to approximately equals 4 times the solar value can be obtained for metal-rich starbursts. The SFR ranges 0.01 to 100 solar mass/year. The lower metallicity galaxies seem to be experiencing an instantaneous burst of star formation, with ages ranging from under 5 x 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 7) yr. The highest metallicity galaxies are most probably experiencing a continuous burst. Correlations between the calculated quantities and several spectral features are investigated. We found a highly significant correlation between the equivalent width W(C IV lambda 1550)-a stellar (absorption) feature- and the oxygen abundance of the emitting gas (O/H). Thus we show for the first time that the stellar metallicity is well correlated with the gas metallicity in star-bursting galaxies. The equivalent width W(Si IV lambda 1400) and the emission line ratio (N II) lambda lambda 6548.84/H(sub alpha) also correlate well with O/H, and all three features can be used as metallicity indicators for star-forming galaxies. The continuum color between lambda 1400 and lambda 3500 (C(14 - 35)) is shown to correlate with O/H, although it is better correlated with E(B - V). It was not possible to disentangle the metallicity from the reddening effect in C(14- 35). We estimate that the reddening affecting the UV continuum is about half the one derived from the Balmer decrement of the emitting gas. The SFR correlates well with the galaxy luminosity and there is no dependence of the continuum color on the SFR. The higher metallicities are only found in the more luminous galaxies, while low metallicities are

  13. GAS RESERVOIRS AND STAR FORMATION IN A FORMING GALAXY CLUSTER AT zbsime0.2

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, Yara L.; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Deshev, Boris Z.; Van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.

    2012-09-10

    We present first results from the Blind Ultra-Deep H I Environmental Survey of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. Our survey is the first direct imaging study of neutral atomic hydrogen gas in galaxies at a redshift where evolutionary processes begin to show. In this Letter we investigate star formation, H I content, and galaxy morphology, as a function of environment in Abell 2192 (at z = 0.1876). Using a three-dimensional visualization technique, we find that Abell 2192 is a cluster in the process of forming, with significant substructure in it. We distinguish four structures that are separated in redshift and/or space. The richest structure is the baby cluster itself, with a core of elliptical galaxies that coincides with (weak) X-ray emission, almost no H I detections, and suppressed star formation. Surrounding the cluster, we find a compact group where galaxies pre-process before falling into the cluster, and a scattered population of 'field-like' galaxies showing more star formation and H I detections. This cluster proves to be an excellent laboratory to understand the fate of the H I gas in the framework of galaxy evolution. We clearly see that the H I gas and the star formation correlate with morphology and environment at z {approx} 0.2. In particular, the fraction of H I detections is significantly affected by the environment. The effect starts to kick in in low-mass groups that pre-process the galaxies before they enter the cluster. Our results suggest that by the time the group galaxies fall into the cluster, they are already devoid of H I.

  14. A Census of Diverse Environments in Infrared Dark Clouds: Where Do Massive Stars Form?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirienzo, William J.; Brogan, C. L.; Indebetouw, R.; Chandler, C. J.; Devine, K. E.

    2014-01-01

    Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) harbor the earliest phases of massive star formation and complex astrochemistry. IRDCs are extraordinarily dense and cold objects of dust and molecular gas arranged in filamentary or globule structures with compact cores. Many of the compact molecular and millimeter cores are known to host massive protostars from a variety of star formation indicators. We have used the GBT and the VLA to map ammonia and CCS in nine IRDCs to reveal the temperature, density, and velocity structures and explore chemical evolution in the dense cores. Ammonia is an ideal molecular tracer for these environments as its critical density is appropriate for IRDCs, and nitrogen-bearing species are not prone to dust-grain freeze-out even in these cold regions. The hyperfine structure allows unambiguous determination of the optical depth and thus the column density, and using two rotational transitions allows determination of the temperature. By imaging ammonia and CCS in these regions, we can use their abundance ratios as “chemical clocks” to determine whether the starless cores are indeed less evolved. With this data we will begin to address the questions of how these two classes of cores are alike and different and whether the quiescent cores are likely to eventually form stars or not. We further investigate the structure and kinematics of the IRDCs, revealing gradients and colliding sub-clouds that elucidate the formation process of these structures and their protostars. A comprehensive study of IRDCs in molecular gas tracers with both total power and high resolution is necessary to truly understand the relationship between IRDCs and massive star formation.

  15. The optical flares of active star II Pegasi in 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Shenghong; Kim, Kang Min; Lee, Byeong-Cheol

    2015-08-01

    We observed the active star II Peg using high-resolution spectrographs of 2.16m telescope at Xinglong station of NAOC and 1.8m telescope at BOAO of KASI from November to December, 2005. By means of spectral subtraction technique, the chromospheric activities of II Peg are analyzed at several activity indicators, including CaII IRT, Hα, NaI D1D2 and HeI D3 lines. The results demonstrate that the magnetic activity of II Peg is very strong, and its chromospheric activities show rotational modulations which imply there are active regions in its chromosphere. Two flare events were hunted during the observations, which were identified by HeI D3 line emission above the continuum. The first flare was happened in November 2005, the second one in December 2005, and they were located in different hemisphere of the star. This may indicate the evolution of active regions. Considering the photospheric spot activities, the possible origin of the detected flares is discussed.

  16. What Turns Galaxies Off? the Different Morphologies of Star-Forming and Quiescent Galaxies Since z Approximates 2 from CANDELS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Eric F.; VanDerWel, Arjen; Papovich, Casey; Kocevski, Dale; Lotz, Jennifer; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Harry; Koekemoer, Anton; Grogin, Norman; Wuyts, Stijn; Cheung, Edmong; Conselice, Christopher J.; Dunlop, James S.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Herrington, Jessica; Koo, David; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; DeMello, Duilia; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robaina, Aday R.; Williams, Christina C.

    2011-01-01

    We use HST/WFC3 imaging from the CANDELS multicyc1e treasury survey, in conjunction with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, to explore the evolution of galactic structure for galaxies with stellar masses > 3 x 10(exp 10) Solar Mass from Z= 2.2 to the present epoch, a time span of 10 Gyr. We explore the relationship between rest-frame optical color, stellar mass, star formation activity and the structural parameters of galaxies as determined from parametric fits to the surface brightness profiles of galaxies. We confirm the dramatic evolution from z= 2.2 to the present day in the number density of non-star-forming galaxies above 3 x 10(exp 10) Solar Mass reported by other authors. We find that the vast majority of these quiescent systems have concentrated light profiles, as parameterized by the Sersic index, and the population of concentrated galaxies grows similarly rapidly. We examine the joint distribution of star formation activity, Sersic index, stellar mass, mass divided by radius (a proxy for velocity dispersion), and stellar surface density. Quiescence correlates poorly with stellar mass at all z < 2.2 (given the approx < 0.2 dex scatter between halo mass and stellar mass at z approximates 0 inferred by More et al, this argues against halo mass being the only factor determining quiescence). Quiescence correlates better with Sersic index, 'velocity dispersion' and stellar surface density, where Sersic index correlates the best (increasingly so at lower redshift). Yet, there is significant scatter between quiescence and galaxy structure: while the vast majority of quiescent galaxies have prominent bulges, many of them have significant disks, and a number of bulge-dominated galaxies have significant star formation. Noting the rarity of quiescent galaxies without prominent bulges, we argue that a prominent bulge (and, perhaps by association, a supermassive black hole) is a necessary but not sufficient condition for quenching star formation on galactic scales over the

  17. Everything you ever wanted to know about the ultraviolet spectra of star-forming galaxies but were afraid to ask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, A. L.; Bohlin, R.; Calzetti, D.; Panagia, N.; Wyse, R.

    1993-01-01

    We present ultraviolet spectra of 143 star-forming galaxies of different morphological types and activity classes including S0, Sa, Sb, Sc, Sd, irregular, starburst, blue compact, blue compact dwarf, Liner, and Seyfert 2 galaxies. These IUE spectra cover the wavelength range from 1200 to 3200 A and are taken in a large aperture (10 x 20 inch). The ultraviolet spectral energy distributions are shown for a subset of the galaxies, ordered by spectral index, and separated by type for normal galaxies, Liners, starburst galaxies, blue compact (BCG) and blue compact dwarf (BCDG) galaxies, and Seyfert 2 galaxies. The ultraviolet spectra of Liners are, for the most part, indistinguishable from the spectra of normal galaxies. Starburst galaxies have a large range of ultraviolet slope, from blue to red. The star-forming galaxies which are the bluest in the optical (BCG and BCDG), also have the 'bluest' average ultraviolet slope of beta = -1.75 +/- 0.63. Seyfert 2 galaxies are the only galaxies in the sample that consistently have detectable UV emission lines.

  18. Ultraviolet to Mid-Infrared Observations of Star-forming Galaxies at z~2: Stellar Masses and Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapley, Alice E.; Steidel, Charles C.; Erb, Dawn K.; Reddy, Naveen A.; Adelberger, Kurt L.; Pettini, Max; Barmby, Pauline; Huang, Jiasheng

    2005-06-01

    We present the broadband UV through mid-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of a sample of 72 spectroscopically confirmed star-forming galaxies at z=2.30+/-0.3. Located in a 72 arcmin2 field centered on the bright background QSO, HS 1700+643, these galaxies were preselected to lie at z~2 solely on the basis of their rest-frame UV colors and luminosities and should be representative of UV-selected samples at high redshift. In addition to deep ground-based photometry spanning from 0.35 to 2.15 μm, we make use of Spitzer IRAC data, which probe the rest-frame near-IR at z~2. The range of stellar populations present in the sample is investigated with simple, single-component stellar population synthesis models. The inability to constrain the form of the star formation history limits our ability to determine the parameters of extinction, age, and star formation rate without using external multiwavelength information. Emphasizing stellar mass estimates, which are much less affected by these uncertainties, we find =10.32+/-0.51 for the sample. The addition of Spitzer IRAC data as a long-wavelength baseline reduces stellar mass uncertainties by a factor of 1.5-2 relative to estimates based on optical-Ks photometry alone. However, the total stellar mass estimated for the sample is remarkably insensitive to the inclusion of IRAC data. We find correlations between stellar mass and rest-frame R band (observed Ks) and rest-frame 1.4 μm (observed 4.5 μm) luminosities, although with significant scatter. Even at rest-frame 1.4 μm, the mass-to-light ratio varies by a factor of 15 indicating that even the rest-frame near-IR, when taken alone, is a poor indicator of stellar mass in star-forming galaxies at z~2. Allowing for the possibility of episodic star formation, we find that typical galaxies in our sample could contain up to 3 times more stellar mass in an old underlying burst than what was inferred from single-component modeling. In contrast, mass

  19. Star-forming compact groups (SFCGs): an ultraviolet search for a local sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Fernández, Jonathan D.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.

    2015-10-01

    We present a local sample (z < 0.15) of 280 star-forming compact groups (SFCGs) of galaxies identified in the ultraviolet Galaxy Evolution EXplorer (GALEX) All-sky Imaging Survey (AIS). So far, just one prototypical example of SFCG, the Blue Infalling Group, has been studied in detail in the Local Universe. The sample of SFCGs is mainly the result of applying a Friends-of-Friends group finder in the space of celestial coordinates with a maximum linking-length of 1.5 arcmin and choosing groups with a minimum number of four members of bright UV-emitting 17star formation content (95 per cent of star-forming galaxies). This points to the SFCGs being in an evolutionary stage distinct from those groups selected in the optical and near-infrared ranges. Once redshifts are obtained to discard interlopers, SFCGs will constitute a unique sample of SFCGs.

  20. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION IN HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS: RESULTS FROM THE MALT90 SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Hoq, Sadia; Jackson, James M.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Claysmith, Christopher; Guzmán, Andrés; Whitaker, J. Scott; Rathborne, Jill M.; Vasyunina, Tatiana; Vasyunin, Anton E-mail: jackson@bu.edu E-mail: claysmit@bu.edu E-mail: aguzmanf@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: rathborne@csiro.au E-mail: aiv3f@virginia.edu

    2013-11-10

    The chemical changes of high-mass star-forming regions provide a potential method for classifying their evolutionary stages and, ultimately, ages. In this study, we search for correlations between molecular abundances and the evolutionary stages of dense molecular clumps associated with high-mass star formation. We use the molecular line maps from Year 1 of the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) Survey. The survey mapped several hundred individual star-forming clumps chosen from the ATLASGAL survey to span the complete range of evolution, from prestellar to protostellar to H II regions. The evolutionary stage of each clump is classified using the Spitzer GLIMPSE/MIPSGAL mid-IR surveys. Where possible, we determine the dust temperatures and H{sub 2} column densities for each clump from Herschel/Hi-GAL continuum data. From MALT90 data, we measure the integrated intensities of the N{sub 2}H{sup +}, HCO{sup +}, HCN and HNC (1-0) lines, and derive the column densities and abundances of N{sub 2}H{sup +} and HCO{sup +}. The Herschel dust temperatures increase as a function of the IR-based Spitzer evolutionary classification scheme, with the youngest clumps being the coldest, which gives confidence that this classification method provides a reliable way to assign evolutionary stages to clumps. Both N{sub 2}H{sup +} and HCO{sup +} abundances increase as a function of evolutionary stage, whereas the N{sub 2}H{sup +} (1-0) to HCO{sup +} (1-0) integrated intensity ratios show no discernable trend. The HCN (1-0) to HNC(1-0) integrated intensity ratios show marginal evidence of an increase as the clumps evolve.

  1. From the H II Region to the Molecular Cloud: Determining Physical Conditions in Star Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, N. P.

    2004-12-01

    Infrared missions such as Spitzer offer new insights into the chemical evolution and star formation history of the universe. Although objects such as starburst galaxies, which are among the most luminous objects in the universe, are the primary focus, OMC-1, a lower luminosity region with superb spatial resolution, serves as a benchmark to test the physics of newly formed O stars interacting with the surrounding molecular environment. The classical approach in determining conditions in the ionized, photodissociated, and molecular regions is to treat each problem separately. In actuality, however, this is a single continuous phenomenon, linked through the transport of gas and radiation. Here we self-consistently calculate the physical conditions and emission from the hot HII region to the cold, molecular gas as a continuous hydrostatic layer. The ion states of the first 30 elements, along with the abundances of 70 molecules, are determined with the temperature and electron density. The grain physics is treated self-consistently, with grain charge transfer, single photon heating, and PAH effects all included. Additionally, level populations of all the rotational/vibrational levels of the ground electronic state of molecular hydrogen are determined (see the dissertation talk of Gargi Shaw). As a benchmark, we consider the physical conditions through OMC-1 1' west of the Trapezium, where emission-line observations of the HII region and the PDR/molecular cloud all exist. Accurately interpreting this spectrum will give us confidence that we can apply our calculations to more luminous and distant starburst galaxies. We predict the sometimes significant contribution of the HII region to important PDR emission-line diagnostics. This has consequences for the interpretation of IR observations, the deduced values of n(H) and G0 in PDRs, and hence the overall conditions in star forming regions. All calculations were developed with the spectral synthesis code Cloudy, which is

  2. Massive star-forming host galaxies of quasars on Sloan digital sky survey stripe 82

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Strauss, Michael A.; Price, Ted N. III; DiDonato, Matthew S.

    2014-01-10

    The stellar properties of about 800 galaxies hosting optically luminous, unobscured quasars at z < 0.6 are analyzed. Deep co-added Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images of the quasars on Stripe 82 are decomposed into nucleus and host galaxy using point spread function and Sérsic models. The systematic errors in the measured galaxy absolute magnitudes and colors are estimated to be less than 0.5 mag and 0.1 mag, respectively, with simulated quasar images. The effect of quasar light scattered by the interstellar medium is also carefully addressed. The measured quasar-to-galaxy ratio in total flux decreases toward longer wavelengths, from ∼8 in the u band to ∼1 in the i and z bands. We find that the SDSS quasars are hosted exclusively by massive galaxies (stellar mass M {sub star} > 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}), which is consistent with previous results for less luminous narrow-line (obscured) active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The quasar hosts are very blue and almost absent on the red sequence, showing stark contrast to the color-magnitude distribution of normal galaxies. The fact that more powerful AGNs reside in galaxies with higher star-formation efficiency may indicate that negative AGN feedback, if it exists, is not concurrent with the most luminous phase of AGNs. We also find positive correlation between the mass of supermassive black holes (SMBHs; M {sub BH}) and host stellar mass, but the M {sub BH}-M {sub star} relation is offset toward large M {sub BH} or small M {sub star} compared to the local relation. While this could indicate that SMBHs grow earlier than do their host galaxies, such an argument is not conclusive, as the effect may be dominated by observational biases.

  3. A Survey of Star-forming Galaxies in the 1.4<~Z<~ 2.5 Redshift Desert: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steidel, Charles C.; Shapley, Alice E.; Pettini, Max; Adelberger, Kurt L.; Erb, Dawn K.; Reddy, Naveen A.; Hunt, Matthew P.

    2004-04-01

    The redshift interval 1.4<~z<~2.5 has been described by some as the ``redshift desert'' because of historical difficulties in spectroscopically identifying galaxies in that range. In fact, galaxies can be found in large numbers with standard broadband color selection techniques coupled with follow-up spectroscopy with UV and blue-sensitive spectrographs. In this paper we present the first results of a large-scale survey of such objects, carried out with the blue channel of the LRIS spectrograph (LRIS-B) on the Keck I Telescope. We introduce two samples of star-forming galaxies, ``BX'' galaxies at =2.20+/-0.32 and ``BM'' galaxies at =1.70+/-0.34. In seven survey fields we have spectroscopically confirmed 749 of the former and 114 of the latter. Interlopers (defined as objects at z<1) account for less than 10% of the photometric candidates, and the fraction of faint active galactic nuclei is ~3% in the combined BX/BM sample. Deep near-IR photometry of a subset of the BX sample indicates that, compared with a sample of similarly UV-selected galaxies at z~3, the z~2 galaxies are on average significantly redder in (R-Ks), indicating longer star formation histories, increased reddening by dust, or both. Using near-IR Hα spectra of a subset of BX/BM galaxies to define the galaxies' systemic redshifts, we show that the galactic-scale winds that are a feature of star-forming galaxies at z~3 are also common at later epochs and have similar bulk outflow speeds of 200-300 km s-1. We illustrate with examples the information that can be deduced on the stellar populations, metallicities, and kinematics of redshift desert galaxies from easily accessible rest-frame far-UV and rest-frame optical spectra. Far from being hostile to observations, the universe at z~2 is uniquely suited to providing information on the astrophysics of star-forming galaxies and the intergalactic medium, and the relationship between the two. Based, in part, on data obtained at the W. M. Keck

  4. Trigonometric parallaxes to star-forming regions within 4 kpc of the galactic center

    SciTech Connect

    Sanna, A.; Menten, K. M.; Zhang, B.; Sato, M.; Brunthaler, A.; Immer, K.; Reid, M. J.; Dame, T. M.; Moscadelli, L.

    2014-02-01

    We report four trigonometric parallaxes for high-mass star-forming regions within 4 kpc of the Galactic center. These measurements were made with the Very Long Baseline Array as part of the BeSSeL Survey. By associating these sources kinematically with large-scale features in CO and H I longitude-velocity diagrams, we begin to outline some major features of the inner Milky Way: the Connecting arm, the near and far 3 kpc arms, and the Norma arm. The Connecting arm in the first Galactic quadrant lies closer to the Galactic center than the far 3 kpc arm and is offset by the long-bar's major axis near its leading edge, supporting the presence of an inner Lindblad resonance. Assuming the 3 kpc arms are a continuous physical structure, the relative Galactocentric distance of its near and far sides suggests highly elliptical streamlines of gas around the bar(s) and a bar corotation radius, r {sub CR} ≳ 3.6 kpc. At a Galactic longitude near 10° and a heliocentric distance of about 5 kpc, the near 3 kpc arm and the Norma arm intersect on a face-on view of our Galaxy, while passing at different Galactic latitudes. We provide an accurate distance measurement to the W 31 star-forming complex of 4.95{sub −0.43}{sup +0.51} kpc from the Sun, which associates it with a bright CO feature belonging to the near 3 kpc arm.

  5. Interpreting the ionization sequence in star-forming galaxy emission-line spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Chris T.; Allen, James T.; Baldwin, Jack A.; Hewett, Paul C.; Ferland, Gary J.; Crider, Anthony; Meskhidze, Helen

    2016-05-01

    High-ionization star-forming (SF) galaxies are easily identified with strong emission-line techniques such as the BPT diagram, and form an obvious ionization sequence on such diagrams. We use a locally optimally emitting cloud model to fit emission-line ratios that constrain the excitation mechanism, spectral energy distribution, abundances and physical conditions along the star formation ionization sequence. Our analysis takes advantage of the identification of a sample of pure SF galaxies, to define the ionization sequence, via mean field independent component analysis. Previous work has suggested that the major parameter controlling the ionization level in SF galaxies is the metallicity. Here we show that the observed SF sequence could alternatively be interpreted primarily as a sequence in the distribution of the ionizing flux incident on gas spread throughout a galaxy. Metallicity variations remain necessary to model the SF sequence, however, our best models indicate that galaxies with the highest and lowest observed ionization levels (outside the range -0.37 < log [O III]/Hβ <-0.09) require the variation of an additional physical parameter other than metallicity, which we determine to be the distribution of ionizing flux in the galaxy.

  6. TRIGONOMETRIC PARALLAXES OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS. IX. THE OUTER ARM IN THE FIRST QUADRANT

    SciTech Connect

    Sanna, A.; Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A.; Reid, M. J.; Dame, T. M.; Moscadelli, L.; Zheng, X. W.; Xu, Y.

    2012-01-20

    We report a trigonometric parallax measurement with the Very Long Baseline Array for the water maser in the distant high-mass star-forming region G75.30+1.32. This source has a heliocentric distance of 9.25{sup +0.45}{sub -0.40} kpc, which places it in the Outer arm in the first Galactic quadrant. It lies 200 pc above the Galactic plane and is associated with a substantial H I enhancement at the border of a large molecular cloud. At a Galactocentric radius of 10.7 kpc, G75.30+1.32 is in a region of the Galaxy where the disk is significantly warped toward the North Galactic Pole. While the star-forming region has an instantaneous Galactic orbit that is nearly circular, it displays a significant motion of 18 km s{sup -1} toward the Galactic plane. The present results, when combined with two previous maser studies in the Outer arm, yield a pitch angle of about 12 Degree-Sign for a large section of the arm extending from the first quadrant to the third.

  7. Nitric oxide in star-forming regions - Further evidence for interstellar N-O bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziurys, L. M.; Mcgonagle, D.; Minh, Y.; Irvine, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    Nitric oxide has been newly detected toward several star-forming clouds, including Orion-KL, Sgr B2(N), W33A, W51M, and DR21(OH) via its J = 3/2-1/2 transitions near 150 GHz, using the FCRAO 14 m telescope. Both lambda-doubling components of NO were observed toward all sources. Column densities derived for nitric oxide in these clouds are 10 to the 15th-10 to the 16th/sq cm, corresponding to fractional abundances of 0.5-1.0 x 10 to the -8th, relative to H2. Toward Orion-KL, the NO line profile suggests that the species arises primarily from hot, dense gas. Nitric oxide may arise from warm material toward the other clouds as well. Nitric oxide in star-forming regions could be synthesized by high-temperature reactions, although the observed abundances do not disagree with values predicted from low-temperature, ion-molecule chemistry by more than one order of magnitude.

  8. Sulphur abundance determinations in star-forming regions - I. Ionization correction factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dors, O. L.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Hägele, G. F.; Cardaci, M. V.; Krabbe, A. C.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we used a grid of photoionization models combined with stellar population synthesis models to derive reliable ionization correction factors (ICFs) for the sulphur in star-forming regions. These models cover a large range of nebular parameters and yielding ionic abundances in consonance with those derived through optical and infrared observational data of star-forming regions. From our theoretical ICFs, we suggested an α value of 3.27 ± 0.01 in the classical Stasińska formulae. We compared the total sulphur abundance in the gas phase of a large sample of objects by using our theoretical ICF and other approaches. In average, the differences between the determinations via the use of the different ICFs considered are similar to the uncertainties in the S/H estimations. Nevertheless, we noted that for some objects it could reach up to about 0.3 dex for the low-metallicity regime. Despite of the large scatter of the points, we found a trend of S/O ratio to decrease with the metallicity, independently of the ICF used to compute the sulphur total abundance.

  9. Nitric oxide in star-forming regions: further evidence for interstellar N-O bonds.

    PubMed

    Ziurys, L M; McGonagle, D; Minh, Y; Irvine, W M

    1991-06-01

    Nitric oxide has been newly detected towards several star-forming clouds, including Orion-KL, Sgr B2(N), W33A, W51M, and DR21(OH) via its J = 3/2 --> 1/2 transitions near 150 GHz, using the FCRAO 14 m telescope. Both lambda-doubling components of NO were observed towards all sources. Column densities derived for nitric oxide in these clouds are N approximately 10(15)-10(16) cm-2, corresponding to fractional abundances of f approximately 0.5-1.0 x 10(-8), relative to H2. Towards Orion-KL, the NO line profile suggests that the species arises primarily from hot, dense gas. Nitric oxide may arise from warm material toward the other clouds as well. Nitric oxide in star-forming regions could be synthesized by high-temperature reactions, although the observed abundances do not disagree with values predicted from low-temperature, ion-molecule chemistry by more than one order of magnitude. The abundance of NO, unlike other simple interstellar nitrogen compounds, does appear to be reproduced by chemical models, at least to a good approximation. Regardless of the nature of formation of NO, it appears to be a common constituent of warm, dense molecular clouds. N-O bonds may therefore be more prevalent than previously thought. PMID:11538086

  10. Eight per cent leakage of Lyman continuum photons from a compact, star-forming dwarf galaxy.

    PubMed

    Izotov, Y I; Orlitová, I; Schaerer, D; Thuan, T X; Verhamme, A; Guseva, N G; Worseck, G

    2016-01-14

    One of the key questions in observational cosmology is the identification of the sources responsible for ionization of the Universe after the cosmic 'Dark Ages', when the baryonic matter was neutral. The currently identified distant galaxies are insufficient to fully reionize the Universe by redshift z ≈ 6 (refs 1-3), but low-mass, star-forming galaxies are thought to be responsible for the bulk of the ionizing radiation. As direct observations at high redshift are difficult for a variety of reasons, one solution is to identify local proxies of this galaxy population. Starburst galaxies at low redshifts, however, generally are opaque to Lyman continuum photons. Small escape fractions of about 1 to 3 per cent, insufficient to ionize much surrounding gas, have been detected only in three low-redshift galaxies. Here we report far-ultraviolet observations of the nearby low-mass star-forming galaxy J0925+1403. The galaxy is leaking ionizing radiation with an escape fraction of about 8 per cent. The total number of photons emitted during the starburst phase is sufficient to ionize intergalactic medium material that is about 40 times as massive as the stellar mass of the galaxy. PMID:26762455

  11. PTF10iya: a short-lived, luminous flare from the nuclear region of a star-forming galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenko, S. Bradley; Bloom, Joshua S.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Strubbe, Linda E.; Miller, Adam A.; Butler, Nathaniel R.; Quimby, Robert M.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ofek, Eran O.; Quataert, Eliot; Bildsten, Lars; Poznanski, Dovi; Perley, Daniel A.; Morgan, Adam N.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Frail, Dale A.; Arcavi, Iair; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Cucchiara, Antonio; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Green, Yoav; Hook, Isobel M.; Howell, D. Andrew; Lagattuta, David J.; Law, Nicholas M.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Nugent, Peter E.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Sullivan, Mark; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Yaron, Ofer

    2012-03-01

    We present the discovery and characterization of PTF10iya, a short-lived (Δt≈ 10 d, with an optical decay rate of ˜0.3 mag d-1), luminous (? mag) transient source found by the Palomar Transient Factory. The ultraviolet/optical spectral energy distribution is reasonably well fitted by a blackbody with T≈ (1-2) × 104 K and peak bolometric luminosity LBB≈ (1-5) × 1044 erg s-1 (depending on the details of the extinction correction). A comparable amount of energy is radiated in the X-ray band that appears to result from a distinct physical process. The location of PTF10iya is consistent with the nucleus of a star-forming galaxy (z= 0.224 05 ± 0.000 06) to within 350 mas (99.7 per cent confidence radius), or a projected distance of less than 1.2 kpc. At first glance, these properties appear reminiscent of the characteristic 'big blue bump' seen in the near-ultraviolet spectra of many active galactic nuclei (AGNs). However, emission-line diagnostics of the host galaxy, along with a historical light curve extending back to 2007, show no evidence for AGN-like activity. We therefore consider whether the tidal disruption of a star by an otherwise quiescent supermassive black hole may account for our observations. Though with limited temporal information, PTF10iya appears broadly consistent with the predictions for the early 'super-Eddington' phase of a solar-type star being disrupted by a ˜107 M⊙ black hole. Regardless of the precise physical origin of the accreting material, the large luminosity and short duration suggest that otherwise quiescent galaxies can transition extremely rapidly to radiate near the Eddington limit; many such outbursts may have been missed by previous surveys lacking sufficient cadence.

  12. Modeling the production of highly-complex molecules in star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrod, R. T.

    2016-05-01

    Molecules of increasing complexity are being observed toward star-forming regions, including the recently detected iso-propyl cyanide, the first interstellar branched carbon-chain molecule. Modeling the formation of new complex organics requires new grain-surface production mechanisms, as well as gas-phase and grain-surface destruction processes. The method for constructing networks for new molecules is discussed, as well as the results of recent models of branched carbon-chain molecule chemistry. The formation of both simple and complex organics in cold regions is also discussed. New, exact kinetics models indicate that complex molecules may be formed efficiently at very low temperatures, if CO is abundant on the grain surfaces.

  13. Analyzing Structure in Star Forming Region AFGL 490 Using Spitzer and Near-IR Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiunas, Lauren; Gutermuth, R.; Pipher, J.; Meyers, P.; Megeath, T.; Allen, L.

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of expanded Spitzer IRAC and MIPS imaging of the AFGL 490 star forming region and deep SQIID near-IR imaging of its central cluster. Using the combined 1-24 micron photometric catalog derived from these data, we have identified 56 class I and 283 class II young stellar objects (YSOs) forming in this region. We isolated several locally over-dense cluster cores from the spatial distribution of YSOs via analysis of the Minimal Spanning Tree of their positions (Gutermuth et al. 2009). The most populated group contains 215 YSOs (63% of the cluster's members) and has an area of 12 square parsecs. The intermediate mass YSO, AFGL 490, contained within this group, resides 0.73-0.98 parsecs away from the center of the group. We compare these statistics to similarly analyzed clusters (Gutermuth et al. 2009), and briefly explore the mass segregation implications of AFGL 490's position within its cluster.

  14. ON THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE MASS, METALLICITY, AND STAR FORMATION RATE SPACE FOR STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-Lopez, Maritza A.; Lopez-Sanchez, Angel R.; Hopkins, Andrew M.

    2013-02-20

    We demonstrate that the space formed by the star formation rate (SFR), gas-phase metallicity (Z), and stellar mass (M {sub *}) can be reduced to a plane, as first proposed by Lara-Lopez et al. We study three different approaches to find the best representation of this 3D space, using a principal component analysis (PCA), a regression fit, and binning of the data. The PCA shows that this 3D space can be adequately represented in only two dimensions, i.e., a plane. We find that the plane that minimizes the {chi}{sup 2} for all variables, and hence provides the best representation of the data, corresponds to a regression fit to the stellar mass as a function of SFR and Z, M {sub *}= f(Z, SFR). We find that the distribution resulting from the median values in bins for our data gives the highest {chi}{sup 2}. We also show that the empirical calibrations to the oxygen abundance used to derive the Fundamental Metallicity Relation have important limitations, which contribute to the apparent inconsistencies. The main problem is that these empirical calibrations do not consider the ionization degree of the gas. Furthermore, the use of the N2 index to estimate oxygen abundances cannot be applied for 12 + log(O/H) {approx}> 8.8 because of the saturation of the [N II] {lambda}6584 line in the high-metallicity regime. Finally, we provide an update of the Fundamental Plane derived by Lara-Lopez et al.

  15. Directed Panspermia. 3. strategies and Motivation for Seeding Star-Forming Clouds