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Sample records for actively growing bacteria

  1. Growing Unculturable Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The bacteria that can be grown in the laboratory are only a small fraction of the total diversity that exists in nature. At all levels of bacterial phylogeny, uncultured clades that do not grow on standard media are playing critical roles in cycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, synthesizing novel natural products, and impacting the surrounding organisms and environment. While molecular techniques, such as metagenomic sequencing, can provide some information independent of our ability to culture these organisms, it is essentially impossible to learn new gene and pathway functions from pure sequence data. A true understanding of the physiology of these bacteria and their roles in ecology, host health, and natural product production requires their cultivation in the laboratory. Recent advances in growing these species include coculture with other bacteria, recreating the environment in the laboratory, and combining these approaches with microcultivation technology to increase throughput and access rare species. These studies are unraveling the molecular mechanisms of unculturability and are identifying growth factors that promote the growth of previously unculturable organisms. This minireview summarizes the recent discoveries in this area and discusses the potential future of the field. PMID:22661685

  2. Evaluation of bactericidal activity of Hannon honey on slowly growing bacteria in the chemostat.

    PubMed

    Sufya, Najib; Matar, Noora; Kaddura, Rawanda; Zorgani, Abdulaziz

    2014-01-01

    There is renewed interest in the therapeutic use of honey, including use in the treatment of infected wounds and burn patients. In this study, we have assessed the antibacterial activity of Libyan floral Hannon honey on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, both known to infect wounds. The effects of four concentrations (5%-30%) of honey were compared with that of four antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline, polymyxin, and ciprofloxacin) on the growth of these bacteria at early log, mid log, and late log phases. It has been shown that E. coli and S. aureus are to some degree susceptible during mid log phase compared with late log phase, demonstrated by their complete resistance to antibiotics. Chemostat culture was used to investigate the effect of honey on E. coli grown at a steady state with specific growth rates between 0.1 to 0.5 hour(-1). The rate of killing was distinctively clear during the two stages of growth monitored: there was a relatively moderate reduction at the slow growth phase (0.1 to 0.3 hour(-1)), while a dramatic reduction was obtained at the fast growth phase (0.3 to 0.5 hour(-1)), reaching a complete reduction at 0.5 hour(-1). These results complement data using the cup-cut technique. The antibacterial effect of honey was concentration and time dependent, the bactericidal effect was indeed observed at low concentrations, it demonstrates that the honey has more impact on slow growing bacteria than antibiotics have. We suggest that more reduction could be achieved at higher concentrations of honey. These results may have important clinical implications, such as for the management of wound and burn patients. PMID:25342919

  3. Evaluation of bactericidal activity of Hannon honey on slowly growing bacteria in the chemostat

    PubMed Central

    Sufya, Najib; Matar, Noora; Kaddura, Rawanda; Zorgani, Abdulaziz

    2014-01-01

    There is renewed interest in the therapeutic use of honey, including use in the treatment of infected wounds and burn patients. In this study, we have assessed the antibacterial activity of Libyan floral Hannon honey on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, both known to infect wounds. The effects of four concentrations (5%–30%) of honey were compared with that of four antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline, polymyxin, and ciprofloxacin) on the growth of these bacteria at early log, mid log, and late log phases. It has been shown that E. coli and S. aureus are to some degree susceptible during mid log phase compared with late log phase, demonstrated by their complete resistance to antibiotics. Chemostat culture was used to investigate the effect of honey on E. coli grown at a steady state with specific growth rates between 0.1 to 0.5 hour−1. The rate of killing was distinctively clear during the two stages of growth monitored: there was a relatively moderate reduction at the slow growth phase (0.1 to 0.3 hour−1), while a dramatic reduction was obtained at the fast growth phase (0.3 to 0.5 hour−1), reaching a complete reduction at 0.5 hour−1. These results complement data using the cup-cut technique. The antibacterial effect of honey was concentration and time dependent, the bactericidal effect was indeed observed at low concentrations, it demonstrates that the honey has more impact on slow growing bacteria than antibiotics have. We suggest that more reduction could be achieved at higher concentrations of honey. These results may have important clinical implications, such as for the management of wound and burn patients. PMID:25342919

  4. [Special effects of a complex probiotic containing cellulolytic bacteria Cellulomonas on actively growing rabbits].

    PubMed

    Ushakova, N A; Laktionov, K S; Kozlova, A A; Ratnikova, I A; Gavrilova, N N

    2013-01-01

    It was shown that the association of probiotic bacteria of the genuses Bacillus and Cellulomonas form biolayers on the surface of beet marc particles. The positive effect of a fodder additive that contained the biolayer on the basis of a phytomatrix on the growth and development of young rabbits was shown. Feeding of animals with a mixed fodder that contained 0.1% preparation resulted in stimulation of digestion of all components of the food. Among other components of the mixed fodder, cellulose was digested most effectively. An increase in the biomass of symbiotic bacteria and enzymatic activity in the blindgut chymus was also observed. The positive nitrogen balance demonstrated an increase in the nitrogen content in animals and a decrease of its losses with excretion. The mechanism of response of the rabbit's organism to introduction of the complex probiotic preparation into the digestive tract is discussed.

  5. Community shifts of actively growing lake bacteria after N-acetyl-glucosamine addition: improving the BrdU-FACS method

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Yuya; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    In aquatic environments, community dynamics of bacteria, especially actively growing bacteria (AGB), are tightly linked with dissolved organic matter (DOM) quantity and quality. We analyzed the community dynamics of DNA-synthesizing and accordingly AGB by linking an improved bromodeoxyuridine immunocytochemistry approach with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (BrdU-FACS). FACS-sorted cells of even oligotrophic ecosystems in winter were characterized by 16S rRNA gene analysis. In incubation experiments, we examined community shifts of AGB in response to the addition of N-acetyl-glucosamine (NAG), one of the most abundant aminosugars in aquatic systems. Our improved BrdU-FACS analysis revealed that AGB winter communities of oligotrophic Lake Stechlin (northeastern Germany) substantially differ from those of total bacteria and consist of Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, Deltaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Candidatus OP10 and Chloroflexi. AGB populations with different BrdU-fluorescence intensities and cell sizes represented different phylotypes suggesting that single-cell growth potential varies at the taxon level. NAG incubation experiments demonstrated that a variety of widespread taxa related to Alpha-, Beta-, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Spirochaetes, Verrucomicrobia and Chloroflexi actively grow in the presence of NAG. The BrdU-FACS approach enables detailed phylogenetic studies of AGB and, thus, to identify those phylotypes which are potential key players in aquatic DOM cycling. PMID:23985742

  6. Generalized antifungal activity and 454-screening of Pseudonocardia and Amycolatopsis bacteria in nests of fungus-growing ants

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Ruchira; Ishak, Heather D.; Estrada, Dora; Dowd, Scot E.; Hong, Eunki; Mueller, Ulrich G.

    2009-01-01

    In many host-microbe mutualisms, hosts use beneficial metabolites supplied by microbial symbionts. Fungus-growing (attine) ants are thought to form such a mutualism with Pseudonocardia bacteria to derive antibiotics that specifically suppress the coevolving pathogen Escovopsis, which infects the ants' fungal gardens and reduces growth. Here we test 4 key assumptions of this Pseudonocardia-Escovopsis coevolution model. Culture-dependent and culture-independent (tag-encoded 454-pyrosequencing) surveys reveal that several Pseudonocardia species and occasionally Amycolatopsis (a close relative of Pseudonocardia) co-occur on workers from a single nest, contradicting the assumption of a single pseudonocardiaceous strain per nest. Pseudonocardia can occur on males, suggesting that Pseudonocardia could also be horizontally transmitted during mating. Pseudonocardia and Amycolatopsis secretions kill or strongly suppress ant-cultivated fungi, contradicting the previous finding of a growth-enhancing effect of Pseudonocardia on the cultivars. Attine ants therefore may harm their own cultivar if they apply pseudonocardiaceous secretions to actively growing gardens. Pseudonocardia and Amycolatopsis isolates also show nonspecific antifungal activities against saprotrophic, endophytic, entomopathogenic, and garden-pathogenic fungi, contrary to the original report of specific antibiosis against Escovopsis alone. We conclude that attine-associated pseudonocardiaceous bacteria do not exhibit derived antibiotic properties to specifically suppress Escovopsis. We evaluate hypotheses on nonadaptive and adaptive functions of attine integumental bacteria, and develop an alternate conceptual framework to replace the prevailing Pseudonocardia-Escovopsis coevolution model. If association with Pseudonocardia is adaptive to attine ants, alternate roles of such microbes could include the protection of ants or sanitation of the nest. PMID:19805175

  7. Lysine-Based Small Molecules That Disrupt Biofilms and Kill both Actively Growing Planktonic and Nondividing Stationary Phase Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Konai, Mohini M; Haldar, Jayanta

    2015-10-01

    The emergence of bacterial resistance is a major threat to global health. Alongside this issue, formation of bacterial biofilms is another cause of concern because most antibiotics are ineffective against these recalcitrant microbial communities. Ideal future antibacterial therapeutics should possess both antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities. In this study we engineered lysine-based small molecules, which showed not only commendable broad-spectrum antibacterial activity but also potent biofilm-disrupting properties. Synthesis of these lipophilic lysine-norspermidine conjugates was achieved in three simple reaction steps, and the resultant molecules displayed potent antibacterial activity against various Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) including drug-resistant superbugs MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus), VRE (vancomycin-resistant E. faecium), and β-lactam-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. An optimized compound in the series showed activity against planktonic bacteria in the concentration range of 3-10 μg/mL, and bactericidal activity against stationary phase S. aureus was observed within an hour. The compound also displayed about 120-fold selectivity toward both classes of bacteria (S. aureus and E. coli) over human erythrocytes. This rapidly bactericidal compound primarily acts on bacteria by causing significant membrane depolarization and K(+) leakage. Most importantly, the compound disrupted preformed biofilms of S. aureus and did not trigger bacterial resistance. Therefore, this class of compounds has high potential to be developed as future antibacterial drugs for treating infections caused by planktonic bacteria as well as bacterial biofilms. PMID:27623313

  8. Lysine-Based Small Molecules That Disrupt Biofilms and Kill both Actively Growing Planktonic and Nondividing Stationary Phase Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Konai, Mohini M; Haldar, Jayanta

    2015-10-01

    The emergence of bacterial resistance is a major threat to global health. Alongside this issue, formation of bacterial biofilms is another cause of concern because most antibiotics are ineffective against these recalcitrant microbial communities. Ideal future antibacterial therapeutics should possess both antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities. In this study we engineered lysine-based small molecules, which showed not only commendable broad-spectrum antibacterial activity but also potent biofilm-disrupting properties. Synthesis of these lipophilic lysine-norspermidine conjugates was achieved in three simple reaction steps, and the resultant molecules displayed potent antibacterial activity against various Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) including drug-resistant superbugs MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus), VRE (vancomycin-resistant E. faecium), and β-lactam-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. An optimized compound in the series showed activity against planktonic bacteria in the concentration range of 3-10 μg/mL, and bactericidal activity against stationary phase S. aureus was observed within an hour. The compound also displayed about 120-fold selectivity toward both classes of bacteria (S. aureus and E. coli) over human erythrocytes. This rapidly bactericidal compound primarily acts on bacteria by causing significant membrane depolarization and K(+) leakage. Most importantly, the compound disrupted preformed biofilms of S. aureus and did not trigger bacterial resistance. Therefore, this class of compounds has high potential to be developed as future antibacterial drugs for treating infections caused by planktonic bacteria as well as bacterial biofilms.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in biofilm-growing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Macià, M D; Rojo-Molinero, E; Oliver, A

    2014-10-01

    Biofilms are organized bacterial communities embedded in an extracellular polymeric matrix attached to living or abiotic surfaces. The development of biofilms is currently recognized as one of the most relevant drivers of persistent infections. Among them, chronic respiratory infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients is probably the most intensively studied. The lack of correlation between conventional susceptibility test results and therapeutic success in chronic infections is probably a consequence of the use of planktonically growing instead of biofilm-growing bacteria. Therefore, several in vitro models to evaluate antimicrobial activity on biofilms have been implemented over the last decade. Microtitre plate-based assays, the Calgary device, substratum suspending reactors and the flow cell system are some of the most used in vitro biofilm models for susceptibility studies. Likewise, new pharmacodynamic parameters, including minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration, minimal biofilm-eradication concentration, biofilm bactericidal concentration, and biofilm-prevention concentration, have been defined in recent years to quantify antibiotic activity in biofilms. Using these parameters, several studies have shown very significant quantitative and qualitative differences for the effects of most antibiotics when acting on planktonic or biofilm bacteria. Nevertheless, standardization of the procedures, parameters and breakpoints, by official agencies, is needed before they are implemented in clinical microbiology laboratories for routine susceptibility testing. Research efforts should also be directed to obtaining a deeper understanding of biofilm resistance mechanisms, the evaluation of optimal pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models for biofilm growth, and correlation with clinical outcome.

  10. GrowLab: Activities for Growing Minds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pranis, Eve; Cohen, Joy

    As students observe plant growth, the questions that naturally arise can provide opportunities for student exploration and discovery. This guide presents a collection of activities for students in grades K-8 that turn students' questions into life sciences learning experiences. The guide contains four chapters, each with background information and…

  11. [Physical activity among growing children].

    PubMed

    Tammelin, Tuija; Iljukov, Sergei; Parkkari, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Lack of physical activity poses a risk to the health and well-being of growing children, and should also be considered at a medical consultation. According to recommendations, those of 7 to 18 years of age should carry out at least one hour of physical activity daily. Of the Finnish school-aged children, 50% of the elementary school children but only 17% of the secondary school children follow the physical activity recommendations. Some children exercise and play sports in abundance, and in their case it should be especially made sure that the prevention and, when necessary, treatment of exercise-related injuries, overexertion and eating disorders are taken care of.

  12. What makes active regions grow.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weart, S.

    1972-01-01

    A study of magnetic flux growth or growth failure in over 100 active regions is shown to indicate that most growth is connected with the emergence of a large batch of flux in the shape of a new arch filament system (AFS). During the recent sunspot maximum, new AFSs appeared at a rate of nearly one per day over the entire sun. Evidence is presented for two proposed hypotheses, namely: (1) a twist in the flux tubes of new AFSs is a key factor in determining which new AFSs will grow; and (2) this twist is related to the well-known asymmetry of sunspot groups.

  13. Identification of effective Pb resistant bacteria isolated from Lens culinaris growing in lead contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Jebara, Salwa Harzalli; Abdelkerim, Souhir; Fatnassi, Imen Challougui; Chiboub, Manel; Saadani, Omar; Jebara, Moez

    2015-03-01

    Soil bacteria are a new phytoremediation system for the removal of heavy metals from soils. In this study, fifteen soil bacteria were isolated from root nodules of lentil growing in heavy metals contaminated soils, particularly by lead. Molecular characterization of the collection showed a large diversity, including Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Rahnella aquatilis, Pseudomonas, and Rhizobium sp. These soil bacteria had a wide range of tolerance to heavy metals. Among them, strains of A. tumefaciens and R. aquatilis tolerated up to 3.35 mM Pb; whereas Pseudomonas tolerated up to 3.24 mM Pb. The inoculation of lentil grown hydroponically with inoculums formed by these efficient and Pb resistant bacteria enhanced plant biomass. The treatment of this symbiosis by 1 mM Pb for 10 days or by 2 mM Pb for 3 days demonstrated that lentil had Pb accumulation capacity and can be considered a Pb accumulator plant, elsewhere, roots accumulated more Pb than shoots, and the inoculation decreased the Pb up take by the plants, suggesting that this symbiosis should be investigated for use in phytostabilization of Pb-contaminated soils. At the same time, a modulation in the antioxidant enzyme activity and a specific duration was required for the induction of the superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) response and to adapt to Pb stress. These results suggested that these enzymes may be involved in the main mechanism of antioxidative defense in lentil exposed to Pb oxidative stress.

  14. Effect of protozoan predation on relative abundance of fast- and slow-growing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, J.L.; Alexander, M.

    1989-01-01

    Survival of six bacterial species with different growth rates was tested in raw sewage and sewage rendered free of protozoa. When the six species were inoculated at the same densities into sewage containing protozoa, the three slow-growing species were rapidly eliminated, and two of the three fast-growing species survived in detectable numbers. It is suggested that in environments with intense protozoan predation, protozoa may alter composition of bacterial communities by eliminating slow-growing bacteria.

  15. Identification of effective Pb resistant bacteria isolated from Lens culinaris growing in lead contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Jebara, Salwa Harzalli; Abdelkerim, Souhir; Fatnassi, Imen Challougui; Chiboub, Manel; Saadani, Omar; Jebara, Moez

    2015-03-01

    Soil bacteria are a new phytoremediation system for the removal of heavy metals from soils. In this study, fifteen soil bacteria were isolated from root nodules of lentil growing in heavy metals contaminated soils, particularly by lead. Molecular characterization of the collection showed a large diversity, including Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Rahnella aquatilis, Pseudomonas, and Rhizobium sp. These soil bacteria had a wide range of tolerance to heavy metals. Among them, strains of A. tumefaciens and R. aquatilis tolerated up to 3.35 mM Pb; whereas Pseudomonas tolerated up to 3.24 mM Pb. The inoculation of lentil grown hydroponically with inoculums formed by these efficient and Pb resistant bacteria enhanced plant biomass. The treatment of this symbiosis by 1 mM Pb for 10 days or by 2 mM Pb for 3 days demonstrated that lentil had Pb accumulation capacity and can be considered a Pb accumulator plant, elsewhere, roots accumulated more Pb than shoots, and the inoculation decreased the Pb up take by the plants, suggesting that this symbiosis should be investigated for use in phytostabilization of Pb-contaminated soils. At the same time, a modulation in the antioxidant enzyme activity and a specific duration was required for the induction of the superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) response and to adapt to Pb stress. These results suggested that these enzymes may be involved in the main mechanism of antioxidative defense in lentil exposed to Pb oxidative stress. PMID:24740715

  16. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea grow under contrasting soil nitrogen conditions.

    PubMed

    Di, Hong J; Cameron, Keith C; Shen, Ju-Pei; Winefield, Chris S; O'Callaghan, Maureen; Bowatte, Saman; He, Ji-Zheng

    2010-06-01

    Nitrification is a key process of the nitrogen (N) cycle in soil with major environmental implications. The recent discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) questions the traditional assumption of the dominant role of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in nitrification. We investigated AOB and AOA growth and nitrification rate in two different layers of three grassland soils treated with animal urine substrate and a nitrification inhibitor [dicyandiamide (DCD)]. We show that AOB were more abundant in the topsoils than in the subsoils, whereas AOA were more abundant in one of the subsoils. AOB grew substantially when supplied with a high dose of urine substrate, whereas AOA only grew in the Controls without the urine-N substrate. AOB growth and the amoA gene transcription activity were significantly inhibited by DCD. Nitrification rates were much higher in the topsoils than in the subsoils and were significantly related to AOB abundance, but not to AOA abundance. These results suggest that AOB and AOA prefer different soil N conditions to grow: AOB under high ammonia (NH(3)) substrate and AOA under low NH(3) substrate conditions.

  17. Comparison of growth efficiencies of protozoa growing on bacteria deposited on surfaces and in suspension.

    PubMed

    Zubkov, M V; Sleigh, M A

    2000-01-01

    Bacteria were deposited in tubes as compact pellets by centrifuging suspensions of cultured Vibrio at stationary phase. Numbers and protein biomass of flagellates added to these tubes and of the Vibrio, were followed and compared with the growth of the same and other protists on identical, uncentrifuged Vibrio. The flagellates Bodo saliens and Caecitellus parvulus, which could not be seen to multiply in tubes of suspended bacteria, grazed deposited bacteria actively as did the more versatile flagellate Cafeteria roenbergensis. The growth of these flagellates and their consumption of deposited bacteria were very similar to those of the flagellate Pteridomonas danica or the ciliate Uronema marinum fed with suspended bacteria, although deposit-feeders grew more slowly. Gross growth efficiencies (30-60%) of deposit-feeding flagellates were similar to those of the suspension-feeding protists. Caecitellus consumed 55 Vibrio to produce one flagellate, while 4,500 Vibrio were consumed to produce one Uronema. Surface-feeding flagellates are shown to be efficient bacterivores, capable of restricting the numbers of bacteria deposited on surfaces just as other protozoa control numbers of suspended bacteria.

  18. Specificity in the symbiotic association between fungus-growing ants and protective Pseudonocardia bacteria.

    PubMed

    Cafaro, Matías J; Poulsen, Michael; Little, Ainslie E F; Price, Shauna L; Gerardo, Nicole M; Wong, Bess; Stuart, Alison E; Larget, Bret; Abbot, Patrick; Currie, Cameron R

    2011-06-22

    Fungus-growing ants (tribe Attini) engage in a mutualism with a fungus that serves as the ants' primary food source, but successful fungus cultivation is threatened by microfungal parasites (genus Escovopsis). Actinobacteria (genus Pseudonocardia) associate with most of the phylogenetic diversity of fungus-growing ants; are typically maintained on the cuticle of workers; and infection experiments, bioassay challenges and chemical analyses support a role of Pseudonocardia in defence against Escovopsis through antibiotic production. Here we generate a two-gene phylogeny for Pseudonocardia associated with 124 fungus-growing ant colonies, evaluate patterns of ant-Pseudonocardia specificity and test Pseudonocardia antibiotic activity towards Escovopsis. We show that Pseudonocardia associated with fungus-growing ants are not monophyletic: the ants have acquired free-living strains over the evolutionary history of the association. Nevertheless, our analysis reveals a significant pattern of specificity between clades of Pseudonocardia and groups of related fungus-growing ants. Furthermore, antibiotic assays suggest that despite Escovopsis being generally susceptible to inhibition by diverse Actinobacteria, the ant-derived Pseudonocardia inhibit Escovopsis more strongly than they inhibit other fungi, and are better at inhibiting this pathogen than most environmental Pseudonocardia strains tested. Our findings support a model that many fungus-growing ants maintain specialized Pseudonocardia symbionts that help with garden defence.

  19. Antibacterial activity of aquatic gliding bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sangnoi, Yutthapong; Anantapong, Theerasak; Kanjana-Opas, Akkharawit

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to screen and isolate strains of freshwater aquatic gliding bacteria, and to investigate their antibacterial activity against seven common pathogenic bacteria. Submerged specimens were collected and isolated for aquatic gliding bacteria using four different isolation media (DW, MA, SAP2, and Vy/2). Gliding bacteria identification was performed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Crude extracts were obtained by methanol extraction. Antibacterial activity against seven pathogenic bacteria was examined by agar-well diffusion assay. Five strains of aquatic gliding bacteria including RPD001, RPD008, RPD018, RPD027 and RPD049 were isolated. Each submerged biofilm and plastic specimen provided two isolates of gliding bacteria, whereas plant debris gave only one isolate. Two strains of gliding bacteria were obtained from each DW and Vy/2 isolation medium, while one strain was obtained from the SAP2 medium. Gliding bacteria strains RPD001, RPD008 and RPD018 were identified as Flavobacterium anhuiense with 96, 82 and 96 % similarity, respectively. Strains RPD049 and RPD027 were identified as F. johnsoniae and Lysobacter brunescens, respectively, with similarity equal to 96 %. Only crude extract obtained from RPD001 inhibited growth of Listeria monocytogenes (MIC 150 µg/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 75 µg/ml) and Vibrio cholerae (MIC 300 µg/ml), but showed weak inhibitory effect on Salmonella typhimurium (MIC > 300 µg/ml). Gliding bacterium strain RPD008 should be considered to a novel genus separate from Flavobacterium due to its low similarity value. Crude extract produced by RPD001 showed potential for development as a broad antibiotic agent. PMID:26885469

  20. Molecular detection and isolation from antarctica of methylotrophic bacteria able to grow with methylated sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Moosvi, S Azra; McDonald, Ian R; Pearce, David A; Kelly, Donovan P; Wood, Ann P

    2005-08-01

    This study is the first demonstration that a diverse facultatively methylotrophic microbiota exists in some Antarctic locations. PCR amplification of genes diagnostic for methylotrophs was carried out with bacterial DNA isolated from 14 soil and sediment samples from ten locations on Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, Antarctica. Genes encoding the mxaF of methanol dehydrogenase, the fdxA for Afipia ferredoxin, the msmA of methanesulfonate monooxygenase, and the 16S rRNA gene of Methylobacterium were detected in all samples tested. The mxaF gene sequences corresponded to those of Hyphomicrobium, Methylobacterium, and Methylomonas. Over 30 pure cultures of methylotrophs were isolated on methanesulfonate, dimethylsulfone, or dimethylsulfide from ten Signy Island lakes. Some were identified from 16S rRNA gene sequences (and morphology) as Hyphomicrobium species, strains of Afipia felis, and a methylotrophic Flavobacterium strain. Antarctic environments thus contain diverse methylotrophic bacteria, growing on various C1-substrates, including C1-sulfur compounds. PMID:16104352

  1. Flavones with antibacterial activity against cariogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Fujiwara, S; Tsuchiya, H; Fujii, T; Iinuma, M; Tosa, H; Ohkawa, Y

    1996-11-01

    Methanolic extracts obtained from 13 plants were studied for their antibacterial activity against cariogenic bacteria. Among them, the extract from Artocarpus heterophyllus showed the most intensive activity. Serial chromatographic purifications offered two active compounds which were identified as 6-(3-methyl-1-butenyl)-5,2',4'-trihydroxy-3-isoprenyl-7-methoxy flavone and 5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxy-6-isoprenylflavone. Both isolates completely inhibited the growth of primary cariogenic bacteria at 3.13-12.5 micrograms/ml. They also exhibited the growth inhibitory effects on plaque-forming streptococci. These phytochemical isoprenylflavones would be potent compounds for the prevention of dental caries.

  2. Impact of mulches and growing season on indicator bacteria survival during lettuce cultivation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Aixia; Buchanan, Robert L; Micallef, Shirley A

    2016-05-01

    In fresh produce production, the use of mulches as ground cover to retain moisture and control weeds is a common agricultural practice, but the influence that various mulches have on enteric pathogen survival and dispersal is unknown. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of different mulching methods on the survival of soil and epiphytic fecal indicator bacteria on organically grown lettuce during different growing seasons. Organically managed lettuce, cultivated with various ground covers--polyethylene plastic, corn-based biodegradable plastic, paper and straw mulch--and bare ground as a no-mulch control, was overhead inoculated with manure-contaminated water containing known levels of generic Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. Leaves and soil samples were collected at intervals over a two week period on days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14, and quantitatively assessed for E. coli, fecal coliforms and Enterococcus spp. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures and an exponential decline with asymptote survival model. Indicator bacterial concentrations in the lettuce phyllosphere decreased over time under all treatments, with more rapid E. coli declines in the fall than in the spring (p<0.01). Persistence of E. coli in spring was correlated with higher maximum and minimum temperatures in this season, and more regular rainfall. The survival model gave very good fits for the progression of E. coli concentrations in the phyllosphere over time (R(2)=0.88 ± 0.12). In the spring season, decline rates of E. coli counts were faster (2013 p=0.18; 2014 p<0.005) for the bare ground-cultivated lettuce compared to mulches. In fall 2014, the E. coli decline rate on paper mulch-grown lettuce was higher (p<0.005). Bacteria fluctuated more, and persisted longer, in soil compared to lettuce phyllosphere, and mulch type was a factor for fecal coliform levels (p<0.05), with higher counts retrieved under plastic mulches in all trials, and higher enterococci

  3. Impact of mulches and growing season on indicator bacteria survival during lettuce cultivation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Aixia; Buchanan, Robert L; Micallef, Shirley A

    2016-05-01

    In fresh produce production, the use of mulches as ground cover to retain moisture and control weeds is a common agricultural practice, but the influence that various mulches have on enteric pathogen survival and dispersal is unknown. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of different mulching methods on the survival of soil and epiphytic fecal indicator bacteria on organically grown lettuce during different growing seasons. Organically managed lettuce, cultivated with various ground covers--polyethylene plastic, corn-based biodegradable plastic, paper and straw mulch--and bare ground as a no-mulch control, was overhead inoculated with manure-contaminated water containing known levels of generic Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. Leaves and soil samples were collected at intervals over a two week period on days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14, and quantitatively assessed for E. coli, fecal coliforms and Enterococcus spp. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures and an exponential decline with asymptote survival model. Indicator bacterial concentrations in the lettuce phyllosphere decreased over time under all treatments, with more rapid E. coli declines in the fall than in the spring (p<0.01). Persistence of E. coli in spring was correlated with higher maximum and minimum temperatures in this season, and more regular rainfall. The survival model gave very good fits for the progression of E. coli concentrations in the phyllosphere over time (R(2)=0.88 ± 0.12). In the spring season, decline rates of E. coli counts were faster (2013 p=0.18; 2014 p<0.005) for the bare ground-cultivated lettuce compared to mulches. In fall 2014, the E. coli decline rate on paper mulch-grown lettuce was higher (p<0.005). Bacteria fluctuated more, and persisted longer, in soil compared to lettuce phyllosphere, and mulch type was a factor for fecal coliform levels (p<0.05), with higher counts retrieved under plastic mulches in all trials, and higher enterococci

  4. How fast-growing bacteria robustly tune their ribosome concentration to approximate growth-rate maximization.

    PubMed

    Bosdriesz, Evert; Molenaar, Douwe; Teusink, Bas; Bruggeman, Frank J

    2015-05-01

    Maximization of growth rate is an important fitness strategy for bacteria. Bacteria can achieve this by expressing proteins at optimal concentrations, such that resources are not wasted. This is exemplified for Escherichia coli by the increase of its ribosomal protein-fraction with growth rate, which precisely matches the increased protein synthesis demand. These findings and others have led to the hypothesis that E. coli aims to maximize its growth rate in environments that support growth. However, what kind of regulatory strategy is required for a robust, optimal adjustment of the ribosome concentration to the prevailing condition is still an open question. In the present study, we analyze the ppGpp-controlled mechanism of ribosome expression used by E. coli and show that this mechanism maintains the ribosomes saturated with its substrates. In this manner, overexpression of the highly abundant ribosomal proteins is prevented, and limited resources can be redirected to the synthesis of other growth-promoting enzymes. It turns out that the kinetic conditions for robust, optimal protein-partitioning, which are required for growth rate maximization across conditions, can be achieved with basic biochemical interactions. We show that inactive ribosomes are the most suitable 'signal' for tracking the intracellular nutritional state and for adjusting gene expression accordingly, as small deviations from optimal ribosome concentration cause a huge fractional change in ribosome inactivity. We expect to find this control logic implemented across fast-growing microbial species because growth rate maximization is a common selective pressure, ribosomes are typically highly abundant and thus costly, and the required control can be implemented by a small, simple network.

  5. Leaching of marine manganese nodules by acidophilic bacteria growing on elemental sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Yasuhiro; Asai, Satoru; Sawada, Yuichi

    1997-02-01

    This article describes the bioleaching of manganese nodules by thermophilic and mesophilic sulfuroxidizing bacteria, in which oxidized sulfur compounds are biologically produced from elemental sulfur added to liquid medium and are simultaneously used to leach nodules. The thermophile Acidianus brierleyi solubilized the manganese nodules faster at 65 °C than did the mesophiles Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans at 30 °C. Leaching experiments with A. brierleyi growing on elemental sulfur were used to optimize various process parameters, such as medium pH, initial sulfur-liquid loading ratio, and initial cell concentration. The observed dependencies of the leaching rates at a pH optimum on the initial amounts of elemental sulfur and A. brierleyi cells were qualitatively consistent with model simulations for microbial sulfur oxidation. Under the conditions determined as optimum, the leaching of nodule particles (-330+500 mesh) by A. brierleyi yielded 100 pct extraction of both copper and zinc within 4 days and high extractions of nickel (85 pct), cobalt (70 pct), and manganese (55 pct) for 10 days. However, the iron leaching was practically negligible.

  6. Isolation and characterization of novel iron-oxidizing bacteria that grow at circumneutral pH.

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, D; Moyer, C

    1997-01-01

    A gel-stabilized gradient method that employed opposing gradients of Fe2+ and O2 was used to isolate and characterize two new Fe-oxidizing bacteria from a neutral pH, Fe(2+)-containing groundwater in Michigan. Two separate enrichment cultures were obtained, and in each the cells grew in a distinct, rust-colored band in the gel at the oxic-anoxic interface. The cells were tightly associated with the ferric hydroxides. Repeated serial dilutions of both enrichments resulted in the isolation of two axenic strains, ES-1 and ES-2. The cultures were judged pure based on (i) growth from single colonies in tubes at dilutions of 10(-7) (ES-2) (ES-2) and 10(-8) (ES-1); (ii) uniform cell morphologies, i.e., ES-1 was a motile long thin, bent, or S-shaped rod and ES-2 was a shorter curved rod; and (iii) no growth on a heterotrophic medium. Strain ES-1 grew to a density of 10(8) cells/ml on FeS with a doubling time of 8 h. Strain ES-2 grew to a density of 5 x 10(7) cells/ml with a doubling time of 12.5 h. Both strains also grew on FeCO3. Neither strain grew without Fe2+, nor did they grow with glucose, pyruvate, acetate, Mn, or H2S as an electron donor. Studies with an oxygen microelectrode revealed that both strains grew at the oxic-anoxic interface of the gradients and tracked the O2 minima when subjected to higher O2 concentrations, suggesting they are microaerobes. Phylogenetically the two strains formed a novel lineage within the gamma Proteobacteria. They were very closely related to each other and were equally closely related to PVB OTU 1, a phylotype obtained from an iron-rich hydrothermal vent system at the Loihi Seamount in the Pacific Ocean, and SPB OTU 1, a phylotype obtained from permafrost soil in Siberia. Their closest cultivated relative was Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. In total, this evidence suggests ES-1 and ES-2 are members of a previously untapped group of putatively lithotrophic, unicellular iron-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:9406396

  7. Growing Together with the Treetures. Activity Guide. Series 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnell, Bobbi; Blau, Judith H.; Hinrichs, Jennifer Judd

    This activity guide is designed to be used with the Growing Together program. Tree-related activities are correlated to the Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy, the recommended standards for mathematics, science, and technology suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The Treature Educational Program is dedicated…

  8. Silver nanoparticle studded porous polyethylene scaffolds: bacteria struggle to grow on them while mammalian cells thrive.

    PubMed

    D'Britto, Virginia; Kapse, Harsha; Babrekar, Harshada; Prabhune, A A; Bhoraskar, S V; Premnath, V; Prasad, B L V

    2011-07-01

    Silver nanoparticle studded scaffolds were prepared by exploiting the Ag(+) ion reducing activity of sophorolipids--a class of 'glycolipids' that cap the ensuing nanoparticles as well. To achieve this, the porous polyethylene scaffolds are subjected to N(2) + H(2) plasma treatment, in the first step. Subsequently the sophorolipids are covalently attached to the amine groups on the polymer surface through simple amide chemistry to yield sophorolipid grafted polymer scaffolds. These are then exposed to Ag(+) ions under appropriate conditions leading to the formation of silver nanoparticles immobilized on the polymer scaffolds. It has been found that while bacteria do not survive on these silver studded scaffolds, CHO-K1 cells thrive on them making them good candidates for tissue engineering and bio-implant applications. PMID:21643585

  9. Silver nanoparticle studded porous polyethylene scaffolds: bacteria struggle to grow on them while mammalian cells thrive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Britto, Virginia; Kapse, Harsha; Babrekar, Harshada; Prabhune, A. A.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Premnath, V.; Prasad, B. L. V.

    2011-07-01

    Silver nanoparticle studded scaffolds were prepared by exploiting the Ag+ ion reducing activity of sophorolipids--a class of `glycolipids' that cap the ensuing nanoparticles as well. To achieve this, the porous polyethylene scaffolds are subjected to N2 + H2 plasma treatment, in the first step. Subsequently the sophorolipids are covalently attached to the amine groups on the polymer surface through simple amide chemistry to yield sophorolipid grafted polymer scaffolds. These are then exposed to Ag+ ions under appropriate conditions leading to the formation of silver nanoparticles immobilized on the polymer scaffolds. It has been found that while bacteria do not survive on these silver studded scaffolds, CHO-K1 cells thrive on them making them good candidates for tissue engineering and bio-implant applications.Silver nanoparticle studded scaffolds were prepared by exploiting the Ag+ ion reducing activity of sophorolipids--a class of `glycolipids' that cap the ensuing nanoparticles as well. To achieve this, the porous polyethylene scaffolds are subjected to N2 + H2 plasma treatment, in the first step. Subsequently the sophorolipids are covalently attached to the amine groups on the polymer surface through simple amide chemistry to yield sophorolipid grafted polymer scaffolds. These are then exposed to Ag+ ions under appropriate conditions leading to the formation of silver nanoparticles immobilized on the polymer scaffolds. It has been found that while bacteria do not survive on these silver studded scaffolds, CHO-K1 cells thrive on them making them good candidates for tissue engineering and bio-implant applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10152d

  10. Growing with EASE: Eating, Activity, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huettig, Carol; Rich, Shannon; Engelbrecht, Jo Ann; Sanborn, Charlotte; Essery, Eve; DiMarco, Nancy; Velez, Luisa; Levy, Luba

    2006-01-01

    A diverse group of professionals associated with Texas Woman's University's Institute for Women's Health, working collaboratively with school administrators, teachers, family support teams, and family members, developed Growing with EASE: Eating, Activity, and Self-Esteem, a nutrition program for young children and their families. In tracking the…

  11. In vitro susceptibility tests for cationic peptides: comparison of broth microdilution methods for bacteria that grow aerobically.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, A; Cirioni, O; Barchiesi, F; Del Prete, M S; Fortuna, M; Caselli, F; Scalise, G

    2000-06-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 90 clinical isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic bacteria to six cationic peptides, buforin II, cecropin P1, indolicidin, magainin II, nisin, and ranalexin, were evaluated by two broth microdilution methods. The first method was performed according to the procedures outlined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards for bacteria that grow aerobically, while the second was performed according to the procedures recently proposed by the R. E. W. Hancock laboratory for testing antimicrobial peptides. Overall, the first method produced MICs two- and fourfold higher than the second method. PMID:10817731

  12. [Biodiversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria growing on objects of heating systems].

    PubMed

    Purish, L M; Asaulenko, L G; Abdulina, D R; Iutinskaia, G A

    2014-01-01

    It was shown that sulfate-reducing bacteria developed on the sections of Kyiv municipal heating systems, which are exploited in conditions of different temperatures. The bacteria were different as to their morphological and physiological properties. The bacteria of Desulfovibrio genus were revealed on the sections, which were exploited at a temperature of 35-40 degrees C and bacteria of Desulfomicrobium and Desulfotomaculum genera were revealed on the sections with a higher temperature such as 60 degrees C. Based on of the 16S rRNA gene analysis data, it was demonstrated that sequences of TC2, TC3 and TC4 clones related to Desulfovibrio sp. DSM 12803 (100% sequence similarity), Desulfotomaculum sp. ECP-C-5 (92% sequence similarity) and Desulfomicrobium baculatum strain DSM 2555 (99% sequence similarity), respectively. The identified bacteria are potentially dangerous for heating systems and can be the agents of microbial corrosion.

  13. Rotating bacteria aggregate into active crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroff, Alexander; Wu, Xiao-Lun; Libchaber, Albert

    2014-11-01

    The dynamics of many microbial ecosystems are determined not only by the response of individual bacteria to their chemical and physical environments but also the dynamics that emerge from interactions between cells. Here we investigate the collective dynamics displayed by communities of Thiovulum majus, one of the fastest known bacteria. We observe that when these bacteria swim close to a microscope cover slip, the cells spontaneously aggregate into a visually-striking two-dimensional hexagonal lattice of rotating cells. Each cell in an aggregate rotates its flagella, exerting a force that pushes the cell into the cover slip and a torque that causes the cell to rotate. As cells rotate against their neighbors, they exert forces and torques on the aggregate that cause the crystal to move and cells to hop to new positions in the lattice. We show how these dynamics arises from hydrodynamic and surface forces between cells. We derive the equations of motion for an aggregate, show that this model reproduces many aspects of the observed dynamics, and discuss the stability of these and similar active crystals. Finally, we discuss the ecological significance of this behavior to understand how the ability to aggregate into these communities may have evolved.

  14. Rotating Bacteria Aggregate into Active Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroff, A. P.; Wu, X. L.; Libchaber, A.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of many microbial ecosystems are determined not only by the response of individual bacteria to their chemical and physical environments but also the dynamics that emerge from interactions between cells. Here we investigate collective dynamics displayed by communities of Thiovulum majus, one of the fastest known bacteria. We observe that when these bacteria swim close to a microscope cover slip, the cells spontaneously aggregate into a visually-striking, two-dimensional hexagonal lattice of rotating cells. Each cell in an aggregate rotates its flagella, exerting a force that pushes the cell into the cover slip and a torque that causes the cell to rotate. As cells rotate against their neighbors, they exert forces and torques on the aggregate that cause the crystal to move and cells to hop to new positions in the lattice. We show how these dynamics arise from hydrodynamic and surface forces between cells. We derive the equations of motion for an aggregate, show that this model reproduces many aspects of the observed dynamics, and discuss the stability of these and similar active crystals. Finally, we discuss the ecological significance of this behavior to understand how the ability to aggregate into these communities may have evolved.

  15. Miniaturized extinction culturing is the preferred strategy for rapid isolation of fast‐growing methane‐oxidizing bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hoefman, Sven; van der Ha, David; De Vos, Paul; Boon, Nico; Heylen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Summary Methane‐oxidizing bacteria (MOB) have a large potential as a microbial sink for the greenhouse gas methane as well as for biotechnological purposes. However, their application in biotechnology has so far been hampered, in part due to the relative slow growth rate of the available strains. To enable the availability of novel strains, this study compares the isolation of MOB by conventional dilution plating with miniaturized extinction culturing, both performed after an initial enrichment step. The extinction approach rendered 22 MOB isolates from four environmental samples, while no MOB could be isolated by plating. In most cases, extinction culturing immediately yielded MOB monocultures making laborious purification redundant. Both type I (Methylomonas spp.) and type II (Methylosinus sp.) MOB were isolated. The isolated methanotrophic diversity represented at least 11 different strains and several novel species based on 16S rRNA gene sequence dissimilarity. These strains possessed the particulate (100%) and soluble (64%) methane monooxygenase gene. Also, 73% of the strains could be linked to a highly active fast‐growing mixed MOB community. In conclusion, miniaturized extinction culturing was more efficient in rapidly isolating numerous MOB requiring little effort and fewer materials, compared with the more widely applied plating procedure. This miniaturized approach allowed straightforward isolation and could be very useful for subsequent screening of desired characteristics, in view of their future biotechnological potential. PMID:22070783

  16. A Reference Broth Microdilution Method for Dalbavancin In Vitro Susceptibility Testing of Bacteria that Grow Aerobically.

    PubMed

    Koeth, Laura M; DiFranco-Fisher, Jeanna M; McCurdy, Sandra

    2015-09-09

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is performed to assess the in vitro activity of antimicrobial agents against various bacteria. The AST results, which are expressed as minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) are used in research for antimicrobial development and monitoring of resistance development and in the clinical setting for antimicrobial therapy guidance. Dalbavancin is a semi-synthetic lipoglycopeptide antimicrobial agent that was approved in May 2014 by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections caused by Gram-positive organisms. The advantage of dalbavancin over current anti-staphylococcal therapies is its long half-life, which allows for once-weekly dosing. Dalbavancin has activity against Staphylococcus aureus (including both methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA] and methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA]), coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus anginosus group, β-hemolytic streptococci and vancomycin susceptible enterococci. Similar to other recent lipoglycopeptide agents, optimization of CLSI and ISO broth susceptibility test methods includes the use of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent when preparing stock solutions and polysorbate 80 (P80) to alleviate adherence of the agent to plastic. Prior to the clinical studies and during the initial development of dalbavancin, susceptibility studies were not performed with the use of P-80 and MIC results tended to be 2-4 fold higher and similarly higher MIC results were obtained with the agar dilution susceptibility method. Dalbavancin was first included in CLSI broth microdilution methodology tables in 2005 and amended in 2006 to clarify use of DMSO and P-80. The broth microdilution (BMD) procedure shown here is specific to dalbavancin and is in accordance with the CLSI and ISO methods, with step-by-step detail and focus on the critical steps added for clarity.

  17. A Reference Broth Microdilution Method for Dalbavancin In Vitro Susceptibility Testing of Bacteria that Grow Aerobically.

    PubMed

    Koeth, Laura M; DiFranco-Fisher, Jeanna M; McCurdy, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is performed to assess the in vitro activity of antimicrobial agents against various bacteria. The AST results, which are expressed as minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) are used in research for antimicrobial development and monitoring of resistance development and in the clinical setting for antimicrobial therapy guidance. Dalbavancin is a semi-synthetic lipoglycopeptide antimicrobial agent that was approved in May 2014 by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections caused by Gram-positive organisms. The advantage of dalbavancin over current anti-staphylococcal therapies is its long half-life, which allows for once-weekly dosing. Dalbavancin has activity against Staphylococcus aureus (including both methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA] and methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA]), coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus anginosus group, β-hemolytic streptococci and vancomycin susceptible enterococci. Similar to other recent lipoglycopeptide agents, optimization of CLSI and ISO broth susceptibility test methods includes the use of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent when preparing stock solutions and polysorbate 80 (P80) to alleviate adherence of the agent to plastic. Prior to the clinical studies and during the initial development of dalbavancin, susceptibility studies were not performed with the use of P-80 and MIC results tended to be 2-4 fold higher and similarly higher MIC results were obtained with the agar dilution susceptibility method. Dalbavancin was first included in CLSI broth microdilution methodology tables in 2005 and amended in 2006 to clarify use of DMSO and P-80. The broth microdilution (BMD) procedure shown here is specific to dalbavancin and is in accordance with the CLSI and ISO methods, with step-by-step detail and focus on the critical steps added for clarity. PMID:26381422

  18. Isolation of bacteria from remote high altitude Andean lakes able to grow in the presence of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Dib, Julián R; Weiss, Annika; Neumann, Anna; Ordoñez, Omar; Estévez, María C; Farías, Maria E

    2009-01-01

    High altitude Andean lakes are placed in Puna desert over 4400 above sea level. Completely isolated, they are exposed to extreme environmental factors like high levels of salinity, UV radiation and heavy metals and low concentrations of phosphorus. Nevertheless, they are the habitat of enormous populations of three flamingo species that migrate among these Lakes. Previous reports have determined that bacteria isolated from these environments present high levels of resistance to antibiotics. The aim of this work was to determine the diversity of antibiotic resistant bacteria in water from Andean Lakes and their connection with flamingo enteric biota. Bacteria from water and birds faeces from high altitude Lakes: Laguna (L.) Aparejos, L. Negra, L. Vilama and L. Azul (all are located between 4,200 and 4,600 m altitude) were isolated by plating in five different Antibiotics (ampicillin, 100 microg ml(-1); chloramphenicol, 170 microg ml(-1); colistin , 20 microg ml(-1); erythromycin, 50 microg ml(-1) and tetracycline 50 microg ml(-1)). 56 bacteria were isolated and identified by 16 S rDNA sequencing. Antibiotic resistance profiles of isolated bacteria were determined for 22 different antibiotics. All identified bacteria were able to growth in multiple ATBs. Colistin, ceftazidime, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefotaxime, cefepime, cefalotin, ampicillin and erythromycin were the most distributed resistances among the 56 tested bacteria. The current results demonstrated that antibiotic resistance was abundant and diverse in high altitude Lakes. Also the present article indicates some useful patents regarding the isolation of bacteria able to grow in the present of antibiotics. PMID:19149698

  19. Antifungal activities of selected aromatic plants growing wild in Greece.

    PubMed

    Soković, M; Tzakou, O; Pitarokili, D; Couladis, M

    2002-10-01

    Essential oils of Origanum onites, Satureja thymbra, Salvia fruticosa (Greek sage), and Salvia pomifera subsp. calycina plants growing wild in Greece and their components carvacrol, camphor, and 1,8-cineole, were assayed for antifungal activity against 13 fungal species. Among the fungi tested were food poisoning, plant, animals and human pathogenic species. The oils presented various degrees of inhibition against all the fungi investigated. The highest and broadest activity was shown by the carvacrol content oils (O. onites and S. thymbra), while the oil of sage was the least effective. Carvacrol exhibited the highest and 1,8-cineole the lowest level of antifungal activity among the components tested. PMID:12428445

  20. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Hungarian wild-growing mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Ványolós, Attila; Orbán-Gyapai, Orsolya; Hohmann, Judit

    2014-08-01

    Mushrooms represent a remarkable and yet largely unexplored source of new, biologically active natural products. In this work, we report on the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity of 47 wild-growing mushrooms native to Hungary. Aqueous and organic (n-hexane, chloroform, and 50% methanol) extracts of selected mushrooms from different families were screened for their XO inhibitory activities. Among the 188 extracts investigated, the chloroform and 50% methanol fractions proved to be the most effective. Some species exhibited high inhibitory activity, e.g., Hypholoma fasciculare (IC50  =67.76 ± 11.05 µg/mL), Suillus grevillei (IC50  =13.28 ± 1.58 µg/mL), and Tricholoma populinum (IC50  =85.08 ± 15.02 µg/mL); others demonstrated moderate or weak activity. Additional studies are warranted to characterize the compounds responsible for the XO inhibitory activity of mushroom extracts.

  1. Target activation by regulatory RNAs in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Papenfort, Kai; Vanderpool, Carin K.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are commonly known to repress gene expression by base pairing to target mRNAs. In many cases, sRNAs base pair with and sequester mRNA ribosome-binding sites, resulting in translational repression and accelerated transcript decay. In contrast, a growing number of examples of translational activation and mRNA stabilization by sRNAs have now been documented. A given sRNA often employs a conserved region to interact with and regulate both repressed and activated targets. However, the mechanisms underlying activation differ substantially from repression. Base pairing resulting in target activation can involve sRNA interactions with the 5′ untranslated region (UTR), the coding sequence or the 3′ UTR of the target mRNAs. Frequently, the activities of protein factors such as cellular ribonucleases and the RNA chaperone Hfq are required for activation. Bacterial sRNAs, including those that function as activators, frequently control stress response pathways or virulence-associated functions required for immediate responses to changing environments. This review aims to summarize recent advances in knowledge regarding target mRNA activation by bacterial sRNAs, highlighting the molecular mechanisms and biological relevance of regulation. PMID:25934124

  2. Anaerobic bacteria grow within Candida albicans biofilms and induce biofilm formation in suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Fox, Emily P; Cowley, Elise S; Nobile, Clarissa J; Hartooni, Nairi; Newman, Dianne K; Johnson, Alexander D

    2014-10-20

    The human microbiome contains diverse microorganisms, which share and compete for the same environmental niches. A major microbial growth form in the human body is the biofilm state, where tightly packed bacterial, archaeal, and fungal cells must cooperate and/or compete for resources in order to survive. We examined mixed biofilms composed of the major fungal species of the gut microbiome, Candida albicans, and each of five prevalent bacterial gastrointestinal inhabitants: Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis. We observed that biofilms formed by C. albicans provide a hypoxic microenvironment that supports the growth of two anaerobic bacteria, even when cultured in ambient oxic conditions that are normally toxic to the bacteria. We also found that coculture with bacteria in biofilms induces massive gene expression changes in C. albicans, including upregulation of WOR1, which encodes a transcription regulator that controls a phenotypic switch in C. albicans, from the "white" cell type to the "opaque" cell type. Finally, we observed that in suspension cultures, C. perfringens induces aggregation of C. albicans into "mini-biofilms," which allow C. perfringens cells to survive in a normally toxic environment. This work indicates that bacteria and C. albicans interactions modulate the local chemistry of their environment in multiple ways to create niches favorable to their growth and survival.

  3. Antibacterial activity of silver-killed bacteria: the "zombies" effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakshlak, Racheli Ben-Knaz; Pedahzur, Rami; Avnir, David

    2015-04-01

    We report a previously unrecognized mechanism for the prolonged action of biocidal agents, which we denote as the zombies effect: biocidally-killed bacteria are capable of killing living bacteria. The concept is demonstrated by first killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 with silver nitrate and then challenging, with the dead bacteria, a viable culture of the same bacterium: Efficient antibacterial activity of the killed bacteria is observed. A mechanism is suggested in terms of the action of the dead bacteria as a reservoir of silver, which, due to Le-Chatelier's principle, is re-targeted to the living bacteria. Langmuirian behavior, as well as deviations from it, support the proposed mechanism.

  4. Antibacterial activity of silver-killed bacteria: the "zombies" effect.

    PubMed

    Wakshlak, Racheli Ben-Knaz; Pedahzur, Rami; Avnir, David

    2015-04-23

    We report a previously unrecognized mechanism for the prolonged action of biocidal agents, which we denote as the zombies effect: biocidally-killed bacteria are capable of killing living bacteria. The concept is demonstrated by first killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 with silver nitrate and then challenging, with the dead bacteria, a viable culture of the same bacterium: Efficient antibacterial activity of the killed bacteria is observed. A mechanism is suggested in terms of the action of the dead bacteria as a reservoir of silver, which, due to Le-Chatelier's principle, is re-targeted to the living bacteria. Langmuirian behavior, as well as deviations from it, support the proposed mechanism.

  5. Antiurease activity of plants growing in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hřibová, Petra; Khazneh, Elian; Žemlička, Milan; Švajdlenka, Emil; Ghoneim, Mohammed M; Elokely, Khaled M; Ross, Samir A

    2014-01-01

    The antiurease activity of the aqueous extracts of 42 plants growing in the Czech Republic was investigated. A phenol-hypochlorite reaction was used for the determination of ammonia produced by urease. The inhibitory activity of the extracts at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL varied from 17.8% to 80.0%. Extracts from six Potentilla species expressed inhibitory activity against jack bean urease. They were further investigated for their phenolic constituents and the major compounds were subjected to molecular docking. The results revealed that both jack bean urease and Helicobacter pylori urease were inhibited by quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside-6″-gallate (1), myricetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (2), tiliroside (3) and B-type procyanidin (4). The antiurease activity of the investigated Potentilla species is probably due to the presence of complex phenolic constituents such as flavonoid glycosides and catechin dimers.

  6. Active oil-water interfaces: buckling and deformation of oil drops by bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, Gabriel; Stocker, Roman

    2014-11-01

    Bacteria are unicellular organisms that seek nutrients and energy for growth, division, and self-propulsion. Bacteria are also natural colloidal particles that attach and self-assemble at liquid-liquid interfaces. Here, we present experimental results on active oil-water interfaces that spontaneously form when bacteria accumulate or grow on the interface. Using phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy, we simultaneously observed the dynamics of adsorbed Alcanivorax bacteria and the oil-water interface within microfluidic devices. We find that, by growing and dividing, adsorbed bacteria form a jammed monolayer of cells that encapsulates the entire oil drop. As bacteria continue to grow at the interface, the drop buckles and the interface undergoes strong deformations. The bacteria act to stabilize non-equilibrium shapes of the oil-phase such wrinkling and tubulation. In addition to presenting a natural example of a living interface, these findings shape our understanding of microbial degradation of oil and may have important repercussions on engineering interventions for oil bioremediation.

  7. Isolation of bacteria from Siberian permafrost capable of growing under simulated Mars atmospheric pressure and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Wayne; Gilichinsky, David; Schuerger, Andrew; Mironov, Vasiliy; Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Kerney, Krystal; Krivushin, Kirill; Oliveira, Rafael; Waters, Samantha

    A central goal of Astrobiology is to explore the limits at which life can occur and to search for life and habitable locations outside Earth. Mars is currently an active target in the search for life due to its relative proximity and similarity to Earth, coupled with increasing evidence pointing to the past and present existence of liquid water at the surface and near subsurface [1]. Exchange of rocky impact ejecta between Mars and Earth has been known for at least two decades [2], and evidence has accumulated supporting the hypothesis that living microorganisms embedded in rocks could survive the transfer process [3]. Understanding the ability of terrestrial microbes to grow in the near-surface martian environment is of prime importance both for life detection and for protection of Mars from forward contamination by human or robotic exploration [4]. The surface environment of Mars presents formidable challenges to life, such as: harsh solar radiation; a scarcity of liquid water and nutrients; extreme low temperatures; and a low-pressure, CO2-dominated anoxic atmosphere [5]. Our recent work has concentrated on investigating the possibility that prokaryotes from Earth could survive and proliferate in the Mars environment. Our experiments have involved environmental chambers that can simulate Mars atmospheric conditions of low pressure (P; 0.7 kPa), temperature (T; 0˚C), and a CO2-dominated anoxic atmosphere (A), called here collectively low-PTA conditions. Because much of the water on present-day Mars exists in a permanently frozen state mixed with mineral matrix, terrestrial permafrosts are considered to be analogs of the martian environment [6]. We therefore screened Siberian permafrost soils for microbes capable of growing under low-PTA conditions. Using this approach we reported the isolation of 6 Carnobacterium spp. isolates from Siberian permafrost that were capable of low-PTA growth [7]. One of these isolates has been characterized in detail and proposed as

  8. Isolation and characterization of heterotrophic bacteria able to grow aerobically with quaternary ammonium alcohols as sole source of carbon and nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Kaech, Andres; Vallotton, Nathalie; Egli, Thomas

    2005-04-01

    The quaternary ammonium alcohols (QAAs) 2,3-dihydroxypropyl-trimethyl-ammonium (TM), dimethyl-diethanol-ammonium (DM) and methyl-triethanol-ammonium (MM) are hydrolysis products of their parent esterquat surfactants, which are widely used as softeners in fabric care. We isolated several bacteria growing with QAAs as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The strains were compared with a previously isolated TM-degrading bacterium, which was identified as a representative of the species Pseudomonas putida (Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 24 (2001) 252). Two bacteria were isolated with DM, referred to as strains DM 1 and DM 2, respectively. Based on 16S-rDNA analysis, they provided 97% (DM 1) and 98% (DM 2) identities to the closest related strain Zoogloea ramigera Itzigsohn 1868AL. Both strains were long, slim, motile rods but only DM 1 showed the floc forming activity, which is typical for representatives of the genus Zoogloea. Using MM we isolated a Gram-negative, non-motile rod referred to as strain MM 1. The 16S-rDNA sequence of the isolated bacterium revealed 94% identities (best match) to Rhodobacter sphaeroides only. The strains MM 1 and DM 1 exclusively grew with the QAA which was used for their isolation. DM 2 was also utilizing TM as sole source of carbon and nitrogen. However, all of the isolated bacteria were growing with the natural and structurally related compound choline. PMID:15900970

  9. Plants as sources of airborne bacteria, including ice nucleation-active bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, J; Constantinidou, H A; Barchet, W R; Upper, C D

    1982-11-01

    Vertical wind shear and concentration gradients of viable, airborne bacteria were used to calculate the upward flux of viable cells above bare soil and canopies of several crops. Concentrations at soil or canopy height varied from 46 colony-forming units per m over young corn and wet soil to 663 colony-forming units per m over dry soil and 6,500 colony-forming units per m over a closed wheat canopy. In simultaneous samples, concentrations of viable bacteria in the air 10 m inside an alfalfa field were fourfold higher than those over a field with dry, bare soil immediately upwind. The upward flux of viable bacteria over alfalfa was three- to fourfold greater than over dry soil. Concentrations of ice nucleation-active bacteria were higher over plants than over soil. Thus, plant canopies may constitute a major source of bacteria, including ice nucleation-active bacteria, in the air.

  10. Real time and online dynamic speckle assessment of growing bacteria using the method of motion history image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Mohammad Zaheer; Ramírez-Miquet, Evelio E.; Otero, Isabel; Rodríguez, Dania; Darias, Juan G.

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports the application of the motion history image (MHI) method for biospeckle processing of a bacterial growth. The method avoids the complexity as well as the large computation in sequence-matching-based methods and detects whether the speckle structure has changed or not. Encouraging experimental results on the real-time evolution of the growing bacteria during 12 h demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The MHI presented an online result without loss of resolution and definition. In turn, the MHI also presented the ability to provide a close answer to the traditional offline method of generalized differences.

  11. Real time and online dynamic speckle assessment of growing bacteria using the method of motion history image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Mohammad Zaheer; Ramírez-Miquet, Evelio E.; Otero, Isabel; Rodríguez, Dania; Darias, Juan G.

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports the application of the motion history image (MHI) method for biospeckle processing of a bacterial growth. The method avoids the complexity as well as the large computation in sequence-matching-based methods and detects whether the speckle structure has changed or not. Encouraging experimental results on the real-time evolution of the growing bacteria during 12 h demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The MHI presented an online result without loss of resolution and definition. In turn, the MHI also presented the ability to provide a close answer to the traditional offline method of generalized differences.

  12. Improvement of activated sludge bacteria growth by low intensity ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Y. X.; Ding, J. Y.; Gao, J. L.

    2016-08-01

    Influence of low intensity ultrasound (US) on growth rate of bacteria separated from aerobic activated sludge was studied. In order to reveal the optimal ultrasonic conditions,specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) of activated sludge was first detected and results showed that the maximum SOUR was obtained (increased by 40%) at US intensity of 3 Wcm-2 and irradiation time of 10min. Under the optimal conditions, 2 species of bacteria isolated from activated sludge were sonicated and then cultivated for 36h, and increment of 6% and 10% of growth rate were detected for the 2 species of bacteria, respectively, indicating US irradiation of suitable parameters effectively improved activated sludge bacteria growth.

  13. Ethanol Production by Selected Intestinal Microorganisms and Lactic Acid Bacteria Growing under Different Nutritional Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Elshaghabee, Fouad M. F.; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Meske, Diana; de Vrese, Michael; Walte, Hans-Georg; Schrezenmeir, Juergen; Heller, Knut J.

    2016-01-01

    To gain some specific insight into the roles microorganisms might play in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), some intestinal and lactic acid bacteria and one yeast (Anaerostipes caccae, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bifidobacterium longum, Enterococcus fecalis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Weissella confusa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography for production of ethanol when grown on different carbohydrates: hexoses (glucose and fructose), pentoses (arabinose and ribose), disaccharides (lactose and lactulose), and inulin. Highest amounts of ethanol were produced by S. cerevisiae, L. fermentum, and W. confusa on glucose and by S. cerevisiae and W. confusa on fructose. Due to mannitol-dehydrogenase expressed in L. fermentum, ethanol production on fructose was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced. Pyruvate and citrate, two potential electron acceptors for regeneration of NAD+/NADP+, drastically reduced ethanol production with acetate produced instead in L. fermentum grown on glucose and W. confusa grown on glucose and fructose, respectively. In fecal slurries prepared from feces of four overweight volunteers, ethanol was found to be produced upon addition of fructose. Addition of A. caccae, L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, as well as citrate and pyruvate, respectively, abolished ethanol production. However, addition of W. confusa resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) increased production of ethanol. These results indicate that microorganisms like W. confusa, a hetero-fermentative, mannitol-dehydrogenase negative lactic acid bacterium, may promote NAFLD through ethanol produced from sugar fermentation, while other intestinal bacteria and homo- and hetero-fermentative but mannitol-dehydrogenase positive lactic acid bacteria may not promote NAFLD. Also, our studies indicate that dietary factors interfering with gastrointestinal microbiota and microbial

  14. Ethanol Production by Selected Intestinal Microorganisms and Lactic Acid Bacteria Growing under Different Nutritional Conditions.

    PubMed

    Elshaghabee, Fouad M F; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Meske, Diana; de Vrese, Michael; Walte, Hans-Georg; Schrezenmeir, Juergen; Heller, Knut J

    2016-01-01

    To gain some specific insight into the roles microorganisms might play in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), some intestinal and lactic acid bacteria and one yeast (Anaerostipes caccae, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bifidobacterium longum, Enterococcus fecalis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Weissella confusa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography for production of ethanol when grown on different carbohydrates: hexoses (glucose and fructose), pentoses (arabinose and ribose), disaccharides (lactose and lactulose), and inulin. Highest amounts of ethanol were produced by S. cerevisiae, L. fermentum, and W. confusa on glucose and by S. cerevisiae and W. confusa on fructose. Due to mannitol-dehydrogenase expressed in L. fermentum, ethanol production on fructose was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced. Pyruvate and citrate, two potential electron acceptors for regeneration of NAD(+)/NADP(+), drastically reduced ethanol production with acetate produced instead in L. fermentum grown on glucose and W. confusa grown on glucose and fructose, respectively. In fecal slurries prepared from feces of four overweight volunteers, ethanol was found to be produced upon addition of fructose. Addition of A. caccae, L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, as well as citrate and pyruvate, respectively, abolished ethanol production. However, addition of W. confusa resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) increased production of ethanol. These results indicate that microorganisms like W. confusa, a hetero-fermentative, mannitol-dehydrogenase negative lactic acid bacterium, may promote NAFLD through ethanol produced from sugar fermentation, while other intestinal bacteria and homo- and hetero-fermentative but mannitol-dehydrogenase positive lactic acid bacteria may not promote NAFLD. Also, our studies indicate that dietary factors interfering with gastrointestinal microbiota and microbial

  15. HYDROCARBON-DEGRADING BACTERIA AND SURFACTANT ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; jacek Wypych, j

    2006-08-15

    Fate of benzene ethylbenzene toluene xylenes (BTEX) compounds through biodegradation was investigated using two different bacteria, Ralstonia picketti (BP-20) and Alcaligenes piechaudii (CZOR L-1B). These bacteria were isolated from extremely polluted petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. PCR and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) were used to identify the isolates. Biodegradation was measured using each organism individually and in combination. Both bacteria were shown to degrade each of the BTEX compounds. Alcaligenes piechaudii biodegraded BTEXs more efficiently while mixed with BP-20 and individually. Biosurfactant production was observed by culture techniques. In addition 3-hydroxy fatty acids, important in biosurfactant production, was observed by FAME analysis. In the all experiments toluene and m+p- xylenes were better growth substrates for both bacteria than the other BTEX compounds. In addition, the test results indicate that the bacteria could contribute to bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) pollution increase biodegradation through the action by biosurfactants.

  16. Nephelometric determination of turgor pressure in growing gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Koch, A L; Pinette, M F

    1987-08-01

    Gas vesicles were used as probes to measure turgor pressure in Ancylobacter aquaticus. The externally applied pressure required to collapse the vesicles in turgid cells was compared with that in cells whose turgor had been partially or totally removed by adding an impermeable solute to the external medium. Since gram-negative bacteria do not have rigid cell walls, plasmolysis is not expected to occur in the same way as it does in the cells of higher plants. Bacterial cells shrink considerably before plasmolysis occurs in hyperosmotic media. The increase in pressure required to collapse 50% of the vesicles as external osmotic pressure increases is less than predicted from the degree of osmotically inducible shrinkage seen with this organism or with another gram-negative bacterium. This feature complicates the calculation of the turgor pressure as the difference between the collapse pressure of vesicles with and without sucrose present in the medium. We propose a new model of the relationship between turgor pressure and the cell wall stress in gram-negative bacteria based on the behavior of an ideal elastic container when the pressure differential across its surface is decreased. We developed a new curve-fitting technique for evaluating bacterial turgor pressure measurements.

  17. Effect of Bacteria and Amoebae on Rhizosphere Phosphatase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gould, W. Douglas; Coleman, David C.; Rubink, Amy J.

    1979-01-01

    The contributions of various components of soil microflora and microfauna to rhizosphere phosphatase activity were determined with hydroponic cultures. Three treatments were employed: (i) plants alone (Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag. ex Steud.) (ii) plants plus bacteria (Pseudomonas sp.), and (iii) plants plus bacteria plus amoebae (Acanthamoeba sp.). No alkaline phosphatase was detected, but an appreciable amount of acid phosphatase activity (120 to 500 nmol of p-nitrophenylphosphate hydrolyzed per h per plant) was found in the root culture solutions. The presence of bacteria or bacteria and amoebae increased the amount of acid phosphatase in solution, and properties of additional activity were identical to properties of plant acid phosphatase. The presence of bacteria or bacteria and amoebae increased both solution and root phosphatase activities at most initial phosphate concentrations. PMID:16345390

  18. Isolation and molecular identification of landfill bacteria capable of growing on di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and deteriorating PVC materials

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, Isomar; Hwang, Sangchul; Montalvo-Rodriguez, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Waste materials containing Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a suspected endocrine disruptor and reasonably anticipated human carcinogen, are typically disposed of in landfills. Despite this, very few studies had been conducted to isolate and identify DEHP-degrading bacteria in landfill leachate. Therefore, this study was conducted to isolate and characterize bacteria in landfill leachate growing on DEHP as the sole carbon source and deteriorating PVC materials. Four strains LHM1, LHM2, LHM3 and LHM4, not previously reported as DEHP-degraders, were identified via 16S rRNA gene sequence. Gram-positive strains LHM1 and LHM2 had a greater than 97% similarity with Chryseomicrobium imtechense MW 10(T) and Lysinibacillus fusiformis NBRC 15717(T), respectively. Gram-negative strains LHM3 and LHM4 were related to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus DSM 30006(T) (90.7% similarity) and Stenotrophomonas pavanii ICB 89(T) (96.0% similarity), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis also corroborated these similarities of strains LHM1 and LHM2 to the corresponding bacteria species. Strains LHM2 and LHM4 grew faster than strains LHM1 and LHM3 in the enrichment where DEHP was the sole carbon source. When augmented to the reactors with PVC shower curtains containing DEHP, strains LHM1 and LHM2 developed greater optical densities in the solution phase and thicker biofilm on the surfaces of the shower curtains. PMID:22934997

  19. Isolation and molecular identification of landfill bacteria capable of growing on di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and deteriorating PVC materials.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Isomar; Hwang, Sangchul; Montalvo-Rodriguez, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Waste materials containing Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a suspected endocrine disruptor and reasonably anticipated human carcinogen, are typically disposed of in landfills. Despite this, very few studies had been conducted to isolate and identify DEHP-degrading bacteria in landfill leachate. Therefore, this study was conducted to isolate and characterize bacteria in landfill leachate growing on DEHP as the sole carbon source and deteriorating PVC materials. Four strains LHM1, LHM2, LHM3 and LHM4, not previously reported as DEHP-degraders, were identified via 16S rRNA gene sequence. Gram-positive strains LHM1 and LHM2 had a greater than 97% similarity with Chryseomicrobium imtechense MW 10(T) and Lysinibacillus fusiformis NBRC 15717(T), respectively. Gram-negative strains LHM3 and LHM4 were related to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus DSM 30006(T) (90.7% similarity) and Stenotrophomonas pavanii ICB 89(T) (96.0% similarity), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis also corroborated these similarities of strains LHM1 and LHM2 to the corresponding bacteria species. Strains LHM2 and LHM4 grew faster than strains LHM1 and LHM3 in the enrichment where DEHP was the sole carbon source. When augmented to the reactors with PVC shower curtains containing DEHP, strains LHM1 and LHM2 developed greater optical densities in the solution phase and thicker biofilm on the surfaces of the shower curtains. PMID:22934997

  20. A novel antisense RNA from the Salmonella virulence plasmid pSLT expressed by non-growing bacteria inside eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo-Asensio, Jesús; Ortega, Alvaro D; Rico-Pérez, Gadea; Pucciarelli, M Graciela; García-Del Portillo, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs) are regulatory molecules playing relevant roles in response to environmental changes, stressful conditions and pathogenesis. The intracellular bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is known to regulate expression of some sRNAs during colonization of fibroblasts. Here, we characterize a previously unknown sRNA encoded in the S. Typhimurium pSLT virulence plasmid that is specifically up-regulated by non-growing dormant bacteria persisting inside fibroblasts. This sRNA was inferred in microarray expression analyses, which unraveled enhanced transcriptional activity in the PSLT047- PSLT046 (mig5) intergenic region. The sRNA transcript was further identified as a 597-nucleotide molecule, which we named IesR-1, for 'Intracellular-expressed-sRNA-1'. IesR-1 expression is low in bacteria growing in axenic cultures across a variety of experimental conditions but displays a marked increase (∼200-300 fold) following bacterial entry into fibroblasts. Remarkably, induction of IesR-1 expression is not prominent in bacteria proliferating within epithelial cells. IesR-1 deletion affects the control of bacterial growth in defined fibroblast cell lines and impairs virulence in a mouse infection model. Expression analyses performed in the PSLT047-iesR-1-PSLT046 (mig5) region support a cis-acting regulatory mechanism of IesR-1 as antisense RNA over the PSLT047 transcript involving interaction at their respective 3' ends and modulation of PSLT047 protein levels. This model is sustained by the scarce production of PSLT047 protein observed in non-growing intracellular bacteria and the high amount of PSLT047 protein produced by bacteria carrying a truncated IesR-1 version with separated 5' and 3' regions. Taken together, these data reveal that S. Typhimurium sRNAs encoded in the pSLT virulence plasmid respond to a state of persistence inside the host cell. As exemplified by IesR-1, some of these sRNAs may contribute to

  1. Carbon Isotope Fractionation during Catabolism and Anabolism in Acetogenic Bacteria Growing on Different Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Freude, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Homoacetogenic bacteria are versatile microbes that use the acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) pathway to synthesize acetate from CO2 and hydrogen. Likewise, the acetyl-CoA pathway may be used to incorporate other 1-carbon substrates (e.g., methanol or formate) into acetate or to homoferment monosaccharides completely to acetate. In this study, we analyzed the fractionation of pure acetogenic cultures grown on different carbon substrates. While the fractionation of Sporomusa sphaeroides grown on C1 compounds was strong (εC1, −49‰ to −64‰), the fractionation of Moorella thermoacetica and Thermoanaerobacter kivui using glucose (εGlu = −14.1‰) was roughly one-third as strong, suggesting a contribution of less-depleted acetate from fermentative processes. For M. thermoacetica, this could indeed be validated by the addition of nitrate, which inhibited the acetyl-CoA pathway, resulting in fractionation during fermentation (εferm = −0.4‰). In addition, we determined the fractionation into microbial biomass of T. kivui grown on H2/CO2 (εanabol. = −28.6‰) as well as on glucose (εanabol. = +2.9‰). PMID:26921422

  2. Theoretical models for the regulation of DNA replication in fast-growing bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutziger, Martin; Schmidt, Mischa; Lenz, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Growing in always changing environments, Escherichia coli cells are challenged by the task to coordinate growth and division. In particular, adaption of their growth program to the surrounding medium has to guarantee that the daughter cells obtain fully replicated chromosomes. Replication is therefore to be initiated at the right time, which is particularly challenging in media that support fast growth. Here, the mother cell initiates replication not only for the daughter but also for the granddaughter cells. This is possible only if replication occurs from several replication forks that all need to be correctly initiated. Despite considerable efforts during the last 40 years, regulation of this process is still unknown. Part of the difficulty arises from the fact that many details of the relevant molecular processes are not known. Here, we develop a novel theoretical strategy for dealing with this general problem: instead of analyzing a single model, we introduce a wide variety of 128 different models that make different assumptions about the unknown processes. By comparing the predictions of these models we are able to identify the key quantities that allow the experimental discrimination of the different models. Analysis of these quantities yields that out of the 128 models 94 are not consistent with available experimental data. From the remaining 34 models we are able to conclude that mass growth and DNA replication need either to be truly coupled, by coupling DNA replication initiation to the event of cell division, or to the amount of accumulated mass. Finally, we make suggestions for experiments to further reduce the number of possible regulation scenarios.

  3. Activation of multiple chemotherapeutic prodrugs by the natural enzymolome of tumour-localised probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lehouritis, Panos; Stanton, Michael; McCarthy, Florence O; Jeavons, Matthieu; Tangney, Mark

    2016-01-28

    Some chemotherapeutic drugs (prodrugs) require activation by an enzyme for efficacy. We and others have demonstrated the ability of probiotic bacteria to grow specifically within solid tumours following systemic administration, and we hypothesised that the natural enzymatic activity of these tumour-localised bacteria may be suitable for activation of certain such chemotherapeutic drugs. Several wild-type probiotic bacteria; Escherichia coli Nissle, Bifidobacterium breve, Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus species, were screened against a panel of popular prodrugs. All strains were capable of activating at least one prodrug. E. coli Nissle 1917 was selected for further studies because of its ability to activate numerous prodrugs and its resistance to prodrug toxicity. HPLC data confirmed biochemical transformation of prodrugs to their toxic counterparts. Further analysis demonstrated that different enzymes can complement prodrug activation, while simultaneous activation of multiple prodrugs (CB1954, 5-FC, AQ4N and Fludarabine phosphate) by E. coli was confirmed, resulting in significant efficacy improvement. Experiments in mice harbouring murine tumours validated in vitro findings, with significant reduction in tumour growth and increase in survival of mice treated with probiotic bacteria and a combination of prodrugs. These findings demonstrate the ability of probiotic bacteria, without the requirement for genetic modification, to enable high-level activation of multiple prodrugs specifically at the site of action. PMID:26655063

  4. Antibacterial activity of silver-killed bacteria: the "zombies" effect.

    PubMed

    Wakshlak, Racheli Ben-Knaz; Pedahzur, Rami; Avnir, David

    2015-01-01

    We report a previously unrecognized mechanism for the prolonged action of biocidal agents, which we denote as the zombies effect: biocidally-killed bacteria are capable of killing living bacteria. The concept is demonstrated by first killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 with silver nitrate and then challenging, with the dead bacteria, a viable culture of the same bacterium: Efficient antibacterial activity of the killed bacteria is observed. A mechanism is suggested in terms of the action of the dead bacteria as a reservoir of silver, which, due to Le-Chatelier's principle, is re-targeted to the living bacteria. Langmuirian behavior, as well as deviations from it, support the proposed mechanism. PMID:25906433

  5. Evidence for metabolic activity of airborne bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatigny, M. A.; Wolochow, H.

    1974-01-01

    Aerosols of the bacterium Serratia marcescens, and of uniformly labeled C-14 glucose were produced simultaneously and mixed in tubing leading to an aerosol chamber. During a subsequent period of about 5 hrs, carbon dioxide was produced metabolically within the chamber, and labeled material incorporated within the suspended particles first increased then decreased. This constitutes the first direct evidence of microbial metabolism of bacteria suspended in the air.

  6. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of extracts from Conyza bonariensis growing in Yemen.

    PubMed

    Thabit, Riyadh Abdulmajid Saleh; Cheng, Xiang-Rong; Tang, Xue; Sun, Jin; Shi, Yong-Hui; Le, Guo-Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the antioxidant and antibacterial activities and phenolic contents of Conyza bonariensis growing in Yemen. The whole plants of C. bonariensis were ultrasonically extracted by ethanol. The antioxidant activity of the extract was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene bleaching (BCB). The effectiveness of the extract on the growth inhibition of some indicators of foodborne illness bacteria were investigated by agar well diffusion assay. The total phenols (TP), total flavonoids (TF), total tannins (TT), and total anthocyanins (TA) were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, aluminium chloride method, Folin and Ciocalteu method, and pH-differential method, respectively. The extract of C. bonariensis possessed TP 144.1 mg/g, TF 143 mg/g, TT 0.99mg/g, and TA 0.97mg 100g, with 94.57% inhibition of DPPH and 92.47% inhibition of BCB, and strong inhibitory effects against tested bacteria, which was approximate to those of peel extract of Punica granatum.

  7. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of extracts from Conyza bonariensis growing in Yemen.

    PubMed

    Thabit, Riyadh Abdulmajid Saleh; Cheng, Xiang-Rong; Tang, Xue; Sun, Jin; Shi, Yong-Hui; Le, Guo-Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the antioxidant and antibacterial activities and phenolic contents of Conyza bonariensis growing in Yemen. The whole plants of C. bonariensis were ultrasonically extracted by ethanol. The antioxidant activity of the extract was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene bleaching (BCB). The effectiveness of the extract on the growth inhibition of some indicators of foodborne illness bacteria were investigated by agar well diffusion assay. The total phenols (TP), total flavonoids (TF), total tannins (TT), and total anthocyanins (TA) were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, aluminium chloride method, Folin and Ciocalteu method, and pH-differential method, respectively. The extract of C. bonariensis possessed TP 144.1 mg/g, TF 143 mg/g, TT 0.99mg/g, and TA 0.97mg 100g, with 94.57% inhibition of DPPH and 92.47% inhibition of BCB, and strong inhibitory effects against tested bacteria, which was approximate to those of peel extract of Punica granatum. PMID:25553691

  8. Calvin cycle mutants of photoheterotrophic purple nonsulfur bacteria fail to grow due to an electron imbalance rather than toxic metabolite accumulation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Gina C; McKinlay, James B

    2014-03-01

    Purple nonsulfur bacteria grow photoheterotrophically by using light for energy and organic compounds for carbon and electrons. Disrupting the activity of the CO2-fixing Calvin cycle enzyme, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RubisCO), prevents photoheterotrophic growth unless an electron acceptor is provided or if cells can dispose of electrons as H2. Such observations led to the long-standing model wherein the Calvin cycle is necessary during photoheterotrophic growth to maintain a pool of oxidized electron carriers. This model was recently challenged with an alternative model wherein disrupting RubisCO activity prevents photoheterotrophic growth due to the accumulation of toxic ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) (D. Wang, Y. Zhang, E. L. Pohlmann, J. Li, and G. P. Roberts, J. Bacteriol. 193:3293-3303, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00265-11). Here, we confirm that RuBP accumulation can impede the growth of Rhodospirillum rubrum (Rs. rubrum) and Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Rp. palustris) RubisCO-deficient (ΔRubisCO) mutants under conditions where electron carrier oxidation is coupled to H2 production. However, we also demonstrate that Rs. rubrum and Rp. palustris Calvin cycle phosphoribulokinase mutants that cannot produce RuBP cannot grow photoheterotrophically on succinate unless an electron acceptor is provided or H2 production is permitted. Thus, the Calvin cycle is still needed to oxidize electron carriers even in the absence of toxic RuBP. Surprisingly, Calvin cycle mutants of Rs. rubrum, but not of Rp. palustris, grew photoheterotrophically on malate without electron acceptors or H2 production. The mechanism by which Rs. rubrum grows under these conditions remains to be elucidated.

  9. Competitive effect of commensal faecal bacteria from growing swine fed chlortetracycline-supplemented feed on beta-haemolytic Escherichia coli strains with multiple antimicrobial resistance plasmids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to determine differences in competitive fitness among E. coli strains with multiple plasmids when grown in commensal fecal bacteria from growing swine fed Aureomycin®–supplemented or –unsupplemented diets. Four multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli strains that possessed 2, 6,...

  10. Comparative study of volatile oil content and antimicrobial activity of pecan cultivars growing in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Hawary, Seham S; Zaghloul, Soumaya S; El Halawany, Ali M; El Bishbishy, Mahitab H

    2013-11-01

    The volatile oils obtained from the leaves of four pecan cultivars growing in Egypt were evaluated for their chemical composition and antimicrobial activity. The selected cultivars (cv.) were Carya illinoinensis (Wangneh.) K. Koch. cv. Wichita, C. illinoinensis cv. Western Schley, C. illinoinensis cv. Cherokee, and C. illinoinensis cv. Sioux. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the volatile oils from samples of the different cultivars differ in composition and percentage of their components. β-Curcumene was found as the major constituent of the cv. Wichita oil, whereas germacrene D was the major component of cv. Sioux, cv. Cherokee, and cv. Western Schley. The antimicrobial activity was assayed using the Kirby-Bauer Method by measuring the zone of inhibition of growth. All volatile oils displayed an antimicrobial activity against the tested bacterial strains. On the other hand, only the volatile oil of cv. Wichita showed an antifungal effect on Aspergillus flavus. This work has identified candidates of volatile oils for future in vivo studies to develop antibiotic substitutes for the diminution of human and animal pathogenic bacteria. Nevertheless, the variations of the volatile oil components and antimicrobial potencies of the different studied cultivars, necessitate identifying the cultivars used in future studies. PMID:24180553

  11. Lipase Activity among Bacteria Isolated from Amazonian Soils

    PubMed Central

    Willerding, André Luis; de Oliveira, Luiz Antonio; Moreira, Francisco Wesen; Germano, Mariana Gomes; Chagas, Aloísio Freitas

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to select lipase-producing bacteria collected from different counties of the Amazon region. Of the 440 bacteria strains, 181 were selected for the lipase assay in qualitative tests at Petri dishes, being 75 (41%) lipase positive. The enzymatic index was determined during fifteen days at different temperatures (30°, 35°, 40°, and 45°C). The highest lipase activity was observed within 72 hours at 30°C. Twelve bacteria strains presented an index equal to or greater than the standard used like reference, demonstrating the potential of microbial resource. After the bioassay in Petri dishes, the selected bacteria strains were analyzed in quantitative tests on p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP). A group of the strains was selected for other phases of study with the use in oleaginous substrates of the Amazonian flora, aiming for the application in processes like oil biotransformation. PMID:22007294

  12. Lipase Activity among Bacteria Isolated from Amazonian Soils.

    PubMed

    Willerding, André Luis; de Oliveira, Luiz Antonio; Moreira, Francisco Wesen; Germano, Mariana Gomes; Chagas, Aloísio Freitas

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to select lipase-producing bacteria collected from different counties of the Amazon region. Of the 440 bacteria strains, 181 were selected for the lipase assay in qualitative tests at Petri dishes, being 75 (41%) lipase positive. The enzymatic index was determined during fifteen days at different temperatures (30°, 35°, 40°, and 45°C). The highest lipase activity was observed within 72 hours at 30°C. Twelve bacteria strains presented an index equal to or greater than the standard used like reference, demonstrating the potential of microbial resource. After the bioassay in Petri dishes, the selected bacteria strains were analyzed in quantitative tests on p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP). A group of the strains was selected for other phases of study with the use in oleaginous substrates of the Amazonian flora, aiming for the application in processes like oil biotransformation. PMID:22007294

  13. Tetracycline as a selector for resistant bacteria in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungpyo; Jensen, James N; Aga, Diana S; Weber, A Scott

    2007-01-01

    Tetracycline, one of the most widely used antibiotics, is excreted into wastewater after consumption by humans and animals. The focus of this research was to evaluate the fate of tetracycline resistant bacteria in the activated sludge process as a function of tetracycline loading. The studies were conducted with aerobic biological sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). When comparing 250 microgl(-1) tetracycline fed SBRs with parallel SBRs having a background influent wastewater tetracycline concentration of approximately 1 microgl(-1), tetracycline fed reactors were found to have increased concentrations and production rates of tetracycline resistant bacteria, higher net growth rates of resistant bacteria, and higher percentages of tetracycline resistant bacteria, which were amplified by increase in organic loading and growth rates.

  14. Activity and cellular localization of amylases of rabbit cecal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sirotek, K; Marounek, M; Suchorská, O

    2006-01-01

    Five 11-week-old rabbits, fed a commercial granulated feed, were slaughtered and cecal starch-degrading bacteria enumerated; total concentration of cultivable bacteria utilizing starch averaged 5.5 x 10(10) CFU/g. The activity and cellular localization of amylases was determined in 9 bacteria identified as Actinomyces israeli (strains AA2 and AD4), Bacteroides spp. (strain AA3), Dichelobacter nodosus (strain AA4), Mitsuokella multiacidus (strain AA6), Eubacterium spp. (strains AA7 and AB2), Clostridium spp. (strains AD1 and AA5). Four strains (AA3, AA4, AA5, AD4) produced extracellular amylases with an activity of 26-35 micromol of reducing sugars per h per mg of protein; in five strains (AA2, AA6, AA7, AB2, AD1) amylases were membrane-bound with an activity of 14-18 micromol of reducing sugars per h per mg of protein. All strains exhibited a low intracellular amylolytic activity. The pH optimum of amylases was 6.8-7.0. In strains producing extracellular amylases a substantial loss of viscosity was observed during incubations of cultivation supernatant with starch, similar to viscosity reduction in starch solutions treated with alpha-amylase; this indicates an endo-type (random cleavage) of extracellular amylase reaction in the bacteria under study. No strain possessed glucoamylase activity.

  15. The aerobic activity of metronidazole against anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dione, Niokhor; Khelaifia, Saber; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Raoult, Didier

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the aerobic growth of strictly anaerobic bacteria was demonstrated using antioxidants. Metronidazole is frequently used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria; however, to date its antibacterial activity was only tested in anaerobic conditions. Here we aerobically tested using antioxidants the in vitro activities of metronidazole, gentamicin, doxycycline and imipenem against 10 common anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. In vitro susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by Etest. Aerobic culture of the bacteria was performed at 37°C using Schaedler agar medium supplemented with 1mg/mL ascorbic acid and 0.1mg/mL glutathione; the pH was adjusted to 7.2 by 10M KOH. Growth of anaerobic bacteria cultured aerobically using antioxidants was inhibited by metronidazole after 72h of incubation at 37°C, with a mean inhibition diameter of 37.76mm and an MIC of 1μg/mL; however, strains remained non-sensitive to gentamicin. No growth inhibition of aerobic bacteria was observed after 24h of incubation at 37°C with metronidazole; however, inhibition was observed with doxycycline and imipenem used as controls. These results indicate that bacterial sensitivity to metronidazole is not related to the oxygen tension but is a result of the sensitivity of the micro-organism. In future, both culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing of strictly anaerobic bacteria will be performed in an aerobic atmosphere using antioxidants in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  16. Metabolic Activity of Bacteria at High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, A.; Daniel, I.; Oger, P.

    2008-12-01

    a depth of marine sediment of 500 m, or even beneath a water column of 6 km in surface sediments. This suggests that the metabolic activity of surface microorganisms that receive nutrients through sea water percolation into the deeper parts of the sediment, or that sink with the sediment, may represent a significant fraction of the total activity observed in subsurface environments. The present results indicate also that cells in stationary phase at HHP, which preclude growth, can still have a short-term metabolic activity independent of the growth-related activity. Consequently, surface microorganisms have the ability to impact significantly and rapidly on biogeochemical cycles in deep environments.

  17. Bacteria associated with granular activated carbon particles in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Camper, A K; LeChevallier, M W; Broadaway, S C; McFeters, G A

    1986-01-01

    A sampling protocol was developed to examine particles released from granular activated carbon filter beds. A gauze filter/Swinnex procedure was used to collect carbon fines from 201 granular activated carbon-treated drinking water samples over 12 months. Application of a homogenization procedure (developed previously) indicated that 41.4% of the water samples had heterotrophic plate count bacteria attached to carbon particles. With the enumeration procedures described, heterotrophic plate count bacteria were recovered at an average rate of 8.6 times higher than by conventional analyses. Over 17% of the samples contained carbon particles colonized with coliform bacteria as enumerated with modified most-probable-number and membrane filter techniques. In some instances coliform recoveries were 122 to 1,194 times higher than by standard procedures. Nearly 28% of the coliforms attached to these particles in drinking water exhibited the fecal biotype. Scanning electron micrographs of carbon fines from treated drinking water showed microcolonies of bacteria on particle surfaces. These data indicate that bacteria attached to carbon fines may be an important mechanism by which microorganisms penetrate treatment barriers and enter potable water supplies. PMID:3767356

  18. Distribution, Diversity, and Activities of Sulfur Dioxygenases in Heterotrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Honglei; Xin, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur oxidation by chemolithotrophic bacteria is well known; however, sulfur oxidation by heterotrophic bacteria is often ignored. Sulfur dioxygenases (SDOs) (EC 1.13.11.18) were originally found in the cell extracts of some chemolithotrophic bacteria as glutathione (GSH)-dependent sulfur dioxygenases. GSH spontaneously reacts with elemental sulfur to generate glutathione persulfide (GSSH), and SDOs oxidize GSSH to sulfite and GSH. However, SDOs have not been characterized for bacteria, including chemolithotrophs. The gene coding for human SDO (human ETHE1 [hETHE1]) in mitochondria was discovered because its mutations lead to a hereditary human disease, ethylmalonic encephalopathy. Using sequence analysis and activity assays, we discovered three subgroups of bacterial SDOs in the proteobacteria and cyanobacteria. Ten selected SDO genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant proteins were purified. The SDOs used Fe2+ for catalysis and displayed considerable variations in specific activities. The wide distribution of SDO genes reveals the likely source of the hETHE1 gene and highlights the potential of sulfur oxidation by heterotrophic bacteria. PMID:24389926

  19. Active toddlers are less likely to grow obese.

    PubMed

    2016-09-12

    Keep toddlers toddling, and you will reduce the chance of them becoming obese in the future. That is the conclusion of a survey of physical activity among pre-school children that relates exercise to body mass index (BMI) scores. PMID:27615574

  20. Activities to Grow On: Buttons, Beads, and Beans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzolis, Amy; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents new ideas for using buttons, beans, and beads as teaching manipulatives for elementary school children. The ideas include a button scavenger hunt, a button count, a cup puppet bean game, a numbers guessing game with beans in jars, and a bead stringing activity. (SM)

  1. Anaerobic bacteria

    MedlinePlus

    Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. In humans, these ... Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  2. Selective antimicrobial activity of maggots against pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jaklic, Domen; Lapanje, Ales; Zupancic, Klemen; Smrke, Dragica; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2008-05-01

    Maggot therapy, also known as biosurgery, is an ancient method for the healing of chronic infected wounds. Although clinicians have reported on the beneficial activities of the Lucilia sericata larvae that have been used for healing chronic wounds, the selectivity of this therapy against the different pathogenic micro-organisms that are found in chronic wounds has never been analysed. In the present study, we have investigated the in vitro activities of larval excreta/secreta both against selected bacterial strains that frequently occur in chronically infected wounds, and against bacteria isolated directly from the larvae and their excreta/secreta. Additionally, the antibacterial activities were investigated in in vivo studies, by comparing bacterial diversity in wounds before and after the application of L. sericata larvae. In conclusion, larval therapy is highly recommended, particularly for the treatment of wounds infected with Gram-positive bacteria, like Staphylococcus aureus, but less so for wounds infected with Gram-negative bacteria, especially Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. strains. Bacteria from the genus Vagococcus were resistant to the maggot excreta/secreta.

  3. Direct observation of single stationary-phase bacteria reveals a surprisingly long period of constant protein production activity

    PubMed Central

    Gefen, Orit; Fridman, Ofer; Ronin, Irine; Balaban, Nathalie Q.

    2014-01-01

    Exponentially growing bacteria are rarely found in the wild, as microorganisms tend to spend most of their lifetime at stationary phase. Despite this general prevalence of stationary-phase bacteria, they are as yet poorly characterized. Our goal was to quantitatively study this phase by direct observation of single bacteria as they enter into stationary phase and by monitoring their activity over several days during growth arrest. For this purpose, we devised an experimental procedure for starving single Escherichia coli bacteria in microfluidic devices and measured their activity by monitoring the production rate of fluorescent proteins. When amino acids were the sole carbon source, the production rate decreased by an order of magnitude upon entry into stationary phase. We found that, even while growth-arrested, bacteria continued to produce proteins at a surprisingly constant rate over several days. Our identification of this newly observed period of constant activity in nongrowing cells, designated as constant activity stationary phase, makes possible the conduction of assays that require constant protein expression over time, and are therefore difficult to perform under exponential growth conditions. Moreover, we show that exogenous protein expression bears no fitness cost on the regrowth of the population when starvation ends. Further characterization of constant activity stationary phase—a phase where nongrowing bacteria can be quantitatively studied over several days in a reproducible manner—should contribute to a better understanding of this ubiquitous but overlooked physiological state of bacteria in nature. PMID:24344288

  4. Distribution and significance of heterotrophic marine bacteria with antibacterial activity.

    PubMed Central

    Nair, S; Simidu, U

    1987-01-01

    Bacteria with antibacterial activity were isolated from seawater, sediments, phytoplankton, and zooplankton of Suruga, Sagami, and Tokyo Bays and from soft corals and sponges collected from the Taiwan coast. Of the 726 strains isolated, 37 showed antibacterial activity against either Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC 17802) or Staphylococcus aureus (P209). Sediment harbored the lowest number of these forms of bacteria, and those from Tokyo Bay did not show any activity. Attached isolates showed greater activity compared with free-living forms. Relatively high numbers of strains with antibacterial activity were associated with phytoplankton. Among the zooplankton isolates, cladocerans harbored the maximum number of antibacterial strains. Isolates were more inhibitory to gram-positive test cultures. Autoinhibition was observed only among 8% of the isolates. Marine nonproducers were more susceptible. Pseudomonas/Alteromonas species made up 81.0% of isolates, of which 30% were pigmented strains. The absence or reduction in number of bacteria with antibacterial activity in Tokyo Bay is attributed to its eutrophic nature, which may tend to moderate the production of antibacterial compounds. PMID:3435149

  5. Subversion of inflammasome activation and pyroptosis by pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Larissa D.; Zamboni, Dario S.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of the inflammasome occurs in response to a notably high number of pathogenic microbes and is a broad innate immune response that effectively contributes to restriction of pathogen replication and generation of adaptive immunity. Activation of these platforms leads to caspase-1- and/or caspase-11-dependent secretion of proteins, including cytokines, and induction of a specific form of cell death called pyroptosis, which directly or indirectly contribute for restriction of pathogen replication. Not surprisingly, bona fide intracellular pathogens developed strategies for manipulation of cell death to guarantee intracellular replication. In this sense, the remarkable advances in the knowledge of the inflammasome field have been accompanied by several reports characterizing the inhibition of this platform by several pathogenic bacteria. Herein, we review some processes used by pathogenic bacteria, including Yersinia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Francisella tularensis, Shigella flexneri, Legionella pneumophila, and Coxiella burnetii to evade the activation of the inflammasome and the induction of pyroptosis. PMID:24324933

  6. Polyhydroxyalkanoate production potential of heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yuta; Uchida, Takahiro; Morohoshi, Jota; Sei, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production potential of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge by genotypic and phenotypic characterizations. A total of 114 bacterial strains were isolated from four activated sludge samples taken from a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor and three wastewater treatment processes of two municipal wastewater treatment plants. PCR detection of the phaC genes encoding class I and II PHA synthase revealed that 15% of the total isolates possessed phaC genes, all of which had the closest similarities to known phaC genes of α- and β-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. PHA production experiments under aerobic and nitrogen-limited conditions showed that 68% of the total isolates were capable of producing PHA from at least one of the six substrates used (acetate, propionate, lactate, butyrate, glucose and glycerol). Genotypic and phenotypic characterizations revealed that 75% of the activated sludge bacteria had PHA production potential. Our results also indicated that short-chain fatty acids would be the preferable substrates for PHA production by activated sludge bacteria, and that there might be a variety of unidentified phaC genes in activated sludge.

  7. TEMPERATURE ACTIVATION OF CERTAIN RESPIRATORY ENZYMES OF STENOTHERMOPHILIC BACTERIA

    PubMed Central

    Gaughran, Eugene R. L.

    1949-01-01

    The results of this study of the effect of temperature on the respiratory mechanism of five stenothermophilic bacteria may be summarized as follows:— 1. The respiratory mechanism and its various components of the stenothermophilic bacteria were found to function at temperatures below the minimum temperature for growth of these organisms. In every case the rates of the individual reactions involved in the respiratory chain increased exponentially with temperature until the temperature at which inactivation became apparent was reached. 2. The mean activation energies, calculated from the "best" value for the slope of the straight lines resulting from a plot of log rate against the reciprocal of the absolute temperature were: Dehydrogenases: 28,000 to 28,500 calories per gram molecule. Glucose, fructose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, maltose, lactose, sucrose, glycine, β-alanine, monosodium glutamate, (asparagine). 19,500 to 20,500 calories per gram molecule. Ethyl alcohol, succinate, pyruvate, lactate, acetate. 19,500 to 20,500 calories per gram molecule. Ethyl alcohol, succinate, pyruvate, lactate, acetate. 15,000 calories per gram molecule. Formate. Cytochrome oxidase and cytochrome b and c (substrate: p-phenylenediamine): 16,800 calories per gram molecule. Cytochrome oxidase and cytochrome c (substrate: hydroquinone): 20,200 calories per gram molecule. Catalase: 4,100 calories per gram molecule. Complete aerobic respiratory system (plus added glucose): 29,500 calories per gram molecule. 3. The identity of the energies of activation of the respiratory system and its enzymic components at temperatures above and below the minimum temperature for growth of the stenothermophilic bacteria was demonstrated. 4. An attempt has been made to indicate a relationship between the nature of the substrate and the activation energy by grouping substrates on the basis of common µ values obtained for their dehydrogenation by resting cell preparations of

  8. Enumeration and activity of nitrifying bacteria in zeoponic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGilloway, Robyn Leigh

    Regenerative life-support systems are needed for long-term space missions. One component of a proposed life-support system is the use of zeoponic growth substrates, which slowly release NH4 into 'soil' solution for the production of plants. Nitrifying bacteria that convert NH4 to NO3 are among the important microbial components of these systems. Some evidence suggests that a balance between NH4 and NO3 is desirable in promoting plant growth and seed development. Therefore, enumeration of nitrifying bacteria and evaluation of the kinetics of nitrification in zeoponic substrates warrants investigation. A method for rapid detection and enumeration of a commercial inoculum of nitrifying bacteria in a zeoponic substrate was developed using a most probable number (MPN)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach, and a TaqMan probe-based assay. The detection limit of the MPN-PCR methodology was 2,000 cells per assay. Detection sensitivity for the TaqMan assay was determined to be 60 cells. The quantitative assay demonstrated that the zeoponic substrate was capable of supporting 105 to 107 Nitrobacter cells g-1 substrate. The MPN-PCR method and TaqMan probe-based assay can be effective and rapid approaches to enumerate nitrifying bacteria in zeoponic substrates. Column studies and a growth chamber study were conducted to evaluate the production of NO2 and NO3, and nitrifier populations in zeoponic substrates. The zeoponic substrate provided a readily available source of NH4, and nitrifying bacteria were active in the substrate. Quantities of NH4 oxidized, 10 mug N g-1 h-1, to NO2 and NO3 in inoculated zeoponic substrate were in excess of plant uptake. Acidification as a result of NH4 oxidation resulted in decline of pH to 5.5. The zeoponic substrate showed limited pH buffering capacity. Survival of nitrifying bacteria during periods of desiccation was evaluated, as the zeoponic substrate would likely be stored in an air-dry state between croppings. Substrate was enriched for

  9. Endo- and exoglucanase activities in bacteria from mangrove sediment

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, Fábio Lino Soares; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Fasanella, Cristiane Cipola; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; de Souza Lima, André Oliveira; Melo, Itamar Soares; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2013-01-01

    The mangrove ecosystem is an unexplored source for biotechnological applications. In this unique environment, endemic bacteria have the ability to thrive in the harsh environmental conditions (salinity and anaerobiosis), and act in the degradation of organic matter, promoting nutrient cycles. Thus, this study aimed to assess the cellulolytic activities of bacterial groups present in the sediment from a mangrove located in Ilha do Cardoso (SP, Brazil). To optimize the isolation of cellulolytic bacteria, enrichments in two types of culture media (tryptone broth and minimum salt medium), both supplemented with 5% NaCl and 1% of cellulose, were performed. Tests conducted with the obtained colonies showed a higher occurrence of endoglycolytic activity (33 isolates) than exoglycolytic (19 isolates), and the degradation activity was shown to be modulated by the presence of NaCl. The isolated bacteria were clustered by BOX-PCR and further classified on the basis of partial 16S rRNA sequences as Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes or Bacteroidetes. Therefore, this study highlights the importance of studies focusing on the endemic species found in mangroves to exploit them as novel biotechnological tools for the degradation of cellulose. PMID:24516466

  10. Endo- and exoglucanase activities in bacteria from mangrove sediment.

    PubMed

    Soares Júnior, Fábio Lino; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Fasanella, Cristiane Cipola; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; de Souza Lima, André Oliveira; Melo, Itamar Soares; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2013-01-01

    The mangrove ecosystem is an unexplored source for biotechnological applications. In this unique environment, endemic bacteria have the ability to thrive in the harsh environmental conditions (salinity and anaerobiosis), and act in the degradation of organic matter, promoting nutrient cycles. Thus, this study aimed to assess the cellulolytic activities of bacterial groups present in the sediment from a mangrove located in Ilha do Cardoso (SP, Brazil). To optimize the isolation of cellulolytic bacteria, enrichments in two types of culture media (tryptone broth and minimum salt medium), both supplemented with 5% NaCl and 1% of cellulose, were performed. Tests conducted with the obtained colonies showed a higher occurrence of endoglycolytic activity (33 isolates) than exoglycolytic (19 isolates), and the degradation activity was shown to be modulated by the presence of NaCl. The isolated bacteria were clustered by BOX-PCR and further classified on the basis of partial 16S rRNA sequences as Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes or Bacteroidetes. Therefore, this study highlights the importance of studies focusing on the endemic species found in mangroves to exploit them as novel biotechnological tools for the degradation of cellulose.

  11. In Situ Characterization of Nitrospira-Like Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacteria Active in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    PubMed Central

    Daims, Holger; Nielsen, Jeppe L.; Nielsen, Per H.; Schleifer, Karl-Heinz; Wagner, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Uncultivated Nitrospira-like bacteria in different biofilm and activated-sludge samples were investigated by cultivation-independent molecular approaches. Initially, the phylogenetic affiliation of Nitrospira-like bacteria in a nitrifying biofilm was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Subsequently, a phylogenetic consensus tree of the Nitrospira phylum including all publicly available sequences was constructed. This analysis revealed that the genus Nitrospira consists of at least four distinct sublineages. Based on these data, two 16S rRNA-directed oligonucleotide probes specific for the phylum and genus Nitrospira, respectively, were developed and evaluated for suitability for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The probes were used to investigate the in situ architecture of cell aggregates of Nitrospira-like nitrite oxidizers in wastewater treatment plants by FISH, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and computer-aided three-dimensional visualization. Cavities and a network of cell-free channels inside the Nitrospira microcolonies were detected that were water permeable, as demonstrated by fluorescein staining. The uptake of different carbon sources by Nitrospira-like bacteria within their natural habitat under different incubation conditions was studied by combined FISH and microautoradiography. Under aerobic conditions, the Nitrospira-like bacteria in bioreactor samples took up inorganic carbon (as HCO3− or as CO2) and pyruvate but not acetate, butyrate, and propionate, suggesting that these bacteria can grow mixotrophically in the presence of pyruvate. In contrast, no uptake by the Nitrospira-like bacteria of any of the carbon sources tested was observed under anoxic or anaerobic conditions. PMID:11679356

  12. Commensal bacteria calibrate the activation threshold of innate antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Abt, Michael C; Osborne, Lisa C; Monticelli, Laurel A; Doering, Travis A; Alenghat, Theresa; Sonnenberg, Gregory F; Paley, Michael A; Antenus, Marcelo; Williams, Katie L; Erikson, Jan; Wherry, E John; Artis, David

    2012-07-27

    Signals from commensal bacteria can influence immune cell development and susceptibility to infectious or inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms by which commensal bacteria regulate protective immunity after exposure to systemic pathogens remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that antibiotic-treated (ABX) mice exhibit impaired innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses and substantially delayed viral clearance after exposure to systemic LCMV or mucosal influenza virus. Furthermore, ABX mice exhibited severe bronchiole epithelial degeneration and increased host mortality after influenza virus infection. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of macrophages isolated from ABX mice revealed decreased expression of genes associated with antiviral immunity. Moreover, macrophages from ABX mice exhibited defective responses to type I and type II IFNs and impaired capacity to limit viral replication. Collectively, these data indicate that commensal-derived signals provide tonic immune stimulation that establishes the activation threshold of the innate immune system required for optimal antiviral immunity.

  13. Application of Ice Nucleation - Active Bacteria to Food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Soichi; Watanabe, Michiko

    Ice nucleation-active bacteria act as nuclei and are able to freeze water without supercooling to a great degree. They are known as a major cause of the frost damage to crops. We have been trying with success to positively apply these bacteria to freeze texturing of food materials, freeze concentration of fresh liquid foods, formation of new physical properties of foods by freezing, and so forth. The most useful species for these applications is Xanthomonas campestris which has recently been designated as a food additive by the Japan Ministry of Health and Welfare and produced on an industrial scale. This paper reviews these topics, with some practical examples quoted primarily from our studies.

  14. A MEMBRANE FILTER PROCEDURE FOR ASSAYING CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY IN HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytotoxic activity assays of Gram-negative, heterotrophic bacteria are often laborious and time consuming. The objective of this study was to develop in situ procedures for testing potential cytotoxic activities of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from drinking water systems. Wate...

  15. Bacteria activate sensory neurons that modulate pain and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Isaac M.; Heesters, Balthasar A.; Ghasemlou, Nader; Von Hehn, Christian A.; Zhao, Fan; Tran, Johnathan; Wainger, Brian; Strominger, Amanda; Muralidharan, Sriya; Horswill, Alexander R.; Wardenburg, Juliane Bubeck; Hwang, Sun Wook; Carroll, Michael C.; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Nociceptor sensory neurons are specialized to detect potentially damaging stimuli, protecting the organism by initiating the sensation of pain and eliciting defensive behaviors. Bacterial infections produce pain by unknown molecular mechanisms, although they are presumed secondary to immune activation. Here we demonstrate that bacteria directly activate nociceptors, and that the immune response mediated through TLR2, MyD88, T cells, B cells, and neutrophils/monocytes is not necessary for Staphylococcus aureus induced pain in mice. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia parallels live bacterial load rather than tissue swelling or immune activation. Bacteria induce calcium flux and action potentials in nociceptor neurons, in part via bacterial N-formylated peptides and the pore-forming toxin alpha-hemolysin through distinct mechanisms. Specific ablation of Nav1.8-lineage neurons, which include nociceptors, abrogated pain during bacterial infection, but concurrently increased local immune infiltration and lymphadenopathy of the draining lymph node. Thus, bacterial pathogens produce pain by directly activating sensory neurons that modulate inflammation, an unsuspected role for the nervous system in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23965627

  16. Antibacterial activity of caffeine against plant pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sledz, Wojciech; Los, Emilia; Paczek, Agnieszka; Rischka, Jacek; Motyka, Agata; Zoledowska, Sabina; Piosik, Jacek; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of a plant secondary metabolite - caffeine. Caffeine is present in over 100 plant species. Antibacterial activity of caffeine was examined against the following plant-pathogenic bacteria: Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsol), Clavibacter michiganesis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms), Dickeya solani (Dsol), Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), and Xanthomonas campestris subsp. campestris (Xcc). MIC and MBC values ranged from 5 to 20 mM and from 43 to 100 mM, respectively. Caffeine increased the bacterial generation time of all tested species and caused changes in cell morphology. The influence of caffeine on the synthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins was investigated in cultures of plant pathogenic bacteria with labelled precursors: [(3)H]thymidine, [(3)H]uridine or (14)C leucine, respectively. RNA biosynthesis was more affected than DNA or protein biosynthesis in bacterial cells treated with caffeine. Treatment of Pba with caffeine for 336 h did not induce resistance to this compound. Caffeine application reduced disease symptoms caused by Dsol on chicory leaves, potato slices, and whole potato tubers. The data presented indicate caffeine as a potential tool for the control of diseases caused by plant-pathogenic bacteria, especially under storage conditions. PMID:26307771

  17. Active invasion of bacteria into living fungal cells

    PubMed Central

    Moebius, Nadine; Üzüm, Zerrin; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Lackner, Gerald; Hertweck, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The rice seedling blight fungus Rhizopus microsporus and its endosymbiont Burkholderia rhizoxinica form an unusual, highly specific alliance to produce the highly potent antimitotic phytotoxin rhizoxin. Yet, it has remained a riddle how bacteria invade the fungal cells. Genome mining for potential symbiosis factors and functional analyses revealed that a type 2 secretion system (T2SS) of the bacterial endosymbiont is required for the formation of the endosymbiosis. Comparative proteome analyses show that the T2SS releases chitinolytic enzymes (chitinase, chitosanase) and chitin-binding proteins. The genes responsible for chitinolytic proteins and T2SS components are highly expressed during infection. Through targeted gene knock-outs, sporulation assays and microscopic investigations we found that chitinase is essential for bacteria to enter hyphae. Unprecedented snapshots of the traceless bacterial intrusion were obtained using cryo-electron microscopy. Beyond unveiling the pivotal role of chitinolytic enzymes in the active invasion of a fungus by bacteria, these findings grant unprecedented insight into the fungal cell wall penetration and symbiosis formation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03007.001 PMID:25182414

  18. Antibacterial activity of caffeine against plant pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sledz, Wojciech; Los, Emilia; Paczek, Agnieszka; Rischka, Jacek; Motyka, Agata; Zoledowska, Sabina; Piosik, Jacek; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of a plant secondary metabolite - caffeine. Caffeine is present in over 100 plant species. Antibacterial activity of caffeine was examined against the following plant-pathogenic bacteria: Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsol), Clavibacter michiganesis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms), Dickeya solani (Dsol), Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), and Xanthomonas campestris subsp. campestris (Xcc). MIC and MBC values ranged from 5 to 20 mM and from 43 to 100 mM, respectively. Caffeine increased the bacterial generation time of all tested species and caused changes in cell morphology. The influence of caffeine on the synthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins was investigated in cultures of plant pathogenic bacteria with labelled precursors: [(3)H]thymidine, [(3)H]uridine or (14)C leucine, respectively. RNA biosynthesis was more affected than DNA or protein biosynthesis in bacterial cells treated with caffeine. Treatment of Pba with caffeine for 336 h did not induce resistance to this compound. Caffeine application reduced disease symptoms caused by Dsol on chicory leaves, potato slices, and whole potato tubers. The data presented indicate caffeine as a potential tool for the control of diseases caused by plant-pathogenic bacteria, especially under storage conditions.

  19. Synergistic Effect of Photosynthetic Bacteria and Isolated Bacteria in Their Antifungal Activities against Root Rot Fungi.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongyi; Okunishi, Suguru; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Kamei, Yuto; Dawwoda, Mahmoud A O; Santander-DE Leon, Sheila Mae S; Nuñal, Sharon Nonato; Maeda, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    Antifungal bacteria (AB) in root rot fungus (RRF)-contaminated sweet potato farms were isolated, and seven strains were initially chosen as antagonistic candidates. An antagonistic test by using the mycelial disk placement method revealed that one AB strain by itself could inhibit the RRF growth. This AB strain was identified as Bacillus polyfermenticus based on phylogeny of 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Two AB strains (Bacillus aerophilus) displayed high levels of antifungal activity when paired with photosynthetic bacterial strain A (a purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas faecalis). The results suggest the possible use of the isolates as agents for the biological control of the RRF infection of agricultural products in fields of cultivation. PMID:27667522

  20. Physico-Chemical-Managed Killing of Penicillin-Resistant Static and Growing Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Vegetative Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Robert Chaffee (Inventor); Schramm, Jr., Harry F. (Inventor); Defalco, Francis G. (Inventor); Farris, III, Alex F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Systems and methods for the use of compounds from the Hofmeister series coupled with specific pH and temperature to provide rapid physico-chemical-managed killing of penicillin-resistant static and growing Gram-positive and Gram-negative vegetative bacteria. The systems and methods represent the more general physico-chemical enhancement of susceptibility for a wide range of pathological macromolecular targets to clinical management by establishing the reactivity of those targets to topically applied drugs or anti-toxins.

  1. Molecular Evidence for Metabolically Active Bacteria in the Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ann M; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Jaffe, Daniel A; Levin, David A; Green, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial metabolisms are responsible for critical chemical transformations in nearly all environments, including oceans, freshwater, and soil. Despite the ubiquity of bacteria in the atmosphere, little is known about the metabolic functioning of atmospheric bacterial communities. To gain a better understanding of the metabolism of bacterial communities in the atmosphere, we used a combined empirical and model-based approach to investigate the structure and composition of potentially active bacterial communities in air sampled at a high elevation research station. We found that the composition of the putatively active bacterial community (assayed via rRNA) differed significantly from the total bacterial community (assayed via rDNA). Rare taxa in the total (rDNA) community were disproportionately active relative to abundant taxa, and members of the order Rhodospirillales had the highest potential for activity. We developed theory to explore the effects of random sampling from the rRNA and rDNA communities on observed differences between the communities. We found that random sampling, particularly in cases where active taxa are rare in the rDNA community, will give rise to observed differences in community composition including the occurrence of "phantom taxa", taxa which are detected in the rRNA community but not the rDNA community. We show that the use of comparative rRNA/rDNA techniques can reveal the structure and composition of the metabolically active portion of bacterial communities. Our observations suggest that metabolically active bacteria exist in the atmosphere and that these communities may be involved in the cycling of organic compounds in the atmosphere.

  2. Molecular Evidence for Metabolically Active Bacteria in the Atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ann M.; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Levin, David A.; Green, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial metabolisms are responsible for critical chemical transformations in nearly all environments, including oceans, freshwater, and soil. Despite the ubiquity of bacteria in the atmosphere, little is known about the metabolic functioning of atmospheric bacterial communities. To gain a better understanding of the metabolism of bacterial communities in the atmosphere, we used a combined empirical and model-based approach to investigate the structure and composition of potentially active bacterial communities in air sampled at a high elevation research station. We found that the composition of the putatively active bacterial community (assayed via rRNA) differed significantly from the total bacterial community (assayed via rDNA). Rare taxa in the total (rDNA) community were disproportionately active relative to abundant taxa, and members of the order Rhodospirillales had the highest potential for activity. We developed theory to explore the effects of random sampling from the rRNA and rDNA communities on observed differences between the communities. We found that random sampling, particularly in cases where active taxa are rare in the rDNA community, will give rise to observed differences in community composition including the occurrence of “phantom taxa”, taxa which are detected in the rRNA community but not the rDNA community. We show that the use of comparative rRNA/rDNA techniques can reveal the structure and composition of the metabolically active portion of bacterial communities. Our observations suggest that metabolically active bacteria exist in the atmosphere and that these communities may be involved in the cycling of organic compounds in the atmosphere. PMID:27252689

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Bacteria That Grow on Methane and Organic Compounds as Sole Sources of Carbon and Energy

    PubMed Central

    Patt, Tom E.; Cole, Gloria C.; Bland, Judith; Hanson, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Bacteria capable of growth on methane and a variety of complex organic substrates as sole sources of carbon and energy have been isolated. Conditions used to rigorously establish the purity of the cultures are described. One facultative methylotroph has been studied in detail. This organism has peripherally arranged pairs of intracytoplasmic membranes characteristic of obligate methylotrophs. This isolate apparently utilizes the serine pathway of formaldehyde fixation. The location of methane oxidizers in a dimictic lake indicates that these organisms prefer less than saturating levels of dissolved oxygen. Laboratory experiments confirmed the preference of these organisms for atmospheres containing less oxygen than air. Images PMID:4142033

  4. Membrane-Targeting DCAP Analogues with Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic Activity against Pathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Katherine A; Heinrich, Victoria A; Hershfield, Jeremy R; Demons, Samandra T; Weibel, Douglas B

    2015-04-01

    We performed a structure-activity relationship study of 2-((3-(3,6-dichloro-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-2-hydroxypropyl)amino)-2-(hydroxymethyl)propane-1,3-diol (DCAP), which is an antibacterial agent that disrupts the membrane potential and permeability of bacteria. The stereochemistry of DCAP had no effect on the biological activity of DCAP. The aromaticity and electronegativity of the chlorine-substituted carbazole was required for activity, suggesting that its planar and dipolar characteristics orient DCAP in membranes. Increasing the hydrophobicity of the tail region of DCAP enhanced its antibiotic activity. Two DCAP analogues displayed promising antibacterial activity against the BSL-3 pathogens Bacillus anthracis and Francisella tularensis. Codosing DCAP analogues with ampicillin or kanamycin increased their potency. These studies demonstrate that DCAP and its analogues may be a promising scaffold for developing chemotherapeutic agents that bind to bacterial membranes and kill strains of slow-growing or dormant bacteria that cause persistent infections. PMID:25941556

  5. Factors affecting the activity of anammox bacteria during start up in the continuous culture reactor.

    PubMed

    Jung, J Y; Kang, S H; Chung, Y C; Ahn, D H

    2007-01-01

    Factors affecting cultivation of extremely slow-growing bacteria (anaerobic ammonium oxidiser, doubling time 11 days) were investigated by using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors which can maintain high solid retention time. The effects of concentrations of DO, free ammonia (FA), and nitrite on activation of anammox activity were tested during the start-up period. The reactor was inoculated with granular sludge collected from a full-scale UASB reactor used for treating brewery wastewater, and sludge from a piggery wastewater treatment plant and rotating biological contactor treating sewage. Results of continuous operation showed that concentrations of DO, free ammonia (FA) and nitrite in the reactors played a key role in stimulating the anammox activity during start-up period. It is crucial to keep DO below 0.2 ppm, FA below 2 mg/L and nitrite nitrogen below 35 mg/L to cultivate anammox cells in the continuous bioreactor. When the levels of DO, FA and nitrite in the influent were controlled at less than the inhibition levels, the anammox activity increased gradually in the anaerobic condition. Addition of hydrogen sulphide into the reactor enhanced anammox activity in the continuous culture. Through the SEM, TEM and FISH analysis, anammox bacteria were detected in the granular sludge after 3 months of continuous operation. PMID:17305171

  6. Toxicity of smoke to epiphytic ice nucleation-active bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zagory, D; Lindow, S E; Parmeter, J R

    1983-07-01

    Wheat straw smoke aerosols and liquid smoke condensates reduced significantly both the viability and the ice-nucleating activity of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and Erwinia herbicola in vitro and on leaf surfaces in vivo. Highly significant reductions in numbers of bacterial ice nuclei on the surface of both corn and almond were observed after exposure to smoke aerosols. At -5 degrees C, frost injury to corn seedlings colonized by ice nucleation-active bacteria was reduced after exposure to smoke aerosols. Effects on -9 degrees C ice nuclei, although significant, were less than on ice nuclei active at -5 degrees C. These results suggest that smoke from wildfires or smudge pots may reduce plant frost susceptibility and sources of ice nuclei important in other natural processes under some conditions. PMID:16346333

  7. Probing the fractal pattern and organization of Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria colonies growing under different conditions using quantitative spectral light scattering polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Paromita; Soni, Jalpa; Purwar, Harsh; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Sengupta, Tapas K.

    2013-03-01

    Development of methods for quantification of cellular association and patterns in growing bacterial colony is of considerable current interest, not only to help understand multicellular behavior of a bacterial species but also to facilitate detection and identification of a bacterial species in a given space and under a given set of condition(s). We have explored quantitative spectral light scattering polarimetry for probing the morphological and structural changes taking place during colony formations of growing Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria under different conditions (in normal nutrient agar representing favorable growth environment, in the presence of 1% glucose as an additional nutrient, and 3 mM sodium arsenate as toxic material). The method is based on the measurement of spectral 3×3 Mueller matrices (which involves linear polarization measurements alone) and its subsequent analysis via polar decomposition to extract the intrinsic polarization parameters. Moreover, the fractal micro-optical parameter, namely, the Hurst exponent H, is determined via fractal-Born approximation-based inverse analysis of the polarization-preserving component of the light scattering spectra. Interesting differences are noted in the derived values for the H parameter and the intrinsic polarization parameters (linear diattenuation d, linear retardance δ, and linear depolarization Δ coefficients) of the growing bacterial colonies under different conditions. The bacterial colony growing in presence of 1% glucose exhibit the strongest fractality (lowest value of H), whereas that growing in presence of 3 mM sodium arsenate showed the weakest fractality. Moreover, the values for δ and d parameters are found to be considerably higher for the colony growing in presence of glucose, indicating more structured growth pattern. These findings are corroborated further with optical microscopic studies conducted on the same samples.

  8. Characterization of root-nodulating bacteria associated to Prosopis farcta growing in the arid regions of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Fterich, A; Mahdhi, M; Caviedes, M A; Pajuelo, E; Rivas, R; Rodriguez-Llorente, I D; Mars, M

    2011-06-01

    Diversity of 50 bacterial isolates recovered from root nodules of Prosopis farcta grown in different arid soils in Tunisia, was investigated. Characterization of isolates was assessed using a polyphasic approach including phenotypic characteristics, 16S rRNA gene PCR--RFLP and sequencing, nodA gene sequencing and MLSA. It was found that most of isolates are tolerant to high temperature (40°C) and salinity (3%). Genetic characterization emphasizes that isolates were assigned to the genus Ensifer (80%), Mesorhizobium (4%) and non-nodulating endophytic bacteria (16%). Forty isolates belonging to the genus Ensifer were affiliated to Ensifer meliloti, Ensifer xinjiangense/Ensifer fredii and Ensifer numidicus species. Two isolates belonged to the genus Mesorhizobium. Eight isolates failing to renodulate their host plant were endophytic bacteria and belonged to Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Acinetobacter genera. Symbiotic properties of nodulating isolates showed a diversity in their capacity to infect their host plant and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Isolate PG29 identified as Ensifer meliloti was the most effective one. Ability of Prosopis farcta to establish symbiosis with rhizobial species confers an important advantage for this species to be used in reforestation programs. This study offered the first systematic information about the diversity of microsymbionts nodulating Prosopis farcta in the arid regions of Tunisia.

  9. Cellulolytic activity and structure of symbiotic bacteria in locust guts.

    PubMed

    Su, L-J; Liu, H; Li, Y; Zhang, H-F; Chen, M; Gao, X-H; Wang, F-Q; Song, A-D

    2014-01-01

    Locusts are able to digest the cellulose of Gramineae plants, resulting in their being considered as major crop pests. To illustrate the mechanism involved in cellulose digestion, the cellulolytic activity and zymography in the gut contents of 16 locust species were determined using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as substrate. The diversity of gut symbiotic bacteria was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that high CMC activity was present in Acrididae gut fluid (mean 356.4 U/g proteins). Of the 5 locust species, Oxya chinensis had the highest diversity of intestinal symbiotic bacteria, characterized by the DGGE profile containing more than 20 bands of 16S rRNA. Klebsiella pneumoniae, in the gut of Locusta migratoria manilensis, was identified as the most abundant symbiotic bacterium by DNA sequencing, with a relative abundance of 19.74%. In comparison, Methylobacterium sp was the most dominant species in the Atractomorpha sinensis gut, with a relative abundance of 29.04%. The results indicated that the cellulolytic enzymes and gut microbial communities probably reflected their phylogenetic relationship with different locust species and associated feeding strategies. PMID:25299108

  10. [Activated Sludge Bacteria Transforming Cyanopyridines and Amides of Pyridinecarboxylic Acids].

    PubMed

    Demakov, V A; Vasil'ev, D M; Maksimova, Yu G; Pavlova, Yu A; Ovechkina, G V; Maksimov, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    Species diversity of bacteria from the activated sludge of Perm biological waste treatment facilities capable of transformation of cyanopyridines and amides of pyridinecarboxylic acids was investigated. Enrichment cultures in mineral media with 3-cyanopyridine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source were used to obtain 32 clones of gram-negative heterotrophic bacteria exhibiting moderate growth on solid and liquid media with 3- and 4-cyanopyridine. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed that the clones with homology of at least 99% belonged to the genera Acinetobacte, Alcaligenes, Delftia, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, and Xanthobacter. PCR analysis showed that 13 out of 32 isolates contained the sequences (-1070 bp) homologous to the nitrilase genes reported previously in Alcaligenes faecalis JM3 (GenBank, D13419.1). Nine clones were capable of nitrile and amide transformation in minimal salt medium. Acinetobacter sp. 11 h and Alcaligenes sp. osv transformed 3-cyanopyridine to nicotinamide, while most of the clones possessed amidase activity (0.5 to 46.3 mmol/(g h) for acetamide and 0.1 to 5.6 mmol/(g h) for nicotinamide). Nicotinamide utilization by strain A. faecalis 2 was shown to result in excretion of a secondary metabolite, which was identified as dodecyl acrylate at 91% probability. PMID:26263697

  11. Azoreductase activity of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human intestinal microflora.

    PubMed Central

    Rafii, F; Franklin, W; Cerniglia, C E

    1990-01-01

    A plate assay was developed for the detection of anaerobic bacteria that produce azoreductases. With this plate assay, 10 strains of anaerobic bacteria capable of reducing azo dyes were isolated from human feces and identified as Eubacterium hadrum (2 strains), Eubacterium spp. (2 species), Clostridium clostridiiforme, a Butyrivibrio sp., a Bacteroides sp., Clostridium paraputrificum, Clostridium nexile, and a Clostridium sp. The average rate of reduction of Direct Blue 15 dye (a dimethoxybenzidine-based dye) in these strains ranged from 16 to 135 nmol of dye per min per mg of protein. The enzymes were inactivated by oxygen. In seven isolates, a flavin compound (riboflavin, flavin adenine dinucleotide, or flavin mononucleotide) was required for azoreductase activity. In the other three isolates and in Clostridium perfringens, no added flavin was required for activity. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that each bacterium expressed only one azoreductase isozyme. At least three types of azoreductase enzyme were produced by the different isolates. All of the azoreductases were produced constitutively and released extracellularly. Images PMID:2202258

  12. Cellulolytic activity and structure of symbiotic bacteria in locust guts.

    PubMed

    Su, L-J; Liu, H; Li, Y; Zhang, H-F; Chen, M; Gao, X-H; Wang, F-Q; Song, A-D

    2014-01-01

    Locusts are able to digest the cellulose of Gramineae plants, resulting in their being considered as major crop pests. To illustrate the mechanism involved in cellulose digestion, the cellulolytic activity and zymography in the gut contents of 16 locust species were determined using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as substrate. The diversity of gut symbiotic bacteria was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that high CMC activity was present in Acrididae gut fluid (mean 356.4 U/g proteins). Of the 5 locust species, Oxya chinensis had the highest diversity of intestinal symbiotic bacteria, characterized by the DGGE profile containing more than 20 bands of 16S rRNA. Klebsiella pneumoniae, in the gut of Locusta migratoria manilensis, was identified as the most abundant symbiotic bacterium by DNA sequencing, with a relative abundance of 19.74%. In comparison, Methylobacterium sp was the most dominant species in the Atractomorpha sinensis gut, with a relative abundance of 29.04%. The results indicated that the cellulolytic enzymes and gut microbial communities probably reflected their phylogenetic relationship with different locust species and associated feeding strategies.

  13. [The effect of selected tannery chemical compounds on selected bacteria of activated sludge].

    PubMed

    Mendrycka, M; Mierzejewski, J; Lidacki, A; Smiechowski, K

    2000-01-01

    Influence of tannery chemical compounds on the selected bacteria of the activated sludge was investigated. The chromium compounds must be diluted to 1:15-1:20 to loss its activity on the bacteria. Other compounds like: natrium chloratum, natrium formate and greased oils have any influence on the growth of the selected bacteria. PMID:11286092

  14. Bacteria associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within roots of plants growing in a soil highly contaminated with aliphatic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Iffis, Bachir; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) belong to phylum Glomeromycota, an early divergent fungal lineage forming symbiosis with plant roots. Many reports have documented that bacteria are intimately associated with AMF mycelia in the soil. However, the role of these bacteria remains unclear and their diversity within intraradical AMF structures has yet to be explored. We aim to assess the bacterial communities associated within intraradical propagules (vesicles and intraradical spores) harvested from roots of plant growing in the sediments of an extremely petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted basin. Solidago rugosa roots were sampled, surface-sterilized, and microdissected. Eleven propagules were randomly collected and individually subjected to whole-genome amplification, followed by PCRs, cloning, and sequencing targeting fungal and bacterial rDNA. Ribotyping of the 11 propagules showed that at least five different AMF OTUs could be present in S. rugosa roots, while 16S rRNA ribotyping of six of the 11 different propagules showed a surprisingly high bacterial richness associated with the AMF within plant roots. Most dominant bacterial OTUs belonged to Sphingomonas sp., Pseudomonas sp., Massilia sp., and Methylobacterium sp. This study provides the first evidence of the bacterial diversity associated with AMF propagules within the roots of plants growing in extremely petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted conditions.

  15. Bacteria associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within roots of plants growing in a soil highly contaminated with aliphatic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Iffis, Bachir; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) belong to phylum Glomeromycota, an early divergent fungal lineage forming symbiosis with plant roots. Many reports have documented that bacteria are intimately associated with AMF mycelia in the soil. However, the role of these bacteria remains unclear and their diversity within intraradical AMF structures has yet to be explored. We aim to assess the bacterial communities associated within intraradical propagules (vesicles and intraradical spores) harvested from roots of plant growing in the sediments of an extremely petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted basin. Solidago rugosa roots were sampled, surface-sterilized, and microdissected. Eleven propagules were randomly collected and individually subjected to whole-genome amplification, followed by PCRs, cloning, and sequencing targeting fungal and bacterial rDNA. Ribotyping of the 11 propagules showed that at least five different AMF OTUs could be present in S. rugosa roots, while 16S rRNA ribotyping of six of the 11 different propagules showed a surprisingly high bacterial richness associated with the AMF within plant roots. Most dominant bacterial OTUs belonged to Sphingomonas sp., Pseudomonas sp., Massilia sp., and Methylobacterium sp. This study provides the first evidence of the bacterial diversity associated with AMF propagules within the roots of plants growing in extremely petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted conditions. PMID:25039790

  16. Diversity and Activity of Methanotrophic Bacteria in Different Upland Soils

    PubMed Central

    Knief, Claudia; Lipski, André; Dunfield, Peter F.

    2003-01-01

    Samples from diverse upland soils that oxidize atmospheric methane were characterized with regard to methane oxidation activity and the community composition of methanotrophic bacteria (MB). MB were identified on the basis of the detection and comparative sequence analysis of the pmoA gene, which encodes a subunit of particulate methane monooxygenase. MB commonly detected in soils were closely related to Methylocaldum spp., Methylosinus spp., Methylocystis spp., or the “forest sequence cluster” (USC α), which has previously been detected in upland soils and is related to pmoA sequences of type II MB (Alphaproteobacteria). As well, a novel group of sequences distantly related (<75% derived amino acid identity) to those of known type I MB (Gammaproteobacteria) was often detected. This novel “upland soil cluster γ” (USC γ) was significantly more likely to be detected in soils with pH values of greater than 6.0 than in more acidic soils. To identify active MB, four selected soils were incubated with 13CH4 at low mixing ratios (<50 ppm of volume), and extracted methylated phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were analyzed by gas chromatography-online combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Incorporation of 13C into PLFAs characteristic for methanotrophic Gammaproteobacteria was observed in all soils in which USC γ sequences were detected, suggesting that the bacteria possessing these sequences were active methanotrophs. A pattern of labeled PLFAs typical for methanotrophic Alphaproteobacteria was obtained for a sample in which only USC α sequences were detected. The data indicate that different MB are present and active in different soils that oxidize atmospheric methane. PMID:14602631

  17. Antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against periodontopathic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Iauk, L; Lo Bue, A M; Milazzo, I; Rapisarda, A; Blandino, G

    2003-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Althaea officinalis L. roots, Arnica montana L. flowers, Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hamamelis virginiana L. leaves, Illicium verum Hook. fruits and Melissa officinalis L. leaves, against anaerobic and facultative aerobic periodontal bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Fusobacterium nucleatum, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Veilonella parvula, Eikenella corrodens, Peptostreptococcus micros and Actinomyces odontolyticus. The methanol extracts of H. virginiana and A. montana and, to a lesser extent, A. officinalis were shown to possess an inhibiting activity (MIC < or = 2048 mg/L) against many of the species tested. In comparison, M. officinalis and C. officinalis extracts had a lower inhibiting activity (MIC > or = 2048 mg/L) against all the tested species with the exception of Prevotella sp. Illicium verum methanol extract was not very active though it had a particular good activity against E. corrodens. The results suggest the use of the alcohol extracts of H. virginiana, A. montana and A. officinalis for topical medications in periodontal prophylactics.

  18. Plasma membrane H(+) -ATPase gene expression, protein level and activity in growing and non-growing regions of barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves.

    PubMed

    Visnovitz, Tamás; Solti, Adám; Csikós, György; Fricke, Wieland

    2012-04-01

    Plasma membrane proton ATPase (PM-H⁺-ATPase) is the key means through which plant cells energize nutrient uptake and acidify the apoplast. Both of these processes aid cell elongation; yet, it is not known how such a suspected role of the PM-H⁺-ATPase in growth is reflected through changes in its transcript level and activity in grass leaves. In the present study on leaf three of barley, the elongation zone and the emerged blade, which contained fully expanded cells were analyzed. Plasma membranes were isolated and used to assay the activity (ATPase assay) and abundance (western blotting) of PM-H⁺-ATPase protein. Expression of mRNA was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). PM-H⁺-ATPase transcript and protein level and activity differed little between growing and non-growing leaf regions when values were related to unit extracted total RNA and cell number, respectively. However, when values were related to unit surface area of plasma membrane, they were more than twice as high in growing compared with non-growing leaf tissue. It is concluded that this higher surface density of PM-H⁺-ATPase activity in growing barley leaf tissue aids apoplast acidification and cell expansion. PMID:22257033

  19. [Effects of growing time on Panax ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial activity and biomass].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chun-ping; Yang, Li-min; Ma, Feng-min

    2014-12-01

    Using the field sampling and indoor soil cultivation methods, the dynamic of ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial activity and biomass with three cultivated ages was studied to provide a theory basis for illustrating mechanism of continuous cropping obstacles of ginseng. The results showed that ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial activity and biomass accumulation were inhibited observably by growing time. The soil respiration, soil cellulose decomposition and soil nitrification of ginseng rhizosphere soil microorganism were inhibited significantly (P <0.05), in contrast to the control soil uncultivated ginseng (R0). And the inhibition was gradual augmentation with the number of growing years. The soil microbial activity of 3a ginseng soil (R3) was the lowest, and its activity of soil respiration, soil cellulose decomposition, soil ammonification and soil nitrification was lower than that in R0 with 56.31%, 86.71% and 90. 53% , respectively. The soil ammonification of ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial was significantly promoted compared with R0. The promotion was improved during the early growing time, while the promotion was decreased with the number of growing years. The soil ammonification of R1, R2 and R3 were lower than that in R0 with 32.43%, 80.54% and 66.64% separately. The SMB-C and SMB-N in ginseng rhizosphere soil had a decreased tendency with the number of growing years. The SMB-C difference among 3 cultivated ages was significant, while the SMB-N was not. The SMB of R3 was the lowest. Compared with R0, the SMB-C and the SMB-N were significantly reduced 77.30% and 69.36%. It was considered by integrated analysis that the leading factor of continuous cropping obstacle in ginseng was the changes of the rhizosphere soil microbial species, number and activity as well as the micro-ecological imbalance of rhizosphere soil caused by the accumulation of ginseng rhizosphere secretions.

  20. In vitro evaluation of faropenem activity against anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Behra-Miellet, J; Dubreuil, L; Bryskier, A

    2005-02-01

    Faropenem, a new oral penem with broad spectrum activity, could be used as empirical treatment in infections due to unidentified anaerobes, but only a few investigations have been carried out on these bacteria. The aim of this study was to compare faropenem in vitro activity with that of positive antimicrobial controls (metronidazole, imipenem, meropenem, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, cefotetan, cefoxitin and clindamycin) against 462 anaerobic bacterial strains. The reference agar dilution method was used according to the NCCLS standard. Faropenem demonstrated high antimicrobial activity, similar to that of both imipenem and meropenem (faropenem Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations 50% and 90% were 0.12 and 1 mg/L for all Gram-negative anaerobes, 0.25 and 1 mg/L for all Gram-positive anaerobes). Only 5 strains of the Bacteroides fragilis group (1.1% of all anaerobes) were resistant to faropenem, which compared favorably with that of other reference antianaerobic drugs. The results obtained confirm those previously reported. PMID:15828442

  1. Recovering glycoside hydrolase genes from active tundra cellulolytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pinnell, Lee J; Dunford, Eric; Ronan, Patrick; Hausner, Martina; Neufeld, Josh D

    2014-07-01

    Bacteria responsible for cellulose hydrolysis in situ are poorly understood, largely because of the relatively recent development of cultivation-independent methods for their detection and characterization. This study combined DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) and metagenomics for identifying active bacterial communities that assimilated carbon from glucose and cellulose in Arctic tundra microcosms. Following DNA-SIP, bacterial fingerprint analysis of gradient fractions confirmed isotopic enrichment. Sequenced fingerprint bands and clone library analysis of 16S rRNA genes identified active bacterial taxa associated with cellulose-associated labelled DNA, including Bacteroidetes (Sphingobacteriales), Betaproteobacteria (Burkholderiales), Alphaproteobacteria (Caulobacteraceae), and Chloroflexi (Anaerolineaceae). We also compared glycoside hydrolase metagenomic profiles from bulk soil and heavy DNA recovered from DNA-SIP incubations. Active populations consuming [(13)C]glucose and [(13)C]cellulose were distinct, based on ordinations of light and heavy DNA. Metagenomic analysis demonstrated a ∼3-fold increase in the relative abundance of glycoside hydrolases in DNA-SIP libraries over bulk-soil libraries. The data also indicate that multiple displacement amplification introduced bias into the resulting metagenomic analysis. This research identified DNA-SIP incubation conditions for glucose and cellulose that were suitable for Arctic tundra soil and confirmed that DNA-SIP enrichment can increase target gene frequencies in metagenomic libraries.

  2. Metabolic activity of permafrost bacteria below the freezing point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivkina, E. M.; Friedmann, E. I.; McKay, C. P.; Gilichinsky, D. A.

    2000-01-01

    Metabolic activity was measured in the laboratory at temperatures between 5 and -20 degrees C on the basis of incorporation of (14)C-labeled acetate into lipids by samples of a natural population of bacteria from Siberian permafrost (permanently frozen soil). Incorporation followed a sigmoidal pattern similar to growth curves. At all temperatures, the log phase was followed, within 200 to 350 days, by a stationary phase, which was monitored until the 550th day of activity. The minimum doubling times ranged from 1 day (5 degrees C) to 20 days (-10 degrees C) to ca. 160 days (-20 degrees C). The curves reached the stationary phase at different levels, depending on the incubation temperature. We suggest that the stationary phase, which is generally considered to be reached when the availability of nutrients becomes limiting, was brought on under our conditions by the formation of diffusion barriers in the thin layers of unfrozen water known to be present in permafrost soils, the thickness of which depends on temperature.

  3. Inhibitory activity of spices and essential oils on psychrotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fabio, A; Corona, A; Forte, E; Quaglio, P

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate "in vitro" the inhibitory effects of spices and essential oils on the growth of psycrotrophic food-borne bacteria: Aeromonas hydrophila, Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica. The sensitivity to nine spices and their oils (chilli, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, nutmeg, oregano, rosemary, sage, thyme) was studied. Antibacterial activity was evaluated on liquid and solid medium. Spices: 1% concentration of each spice was added separately to Triptic Soy Broth and then inoculated to contain 10(8)/ml organism and held to 4 degrees C for 7 days. Populations of test organism were determined on Triptic Soy Agar. Oils: Inhibition of growth was tested by using the paper disc agar diffusion method (at 35, 20 and 4 degrees C) and measuring their inhibition zone. MIC was determined by the broth microdilution method. Some culinary spices produce antibacterial activity: inhibition of growth ranged from complete (cinnamon and cloves against A. hydrophila) to no inhibition. Antibacterial inhibition zone ranged from 8 mm to 45 mm: thyme essential oil showed the greatest inhibition against A. hydrophila. PMID:12578319

  4. Metabolic Activity of Permafrost Bacteria below the Freezing Point

    PubMed Central

    Rivkina, E. M.; Friedmann, E. I.; McKay, C. P.; Gilichinsky, D. A.

    2000-01-01

    Metabolic activity was measured in the laboratory at temperatures between 5 and −20°C on the basis of incorporation of 14C-labeled acetate into lipids by samples of a natural population of bacteria from Siberian permafrost (permanently frozen soil). Incorporation followed a sigmoidal pattern similar to growth curves. At all temperatures, the log phase was followed, within 200 to 350 days, by a stationary phase, which was monitored until the 550th day of activity. The minimum doubling times ranged from 1 day (5°C) to 20 days (−10°C) to ca. 160 days (−20°C). The curves reached the stationary phase at different levels, depending on the incubation temperature. We suggest that the stationary phase, which is generally considered to be reached when the availability of nutrients becomes limiting, was brought on under our conditions by the formation of diffusion barriers in the thin layers of unfrozen water known to be present in permafrost soils, the thickness of which depends on temperature. PMID:10919774

  5. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of different parts of Tribulus terrestris L. growing in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Al-Bayati, Firas A; Al-Mola, Hassan F

    2008-02-01

    Antimicrobial activity of organic and aqueous extracts from fruits, leaves and roots of Tribulus terrestris L., an Iraqi medicinal plant used as urinary anti-infective in folk medicine, was examined against 11 species of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using microdilution method in 96 multiwell microtiter plates. All the extracts from the different parts of the plant showed antimicrobial activity against most tested microorganisms. The most active extract against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was ethanol extract from the fruits with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.15 mg/ml against B. subtilis, B. cereus, P. vulgaris and C. diphtheriae. In addition, the same extract from the same plant part demonstrated the strongest antifungal activity against C. albicans with an MIC value of 0.15 mg/ml.

  6. Ice nucleation activity of bacteria isolated from cloud water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, Muriel; Attard, Eléonore; Sancelme, Martine; Deguillaume, Laurent; Guilbaud, Caroline; Morris, Cindy E.; Amato, Pierre; Delort, Anne-Marie

    2013-05-01

    Some Gamma-Proteobacteria can catalyze ice formation thereby potentially contributing to the induction of precipitation in supercooled clouds and subsequently to bacterial deposition. Forty-four bacterial strains from cloud water were screened for their capacity to induce freezing. Seven strains (16%) were active at -8 °C or warmer and were identified as Pseudomonas syringae, Xanthomonas spp. and Pseudoxanthomonas sp. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the P. syringae strains in clouds at the Puy de Dôme belonged to clades that are among the most infrequently detected in the environment, while widespread clades were absent suggesting some extent of selection or unusual biogeography of the bacteria at the sampling site. Three strains induced freezing at -3 °C while the others nucleated ice at -4 °C to -6 °C. The freezing profiles revealed that the peaks of activity were centered around -3.5 °C, -5 °C and/or -8.5 °C depending on the strain. The frequency of ice-nuclei (IN) per cell at -6 °C was generally below 0.5% and reached up to 4.2% in one strain. We estimated that clouds influenced by vegetated areas would carry between less than 1 and ˜500 bacterial IN mL-1 of water active between -3 °C and -10 °C depending on the season. These data will contribute to modeling the impact of bacterial IN on precipitation at regional scales.

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Blue Light against Nosocomial Wound Pathogens Growing Planktonically and as Mature Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Thwaite, Joanne E.; Burt, Rebecca; Laws, Thomas R.; Raguse, Marina; Moeller, Ralf; Webber, Mark A.; Oppenheim, Beryl A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The blue wavelengths within the visible light spectrum are intrinisically antimicrobial and can photodynamically inactivate the cells of a wide spectrum of bacteria (Gram positive and negative) and fungi. Furthermore, blue light is equally effective against both drug-sensitive and -resistant members of target species and is less detrimental to mammalian cells than is UV radiation. Blue light is currently used for treating acnes vulgaris and Helicobacter pylori infections; the utility for decontamination and treatment of wound infections is in its infancy. Furthermore, limited studies have been performed on bacterial biofilms, the key growth mode of bacteria involved in clinical infections. Here we report the findings of a multicenter in vitro study performed to assess the antimicrobial activity of 400-nm blue light against bacteria in both planktonic and biofilm growth modes. Blue light was tested against a panel of 34 bacterial isolates (clinical and type strains) comprising Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter cloacae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Elizabethkingia meningoseptica. All planktonic-phase bacteria were susceptible to blue light treatment, with the majority (71%) demonstrating a ≥5-log10 decrease in viability after 15 to 30 min of exposure (54 J/cm2 to 108 J/cm2). Bacterial biofilms were also highly susceptible to blue light, with significant reduction in seeding observed for all isolates at all levels of exposure. These results warrant further investigation of blue light as a novel decontamination strategy for the nosocomial environment, as well as additional wider decontamination applications. IMPORTANCE Blue light shows great promise as a novel decontamination strategy for the nosocomial environment, as well as additional wider decontamination applications (e.g., wound closure during surgery). This warrants further

  8. Activity of the antiseptic polyhexanide against gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fabry, Werner Hugo Karl; Kock, Hans-Jürgen; Vahlensieck, Winfried

    2014-04-01

    The activity of the antiseptic polyhexanide was tested against 250 gram-negative clinical isolates, that is, 50 isolates each of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined by using a serial broth microdilution technique according to DIN 58940. Time-kill studies were performed for reference stains E. coli ATCC 25922, K. pneumoniae ATCC 4352, P. aeruginosa ATCC 15442, M. catarrhalis ATCC 43617, and H. influenzae ATCC 49247. All tested isolates had MICs and MBCs within a range of 1-32 mg/L and were regarded as susceptible to polyhexanide. The highest values were found for P. aeruginosa and H. influenzae with MICs and MBCs of 32 mg/L. Addition of up to 4% albumin to the test medium did not change MICs and MBCs. Time-kill studies of the reference strains showed reduction rates from 3 log10 colony forming units (CFU)/ml to more than 5 log10 CFU/ml for 200 and 400 mg/L polyhexanide within 5-30 min. Testing of polyhexanide in combination with antibiotics showed indifference with amoxicillin, cefotaxime, imipenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin; no antagonism was found. As no resistance and no antagonism with antibiotics were detected, polyhexanide is regarded as suitable agent for topical eradication of gram-negative bacteria.

  9. Antibacterial activity of sphingoid bases and fatty acids against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Carol L; Drake, David R; Dawson, Deborah V; Blanchette, Derek R; Brogden, Kim A; Wertz, Philip W

    2012-03-01

    There is growing evidence that the role of lipids in innate immunity is more important than previously realized. How lipids interact with bacteria to achieve a level of protection, however, is still poorly understood. To begin to address the mechanisms of antibacterial activity, we determined MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of lipids common to the skin and oral cavity--the sphingoid bases D-sphingosine, phytosphingosine, and dihydrosphingosine and the fatty acids sapienic acid and lauric acid--against four Gram-negative bacteria and seven Gram-positive bacteria. Exact Kruskal-Wallis tests of these values showed differences among lipid treatments (P < 0.0001) for each bacterial species except Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. D-sphingosine (MBC range, 0.3 to 19.6 μg/ml), dihydrosphingosine (MBC range, 0.6 to 39.1 μg/ml), and phytosphingosine (MBC range, 3.3 to 62.5 μg/ml) were active against all bacteria except S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Sapienic acid (MBC range, 31.3 to 375.0 μg/ml) was active against Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mitis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum but not active against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, S. marcescens, P. aeruginosa, Corynebacterium bovis, Corynebacterium striatum, and Corynebacterium jeikeium (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Lauric acid (MBC range, 6.8 to 375.0 μg/ml) was active against all bacteria except E. coli, S. marcescens, and P. aeruginosa (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Complete killing was achieved as early as 0.5 h for some lipids but took as long as 24 h for others. Hence, sphingoid bases and fatty acids have different antibacterial activities and may have potential for prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in infection.

  10. Antibacterial Activity of Sphingoid Bases and Fatty Acids against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Carol L.; Drake, David R.; Dawson, Deborah V.; Blanchette, Derek R.; Brogden, Kim A.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the role of lipids in innate immunity is more important than previously realized. How lipids interact with bacteria to achieve a level of protection, however, is still poorly understood. To begin to address the mechanisms of antibacterial activity, we determined MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of lipids common to the skin and oral cavity—the sphingoid bases d-sphingosine, phytosphingosine, and dihydrosphingosine and the fatty acids sapienic acid and lauric acid—against four Gram-negative bacteria and seven Gram-positive bacteria. Exact Kruskal-Wallis tests of these values showed differences among lipid treatments (P < 0.0001) for each bacterial species except Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. d-Sphingosine (MBC range, 0.3 to 19.6 μg/ml), dihydrosphingosine (MBC range, 0.6 to 39.1 μg/ml), and phytosphingosine (MBC range, 3.3 to 62.5 μg/ml) were active against all bacteria except S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Sapienic acid (MBC range, 31.3 to 375.0 μg/ml) was active against Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mitis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum but not active against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, S. marcescens, P. aeruginosa, Corynebacterium bovis, Corynebacterium striatum, and Corynebacterium jeikeium (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Lauric acid (MBC range, 6.8 to 375.0 μg/ml) was active against all bacteria except E. coli, S. marcescens, and P. aeruginosa (MBC > 500 μg/ml). Complete killing was achieved as early as 0.5 h for some lipids but took as long as 24 h for others. Hence, sphingoid bases and fatty acids have different antibacterial activities and may have potential for prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in infection. PMID:22155833

  11. Identification of active fluorescence stained bacteria by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Mario; Beyer, Beatrice; Pietsch, Christian; Radt, Benno; Harz, Michaela; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2008-04-01

    Microorganisms can be found everywhere e.g. in food both as useful ingredients or harmful contaminations causing food spoilage. Therefore, a fast and easy to handle analysis method is needed to detect bacteria in different kinds of samples like meat, juice or air to decide if the sample is contaminated by harmful microorganisms. Conventional identification methods in microbiology require always cultivation and therefore are time consuming. In this contribution we present an analysis approach to identify fluorescence stained bacteria on strain level by means of Raman spectroscopy. The stained bacteria are highlighted and can be localized easier against a complex sample environment e.g. in food. The use of Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrical methods allows the identification of single bacteria within minutes.

  12. Ice nucleation temperature of individual leaves in relation to population sizes of ice nucleation active bacteria and frost injury.

    PubMed

    Hirano, S S; Baker, L S; Upper, C D

    1985-02-01

    Ice nucleation temperatures of individual leaves were determined by a tube nucleation test. With this assay, a direct quantitative relationship was obtained between the temperatures at which ice nucleation occurred on individual oat (Avena sativa L.) leaves and the population sizes of ice nucleation active (INA) bacteria present on those leaves. In the absence of INA bacteria, nucleation of supercooled growth-chamber grown oat leaves did not occur until temperatures were below approximately -5 degrees C. Both nucleation temperature and population size of INA bacteria were determined on the same individual, field-grown oat leaves. Leaves with higher ice nucleation temperatures harbored larger populations of INA bacteria than did leaves with lower nucleation temperatures. Log(10) mean populations of INA bacteria per leaf were 5.14 and 3.51 for leaves with nucleation temperatures of -2.5 degrees C and -3.0 degrees C, respectively. Nucleation frequencies (the ratio of ice nuclei to viable cells) of INA bacteria on leaves were lognormally distributed. Strains from two very different collections of Pseudomonas syringae and one of Erwinia herbicola were cultured on nutrient glycerol agar and tested for nucleation frequency at -5 degrees C. Nucleation frequencies of these bacterial strains were also lognormally distributed within each of the three sets. The tube nucleation test was used to determine the frequency with which individual leaves in an oat canopy harbored large populations of INA bacteria throughout the growing season. This test also predicted relative frost hazard to tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) plants. PMID:16664039

  13. Ice Nucleation Temperature of Individual Leaves in Relation to Population Sizes of Ice Nucleation Active Bacteria and Frost Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Susan S.; Baker, L. Stuart; Upper, Christen D.

    1985-01-01

    Ice nucleation temperatures of individual leaves were determined by a tube nucleation test. With this assay, a direct quantitative relationship was obtained between the temperatures at which ice nucleation occurred on individual oat (Avena sativa L.) leaves and the population sizes of ice nucleation active (INA) bacteria present on those leaves. In the absence of INA bacteria, nucleation of supercooled growth-chamber grown oat leaves did not occur until temperatures were below approximately −5°C. Both nucleation temperature and population size of INA bacteria were determined on the same individual, field-grown oat leaves. Leaves with higher ice nucleation temperatures harbored larger populations of INA bacteria than did leaves with lower nucleation temperatures. Log10 mean populations of INA bacteria per leaf were 5.14 and 3.51 for leaves with nucleation temperatures of −2.5°C and −3.0°C, respectively. Nucleation frequencies (the ratio of ice nuclei to viable cells) of INA bacteria on leaves were lognormally distributed. Strains from two very different collections of Pseudomonas syringae and one of Erwinia herbicola were cultured on nutrient glycerol agar and tested for nucleation frequency at −5°C. Nucleation frequencies of these bacterial strains were also lognormally distributed within each of the three sets. The tube nucleation test was used to determine the frequency with which individual leaves in an oat canopy harbored large populations of INA bacteria throughout the growing season. This test also predicted relative frost hazard to tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) plants. PMID:16664039

  14. Influence of different anoxic time exposures on active biomass, protozoa and filamentous bacteria in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Perez, S; Fermoso, F G; Arnaiz, C

    2016-01-01

    Medium-sized wastewater treatment plants are considered too small to implement anaerobic digestion technologies and too large for extensive treatments. A promising option as a sewage sludge reduction method is the inclusion of anoxic time exposures. In the present study, three different anoxic time exposures of 12, 6 and 4 hours have been studied to reduce sewage sludge production. The best anoxic time exposure was observed under anoxic/oxic cycles of 6 hours, which reduced 29.63% of the biomass production compared with the oxic control conditions. The sludge under different anoxic time exposures, even with a lower active biomass concentration than the oxic control conditions, showed a much higher metabolic activity than the oxic control conditions. Microbiological results suggested that both protozoa density and abundance of filamentous bacteria decrease under anoxic time exposures compared to oxic control conditions. The anoxic time exposures 6/6 showed the highest reduction in both protozoa density, 37.5%, and abundance of filamentous bacteria, 41.1%, in comparison to the oxic control conditions. The groups of crawling ciliates, carnivorous ciliates and filamentous bacteria were highly influenced by the anoxic time exposures. Protozoa density and abundance of filamentous bacteria have been shown as promising bioindicators of biomass production reduction.

  15. Influence of different anoxic time exposures on active biomass, protozoa and filamentous bacteria in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Perez, S; Fermoso, F G; Arnaiz, C

    2016-01-01

    Medium-sized wastewater treatment plants are considered too small to implement anaerobic digestion technologies and too large for extensive treatments. A promising option as a sewage sludge reduction method is the inclusion of anoxic time exposures. In the present study, three different anoxic time exposures of 12, 6 and 4 hours have been studied to reduce sewage sludge production. The best anoxic time exposure was observed under anoxic/oxic cycles of 6 hours, which reduced 29.63% of the biomass production compared with the oxic control conditions. The sludge under different anoxic time exposures, even with a lower active biomass concentration than the oxic control conditions, showed a much higher metabolic activity than the oxic control conditions. Microbiological results suggested that both protozoa density and abundance of filamentous bacteria decrease under anoxic time exposures compared to oxic control conditions. The anoxic time exposures 6/6 showed the highest reduction in both protozoa density, 37.5%, and abundance of filamentous bacteria, 41.1%, in comparison to the oxic control conditions. The groups of crawling ciliates, carnivorous ciliates and filamentous bacteria were highly influenced by the anoxic time exposures. Protozoa density and abundance of filamentous bacteria have been shown as promising bioindicators of biomass production reduction. PMID:27508364

  16. Activity and synergistic antimicrobial activity between diketopiperazines against bacteria in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Nishanth; Siji, J V; Nambisan, Bala; Mohandas, C

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the synergistic effects of diketopiperazines [cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu) (1), cyclo-(D-Pro-L-Leu) (2), and cyclo-(D-Pro-L-Tyr) (3)] purified from a Bacillus sp. N strain associated with entomopathogenic nematode Rhabditis (Oscheius) sp. on the growth of bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the diketopiperazines was compared with that of the standard antibiotics. The synergistic antibacterial activities of the combination of diketopiperazines against pathogenic bacteria were assessed using the checkerboard assay and time-kill methods. The results of the present study showed that the combination effects of diketopiperazines were predominately synergistic (FIC index <0.5). Furthermore, time-kill study showed that the growth of the tested bacteria was completely attenuated with 4-12 h of treatment with 50:50 ratios of diketopiperazines. These results suggest that the combination of diketopiperazines may be microbiologically beneficial. The three diketopiperazines are nontoxic to normal human cell line (L231 lung epithelial) up to 200 m μg/ml. The in vitro synergistic activity of cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu), cyclo-(D-Pro-L-Leu), and cyclo-(D-Pro-L-Tyr) against bacteria is reported here for the first time. These findings have potential implications in delaying the development of resistance as the antibacterial effect is achieved with lower concentrations of both drugs (diketopiperazines).

  17. Development of long-term preservation and re-activation techniques for ANAMMOX bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ANAMMOX are slow growing biofilm-forming bacteria responsible for the anaerobic oxidation of ammonia to produce nitrogen gas and nitrate. ANAMMOX-based bioreactors are being used to effectively treat high ammonia concentrations in industrial, municipal and agricultural wastewaters. Usually, fresh sl...

  18. Simultaneous fluorescent gram staining and activity assessment of activated sludge bacteria.

    PubMed

    Forster, Scott; Snape, Jason R; Lappin-Scott, Hilary M; Porter, Jonathan

    2002-10-01

    Wastewater treatment is one of the most important commercial biotechnological processes, and yet the component bacterial populations and their associated metabolic activities are poorly understood. The novel fluorescent dye hexidium iodide allows assessment of Gram status by differential absorption through bacterial cell walls. Differentiation between gram-positive and gram-negative wastewater bacteria was achieved after flow cytometric analysis. This study shows that the relative proportions of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial cells identified by traditional microscopy and hexidium iodide staining were not significantly different. Dual staining of cells for Gram status and activity proved effective in analyzing mixtures of cultured bacteria and wastewater populations. Levels of highly active organisms at two wastewater treatment plants, both gram positive and gram negative, ranged from 1.5% in activated sludge flocs to 16% in the activated sludge fluid. Gram-positive organisms comprised <5% of the total bacterial numbers but accounted for 19 and 55% of the highly active organisms within flocs at the two plants. Assessment of Gram status and activity within activated sludge samples over a 4-day period showed significant differences over time. This method provides a rapid, quantitative measure of Gram status linked with in situ activity within wastewater systems.

  19. Winter climate change affects growing-season soil microbial biomass and activity in northern hardwood forests.

    PubMed

    Durán, Jorge; Morse, Jennifer L; Groffman, Peter M; Campbell, John L; Christenson, Lynn M; Driscoll, Charles T; Fahey, Timothy J; Fisk, Melany C; Mitchell, Myron J; Templer, Pamela H

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to global change remains a major challenge of ecological research. We exploited a natural elevation gradient in a northern hardwood forest to determine how reductions in snow accumulation, expected with climate change, directly affect dynamics of soil winter frost, and indirectly soil microbial biomass and activity during the growing season. Soils from lower elevation plots, which accumulated less snow and experienced more soil temperature variability during the winter (and likely more freeze/thaw events), had less extractable inorganic nitrogen (N), lower rates of microbial N production via potential net N mineralization and nitrification, and higher potential microbial respiration during the growing season. Potential nitrate production rates during the growing season were particularly sensitive to changes in winter snow pack accumulation and winter soil temperature variability, especially in spring. Effects of elevation and winter conditions on N transformation rates differed from those on potential microbial respiration, suggesting that N-related processes might respond differently to winter climate change in northern hardwood forests than C-related processes. PMID:24796872

  20. Winter climate change affects growing-season soil microbial biomass and activity in northern hardwood forests.

    PubMed

    Durán, Jorge; Morse, Jennifer L; Groffman, Peter M; Campbell, John L; Christenson, Lynn M; Driscoll, Charles T; Fahey, Timothy J; Fisk, Melany C; Mitchell, Myron J; Templer, Pamela H

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to global change remains a major challenge of ecological research. We exploited a natural elevation gradient in a northern hardwood forest to determine how reductions in snow accumulation, expected with climate change, directly affect dynamics of soil winter frost, and indirectly soil microbial biomass and activity during the growing season. Soils from lower elevation plots, which accumulated less snow and experienced more soil temperature variability during the winter (and likely more freeze/thaw events), had less extractable inorganic nitrogen (N), lower rates of microbial N production via potential net N mineralization and nitrification, and higher potential microbial respiration during the growing season. Potential nitrate production rates during the growing season were particularly sensitive to changes in winter snow pack accumulation and winter soil temperature variability, especially in spring. Effects of elevation and winter conditions on N transformation rates differed from those on potential microbial respiration, suggesting that N-related processes might respond differently to winter climate change in northern hardwood forests than C-related processes.

  1. Integrating multiscale polar active contours and region growing for microcalcifications segmentation in mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikidis, N. S.; Karahaliou, A.; Skiadopoulos, S.; Likaki, E.; Panagiotakis, G.; Costaridou, L.

    2009-07-01

    Morphology of individual microcalcifications is an important clinical factor in microcalcification clusters diagnosis. Accurate segmentation remains a difficult task due to microcalcifications small size, low contrast, fuzzy nature and low distinguishability from surrounding tissue. A novel application of active rays (polar transformed active contours) on B-spline wavelet representation is employed, to provide initial estimates of microcalcification boundary. Then, a region growing method is used with pixel aggregation constrained by the microcalcification boundary estimates, to obtain the final microcalcification boundary. The method was tested on dataset of 49 microcalcification clusters (30 benign, 19 malignant), originating from the DDSM database. An observer study was conducted to evaluate segmentation accuracy of the proposed method, on a 5-point rating scale (from 5:excellent to 1:very poor). The average accuracy rating was 3.98±0.81 when multiscale active rays were combined to region growing and 2.93±0.92 when combined to linear polynomial fitting, while the difference in rating of segmentation accuracy was statistically significant (p < 0.05).

  2. Proliferative activity of endotheliocytes of growing capillaries of the rabbit cornea

    SciTech Connect

    Gurina, O.Yu.; Mamontov, S.G.; Banin, V.V.

    1987-10-01

    The authors studied the intensity of DNA synthesis by cells of newly formed capillaries, growing in the rabbit cornea, after infliction of a silver nitrate burn and local application of colchicine. The intensity of capillary growth was investigated during stimulation and a combination of the burn with colchicine. Changes in activity of DNA synthesis by the endotheliocytes of newly formed capillaries during exposure throughout growth were also investigated. The intensity of cell proliferation was studied by measuring the incorporation of tritium-labelled thymidine into the endotheoiocyte nuclei.

  3. Growing up Active: A Study into Physical Activity in Long Day Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashmore, Aaron W.; Jones, Sandra C.

    2008-01-01

    The child care center is an ideal setting in which to implement strategies to promote physical activity and healthy weight, but there is a paucity of empirical evidence on factors that influence physical activity in these settings. The current study gathered initial qualitative data to explore these factors. Child care workers from five long day…

  4. Mannose-Binding Activity of Escherichia coli: a Determinant of Attachment and Ingestion of the Bacteria by Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Shavit, Zvi; Goldman, Rachel; Ofek, Itzhak; Sharon, Nathan; Mirelman, David

    1980-01-01

    Recently, it was suggested that a mannose-specific lectin on the bacterial cell surface is responsible for the recognition by phagocytic cells of certain nonopsonized Escherichia coli strains. In this study we assessed the interaction of two strains of E. coli at different phases of growth with a monolayer of mouse peritoneal macrophages and developed a direct method with [14C]mannan to quantitate the bacterial mannose-binding activity. Normal-sized bacteria were obtained from logarithmic and stationary phases of growth. Nonseptated filamentous cells were formed by growing the organisms in the presence of cephalexin or at a restrictive temperature. Attachment to macrophages of all bacterial forms was inhibited by methyl α-d-mannoside and mannan but not by other sugars tested. The attachment of stationary phase and filamentous bacteria to macrophages, as well as their mannose-binding activity, was similar, whereas in the exponential-phase bacteria they were markedly reduced. The results show a linear relation between the two parameters (R = 0.98, P < 0.001). The internalization of the filamentous cells attached to macrophages during 45 min of incubation was much less efficient (20%) compared to that of exponential-phase, stationary-phase, or antibody-coated filamentous bacteria (90%). The results indicate that the mannose-binding activity of E. coli determines the recognition of the organisms by phagocytes. They further suggest that administration of β-lactam antibiotics may impair elimination of certain pathogenic bacteria by inducing the formation of filaments which are inefficiently internalized by the host's phagocytic cells. PMID:7011977

  5. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils of Satureja thymbra growing wild in Libya.

    PubMed

    Giweli, Abdulhmid; Džamić, Ana M; Soković, Marina; Ristić, Mihailo S; Marin, Petar D

    2012-01-01

    The composition of essential oil isolated from Satureja thymbra, growing wild in Libya, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil was characterized by γ-terpinene (39.23%), thymol (25.16%), p-cymene (7.17%) and carvacrol (4.18%) as the major constituents. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method. It possessed strong antioxidant activity (IC50 = 0.0967 mg/mL). The essential oil was also screened for its antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial and eight fungal species, showing excellent antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms used, in particular against the fungi. The oil of S. thymbra showed bacteriostatic activity at 0.001-0.1 mg/mL and was bactericidal at 0.002-0.2 mg/mL; fungistatic effects at 0.001-0.025 mg/mL and fungicidal effects at 0.001-0.1 mg/mL. The main constituents thymol, carvacrol and γ-terpinene also showed strong antimicrobial activity. The commercial fungicide bifonazole showed much lower antifungal activity than the tested oil. PMID:22538487

  6. Chitinase producing bacteria with direct algicidal activity on marine diatoms.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Lei, Xueqian; Zhu, Hong; Zhang, Huajun; Guan, Chengwei; Chen, Zhangran; Zheng, Wei; Fu, Lijun; Zheng, Tianling

    2016-01-01

    Chitinase producing bacteria can involve extensively in nutrient cycling and energy flow in the aquatic environment through degradation and utilization of chitin. It is well known that diatoms cells are encased by box-like frustules composed of chitin. Thus the chitin containing of diatoms shall be a natural target of chitinase producing bacteria, however, the interaction between these two organismic groups has not been studied thus far. Therefore, in this study, the algicidal mechanism of one chitinase producing bacterium (strain LY03) on Thalassiosira pseudonana was investigated. The algicidal range and algicidal mode of strain LY03 were first studied, and then bacterial viability, chemotactic ability and direct interaction characteristic between bacteria and diatom were also confirmed. Finally, the characteristic of the intracellular algicidal substance was identified and the algicidal mechanism was determined whereby algicidal bacterial cells showed chemotaxis to algal cells, fastened themselves on algal cells with their flagella, and then produced chitinase to degrade algal cell walls, and eventually caused algal lysis and death. It is the first time to investigate the interaction between chitinase producing bacteria and diatoms, and this novel special interaction mode was confirmed in this study, which will be helpful in protection and utilization of diatoms resources. PMID:26902175

  7. Chitinase producing bacteria with direct algicidal activity on marine diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Lei, Xueqian; Zhu, Hong; Zhang, Huajun; Guan, Chengwei; Chen, Zhangran; Zheng, Wei; Fu, Lijun; Zheng, Tianling

    2016-01-01

    Chitinase producing bacteria can involve extensively in nutrient cycling and energy flow in the aquatic environment through degradation and utilization of chitin. It is well known that diatoms cells are encased by box-like frustules composed of chitin. Thus the chitin containing of diatoms shall be a natural target of chitinase producing bacteria, however, the interaction between these two organismic groups has not been studied thus far. Therefore, in this study, the algicidal mechanism of one chitinase producing bacterium (strain LY03) on Thalassiosira pseudonana was investigated. The algicidal range and algicidal mode of strain LY03 were first studied, and then bacterial viability, chemotactic ability and direct interaction characteristic between bacteria and diatom were also confirmed. Finally, the characteristic of the intracellular algicidal substance was identified and the algicidal mechanism was determined whereby algicidal bacterial cells showed chemotaxis to algal cells, fastened themselves on algal cells with their flagella, and then produced chitinase to degrade algal cell walls, and eventually caused algal lysis and death. It is the first time to investigate the interaction between chitinase producing bacteria and diatoms, and this novel special interaction mode was confirmed in this study, which will be helpful in protection and utilization of diatoms resources. PMID:26902175

  8. Antibiotic production by soil bacteria: diversity, activity and natural functions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The living components of soils, the micro- and macrobiota, play an essential role in several life support functions as they enable soils to recycle nutrients, inactive contaminants, suppress plant pathogens and serve as a suitable substrate for plant growth. Beneficial bacteria occur naturally in s...

  9. Activity of capryloyl collagenic acid against bacteria involved in acne.

    PubMed

    Fourniat, J; Bourlioux, P

    1989-12-01

    Synopsis Capryloyl collagenic acid (Lipacide C8Co) has similar bacteriostatic activity in vitro to that of benzoyl peroxide towards the bacteria found in acne lesions (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes) (MIC between 1 and 4 mg ml(-1) for C8Co, and between 0.5 and 5 mg ml(-1) for benzoyl peroxide). The presence of Emulgine M8 did not affect the bacteriostatic activity of C8Co. A 4% w/v solution of C8Co (incorporating Emulgine M8) fulfilled the criteria for an antiseptic preparation as laid down by the French Pharmacopoeia (10th Edition), and had a spectrum 5 bactericidal activity according to the French Standard AFNOR NF T 72-151. The excellent cutaneous tolerance of capryloyl collagenic acid would indicate that an aqueous solution might be of value for topical treatment of the bacterial component of acne. Résumé Activité antibactérienne de l'acide capryloyl-collagénique vis à vis des bactéries impliquées dans l'etiologie de l'acné L'acide capryloyl-collagénique (Lipacide C8Co) et le peroxyde de benzoyle présentent une activité bactériostatique in-vitroéquivalente vis à vis des espèces bactériennes retrouvées au niveau des lésions acnéiques (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis et Propionibacterium acnes) (CMI comprise entre 1 et 4 mg ml(-1) pour le lipoaminoacide, et 0,5 et 5 mg ml(-1) pour le peroxyde de benzoyle). La mise en solution aqueuse de l'acide capryloyl-collagénique en présence d'Emulgine M8 ne modifie pas son activité bactériostatique. Une telle solution, à 4% m/V d'acide capryloyl-collagénique et 5% m/V d'Emulgine M8, satisfait à l'essai d'activité des préparations antiseptiques décrit à la Pharmacopée Française (Xème Ed.) (concentration minimale antiseptique: 10% v/V, pour un temps de contact de 5 min à 32 degrees C entre les germes tests et la solution diluée en eau distillée), et posséde une activité bactéricide antiseptique spectre 5 conforme à la norme AFNOR NF T

  10. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of different parts of Tribulus terrestris L. growing in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bayati, Firas A.; Al-Mola, Hassan F.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of organic and aqueous extracts from fruits, leaves and roots of Tribulus terrestris L., an Iraqi medicinal plant used as urinary anti-infective in folk medicine, was examined against 11 species of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using microdilution method in 96 multiwell microtiter plates. All the extracts from the different parts of the plant showed antimicrobial activity against most tested microorganisms. The most active extract against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was ethanol extract from the fruits with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.15 mg/ml against B. subtilis, B. cereus, P. vulgaris and C. diphtheriae. In addition, the same extract from the same plant part demonstrated the strongest antifungal activity against C. albicans with an MIC value of 0.15 mg/ml. PMID:18257138

  11. Phenotypic diversity and amylolytic activity of fast growing rhizobia from pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp].

    PubMed

    Júnior, Paulo Ivan Fernandes; de Lima, Andréa Aparecida; Passos, Samuel Ribeiro; Tuão Gava, Carlos Alberto; de Oliveira, Paulo Jansen; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvêa; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated 26 pigeonpea rhizobial isolates according to their cultural characteristics, intrinsic antibiotic resistance, salt and temperature tolerance, carbon source utilization and amylolytic activity. The cultural characterization showed that the majority of them presented the ability to acidify the YMA. Among the 27 isolates evaluated, 25 were able to grow when incubated at 42° C and 11 showed tolerance to 3% (w/v) of NaCl in YMA medium. The patterns of carbon sources utilization was very diverse among the isolates. It was observed the capacity of three strains to metabolize all the carbon sources evaluated and a total of 42% of the bacterial isolates was able to grow in the culture medium supplemented with at least, six carbon sources. The carbon sources mannitol (control) and sucrose were metabilized by all isolates evaluated. The profile of intrinsic resistance to antibiotics showed that the isolates were mostly resistant to streptomycin and ampicillin, but susceptible to kanamycin and chloranphenicol. High amylolytic activity of, at least, four isolates was also demonstrated, especially for isolated 47.3b, which showed the highest enzymatic index. These results indicate the metabolic versatility of the pigeonpea rhizobia, and indicates the isolate 47.3b to further studies regarding the amylase production and characterization. PMID:24031992

  12. Sensitivity of Active and Passive Microwave Observations to Soil Moisture during Growing Corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, J.; Monsivais-Huertero, A.; Liu, P.; De Roo, R. D.; England, A. W.; Nagarajan, K.

    2011-12-01

    Soil moisture (SM) in the root zone is a key factor governing water and energy fluxes at the land surface and its accurate knowledge is critical to predictions of weather and near-term climate, nutrient cycles, crop-yield, and ecosystem productivity. Microwave observations, such as those at L-band, are highly sensitive to soil moisture in the upper few centimeters (near-surface). The two satellite-based missions dedicated to soil moisture estimation include, the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission and the planned NASA Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) [4] mission. The SMAP mission will include active and passive sensors at L-band to provide global observations of SM, with a repeat coverage of every 2-3 days. These observations can significantly improve root zone soil moisture estimates through data assimilation into land surface models (LSMs). Both the active (radar) and passive (radiometer) microwave sensors measure radiation quantities that are functions of soil dielectric constant and exhibit similar sensitivities to SM. In addition to the SM sensitivity, radar backscatter is highly sensitive to roughness of soil surface and scattering within the vegetation. These effects may produce a much larger dynamic range in backscatter than that produced due to SM changes alone. In this study, we discuss the field observations of active and passive signatures of growing corn at L-band from several seasons during the tenth Microwave, Water and Energy Balance Experiment (MicroWEX-10) conducted in North Central Florida, and to understand the sensitivity of these signatures to soil moisture under dynamic vegetation conditions. The MicroWEXs are a series of season-long field experiments conducted during the growing seasons of sweet corn, cotton, and energy cane over the past six years (for example, [22]). The corn was planted on July 5 and harvested on September 23, 2011 during MicroWEX-10. The size of the field was 0.04 km2 and the soils

  13. Visualizing in situ translational activity for identifying and sorting slow-growing archaeal−bacterial consortia

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenpichler, Roland; Connon, Stephanie A.; Goudeau, Danielle; Malmstrom, Rex R.; Woyke, Tanja; Orphan, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    To understand the biogeochemical roles of microorganisms in the environment, it is important to determine when and under which conditions they are metabolically active. Bioorthogonal noncanonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT) can reveal active cells by tracking the incorporation of synthetic amino acids into newly synthesized proteins. The phylogenetic identity of translationally active cells can be determined by combining BONCAT with rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (BONCAT-FISH). In theory, BONCAT-labeled cells could be isolated with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (BONCAT-FACS) for subsequent genetic analyses. Here, in the first application, to our knowledge, of BONCAT-FISH and BONCAT-FACS within an environmental context, we probe the translational activity of microbial consortia catalyzing the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), a dominant sink of methane in the ocean. These consortia, which typically are composed of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria, have been difficult to study due to their slow in situ growth rates, and fundamental questions remain about their ecology and diversity of interactions occurring between ANME and associated partners. Our activity-correlated analyses of >16,400 microbial aggregates provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that AOM consortia affiliated with all five major ANME clades are concurrently active under controlled conditions. Surprisingly, sorting of individual BONCAT-labeled consortia followed by whole-genome amplification and 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed previously unrecognized interactions of ANME with members of the poorly understood phylum Verrucomicrobia. This finding, together with our observation that ANME-associated Verrucomicrobia are found in a variety of geographically distinct methane seep environments, suggests a broader range of symbiotic relationships within AOM consortia than previously thought. PMID:27357680

  14. Visualizing in situ translational activity for identifying and sorting slow-growing archaeal-bacterial consortia.

    PubMed

    Hatzenpichler, Roland; Connon, Stephanie A; Goudeau, Danielle; Malmstrom, Rex R; Woyke, Tanja; Orphan, Victoria J

    2016-07-12

    To understand the biogeochemical roles of microorganisms in the environment, it is important to determine when and under which conditions they are metabolically active. Bioorthogonal noncanonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT) can reveal active cells by tracking the incorporation of synthetic amino acids into newly synthesized proteins. The phylogenetic identity of translationally active cells can be determined by combining BONCAT with rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (BONCAT-FISH). In theory, BONCAT-labeled cells could be isolated with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (BONCAT-FACS) for subsequent genetic analyses. Here, in the first application, to our knowledge, of BONCAT-FISH and BONCAT-FACS within an environmental context, we probe the translational activity of microbial consortia catalyzing the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), a dominant sink of methane in the ocean. These consortia, which typically are composed of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria, have been difficult to study due to their slow in situ growth rates, and fundamental questions remain about their ecology and diversity of interactions occurring between ANME and associated partners. Our activity-correlated analyses of >16,400 microbial aggregates provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that AOM consortia affiliated with all five major ANME clades are concurrently active under controlled conditions. Surprisingly, sorting of individual BONCAT-labeled consortia followed by whole-genome amplification and 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed previously unrecognized interactions of ANME with members of the poorly understood phylum Verrucomicrobia This finding, together with our observation that ANME-associated Verrucomicrobia are found in a variety of geographically distinct methane seep environments, suggests a broader range of symbiotic relationships within AOM consortia than previously thought. PMID:27357680

  15. Antimicrobial activity of the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula against food-related pathogenic and putrefactive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Hirokazu; Endou, Fumiko; Furukawa, Soichi; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kouichi; Anzai, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Solvent extracts from the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula (Venus flytrap) were prepared using eight different organic solvents, and examined for antibacterial activity against food-related pathogenic and putrefactive bacteria. All solvent extracts showed higher antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria than against gram negative bacteria. The TLC-bioautography analysis of the extracts revealed that a yellow spot was detected at Rf value of 0.85, which showed strong antibacterial activity. The UV, MS, and NMR analyses revealed that the antibacterial compound was plumbagin. PMID:24077538

  16. Antimicrobial activity of the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula against food-related pathogenic and putrefactive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Hirokazu; Endou, Fumiko; Furukawa, Soichi; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kouichi; Anzai, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Solvent extracts from the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula (Venus flytrap) were prepared using eight different organic solvents, and examined for antibacterial activity against food-related pathogenic and putrefactive bacteria. All solvent extracts showed higher antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria than against gram negative bacteria. The TLC-bioautography analysis of the extracts revealed that a yellow spot was detected at Rf value of 0.85, which showed strong antibacterial activity. The UV, MS, and NMR analyses revealed that the antibacterial compound was plumbagin.

  17. Dichloromethane dehalogenase with improved catalytic activity isolated from a fast-growing dichloromethane-utilizing bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtz, R.; Egli, C.; Cook, A.M.; Leisinger, T. ); Wackett, L.P. )

    1988-12-01

    A methylotrophic bacterium, denoted strain DM11, was isolated from groundwater and shown to utilize dichloromethane or dibromomethane as the sole carbon and energy source. The new isolate grew at the high rate of 0.22 h{sup {minus}1} compared with 11 previously characterized dichloromethane-utilizing bacteria ({mu}{sub max}, 0.08 h{sup {minus}1}). The dichloromethane dehalogenase from strain DM11 (group B enzyme) was purified by anion-exchange chromatography. It was shown to be substantially different from the set of dichloromethane dehalogenases from the 11 slow-growing strains (group A enzymes) that had previously been demonstrated to be identical. The V{sub max} for the group B enzyme was 97 mkat/kg of protein, some 5.6-fold higher than that of the group A enzymes. The group A dehalogenases showed hyperbolic saturation with the cosubstrate glutathione, whereas the group B enzyme showed positive cooperativity in glutathione binding. Only 1 of 15 amino acids occupied common positions at the N termini, and amino acid contents were substantially different in group A and group B dehalogenases. Immunological assays demonstrated weak cross-reactivity between the two enzymes. Despite the observed structural and kinetic differences, there is potentially evolutionary relatedness between group A and group B enzymes, as indicated by (i) hybridization of DM11 DNA with a gene probe of the group A enzyme, (ii) a common requirement for glutathione in catalysis, and (iii) similar subunit molecular weights of about 34,000.

  18. [Activity of methane-oxidizing bacteria in the adsorbed state].

    PubMed

    Nesterov, A I; Nazarenko, A V

    1975-01-01

    Adsorption of pure cultures of methane oxidizing bacteria, Methylosinus trichosporium 20 and Methylococcus ucrainicus 21, on glass and coal was studied; the former strain was sorbed on both sorbents, the latter strain was sorbed on coal but not on glass. The rate of methane oxidation by the cells of adsorbed microorganisms was higher than in the case of free cells, and increased with a decrease in dimensions of the sorbent particles. PMID:1207502

  19. Testing anti-fungal activity of a soil-like substrate for growing plants in bioregenerative life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterenko, E. V.; Kozlov, V. A.; Khizhnyak, S. V.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu. L.; Liu, Hong; Xing, Yidong; Hu, Enzhu

    2009-10-01

    The object of this research is to study a soil-like substrate (SLS) to grow plants in a Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). Wheat and rice straw were used as raw materials to prepare SLS. Anti-fungal activity of SLS using test cultures of Bipolaris sorokiniana, a plant-pathogenic fungus which causes wheat root rot was studied. Experiments were conducted with SLS samples, using natural soil and sand as controls. Infecting the substrates, was performed at two levels: the first level was done with wheat seeds carrying B. sorokiniana and the second level with seeds and additional conidia of B. sorokiniana from an outside source. We measured wheat disease incidence and severity in two crop plantings. Lowest disease incidence values were obtained from the second planting, SLS: 26% and 41% at the first and the second infection levels, respectively. For soil the values were 60% and 82%, respectively, and for sand they were 67% and 74%, respectively. Wheat root rot in the second crop planting on SLS, at both infection levels was considerably less severe (9% and 13%, respectively) than on natural soil (20% and 33%) and sand (22% and 32%). SLS significantly suppressed the germination of B. sorokiniana conidia. Conidia germination was 5% in aqueous SLS suspension, and 18% in clean water. No significant differences were found regarding the impact on conidia germination between the SLS samples obtained from wheat and rice straw. The anti-fungal activity in SLS increased because of the presence of worms. SLS also contained bacteria stimulating and inhibiting B. sorokiniana growth.

  20. Perilipin+ embryonic preadipocytes actively proliferate along growing vasculatures for adipose expansion.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ki Yong; Bae, Hosung; Park, Intae; Park, Dae-Young; Kim, Kyun Hoo; Kubota, Yoshiaki; Cho, Eui-Sic; Kim, Hail; Adams, Ralf H; Yoo, Ook-Joon; Koh, Gou Young

    2015-08-01

    Despite the growing interest in adipose tissue as a therapeutic target of metabolic diseases, the identity of adipocyte precursor cells (preadipocytes) and the formation of adipose tissue during embryonic development are still poorly understood. Here, we clarified the identity and dynamic processes of preadipocytes in mouse white adipose tissue during embryogenesis through direct examination, lineage tracing and culture systems. Surprisingly, we found that lipid-lacking but perilipin(+) or adiponectin(+) proliferating preadipocytes started to emerge at embryonic day 16.5, and these cells underwent active proliferation until birth. Moreover, these preadipocytes resided as clusters and were distributed along growing adipose vasculatures. Importantly, the embryonic preadipocytes exhibited considerable coexpression of stem cell markers, such as CD24, CD29 and PDGFRα, and a small portion of preadipocytes were derived from PDGFRβ(+) mural cells, in contrast to the adult preadipocytes present in the stromal vascular fraction. Further analyses with in vitro and ex vivo culture systems revealed a stepwise but dynamic regulation of preadipocyte formation and differentiation during prenatal adipogenesis. To conclude, we unraveled the identity and characteristics of embryonic preadipocytes, which are crucial for the formation and expansion of adipose tissue during embryogenesis.

  1. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of Cr(VI)-reducer basalt-inhabiting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tsibakhashvili, Nelly Yasonovna; Frontasyeva, Marina Vladimirovna; Kirkesali, Elena Ivanovna; Aksenova, Nadezhda Gennadievna; Kalabegishvili, Tamaz Levanovich; Murusidze, Ivana Georgievich; Mosulishvili, Ligury Mikhailovich; Holman, Hoi-Ying N

    2006-09-15

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) has been applied to study elemental composition of Cr(VI)-reducer bacteria isolated from polluted basalts from the Republic of Georgia. Cr(VI)-reducing ability of the bacteria was examined by electron spin resonance, demonstrating that the bacteria differ in their rates of Cr(VI) reduction. A well-pronounced correlation between the ability of the bacteria to accumulate Cr(V) and their ability to reduce Cr(V) to Cr(III) observed in our experiments is discussed. Elemental analysis of these bacteria also revealed that basalt-inhabiting bacteria are distinguished by relative contents of essential elements such as K, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Co. A high rate of Cr(III) formation correlates with a high concentration of Co in the bacterium. ENAA detected some similarity in the elemental composition of the bacteria. The relatively high contents of Fe detected in the bacteria (140-340 microg/g of dry weight) indicate bacterial adaptation to the environmental conditions typical of the basalts. The concentrations of at least 12-19 different elements were determined in each type of bacteria simultaneously starting with the major to ultratrace elements. The range of concentrations spans over 8 orders of magnitude.

  2. Bacillus spp. produce antibacterial activities against lactic acid bacteria that contaminate fuel ethanol plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) frequently contaminate commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, reducing yields and decreasing profitability of biofuel production. Microorganisms from environmental sources in different geographic regions of Thailand were tested for antibacterial activity against LAB. Fou...

  3. Activities and survival of endophytic bacteria in white clover (Trifolium repens L.).

    PubMed

    Burch, Gabriela; Sarathchandra, Upali

    2006-09-01

    In this study, the genera, abundance, and activities of endophytic bacteria in field-grown white clover (Trifolium repens) and the fate of introduced antibiotic-tolerant bacteria in white clover tissues were investigated. Pseudomonas, Pantoea, and Corynebacterium were the most frequently isolated endophytic bacteria genera, whereas Xanthomonas, Microbacterium, and Cellulomonas occurred less frequently. The average bacterial populations in stolons and roots were approximately 100,000 colony-forming units (CFU) (g wet mass)-1. Of the 28 strains tested for activity, none were chitinolytic or able to inhibit the root pathogen Codinaea fertilis in vitro. However, Fusarium oxysporum and Cylindrocladium scoparium were inhibited by one and five strains, respectively. Four of seven strains tested depressed clover seedling growth. In pot experiments, colonization and recovery of spontaneous rifampicin-tolerant mutants (Rif+) of bacteria were studied in clover plants for periods up to 20 weeks. The strains used, sourced from white clover (endophytic and rhizoplane) and organic compost, had previously shown growth promotion potential of white clover seedlings by increasing plant mass and decreasing nematode numbers. In one experiment in this present study, five Rif+ strains were individually inoculated onto white clover seedlings, all five were re-isolated from shoots after 6 weeks and four strains were re-isolated after 20 weeks (numbers of Rif+ bacteria ranged from 51 to 200 CFU (g wet mass)-1). No Rif+ bacteria were isolated from root tissue at either time. In the second experiment, conducted with two strains of Rif+ bacteria, the population was highest in the shoots (range>500 CFU of Rif+ bacteria (g shoot fresh mass)-1) in weeks 2 and 3, declining to <200 CFU in week 5. Again, no Rif+ bacteria could be detected in roots. No Rif+ bacteria were recovered after 14 weeks for one of the strains. It appears that the main route of bacterial entry into seedlings was through

  4. Endophytic bacteria associated with growing shoot tips of banana (Musa sp.) cv. Grand Naine and the affinity of endophytes to the host.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Pious; Soly, Thyvalappil A

    2009-11-01

    A cultivation-based assessment of endophytic bacteria present in deep-seated shoot tips of banana suckers was made with a view to generate information on the associated organisms, potential endophytic contaminants in tissue-cultured bananas and to assess if the endophytes shared a beneficial relationship with the host. Plating the tissue homogenate from the central core of suckers showed colony growth on nutrient agar from just 75% and 42% of the 12 stocks during May and November, respectively (average 58%; 6 x 10(3) colony-forming units per gram), yielding diverse organisms belonging to firmicutes (Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Virgibacillus, Staphylococcus spp.), actinobacteria (Cellulomonas, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Kocuria spp.), alpha-proteobacteria (Paracoccus sp.), and gamma-proteobacteria (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter spp.). Each shoot tip showed one to three different organisms and no specific organism appeared common to different sucker tips. Tissue homogenate from shoot tips including the ones that did not yield culturable bacteria displayed abundant bacterial cells during microscopic examination suggesting that a high proportion of cells were in viable-but-nonculturable state, or their cultivation requirements were not met. Direct application of cultivation-independent approach to study endophytic bacterial community using bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA universal primers resulted in high interference from chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequences. Dislodging the bacterial cells from shoot tips that did not show cultivable bacteria and incubating the tissue crush in dilute-nutrient broth led to the activation of four organisms (Klebsiella, Agrobacterium, Pseudacidovorax spp., and an unidentified isolate). The endophytic organisms in general showed better growth at 30-37 degrees C compared with 25 degrees C, and the growth of endophytes as well as pathogenic Erwinia carotovora were promoted with the supply of host tissue extract (HTE) while

  5. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as "Hair Waste".

    PubMed

    Cavello, Ivana A; Crespo, Juan M; García, Sabrina S; Zapiola, José M; Luna, María F; Cavalitto, Sebastián F

    2015-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P. lilacinum's supernatant. Besides antifungal activity, P. lilacinum demonstrates the capability to produce indoleacetic acid and ammonia during time cultivation on hair waste medium. Plant growth-promoting activity by cell-free supernatant was evidenced through the increase of the percentage of tomato seed germination from 71 to 85% after 48 hours. A 21-day plant growth assay using tomato plants indicates that crude supernatant promotes the growth of the plants similar to a reference fertilizer (p > 0.05). These results suggest that both strain and the supernatant may have potential to be considered as a potent biocontrol agent with multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal, IAA production and tomato growth enhancing compounds produced by P. lilacinum LPSC #876.

  6. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as "Hair Waste".

    PubMed

    Cavello, Ivana A; Crespo, Juan M; García, Sabrina S; Zapiola, José M; Luna, María F; Cavalitto, Sebastián F

    2015-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P. lilacinum's supernatant. Besides antifungal activity, P. lilacinum demonstrates the capability to produce indoleacetic acid and ammonia during time cultivation on hair waste medium. Plant growth-promoting activity by cell-free supernatant was evidenced through the increase of the percentage of tomato seed germination from 71 to 85% after 48 hours. A 21-day plant growth assay using tomato plants indicates that crude supernatant promotes the growth of the plants similar to a reference fertilizer (p > 0.05). These results suggest that both strain and the supernatant may have potential to be considered as a potent biocontrol agent with multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal, IAA production and tomato growth enhancing compounds produced by P. lilacinum LPSC #876. PMID:26697226

  7. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Scabiosa arenaria Forssk: growing wild in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Besbes, Malek; Omri, Amel; Cheraif, Imed; Daami, Mejda; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Mastouri, Maha; Aouni, Mahjoub; Selmi, Boulbaba

    2012-04-01

    The essential oils isolated from three organs, i.e., fruits, stems and leaves, and flowers, of the endemic North African plant Scabiosa arenaria Forssk. were screened for their chemical composition, as well as their possible antibacterial, anticandidal, and antifungal properties. According to the GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, 61 (99.26% of the total oil composition), 79 (98.43%), and 51 compounds (99.9%) were identified in the three oils, respectively. While α-thujone (34.39%), camphor (17.48%), and β-thujone (15.29%) constituted the major compounds of the fruit oil, chrysanthenone (23.43%), together with camphor (12.98%) and α-thujone (10.7%), were the main constituents of the stem and leaf oil. In the case of the flower oil, also chrysanthenone (38.52%), camphor (11.75%), and α-thujone (9.5%) were identified as the major compounds. Furthermore, the isolated oils were tested against 16 Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, four Candida species, and nine phytopathogenic fungal strains. It was found that the oils exhibited interesting antibacterial and anticandidal activities, comparable to those of thymol, which was used as positive control, but no activity against the phytopathogenic fungal strains was observed.

  8. Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in Algeria: Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Serakta, M; Djerrou, Z; Mansour-Djaalab, H; Kahlouche-Riachi, F; Hamimed, S; Trifa, W; Belkhiri, A; Edikra, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were compared with three controls : CRL1 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes, CRL2 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of hydroalcoholic solvent, CRL3 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of Glucantim as a reference drug in the management of leishmaniasis. The results showed that both J. regia and L. inermis extracts reduced the promastigotes number significantly (P<0.01). however, S. officinalis showed a total inhibition of the Leishmania major growth.

  9. Creating leptin-like biofunctions by active immunization against chicken leptin receptor in growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Lei, M M; Wu, S Q; Shao, X B; Li, X W; Chen, Z; Ying, S J; Shi, Z D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, immunization against chicken leptin receptor (cLEPR) extracellular domain (ECD) was applied to investigate leptin regulation and LEPR biofunction in growing chicken pullets. A recombinant protein (cLEPR ECD) based on the cLEPR complemenary DNA sequence corresponding to the 582nd to 796th amino acid residues of cLEPR mature peptide was prepared and used as antigen. Immunization against cLEPR ECD in growing chickens increased anti-cLEPR ECD antibody titers in blood, enhanced proportions of phosphorylated janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and served as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein in liver tissue. Chicken live weight gain and abdominal fat mass were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), but feed intake was stimulated by cLEPR ECD immunization (P < 0.05). The treatment also upregulated the gene expression levels of lepR, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl CoA carboxylase-2 (ACC2), and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in liver, abdominal fat, and breast muscle (P < 0.05) but decreased fasn expression levels (P < 0.01). Apart from that of lepR, the expression of appetite-regulating genes, such as orexigenic genes, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), were upregulated (P < 0.01), whereas the anorexigenic gene proopiomelanocortin (POMC) was downregulated in the hypothalamic tissue of cLEPR-immunized pullets (P < 0.01). Blood concentrations of metabolic molecules, such as glucose, triglycerides, and very-low-density lipoprotein, were significantly decreased in cLEPR-immunized pullets but those of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein increased. These results demonstrate that antibodies to membrane proximal cLEPR ECD enhance cLEPR signal transduction, which stimulates metabolism and reduces fat deposition in chickens.

  10. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong; Liu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H2S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H2S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW.

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Gamma-irradiated Chitosan Against Denitrifying Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilcáez, Javier; Watanabe, Tomohide

    2010-11-01

    In order to find an environmentally benign substitute to hazardous inhibitory agents, the inhibitory effect of γ-irradiated chitosans against a mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria was experimentally evaluated. Unlike other studies using pure aerobic cultures, the observed effect was not a complete inhibition but a transient inhibition reflected by prolonged lag phases and reduced growth rates. Raw chitosan under acid conditions (pH 6.3) exerted the strongest inhibition followed by the 100 kGy and 500 kGy irradiated chitosans respectively. Therefore because the molecular weight of chitosan decreases with the degree of γ-irradiation, the inhibitory properties of chitosan due to its high molecular weight were more relevant than the inhibitory properties gained due to the modification of the surface charge and/or chemical structure by γ-irradiation. High dosage of γ-irradiated appeared to increase the growth of mixed denitrifying bacteria in acid pH media. However, in neutral pH media, high dosage of γ-irradiation appeared to enhance the inhibitory effect of chitosan.

  12. [Diversity and enzyme-producing activity of culturable halophilic bacteria in Daishan Saltern of East China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Dan-Dan; Li, Qian; Huang, Jing-Jing; Chen, Min

    2012-11-01

    Soil and saline water samples were collected from the Daishan Saltern of East China, and the halophilic bacteria were isolated and cultured by using selective media, aimed to investigate the diversity and enzyme-producing activity of culturable halophilic bacteria in saltern environment. A total of 181 strains were isolated by culture-dependent method. Specific primers were used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria and archaea. The operation taxonomy units (OTUs) were determined by ARDRA method, and the representative strain of each OTU was sequenced. The phylogenetic position of all the isolated strains was determined by 16S rRNA sequencing. The results showed that the isolated 181 strains displayed 21 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), of which, 12 OTUs belonged to halophilic bacteria, and the others belonged to halophilic archaea. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that there were 7 genera presented among the halophilic bacteria group, and 4 genera presented among the halophilic archaea group. The dominant halophilic strains were of Halomonas and Haloarcula, with 46.8% in halophilic bacteria and 49.1% in halophilic archaea group, respectively. Enzyme-producing analysis indicated that most strains displayed enzyme-producing activity, including the activities of producing amylase, proteinase and lipase, and the dominant strains capable of enzyme-producing were of Haloarcula. Our results showed that in the environment of Daishan Saltern, there existed a higher diversity of halophilic bacteria, being a source sink for screening enzyme-producing bacterial strains. PMID:23431797

  13. Microbicidal activity of tripotassium phosphate and fatty acids toward spoilage and pathogenic bacteria associated with poultry.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Arthur; Ingram, Kimberly D

    2005-07-01

    The ability of solutions of tripotassium phosphate (TPP) and fatty acids (lauric and myristic acids) to reduce populations of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms associated with processed poultry was examined. In vitro studies were conducted with cultures of bacteria (Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus) and yeasts (Candida ernobii and Yarrowia lipolytica). Cultures of the bacteria and yeasts were suspended in solutions of TPP or mixtures of TPP with lauric or myristic acid and mixed for 5 min. Viable numbers (log CFU per milliliter) in the suspensions were enumerated on microbiological agar. Results indicated that TPP solutions are highly bactericidal toward gram-negative bacteria and that mixtures of TPP and fatty acids are highly microbicidal toward gram-negative bacteria, gram-positive bacteria, and yeasts. The microbicidal activity of mixtures of TPP and fatty acids toward the native bacterial flora of skin of processed broiler carcasses was also examined. Skin samples were washed in mixtures of TPP and fatty acid, and the populations of total aerobic bacteria, campylobacters, enterococci, E. coli, lactic acid bacteria, pseudomonads, staphylococci, and yeasts in the skin rinsates were enumerated on the appropriate microbiological media. Results indicated that washing the skin in mixtures of TPP and fatty acids produced significant reductions in the number of aerobic bacteria, campylobacters, E. coli, pseudomonads, and yeasts recovered from skin rinsates, but there was no significant reduction in the populations of enterococci, lactic acid bacteria, or staphylococci. These findings indicate that mixtures of TPP and fatty acids possess microbicidal activity against several microorganisms associated with processed poultry and that these solutions could be useful as microbicides to reduce the populations of some bacteria and yeasts associated with some poultry

  14. Burkholderia acidipaludis sp. nov., aluminum-tolerant bacteria isolated from Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) growing in highly acidic swamps in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Tomoko; Bao Ve, Nguyen; Vijarnsorn, Pisoot; Nakajima, Mutsuyasu; Sunairi, Michio

    2010-09-01

    Two strains of aluminium-tolerant bacteria, SA33(T) and 7A078, were isolated from Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) growing in highly acidic swamps (pH 2-4) in actual acid sulfate soil areas of Vietnam (SA33(T)) and Thailand (7A078). The strains were Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming rods, 0.6-0.7 mum wide and 1.3-1.7 mum long. These strains showed good growth at pH 3.0-8.0 and 17-37 degrees C. The organisms contained ubiquinone Q-8 as the predominant isoprenoid quinone and C(16 : 0), C(18 : 1) ω 7c and C(17 : 0) cyclo as the major fatty acids. Their fatty acid profiles were similar to those reported for other Burkholderia species. The DNA G+C content of these strains was 64 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the strains were shown to belong to the genus Burkholderia. Although the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values calculated for strain SA33(T) to 7A078 and the type strains of Burkholderia kururiensis, B. sacchari and B. tuberum were 100, 97.3, 97.1 and 97.0 %, respectively, strains SA33(T) and 7A078 formed a group that was distinct in the phylogenetic trees; the DNA-DNA relatedness of strain SA33(T) to 7A078 and these three type strains were respectively 90, 47, 46 and 45 %. The results of physiological and biochemical tests, including whole-cell protein pattern analysis, allowed phenotypic differentiation of these strains from described Burkholderia species. Therefore, strains SA33(T) and 7A078 represent a novel species, for which the name Burkholderia acidipaludis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA33(T) (=NBRC 101816(T) =VTCC-D6-6(T)). Strain 7A078 (=NBRC 103872 =BCC 36999) is a reference strain.

  15. Collective Stop-and-Go Dynamics of Active Bacteria Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenšek, Daniel; Pleiner, Harald; Brand, Helmut R.

    2013-11-01

    We set up a macroscopic model of bacterial growth and transport based on a dynamic preferred direction—the collective velocity of the bacteria. This collective velocity is subject to the isotropic-nematic transition modeling the density-controlled transformation between immotile and motile bacterial states. The choice of the dynamic preferred direction introduces a distinctive coupling of orientational ordering and transport not encountered otherwise. The approach can also be applied to other systems spontaneously switching between individual (disordered) and collective (ordered) behavior and/or collectively responding to density variations, e.g., bird flocks, fish schools, etc. We observe a characteristic and robust stop-and-go behavior. The inclusion of chirality results in a complex pulsating dynamics.

  16. The antagonism activity of bacteria isolated from potato cultivated soil.

    PubMed

    Mezaache-Aichour, S; Sayah, N; Zerroug, M M; Guechi, A

    2012-01-01

    Soil-borne fungal and bacterial root pathogens can cause serious losses to agricultural crops. Resistant plant varieties are not available for several soil-borne pathogens and chemical control is often insufficiently effective in soil. The enhancement of disease suppressive properties of soils will limit disease development, thus, being of great importance for sustainable agriculture as well as organic farming systems. The aim of this research is to find and identify suppressive soils in the Sétif's areas (potato field located in different regions of Sétif); this allows the selection of the indigenous soil bacteria that are able to develop several mechanisms of action related to biocontrol of phytopathogenic fungi affecting potato crops. Among 50 bacterial strains only 14 showed a wide range of antifungal action against the tested phytopathogenic fungi. With a range of inhibition percent from 0 to 92.30% especially Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis with 92% inhibition.

  17. Fate, activity, and impact of ingested bacteria within the human gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Derrien, Muriel; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E T

    2015-06-01

    The human gut contains a highly diverse microbial community that is essentially an open ecosystem, despite being deeply embedded within the human body. Food-associated fermentative bacteria, including probiotics, are major sources of ingested bacteria that may temporarily complement resident microbial communities, thus forming part of our transient microbiome. Here, we review data on the fate and activity of ingested bacteria and, in particular, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and their impact on the composition and metabolism of the gut microbiome with a focus on data from clinical studies. In addition, we discuss the mechanisms involved and the potential impact on the host's health. PMID:25840765

  18. Mercuric reductase activity and evidence of broad-spectrum mercury resistance among clinical isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Steingrube, V.A.; Wallace, R.J. Jr.; Steele, L.C.; Pang, Y.J. )

    1991-05-01

    Resistance to mercury was evaluated in 356 rapidly growing mycobacteria belonging to eight taxonomic groups. Resistance to inorganic Hg2+ ranged from 0% among the unnamed third biovariant complex of Mycobacterium fortuitum to 83% among M. chelonae-like organisms. With cell extracts and 203Hg(NO3)2 as the substrate, mercuric reductase (HgRe) activity was demonstrable in six of eight taxonomic groups. HgRe activity was inducible and required NADPH or NADH and a thiol donor for optimai activity. Species with HgRe activity were also resistant to organomercurial compounds, including phenylmercuric acetate. Attempts at intraspecies and intragenus transfer of HgRe activity by conjugation or transformation were unsuccessful. Mercury resistance is common in rapidly growing mycobacteria and appears to function via the same inducible enzyme systems already defined in other bacterial species. This system offers potential as a strain marker for epidemiologic investigations and for studying genetic systems in rapidly growing mycobacteria.

  19. Isolation, characterization and phylogeny of sponge-associated bacteria with antimicrobial activities from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Olinda C S; Pontes, Paula V M L; Santos, Juliana F M; Muricy, Guilherme; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia; Laport, Marinella S

    2010-09-01

    Bacteria associated with marine sponges represent a rich source of bioactive metabolites. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize bacteria with antimicrobial activities from Brazilian sponges. A total of 158 colony-forming units were isolated from nine sponge species. Among these, 12 isolates presented antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria. Based on comparative sequence analysis of their 16S rRNA genes, the sponge-associated bacterial strains could be subdivided into three phylogenetically different clusters. Five strains were affiliated with Firmicutes (genera Bacillus and Virgibacillus), three with alpha-Proteobacteria (Pseudovibrio sp.) and four with gamma-Proteobacteria (genera Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas). The sponge-associated bacterial strains Pseudomonas fluorescens H40 and H41 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa H51 exhibited antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including strains such as vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Bacillus pumilus Pc31 and Pc32, Pseudovibrio ascidiaceicola Pm31 and Ca31 and Pseudovibrio denitrificans Mm37 strains were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria. These findings suggest that the identified strains may contribute to the search for new sources of antimicrobial substances, an important strategy for developing alternative therapies to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. PMID:20600863

  20. Screening of Immune-Active Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, E-Nam; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Mi-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cell wall extract on the proliferation and cytokine production of immune cells to select suitable probiotics for space food. Ten strains of LAB (Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. paracasei, L. casei, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. delbruekii, Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, and Pedicoccus pentosaceus) were sub-cultured and further cultured for 3 d to reach 7-10 Log colony-forming units (CFU)/mL prior to cell wall extractions. All LAB cell wall extracts failed to inhibit the proliferation of BALB/c mouse splenocytes or mesenteric lymphocytes. Most LAB cell wall extracts except those of L. plantarum and L. delbrueckii induced the proliferation of both immune cells at tested concentrations. In addition, the production of TH1 cytokine (IFN-γ) rather than that of TH2 cytokine (IL-4) was enhanced by LAB cell wall extracts. Of ten LAB extracts, four (from L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. casei, and S. thermophiles) promoted both cell proliferating and TH1 cytokine production. These results suggested that these LAB could be used as probiotics to maintain immunity and homeostasis for astronauts in extreme space environment and for general people in normal life. PMID:26761877

  1. Screening of Immune-Active Lactic Acid Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hwang, E-Nam; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Mi-Jung; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cell wall extract on the proliferation and cytokine production of immune cells to select suitable probiotics for space food. Ten strains of LAB (Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. paracasei, L. casei, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. delbruekii, Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, and Pedicoccus pentosaceus) were sub-cultured and further cultured for 3 d to reach 7-10 Log colony-forming units (CFU)/mL prior to cell wall extractions. All LAB cell wall extracts failed to inhibit the proliferation of BALB/c mouse splenocytes or mesenteric lymphocytes. Most LAB cell wall extracts except those of L. plantarum and L. delbrueckii induced the proliferation of both immune cells at tested concentrations. In addition, the production of TH1 cytokine (IFN-γ) rather than that of TH2 cytokine (IL-4) was enhanced by LAB cell wall extracts. Of ten LAB extracts, four (from L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. casei, and S. thermophiles) promoted both cell proliferating and TH1 cytokine production. These results suggested that these LAB could be used as probiotics to maintain immunity and homeostasis for astronauts in extreme space environment and for general people in normal life. PMID:26761877

  2. Rapid direct methods for enumeration of specific, active bacteria in water and biofilms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFeters, G. A.; Pyle, B. H.; Lisle, J. T.; Broadaway, S. C.

    1999-01-01

    Conventional methods for detecting indicator and pathogenic bacteria in water may underestimate the actual population due to sublethal environmental injury, inability of the target bacteria to take up nutrients and other physiological factors which reduce bacterial culturability. Rapid and direct methods are needed to more accurately detect and enumerate active bacteria. Such a methodological advance would provide greater sensitivity in assessing the microbiological safety of water and food. The principle goal of this presentation is to describe novel approaches we have formulated for the rapid and simultaneous detection of bacteria plus the determination of their physiological activity in water and other environmental samples. The present version of our method involves the concentration of organisms by membrane filtration or immunomagnetic separation and combines an intracellular fluorochrome (CTC) for assessment of respiratory activity plus fluorescent-labelled antibody detection of specific bacteria. This approach has also been successfully used to demonstrate spatial and temporal heterogeneities of physiological activities in biofilms when coupled with cryosectioning. Candidate physiological stains include those capable of determining respiratory activity, membrane potential, membrane integrity, growth rate and cellular enzymatic activities. Results obtained thus far indicate that immunomagnetic separation can provide a high degree of sensitivity in the recovery of seeded target bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7) in water and hamburger. The captured and stained target bacteria are then enumerated by either conventional fluorescence microscopy or ChemScan(R), a new instrument that is very sensitive and rapid. The ChemScan(R) laser scanning instrument (Chemunex, Paris, France) provides the detection of individual fluorescently labelled bacterial cells using three emission channels in less than 5 min. A high degree of correlation has been demonstrated between

  3. Mutations and Misconceptions: The Isolation and Study of Mutant Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corner, Thomas R.

    1992-01-01

    Describes simple, inexpensive activities for teaching students about mutants and mutations in bacteria. Explains how to isolate bacteria from soil and leaves and how to grow bacteria on agar or in broth. Describes how to construct a gradient plate for finding the minimum inhibitory concentration of a substance and how to use this set up to find…

  4. Multifarious activities of cellulose degrading bacteria from Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) faeces.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surender; Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose degrading bacteria from koala faeces were isolated using caboxymethylcellulose-Congo red agar, screened in vitro for different hydrolytic enzyme activities and phylogenetically characterized using molecular tools. Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were the most prominent bacteria from koala faeces. The isolates demonstrated good xylanase, amylase, lipase, protease, tannase and lignin peroxidase activities apart from endoglucanase activity. Furthermore many isolates grew in the presence of phenanthrene, indicating their probable application for bioremediation. Potential isolates can be exploited further for industrial enzyme production or in bioremediation of contaminated sites.

  5. Multifarious activities of cellulose degrading bacteria from Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) faeces.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surender; Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose degrading bacteria from koala faeces were isolated using caboxymethylcellulose-Congo red agar, screened in vitro for different hydrolytic enzyme activities and phylogenetically characterized using molecular tools. Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were the most prominent bacteria from koala faeces. The isolates demonstrated good xylanase, amylase, lipase, protease, tannase and lignin peroxidase activities apart from endoglucanase activity. Furthermore many isolates grew in the presence of phenanthrene, indicating their probable application for bioremediation. Potential isolates can be exploited further for industrial enzyme production or in bioremediation of contaminated sites. PMID:26290743

  6. Use of a fluorescent redox probe for direct visualization of actively respiring bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, G G; Phipps, D; Ishiguro, K; Ridgway, H F

    1992-06-01

    The redox dye 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) was employed for direct epifluorescent microscopic enumeration of respiring bacteria in environmental samples. Oxidized CTC is nearly colorless and is nonfluorescent; however, the compound is readily reduced via electron transport activity to fluorescent, insoluble CTC-formazan, which accumulates intracellularly. Bacteria containing CTC-formazan were visualized by epifluorescence microscopy in wet-mount preparations, on polycarbonate membrane filter surfaces, or in biofilms associated with optically opaque surfaces. Counterstaining of CTC-treated samples with the DNA-specific fluorochrome 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole allowed enumeration of active and total bacterial subpopulations within the same preparation. Municipal wastewater, groundwater, and seawater samples supplied with exogenous nutrients yielded CTC counts that were generally lower than total 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole counts but typically equal to or greater than standard heterotrophic (aerobic) plate counts. In unsupplemented water samples, CTC counts were typically lower than those obtained with the heterotrophic plate count method. Reduction of CTC by planktonic or biofilm-associated bacteria was suppressed by formaldehyde, presumably because of inhibition of electron transport activity and other metabolic processes. Because of their bright red fluorescence (emission maximum, 602 nm), actively respiring bacteria were readily distinguishable from abiotic particles and other background substances, which typically fluoresced at shorter wavelengths. The use of CTC greatly facilitated microscopic detection and enumeration of metabolically active (i.e., respiring) bacteria in environmental samples.

  7. Soluble Immune Mediators and Vaginal Bacteria Impact Innate Genital Mucosal Antimicrobial Activity in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Rebecca Pellett; Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Rabe, Lorna; Hillier, Sharon L.; Marrazzo, Jeanne; McGowan, Ian; Richardson, Barbra A.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Innate activity against Escherichia coli in female genital secretions may represent contributions from vaginal bacteria and host soluble immune mediators. We analyzed the relationship between E. coli inhibitory activity, soluble immune mediators, and vaginal bacteria in participants in MTN-004, a placebo-controlled trial of VivaGel®, a candidate product for topical HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis. Methods Escherichia coli inhibitory activity was quantified by colony reduction assay. Endocervical concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12p40, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, granulocyte– macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), lactoferrin, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) were quantified to generate a cumulative mediator score. Vaginal bacteria were characterized by quantitative cultures. Results In the two placebo arms, higher soluble immune mediator score was associated with greater E. coli inhibitory activity (β = 17.49, 95% CI [12.77, 22.21] and β = 13.28, 95% CI [4.76, 21.80]). However, in the VivaGel arm, higher concentrations of E. coli (β = −3.80, 95% CI [−6.36, −1.25]) and group B Streptococcus (β = −3.91, 95% CI [−6.21, −1.60]) were associated with reduced E. coli inhibitory activity. Conclusions Both host mediators and vaginal bacteria impact E. coli inhibition in genital secretions. The relative contributions of host mediators and bacteria varied between women who used VivaGel vs placebos. PMID:26118476

  8. Cattle tick-associated bacteria exert anti-biofilm and anti-Tritrichomonas foetus activities.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, K R; Seixas, A; Conceição, J M; Zvoboda, D A; Barros, M P; Tasca, T; Macedo, A J; Termignoni, C

    2013-05-31

    Research on microbiota in cattle tick and the evaluation of its activity against other microorganisms can contribute to identify new molecules potentially useful to control infections caused by bacteria and protozoa. Biofilms pose increasing problems worldwide, mainly due to their resistance to antimicrobial therapies and host immune response. In this study we investigate the ability Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus-associated bacteria may exhibit to produce anti-biofilm and trichomonicidal compounds. Gut, ovary, salivary glands, and Gené organ were collected from engorged R. microplus female. Homogenates of each tissue were inoculated onto 15 distinct culture media. Anti-biofilm and trichomonicidal activities were analyzed by culturing each bacterium isolated in a liquid medium. Results showed that R. microplus cattle tick microflora varies for different tissues. Bacteria belonging to different genera (Aeromonas, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Castelaniella, Comamonas, Kocuria, and Microbacterium) were identified. Interestingly, all bacterial species found displayed pronounced activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, and also against the cattle pathogen Tritrichomonas foetus, confirming the hypothesis that cattle tick could be a source of bacteria active against pathogens. This is the first study showing that bacteria isolated from a tick exert anti-biofilm and trichomonicidal activities. PMID:23434012

  9. Topical Application of Ice-Nucleating-Active Bacteria Decreases Insect Cold Tolerance †

    PubMed Central

    Strong-Gunderson, Janet M.; Lee, Richard E.; Lee, Marcia R.

    1992-01-01

    The majority of overwintering insects avoid lethal freezing by lowering the temperature at which ice spontaneously nucleates within their body fluids. We examined the effect of ice-nucleating-active bacteria on the cold-hardiness of the lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens, a freeze-intolerant species that overwinters by supercooling to ca. −16°C. Topical application of the ice-nucleating-active bacteria Pseudomonas syringae increased the supercooling point to temperatures as high as −3°C. This decrease in cold tolerance was maintained for at least 3 days after treatment. Various treatment doses (108, 106, and 104 bacteria per ml) and modes of action (bacterial ingestion and topical application) were also compared. At the highest concentration of topically applied P. syringae, 50% of the beetles froze between −2 and −4°C. After topical application at the lowest concentration, 50% of the individuals froze by −11°C. In contrast, beetles fed bacteria at this concentration did not begin to freeze until −10°C, and 50% were frozen only at temperatures of −13°C or less. In addition to reducing the supercooling capacity in H. convergens, ice-nucleating-active bacteria also significantly reduced the cold-hardiness of four additional insects. These data demonstrate that ice-nucleating-active bacteria can be used to elevate the supercooling point and thereby decrease insect cold tolerance. The results of this study support the proposition that ice-nucleating-active bacteria may be used as a biological insecticide for the control of insect pests during the winter. Images PMID:16348764

  10. Viewing marine bacteria, their activity and response to environmental drivers from orbit: satellite remote sensing of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Grimes, D Jay; Ford, Tim E; Colwell, Rita R; Baker-Austin, Craig; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Subramaniam, Ajit; Capone, Douglas G

    2014-04-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing of marine microorganisms has become a useful tool in predicting human health risks associated with these microscopic targets. Early applications were focused on harmful algal blooms, but more recently methods have been developed to interrogate the ocean for bacteria. As satellite-based sensors have become more sophisticated and our ability to interpret information derived from these sensors has advanced, we have progressed from merely making fascinating pictures from space to developing process models with predictive capability. Our understanding of the role of marine microorganisms in primary production and global elemental cycles has been vastly improved as has our ability to use the combination of remote sensing data and models to provide early warning systems for disease outbreaks. This manuscript will discuss current approaches to monitoring cyanobacteria and vibrios, their activity and response to environmental drivers, and will also suggest future directions.

  11. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts from Brazil against fish pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Castro, S.B.R.; Leal, C.A.G.; Freire, F.R.; Carvalho, D.A.; Oliveira, D.F.; Figueiredo, H.C.P.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Brazilian plants extracts against fish pathogenic bacteria. Forty six methanolic extracts were screened to identify their antibacterial properties against Streptococcus agalactiae, Flavobacterium columnare and Aeromonas hydrophila. Thirty one extracts showed antibacterial activity. PMID:24031303

  12. Methanobactin: a copper binding compound having antibiotic and antioxidant activity isolated from methanotrophic bacteria

    DOEpatents

    DiSpirito, Alan A.; Zahn, James A.; Graham, David W.; Kim, Hyung J.; Alterman, Michail; Larive, Cynthia

    2007-04-03

    A means and method for treating bacterial infection, providing antioxidant activity, and chelating copper using a copper binding compound produced by methanotrophic bacteria is described. The compound, known as methanobactin, is the first of a new class of antibiotics having gram-positive activity. Methanobactin has been sequenced, and its structural formula determined.

  13. Catalase Activity of Psychrophilic Bacteria Grown at 2 and 30 C1

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Hilmer A.; Ishibashi, Sandra T.; Reid, Ann; Ito, June S.

    1963-01-01

    Catalase activity was measured in resting-cell suspensions of psychrophilic bacteria grown at 2 and at 30 C. Enzyme activity decreased in both cell-suspension types as harvest age increased. At comparable physiological age, cells grown at 2 C had more catalase than cells grown at 30 C. PMID:13959237

  14. In vitro activity of rodogyl against putative periodontopathic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Quee, T C; Roussou, T; Chan, E C

    1983-01-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations of Rodogyl (composite tablet of metronidazole and spiramycin), metronidazole-spiramycin mixture, spiramycin, metronidazole, and tetracycline were determined for selected putative periodontopathic microorganisms. Rodogyl was active against almost all strains, including Bacteroides species and the anaerobic spirochetes. Synergism of the component drugs in the Rodogyl combination was noted against Propionibacterium species. Spiramycin activity against Actinomyces species was enhanced in the presence of metronidazole. PMID:6639002

  15. [Characteristics of microbial community structure during isolation of electrical active bacteria].

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Zhao, Yang- Guo; Lu, Shan-Shan

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the effect of selective culturing on microorganisms and functional role of electrical active bacteria in biofilm, some exoelectrogens were isolated from microbial fuel cell (MFC) anodic biofilm using Hungate roll-tube technique with iron oxide as indicator. At the same time, the dynamics of the microbial community structure was monitored during the pure culture isolation. The results show that maximum voltages of MFCs feeding with lactic acid, acetic acid and steroid wastewater are 0.57, 0.60 and 0.40 V respectively. The dominant bacteria isolated from seed sludge and anodic films feeding with acetate and lactate belong to phylum Proteobacteria; while steroid wastewater contains relative high diversity of bacteria, i. e. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. After enriching and culturing, two bacteria were consequently obtained, which shared the highest similarity with Enterobacter ludwigii and Citrobacter freundii respectively. When inoculated in MFC with lactic acid as the substrate, they produced maximum voltage of 0.10 and 0.17 V individually. This study shows that electrical active bacteria can be isolated from the MFC anodic biofilm using anaerobic gradient dilution culture techniques with iron oxide as indicator. Microbial community structure presents markedly shifting during the bacteria isolation owing to its selectivity.

  16. Correlation of direct viable counts with heterotrophic activity for marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kogure, K; Simidu, U; Taga, N; Colwell, R R

    1987-10-01

    Viable-bacteria counts, heterotrophic activity, and substrate responsiveness of viable bacteria have been used to measure microbial activity. However, the relationship between these parameters is not clear. Thus, the direct viable count (DVC) method was used to analyze seawater samples collected from several different geographical locations. Samples collected from offshore waters of the South China Sea and western Pacific Ocean yielded DVC that indicated the presence of surface and subsurface peaks of viable, substrate-responsive bacteria which could be correlated with turnover rates of amino acids obtained by using uniformly C-labeled amino acids. DVC were always less than total viable counts (acridine orange direct counts), and the DVC subsurface peak occurred close to and within the chlorophyll a zone, suggesting algal-bacterial interactions within the layer. For comparison with the open-ocean samples, selected substrates were used to determine the response of viable bacteria present in seawater samples collected near an ocean outfall of the Barceloneta Regional Waste Treatment Plant, Barceloneta, Puerto Rico. The number of specific substrate-responsive bacteria at the outfall stations varied depending on the substrate used and the sampling location. Changes in the population size or physiological condition of the bacteria were detected and found to be associated with the presence of pharmaceutical waste.

  17. Bactericidal Activity and Mechanism of Photoirradiated Polyphenols against Gram-Positive and -Negative Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Ishiyama, Kirika; Sheng, Hong; Ikai, Hiroyo; Kanno, Taro; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2015-09-01

    The bactericidal effect of various types of photoirradiated polyphenols against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria was evaluated in relation to the mode of action. Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus mutans) and Gram-negative bacteria (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) suspended in a 1 mg/mL polyphenol aqueous solution (caffeic acid, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, and proanthocyanidin) were exposed to LED light (wavelength, 400 nm; irradiance, 260 mW/cm(2)) for 5 or 10 min. Caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid exerted the highest bactericidal activity followed by gallic acid and proanthocyanidin against both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. It was also demonstrated that the disinfection treatment induced oxidative damage of bacterial DNA, which suggests that polyphenols are incorporated into bacterial cells. The present study suggests that blue light irradiation of polyphenols could be a novel disinfection treatment.

  18. Taiwan: growing, growing, gone.

    PubMed

    Hanson, R

    1979-10-01

    Accommodation between Taiwan and the People's Republic of China may not be inconceivable as trade contacts (though officially disallowed) grow. Because of Taiwan's well-established success and the pressing need in China to industrialize, it appears, however, that such an accommodation will occur only after China becomes more like Taiwan. Taiwan owes its success, first, to land reform and then, in the 1960s, to steady industrialization. Besides broad controls over money supply and capital designed to ward off inflationary pressures when needed, and the grand outlines for development, another factor in the island's economic success is that the government has interfered little with private enterprise. The economy has an underpinning of small to medium size businesses. There are more than 10,000 trading companies. This diverse foundation has given the economy as a whole a flexible buffer on which more sophisticated industires can be formed. PMID:12278253

  19. Exogenous lytic activity of SPN9CC endolysin against gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeong-A; Shin, Hakdong; Heu, Sunggi; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2014-06-28

    Concerns over drug-resistant bacteria have stimulated interest in developing alternative methods to control bacterial infections. Endolysin, a phage-encoded enzyme that breaks down bacterial peptidoglycan at the terminal stage of the phage reproduction cycle, is reported to be effective for the control of bacterial pathogenic bacteria. Bioinformatic analysis of the SPN9CC bacteriophage genome revealed a gene that encodes an endolysin with a domain structure similar to those of the endolysins produced by the P1 and P22 coliphages. The SPN9CC endolysin was purified with a C-terminal oligo-histidine tag. The endolysin was relatively stable and active over a broad temperature range (from 24°C to 65°C). It showed maximal activity at 50°C, and its optimum pH range was from pH 7.5 to 8.5. The SPN9CC endolysin showed antimicrobial activity against only gram-negative bacteria and functioned by cutting the glycosidic bond of peptidoglycan. Interestingly, the SPN9CC endolysin could lyse intact gram-negative bacteria in the absence of EDTA as an outer membrane permeabilizer. The exogenous lytic activity of the SPN9CC endolysin makes it a potential therapeutic agent against gram-negative bacteria. PMID:24690638

  20. Human cytomegalovirus and Epstein–Barr virus inhibit oral bacteria-induced macrophage activation and phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Y.-L.; Li, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Periodontal disease is an inflammatory condition caused by periodontal microorganisms. Viruses such as human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) are associated with certain types of periodontal disease, but their roles in promoting the disease are unclear. Because both viruses infect human macrophages, cells which play key roles in the clearance of pathogenic bacteria, it is likely that the viruses alter the functional capacity of macrophages by inhibiting their defense mechanisms against invading pathogens. Methods Macrophages preinfected with HCMV or EBV were evaluated following stimulation by selected oral bacteria. Bacteria-induced macrophage activation was assayed by measuring the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) produced in the media, and phagocytic activity was analysed by a phagocytosis assay with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bacteria. The virus-infected macrophages were also subjected to semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction to measure the expression of toll-like receptor 9, which is involved in the activation of phagocytosis-related pathways. Results Both HCMV and EBV significantly diminished the TNF-α production typically induced by oral bacteria, inhibited the phagocytic activity of macrophages, and downregulated the expression of toll-like receptor 9. Conclusion Infection by HCMV or EBV inhibits the functional ability of macrophages to respond to bacterial challenge, thereby suggesting their pathogenic role in the development of periodontal disease. PMID:19416455

  1. Antimicrobial Activities of Bacteria Associated with the Brown Alga Padina pavonica.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amel; Ktari, Leila; Ahmed, Mehboob; Bolhuis, Henk; Boudabbous, Abdellatif; Stal, Lucas J; Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; El Bour, Monia

    2016-01-01

    Macroalgae belonging to the genus Padina are known to produce antibacterial compounds that may inhibit growth of human- and animal pathogens. Hitherto, it was unclear whether this antibacterial activity is produced by the macroalga itself or by secondary metabolite producing epiphytic bacteria. Here we report antibacterial activities of epiphytic bacteria isolated from Padina pavonica (Peacocks tail) located on northern coast of Tunisia. Eighteen isolates were obtained in pure culture and tested for antimicrobial activities. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences the isolates were closely related to Proteobacteria (12 isolates; 2 Alpha- and 10 Gammaproteobacteria), Firmicutes (4 isolates) and Actinobacteria (2 isolates). The antimicrobial activity was assessed as inhibition of growth of 12 species of pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas salmonicida, A. hydrophila, Enterobacter xiangfangensis, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus sp., Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp., Vibrio alginoliticus, V. proteolyticus, V. vulnificus) and one pathogenic yeast (Candida albicans). Among the Firmicutes, isolate P8, which is closely related to Bacillus pumilus, displayed the largest spectrum of growth inhibition of the pathogenic bacteria tested. The results emphasize the potential use of P. pavonica associated antagonistic bacteria as producers of novel antibacterial compounds. PMID:27462308

  2. Antimicrobial Activities of Bacteria Associated with the Brown Alga Padina pavonica

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Amel; Ktari, Leila; Ahmed, Mehboob; Bolhuis, Henk; Boudabbous, Abdellatif; Stal, Lucas J.; Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; El Bour, Monia

    2016-01-01

    Macroalgae belonging to the genus Padina are known to produce antibacterial compounds that may inhibit growth of human- and animal pathogens. Hitherto, it was unclear whether this antibacterial activity is produced by the macroalga itself or by secondary metabolite producing epiphytic bacteria. Here we report antibacterial activities of epiphytic bacteria isolated from Padina pavonica (Peacocks tail) located on northern coast of Tunisia. Eighteen isolates were obtained in pure culture and tested for antimicrobial activities. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences the isolates were closely related to Proteobacteria (12 isolates; 2 Alpha- and 10 Gammaproteobacteria), Firmicutes (4 isolates) and Actinobacteria (2 isolates). The antimicrobial activity was assessed as inhibition of growth of 12 species of pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas salmonicida, A. hydrophila, Enterobacter xiangfangensis, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus sp., Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp., Vibrio alginoliticus, V. proteolyticus, V. vulnificus) and one pathogenic yeast (Candida albicans). Among the Firmicutes, isolate P8, which is closely related to Bacillus pumilus, displayed the largest spectrum of growth inhibition of the pathogenic bacteria tested. The results emphasize the potential use of P. pavonica associated antagonistic bacteria as producers of novel antibacterial compounds. PMID:27462308

  3. Community structures and activities of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in industrial wastewater-treating biofilms.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Hisashi; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Ito, Tsukasa; Okabe, Satoshi

    2006-07-01

    The bacterial community structure, in situ spatial distributions and activities of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in biofilms treating industrial wastewater were investigated by combination of the 16S rRNA gene clone analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and microelectrodes. These results were compared with the nitrogen removal capacity of the industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP). Both nitrification and denitrification occurred in the primary denitrification (PD) tank and denitrification occurred in the secondary denitrification (SD) tank. In contrast, nitrification and denitrification rates were very low in the nitrification (N) tank. 16S rRNA gene clone sequence analysis revealed that the bacteria affiliated with Alphaproteobacteria, followed by Betaproteobacteria, were numerically important microbial groups in three tanks. The many clones affiliated with Alphaproteobacteria were closely related to the denitrifying bacteria (e.g., Hyphomicrobium spp., Rhodopseudomonas palustris, and Rhodobacter spp.). In addition, Methylophilus leisingeri affiliated with Betaproteobacteria, which favorably utilized methanol, was detected only in the SD-tank to which methanol was added. Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosomonas marina were detected as the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria affiliated with Betaproteobacteria throughout this plant, although the dominant species of them was different among three tanks. Nitrifying bacteria were mainly detected in the upper parts of the PD-biofilm whereas their populations were low in the upper parts of the N-biofilm. The presence of denitrifying bacteria affiliated with Hyphomicrobium spp. in SD- and N-biofilms was verified by FISH analysis. Microelectrode measurements showed that the nitrifying bacteria present in the N- and PD-biofilms were active and the bacteria present in the SD-biofilm could denitrify. PMID:16477661

  4. 76 FR 77554 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Growing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office... providing entrepreneurship training services to individuals interested in starting or growing a business..., treatment group members were offered an assessment of their business needs, classroom training,...

  5. Antibacterial activity of Pinus elliottii against anaerobic bacteria present in primary endodontic infections.

    PubMed

    Caetano da Silva, Sandro Donizete; Mendes de Souza, Maria Gorete; Oliveira Cardoso, Miguel Jorge; da Silva Moraes, Thais; Ambrósio, Sérgio Ricardo; Sola Veneziani, Rodrigo Cássio; Martins, Carlos Henrique G

    2014-12-01

    Endodontic infections have a polymicrobial nature, but anaerobic bacteria prevail among the infectious microbes. Considering that it is easy to eliminate planktonic bacteria, biofilm-forming bacteria still challenge clinicians during the fight against endodontic diseases. The chemical constituents of the oleoresin of Pinus elliottii, a plant belonging to the family Pinaceae, stand out in the search for biologically active compounds based on natural products with potential application in the treatment of endodontic infections. Indeed, plant oleoresins are an abundant natural source of diterpenes that display significant and well-defined biological activities as well as potential antimicrobial action. In this context, this study aimed to (1) evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the oleoresin, fractions, and subfractions of P. elliottii as well as the action of dehydroabietic acid against 11 anaerobic bacteria that cause endodontic infection in both their planktonic and biofilm forms and (2) assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity of dehydroabietic acid against the same group of bacteria. The broth microdilution technique helped to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the oleoresin and fractions. This same technique aided determination of the MIC values of nine subfractions of Fraction 1, the most active fraction. The MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration, and antibiofilm activity of dehydroabietic acid against the tested anaerobic bacteria were also examined. The oleoresin and fractions, especially fraction PE1, afforded promising MIC values, which ranged from 0.4 to 50 μg/mL. Concerning the nine evaluated subfractions, PE1.3 and PE1.4 furnished the most noteworthy MIC values, between 6.2 and 100 μg/mL. Dehydroabietic acid displayed antibacterial activity, with MIC values lying from 6.2 to 50 μg/mL, as well as bactericidal effect for all the investigated bacteria, except for Prevotella nigrescens. Assessment of the antibiofilm

  6. Antibacterial activity of Pinus elliottii against anaerobic bacteria present in primary endodontic infections.

    PubMed

    Caetano da Silva, Sandro Donizete; Mendes de Souza, Maria Gorete; Oliveira Cardoso, Miguel Jorge; da Silva Moraes, Thais; Ambrósio, Sérgio Ricardo; Sola Veneziani, Rodrigo Cássio; Martins, Carlos Henrique G

    2014-12-01

    Endodontic infections have a polymicrobial nature, but anaerobic bacteria prevail among the infectious microbes. Considering that it is easy to eliminate planktonic bacteria, biofilm-forming bacteria still challenge clinicians during the fight against endodontic diseases. The chemical constituents of the oleoresin of Pinus elliottii, a plant belonging to the family Pinaceae, stand out in the search for biologically active compounds based on natural products with potential application in the treatment of endodontic infections. Indeed, plant oleoresins are an abundant natural source of diterpenes that display significant and well-defined biological activities as well as potential antimicrobial action. In this context, this study aimed to (1) evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the oleoresin, fractions, and subfractions of P. elliottii as well as the action of dehydroabietic acid against 11 anaerobic bacteria that cause endodontic infection in both their planktonic and biofilm forms and (2) assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity of dehydroabietic acid against the same group of bacteria. The broth microdilution technique helped to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the oleoresin and fractions. This same technique aided determination of the MIC values of nine subfractions of Fraction 1, the most active fraction. The MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration, and antibiofilm activity of dehydroabietic acid against the tested anaerobic bacteria were also examined. The oleoresin and fractions, especially fraction PE1, afforded promising MIC values, which ranged from 0.4 to 50 μg/mL. Concerning the nine evaluated subfractions, PE1.3 and PE1.4 furnished the most noteworthy MIC values, between 6.2 and 100 μg/mL. Dehydroabietic acid displayed antibacterial activity, with MIC values lying from 6.2 to 50 μg/mL, as well as bactericidal effect for all the investigated bacteria, except for Prevotella nigrescens. Assessment of the antibiofilm

  7. Antifungal Activity of Lactobacillus sp. Bacteria in the Presence of Xylitol and Galactosyl-Xylitol

    PubMed Central

    Lipińska, Lidia; Klewicki, Robert; Klewicka, Elżbieta; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Sójka, Michał; Nowak, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid fermentation is a natural method of antimicrobial food protection. Antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus sp. bacteria, taking part in this process, is directed mainly against the same or other microorganisms. In this work we determine the impact of the presence of xylitol and galactosyl-xylitol on the antagonistic activity of 60 Lactobacillus sp. strains against indicator molds (Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicicola, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium latenicum, Geotrichum candidum, and Mucor hiemalis) and yeasts (Candida vini). We used double-layer method to select antifungal strains of Lactobacillus bacteria and poisoned medium method to confirm their fungistatic properties. Additionally, we examined the inhibition of Alternaria brassicicola by Lactobacillus paracasei ŁOCK 0921 cultivated with xylitol or galactosyl-xylitol directly on wild cherries. The presence of xylitol and its galactosyl derivative led to increase of spectrum of antifungal activity in most of the studied plant-associated lactobacilli strains. However, no single strain exhibited activity against all the indicator microorganisms. The antifungal activity of Lactobacillus bacteria against molds varied considerably and depended on both the indicator strain and the composition of the medium. The presence of xylitol and galactosyl-xylitol in the growth medium is correlated with the antifungal activity of the studied Lactobacillus sp. bacteria against selected indicator molds. PMID:27294124

  8. Synergistic antimicrobial activity of combinations of sanguinarine and EDTA with vancomycin against multidrug resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hamoud, Razan; Reichling, Jurgen; Wink, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A combination of antimicrobial drugs has a potential to overcome multidrug resistant pathogens. In our study we tested the combination of an antimicrobial DNA-intercalating alkaloid (sanguinarine), a chelator (EDTA) with a standard antibiotic (vancomycin), i.e. drugs, which differ in their mode of action. The antibacterial activities of individual substances and of two-drug and three-drug combinations were evaluated for 34 strains of Gram-positive and Gramnegative bacteria (among them 23 clinical isolates) which are not sensitive for vancomycin. MIC and MBC values were determined for each drug individually. Sanguinarine demonstrated a strong activity against all the strains; its activity was comparable to that of antibiotics (MIC = 0.5 - 128 µg/ml). Time kill pharmacokinetics were studied for different concentrations of sanguinarine. A sanguinarine concentration of 16 x MIC was bactericidal against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains within 4 to 6 h of incubation. EDTA has only bacteriostatic activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. As expected, vancomycin is active against Gram-positive bacteria (MIC = 0.125 - 16 µg/ml) but much weaker against Gram-negative bacteria (MIC = 4 - 128 µg/ml). Using the checkerboard design, two- and threedrug combinations were evaluated. Additive and synergistic effects were recorded for all sanguinarine + EDTA and sanguinarine + EDTA + vancomycin combinations against Gram-negative bacteria. Time kill assays indicated that only the combination of 1 x MIC sanguinarine + 1 x MIC EDTA + 1 x MIC vancomycin resulted in a synergistic interaction against MRSA. In the combination assays Gram-negative bacteria became sensitive for vancomycin. More experiments are needed to demonstrate that such a combination strategy also works under in vivo conditions and is clinically relevant.

  9. Screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance.

    PubMed

    Weckesser, S; Engel, K; Simon-Haarhaus, B; Wittmer, A; Pelz, K; Schempp, C M

    2007-08-01

    There is cumulative resistance against antibiotics of many bacteria. Therefore, the development of new antiseptics and antimicrobial agents for the treatment of skin infections is of increasing interest. We have screened six plant extracts and isolated compounds for antimicrobial effects on bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance. The following plant extracts have been tested: Gentiana lutea, Harpagophytum procumbens, Boswellia serrata (dry extracts), Usnea barbata, Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis (supercritical carbon dioxide [CO2] extracts). Additionally, the following characteristic plant substances were tested: usnic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, harpagoside, boswellic acid and gentiopicroside. The extracts and compounds were tested against 29 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and yeasts in the agar dilution test. U. barbata-extract and usnic acid were the most active compounds, especially in anaerobic bacteria. Usnea CO2-extract effectively inhibited the growth of several Gram-positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains - MRSA), Propionibacterium acnes and Corynebacterium species. Growth of the dimorphic yeast Malassezia furfur was also inhibited by Usnea-extract. Besides the Usnea-extract, Rosmarinus-, Salvia-, Boswellia- and Harpagophytum-extracts proved to be effective against a panel of bacteria. It is concluded that due to their antimicrobial effects some of the plant extracts may be used for the topical treatment of skin disorders like acne vulgaris and seborrhoic eczema. PMID:17291738

  10. Screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance.

    PubMed

    Weckesser, S; Engel, K; Simon-Haarhaus, B; Wittmer, A; Pelz, K; Schempp, C M

    2007-08-01

    There is cumulative resistance against antibiotics of many bacteria. Therefore, the development of new antiseptics and antimicrobial agents for the treatment of skin infections is of increasing interest. We have screened six plant extracts and isolated compounds for antimicrobial effects on bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance. The following plant extracts have been tested: Gentiana lutea, Harpagophytum procumbens, Boswellia serrata (dry extracts), Usnea barbata, Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis (supercritical carbon dioxide [CO2] extracts). Additionally, the following characteristic plant substances were tested: usnic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, harpagoside, boswellic acid and gentiopicroside. The extracts and compounds were tested against 29 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and yeasts in the agar dilution test. U. barbata-extract and usnic acid were the most active compounds, especially in anaerobic bacteria. Usnea CO2-extract effectively inhibited the growth of several Gram-positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains - MRSA), Propionibacterium acnes and Corynebacterium species. Growth of the dimorphic yeast Malassezia furfur was also inhibited by Usnea-extract. Besides the Usnea-extract, Rosmarinus-, Salvia-, Boswellia- and Harpagophytum-extracts proved to be effective against a panel of bacteria. It is concluded that due to their antimicrobial effects some of the plant extracts may be used for the topical treatment of skin disorders like acne vulgaris and seborrhoic eczema.

  11. Comparison of antibacterial activities of cadmium oxide nanoparticles against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Staphylococcus Aureus bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Bahareh; Mortaz, Esmaeil; Tabarsi, Payam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inorganic antibacterial factors have bacterial resistance and high thermal stability. Inorganic nanomaterials which have new structures with biological, chemical and physical properties have been made since their applications due to their nano size. In this study, the antibacterial effect of cadmium oxide nanoparticles on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria was investigated. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations (10 μg/ml, 15 μg/ml and 20 μg/ml) of cadmium oxide nanoparticles were prepared and their effects were studied against considered bacteria in both solid and liquid media. Results: The results showed that there is a direct relationship between inhibitory effect and amount of consumer dose of nanoparticles. Furthermore, it was observed that antibacterial properties of cadmium oxide nanoparticles on activity and growth of Staphylococcus aureus was more effective than Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion: This study showed that antibacterial effects of cadmium oxide nanoparticles on positive gram bacteria are stronger than negative gram bacteria and antibacterial effects of cdo nanoparticles against both bacteria, but Staphylococcus aureus bacteria were more sensitive to nanoparticles as compared to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:26261807

  12. Combined autoradiography and immunofluorescence for estimation of single cell activity by ammonium-oxidizing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, B.B.

    1984-03-01

    Immunofluorescence and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ autoradiography were used for simultaneously enumerating and assaying the autotrophic activity of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in seawater. Relative activity (/sup 14/CO/sub 2/ assimilation as measured by autoradiography) and abundance were measured in simulated in situ incubations at seven stations in the primary NO/sub 2//sup -/ maximum region of the Northeast Pacific Ocean. More than 10/sup 4/ cells-liter/sup -1/ were present; relative activity often showed a peak near the surface and an increase in the NO/sub 2//sup -/ max region below the photic zone. The method permits assessment of individual cell activity; most cells at all depths were active in CO/sub 2/ assimilation, usually at low and quite variable levels. Relative activity was positively correlated with the abundance of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, temperature, total dark CO/sub 2/ assimilation and phenopigment concentration.

  13. Distribution and activity of bacteria in deep granitic groundwaters of southeastern sweden.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, K; Ekendahl, S

    1990-12-01

    This study investigated the distribution of bacteria in groundwater from 16 different levels in five boreholes in granite bedrock down to a maximum of 860 m. Enrichment cultures were used to assay the groups of bacteria present. Autoradiographic studies with(14)C- or(3)H-labeled formate, methanol, acetate, lactate, glucose, sodium bicarbonate, leucine, glutamine, thymidine, orN-acetyl-glucosamine were used to obtain information about bacteria active in substrate uptake. The biofilm formation potential was studied in one borehole. The chemical environment in the groundwater was anaerobic with an Eh between -112 and -383 mV, a pH usually around 8, and a temperature range of 10.2 to 20.5°C, depending on the depth. The organic content ranged between <0.5 and 9.5 mg total organic carbon liter(-1). Carbon dioxide, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, and methane were present in the water. The nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate concentrations were close to, or below, the detection limits, while there were detectable amounts of NH4 (+) in the range of 4 to 330 μg liter(-1). The average total number of bacteria was 2.6×10(5) bacteria ml(-1), as determined with an acridine organge direct-count (AODC) technique. The average number of bacteria that grew on a medium with 1.5 g liter(-1) of organic substrate was 7.7×10(3) colony-forming units (CFU) ml(-1). The majority of these were facultatively anaerobic, gram-negative, nonfermenting heterotrophs. Enrichment cultures indicated the presence of anaerobic bacteria capable of growth on C-1 compounds and hydrogen, presumably methanogenic bacteria. Most probable number assays with sulfate and lactate revealed up to 5.6×10(4) viable sulfate-reducing bacteria per ml. A biofilm development experiment indicated an active attached microbial population. Active substrate uptake could not be registered with the bulk water populations, except for an uptake of leucine not associated with growth. The bulk water microbial cells in deep groundwater may

  14. Small azobenzene derivatives active against bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Piotto, Stefano; Concilio, Simona; Sessa, Lucia; Porta, Amalia; Calabrese, Elena Concetta; Zanfardino, Anna; Varcamonti, Mario; Iannelli, Pio

    2013-10-01

    ATP synthase and protein kinase (PKs) are prime targets for drug discovery in a variety of diseases. It is well known that numerous stilbenes are capable to interact and inhibit ATP synthase and PKs. This work focuses on a series of azobenzene based molecules having high structural similarity with antimicrobial stilbenes. An investigation was carried out analyzing the potential toxicity of a large set of molecules by means of computational analysis. A small selection of potential low toxic molecules have been therefore synthesized, characterized and finally microbiologically tested. The synthesized compounds show potent bactericidal activity against Gram+ and a fungus, and are capable of inhibiting biofilm formation. Finally, the compounds demonstrated a thermal stability that makes them potential candidates for incorporation in polymer matrix for application as biomedical devices and food packaging.

  15. Heterotrophic Activity of Deep-Sea Sediment Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, J. R.; Colwell, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    Sediment samples, containing mixed microbial populations that were decompressed during retrieval from 7,750 and 8,130 m in the Puerto Rican Trench, were recompressed and incubated at the approximate in situ temperature (3 C) and pressure (775 or 815 atm) in the presence of 14C-labeled amino acids. Heterotrophic activity (total uptake, CO2 respiration, and cellular assimilation) and cellular-associated “pool” concentrations were measured. Compared with atmospheric controls held at 3 C, the total uptake at elevated pressure at 3 C was reduced, on an average, 55 times, CO2 respiration was reduced 45 times, and cellular assimilation was reduced 69 times. Rate of total uptake at elevated pressure was found to range from 4.0 × 10-11 μg/cell per h for leucine to 2.61 × 10-10 μg/cell per h for an amino acid mixture. Also, the percentage of total uptake at elevated pressures, respired as CO2, increased at the expense of cellular assimilation (ca. 22% increase). Two cellular-associated amino acid pools were detected, a large, loosely bound, outer pool and a small, tightly bound internal pool. The loosely bound outer pool was removed by a change in the pH of the incubation medium. Even though heterotrophic uptake and the outer, cellular-associated pool were markedly reduced at an elevated pressure, the percentage of total uptake calculated for the unincorporated, tightly bound, intracellular pool was 2 to 19 times that obtained for cultures held at 1 atm. The results were interpreted as indicating that bacterial metabolism and biosynthesis in the deep sea are markedly reduced, with a greater proportion of metabolic activity devoted to cellular maintenance. PMID:1190762

  16. Association of coliform bacteria with wastewater particles: impact of operational parameters of the activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Loge, Frank J; Emerick, Robert W; Ginn, Tim R; Darby, Jeannie L

    2002-01-01

    The fraction of particles with associated coliform bacteria (PAC) in the activated sludge process was evaluated using a 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probe specific to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The PAC was found to decline exponentially with increasing mean cell residence times (MCRTs). The factors influencing the formation of PAC, identified with simplified mass balance relationships. are the concentration of particles, the concentration of dispersed (non-particle associated) coliform bacteria, and the MCRT. The concentration of dispersed coliform bacteria was found to decline with increasing MCRTs. The rate of decline was greater than the typical half-life attributed to endogenous decay, suggesting that other factors (e.g., predation by protozoa) influence the concentration of dispersed coliform bacteria, and subsequently the formation of PAC. Given that the association of targeted organisms with particles adversely impacts the performance of a disinfection system, studies targeted at the fate of organisms other than coliform bacteria in the activated sludge process are of paramount importance in assessing the health risks of post-disinfected effluents. PMID:11766816

  17. Views of Growing Methane Emissions near Oil and Natural Gas Activity: Satellite, Aircraft, and Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollonige, D. E.; Thompson, A. M.; Diskin, G. S.; Hannigan, J. W.; Nussbaumer, E.

    2015-12-01

    To better understand the discrepancies between current top-down and bottom-up estimates, additional methane (CH4) measurements are necessary for regions surrounding growing oil and natural gas (ONG) development. We have evaluated satellite measurements of CH4 in US regions with ONG operations for their application as "top-down" constraints (part of the NASA Air Quality Applied Sciences Team (AQAST) project). For validation of the satellite instruments' sensitivities to emitted gases, we focus on regions where the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) campaign deployed ground and aircraft measurements in Maryland (2011), California and Texas (2013), and Colorado (2014). The largest CH4 signals were observed in the Greater Green River and Powder River Basins using Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Representative Tropospheric Volume Mixing Ratio (RTVMR) measurements. A long-term comparison between a ground remote-sensing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) at Boulder and TES for 2010-2013 shows good correlation and differences ranging 2.5-5% for their yearly distribution of total column CH4. To determine any correlation between lower/mid-tropospheric CH4 (where a thermal IR sensor, such as TES, is most sensitive) and near-surface/boundary CH4 (where sources emit), we analyze the variability of DISCOVER-AQ aircraft profiles using principal component analysis and assess the correlation between near-surface (0-2 km) and mid-tropospheric (>2 km) CH4 concentrations. Using these relationships, we estimate near-surface CH4 using mid-tropospheric satellite measurements based on the partial column amounts within vertical layers with a linear regression. From this analysis, we will demonstrate whether the uncertainties of satellite-estimated near-surface CH4 are comparable to observed variability near ONG activity. These results will assist validation of satellite instrument

  18. Biofilm inhibition of spoilage bacteria by Argentinean fruit juices with antihypertensive activity.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Claudia V; Aredes-Fernández, Pedro A; Farías, Marta E; Rodríguez-Vaquero, María J

    2013-01-01

    Argentinean juices have been studied for their antihypertensive activity, the inhibition of bacteria biofilm formation and the effect on the viability of wine yeast. The influence of phenolic compounds on these activities was evaluated. These studies are the first step for the development of a new type of wine that includes grape must supplement with fruit juices with antihypertensive effect. All juices posses a high antihypertensive activity, higher than 50%. Strawberry juices and eureka lemon showed the highest activity, whereas clarified juices posses the lowest activity. All studied juices produce a high inhibition of bacteria biofilm formation, and the strawberry, orange and mandarin varieties not affect the growth or viability of yeast. Our results permit to conclude that it could be possible the use of these juices in a new type of wine or as a source of new antihypertensive agents for pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24372267

  19. Antibacterial activity of Brazilian propolis and fractions against oral anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Santos, F A; Bastos, E M A; Uzeda, M; Carvalho, M A R; Farias, L M; Moreira, E S A; Braga, F C

    2002-04-01

    Propolis collected from a cerrado area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, was subjected to chromatography on silica gel column and to partition between immiscible solvents. Propolis aqueous-ethanolic extract and fractions obtained were tested for inhibitory activity against periodontitis-causing bacteria. All of the assayed bacterium species were susceptible to propolis extract. The two fractionation methodologies yielded fractions which were active against bacteria, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 64 to 1024 microg/ml. TLC and HPLC analyses of the extract and of active fractions showed the presence of phenolic compounds of varied polarity. None of the assayed fractions was more active than the extract, suggesting that the antibacterial activity is probably due to the synergistic effect of several compounds.

  20. Agriculture--Ornamental Horticulture. Building Model Greenhouse and Growing Plants. Kit No. 41. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Wesley

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on building a model greenhouse and growing plants are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture (ornamental horticulture). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven…

  1. Heat stable antimicrobial activity of Allium ascalonicum against bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Amin, M; Kapadnis, B P

    2005-08-01

    To study antimicrobial activity of shallot in comparison with that of garlic and onion against 23 strains of fungi and bacteria, water extracts of garlic, shallot and onion bulbs were prepared. Each extract was studied in different forms for their antimicrobial activity viz., fresh extract, dry extract and autoclaved extract. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal lethal concentrations of these extracts were determined against all organisms by broth dilution susceptibility test. Fresh extract of garlic showed greater antimicrobial activity as compared to similar extracts of onion and shallot. However, dried and autoclaved extracts of shallot showed more activity than similar extracts of onion and garlic. Fungi were more sensitive to shallot extract than bacteria. Amongst bacteria, B. cereus was most sensitive (MIC=5 mg ml(-1)). The lowest minimum bactericidal concentration of shallot extract amongst bacteria tested was 5 mg ml(-1) for B. cereus. Amongst fungi, Aureobasidium pullulans and Microsporum gypseum were most sensitive (MIC= 0.15 mg ml(-1)). The lowest minimum lethal concentration was 2.5 mg ml(-1) for Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. It was therefore, expected that the antimicrobial principle of shallot was different than the antimicrobial compounds of onion and garlic. In addition, the antimicrobial component of the shallot extract was stable at 121 degrees C.

  2. Combining phosphate and bacteria removal on chemically active filter membranes allows prolonged storage of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Rotzetter, A C C; Kellenberger, C R; Schumacher, C M; Mora, C; Grass, R N; Loepfe, M; Luechinger, N A; Stark, W J

    2013-11-13

    A chemically active filtration membrane with incorporated lanthanum oxide nanoparticles enables the removal of bacteria and phosphate at the same time and thus provides a simple device for preparation of drinking water and subsequent safe storage without using any kind of disinfectants.

  3. Chlorine-Susceptible and Chlorine-Resistant Type 021N Bacteria Occurring in Bulking Activated Sludges

    PubMed Central

    Séka, M. A.; Kalogo, Y.; Hammes, F.; Kielemoes, J.; Verstraete, W.

    2001-01-01

    Two filamentous bacteria causing bulking in two activated sludges were examined. Investigations using morphological features, staining techniques, and fluorescent in situ hybridization identified both filaments as type 021N. However, an examination of the effect of chlorine on the sludges revealed a chlorine-susceptible type 021N in one sludge and a chlorine-resistant type 021N in the other. PMID:11679359

  4. Antibacterial activities of selected edible plants extracts against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In response to the propagation of bacteria resistant to many antibiotics also called multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, the discovery of new and more efficient antibacterial agents is primordial. The present study was aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activities of seven Cameroonian dietary plants (Adansonia digitata, Aframomum alboviolaceum, Aframomum polyanthum, Anonidium. mannii, Hibiscus sabdarifa, Ocimum gratissimum and Tamarindus indica). Methods The phytochemical screening of the studied extracts was performed using described methods whilst the liquid broth micro dilution was used for all antimicrobial assays against 27 Gram-negative bacteria. Results The results of the phytochemical tests indicate that all tested extracts contained phenols and triterpenes, other classes of chemicals being selectively present. The studied extracts displayed various degrees of antibacterial activities. The extracts of A. digitata, H. sabdarifa, A. polyanthum, A. alboviolaceum and O. gratissimum showed the best spectra of activity, their inhibitory effects being recorded against 81.48%, 66.66%, 62.96%, 55.55%, and 55.55% of the 27 tested bacteria respectively. The extract of A. polyanthum was very active against E. aerogenes EA294 with the lowest recorded minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 32 μg/ml. Conclusion The results of the present work provide useful baseline information for the potential use of the studied edible plants in the fight against both sensitive and MDR phenotypes. PMID:23837916

  5. Carbon conversion efficiency and population dynamics of a marine algae-bacteria consortium growing on simplified synthetic digestate: first step in a bioprocess coupling algal production and anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, Christophe; Bougaran, Gaël; Garnier, Matthieu; Hamelin, Jérôme; Leboulanger, Christophe; Le Chevanton, Myriam; Mostajir, Behzad; Sialve, Bruno; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Fouilland, Eric

    2012-09-01

    Association of microalgae culture and anaerobic digestion seems a promising technology for sustainable algal biomass and biogas production. The use of digestates for sustaining the growth of microalgae reduces the costs and the environmental impacts associated with the substantial algal nutrient requirements. A natural marine algae-bacteria consortium was selected by growing on a medium containing macro nutrients (ammonia, phosphate and acetate) specific of a digestate, and was submitted to a factorial experimental design with different levels of temperature, light and pH. The microalgal consortium reached a maximum C conversion efficiency (i.e. ratio between carbon content produced and carbon supplied through light photosynthetic C conversion and acetate) of 3.6%. The presence of bacteria increased this maximum C conversion efficiency up to 6.3%. The associated bacterial community was considered beneficial to the total biomass production by recycling the carbon lost during photosynthesis and assimilating organic by-products from anaerobic digestion. PMID:22728186

  6. Bacteria and their cell wall components uniformly co-activate interleukin-17-producing thymocytes

    PubMed Central

    Weber, A; Zimmermann, C; Kieseier, B C; Hartung, H-P; Hofstetter, H H

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-17-producing T cells play a critical role in the immune response against microbial pathogens. Traditionally, experimental studies have focused upon understanding the activity of IL-17-producing T cells which differentiate from naive T cells in the peripheral immune system. However, we have demonstrated previously that IL-17-producing T cells are also present in the thymus of naive wild-type mice and can be co-activated there by microbial stimuli. Other studies have supported the concept that IL-17-producing thymocytes have a specific role in the immediate defence against microbial pathogens, which is independent from the development of an adaptive immune response. Given an important role of the thymus in systemic bacterial infection and sepsis, in this study we investigate the effect of a broad spectrum of bacteria and cell wall components on thymocyte cytokine production. Surprisingly, we find that all types of bacteria investigated (including non-pathogenic species) uniformly activate IL-17-producing thymocytes upon α-CD3 stimulation. In contrast, there is a heterogeneous effect on IL-6 and interferon (IFN)-γ-production with Gram-negative bacteria inducing far higher frequencies of IL-6- and IFN-γ-producing thymocytes than Gram-positive bacteria. We conclude that IL-17-producing thymocytes constitute a ‘first line of recognition’, but not a ‘first line of defence’ against bacteria in general. Their activity might lead to immune activation, but not necessarily to a pathological inflammatory disease condition. The difference between these two states might be determined by other immunological effector molecules, such as IL-6 and IFN-γ. PMID:24995465

  7. Ice-active characteristics of soil bacteria selected by ice-affinity.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sandra L; Kelley, Deborah L; Walker, Virginia K

    2006-10-01

    As an initial screen for microorganisms that produce ice-active macromolecules, ice-affinity was used to select microorganisms from soil consortia originating from three temperate regions. Once selected and subsequently purified to single colonies, these microbes were putatively identified by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing and assayed for various ice-active properties. Ice-affinity selection appeared to select for bacteria with ice-associating activities: inhibition of ice recrystallization; ice nucleation; ice shaping. Although none of these activities were observed in Paenibacillus amyloliticus C8, others such as Chryseobacterium sp. GL8, demonstrated both ice recrystallization inhibition and ice-shaping activities. Pseudomonas borealis DL7 was classified as a type I ice nucleator, Flavobacterium sp. GL7, was identified as a type III ice nucleator and Acinetobacter radioresistens DL5 demonstrated ice recrystallization inhibition. In all, 19 different culturable bacteria were selected from the thousands of microbes in late-summer collected soil samples. Many of the selected microbes have been previously reported in glacial ice cores or polar sea ice, and of five isolates that were further characterized, four showed ice-associating activities. These results indicate the significant potential of ice-affinity selection even with temperate climate soils, suggesting that sampling in more extreme and remote areas is not required for the isolation of ice-active bacteria. PMID:16958762

  8. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against fish pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Park, Joon-Woo; Wendt, Mitchell; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2016-06-01

    The antibacterial activities of the essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus (EOEG) was determined against 7 fish pathogenic bacteria (Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, S. parauberis, Lactococcus garviae, Vibrio harveyi, V. ichthyoenteri and Photobacterium damselae) obtained from farmed olive flounder. The inhibitory activity was evaluated by three methods: Disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). According to the disc diffusion test, as the concentration of EOEG (5-40 µg) rises, the inhibitory zone increases in size. Compared with amoxicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, EOEG showed similar antibacterial activity. The MIC of EOEG ranged from 7.8 to 125 mg/mL and MBC values ranged from 62 to 250 mg/mL. These results show that EOEG has antimicrobial activity against all seven bacteria, but there was no marked difference between each genus. From these results, it is suggested that EOEG can be used as an antimicrobial agent against fish bacterial diseases in the fish industry.

  9. The Antibacterial Activity of Chitosan Products Blended with Monoterpenes and Their Biofilms against Plant Pathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Mohamed E I; Rabea, Entsar I; Taktak, Nehad E M; El-Nouby, Mahmoud A M

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the biological activities of eleven chitosan products with a viscosity-average molecular weight ranging from 22 to 846 kDa in combination with the most active monoterpenes (geraniol and thymol), out of 10 tested, against four plant pathogenic bacteria, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Erwinia carotovora, Corynebacterium fascians, and Pseudomonas solanacearum. The antibacterial activity was evaluated in vitro by the agar dilution technique as a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) that was found to be dependent on the type of the microorganism tested. The most active product of chitosan was used for biofilm production enriched with geraniol and thymol (0.1 and 0.5%) and the films were also evaluated against the tested bacteria. The biological bioactivities summarized here may provide novel insights into the functions of chitosan and some monoterpenes and potentially allow their use for food protection from microbial attack. PMID:27127676

  10. LL37:DNA complexes provide antimicrobial activity against intracellular bacteria in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Alexander; Batinica, Marina; Steiger, Julia; Hartmann, Pia; Zaucke, Frank; Bloch, Wilhelm; Fabri, Mario

    2016-08-01

    As part of the innate host response neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), protein:DNA complexes that contain a number of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as cathelicidin. Human cathelicidin in its active form, LL37, has potent antimicrobial activity against bacteria. However, whether LL37 derived from NETs contributes to antimicrobial activity against intracellular pathogens remains unclear. Here, we report that NETs induced by mycobacteria contain cathelicidin. Human macrophages internalized NET-bound cathelicidin, which is transported to lysosomal compartments. Furthermore, using a model of in vitro-generated LL37:DNA complexes we found that LL37 derived from such complexes attacks mycobacteria in macrophage phagolysosomes resulting in antimicrobial activity. Taken together, our results suggest a mechanism by which LL37 in complex with DNA contributes to host defence against intracellular bacteria in human macrophages.

  11. The Antibacterial Activity of Chitosan Products Blended with Monoterpenes and Their Biofilms against Plant Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Badawy, Mohamed E. I.; Rabea, Entsar I.; Taktak, Nehad E. M.; El-Nouby, Mahmoud A. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the biological activities of eleven chitosan products with a viscosity-average molecular weight ranging from 22 to 846 kDa in combination with the most active monoterpenes (geraniol and thymol), out of 10 tested, against four plant pathogenic bacteria, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Erwinia carotovora, Corynebacterium fascians, and Pseudomonas solanacearum. The antibacterial activity was evaluated in vitro by the agar dilution technique as a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) that was found to be dependent on the type of the microorganism tested. The most active product of chitosan was used for biofilm production enriched with geraniol and thymol (0.1 and 0.5%) and the films were also evaluated against the tested bacteria. The biological bioactivities summarized here may provide novel insights into the functions of chitosan and some monoterpenes and potentially allow their use for food protection from microbial attack. PMID:27127676

  12. Isolation of aluminum-tolerant bacteria capable of nitrogen removal in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Ji, Bin; Chen, Wei; Zhu, Lei; Yang, Kai

    2016-05-15

    Four strains of bacteria capable of withstanding 20mM concentration of aluminum were isolated from activated sludge in a bioreactor. 16S rRNA identification and morphological characteristics indicated that these strains were Chryseobacterium sp. B1, Brevundimonas diminuta B3, Hydrogenophaga sp. B4, and Bacillus cereus B5. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the position and interrelationships of these bacteria. B. diminuta B3 and Hydrogenophaga sp. B4 could achieve nitrate nitrogen removal of 94.0% and 76.8% within 36h of its initial concentration of 148.8 and 151.7mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, B3 and B4 could degrade ammonia with little nitrite accumulation. Results of this study provide more information about aluminum-resistant bacteria and laid the foundation for aluminum salt when it is simultaneously used for chemical precipitation. PMID:27038879

  13. Tannins and extracts of fruit byproducts: antibacterial activity against foodborne bacteria and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Widsten, Petri; Cruz, Cristina D; Fletcher, Graham C; Pajak, Marta A; McGhie, Tony K

    2014-11-19

    The shelf life of fresh fish and meat transported over long distances could be extended by using plant-based extracts to control spoilage bacteria. The goals of the present study were to identify plant-based extracts that effectively suppress the main spoilage bacteria of chilled fish and lamb and to assess their antioxidant capacity. The phenolic compounds in wood-based tannins and extracts isolated from byproducts of the fruit processing industry were identified and/or quantified. The total phenol content, but not the flavonoid to total phenol ratio, was strongly associated with higher antibacterial activity against several fish and lamb spoilage bacteria in zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration assays as well as greater antioxidant capacity in the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical assay. The most promising compounds in both cases, and thus good candidates for antibacterial packaging or antioxidant dietary supplements, were mango seed extract and tannic acid containing mostly polygalloyl glucose type phenols.

  14. Active and diverse rainwater bacteria collected at an inland site in spring and summer 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Byung Cheol; Jang, Gwang Il

    2014-09-01

    Rainwater is an important natural resource and utilized for various beneficial purposes. However, information on prokaryotes in rainwater is limited. Rainwater samples were collected during three heavy rain events at a suburban site in Seoul in April, May, and July 2011. The highest bacterial abundance (BA) in rainwater was observed in April when airborne bacteria had also been abundant the day before rainwater collection. ATP content in bacterial fraction of the rainwater suggested that the rainwater bacteria were metabolically active. Bacterial community compositions (BCCs) of rainwater samples, analyzed by using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing, differed considerably among the three rain events. Rainwater bacteria showed potentials of fast growth and drastic shift after incubation in BCCs from fresh rainwater at broad taxonomic levels and the dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) level. Presumable marine bacterial OTUs which formed a robust clade with marine bacteria Lacinutrix spp. were at high concentrations in rainwater in April, likely reflecting origin from saline environments. Most of the Flavobacteria sequences unusually high in April rainwater seemed to have marine origins. Further, spore-forming euryhaline marine Firmicutes were isolated from rainwater samples, suggesting possible dispersal of some marine bacteria via rain. A potential human pathogen and Escherichia coli-like sequences were detected in rainwater samples, calling for the need for assessment of health risks of collected rainwater.

  15. Electroresponsive Supramolecular Graphene Oxide Hydrogels for Active Bacteria Adsorption and Removal.

    PubMed

    Xue, Bin; Qin, Meng; Wu, Junhua; Luo, Dongjun; Jiang, Qing; Li, Ying; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei

    2016-06-22

    Bacteria contamination in drinking water and medical products can cause severe health problems. However, currently available sterilization methods, mainly based on the size-exclusion mechanism, are typically slow and require the entire contaminated water to pass through the filter. Here, we present an electroresponsive hydrogel based approach for bacteria adsorption and removal. We successfully engineered a series of graphene oxide hydrogels using redox-active ruthenium complexes as noncovalent cross-linkers. The resulting hydrogels can reversibly switch their physical properties in response to the applied electric field along with the changes of oxidation states of the ruthenium ions. The hydrogels display strong bacteria adsorbing capability. A hydrogel of 1 cm(3) can adsorb a maximum of 1 × 10(8) E. coli. The adsorbed bacteria in the hydrogels can then be inactivated by a high voltage electric pulse and removed from the hydrogels subsequently. Owing to the high bacteria removal rate, reusability, and low production cost, these hydrogels represent promising candidates for the emergent sterilization of medical products or large-scale purification of drinking water. PMID:27244345

  16. Large-scale pattern formation in active particles suspensions: from interacting microtubules to swimming bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranson, Igor

    2006-03-01

    We consider two biological systems of active particles exhibiting large-scale collective behavior: microtubules interacting with molecular motors and hydrodynamically entrained swimming bacteria. Starting from a generic stochastic microscopic model of inelastically colliding polar rods with an anisotropic interaction kernel, we derive set of equations for the local rods concentration and orientation. Above certain critical density of rods the model exhibits orientational instability and onset of large-scale coherence. For the microtubules and molecular motors system we demonstrate that the orientational instability leads to the formation of vortices and asters seen in recent experiments. Similar approach is applied to colonies of swimming bacteria Bacillus subtilis confined in thin fluid film. The model is formulated in term of two-dimensional equations for local density and orientation of bacteria coupled to the low Reynolds number Navier-Stokes equation for the fluid flow velocity. The collective swimming of bacteria is represented by additional source term in the Navier-Stokes equation. We demonstrate that this system exhibits formation of dynamic large-scale patterns with the typical scale determined by the density of bacteria.

  17. Electroresponsive Supramolecular Graphene Oxide Hydrogels for Active Bacteria Adsorption and Removal.

    PubMed

    Xue, Bin; Qin, Meng; Wu, Junhua; Luo, Dongjun; Jiang, Qing; Li, Ying; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei

    2016-06-22

    Bacteria contamination in drinking water and medical products can cause severe health problems. However, currently available sterilization methods, mainly based on the size-exclusion mechanism, are typically slow and require the entire contaminated water to pass through the filter. Here, we present an electroresponsive hydrogel based approach for bacteria adsorption and removal. We successfully engineered a series of graphene oxide hydrogels using redox-active ruthenium complexes as noncovalent cross-linkers. The resulting hydrogels can reversibly switch their physical properties in response to the applied electric field along with the changes of oxidation states of the ruthenium ions. The hydrogels display strong bacteria adsorbing capability. A hydrogel of 1 cm(3) can adsorb a maximum of 1 × 10(8) E. coli. The adsorbed bacteria in the hydrogels can then be inactivated by a high voltage electric pulse and removed from the hydrogels subsequently. Owing to the high bacteria removal rate, reusability, and low production cost, these hydrogels represent promising candidates for the emergent sterilization of medical products or large-scale purification of drinking water.

  18. Global-scale pattern of peatland Sphagnum growth driven by photosynthetically active radiation and growing season length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loisel, J.; Gallego-Sala, A. V.; Yu, Z.

    2012-02-01

    High-latitude peatlands contain about one third of the world's soil organic carbon, most of which is derived from partly decomposed Sphagnum (peat moss) plants. We conducted a meta-analysis based on a global dataset of Sphagnum growth measurements collected from published literature to investigate the effects of bioclimatic variables on Sphagnum growth. Analysis of variance and general linear models were used to relate Sphagnum magellanicum and S. fuscum growth rates to photosynthetically active radiation integrated over the growing season (PAR0) and a moisture index. We found that PAR0 was the main predictor of Sphagnum growth for the global dataset, and effective moisture was only correlated with moss growth at continental sites. The strong correlation between Sphagnum growth and PAR0 suggests the existence of a global pattern of growth, with slow rates under cool climate and short growing seasons, highlighting the important role of temperature and growing season length in explaining peatland biomass production. Large-scale patterns of cloudiness during the growing season might also limit moss growth. Although considerable uncertainty remains over the carbon balance of peatlands under a changing climate, our results suggest that increasing PAR0 as a result of global warming and lengthening growing seasons could promote Sphagnum growth. Assuming that production and decomposition have the same sensitivity to temperature, this enhanced growth could lead to greater peat-carbon sequestration, inducing a negative feedback to climate change.

  19. Global-scale pattern of peatland Sphagnum growth driven by photosynthetically active radiation and growing season length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loisel, J.; Gallego-Sala, A. V.; Yu, Z.

    2012-07-01

    High-latitude peatlands contain about one third of the world's soil organic carbon, most of which is derived from partly decomposed Sphagnum (peat moss) plants. We conducted a meta-analysis based on a global data set of Sphagnum growth measurements collected from published literature to investigate the effects of bioclimatic variables on Sphagnum growth. Analysis of variance and general linear models were used to relate Sphagnum magellanicum and S. fuscum growth rates to photosynthetically active radiation integrated over the growing season (PAR0) and a moisture index. We found that PAR0 was the main predictor of Sphagnum growth for the global data set, and effective moisture was only correlated with moss growth at continental sites. The strong correlation between Sphagnum growth and PAR0 suggests the existence of a global pattern of growth, with slow rates under cool climate and short growing seasons, highlighting the important role of growing season length in explaining peatland biomass production. Large-scale patterns of cloudiness during the growing season might also limit moss growth. Although considerable uncertainty remains over the carbon balance of peatlands under a changing climate, our results suggest that increasing PAR0 as a result of global warming and lengthening growing seasons, without major change in cloudiness, could promote Sphagnum growth. Assuming that production and decomposition have the same sensitivity to temperature, this enhanced growth could lead to greater peat-carbon sequestration, inducing a negative feedback to climate change.

  20. Identification of active oxalotrophic bacteria by Bromodeoxyuridine DNA labeling in a microcosm soil experiments.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Daniel; Martin, Gaëtan; David, Maude M; Cailleau, Guillaume; Verrecchia, Eric; Junier, Pilar

    2013-11-01

    The oxalate-carbonate pathway (OCP) leads to a potential carbon sink in terrestrial environments. This process is linked to the activity of oxalotrophic bacteria. Although isolation and molecular characterizations are used to study oxalotrophic bacteria, these approaches do not give information on the active oxalotrophs present in soil undergoing the OCP. The aim of this study was to assess the diversity of active oxalotrophic bacteria in soil microcosms using the Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) DNA labeling technique. Soil was collected near an oxalogenic tree (Milicia excelsa). Different concentrations of calcium oxalate (0.5%, 1%, and 4% w/w) were added to the soil microcosms and compared with an untreated control. After 12 days of incubation, a maximal pH of 7.7 was measured for microcosms with oxalate (initial pH 6.4). At this time point, a DGGE profile of the frc gene was performed from BrdU-labeled soil DNA and unlabeled soil DNA. Actinobacteria (Streptomyces- and Kribbella-like sequences), Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria were found as the main active oxalotrophic bacterial groups. This study highlights the relevance of Actinobacteria as members of the active bacterial community and the identification of novel uncultured oxalotrophic groups (i.e. Kribbella) active in soils.

  1. Comparative analysis of antioxidant activity and functional components of the ethanol extract of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) from various growing regions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Shen, Jian; Chang, Kyung Ja; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The variations in antioxidant activity and concentration of functional components in the ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes based on the growing region and dryness were investigated. Free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content, and concentration of several specific flavonoids and alkaloids in the ethanol extracts of lotus were measured. Antioxidant activity and its correlative total phenolic content varied characteristically depending on the growing region and dryness. High-perfomance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the ethanol extracts of lotus seeds from Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City), raw rhizomes from Korea (Siheung), and dried rhizomes from Japan (Nigata) had the greatest specific flavonoid content. The ethanol extracts of seeds from China (Hubei), raw rhizomes from Japan (Nigata), and dried rhizomes from Korea (Siheung) had the greatest specific alkaloid content. Astragaline, rutin, isoquercetin, nuciferine, dauricine, isoliensinine, and neferine were identified in lotus rhizomes for the first time in this study.

  2. Composition, antibacterial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of essential oils from three Origanum species growing wild in Lebanon and Greece.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Conforti, Filomena; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Arnold, Nelly Apostolides; Menichini, Francesco; Senatore, Felice

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils from Origanum dictamnus, Origanum libanoticum and Origanum microphyllum were analysed by GC-MS, finding carvacrol, p-cymene, linalool, γ-terpinene and terpinen-4-ol as major components. The antioxidant activity by the DPPH and FRAP tests and the antiproliferative activity against two human cancer cell lines, LoVo and HepG2, were investigated, showing that the essential oil of O. dictamnus was statistically the most inhibitory on both the cell lines, while all the oils exerted a weak antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the samples were tested against 10 Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria; all the oils were active on Gram-positive bacteria but O. dictamnus essential oil was the most effective (MIC = 25-50 μg/mL), showing also a good activity against the Gram-negative Escherichia coli (MIC = 50 μg/mL). Data suggest that these essential oils and particularly O. dictamnus oil could be used as valuable new flavours with functional properties for food or nutraceutical products.

  3. Composition, antibacterial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of essential oils from three Origanum species growing wild in Lebanon and Greece.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Conforti, Filomena; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Arnold, Nelly Apostolides; Menichini, Francesco; Senatore, Felice

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils from Origanum dictamnus, Origanum libanoticum and Origanum microphyllum were analysed by GC-MS, finding carvacrol, p-cymene, linalool, γ-terpinene and terpinen-4-ol as major components. The antioxidant activity by the DPPH and FRAP tests and the antiproliferative activity against two human cancer cell lines, LoVo and HepG2, were investigated, showing that the essential oil of O. dictamnus was statistically the most inhibitory on both the cell lines, while all the oils exerted a weak antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the samples were tested against 10 Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria; all the oils were active on Gram-positive bacteria but O. dictamnus essential oil was the most effective (MIC = 25-50 μg/mL), showing also a good activity against the Gram-negative Escherichia coli (MIC = 50 μg/mL). Data suggest that these essential oils and particularly O. dictamnus oil could be used as valuable new flavours with functional properties for food or nutraceutical products. PMID:26179294

  4. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Lavandula coronopifolia essential oil against antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ait Said, L; Zahlane, K; Ghalbane, I; El Messoussi, S; Romane, A; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the composition of the essential oil (EO) of Lavandula coronopifolia from Morocco and to evaluate its in vitro antibacterial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from clinical infections. The antimicrobial activity was assessed by a broth micro-well dilution method using multiresistant clinical isolates of 11 pathogenic bacteria: Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Providencia rettgeri, Citrobacter freundii, Hafnia alvei, Salmonella spp., Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The main compounds of the oil were carvacrol (48.9%), E-caryophyllene (10.8%) and caryophyllene oxide (7.7%). The oil showed activity against all tested strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging between 1% and 4%. For most of the strains, the MIC value was equivalent to the minimal bactericidal concentration value, indicating a clear bactericidal effect of L. coronopifolia EO. PMID:25174508

  5. Isolation and characterization of some moderately halophilic bacteria with lipase activity.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Y; Rasoul-Amini, S; Kazemi, A; Zarrinic, G; Morowvat, M H; Kargar, M

    2011-01-01

    Lipases are an important class of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of long chain triglycerides and constitute the most prominent group ofbiocatalysts for biotechnological applications. There are a number of lipases, produced by some halophilic microorganisms. In this study, some lipase producing bacteria from Maharlu salt lake located in south of Iran were isolated. All isolates were screened for true lipase activity on plates containing olive oil. The lipase activity was measured using titrimetric methods. Among thirty three isolates, thirteen strains demonstrating orange zone around colonies under UV light, were selected for identification using the molecular methods and some morphological characteristics. The bacterium Bacillus vallismortis BCCS 007 with 3.41 +/- 0.14 U/mL lipase activity was selected as the highest lipase producing isolate. This is the first report of isolation and molecular identification of lipase producing bacteria from Maharlu lake. PMID:22073547

  6. Development of an in vitro Assay, Based on the BioFilm Ring Test®, for Rapid Profiling of Biofilm-Growing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Di Domenico, Enea G.; Toma, Luigi; Provot, Christian; Ascenzioni, Fiorentina; Sperduti, Isabella; Prignano, Grazia; Gallo, Maria T.; Pimpinelli, Fulvia; Bordignon, Valentina; Bernardi, Thierry; Ensoli, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Microbial biofilm represents a major virulence factor associated with chronic and recurrent infections. Pathogenic bacteria embedded in biofilms are highly resistant to environmental and chemical agents, including antibiotics and therefore difficult to eradicate. Thus, reliable tests to assess biofilm formation by bacterial strains as well as the impact of chemicals or antibiotics on biofilm formation represent desirable tools for a most effective therapeutic management and microbiological risk control. Current methods to evaluate biofilm formation are usually time-consuming, costly, and hardly applicable in the clinical setting. The aim of the present study was to develop and assess a simple and reliable in vitro procedure for the characterization of biofilm-producing bacterial strains for future clinical applications based on the BioFilm Ring Test® (BRT) technology. The procedure developed for clinical testing (cBRT) can provide an accurate and timely (5 h) measurement of biofilm formation for the most common pathogenic bacteria seen in clinical practice. The results gathered by the cBRT assay were in agreement with the traditional crystal violet (CV) staining test, according to the κ coefficient test (κ = 0.623). However, the cBRT assay showed higher levels of specificity (92.2%) and accuracy (88.1%) as compared to CV. The results indicate that this procedure offers an easy, rapid and robust assay to test microbial biofilm and a promising tool for clinical microbiology. PMID:27708625

  7. Bactericidal activities of GM flax seedcake extract on pathogenic bacteria clinical strains

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The antibiotic resistance of pathogenic microorganisms is a worldwide problem. Each year several million people across the world acquire infections with bacteria that are antibiotic-resistant, which is costly in terms of human health. New antibiotics are extremely needed to overcome the current resistance problem. Results Transgenic flax plants overproducing compounds from phenylpropanoid pathway accumulate phenolic derivatives of potential antioxidative, and thus, antimicrobial activity. Alkali hydrolyzed seedcake extract containing coumaric acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and lignan in high quantities was used as an assayed against pathogenic bacteria (commonly used model organisms and clinical strains). It was shown that the extract components had antibacterial activity, which might be useful as a prophylactic against bacterial infection. Bacteria topoisomerase II (gyrase) inhibition and genomic DNA disintegration are suggested to be the main reason for rendering antibacterial action. Conclusions The data obtained strongly suggest that the seedcake extract preparation is a suitable candidate for antimicrobial action with a broad spectrum and partial selectivity. Such preparation can be applied in cases where there is a risk of multibacterial infection and excellent answer on global increase in multidrug resistance in pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25073883

  8. Incidence of Bacteriocins Produced by Food-Related Lactic Acid Bacteria Active towards Oral Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Pepelassi, Eudoxie; Papaioannou, William; Georgalaki, Marina; Maragkoudakis, Petros A; Tarantilis, Petros A; Polissiou, Moschos; Tsakalidou, Effie; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos

    2013-02-26

    In the present study we investigated the incidence of bacteriocins produced by 236 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) food isolates against pathogenic or opportunistic pathogenic oral bacteria. This set of LAB contained several strains (≥17%) producing bacteriocins active against food-related bacteria. Interestingly only Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii, while Lactobacillus fermentum ACA-DC 179 and Lactobacillus plantarun ACA-DC 269 produced bacteriocins solely against Streptococcus oralis. Thus, the percentage of strains that were found to produce bacteriocins against oral bacteria was ~1.3%. The rarity of bacteriocins active against oral LAB pathogens produced by food-related LAB was unexpected given their close phylogenetic relationship. Nevertheless, when tested in inhibition assays, the potency of the bacteriocin(s) of S. macedonicus ACA-DC 198 against the three oral streptococci was high. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis revealed that exposure of the target cells to the antimicrobial compounds caused major alterations of key cellular constituents. Our findings indicate that bacteriocins produced by food-related LAB against oral LAB may be rare, but deserve further investigation since, when discovered, they can be effective antimicrobials.

  9. Predominant bacteria in an activated sludge reactor for the degradation of cutting fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, C.A.; Claus, G.W.; Taylor, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    For the first time, an activated sludge reactor, established for the degradation of cutting fluids, was examined for predominant bacteria. In addition, both total and viable numbers of bacteria in the reactor were determined so that the percentage of each predominant type in the total reactor population could be determined. Three samples were studied, and a total of 15 genera were detected. In each sample, the genus Pseudomonas and the genus Microcyclus were present in high numbers. Three other genera, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, and Corynebacterium, were also found in every sample but in lower numbers. In one sample, numerous appendage bacteria were present, and one of these, the genus Seliberia, was the most predominant organism in that sample. However, in the other two samples no appendage bacteria were detected. Six genera were found in this reactor which have not been previously reported in either cutting fluids in use or in other activated sludge systems. These genera were Aeromonas, Hyphomonas, Listeria, Microcyclus, Moraxella, and Spirosoma. None of the predominant bacterial belonged to groups of strict pathogens. 22 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Isolation of ice-nucleating active bacteria from the freeze-tolerant frog, Rana sylvatica.

    PubMed

    Lee, M R; Lee, R E; Strong-Gunderson, J M; Minges, S R

    1995-08-01

    Ice-nucleating active (INA) bacteria were isolated from the gut of field-collected freeze-tolerant wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) collected in winter. Thirteen strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, four strains of Pseudomonas putida, and two strains of Enterobacter agglomerans had ice-nucleating activity. Each of the INA pseudomonad strains was psychrophilic. P. putida strains were differentiated from P. fluorescens strains by gelatinase, lecithinase, and lipase production. The maximum nucleation temperatures (Tmax) of aqueous suspensions (10(9) bacteria/ml) of the four INA P. putida strains ranged from -1.6 to -3.0 degrees C, which places this INA species among the most potent known biological nucleators. Ingestion of INA P. putida isolated from R. sylvatica by another freeze-tolerant frog. Pseudacris crucifer, decreased the capacity of this frog to supercool and remain unfrozen at -2 degrees C. This is the first report of INA bacteria isolated from a vertebrate, and suggests that, as part of the gut flora in some posthibernation freeze-tolerant wood frogs, these bacteria may play a role in enhancing winter survival by promoting ice nucleation at high subzero temperatures (ca. -2 degrees C). PMID:7656570

  11. Synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Amber; Khan, Adnan; Borghetto, Ilaria; Kazmi, Shahana U; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    Synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents with different mechanisms of action have been introduced as more successful strategies to combat infections involving multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In this study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia which are commonly used plants with different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 350 Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains belonging to 10 different bacterial species, was tested against Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution and microbroth dilution assays. Plant extracts were tested for synergistic antimicrobial activity with different antimicrobial agents by checkerboard titration, Etest/agar incorporation assays, and time kill kinetics. Extract treated and untreated bacteria were subjected to transmission electron microscopy to see the effect on bacterial cell morphology. Camellia sinensis extract showed higher antibacterial activity against MDR S. Typhi, alone and in combination with nalidixic acid, than to susceptible isolates." We further explore anti-staphylococcal activity of Juglans regia that lead to the changes in bacterial cell morphology indicating the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria as possible target of action. The synergistic combination of Juglans regia and oxacillin reverted oxacillin resistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in vitro. This study provides novel information about antimicrobial and synergistic activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against MDR pathogens.

  12. Synergistic Antimicrobial Activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Farooqui, Amber; Khan, Adnan; Borghetto, Ilaria; Kazmi, Shahana U.; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    Synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents with different mechanisms of action have been introduced as more successful strategies to combat infections involving multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In this study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia which are commonly used plants with different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 350 Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains belonging to 10 different bacterial species, was tested against Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution and microbroth dilution assays. Plant extracts were tested for synergistic antimicrobial activity with different antimicrobial agents by checkerboard titration, Etest/agar incorporation assays, and time kill kinetics. Extract treated and untreated bacteria were subjected to transmission electron microscopy to see the effect on bacterial cell morphology. Camellia sinensis extract showed higher antibacterial activity against MDR S. Typhi, alone and in combination with nalidixic acid, than to susceptible isolates.” We further explore anti-staphylococcal activity of Juglans regia that lead to the changes in bacterial cell morphology indicating the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria as possible target of action. The synergistic combination of Juglans regia and oxacillin reverted oxacillin resistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in vitro. This study provides novel information about antimicrobial and synergistic activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against MDR pathogens PMID:25719410

  13. Synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Amber; Khan, Adnan; Borghetto, Ilaria; Kazmi, Shahana U; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    Synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents with different mechanisms of action have been introduced as more successful strategies to combat infections involving multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In this study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia which are commonly used plants with different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 350 Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains belonging to 10 different bacterial species, was tested against Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution and microbroth dilution assays. Plant extracts were tested for synergistic antimicrobial activity with different antimicrobial agents by checkerboard titration, Etest/agar incorporation assays, and time kill kinetics. Extract treated and untreated bacteria were subjected to transmission electron microscopy to see the effect on bacterial cell morphology. Camellia sinensis extract showed higher antibacterial activity against MDR S. Typhi, alone and in combination with nalidixic acid, than to susceptible isolates." We further explore anti-staphylococcal activity of Juglans regia that lead to the changes in bacterial cell morphology indicating the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria as possible target of action. The synergistic combination of Juglans regia and oxacillin reverted oxacillin resistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in vitro. This study provides novel information about antimicrobial and synergistic activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against MDR pathogens. PMID:25719410

  14. Distribution and activity of Bacteria and Archaea in the different water masses of the Tyrrhenian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamburini, Christian; Garel, Marc; Al Ali, Badr; Mérigot, Bastien; Kriwy, Pascal; Charrière, Bruno; Budillon, Giorgio

    2009-05-01

    This study examines the abundance of the Bacteria, Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota and bulk activities (phosphatase and aminopeptidase activities, heterotrophic prokaryotic production and dark CO 2 fixation) in the major water masses of the Tyrrhenian Sea (from surface to bottom: Modified Atlantic Water (MAW); Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) and Tyrrhenian Deep Water (TDW)) in July and December 2005. Data from the catalyzed reporter deposition coupled with fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) analyses indicate that the percentage of Bacteria was always higher than the percentage of Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota throughout the water column. While the percentage of Euryarchaeota was relatively homogeneous (˜10%) through the water column, the percentage of Crenarchaeota increased with depth (from 5% to 14% in July and from 7% to 17% in December in MAW and TDW, respectively). Regarding differences between July and December 2005, the percentage of Bacteria in the MAW was lower in July than in December (25% versus 43%, respectively) while quite constant (˜40%) in the TDW. The pattern of phosphatase and aminopeptidase activity varied according to the stations considered, but both ectoenzyme activities showed higher maximum velocity rates in July than in December in the deep-sea waters. Particularly, specific activity of phosphatase in the deep-sea waters (TDW) was 7 times higher (median value) than in surface waters (MAW). Prokaryotic production, aminopeptidase and phosphatase activity measurements were always higher under in situ pressure conditions than after decompression. For the first time, the measurement of the dark CO 2 fixation was investigated under in situ pressure conditions and its decompressed counterparts. These data give new information to understanding the role of prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea) in biogeochemical cycles of the meso- and batypelagic waters of the oceans.

  15. The antimicrobial activity of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from the marine sponge Erylus deficiens (Astrophorida, Geodiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Graça, Ana Patrícia; Viana, Flávia; Bondoso, Joana; Correia, Maria Inês; Gomes, Luis; Humanes, Madalena; Reis, Alberto; Xavier, Joana R.; Gaspar, Helena; Lage, Olga M.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the study of marine sponges and their associated microbiome has increased both for ecological reasons and for their great biotechnological potential. In this work, heterotrophic bacteria associated with three specimens of the marine sponge Erylus deficiens, were isolated in pure culture, phylogenetically identified and screened for antimicrobial activity. The isolation of bacteria after an enrichment treatment in heterotrophic medium revealed diversity in bacterial composition with only Pseudoalteromonas being shared by two specimens. Of the 83 selected isolates, 58% belong to Proteobacteria, 23% to Actinobacteria and 19% to Firmicutes. Diffusion agar assays for bioactivity screening against four bacterial strains and one yeast, revealed that a high number of the isolated bacteria (68.7%) were active, particularly against Candida albicans and Vibrio anguillarum. Pseudoalteromonas, Microbacterium, and Proteus were the most bioactive genera. After this preliminary screening, the bioactive strains were further evaluated in liquid assays against C. albicans, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Filtered culture medium and acetone extracts from three and 5 days-old cultures were assayed. High antifungal activity against C. albicans in both aqueous and acetone extracts as well as absence of activity against B. subtilis were confirmed. Higher levels of activity were obtained with the aqueous extracts when compared to the acetone extracts and differences were also observed between the 3 and 5 day-old extracts. Furthermore, a low number of active strains was observed against E. coli. Potential presence of type-I polyketide synthases (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) genes were detected in 17 and 30 isolates, respectively. The high levels of bioactivity and the likely presence of associated genes suggest that Erylus deficiens bacteria are potential sources of novel marine bioactive compounds. PMID:25999928

  16. Differential sensitivity of nitrifying bacteria to silver nanoparticles in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Li, Mengyan; Michels, Camila; Moreira-Soares, Hugo; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2014-10-01

    Nitrification is known as one of the most sensitive processes affected when activated sludge is exposed to antimicrobial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The impact of AgNPs and their released silver ions (Ag(+) ) on the abundance, activity, and diversity of different nitrifying bacteria in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), however, is poorly understood. The present study investigated the impacts of 2 sizes of AgNPs (5 nm and 35 nm) and Ag(+) ions on the nitrifier community in activated sludge, including both ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were more sensitive to AgNPs than the NOB; a 5-d and 7-d exposure of activated sludge to 35 nm AgNPs (40 ppm) significantly reduced AOB abundance to 24% and 19%, respectively. This finding was confirmed further by a decrease in activated sludge ammonia oxidation activity measured by (14) C-labeled bicarbonate uptake. In contrast, neither AgNPs (up to 40 ppm) nor Ag(+) (1 ppm) affected the abundance of NOB. Both 5 nm and 35 nm AgNPs decreased the diversity of AOB, as indicated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis with ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA) primers, although some unknown Nitrosomonas species were relatively resistant to AgNPs. The generally greater resistance of NOB than AOB to AgNPs suggests that the accumulation of bacteriostatic nitrite in WWTPs is unlikely to be exacerbated due to the accidental or incidental release of AgNPs.

  17. The antimicrobial activity of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from the marine sponge Erylus deficiens (Astrophorida, Geodiidae).

    PubMed

    Graça, Ana Patrícia; Viana, Flávia; Bondoso, Joana; Correia, Maria Inês; Gomes, Luis; Humanes, Madalena; Reis, Alberto; Xavier, Joana R; Gaspar, Helena; Lage, Olga M

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the study of marine sponges and their associated microbiome has increased both for ecological reasons and for their great biotechnological potential. In this work, heterotrophic bacteria associated with three specimens of the marine sponge Erylus deficiens, were isolated in pure culture, phylogenetically identified and screened for antimicrobial activity. The isolation of bacteria after an enrichment treatment in heterotrophic medium revealed diversity in bacterial composition with only Pseudoalteromonas being shared by two specimens. Of the 83 selected isolates, 58% belong to Proteobacteria, 23% to Actinobacteria and 19% to Firmicutes. Diffusion agar assays for bioactivity screening against four bacterial strains and one yeast, revealed that a high number of the isolated bacteria (68.7%) were active, particularly against Candida albicans and Vibrio anguillarum. Pseudoalteromonas, Microbacterium, and Proteus were the most bioactive genera. After this preliminary screening, the bioactive strains were further evaluated in liquid assays against C. albicans, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Filtered culture medium and acetone extracts from three and 5 days-old cultures were assayed. High antifungal activity against C. albicans in both aqueous and acetone extracts as well as absence of activity against B. subtilis were confirmed. Higher levels of activity were obtained with the aqueous extracts when compared to the acetone extracts and differences were also observed between the 3 and 5 day-old extracts. Furthermore, a low number of active strains was observed against E. coli. Potential presence of type-I polyketide synthases (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) genes were detected in 17 and 30 isolates, respectively. The high levels of bioactivity and the likely presence of associated genes suggest that Erylus deficiens bacteria are potential sources of novel marine bioactive compounds.

  18. Challenging synergistic activity of poplar-bacteria association for the Cd phytostabilization.

    PubMed

    C, Cocozza; D, Trupiano; G, Lustrato; G, Alfano; D, Vitullo; A, Falasca; T, Lomaglio; V, De Felice; G, Lima; G, Ranalli; S, Scippa; R, Tognetti

    2015-12-01

    The synergistic activity between plants and microorganisms may contribute to the implementation of proactive management strategies in the stabilization of contaminated sites, although heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), are potentially toxic to them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of tolerance to Cd contamination (supplying twice 40 mg kg(-1) of Cd) in poplar cuttings [clone I-214, P. × euramericana (Dode) Guinier] inoculated or not with two concentrations of Serratia marcescens strain (1 × 10(7) CFU/g and 2 × 10(7) CFU/g of potting mix). The response of the plant-bacteria system to excess Cd was investigated with special reference to the structural traits of plants and the functional efficiency of bacteria. Bacterial colonization and substrate components were previously assessed in order to define the best solution for formulating the experimental plant growth media. The tested plant-bacteria association, especially when bacteria were provided in double concentration, stimulated specific tolerance mechanisms to Cd through the promotion of the poplar growth. Inoculated plants produced larger leaves and increased stem diameter, while roots grew longer and wider in Cd-treated plants. The effect of bacterial inoculum on plant growth traits and metal partitioning in plant organs was assessed in order to define the potential of this poplar clone to be a suitable candidate for phytostabilization of Cd-contaminated soil. The final effect of the inoculation with bacteria, which alleviated the metal load and Cd phytotoxicity due to their bioaccumulation ability, suggests promising phytostabilization potential of these plant-bacteria associations.

  19. Challenging synergistic activity of poplar-bacteria association for the Cd phytostabilization.

    PubMed

    C, Cocozza; D, Trupiano; G, Lustrato; G, Alfano; D, Vitullo; A, Falasca; T, Lomaglio; V, De Felice; G, Lima; G, Ranalli; S, Scippa; R, Tognetti

    2015-12-01

    The synergistic activity between plants and microorganisms may contribute to the implementation of proactive management strategies in the stabilization of contaminated sites, although heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), are potentially toxic to them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of tolerance to Cd contamination (supplying twice 40 mg kg(-1) of Cd) in poplar cuttings [clone I-214, P. × euramericana (Dode) Guinier] inoculated or not with two concentrations of Serratia marcescens strain (1 × 10(7) CFU/g and 2 × 10(7) CFU/g of potting mix). The response of the plant-bacteria system to excess Cd was investigated with special reference to the structural traits of plants and the functional efficiency of bacteria. Bacterial colonization and substrate components were previously assessed in order to define the best solution for formulating the experimental plant growth media. The tested plant-bacteria association, especially when bacteria were provided in double concentration, stimulated specific tolerance mechanisms to Cd through the promotion of the poplar growth. Inoculated plants produced larger leaves and increased stem diameter, while roots grew longer and wider in Cd-treated plants. The effect of bacterial inoculum on plant growth traits and metal partitioning in plant organs was assessed in order to define the potential of this poplar clone to be a suitable candidate for phytostabilization of Cd-contaminated soil. The final effect of the inoculation with bacteria, which alleviated the metal load and Cd phytotoxicity due to their bioaccumulation ability, suggests promising phytostabilization potential of these plant-bacteria associations. PMID:26268621

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Marine and Black Band Disease Cyanobacteria against Coral-Associated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gantar, Miroslav; Kaczmarsky, Longin T.; Stanić, Dina; Miller, Aaron W.; Richardson, Laurie L.

    2011-01-01

    Black band disease (BBD) of corals is a cyanobacteria-dominated polymicrobial disease that contains diverse populations of heterotrophic bacteria. It is one of the most destructive of coral diseases and is found globally on tropical and sub-tropical reefs. We assessed ten strains of BBD cyanobacteria, and ten strains of cyanobacteria isolated from other marine sources, for their antibacterial effect on growth of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from BBD, from the surface mucopolysaccharide layer (SML) of healthy corals, and three known bacterial coral pathogens. Assays were conducted using two methods: co-cultivation of cyanobacterial and bacterial isolates, and exposure of test bacteria to (hydrophilic and lipophilic) cyanobacterial cell extracts. During co-cultivation, 15 of the 20 cyanobacterial strains tested had antibacterial activity against at least one of the test bacterial strains. Inhibition was significantly higher for BBD cyanobacteria when compared to other marine cyanobacteria. Lipophilic extracts were more active than co-cultivation (extracts of 18 of the 20 strains were active) while hydrophilic extracts had very limited activity. In some cases co-cultivation resulted in stimulation of BBD and SML bacterial growth. Our results suggest that BBD cyanobacteria are involved in structuring the complex polymicrobial BBD microbial community by production of antimicrobial compounds. PMID:22073011

  1. Physiological and transcriptional responses of nitrifying bacteria exposed to copper in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Fan; Zhai, Hongyan; Ji, Min; Zhang, Hongyang; Dong, Zhao

    2016-01-15

    Cu inhibition of gene transcription in ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were rarely studied simultaneously in activated sludge. In this study, the transcription of amoA (for AOB) and nxrB (for NOB), nitrification efficiencies, AOB and NOB respiratory rates, and Cu distribution were simultaneously investigated. Modeling the relationships among the aforementioned parameters revealed that in complex activated sludge systems, nitrification efficiency was an insensitive parameter for showing Cu inhibition. Respiration activities and gene transcription were sensitive to Cu and positively correlated with each other. The transcription of amoA and nxrB genes indicated that the Cu had different inhibitory effects on AOB and NOB. AOB were more susceptible to Cu toxicity than NOB. Moreover, the degree of Cu inhibition on ammonia oxidation was greater than on nitrite oxidation. The analysis and related modeling results indicate that the inhibitory actions of Cu on nitrifying bacteria could mainly be attributed to intracellular Cu. The findings from this study provide insight into the mechanism of Cu inhibition on nitrification in complex activated sludge systems. PMID:26348150

  2. Demonstration of human immunoglobulin G Fc-binding activity in oral bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Grenier, D; Michaud, J

    1994-01-01

    Nonimmune binding of immunoglobulins via the Fc fragment may reduce opsonization and phagocytosis of bacteria and is thus considered a virulence factor. The aim of this study was to investigate a wide range of oral bacterial strains for the presence of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fc-binding activity. A total of 132 strains representing 40 different gram-positive and gram negative bacterial species were tested for IgG Fc-binding activity by using a fast and simple dot blot procedure with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated Fc fragments from human IgG. Neither the human nor animal biotype of Porphyromonas gingivalis possessed IgG Fc-binding activity. The strongest positive reaction of gram-negative species with the IgG Fc fragments were obtained with strains of Prevotella intermedia and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Among the gram-positive bacteria tested, Peptostreptococcus micros, Lactobacillus spp., and several species of streptococci possessed IgG Fc-binding activity. In the present investigation, the ability of several oral bacterial species to bind IgG Fc fragments was demonstrated. This factor represents a potential virulence determinant as it may help pathogenic oral bacteria escape host defense mechanisms. PMID:7496956

  3. Real-time PCR for rapidly detecting aniline-degrading bacteria in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Kayashima, Takakazu; Suzuki, Hisako; Maeda, Toshinari; Ogawa, Hiroaki I

    2013-05-01

    We developed a detection method that uses quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and the TaqMan system to easily and rapidly assess the population of aniline-degrading bacteria in activated sludge prior to conducting a biodegradability test on a chemical compound. A primer and probe set for qPCR was designed by a multiple alignment of conserved amino acid sequences encoding the large (α) subunit of aniline dioxygenase. PCR amplification tests showed that the designed primer and probe set targeted aniline-degrading strains such as Acidovorax sp., Gordonia sp., Rhodococcus sp., and Pseudomonas putida, thereby suggesting that the developed method can detect a wide variety of aniline-degrading bacteria. There was a strong correlation between the relative copy number of the α-aniline dioxygenase gene in activated sludge obtained with the developed qPCR method and the number of aniline-degrading bacteria measured by the Most Probable Number method, which is the conventional method, and a good correlation with the lag time of the BOD curve for aniline degradation produced by the biodegradability test in activated sludge samples collected from eight different wastewater treatment plants in Japan. The developed method will be valuable for the rapid and accurate evaluation of the activity of inocula prior to conducting a ready biodegradability test.

  4. Tribolium castaneum defensins are primarily active against Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tonk, Miray; Knorr, Eileen; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Valdés, James J; Kollewe, Christian; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is a destructive insect pest of stored food and feed products, and a model organism for development, evolutionary biology and immunity. The insect innate immune system includes antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with a wide spectrum of targets including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. Defensins are an evolutionarily-conserved class of AMPs and a potential new source of antimicrobial agents. In this context, we report the antimicrobial activity, phylogenetic and structural properties of three T. castaneum defensins (Def1, Def2 and Def3) and their relevance in the immunity of T. castaneum against bacterial pathogens. All three recombinant defensins showed bactericidal activity against Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar tolworthi, but only Def1 and Def2 showed a bacteriostatic effect against Staphylococcus epidermidis. None of the defensins showed activity against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas entomophila or against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. All three defensins were transcriptionally upregulated following a bacterial challenge, suggesting a key role in the immunity of T. castaneum against bacterial pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis showed that defensins from T. castaneum, mealworms, Udo longhorn beetle and houseflies cluster within a well-defined clade of insect defensins. We conclude that T. castaneum defensins are primarily active against Gram-positive bacteria and that other AMPs may play a more prominent role against Gram-negative species. PMID:26522790

  5. Treatment with activated water by GlidArc technology of bacteria producing Biofouling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnatiuc, B.; Ghita, S.; Sabau, A.; Hnatiuc, M.; Dumitrache, C. L.; Wartel, M.

    2015-02-01

    Corrosion in marine environment is an actual problem, being a complex dynamic process influenced mainly by physical, chemical, microbiological and mechanical parameters. Around 70% of the maintenance costs of a ship are associated with the corrosion protection. Times for maintenance related to this phenomenon are greater than 80% of the total repair. Reducing this cost would be a significant saving, and an effective treatment can reduce times related to ships repairing. Biofouling is a main cause of corrosion and for its reduction different methods could be applied, especially in the first part of its production. The atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasmas have been gaining an ever increasing interest for different biodecontamination applications and present potential utilisation in the control of biofouling and biodeterioration. They have a high efficiency of the antimicrobial treatment, including capacity to eradicate microbial biofilms. The adhesion microbial biofilm is mainly influenced by presence of bacteria from the liquid environment. That is why this work concerns the study of annihilation of maximum amount of bacteria from sea water, by using GlidArc technology that produces non-thermal plasma. Bacteria suspended in sea water are placed in contact with activated water. This water is activated by using GlidArc working in humid air. Experimental results refer to the number of different activated and inactivated marine organisms and their evolution, present in solution at certain time intervals after mixing different amounts of seawater with plasma activated water.

  6. EVALUATION OF THE TEA TREE OIL ACTIVITY TO ANAEROBIC BACTERIA--IN VITRO STUDY.

    PubMed

    Ziółkowska-Klinkosz, Marta; Kedzia, Anna; Meissner, Hhenry O; Kedzia, Andrzej W

    2016-01-01

    The study of the sensitivity to tea tree oil (Australian Company TTD International Pty. Ltd. Sydney) was carried out on 193 strains of anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients with various infections within the oral cavity and respiratory tracts. The susceptibility (MIC) of anaerobes was determined by means of plate dilution technique in Brucella agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated sheep blood, menadione and hemin. Inoculum contained 10(5) CFU per spot was cultured with Steers replicator upon the surface of agar with various tea tree oil concentrations or without oil (anaerobes growth control). Incubation the plates was performed in anaerobic jars under anaerobic conditions at 37 degrees C for 48 h. MIC was defined as the lowest concentrations of the essential oil completely inhibiting growth of anaerobic bacteria. Test results indicate, that among Gram-negative bacteria the most sensitive to essential oil were strains of Veillonella and Porphyromonas species. Essential oil in low concentrations (MIC in the range of = 0.12 - 0.5 mg/mL) inhibited growth of accordingly 80% and 68% strains. The least sensitive were strains of the genus Tannerella, Parabacteroides and Dialister (MIC 1.0 - 2.0 mg/mL). In the case of Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria the tea tree oil was the most active to strains of cocci of the genus Anaerococcus and Ruminococcus (MIC in range = 0.12 - 0.5 mg/mL) or strains of rods of the genus Eubacterium and Eggerthella (MIC = 0.25 mg/mL). Among Gram-positive rods the least sensitive were the strains of the genus Bifidobacterium ( MIC = 2.0 mg/mL). The tea tree oil was more active to Gram-positive than to Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria.

  7. [Diversity and bacteria community structure of activated carbon used in advanced drinking water treatment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Shang, Hai-tao; Hao, Chun-bo; Luo, Peng; Gu, Jun-nong

    2011-05-01

    Two granular activated carbon (GAC) samples with 1.5 a and 5 a age were collected, Bacterial genome DNA was extracted for the 16S rDNA gene amplification, and then a bacterial 16S rDNA gene clone library was constructed. After the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences, bacterial diversity and community structure of two activated carbon biofilm sample were studied. The results showed the bacteria in GAC with 5 a age could be divided into 11 groups, which were as follows alpha-Proteobacteria (26.5%), beta-Proteobacteria (16.3%), delta-Proteobacteria (16.3%), Planctomycetes (12.2%), Gemmatimonadetes (6.1%), Acidobacteria (4.1%), Nitrospira (2.0%), gamma-Proteobacteria (2.0%), Bacteroidetes (2.0%), Actinobacteria (2.0%), Unclassified Bacteria (10.2%). The bacteria in GAC with 1.5 a age could be divided into 10 groups, which were as follows alpha-Proteobacteria (21.6%), Planctomycetes( 10.8%), Bacteroidetes (10.8%), beta-Proteobacteria (9.0%), Acidobacteria (9.0%), Nitrospira (7.2%), detla-Proteobacteria (7.2%), Unclassified Proteobacteria (5.4%), Gemmatimonadetes (3.6%), Unclassified Bacteria (14.4%). The results revealed a variety of bacterial divisions on the studied GAC biofilm. Proteobacteria had the highest share in the two total clones, and alpha- and beta-Proteobacteria were on a dominant position. A relatively high proportion of delta-Proteobacteria was observed in the biofilm of GAC with 5 a age, and Nitrospira was in a minor proportion. However, a totally converse condition appeared in GAC with 1.5 a age. Two pathogenic bacteria, Afipia and Chryseobacterium, were detected in analyzed GACs, which implies a potential microbial risk in water supply.

  8. EVALUATION OF THE TEA TREE OIL ACTIVITY TO ANAEROBIC BACTERIA--IN VITRO STUDY.

    PubMed

    Ziółkowska-Klinkosz, Marta; Kedzia, Anna; Meissner, Hhenry O; Kedzia, Andrzej W

    2016-01-01

    The study of the sensitivity to tea tree oil (Australian Company TTD International Pty. Ltd. Sydney) was carried out on 193 strains of anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients with various infections within the oral cavity and respiratory tracts. The susceptibility (MIC) of anaerobes was determined by means of plate dilution technique in Brucella agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated sheep blood, menadione and hemin. Inoculum contained 10(5) CFU per spot was cultured with Steers replicator upon the surface of agar with various tea tree oil concentrations or without oil (anaerobes growth control). Incubation the plates was performed in anaerobic jars under anaerobic conditions at 37 degrees C for 48 h. MIC was defined as the lowest concentrations of the essential oil completely inhibiting growth of anaerobic bacteria. Test results indicate, that among Gram-negative bacteria the most sensitive to essential oil were strains of Veillonella and Porphyromonas species. Essential oil in low concentrations (MIC in the range of = 0.12 - 0.5 mg/mL) inhibited growth of accordingly 80% and 68% strains. The least sensitive were strains of the genus Tannerella, Parabacteroides and Dialister (MIC 1.0 - 2.0 mg/mL). In the case of Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria the tea tree oil was the most active to strains of cocci of the genus Anaerococcus and Ruminococcus (MIC in range = 0.12 - 0.5 mg/mL) or strains of rods of the genus Eubacterium and Eggerthella (MIC = 0.25 mg/mL). Among Gram-positive rods the least sensitive were the strains of the genus Bifidobacterium ( MIC = 2.0 mg/mL). The tea tree oil was more active to Gram-positive than to Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. PMID:27180431

  9. Mosquito repellent activity of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gillij, Y G; Gleiser, R M; Zygadlo, J A

    2008-05-01

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases and nuisance pests. Repellents minimize contact with mosquitoes. Repellents based on essential oils (EO) are being developed as an alternative to DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide), an effective compound that has disadvantages including toxic reactions, and damage to plastic and synthetic fabric. This work evaluated the repellency against Aedes aegypti of EO from aromatic plants that grow in Argentina: Acantholippia seriphioides, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia citriodora, Anemia tomentosa, Baccharis spartioides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Hyptis mutabilis, Minthostachys mollis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tagetes minuta and Tagetes pusilla. Most EO were effective. Variations depending on geographic origin of the plant were detected. At a 90% EO concentration, A. satureoides and T. pusilla were the least repellent. At concentrations of 12.5% B. spartioides, R. officinalis and A. citriodora showed the longest repellency times. Comparisons of the principal components of each EO suggest that limonene and camphor were the main components responsible for the repellent effects.

  10. Mosquito repellent activity of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gillij, Y G; Gleiser, R M; Zygadlo, J A

    2008-05-01

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases and nuisance pests. Repellents minimize contact with mosquitoes. Repellents based on essential oils (EO) are being developed as an alternative to DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide), an effective compound that has disadvantages including toxic reactions, and damage to plastic and synthetic fabric. This work evaluated the repellency against Aedes aegypti of EO from aromatic plants that grow in Argentina: Acantholippia seriphioides, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia citriodora, Anemia tomentosa, Baccharis spartioides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Hyptis mutabilis, Minthostachys mollis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tagetes minuta and Tagetes pusilla. Most EO were effective. Variations depending on geographic origin of the plant were detected. At a 90% EO concentration, A. satureoides and T. pusilla were the least repellent. At concentrations of 12.5% B. spartioides, R. officinalis and A. citriodora showed the longest repellency times. Comparisons of the principal components of each EO suggest that limonene and camphor were the main components responsible for the repellent effects. PMID:17583499

  11. Present-day biogeochemical activities of anaerobic bacteria and their relevance to future exobiological investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    If the primordial atmosphere was reducing, then the first microbial ecosystem was probably composed of anaerobic bacteria. However, despite the presence of an oxygen-rich atmosphere, anaerobic habitats are important, commonplace components of the Earth's present biosphere. The geochemical activities displayed by these anaerobes impact the global cycling of certain elements (e.g., C, N, S, Fe, Mn, etc.). Methane provides an obvious example of how human-enhanced activities on a global scale can influence the content of a "radiative" (i.e., infrared absorbing) trace gas in the atmosphere. Methane can be oxidized by anaerobic bacteria, but this does not appear to support their growth. Acetylene, however, does support such growth. This may form the basis for future exobiological investigations of the atmospheres of anoxic, hydrocarbon-rich planets like Jupiter and Saturn, as well as the latter's satellite Titan. ?? 1989.

  12. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Two Species of Lamiaceae against Phytopathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gormez, Arzu; Bozari, Sedat; Yanmis, Derya; Gulluce, Medine; Sahin, Fikrettin; Agar, Guleray

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine chemical composition and antibacterial activities of Satureja hortensis and Calamintha nepeta against to 20 phytopathogenic bacteria causing serious crop loss. The essential oils of S. hortensis and C. nepeta were isolated by the hydrodistillation method and the chemical composition of the essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS. The antibacterial properties of the essential oils were evaluated against 20 phytopathogenic bacteria through Disc diffusion assay and micro dilution assay. The results revealed that the essential oils of S. hortensis and C. nepeta have significant antibacterial activity. Furthermore, the findings of the study are valuable for future investigations focusing on the alternative natural compounds to control plant diseases. PMID:26373171

  13. Antimicrobial activity of different Finnish monofloral honeys against human pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Huttunen, Sanna; Riihinen, Kaisu; Kauhanen, Jussi; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity and phenolic compounds of five Finnish honey products against important human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus were analyzed. Microbroth dilution method and HPLC-DAD were used in antimicrobial testing and phenolic compound determination, respectively. Significant antimicrobial activity (p < 0.01) against all the tested pathogens was found from willow herb (Epilobium angustifolium), heather (Calluna vulgaris), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) honeys. This is the first report on antimicrobial activity of Finnish monofloral honeys against streptococcal and staphylococcal bacteria. To our knowledge this is also the first report on the antimicrobial effect of honey against S. pneumoniae. PMID:23278378

  14. Filamentous sulfur bacteria of activated sludge: characterization of Thiothrix, Beggiatoa, and Eikelboom type 021N strains.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, T M; Unz, R F

    1985-01-01

    Seventeen strains of filamentous sulfur bacteria were isolated in axenic culture from activated sludge mixed liquor samples and sulfide-gradient enrichment cultures. Isolation procedures involved plating a concentrated inoculum of washed filaments onto media containing sulfide or thiosulfate. The isolates were identified as Thiothrix spp., Beggiatoa spp., and an organism of uncertain taxonomic status, designated type 021N. All bacteria were gram negative, reduced nitrate, and formed long, multicellular trichomes with internal reserves of sulfur, volutin, and sudanophilic material. Thiothrix spp. formed rosettes and gonidia, and four of six strains were ensheathed. Type 021N organisms utilized glucose, lacked a sheath, and differed from Thiothrix spp. in several aspects of cellular and cultural morphology. Beggiatoa spp. lacked catalase and oxidase, and filaments were motile. Biochemical and physiological characterization of the isolates revealed important distinguishing features between the three groups of bacteria. Strain differences were most evident among the Thiothrix cultures. A comparison of the filamentous sulfur bacteria with freshwater strains of Leucothrix was made also. Images PMID:4004221

  15. Measurement of ice nucleation-active bacteria on plants and in precipitation by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Hill, Thomas C J; Moffett, Bruce F; Demott, Paul J; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios G; Stump, William L; Franc, Gary D

    2014-02-01

    Ice nucleation-active (INA) bacteria may function as high-temperature ice-nucleating particles (INP) in clouds, but their effective contribution to atmospheric processes, i.e., their potential to trigger glaciation and precipitation, remains uncertain. We know little about their abundance on natural vegetation, factors that trigger their release, or persistence of their ice nucleation activity once airborne. To facilitate these investigations, we developed two quantitative PCR (qPCR) tests of the ina gene to directly count INA bacteria in environmental samples. Each of two primer pairs amplified most alleles of the ina gene and, taken together, they should amplify all known alleles. To aid primer design, we collected many new INA isolates. Alignment of their partial ina sequences revealed new and deeply branching clades, including sequences from Pseudomonas syringae pv. atropurpurea, Ps. viridiflava, Pantoea agglomerans, Xanthomonas campestris, and possibly Ps. putida, Ps. auricularis, and Ps. poae. qPCR of leaf washings recorded ∼10(8) ina genes g(-1) fresh weight of foliage on cereals and 10(5) to 10(7) g(-1) on broadleaf crops. Much lower populations were found on most naturally occurring vegetation. In fresh snow, ina genes from various INA bacteria were detected in about half the samples but at abundances that could have accounted for only a minor proportion of INP at -10°C (assuming one ina gene per INA bacterium). Despite this, an apparent biological source contributed an average of ∼85% of INP active at -10°C in snow samples. In contrast, a thunderstorm hail sample contained 0.3 INA bacteria per INP active at -10°C, suggesting a significant contribution to this sample. PMID:24317082

  16. Measurement of ice nucleation-active bacteria on plants and in precipitation by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Hill, Thomas C J; Moffett, Bruce F; Demott, Paul J; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios G; Stump, William L; Franc, Gary D

    2014-02-01

    Ice nucleation-active (INA) bacteria may function as high-temperature ice-nucleating particles (INP) in clouds, but their effective contribution to atmospheric processes, i.e., their potential to trigger glaciation and precipitation, remains uncertain. We know little about their abundance on natural vegetation, factors that trigger their release, or persistence of their ice nucleation activity once airborne. To facilitate these investigations, we developed two quantitative PCR (qPCR) tests of the ina gene to directly count INA bacteria in environmental samples. Each of two primer pairs amplified most alleles of the ina gene and, taken together, they should amplify all known alleles. To aid primer design, we collected many new INA isolates. Alignment of their partial ina sequences revealed new and deeply branching clades, including sequences from Pseudomonas syringae pv. atropurpurea, Ps. viridiflava, Pantoea agglomerans, Xanthomonas campestris, and possibly Ps. putida, Ps. auricularis, and Ps. poae. qPCR of leaf washings recorded ∼10(8) ina genes g(-1) fresh weight of foliage on cereals and 10(5) to 10(7) g(-1) on broadleaf crops. Much lower populations were found on most naturally occurring vegetation. In fresh snow, ina genes from various INA bacteria were detected in about half the samples but at abundances that could have accounted for only a minor proportion of INP at -10°C (assuming one ina gene per INA bacterium). Despite this, an apparent biological source contributed an average of ∼85% of INP active at -10°C in snow samples. In contrast, a thunderstorm hail sample contained 0.3 INA bacteria per INP active at -10°C, suggesting a significant contribution to this sample.

  17. Measurement of Ice Nucleation-Active Bacteria on Plants and in Precipitation by Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Moffett, Bruce F.; DeMott, Paul J.; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios G.; Stump, William L.; Franc, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Ice nucleation-active (INA) bacteria may function as high-temperature ice-nucleating particles (INP) in clouds, but their effective contribution to atmospheric processes, i.e., their potential to trigger glaciation and precipitation, remains uncertain. We know little about their abundance on natural vegetation, factors that trigger their release, or persistence of their ice nucleation activity once airborne. To facilitate these investigations, we developed two quantitative PCR (qPCR) tests of the ina gene to directly count INA bacteria in environmental samples. Each of two primer pairs amplified most alleles of the ina gene and, taken together, they should amplify all known alleles. To aid primer design, we collected many new INA isolates. Alignment of their partial ina sequences revealed new and deeply branching clades, including sequences from Pseudomonas syringae pv. atropurpurea, Ps. viridiflava, Pantoea agglomerans, Xanthomonas campestris, and possibly Ps. putida, Ps. auricularis, and Ps. poae. qPCR of leaf washings recorded ∼108 ina genes g−1 fresh weight of foliage on cereals and 105 to 107 g−1 on broadleaf crops. Much lower populations were found on most naturally occurring vegetation. In fresh snow, ina genes from various INA bacteria were detected in about half the samples but at abundances that could have accounted for only a minor proportion of INP at −10°C (assuming one ina gene per INA bacterium). Despite this, an apparent biological source contributed an average of ∼85% of INP active at −10°C in snow samples. In contrast, a thunderstorm hail sample contained 0.3 INA bacteria per INP active at −10°C, suggesting a significant contribution to this sample. PMID:24317082

  18. Identification of novel aminopiperidine derivatives for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Yeol; An, Kyung-Mi; Jung, Juyoung; Koo, Je-Min; Kim, Jeong-Geun; Yoon, Jong-Min; Lee, Myong-Jae; Jang, HyeonSoo; Lee, Hong-Sub; Park, Soobong; Kang, Jae-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    We have previously reported amidopiperidine derivatives as a novel peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibitor and evaluated its antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, but poor pharmacokinetic profiles have resulted in low efficacy in in vivo mouse models. In order to overcome these weaknesses, we newly synthesized aminopiperidine derivatives with remarkable antimicrobial properties and oral bioavailability, and also identified their in vivo efficacy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP). PMID:27173797

  19. Selective enrichment and production of highly urease active bacteria by non-sterile (open) chemostat culture.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2013-10-01

    In general, bioprocesses can be subdivided into naturally occurring processes, not requiring sterility (e.g., beer brewing, wine making, lactic acid fermentation, or biogas digestion) and other processes (e.g., the production of enzymes and antibiotics) that typically require a high level of sterility to avoid contaminant microbes overgrowing the production strain. The current paper describes the sustainable, non-sterile production of an industrial enzyme using activated sludge as inoculum. By using selective conditions (high pH, high ammonia concentration, and presence of urea) for the target bacterium, highly active ureolytic bacteria, physiologically resembling Sporosarcina pasteurii were reproducibly enriched and then continuously produced via chemostat operation of the bioreactor. When using a pH of 10 and about 0.2 M urea in a yeast extract-based medium, ureolytic bacteria developed under aerobic chemostat operation at hydraulic retention times of about 10 h with urease levels of about 60 μmol min⁻¹ ml⁻¹ culture. For cost minimization at an industrial scale the costly protein-rich yeast extract medium could be replaced by commercial milk powder or by lysed activated sludge. Glutamate, molasses, or glucose-based media did not result in the enrichment of ureolytic bacteria by the chemostat. The concentration of intracellular urease was sufficiently high such that the produced raw effluent from the reactor could be used directly for biocementation in the field.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of Brazilian propolis extracts against rumen bacteria in vitro.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar, Sílvia Cristina; Zeoula, Lúcia Maria; Franco, Selma Lucy; Peres, Lucimar Pontara; Arcuri, Pedro Braga; Forano, Evelyne

    2013-10-01

    The antimicrobial activity of three Brazilian propolis extracts was evaluated on bacterial strains representing major rumen functional groups. The extracts were prepared using different concentrations of propolis and alcohol, resulting in different phenolic compositions. The propolis extracts inhibited the growth of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1, Ruminococcus albus 7, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens D1, Prevotella albensis M384, Peptostreptococcus sp. D1, Clostridium aminophilum F and Streptococcus bovis Pearl11, while R. albus 20, Prevotella bryantii B₁4 and Ruminobacter amylophilus H18 were resistant to all the extracts. The inhibited strains showed also different sensitivity to propolis; the hyper-ammonia-producing bacteria (C. aminophilum F and Peptostreptococcus sp. D1) being the most sensitive. Inhibition of hyper-ammonia-producing bacteria by propolis would be beneficial to the animal. The extract containing the lowest amount of phenolic compounds (LLOS C3) showed the lowest antimicrobial activity against all the bacteria. The major phenolic compounds identified in the propolis extracts (naringenin, chrysin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and Artepillin C) were also evaluated on four sensitive strains. Only naringenin showed inhibitory effect against all strains, suggesting that naringenin is one of the components participating to the antibacterial activity of propolis.

  1. Differential activity of autochthonous bacteria in controlling drought stress in native Lavandula and Salvia plants species under drought conditions in natural arid soil.

    PubMed

    Armada, Elisabeth; Roldán, Antonio; Azcon, Rosario

    2014-02-01

    The effectiveness of autochthonous plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria was studied in Lavandula dentata and Salvia officinalis growing in a natural arid Mediterranean soil under drought conditions. These bacteria identified as Bacillus megaterium (Bm), Enterobacter sp. (E), Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), and Bacillus sp. (Bsp). Each bacteria has different potential to meliorate water limitation and alleviating drought stress in these two plant species. B. thuringiensis promoted growth and drought avoidance in Lavandula by increasing K content, by depressing stomatal conductance, and it controlled shoot proline accumulation. This bacterial effect on increasing drought tolerance was related to the decrease of glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) that resulted sensitive indexes of lower cellular oxidative damage involved in the adaptative drought response in B. thuringiensis-inoculated Lavandula plants. In contrast, in Salvia, having intrinsic lower shoot/root ratio, higher stomatal conductance and lower APX and GR activities than Lavandula, the bacterial effects on nutritional, physiological and antioxidant enzymatic systems were lower. The benefit of bacteria depended on intrinsic stress tolerance of plant involved. Lavadula demonstrated a greater benefit than Salvia to control drought stress when inoculated with B. thuringiensis. The bacterial drought tolerance assessed as survival, proline, and indolacetic acid production showed the potential of this bacteria to help plants to grow under drought conditions. B. thuringiensis may be used for Lavandula plant establishment in arid environments. Particular characteristic of the plant species as low shoot/root ratio and high stomatal conductance are important factors controlling the bacterial effectiveness improving nutritional, physiological, and metabolic plant activities. PMID:24337805

  2. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested. PMID:24031180

  3. Growing Good Kids: 28 Activities To Enhance Self-Awareness, Compassion, and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Deb; Delisle, Jim

    This book offers teachers of grades 3-8 creative and fun activities that build students' skills in problem solving, decision making, cooperative learning, divergent thinking, and communication. The book offers 28 diverse and original enrichment activities that teach personal values such as responsibility, compassion, leadership, and respect for…

  4. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested. PMID:24031180

  5. The Green Pages Environmental Education Activities K-12: Gardens for Young Growing Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Describes several gardening activities that can be kept simple or used as a foundation for more in-depth projects. Activities include setting up an indoor garden spot, making compost which helps students understand the terms "decompose" and "compost", watching plants drink in which students measure water movement in plants, making herb gardens,…

  6. Combined autoradiography and immunofluorescence for estimation of single cell activity by ammonium-oxidizing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, B.B.

    1984-03-01

    Immunofluorescence and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ autoradiography were used for simultaneously enumerating and assaying the autotrophic activity of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in seawater. Relative activity (/sup 14/CO/sub 2/ assimilation as measured by autoradiography) and abundance were measured in simulated in situ incubations at seven stations in the primary NO/sub 2//sup -/ maximum region of the Northeast Pacific Ocean. More than 10/sup 4/ cells liter/sup -1/ were present; relative activity often showed a peak near the surface and an increase in the NO/sub 2//sup -/ max region below the photic zone. The method permits assessment of individual cell activity; most cells at all depths were active in CO/sub 2/ assimilation, usually at low and quite variable levels. There were no differences in relative activity between samples incubated under simulated in situ conditions and in the dark. Relative activity was positively correlated with the abundance of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, temperature, total dark CO/sub 2/ assimilation (as measured by liquid scintillation counting of replicate samples), and pheopigment concentration, and negatively correlated with oxygen concentration.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of pediocin PA-1 against Oenococcus oeni and other wine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Díez, Lorena; Rojo-Bezares, Beatriz; Zarazaga, Myriam; Rodríguez, Juan M; Torres, Carmen; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda

    2012-09-01

    Pediocin PA-1 is an antimicrobial peptide produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that has been sufficiently well characterised to be used in food industry as a biopreservative. Sulphur dioxide is the traditional antimicrobial agent used during the winemaking process to control bacterial growth and wine spoilage. In this study, we describe the effect of pediocin PA-1 alone and in combination with sulphur dioxide and ethanol on the growth of a collection of 53 oenological LAB, 18 acetic acid bacteria and 16 yeast strains; in addition, production of pediocin PA-1 by Pediococcus acidilactici J347-29 in presence of ethanol and grape must is also reported. Inhibitory concentrations (IC) and minimal bactericide concentrations of pediocin PA-1 were determined against LAB, and revealed a bacteriostatic effect. Oenococcus oeni resulted more sensitive to pediocin PA-1 (IC(50) = 19 ng/ml) than the other LAB species (IC(50) = 312 ng/ml). Cooperative inhibitory effects of pediocin PA-1 and either sulphur dioxide or ethanol were observed on LAB growth. Moreover, the pediocin PA-1 producing P. acidilactici strain J347-29 was able to grow and produce the bacteriocin in presence of ethanol (up to 4% ethanol in the fermentation broth) and grape must (up to 80%), which indicated that pediocin PA-1 can be considered as a potential biopreservative in winemaking.

  8. Enrichment of aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic acids by oil-degrading bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of plants growing in oil-contaminated soil from Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Mikolasch, Annett; Omirbekova, Anel; Schumann, Peter; Reinhard, Anne; Sheikhany, Halah; Berzhanova, Ramza; Mukasheva, Togzhan; Schauer, Frieder

    2015-05-01

    Three microbial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), grass mixture (Festuca rubra, 75 %; Lolium perenne, 20 %; Poa pratensis, 10 %), and rape (Brassica napus) on the basis of their high capacity to use crude oil as the sole carbon and energy source. These isolates used an unusually wide spectrum of hydrocarbons as substrates (more than 80), including n-alkanes with chain lengths ranging from C12 to C32, monomethyl- and monoethyl-substituted alkanes (C12-C23), n-alkylcyclo alkanes with alkyl chain lengths from 4 to 18 carbon atoms, as well as substituted monoaromatic and diaromatic hydrocarbons. These three strains were identified as Gordonia rubripertincta and Rhodococcus sp. SBUG 1968. During their transformation of this wide range of hydrocarbon substrates, a very large number of aliphatic, alicyclic, and aromatic acids was detected, 44 of them were identified by GC/MS analyses, and 4 of them are described as metabolites for the first time. Inoculation of plant seeds with these highly potent bacteria had a beneficial effect on shoot and root development of plants which were grown on oil-contaminated sand. PMID:25592733

  9. Enrichment of aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic acids by oil-degrading bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of plants growing in oil-contaminated soil from Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Mikolasch, Annett; Omirbekova, Anel; Schumann, Peter; Reinhard, Anne; Sheikhany, Halah; Berzhanova, Ramza; Mukasheva, Togzhan; Schauer, Frieder

    2015-05-01

    Three microbial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), grass mixture (Festuca rubra, 75 %; Lolium perenne, 20 %; Poa pratensis, 10 %), and rape (Brassica napus) on the basis of their high capacity to use crude oil as the sole carbon and energy source. These isolates used an unusually wide spectrum of hydrocarbons as substrates (more than 80), including n-alkanes with chain lengths ranging from C12 to C32, monomethyl- and monoethyl-substituted alkanes (C12-C23), n-alkylcyclo alkanes with alkyl chain lengths from 4 to 18 carbon atoms, as well as substituted monoaromatic and diaromatic hydrocarbons. These three strains were identified as Gordonia rubripertincta and Rhodococcus sp. SBUG 1968. During their transformation of this wide range of hydrocarbon substrates, a very large number of aliphatic, alicyclic, and aromatic acids was detected, 44 of them were identified by GC/MS analyses, and 4 of them are described as metabolites for the first time. Inoculation of plant seeds with these highly potent bacteria had a beneficial effect on shoot and root development of plants which were grown on oil-contaminated sand.

  10. Impact of Faba Bean-Seed Rhizobial Inoculation on Microbial Activity in the Rhizosphere Soil during Growing Season.

    PubMed

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Inoculation of legume seeds with Rhizobium affects soil microbial community and processes, especially in the rhizosphere. This study aimed at assessing the effect of Rhizobium inoculation on microbial activity in the faba bean rhizosphere during the growing season in a field experiment on a Haplic Luvisol derived from loess. Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds were non-inoculated (NI) or inoculated (I) with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and sown. The rhizosphere soil was analyzed for the enzymatic activities of dehydrogenases, urease, protease and acid phosphomonoesterase, and functional diversity (catabolic potential) using the Average Well Color Development, Shannon-Weaver, and Richness indices following the community level physiological profiling from Biolog EcoPlate™. The analyses were done on three occasions corresponding to the growth stages of: 5-6 leaf, flowering, and pod formation. The enzymatic activities were higher in I than NI (p < 0.05) throughout the growing season. However, none of the functional diversity indices differed significantly under both treatments, regardless of the growth stage. This work showed that the functional diversity of the microbial communities was a less sensitive tool than enzyme activities in assessment of rhizobial inoculation effects on rhizosphere microbial activity. PMID:27213363

  11. Impact of Faba Bean-Seed Rhizobial Inoculation on Microbial Activity in the Rhizosphere Soil during Growing Season

    PubMed Central

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Inoculation of legume seeds with Rhizobium affects soil microbial community and processes, especially in the rhizosphere. This study aimed at assessing the effect of Rhizobium inoculation on microbial activity in the faba bean rhizosphere during the growing season in a field experiment on a Haplic Luvisol derived from loess. Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds were non-inoculated (NI) or inoculated (I) with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and sown. The rhizosphere soil was analyzed for the enzymatic activities of dehydrogenases, urease, protease and acid phosphomonoesterase, and functional diversity (catabolic potential) using the Average Well Color Development, Shannon-Weaver, and Richness indices following the community level physiological profiling from Biolog EcoPlate™. The analyses were done on three occasions corresponding to the growth stages of: 5–6 leaf, flowering, and pod formation. The enzymatic activities were higher in I than NI (p < 0.05) throughout the growing season. However, none of the functional diversity indices differed significantly under both treatments, regardless of the growth stage. This work showed that the functional diversity of the microbial communities was a less sensitive tool than enzyme activities in assessment of rhizobial inoculation effects on rhizosphere microbial activity. PMID:27213363

  12. Anti-Biofilm Activities from Marine Cold Adapted Bacteria Against Staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Rosanna; Selan, Laura; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Tilotta, Marco; Sannino, Filomena; Feller, Georges; Tutino, Maria L.; Artini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Microbial biofilms have great negative impacts on the world’s economy and pose serious problems to industry, public health and medicine. The interest in the development of new approaches for the prevention and treatment of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation has increased. Since, bacterial pathogens living in biofilm induce persistent chronic infections due to the resistance to antibiotics and host immune system. A viable approach should target adhesive properties without affecting bacterial vitality in order to avoid the appearance of resistant mutants. Many bacteria secrete anti-biofilm molecules that function in regulating biofilm architecture or mediating the release of cells from it during the dispersal stage of biofilm life cycle. Cold-adapted marine bacteria represent an untapped reservoir of biodiversity able to synthesize a broad range of bioactive compounds, including anti-biofilm molecules. The anti-biofilm activity of cell-free supernatants derived from sessile and planktonic cultures of cold-adapted bacteria belonging to Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, and Psychromonas species were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Reported results demonstrate that we have selected supernatants, from cold-adapted marine bacteria, containing non-biocidal agents able to destabilize biofilm matrix of all tested pathogens without killing cells. A preliminary physico-chemical characterization of supernatants was also performed, and these analyses highlighted the presence of molecules of different nature that act by inhibiting biofilm formation. Some of them are also able to impair the initial attachment of the bacterial cells to the surface, thus likely containing molecules acting as anti-biofilm surfactant molecules. The described ability of cold-adapted bacteria to produce effective anti-biofilm molecules paves the way to further characterization of the most promising molecules and to test their

  13. Anti-Biofilm Activities from Marine Cold Adapted Bacteria Against Staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Papa, Rosanna; Selan, Laura; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Tilotta, Marco; Sannino, Filomena; Feller, Georges; Tutino, Maria L; Artini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Microbial biofilms have great negative impacts on the world's economy and pose serious problems to industry, public health and medicine. The interest in the development of new approaches for the prevention and treatment of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation has increased. Since, bacterial pathogens living in biofilm induce persistent chronic infections due to the resistance to antibiotics and host immune system. A viable approach should target adhesive properties without affecting bacterial vitality in order to avoid the appearance of resistant mutants. Many bacteria secrete anti-biofilm molecules that function in regulating biofilm architecture or mediating the release of cells from it during the dispersal stage of biofilm life cycle. Cold-adapted marine bacteria represent an untapped reservoir of biodiversity able to synthesize a broad range of bioactive compounds, including anti-biofilm molecules. The anti-biofilm activity of cell-free supernatants derived from sessile and planktonic cultures of cold-adapted bacteria belonging to Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, and Psychromonas species were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Reported results demonstrate that we have selected supernatants, from cold-adapted marine bacteria, containing non-biocidal agents able to destabilize biofilm matrix of all tested pathogens without killing cells. A preliminary physico-chemical characterization of supernatants was also performed, and these analyses highlighted the presence of molecules of different nature that act by inhibiting biofilm formation. Some of them are also able to impair the initial attachment of the bacterial cells to the surface, thus likely containing molecules acting as anti-biofilm surfactant molecules. The described ability of cold-adapted bacteria to produce effective anti-biofilm molecules paves the way to further characterization of the most promising molecules and to test their

  14. Influence of earthworm activity on gene transfer from Pseudomonas fluorescens to indigenous soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Daane, L L; Molina, J A; Berry, E C; Sadowsky, M J

    1996-02-01

    We have developed a model system to assess the influence of earthworm activity on the transfer of plasmid pJP4 from an inoculated donor bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens C5t (pJP4), to indigenous soil microorganisms. Three different earthworm species (Lumbricus terrestris, Lumbricus rubellus, and Aporrectodea trapezoides), each with unique burrowing, casting, and feeding behaviors, were evaluated. Soil columns were inoculated on the surface with 10(8) cells per g of soil of the donor bacterium, and after a 2-week incubation period, donor, transconjugant, and total bacteria were enumerated at 5-cm-depth intervals. Transconjugants were confirmed by use of colony hybridization with a mer gene probe. In situ gene transfer of plasmid pJP4 from P. fluorescens C5t to indigenous soil bacteria was detected in all inoculated microcosms. In the absence of earthworms, the depth of recovery was limited to the top 5 cm of the column, with approximately 10(3) transconjugants per g of soil. However, the total number of transconjugants recovered from soil was significantly greater in microcosms containing either L. rubellus or A. trapezoides, with levels reaching about 10(5) CFU/g of soil. In addition, earthworms distributed donor and transconjugant bacteria throughout the microcosm columns, with the depth of recovery dependent on the burrowing behavior of each earthworm species. Donor and transconjugant bacteria were also recovered from earthworm casts and inside developing cocoons. Transconjugant bacteria from the indigenous soil microflora were classified as belonging to Acidovorax spp., Acinetobacter spp., Agrobacterium spp., Pasteurella spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Xanthomonas spp. PMID:8593052

  15. The Effects of Allium sativum Extracts on Biofilm Formation and Activities of Six Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mohsenipour, Zeinab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Garlic is considered a rich source of many compounds, which shows antimicrobial effects. The ability of microorganisms to adhere to both biotic and abiotic surfaces and to form biofilm is responsible for a number of diseases of chronic nature, demonstrating extremely high resistance to antibiotics. Bacterial biofilms are complex communities of sessile microorganisms, embedded in an extracellular matrix and irreversibly attached to various surfaces. Objectives: The present study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Allium sativum extract against the biofilms of six pathogenic bacteria and their free-living forms. The clinical isolates in this study had not been studied in any other studies, especially in regard to biofilm disruption and inhibition of biofilm cell metabolic activity. Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial activities of A. sativum L. extracts (methanol and ethanol extracts) against planktonic forms of bacteria were determined using the disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were evaluated by a macrobroth dilution technique. The anti-biofilm effects were assessed by microtiter plate method. Results: The results showed that the A. sativum L. extract discs did not have any zone of inhibition for the tested bacteria. However, The MIC values of A. sativum L. extracts (0.078 - 2.5 mg/mL) confirmed the high ability of these extracts for inhibition of planktonic bacteria. A. sativum L. extracts were efficient to inhibit biofilm structures and the concentration of each extract had a direct relation with the inhibitory effect. Conclusions: Finally, it can be suggested that the extracts of this plant be applied as antimicrobial agents against these pathogens, particularly in biofilm forms. PMID:26464762

  16. Deficient repair of potentially lethal damage in actively growing ataxia telangiectasia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Utsumi, H.; Sasaki, M.S.

    1984-02-01

    The repair of potentially lethal damage after X rays was studied in exponentially growing normal and ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) strains of human fibroblasts. X-ray killing of all normal strains from six healthy persons was enhanced when cells were treated with hypertonic phosphate-buffered saline immediately after irradiation. This treatment is not toxic to unirradiated cells and demonstrates that ordinarily these cells repair potentially lethal damage. The potentially lethal damage in normal cells is repaired within 1 hr. In contrast, all A-T strains from four A-T patients were completely deficient in their ability to repair potentially lethal damage. Treatment with a hypertonic solution after X irradiation is known to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and to enhance cell killing, as though hypertonicity had induced the A-T state in normal cells. These results support the inference that the increased radiosensitivity of A-T cells can be attributed to some defect in the repair of DNA damage rather than abnormal DNA synthesis following irradiation.

  17. Interaction Activities in the Foreign Classroom, or How to Grow a Tulip-Rose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Christina Bratt; Selekman, Howard R.

    1976-01-01

    A report is made on the use of foreign language for spontaneous communication in an elementary language class. Four correction-free, peer communicative/interaction activities are outlined according to procedures, objectives, and evaluations. (Author/RM)

  18. Lactic acid bacteria activating innate immunity improve survival in bacterial infection model of silkworm.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Satoshi; Ono, Yasuo; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been thought to be helpful for human heath in the gut as probiotics. It recently was noted that activity of LAB stimulating immune systems is important. Innate immune systems are conserved in mammals and insects. Silkworm has innate immunity in response to microbes. Microbe-associated molecular pattern (ex. peptidoglycan and β-glucan) induces a muscle contraction of silkworm larva. In this study, we established an efficient method to isolate lactic acid bacteria derived from natural products. We selected a highly active LAB to activate the innate immunity in silkworm by using the silkworm muscle contraction assay, as well. The assay revealed that Lactococcus lactis 11/19-B1 was highly active on the stimulation of the innate immunity in silkworm. L. lactis 11/19-B1 solely fermented milk with casamino acid and glucose. This strain would be a starter strain to make yogurt. Compared to commercially available yogurt LAB, L. lactis 11/19-B1 has higher activity on silkworm contraction. Silkworm normally ingested an artificial diet mixed with L. lactis 11/19-B1 or a yogurt fermented with L. lactis 11/19-B1. Interestingly, silkworms that ingested the LAB showed tolerance against the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These data suggest that Lactococcus lactis 11/19-B1 would be expected to be useful for making yogurt and probiotics to activate innate immunity. PMID:26971556

  19. Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of seven Cameroonian dietary plants against bacteria expressing MDR phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Seukep, Jackson A; Fankam, Aimé G; Djeussi, Doriane E; Voukeng, Igor K; Tankeo, Simplice B; Noumdem, Jaurès Ak; Kuete, Antoine Hln; Kuete, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality caused by bacterial infections significantly increased with resistance to commonly used antibiotics. This is partially due to the activation of efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria. The present work designed to assess the in vitro antibacterial activities of seven Cameroonian dietary plants (Sesamum indicum, Sesamum radiatum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Corchous olitorius, Cyperus esculentus, Adansonia digitata, Aframomum kayserianum), against multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria over expressing active efflux pumps. The standard phytochemical methods were used to detect the main classes of secondary metabolites in the extracts. The antibacterial activities of the studied extracts in the absence or presence of an efflux pump inhibitor (PAβN) were evaluated using liquid microbroth dilution method. The results obtained indicated that apart from the extract of C. esculentus, all other samples contained alkaloids, phenols and polyphenols meanwhile other classes of chemicals were selectively present. The studied extracts displayed antibacterial activities with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) values ranged from 64 to 1024 μg/mL on the majority of the 27 tested microbial strains. The extract of S. indicum was active against 77.77% of the tested microorganisms whilst the lowest MIC value (64 μg/mL) was recorded with that of A. kayserianum against E. aerogenes EA294. The results of the present work provide baseline information on the possible used of the tested Cameroonian dietary plants in the treatment of bacterial infections including multi-drug resistant phenotypes. PMID:23961425

  20. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ZnO based glass-ceramics against pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Madeeha; Zia, Rehana; Saleemi, Farhat; Ikram, Hafeez; Bashir, Farooq

    2015-12-01

    The antibacterial activity of ZnO (0-15.53 mol%) based SiO2-CaO-P2O5-Na2O-CaF2 bioactive glass-ceramics synthesized by controlled crystallisation were studied against eight micro-organisms using modified Kirby Bauer method. The antibacterial activity of the specimens was statistically evaluated using one-way analysis of variance and P < 0.05 was used as the level of significance. In vitro dissolution tests were performed in stimulated body fluid for 48 h at 37 °C for different time intervals to correlate the dissolution behaviour of test samples with antibacterial effects. The results illustrate that specimen BZn15.53 having the highest concentration of ZnO (15.53 mol%) demonstrated the strongest effect against Staph.aureus, S. epidermidis, B. subtilis and K. pneumonia. The effectiveness of BZn15.53 in inhibiting bacteria was due to accumulation of Zn(+2) ions around the surface of the bacteria cell release that caused the death of the cell, besides the presence of hydroxyapatite phase was also responsible for damaging the cell membrane of bacteria. PMID:26507201

  1. Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from the feces of healthy infants against enteropathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Davoodabadi, Abolfazl; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Douraghi, Masoumeh; Sharifi Yazdi, Mohammad Kazem; Amin Harati, Farzaneh

    2015-08-01

    Lactobacilli are normal microflora of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and are a heterogeneous group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus strains with Probiotic activity may have health Benefits for human. This study investigates the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus strains obtained from the feces of healthy infants and also explores antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus strains with probiotic potential against enteropathogenic bacteria. Fecal samples were collected from 95 healthy infants younger than 18 months. Two hundred and ninety Lactobacillus strains were isolated and assessed for probiotic potential properties including ability to survive in gastrointestinal conditions (pH 2.0, 0.3% oxgall), adherence to HT-29 cells and antibiotic resistance. Six strains including Lactobacillus fermentum (4 strains), Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum showed good probiotic potential and inhibited the growth of enteropathogenic bacteria including ETEC H10407, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Shigella sonnei ATCC 9290, Salmonella enteritidis H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica ATCC 23715. These Lactobacillus strains with probiotic potential may be useful for prevention or treatment of diarrhea, but further in vitro and in vivo studies on these strains are still required.

  2. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ZnO based glass-ceramics against pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Madeeha; Zia, Rehana; Saleemi, Farhat; Ikram, Hafeez; Bashir, Farooq

    2015-12-01

    The antibacterial activity of ZnO (0-15.53 mol%) based SiO2-CaO-P2O5-Na2O-CaF2 bioactive glass-ceramics synthesized by controlled crystallisation were studied against eight micro-organisms using modified Kirby Bauer method. The antibacterial activity of the specimens was statistically evaluated using one-way analysis of variance and P < 0.05 was used as the level of significance. In vitro dissolution tests were performed in stimulated body fluid for 48 h at 37 °C for different time intervals to correlate the dissolution behaviour of test samples with antibacterial effects. The results illustrate that specimen BZn15.53 having the highest concentration of ZnO (15.53 mol%) demonstrated the strongest effect against Staph.aureus, S. epidermidis, B. subtilis and K. pneumonia. The effectiveness of BZn15.53 in inhibiting bacteria was due to accumulation of Zn(+2) ions around the surface of the bacteria cell release that caused the death of the cell, besides the presence of hydroxyapatite phase was also responsible for damaging the cell membrane of bacteria.

  3. Alcohol consumption inhibits bone growth and development in young actively growing rats.

    PubMed

    Sampson, H W; Perks, N; Champney, T H; DeFee, B

    1996-11-01

    Adolescence is an age of widespread alcohol abuse, but the effect of alcohol consumption on bone formation has not been studied in the young population. This study addresses the effect of alcohol on the early phases of bone growth and development in an animal model. Four-week-old, female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups. Alcohol-treated animals were fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli diet ad libitum containing 35% ethanol-derived calories, whereas the pair-fed animals (weight-matched to ethanol rats) received an isocaloric liquid diet in which maltose-dextrin substituted calories supplied by ethanol. Chow animals were fed a standard rat chow ad libitum. Proximal tibiae (primarily cancellous bone) and femora (primarily cortical bone) were removed for analysis after 2, 4, 6, or 8 weeks on the diets. Serum was collected for analysis of calcium levels, osteocalcin, corticosterone, growth hormone, parathyroid hormone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The most rapid weight gain occurred between 6 and 8 weeks of age, it was significantly delayed in alcohol and pair-fed animals. Almost all morphological parameters of bone were lower in the alcohol groups. No significant difference in serum calcium levels, osteocalcin, or growth hormone levels were found, and small difference in calciotropic hormone levels was found between groups. The results indicated that chronic alcohol consumption during the age of bone development reduces bone density and peak bone mass in both cortical and cancellous bone. The mechanism whereby this effect occurs is not fully understood, but, our results suggest that the negative impact of alcohol on growing bone is not due to the secondary effects of altered bone mineral regulating hormones.

  4. In vivo activity of nifurzide and nifuroxazide in intestinal bacteria in man and gnotobiotic mice.

    PubMed

    Leonard, F; Andremont, A; Tancrede, C

    1985-06-01

    Although Gram-negative enteropathogenic bacteria are the target strains of nifurzide and nifuroxazide treatments, neither drug affected faecal counts of in vitro-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae in healthy volunteers. This absence of activity was shown to be due to the poor solubility of the drugs tested. Therefore, effect of high doses of nifurzide was investigated in gnotobiotic mice. Activity against in vitro susceptible enteropathogens was then observed. Normal bacterial cells were replaced in the faeces by elongated, nonseptate and unflagellated mutants. Moreover, the resistance to colonization by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Shigella flexeri of an anaerobic flora of human origin was sharply decreased. PMID:4030525

  5. Ozonated saline shows activity against planktonic and biofilm growing Staphylococcus aureus in vitro: a potential irrigant for infected wounds.

    PubMed

    Al-Saadi, Hayder; Potapova, Inga; Rochford, Edward Tj; Moriarty, Thomas F; Messmer, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Infections associated with deep wounds require extensive surgical and medical care. New adjunctive treatments are required to aid in the eradication of the bacterial biofilms found on infected wounds and, in particular, any underlying hardware. Ozone has been used as a safe and efficient disinfectant in water treatment plants for many years. The purpose of this study is to investigate the anti-biofilm potential of ozonated saline against biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, a microorganism commonly implicated in wound infections. A custom-made bacterial biofilm bioreactor was used to grow S. aureus biofilms on discs of medical grade titanium alloy. An ozone generator was connected in-line and biofilms and planktonic bacteria were exposed to ozone in saline. Cytotoxicity was assessed against primary ovine osteoblasts in the same system. In tests against planktonic S. aureus, a 99% reduction in bacterial numbers was detected within 15 minutes of exposure. S. aureus biofilms were significantly more resistant to ozone, although complete eradication of the biofilm was eventually achieved within 5 hours. Ozonated saline was not found to be cytotoxic to primary ovine osteoblasts. Ozonated saline may be suitable as an adjuvant therapy to treat patients as an instillation fluid for wound irrigation and sterilisation.

  6. Antibacterial properties and major bioactive components of cinnamon stick (Cinnamomum burmannii): activity against foodborne pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shan, Bin; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Brooks, John D; Corke, Harold

    2007-07-11

    Cinnamomum burmannii Blume (cinnamon stick) from Indonesia is a little-investigated spice. In this study, the antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of cinnamon stick extract were evaluated against five common foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella anatum). Cinnamon stick extract exhibited significant antibacterial properties. Major compounds in cinnamon stick were tentatively identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography (LC-MS) as a predominant volatile oil component ((E)-cinnamaldehyde) and several polyphenols (mainly proanthocyanidins and (epi)catechins). Both (E)-cinnamaldehyde and proanthocyanidins significantly contributed to the antibacterial properties. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy was used to observe morphological changes of bacteria treated with the crude extract of cinnamon stick and its major components. This study suggests that cinnamon stick and its bioactive components have potential for application as natural food preservatives.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of tea catechin against canine oral bacteria and the functional mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    BAI, Lanlan; TAKAGI, Shiaki; ANDO, Tasuke; YONEYAMA, Hiroshi; ITO, Kumiko; MIZUGAI, Hiroyuki; ISOGAI, Emiko

    2016-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the major polyphenolic compound of green tea. Polyphenolic compounds were extracted from the leaf of Camellia sinensis (Japanese green tea), and the minimum inhibitory concentration against canine oral bacteria was measured. Subsequently, we investigated the inhibitory effects of polyphenolic compounds and EGCG on the growth of canine oral bacteria. EGCG showed antimicrobial activity against a model bacterium, Streptococcus mutans. Our results indicate that EGCG can inhibit the growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans and that EGCG does not interact with streptococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA). Furthermore, our findings suggest that EGCG interacts with other component(s) of the bacterial membrane aside from streptococcal LTA to inhibit biofilm formation and damage biofilms. PMID:27246281

  8. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the leaf essential oil of Skimmia laureola growing wild in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Shah, Wajaht A; Dar, Mohd Yousuf; Zagar, M Iqbal; Agnihotri, Vijai K; Qurishi, M A; Singh, Bikram

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of Skimmia laureola hydrodistillate by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 20 constituents, representing 94.6% of the total oil. The major constituents of oil were linalyl acetate (33.0%), linalool (25.0%), limonene (8.1%), α-terpineol (5.9%) and geranyl acetate (5.9%). The monoterpene (93.4%) rich essential oil was evaluated for its antibacterial and antifungal activities against seven microorganisms by agar diffusion and microdilution methods. The oil showed appreciable antimicrobial effects against all Gram-positive bacteria tested, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis with MIC values 32 and 64 µg mL(-1), respectively. The oil also exhibited strong fungicidal activity against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum with MIC value in the range 32-16 µg mL(-1). The oil could be used in the formulation of antimicrobial agents. PMID:22780302

  9. Antigenotoxic activity of lactic acid bacteria, prebiotics, and products of their fermentation against selected mutagens.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Adriana; Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Otlewska, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Dietary components such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and prebiotics can modulate the intestinal microbiota and are thought to be involved in the reduction of colorectal cancer risk. The presented study measured, using the comet assay, the antigenotoxic activity of both probiotic and non-probiotic LAB, as well as some prebiotics and the end-products of their fermentation, against fecal water (FW). The production of short chain fatty acids by the bacteria was quantified using HPLC. Seven out of the ten tested viable strains significantly decreased DNA damage induced by FW. The most effective of them were Lactobacillus mucosae 0988 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12, leading to a 76% and 80% decrease in genotoxicity, respectively. The end-products of fermentation of seven prebiotics by Lactobacillus casei DN 114-001 exhibited the strongest antigenotoxic activity against FW, with fermented inulin reducing genotoxicity by 75%. Among the tested bacteria, this strain produced the highest amounts of butyrate in the process of prebiotic fermentation, and especially from resistant dextrin (4.09 μM/mL). Fermented resistant dextrin improved DNA repair by 78% in cells pre-treated with 6.8 μM methylnitronitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Fermented inulin induced stronger DNA repair in cells pre-treated with mutagens (FW, 25 μM hydrogen peroxide, or MNNG) than non-fermented inulin, and the efficiency of DNA repair after 120 min of incubation decreased by 71%, 50% and 70%, respectively. The different degrees of genotoxicity inhibition observed for the various combinations of bacteria and prebiotics suggest that this effect may be attributable to carbohydrate type, SCFA yield, and the ratio of the end-products of prebiotic fermentation.

  10. Distribution and activity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria in natural freshwater wetland soils.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-dong; Wu, Hong-sheng; Gao, Zhi-qiu; Cheng, Hai-xiang; Li, Ji; Liu, Xu; Ren, Qian-qi

    2016-04-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process plays a significant role in the marine nitrogen cycle. However, the quantitative importance of this process in nitrogen removal in wetland systems, particularly in natural freshwater wetlands, is still not determined. In the present study, we provided the evidence of the distribution and activity of anammox bacteria in a natural freshwater wetland, located in southeastern China, by using (15)N stable isotope measurements, quantitative PCR assays and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. The potential anammox rates measured in this wetland system ranged between 2.5 and 25.5 nmol N2 g(-1) soil day(-1), and up to 20% soil dinitrogen gas production could be attributed to the anammox process. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that anammox bacteria related to Candidatus Brocadia, Candidatus Kuenenia, Candidatus Anammoxoglobus and two novel anammox clusters coexisted in the collected soil cores, with Candidatus Brocadia and Candidatus Kuenenia being the dominant anammox genera. Quantitative PCR of hydrazine synthase genes showed that the abundance of anammox bacteria varied from 2.3 × 10(5) to 2.2 × 10(6) copies g(-1) soil in the examined soil cores. Correlation analyses suggested that the soil ammonium concentration had significant influence on the activity of anammox bacteria. On the basis of (15)N tracing technology, it is estimated that a total loss of 31.1 g N m(-2) per year could be linked the anammox process in the examined wetland. PMID:26621804

  11. Inequity outside the Classroom: Growing Class Differences in Participation in Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snellman, Kaisa; Silva, Jennifer M.; Putnam, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors report on research that shows that extracurricular activities help cultivate the skills, connections, and knowledge that prepare children for lifelong success. They add, however, that low-income students are increasingly being excluded from participating. Struggling with budget cuts and deficits, many school districts…

  12. Growing into Greatness: A Study of a Local History Group of Active-Retired Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Trudy; Byrne, Brid; Harris, Phyllis; Lalor, Maureen; O'Connor, Maura; O'Reilly, Kathleen; Quinn, Frank; Forde, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Research in Canada on the learning needs of older people looked at such issues as how to cope with changes in society, the need to make a contribution and the need to be influential. The White Paper on Adult Education "Learning for Life" notes that strategies for active ageing stress the critical importance of access to learning as a key tool in…

  13. Gramicidin A Mutants with Antibiotic Activity against Both Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zerfas, Breanna L; Joo, Yechaan; Gao, Jianmin

    2016-03-17

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have shown potential as alternatives to traditional antibiotics for fighting infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One promising example of this is gramicidin A (gA). In its wild-type sequence, gA is active by permeating the plasma membrane of Gram-positive bacteria. However, gA is toxic to human red blood cells at similar concentrations to those required for it to exert its antimicrobial effects. Installing cationic side chains into gA has been shown to lower its hemolytic activity while maintaining the antimicrobial potency. In this study, we present the synthesis and the antibiotic activity of a new series of gA mutants that display cationic side chains. Specifically, by synthesizing alkylated lysine derivatives through reductive amination, we were able to create a broad selection of structures with varied activities towards Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Importantly, some of the new mutants were observed to have an unprecedented activity towards important Gram-negative pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Psuedomonas aeruginosa. PMID:26918268

  14. Gramicidin A Mutants with Antibiotic Activity against Both Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zerfas, Breanna L; Joo, Yechaan; Gao, Jianmin

    2016-03-17

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have shown potential as alternatives to traditional antibiotics for fighting infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One promising example of this is gramicidin A (gA). In its wild-type sequence, gA is active by permeating the plasma membrane of Gram-positive bacteria. However, gA is toxic to human red blood cells at similar concentrations to those required for it to exert its antimicrobial effects. Installing cationic side chains into gA has been shown to lower its hemolytic activity while maintaining the antimicrobial potency. In this study, we present the synthesis and the antibiotic activity of a new series of gA mutants that display cationic side chains. Specifically, by synthesizing alkylated lysine derivatives through reductive amination, we were able to create a broad selection of structures with varied activities towards Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Importantly, some of the new mutants were observed to have an unprecedented activity towards important Gram-negative pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Psuedomonas aeruginosa.

  15. Enrichment of electrochemically active bacteria using a three-electrode electrochemical cell.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seok-Min; Choi, Chang-Ho; Kim, Mia; Hyun, Moon-Sik; Shin, Sung-Hye; Yi, Dong-Heui; Kim, Hyung Joo

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemically active bacteria were successfully enriched in an electrochemical cell using a positively poised working electrode. The positively poised working electrode (+0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl) was used as an electron acceptor for enrichment and growth of electrochemically active bacteria. When activated sludge and synthetic wastewater were fed to the electrochemical cell, a gradual increase in amperometric current was observed. After a period of time in which the amperometric current was stabilized (generally 8 days), linear correlations between the amperometric signals from the electrochemical cell and added BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) concentrations were established. Cyclic voltammetry of the enriched electrode also showed prominent electrochemical activity. When the enriched electrodes were examined with electron microscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy, a biofilm on the enriched electrode surface and bacterium-like particles were observed. These experimental results indicate that the electrochemical system in this study is a useful tool for the enrichment of an electrochemically active bacterial consortium and could be used as a novel microbial biosensor.

  16. Antibacterial activities of Ligaria cuneifolia and Jodina rhombifolia leaf extracts against phytopathogenic and clinical bacteria.

    PubMed

    Soberón, José R; Sgariglia, Melina A; Dip Maderuelo, María R; Andina, María L; Sampietro, Diego A; Vattuone, Marta A

    2014-11-01

    Six plant extracts prepared from Ligaria cuneifolia and Jodina rhombifolia were screened for their potential antimicrobial activities against phytopathogens and clinically standard reference bacterial strains. Bioautography and broth microdilution methods were used to study samples antibacterial activities against 7 bacterial strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of samples were attained. An antibacterial activity guided isolation and identification of active compounds was carried out for L. cuneifolia methanolic extract (LCME). Both methanolic and aqueous extracts from L. cuneifolia showed inhibitory activities against phytopathogenic bacteria, with MICs ranging from 2.5 to 156 μg mL(-1) for LCME and 5 mg mL(-1) for the aqueous extract. None of the three J. rhombifolia extracts showed significant antibacterial activities against phytopathogenic strains (MIC > 5 mg mL(-1)), except for the aqueous extracts against Pseudomonas syringae (MIC = 312 μg mL(-1)). Only LCME showed bactericidal activities against phytopathogenic strains (MBCs = 78 μg mL(-1)). The LCME exhibited significant inhibitory activity against reference clinical strains: Escherichia coli (MIC = 156 μg mL(-1)) and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 78 μg mL(-1), MBC = 312 μg mL(-1)). LCME active compounds were identified as flavonol mono and diglycosides, and gallic acid. The antibacterial activity of purified compounds was also evaluated. A synergistic effect against S. aureus was found between gallic acid and a quercetin glycoside. Hence, anti-phytopathogenic bacteria potential compounds isolated from L. cuneifolia could be used as an effective source against bacterial diseases in plants. PMID:24894684

  17. Production of exopolysaccharides by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains of human origin, and metabolic activity of the producing bacteria in milk.

    PubMed

    Salazar, N; Prieto, A; Leal, J A; Mayo, B; Bada-Gancedo, J C; de los Reyes-Gavilán, C G; Ruas-Madiedo, P

    2009-09-01

    This work reports on the physicochemical characterization of 21 exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, as well as the growth and metabolic activity of the EPS-producing strains in milk. The strains belong to the species Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus vaginalis, Bifidobacterium animalis, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum. The molar mass distribution of EPS fractions showed 2 peaks of different sizes, which is a feature shared with some EPS from bacteria of food origin. In general, we detected an association between the EPS size distribution and the EPS-producing species, although because of the low numbers of human bacterial EPS tested, we could not conclusively establish a correlation. The main monosaccharide components of the EPS under study were glucose, galactose, and rhamnose, which are the same as those found in food polymers; however, the rhamnose and glucose ratios was generally higher than the galactose ratio in our human bacterial EPS. All EPS-producing strains were able to grow and acidify milk; most lactobacilli produced lactic acid as the main metabolite. The lactic acid-to-acetic acid ratio in bifidobacteria was 0.7, close to the theoretical ratio, indicating that the EPS-producing strains did not produce an excessive amount of acetic acid, which could adversely affect the sensory properties of fermented milks. With respect to their viscosity-intensifying ability, L. plantarum H2 and L. rhamnosus E41 and E43R were able to increase the viscosity of stirred, fermented milks to a similar extent as the EPS-producing Streptococcus thermophilus strain used as a positive control. Therefore, these human EPS-producing bacteria could be used as adjuncts in mixed cultures for the formulation of functional foods if probiotic characteristics could be demonstrated. This is the first article reporting the

  18. Distribution of Metabolically Active Prokaryotes (Archaea and Bacteria) throughout the Profiles of Chernozem and Brown Semidesert Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, M. V.; Manucharova, N. A.; Stepanov, A. L.

    2016-02-01

    The distribution of metabolically active cells of archaea and bacteria in the profiles of typical chernozems (Voronezh oblast) and brown semidesert soils (Astrakhan oblast) of natural and agricultural ecosystems was studied using the method of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The studied soils differed sharply in the microbial biomass and in the numbers of metabolically active cells of archaea and bacteria. The number of active bacterial cells was 3.5-7.0 times greater than that of archaea. In the arable chernozem, the numbers of active cells of archaea and bacteria were 2.6 and 1.5 times, respectively, lower than those in the chernozem under the shelterbelt. The agricultural use of the brown semidesert soil had little effect on the abundances of bacteria and archaea. The soil organic carbon content was the major factor controlling the numbers of metabolically active cells of both domains. However, the dependence of the abundance of bacteria on the organic matter content was more pronounced. The decrease in the organic carbon and total nitrogen contents down the soil profiles was accompanied by the decrease in the bacteria: archaea ratio attesting to a better adaptation of archaea to the permanent deficiency of carbon and nitrogen. The bacteria: archaea ratio can serve as an ecotrophic indicator of the state of soil microbial communities.

  19. Profile of some plasma enzyme activities in growing dwarf and landrace kids.

    PubMed

    Mbassa, G K; Poulsen, J S

    1991-10-01

    Plasma alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase activities were studied in clinically healthy Danish landrace and dwarf kids in seven herds from birth to 12 months of age. The purpose was to evaluate the influence of age, breed and herd on reference values. The mean enzyme levels +/- standard deviation (s) in neonatal dwarf kids were 0.09 +/- 0.04, 1.23 +/- 0.24, 2.79 +/- 1.50 and 18.3 +/- 11.0 mu kat/l respectively. The respective values in landrace kids were 0.13 +/- 0.06, 1.06 +/- 0.22, 2.44 +/- 1.60 and 37.6 +/- 23.6 mu kat/l. In 8-12 months old dwarf kids they were 0.30 +/- 0.11, 1.49 +/- 0.13, 3.28 +/- 0.44 and 11.1 +/- 2.4 mu kat/l respectively and 0.23 +/- 0.05, 1.12 +/- 0.34, 3.68 +/- 1.63 and 14.1 +/- 8.40 mu kat/l respectively in landrace kids of the same age. The 5th to 95th percentile intervals of the enzyme activities were within mean +/- 2s for most age groups in both breeds except alkaline phosphatase. The means and medians were close to each other for the values of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase but not for alkaline phosphatase. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase levels were low at birth and increased with age, whereas for alkaline phosphatase it was vice versa. Significant differences were observed in mean enzyme activities between kids of different ages (within breeds), breeds (in same age kids) and herds (within same breed and age kids). Sex variations (within the breeds) were not observed. It was concluded that plasma enzyme activities are dependent on age, breed and environment.

  20. Growing older with health and vitality: a nexus of physical activity, exercise and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Witard, Oliver C; McGlory, Chris; Hamilton, D Lee; Phillips, Stuart M

    2016-06-01

    The preservation of skeletal muscle mass and strength with advancing age are, we propose, critical aspects of ageing with health and vitality. Physical inactivity and poor nutrition are known to accelerate the gradual age-related decline in muscle mass and strength-sarcopenia-however, both are subject to modification. The main purpose of this review is to present the latest, evidence-based recommendations for physical activity and exercise, as well as diet for older adults that would help in preserving muscle mass and strength. We take the position that future physical activity/exercise guidelines need to make specific reference to resistance exercise and highlight the benefits of higher-intensity aerobic exercise training, alongside advocating older adults perform aerobic-based physical activity and household tasks (e.g., carrying groceries). In terms of dietary recommendations, greater emphasis should be placed on optimal rather than minimum protein intakes for older adults. Indeed, guidelines that endorse a daily protein intake of 1.2-1.5 g/kg BM/day, which are levels 50-90 % greater than the current protein Recommendation Dietary Allowance (0.8 g/kg BM/day), are likely to help preserve muscle mass and strength and are safe for healthy older adults. Being cognisant of factors (e.g., reduced appetite) that may preclude older adults from increasing their total daily protein intake, we echo the viewpoint of other active researchers in advocating that protein recommendations for older adults be based on a per meal approach in order to maximize muscle protein synthesis (MPS). On this basis, assuming three meals are consumed daily, a protein dose of 0.4-0.5 g/kg BM should be contained in each meal. We are beginning to understand ways in which to increase the utilization of ingested protein for the stimulation of MPS, namely by increasing the proportion of leucine contained in a given dose of protein, co-ingesting other nutrients (e.g., carbohydrate and fat or

  1. [SCREENING OF WILD SPREAD AND CULTIVATED OF BUXUS SPECIES GROWING IN GEORGIA ON THE CONTENT OF ALKALOIDS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY].

    PubMed

    Vachnadze, N; Mchedlidze, Q; Novikova, J; Suladze, T; Vachnadze, V

    2016-07-01

    Georgian flora is represented by about 4150 plant species. Many important alkaloid-containing plant species and among of them are species Buxus L. of genus in Adjara. The aims of the research were: sequential screening of the plants for the consistence of alkaloids; Study of anatomical characteristics of Buxus colchica Pojark. and revealing of specific pharmacological activity of steroidal alkaloids. The objects of research were B. colchica, B. balearika and B. sempervirens, growing in Adjara (Georgia), collected in active phase of flowering of the plants. There were revealed 370 species of alkaloid containing plants. Sum of alkaloids and crude aqueous extract have spasmolitic and antihistaminic activity. Experimental anatomical research of diagnostic characteristics of the bines showed the existence of monocyclic transient system with fiber like tracheids, dorsoventral mesophyll of the leaves; the structure for the upper part of epidermis is linear and the lower part is curved, type of stomata is paracitic. PMID:27661282

  2. Dpp Signaling Activity Requires Pentagone to Scale with Tissue Size in the Growing Drosophila Wing Imaginal Disc

    PubMed Central

    Pyrowolakis, George; Bergmann, Sven; Affolter, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The wing of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, with its simple, two-dimensional structure, is a model organ well suited for a systems biology approach. The wing arises from an epithelial sac referred to as the wing imaginal disc, which undergoes a phase of massive growth and concomitant patterning during larval stages. The Decapentaplegic (Dpp) morphogen plays a central role in wing formation with its ability to co-coordinately regulate patterning and growth. Here, we asked whether the Dpp signaling activity scales, i.e. expands proportionally, with the growing wing imaginal disc. Using new methods for spatial and temporal quantification of Dpp activity and its scaling properties, we found that the Dpp response scales with the size of the growing tissue. Notably, scaling is not perfect at all positions in the field and the scaling of target gene domains is ensured specifically where they define vein positions. We also found that the target gene domains are not defined at constant concentration thresholds of the downstream Dpp activity gradients P-Mad and Brinker. Most interestingly, Pentagone, an important secreted feedback regulator of the pathway, plays a central role in scaling and acts as an expander of the Dpp gradient during disc growth. PMID:22039350

  3. Dpp signaling activity requires Pentagone to scale with tissue size in the growing Drosophila wing imaginal disc.

    PubMed

    Hamaratoglu, Fisun; de Lachapelle, Aitana Morton; Pyrowolakis, George; Bergmann, Sven; Affolter, Markus

    2011-10-01

    The wing of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, with its simple, two-dimensional structure, is a model organ well suited for a systems biology approach. The wing arises from an epithelial sac referred to as the wing imaginal disc, which undergoes a phase of massive growth and concomitant patterning during larval stages. The Decapentaplegic (Dpp) morphogen plays a central role in wing formation with its ability to co-coordinately regulate patterning and growth. Here, we asked whether the Dpp signaling activity scales, i.e. expands proportionally, with the growing wing imaginal disc. Using new methods for spatial and temporal quantification of Dpp activity and its scaling properties, we found that the Dpp response scales with the size of the growing tissue. Notably, scaling is not perfect at all positions in the field and the scaling of target gene domains is ensured specifically where they define vein positions. We also found that the target gene domains are not defined at constant concentration thresholds of the downstream Dpp activity gradients P-Mad and Brinker. Most interestingly, Pentagone, an important secreted feedback regulator of the pathway, plays a central role in scaling and acts as an expander of the Dpp gradient during disc growth.

  4. Serum copper and ceruloplasmin activity at the early growing stage in foals.

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, M; Asano, M; Tagami, M; Tsukiyama, K; Fujinaga, T

    1998-01-01

    Serum concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P), as well as antigenic ceruloplasmin (Cp) and oxidase activity as a functional index for copper metabolism, were measured in 10 foals (5 males and 5 females) and their dams. Samples were harvested from the foals within 1 wk after birth and monthly from 1 to 17 mo of age. Samples were collected from their dams in the perinatal period (monthly from 2 mo before delivery to 5 mo postpartum). Serum oxidase activity, antigenic Cp and Cu in foals were extremely low at 1 wk. Serum Cp had the lowest value of 17.0 +/- 8.0 (mean +/- SD) mg/dL within the 1st wk, then increased rapidly up to 43.7 +/- 5.8 mg/dL at 1 mo, and maintained this level until the 17th mo. Serum Zn in foals had the highest value of 73.2 +/- 13.1 micrograms/dL within 1 wk, then decreased to 38.3 +/- 5.9 micrograms/dL by 17 mo. Serum Mn, Ca and P in mares were almost stable and within established reference ranges for our laboratory in the perinatal period, and these values in foals were also in the normal range. Even on appropriate feeding, serum Cu, Cp and oxidase activity were quite low a few weeks after birth, while a higher proportion of Cp-binding copper was found in the foals. This might be caused by the limited synthesis of ceruloplasmin in this period. These data suggest that newborn foals are in a critical situation of marginal copper status in the early stage of growth. PMID:9553711

  5. Effects of TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles on polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthesis by activated sludge bacteria.

    PubMed

    Priester, John H; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C; Ge, Yuan; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Tomar, Shivira; Tom, Lauren M; Piceno, Yvette M; Andersen, Gary L; Holden, Patricia A

    2014-12-16

    Manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) are increasingly incorporated into consumer products that are disposed into sewage. In wastewater treatment, MNMs adsorb to activated sludge biomass where they may impact biological wastewater treatment performance, including nutrient removal. Here, we studied MNM effects on bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), specifically polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), biosynthesis because of its importance to enhanced biological phosphorus (P) removal (EBPR). Activated sludge was sampled from an anoxic selector of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and PHB-containing bacteria were concentrated by density gradient centrifugation. After starvation to decrease intracellular PHB stores, bacteria were nutritionally augmented to promote PHB biosynthesis while being exposed to either MNMs (TiO2 or Ag) or to Ag salts (each at a concentration of 5 mg L(-1)). Cellular PHB concentration and PhyloChip community composition were analyzed. The final bacterial community composition differed from activated sludge, demonstrating that laboratory enrichment was selective. Still, PHB was synthesized to near-activated sludge levels. Ag salts altered final bacterial communities, although MNMs did not. PHB biosynthesis was diminished with Ag (salt or MNMs), indicating the potential for Ag-MNMs to physiologically impact EBPR through the effects of dissolved Ag ions on PHB producers. PMID:25409530

  6. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against fish pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon-Woo; Wendt, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial activities of the essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus (EOEG) was determined against 7 fish pathogenic bacteria (Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, S. parauberis, Lactococcus garviae, Vibrio harveyi, V. ichthyoenteri and Photobacterium damselae) obtained from farmed olive flounder. The inhibitory activity was evaluated by three methods: Disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). According to the disc diffusion test, as the concentration of EOEG (5-40 µg) rises, the inhibitory zone increases in size. Compared with amoxicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, EOEG showed similar antibacterial activity. The MIC of EOEG ranged from 7.8 to 125 mg/mL and MBC values ranged from 62 to 250 mg/mL. These results show that EOEG has antimicrobial activity against all seven bacteria, but there was no marked difference between each genus. From these results, it is suggested that EOEG can be used as an antimicrobial agent against fish bacterial diseases in the fish industry. PMID:27382376

  7. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against fish pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Park, Joon-Woo; Wendt, Mitchell; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2016-06-01

    The antibacterial activities of the essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus (EOEG) was determined against 7 fish pathogenic bacteria (Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, S. parauberis, Lactococcus garviae, Vibrio harveyi, V. ichthyoenteri and Photobacterium damselae) obtained from farmed olive flounder. The inhibitory activity was evaluated by three methods: Disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). According to the disc diffusion test, as the concentration of EOEG (5-40 µg) rises, the inhibitory zone increases in size. Compared with amoxicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, EOEG showed similar antibacterial activity. The MIC of EOEG ranged from 7.8 to 125 mg/mL and MBC values ranged from 62 to 250 mg/mL. These results show that EOEG has antimicrobial activity against all seven bacteria, but there was no marked difference between each genus. From these results, it is suggested that EOEG can be used as an antimicrobial agent against fish bacterial diseases in the fish industry. PMID:27382376

  8. Heterogeneous ice nucleation activity of bacteria: new laboratory experiments at simulated cloud conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möhler, O.; Georgakopoulos, D. G.; Morris, C. E.; Benz, S.; Ebert, V.; Hunsmann, S.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Wagner, R.

    2008-10-01

    The ice nucleation activities of five different Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas viridiflava and Erwinia herbicola bacterial species and of Snomax™ were investigated in the temperature range between -5 and -15°C. Water suspensions of these bacteria were directly sprayed into the cloud chamber of the AIDA facility of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe at a temperature of -5.7°C. At this temperature, about 1% of the Snomax™ cells induced immersion freezing of the spray droplets before the droplets evaporated in the cloud chamber. The living cells didn't induce any detectable immersion freezing in the spray droplets at -5.7°C. After evaporation of the spray droplets the bacterial cells remained as aerosol particles in the cloud chamber and were exposed to typical cloud formation conditions in experiments with expansion cooling to about -11°C. During these experiments, the bacterial cells first acted as cloud condensation nuclei to form cloud droplets. Then, only a minor fraction of the cells acted as heterogeneous ice nuclei either in the condensation or the immersion mode. The results indicate that the bacteria investigated in the present study are mainly ice active in the temperature range between -7 and -11°C with an ice nucleation (IN) active fraction of the order of 10-4. In agreement to previous literature results, the ice nucleation efficiency of Snomax™ cells was much larger with an IN active fraction of 0.2 at temperatures around -8°C.

  9. Antibacterial activity of bark extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. against some selected bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zaffer, Mudasser; Ahmad, Showkat; Sharma, Rajendra; Mahajan, Surabhi; Gupta, Ankur; Agnihotri, Rajneesh Kumar

    2014-11-01

    The methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous bark extracts of Moringa oleifera were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against four bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter freundii, Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas fluorescens using erythromycin as positive control. The activity was analyzed using paper disc diffusion method at different concentration of the extract. The study revealed that all the bark extracts irrespective of their types, in different concentrations inhibited growth of the test pathogens to varying degrees. Ethyl acetate extract showed maximum activity against all the bacterial strains followed in descending order by chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts. The activity decreased with decrease in concentration of the extract. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the most sensitive test organism to different extracts of Moringa oleifera. Looking to these results it may be concluded that M. oleifera may be a potential source for the treatment of different infections caused by the resistant microbes.

  10. Characterization of airborne ice-nucleation-active bacteria and bacterial fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Sahyoun, Maher; Finster, Kai; Hartmann, Susan; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Stratmann, Frank; Wex, Heike; Clauss, Tina; Nielsen, Niels Woetmann; Sørensen, Jens Havskov; Korsholm, Ulrik Smith; Wick, Lukas Y.; Karlson, Ulrich Gosewinkel

    2015-05-01

    Some bacteria have the unique capacity of synthesising ice-nucleation-active (INA) proteins and exposing them at their outer membrane surface. As INA bacteria enter the atmosphere, they may impact the formation of clouds and precipitation. We studied members of airborne bacterial communities for their capacity to catalyse ice formation and we report on the excretion of INA proteins by airborne Pseudomonas sp. We also observed for the first time that INA biological fragments <220 nm were present in precipitation samples (199 and 482 INA fragments per L of precipitation), which confirms the presence of submicron INA biological fragments in the atmosphere. During 14 precipitation events, strains affiliated with the genus Pseudomonas, which are known to carry ina genes, were dominant. A screening for INA properties revealed that ∼12% of the cultivable bacteria caused ice formation at ≤-7 °C. They had likely been emitted to the atmosphere from terrestrial surfaces, e.g. by convective transport. We tested the ability of isolated INA strains to produce outer membrane vesicles and found that two isolates could do so. However, only very few INA vesicles were released per INA cell. Thus, the source of the submicron INA proteinaceous particles that we detected in the atmosphere remains to be elucidated.

  11. Antimicrobial activities of novel cultivable bacteria isolated from marine sponge Tedania anhelans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Ke, Caihuan; Wang, Dexiang

    2013-05-01

    Marine sponge Tedania anhelans distributes throughout the intertidal zone of Fujian, southeastern China, and is a potential source of natural bioactive products. The sponge harbors a large number of bacterial groups that have been identified using various techniques, including fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Fractionation of dissociated sponge allowed isolation of 25 bacterial species. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, phylogenetic analysis attributed most of these eubacteria to α- Proteobacteria, γ- Proteobacteria, Cytophaga / Flavobacterium / Bacteroidetes (CFB group), and the family Bacillaceae of Gram-positive bacteria. In sequence similarity, five putatively novel species were identified with less than 98% similarity to other strains in the NCBI database. Tests for antimicrobial activities were performed against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, antitumor indicators Escherichia coli 343/591 (with DNA repair deficiency), regular E. coli 343/636 (with different DNA repair capacity), and 10 bacterial isolates exhibited inhibitory bioactivities. Among these strains, three isolates were detected involving function gene NRPS-A domains, which were most closely related to the amino acid sequences of linear gramicidin synthetase and pyoverdine synthetase. These results contribute to our knowledge of the microbes associated with marine sponges and further reveal novel bacterial resources for the screening of bioactive marine natural products.

  12. Bacteria as source of diglycosidase activity: Actinoplanes missouriensis produces 6-O-α-L-rhamnosyl-β-D-glucosidase active on flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Neher, Bárbara D; Mazzaferro, Laura S; Kotik, Michael; Oyhenart, Jorge; Halada, Petr; Křen, Vladimír; Breccia, Javier D

    2016-04-01

    Bacteria represent an underexplored source of diglycosidases. Twenty-five bacterial strains from the genera Actinoplanes, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Microbacterium, and Streptomyces were selected for their ability to grow in diglycosylated flavonoids-based media. The strains Actinoplanes missouriensis and Actinoplanes liguriae exhibited hesperidin deglycosylation activity (6-O-α-L-rhamnosyl-β-D-glucosidase activity, EC 3.2.1.168), which was 3 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than the corresponding monoglycosidase activities. The diglycosidase production was confirmed in A. missouriensis by zymographic assays and NMR analysis of the released disaccharide, rutinose. The gene encoding the 6-O-α-L-rhamnosyl-β-D-glucosidase was identified in the genome sequence of A. missouriensis 431(T) (GenBank accession number BAL86042.1) and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein hydrolyzed hesperidin and hesperidin methylchalcone, but not rutin, which indicates its specificity for 7-O-rutinosylated flavonoids. The protein was classified into the glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) in contrast to the known eukaryotic diglycosidases, which belong to GH1 and GH5. These findings demonstrate that organisms other than plants and filamentous fungi can contribute to an expansion of the diglycosidase toolbox.

  13. Bacteria as source of diglycosidase activity: Actinoplanes missouriensis produces 6-O-α-L-rhamnosyl-β-D-glucosidase active on flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Neher, Bárbara D; Mazzaferro, Laura S; Kotik, Michael; Oyhenart, Jorge; Halada, Petr; Křen, Vladimír; Breccia, Javier D

    2016-04-01

    Bacteria represent an underexplored source of diglycosidases. Twenty-five bacterial strains from the genera Actinoplanes, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Microbacterium, and Streptomyces were selected for their ability to grow in diglycosylated flavonoids-based media. The strains Actinoplanes missouriensis and Actinoplanes liguriae exhibited hesperidin deglycosylation activity (6-O-α-L-rhamnosyl-β-D-glucosidase activity, EC 3.2.1.168), which was 3 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than the corresponding monoglycosidase activities. The diglycosidase production was confirmed in A. missouriensis by zymographic assays and NMR analysis of the released disaccharide, rutinose. The gene encoding the 6-O-α-L-rhamnosyl-β-D-glucosidase was identified in the genome sequence of A. missouriensis 431(T) (GenBank accession number BAL86042.1) and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein hydrolyzed hesperidin and hesperidin methylchalcone, but not rutin, which indicates its specificity for 7-O-rutinosylated flavonoids. The protein was classified into the glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) in contrast to the known eukaryotic diglycosidases, which belong to GH1 and GH5. These findings demonstrate that organisms other than plants and filamentous fungi can contribute to an expansion of the diglycosidase toolbox. PMID:26549237

  14. Essential Oil Composition, Antioxidant, Cytotoxic and Antiviral Activities of Teucrium pseudochamaepitys Growing Spontaneously in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Saoussen; Jmii, Habib; El Mokni, Ridha; Khmiri, Abdelbaki; Faidi, Khaled; Dhaouadi, Hatem; El Aouni, Mohamed Hédi; Aouni, Mahjoub; Joshi, Rajesh K

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition, antioxidant, cytotoxic and antiviral activities of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Teucrium pseudochamaepitys (Lamiaceae) collected from Zaghouan province of Tunisia are reported. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty-one compounds were identified representing 88.6% of the total essential oil. Hexadecanoic acid was found to be the most abundant component (26.1%) followed by caryophyllene oxide (6.3%), myristicin (4.9%) and α-cubebene (3.9%). The antioxidant capacity of the oil was measured on the basis of the scavenging activity to the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The IC50 value of the oil was evaluated as 0.77 mg·mL(-1). In addition, the essential oil was found to possess moderate cytotoxic effects on the HEp-2 cell line (50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50)=653.6 µg·mL(-1)). The potential antiviral effect was tested against Coxsackievirus B (CV-B), a significant human and mouse pathogen that causes pediatric central nervous system disease, commonly with acute syndromes. The reduction of viral infectivity by the essential oil was measured using a cytopathic (CPE) reduction assay. PMID:26580590

  15. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from four Ruta species growing in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Haddouchi, Farah; Chaouche, Tarik Mohammed; Zaouali, Yosr; Ksouri, Riadh; Attou, Amina; Benmansour, Abdelhafid

    2013-11-01

    Antimicrobial properties of plants essential oils have been investigated in order to suggest them as potential tools to overcome the microbial drug resistance and the increasing incidence of food borne diseases problems. The aim of this research is to study the antibacterial and antifungal effects of four traditional plants essential oils, Ruta angustifolia, Ruta chalepensis, Ruta graveolens and Ruta tuberculata, against standard bacterial and fungal strains. The chemical compounds of the oils were examined by GC/MS. Results revealed a powerful antifungal activity against filamentous fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium herbarum are the most sensitive strains to these oils with MIC values less than 3.5 μg ml(-1) for certain oils, reaching 7.8 μg ml(-1) for other. GC/MS essay exhibited ketones as the most abundant constituent of these oils except for R. tuberculata essential oil which has a completely different composition, monoterpenes alcohols being the most abundant. These compositions explain their potential antifungal activity.

  16. Phenolic composition, physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of interspecific hybrids of grapes growing in Poland.

    PubMed

    Samoticha, Justyna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Golis, Tomasz

    2017-01-15

    The study evaluated fruit quality parameters and chemical properties (soluble solids, pH, total acidity and total sugars content, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity (ABTS, FRAP and ORAC methods)) of 30 grape cultivars of white, red and pink grape, as 28 interspecific hybrids and 2 Vitis vinifera L. popularly grown in Poland. Some of them were analyzed for the first time. A total of 49 polyphenolic compounds were identified by LC-PDA-QTOF/MS and quantified by UPLC-PDA-FL, as 26 anthocyanins, 9 flavonols and flavons, 7 phenolic acids, 6 flavan-3-ols, and 1 stilbene. The content of total polyphenols ranged from 1037.0 (Cascade cv.) to 5759.1mg/100gdm (Roesler cv.). However, the content of stilbene represented by trans resveratrol-3-glucoside was only 18.5-70.5mg/100gdm. Red grape cultivars like Roesler, Rothay and Swenson Red were characterized by the highest content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity (significantly more than 24, 12 and 53mmol TE/100gdm, by ABTS, FRAP and ORAC, respectively). Average total acidity and soluble solids for white (0.95g of tartaric acid in 100gfm and 17.1°Bx, respectively) and for red and pink (0.93g of tartaric acid in 100gfm and 17.4°Bx, respectively) cultivars were not significantly different (p>0.05). PMID:27542475

  17. Essential Oil Composition, Antioxidant, Cytotoxic and Antiviral Activities of Teucrium pseudochamaepitys Growing Spontaneously in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Saoussen; Jmii, Habib; El Mokni, Ridha; Khmiri, Abdelbaki; Faidi, Khaled; Dhaouadi, Hatem; El Aouni, Mohamed Hédi; Aouni, Mahjoub; Joshi, Rajesh K

    2015-11-16

    The chemical composition, antioxidant, cytotoxic and antiviral activities of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Teucrium pseudochamaepitys (Lamiaceae) collected from Zaghouan province of Tunisia are reported. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty-one compounds were identified representing 88.6% of the total essential oil. Hexadecanoic acid was found to be the most abundant component (26.1%) followed by caryophyllene oxide (6.3%), myristicin (4.9%) and α-cubebene (3.9%). The antioxidant capacity of the oil was measured on the basis of the scavenging activity to the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The IC50 value of the oil was evaluated as 0.77 mg·mL(-1). In addition, the essential oil was found to possess moderate cytotoxic effects on the HEp-2 cell line (50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50)=653.6 µg·mL(-1)). The potential antiviral effect was tested against Coxsackievirus B (CV-B), a significant human and mouse pathogen that causes pediatric central nervous system disease, commonly with acute syndromes. The reduction of viral infectivity by the essential oil was measured using a cytopathic (CPE) reduction assay.

  18. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria Showing Antioxidative and Probiotic Activities from Kimchi and Infant Feces.

    PubMed

    Ji, Keunho; Jang, Na Young; Kim, Young Tae

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate lactic acid bacteria with antioxidative and probiotic activities isolated from Korean healthy infant feces and kimchi. Isolates A1, A2, S1, S2, and S3 were assigned to Lactobacillus sp. and isolates A3, A4, E1, E2, E3, and E4 were assigned to Leuconostoc sp. on the basis of their physiological properties and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Most strains were confirmed as safe bioresources through nonhemolytic activities and non-production of harmful enzymes such as β-glucosidase, β- glucuronidase and tryptophanase. The 11 isolates showed different resistance to acid and bile acids. In addition, they exhibited antibacterial activity against foodborne bacteria, especially Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, all strains showed significantly high levels of hydrophobicity. The antioxidant effects of culture filtrates of the 11 strains included 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, 2.2'- azino-bis (2-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity, and superoxide dismutase activity. The results revealed that most of the culture filtrates have effective scavenging activity for DPPH and ABTS radicals. All strains appeared to have effective superoxide dismutase activity. In conclusion, the isolated strains A1, A3, S1, and S3 have significant probiotic activities applicable to the development of functional foods and health-related products. These strains might also contribute to preventing and controlling several diseases associated with oxidative stress, when used as probiotics.

  19. Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA Expression Patterns in Sputum Bacteria Indicate Secreted Esx Factors Contributing to Growth are Highly Expressed in Active Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bukka, Archana; Price, Christopher T. D.; Kernodle, Douglas S.; Graham, James E.

    2012-01-01

    To identify factors contributing to the ability of tubercle bacilli to grow in the lung during active infection, we analyzed RNA expression patterns in bacteria present in patient sputum. Prominent among bacterial transcripts identified were those encoding secreted peptides of the Esat-6 subfamily that includes EsxK and EsxL (Rv1197 and Rv1198). H37Rv esxKL and esxJI transcripts were differentially expressed under different growth conditions, and disruption of these genes altered growth phase kinetics in typical laboratory batch broth cultures. These growth defects, including the reduced intracellular growth of an ΔesxKL mutant in primary human macrophages, were reversed by either low multiplicity co-infection or co-culture with wild-type bacteria, demonstrating the ability of the secreted factors to rescue isogenic mutants. Complementing either only esxL or esxI alone (Rv1198 or Rv1037c) also reduced observed growth defects, indicating these genes encode factors capable of contributing to growth. Our studies indicate that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mtb9.9 family secreted factors EsxL and EsxI can act in trans to modulate growth of intracellular bacteria, and are highly expressed during active human lung infection. PMID:22291682

  20. Tryptophan-containing lipopeptide antibiotics derived from polymyxin B with activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Grau-Campistany, Ariadna; Manresa, Ángeles; Pujol, Montserrat; Rabanal, Francesc; Cajal, Yolanda

    2016-02-01

    Resistance to all known antibiotics is a growing concern worldwide, and has renewed the interest in antimicrobial peptides, a structurally diverse class of amphipathic molecules that essentially act on the bacterial membrane. Propelled by the antimicrobial potential of this compound class, we have designed three new lipopeptides derived from polymyxin B, sp-34, sp-96 and sp-100, with potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The three peptides bind with high affinity to lipopolysaccharide as demonstrated by monolayer penetration and dansyl-displacement. The interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane has been elucidated by biophysical experiments with model membranes of POPG or POPE/POPG (6:4), mimicking the Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial membrane. Trp-based fluorescence experiments including steady-state, quenching, anisotropy and FRET, reveal selectivity for anionic phospholipids and deep insertion into the membrane. All three lipopeptides induce membrane fusion and leakage from anionic vesicles, a process that is favored by the presence of POPE. The molecules bind to zwitterionic POPC vesicles, a model of the eukaryotic membrane, but in a different way, with lower affinity, less penetration into the bilayer and no fusion or permeabilization of the membrane. Results in model membranes are consistent with flow cytometry experiments in Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using a membrane potential sensitive dye (bis-oxonol) and a nucleic acid dye (propidium iodide), suggesting that the mechanism of action is based on membrane binding and collapse of membrane integrity by depolarization and permeabilization.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd. (Lamiaceae) against cariogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Nathalya Isabel; de Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo; Fracarolli, Letícia; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Veneziani, Rodrigo Cassio Sola; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Crotti, Antônio Eduardo Miller

    2015-01-01

    In Brazilian folk medicine, Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd. (Lamiaceae) is used to treat toothaches and dental abscesses and diseases induced by worms, bacteria, or fungi. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition and the antibacterial effects of the essential oil obtained from Tetradenia riparia leaves (TR-EO) grown in Southeastern Brazil against a representative panel of oral pathogens. We evaluated the antibacterial activity of TR-EO in terms of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). We identified aromadendrene oxide (14.0%), (E,E)-farnesol (13.6%), dronabinol (12.5%), and fenchone (6.2%) as the major constituents of TR-EO. TR-EO displayed MIC values between 31.2 and 500 μg/mL, with the lowest MIC value being obtained against Streptococcus mitis (31.2 μg/mL), S. mutans (62.5 μg/mL), S. sobrinus (31.2 μg/mL), and Lactobacillus casei (62.5 μg/mL). In time-kill experiments, TR-EO demonstrated bactericidal activity against S. mutans within the first 12 h, resulting in a curve profile similar to that of chlorhexidine. These results revealed that the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia displays promising activity against most of the selected cariogenic bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans. PMID:26273268

  2. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd. (Lamiaceae) against cariogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Nathalya Isabel; de Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo; Fracarolli, Letícia; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Veneziani, Rodrigo Cassio Sola; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Crotti, Antônio Eduardo Miller

    2015-06-01

    In Brazilian folk medicine, Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd. (Lamiaceae) is used to treat toothaches and dental abscesses and diseases induced by worms, bacteria, or fungi. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition and the antibacterial effects of the essential oil obtained from Tetradenia riparia leaves (TR-EO) grown in Southeastern Brazil against a representative panel of oral pathogens. We evaluated the antibacterial activity of TR-EO in terms of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). We identified aromadendrene oxide (14.0%), (E,E)-farnesol (13.6%), dronabinol (12.5%), and fenchone (6.2%) as the major constituents of TR-EO. TR-EO displayed MIC values between 31.2 and 500 μg/mL, with the lowest MIC value being obtained against Streptococcus mitis (31.2 μg/mL), S. mutans (62.5 μg/mL), S. sobrinus (31.2 μg/mL), and Lactobacillus casei (62.5 μg/mL). In time-kill experiments, TR-EO demonstrated bactericidal activity against S. mutans within the first 12 h, resulting in a curve profile similar to that of chlorhexidine. These results revealed that the essential oil of Tetradenia riparia displays promising activity against most of the selected cariogenic bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans. PMID:26273268

  3. Selection of enhanced antimicrobial activity posing lactic acid bacteria characterised by (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Šalomskienė, Joana; Abraitienė, Asta; Jonkuvienė, Dovilė; Mačionienė, Irena; Repečkienė, Jūratė

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was a detail evaluation of genetic diversity among the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains having an advantage of a starter culture in order to select genotypically diverse strains with enhanced antimicrobial effect on some harmfull and pathogenic microorganisms. Antimicrobial activity of LAB was performed by the agar well diffusion method and was examined against the reference strains and foodborne isolates of Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium. Antifungal activity was tested against the foodborne isolates of Candida parapsilosis, Debaromyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia guilliermondii, Yarowia lipolytica, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium chrysogenum and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. A total 40 LAB strains representing Lactobacillus (23 strains), Lactococcus (13 strains) and Streptococcus spp. (4 strains) were characterised by repetitive sequence based polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting which generated highly discriminatory profiles, confirmed the identity and revealed high genotypic heterogeneity among the strains. Many of tested LAB demonstrated strong antimicrobial activity specialised against one or few indicator strains. Twelve LAB strains were superior in suppressing growth of the whole complex of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. These results demonstrated that separate taxonomic units offered different possibilities of selection for novel LAB strains could be used as starter cultures enhancing food preservation.

  4. Antibiofilm activity of coral-associated bacteria against different clinical M serotypes of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Thenmozhi, Ramalingam; Nithyanand, Paramasivam; Rathna, Janarthanam; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2009-12-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is the frequent cause of purulent infections in humans. Formation of a biofilm is one of the important aspects of its pathogenicity. Streptococcus pyogenes biofilm communities tend to exhibit significant tolerance to antimicrobial challenge during infections. Exploring novel targets against biofilm-forming pathogens is therefore an important alternative treatment measure. We attempted to screen marine bacteria, especially coral-associated bacteria (CAB), for antibiofilm activity against streptococcal biofilm formation. The bacterial biofilms were quantified by crystal violet staining. Of 43 CAB isolates, nine clearly demonstrated antibiofilm activity. At biofilm inhibitory concentrations (BIC), biofilm formation was reduced up to 80%, and sub-BIC (0.5 and 0.25 BIC) significantly reduced biofilm formation by up to 60% and 40-60%, respectively. Extracts of Bacillus horikoshii (E6) displayed efficient antibiofilm activity. As quorum sensing (QS) and cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) are crucial factors for biofilm formation in S. pyogenes, the CAB were further screened for QS inhibition properties and CSH reduction properties. This study reveals the antibiofilm and QS inhibition property of CAB. PMID:19845763

  5. Antibacterial activity of [10]-gingerol and [12]-gingerol isolated from ginger rhizome against periodontal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Park, Miri; Bae, Jungdon; Lee, Dae-Sil

    2008-11-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) has been used widely as a food spice and an herbal medicine. In particular, its gingerol-related components have been reported to possess antimicrobial and antifungal properties, as well as several pharmaceutical properties. However, the effective ginger constituents that inhibit the growth of oral bacteria associated with periodontitis in the human oral cavity have not been elucidated. This study revealed that the ethanol and n-hexane extracts of ginger exhibited antibacterial activities against three anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 53978, Porphyromonas endodontalis ATCC 35406 and Prevotella intermedia ATCC 25611, causing periodontal diseases. Thereafter, five ginger constituents were isolated by a preparative high-performance liquid chromatographic method from the active silica-gel column chromatography fractions, elucidated their structures by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and their antibacterial activity evaluated. In conclusion, two highly alkylated gingerols, [10]-gingerol and [12]-gingerol effectively inhibited the growth of these oral pathogens at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of 6-30 microg/mL. These ginger compounds also killed the oral pathogens at a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) range of 4-20 microg/mL, but not the other ginger compounds 5-acetoxy-[6]-gingerol, 3,5-diacetoxy-[6]-gingerdiol and galanolactone. PMID:18814211

  6. Heterogeneous ice nucleation activity of bacteria: new laboratory experiments at simulated cloud conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möhler, O.; Georgakopoulos, D. G.; Morris, C. E.; Benz, S.; Ebert, V.; Hunsmann, S.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Wagner, R.

    2008-04-01

    The ice nucleation activities of five different Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas viridiflava and Erwinia herbicola bacterial species and of SnomaxTM were investigated in the temperature range between -5 and -15°C. Water suspensions of these bacteria were directly spray into the cloud chamber of the AIDA facility of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe at a temperature of -5.7°. At this temperature, about 1% of the SnomaxTM cells induced freezing of the spray droplets before they evaporated in the cloud chamber. The other suspensions of living cells didn't induce any measurable ice concentration during spray formation at -5.7°. The remaining aerosol was exposed to typical cloud activation conditions in subsequent experiments with expansion cooling to about -11°C. During these experiments, the bacterial cells first acted as cloud condensation nuclei to form cloud droplets and then eventually acted as ice nuclei to freeze the droplets. The results indicate that the bacteria investigated in the present study are mainly ice active in the temperature range between -7 and -11°C with an INA fraction of the order of 10-4. The ice nucleation efficiency of SnomaxTM cells was much larger with an INA fraction of 0.2 at temperatures around -8°C.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of some Pacific Northwest woods against anaerobic bacteria and yeast.

    PubMed

    Johnston, W H; Karchesy, J J; Constantine, G H; Craig, A M

    2001-11-01

    Extracts of woods commonly used for animal bedding were tested for antimicrobial activity. Essential oils from Alaska cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) and old growth Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) as well as methanol extracts of wood from these trees plus western red cedar (Thuja plicata) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) were tested for antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria and yeast. The test microbes included Fusobacterium necrophorum, Clostridium perfringens, Actinomyces bovis and Candida albicans which are common to foot diseases and other infections in animals. The essential oils and methanol extracts were tested using a standardized broth assay. Only extracts of Alaska cedar and western juniper showed significant antimicrobial activity against each of the microbes tested. The essential oil of Douglas fir did show antimicrobial activity against A. bovis at the concentrations tested. The methanol extracts of the heartwood of Douglas fir and the sapwood of ponderosa pine showed no antimicrobial activity. The major chemical components of western juniper (cedrol and alpha- and beta-cedrene) and Alaska cedar (nootkatin) were also tested. In western juniper, alpha- and beta-cedrene were found to be active components. Nootkatin showed activity only against C. albicans. The inhibitory activity in Alaska cedar oil was high enough to justify further efforts to define the other chemical components responsible for the antimicrobial activity. PMID:11746838

  8. Risks of hormonally active pharmaceuticals to amphibians: a growing concern regarding progestagens.

    PubMed

    Säfholm, Moa; Ribbenstedt, Anton; Fick, Jerker; Berg, Cecilia

    2014-11-19

    Most amphibians breed in water, including the terrestrial species, and may therefore be exposed to water-borne pharmaceuticals during critical phases of the reproductive cycle, i.e. sex differentiation and gamete maturation. The objectives of this paper were to (i) review available literature regarding adverse effects of hormonally active pharmaceuticals on amphibians, with special reference to environmentally relevant exposure levels and (ii) expand the knowledge on toxicity of progestagens in amphibians by determining effects of norethindrone (NET) and progesterone (P) exposure to 0, 1, 10 or 100 ng l(-1) (nominal) on oogenesis in the test species Xenopus tropicalis. Very little information was found on toxicity of environmentally relevant concentrations of pharmaceuticals on amphibians. Research has shown that environmental concentrations (1.8 ng l(-1)) of the pharmaceutical oestrogen ethinylestradiol (EE2) cause developmental reproductive toxicity involving impaired spermatogenesis in frogs. Recently, it was found that the progestagen levonorgestrel (LNG) inhibited oogenesis in frogs by interrupting the formation of vitellogenic oocytes at an environmentally relevant concentration (1.3 ng l(-1)). Results from the present study revealed that 1 ng NET l(-1) and 10 ng P l(-1) caused reduced proportions of vitellogenic oocytes and increased proportions of previtellogenic oocytes compared with the controls, thereby indicating inhibited vitellogenesis. Hence, the available literature shows that the oestrogen EE2 and the progestagens LNG, NET and P impair reproductive functions in amphibians at environmentally relevant exposure concentrations. The progestagens are of particular concern given their prevalence, the range of compounds and that several of them (LNG, NET and P) share the same target (oogenesis) at environmental exposure concentrations, indicating a risk for adverse effects on fertility in exposed wild amphibians.

  9. How faceted liquid droplets grow tails: from surface topology to active motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloutskin, Eli

    Among all possible shapes of a volume V, a sphere has the smallest surface area A. Therefore, liquid droplets are spherical, minimizing their interfacial energy γA for a given interfacial tension γ > 0 . This talk will demonstrate that liquid oil (alkane) droplets in water, stabilized by a common surfactant can be temperature-tuned to adopt icosahedral and other faceted shapes, above the bulk melting temperature of the oil. Although emulsions have been studied for centuries no faceted liquid droplets have ever been reported. The formation of an icosahedral shape is attributed to the interplay between γ and the elastic properties of the interfacial monomolecular layer, which crystallizes here 10-15K above bulk melting, leaving the droplet's bulk liquid. The icosahedral symmetry is dictated by twelve five-fold topological defects, forming within the hexagonally-packed interfacial crystalline monolayer. Moreover, we demonstrate that upon further cooling this `interfacial freezing' effect makes γ transiently switch its sign, leading to a spontaneous splitting of droplets and an active growth of their surface area, reminiscent of the classical spontaneous emulsification, yet driven by completely different physics. The observed phenomena allow deeper insights to be gained into the fundamentals of molecular elasticity and open new vitas for a wide range of novel nanotechnological applications, from self-assembly of complex shapes to new delivery strategies in bio-medicine. Acknowledgment is made to the Donors of the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund for support of this research and to the Kahn Foundation for the purchase of equipment.

  10. Antinociceptive activity of extracts and secondary metabolites from wild growing and micropropagated plants of Renealmia alpinia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Betancur, Isabel; Cortés, Natalie; Benjumea, Dora; Osorio, Edison; León, Francisco; Cutler, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Renealmia alpinia is native to the American continent and can be found from Mexico to Brazil, and in the Caribbean islands. It is known as “matandrea” in Colombia, and it has been commonly used in traditional medicine to treat painful diseases and ailments. Based on its traditional uses, it is of interest to evaluate the pharmacologic effects of this plant and its secondary metabolites. Materials and methods Methanol and aqueous extracts of wild and micropropagated R. alpinia (leaves) were obtained and chemically compared by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC). The antinociceptive activity of these extracts was examined using an in vivo assay (Siegmund test). Additionally, the dichloromethane extract of R. alpinia was fractionated and pure compounds were isolated by chromatographic methods. The structure elucidation of isolated compounds was performed by NMR experiments and spectroscopic techniques and comparison with the literature data. Purified compounds were evaluated for their in vitro binding affinity for opioids and cannabinoids receptors. Results The dichloromethane extract of the plant’s aerial part afforded sinostrobin (1), naringenin 7,4′-dimethyl ether (2), 2′,6′-dihydroxy-4′-methoxychalcone (3), 4-methoxy-6-(2-phenylethenyl)-2H-pyran-2-one (4), naringenin 7-methyl ether (5) and 3,5-heptanediol, 1,7-diphenyl (6), which were isolated using chromatographic methods. Their chemical structures were established by physical and spectroscopic techniques. The antinociceptive effects observed in mice by extracts of wild and micropropagated plants were similar. The compounds isolated from R. alpinia do not show affinity to opioid or cannabinoid receptors. Conclusion Aqueous and methanol extracts of R. alpinia provide antinociceptive and analgesic effects in an in vivo model. These results contribute additional insight as to why this plant is traditionally used for pain management. Also, this is the first

  11. Risks of hormonally active pharmaceuticals to amphibians: a growing concern regarding progestagens

    PubMed Central

    Säfholm, Moa; Ribbenstedt, Anton; Fick, Jerker; Berg, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Most amphibians breed in water, including the terrestrial species, and may therefore be exposed to water-borne pharmaceuticals during critical phases of the reproductive cycle, i.e. sex differentiation and gamete maturation. The objectives of this paper were to (i) review available literature regarding adverse effects of hormonally active pharmaceuticals on amphibians, with special reference to environmentally relevant exposure levels and (ii) expand the knowledge on toxicity of progestagens in amphibians by determining effects of norethindrone (NET) and progesterone (P) exposure to 0, 1, 10 or 100 ng l−1 (nominal) on oogenesis in the test species Xenopus tropicalis. Very little information was found on toxicity of environmentally relevant concentrations of pharmaceuticals on amphibians. Research has shown that environmental concentrations (1.8 ng l−1) of the pharmaceutical oestrogen ethinylestradiol (EE2) cause developmental reproductive toxicity involving impaired spermatogenesis in frogs. Recently, it was found that the progestagen levonorgestrel (LNG) inhibited oogenesis in frogs by interrupting the formation of vitellogenic oocytes at an environmentally relevant concentration (1.3 ng l−1). Results from the present study revealed that 1 ng NET l−1 and 10 ng P l−1 caused reduced proportions of vitellogenic oocytes and increased proportions of previtellogenic oocytes compared with the controls, thereby indicating inhibited vitellogenesis. Hence, the available literature shows that the oestrogen EE2 and the progestagens LNG, NET and P impair reproductive functions in amphibians at environmentally relevant exposure concentrations. The progestagens are of particular concern given their prevalence, the range of compounds and that several of them (LNG, NET and P) share the same target (oogenesis) at environmental exposure concentrations, indicating a risk for adverse effects on fertility in exposed wild amphibians. PMID:25405966

  12. Seasonal Variation in Population Density and Heterotrophic Activity of Attached and Free-Living Bacteria in Coastal Waters

    PubMed Central

    Iriberri, Juan; Unanue, Marian; Barcina, Isabel; Egea, Luis

    1987-01-01

    The abundance and heterotrophic activity of attached and free-living bacteria were examined seasonally in coastal water. Heterotrophic activity was determined by the uptake of [14C]glucose. The density of attached bacteria was always minor, not showing a seasonal variation, whereas the free-living bacteria were more numerous and showed a marked seasonal variation, their density being higher under warmer conditions. The contribution of the attached bacteria to the total assimilation of [14C]glucose (from 10 to 38%) was lower than that of the free-living bacteria, neither of them showing a seasonal variation. On a cellular basis, attached bacteria were more active, since they assimilated more [14C]glucose and showed, under warmer conditions, a higher cellular volume (0.102 versus 0.047 μm3). We consider that the factors responsible for these observations were the amount and quality of the particulate material, the different availability of organic matter for the two types of bacteria, and in a fundamental way, the variation in water temperature. PMID:16347451

  13. [Construction of the genetically attenuated bacteria Bordetella pertussis devoid of dermonecrotic toxin activity and producing modified nontoxic pertussis toxin form].

    PubMed

    Siniashina, L N; Siniashina, L S; Semin, E G; Amelina, I P; Karataev, G I

    2010-01-01

    The recombinant modified (attenuated) bacteria A. pertussis were constructed. These bacteria contained knockout mutation of the dnt gene and produced nontoxic pertussis toxin derivative. The immunological properties of the mutant bacteria B. pertussis strain KS were studied. The recombinant bacteria B. pertussis strain KS were found to be devoid of dermonecrotic toxin activity, conserved the structure of the mutant dnt gene in condition of cultivation on selective growth media, and long-term survival in laboratory animal organism. Intranasal immunization of mice with living bacteria B. pertussis, attenuated strain KS provided protection of animals from virulent strains of the pertussis. The efficiency of the protection was comparable with protection efficiency provided by standard corpuscular pertussis vaccine OSO-3.

  14. Antibacterial activity of hen egg white lysozyme modified by heat and enzymatic treatments against oenological lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, W; García-Ruiz, A; Recio, I; Moreno-Arribas, M V

    2014-10-01

    The antimicrobial activity of heat-denatured and hydrolyzed hen egg white lysozyme against oenological lactic acid and acetic acid bacteria was investigated. The lysozyme was denatured by heating, and native and heat-denatured lysozymes were hydrolyzed by pepsin. The lytic activity against Micrococcus lysodeikticus of heat-denatured lysozyme decreased with the temperature of the heat treatment, whereas the hydrolyzed lysozyme had no enzymatic activity. Heat-denatured and hydrolyzed lysozyme preparations showed antimicrobial activity against acetic acid bacteria. Lysozyme heated at 90°C exerted potent activity against Acetobacter aceti CIAL-106 and Gluconobacter oxydans CIAL-107 with concentrations required to obtain 50% inhibition of growth (IC50) of 0.089 and 0.013 mg/ml, respectively. This preparation also demonstrated activity against Lactobacillus casei CIAL-52 and Oenococcus oeni CIAL-91 (IC50, 1.37 and 0.45 mg/ml, respectively). The two hydrolysates from native and heat-denatured lysozyme were active against O. oeni CIAL-96 (IC50, 2.77 and 0.3 mg/ml, respectively). The results obtained suggest that thermal and enzymatic treatments increase the antibacterial spectrum of hen egg white lysozyme in relation to oenological microorganisms.

  15. Macrophages sense and kill bacteria through carbon monoxide–dependent inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Wegiel, Barbara; Larsen, Rasmus; Gallo, David; Chin, Beek Yoke; Harris, Clair; Mannam, Praveen; Kaczmarek, Elzbieta; Lee, Patty J.; Zuckerbraun, Brian S.; Flavell, Richard; Soares, Miguel P.; Otterbein, Leo E.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial clearance by eukaryotes relies on complex and coordinated processes that remain poorly understood. The gasotransmitter carbon monoxide (CO) is generated by the stress-responsive enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by Hmox1), which is highly induced in macrophages in response to bacterial infection. HO-1 deficiency results in inadequate pathogen clearance, exaggerated tissue damage, and increased mortality. Here, we determined that macrophage-generated CO promotes ATP production and release by bacteria, which then activates the Nacht, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NALP3) inflammasome, intensifying bacterial killing. Bacterial killing defects in HO-1–deficient murine macrophages were restored by administration of CO. Moreover, increased CO levels enhanced the bacterial clearance capacity of human macrophages and WT murine macrophages. CO-dependent bacterial clearance required the NALP3 inflammasome, as CO did not increase bacterial killing in macrophages isolated from NALP3-deficient or caspase-1–deficient mice. IL-1β cleavage and secretion were impaired in HO-1–deficient macrophages, and CO-dependent processing of IL-1β required the presence of bacteria-derived ATP. We found that bacteria remained viable to generate and release ATP in response to CO. The ATP then bound to macrophage nucleotide P2 receptors, resulting in activation of the NALP3/IL-1β inflammasome to amplify bacterial phagocytosis by macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that macrophage-derived CO permits efficient and coordinated regulation of the host innate response to invading microbes. PMID:25295542

  16. Conversion of Atmospheric Aerosol by Bacteria and Their Influence on Ice-Nucleation Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kos, G.; Shawi, M.; Ariya, P. A.

    2004-05-01

    The presence of microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi in the boundary layer of the atmosphere has been established for some time. These species can also convert organic aerosol species (e.g. dicarboxylic acids), a transformation that was so far assumed to occur only via physico-chemical pathways. As a result, the ice nucleation activity of certain aerosol species can be altered by biochemical transformations including metabolite production and bacterial growth and these new species as well as the microorganisms themselves can act as ice nuclei. In this study we have used dicarboxylic acids (DCA) as model nutrients, which are commonly observed in the aerosol population of the boundary layer. Pseudomonas syringae and Erwinia herbicolae are two types of bacteria that have been found to possess ice nucleation ability, caused by lipoglycoprotein, which consists of a sequence of amino acids that favor the formation of ice. The main objective was to look into the conversion of DCA by bacterial species, their ice nucleating ability and the identification of metabolites from bacterial activity. Furthermore, the influence of different parameters on the ice nucleation of bacteria was investigated. A Freezing Nuclei apparatus was used in order to assess the freezing temperature of a population of small drops to study both homogenous and heterogeneous nucleation of different concentrations of malonic acid containing bacterial species. An acid concentration in the lower Fg/l-range was chosen, matching earlier observations in an urban environment. Other varied parameters include the pH and bacterial membrane shearing. All labware was sterilized prior to use and airtight containers minimized external contamination. Malonic acid concentration was determined by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS) after esterification with a mixture of borontrifluoride and 1-propanol, modified from Kawamura, 1991. Malonic acid and its metabolites were identified by

  17. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb. growing wild in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Madona; El Beyrouthy, Marc; Ouaini, Naïm; Iriti, Marcello; Eparvier, Véronique; Stien, Didier

    2014-05-01

    The essential oils (EOs) isolated from the leaves and twigs of Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb. growing wild in Lebanon were characterized, and their antimicrobial activity and antiradical capacity were evaluated. The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and characterized by GC and GC/MS analyses. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by determining minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against a Gram-positive and a Gram-negative bacterium, a yeast, and a dermatophyte with the broth microdilution technique. A total of 28 constituents was identified and accounted for 90.1 and 95.6% of the twig and leaf EO composition, respectively. Both EOs were essentially composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (46.7 and 59.6% for twig and leaf EOs, resp.) and sesquiterpenes (39.4 and 32.1%, resp.). The main components were α-pinene, α-cedrol, and δ-car-3-ene. The J. excelsa EOs did not show any antiradical potential, but revealed interesting in vitro antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton rubrum (MICs of 64 and 128 μg/ml, resp.). The three major compounds were tested separately and in combination according to their respective amounts in the oil. δ-Car-3-ene was the most active component and is undoubtedly one of the constituents driving the antifungal activity of J. excelsa essential oil, even though synergies are probably involved.

  18. Identification of proteolytic bacteria from the Arctic Chukchi Sea expedition cruise and characterization of cold-active proteases.

    PubMed

    Park, Ha Ju; Lee, Yung Mi; Kim, Sunghui; Wi, Ah Ram; Han, Se Jong; Kim, Han-Woo; Kim, Il-Chan; Yim, Joung Han; Kim, Dockyu

    2014-10-01

    Following collection of seawater samples during an Arctic Chukchi Sea expedition cruise of the Korean icebreaker Araon in 2012, a total of 15,696 bacteria were randomly isolated from Marine Broth 2216 agar plates. Of these, 2,526 (16%) showed proteolytic activity and were identified as mainly Alteromonas (31%), Staphylococcus (27%), and Pseudoalteromonas (14%). Among the proteolytic strains, seven were selected based on their significant ability to grow and produce a halo on skim milk plates at low temperatures (<5°C) owing to cold-active proteases. These strains were affiliated with the genus Pseudoalteromonas and were divided into three groups based on phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA genes. Profiling cell membrane fatty acids confirmed the 16S rRNA-based differentiation and revealed the accordance between the two analyses. Seven genes for serine protease precursors were amplified from the corresponding strains, and based on sequence similarities, these genes were divided into three groups that were identical to those identified by the 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis. Three protease genes from the representative strains of each group were composed of 2,127-2,130 bp, encoding 708-709 amino acids, and these genes yielded products with calculated molecular weights of approximately 72.3-72.8 kDa. Amino acid sequence analysis suggested that the precursors are members of the subtilase serine endo- and exo-peptidase clan and contain four domains (signal peptide, N-terminal prosequence, catalytic domain, and two pre-peptidase C-terminal domains). Upon expression in E. coli, each recombinant protease exhibited proteolytic activity on zymogram gels.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of iron oxide nanoparticle upon modulation of nanoparticle-bacteria interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakha, Manoranjan; Pal, Sweta; Samantarrai, Devyani; Panigrahi, Tapan K.; Mallick, Bairagi C.; Pramanik, Krishna; Mallick, Bibekanand; Jha, Suman

    2015-10-01

    Investigating the interaction patterns at nano-bio interface is a key challenge for safe use of nanoparticles (NPs) to any biological system. The study intends to explore the role of interaction pattern at the iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP)-bacteria interface affecting antimicrobial propensity of IONP. To this end, IONP with magnetite like atomic arrangement and negative surface potential (n-IONP) was synthesized by co-precipitation method. Positively charged chitosan molecule coating was used to reverse the surface potential of n-IONP, i.e. positive surface potential IONP (p-IONP). The comparative data from fourier transform infrared spectroscope, XRD, and zeta potential analyzer indicated the successful coating of IONP surface with chitosan molecule. Additionally, the nanocrystals obtained were found to have spherical size with 10-20 nm diameter. The BacLight fluorescence assay, bacterial growth kinetic and colony forming unit studies indicated that n-IONP (<50 μM) has insignificant antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. However, coating with chitosan molecule resulted significant increase in antimicrobial propensity of IONP. Additionally, the assay to study reactive oxygen species (ROS) indicated relatively higher ROS production upon p-IONP treatment of the bacteria. The data, altogether, indicated that the chitosan coating of IONP result in interface that enhances ROS production, hence the antimicrobial activity.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of iron oxide nanoparticle upon modulation of nanoparticle-bacteria interface

    PubMed Central

    Arakha, Manoranjan; Pal, Sweta; Samantarrai, Devyani; Panigrahi, Tapan K.; Mallick, Bairagi C.; Pramanik, Krishna; Mallick, Bibekanand; Jha, Suman

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the interaction patterns at nano-bio interface is a key challenge for safe use of nanoparticles (NPs) to any biological system. The study intends to explore the role of interaction pattern at the iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP)-bacteria interface affecting antimicrobial propensity of IONP. To this end, IONP with magnetite like atomic arrangement and negative surface potential (n-IONP) was synthesized by co-precipitation method. Positively charged chitosan molecule coating was used to reverse the surface potential of n-IONP, i.e. positive surface potential IONP (p-IONP). The comparative data from fourier transform infrared spectroscope, XRD, and zeta potential analyzer indicated the successful coating of IONP surface with chitosan molecule. Additionally, the nanocrystals obtained were found to have spherical size with 10–20 nm diameter. The BacLight fluorescence assay, bacterial growth kinetic and colony forming unit studies indicated that n-IONP (<50 μM) has insignificant antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. However, coating with chitosan molecule resulted significant increase in antimicrobial propensity of IONP. Additionally, the assay to study reactive oxygen species (ROS) indicated relatively higher ROS production upon p-IONP treatment of the bacteria. The data, altogether, indicated that the chitosan coating of IONP result in interface that enhances ROS production, hence the antimicrobial activity. PMID:26437582

  1. The abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in activated sludge under autotrophic domestication.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Ma, Chao; Sun, Shifang; Xie, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Feng, Jun; Song, Cunjiang

    2013-04-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) play a key role in nitrogen-removal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as they can transform ammonia into nitrite. AOB can be enriched in activated sludge through autotrophic domestication although they are difficult to be isolated. In this study, autotrophic domestication was carried out in a lab-scale sequencing-batch-reactor (SBR) system with two activated sludge samples. The ammonia removal capacity of the sludge samples increased during the domestication, and pH exhibited a negative correlation with the ammonia removal amount, which indicated that it was one important factor of microbial ammonia oxidation. The count of AOB, measured by the most probable number (MPN) method, increased significantly during autotrophic domestication as ammonia oxidation efficiency was enhanced. We investigated the changes in the community structure of AOB before and after domestication by amoA clone library and T-RFLP profile. It showed that AOB had been successfully enriched and the community structure significantly shifted during the domestication. Two groups of AOB were found in sludge samples: Nitrosomonas-like group remained predominant all the time and Nitrosospira-like group changed obviously. Simultaneously, the total heterotrophic bacteria were investigated by MPN and Biolog assay. The metabolic diversity of heterotrophs had changed minutely, although the count of them decreased significantly and lost superiority of microbial communities in the sludge.

  2. Mutual interactions of Pleurotus ostreatus with bacteria of activated sludge in solid-bed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Svobodová, Kateřina; Petráčková, Denisa; Kozická, Barbora; Halada, Petr; Novotný, Čeněk

    2016-06-01

    White rot fungi are well known for their ability to degrade xenobiotics in pure cultures but few studies focus on their performance under bacterial stress in real wastewaters. This study investigated mutual interactions in co-cultures of Pleurotus ostreatus and activated sludge microbes in batch reactors and different culture media. Under the bacterial stress an increase in the dye decolorization efficiency (95 vs. 77.1 %) and a 2-fold elevated laccase activity (156.7 vs. 78.4 Ul(-1)) were observed in fungal-bacterial cultures compared to pure P. ostreatus despite a limited growth of bacteria in mixed cultures. According to 16S-rDNA analyses, P. ostreatus was able to alter the structure of bacterial communities. In malt extract-glucose medium the fungus inhibited growth of planktonic bacteria and prevented shifts in bacterial utilization of potential C-sources. A model bacterium, Rhodococcus erythropolis responded to fungal metabolites by down regulation of uridylate kinase and acetyl-CoA synthetase. PMID:27116960

  3. Biofilm-forming activity of bacteria isolated from toilet bowl biofilms and the bactericidal activity of disinfectants against the isolates.

    PubMed

    Mori, Miho; Gomi, Mitsuhiro; Matsumune, Norihiko; Niizeki, Kazuma; Sakagami, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the sanitary conditions of toilets, the bacterial counts of the toilet bowl biofilms in 5 Kansai area and 11 Kansai and Kanto area homes in Japan were measured in winter and summer seasons, respectively. Isolates (128 strains) were identified by analyzing 16S ribosomal RNA sequences. The number of colonies and bacterial species from biofilms sampled in winter tended to be higher and lower, respectively, than those in summer. Moreover, the composition of bacterial communities in summer and winter samples differed considerably. In summer samples, biofilms in Kansai and Kanto areas were dominated by Blastomonas sp. and Mycobacterium sp., respectively. Methylobacterium sp. was detected in all toilet bowl biofilms except for one sample. Methylobacterium sp. constituted the major presence in biofilms along with Brevundimonas sp., Sphingomonas sp., and/or Pseudomonas sp. The composition ratio of the sum of their genera was 88.0 from 42.9% of the total bacterial flora. The biofilm formation abilities of 128 isolates were investigated, and results suggested that Methylobacterium sp. and Sphingomonas sp. were involved in biofilm formation in toilet bowls. The biofilm formation of a mixed bacteria system that included bacteria with the highest biofilm-forming ability in a winter sample was greater than mixture without such bacteria. This result suggests that isolates possessing a high biofilm-forming activity are involved in the biofilm formation in the actual toilet bowl. A bactericidal test against 25 strains indicated that the bactericidal activities of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) tended to be higher than those of polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) and N-benzyl-N,N-dimethyldodecylammonium chloride (ADBAC). In particular, DDAC showed high bactericidal activity against approximately 90% of tested strains under the 5 h treatment.

  4. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous and Ethanol Extracts of Aristolochia indica and Toddalia asiatica Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Venkatadri, B; Arunagirinathan, N; Rameshkumar, M R; Ramesh, Latha; Dhanasezhian, A; Agastian, P

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria have developed multidrug resistance against available antimicrobial agents. Infectious diseases caused by these multidrug-resistant bacteria are major causes of morbidity and mortality in human beings. Synthetic drugs are expensive and inadequate for the treatment of diseases, causing side effects and ineffective against multidrug-resistant bacteria. The medicinal plants are promising to have effective antimicrobial property due to presence of phytochemical compounds like alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins and phenolic compounds. The present study aimed to find the antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Multidrug-resistant bacteria were identified by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Production of β-lactamases (extended spectrum β-lactamases, metallo β-lactamase and AmpC β-lactamase) were identified by combination disc method. Antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanol extract of Aristolochia indica and Toddalia asiatica were detected by agar well diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration. All bacteria used in this study showed antibiotic resistance to ≥3 antibiotics. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Vibrio cholerae were found to be positive for β-lactamase production. Ethanol extract of Aristolochia indica showed more significant antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria than Toddalia asiatica. Ethanol extracts of Aristolochia indica and Toddalia asiatica showed minimum inhibitory concentration values of 50-100 μg/ml and 100-200 μg/ml, respectively against multidrug-resistant bacteria. From this study, it was concluded that Aristolochia indica has more potential to treat multidrug-resistant bacteria than Toddalia asiatica. PMID:26997710

  5. Evaluation of analytical methods for determining the distribution of biofilm and active bacteria in a commercial heating system.

    PubMed

    Kjellerup, B V; Gudmonsson, G; Sowers, K; Nielsen, P H

    2006-01-01

    Danish district heating systems have good water quality, but continue to suffer from biofouling and biocorrosion. Localisation analyses of bacteria using microautoradiography were performed for one system in order to obtain detailed information for solving these problems. A mass balance showed that 77% of the bacteria were located at surfaces, with 23% in the bulk water, and 9% of the total carbon originated from biomass, while 91% was dissolved in the bulk water. The presence of active bacteria was determined with microautoradiography which showed that biofilms contained 99% and 1% were in the bulk water. A high bacterial functional diversity was observed, with active mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and with potentially corrosive biofilm bacteria present. The study reveals that by applying the activity based approach, the ratio of living and dead bacteria in the biofilm and bulk water in this type of system could be accurately determined. Also, the results emphasise that to minimise biofilm growth and biocorrosion, monitoring should be established focusing on the surfaces, since bulk water parameters do not reflect bacterial activity.

  6. Variation of bagasse crystallinity and cellulase activity during the fermentation of cellulomonas bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Enriquez, A.; Montalvo, R.; Canales, M.

    1981-07-01

    A characteristic behavior of the fermentation process was observed during the growth of Cellulomonas on sugarcane bagasse. At the early stage of the fermentation the crystallinity index of bagasse increased, suggesting that the major metabolized fraction corresponded to the hemicellulose during this stage. Some time later the crystallinity achieved a steady state and then decreased, which indicated that the most complex structure of bagasse was being attacked. The analysis of the cellulolytic activity of extracellular enzyme in the medium showed a sharp increase followed by an abrupt leveling off and decline in activity. These results along with the reduction of crystallinity index and bagasse utilization (70%) justify the assumption that the C1 component was present in the cellulase complex synthesized by the bacteria. (Refs. 12).

  7. Activity and growth efficiency of heterotrophic bacteria in a salt marsh (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal).

    PubMed

    Cunha, M A; Pedro, R; Almeida, M A; Silva, M H

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial utilization of monomers is recognized as an important step in the biogeochemical cycling of organic matter. In this study we have compared the heterotrophic activity of bacterial communities from different micro-habitats within a salt marsh environment (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal) in order to establish spatial patterns of bacterial abundance, monomer turnover rates (Tr) and bacterial growth efficiency (BGE). Differences in bacterial abundance and activity could be found between distinct plant rhizospheres. BGE tended to be lower at Halimione portulacoides banks, when compared to Sarcocornia perennis subsp. perennis banks which, on the contrary, showed the highest bacterial densities. Experiments of amendment of natural samples with organic and inorganic supplements indicated that salt marsh bacteria are not strongly regulated by salinity but the increased availability of labile organic matter causes a significant metabolic shift towards mineralization.

  8. In vitro antimicrobial activity of plant-derived diterpenes against bovine mastitis bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ariana P; Estrela, Fernanda T; Moraes, Thaís S; Carneiro, Luiza J; Bastos, Jairo K; dos Santos, Raquel A; Ambrósio, Sérgio R; Martins, Carlos H G; Veneziani, Rodrigo C S

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the antibacterial activity of three diterpenes isolated from natural sources against a panel of microorganisms responsible for bovine mastitis. ent-Copalic acid (CA) was the most active metabolite, with promising MIC values (from 1.56 to 6.25 µg mL-1) against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC and clinical isolate), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. We conducted time-kill assays of CA against S. aureus, a commensal organism considered to be a ubiquitous etiological agent of bovine mastitis in dairy farms worldwide. In the first 12 h, CA only inhibited the growth of the inoculums (bacteriostatic effect), but its bactericidal effect was clearly noted thereafter (between 12 and 24 h). In conclusion, CA should be considered for the control of several Gram-positive bacteria related to bovine mastitis. PMID:23884123

  9. Gardening: A Growing Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2011-01-01

    While Americans are as eager as ever to beautify their homes and yards with attractive landscaping, more and more gardeners are looking to the practical aspects of gardening--raising plants for food and choosing easy-care ornamental plants that are friendly to the environment. For some gardeners, raising their own food is a lifestyle choice. With…

  10. High Inorganic Triphosphatase Activities in Bacteria and Mammalian Cells: Identification of the Enzymes Involved

    PubMed Central

    Lakaye, Bernard; Servais, Anne-Catherine; Scholer, Georges; Fillet, Marianne; Elias, Benjamin; Derochette, Jean-Michel; Crommen, Jacques; Wins, Pierre; Bettendorff, Lucien

    2012-01-01

    Background We recently characterized a specific inorganic triphosphatase (PPPase) from Nitrosomonas europaea. This enzyme belongs to the CYTH superfamily of proteins. Many bacterial members of this family are annotated as predicted adenylate cyclases, because one of the founding members is CyaB adenylate cyclase from A. hydrophila. The aim of the present study is to determine whether other members of the CYTH protein family also have a PPPase activity, if there are PPPase activities in animal tissues and what enzymes are responsible for these activities. Methodology/Principal Findings Recombinant enzymes were expressed and purified as GST- or His-tagged fusion proteins and the enzyme activities were determined by measuring the release of inorganic phosphate. We show that the hitherto uncharacterized E. coli CYTH protein ygiF is a specific PPPase, but it contributes only marginally to the total PPPase activity in this organism, where the main enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of inorganic triphosphate (PPPi) is inorganic pyrophosphatase. We further show that CyaB hydrolyzes PPPi but this activity is low compared to its adenylate cyclase activity. Finally we demonstrate a high PPPase activity in mammalian and quail tissue, particularly in the brain. We show that this activity is mainly due to Prune, an exopolyphosphatase overexpressed in metastatic tumors where it promotes cell motility. Conclusions and General Significance We show for the first time that PPPase activities are widespread in bacteria and animals. We identified the enzymes responsible for these activities but we were unable to detect significant amounts of PPPi in E. coli or brain extracts using ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. The role of these enzymes may be to hydrolyze PPPi, which could be cytotoxic because of its high affinity for Ca2+, thereby interfering with Ca2+ signaling. PMID:22984449

  11. Quantity-activity relationship of denitrifying bacteria and environmental scaling in streams of a forested watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, B.L.; Hondzo, Miki; Dobraca, D.; LaPara, T.M.; Finlay, J.A.; Brezonik, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial variability of subreach denitrification rates in streams was evaluated with respect to controlling environmental conditions, molecular examination of denitrifying bacteria, and dimensional analysis. Denitrification activities ranged from 0 and 800 ng-N gsed-1 d-1 with large variations observed within short distances (<50 m) along stream reaches. A log-normal probability distribution described the range in denitrification activities and was used to define low (16% of the probability distributibn), medium (68%), and high (16%) denitrification potential groups. Denitrifying bacteria were quantified using a competitive polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) technique that amplified the nirK gene that encodes for nitrite reductase. Results showed a range of nirK quantities from 103 to 107 gene-copy-number gsed.-1 A nonparametric statistical test showed no significant difference in nirK quantifies among stream reaches, but revealed that samples with a high denitrification potential had significantly higher nirK quantities. Denitrification activity was positively correlated with nirK quantities with scatter in the data that can be attributed to varying environmental conditions along stream reaches. Dimensional analysis was used to evaluate denitrification activities according to environmental variables that describe fluid-flow properties, nitrate and organic material quantities, and dissolved oxygen flux. Buckingham's pi theorem was used to generate dimensionless groupings and field data were used to determine scaling parameters. The resulting expressions between dimensionless NO3- flux and dimensionless groupings of environmental variables showed consistent scaling, which indicates that the subreach variability in denitrification rates can be predicted by the controlling physical, chemical, and microbiological conditions. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Quantity-activity relationship of denitrifying bacteria and environmental scaling in streams of a forested watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Ben L.; Hondzo, Miki; Dobraca, Dina; Lapara, Timothy M.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Brezonik, Patrick L.

    2006-12-01

    The spatial variability of subreach denitrification rates in streams was evaluated with respect to controlling environmental conditions, molecular examination of denitrifying bacteria, and dimensional analysis. Denitrification activities ranged from 0 and 800 ng-N gsed-1 d-1 with large variations observed within short distances (<50 m) along stream reaches. A log-normal probability distribution described the range in denitrification activities and was used to define low (16% of the probability distribution), medium (68%), and high (16%) denitrification potential groups. Denitrifying bacteria were quantified using a competitive polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) technique that amplified the nirK gene that encodes for nitrite reductase. Results showed a range of nirK quantities from 103 to 107 gene-copy-number gsed-1. A nonparametric statistical test showed no significant difference in nirK quantities among stream reaches, but revealed that samples with a high denitrification potential had significantly higher nirK quantities. Denitrification activity was positively correlated with nirK quantities with scatter in the data that can be attributed to varying environmental conditions along stream reaches. Dimensional analysis was used to evaluate denitrification activities according to environmental variables that describe fluid-flow properties, nitrate and organic material quantities, and dissolved oxygen flux. Buckingham's pi theorem was used to generate dimensionless groupings and field data were used to determine scaling parameters. The resulting expressions between dimensionless NO3- flux and dimensionless groupings of environmental variables showed consistent scaling, which indicates that the subreach variability in denitrification rates can be predicted by the controlling physical, chemical, and microbiological conditions.

  13. Silencing of Anopheles stephensi Heme Peroxidase HPX15 Activates Diverse Immune Pathways to Regulate the Growth of Midgut Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kajla, Mithilesh; Choudhury, Tania P; Kakani, Parik; Gupta, Kuldeep; Dhawan, Rini; Gupta, Lalita; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles mosquito midgut harbors a diverse group of endogenous bacteria that grow extensively after the blood feeding and help in food digestion and nutrition in many ways. Although, the growth of endogenous bacteria is regulated by various factors, however, the robust antibacterial immune reactions are generally suppressed in this body compartment by a heme peroxidase HPX15 crosslinked mucins barrier. This barrier is formed on the luminal side of the midgut and blocks the direct interactions and recognition of bacteria or their elicitors by the immune reactive midgut epithelium. We hypothesized that in the absence of HPX15, an increased load of exogenous bacteria will enormously induce the mosquito midgut immunity and this situation in turn, can easily regulate mosquito-pathogen interactions. In this study, we found that the blood feeding induced AsHPX15 gene in Anopheles stephensi midgut and promoted the growth of endogenous as well as exogenous fed bacteria. In addition, the mosquito midgut also efficiently regulated the number of these bacteria through the induction of classical Toll and Imd immune pathways. In case of AsHPX15 silenced midguts, the growth of midgut bacteria was largely reduced through the induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene, a downstream effector molecule of the JAK/STAT pathway. Interestingly, no significant induction of the classical immune pathways was observed in these midguts. Importantly, the NOS is a well known negative regulator of Plasmodium development, thus, we proposed that the induction of diverged immune pathways in the absence of HPX15 mediated midgut barrier might be one of the strategies to manipulate the vectorial capacity of Anopheles mosquito. PMID:27630620

  14. Silencing of Anopheles stephensi Heme Peroxidase HPX15 Activates Diverse Immune Pathways to Regulate the Growth of Midgut Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kajla, Mithilesh; Choudhury, Tania P.; Kakani, Parik; Gupta, Kuldeep; Dhawan, Rini; Gupta, Lalita; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles mosquito midgut harbors a diverse group of endogenous bacteria that grow extensively after the blood feeding and help in food digestion and nutrition in many ways. Although, the growth of endogenous bacteria is regulated by various factors, however, the robust antibacterial immune reactions are generally suppressed in this body compartment by a heme peroxidase HPX15 crosslinked mucins barrier. This barrier is formed on the luminal side of the midgut and blocks the direct interactions and recognition of bacteria or their elicitors by the immune reactive midgut epithelium. We hypothesized that in the absence of HPX15, an increased load of exogenous bacteria will enormously induce the mosquito midgut immunity and this situation in turn, can easily regulate mosquito-pathogen interactions. In this study, we found that the blood feeding induced AsHPX15 gene in Anopheles stephensi midgut and promoted the growth of endogenous as well as exogenous fed bacteria. In addition, the mosquito midgut also efficiently regulated the number of these bacteria through the induction of classical Toll and Imd immune pathways. In case of AsHPX15 silenced midguts, the growth of midgut bacteria was largely reduced through the induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene, a downstream effector molecule of the JAK/STAT pathway. Interestingly, no significant induction of the classical immune pathways was observed in these midguts. Importantly, the NOS is a well known negative regulator of Plasmodium development, thus, we proposed that the induction of diverged immune pathways in the absence of HPX15 mediated midgut barrier might be one of the strategies to manipulate the vectorial capacity of Anopheles mosquito.

  15. Silencing of Anopheles stephensi Heme Peroxidase HPX15 Activates Diverse Immune Pathways to Regulate the Growth of Midgut Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kajla, Mithilesh; Choudhury, Tania P.; Kakani, Parik; Gupta, Kuldeep; Dhawan, Rini; Gupta, Lalita; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles mosquito midgut harbors a diverse group of endogenous bacteria that grow extensively after the blood feeding and help in food digestion and nutrition in many ways. Although, the growth of endogenous bacteria is regulated by various factors, however, the robust antibacterial immune reactions are generally suppressed in this body compartment by a heme peroxidase HPX15 crosslinked mucins barrier. This barrier is formed on the luminal side of the midgut and blocks the direct interactions and recognition of bacteria or their elicitors by the immune reactive midgut epithelium. We hypothesized that in the absence of HPX15, an increased load of exogenous bacteria will enormously induce the mosquito midgut immunity and this situation in turn, can easily regulate mosquito-pathogen interactions. In this study, we found that the blood feeding induced AsHPX15 gene in Anopheles stephensi midgut and promoted the growth of endogenous as well as exogenous fed bacteria. In addition, the mosquito midgut also efficiently regulated the number of these bacteria through the induction of classical Toll and Imd immune pathways. In case of AsHPX15 silenced midguts, the growth of midgut bacteria was largely reduced through the induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene, a downstream effector molecule of the JAK/STAT pathway. Interestingly, no significant induction of the classical immune pathways was observed in these midguts. Importantly, the NOS is a well known negative regulator of Plasmodium development, thus, we proposed that the induction of diverged immune pathways in the absence of HPX15 mediated midgut barrier might be one of the strategies to manipulate the vectorial capacity of Anopheles mosquito. PMID:27630620

  16. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Origanum libanoticum, Origanum ehrenbergii, and Origanum syriacum Growing Wild in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Al Hafi, Monay; El Beyrouthy, Marc; Ouaini, Naim; Stien, Didier; Rutledge, Douglas; Chaillou, Sylvain

    2016-05-01

    The essential oils (EOs) of the aerial parts of Origanum libanoticum and Origanum ehrenbergii, endemic to Lebanon, and Origanum syriacum, endemic to the Levantine, were obtained by distillation with a Clevenger apparatus. GC and GC/MS allowed identification of 96.4%, 93.5%, and 95.2% of their constituents, respectively. Carvacrol was the major component of both O. syriacum EO (79%) and O. ehrenbergii EO (60.8%). This compound was absent in O. libanoticum EO and the major compounds were β-caryophyllene (26.8%), caryophyllene oxide (22.6%), and germacrene D (17.2%). The assessment of their antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans and six pathogenic bacteria revealed that O. libanoticum EO was inactive, while O. syriacum and O. ehrenbergii showed moderate antimicrobial activity with minimal inhibitory concentrations varying from 400 to 1200 μg/ml. These results support the traditional use of these last two species in traditional herbal preparations in Lebanon. PMID:27088763

  17. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as “Hair Waste”

    PubMed Central

    Cavello, Ivana A.; Crespo, Juan M.; García, Sabrina S.; Zapiola, José M.; Luna, María F.; Cavalitto, Sebastián F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P. lilacinum's supernatant. Besides antifungal activity, P. lilacinum demonstrates the capability to produce indoleacetic acid and ammonia during time cultivation on hair waste medium. Plant growth-promoting activity by cell-free supernatant was evidenced through the increase of the percentage of tomato seed germination from 71 to 85% after 48 hours. A 21-day plant growth assay using tomato plants indicates that crude supernatant promotes the growth of the plants similar to a reference fertilizer (p > 0.05). These results suggest that both strain and the supernatant may have potential to be considered as a potent biocontrol agent with multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal, IAA production and tomato growth enhancing compounds produced by P. lilacinum LPSC #876. PMID:26697226

  18. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Origanum libanoticum, Origanum ehrenbergii, and Origanum syriacum Growing Wild in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Al Hafi, Monay; El Beyrouthy, Marc; Ouaini, Naim; Stien, Didier; Rutledge, Douglas; Chaillou, Sylvain

    2016-05-01

    The essential oils (EOs) of the aerial parts of Origanum libanoticum and Origanum ehrenbergii, endemic to Lebanon, and Origanum syriacum, endemic to the Levantine, were obtained by distillation with a Clevenger apparatus. GC and GC/MS allowed identification of 96.4%, 93.5%, and 95.2% of their constituents, respectively. Carvacrol was the major component of both O. syriacum EO (79%) and O. ehrenbergii EO (60.8%). This compound was absent in O. libanoticum EO and the major compounds were β-caryophyllene (26.8%), caryophyllene oxide (22.6%), and germacrene D (17.2%). The assessment of their antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans and six pathogenic bacteria revealed that O. libanoticum EO was inactive, while O. syriacum and O. ehrenbergii showed moderate antimicrobial activity with minimal inhibitory concentrations varying from 400 to 1200 μg/ml. These results support the traditional use of these last two species in traditional herbal preparations in Lebanon.

  19. A novel sulfate-reducing bacteria detection method based on inhibition of cysteine protease activity.

    PubMed

    Qi, Peng; Zhang, Dun; Wan, Yi

    2014-11-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been extensively studied in corrosion and environmental science. However, fast enumeration of SRB population is still a difficult task. This work presents a novel specific SRB detection method based on inhibition of cysteine protease activity. The hydrolytic activity of cysteine protease was inhibited by taking advantage of sulfide, the characteristic metabolic product of SRB, to attack active cysteine thiol group in cysteine protease catalytic sites. The active thiol S-sulfhydration process could be used for SRB detection, since the amount of sulfide accumulated in culture medium was highly related with initial bacterial concentration. The working conditions of cysteine protease have been optimized to obtain better detection capability, and the SRB detection performances have been evaluated in this work. The proposed SRB detection method based on inhibition of cysteine protease activity avoided the use of biological recognition elements. In addition, compared with the widely used most probable number (MPN) method which would take up to at least 15days to accomplish whole detection process, the method based on inhibition of papain activity could detect SRB in 2 days, with a detection limit of 5.21×10(2) cfu mL(-1). The detection time for SRB population quantitative analysis was greatly shortened.

  20. Screening for glycosidase activities of lactic acid bacteria as a biotechnological tool in oenology.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martín, Fátima; Seseña, Susana; Izquierdo, Pedro Miguel; Martín, Raúl; Palop, María Llanos

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability from a number of lactic acid bacteria isolated from different sources to produce glycosidase enzymes. Representative isolates (225) from clusters obtained after genotyping, using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis, of 1,464 isolates, were screened for β-D-glucosidase activity. Thirty-five of them were selected for subsequent analysis. These strains were able to hydrolyze α-D-glucopyranoside, β-D-xylopyranoside and α-L-arabinofuranoside although β-D-glucosidase activity was the predominant activity for 22 of the selected strains. Only some of them did so with α-L-rhamnopyranoside. All of these were from wine samples and were identified as belonging to the Oenococcus oeni species using Amplification and Restriction Analysis of 16S-rRNA gene (16S-ARDRA). When the influence of pH, temperature and ethanol or sugars content on β-D-glucosidase activity was assayed, a strain-dependent response was observed. The β-D-glucosidase activity occurred in both whole and sonicated cells but not in the supernatants from cultures or obtained after cell sonication. Strains 10, 17, 21, and 23 retained the most β-D-glucosidase activity when they were assayed at the conditions of temperature, pH, ethanol and sugar content used in winemaking. These results suggest that these strains could be used as a source of glycosidase enzymes for use in winemaking.

  1. Biological activity of a red-tide alga--A. tamarense under co-cultured condition with bacteria.

    PubMed

    Su, Jian-qiang; Yu, Zhi-ming; Tian, Yun; Song, Xiu-xian; Hong, Hua-sheng; Zheng, Tian-ling

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech, one of red-tide alga, and two strains of marine bacteria, Bacillius megaterium (S7) and B. halmapulus (S10) isolated from Xiamen Western Sea, was investigated by evaluating the growth state of A. tamarense and the variation of beta-glucosidase activity in co-culture system. The results showed the growth and multiplication of the alga were related with the concentration, genus speciality of the bacteria, and growth stage of the alga itself. The growth of A. tamarense was obviously inhibited by S7 and S10 at high concentration. Either inhibition or promotion contributed much more clearly in earlier than in later stage of the growth of the alga. Furthermore, there was a roughly similar variation trend of the activity of extra-cellular enzyme, beta-glucosidase, in the water of the separately co-cultured bacteria S7 and S10 with the alga. The beta-glucosidase activity (beta-GlcA) rapidly increased during the later algal growth accompanying the increase of the lysis of the alga cells. The obvious inhibition of A. tamarense by marine bacteria at high concentration and evident increase of beta-GlcA in co-colture system would help us in better understanding the relationship between red-tide alga and bacteria, and also enlightenedus the possible use of bacteria in the bio-control of red-tide.

  2. Removal of bacteria from coastal seawater by foam separation using dispersed bubbles and surface-active substances.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Hanagasaki, Nobuaki; Furukawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Terutoyo

    2008-04-01

    The removal of bacteria from rearing water and washing water in aquaculture systems, aquariums and fishing port facilities is the most important means of diminishing the risk of fish diseases, improving public health and ensuring high food quality. However, there are few methods of bacterial elimination, e.g., disinfection. Thus, it is necessary to develop a technology for bacterial removal from coastal seawater. In this study, the removal efficiency for several groups of bacteria by foam separation using dispersed bubbles and surface-active substances was determined using both batch equipment and a continuous-flow unit. By batch processing with only 1 mg/l milk casein added as a surface-active substance and by supplying bubbles, viable bacteria, enterococci, Vibrio, and Salmonella-like bacteria were removed effectively at removal efficiencies of 80% or greater. In addition, suspended solids were also removed from coastal seawater. However, fecal coliforms were difficult to remove by foam separation. The removal efficiency for viable bacteria was greater than 70% using a continuous system. Bacteria were concentrated in a very small amount of generated foam and removed from the water. The foam separation using dispersed bubbles and surface-active substances is a feasible convenient technology for seawater purification as a treatment prior to membrane filtration or ultraviolet irradiation.

  3. Curvature and shape determination of growing bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Ranjan; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2009-12-01

    Bacterial cells come in a variety of shapes, determined by the stress-bearing cell wall. Though many molecular details about the cell wall are known, our understanding of how a particular shape is produced during cell growth is at its infancy. Experiments on curved Escherichia coli grown in microtraps, and on naturally curved Caulobacter crescentus, reveal different modes of growth: one preserving arc length and the other preserving radius of curvature. We present a simple model for curved cell growth that relates these two growth modes to distinct but related growth rules—“hooplike growth” and “self-similar growth”—and discuss the implications for microscopic growth mechanisms.

  4. A mathematical model for electrochemically active filamentous sulfide-oxidising bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Keelan M; Batstone, Damien J; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Picioreanu, Cristian

    2015-04-01

    Oxygen and sulfide in ocean sediments can be consumed biologically over long spatial distances by way of filamentous bacteria in electron-conducting sheaths. To analyse observations, a mathematical model of these filamentous sulfur-oxidising bacteria was developed, including electrical conduction between reactive zones. Mechanisms include Nernst-Planck diffusion and migration of ions coupled with Ohm's law for conduction along filaments, and metabolic activity throughout the filaments. Simulations predict outward biomass growth toward the boundaries of the sediment floor and top surface, resulting in two distinct zones with anode (sulfide consumption) and cathode (oxygen consumption) reactions enabled by electron conduction. Results show inward fluxes of 4.6 mmol O2/m(2)/d and 2.5 mmol S/m(2)/d, with consumption increasing with growth to final fluxes of 8.2 mmol O2/m(2)/d and 4.34 mmol S/m(2)/d. Qualitatively, the effect of varying cell conductivity and substrate affinity is evaluated. Controlling mechanisms are identified to shift from biomass limitation, to substrate limitation, and to conductivity limitations as the lengths of the filaments increase. While most observed data are reflected in the simulation results, a key discrepancy is the lower growth rates, which are largely fixed by thermodynamics, indicating that microbes may utilise secondary substrates or an alternative metabolism.

  5. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for chemical toxicity to environmental bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, D.J.; Speece, R.E. )

    1991-10-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) were developed for nonreactive chemical toxicity to each of four groups of bacteria of importance in environmental engineering: aerobic heterotrophs, methanogens, Nitrosomonas, and Microtox. The QSARs were based on chemicals covering a range of structures and including important environmental pollutants (i.e., chlorinated and other substituted benzenes, phenols, and aliphatic hydrocarbons). QSARs were developed for each chemical class and for combinations of chemical classes. Three QSAR methods (groups of chemical describing parameters) were evaluated for their accuracy and ease of use: log P, linear solvation energy relationships (LSER), and molecular connectivity. Successful QSARs were found for each group of bacteria and by each method, with correlation coefficients (adjusted r2) between 0.79 and 0.95. LSER QSARs incorporated the widest range of chemicals with the greatest accuracy. Log P and molecular connectivity QSARs are easier to use because their parameters are readily available. Outliers from the QSARs likely due to reactive toxicity included acryls, low pKa compounds, and aldehydes. Nitro compounds and chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons and alcohols showed enhanced toxicity to the methanogens only. Chemicals with low IC50 concentrations (log IC50 mumol/liter less than 1.5) were often outliers for Nitrosomonas. QSARs were validated statistically and with literature data. A suggested method is provided for use of the QSARs.

  6. Effect of afforestation and reforestation of pastures on the activity and population dynamics of methanotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brajesh K; Tate, Kevin R; Kolipaka, Gokul; Hedley, Carolyn B; Macdonald, Catriona A; Millard, Peter; Murrell, J Colin

    2007-08-01

    We investigated the effect of afforestation and reforestation of pastures on methane oxidation and the methanotrophic communities in soils from three different New Zealand sites. Methane oxidation was measured in soils from two pine (Pinus radiata) forests and one shrubland (mainly Kunzea ericoides var. ericoides) and three adjacent permanent pastures. The methane oxidation rate was consistently higher in the pine forest or shrubland soils than in the adjacent pasture soils. A combination of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and stable isotope probing (SIP) analyses of these soils revealed that different methanotrophic communities were active in soils under the different vegetations. The C18 PLFAs (signature of type II methanotrophs) predominated under pine and shrublands, and C16 PLFAs (type I methanotrophs) predominated under pastures. Analysis of the methanotrophs by molecular methods revealed further differences in methanotrophic community structure under the different vegetation types. Cloning and sequencing and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the particulate methane oxygenase gene (pmoA) from different samples confirmed the PLFA-SIP results that methanotrophic bacteria related to type II methanotrophs were dominant in pine forest and shrubland, and type I methanotrophs (related to Methylococcus capsulatus) were dominant in all pasture soils. We report that afforestation and reforestation of pastures caused changes in methane oxidation by altering the community structure of methanotrophic bacteria in these soils.

  7. A structural perspective on the mechanisms of quorum sensing activation in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lixa, Carolina; Mujo, Amanda; Anobom, Cristiane D; Pinheiro, Anderson S

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria are able to synchronize the population behavior in order to regulate gene expression through a cell-to-cell communication mechanism called quorum sensing. This phenomenon involves the production, detection and the response to extracellular signaling molecules named autoinducers, which directly or indirectly regulate gene expression in a cell density-dependent manner. Quorum sensing may control a wide range of biological processes in bacteria, such as bioluminescence, virulence factor production, biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance. The autoinducers are recognized by specific receptors that can either be membrane-bound histidine kinase receptors, which work by activating cognate cytoplasmic response regulators, or cytoplasmic receptors acting as transcription factors. In this review, we focused on the cytosolic quorum sensing regulators whose three-dimensional structures helped elucidate their mechanisms of action. Structural studies of quorum sensing receptors may enable the rational design of inhibitor molecules. Ultimately, this approach may represent an effective alternative to treat infections where classical antimicrobial therapy fails to overcome the microorganism virulence.

  8. Isolation of maize soil and rhizosphere bacteria with antagonistic activity against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Jeffrey D; O'Keeffe, Teresa L; Abbas, Hamed K

    2007-07-01

    Bacterial isolates from Mississippi maize field soil and maize rhizosphere samples were evaluated for their potential as biological control agents against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides. Isolated strains were screened for antagonistic activities in liquid coculture against A. flavus and on agar media against A. flavus and F. verticillioides. We identified 221 strains that inhibited growth of both fungi. These bacteria were further differentiated by their production of extracellular enzymes that hydrolyzed chitin and yeast cell walls and by production of antifungal metabolites. Based on molecular and nutritional identification of the bacterial strains, the most prevalent genera isolated from rhizosphere samples were Burkholderia and Pseudomonas, and the most prevalent genera isolated from nonrhizosphere soil were Pseudomonas and Bacillus. Less prevalent genera included Stenotrophomonas, Agrobacterium, Variovorax, Wautersia, and several genera of coryneform and enteric bacteria. In quantitative coculture assays, strains of P. chlororaphis and P. fluorescens consistently inhibited growth of A. flavus and F. verticillioides in different media. These results demonstrate the potential for developing individual biocontrol agents for simultaneous control of the mycotoxigenic A. flavus and F. verticillioides. PMID:17685333

  9. Comparative Studies on Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant, Wound Healing and Cytotoxic Activities of Selected Achillea L. Species Growing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Agar, Osman Tuncay; Dikmen, Miris; Ozturk, Nilgun; Yilmaz, Mustafa Abdullah; Temel, Hamdi; Turkmenoglu, Fatma Pinar

    2015-09-30

    Turkey is one of the most important centers of diversity for the genus Achillea L. in the world. Keeping in mind the immense medicinal importance of phenols, in this study, three species growing in Turkey, A. coarctata Poir. (AC), A. kotschyi Boiss. subsp. kotschyi (AK) and A. lycaonica Boiss. & Heldr. (AL) were evaluated for their phenolic compositions, total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant properties, wound healing potencies on NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Comprehensive LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that AK was distinctively rich in chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, apigenin, hesperidin, rutin, kaempferol and luteolin (2890.6, 987.3, 797.0, 422.5, 188.1, 159.4 and 121.2 µg analyte/g extract, respectively). The findings exhibited a strong correlation between TPC and both free radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Among studied species, the highest TPC (148.00 mg GAE/g extract) and TAC (2.080 UAE), the strongest radical scavenging (EC50 = 32.63 μg/mL), the most prominent wound healing and most abundant cytotoxic activities were observed with AK. The results suggested that AK is a valuable source of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid with important antioxidant, wound healing and cytotoxic activities. These findings warrant further studies to assess the potential of AK as a bioactive source that could be exploited in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries.

  10. Effects of Different Growing Regions on Quality Characteristics, Bioactive Compound Contents, and Antioxidant Activity of Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Thi, Nhuan Do

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different growing regions on quality characteristics, total bioactive compound contents, and in vitro antioxidant activity in aronia. Aronia grown in 3 different regions (Sangjoo, Ulju, and Youngcheon) in Korea was obtained and used fresh or as a freeze-dried powder. No statistically significant differences were observed for moisture, ash, crude lipid, and crude protein contents in aronia sampled from the 3 different regions. Aronia grown in Sangjoo had the highest total acid content and the lowest sugar content and pH value. Conversely, aronia grown in Youngcheon possessed the lowest total acid content and the highest sugar content and pH value. Aronia grown in Sangjoo possessed relatively high levels of polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, as well as high antioxidant activity in comparison with aronia produced in other regions. Aronia grown in Youngcheon scored the highest for taste and overall acceptability in sensory evaluations, which may be related to the high sugar content and pH, and the low total acidity of the fruits. It is possible that higher sugar contents and pH, and lower total acidity in the aronia grown in Youngcheon result in more preferable sensory characteristics. However, they also contain relatively low levels of total polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and have low antioxidant activity as measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assays. PMID:27752502

  11. Antibacterial Activities of Metabolites from Platanus occidentalis (American sycamore) against Fish Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Kevin K; Hamann, Mark T; McChesney, James D; Rodenburg, Douglas L; Ibrahim, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    One approach to the management of common fish diseases in aquaculture is the use of antibiotic-laden feed. However, there are public concerns about the use of antibiotics in agriculture and the potential development of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Therefore, the discovery of other environmentally safe natural compounds as alternatives to antibiotics would benefit the aquaculture industries. Four natural compounds, commonly called platanosides, [kaempferol 3-O-α-L-(2″,3″-di-E-p-coumaroyl)rhamnoside (1), kaempferol 3-O-α-L-(2″-E-p-coumaroyl-3″-Z-p-coumaroyl)rhamnoside (2), kaempferol 3-O-α-L-(2″-Z-p-coumaroyl-3″-E-p-coumaroyl)rhamnoside (3), and kaempferol 3-O-α-L-(2″,3″-di-Z-p-coumaroyl)rhamnoside (4)] isolated from the leaves of the American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) tree were evaluated using a rapid bioassay for their antibacterial activities against common fish pathogenic bacteria including Flavobacterium columnare, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Streptococcus iniae. The four isomers and a mixture of all four isomers were strongly antibacterial against isolates of F. columnare and S. iniae. Against F. columnare ALM-00-173, 3 and 4 showed the strongest antibacterial activities, with 24-h 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) values of 2.13 ± 0.11 and 2.62 ± 0.23 mg/L, respectively. Against S. iniae LA94-426, 4 had the strongest antibacterial activity, with 24-h IC50 of 1.87 ± 0.23 mg/L. Neither a mixture of the isomers nor any of the individual isomers were antibacterial against isolates of E. ictaluri and A. hydrophila at the test concentrations used in the study. Several of the isomers appear promising for the potential management of columnaris disease and streptococcosis in fish.

  12. Caspase Inhibitors of the P35 Family Are More Active When Purified from Yeast than Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Ingo L.; Civciristov, Srgjan; Taylor, Nicole L.; Talbo, Gert H.; Pantaki-Eimany, Delara; Levina, Vita; Clem, Rollie J.; Perugini, Matthew A.; Kvansakul, Marc; Hawkins, Christine J.

    2012-01-01

    Many insect viruses express caspase inhibitors of the P35 superfamily, which prevent defensive host apoptosis to enable viral propagation. The prototypical P35 family member, AcP35 from Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, has been extensively studied. Bacterially purified AcP35 has been previously shown to inhibit caspases from insect, mammalian and nematode species. This inhibition occurs via a pseudosubstrate mechanism involving caspase-mediated cleavage of a “reactive site loop” within the P35 protein, which ultimately leaves cleaved P35 covalently bound to the caspase's active site. We observed that AcP35 purifed from Saccharomyces cerevisae inhibited caspase activity more efficiently than AcP35 purified from Escherichia coli. This differential potency was more dramatic for another P35 family member, MaviP35, which inhibited human caspase 3 almost 300-fold more potently when purified from yeast than bacteria. Biophysical assays revealed that MaviP35 proteins produced in bacteria and yeast had similar primary and secondary structures. However, bacterially produced MaviP35 possessed greater thermal stability and propensity to form higher order oligomers than its counterpart purified from yeast. Caspase 3 could process yeast-purified MaviP35, but failed to detectably cleave bacterially purified MaviP35. These data suggest that bacterially produced P35 proteins adopt subtly different conformations from their yeast-expressed counterparts, which hinder caspase access to the reactive site loop to reduce the potency of caspase inhibition, and promote aggregation. These data highlight the differential caspase inhibition by recombinant P35 proteins purified from different sources, and caution that analyses of bacterially produced P35 family members (and perhaps other types of proteins) may underestimate their activity. PMID:22720082

  13. Simultaneous interaction of bacteria and tissue cells with photocatalytically activated, anodized titanium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yue, Chongxia; Kuijer, Roel; Kaper, Hans J; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J

    2014-03-01

    Photocatalytic-activation of anodized TiO2-surfaces has been demonstrated to yield antibacterial and tissue integrating effects, but effects on simultaneous growth of tissue cells and bacteria in co-culture have never been studied. Moreover, it is unknown how human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem (hBMMS) cells, laying the groundwork for integration of titanium implants in bone, respond to photocatalytic activation of anodized TiO2-surfaces. Photocatalytically-activated, anodized titanium and titanium-alloy surfaces achieved 99.99% killing of adhering Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, an effect that lasted for 30 days of storage in air. Surface coverage by osteoblasts was not affected by photocatalytic activation of anodized TiO2-surfaces. Co-cultures of osteoblasts with contaminating S. epidermidis however, enhanced surface coverage on photocatalytically-activated, anodized titanium-alloy surfaces. hBMMS cells grew less on photocatalytically-activated, anodized titanium surfaces, while not at all on photocatalytically-activated, anodized titanium-alloy surfaces and did not survive the presence of contaminating staphylococci. This reduced surface coverage by hBMMS cells disappeared when photocatalytically-activated, anodized titanium-alloy surfaces were exposed to buffer for 60 min, both in absence or presence of contaminating S. aureus. Consequently, it is concluded that photocatalytically-activated, anodized titanium and titanium-alloy surfaces will effectively kill peri-operatively introduced staphylococci contaminating an implant surface and constitute an effective means for antibiotic prophylaxis in cementless fixation of orthopaedic hardware.

  14. Antibiofilm activity of biosurfactant producing coral associated bacteria isolated from gulf of mannar.

    PubMed

    Padmavathi, Alwar Ramanujam; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2014-12-01

    Coral Associated Bacteria (CAB) (N = 22) isolated from the mucus of the coral Acropora digitifera were screened for biosurfactants using classical screening methods; hemolysis test, lipase production, oil displacement, drop collapse test and emulsifying activity. Six CAB (U7, U9, U10, U13, U14, and U16) were found to produce biosurfactants and were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing as Providencia rettgeri, Psychrobacter sp., Bacillus flexus, Bacillus anthracis, Psychrobacter sp., and Bacillus pumilus respectively. Their cell surface hydrophobicity was determined by Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbon assay and the biosurfactants produced were extracted and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Since the biosurfactants are known for their surface modifying capabilities, antibiofilm activity of positive isolates was evaluated against biofilm forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC10145. Stability of the active principle exhibiting antibiofilm activity was tested through various temperature treatments ranging from 60 to 100 °C and Proteinase K treatment. CAB isolates U7 and U9 exhibited stable antibiofilm activity even after exposure to higher temperatures which is promising for the development of novel antifouling agents for diverse industrial applications. Further, this is the first report on biosurfactant production by a coral symbiont. PMID:25320434

  15. Efflux Pump Blockers in Gram-Negative Bacteria: The New Generation of Hydantoin Based-Modulators to Improve Antibiotic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Otręebska-Machaj, Ewa; Chevalier, Jacqueline; Handzlik, Jadwiga; Szymańska, Ewa; Schabikowski, Jakub; Boyer, Gérard; Bolla, Jean-Michel; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Alibert, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria are an increasing health problem with the shortage of new active antibiotic agents. Among effective mechanisms that contribute to the spread of MDR Gram-negative bacteria are drug efflux pumps that expel clinically important antibiotic classes out of the cell. Drug pumps are attractive targets to restore the susceptibility toward the expelled antibiotics by impairing their efflux activity. Arylhydantoin derivatives were investigated for their potentiation of activities of selected antibiotics described as efflux substrates in Enterobacter aerogenes expressing or not AcrAB pump. Several compounds increased the bacterial susceptibility toward nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol and sparfloxacin and were further pharmacomodulated to obtain a better activity against the AcrAB producing bacteria. PMID:27199950

  16. Efflux Pump Blockers in Gram-Negative Bacteria: The New Generation of Hydantoin Based-Modulators to Improve Antibiotic Activity.

    PubMed

    Otręebska-Machaj, Ewa; Chevalier, Jacqueline; Handzlik, Jadwiga; Szymańska, Ewa; Schabikowski, Jakub; Boyer, Gérard; Bolla, Jean-Michel; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Alibert, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria are an increasing health problem with the shortage of new active antibiotic agents. Among effective mechanisms that contribute to the spread of MDR Gram-negative bacteria are drug efflux pumps that expel clinically important antibiotic classes out of the cell. Drug pumps are attractive targets to restore the susceptibility toward the expelled antibiotics by impairing their efflux activity. Arylhydantoin derivatives were investigated for their potentiation of activities of selected antibiotics described as efflux substrates in Enterobacter aerogenes expressing or not AcrAB pump. Several compounds increased the bacterial susceptibility toward nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol and sparfloxacin and were further pharmacomodulated to obtain a better activity against the AcrAB producing bacteria. PMID:27199950

  17. Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils and their components against food-borne pathogens and food spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mith, Hasika; Duré, Rémi; Delcenserie, Véronique; Zhiri, Abdesselam; Daube, Georges; Clinquart, Antoine

    2014-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of 15 commercial essential oils and their main components in order to pre-select candidates for potential application in highly perishable food preservation. The antibacterial effects against food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7) and food spoilage bacteria (Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were tested using paper disk diffusion method, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations. Most of the tested essential oils exhibited antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria, except galangal oil. The essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, and thyme showed strong antimicrobial activities with MIC ≥ 0.125 μL/mL and MBC ≥ 0.25 μL/mL. Among tested bacteria, P. fluorescens was the most resistant to selected essential oils with MICs and MBCs of 1 μL/mL. The results suggest that the activity of the essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, thyme, and clove can be attributed to the existence mostly of cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol, which appear to possess similar activities against all the tested bacteria. These materials could be served as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food products. PMID:25473498

  18. Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils and their components against food-borne pathogens and food spoilage bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mith, Hasika; Duré, Rémi; Delcenserie, Véronique; Zhiri, Abdesselam; Daube, Georges; Clinquart, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of 15 commercial essential oils and their main components in order to pre-select candidates for potential application in highly perishable food preservation. The antibacterial effects against food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7) and food spoilage bacteria (Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were tested using paper disk diffusion method, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations. Most of the tested essential oils exhibited antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria, except galangal oil. The essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, and thyme showed strong antimicrobial activities with MIC ≥ 0.125 μL/mL and MBC ≥ 0.25 μL/mL. Among tested bacteria, P. fluorescens was the most resistant to selected essential oils with MICs and MBCs of 1 μL/mL. The results suggest that the activity of the essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, thyme, and clove can be attributed to the existence mostly of cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol, which appear to possess similar activities against all the tested bacteria. These materials could be served as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food products. PMID:25473498

  19. Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils and their components against food-borne pathogens and food spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mith, Hasika; Duré, Rémi; Delcenserie, Véronique; Zhiri, Abdesselam; Daube, Georges; Clinquart, Antoine

    2014-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of 15 commercial essential oils and their main components in order to pre-select candidates for potential application in highly perishable food preservation. The antibacterial effects against food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7) and food spoilage bacteria (Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were tested using paper disk diffusion method, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations. Most of the tested essential oils exhibited antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria, except galangal oil. The essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, and thyme showed strong antimicrobial activities with MIC ≥ 0.125 μL/mL and MBC ≥ 0.25 μL/mL. Among tested bacteria, P. fluorescens was the most resistant to selected essential oils with MICs and MBCs of 1 μL/mL. The results suggest that the activity of the essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, thyme, and clove can be attributed to the existence mostly of cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol, which appear to possess similar activities against all the tested bacteria. These materials could be served as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food products.

  20. A model to assess lactic acid bacteria aminopeptidase activities in Parmigiano Reggiano cheese during ripening.

    PubMed

    Gatti, M; De Dea Lindner, J; Gardini, F; Mucchetti, G; Bevacqua, D; Fornasari, M E; Neviani, E

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate in which phases of ripening of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese lactic acid bacteria aminopeptidases present in cheese extract could be involved in release of free amino acids and to better understand the behavior of these enzymes in physical-chemical conditions that are far from their optimum. In particular, we evaluated 6 different substrates to reproduce broad-specificity aminopeptidase N, broad-specificity aminopeptidase C, glutamyl aminopeptidase A, peptidase with high specificity for leucine and alanine, proline iminopeptidase, and X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase activities releasing different N-terminal amino acids. The effects of pH, NaCl concentration, and temperature on the enzyme activities of amino acid beta-naphthylamide (betaNA)-substrates were determined by modulating the variables in 19 different runs of an experimental design, which allowed the building of mathematical models able to assess the effect on aminopeptidases activities over a range of values, obtained with bibliographic data, covering different environmental conditions in different zones of the cheese wheel at different aging times. The aminopeptidases tested in this work were present in cell-free Parmigiano Reggiano cheese extract after a 17-mo ripening and were active when tested in model system. The modeling approach shows that to highlight the individual and interactive effects of chemical-physical variables on enzyme activities, it is helpful to determine the true potential of an amino-peptidase in cheese. Our results evidenced that the 6 different lactic acid bacteria peptidases participate in cheese proteolysis and are induced or inhibited by the cheese production parameters that, in turn, depend on the cheese dimension. Generally, temperature and pH exerted the more relevant effects on the enzymatic activities, and in many cases, a relevant interactive effect of these variables was observed. Increasing salt concentration slowed down broad

  1. Cool temperatures reduce antifungal activity of symbiotic bacteria of threatened amphibians--implications for disease management and patterns of decline.

    PubMed

    Daskin, Joshua H; Bell, Sara C; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Alford, Ross A

    2014-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is a widespread disease of amphibians responsible for population declines and extinctions. Some bacteria from amphibians' skins produce antimicrobial substances active against Bd. Supplementing populations of these cutaneous antifungal bacteria might help manage chytridiomycosis in wild amphibians. However, the activity of protective bacteria may depend upon environmental conditions. Biocontrol of Bd in nature thus requires knowledge of how environmental conditions affect their anti-Bd activity. For example, Bd-driven amphibian declines have often occurred at temperatures below Bd's optimum range. It is possible these declines occurred due to reduced anti-Bd activity of bacterial symbionts at cool temperatures. Better understanding of the effects of temperature on chytridiomycosis development could also improve risk evaluation for amphibian populations yet to encounter Bd. We characterized, at a range of temperatures approximating natural seasonal variation, the anti-Bd activity of bacterial symbionts from the skins of three species of rainforest tree frogs (Litoria nannotis, Litoria rheocola, and Litoria serrata). All three species declined during chytridiomycosis outbreaks in the late 1980s and early 1990s and have subsequently recovered to differing extents. We collected anti-Bd bacterial symbionts from frogs and cultured the bacteria at constant temperatures from 8 °C to 33 °C. Using a spectrophotometric assay, we monitored Bd growth in cell-free supernatants (CFSs) from each temperature treatment. CFSs from 11 of 24 bacteria showed reduced anti-Bd activity in vitro when they were produced at cool temperatures similar to those encountered by the host species during population declines. Reduced anti-Bd activity of metabolites produced at low temperatures may, therefore, partially explain the association between Bd-driven declines and cool temperatures. We show that to avoid

  2. Cool Temperatures Reduce Antifungal Activity of Symbiotic Bacteria of Threatened Amphibians – Implications for Disease Management and Patterns of Decline

    PubMed Central

    Daskin, Joshua H.; Bell, Sara C.; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Alford, Ross A.

    2014-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is a widespread disease of amphibians responsible for population declines and extinctions. Some bacteria from amphibians’ skins produce antimicrobial substances active against Bd. Supplementing populations of these cutaneous antifungal bacteria might help manage chytridiomycosis in wild amphibians. However, the activity of protective bacteria may depend upon environmental conditions. Biocontrol of Bd in nature thus requires knowledge of how environmental conditions affect their anti-Bd activity. For example, Bd-driven amphibian declines have often occurred at temperatures below Bd’s optimum range. It is possible these declines occurred due to reduced anti-Bd activity of bacterial symbionts at cool temperatures. Better understanding of the effects of temperature on chytridiomycosis development could also improve risk evaluation for amphibian populations yet to encounter Bd. We characterized, at a range of temperatures approximating natural seasonal variation, the anti-Bd activity of bacterial symbionts from the skins of three species of rainforest tree frogs (Litoria nannotis, Litoria rheocola, and Litoria serrata). All three species declined during chytridiomycosis outbreaks in the late 1980s and early 1990s and have subsequently recovered to differing extents. We collected anti-Bd bacterial symbionts from frogs and cultured the bacteria at constant temperatures from 8°C to 33°C. Using a spectrophotometric assay, we monitored Bd growth in cell-free supernatants (CFSs) from each temperature treatment. CFSs from 11 of 24 bacteria showed reduced anti-Bd activity in vitro when they were produced at cool temperatures similar to those encountered by the host species during population declines. Reduced anti-Bd activity of metabolites produced at low temperatures may, therefore, partially explain the association between Bd-driven declines and cool temperatures. We show that to avoid

  3. Communication among Oral Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kolenbrander, Paul E.; Andersen, Roxanna N.; Blehert, David S.; Egland, Paul G.; Foster, Jamie S.; Palmer, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Human oral bacteria interact with their environment by attaching to surfaces and establishing mixed-species communities. As each bacterial cell attaches, it forms a new surface to which other cells can adhere. Adherence and community development are spatiotemporal; such order requires communication. The discovery of soluble signals, such as autoinducer-2, that may be exchanged within multispecies communities to convey information between organisms has emerged as a new research direction. Direct-contact signals, such as adhesins and receptors, that elicit changes in gene expression after cell-cell contact and biofilm growth are also an active research area. Considering that the majority of oral bacteria are organized in dense three-dimensional biofilms on teeth, confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled probes provide valuable approaches for investigating the architecture of these organized communities in situ. Oral biofilms are readily accessible to microbiologists and are excellent model systems for studies of microbial communication. One attractive model system is a saliva-coated flowcell with oral bacterial biofilms growing on saliva as the sole nutrient source; an intergeneric mutualism is discussed. Several oral bacterial species are amenable to genetic manipulation for molecular characterization of communication both among bacteria and between bacteria and the host. A successful search for genes critical for mixed-species community organization will be accomplished only when it is conducted with mixed-species communities. PMID:12209001

  4. Crystal growing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neville, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    One objective is to demonstrate the way crystals grow and how they affect the behavior of material. Another objective is to compare the growth of crystals in metals and nonmetals. The procedures, which involve a supersaturated solution of a salt that will separate into crystals on cooling and the pouring off of an eutectic solution to expose the crystals formed by a solid solution when an alloy of two metals forms a solid and eutectic solution on cooling, are described.

  5. Office paper platform for bioelectrochromic detection of electrochemically active bacteria using tungsten trioxide nanoprobes.

    PubMed

    Marques, A C; Santos, L; Costa, M N; Dantas, J M; Duarte, P; Gonçalves, A; Martins, R; Salgueiro, C A; Fortunato, E

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) have the capability to transfer electrons to cell exterior, a feature that is currently explored for important applications in bioremediation and biotechnology fields. However, the number of isolated and characterized EAB species is still very limited regarding their abundance in nature. Colorimetric detection has emerged recently as an attractive mean for fast identification and characterization of analytes based on the use of electrochromic materials. In this work, WO3 nanoparticles were synthesized by microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis and used to impregnate non-treated regular office paper substrates. This allowed the production of a paper-based colorimetric sensor able to detect EAB in a simple, rapid, reliable, inexpensive and eco-friendly method. The developed platform was then tested with Geobacter sulfurreducens, as a proof of concept. G. sulfurreducens cells were detected at latent phase with an RGB ratio of 1.10 ± 0.04, and a response time of two hours. PMID:25891213

  6. Viewing Marine Bacteria, Their Activity and Response to Environmental Drivers from Orbit

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, D. Jay; Ford, Tim E.; Colwell, Rita R.; Baker-Austin, Craig; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Subramaniam, Ajit; Capone, Douglas G.

    2014-01-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing of marine microorganisms has become a useful tool in predicting human health risks associated with these microscopic targets. Early applications were focused on harmful algal blooms, but more recently methods have been developed to interrogate the ocean for bacteria. As satellite-based sensors have become more sophisticated and our ability to interpret information derived from these sensors has advanced, we have progressed from merely making fascinating pictures from space to developing process models with predictive capability. Our understanding of the role of marine microorganisms in primary production and global elemental cycles has been vastly improved as has our ability to use the combination of remote sensing data and models to provide early warning systems for disease outbreaks. This manuscript will discuss current approaches to monitoring cyanobacteria and vibrios, their activity and response to environmental drivers, and will also suggest future directions. PMID:24477922

  7. A new perspective on lysogeny: prophages as active regulatory switches of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Feiner, Ron; Argov, Tal; Rabinovich, Lev; Sigal, Nadejda; Borovok, Ilya; Herskovits, Anat A

    2015-10-01

    Unlike lytic phages, temperate phages that enter lysogeny maintain a long-term association with their bacterial host. In this context, mutually beneficial interactions can evolve that support efficient reproduction of both phages and bacteria. Temperate phages are integrated into the bacterial chromosome as large DNA insertions that can disrupt gene expression, and they may pose a fitness burden on the cell. However, they have also been shown to benefit their bacterial hosts by providing new functions in a bacterium-phage symbiotic interaction termed lysogenic conversion. In this Opinion article, we discuss another type of bacterium-phage interaction, active lysogeny, in which phages or phage-like elements are integrated into the bacterial chromosome within critical genes or operons and serve as switches that regulate bacterial genes via genome excision. PMID:26373372

  8. Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles for Antimicrobial Activity Against Burn Wounds Contaminating Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Anandini; Jena, Padan K.; Sahoo, Debasish; Parida, Umesh K.; Bindhani, Birendra K.

    2014-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared from the plant extract of N. arbor-tristis under atmospheric conditions through green synthesis and characterized by various physicochemical techniques like UV-Visible spectroscopy, IR Spectra, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the results confirmed the synthesis of homogeneous and stable AgNPs by the plant extracts. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs was investigated against most common bacteria found in burn wound Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In these tests, Mueller Hinton agar plates were used with AgNPs of various concentrations, supplemented in liquid systems. P. aeruginosa was inhibited at the low concentration of AgNPs, whereas the growth-inhibitory effect on S. epidermidis was mild. These results suggest that AgNPs can be used as effective growth inhibitors of various microorganisms, making them applicable to diverse medical devices and antimicrobial control systems.

  9. Office Paper Platform for Bioelectrochromic Detection of Electrochemically Active Bacteria using Tungsten Trioxide Nanoprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, A. C.; Santos, L.; Costa, M. N.; Dantas, J. M.; Duarte, P.; Gonçalves, A.; Martins, R.; Salgueiro, C. A.; Fortunato, E.

    2015-04-01

    Electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) have the capability to transfer electrons to cell exterior, a feature that is currently explored for important applications in bioremediation and biotechnology fields. However, the number of isolated and characterized EAB species is still very limited regarding their abundance in nature. Colorimetric detection has emerged recently as an attractive mean for fast identification and characterization of analytes based on the use of electrochromic materials. In this work, WO3 nanoparticles were synthesized by microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis and used to impregnate non-treated regular office paper substrates. This allowed the production of a paper-based colorimetric sensor able to detect EAB in a simple, rapid, reliable, inexpensive and eco-friendly method. The developed platform was then tested with Geobacter sulfurreducens, as a proof of concept. G. sulfurreducens cells were detected at latent phase with an RGB ratio of 1.10 +/- 0.04, and a response time of two hours.

  10. Inhibitory activity of Aloe vera gel on some clinically isolated cariogenic and periodontopathic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fani, Mohammadmehdi; Kohanteb, Jamshid

    2012-03-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant with anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antidiabetic and immune-boosting properties. In the present study we investigated the inhibitory activities of Aloe vera gel on some cariogenic (Streptococcus mutans), periodontopathic (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis) and an opportunistic periodontopathogen (Bacteroides fragilis) isolated from patients with dental caries and periodontal diseases. Twenty isolates of each of these bacteria were investigated for their sensitivity to Aloe vera gel using the disk diffusion and microdilution methods. S. mutans was the species most sensitive to Aloe vera gel with a MIC of 12.5 µg/ml, while A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, and B. fragilis were less sensitive, with a MIC of 25-50 µg/ml (P < 0.01). Based on our present findings it is concluded that Aloe vera gel at optimum concentration could be used as an antiseptic for prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases.

  11. Office paper platform for bioelectrochromic detection of electrochemically active bacteria using tungsten trioxide nanoprobes.

    PubMed

    Marques, A C; Santos, L; Costa, M N; Dantas, J M; Duarte, P; Gonçalves, A; Martins, R; Salgueiro, C A; Fortunato, E

    2015-04-20

    Electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) have the capability to transfer electrons to cell exterior, a feature that is currently explored for important applications in bioremediation and biotechnology fields. However, the number of isolated and characterized EAB species is still very limited regarding their abundance in nature. Colorimetric detection has emerged recently as an attractive mean for fast identification and characterization of analytes based on the use of electrochromic materials. In this work, WO3 nanoparticles were synthesized by microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis and used to impregnate non-treated regular office paper substrates. This allowed the production of a paper-based colorimetric sensor able to detect EAB in a simple, rapid, reliable, inexpensive and eco-friendly method. The developed platform was then tested with Geobacter sulfurreducens, as a proof of concept. G. sulfurreducens cells were detected at latent phase with an RGB ratio of 1.10 ± 0.04, and a response time of two hours.

  12. Fast-Moving Bacteria Self-Organize into Active Two-Dimensional Crystals of Rotating Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroff, Alexander P.; Wu, Xiao-Lun; Libchaber, Albert

    2015-04-01

    We investigate a new form of collective dynamics displayed by Thiovulum majus, one of the fastest-swimming bacteria known. Cells spontaneously organize on a surface into a visually striking two-dimensional hexagonal lattice of rotating cells. As each constituent cell rotates its flagella, it creates a tornadolike flow that pulls neighboring cells towards and around it. As cells rotate against their neighbors, they exert forces on one another, causing the crystal to rotate and cells to reorganize. We show how these dynamics arise from hydrodynamic and steric interactions between cells. We derive the equations of motion for a crystal, show that this model explains several aspects of the observed dynamics, and discuss the stability of these active crystals.

  13. Active starvation responses mediate antibiotic tolerance in biofilms and nutrient-limited bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dao; Joshi-Datar, Amruta; Lepine, Francois; Bauerle, Elizabeth; Olakanmi, Oyebode; Beer, Karlyn; McKay, Geoffrey; Siehnel, Richard; Schafhauser, James; Wang, Yun; Britigan, Bradley E; Singh, Pradeep K

    2011-11-18

    Bacteria become highly tolerant to antibiotics when nutrients are limited. The inactivity of antibiotic targets caused by starvation-induced growth arrest is thought to be a key mechanism producing tolerance. Here we show that the antibiotic tolerance of nutrient-limited and biofilm Pseudomonas aeruginosa is mediated by active responses to starvation, rather than by the passive effects of growth arrest. The protective mechanism is controlled by the starvation-signaling stringent response (SR), and our experiments link SR-mediated tolerance to reduced levels of oxidant stress in bacterial cells. Furthermore, inactivating this protective mechanism sensitized biofilms by several orders of magnitude to four different classes of antibiotics and markedly enhanced the efficacy of antibiotic treatment in experimental infections. PMID:22096200

  14. Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) on Two Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Bipul; Rogers, Kimberly; McLaughlin, Fredrick; Daniels, Dwayne; Yadav, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To determine the antimicrobial potential of guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extracts against two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) which are some of foodborne and spoilage bacteria. The guava leaves were extracted in four different solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water). The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those bacteria through a well-diffusion method employing 50  μ L leaf-extract solution per well. According to the findings of the antibacterial assay, the methanol and ethanol extracts of the guava leaves showed inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas the gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all the solvent extracts. The methanol extract had an antibacterial activity with mean zones of inhibition of 8.27 and 12.3 mm, and the ethanol extract had a mean zone of inhibition of 6.11 and 11.0 mm against B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. On the basis of the present finding, guava leaf-extract might be a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent. This study provides scientific understanding to further determine the antimicrobial values and investigate other pharmacological properties. PMID:24223039

  15. Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) on Two Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Bipul; Rogers, Kimberly; McLaughlin, Fredrick; Daniels, Dwayne; Yadav, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To determine the antimicrobial potential of guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extracts against two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) which are some of foodborne and spoilage bacteria. The guava leaves were extracted in four different solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water). The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those bacteria through a well-diffusion method employing 50  μ L leaf-extract solution per well. According to the findings of the antibacterial assay, the methanol and ethanol extracts of the guava leaves showed inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas the gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all the solvent extracts. The methanol extract had an antibacterial activity with mean zones of inhibition of 8.27 and 12.3 mm, and the ethanol extract had a mean zone of inhibition of 6.11 and 11.0 mm against B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. On the basis of the present finding, guava leaf-extract might be a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent. This study provides scientific understanding to further determine the antimicrobial values and investigate other pharmacological properties.

  16. Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) on Two Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Bipul; Rogers, Kimberly; McLaughlin, Fredrick; Yadav, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To determine the antimicrobial potential of guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extracts against two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) which are some of foodborne and spoilage bacteria. The guava leaves were extracted in four different solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water). The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those bacteria through a well-diffusion method employing 50 μL leaf-extract solution per well. According to the findings of the antibacterial assay, the methanol and ethanol extracts of the guava leaves showed inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas the gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all the solvent extracts. The methanol extract had an antibacterial activity with mean zones of inhibition of 8.27 and 12.3 mm, and the ethanol extract had a mean zone of inhibition of 6.11 and 11.0 mm against B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. On the basis of the present finding, guava leaf-extract might be a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent. This study provides scientific understanding to further determine the antimicrobial values and investigate other pharmacological properties. PMID:24223039

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Euphorbia hebecarpa Alcoholic Extracts Against Six Human Pathogenic Bacteria in Planktonic and Biofilm Forms

    PubMed Central

    Mohsenipour, Zeinab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Biofilm formation is a primary cause of considerable bacterial destruction. Objectives In an effort to combat these industrial and medical bacterial biofilm problems, our study aims to determine the antimicrobial effect of Euphorbia hebecarpa. Materials and Methods The inhibition efficiency of alcoholic extracts on the planktonic form of six pathogenic bacteria was evaluated using a disk diffusion technique. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were determined by means of a macrobroth dilution method. The effects of the extracts on biofilms were calculated using a microtiter plate method. Results The results of the disk diffusion assay (MBC and MIC) confirmed that E. hebecarpa ethanolic extracts were more efficient than methanolic extracts in the inhibition of planktonic forms of bacteria. Also, the inhibitory effect of the extracts in a broth medium was greater than in a solid medium. Extracts of E. hebecarpa were found to inhibit biofilm formation better than demolish of biofilm and preventing metabolic activity of bacteria in biofilm structures. The greatest inhibitory effects of E. hebecarpa extracts were observed for the biofilm formation of B. cereus (92.81%). In addition, the greatest demolition was observed for the S. aureus biofilm (74.49%), and the metabolic activity decrement of this bacteria was highest (78.21%) of all the tested bacteria. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that E. hebecarpa extracts can be used to inhibit the planktonic and biofilm forms of these selected bacteria. PMID:27635214

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Euphorbia hebecarpa Alcoholic Extracts Against Six Human Pathogenic Bacteria in Planktonic and Biofilm Forms

    PubMed Central

    Mohsenipour, Zeinab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Biofilm formation is a primary cause of considerable bacterial destruction. Objectives In an effort to combat these industrial and medical bacterial biofilm problems, our study aims to determine the antimicrobial effect of Euphorbia hebecarpa. Materials and Methods The inhibition efficiency of alcoholic extracts on the planktonic form of six pathogenic bacteria was evaluated using a disk diffusion technique. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were determined by means of a macrobroth dilution method. The effects of the extracts on biofilms were calculated using a microtiter plate method. Results The results of the disk diffusion assay (MBC and MIC) confirmed that E. hebecarpa ethanolic extracts were more efficient than methanolic extracts in the inhibition of planktonic forms of bacteria. Also, the inhibitory effect of the extracts in a broth medium was greater than in a solid medium. Extracts of E. hebecarpa were found to inhibit biofilm formation better than demolish of biofilm and preventing metabolic activity of bacteria in biofilm structures. The greatest inhibitory effects of E. hebecarpa extracts were observed for the biofilm formation of B. cereus (92.81%). In addition, the greatest demolition was observed for the S. aureus biofilm (74.49%), and the metabolic activity decrement of this bacteria was highest (78.21%) of all the tested bacteria. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that E. hebecarpa extracts can be used to inhibit the planktonic and biofilm forms of these selected bacteria.

  19. Influence of feeding alternative fiber sources on the gastrointestinal fermentation, digestive enzyme activities and mucosa morphology of growing Greylag geese.

    PubMed

    He, L W; Meng, Q X; Li, D Y; Zhang, Y W; Ren, L P

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the influence of dietary fiber sources on the gastrointestinal fermentation, digestive enzyme activity, and mucosa morphology of growing Greylag geese. In total, 240 Greylag geese (28-day-old) were allocated to 4 treatments (15 pens/treatment) differing in dietary fiber source: corn straw silage (CSS group), steam-exploded corn straw (SECS group), steam-exploded wheat straw (SEWS group), or steam-exploded rice straw (SERS group). At 112 days of age, 15 birds per group were euthanized to collect samples. No difference (P > 0.05) was found on all the gastrointestinal pH values and ammonia-nitrogen concentrations between the groups. The CSS and SERS groups had a lower (P < 0.05) proportion of acetic acid in the gizzard than the SECS and SEWS groups. The CSS group had a higher VFA concentration in the jejunum (P < 0.05) and acetic acid proportion (P < 0.01) in the ceca, and a lower (P < 0.01) butyric acid proportion than the other groups except for the SECS group. The SECS group had a higher (P < 0.01) acetic acid proportion and lower (P < 0.05) proportions of propionic acid and valeric acid in the ceca than the SEWS and SERS groups. Different fiber sources resulted in different VFA profiles, especially in the gizzard and ceca. Almost all gastrointestinal protease activities of the CSS group were higher (P < 0.05) than the other groups, along with lower (P < 0.01) amylase activities in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and ceca. Lipase activity in proventriculus was highest (P < 0.01) in the SEWS group and its cecal activity was lower (P < 0.01) in the SECS and SEWS groups than the CSS and SERS groups with a higher (P < 0.01) lipase activity in the CSS group than the SERS group. The SECS and SERS groups had a higher cellulase activity in the ceca than the CSS and SEWS groups, with a higher (P < 0.01) rectal cellulase activity in the SERS group than the other groups. There was no

  20. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants against several foodborne and spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Silva, Nuno; Alves, Sofia; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Amaral, Joana S; Poeta, Patrícia

    2013-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils extracted from a variety of aromatic plants, often used in the Portuguese gastronomy was studied in vitro by the agar diffusion method. The essential oils of thyme, oregano, rosemary, verbena, basil, peppermint, pennyroyal and mint were tested against Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative strains (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). For most essential oils examined, S. aureus, was the most susceptible bacteria, while P. aeruginosa showed, in general, least susceptibility. Among the eight essential oils evaluated, thyme, oregano and pennyroyal oils showed the greatest antimicrobial activity, followed by rosemary, peppermint and verbena, while basil and mint showed the weakest antimicrobial activity. Most of the essential oils considered in this study exhibited a significant inhibitory effect. Thyme oil showed a promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, thus revealing its potential as a natural preservative in food products against several causal agents of foodborne diseases and food spoilage. In general, the results demonstrate that, besides flavoring the food, the use of aromatic herbs in gastronomy can also contribute to a bacteriostatic effect against pathogens.

  1. Diversity of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria in a permafrost active layer soil of the Lena Delta, Siberia.

    PubMed

    Liebner, Susanne; Rublack, Katja; Stuehrmann, Torben; Wagner, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    With this study, we present first data on the diversity of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria (MOB) in an Arctic permafrost active layer soil of the Lena Delta, Siberia. Applying denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and cloning of 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) and pmoA gene fragments of active layer samples, we found a general restriction of the methanotrophic diversity to sequences closely related to the genera Methylobacter and Methylosarcina, both type I MOB. In contrast, we revealed a distinct species-level diversity. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, two new clusters of MOB specific for the permafrost active layer soil of this study were found. In total, 8 out of 13 operational taxonomic units detected belong to these clusters. Members of these clusters were closely related to Methylobacter psychrophilus and Methylobacter tundripaludum, both isolated from Arctic environments. A dominance of MOB closely related to M. psychrophilus and M. tundripaludum was confirmed by an additional pmoA gene analysis. We used diversity indices such as the Shannon diversity index or the Chao1 richness estimator in order to compare the MOB community near the surface and near the permafrost table. We determined a similar diversity of the MOB community in both depths and suggest that it is not influenced by the extreme physical and geochemical gradients in the active layer. PMID:18592300

  2. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants against several foodborne and spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Silva, Nuno; Alves, Sofia; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Amaral, Joana S; Poeta, Patrícia

    2013-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils extracted from a variety of aromatic plants, often used in the Portuguese gastronomy was studied in vitro by the agar diffusion method. The essential oils of thyme, oregano, rosemary, verbena, basil, peppermint, pennyroyal and mint were tested against Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative strains (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). For most essential oils examined, S. aureus, was the most susceptible bacteria, while P. aeruginosa showed, in general, least susceptibility. Among the eight essential oils evaluated, thyme, oregano and pennyroyal oils showed the greatest antimicrobial activity, followed by rosemary, peppermint and verbena, while basil and mint showed the weakest antimicrobial activity. Most of the essential oils considered in this study exhibited a significant inhibitory effect. Thyme oil showed a promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, thus revealing its potential as a natural preservative in food products against several causal agents of foodborne diseases and food spoilage. In general, the results demonstrate that, besides flavoring the food, the use of aromatic herbs in gastronomy can also contribute to a bacteriostatic effect against pathogens. PMID:23444311

  3. Antimicrobial activity of Substance P and Neuropeptide Y against laboratory strains of bacteria and oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Christopher J; Burnell, Kindra K; Brogden, Kim A

    2006-08-01

    Infection and inflammation of mucosal tissue may induce the production of neuropeptides, specifically Substance P and Neuropeptide Y. Since these neuropeptides are similar to antimicrobial peptides in their amino acid composition, amphipathic design, cationic charge, and size, we wanted to determine if they had antimicrobial activity against a panel of common bacteria and oral microorganisms using the radial diffusion assay. Neuropeptide Y and Substance P had antimicrobial activity against E. coli (MIC 20.6+/-5.5 microg/ml SEM and 71.5+/-15 SEM microg/ml, respectively), but did not have activity against laboratory strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens (MIC>500 microg/ml) nor oral strains of Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (MIC>500 microg/ml). While Substance P and Neuropeptide Y did not have direct antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms tested, they still may stimulate local epithelial cells to produce other innate immune factors like defensins and cathelicidins. However, this remains to be determined.

  4. Interactions between Carotenoids from Marine Bacteria and Other Micronutrients: Impact on Stability and Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Sy, Charlotte; Dangles, Olivier; Borel, Patrick; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine

    2015-11-19

    Recently isolated spore-forming pigmented marine bacteria Bacillus indicus HU36 are sources of oxygenated carotenoids with original structures (about fifteen distinct yellow and orange pigments with acylated d-glucosyl groups). In this study, we evaluated the stability (sensitivity to iron-induced autoxidation) and antioxidant activity (inhibition of iron-induced lipid peroxidation) of combinations of bacterial HU36 carotenoids with the bacterial vitamin menaquinone MQ-7 and with phenolic antioxidants (vitamin E, chlorogenic acid, rutin). Unexpectedly, MQ-7 strongly improves the ability of HU36 carotenoids to inhibit Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation, although MQ-7 was not consumed in the medium. We propose that their interaction modifies the carotenoid antioxidant mechanism(s), possibly by allowing carotenoids to scavenge the initiating radicals. For comparison, β-carotene and lycopene in combination were shown to exhibit a slightly higher stability toward iron-induced autoxidation, as well as an additive antioxidant activity as compared to the carotenoids, individually. HU36 carotenoids and phenolic antioxidants displayed synergistic activities in the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation induced by heme iron, but not by free iron. Synergism could arise from antioxidants interacting via electron transfer through the porphyrin nucleus of heme iron. Overall, combining antioxidants acting via complementary mechanisms could be the key for optimizing the activity of this bacterial carotenoid cocktail.

  5. In vitro activity of gemifloxacin against recent clinical isolates of bacteria in Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Dong Eun; Cheong, Hee-Jin; Kim, Yang Soo; Park, Yeon Joon; Kim, Woo-Joo; Woo, Jun Hee; Lee, Kyung Won; Kang, Moon Won; Choo, Youn-Sung

    2002-01-01

    Gemifloxacin is an enhanced-affinity fluoroquinolone with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. In Korea, resistant bacteria are relatively more prevalent than in other industrialized countries. In this study, we studied the in vitro activities of gemifloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and other commonly used antimicrobial agents against 1,689 bacterial strains isolated at four Korean university hospitals during 1999-2000. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the agar dilution method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Gemifloxacin had the lowest MICs for the respiratory pathogens: 90% of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae were inhibited by 0.06, 0.03, and 0.03 mg/L, respectively. Gemifloxacin was more active than the other fluoroquinolones against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci, and Enterococcus faecalis. The MIC90s of gemifloxacin for Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus vulgaris, and non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. were 0.25, 1.0, and 0.12 mg/L, respectively, while those for other Gram-negative bacilli were 4-64 mg/L. In conclusion, gemifloxacin was the most active among the comparative agents against Gram-positive species, including respiratory pathogens isolated in Korea. PMID:12482994

  6. Interactions between Carotenoids from Marine Bacteria and Other Micronutrients: Impact on Stability and Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sy, Charlotte; Dangles, Olivier; Borel, Patrick; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Recently isolated spore-forming pigmented marine bacteria Bacillus indicus HU36 are sources of oxygenated carotenoids with original structures (about fifteen distinct yellow and orange pigments with acylated d-glucosyl groups). In this study, we evaluated the stability (sensitivity to iron-induced autoxidation) and antioxidant activity (inhibition of iron-induced lipid peroxidation) of combinations of bacterial HU36 carotenoids with the bacterial vitamin menaquinone MQ-7 and with phenolic antioxidants (vitamin E, chlorogenic acid, rutin). Unexpectedly, MQ-7 strongly improves the ability of HU36 carotenoids to inhibit FeII-induced lipid peroxidation, although MQ-7 was not consumed in the medium. We propose that their interaction modifies the carotenoid antioxidant mechanism(s), possibly by allowing carotenoids to scavenge the initiating radicals. For comparison, β-carotene and lycopene in combination were shown to exhibit a slightly higher stability toward iron-induced autoxidation, as well as an additive antioxidant activity as compared to the carotenoids, individually. HU36 carotenoids and phenolic antioxidants displayed synergistic activities in the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation induced by heme iron, but not by free iron. Synergism could arise from antioxidants interacting via electron transfer through the porphyrin nucleus of heme iron. Overall, combining antioxidants acting via complementary mechanisms could be the key for optimizing the activity of this bacterial carotenoid cocktail. PMID:26610529

  7. Occurrence and activity of sulphate reducing bacteria in aerobic activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, T P H; Roest, K; Chen, G H; Brdjanovic, D; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-03-01

    In the sewage or wastewater treatment plant, biological sulphate reduction can occur spontaneously or be applied beneficially for its treatment. The results of this study can be applied to control SRB in the sewage and WWTP. Therefore, population diversity analyses of SRB for nine activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in the Netherlands and the effect of long-term (months) oxygen exposures on the SRB activity were carried out. T-RFLP and clone sequencing analyses of winter and summer samples revealed that (1) all WWTP have a similar SRB population, (2) there is no seasonal impact (10-20 °C) on the SRB population present in the WWTP and (3) Desulfobacter postgatei, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Desulfovibrio intestinalis were the most common and dominant SRB species observed in these samples, and origin from the sewage. Short term activity tests demonstrated that SRB were not active in the aerobic WWTP, but while flushed with N2-gas SRB became slightly active after 3 h. In a laboratory reactor at a dissolved oxygen concentration of <2 %, sulphate reduction occurred and 89 % COD removal was achieved. SRB grew in granules, in order to protect themselves for oxygen exposures. SRB are naturally present in aerobic WWTP, which is due to the formation of granules. PMID:25649202

  8. Activity and kinetic properties of phosphotransacetylase from intestinal sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kushkevych, Ivan V

    2015-01-01

    Phosphotransacetylase activity and the kinetic properties of the enzyme from intestinal sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio piger and Desulfomicrobium sp. has never been well-characterized and has not been studied yet. In this paper, the specific activity of phosphotransacetylase and the kinetic properties of the enzyme in cell-free extracts of both D. piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9 intestinal bacterial strains were presented at the first time. The microbiological, biochemical, biophysical and statistical methods in this work were used. The optimal temperature and pH for enzyme reaction was determined. Analysis of the kinetic properties of the studied enzyme was carried out. Initial (instantaneous) reaction velocity (V0), maximum amount of the product of reaction (Pmax), the reaction time (half saturation period, τ) and maximum velocity of the phosphotransacetylase reaction (Vmax) were defined. Michaelis constants (Km) of the enzyme reaction (3.36 ± 0.35 mM for D. piger Vib-7, 5.97 ± 0.62 mM for Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9) were calculated. The studies of the phosphotransacetylase in the process of dissimilatory sulfate reduction and kinetic properties of this enzyme in intestinal sulfate-reducing bacteria, their production of acetate in detail can be perspective for clarification of their etiological role in the development of the humans and animals bowel diseases. These studies might help in predicting the development of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, by providing further details on the etiology of bowel diseases which are very important for the clinical diagnosis of these disease types.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis and in situ identification of bacteria in activated sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Snaidr, J; Amann, R; Huber, I; Ludwig, W; Schleifer, K H

    1997-01-01

    The bacterial community structure of activated sludge of a large municipal wastewater treatment plant was investigated by use of the rRNA approach. Almost-full-length genes coding for the small-subunit rRNA (rDNA) were amplified by PCR and subsequently cloned into the pGEM-T vector. Clones were screened by dot blot hybridization with group-specific oligonucleotide probes. The phylogenetic affiliations of clones were compared with the results obtained with the original sample by in situ hybridization with fluorescently labeled, rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes and found to be in general agreement. Twenty-five 16S rDNA clones were fully sequenced, 11 were almost fully (> 80%) sequenced, and 27 were partially sequenced. By comparative sequence analyses, the majority of the examined clones (35 of 67) could be affiliated with the beta subclass of the class Proteobacteria. The gamma and alpha subclasses of Proteobacteria were represented by 13 and 4 clones, respectively. Eight clones grouped with the epsilon group of Proteobacteria, and five clones grouped with gram-positive bacteria with a low DNA G+C content. The 16S rDNA of two clones showed similarity with 16S rDNA genes of members of the phyla Chlamydiae and Planctomyces. 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were designed and used for the enumeration of the respective bacteria. Interestingly, potentially pathogenic representatives of the genus Arcobacter were present in significant numbers (4%) in the activated sludge sample examined. Pairs of probes targeted to the 5' and 3' regions were used for detection of chimeric sequences by in situ hybridization. Two clones could be identified as chimera by applying such a pair of probes. PMID:9212435

  10. Profiling of composition and metabolic activities of the colonic microflora of growing pigs fed diets supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Balaskas, Christos; Fava, Fransesca; Tuohy, Kieran M; Gibson, Glenn R; Fegeros, K

    2006-08-01

    It is evident that quantitative information on different microbial groups and their contribution in terms of activity in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and animals is required in order to formulate functional diets targeting improved gut function and host health. In this work, quantitative information on levels and spatial distributions of Bacteroides spp, Eubacterium spp, Clostridium spp, Escherichia coli, Bifidobacterium spp and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus spp. along the porcine large intestine was investigated using 16S rRNA targeted probes and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH). Caecum, ascending colon (AC) and rectum luminal digesta from three groups of individually housed growing pigs fed either a corn-soybean basal diet (CON diet) or a prebiotic diet containing 10 g/kg oligofructose (FOS diet) or trans-galactooligosaccharides (TOS diet) at the expense of cornstarch were analysed. DAPI staining was used to enumerate total number of cells in the samples. Populations of total cells, Bacteroides, Eubacterium, Clostridium and Bifidobacterium declined significantly (P < 0.05) from caecum to rectum, and were not affected by dietary treatments. Populations of Lactobacillus/Enterococcus and E. coli did not differ throughout the large intestine. The relative percent (%) contribution of each bacterial group to the total cell count did not differ between caecum and rectum, with the exception of Eubacterium that was higher in the AC digesta. FISH analysis showed that the sum of all bacterial groups made up a small percentage of the total cells, which was 12.4%, 21.8% and 10.3% in caecum, AC and rectum, respectively. This supports the view that in swine, the diversity of GI microflora might be higher compared to other species. In terms of microflora metabolic activity, the substantially higher numerical trends seen in FOS and TOS treatments regarding total volatile fatty acid, acetate concentrations and glycolytic activities, it could be postulated that

  11. Long-term effects of engineered nanoparticles on enzyme activity and functional bacteria in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiong; Huang, Haining; Su, Yinglong; Wei, Yuanyuan; Chen, Yinguang

    2015-01-01

    The pervasive use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in a wide range of fields raises concerns about their potential environmental impacts. Previous studies confirmed that some NPs had already entered wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Wastewater nutrient removal depends on the metabolisms of activated sludge bacteria and their related key enzymes. Therefore, this study compared the possible influences of Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2, and ZnO NPs on the key enzymes activities and microbial community structures involved in wastewater treatment facilities. It was found that long-term exposure to these NPs significantly affected the microbial communities and changed the relative abundances of key functional bacteria, such as ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Also, the gene expressions and catalytic activities of essential enzymes, such as ammonia monooxygenase, nitrite oxidoreductase, nitrate reductase, and nitrite reductase, were decreased, which finally resulted in a lower efficiency of biological nitrogen removal.

  12. Long-term effects of engineered nanoparticles on enzyme activity and functional bacteria in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiong; Huang, Haining; Su, Yinglong; Wei, Yuanyuan; Chen, Yinguang

    2015-01-01

    The pervasive use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in a wide range of fields raises concerns about their potential environmental impacts. Previous studies confirmed that some NPs had already entered wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Wastewater nutrient removal depends on the metabolisms of activated sludge bacteria and their related key enzymes. Therefore, this study compared the possible influences of Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2, and ZnO NPs on the key enzymes activities and microbial community structures involved in wastewater treatment facilities. It was found that long-term exposure to these NPs significantly affected the microbial communities and changed the relative abundances of key functional bacteria, such as ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Also, the gene expressions and catalytic activities of essential enzymes, such as ammonia monooxygenase, nitrite oxidoreductase, nitrate reductase, and nitrite reductase, were decreased, which finally resulted in a lower efficiency of biological nitrogen removal. PMID:26114277

  13. Antimicrobial activity against periodontopathogenic bacteria, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of various extracts from endemic Thermopsis turcica

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Elif Burcu; Açık, Leyla; Akca, Gülçin; Sarper, Meral; Elçi, Mualla Pınar; Avcu, Ferit; Vural, Mecit

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial potential of Thermopsis turcica Kit Tan, Vural & Küçüködük against periodontopathogenic bacteria, its antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effect on various cancer cell lines. Methods In vitro antimicrobial activities of ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate (EtAc), n-hexane and water extracts of Thermopsis turcica herb against periodontopathogenic bacteria, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523 and Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 were tested by agar well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). Antioxidant properties of the extracts were evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging activity and β-carotene bleaching methods. Amounts of phenolic contents of the extracts were also analysed by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Additionally, cytotoxic activity of the extracts on androgen-insensitive prostate cancer, androgen-sensitive prostate cancer, chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute promyelocytic leukemia human cancer cell lines were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Human gingival fibroblast cells were used as a control. Results Our data showed that EtAc extract had the highest antimicrobial effect on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (MIC: 1.562 mg/mL, MBC: 3.124 mg/mL) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (MIC: 0.781 mg/mL, MBC: 1.562 mg/mL). In antioxidant assays, EtAc extract exhibited also the highest radical scavenging activity [IC50=(30.0±0.3) µg/mL] and the highest inhibition [(74.35±0.30)%] against lineloic acide oxidation. The amount of phenolic content of it was also the highest [(162.5±1.2) µg/mg gallic acid]. In cytotoxic assay, only ethanol [IC50=(80.00±1.21) µg/mL] and EtAc extract [IC50=(70.0±0.9) µg/mL] were toxic on acute promyelocytic leukemia cells at 20-100 µg/mL (P<0.05). However, no toxic effect was observed on human gingival fibroblast cells

  14. Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Different Antimicrobial Peptides against a Range of Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ebbensgaard, Anna; Mordhorst, Hanne; Overgaard, Michael Toft; Nielsen, Claus Gyrup; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hansen, Egon Bech

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of a Selected Set of Antimicrobial Peptides The rapid emergence of resistance to classical antibiotics has increased the interest in novel antimicrobial compounds. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent an attractive alternative to classical antibiotics and a number of different studies have reported antimicrobial activity data of various AMPs, but there is only limited comparative data available. The mode of action for many AMPs is largely unknown even though several models have suggested that the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) play a crucial role in the attraction and attachment of the AMP to the bacterial membrane in Gram-negative bacteria. We compared the potency of Cap18, Cap11, Cap11-1-18m2, Cecropin P1, Cecropin B, Bac2A, Bac2A-NH2, Sub5-NH2, Indolicidin, Melittin, Myxinidin, Myxinidin-NH2, Pyrrhocoricin, Apidaecin and Metalnikowin I towards Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas salmonicida, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Salmonella typhimurium and Yersinia ruckeri by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations. Additional characteristics such as cytotoxicity, thermo and protease stability were measured and compared among the different peptides. Further, the antimicrobial activity of a selection of cationic AMPs was investigated in various E. coli LPS mutants. Cap18 Shows a High Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity Of all the tested AMPs, Cap18 showed the most efficient antimicrobial activity, in particular against Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, Cap18 is highly thermostable and showed no cytotoxic effect in a hemolytic assay, measured at the concentration used. However, Cap18 is, as most of the tested AMPs, sensitive to proteolytic digestion in vitro. Thus, Cap18 is an excellent candidate for further development into practical use; however, modifications that should reduce the protease sensitivity would be needed. In addition, our

  15. Identification and Antimicrobial Activity Detection of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Corn Stover Silage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongxia; Ni, Kuikui; Pang, Huili; Wang, Yanping; Cai, Yimin; Jin, Qingsheng

    2015-01-01

    A total of 59 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from corn stover silage. According to phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences and recA gene polymerase chain reaction amplification, these LAB isolates were identified as five species: Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum subsp. plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Enterococcus mundtii, Weissella cibaria and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, respectively. Those strains were also screened for antimicrobial activity using a dual-culture agar plate assay. Based on excluding the effects of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide, two L. plantarum subsp. plantarum strains ZZU 203 and 204, which strongly inhibited Salmonella enterica ATCC 43971T, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698T and Escherichia coli ATCC 11775T were selected for further research on sensitivity of the antimicrobial substance to heat, pH and protease. Cell-free culture supernatants of the two strains exhibited strong heat stability (60 min at 100°C), but the antimicrobial activity was eliminated after treatment at 121°C for 15 min. The antimicrobial substance remained active under acidic condition (pH 2.0 to 6.0), but became inactive under neutral and alkaline condition (pH 7.0 to 9.0). In addition, the antimicrobial activities of these two strains decreased remarkably after digestion by protease K. These results preliminarily suggest that the desirable antimicrobial activity of strains ZZU 203 and 204 is the result of the production of a bacteriocin-like substance, and these two strains with antimicrobial activity could be used as silage additives to inhibit proliferation of unwanted microorganism during ensiling and preserve nutrients of silage. The nature of the antimicrobial substances is being investigated in our laboratory. PMID:25924957

  16. Identification and antimicrobial activity detection of lactic Acid bacteria isolated from corn stover silage.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongxia; Ni, Kuikui; Pang, Huili; Wang, Yanping; Cai, Yimin; Jin, Qingsheng

    2015-05-01

    A total of 59 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from corn stover silage. According to phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences and recA gene polymerase chain reaction amplification, these LAB isolates were identified as five species: Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum subsp. plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Enterococcus mundtii, Weissella cibaria and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, respectively. Those strains were also screened for antimicrobial activity using a dual-culture agar plate assay. Based on excluding the effects of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide, two L. plantarum subsp. plantarum strains ZZU 203 and 204, which strongly inhibited Salmonella enterica ATCC 43971(T), Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698(T) and Escherichia coli ATCC 11775(T) were selected for further research on sensitivity of the antimicrobial substance to heat, pH and protease. Cell-free culture supernatants of the two strains exhibited strong heat stability (60 min at 100°C), but the antimicrobial activity was eliminated after treatment at 121°C for 15 min. The antimicrobial substance remained active under acidic condition (pH 2.0 to 6.0), but became inactive under neutral and alkaline condition (pH 7.0 to 9.0). In addition, the antimicrobial activities of these two strains decreased remarkably after digestion by protease K. These results preliminarily suggest that the desirable antimicrobial activity of strains ZZU 203 and 204 is the result of the production of a bacteriocin-like substance, and these two strains with antimicrobial activity could be used as silage additives to inhibit proliferation of unwanted microorganism during ensiling and preserve nutrients of silage. The nature of the antimicrobial substances is being investigated in our laboratory.

  17. Urediospores of rust fungi are ice nucleation active at > -10 °C and harbor ice nucleation active bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, C. E.; Sands, D. C.; Glaux, C.; Samsatly, J.; Asaad, S.; Moukahel, A. R.; Gonçalves, F. L. T.; Bigg, E. K.

    2013-04-01

    Various features of the biology of the rust fungi and of the epidemiology of the plant diseases they cause illustrate the important role of rainfall in their life history. Based on this insight we have characterized the ice nucleation activity (INA) of the aerially disseminated spores (urediospores) of this group of fungi. Urediospores of this obligate plant parasite were collected from natural infections of 7 species of weeds in France, from coffee in Brazil and from field and greenhouse-grown wheat in France, the USA, Turkey and Syria. Immersion freezing was used to determine freezing onset temperatures and the abundance of ice nuclei in suspensions of washed spores. Microbiological analyses of spores from France, the USA and Brazil, and subsequent tests of the ice nucleation activity of the bacteria associated with spores were deployed to quantify the contribution of bacteria to the ice nucleation activity of the spores. All samples of spores were ice nucleation active, having freezing onset temperatures as high as -4 °C. Spores in most of the samples carried cells of ice nucleation-active strains of the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae (at rates of less than 1 bacterial cell per 100 urediospores), but bacterial INA accounted for only a small fraction of the INA observed in spore suspensions. Changes in the INA of spore suspensions after treatment with lysozyme suggest that the INA of urediospores involves a polysaccharide. Based on data from the literature, we have estimated the concentrations of urediospores in air at cloud height and in rainfall. These quantities are very similar to those reported for other biological ice nucleators in these same substrates. However, at cloud level convective activity leads to widely varying concentrations of particles of surface origin, so that mean concentrations can underestimate their possible effects on clouds. We propose that spatial and temporal concentrations of biological ice nucleators active at temperatures > -10

  18. The novel Solanum tuberosum calcium dependent protein kinase, StCDPK3, is expressed in actively growing organs.

    PubMed

    Grandellis, Carolina; Giammaria, Verónica; Bialer, Magalí; Santin, Franco; Lin, Tian; Hannapel, David J; Ulloa, Rita M

    2012-12-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are key components of calcium regulated signaling cascades in plants. In this work, isoform StCDPK3 from Solanum tuberosum was studied and fully described. StCDPK3 encodes a 63 kDa protein with an N-terminal variable domain (NTV), rich in prolines and glutamines, which presents myristoylation and palmitoylation consensus sites and a PEST sequence indicative of rapid protein degradation. StCDPK3 gene (circa 11 kb) is localized in chromosome 3, shares the eight exons and seven introns structure with other isoforms from subgroup IIa and contains an additional intron in the 5'UTR region. StCDPK3 expression is ubiquitous being transcripts more abundant in early elongating stolons (ES), leaves and roots, however isoform specific antibodies only detected the protein in leaf particulate extracts. The recombinant 6xHis-StCDPK3 is an active kinase that differs in its kinetic parameters and calcium requirements from StCDPK1 and 2 isoforms. In vitro, StCDPK3 undergoes autophosphorylation regardless of the addition of calcium. The StCDPK3 promoter region (circa 1,800 bp) was subcloned by genome walking and fused to GUS. Light and ABRE responsive elements were identified in the promoter region as well as elements associated to expression in roots. StCDPK3 expression was enhanced by ABA while GA decreased it. Potato transgenic lines harboring StCDPK3 promoter∷GUS construct were generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated plant transformation. Promoter activity was detected in leaves, root tips and branching points, early ES, tuber eyes and developing sprouts indicating that StCDPK3 is expressed in actively growing organs.

  19. Screening of lactic acid bacteria from vacuum packaged beef for antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Roseane B. P.; de L. Oliveira, Afonso; Glória, M. Beatriz A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from vacuum packaged beef and to investigate their antagonist activity. LAB mean counts of 5.19 log cfu/cm2 were obtained from five samples of vacuum packaged beef. Two hundred isolates were selected and screened for the inhibitory effect on five ATCC reference Lactobacillus strains. Thirty six isolates showed activity in the agar spot test against at least two of the indicator strains. However, only six cell free supernatants (CFS) from these isolates exhibited activity against the indicator strains using the well-diffusion test and conditions that eliminated the effects of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. L. acidophilus was the most sensitive indicator tested, whereas L. plantarum and L. fermentum were the most resistant ones. Identification by MIDI system indicated that these LAB isolates were Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei GC subgroup A. The antagonistic factors produced by most of these LAB against L. acidophilus were resistant to heat treatment (100°C for 10 min) and stable over a wide pH range (4.0 to 9.0). These data suggest that these isolates could be used as promising hurdles aiming increased safety and extended shelf life of meat products. PMID:24031232

  20. Genetic diversity and some aspects of antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from goat milk.

    PubMed

    Cavicchioli, Valéria Quintana; Dornellas, Wesley Dos Santos; Perin, Luana Martins; Pieri, Fábio Alessandro; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2015-03-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB, n = 57) were previously obtained from raw goat milk, identified as Lactococcus spp. (n = 24) and Enterococcus spp. (n = 33), and characterized as bacteriocinogenic. Fingerprinting by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) demonstrated high genetic diversity, and 30 strains were selected and exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against 46 target strains (LAB, spoilage, and foodborne pathogens). Six strains (Lactococcus lactis: GLc03 and GLc05; and Enterococcus durans: GEn09, GEn12, GEn14, and GEn17) were selected to characterize their bacteriocinogenic features, using Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 as the target. The six strains produced bacteriocins at higher titer when incubated in MRS at 37 °C up to 12 h, when compared to growth at 25 and 30 °C. The produced bacteriocins kept their antimicrobial activity after exposure to 100 °C for 2 h and 121 °C for 20 min; the antimicrobial activity was also observed after treatment at pH 2.0 to 10.0, except for GLc03. L. monocytogenes populations were reduced approximately two logs after treatment with cell-free supernatants from the selected strains. These data show that goat milk can contain a diverse microbiota able to inhibit L. monocytogenes, a common pathogen found in dairy products, and can be potentially employed in biopreservation of food produced under different processing conditions.

  1. Impact of streambed morphology on the abundance and activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yanuka-Golub, Keren; Arnon, Shai; Nejidat, Ali

    2014-10-01

    Ammonia oxidizers catalyze the first step of nitrification. Combined microbial nitrification-denitrification activities are essential for the removal of excess nitrogen from water bodies. In sandy streambeds, bed form structures are created by water flow and lead to the creation of heterogeneous microenvironments. The objective of this study, therefore, was to investigate the effect of bed form morphology on the abundance and activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) within a benthic biofilm. An 8-month-old benthic biofilm was established in a recirculating laboratory flume under controlled flow conditions and frequent amendment with ammonium. The sand bed was arranged into bed form structures. The highest concentrations of chlorophyll a (indicative of algae) were measured on the upstream side of the bed forms. The biofilm was dominated by Nitrosospira species, and amoA gene abundance was higher on the downstream sides of the bed forms with no significant difference in oxygen consumption between the upstream and downstream sections of the bed form. In contrast, potential ammonium oxidation rates were higher on the upstream sides of the bed forms. The results suggest that bed form morphology can affect the spatial distribution and activity of AOB, possibly through the creation of distinct microhabitats. These results contribute to our understanding of nitrogen transformations and removal from streams. PMID:25056670

  2. Ammonium-oxidizing bacteria facilitate aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Ginige, Maneesha P; Kaksonen, Anna H; Cheng, Ka Yu

    2014-01-01

    Sulfanilic acid (SA) is a toxic sulfonated aromatic amine commonly found in anaerobically treated azo dye contaminated effluents. Aerobic acclimatization of SA-degrading mixed microbial culture could lead to co-enrichment of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) because of the concomitant release of ammonium from SA oxidation. To what extent the co-enriched AOB would affect SA oxidation at various ammonium concentrations was unclear. Here, a series of batch kinetic experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of AOB on aerobic SA degradation in an acclimatized activated sludge culture capable of oxidizing SA and ammonium simultaneously. To account for the effect of AOB on SA degradation, allylthiourea was used to inhibit AOB activity in the culture. The results indicated that specific SA degradation rate of the mixed culture was negatively correlated with the initial ammonium concentration (0-93 mM, R²= 0.99). The presence of AOB accelerated SA degradation by reducing the inhibitory effect of ammonium (≥ 10 mM). The Haldane substrate inhibition model was used to correlate substrate concentration (SA and ammonium) and oxygen uptake rate. This study revealed, for the first time, that AOB could facilitate SA degradation at high concentration of ammonium (≥ 10 mM) in an enriched activated sludge culture.

  3. Antibacterial activity of Artemisia nilagirica leaf extracts against clinical and phytopathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The six organic solvent extracts of Artemisia nilagirica were screened for the potential antimicrobial activity against phytopathogens and clinically important standard reference bacterial strains. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of A. nilagirica extracts against 15 bacterial strains. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the plant extracts were tested using two fold agar dilution method at concentrations ranging from 32 to 512 μg/ml. The phytochemical screening of extracts was carried out for major phytochemical derivatives in A. nilagirica. Results All the extracts showed inhibitory activity for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria except for Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. The hexane extract was found to be effective against all phytopathogens with low MIC of 32 μg/ml and the methanol extract exhibited a higher inhibition activity against Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella typhi, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (32 μg/ml), Bacillus subtilis (64 μg/ml) and Shigella flaxneri (128 μg/ml). The phytochemical screening of extracts answered for the major derivative of alkaloids, amino acids, flavonoids, phenol, quinines, tannins and terpenoids. Conclusion All the extracts showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains. Of all, methanol and hexane extracts showed high inhibition against clinical and phytopathogens, respectively. The results also indicate the presence of major phytochemical derivatives in the A. nilagirica extracts. Hence, the isolation and purification of therapeutic potential compounds from A. nilagirica could be used as an effective source against bacterial diseases in human and plants. PMID:20109237

  4. Electro-responsive supramolecular graphene oxide hydrogels for active bacteria adsorption and removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Bin; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei

    Bacteria are major contaminations in drinking water and healthcare products. Bacteria contamination may cause severe health problems, including food poisoning and diseases. Currently water sterilization and purification methods to remove contaminated bacteria are mainly based on the size-exclusion mechanism. In order to completely remove all bacteria in water, the pore sizes of the membranes or cartilages should be comparable to the size of bacteria, which inevitable leads to high cross-membrane water pressure and slow purification speed. Moreover, the membranes can easily get clogged. Therefore it is highly demanded to develop efficient methods and novel materials for water purification. Recently, Cui and coworker have introduced a bacteria inactivation method with high efficiency and fast purification speed based on a kind of complex materials made of silver nanofibers, carbon nanotubes and cotton, operating in an electric field. With the help of electric field, the bacteria can be efficiently kill when passing through the membrance even the pore sizes are larger than bacteria. Inspired by their work, here we report a proof-of-principle demonstration of bacteria removal using electro-reponsive hydrogels. This work is funded by Six talent peaks project in Jiangsu Province, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11304156, 11334004, 31170813, 81421091 and 91127026), the 973 Program of China (No. 2012CB921801 and 2013CB834100), the Priority Ac.

  5. No differences in sheep somatic cell nuclear transfer outcomes using serum-starved or actively growing donor granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Peura, T T; Hartwich, K M; Hamilton, H M; Walker, S K

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare serum-starved and non-starved donor cells in sheep nuclear transfer with a special emphasis on cloning outcomes. Sheep oocytes, derived either in vivo or in vitro, were fused with cultured serum-starved or actively growing adult granulosa cells. Resulting blastocysts were transferred to recipients fresh or after vitrification, and subsequent pregnancies followed to term. Donor cell treatment did not significantly affect preimplantation development, pregnancy rates, fetal loss or neonate survival rates. Of 22 lambs born, ten survived the immediate perinatal period but all succumbed at various timepoints within the first few weeks of life. The results of the study suggest that the use of serum-starved cells offers no advantages or disadvantages to cloning outcomes. Neither were significant differences in outcomes observed when using either in vivo- or in vitro-derived oocytes or embryos transferred fresh or after vitrification. Yet, these results continue to highlight problems associated with somatic cell cloning as indicated by offspring mortality. It remains unclear whether the high offspring mortality in the current study was related to species, associated with the cell lines used or the result of other causes. PMID:12921702

  6. Antibacterial, allelopathic and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. growing wild in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bouajaj, S; Benyamna, A; Bouamama, H; Romane, A; Falconieri, D; Piras, A; Marongiu, B

    2013-01-01

    Salvia officinalis (Common sage, Culinary sage) is an aromatic plant that is frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and in the food industry and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The essential oils were obtained by two different methods [hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave (Mw)] from the aerial part of S. officinalis L. growing wild in Ourika-Marrakech in Morocco. Ourika is a large zone of the Atlas Mountains which is considered as a large reserve of Flora, especially medicinal and aromatic plants. The obtained oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared with that of Tunisia. Thirty-six compounds were identified from the Mw-extracted oil which accounted for 97.32% of the total oil composition. However, 33 compounds obtained by HD representing 98.67%. The major components were trans-thujone (14.10% and 29.84%), 1,8-cineole (5.10% and 16.82%), camphor (4.99% and 9.14%), viridiflorol (16.42% and 9.92%), β-caryophyllene (19.83% and 5.20%) and α-humulene (13.54% and 4.02%). Antibacterial, allelopathic (% germination in lettuce seeds and inhibited root growth obtained after treatment with S. officinalis oils) and antioxidant (IC₅₀ values 22 mg/mL) activities were studied.

  7. Challenge testing the lactoperoxidase system against a range of bacteria using different activation agents.

    PubMed

    Fweja, L W T; Lewis, M J; Grandison, A S

    2008-07-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LP) exerts antimicrobial effects in combination with H(2)O(2) and either thiocyanate (SCN(-)) or a halide (e.g., I(-)). Garlic extract in the presence of ethanol has also been used to activate the LP system. This study aimed to determine the effects of 3 LP activation systems (LP+SCN(-)+H(2)O(2); LP+I(-)+H(2)O(2); LP + garlic extract + ethanol) on the growth and activity of 3 test organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus cereus). Sterilized milk was used as the reaction medium, and the growth pattern of the organisms and a range of keeping quality (KQ) indicators (pH, titratable acidity, ethanol stability, clot on boiling) were monitored during storage at the respective optimum growth temperature for each organism. The LP+I(-)+ H(2)O(2) system reduced bacterial counts below the detection limit shortly after treatment for all 3 organisms, and no bacteria could be detected for the duration of the experiment (35 to 55 h). The KQ data confirmed that the milk remained unspoiled at the end of the experiments. The LP + garlic extract + ethanol system, on the other hand, had no effect on the growth or KQ with P. aeruginosa, but showed a small retardation of growth of the other 2 organisms, accompanied by small increases (5 to 10 h) in KQ. The effects of the LP+SCN(-)+H(2)O(2) system were intermediate between those of the other 2 systems and differed between organisms. With P. aeruginosa, the system exerted total inhibition within 10 h of incubation, but the bacteria regained viability after a further 5 h, following a logarithmic growth curve. This was reflected in the KQ indicators, which implied an extension of 15 h. With the other 2 bacterial species, LP+SCN(-)+H(2)O(2) exerted an obvious inhibitory effect, giving a lag phase in the growth curve of 5 to 10 h and KQ extension of 10 to 15 h. When used in combination, I(-) and SCN(-) displayed negative synergy.

  8. In Vitro Activity of Ozenoxacin against Quinolone-Susceptible and Quinolone-Resistant Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    López, Y.; Tato, M.; Espinal, P.; Garcia-Alonso, F.; Gargallo-Viola, D.; Cantón, R.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro activity of ozenoxacin, a novel nonfluorinated topical (L. D. Saravolatz and J. Leggett, Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:1210–1215, 2003) quinolone, was compared with the activities of other quinolones against well-characterized quinolone-susceptible and quinolone-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. Ozenoxacin was 3-fold to 321-fold more active than other quinolones. Ozenoxacin could represent a first-in-class nonfluorinated quinolone for the topical treatment of a broad range of dermatological infections. PMID:24080666

  9. Immobilization of degradative bacteria in polyurethane-based foams: embedding efficiency and effect on bacterial activity

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.; Radway, J.C.; Hazen, T.C.; Hermann, P.

    1996-09-03

    The immobilization of TCE-degrading bacterium Burkholderia cepacia was evaluated using hydrophilic polyurethane foam. The influence of several foam formulation parameters upon cell retention was examined. Surfactant type was a major determinant of retention, with a lecithin- based compound retaining more cells than pluronic or silicone based surfactants. Excessive amounts of surfactant led to increased washout of bacteria. Increasing the biomass concentration from 4.8% to 10.5% caused fewer cells to be washed out. Embedding at reduced temperature did not significantly affect retention, while the use of a silane binding agent gave inconsistent results. The optimal formulation retained all but 0.2% of total embedded cells during passage of 2 liters of water through columns containing 2 g of foam. All foam formulations tested reduced the culturability of embedded cells by several orders of magnitude. However, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} evolution rates of embedded cells were never less than 50% of unembedded cells. Nutrient amendments stimulated an increase in cell volume and ribosomal activity as indicated by hybridization studies using fluorescently labeled ribosomal probes. these results indicated that, although immobilized cells were nonculturable, they were metabolically active and thus could be used for biodegradation of toxic compounds.

  10. Isolation of bacteria with antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Stenocarpella maydis and Stenocarpella macrospora.

    PubMed

    Petatán-Sagahón, Iván; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Angel; Silva-Rojas, Hilda Victoria; Arana-Cuenca, Ainhoa; Tellez-Jurado, Alejandro; Cárdenas-Álvarez, Isabel Oyuki; Mercado-Flores, Yuridia

    2011-01-01

    Stenocarpella maydis and Stenocarpella macrospora are the causal agents of ear rot in corn, which is one of the most destructive diseases in this crop worldwide. These fungi are important mycotoxin producers that cause different pathologies in farmed animals and represent an important risk for humans. In this work, 160 strains were isolated from soil of corn crops of which 10 showed antifungal activity against these phytopathogens, which, were identified as: Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas spp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pantoea agglomerans by sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and the phylogenetic analysis. From cultures of each strain, extracellular filtrates were obtained and assayed to determine antifungal activity. The best filtrates were obtained in the stationary phase of B. subtilis cultures that were stable to the temperature and extreme pH values; in addition they did not show a cytotoxicity effect against brine shrimp and inhibited germination of conidia. The bacteria described in this work have the potential to be used in the control of white ear rot disease. PMID:22016606

  11. Volatile sulphur compounds-forming abilities of lactic acid bacteria: C-S lyase activities.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Irene; Martínez-Bartolomé, Miguel A; Achemchem, Fouad; Peláez, Carmen; Requena, Teresa; Martínez-Cuesta, M Carmen

    2011-08-01

    Volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) are of prime importance in the overall aroma of cheese and make a significant contribution to their typical flavours. Thus, the control of VSCs formation offers considerable potential for industrial applications. Here, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from different ecological origins were screened for their abilities to produce VSCs from L-methionine. From the data presented, VSC-forming abilities were shown to be strain-specific and were correlated with the C-S lyase enzymatic activities determined using different approaches. High VSCs formation were detected for those strains that were also shown to possess high thiol-producing abilities (determined either by agar plate or spectrophotometry assays). Moreover, differences in C-S lyase activities were shown to correspond with the enzymatic potential of the strains as determined by in situ gel visualization. Therefore, the assessment of the C-S lyase enzymatic potential, by means of either of these techniques, could be used as a valuable approach for the selection of LAB strains with high VSC-producing abilities thus, representing an effective way to enhance cheese sulphur aroma compounds synthesis. In this regard, this study highlights the flavour forming potential of the Streptococcus thermophilus STY-31, that therefore could be used as a starter culture in cheese manufacture. Furthermore, although C-S lyases are involved in both biosynthetic and catabolic pathways, an association between methionine and cysteine auxotrophy of the selected strains and their VSCs-producing abilities could not be found.

  12. Antibacterial activity of moxifloxacin on bacteria associated with periodontitis within a biofilm.

    PubMed

    Tsaousoglou, Phoebus; Nietzsche, Sandor; Cachovan, Georg; Sculean, Anton; Eick, Sigrun

    2014-02-01

    The activity of moxifloxacin was compared with ofloxacin and doxycycline against bacteria associated with periodontitis within a biofilm (single strain and mixed population) in vitro. MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of moxifloxacin, ofloxacin and doxycyline were determined against single strains and mixed populations in a planktonic state. Single-species biofilms of two Porphyromonas gingivalis and two Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans strains and a multispecies biofilm consisting of 12 species were formed for 3 days. The minimal biofilm eradication concentrations (MBECs) were determined after exposing the biofilms to the antibacterials (0.002-512 µg ml(-1)) for 18 h, addition of nutrient broth for 3 days and subsequent subcultivation. Photographs were taken using confocal laser-scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The MICs and MBCs did not differ between ofloxacin and moxifloxacin against A. actinomycetemcomitans, whilst moxifloxacin was more active than the other tested antibacterials against anaerobes and the mixed population. The single-species biofilms were eradicated by moderate concentrations of the antibacterials, and the lowest MBECs were always found for moxifloxacin (2-8 µg ml(-1)). MBECs against the multispecies biofilms were 128, >512 and >512 µg ml(-1) for moxifloxacin, ofloxacin and doxycycline, respectively. In summary, moxifloxacin in a topical formulation may have potential as an adjunct to mechanical removal of the biofilms.

  13. Isolation of Bacteria with Antifungal Activity against the Phytopathogenic Fungi Stenocarpella maydis and Stenocarpella macrospora

    PubMed Central

    Petatán-Sagahón, Iván; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Angel; Silva-Rojas, Hilda Victoria; Arana-Cuenca, Ainhoa; Tellez-Jurado, Alejandro; Cárdenas-Álvarez, Isabel Oyuki; Mercado-Flores, Yuridia

    2011-01-01

    Stenocarpella maydis and Stenocarpella macrospora are the causal agents of ear rot in corn, which is one of the most destructive diseases in this crop worldwide. These fungi are important mycotoxin producers that cause different pathologies in farmed animals and represent an important risk for humans. In this work, 160 strains were isolated from soil of corn crops of which 10 showed antifungal activity against these phytopathogens, which, were identified as: Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas spp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pantoea agglomerans by sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and the phylogenetic analysis. From cultures of each strain, extracellular filtrates were obtained and assayed to determine antifungal activity. The best filtrates were obtained in the stationary phase of B. subtilis cultures that were stable to the temperature and extreme pH values; in addition they did not show a cytotoxicity effect against brine shrimp and inhibited germination of conidia. The bacteria described in this work have the potential to be used in the control of white ear rot disease. PMID:22016606

  14. Chitin extraction from crab shells by Bacillus bacteria. Biological activities of fermented crab supernatants.

    PubMed

    Hajji, Sawssen; Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Younes, Islem; Jellouli, Kemel; Nasri, Moncef

    2015-08-01

    Crab shells waste were fermented using six protease-producing Bacillus species (Bacillus subtilis A26, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus pumilus A1, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6, Bacillus licheniformis NH1 and Bacillus cereus BG1) for the production of chitin and fermented-crab supernatants (FCSs). In medium containing only crab shells, the highest demineralization DM was obtained with B. licheniformis NH1 (83±0.5%) and B. pumilus A1 (80±0.6%), while the highest deproteinization (DP) was achieved with A1 (94±1%) followed by NH1 (90±1.5%) strains. Cultures conducted in medium containing crab shells waste supplemented with 5% (w/v) glucose, were found to remarkably promote demineralization efficiency, and enhance slightly deproteinization rates. FTIR spectra of chitins showed the characteristics bands of α-chitin. FCSs showed varying degrees of antioxidant activities which were in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.01). In fact, FCS produced by B. amyloliquefaciens An6 exhibited the highest DPPH free radical-scavenging activity (92% at 4 mg/ml), while the lowest hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (60% at 4 mg/ml) was obtained with B. subtilis A26 hydrolysates. However, the highest reducing power (OD700nm=2 at 0.5 mg/ml) was obtained by B.amyloliquefaciens An6 hydrolysates. These results suggest that crab hydrolysates are good sources of natural antioxidants. Further, FCSs were found to exhibit antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Croton macrostachyus Stem Bark Extracts against Several Human Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Obey, Jackie K.; von Wright, Atte; Orjala, Jimmy; Kauhanen, Jussi; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2016-01-01

    In Kenya, leaves and roots from Croton macrostachyus are used as a traditional medicine for infectious diseases such as typhoid and measles, but reports on possible antimicrobial activity of stem bark do not exist. In this study, the antibacterial and antifungal effects of methanol, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts, and purified lupeol of C. macrostachyus stem bark were determined against important human gram-negative pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes, gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes, and a fungus Candida albicans. The most promising broad scale antimicrobial activity against all the studied pathogens was shown by the ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate extract induced the zone of inhibition between 10.1 ± 0.6 mm and 16.0 ± 1.2 mm against S. typhi, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. aerogenes, and L. monocytogenes with weaker antimicrobial activity against C. albicans (zone of inhibition: 5.6 ± 1.0 mm). The antibiotic controls (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, clotrimazole, and cefotaxime) showed antimicrobial activity with zones of inhibition within 13.4 ± 0.7–22.1 ± 0.9 mm. The ethyl acetate extract had MIC in the range of 125–250 mg/mL against all the studied bacteria and against C. albicans MIC was 500 mg/mL. The present results give scientific evidence and support the traditional use of C. macrostachyus stem bark as a source for antimicrobials. We show that C. macrostachyus stem bark lupeol is a promising antimicrobial agent against several important human pathogens. PMID:27293897

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Croton macrostachyus Stem Bark Extracts against Several Human Pathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Obey, Jackie K; von Wright, Atte; Orjala, Jimmy; Kauhanen, Jussi; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2016-01-01

    In Kenya, leaves and roots from Croton macrostachyus are used as a traditional medicine for infectious diseases such as typhoid and measles, but reports on possible antimicrobial activity of stem bark do not exist. In this study, the antibacterial and antifungal effects of methanol, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts, and purified lupeol of C. macrostachyus stem bark were determined against important human gram-negative pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes, gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes, and a fungus Candida albicans. The most promising broad scale antimicrobial activity against all the studied pathogens was shown by the ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate extract induced the zone of inhibition between 10.1 ± 0.6 mm and 16.0 ± 1.2 mm against S. typhi, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. aerogenes, and L. monocytogenes with weaker antimicrobial activity against C. albicans (zone of inhibition: 5.6 ± 1.0 mm). The antibiotic controls (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, clotrimazole, and cefotaxime) showed antimicrobial activity with zones of inhibition within 13.4 ± 0.7-22.1 ± 0.9 mm. The ethyl acetate extract had MIC in the range of 125-250 mg/mL against all the studied bacteria and against C. albicans MIC was 500 mg/mL. The present results give scientific evidence and support the traditional use of C. macrostachyus stem bark as a source for antimicrobials. We show that C. macrostachyus stem bark lupeol is a promising antimicrobial agent against several important human pathogens.

  17. Chemical toxicity to environmental bacteria: Quantitative structure activity relationships and interspecies correlations and comparisons (Volumes I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, D.J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Toxicity data were collected for four groups of bacteria and a fish. These data were collected for four groups of bacteria and a fish. These data were used to compare and correlate the toxicities to different organisms, and to develop Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) correlating chemical structure with toxicity. Chemical toxicity to aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, Nitrosomonas, and methanogens were measured using serum bottle techniques in order to determine the concentration of chemical which caused 50% inhibition in microorganism's activity. Toxicity to Photobacteria phosphoreum (Microtox bacteria) and fathead minnows was also tested or data collected from the literature. Toxicants included chlorinated and other substituted benzenes and phenols, chlorinated alkanes, and a variety of additional compounds covering a range of chemical structures. Data were obtained for 50 to 130 chemicals per species. The sensitivity of the organism fell into two groups with Microtox bacteria, Nitrosomonas, and fathead minnows showing significantly greater sensitivity than aerobic heterotrophs and methanogens. Highly successful interspecies correlations were found between Microtox and each of the other species.

  18. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts on foodborne bacterial pathogens and food spoilage bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial foodborne diseases are caused by consumption of foods contaminated with bacteria and/or their toxins. In this study, we evaluated antibacterial properties of twelve different extracts including turmeric, lemon and different kinds of teas against four major pathogenic foodborne bacteria inc...

  19. Diversity and antifungal activity of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria colonizing sugarcane in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The price of nitrogen continues to increase and is a major input in sugarcane production. Sugarcane grown in Egypt was screened for the presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Nitrogen-free medium LGI-P was used to isolate bacteria from cane stalks. Among the 52 isolates subjected to acetylene redu...

  20. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pinus peuce (Pinaceae) growing wild in R. Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Karapandzova, Marija; Stefkova, Gjose; Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Trajkovska-Dokik, Elena; Kaftandzieva, Ana; Kulevanova, Svetlana

    2014-11-01

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils isolated from twigs with needles (T+N) and from twigs without needles (T-N) from wild Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae), from three different locations in R. Macedonia, were investigated. Essential oil yields of T+N ranged from 7.5 mL/kg to 12.5 mL/kg and for T-N from 13.8 mL/kg to 17.3 mL/kg. GC/FID/MS analysis of the essential oils revealed eighty-four components, representing 93.7-95.7% and 91.2-92.0% of the T+N and T-N oils, respectively. The major components in T+N and T-N oils were monoterpenes: α-pinene (23.8-39.9%, 21.2-23.3%), camphene (2.2-5.5%, 0.7-2.0%), β-pinene (10.1-17.1%, 8.2-16.4%), myrcene (1.2-1.41%, 1.6-2.5%), limonene+β-phellandrene (6.8-14.0%, 8.8-23.6%) and bornyl acetate (2.3-6.9%, 1.1-3.4%), followed by the sesquiterpenes: trans-(E)-caryophyllene (3.6-4.3%, 3.2-7.3%), germacrene D (7.1-9.5%, 5.0-10.3%) and δ-cadinene (2.1-3.1%, 3.3-4.2%, respectively). Antimicrobial screening of the essential oils was made by disk diffusion and broth dilution methods against 13 bacterial isolates of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. T-N essential oils showed antimicrobial activity toward Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Candida albicans as well as Streptococcus agalactiae, Acinetobacter spp. and Haemophilus influenzae. The antimicrobial activity of T+N essential oils was greater, especially against Streptococcus agalactiae, S. pyogenes, Enterococcus and Candida albicans, followed by Haemophilus influenzae, Acinetobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of all tested essential oils ranged from 15-125 μL/mL. Summarizing the obtained results, the antimicrobial activity of Pinus peuce T+N and T-N essential oils collected from different localities in R. Macedonia varied considerably. These alterations in the

  1. Efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to corn-soya bean meal-based diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen, faecal coliform and lactic acid bacteria and faecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Park, Jae Won; Lee, Jae Hwan; Kim, In Ho

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to a diet based on corn and soya bean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), faecal coliforms and lactic acid bacteria, and noxious gas emission in growing pigs. A total of 140 pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc; average body weight 25 ± 3 kg] were randomly allotted to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with dietary treatments consisting of hulled or dehulled SBM without or with supplementation of 400 U β-mannanase/kg. During the 6 weeks of experimental feeding, β-mannanase supplementation had no effect on body weight gain, feed intake and gain:feed (G:F) ratio. Compared with dehulled SBM, feeding hulled SBM caused an increased feed intake of pigs in the entire trial (p = 0.05). The G:F ratio was improved in pigs receiving dehulled SBM (p < 0.05). Dietary treatments did not influence the total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy. Enzyme supplementation reduced (p < 0.05) the population of faecal coliforms and tended to reduce the NH3 concentration after 24 h of fermentation in a closed box containing faecal slurry. Feeding hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission on days 3 and 5 of fermentation. In conclusion, mannanase supplementation had no influence on growth performance and nutrient digestibility but showed a positive effect on reducing coliform population and tended to reduce NH3 emission. Dehulled SBM increased G:F ratio and hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission.

  2. Low salinity and high-level UV-B radiation reduce single-cell activity in antarctic sea ice bacteria.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew; Hall, Julie; Ryan, Ken

    2009-12-01

    Experiments simulating the sea ice cycle were conducted by exposing microbes from Antarctic fast ice to saline and irradiance regimens associated with the freeze-thaw process. In contrast to hypersaline conditions (ice formation), the simulated release of bacteria into hyposaline seawater combined with rapid exposure to increased UV-B radiation significantly reduced metabolic activity.

  3. Antimicrobial activities of chicken β-defensin (4 and 10) peptides against pathogenic bacteria and fungi

    PubMed Central

    Yacoub, Haitham A.; Elazzazy, Ahmed M.; Abuzinadah, Osama A. H.; Al-Hejin, Ahmed M.; Mahmoud, Maged M.; Harakeh, Steve M.

    2015-01-01

    Host Defense Peptides (HDPs) are small cationic peptides found in several organisms. They play a vital role in innate immunity response and immunomodulatory stimulation. This investigation was designed to study the antimicrobial activities of β-defensin peptide-4 (sAvBD-4) and 10 (sAvBD-4) derived from chickens against pathogenic organisms including bacteria and fungi. Ten bacterial strains and three fungal species were used in investigation. The results showed that the sAvBD-10 displayed a higher bactericidal potency against all the tested bacterial strains than that of sAvBD-4. The exhibited bactericidal activity was significant against almost the different bacterial strains at different peptide concentrations except for that of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Streptococcus bovis (Str. bovis) strains where a moderate effect was noted. Both peptides were effective in the inactivation of fungal species tested yielding a killing rate of up to 95%. The results revealed that the synthetic peptides were resistant to salt at a concentration of 50 mM NaCl. However, they lost antimicrobial potency when applied in the presence of high salt concentrations. Based on blood hemolysis studies, a little hemolytic effect was showed in the case of both peptides even when applied at high concentrations. The data obtained from this study indicated that synthetic avian peptides exhibit strong antibacterial and antifungal activity. In conclusion, future work and research should be tailored to a better understanding of the mechanisms of action of those peptides and their potential use in the pharmaceutical industry to help reduce the incidence and impact of infectious agent and be marketed as a naturally occurring antibiotic. PMID:25941665

  4. Antimicrobial activities of chicken β-defensin (4 and 10) peptides against pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, Haitham A; Elazzazy, Ahmed M; Abuzinadah, Osama A H; Al-Hejin, Ahmed M; Mahmoud, Maged M; Harakeh, Steve M

    2015-01-01

    Host Defense Peptides (HDPs) are small cationic peptides found in several organisms. They play a vital role in innate immunity response and immunomodulatory stimulation. This investigation was designed to study the antimicrobial activities of β-defensin peptide-4 (sAvBD-4) and 10 (sAvBD-4) derived from chickens against pathogenic organisms including bacteria and fungi. Ten bacterial strains and three fungal species were used in investigation. The results showed that the sAvBD-10 displayed a higher bactericidal potency against all the tested bacterial strains than that of sAvBD-4. The exhibited bactericidal activity was significant against almost the different bacterial strains at different peptide concentrations except for that of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Streptococcus bovis (Str. bovis) strains where a moderate effect was noted. Both peptides were effective in the inactivation of fungal species tested yielding a killing rate of up to 95%. The results revealed that the synthetic peptides were resistant to salt at a concentration of 50 mM NaCl. However, they lost antimicrobial potency when applied in the presence of high salt concentrations. Based on blood hemolysis studies, a little hemolytic effect was showed in the case of both peptides even when applied at high concentrations. The data obtained from this study indicated that synthetic avian peptides exhibit strong antibacterial and antifungal activity. In conclusion, future work and research should be tailored to a better understanding of the mechanisms of action of those peptides and their potential use in the pharmaceutical industry to help reduce the incidence and impact of infectious agent and be marketed as a naturally occurring antibiotic.

  5. Bacillus spp. produce antibacterial activities against lactic acid bacteria that contaminate fuel ethanol plants.

    PubMed

    Manitchotpisit, Pennapa; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Price, Neil P J; Leathers, Timothy D

    2013-05-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) frequently contaminate commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, reducing yields and decreasing profitability of biofuel production. Microorganisms from environmental sources in different geographic regions of Thailand were tested for antibacterial activity against LAB. Four bacterial strains, designated as ALT3A, ALT3B, ALT17, and MR1, produced inhibitory effects on growth of LAB. Sequencing of rRNA identified these strains as species of Bacillus subtilis (ALT3A and ALT3B) and B. cereus (ALT17 and MR1). Cell mass from colonies and agar samples from inhibition zones were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The spectra of ALT3A and ALT3B showed a strong signal at m/z 1,060, similar in mass to the surfactin family of antimicrobial lipopeptides. ALT3A and ALT3B were analyzed by zymogram analysis using SDS-PAGE gels placed on agar plates inoculated with LAB. Cell lysates possessed an inhibitory protein of less than 10 kDa, consistent with the production of an antibacterial lipopeptide. Mass spectra of ALT17 and MR1 had notable signals at m/z 908 and 930 in the whole cell extracts and at m/z 687 in agar, but these masses do not correlate with those of previously reported antibacterial lipopeptides, and no antibacterial activity was detected by zymogram. The antibacterial activities produced by these strains may have application in the fuel ethanol industry as an alternative to antibiotics for prevention and control of bacterial contamination.

  6. Skin Anti-Aging Activities of Bacteriochlorophyll a from Photosynthetic Bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Young; Yim, Tae Bin; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the anti-aging skin effects of bacteriochlorophyll a isolated from Rhodobacter sphaeroides are first reported, with notably low cytotoxicity in the range of 1% to 14% in adding 0.00078 (% (w/w)) of the extracts, compared with the normal growth of both human dermal fibroblast and keratinocyte cells without any treatment as a control. The highest production of procollagen from human fibroblast cells (CCD-986sk) was observed as 221.7 ng/ml with 0.001 (% (w/w)) of bacteriochlorophyll a, whereas 150 and 200 ng/ml of procollagen production resulted from addition of 0.001 (% (w/w)) of the photosynthetic bacteria. The bacteriochlorophylla- induced TNF-α production increased to 63.8%, which was lower secretion from HaCaT cells than that from addition of 0.00005 (% (w/w)) of bacteriochlorophyll a. Additionally, bacteriochlorophyll a upregulated the expression of genes related to skin anti-aging (i.e., keratin 10, involucrin, transglutaminase-1, and MMPs), by up to 4-15 times those of the control. However, crude extracts from R. sphaeroides did not enhance the expression level of these genes. Bacteriochlorophyll a showed higher antioxidant activity of 63.8% in DPPH free radical scavenging than those of water, ethanol, and 70% ethanol extracts (14.0%, 57.2%, and 12.6%, respectively). It was also shown that the high antioxidant activity could be attributed to the skin anti-aging effect of bacteriochlorophyll a, although R. sphaeroides itself would not exhibit significant anti-aging activities.

  7. Regulation of the activity of lactate dehydrogenases from four lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Feldman-Salit, Anna; Hering, Silvio; Messiha, Hanan L; Veith, Nadine; Cojocaru, Vlad; Sieg, Antje; Westerhoff, Hans V; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Wade, Rebecca C; Fiedler, Tomas

    2013-07-19

    Despite high similarity in sequence and catalytic properties, the l-lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs) in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) display differences in their regulation that may arise from their adaptation to different habitats. We combined experimental and computational approaches to investigate the effects of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), phosphate (Pi), and ionic strength (NaCl concentration) on six LDHs from four LABs studied at pH 6 and pH 7. We found that 1) the extent of activation by FBP (Kact) differs. Lactobacillus plantarum LDH is not regulated by FBP, but the other LDHs are activated with increasing sensitivity in the following order: Enterococcus faecalis LDH2 ≤ Lactococcus lactis LDH2 < E. faecalis LDH1 < L. lactis LDH1 ≤ Streptococcus pyogenes LDH. This trend reflects the electrostatic properties in the allosteric binding site of the LDH enzymes. 2) For L. plantarum, S. pyogenes, and E. faecalis, the effects of Pi are distinguishable from the effect of changing ionic strength by adding NaCl. 3) Addition of Pi inhibits E. faecalis LDH2, whereas in the absence of FBP, Pi is an activator of S. pyogenes LDH, E. faecalis LDH1, and L. lactis LDH1 and LDH2 at pH 6. These effects can be interpreted by considering the computed binding affinities of Pi to the catalytic and allosteric binding sites of the enzymes modeled in protonation states corresponding to pH 6 and pH 7. Overall, the results show a subtle interplay among the effects of Pi, FBP, and pH that results in different regulatory effects on the LDHs of different LABs.

  8. Concurrent activity of anammox and denitrifying bacteria in the Black Sea

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, John B.; Fuchsman, Clara A.; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Staley, James T.; Murray, James W.

    2012-01-01

    After the discovery of ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation (anammox) in the environment, the role of heterotrophic denitrification as the main marine pathway for fixed N loss has been questioned. A 3 part, 15 month time series investigating nitrite reductase (nirS) mRNA transcripts at a single location in the Black Sea was conducted in order to better understand the activity of anammox and denitrifying bacteria. Here we show that both of these groups were active, as well as being concurrent in the lower suboxic zone over this time span. Their distributions, however, differed in that only expression of denitrification-type nirS was seen in the upper suboxic zone, where geochemistry was variable. Depth profiles covering the suboxic zone showed that the four groups of anammox-type sequences were expressed consistently in the lower suboxic zone, and were consistent with anammox 16 S rDNA gene profiles. By contrast, denitrifier-type nirS sequence groups were mixed; some groups exhibited consistent expression in the lower suboxic zone, while others appeared less consistent. Co-occurrence of both anammox and denitrifier expression was common and ongoing. Both types of transcripts were also found in samples with low concentrations of sulfide (>2 μM). Six major groups of denitrifier-type nirS transcripts were identified, and several groups of denitrifier-type nirS transcripts were closely related to sequences from the Baltic Sea. An increase in denitrifier-type nirS transcript diversity and depth range in October 2007 corresponded to a small increase in mixed layer net community productivity (NCP) as measured by O2/Ar gas ratios, as well as to an increase in N2 concentrations in the suboxic zone. Taken together, the variations in expression patterns between anammox and denitrification provide one possible explanation as to how near instantaneous rate measurements, such as isotope spike experiments, may regularly detect anammox activity but underreport denitrification. PMID

  9. Concurrent activity of anammox and denitrifying bacteria in the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, John B; Fuchsman, Clara A; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Staley, James T; Murray, James W

    2012-01-01

    After the discovery of ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation (anammox) in the environment, the role of heterotrophic denitrification as the main marine pathway for fixed N loss has been questioned. A 3 part, 15 month time series investigating nitrite reductase (nirS) mRNA transcripts at a single location in the Black Sea was conducted in order to better understand the activity of anammox and denitrifying bacteria. Here we show that both of these groups were active, as well as being concurrent in the lower suboxic zone over this time span. Their distributions, however, differed in that only expression of denitrification-type nirS was seen in the upper suboxic zone, where geochemistry was variable. Depth profiles covering the suboxic zone showed that the four groups of anammox-type sequences were expressed consistently in the lower suboxic zone, and were consistent with anammox 16 S rDNA gene profiles. By contrast, denitrifier-type nirS sequence groups were mixed; some groups exhibited consistent expression in the lower suboxic zone, while others appeared less consistent. Co-occurrence of both anammox and denitrifier expression was common and ongoing. Both types of transcripts were also found in samples with low concentrations of sulfide (>2 μM). Six major groups of denitrifier-type nirS transcripts were identified, and several groups of denitrifier-type nirS transcripts were closely related to sequences from the Baltic Sea. An increase in denitrifier-type nirS transcript diversity and depth range in October 2007 corresponded to a small increase in mixed layer net community productivity (NCP) as measured by O(2)/Ar gas ratios, as well as to an increase in N(2) concentrations in the suboxic zone. Taken together, the variations in expression patterns between anammox and denitrification provide one possible explanation as to how near instantaneous rate measurements, such as isotope spike experiments, may regularly detect anammox activity but underreport denitrification. PMID

  10. Active stable maintenance functions in low copy-number plasmids of Gram-positive bacteria I. Partition systems.

    PubMed

    Dmowski, Michał; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

    2013-01-01

    Low copy number plasmids cannot rely on the random segregation during bacterial cell division. To be stably maintained in the population they evolved two types of mechanisms (i) partition systems (PAR) that actively separate replicated plasmid molecules to the daughter cells and (ii) toxin-andidote systems (TA) that act after cell division to kill plasmid-less cells. Our knowledge of partition systems has been based mainly on analysis of plasmids from Gram-negative bacteria. Now, numerous partition systems of plasmids from Gram-positive bacteria have also been characterized and make significant contribution to our understanding of these mechanisms.

  11. Cultivable bacteria populations associated with leaves of banana and plantain plants and their antagonistic activity against Mycosphaerella fijiensis.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Isabel; Mosquera, Sandra; Angulo, Mónica; Mira, John J; Argel, Luz Edith; Uribe-Velez, Daniel; Romero-Tabarez, Magally; Orduz-Peralta, Sergio; Villegas, Valeska

    2012-10-01

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the etiological agent of Black Sigatoka, a fungal disease that affects production of banana and plantain crops in tropical regions. The sizes of cultivable epiphytic and endophytic bacterial populations, aerobic endospore forming bacteria (AEFB), and antagonist bacteria against M. fijiensis isolated from three Musa spp. cultivars from Urabá (Colombia) were studied, in order to find a suitable screening strategy to isolate antagonistic bacteria. Most of the variability found in the epiphytic and endophytic bacterial community sizes among fruit trees was explained by the cultivar differences. We found population sizes ranging from 1.25 × 10(3) to 9.64 × 10(5) CFU/g of fresh leaf and found that 44 % of total cultivable bacteria belong to the AEFB group. We isolated 648 AEFB from three different cultivars and assessed their antagonistic activity against M. fijiensis using the cell-free supernatant obtained from bacterial liquid cultures in three different in vitro assays. Five percent of those bacteria showed higher percent inhibition than the positive control Bacillus subtilis UA321 has (percent inhibition = 84 ± 5) in the screening phase. Therefore, they were selected as antagonistic bacteria against the pathogen. The strains with the highest percentage of antagonism were found in older leaves for the three cultivars, given support to recommend this group of leaves for future samplings. Some of these isolated bacteria affected the mycelium and ascospores morphology of the fungus. They also presented in vitro characteristics related to a successful colonization of the phylloplane such as indolic compounds, surfactant production, and biofilm formation, which makes them possible, potential candidates as biological control agents. PMID:22562105

  12. Cultivable bacteria populations associated with leaves of banana and plantain plants and their antagonistic activity against Mycosphaerella fijiensis.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Isabel; Mosquera, Sandra; Angulo, Mónica; Mira, John J; Argel, Luz Edith; Uribe-Velez, Daniel; Romero-Tabarez, Magally; Orduz-Peralta, Sergio; Villegas, Valeska

    2012-10-01

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the etiological agent of Black Sigatoka, a fungal disease that affects production of banana and plantain crops in tropical regions. The sizes of cultivable epiphytic and endophytic bacterial populations, aerobic endospore forming bacteria (AEFB), and antagonist bacteria against M. fijiensis isolated from three Musa spp. cultivars from Urabá (Colombia) were studied, in order to find a suitable screening strategy to isolate antagonistic bacteria. Most of the variability found in the epiphytic and endophytic bacterial community sizes among fruit trees was explained by the cultivar differences. We found population sizes ranging from 1.25 × 10(3) to 9.64 × 10(5) CFU/g of fresh leaf and found that 44 % of total cultivable bacteria belong to the AEFB group. We isolated 648 AEFB from three different cultivars and assessed their antagonistic activity against M. fijiensis using the cell-free supernatant obtained from bacterial liquid cultures in three different in vitro assays. Five percent of those bacteria showed higher percent inhibition than the positive control Bacillus subtilis UA321 has (percent inhibition = 84 ± 5) in the screening phase. Therefore, they were selected as antagonistic bacteria against the pathogen. The strains with the highest percentage of antagonism were found in older leaves for the three cultivars, given support to recommend this group of leaves for future samplings. Some of these isolated bacteria affected the mycelium and ascospores morphology of the fungus. They also presented in vitro characteristics related to a successful colonization of the phylloplane such as indolic compounds, surfactant production, and biofilm formation, which makes them possible, potential candidates as biological control agents.

  13. Antibiotic-potentiation activities of four Cameroonian dietary plants against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria expressing efflux pumps

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The continuous spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, partially due to efflux pumps drastically reduced the efficacy of the antibiotic armory, increasing the frequency of therapeutic failure. The search for new compounds to potentiate the efficacy of commonly used antibiotics is therefore important. The present study was designed to evaluate the ability of the methanol extracts of four Cameroonian dietary plants (Capsicum frutescens L. var. facilulatum, Brassica oleacera L. var. italica, Brassica oleacera L. var. butyris and Basilicum polystachyon (L.) Moench.) to improve the activity of commonly used antibiotics against MDR Gram-negative bacteria expressing active efflux pumps. Methods The qualitative phytochemical screening of the plant extracts was performed using standard methods whilst the antibacterial activity was performed by broth micro-dilution method. Results All the studied plant extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, triterpenes and sterols. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the studied extracts ranged from 256-1024 μg/mL. Capsicum frutescens var. facilulatum extract displayed the largest spectrum of activity (73%) against the tested bacterial strains whilst the lower MIC value (256 μg/mL) was recorded with Basilicum polystachyon against E. aerogenes ATCC 13048 and P. stuartii ATCC 29916. In the presence of PAβN, the spectrum of activity of Brassica oleacera var. italica extract against bacteria strains increased (75%). The extracts from Brassica oleacera var. butyris, Brassica oleacera var. italica, Capsicum frutescens var. facilulatum and Basilicum polystachyon showed synergistic effects (FIC ≤ 0.5) against the studied bacteria, with an average of 75.3% of the tested antibiotics. Conclusion These results provide promising information for the potential use of the tested plants alone or in combination with some commonly used antibiotics in the fight against MDR Gram-negative bacteria

  14. Microalgae mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sudha, S S; Rajamanickam, Karthic; Rengaramanujam, J

    2013-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles is known to have antimicrobial affects. Cyanobacteria isolates from muthupet mangrove includes Aphanothece sp, Oscillatoria sp, Microcoleus sp, Aphanocapsa sp, Phormidium sp, Lyngbya sp, Gleocapsa sp, Synechococcus sp, Spirulina sp with were set in compliance with their cellular mechanism of nano silver creation, and were investigated by UV-VIS spectrophotometer, Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Silver nanoparticles were spherical shaped well distributed without aggregation in solution with an average size of about 40- 80 nm. Synthesised nano silver had antibacterial production on various organisms that provoked various diseases in humans. The cellular metabolites of Microcoleus sp. only created nano silver and it enhanced the antibacterial activity against test pathogenic bacteria from MTCC (Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Streptococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli.) The antimicrobial assay was performed using 0.001 M concentration of nano silver in well diffusion method with positive control of appropriate standard antibiotic discs Cephotaxime, Ampicillin, Tetracyclin, Cephalexin etc. Synthesised silver nanoparticles acted as an effective antimicrobial agent and proved as an alternative for the development of new antimicrobial agents to combat the problem of resistance. PMID:23821828

  15. Cold-Active, Heterotrophic Bacteria from the Highly Oligotrophic Waters of Lake Vanda, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Vander Schaaf, Nicole A; Cunningham, Anna M G; Cluff, Brandon P; Kraemer, CodyJo K; Reeves, Chelsea L; Riester, Carli J; Slater, Lauren K; Madigan, Michael T; Sattley, W Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The permanently ice-covered lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are distinctive ecosystems that consist strictly of microbial communities. In this study, water samples were collected from Lake Vanda, a stratified Dry Valley lake whose upper waters (from just below the ice cover to nearly 60 m) are highly oligotrophic, and used to establish enrichment cultures. Six strains of psychrotolerant, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from lake water samples from a depth of 50 or 55 m. Phylogenetic analyses showed the Lake Vanda strains to be species of Nocardiaceae, Caulobacteraceae, Sphingomonadaceae, and Bradyrhizobiaceae. All Lake Vanda strains grew at temperatures near or below 0 °C, but optimal growth occurred from 18 to 24 °C. Some strains showed significant halotolerance, but no strains required NaCl for growth. The isolates described herein include cold-active species not previously reported from Dry Valley lakes, and their physiological and phylogenetic characterization broadens our understanding of these limnologically unique lakes. PMID:27682095

  16. Cold-Active, Heterotrophic Bacteria from the Highly Oligotrophic Waters of Lake Vanda, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Vander Schaaf, Nicole A.; Cunningham, Anna M. G.; Cluff, Brandon P.; Kraemer, CodyJo K.; Reeves, Chelsea L.; Riester, Carli J.; Slater, Lauren K.; Madigan, Michael T.; Sattley, W. Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The permanently ice-covered lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are distinctive ecosystems that consist strictly of microbial communities. In this study, water samples were collected from Lake Vanda, a stratified Dry Valley lake whose upper waters (from just below the ice cover to nearly 60 m) are highly oligotrophic, and used to establish enrichment cultures. Six strains of psychrotolerant, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from lake water samples from a depth of 50 or 55 m. Phylogenetic analyses showed the Lake Vanda strains to be species of Nocardiaceae, Caulobacteraceae, Sphingomonadaceae, and Bradyrhizobiaceae. All Lake Vanda strains grew at temperatures near or below 0 °C, but optimal growth occurred from 18 to 24 °C. Some strains showed significant halotolerance, but no strains required NaCl for growth. The isolates described herein include cold-active species not previously reported from Dry Valley lakes, and their physiological and phylogenetic characterization broadens our understanding of these limnologically unique lakes. PMID:27682095

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Their Isolated Constituents against Cariogenic Bacteria: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Freires, Irlan Almeida; Denny, Carina; Benso, Bruna; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries remains the most prevalent and costly oral infectious disease worldwide. Several methods have been employed to prevent this biofilm-dependent disease, including the use of essential oils (EOs). In this systematic review, we discuss the antibacterial activity of EOs and their isolated constituents in view of a potential applicability in novel dental formulations. Seven databases were systematically searched for clinical trials, in situ, in vivo and in vitro studies addressing the topic published up to date. Most of the knowledge in the literature is based on in vitro studies assessing the effects of EOs on caries-related streptococci (mainly Streptococcus mutans) and lactobacilli, and on a limited number of clinical trials. The most promising species with antibacterial potential against cariogenic bacteria are: Achillea ligustica, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Croton cajucara, Cryptomeria japonica, Coriandrum sativum, Eugenia caryophyllata, Lippia sidoides, Ocimum americanum, and Rosmarinus officinalis. In some cases, the major phytochemical compounds determine the biological properties of EOs. Menthol and eugenol were considered outstanding compounds demonstrating an antibacterial potential. Only L. sidoides mouthwash (1%) has shown clinical antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens thus far. This review suggests avenues for further non-clinical and clinical studies with the most promising EOs and their isolated constituents bioprospected worldwide. PMID:25911964