Science.gov

Sample records for actively growing cultures

  1. Cytochalasin-like activity in cultured aorta smooth muscle cells (ASMC) is increased in extracts of growing cells

    SciTech Connect

    Magargal, W.W.

    1987-05-01

    A cytochalasin-like protein, present in cultured chicken embryo fibroblasts, is increased in cells transformed by Rous sarcoma virus. They find similar activity present in ASMC. Confluent cultured porcine and rat, ASMC, were homogenized in Buffer A and centrifuged at 200,000g for 35 min. Resulting extracts reduced the low shear viscosity of F-actin. To determine whether the activity alters during the growth of non-transformed cells, cultured rat ASMC were plated at 2 x 10/sup 4/ cells/cm/sup 2/ in medium plus 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). After 3 days actively growing cells (by /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation) were either scraped into phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or fed media plus 1% FBS. Three days later the fed cells were scraped into PBS (nongrowing, /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation). Cells in PBS were pelleted, homogenized in Buffer A, and centrifuged as above. Extracts from the growing and nongrowing cells reduced the low shear viscosity of actin. However, the ED/sub 50/ for growing cells was 8..mu..g and 15..mu..g for nongrowing cells. These results support those obtained with normal and transformed CEF's. This evidence indicates a relationship between cytochalasin-like activity and the growth state of cells in culture.

  2. Invertase activity of intact cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing on sugar cane molasses. 1. Steady-state continuous culture tests

    SciTech Connect

    Vitolo, M.; Vairo, M.L.R.; Borzani, W.

    1985-08-01

    During the steady-state continuous culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on sugar cane blackstrap molasses under different experimental conditions, oscillatory variations of the invertase activity of the intact yeast cells were observed. The continuous morphological changes of the cells wall and of the periplasmic space affecting the interaction between invertase and sucrose molecules could be responsible by the observed oscillatory phenomena. The average invertase activity at the steady state is linearly correlated to the cell's growth rate.

  3. GrowLab: Activities for Growing Minds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pranis, Eve; Cohen, Joy

    As students observe plant growth, the questions that naturally arise can provide opportunities for student exploration and discovery. This guide presents a collection of activities for students in grades K-8 that turn students' questions into life sciences learning experiences. The guide contains four chapters, each with background information and…

  4. Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T.; Bula, R.; Corey, R.; Morrow, R.

    1988-01-01

    Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2

  5. Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space.

    PubMed

    Tibbitts, T; Bula, R; Corey, R; Morrow, R

    1988-01-01

    Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2

  6. Growing Organizational Culture: The Power of Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Organizational culture is the personality of the organization: the beliefs, values, and behavioral norms of an organization. People come and go and a strong organizational culture guides their thinking and behavior while they are there. Good centers, like all good organizations, have cultures that shape how its members think, feel, and behave.…

  7. Growing B Lymphocytes in a Three-Dimensional Culture System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, J. H. David; Bottaro, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) culture system for growing long-lived B lymphocytes has been invented. The capabilities afforded by the system can be expected to expand the range of options for immunological research and related activities, including testing of immunogenicity of vaccine candidates in vitro, generation of human monoclonal antibodies, and immunotherapy. Mature lymphocytes, which are the effectors of adaptive immune responses in vertebrates, are extremely susceptible to apoptotic death, and depend on continuous reception of survival-inducing stimulation (in the forms of cytokines, cell-to-cell contacts, and antigen receptor signaling) from the microenvironment. For this reason, efforts to develop systems for long-term culture of functional, non-transformed and non-activated mature lymphocytes have been unsuccessful until now. The bone-marrow microenvironment supports the growth and differentiation of many hematopoietic lineages, in addition to B-lymphocytes. Primary bone-marrow cell cultures designed to promote the development of specific cell types in vitro are highly desirable experimental systems, amenable to manipulation under controlled conditions. However, the dynamic and complex network of stromal cells and insoluble matrix proteins is disrupted in prior plate- and flask-based culture systems, wherein the microenvironments have a predominantly two-dimensional (2D) character. In 2D bone-marrow cultures, normal B-lymphoid cells become progressively skewed toward precursor B-cell populations that do not retain a normal immunophenotype, and such mature B-lymphocytes as those harvested from the spleen or lymph nodes do not survive beyond several days ex vivo in the absence of mitogenic stimulation. The present 3D culture system is a bioreactor that contains highly porous artificial scaffolding that supports the long-term culture of bone marrow, spleen, and lymph-node samples. In this system, unlike in 2D culture systems, B-cell subpopulations developing

  8. Growing Three-Dimensional Cartilage-Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F.; Prewett, Tacey L.; Goodwin, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Process for growing three-dimensional cultures of mammalian cartilage from normal mammalian cells devised. Effected using horizontal rotating bioreactor described in companion article, "Simplified Bioreactor for Growing Mammalian Cells" (MSC-22060). Bioreactor provides quiescent environment with generous supplies of nutrient and oxygen. Initiated with noncartilage cells. Artificially grown tissue resembles that in mammalian cartilage. Potential use in developing therapies for damage to cartilage by joint and back injuries and by such inflammatory diseases as arthritis and temporal-mandibular joint disease. Also used to test nonsteroid anti-inflammation medicines.

  9. Popular Culture, Cultural Resistance, and Anticonsumption Activism: An Exploration of Culture Jamming as Critical Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter examines popular culture as a site of cultural resistance. Specifically, it explores how "culture jamming," a cultural-resistance activity, can be a form of adult education. It examines adult education and learning as it intersects with both consumerism and popular culture. Focus is placed on a growing social movement of individuals…

  10. Cultural Activation of Consumers.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Carole E; Reid-Rose, Lenora; Joseph, Adriana M; Hernandez, Jennifer C; Haugland, Gary

    2016-02-01

    This column discusses "cultural activation," defined as a consumer's recognition of the importance of providing cultural information to providers about cultural affiliations, challenges, views about, and attitudes toward behavioral health and general medical health care, as well as the consumer's confidence in his or her ability to provide this information. An aid to activation, "Cultural Activation Prompts," and a scale that measures a consumer's level of activation, the Cultural Activation Measurement Scale, are described. Suggestions are made about ways to introduce cultural activation as a component of usual care.

  11. Cooperation and its evolution in growing systems with cultural reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Portillo, Ignacio

    2012-12-01

    We explore the evolution of cooperation in the framework of the evolutionary game theory using the prisoner's dilemma as metaphor of the problem. We present a minimal model taking into account the growing process of the systems and individuals with imitation capacity. We consider the topological structure and the evolution of strategies decoupled instead of a coevolutionary dynamic. We show conditions to build up a cooperative system with real topological structures for any natural selection intensity. When the system starts to grow, cooperation is unstable but becomes stable as soon as the system reaches a small core of cooperators whose size increases when the intensity of natural selection decreases. Thus, we reduce the evolution of cooperative systems with cultural reproduction to justify a small initial cooperative structure that we call cooperative seed. Otherwise, given that the system grows principally as cooperator whose cooperators inhabit the most linked parts of the system, the benefit-cost ratio required for cooperation evolve is drastically reduced compared to the found in static networks. In this way, we show that in systems whose individuals have imitation capacity the growing process is essential for the evolution of cooperation.

  12. THE GENUS VEILLONELLA. 3. HYDROGEN SULFIDE PRODUCTION BY GROWING CULTURES.

    PubMed

    ROGOSA, M; BISHOP, F S

    1964-07-01

    Rogosa, Morrison (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, Md.), and Ferial S. Bishop. The genus Veillonella. III. Hydrogen sulfide production by growing cultures. J. Bacteriol. 88:37-41. 1964.-The conditions necessary for H(2)S production by 105 strains of Veillonella, from a variety of sources and comprising seven anti-genic groups, are presented and discussed. All strains, during 1 to 2 days of growth, produced H(2)S in a defined medium supplemented with proper amounts of l-cysteine, l-cystine, reduced glutathione, thiosulfate, thiocyanate, or thioglycolate. Erratic or negative results were obtained with some commonly used media containing yeast extract and casein digest, but which were not supplemented with appropriate substrates for H(2)S production. Previous literature descriptions of V. alcalescens as not producing H(2)S are incorrect; H(2)S production, or the previously presumed lack of it, cannot be used as a criterion differentiating V. alcalescens from V. parvula.

  13. Growing a Circle of Courage Culture: One School's Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espiner, Deborah; Guild, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Mt. Richmond Special School is the first Circle of Courage school in New Zealand. The school reflects the richness of the cultural and learning diversity found in many New Zealand schools. Located in the heart of South Auckland, the school's 130 students represent a wide range of ethnic backgrounds. The universal values in the Circle of Courage…

  14. Improved Cell Culture Method for Growing Contracting Skeletal Muscle Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquette, Michele L.; Sognier, Marguerite A.

    2013-01-01

    An improved method for culturing immature muscle cells (myoblasts) into a mature skeletal muscle overcomes some of the notable limitations of prior culture methods. The development of the method is a major advance in tissue engineering in that, for the first time, a cell-based model spontaneously fuses and differentiates into masses of highly aligned, contracting myotubes. This method enables (1) the construction of improved two-dimensional (monolayer) skeletal muscle test beds; (2) development of contracting three-dimensional tissue models; and (3) improved transplantable tissues for biomedical and regenerative medicine applications. With adaptation, this method also offers potential application for production of other tissue types (i.e., bone and cardiac) from corresponding precursor cells.

  15. Metabolism of lactose by Clostridium thermolacticum growing in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Collet, Christophe; Girbal, Laurence; Péringer, Paul; Schwitzguébel, Jean-Paul; Soucaille, Philippe

    2006-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the metabolism of Clostridium thermolacticum, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, growing continuously on lactose (10 g l(-1)) and to determine the enzymes involved in the pathways leading to the formation of the fermentation products. Biomass and metabolites concentration were measured at steady-state for different dilution rates, from 0.013 to 0.19 h(-1). Acetate, ethanol, hydrogen and carbon dioxide were produced at all dilution rates, whereas lactate was detected only for dilution rates below 0.06 h(-1). The presence of several key enzymes involved in lactose metabolism, including beta-galactosidase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, acetate kinase, ethanol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase, was demonstrated. Finally, the intracellular level of NADH, NAD+, ATP and ADP was also measured for different dilution rates. The production of ethanol and lactate appeared to be linked with the re-oxidation of NADH produced during glycolysis, whereas hydrogen produced should come from reduced ferredoxin generated during pyruvate decarboxylation. To produce more hydrogen or more acetate from lactose, it thus appears that an efficient H2 removal system should be used, based on a physical (membrane) or a biological approach, respectively, by cultivating C. thermolacticum with efficient H2 scavenging and acetate producing microorganisms.

  16. Growing with EASE: Eating, Activity, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huettig, Carol; Rich, Shannon; Engelbrecht, Jo Ann; Sanborn, Charlotte; Essery, Eve; DiMarco, Nancy; Velez, Luisa; Levy, Luba

    2006-01-01

    A diverse group of professionals associated with Texas Woman's University's Institute for Women's Health, working collaboratively with school administrators, teachers, family support teams, and family members, developed Growing with EASE: Eating, Activity, and Self-Esteem, a nutrition program for young children and their families. In tracking the…

  17. Community dynamics of a mixed-bacterial culture growing on petroleum hydrocarbons in batch culture.

    PubMed

    Van Hamme, J D; Odumeru, J A; Ward, O P

    2000-05-01

    The effects of various hydrocarbon substrates, and a chemical surfactant capable of enhancing crude-oil biodegradation, on the community structure of a mixed-bacterial inoculum were examined in batch culture. Of 1000 TSA-culturable isolates, 68.6% were identified at the genus level or better by phospholipid fatty acid analysis over 7-day time course experiments. Cultures were exposed to 20 g/L Bow River crude oil with and without 0.625 g/L Igepal CO-630 (a nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactant), 5 g/L saturates, 5 g/L aromatics, or 125 g/L refinery sludge. A group of six genera dominated the cultures: Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas/Flavimonas, Stenotrophomonas, and Yersinia. Species from four of the genera were shown to be capable of hydrocarbon degradation, and counts of hydrocarbon degrading and total heterotrophic bacteria over time were nearly identical. Pseudomonas/Flavimonas and Stenotrophomonas normally dominated during the early portions of cultures, although the lag phase of Stenotrophomonas appears to have been increased by surfactant addition. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus was the most frequently isolated microorganism during exposure to the saturate fraction of crude oil. Regardless of substrate, the culture medium supported a greater variety of organisms during the latter portions of cultures. Understanding the community structure and dynamics of mixed bacterial cultures involved in treatment of heterogeneous waste substrates may assist in process development and optimization studies.

  18. "Being responsible, respectful, trying to keep the tradition alive:" cultural resilience and growing up in an Alaska Native community.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Lisa; Joule, Linda; Garoutte, Joe; Mazziotti, Janet; Hopper, Kim

    2014-10-01

    Indigenous circumpolar youth are experiencing challenges of growing up in a context much different from that of their parents and their grandparents due to rapid and imposed social change. Our study is interested in community resilience: the meaning systems, resources, and relationships that structure how youth go about overcoming difficulties. The research reflects an understanding that social and cultural ecologies influence people's available and meaningful options. The in-depth, qualitative study of 20 youth from the same Arctic community shows Inupiat (Alaska Native) youth are navigating challenges. Findings from this research suggest that Inupiat youth reflect more flexible patterns of resilience when they are culturally grounded. This cultural foundation involves kinship networks that mediate young people's access to cultural and material assets. Our participants emphasized the importance of taking care of others and "giving back to the community." Being "in the country" linked youth to traditional ontology that profoundly shifted how youth felt in relation to themselves, to others, and the world. The vast majority of participants' "fulfillment narratives" centered on doing subsistence and/or cultural activities. In relation to this, young people were more likely to demonstrate versatility in their resilience strategies when deploying coherent self-narratives that reflected novel yet culturally resonant styles. Young women were more likely to demonstrate this by reconfiguring notions of culture and gender identity in ways that helped them meet challenges in their lives. Lastly, generational differences in understandings signal particular ways that young people's historical and political positioning influences their access to cultural resources.

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 preferentially grows as aggregates in liquid batch cultures and disperses upon starvation.

    PubMed

    Schleheck, David; Barraud, Nicolas; Klebensberger, Janosch; Webb, Jeremy S; McDougald, Diane; Rice, Scott A; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    In both natural and artificial environments, bacteria predominantly grow in biofilms, and bacteria often disperse from biofilms as freely suspended single-cells. In the present study, the formation and dispersal of planktonic cellular aggregates, or 'suspended biofilms', by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in liquid batch cultures were closely examined, and compared to biofilm formation on a matrix of polyester (PE) fibers as solid surface in batch cultures. Plankton samples were analyzed by laser-diffraction particle-size scanning (LDA) and microscopy of aggregates. Interestingly, LDA indicated that up to 90% of the total planktonic biomass consisted of cellular aggregates in the size range of 10-400 microm in diameter during the growth phase, as opposed to individual cells. In cultures with PE surfaces, P. aeruginosa preferred to grow in biofilms, as opposed to planktonicly. However, upon carbon, nitrogen or oxygen limitation, the planktonic aggregates and PE-attached biofilms dispersed into single cells, resulting in an increase in optical density (OD) independent of cellular growth. During growth, planktonic aggregates and PE-attached biofilms contained densely packed viable cells and extracellular DNA (eDNA), and starvation resulted in a loss of viable cells, and an increase in dead cells and eDNA. Furthermore, a release of metabolites and infective bacteriophage into the culture supernatant, and a marked decrease in intracellular concentration of the second messenger cyclic di-GMP, was observed in dispersing cultures. Thus, what traditionally has been described as planktonic, individual cell cultures of P. aeruginosa, are in fact suspended biofilms, and such aggregates have behaviors and responses (e.g. dispersal) similar to surface associated biofilms. In addition, we suggest that this planktonic biofilm model system can provide the basis for a detailed analysis of the synchronized biofilm life cycle of P. aeruginosa.

  20. Phenotypic diversity and amylolytic activity of fast growing rhizobia from pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, Paulo Ivan Fernandes; de Lima, Andréa Aparecida; Passos, Samuel Ribeiro; Tuão Gava, Carlos Alberto; de Oliveira, Paulo Jansen; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvêa; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated 26 pigeonpea rhizobial isolates according to their cultural characteristics, intrinsic antibiotic resistance, salt and temperature tolerance, carbon source utilization and amylolytic activity. The cultural characterization showed that the majority of them presented the ability to acidify the YMA. Among the 27 isolates evaluated, 25 were able to grow when incubated at 42° C and 11 showed tolerance to 3% (w/v) of NaCl in YMA medium. The patterns of carbon sources utilization was very diverse among the isolates. It was observed the capacity of three strains to metabolize all the carbon sources evaluated and a total of 42% of the bacterial isolates was able to grow in the culture medium supplemented with at least, six carbon sources. The carbon sources mannitol (control) and sucrose were metabilized by all isolates evaluated. The profile of intrinsic resistance to antibiotics showed that the isolates were mostly resistant to streptomycin and ampicillin, but susceptible to kanamycin and chloranphenicol. High amylolytic activity of, at least, four isolates was also demonstrated, especially for isolated 47.3b, which showed the highest enzymatic index. These results indicate the metabolic versatility of the pigeonpea rhizobia, and indicates the isolate 47.3b to further studies regarding the amylase production and characterization. PMID:24031992

  1. Evaluation of Various Culture Media for Detection of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Preece, Clair L.; Wichelhaus, Thomas A.; Perry, Audrey; Jones, Amanda L.; Cummings, Stephen P.; Hogardt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) from the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is challenging due to overgrowth by rapidly growing species that colonize the lungs of patients with CF. Extended incubation on Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) has been recommended as an expedient culture method for the isolation of rapidly growing NTM in this setting. The aim of this study was to assess five selective media designed for the isolation of Burkholderia cepacia complex, along with two media designed for the isolation of mycobacteria (rapidly growing mycobacteria [RGM] medium and Middlebrook 7H11 agar), for their abilities to isolate NTM. All seven media were challenged with 147 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria and 185 isolates belonging to other species. RGM medium was then compared with the most selective brand of BCSA for the isolation of NTM from 224 sputum samples from patients with CF. Different agars designed for the isolation of B. cepacia complex varied considerably in their inhibition of other bacteria and fungi. RGM medium supported the growth of all isolates of mycobacteria and was more selective than any other medium. NTM were recovered from 17 of 224 sputum samples using RGM medium, compared with only 7 samples using the most selective brand of BCSA (P = 0.023). RGM medium offers a superior option, compared to other selective agars, for the isolation of rapidly growing mycobacteria from the sputum of patients with CF. Furthermore, the convenience of using RGM medium enables routine screening for rapidly growing NTM in all submitted sputum samples from patients with CF. PMID:27098962

  2. In vivo-like drug responses of human tumors growing in three-dimensional gel-supported primary culture

    SciTech Connect

    Vescio, R.A.; Redfern, C.H.; Nelson, T.J.; Ugoretz, S.; Stern, P.H.; Hoffman, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    An in vitro test of cell sensitivity to drugs that indicates in vivo response is an important need in cancer therapy and cancer drug development. Toward this end, the authors previously developed a collagen gel-supported culture system for growth of human tumors. This three-dimensional culture system is general and grows tumors at high frequency directly from surgery or biopsy that maintain important in vivo properties in vitro, including tissue architecture. They report here that with autoradiographic techniques measuring cellular DNA synthesis the drug responses of individual cells within the tissue structure of in vitro-grown tumors can be determined. Twenty tumor classes, including all the major ones, have been measured in toto at >50% frequency. Quantitative and qualitative results show increasing cell kill with rising cytotoxic drug concentration, differential drug sensitivities of multiple cell types within individual cultured tumors, differential sensitivities of a series of tumors of the same histopathological classification to a single drug, differential sensitivities of individual tumors to a series of drugs, and sensitivity patterns of various tumor types similar to the sensitivities found in vivo. Therefore, the results indicate that potentially important therapeutic data can be obtained from tumor specimens growing in vitro for the individual cancer patient as well as for rational and relevant screening for new agents active against human solid tumors.

  3. In vivo-like drug responses of human tumors growing in three-dimensional gel-supported primary culture.

    PubMed Central

    Vescio, R A; Redfern, C H; Nelson, T J; Ugoretz, S; Stern, P H; Hoffman, R M

    1987-01-01

    An in vitro test of cell sensitivity to drugs that indicates in vivo response is an important need in cancer therapy and cancer drug development. Toward this end, we previously developed a collagen gel-supported culture system for growth of human tumors. This three-dimensional culture system is general and grows tumors at high frequency directly from surgery or biopsy that maintain important in vivo properties in vitro, including tissue architecture. We report here that with autoradiographic techniques measuring cellular DNA synthesis the drug responses of individual cells within the tissue structure of in vitro-grown tumors can be determined. Twenty tumor classes, including all the major ones, have been measured in toto at greater than 50% frequency. Quantitative and qualitative results show increasing cell kill with rising cytotoxic drug concentration, differential drug sensitivities of multiple cell types within individual cultured tumors, differential sensitivities of a series of tumors of the same histopathological classification to a single drug, differential sensitivities of individual tumors to a series of drugs, and sensitivity patterns of various tumor types similar to the sensitivities found in vivo. Therefore, the results indicate that potentially important therapeutic data can be obtained from tumor specimens growing in vitro for the individual cancer patient as well as for rational and relevant screening for new agents active against human solid tumors. Images PMID:3474637

  4. Cultural Activities for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Cultural activities for the deaf are described and discussed in seven conference papers. Two papers by P. R. Wisher of Gallaudet College treat "The Role of Physical Education and Athletics for the Deaf in a Hearing World" and "Psychological Contributions of Dance to the Adjustment of the Deaf." Also included are three papers…

  5. Plant tissue culture of fast-growing trees for phytoremediation research.

    PubMed

    Couselo, José Luis; Corredoira, Elena; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The ability of plants to remove pollutants from the environment is currently used in a simple and low-cost cleaning technology known as phytoremediation. Unfortunately, little is known about the metabolic pathways involved in the transformation of xenobiotic compounds and the ability of certain plants to tolerate, detoxify, and store high concentrations of heavy metals. Plant cell and tissue culture is considered an important tool for fundamental studies that provide information about the plant-contaminant relationships, help to predict plant responses to environmental contaminants, and improve the design of plants with enhanced characteristics for phytoremediation. Callus, cell suspensions, hairy roots, and shoot multiplication cultures are used to study the interactions between plants and pollutants under aseptic conditions. Many plant species have an inherent ability to accumulate/metabolize a variety of pollutants, but they normally produce little biomass. However, fast-growing trees are excellent candidates for phytoremediation because of their rapid growth, extensive root system, and high water uptake. This chapter outlines the in vitro plant production of both somaclonal variants and transgenic plants of Populus spp. that exhibit high tolerance to heavy metals.

  6. Miniaturized extinction culturing is the preferred strategy for rapid isolation of fast-growing methane-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hoefman, Sven; van der Ha, David; De Vos, Paul; Boon, Nico; Heylen, Kim

    2012-05-01

    Methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) have a large potential as a microbial sink for the greenhouse gas methane as well as for biotechnological purposes. However, their application in biotechnology has so far been hampered, in part due to the relative slow growth rate of the available strains. To enable the availability of novel strains, this study compares the isolation of MOB by conventional dilution plating with miniaturized extinction culturing, both performed after an initial enrichment step. The extinction approach rendered 22 MOB isolates from four environmental samples, while no MOB could be isolated by plating. In most cases, extinction culturing immediately yielded MOB monocultures making laborious purification redundant. Both type I (Methylomonas spp.) and type II (Methylosinus sp.) MOB were isolated. The isolated methanotrophic diversity represented at least 11 different strains and several novel species based on 16S rRNA gene sequence dissimilarity. These strains possessed the particulate (100%) and soluble (64%) methane monooxygenase gene. Also, 73% of the strains could be linked to a highly active fast-growing mixed MOB community. In conclusion, miniaturized extinction culturing was more efficient in rapidly isolating numerous MOB requiring little effort and fewer materials, compared with the more widely applied plating procedure. This miniaturized approach allowed straightforward isolation and could be very useful for subsequent screening of desired characteristics, in view of their future biotechnological potential.

  7. Phytoremediation and removal mechanisms in Bouteloua curtipendula growing in sterile hydrocarbon spiked cultures.

    PubMed

    Reynoso-Cuevas, L; Gallegos-Martínez, M E; Cruz-Sosa, F; Gutiérrez-Rojas, M

    2011-07-01

    Tolerance index and phytoremediation factors of side oats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) with recalcitrant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) phenanthrene (PHE), pyrene (PYR), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and the resulting impact on phenotypic response, were evaluated in sterile conditions with whole plant growing in test-tube cultures with MS medium with PAH and compared with Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), control for this study. PAH mixture of PHE, PYR and BaP (1:1:1 w/w/w) blended with Maya crude oil (1:1 w/w), final concentration of 1500 mg kg(-1) was used. After 40 days, BaP removal, in the presence of Maya crude was superior compared with PHE and PYR removal Although the presence of PAH negatively affects the phenotypic response of the plants; sterile conditions experiments were helpful to evaluate phytoremediation factors to elucidate some important questions regarding phytoremediation mechanisms; in this study, B. curtipendula was able to phytostabilizate BaP associated to a significant hydrocarbon removal (57.4%) with high root accumulation but attenuated transport to stems, here reported as translocation factor. To our knowledge, this is the first time that quantifiable phytoremediation factors were used to evaluate the tolerance and removal capacity of a native semi-arid climate plant which is probably able to phytoremediate hydrocarbon contaminated soils.

  8. HPLC-UV-ESI-MS analysis of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of Hypericum undulatum shoot cultures and wild-growing plants.

    PubMed

    Rainha, Nuno; Koci, Kamila; Coelho, Ana Varela; Lima, Elisabete; Baptista, José; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel

    2013-02-01

    LC-UV and LC-MS analysis were used to study the phenolic composition of water extracts of Hypericum undulatum (HU) shoot cultures and wild-growing (WG) plants. Total phenolic content (TPC), determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and the antioxidant activity measured by two complementary methods were also performed for each sample. Mass spectrometry revealed several phenolics acids with quinic acid moieties, flavonols, mostly quercetin, luteolin and apigenin glycosides, flavan-3-ols (catechin and epicatechin) and the xanthonoid mangiferin. Differences in phenolic composition profile and TPC were found between the samples. The major phenolic in HU culture-growing (CG) samples is chlorogenic acid, followed by epicatechin, quercitrin and isoquercitrin. The WG plants presents hyperoside as the main phenolic, followed by isoquercitrin, chlorogenic acid and quercetin. The TPC and antioxidant activity were higher in samples from WG plants.

  9. Activities to Grow On: Buttons, Beads, and Beans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzolis, Amy; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents new ideas for using buttons, beans, and beads as teaching manipulatives for elementary school children. The ideas include a button scavenger hunt, a button count, a cup puppet bean game, a numbers guessing game with beans in jars, and a bead stringing activity. (SM)

  10. The Growing Awareness Inventory: Building Capacity for Culturally Responsive Science and Mathematics with a Structured Observation Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Julie C.; Crippen, Kent J.

    2016-01-01

    This study represents a first iteration in the design process of the Growing Awareness Inventory (GAIn), a structured observation protocol for building the awareness of preservice teachers (PSTs) for resources in mathematics and science classrooms that can be used for culturally responsive pedagogy (CRP). The GAIn is designed to develop awareness…

  11. Peroxidases Bound to the Growing Lignin Polymer Produce Natural Like Extracellular Lignin in a Cell Culture of Norway Spruce

    PubMed Central

    Warinowski, Tino; Koutaniemi, Sanna; Kärkönen, Anna; Sundberg, Ilari; Toikka, Merja; Simola, Liisa Kaarina; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka; Teeri, Teemu H.

    2016-01-01

    Lignin, an important component of plant cell walls, is a polymer of monolignols derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Monolignols are oxidized in the cell wall by oxidative enzymes (peroxidases and/or laccases) to radicals, which then couple with the growing lignin polymer. We have investigated the characteristics of the polymerization reaction by producing lignin polymers in vitro using different oxidative enzymes and analyzing the structures formed with NMR. The ability of the enzymes to oxidize high-molecular-weight compounds was tested using cytochrome c as a substrate. The results support an idea that lignin structure is largely determined by the concentration ratios of the monolignol (coniferyl alcohol) and polymer radicals involved in the coupling reaction. High rate of the lignin polymer oxidation compared to monolignol oxidation leads to a natural-like structure. The high relative rate can be achieved by an open active site of the oxidative enzyme, close proximity of the enzyme with the polymeric substrate or simply by high enzymatic activity that consumes monolignols rapidly. Monolignols, which are oxidized efficiently, can be seen as competitive inhibitors of polymer oxidation. Our results indicate that, at least in a Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) cell culture, a group of apoplastic, polymer-oxidizing peroxidases bind to the lignin polymer and are responsible for production of natural-like lignin in cell suspension cultures in vivo, and also in vitro. The peroxidases bound to the extracellular lignin had the highest ability to bind to various cell wall polymers in vitro. Extracellular lignin contains pectin-type sugars, making them possible attachment points for these cationic peroxidases. PMID:27803704

  12. Exploring Youth Cultures Geographically through Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacko, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents strategies for actively involving students in studying cultural geography through a research project on youth cultures. It provides a basic framework to investigate selected "subcultures" focusing on the origin and diffusion of each culture, its material and non-material aspects and the attributes and meanings of spaces used by…

  13. Decolorization of palm oil mill effluent using growing cultures of Curvularia clavata.

    PubMed

    Neoh, Chin Hong; Lam, Chi Yong; Lim, Chi Kim; Yahya, Adibah; Ibrahim, Zaharah

    2014-03-01

    Agricultural wastewater that produces color are of environmental and health concern as colored effluent can produce toxic and carcinogenic by-products. From this study, batch culture optimization using response surface methods indicated that the fungus isolated from the pineapple solid waste, Curvularia clavata was able to decolorize sterile palm oil mill effluent (POME) which is mainly associated with polyphenol and lignin. Results showed successful decolorization of POME up to 80 % (initial ADMI [American Dye Manufacturing Index] of 3,793) with 54 % contributed by biosorption and 46 % by biodegradation after 5 days of treatment. Analysis using HPLC and GC-MS showed the degradation of color causing compound such as 3-methoxyphenyl isothiocynate and the production of new metabolites. Ecotoxicity test indicated that the decolorized effluent is safe for discharge. To determine the longevity of the fungus for a prolonged decolorization period, sequential batch decolorization studies were carried out. The results showed that lignin peroxidase and laccase were the main ligninolytic enzymes involved in the degradation of color. Carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) and xylanase activities were also detected suggesting possible roles of the enzymes in promoting growth of the fungus which consequently contributed to improved decolorization of POME. In conclusion, the ability of C. clavata in treating color of POME indicated that C. clavata is of potential use for decolorization and degradation of agricultural wastewater containing polyphenolic compounds.

  14. In Face of Growing Stress and Conservatives' Attacks, Cultural-Studies Scholars Ponder Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Ellen K.

    1989-01-01

    Cultural studies, an amalgam of literature, social history, sociology, anthropology, and media studies, looks at the intersection of culture and politics. The discipline is still evolving and has drawn criticism, but proponents do not want it to become too institutionalized at the risk of losing its critical integrity. (MSE)

  15. Mineral and organic growing media have distinct community structure, stability and functionality in soilless culture systems

    PubMed Central

    Grunert, Oliver; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Jauregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar H.; Perneel, Maaike; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Reheul, Dirk; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The choice of soilless growing medium for plant nutrition, growth and support is crucial for improving the eco-sustainability of the production in horticultural systems. As our current understanding of the functional microbial communities inhabiting this ecosystem is still limited, we examined the microbial community development of the two most important growing media (organic and mineral) used in open soilless horticultural systems. We aimed to identify factors that influence community composition over time, and to compare the distribution of individual taxa across growing media, and their potential functionality. High throughput sequencing analysis revealed a distinctive and stable microbial community in the organic growing medium. Humidity, pH, nitrate-N, ammonium-N and conductivity were uncovered as the main factors associated with the resident bacterial communities. Ammonium-N was correlated with Rhizobiaceae abundance, while potential competitive interactions among both Methylophilaceae and Actinobacteridae with Rhizobiaceae were suggested. Our results revealed that soilless growing media are unique niches for diverse bacterial communities with temporal functional stability, which may possibly impact the resistance to external forces. These differences in communities can be used to develop strategies to move towards a sustainable horticulture with increased productivity and quality. PMID:26728128

  16. Uncharted Territory: Growing Up Gifted amid a Culture of Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    While it is true that every generation of children grows up with a different confluence of historical influences than the previous generation, the current generation of students with gifts and talents (SWGT) has matured during a unique time during which they have been immersed within an electronic social network. While some factors that influence…

  17. An Approach for Assessing the Signature Quality of Various Chemical Assays when Predicting the Culture Media Used to Grow Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Aimee E.; Sego, Landon H.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Anderson, Richard M.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Weimar, Mark R.; Tardiff, Mark F.; Corley, Courtney D.

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate an approach for assessing the quality of a signature system designed to predict the culture medium used to grow a microorganism. The system was comprised of four chemical assays designed to identify various ingredients that could be used to produce the culture medium. The analytical measurements resulting from any combination of these four assays can be used in a Bayesian network to predict the probabilities that the microorganism was grown using one of eleven culture media. We evaluated combinations of the signature system by removing one or more of the assays from the Bayes network. We measured and compared the quality of the various Bayes nets in terms of fidelity, cost, risk, and utility, a method we refer to as Signature Quality Metrics

  18. Promoting Physical Activity in Secondary Schools: Growing Expectations, "Same Old" Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo; Duncombe, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There are growing expectations on schools to promote health and physical activity and helping schools to effectively do so is considered a priority. This paper reports on selected findings from a research project that was concerned with supporting secondary schools in the effective promotion of physical activity and establishing their needs in…

  19. Classroom Activities for Cross-Cultural Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanger, Virginia Vogel, Ed.; And Others

    One-fourth of the students in Boston public schools have parents who were born outside of the United States. This guide contains a series of classroom activities, produced by Boston teachers and aides, that are designed to take advantage of the abundant cultural diversity found in Boston schools by encouraging these dual-culture students to share…

  20. Cross Cultural Watershed Partners. Activities Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapp, William B.; And Others

    The Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN) has developed this manual of background information and activities for teachers and students who are interested in adding a cross cultural component to their watershed education program, or who wish to include an environmental context to their cross cultural experience. The instructional…

  1. Preliminary evaluation of a new clinical algorithm to interpret blood cultures growing coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Schnell, David; Lécuyer, Hervé; Geeraerts, Thomas; Dumenil, Anne-Sylvie; Bille, Emmanuelle; Mercier, Frédéric J; Benhamou, Dan; Zahar, Jean-Ralph

    2013-07-01

    Evaluating the clinical significance of blood cultures positive for coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is of critical importance since these microorganisms represent both the first contaminants of blood cultures and one of the leading causes of bloodstream infection (BSI). This prospective 2-centre study aimed to compare a previously reported algorithm to a clinical algorithm based on our experience. We identified 84 patients with CoNS-positive blood cultures. Twenty-seven (32%) were considered to have BSI according to our study algorithm. Thirty-seven (44%) patients were considered to have CoNS BSI according to the previously reported algorithm. The 2 algorithms isolated patients with similar rates of recurrences and hospital mortality. Our algorithm seemed to result in less diagnoses of CoNS BSI without harmful consequences compared to the previously reported algorithm. The impact on patient outcome and the inappropriate use of antibiotics deserves further investigation.

  2. Optimization of decolorization of palm oil mill effluent (POME) by growing cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Neoh, Chin Hong; Yahya, Adibah; Adnan, Robiah; Abdul Majid, Zaiton; Ibrahim, Zaharah

    2013-05-01

    The conventional treatment process of palm oil mill effluent (POME) produces a highly colored effluent. Colored compounds in POME cause reduction in photosynthetic activities, produce carcinogenic by-products in drinking water, chelate with metal ions, and are toxic to aquatic biota. Thus, failure of conventional treatment methods to decolorize POME has become an important problem to be addressed as color has emerged as a critical water quality parameter for many countries such as Malaysia. Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from POME sludge was successfully grown in POME supplemented with glucose. Statistical optimization studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of the types and concentrations of carbon and nitrogen sources, pH, temperature, and size of the inoculum. Characterization of the fungus was performed using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Brunauer, Emmet, and Teller surface area analysis. Optimum conditions using response surface methods at pH 5.7, 35 °C, and 0.57 % w/v glucose with 2.5 % v/v inoculum size resulted in a successful removal of 71 % of the color (initial ADMI of 3,260); chemical oxygen demand, 71 %; ammoniacal nitrogen, 35 %; total polyphenolic compounds, 50 %; and lignin, 54 % after 5 days of treatment. The decolorization process was contributed mainly by biosorption involving pseudo-first-order kinetics. FTIR analysis revealed that the presence of hydroxyl, C-H alkane, amide carbonyl, nitro, and amine groups could combine intensively with the colored compounds in POME. This is the first reported work on the application of A. fumigatus for the decolorization of POME. The present investigation suggested that growing cultures of A. fumigatus has potential applications for the decolorization of POME through the biosorption and biodegradation processes.

  3. Effect of porcine-derived mucosal competitive exclusion culture on antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli from growing piglets.

    PubMed

    Kim, L M; Gray, Jeffery T; Bailey, J Stan; Jones, Richard D; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J

    2005-01-01

    While use of antimicrobial drugs in livestock production has made a significant impact on animal health, welfare, and productivity, interest in suitable alternatives such as pre/probiotics, organic acids, and cultures of normal flora or "competitive exclusion" cultures from young animals has increased significantly in the wake of the antimicrobial resistance issue. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of porcine-derived mucosal competitive exclusion (PCE) culture on both the antimicrobial susceptibility of commensal E. coli and on growth performance in piglets. Two replicate trials were conducted using growing piglets fed standard antimicrobial-free production diets. Piglets in the treatment group were orally dosed with PCE (10(10) cfu/mL) twice within 24 h of birth, at weaning, and 18-24 h post-weaning; control group piglets were dosed with sterile broth as a placebo. Fecal samples from all piglets were cultured for commensal E. coli at dosing times and when feed type was changed. A significantly higher proportion of E. coli from PCE-treated piglets demonstrated resistance to tetracycline (p < 0.0001), and streptomycin (p < 0.0001) when compared to controls. Resistance to streptomycin resistance in E. coli from piglets treated with PCE culture was variable, returning to baseline levels by day 21 (weaning). Piglets treated with the PCE culture demonstrated improved feed efficiencies when compared to control piglets (p < 0.005) during feeding of the starter and first growth diets. The PCE culture used in the present study had previously been shown to effectively exclude Salmonella in pigs. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report characterizing the effect of a competitive exclusion culture on antimicrobial resistance of commensal E. coli.

  4. The Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency: Helping You Grow Your Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency, European Commission, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA) is a public body created by a Decision of the European Commission and operates under its supervision. It is located in Brussels and has been operational since January 2006. Its role is to manage European funding opportunities and networks in the fields of education and training,…

  5. Growing a New Culture of Assessment: Planting ePortfolios in the Metro Academies Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shada, Alycia; Kelly, Kevin; Cox, Ruth; Malik, Savita

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a look at the development of a new culture of assessment in higher education with the use of electronic portfolios (ePortfolios). It uses the metaphor of horticulture to describe how an inter-institutional program, Metro Academies of Health, has gone through the first two parts of the ePorticulture cycle--preparing for the use…

  6. World Cultures through Art Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Dindy

    The guide is intended to be a supplement to multicultural units in primary grades. The activities are freehand and students should be encouraged to use their imaginations and ideas to improve on a design. The approach is based on a whole language philosophy of learning with simple art activities that encourage creativity and critical thinking in…

  7. The universal bundling activity of AtVLN4 in diffusely growing cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Fei; Zhang, Yi; Ren, Haiyun

    2011-09-01

    We recently reported that AtVLN4, a member of villin/gelsolin/fragmin superfamily in Arabidopsis thaliana, participated in root hair growth through its actin bundling activity. To further understand the functions of AtVLN4, we investigated its in vivo expression pattern and roles in diffusely growing cells. Transcription analysis of AtVLN4 and detection of AtVLN 4 promoter-GUS activity consistently indicated that AtVLN4 had a universal expression pattern and was preferentially expressed in vegetative tissues. Observation of actin structures labeled by GFP-fABD2 revealed that there were less actin bundles in many diffusely growing cell types in atvln4-1 seedlings than in wild-type seedlings. Pharmacological studies by treatment with Latrunculin B showed that the actin filaments were much easier to be disrupted in diffusely growing cells of atvln4-1 seedlings. Collectively, these results demonstrate that AtVLN4 has a universal actin bundling activity in diffusely growing cells just like that in the tip growing cell, root hairs.

  8. Induction and activation of meiosis and subsequent parthenogenetic development of growing pig oocytes using calcium ionophore A23187.

    PubMed

    Sedmíková, Markéta; Burdová, Jana; Petr, Jaroslav; Etrych, Milan; Rozinek, Jirí; Jílek, Frantisek

    2003-12-01

    The pig ovary contains a large number of growing oocytes, which do not mature in vitro and cannot be readily used in various biotechnologies. This study was conducted to determine the possibility of inducing meiotic maturation in growing pig oocytes with an internal diameter of 110 microm, which had developed partial meiotic competence. Most of these oocytes spontaneously stopped maturation at the metaphase I stage (68%); a limited number proceeded to the metaphase II stage (26%). Treatment with calcium ionophore A23187 (50 microM for 5 or 10 min) after 24h in vitro culture overcame the block at the metaphase I stage, and treated growing pig oocytes matured to the metaphase II stage (66%). Oocytes in which maturation had been induced by calcium ionophore were again treated with calcium ionophore. Up to 58% of the treated oocytes were activated. Parthenogenetic development in oocytes treated with ionophore for meiosis induction and activation was very limited. The portion which reached morula stage did not exceed 8% and at most 3% developed to the blastocyst stage.

  9. Growing Uniform Graphene Disks and Films on Molten Glass for Heating Devices and Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yubin; Sun, Jingyu; Gao, Junfeng; Du, Feng; Han, Qi; Nie, Yufeng; Chen, Zhaolong; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Priydarshi, Manish Kr; Ma, Donglin; Song, Xiuju; Wu, Xiaosong; Xiong, Chunyang; Rümmeli, Mark H; Ding, Feng; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan

    2015-12-16

    The direct growth of uniform graphene disks and their continuous film is achieved by exploiting the molten state of glass. The use of molten glass enables highly uniform nucleation and an enhanced growth rate (tenfold) of graphene, as compared to those scenarios on commonly used insulating solids. The obtained graphene glasses show promising application potentials in daily-life scenarios such as smart heating devices and biocompatible cell-culture mediums.

  10. Growing a Training System and Culture for the Ares I Upper Stage Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.

    2009-01-01

    In roughly two years time, Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) has incubated a personnel training and certification program for about 1000 learners and multiple phases of the Ares I Upper Stage (US) project. Previous MOL-developed training programs focused on about 100 learners with a focus on operations, and had enough full-time training staff to develop courseware and provide training administration. This paper discusses 1) the basics of MOL's training philosophy, 2) how creation of a broad, structured training program unfolded as feedback from more narrowly defined tasks, 3) how training philosophy, development methods, and administration are being simplified and tailored so that many Upper Stage organizations can "grow their own" training yet maintain consistency, accountability, and traceability across the project, 4) interfacing with the production contractor's training system and staff, and 5) reaping training value from existing materials and events.

  11. Anaerobic bacteria grow within Candida albicans biofilms and induce biofilm formation in suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Fox, Emily P; Cowley, Elise S; Nobile, Clarissa J; Hartooni, Nairi; Newman, Dianne K; Johnson, Alexander D

    2014-10-20

    The human microbiome contains diverse microorganisms, which share and compete for the same environmental niches. A major microbial growth form in the human body is the biofilm state, where tightly packed bacterial, archaeal, and fungal cells must cooperate and/or compete for resources in order to survive. We examined mixed biofilms composed of the major fungal species of the gut microbiome, Candida albicans, and each of five prevalent bacterial gastrointestinal inhabitants: Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis. We observed that biofilms formed by C. albicans provide a hypoxic microenvironment that supports the growth of two anaerobic bacteria, even when cultured in ambient oxic conditions that are normally toxic to the bacteria. We also found that coculture with bacteria in biofilms induces massive gene expression changes in C. albicans, including upregulation of WOR1, which encodes a transcription regulator that controls a phenotypic switch in C. albicans, from the "white" cell type to the "opaque" cell type. Finally, we observed that in suspension cultures, C. perfringens induces aggregation of C. albicans into "mini-biofilms," which allow C. perfringens cells to survive in a normally toxic environment. This work indicates that bacteria and C. albicans interactions modulate the local chemistry of their environment in multiple ways to create niches favorable to their growth and survival.

  12. [Effects of growing time on Panax ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial activity and biomass].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chun-ping; Yang, Li-min; Ma, Feng-min

    2014-12-01

    Using the field sampling and indoor soil cultivation methods, the dynamic of ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial activity and biomass with three cultivated ages was studied to provide a theory basis for illustrating mechanism of continuous cropping obstacles of ginseng. The results showed that ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial activity and biomass accumulation were inhibited observably by growing time. The soil respiration, soil cellulose decomposition and soil nitrification of ginseng rhizosphere soil microorganism were inhibited significantly (P <0.05), in contrast to the control soil uncultivated ginseng (R0). And the inhibition was gradual augmentation with the number of growing years. The soil microbial activity of 3a ginseng soil (R3) was the lowest, and its activity of soil respiration, soil cellulose decomposition, soil ammonification and soil nitrification was lower than that in R0 with 56.31%, 86.71% and 90. 53% , respectively. The soil ammonification of ginseng rhizosphere soil microbial was significantly promoted compared with R0. The promotion was improved during the early growing time, while the promotion was decreased with the number of growing years. The soil ammonification of R1, R2 and R3 were lower than that in R0 with 32.43%, 80.54% and 66.64% separately. The SMB-C and SMB-N in ginseng rhizosphere soil had a decreased tendency with the number of growing years. The SMB-C difference among 3 cultivated ages was significant, while the SMB-N was not. The SMB of R3 was the lowest. Compared with R0, the SMB-C and the SMB-N were significantly reduced 77.30% and 69.36%. It was considered by integrated analysis that the leading factor of continuous cropping obstacle in ginseng was the changes of the rhizosphere soil microbial species, number and activity as well as the micro-ecological imbalance of rhizosphere soil caused by the accumulation of ginseng rhizosphere secretions.

  13. Response of tobacco tissue cultures growing in contact with lunar fines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Laseter, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    During the quarantine periods following each Apollo mission to the moon, various biological systems were placed in the presence of lunar material to determine if pathogenic agents were present. Although no detrimental effects resulted, various responses by the several plant systems tested were noted. One such response was the increased pigmentation observed in the callus tissue cultures of tobacco. Further investigations revealed that these tissues grown in the presence of lunar material resulted in as much as a 35% increase in total pigments while differences in fatty acid and sterol concentrations were also noted when compared to the controls. It is believed that these changes brought about by the lunar material can be attributed to a change in the nutritional environment caused by its dissolution.

  14. Space activities and global popular music culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, Allison Rae; Collins, Patrick

    During the "space age" era, space activities appear increasingly as a theme in Western popular music, as they do in popular culture generally. In combination with the electronics and tele-communications revolution, "pop/rock" music has grown explosively during the space age to become an effectively global culture. From this base a number of trends are emerging in the pattern of influences that space activities have on pop music. The paper looks at the use of themes and imagery in pop music; the role of space technology in the modern "globalization" of pop music; and current and future links between space activities and pop music culture, including how public space programmes are affected by its influence on popular attitudes.

  15. Activation of tobacco retrotransposons during tissue culture.

    PubMed Central

    Hirochika, H

    1993-01-01

    Sequences of at least three new families of retrotransposons (Tto1-Tto3) were amplified by PCR from cDNA prepared from protoplasts of an established tobacco cell line, based on the fact that certain amino acids are highly conserved in the reverse transcriptases encoded by retrotransposons. Structural analysis indicates that Tto1 is 5.5 kb long and has features typical of retrotransposons. Transcription of Tto1 starting in the long terminal repeat was active only in cultured cells. Protoplast formation enhanced the transcription. The copy number of Tto1 increased 10-fold in established cell lines; it also increased in plants regenerated from tissue cultures and in transgenic plants. These results indicate that Tto1 is activated during tissue culture. This is the first demonstration of activation of a plant retrotransposon by tissue culture. The copy number of Tto2 and a previously isolated transposon, Tnt1, also increased in established cell lines, indicating that these two retrotransposons may also be activated by tissue culture. These three retrotransposons are cryptic in normally propagated plants: no difference in the copy number was observed between individuals of the same cultivars or even between different cultivars. Images PMID:8389699

  16. Formation of beta-fructosyl compounds of pyridoxine in growing culture of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Y; Uchida, K

    1993-06-01

    Two pyridoxine compounds were found to be formed in a culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger and A. sydowi, when grown in a medium containing sucrose and pyridoxine. Each of the two compounds I and II was obtained as a white powdered preparation by preparative paper chromatography, gel filtration on Toyopearl HW-40S and Sephadex G-10 columns, DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, and lyophilization. Compounds I and II were identified as 5'-O-(beta-D-fructofuranosyl)-pyridoxine and 5'-O-[beta-D-fructofuranosyl-(2-->1)-beta-D-fructofuranosyl]-pyridoxine, on the basis of the various experimental results, viz., elementary analyses, UV, 1H-, and 13C-NMR spectra, products by hydrolysis with acid and yeast beta-D-fructofuranosidase, migration on paper electrophoresis, and Gibbs reaction in the presence and absence of boric acid. Levansucrase from Microbacterium laevaniformans and yeast beta-D-fructofuranosidase did not catalyze the beta-D-fructofuranosyl transfer from sucrose to pyridoxine to give rise to beta-D-fructofuranosyl-pyridoxine.

  17. Culture density influence on the photosynthetic efficiency of microalgae growing under different spectral compositions of light.

    PubMed

    Kula, M; Kalaji, H M; Skoczowski, A

    2017-02-01

    A density in algal suspension causes a significant change in the intensity and spectral composition of light reaching individual cells. Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence allow us to observe any general changes in the bioenergetic status of photosynthesis. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of cultivation density on the PSII photochemical efficiency of three species of algae (Chlorella vulgaris, Botryococcus braunii and Chlorella emersonii), each with a different rate of growth - high, medium and low - respectively. The cell density of algae in suspension differentiated through the cultivation time (2, 4, and 8days) and the spectral composition of light. The results showed that the density of cultivation led to change in the photosynthetic apparatus of algae. The differences described between each day of cultivation (2, 4, and 8) in the kinetics of chlorophyll a fluorescence intensity in cells of the algal strains under study probably resulted from the different phases of growth of these cultures. In addition the results showed the beneficial effect of far red light on the photosynthetic apparatus and the growth of biomass in investigated algal strains.

  18. Microorganisms associated to tomato seedlings growing in saline culture act as osmoprotectant

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Jiménez, Daniel; Gómez-Guzmán, Abril; Iturriaga, Gabriel; Suárez, Ramón; Alpírez, Gisela Montero; Escalante, Froylán M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Less than 0.5% of total water in the world is available for human consumption and agriculture. The major part of the world’s water is saline and salinity in soils interferes in germination of seeds and the posterior development of the plant. In order to increase the osmotolerance of tomato, seedlings were associated with Azospirillum brasilense Cd, Azospirillum brasilense Cd transformed bacteria with a plasmid harboring a trehalose biosynthesis gene-fusion or Chlorella vulgaris. Two plant culture media: Hydroponic and Murashige and Skoog were tested. In the first set of studies seedlings were associated to single free cells meanwhile in a second set single and combined free cells were studied. A positive interaction between transformed Azospirillum and Chlorella vulagris and tomato plants was observed. Seedlings showed a salt concentration tolerance, as sodium chloride, up to 200 mM. According to our results, the association of plants with A. brasilense Cd-BIF and C. vulgaris is a viable approach to increase their salt tolerance and biomass, as consequence the possible use of sea water to irrigate horticultural plants. PMID:25242948

  19. Microorganisms associated to tomato seedlings growing in saline culture act as osmoprotectant.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Jiménez, Daniel; Gómez-Guzmán, Abril; Iturriaga, Gabriel; Suárez, Ramón; Alpírez, Gisela Montero; Escalante, Froylán M E

    2014-01-01

    Less than 0.5% of total water in the world is available for human consumption and agriculture. The major part of the world's water is saline and salinity in soils interferes in germination of seeds and the posterior development of the plant. In order to increase the osmotolerance of tomato, seedlings were associated with Azospirillum brasilense Cd, Azospirillum brasilense Cd transformed bacteria with a plasmid harboring a trehalose biosynthesis gene-fusion or Chlorella vulgaris. Two plant culture media: Hydroponic and Murashige and Skoog were tested. In the first set of studies seedlings were associated to single free cells meanwhile in a second set single and combined free cells were studied. A positive interaction between transformed Azospirillum and Chlorella vulagris and tomato plants was observed. Seedlings showed a salt concentration tolerance, as sodium chloride, up to 200 mM. According to our results, the association of plants with A. brasilense Cd-BIF and C. vulgaris is a viable approach to increase their salt tolerance and biomass, as consequence the possible use of sea water to irrigate horticultural plants.

  20. Water activity of poultry litter: Relationship to moisture content during a grow-out.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Mark W; McAuley, Jim; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2016-05-01

    Poultry grown on litter floors are in contact with their own waste products. The waste material needs to be carefully managed to reduce food safety risks and to provide conditions that are comfortable and safe for the birds. Water activity (Aw) is an important thermodynamic property that has been shown to be more closely related to microbial, chemical and physical properties of natural products than moisture content. In poultry litter, Aw is relevant for understanding microbial activity; litter handling and rheological properties; and relationships between in-shed relative humidity and litter moisture content. We measured the Aw of poultry litter collected throughout a meat chicken grow-out (from fresh pine shavings bedding material to day 52) and over a range of litter moisture content (10-60%). The Aw increased non-linearly from 0.71 to 1.0, and reached a value of 0.95 when litter moisture content was only 22-33%. Accumulation of manure during the grow-out reduced Aw for the same moisture content. These results are relevant for making decisions regarding litter re-use in multiple grow-outs as well as setting targets for litter moisture content to minimise odour, microbial risks and to ensure necessary litter physical conditions are maintained during a grow-out. Methods to predict Aw in poultry litter from moisture content are proposed.

  1. Vitrified sheep isolated secondary follicles are able to grow and form antrum after a short period of in vitro culture.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, Franciele Osmarini; Chaves, Roberta Nogueira; de Lima, Laritza Ferreira; Araújo, Valdevane Rocha; Brito, Ivina Rocha; Souza, Carlos Eduardo Azevedo; Donato, Mariana Aragão Matos; Peixoto, Christina Alves; Dinnyes, Andras; Campello, Cláudio Cabral; de Figueiredo, José Ricardo; Rodrigues, Ana Paula Ribeiro

    2015-10-01

    The risk of reintroducing malignant cells after ovarian graft into patients following post-cancer treatment is an obstacle for clinical applications (autotransplantation). In this context, in vitro follicle culture would be an alternative to transplantation in order to minimize such risks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the development of secondary follicles after vitrification in isolated form (without stroma) with vitrification in in situ form (within fragments of ovarian tissue). Follicles were first isolated from ovarian fragments from mixed-breed ewes and then vitrified; these comprised the Follicle-Vitrification group (Follicle-Vit), or fragments of ovarian tissue were first vitrified, followed by isolation of the follicles, resulting in the Tissue-Vitrification group (Tissue-Vit). Control and vitrified groups were submitted to in vitro culture (6 days) and follicular morphology, viability, antrum formation, follicle and oocyte diameter, growth rate, ultrastructural characteristics and cell proliferation were evaluated. The percentages of morphologically normal follicles and antrum formation were similar among groups. Follicular viability and oocyte diameter were similar between Follicle-Vit and Tissue-Vit. The follicular diameter and growth rate of Follicle-Vit were similar to the Control, while those of Tissue-Vit were significantly lower compared to the Control. Both vitrified groups had an augmented rate of granulosa cellular proliferation compared to Control. Secondary follicles can be successfully vitrified before or after isolation from the ovarian tissue without impairing their ability to survive and grow during in vitro culture.

  2. Evaluation of activity of epiphyseal plates in growing males and females.

    PubMed

    Yang, K-T A; Yang, A D

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the age-related activity of the epiphyseal plates, a retrospective study of (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scans was undertaken. The study comprised 81 males and 46 females aged 2 weeks to 24 years. The total percentage (%) whole-body (ratio of total physis activity to whole-body activity) and the regional % whole-body (ratio of physis activity of one region to whole-body activity) were derived. The ratio of physis activity of one region to the total physis activity was defined as % physis. Before age 12, total physis activity was found to contribute about 10% to whole-body activity. All total and regional % whole-body activities followed sigmoid curves with age. The differences of the parameters (transition centers and widths) suggested that there might be a later and longer period for the disappearance of physis activity in males than in females. For all the regions, % physis changed little with age until after puberty. At age <1, the proportion of bone activity in the body was about 30-35% for skull, 20-25% for lower limbs, and 5-15% for the rest of the regions. The maximal changes during growth occurred in the skull and the lower limbs. The age-related changes of physis activity during growth reflect a combination of the potential of bone to grow and the processes of bone growth and bone turnover. Bone scintigraphy is useful in understanding the changes of physis activity during growth.

  3. Comparison of fecal culture and Danish Mix-ELISA for determination of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica prevalence in growing swine.

    PubMed

    Funk, J A; Harris, I T; Davies, P R

    2005-04-25

    In the USA, control of food-borne salmonellosis associated with meat consumption has been predominantly focused at slaughter and processing. It is expected that standards at slaughter and processing will become more stringent, creating pressure to reduce prevalence of Salmonella-positive food animals through on-farm interventions. The aim of this study was to compare traditional fecal culture and the Danish Mix-ELISA (DME) for determination of Salmonella prevalence pre-harvest in swine. In Trial 1, five cohorts of individually identified pigs were longitudinally sampled during the growing period to compare the kinetics of prevalence as estimated by fecal culture and the DME. In Trial 2, the correlation between fecal prevalence and seroprevalence was estimated pre-marketing in 49 groups of pigs. In Trial 1, fecal prevalence and seroprevalence showed similar kinetics, with a tendency of a higher OD% cut-off to more closely approximate fecal prevalence. In Trial 2, correlations between fecal culture and the DME were 0.40, 0.36, 0.43, and 0.43 (p<0.001) for OD% cut-offs > or =10, 20, 30, and 40, respectively. Based on these results, a higher OD% cut-off would be recommended if more approximate estimation of fecal prevalence is desired and longitudinal sampling would be suggested for evaluating the impact of on-farm interventions for Salmonella reduction whether utilizing fecal culture or the DME. Further evaluation of the impact of Salmonella serovar present on farms on seroprevalence and the relationship of on-farm seroprevalence with food safety risk are needed prior to utilizing the DME for pre-harvest Salmonella diagnostics in the US swine herd.

  4. Linking Complexity with Cultural Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtry, Angus

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the similarities and differences between complexity science's and cultural-historical activity theory's understandings of human learning. Notable similarities include their emphasis on the importance of social systems or collectives in understanding human knowledge and practices, as well as their characterization of systems'…

  5. Winter climate change affects growing-season soil microbial biomass and activity in northern hardwood forests.

    PubMed

    Durán, Jorge; Morse, Jennifer L; Groffman, Peter M; Campbell, John L; Christenson, Lynn M; Driscoll, Charles T; Fahey, Timothy J; Fisk, Melany C; Mitchell, Myron J; Templer, Pamela H

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to global change remains a major challenge of ecological research. We exploited a natural elevation gradient in a northern hardwood forest to determine how reductions in snow accumulation, expected with climate change, directly affect dynamics of soil winter frost, and indirectly soil microbial biomass and activity during the growing season. Soils from lower elevation plots, which accumulated less snow and experienced more soil temperature variability during the winter (and likely more freeze/thaw events), had less extractable inorganic nitrogen (N), lower rates of microbial N production via potential net N mineralization and nitrification, and higher potential microbial respiration during the growing season. Potential nitrate production rates during the growing season were particularly sensitive to changes in winter snow pack accumulation and winter soil temperature variability, especially in spring. Effects of elevation and winter conditions on N transformation rates differed from those on potential microbial respiration, suggesting that N-related processes might respond differently to winter climate change in northern hardwood forests than C-related processes.

  6. Malassezia globosa tends to grow actively in summer conditions more than other cutaneous Malassezia species.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Narifumi; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Takeoka, Shiori; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Mizutani, Hiroshi; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2012-07-01

    Malassezia globosa is a major pathogen of Malassezia folliculitis (MF) and the predominant species on human skin. The aim of this study was to clarify the differences between M. globosa and other cutaneous Malassezia species, M. restricta, M. dermatis, M. sympodialis and M. furfur. The optimum growth temperature, effects of compounds of sweat and free fatty acids on growth, and lipase activities of five cutaneous Malassezia species were determined. The growth of M. globosa was promoted strongly by the compounds of sweat and high temperature unlike that of other cutaneous Malassezia species. This result clarified that M. globosa tended to grow actively in summer conditions more than other cutaneous Malassezia species. Furthermore, M. globosa showed high lipase activity. We consider these characteristics of M. globosa to relate to the pathogenesis of MF.

  7. Growing up Active: A Study into Physical Activity in Long Day Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashmore, Aaron W.; Jones, Sandra C.

    2008-01-01

    The child care center is an ideal setting in which to implement strategies to promote physical activity and healthy weight, but there is a paucity of empirical evidence on factors that influence physical activity in these settings. The current study gathered initial qualitative data to explore these factors. Child care workers from five long day…

  8. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils of Satureja thymbra growing wild in Libya.

    PubMed

    Giweli, Abdulhmid; Džamić, Ana M; Soković, Marina; Ristić, Mihailo S; Marin, Petar D

    2012-04-26

    The composition of essential oil isolated from Satureja thymbra, growing wild in Libya, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil was characterized by γ-terpinene (39.23%), thymol (25.16%), p-cymene (7.17%) and carvacrol (4.18%) as the major constituents. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method. It possessed strong antioxidant activity (IC50 = 0.0967 mg/mL). The essential oil was also screened for its antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial and eight fungal species, showing excellent antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms used, in particular against the fungi. The oil of S. thymbra showed bacteriostatic activity at 0.001-0.1 mg/mL and was bactericidal at 0.002-0.2 mg/mL; fungistatic effects at 0.001-0.025 mg/mL and fungicidal effects at 0.001-0.1 mg/mL. The main constituents thymol, carvacrol and γ-terpinene also showed strong antimicrobial activity. The commercial fungicide bifonazole showed much lower antifungal activity than the tested oil.

  9. Stiff substrates enhance cultured neuronal network activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan-You; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Xie, Jing; Li, Chen-Xu; Chen, Wei-Yi; Liu, Bai-Lin; Wu, Xiao-an; Li, Shu-Na; Huo, Bo; Jiang, Lin-Hua; Zhao, Hu-Cheng

    2014-08-28

    The mechanical property of extracellular matrix and cell-supporting substrates is known to modulate neuronal growth, differentiation, extension and branching. Here we show that substrate stiffness is an important microenvironmental cue, to which mouse hippocampal neurons respond and integrate into synapse formation and transmission in cultured neuronal network. Hippocampal neurons were cultured on polydimethylsiloxane substrates fabricated to have similar surface properties but a 10-fold difference in Young's modulus. Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel currents determined by patch-clamp recording were greater in neurons on stiff substrates than on soft substrates. Ca(2+) oscillations in cultured neuronal network monitored using time-lapse single cell imaging increased in both amplitude and frequency among neurons on stiff substrates. Consistently, synaptic connectivity recorded by paired recording was enhanced between neurons on stiff substrates. Furthermore, spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic activity became greater and more frequent in neurons on stiff substrates. Evoked excitatory transmitter release and excitatory postsynaptic currents also were heightened at synapses between neurons on stiff substrates. Taken together, our results provide compelling evidence to show that substrate stiffness is an important biophysical factor modulating synapse connectivity and transmission in cultured hippocampal neuronal network. Such information is useful in designing instructive scaffolds or supporting substrates for neural tissue engineering.

  10. Sensitivity of Active and Passive Microwave Observations to Soil Moisture during Growing Corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, J.; Monsivais-Huertero, A.; Liu, P.; De Roo, R. D.; England, A. W.; Nagarajan, K.

    2011-12-01

    Soil moisture (SM) in the root zone is a key factor governing water and energy fluxes at the land surface and its accurate knowledge is critical to predictions of weather and near-term climate, nutrient cycles, crop-yield, and ecosystem productivity. Microwave observations, such as those at L-band, are highly sensitive to soil moisture in the upper few centimeters (near-surface). The two satellite-based missions dedicated to soil moisture estimation include, the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission and the planned NASA Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) [4] mission. The SMAP mission will include active and passive sensors at L-band to provide global observations of SM, with a repeat coverage of every 2-3 days. These observations can significantly improve root zone soil moisture estimates through data assimilation into land surface models (LSMs). Both the active (radar) and passive (radiometer) microwave sensors measure radiation quantities that are functions of soil dielectric constant and exhibit similar sensitivities to SM. In addition to the SM sensitivity, radar backscatter is highly sensitive to roughness of soil surface and scattering within the vegetation. These effects may produce a much larger dynamic range in backscatter than that produced due to SM changes alone. In this study, we discuss the field observations of active and passive signatures of growing corn at L-band from several seasons during the tenth Microwave, Water and Energy Balance Experiment (MicroWEX-10) conducted in North Central Florida, and to understand the sensitivity of these signatures to soil moisture under dynamic vegetation conditions. The MicroWEXs are a series of season-long field experiments conducted during the growing seasons of sweet corn, cotton, and energy cane over the past six years (for example, [22]). The corn was planted on July 5 and harvested on September 23, 2011 during MicroWEX-10. The size of the field was 0.04 km2 and the soils

  11. Cellular metabolic rates in cultured primary dermal fibroblasts and myoblast cells from fast-growing and control Coturnix quail.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Cooper-Mullin, Clara; Anthony, Nicholas B; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-05-01

    Fibroblast cells have been extensively used in research, including in medicine, physiology, physiological-ecology, and conservation biology. However, whether the physiology of fibroblasts reflects the physiology of other cell types in the same animal is unknown. Dermal fibroblasts are responsible for generating connective tissue and involved in wound healing, but generally, this cell type is thought to be metabolically inactive until it is required at the site of tissue damage. Thus, one might question whether fibroblasts are a representative model system to portray the metabolic profile of the whole organism, as compared with cells isolated from other tissues, like muscle, brain or kidneys. To explore whether fibroblasts have the same metabolic profile as do myoblast cells, we cultured cells from day-old chicks of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) selected for fast-growth or normal growth (our control group). Our results suggest that isolated primary fibroblasts and myoblast cells had higher rates of glycolysis, oxygen consumption and more mitochondria in the fast-growing line than in the control line. Our findings lend support for the idea that fibroblasts are a representative cell system to characterize the whole organism metabolic signature at the cellular-level. These data are striking, however, because fibroblasts had higher rates of metabolism for every parameter measured than myoblast cells isolated from the same individuals.

  12. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 induces alpha-smooth muscle actin expression in granulation tissue myofibroblasts and in quiescent and growing cultured fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Granulation tissue fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) develop several ultrastructural and biochemical features of smooth muscle (SM) cells, including the presence of microfilament bundles and the expression of alpha-SM actin, the actin isoform typical of vascular SM cells. Myofibroblasts have been proposed to play a role in wound contraction and in retractile phenomena observed during fibrotic diseases. We show here that the subcutaneous administration of transforming growth factor- beta 1 (TGF beta 1) to rats results in the formation of a granulation tissue in which alpha-SM actin expressing myofibroblasts are particularly abundant. Other cytokines and growth factors, such as platelet-derived growth factor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, despite their profibrotic activity, do not induce alpha-SM actin in myofibroblasts. In situ hybridization with an alpha-SM actin probe shows a high level of alpha-SM actin mRNA expression in myofibroblasts of TGF beta 1-induced granulation tissue. Moreover, TGF beta 1 induces alpha-SM actin protein and mRNA expression in growing and quiescent cultured fibroblasts and preincubation of culture medium containing whole blood serum with neutralizing antibodies to TGF beta 1 results in a decrease of alpha-SM actin expression by fibroblasts in replicative and non-replicative conditions. These results suggest that TGF beta 1 plays an important role in myofibroblast differentiation during wound healing and fibrocontractive diseases by regulating the expression of alpha-SM actin in these cells. PMID:8314838

  13. Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in Algeria: Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Serakta, M; Djerrou, Z; Mansour-Djaalab, H; Kahlouche-Riachi, F; Hamimed, S; Trifa, W; Belkhiri, A; Edikra, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were compared with three controls : CRL1 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes, CRL2 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of hydroalcoholic solvent, CRL3 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of Glucantim as a reference drug in the management of leishmaniasis. The results showed that both J. regia and L. inermis extracts reduced the promastigotes number significantly (P<0.01). however, S. officinalis showed a total inhibition of the Leishmania major growth.

  14. Creating leptin-like biofunctions by active immunization against chicken leptin receptor in growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Lei, M M; Wu, S Q; Shao, X B; Li, X W; Chen, Z; Ying, S J; Shi, Z D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, immunization against chicken leptin receptor (cLEPR) extracellular domain (ECD) was applied to investigate leptin regulation and LEPR biofunction in growing chicken pullets. A recombinant protein (cLEPR ECD) based on the cLEPR complemenary DNA sequence corresponding to the 582nd to 796th amino acid residues of cLEPR mature peptide was prepared and used as antigen. Immunization against cLEPR ECD in growing chickens increased anti-cLEPR ECD antibody titers in blood, enhanced proportions of phosphorylated janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and served as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein in liver tissue. Chicken live weight gain and abdominal fat mass were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), but feed intake was stimulated by cLEPR ECD immunization (P < 0.05). The treatment also upregulated the gene expression levels of lepR, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl CoA carboxylase-2 (ACC2), and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in liver, abdominal fat, and breast muscle (P < 0.05) but decreased fasn expression levels (P < 0.01). Apart from that of lepR, the expression of appetite-regulating genes, such as orexigenic genes, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), were upregulated (P < 0.01), whereas the anorexigenic gene proopiomelanocortin (POMC) was downregulated in the hypothalamic tissue of cLEPR-immunized pullets (P < 0.01). Blood concentrations of metabolic molecules, such as glucose, triglycerides, and very-low-density lipoprotein, were significantly decreased in cLEPR-immunized pullets but those of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein increased. These results demonstrate that antibodies to membrane proximal cLEPR ECD enhance cLEPR signal transduction, which stimulates metabolism and reduces fat deposition in chickens.

  15. Boundaries of Cultural Influence: Construct Activation as a Mechanism for Cultural Differences in Social Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Ying-Yi; Benet-Martinez, Veronica; Chiu, Chi-Yue; Morris, Michael W.

    2003-01-01

    Examined how applicability of activated cultural knowledge would moderate cultural priming effects. Research with Chinese undergraduate students who had extensive knowledge of Chinese and western culture, and with Chinese-born students at an American university, indicated that seeing American versus Chinese cultural primes affected perception of…

  16. Comparative study of volatile oil content and antimicrobial activity of pecan cultivars growing in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Hawary, Seham S; Zaghloul, Soumaya S; El Halawany, Ali M; El Bishbishy, Mahitab H

    2013-11-01

    The volatile oils obtained from the leaves of four pecan cultivars growing in Egypt were evaluated for their chemical composition and antimicrobial activity. The selected cultivars (cv.) were Carya illinoinensis (Wangneh.) K. Koch. cv. Wichita, C. illinoinensis cv. Western Schley, C. illinoinensis cv. Cherokee, and C. illinoinensis cv. Sioux. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the volatile oils from samples of the different cultivars differ in composition and percentage of their components. β-Curcumene was found as the major constituent of the cv. Wichita oil, whereas germacrene D was the major component of cv. Sioux, cv. Cherokee, and cv. Western Schley. The antimicrobial activity was assayed using the Kirby-Bauer Method by measuring the zone of inhibition of growth. All volatile oils displayed an antimicrobial activity against the tested bacterial strains. On the other hand, only the volatile oil of cv. Wichita showed an antifungal effect on Aspergillus flavus. This work has identified candidates of volatile oils for future in vivo studies to develop antibiotic substitutes for the diminution of human and animal pathogenic bacteria. Nevertheless, the variations of the volatile oil components and antimicrobial potencies of the different studied cultivars, necessitate identifying the cultivars used in future studies.

  17. School Culture and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickwood, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This review examines literature on aspects of school culture and students' physical activity participation. The following questions were addressed: (1) what aspects of school culture have been examined in relation to physical activity, (2) what is the weight of evidence concerning the relationships between school culture factors and physical…

  18. Mercuric reductase activity and evidence of broad-spectrum mercury resistance among clinical isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Steingrube, V.A.; Wallace, R.J. Jr.; Steele, L.C.; Pang, Y.J. )

    1991-05-01

    Resistance to mercury was evaluated in 356 rapidly growing mycobacteria belonging to eight taxonomic groups. Resistance to inorganic Hg2+ ranged from 0% among the unnamed third biovariant complex of Mycobacterium fortuitum to 83% among M. chelonae-like organisms. With cell extracts and 203Hg(NO3)2 as the substrate, mercuric reductase (HgRe) activity was demonstrable in six of eight taxonomic groups. HgRe activity was inducible and required NADPH or NADH and a thiol donor for optimai activity. Species with HgRe activity were also resistant to organomercurial compounds, including phenylmercuric acetate. Attempts at intraspecies and intragenus transfer of HgRe activity by conjugation or transformation were unsuccessful. Mercury resistance is common in rapidly growing mycobacteria and appears to function via the same inducible enzyme systems already defined in other bacterial species. This system offers potential as a strain marker for epidemiologic investigations and for studying genetic systems in rapidly growing mycobacteria.

  19. Viewpoints: Cultures, Text Models, and the Activity of Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan C.; Purves, William C.

    1986-01-01

    Raises three issues concerning the activity of writing and its relation to texts and cultures: (1) knowledge as the basis for the activity of writing, (2) the varying nature of the activity itself and how that activity is shaped by context, and (3) the perceived nature of the written work in a given culture. (HOD)

  20. Cultural relevance of physical activity intervention research with underrepresented populations

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Chan, Keith; Banks, JoAnne; Ruppar, Todd M.; Scharff, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes cultural relevance in physical activity intervention research with underrepresented populations. Seventy-one extant studies which tested interventions to increase physical activity among underrepresented adults were included. Verbatim descriptions of efforts to enhance cultural relevance of study designs and interventions were extracted and then content analyzed. We found strategies to enhance cultural relevance of interventions as soliciting input from population members, linking intervention content with values, addressing language and literacy challenges, incorporating population media figures, using culturally relevant forms of physical activity, and addressing specific population linked barriers to activity. Methodological approaches included specialized recruitment and study locations, culturally relevant measures, underrepresented personnel, and cost-awareness study procedures to prevent fiscal barriers to participation. Most reported activities were surface matching. Existing research neither compared the effectiveness of cultural relevance approaches to standardized interventions nor addressed economic, education, geographic, or cultural heterogeneity among groups. PMID:25228486

  1. Testing anti-fungal activity of a soil-like substrate for growing plants in bioregenerative life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterenko, E. V.; Kozlov, V. A.; Khizhnyak, S. V.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu. L.; Liu, Hong; Xing, Yidong; Hu, Enzhu

    2009-10-01

    The object of this research is to study a soil-like substrate (SLS) to grow plants in a Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). Wheat and rice straw were used as raw materials to prepare SLS. Anti-fungal activity of SLS using test cultures of Bipolaris sorokiniana, a plant-pathogenic fungus which causes wheat root rot was studied. Experiments were conducted with SLS samples, using natural soil and sand as controls. Infecting the substrates, was performed at two levels: the first level was done with wheat seeds carrying B. sorokiniana and the second level with seeds and additional conidia of B. sorokiniana from an outside source. We measured wheat disease incidence and severity in two crop plantings. Lowest disease incidence values were obtained from the second planting, SLS: 26% and 41% at the first and the second infection levels, respectively. For soil the values were 60% and 82%, respectively, and for sand they were 67% and 74%, respectively. Wheat root rot in the second crop planting on SLS, at both infection levels was considerably less severe (9% and 13%, respectively) than on natural soil (20% and 33%) and sand (22% and 32%). SLS significantly suppressed the germination of B. sorokiniana conidia. Conidia germination was 5% in aqueous SLS suspension, and 18% in clean water. No significant differences were found regarding the impact on conidia germination between the SLS samples obtained from wheat and rice straw. The anti-fungal activity in SLS increased because of the presence of worms. SLS also contained bacteria stimulating and inhibiting B. sorokiniana growth.

  2. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of ansu apricot oil growing wild in north Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong-Lei; Zhan, Ping

    2011-07-01

    Ansu apricots growing wild in north Xinjiang are recognised as being one of the major wild-plant resources in China. In order to improve the level of comprehensive utilisation and the number of cultivated apricot varieties, the chemical composition of ansu apricot oil was analysed by capillary GC-MS and elucidated based on the standard mass spectral data; the antioxidant activities were also evaluated. Seven components of ansu apricots oil were identified, and the total unsaturated fatty acid (FA) (TUFA) and total essential FA (TEFA) contents of the ansu apricot oil were found to be 90.35 g/100 g and 48.93 g/100 g, respectively. The scavenging capacity of the ansu apricots oil in the superoxide anion radical system and the hydroxyl radical system performed better than in the DPPH radical system. The IC₅₀ values of the ansu apricot oil for the superoxide anion radical system and the hydroxyl radical system were 0.15 mg mL⁻¹ and 0.30 mg mL⁻¹, respectively: stronger than that of the control (ascorbic acid). In the DPPH system, the IC₅₀ value of the ansu apricot oil was 0.50 mg mL⁻¹, and the IC₅₀ value of ascorbic acid was 0.30 mg mL⁻¹, but within the selected dosage, the highest scavenging capacity of ansu apricot oil was higher than the control. The results obtained in this study clearly suggest that ansu apricot oil is a natural source of antioxidants and could serve as a functional food ingredient with potential application in food products and thus provide related health benefits.

  3. Active Learning in the Introductory Cultural Anthropology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanda, Serena

    1985-01-01

    Presents three exercises that encourage active participation in cultural anthropology classes: (1) use of a puzzle to demonstrate focal issues about culture; (2) discussion of a specific piece of fieldwork to demonstrate the relationship among fieldwork, ethics, and cultural relativity; and (3) use of study questions in ethnographic films to allow…

  4. Views of Growing Methane Emissions near Oil and Natural Gas Activity: Satellite, Aircraft, and Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollonige, D. E.; Thompson, A. M.; Diskin, G. S.; Hannigan, J. W.; Nussbaumer, E.

    2015-12-01

    To better understand the discrepancies between current top-down and bottom-up estimates, additional methane (CH4) measurements are necessary for regions surrounding growing oil and natural gas (ONG) development. We have evaluated satellite measurements of CH4 in US regions with ONG operations for their application as "top-down" constraints (part of the NASA Air Quality Applied Sciences Team (AQAST) project). For validation of the satellite instruments' sensitivities to emitted gases, we focus on regions where the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) campaign deployed ground and aircraft measurements in Maryland (2011), California and Texas (2013), and Colorado (2014). The largest CH4 signals were observed in the Greater Green River and Powder River Basins using Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Representative Tropospheric Volume Mixing Ratio (RTVMR) measurements. A long-term comparison between a ground remote-sensing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) at Boulder and TES for 2010-2013 shows good correlation and differences ranging 2.5-5% for their yearly distribution of total column CH4. To determine any correlation between lower/mid-tropospheric CH4 (where a thermal IR sensor, such as TES, is most sensitive) and near-surface/boundary CH4 (where sources emit), we analyze the variability of DISCOVER-AQ aircraft profiles using principal component analysis and assess the correlation between near-surface (0-2 km) and mid-tropospheric (>2 km) CH4 concentrations. Using these relationships, we estimate near-surface CH4 using mid-tropospheric satellite measurements based on the partial column amounts within vertical layers with a linear regression. From this analysis, we will demonstrate whether the uncertainties of satellite-estimated near-surface CH4 are comparable to observed variability near ONG activity. These results will assist validation of satellite instrument

  5. Teaching about Culture, Ethnicity, & Diversity. Exercises and Planned Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singelis, Theodore M., Ed.

    This book is a resource for teachers that contains 28 exercises and planned activities designed by individual authors that can be used to teach about culture, ethnicity, and diversity. The exercises and activities are appropriate for graduate, college, and even advanced high school students in such classes as cross-cultural psychology,…

  6. Community Service-Learning and Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), to provide new insights into community service-learning (CSL) in higher education. While CSL literature acknowledges the influences of John Dewey and Paolo Freire, discussion of the potential contribution of cultural-historical activity theory, rooted in the work of…

  7. The Multicultural Caterpillar: Children's Activities in Cultural Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matiella, Ana Consuelo

    This booklet is part of the "Children's Activity Series," a set of four supplemental teaching resources that promote awareness about health, family life, and cultural diversity for children in kindergarten through third grade. The booklet includes eight easy-to-teach activities which introduce young children to the concepts of culture and cultural…

  8. Growing...But Constrained: An Exploration of Teachers' and Researchers' Interactions with Culture and Diversity through Personal Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hairston, Kimetta R.; Strickland, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    Educators from all realms of education who engage in in-depth conversations and reflections about personal experiences and perspectives related to diversity are significantly important to the cultural understandings in Education. This paper is a narrative analysis of how teachers who were enrolled in a Master's Program from two university campuses…

  9. Growing Up Indian: Stories from the Life of Louie Gingras, an 82 Year Old Kootenai Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingras, Louie

    Eleven short stories from the life of Louie Gingras, an 82-year-old Kootenai Indian, illustrate many aspects of Indian culture. Accompanied by black and white drawings, ths stories describe daily life, mission schools, the Carlisle Indian School, Indian medicine, discipline for children, spiritual powers, beliefs, and several ceremonies. The book…

  10. Metagenomic analysis of medicinal Cannabis samples; pathogenic bacteria, toxigenic fungi, and beneficial microbes grow in culture-based yeast and mold tests.

    PubMed

    McKernan, Kevin; Spangler, Jessica; Helbert, Yvonne; Lynch, Ryan C; Devitt-Lee, Adrian; Zhang, Lei; Orphe, Wendell; Warner, Jason; Foss, Theodore; Hudalla, Christopher J; Silva, Matthew; Smith, Douglas R

    2016-01-01

    Background: The presence of bacteria and fungi in medicinal or recreational Cannabis poses a potential threat to consumers if those microbes include pathogenic or toxigenic species. This study evaluated two widely used culture-based platforms for total yeast and mold (TYM) testing marketed by 3M Corporation and Biomérieux, in comparison with a quantitative PCR (qPCR) approach marketed by Medicinal Genomics Corporation. Methods: A set of 15 medicinal Cannabis samples were analyzed using 3M and Biomérieux culture-based platforms and by qPCR to quantify microbial DNA. All samples were then subjected to next-generation sequencing and metagenomics analysis to enumerate the bacteria and fungi present before and after growth on culture-based media. Results: Several pathogenic or toxigenic bacterial and fungal species were identified in proportions of >5% of classified reads on the samples, including Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Ralstonia pickettii, Salmonella enterica, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Aspergillus ostianus, Aspergillus sydowii, Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium steckii. Samples subjected to culture showed substantial shifts in the number and diversity of species present, including the failure of Aspergillus species to grow well on either platform. Substantial growth of Clostridium botulinum and other bacteria were frequently observed on one or both of the culture-based TYM platforms. The presence of plant growth promoting (beneficial) fungal species further influenced the differential growth of species in the microbiome of each sample. Conclusions: These findings have important implications for the Cannabis and food safety testing industries.

  11. Cultural leisure activities, recovery and work engagement among hospital employees.

    PubMed

    Tuisku, Katinka; Virtanen, Marianna; Bloom, Jessica DE; Kinnunen, Ulla

    2016-06-10

    This study explored the relationship between cultural leisure activities, recovery experiences and two outcomes among hospital workers. The differences in recovery experiences (detachment, relaxation, mastery and control) and outcomes (work engagement and subjective recovery state) among hospital personnel (N=769) were analysed by the type (receptive or creative) and frequency of cultural activities. The cross-sectional data were collected by a digital questionnaire. Employees who reported both receptive and creative cultural leisure activities on a weekly basis had the highest relaxation, mastery and control experiences during off-job time. In addition, those with weekly creative activities had beneficial mastery experiences. There were no differences in recovery outcomes after adjustment for age, except in work engagement. Cultural leisure activities, and creative activities in particular, play an important role in certain aspects of recovery.

  12. Cultural leisure activities, recovery and work engagement among hospital employees

    PubMed Central

    TUISKU, Katinka; VIRTANEN, Marianna; DE BLOOM, Jessica; KINNUNEN, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between cultural leisure activities, recovery experiences and two outcomes among hospital workers. The differences in recovery experiences (detachment, relaxation, mastery and control) and outcomes (work engagement and subjective recovery state) among hospital personnel (N=769) were analysed by the type (receptive or creative) and frequency of cultural activities. The cross-sectional data were collected by a digital questionnaire. Employees who reported both receptive and creative cultural leisure activities on a weekly basis had the highest relaxation, mastery and control experiences during off-job time. In addition, those with weekly creative activities had beneficial mastery experiences. There were no differences in recovery outcomes after adjustment for age, except in work engagement. Cultural leisure activities, and creative activities in particular, play an important role in certain aspects of recovery. PMID:26829973

  13. Cultural Change, Human Activity, and Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cognitive performance across cultural contexts has been a standard result in comparative research. Here we discuss how societal changes occurring when a small-scale traditional community incorporates elements from industrialized society may contribute to cognitive development, and we illustrate this with an analysis of the cognitive…

  14. [Turbidostat culture of yeast during transition from a resting state to active growth].

    PubMed

    Kaliuzhin, V A

    1991-01-01

    The age components of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae 14 culture and the kinetics of its growth were studied afer the quiescent state at the onset active growth. The following factors induced the quiescent state: the cessation of a chemostat flow for 24 h, growth inhibition with 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) for 24 h, the storage of a culture growing on agar in a refrigerator during 24 h. The process of transition from the point of growth activation to the maximum rate of growth was then studied in turbidostat. This process took the shortest time in a refrigerated culture as well as in a culture that had been limited with a phosphorus source and in a culture limited with a nitrogen source and grown in chemostat at D = 0.26 h-1. The process was longer in cultures that had been either limited with glucose or inhibited with DNP and longest in a chemostat culture limited with a nitrogen source at D = 0.15 and 0.05 h-1. The rate of initial mitosis phases in the yeast is presumed to exert the greatest effect on the duration of this transition process.

  15. Batch and Pulsed Fed-Batch Cultures of Aspergillus flavipes FP-500 Growing on Lemon Peel at Stirred Tank Reactor.

    PubMed

    Wolf-Márquez, V E; García-García, E; García-Rivero, M; Aguilar-Osorio, G; Martínez Trujillo, M A

    2015-11-01

    Aspergillus flavipes FP-500 grew up on submerged cultures using lemon peel as the only carbon source, developing several batch and pulsed fed-batch trials on a stirred tank reactor. The effect of carbon source concentration, reducing sugar presence and initial pH on exopectinase and endopectinase production, was analyzed on batch cultures. From this, we observed that the highest substrate concentration favored biomass (X max) but had not influence on the corresponding specific production (q p) of both pectinases; the most acid condition provoked higher endopectinase-specific productions but had not a significant effect on those corresponding to exopectinases; and reducing sugar concentrations higher than 1.5 g/L retarded pectinase production. On the other hand, by employing the pulsed fed-batch operation mode, we observed a prolonged growth phase, and an increase of about twofold on endopectinase production without a significant raise on biomass concentration. So, pulsed fed-batch seems to be a good alternative for obtaining higher endopectinase titers by using high lemon peel quantities without having mixing and repression problems to the system. The usefulness of unstructured kinetic models for explaining, under a theoretic level, the behavior of the fungus along the batch culture with regard to pectinase production was evident.

  16. Educational activities for the diffusion of scientific culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferlet, Roger

    2015-08-01

    Considering there is a divorce between science and culture, we suggest activities such as trails of mathematical/astronomical knowledge and vision of scientific teaching and education, that are aiming ata global, citizen dialogue, at reviving a truly human culture integrating science, and at answering all kinds of obscurantism/fundamentalism.

  17. Cultural Orientations, Daily Activities, and Adjustment in Mexican American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Cansler, Emily

    2009-01-01

    The links between youth's daily activities and adjustment and the role of cultural practices and values in these links were studied in 469 youth from 237 Mexican American families. In home interviews, data on mothers', fathers', and two adolescent-age siblings' cultural practices (language use, social contacts) and values (for familism, for…

  18. A review of physical activity measures used among U.S. Latinos: Guidelines for developing culturally appropriate measures

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Suzanna M.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Elder, John

    2013-01-01

    As the U.S. population continues to grow and diversify, there is a need for progressive physical activity measurement and cross-cultural research. Studies suggest that U.S.-Latinos are among the most sedentary of ethnic groups compared to others; however, study findings may be biased given that some measures may not be culturally sensitive for assessing behaviors that are not characterized as leisure time physical activity. The primary objective of this review was to identify and evaluate measures used to quantify physical activity among U.S. Latinos. A review of the literature was performed and studies examining levels of physical activity among Spanish and English speaking Latinos were documented. This process involved identifying existing guidelines for the purpose of culturally adapting and/or translating [into Spanish] physical activity measures for the Latino population. These guidelines were used as the minimal criteria for the evaluation of the 13 identified measures of physical activity. Of these 13 measures, four were available in English and nine were available in Spanish. One English measure met the guidelines for being culturally adapted for assessing physical activity among Latinos. There were no Spanish measures that met all the guidelines for physical activity assessment among Spanish speaking Latinos. Lastly, the identified guidelines for developing culturally appropriate measures were improved to advance physical activity measurement among ethnic and cultural groups. Future research should merit the use of culturally appropriate guidelines to increase the understanding of physical activity patterns in the U.S. PMID:18855091

  19. Mosquito repellent activity of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gillij, Y G; Gleiser, R M; Zygadlo, J A

    2008-05-01

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases and nuisance pests. Repellents minimize contact with mosquitoes. Repellents based on essential oils (EO) are being developed as an alternative to DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide), an effective compound that has disadvantages including toxic reactions, and damage to plastic and synthetic fabric. This work evaluated the repellency against Aedes aegypti of EO from aromatic plants that grow in Argentina: Acantholippia seriphioides, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia citriodora, Anemia tomentosa, Baccharis spartioides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Hyptis mutabilis, Minthostachys mollis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tagetes minuta and Tagetes pusilla. Most EO were effective. Variations depending on geographic origin of the plant were detected. At a 90% EO concentration, A. satureoides and T. pusilla were the least repellent. At concentrations of 12.5% B. spartioides, R. officinalis and A. citriodora showed the longest repellency times. Comparisons of the principal components of each EO suggest that limonene and camphor were the main components responsible for the repellent effects.

  20. Cultural Components of Physically Active Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickwood, Greg

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that a large majority of school-age children and adolescents are not active enough to gain the physical and psychological benefits associated with regular moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Schools can play a pivotal role in reversing this trend due to the time students spend in this setting. The purpose of this article is to…

  1. Assessment of a bovine co-culture, scaffold-free method for growing meniscus-shaped constructs.

    PubMed

    Aufderheide, Adam C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2007-09-01

    Using a self-assembly (SA), scaffoldless method, five high-density co-cultures with varied ratios of meniscal fibrochondrocytes (MFCs) and articular chondrocytes (ACs) were seeded into novel meniscus-specific, ring-shaped agarose wells. The following ratios of MFCs to ACs were used: 0% MFC, 25% MFC, 50% MFC, 75% MFC, and 100% MFC. Over 4 weeks, all ratios of cells self-assembled into three-dimensional constructs with varying mechanobiological and morphological properties. All groups stained for collagen II (Col II), and all groups except the 0% MFC group stained for collagen I (Col I). It was found that the tensile modulus was proportional to the percentage of MFCs employed. The 100% MFC group yielded the greatest mechanical stiffness with 432.2 +/- 47 kPa tensile modulus and an ultimate tensile strength of 23.7 +/- 2.4 kPa. On gross inspection, the 50% MFC constructs were the most similar to our idealized meniscus shape, our primary criterion. A second experiment was performed to examine the anisotropy of constructs as well as to directly compare the scaffoldless, SA method with a poly-glycolic acid (PGA) scaffold-based construct. When compared to PGA constructs, the SA groups were 2-4 times stiffer and stronger in tension. Further, at 8 weeks, SA groups exhibited circumferential fiber bundles similar to native tissue. When pulled in the circumferential direction, the SA group had significantly higher tensile modulus (226 +/- 76 kPa) than when pulled in the radial direction (67 +/- 32 kPa). The PGA constructs had neither a directional collagen fiber orientation nor differences in mechanical properties in the radial or circumferential direction. It is suggested that the geometric constraint imposed by the ring-shaped, nonadhesive mold guides collagen fibril directionality and, thus, alters mechanical properties. Co-culturing ACs and MFCs in this manner appears to be a promising new method for tissue engineering fibrocartilaginous tissues exhibiting a spectrum of

  2. Metagenomic analysis of medicinal Cannabis samples; pathogenic bacteria, toxigenic fungi, and beneficial microbes grow in culture-based yeast and mold tests

    PubMed Central

    McKernan, Kevin; Spangler, Jessica; Helbert, Yvonne; Lynch, Ryan C.; Devitt-Lee, Adrian; Zhang, Lei; Orphe, Wendell; Warner, Jason; Foss, Theodore; Hudalla, Christopher J.; Silva, Matthew; Smith, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The presence of bacteria and fungi in medicinal or recreational Cannabis poses a potential threat to consumers if those microbes include pathogenic or toxigenic species. This study evaluated two widely used culture-based platforms for total yeast and mold (TYM) testing marketed by 3M Corporation and Biomérieux, in comparison with a quantitative PCR (qPCR) approach marketed by Medicinal Genomics Corporation. Methods: A set of 15 medicinal Cannabis samples were analyzed using 3M and Biomérieux culture-based platforms and by qPCR to quantify microbial DNA. All samples were then subjected to next-generation sequencing and metagenomics analysis to enumerate the bacteria and fungi present before and after growth on culture-based media. Results: Several pathogenic or toxigenic bacterial and fungal species were identified in proportions of >5% of classified reads on the samples, including Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Ralstonia pickettii, Salmonella enterica, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Aspergillus ostianus, Aspergillus sydowii, Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium steckii. Samples subjected to culture showed substantial shifts in the number and diversity of species present, including the failure of Aspergillus species to grow well on either platform. Substantial growth of Clostridium botulinum and other bacteria were frequently observed on one or both of the culture-based TYM platforms. The presence of plant growth promoting (beneficial) fungal species further influenced the differential growth of species in the microbiome of each sample. Conclusions: These findings have important implications for the Cannabis and food safety testing industries. PMID:27853518

  3. The Green Pages Environmental Education Activities K-12: Gardens for Young Growing Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Describes several gardening activities that can be kept simple or used as a foundation for more in-depth projects. Activities include setting up an indoor garden spot, making compost which helps students understand the terms "decompose" and "compost", watching plants drink in which students measure water movement in plants, making herb gardens,…

  4. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested. PMID:24031180

  5. Neutrophil-mediated protection of cultured human vascular endothelial cells from damage by growing Candida albicans hyphae

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.E. Jr.; Rotrosen, D.; Fontaine, J.W.; Haudenschild, C.C.; Diamond, R.D.

    1987-05-01

    Interactions were studied between human neutrophils and cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells invaded by Candida albicans. In the absence of neutrophils, progressive Candida germination and hyphal growth extensively damaged endothelial cell monolayers over a period of 4 to 6 hours, as determined both by morphological changes and release of /sup 51/Cr from radiolabeled endothelial cells. Monolayers were completely destroyed and replaced by hyphae after 18 hours of incubation. In contrast, when added 2 hours after the monolayers had been infected with Candida, neutrophils selectively migrated toward and attached to hyphae at points of hyphal penetration into individual endothelial cells (observed by time-lapse video-microscopy). Attached neutrophils spread over hyphal surfaces both within and beneath the endothelial cells; neutrophil recruitment to initial sites of leukocyte-Candida-endothelial cell interactions continued throughout the first 60 minutes of observation. Neutrophil spreading and stasis were observed only along Candida hyphae and at sites of Candida-endothelial cell interactions. These events resulted in 58.0% killing of Candida at 2 hours and subsequent clearance of Candida from endothelial cell monolayers, as determined by microcolony counts and morphological observation. On introduction of additional neutrophils to yield higher ratios of neutrophils to endothelial cells (10 neutrophils:1 endothelial cell), neutrophil migration toward hyphal elements continued. Despite retraction or displacement of occasional endothelial cells by invading Candida and neutrophils, most endothelial cells remained intact, viable, and motile as verified both by morphological observations and measurement of /sup 51/Cr release from radiolabeled monolayers.

  6. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analyses of Polygonum aviculare L. (Polygonaceae), naturally growing in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Hediat M.H.; Marraiki, Najat

    2009-01-01

    Polygonum aviculare (Polygonaceae) is an herb commonly distributed in Mediterranean coastal regions in Egypt and used in folkloric medicine. Organic and aqueous solvent extracts and fractions of P. aviculare were investigated for antimicrobial activities on several microorganisms including bacteria and fungi. Phytochemical constituents of air-dried powered plant parts were extracted using aqueous and organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, chloroform and water). Antimicrobial activity of the concentrated extracts was evaluated by determination of the diameter of inhibition zone against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and fungi using paper disc diffusion method. Results of the phytochemical studies revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and sesquiterpenes and the extracts were active against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Chloroform extract gave very good and excellent antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria and good activity against all tested fungi except Candida albicans. Structural spectroscopic analysis that was carried out on the active substances in the chloroform extract led to the identification of panicudine (6-hydroxy-11-deoxy-13 dehydrohetisane). Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of panicudine indicated significant activity against all tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms. Panicudine displayed considerable activity against the tested fungi with the exception of C. albicans. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts was unaffected after exposure to different heat treatments, but was reduced at alkaline pH. Studies of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of panicudine on the tested organisms showed that the lowest MIC and the MBC were demonstrated against Salmonella paratyphi, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi and the highest MIC and MBC were against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:23961059

  7. Relationship Between Evoked and Spontaneous Activity in Cultured Neuronal Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyohara, Ai; Taguchi, Takahisa; Kudoh, Suguru N.

    Relationship between evoked activity and spontaneous activity in neuronal circuits is one of the important theme for the improvement of neuroprosthetic apparatus. The spontaneous activity and evoked action potentials are mutually related in the cultured neuronal network autonomously reconstructed on the culture dish, but there is a question whether spontaneous activity and the evoked action potentials constitute one state respectively or the spontaneous activity is only a random background noise. Comparing the frequencies and standard deviations of spontaneous activity with those of evoked activity, we found that the silent and reproducible period lasting for 1 sec immediately after the activity evoked primally. In addition, the repetitive stimuli suppress the spontaneously occurring bursting activity in frequency, even though the inter-stimulus-interval was more than 10 sec. These results suggests that distinct internal state of the neuronal circuit was triggered by an electrical stimulation, and there were state of spontaneous mode and evoked mode in a neuronal circuit.

  8. Impact of Faba Bean-Seed Rhizobial Inoculation on Microbial Activity in the Rhizosphere Soil during Growing Season

    PubMed Central

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Inoculation of legume seeds with Rhizobium affects soil microbial community and processes, especially in the rhizosphere. This study aimed at assessing the effect of Rhizobium inoculation on microbial activity in the faba bean rhizosphere during the growing season in a field experiment on a Haplic Luvisol derived from loess. Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds were non-inoculated (NI) or inoculated (I) with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and sown. The rhizosphere soil was analyzed for the enzymatic activities of dehydrogenases, urease, protease and acid phosphomonoesterase, and functional diversity (catabolic potential) using the Average Well Color Development, Shannon-Weaver, and Richness indices following the community level physiological profiling from Biolog EcoPlate™. The analyses were done on three occasions corresponding to the growth stages of: 5–6 leaf, flowering, and pod formation. The enzymatic activities were higher in I than NI (p < 0.05) throughout the growing season. However, none of the functional diversity indices differed significantly under both treatments, regardless of the growth stage. This work showed that the functional diversity of the microbial communities was a less sensitive tool than enzyme activities in assessment of rhizobial inoculation effects on rhizosphere microbial activity. PMID:27213363

  9. The role of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Thomas, T Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Activated charcoal has a very fine network of pores with large inner surface area on which many substances can be adsorbed. Activated charcoal is often used in tissue culture to improve cell growth and development. It plays a critical role in micropropagation, orchid seed germination, somatic embryogenesis, anther culture, synthetic seed production, protoplast culture, rooting, stem elongation, bulb formation etc. The promotary effects of AC on morphogenesis may be mainly due to its irreversible adsorption of inhibitory compounds in the culture medium and substancially decreasing the toxic metabolites, phenolic exudation and brown exudate accumulation. In addition to this activated charcoal is involved in a number of stimulatory and inhibitory activities including the release of substances naturally present in AC which promote growth, alteration and darkening of culture media, and adsorption of vitamins, metal ions and plant growth regulators, including abscisic acid and gaseous ethylene. The effect of AC on growth regulator uptake is still unclear but some workers believe that AC may gradually release certain adsorbed products, such as nutrients and growth regulators which become available to plants. This review focuses on the various roles of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture and the recent developments in this area.

  10. The effect of the neural activity on topological properties of growing neural networks.

    PubMed

    Gafarov, F M; Gafarova, V R

    2016-09-01

    The connectivity structure in cortical networks defines how information is transmitted and processed, and it is a source of the complex spatiotemporal patterns of network's development, and the process of creation and deletion of connections is continuous in the whole life of the organism. In this paper, we study how neural activity influences the growth process in neural networks. By using a two-dimensional activity-dependent growth model we demonstrated the neural network growth process from disconnected neurons to fully connected networks. For making quantitative investigation of the network's activity influence on its topological properties we compared it with the random growth network not depending on network's activity. By using the random graphs theory methods for the analysis of the network's connections structure it is shown that the growth in neural networks results in the formation of a well-known "small-world" network.

  11. Interaction Activities in the Foreign Classroom, or How to Grow a Tulip-Rose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Christina Bratt; Selekman, Howard R.

    1976-01-01

    A report is made on the use of foreign language for spontaneous communication in an elementary language class. Four correction-free, peer communicative/interaction activities are outlined according to procedures, objectives, and evaluations. (Author/RM)

  12. Visualizing in situ translational activity for identifying and sorting slow-growing archaeal−bacterial consortia

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenpichler, Roland; Connon, Stephanie A.; Goudeau, Danielle; Malmstrom, Rex R.; Woyke, Tanja; Orphan, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    To understand the biogeochemical roles of microorganisms in the environment, it is important to determine when and under which conditions they are metabolically active. Bioorthogonal noncanonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT) can reveal active cells by tracking the incorporation of synthetic amino acids into newly synthesized proteins. The phylogenetic identity of translationally active cells can be determined by combining BONCAT with rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (BONCAT-FISH). In theory, BONCAT-labeled cells could be isolated with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (BONCAT-FACS) for subsequent genetic analyses. Here, in the first application, to our knowledge, of BONCAT-FISH and BONCAT-FACS within an environmental context, we probe the translational activity of microbial consortia catalyzing the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), a dominant sink of methane in the ocean. These consortia, which typically are composed of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria, have been difficult to study due to their slow in situ growth rates, and fundamental questions remain about their ecology and diversity of interactions occurring between ANME and associated partners. Our activity-correlated analyses of >16,400 microbial aggregates provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that AOM consortia affiliated with all five major ANME clades are concurrently active under controlled conditions. Surprisingly, sorting of individual BONCAT-labeled consortia followed by whole-genome amplification and 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed previously unrecognized interactions of ANME with members of the poorly understood phylum Verrucomicrobia. This finding, together with our observation that ANME-associated Verrucomicrobia are found in a variety of geographically distinct methane seep environments, suggests a broader range of symbiotic relationships within AOM consortia than previously thought. PMID:27357680

  13. Trace elements and activity of antioxidative enzymes in Cistus ladanifer L. growing on an abandoned mine area.

    PubMed

    Santos, Erika S; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Nabais, Cristina; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2009-10-01

    The Mediterranean shrub Cistus ladanifer grows naturally in São Domingos (Portugal), an abandoned copper mine. High levels of trace elements in plants can generate oxidative stress increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare As, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations and the activity of the soluble and cell wall ionically bounded forms of the enzymes catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in leaves of C. ladanifer, collected in spring and summer, growing on São Domingos mine and on a non-contaminated area (Pomarão). São Domingos soils showed high total concentrations of As (2.6 g kg(-1)) and Pb (7.3 g kg(-1)) however the available fraction represented less than 1.5% of the total. C. ladanifer population from mine showed tolerance to Pb and Zn, which attain in leaves concentrations considered toxic for plants. The enzymatic activity of catalase, peroxidise and superoxide dismutase varied with plant populations and seasons, although with no particular trend, being specific to each trace element and enzyme cell localization. Catalase activity was evenly distributed between the soluble and ionically bounded forms, whereas the ionically bounded form of peroxidase predominated relatively to total activity, and the opposite was observed for superoxide dismutase. Spring and summer leaves from the two areas presented enzymatic activities in both fractions except to peroxidase soluble activities in leaves collected in summer. C. ladanifer enzymatic activity seems to be related with the co-existence of different stress factors (trace elements concentration, temperature, UV radiation and drought). The survival and growth of this species on contaminated mining soils is due to the presence of effective antioxidant enzyme-based defence systems.

  14. Exploratorium Teacher Activity Series: Math Across Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exploratorium, San Francisco, CA.

    This publication is designed to help teachers increase awareness of multicultural issues for all students while making science and mathematics more relevant and approachable to children of color. The activities presented in this book are both multicultural and hands-on; they are discoveries to be made by the reader. They will allow teachers and…

  15. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of different parts of Tribulus terrestris L. growing in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bayati, Firas A.; Al-Mola, Hassan F.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of organic and aqueous extracts from fruits, leaves and roots of Tribulus terrestris L., an Iraqi medicinal plant used as urinary anti-infective in folk medicine, was examined against 11 species of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using microdilution method in 96 multiwell microtiter plates. All the extracts from the different parts of the plant showed antimicrobial activity against most tested microorganisms. The most active extract against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was ethanol extract from the fruits with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.15 mg/ml against B. subtilis, B. cereus, P. vulgaris and C. diphtheriae. In addition, the same extract from the same plant part demonstrated the strongest antifungal activity against C. albicans with an MIC value of 0.15 mg/ml. PMID:18257138

  16. Growing into Greatness: A Study of a Local History Group of Active-Retired Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Trudy; Byrne, Brid; Harris, Phyllis; Lalor, Maureen; O'Connor, Maura; O'Reilly, Kathleen; Quinn, Frank; Forde, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Research in Canada on the learning needs of older people looked at such issues as how to cope with changes in society, the need to make a contribution and the need to be influential. The White Paper on Adult Education "Learning for Life" notes that strategies for active ageing stress the critical importance of access to learning as a key…

  17. rRNA promoter activity in the fast-growing bacterium Vibrio natriegens.

    PubMed

    Aiyar, Sarah E; Gaal, Tamas; Gourse, Richard L

    2002-03-01

    The bacterium Vibrio natriegens can double with a generation time of less than 10 min (R. G. Eagon, J. Bacteriol. 83:736-737, 1962), a growth rate that requires an extremely high rate of protein synthesis. We show here that V. natriegens' high potential for protein synthesis results from an increase in ribosome numbers with increasing growth rate, as has been found for other bacteria. We show that V. natriegens contains a large number of rRNA operons, and its rRNA promoters are extremely strong. The V. natriegens rRNA core promoters are at least as active in vitro as Escherichia coli rRNA core promoters with either E. coli RNA polymerase (RNAP) or V. natriegens RNAP, and they are activated by UP elements, as in E. coli. In addition, the E. coli transcription factor Fis activated V. natriegens rrn P1 promoters in vitro. We conclude that the high capacity for ribosome synthesis in V. natriegens results from a high capacity for rRNA transcription, and the high capacity for rRNA transcription results, at least in part, from the same factors that contribute most to high rates of rRNA transcription in E. coli, i.e., high gene dose and strong activation by UP elements and Fis.

  18. Inequity outside the Classroom: Growing Class Differences in Participation in Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snellman, Kaisa; Silva, Jennifer M.; Putnam, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors report on research that shows that extracurricular activities help cultivate the skills, connections, and knowledge that prepare children for lifelong success. They add, however, that low-income students are increasingly being excluded from participating. Struggling with budget cuts and deficits, many school districts…

  19. Use of PNA FISH for blood cultures growing Gram-positive cocci in chains without a concomitant antibiotic stewardship intervention does not improve time to appropriate antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Sara E; Li, David X; Tamma, Pranita D; Avdic, Edina; Hadhazy, Eric; Wakefield, Teresa; Gherna, Michael; Carroll, Karen C

    2016-09-01

    Peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) is a rapid diagnostic assay that can identify certain organisms growing in blood cultures 30-90 min from the time of positive Gram-stain. Existing studies have demonstrated a clinical utility with this assay when antibiotic stewardship programs assist clinicians with interpreting the results. However, the benefit of these rapid assays in the absence of concomitant antibiotic stewardship involvement is unclear. In this randomized study of 220 patients with enterococcal or streptococcal bacteremia, we found that PNA FISH, in the absence of concomitant input from an antibiotic stewardship program, had no impact on time to effective or optimal therapy, length of hospital stay, or in-hospital mortality. Our results suggest that in the absence of guidance from an antibiotic stewardship program, the clinical benefits of rapid diagnostic microbiological tools may be reduced.

  20. Student Activism within Christian College Cultures: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    This study contributes to the understanding of the structural and cultural influences of Christian college environments on student activism through the framework of symbolic interactionism (Blumer, 1969; Mead, 1934). The goal of this research was to examine how the students at Christian institutions understand and engage in activism within their…

  1. Smabarnens Kultur-Och Mediebarometer. (Barometer of Children's Cultural Activity).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipson, Leni; Schyller, Ingela

    This is the first of a planned series of investigations of the media habits and other cultural activities of 3- to 8-year-old Swedish children. Diagrams show the percent of children who use the various media on an average day and the frequency of their participation in such activities as visits to the theater, museum, or library. The amount of…

  2. Community shifts of actively growing lake bacteria after N-acetyl-glucosamine addition: improving the BrdU-FACS method.

    PubMed

    Tada, Yuya; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2014-02-01

    In aquatic environments, community dynamics of bacteria, especially actively growing bacteria (AGB), are tightly linked with dissolved organic matter (DOM) quantity and quality. We analyzed the community dynamics of DNA-synthesizing and accordingly AGB by linking an improved bromodeoxyuridine immunocytochemistry approach with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (BrdU-FACS). FACS-sorted cells of even oligotrophic ecosystems in winter were characterized by 16S rRNA gene analysis. In incubation experiments, we examined community shifts of AGB in response to the addition of N-acetyl-glucosamine (NAG), one of the most abundant aminosugars in aquatic systems. Our improved BrdU-FACS analysis revealed that AGB winter communities of oligotrophic Lake Stechlin (northeastern Germany) substantially differ from those of total bacteria and consist of Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, Deltaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Candidatus OP10 and Chloroflexi. AGB populations with different BrdU-fluorescence intensities and cell sizes represented different phylotypes suggesting that single-cell growth potential varies at the taxon level. NAG incubation experiments demonstrated that a variety of widespread taxa related to Alpha-, Beta-, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Spirochaetes, Verrucomicrobia and Chloroflexi actively grow in the presence of NAG. The BrdU-FACS approach enables detailed phylogenetic studies of AGB and, thus, to identify those phylotypes which are potential key players in aquatic DOM cycling.

  3. [SCREENING OF WILD SPREAD AND CULTIVATED OF BUXUS SPECIES GROWING IN GEORGIA ON THE CONTENT OF ALKALOIDS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY].

    PubMed

    Vachnadze, N; Mchedlidze, Q; Novikova, J; Suladze, T; Vachnadze, V

    2016-07-01

    Georgian flora is represented by about 4150 plant species. Many important alkaloid-containing plant species and among of them are species Buxus L. of genus in Adjara. The aims of the research were: sequential screening of the plants for the consistence of alkaloids; Study of anatomical characteristics of Buxus colchica Pojark. and revealing of specific pharmacological activity of steroidal alkaloids. The objects of research were B. colchica, B. balearika and B. sempervirens, growing in Adjara (Georgia), collected in active phase of flowering of the plants. There were revealed 370 species of alkaloid containing plants. Sum of alkaloids and crude aqueous extract have spasmolitic and antihistaminic activity. Experimental anatomical research of diagnostic characteristics of the bines showed the existence of monocyclic transient system with fiber like tracheids, dorsoventral mesophyll of the leaves; the structure for the upper part of epidermis is linear and the lower part is curved, type of stomata is paracitic.

  4. Heterotrophic nitrification by Alcaligenes faecalis: NO sub 2 sup minus , NO sub 3 sup minus , N sub 2 O, and NO production in exponentially growing cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Papen, H.; von Berg, R.; Hinkel, I.; Thoene, B.; Rennenberg, H. )

    1989-08-01

    Heterotrophic nitrification by Alcaligenes faecalis DSM 30030 was not restricted to media containing organic forms of nitrogen. In both peptone-meat extract and defined media with ammonium and citrate as the sole nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively, NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NO, and N{sub 2}O were produced under aerobic growth conditions. Heterotrophic nitrification was not attributable to old or dying cell populations. Production of NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NO, and N{sub 2}O was detectable shortly after cultures started growth and proceeded exponentially during the logarithmic growth phase. NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} production rates were higher for cultures inoculated in media with pH values below 7 than for those in media at alkaline pH. Neither assimilatory nor dissimilatory nitrate or nitrite reductase activities were detectable in aerobic cultures.

  5. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Scabiosa arenaria Forssk: growing wild in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Besbes, Malek; Omri, Amel; Cheraif, Imed; Daami, Mejda; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Mastouri, Maha; Aouni, Mahjoub; Selmi, Boulbaba

    2012-04-01

    The essential oils isolated from three organs, i.e., fruits, stems and leaves, and flowers, of the endemic North African plant Scabiosa arenaria Forssk. were screened for their chemical composition, as well as their possible antibacterial, anticandidal, and antifungal properties. According to the GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, 61 (99.26% of the total oil composition), 79 (98.43%), and 51 compounds (99.9%) were identified in the three oils, respectively. While α-thujone (34.39%), camphor (17.48%), and β-thujone (15.29%) constituted the major compounds of the fruit oil, chrysanthenone (23.43%), together with camphor (12.98%) and α-thujone (10.7%), were the main constituents of the stem and leaf oil. In the case of the flower oil, also chrysanthenone (38.52%), camphor (11.75%), and α-thujone (9.5%) were identified as the major compounds. Furthermore, the isolated oils were tested against 16 Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, four Candida species, and nine phytopathogenic fungal strains. It was found that the oils exhibited interesting antibacterial and anticandidal activities, comparable to those of thymol, which was used as positive control, but no activity against the phytopathogenic fungal strains was observed.

  6. Stimulation of lymphocyte anti-melanoma activity by co-cultured macrophages activated by complex homeopathic medication

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer, and the most rapidly expanding cancer in terms of worldwide incidence. Chemotherapeutic approaches to treat melanoma have been uniformly disappointing. A Brazilian complex homeopathic medication (CHM), used as an immune modulator, has been recommended for patients with depressed immune systems. Previous studies in mice have demonstrated that the CHM activates macrophages, induces an increase in the number of leukocytes and improves the murine response against Sarcoma-180. Methods Here we studied the interaction of mouse lymph node lymphocytes, co-cultured in vitro with macrophages in the presence or absence of the CHM, with B16F10 melanoma cells. Results Lymphocytes co-cultured with macrophages in the presence of the CHM had greater anti-melanoma activity, reducing melanoma cell density and increasing the number of lysed tumor cells. There was also a higher proportion of activated (CD25+) lymphocytes with increased viability. Overall, lymphocytes activated by treatment destroyed growing cancer cells more effectively than control lymphocytes. Conclusion Co-culture of macrophages with lymphocytes in the presence of the CHM enhanced the anti-cancer performance of lymphocytes against a very aggressive lineage of melanoma cells. These results suggest that non-toxic therapies using CHMs are a promising alternative approach to the treatment of melanomas. In addition, they are attractive combination-therapy candidates, which may enhance the efficacy of conventional medicines by improving the immune response against tumor cells. PMID:19698142

  7. How faceted liquid droplets grow tails: from surface topology to active motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloutskin, Eli

    Among all possible shapes of a volume V, a sphere has the smallest surface area A. Therefore, liquid droplets are spherical, minimizing their interfacial energy γA for a given interfacial tension γ > 0 . This talk will demonstrate that liquid oil (alkane) droplets in water, stabilized by a common surfactant can be temperature-tuned to adopt icosahedral and other faceted shapes, above the bulk melting temperature of the oil. Although emulsions have been studied for centuries no faceted liquid droplets have ever been reported. The formation of an icosahedral shape is attributed to the interplay between γ and the elastic properties of the interfacial monomolecular layer, which crystallizes here 10-15K above bulk melting, leaving the droplet's bulk liquid. The icosahedral symmetry is dictated by twelve five-fold topological defects, forming within the hexagonally-packed interfacial crystalline monolayer. Moreover, we demonstrate that upon further cooling this `interfacial freezing' effect makes γ transiently switch its sign, leading to a spontaneous splitting of droplets and an active growth of their surface area, reminiscent of the classical spontaneous emulsification, yet driven by completely different physics. The observed phenomena allow deeper insights to be gained into the fundamentals of molecular elasticity and open new vitas for a wide range of novel nanotechnological applications, from self-assembly of complex shapes to new delivery strategies in bio-medicine. Acknowledgment is made to the Donors of the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund for support of this research and to the Kahn Foundation for the purchase of equipment.

  8. Antinociceptive activity of extracts and secondary metabolites from wild growing and micropropagated plants of Renealmia alpinia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Betancur, Isabel; Cortés, Natalie; Benjumea, Dora; Osorio, Edison; León, Francisco; Cutler, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Renealmia alpinia is native to the American continent and can be found from Mexico to Brazil, and in the Caribbean islands. It is known as “matandrea” in Colombia, and it has been commonly used in traditional medicine to treat painful diseases and ailments. Based on its traditional uses, it is of interest to evaluate the pharmacologic effects of this plant and its secondary metabolites. Materials and methods Methanol and aqueous extracts of wild and micropropagated R. alpinia (leaves) were obtained and chemically compared by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC). The antinociceptive activity of these extracts was examined using an in vivo assay (Siegmund test). Additionally, the dichloromethane extract of R. alpinia was fractionated and pure compounds were isolated by chromatographic methods. The structure elucidation of isolated compounds was performed by NMR experiments and spectroscopic techniques and comparison with the literature data. Purified compounds were evaluated for their in vitro binding affinity for opioids and cannabinoids receptors. Results The dichloromethane extract of the plant’s aerial part afforded sinostrobin (1), naringenin 7,4′-dimethyl ether (2), 2′,6′-dihydroxy-4′-methoxychalcone (3), 4-methoxy-6-(2-phenylethenyl)-2H-pyran-2-one (4), naringenin 7-methyl ether (5) and 3,5-heptanediol, 1,7-diphenyl (6), which were isolated using chromatographic methods. Their chemical structures were established by physical and spectroscopic techniques. The antinociceptive effects observed in mice by extracts of wild and micropropagated plants were similar. The compounds isolated from R. alpinia do not show affinity to opioid or cannabinoid receptors. Conclusion Aqueous and methanol extracts of R. alpinia provide antinociceptive and analgesic effects in an in vivo model. These results contribute additional insight as to why this plant is traditionally used for pain management. Also, this is the first

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Blue Light against Nosocomial Wound Pathogens Growing Planktonically and as Mature Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Thwaite, Joanne E.; Burt, Rebecca; Laws, Thomas R.; Raguse, Marina; Moeller, Ralf; Webber, Mark A.; Oppenheim, Beryl A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The blue wavelengths within the visible light spectrum are intrinisically antimicrobial and can photodynamically inactivate the cells of a wide spectrum of bacteria (Gram positive and negative) and fungi. Furthermore, blue light is equally effective against both drug-sensitive and -resistant members of target species and is less detrimental to mammalian cells than is UV radiation. Blue light is currently used for treating acnes vulgaris and Helicobacter pylori infections; the utility for decontamination and treatment of wound infections is in its infancy. Furthermore, limited studies have been performed on bacterial biofilms, the key growth mode of bacteria involved in clinical infections. Here we report the findings of a multicenter in vitro study performed to assess the antimicrobial activity of 400-nm blue light against bacteria in both planktonic and biofilm growth modes. Blue light was tested against a panel of 34 bacterial isolates (clinical and type strains) comprising Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter cloacae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Elizabethkingia meningoseptica. All planktonic-phase bacteria were susceptible to blue light treatment, with the majority (71%) demonstrating a ≥5-log10 decrease in viability after 15 to 30 min of exposure (54 J/cm2 to 108 J/cm2). Bacterial biofilms were also highly susceptible to blue light, with significant reduction in seeding observed for all isolates at all levels of exposure. These results warrant further investigation of blue light as a novel decontamination strategy for the nosocomial environment, as well as additional wider decontamination applications. IMPORTANCE Blue light shows great promise as a novel decontamination strategy for the nosocomial environment, as well as additional wider decontamination applications (e.g., wound closure during surgery). This warrants further

  10. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Pinus halepensis Miller growing in West Northern of Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Fekih, Nadia; Allali, Hocine; Merghache, Salima; Chaïb, Faïza; Merghache, Djamila; El Amine, Mohamed; Djabou, Nassim; Muselli, Alain; Tabti, Boufeldja; Costa, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Objective To find new bioactive natural products, the chemical composition and to sudy the antibacterial activity of essential oil components extracted from the aerial parts of the Algerian aromatic plant Pinus halepensis Miller (P. halepensis) (needles, twigs and buds). Methods The essential oil used in this study was isolated by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus according to the European Pharmacopoeia. The chemical composition was investigated using GC-retention indices (RI) and GC-MS. Results Forty-nine compounds, representing 97.9% of the total collective oil, were identified. Essential oil was dominated by hydrocarbon compounds (80.6%) especially monoterpenes (65.5%). The major compounds from ten oils stations were: myrcene (15.2%-32.0%), α-pinene (12.2%-24.5%), E-β-caryophyllene (7.0%-17.1%), terpinolene (1.8%-13.3%), 2-phenyl ethyl isovalerate (4.8%-10.9%), terpinene-4-ol (1.0%-8.2 %) and sabinene (1.5%-6.3%). The intra-species variations of the chemical compositions of P. halepensis aerial parts essential oils from ten Algerian sample locations were investigated using statistical analysis. Essential oil samples were clustered in 2 groups by hierarchical cluster analysis, according to their chemical composition. The essential oil revealed an interesting antimicrobial effect against Lysteria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions These results suggest that the essential oil from P. halepensis may be a new potential source as natural antimicrobial applied in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  11. Risks of hormonally active pharmaceuticals to amphibians: a growing concern regarding progestagens.

    PubMed

    Säfholm, Moa; Ribbenstedt, Anton; Fick, Jerker; Berg, Cecilia

    2014-11-19

    Most amphibians breed in water, including the terrestrial species, and may therefore be exposed to water-borne pharmaceuticals during critical phases of the reproductive cycle, i.e. sex differentiation and gamete maturation. The objectives of this paper were to (i) review available literature regarding adverse effects of hormonally active pharmaceuticals on amphibians, with special reference to environmentally relevant exposure levels and (ii) expand the knowledge on toxicity of progestagens in amphibians by determining effects of norethindrone (NET) and progesterone (P) exposure to 0, 1, 10 or 100 ng l(-1) (nominal) on oogenesis in the test species Xenopus tropicalis. Very little information was found on toxicity of environmentally relevant concentrations of pharmaceuticals on amphibians. Research has shown that environmental concentrations (1.8 ng l(-1)) of the pharmaceutical oestrogen ethinylestradiol (EE2) cause developmental reproductive toxicity involving impaired spermatogenesis in frogs. Recently, it was found that the progestagen levonorgestrel (LNG) inhibited oogenesis in frogs by interrupting the formation of vitellogenic oocytes at an environmentally relevant concentration (1.3 ng l(-1)). Results from the present study revealed that 1 ng NET l(-1) and 10 ng P l(-1) caused reduced proportions of vitellogenic oocytes and increased proportions of previtellogenic oocytes compared with the controls, thereby indicating inhibited vitellogenesis. Hence, the available literature shows that the oestrogen EE2 and the progestagens LNG, NET and P impair reproductive functions in amphibians at environmentally relevant exposure concentrations. The progestagens are of particular concern given their prevalence, the range of compounds and that several of them (LNG, NET and P) share the same target (oogenesis) at environmental exposure concentrations, indicating a risk for adverse effects on fertility in exposed wild amphibians.

  12. Risks of hormonally active pharmaceuticals to amphibians: a growing concern regarding progestagens

    PubMed Central

    Säfholm, Moa; Ribbenstedt, Anton; Fick, Jerker; Berg, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Most amphibians breed in water, including the terrestrial species, and may therefore be exposed to water-borne pharmaceuticals during critical phases of the reproductive cycle, i.e. sex differentiation and gamete maturation. The objectives of this paper were to (i) review available literature regarding adverse effects of hormonally active pharmaceuticals on amphibians, with special reference to environmentally relevant exposure levels and (ii) expand the knowledge on toxicity of progestagens in amphibians by determining effects of norethindrone (NET) and progesterone (P) exposure to 0, 1, 10 or 100 ng l−1 (nominal) on oogenesis in the test species Xenopus tropicalis. Very little information was found on toxicity of environmentally relevant concentrations of pharmaceuticals on amphibians. Research has shown that environmental concentrations (1.8 ng l−1) of the pharmaceutical oestrogen ethinylestradiol (EE2) cause developmental reproductive toxicity involving impaired spermatogenesis in frogs. Recently, it was found that the progestagen levonorgestrel (LNG) inhibited oogenesis in frogs by interrupting the formation of vitellogenic oocytes at an environmentally relevant concentration (1.3 ng l−1). Results from the present study revealed that 1 ng NET l−1 and 10 ng P l−1 caused reduced proportions of vitellogenic oocytes and increased proportions of previtellogenic oocytes compared with the controls, thereby indicating inhibited vitellogenesis. Hence, the available literature shows that the oestrogen EE2 and the progestagens LNG, NET and P impair reproductive functions in amphibians at environmentally relevant exposure concentrations. The progestagens are of particular concern given their prevalence, the range of compounds and that several of them (LNG, NET and P) share the same target (oogenesis) at environmental exposure concentrations, indicating a risk for adverse effects on fertility in exposed wild amphibians. PMID:25405966

  13. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb. growing wild in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Madona; El Beyrouthy, Marc; Ouaini, Naïm; Iriti, Marcello; Eparvier, Véronique; Stien, Didier

    2014-05-01

    The essential oils (EOs) isolated from the leaves and twigs of Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb. growing wild in Lebanon were characterized, and their antimicrobial activity and antiradical capacity were evaluated. The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and characterized by GC and GC/MS analyses. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by determining minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against a Gram-positive and a Gram-negative bacterium, a yeast, and a dermatophyte with the broth microdilution technique. A total of 28 constituents was identified and accounted for 90.1 and 95.6% of the twig and leaf EO composition, respectively. Both EOs were essentially composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (46.7 and 59.6% for twig and leaf EOs, resp.) and sesquiterpenes (39.4 and 32.1%, resp.). The main components were α-pinene, α-cedrol, and δ-car-3-ene. The J. excelsa EOs did not show any antiradical potential, but revealed interesting in vitro antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton rubrum (MICs of 64 and 128 μg/ml, resp.). The three major compounds were tested separately and in combination according to their respective amounts in the oil. δ-Car-3-ene was the most active component and is undoubtedly one of the constituents driving the antifungal activity of J. excelsa essential oil, even though synergies are probably involved.

  14. Production of Plasminogen Activator in Cultures of Superior Cervical Ganglia and Isolated Schwann Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Valinsky, Jay E.

    1985-05-01

    Plasminogen activator has been implicated in tissue remodeling and cell migration during embryogenesis. In the developing nervous system, these processes are evident in the migration of neurons, axonal extension, Schwann cell migration, and the ensheathment and myelination of nerves. We have studied the production of plasminogen activator in cultures of superior cervical ganglia under conditions in which both neurons and glia are present. We have found that a principal source of the enzyme in these cultures is the glial cells and that the enzyme could not be detected at the growing tips of neurites. Plasminogen activator is also produced by Schwann cells isolated from neonatal rat sciatic nerve. The production of the enzyme by these cells is stimulated 6- to 10-fold by cholera toxin. Isolated Schwann cells and glial cells in the ganglion explant cultures produce the tissue form of plasminogen activator, a form of the enzyme not often found in nonmalignant cells. Preliminary experiments suggest that neuronal-glial interactions may regulate enzyme production by Schwann cells.

  15. "Vygotsky's Neglected Legacy": Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Lee, Yew-Jin

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe an evolving theoretical framework that has been called one of the best kept secrets of academia: cultural-historical activity theory, the result of proposals Lev Vygotsky first articulated but that his students and followers substantially developed to constitute much expanded forms in its second and third generations. Besides…

  16. Taking Exercise: Cultural Diversity and Physically Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Doune; Abbott, Rebecca; Knez, Kelly; Nelson, Alison

    2009-01-01

    "Taking exercise", whether it be recreational walking, participating in club sport, or joining in a physical education (PE) lesson, is a culturally loaded behaviour. We all see, do and talk about physical activity differently, yet, there has been relatively little research or theorising around difference in race, ethnicity, cultural…

  17. Freedom's Web: Student Activism in an Age of Cultural Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, Robert A.

    This book examines student activism in the 1990s and finds its sources in the struggle over multiculturalism and issues of social justice and equality. It is argued that identity politics is a reaction to the cultural hegemony reinforced through longstanding monocultural norms of the academy. A case study methodology used such data as formal and…

  18. Media Literacy Art Education: Logos, Culture Jamming, and Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sheng Kuan; Kirby, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Critical media literacy art education teaches students to: (1) appreciate the aesthetic qualities of media; (2) critically negotiate meanings and analyze media culture as products of social struggle; and (3) use media technologies as instruments of creative expression and social activism. In concert with art education practices oriented toward…

  19. Gardening: A Growing Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2011-01-01

    While Americans are as eager as ever to beautify their homes and yards with attractive landscaping, more and more gardeners are looking to the practical aspects of gardening--raising plants for food and choosing easy-care ornamental plants that are friendly to the environment. For some gardeners, raising their own food is a lifestyle choice. With…

  20. Cosmic X-ray surveys of distant active galaxies. The demographics, physics, and ecology of growing supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    We review results from cosmic X-ray surveys of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the past years that have dramatically improved our understanding of growing supermassive black holes in the distant universe. First, we discuss the utility of such surveys for AGN investigations and the capabilities of the missions making these surveys, emphasizing Chandra, XMM-Newton, and NuSTAR. Second, we briefly describe the main cosmic X-ray surveys, the essential roles of complementary multiwavelength data, and how AGNs are selected from these surveys. We then review key results from these surveys on the AGN population and its evolution ("demographics"), the physical processes operating in AGNs ("physics"), and the interactions between AGNs and their environments ("ecology"). We conclude by describing some significant unresolved questions and prospects for advancing the field.

  1. Diel variation of the cellular carbon to nitrogen ratio of Chlorella autotrophica (Chlorophyta) growing in phosphorus- and nitrogen-limited continuous cultures.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wai Ho Albert; Liu, Hongbin

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the relationship between daily growth rates and diel variation of carbon (C) metabolism and C to nitrogen (N) ratio under P- and N-limitation in the green algae Chlorella autotrophica. To do this, continuous cultures of C. autotrophica were maintained in a cyclostat culture system under 14:10 light:dark cycle over a series of P- and N-limited growth rates. Cell abundance, together with cell size, as reflected by side scatter signal from flow cytometric analysis demonstrated a synchronized diel pattern with cell division occurring at night. Under either type of nutrient limitation, the cellular C:N ratio increased through the light period and decreased through the dark period over all growth rates, indicating a higher diel variation of C metabolism than that of N. Daily average cellular C:N ratios were higher at lower dilution rates under both types of nutrient limitation but cell enlargement was only observed at lower dilution rates under P-limitation. Carbon specific growth rates during the dark period positively correlated with cellular daily growth rates (dilution rates), with net loss of C during night at the lowest growth rates under N-limitation. Under P-limitation, dark C specific growth rates were close to zero at low dilution rates but also exhibited an increasing trend at high dilution rates. In general, diel variations of cellular C:N were low when dark C specific growth rates were high. This result indicated that the fast growing cells performed dark C assimilation at high rates, hence diminished the uncoupling of C and N metabolism at night.

  2. Current production in a microbial fuel cell using a pure culture of Cupriavidus basilensis growing in acetate or phenol as a carbon source

    PubMed Central

    Friman, Hen; Schechter, Alex; Ioffe, Yulia; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Cahan, Rivka

    2013-01-01

    Summary A microbial fuel cell (MFC) was operated with a pure culture of Cupriavidus basilensis bacterial cells growing in the anode compartment in a defined medium containing acetate or phenol. Operating this mediator-less MFC under a constant external resistor of 1 kΩ with acetate or phenol led to current generation of 902 and 310 mA m−2 respectively. In the MFC which was operated using acetate or phenol, the current density measured from the plankton bacterial cells with a fresh electrode was 125 and 109 mA m−2, respectively, whereas the current obtained with biofilm-covered electrodes in sterile medium was 541 and 228 mA m−2 respectively. After 72 h in the MFC, 86% of the initial phenol concentration was removed, while only 64% was removed after the same time in the control MFC which was held at an open circuit potential (OCP). Furthermore, SEM and confocal microscopy analyses demonstrated a developed biofilm with a live C. basilensis population. In conclusion, in this study we demonstrated, for the first time, use of C. basilensis facultative aerobe bacterial cells in a MFC using acetate or phenol as the sole carbon source which led to electricity generation. PMID:23302470

  3. Effects of Different Growing Regions on Quality Characteristics, Bioactive Compound Contents, and Antioxidant Activity of Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Thi, Nhuan Do

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different growing regions on quality characteristics, total bioactive compound contents, and in vitro antioxidant activity in aronia. Aronia grown in 3 different regions (Sangjoo, Ulju, and Youngcheon) in Korea was obtained and used fresh or as a freeze-dried powder. No statistically significant differences were observed for moisture, ash, crude lipid, and crude protein contents in aronia sampled from the 3 different regions. Aronia grown in Sangjoo had the highest total acid content and the lowest sugar content and pH value. Conversely, aronia grown in Youngcheon possessed the lowest total acid content and the highest sugar content and pH value. Aronia grown in Sangjoo possessed relatively high levels of polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, as well as high antioxidant activity in comparison with aronia produced in other regions. Aronia grown in Youngcheon scored the highest for taste and overall acceptability in sensory evaluations, which may be related to the high sugar content and pH, and the low total acidity of the fruits. It is possible that higher sugar contents and pH, and lower total acidity in the aronia grown in Youngcheon result in more preferable sensory characteristics. However, they also contain relatively low levels of total polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and have low antioxidant activity as measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assays. PMID:27752502

  4. Effects of Different Growing Regions on Quality Characteristics, Bioactive Compound Contents, and Antioxidant Activity of Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Thi, Nhuan Do

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different growing regions on quality characteristics, total bioactive compound contents, and in vitro antioxidant activity in aronia. Aronia grown in 3 different regions (Sangjoo, Ulju, and Youngcheon) in Korea was obtained and used fresh or as a freeze-dried powder. No statistically significant differences were observed for moisture, ash, crude lipid, and crude protein contents in aronia sampled from the 3 different regions. Aronia grown in Sangjoo had the highest total acid content and the lowest sugar content and pH value. Conversely, aronia grown in Youngcheon possessed the lowest total acid content and the highest sugar content and pH value. Aronia grown in Sangjoo possessed relatively high levels of polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, as well as high antioxidant activity in comparison with aronia produced in other regions. Aronia grown in Youngcheon scored the highest for taste and overall acceptability in sensory evaluations, which may be related to the high sugar content and pH, and the low total acidity of the fruits. It is possible that higher sugar contents and pH, and lower total acidity in the aronia grown in Youngcheon result in more preferable sensory characteristics. However, they also contain relatively low levels of total polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and have low antioxidant activity as measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assays.

  5. Crystal growing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neville, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    One objective is to demonstrate the way crystals grow and how they affect the behavior of material. Another objective is to compare the growth of crystals in metals and nonmetals. The procedures, which involve a supersaturated solution of a salt that will separate into crystals on cooling and the pouring off of an eutectic solution to expose the crystals formed by a solid solution when an alloy of two metals forms a solid and eutectic solution on cooling, are described.

  6. Effects of two different dietary fermentable carbohydrates on activity and heat production in group-housed growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Rijnen, M M J A; Verstegen, M W A; Heetkamp, M J W; Schrama, J W

    2003-05-01

    The effects of two sources of dietary fiber (DF) on behavior and heat production (HP) in group-housed growing pigs were studied. Twenty clusters of 14 barrows (50 kg) were fed one of 10 diets. Diets differed mainly in type and content of fermentable DF (fDF) and in content of digestible starch. Five diets contained solvent-extracted coconut meal (SECM) and five diets contained soybean hulls (SBH) as the main fDF source. On an as-fed basis, pigs received 3.5, 13.2, 23.0, 32.7, or 42.4 g x kg(-0.75) x d(-1) of SECM or SBH. A total of 280 crossbred growing pigs were used, divided into clusters of 14 pigs each. Pigs were group-housed and fed at 2.5 times the assumed maintenance energy requirements. All clusters were fed similar amounts of NE, ileal-digestible protein and amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Consequently, DMI differed among diets because NE content decreased with increasing DF content. After a 32-d preliminary period, HP was measured per cluster during a 7-d experimental period in environmentally controlled respiration chambers. Behavior of the pigs was recorded using time-lapse video recordings during two different days within the experimental period. Intake of digestible starch and fDF was different (P < 0.001) among diets, whereas intake of digestible CP was similar among diets. On average, pigs spent 153 min standing, 42 min sitting, 202 min lying on their chest, and 1,043 min lying on their flanks each day. Pigs fed SECM diets spent, on average, less time (P < 0.05) lying on their chest than pigs fed SBH diets. Total time spent on physical activity (i.e., standing plus sitting, 195 min/d) was not affected by diet. Total HP and resting HP were affected by diet and were on average lower (P < 0.01) for pigs fed SECM diets than for pigs fed SBH diets. Activity-related heat production (AHP) averaged 65 kJ x kg(-0.75) x d(-1) and was not affected by diet. There was a linear relationship (P < 0.001) between fDF intake and HP, but there was no relationship

  7. Activity of murein hydrolases in synchronized cultures of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Hakenbeck, R; Messer, W

    1977-01-01

    Murein hydrolase activities were analyzed in synchronized cultures of Escherichia coli B/r. Cell wall-bound murein hydrolase activities, including the penicillin-sensitive endopeptidase, increased discontinuously during the cell cycle and showed maximum activity at a cell age of 30 to 35 min (generation time, 43 min). Maximum activity was observed at the same time that the rate of cell wall synthesis reached its maximum. These oscillations depended on the termination of replication: no increase in hydrolase activity was found if deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis was inhibited at an early time in the life cycle. In contrast, the activity of another murein hydrolase that was not tightly bound to the membrane (transglycosylase) increased exponentially with time, even when deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis was inhibited. PMID:321419

  8. Expression and activation of proteases in co-cultures.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Roman; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna

    2011-01-01

    The present study concerned the expression and activation of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and the urokinase plasminogen activator/urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPA/uPAR) system in co-cultures of human colon carcinoma cell spheroids (HT29, LS180, SW948) with human normal colon epithelium (CCD 841 CoTr), myofibroblasts (CCD-18Co) and endothelial cells (HUVEC). Additionally, the influence of monensin on the production and function of the proteases was tested. Tumor cells expressed small amounts of MMP-2, MMP-9 and uPA. Normal cells generally produced proportionally higher concentrations of these proteases (especially MMP-2, compared with significantly smaller yields of MMP-9 and significantly lower amounts of uPAR than tumors. In co-cultures of tumor spheroids with normal cell monolayers, the concentration of the proteases was equal to the sum of the enzymes produced in monocultures of both types of cells. The highest activity of uPA, measured as the reduction of the chromogenic substrate (S-2444), was detected in supernatants and lysates of endothelial cells. Interestingly, in normal cells, the higher expression of proteases, mainly uPA, measured as the level of protein concentration, was closely linked with their lower activity and inversely, in tumor cells, the low level of the expression of the enzymes correlated with their high enzymatic activity. In zymography analysis, mainly pro-MMPs were detected both in culture supernatants and cell lysates. The highest amounts of active forms of the MMPs were detected in tumor spheroids co-cultured with endothelial cells. Monensin inhibited MMPs and uPA secretion but significantly increased uPAR release, mainly from normal cells. In conclusion, during direct interactions of tumor cells with normal cells, MMPs and the uPA/uPAR system play an important role in the degradation of ECM and tumor development, but as we found, there is a reverse relationship between the concentration and the

  9. Active 3-D microscaffold system with fluid perfusion for culturing in vitro neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Laura; Almasri, Mahmoud; Lee, Kil; Fogleman, Nick; Brewer, Gregory J; Nam, Yoonkey; Wheeler, Bruce C; Vukasinovic, Jelena; Glezer, Ari; Frazier, A Bruno

    2007-04-01

    This work demonstrated the design, fabrication, packaging, and characterization of an active microscaffold system with fluid perfusion/nutrient delivery functionalities for culturing in vitro neuronal networks from dissociated hippocampal rat pup neurons. The active microscaffold consisted of an 8 x 8 array of hollow, microfabricated, SU-8 towers (1.0 mm or 1.5 mm in height), with integrated, horizontal, SU-8 cross-members that connect adjacent towers, thus forming a 3-D grid that is conducive to branching, growth, and increased network formation of dissociated hippocampal neurons. Each microtower in the microscaffold system contained a hollow channel and multiple fluid ports for media delivery and perfusion of nutrients to the in vitro neuronal network growing within the microscaffold system. Additionally, there were two exposed Au electrodes on the outer wall of each microtower at varying heights (with insulated leads running within the microtower walls), which will later allow for integration of electrical stimulation/recording functionalities into the active microscaffold system. However, characterization of the stimulation/recording electrodes was not included in the scope of this paper. Design, fabrication, fluid packaging, and characterization of the active microscaffold system were performed. Furthermore, use of the active microscaffold system was demonstrated by culturing primary hippocampal embryonic rat pup neurons, and characterizing cell viability within the microscaffold system.

  10. Antibacterial activities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) against planktonic and biofilm growing Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengjun; Dong, Jiachen; Xia, Yiru; Shu, Rong

    2017-03-31

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antibacterial activities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) against planktonic and biofilm modes of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. The effects on planktonic growth and biofilm metabolic activity were evaluated by growth curve determination and MTT assay, respectively. Then, colony forming unit (CFU) counting, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and real-time PCR were performed to further investigate the actions of DHA and EPA on exponential phase-S. mutans. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to detect the influences on mature biofilms. The MICs of DHA and EPA against S. mutans were 100 μM and 50 μM, respectively; the MBC of both compounds was 100 μM. In the presence of 12.5 μM-100 μM DHA or EPA, the planktonic growth and biofilm metabolic activity were reduced in varying degrees. For exponential-phase S. mutans, the viable counts, the bacterial membranes and the biofilm-associated gene expression were damaged by 100 μM DHA or EPA treatment. For 1-day-old biofilms, the thickness was decreased and the proportion of membrane-damaged bacteria was increased in the presence of 100 μM DHA or EPA. These results indicated that, DHA and EPA possessed antibacterial activities against planktonic and biofilm growing S. mutans.

  11. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Essential Oil of Leaves of Malus domestica Growing in Western Himalaya (India)

    PubMed Central

    Walia, Mayanka; Mann, Tavleen S.; Kumar, Dharmesh; Agnihotri, Vijai K.; Singh, Bikram

    2012-01-01

    Light pale-colored volatile oil was obtained from fresh leaves of Malus domestica tree, growing in Dhauladhar range of Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh, India), with characteristic eucalyptol dominant fragrance. The oil was found to be a complex mixture of mono-, sesqui-, di-terpenes, phenolics, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Seventeen compounds accounting for nearly 95.3% of the oil were characterized with the help of capillary GC, GC-MS, and NMR. Major compounds of the oil were characterized as eucalyptol (43.7%), phytol (11.5%), α-farnesene (9.6%), and pentacosane (7.6%). Cytotoxicity of essential oil of leaves of M. domestica was evaluated by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assays. The essential oil of leaves of M. domestica, tested against three cancer cell lines, namely, C-6 (glioma cells), A549 (human lung carcinoma), CHOK1 (Chinese hamster ovary cells), and THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia cell). The highest activity showed by essential oil on C-6 cell lines (98.2%) at concentration of 2000 μg/ml compared to control. It is the first paper in literature to exploit the chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of leaves essential oil of M. domestica. PMID:22619691

  12. Active-treatment effects of the Forsus fatigue resistant device during comprehensive Class II correction in growing patients

    PubMed Central

    Cacciatore, Giorgio; Alvetro, Lisa; Defraia, Efisio; Ghislanzoni, Luis Tomas Huanc

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the active-treatment effects of the Forsus fatigue resistant device (Forsus) during comprehensive correction of Class II malocclusion in growing patients. Methods Fifty-four patients (mean age, 12.5 ± 1.2 years) with Class II division 1 malocclusion were consecutively treated with fixed app-liances in combination with Forsus. Lateral cephalograms were analyzed at the beginning of the fixed treatment (T1), Forsus insertion (T2), its removal (T3), and end of the comprehensive therapy (T4). Statistical comparisons were carried out by repeated-measures ANOVA with Tukey's post-hoc test (p < 0.05). Results The overall therapeutic effects were mainly dentoalveolar and occurred mostly during the active treatment with Forsus (T2-T3, mean duration = 0.5 ± 0.1 years). The overjet and overbite decreased significantly (-3.5 and -1.5 mm, respectively) and the molar relationship improved by 4.3 mm. These changes were associated with significant retroclination of the maxillary incisors (-3.1°), proclination and intrusion of the mandibular incisors (+5.0° and -1.5 mm, respectively), and mesialization of the mandibular molars (+2.0 mm). Conclusions Forsus had mainly dentoalveolar effects and contributed largely to the overall therapeutic outcome. PMID:24892027

  13. Synergistic activity of rifampicin and ethambutol against slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria is currently of questionable clinical significance.

    PubMed

    van Ingen, Jakko; Hoefsloot, Wouter; Mouton, Johan W; Boeree, Martin J; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-07-01

    A key issue in the treatment of disease caused by slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria is the limited association between in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of rifampicin and ethambutol alone and the in vivo outcome of treatment with these drugs. Combined susceptibility testing to rifampicin and ethambutol could provide a more realistic view of the efficacy of these drugs. In this study, Mycobacterium avium (n = 5), Mycobacterium chimaera (n = 6), Mycobacterium intracellulare (n = 4), Mycobacterium xenopi (n = 4), Mycobacterium malmoense (n = 3) and Mycobacterium simiae (n = 2) clinical isolates were selected and the MICs of rifampicin and ethambutol alone and in combination were measured using the Middlebrook 7H10 agar dilution method. Synergy was defined as a fractional inhibitory concentration index ≤ 0.5. Rifampicin and ethambutol showed synergistic activity against the majority of M. avium (4/5), M. chimaera (5/6) and M. intracellulare (3/4) isolates and 1 of 2 eligible M. malmoense isolates. No synergistic activity was measured against M. xenopi and M. simiae. Synergy was neither universal for all species nor for all isolates of one species; it thus needs to be tested for rather than assumed. Even if this synergy exists in vivo, it is questionable whether the MICs to the combined drugs can be overcome by the drug exposure attained by current regimens at the recommended dosages. New dosing strategies for rifampicin and ethambutol should be studied to increase the exposure to these drugs and thus maximise their impact.

  14. Culture modulates brain activity during empathy with anger.

    PubMed

    de Greck, Moritz; Shi, Zhenhao; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Xiangyu; Yang, Xuedong; Wang, Xiaoying; Northoff, Georg; Han, Shihui

    2012-02-01

    Interdependent cultures (such as the Chinese) and independent cultures (such as the German) differ in their attitude towards harmony that is more valued in interdependent cultures. Interdependent and independent cultures also differ in their appreciation of anger--an emotion that implies the disruption of harmony. The present study investigated if interdependent and independent cultures foster distinct brain activity associated with empathic processing of familiar angry, familiar neutral, and unfamiliar neutral faces. Using functional MRI, we scanned Chinese and German healthy subjects during an intentional empathy task, a control task (the evaluation of skin color), and a baseline condition. The subject groups were matched with regard to age, gender, and education. Behaviorally, Chinese subjects described themselves as significantly more interdependent compared to German subjects. The contrast 'intentional empathy for familiar angry'>'baseline' revealed several regions, including the left inferior frontal cortex, the left supplementary motor area, and the left insula, that showed comparable hemodynamic responses in both groups. However, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had stronger hemodynamic responses in Chinese subjects in the contrast 'intentional empathy for familiar angry'>'baseline'. Germans, in contrast, showed stronger hemodynamic responses in the right temporo-parietal junction, right inferior and superior temporal gyrus, and left middle insula for the same contrast. Hemodynamic responses in the latter three brain regions correlated with interdependences scores over all subjects. Our results suggest that enhanced emotion regulation during empathy with anger in the interdependent lifestyle is mediated by the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Increased tolerance towards the expression of anger in the independent lifestyle, in contrast, is associated with increased activity of the right inferior and superior temporal gyrus and the left middle

  15. Products of cells cultured from gliomas. VI. Immunofluorescent, morphometric, and ultrastructural characterization of two different cell types growing from explants of human gliomas.

    PubMed Central

    McKeever, P. E.; Smith, B. H.; Taren, J. A.; Wahl, R. L.; Kornblith, P. L.; Chronwall, B. M.

    1987-01-01

    Explants derived from human gliomas have been characterized with respect to their cellular outgrowth pattern after 1-22 weeks in culture. A mat of cells which were fibronectin (FN)-positive and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-negative (hereafter designated FN+ cells) with a polygonal, flat morphology covered the growth substrate in a swirling pattern for a mean diameter of 9.2 mm around FN+ explants. FN+ cells showed ruffled plasmalemma, dilated rough endoplasmic reticulin (RDR), and extracellular filamentous strands. Rare desmosomes were compatible with at most minor leptomeningeal components or differentiation. FN+ cells predominated in six of seven cultures at passage 2, and their features were the same from various high-grade gliomas and gliosarcoma. Around other explants, elongated or stellate cells which were GFAP+ and FN- grew in a netlike pattern with little cell-to-cell contact. These GFAP+ cells surrounded explants at a mean diameter of 2 mm, substantially less than FN+ cells (P less than 0.005), and they grew more slowly than FN+ cells around explants. GFAP+ cells had an area/perimeter ratio which was less than that of FN+ cells. GFAP+ cells contained abundant intracellular filaments, rare desmosomes, and narrow RER cisternae. In mixed explants, GFAP+ cells often grew on top of FN+ cells. Individual cells which stained for both GFAP and FN were evident only from one glioma (8% doubly positive). Cells negative for both proteins resembled FN+ cells morphologically. Frozen sections of original glioma tissue showed FN+ vessel walls and GFAP+ parenchyma. Results are evidence for very early overgrowth of a preexistent FN+ cell type distinct from the GFAP+ parenchymal cell. The features of this distinct cell type are mesenchymal and resemble the proliferating vascular elements of gliomas in situ. The tendency for GFAP+ cells to grow on top of these FN+ cells suggests a feeder layer interaction. More knowledge of the origins and interactions of these two

  16. Glycerol Monolaurate Antibacterial Activity in Broth and Biofilm Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Schlievert, Patrick M.; Peterson, Marnie L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is an antimicrobial agent that has potent activity against gram-positive bacteria. This study examines GML antibacterial activity in comparison to lauric acid, in broth cultures compared to biofilm cultures, and against a wide range of gram-positive, gram-negative, and non-gram staining bacteria. Methodology/Principal Findings GML is ≥200 times more effective than lauric acid in bactericidal activity, defined as a ≥3 log reduction in colony-forming units (CFU)/ml, against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes in broth cultures. Both molecules inhibit superantigen production by these organisms at concentrations that are not bactericidal. GML prevents biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae, as representative gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, tested in 96 well microtiter plates, and simultaneously is bactericidal for both organisms in mature biofilms. GML is bactericidal for a wide range of potential bacterial pathogens, except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. In the presence of acidic pH and the cation chelator ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, GML has greatly enhanced bactericidal activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. Solubilization of GML in a nonaqueous delivery vehicle (related to K-Y Warming®) enhances its bactericidal activity against S. aureus. Both R and S, and 1 and 2 position lauric acid derivatives of GML exhibit bactericidal activity. Despite year-long passage of Staphylococcus aureus on sub-growth inhibitory concentrations of GML (0.5 x minimum bactericidal concentration), resistance to GML did not develop. Conclusions/Significance GML may be useful as a broad-spectrum human or animal topical microbicide and may be useful as an environmental surface microbicide for management of bacterial infections and contamination. PMID:22808139

  17. The novel Solanum tuberosum calcium dependent protein kinase, StCDPK3, is expressed in actively growing organs.

    PubMed

    Grandellis, Carolina; Giammaria, Verónica; Bialer, Magalí; Santin, Franco; Lin, Tian; Hannapel, David J; Ulloa, Rita M

    2012-12-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are key components of calcium regulated signaling cascades in plants. In this work, isoform StCDPK3 from Solanum tuberosum was studied and fully described. StCDPK3 encodes a 63 kDa protein with an N-terminal variable domain (NTV), rich in prolines and glutamines, which presents myristoylation and palmitoylation consensus sites and a PEST sequence indicative of rapid protein degradation. StCDPK3 gene (circa 11 kb) is localized in chromosome 3, shares the eight exons and seven introns structure with other isoforms from subgroup IIa and contains an additional intron in the 5'UTR region. StCDPK3 expression is ubiquitous being transcripts more abundant in early elongating stolons (ES), leaves and roots, however isoform specific antibodies only detected the protein in leaf particulate extracts. The recombinant 6xHis-StCDPK3 is an active kinase that differs in its kinetic parameters and calcium requirements from StCDPK1 and 2 isoforms. In vitro, StCDPK3 undergoes autophosphorylation regardless of the addition of calcium. The StCDPK3 promoter region (circa 1,800 bp) was subcloned by genome walking and fused to GUS. Light and ABRE responsive elements were identified in the promoter region as well as elements associated to expression in roots. StCDPK3 expression was enhanced by ABA while GA decreased it. Potato transgenic lines harboring StCDPK3 promoter∷GUS construct were generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated plant transformation. Promoter activity was detected in leaves, root tips and branching points, early ES, tuber eyes and developing sprouts indicating that StCDPK3 is expressed in actively growing organs.

  18. Correlates of college students' physical activity: cross-cultural differences.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R; Jiang, Nan; Fernandez-Rojas, Xinia; Park, Bock-Hee

    2009-10-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences in personal and behavioral determinants of vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) among college students living in distinctly different cultures, that is, the United States, Costa Rica, India, and South Korea. Participants of this study were recruited from randomly chosen public universities in the 4 countries during the 2006-2007 academic year. A total of 4685 students participated in the study (response rate 90%). Vigorous-intensity PA was measured by asking on how many of the past 7 days the participants participated in PA for at least 20 minutes that made them sweat or breathe hard. For moderate-intensity PA, participants were asked on how many of the past 7 days they participated in PA for at least 30 minutes that did not make them sweat or breathe hard. Findings indicate that whereas perceived overweight and fruit and vegetable consumption are relatively culture-free predictors of PA, gender and TV/video watching are culture-specific predictors. Binge drinking was not predictive of meeting the vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity PA guidelines in any of the 4 countries.

  19. [Study on the separation process of pharmacological active total alkaloids from Chelidonium majus L. growing in Georgia].

    PubMed

    Bozhadze, A D; Vachnadze, V Iu; Dzhokhadze, M S; Berashvili, D T; Bakuridze, A Dzh

    2013-04-01

    In present article was studied the separation process of pharmacological active total alkaloids from Chelidonium majus L. growing in Georgia. Alkaloids were extracted from medicinal herbal material and separated by liquid extraction, diluents gas and a microfiltration through membrane equipment. The obtained A1, A2, A3 fractions were analyzed by GC/MS method; in all cases separation proceeds by the principle of extraction of the target alkaloids. It was concluded that the A1 is enriched with α and β cryptopins, and protopin, but homochelidonine and chelidonine are in low contents. As accompanying alkaloid is identified dihydrosanguinarine as an artifact; the A2 is enriched with the maximum contents of stylopine and protopin, but the poor contents of chelidonine and homochelidonine; the A3 is enriched with α and β cryptopins and maximum content of chelidonine. Extraction of alkaloids from Chelidonium majus L. proceeds selectively, but depending on a way of separation of the total alkaloids allows varying qualitative and quantitative consistence of the final product.

  20. Volatile constituents and antioxidant activity of peel, flowers and leaf oils of Citrus aurantium L. growing in Greece.

    PubMed

    Sarrou, Eirini; Chatzopoulou, Paschalina; Dimassi-Theriou, Kortessa; Therios, Ioannis

    2013-09-02

    The volatile constituents of the essential oils of the peel, flower (neroli) and leaves (petitgrain) of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) growing in Greece were studied by GC-MS. The analytical procedures enabled the quantitative determination of 31 components. More specifically, the components of the essential oils identified were: twelve in the peel, twenty-six in the flowers, and twenty and sixteen in old and young leaves, respectively. The major constituents of the different parts of Citrus aurantium L. essential oils were: β-pinene (0.62%-19.08%), limonene (0.53%-94.67%), trans-β-ocimene (3.11%-6.06%), linalool (0.76%-58.21%), and α-terpineol (0.13%-12.89%). The DPPH test demonstrated that the essential oils in the old leaves had the maximum antioxidant activity, followed by the flowers, young leaves and the peel in that order. This study updates the data in the literature on the essential oils of bitter orange, and provides information on the composition of the oils for a further evaluation of this product.

  1. [Trials to eliminate the sex odor of growing boars through active immunization with an androstenone-protein conjugate].

    PubMed

    Fliess, F R; Kaiser, H; Bergfeld, J

    1980-01-01

    Determination of immunogenicity in rabbit was followed by the use of 5 alpha-Androst-16-en-3-on cattle serum albumin conjugate (AC-) in Freund's adjuvant for active immunisation of young growing boars against boar pheromone. Two experiments were undertaken. Five boars, aged 140 days, were involved in the first experiment. They received six AC- doses in intervals of 14 days (4 mg, 5 mg, 6 mg, 7 mg, 8 mg, 9 mg). Each of the doses was applied to four points, two of them subcutaneous and two intramuscular. In the second experiment, four boars, aged 121 days, received 40 mg AC- each in eight applications, among them three injections in intervals of one week, followed by a pause of two weeks, another three injections again in intervals of one week, and two injections in intervals of four weeks. Another group of four animals received 20 mg AC- in four applications in intervals of four weeks. Five control boars were included in the first experiment and four in the second. Immune response of the experimental animals was detected neither by immunoelectrophoresis nor by radio-immuno-assay. Pheromones in fat samples were determined by means of gas chromatography during treatment and after slaughter. They were increased in some of the cases, albeit not significantly. The nuclear diameters of the interstitional cells of Leydig in testicular sections differed but little, with no significance being recorded.

  2. Antibacterial, allelopathic and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. growing wild in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bouajaj, S; Benyamna, A; Bouamama, H; Romane, A; Falconieri, D; Piras, A; Marongiu, B

    2013-01-01

    Salvia officinalis (Common sage, Culinary sage) is an aromatic plant that is frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and in the food industry and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The essential oils were obtained by two different methods [hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave (Mw)] from the aerial part of S. officinalis L. growing wild in Ourika-Marrakech in Morocco. Ourika is a large zone of the Atlas Mountains which is considered as a large reserve of Flora, especially medicinal and aromatic plants. The obtained oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared with that of Tunisia. Thirty-six compounds were identified from the Mw-extracted oil which accounted for 97.32% of the total oil composition. However, 33 compounds obtained by HD representing 98.67%. The major components were trans-thujone (14.10% and 29.84%), 1,8-cineole (5.10% and 16.82%), camphor (4.99% and 9.14%), viridiflorol (16.42% and 9.92%), β-caryophyllene (19.83% and 5.20%) and α-humulene (13.54% and 4.02%). Antibacterial, allelopathic (% germination in lettuce seeds and inhibited root growth obtained after treatment with S. officinalis oils) and antioxidant (IC₅₀ values 22 mg/mL) activities were studied.

  3. Community structures of actively growing bacteria shift along a north-south transect in the western North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Akito; Hamasaki, Koji

    2008-04-01

    Bacterial community structures and their activities in the ocean are tightly coupled with organic matter fluxes and thus control ocean biogeochemical cycles. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), halogenated nucleoside and thymidine analogue, has been recently used to monitor actively growing bacteria (AGB) in natural environments. We labelled DNA of proliferating cells in seawater bacterial assemblages with BrdU and determined community structures of the bacteria that were possible key species in mediating biochemical reactions in the ocean. Surface seawater samples were collected along a north-south transect in the North Pacific in October 2003 and subjected to BrdU magnetic beads immunocapture and PCR-DGGE (BUMP-DGGE) analysis. Change of BrdU-incorporated community structures reflected the change of water masses along a north-south transect from subarctic to subtropical gyres in the North Pacific. We identified 25 bands referred to AGB as BrdU-incorporated phylotypes, belonging to Alphaproteobacteria (5 bands), Betaproteobacteria (1 band), Gammaproteobacteria (4 bands), Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) group bacteria (5 bands), Gram-positive bacteria (6 bands), and Cyanobacteria (4 bands). BrdU-incorporated phylotypes belonging to Vibrionales, Alteromonadales and Gram-positive bacteria appeared only at sampling stations in a subtropical gyre, while those belonging to Roseobacter-related bacteria and CFB group bacteria appeared at the stations in both subarctic and subtropical gyres. Our result revealed phylogenetic affiliation of AGB and their dynamic change along with north-south environmental gradients in open oceans. Different species of AGB utilize different amount and kinds of substrates, which can affect the change of organic matter fluxes along transect.

  4. Mitral valve repair for active culture positive infective endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Doukas, G; Oc, M; Alexiou, C; Sosnowski, A W; Samani, N J; Spyt, T J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical and echocardiographic outcome after mitral valve (MV) repair for active culture positive infective MV endocarditis. Patients and methods Between 1996 and 2004, 36 patients (mean (SD) age 53 (18) years) with positive blood culture up to three weeks before surgery (or positive culture of material removed at operation) and intraoperative evidence of endocarditis underwent MV repair. Staphylococci and streptococci were the most common pathogens. All patients had moderate or severe mitral regurgitation (MR). Mean New York Heart Association (NYHA) class was 2.3 (1.0). Follow up was complete (mean 38 (19) months). Results Operative mortality was 2.8% (one patient). At follow up, endocarditis has not recurred. One patient developed severe recurrent MR and underwent valve replacement and one patient had moderate MR. There were two late deaths, both non‐cardiac. Kaplan‐Meier five year freedom from recurrent moderate to severe MR, freedom from repeat operation, and survival were 94 (4)%, 97 (3)%, and 93 (5)%, respectively. At the most recent review the mean NYHA class was 1.17 (0.3) (p < 0.0001). At the latest echocardiographic evaluation, left atrial diameters, left ventricular end diastolic diameter, and MV diameter were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) compared with preoperative values. Conclusions MV repair for active culture positive endocarditis is associated with low operative mortality and provides satisfactory freedom from recurrent infection, freedom from repeat operation, and survival. Hence, every effort should be made to repair infected MVs and valves should be replaced only when repair is not possible. PMID:15951395

  5. Growing Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on insect metamorphosis; (2) activities focusing on insect life cycles and how insects change from egg to adult; and (3) student materials (ready-to-copy games, puzzles, coloring pages, worksheets, and/or mazes). Each activity includes objective(s), recommended age levels, subject area(s), list of materials…

  6. Cytokinin Activation of Thiamine Biosynthesis in Tobacco Callus Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Digby, John; Skoog, Folke

    1966-01-01

    Bioassays of tissue extracts show that high (500-1000 μg/liter) kinetin concentrations which permit growth of tobacco callus cultures on media without added thiamine activate the biosynthesis of this vitamin by the tissues. Although the tissue concentration of thiamine may fall appreciably, it is maintained at a level adequate for survival and slow growth of the cultures, and there is a large net increase in total thiamine content per culture with time. In the second and subsequent passages of tissue on a thiamine free medium, growth is obtained only when high kinetin concentrations are maintained. Effective inhibition of growth by antithiamines suggests that thiamine is utilized by the high-kinetin tissue. In the presence of low (30-100 μg/liter) kinetin concentrations, which would be optimal for growth in the presence of thiamine, growth only occurs early in the first passage of tissue from a medium with the vitamin to one without it. The thiamine concentration in the tissues falls to low levels, and no net biosynthesis is apparent. The tissues turn dark and die after 2 to 3 weeks. In contrast with this, in the absence of both added thiamine and kinetin no appreciable growth occurs, but the tissues keep their normal appearance, retain their thiamine content, and may stay alive for several weeks. PMID:16656301

  7. Boron Accelerates Cultured Osteoblastic Cell Activity through Calcium Flux.

    PubMed

    Capati, Mark Luigi Fabian; Nakazono, Ayako; Igawa, Kazunari; Ookubo, Kensuke; Yamamoto, Yuya; Yanagiguchi, Kajirou; Kubo, Shisei; Yamada, Shizuka; Hayashi, Yoshihiko

    2016-12-01

    A low concentration of boron (B) accelerates the proliferation and differentiation of mammalian osteoblasts. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 0.1 mM of B on the membrane function of osteoblastic cells in vitro. Genes involved in cell activity were investigated using gene expression microarray analyses. The Ca(2+) influx and efflux were evaluated to demonstrate the activation of L-type Ca(2+) channel for the Ca(2+) influx, and that of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase for the Ca(2+) efflux. A real-time PCR analysis revealed that the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of four mineralization-related genes was clearly increased after 3 days of culture with a B-supplemented culture medium. Using microarray analyses, five genes involved in cell proliferation and differentiation were upregulated compared to the control group. Regarding the Ca(2+) influx, in the nifedipine-pretreated group, the relative fluorescence intensity for 1 min after adding B solution did not increase compared with that for 1 min before addition. In the control group, the relative fluorescence intensity was significantly increased compared with the experimental group (P < 0.05). Regarding the Ca(2+) efflux, in the experimental group cultured in 0.1 mM of B-supplemented medium, the relative fluorescence intensity for 10 min after ouabain treatment revealed a significantly lower slope value compared with the control group (P < 0.01). This is the first study to demonstrate the acceleration of Ca(2+) flux by B supplementation in osteoblastic cells. Cell membrane stability is related to the mechanism by which a very low concentration of B promotes the proliferation and differentiation of mammalian osteoblastic cells in vitro.

  8. Glucocorticoid receptor activation and inactivation in cultured human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R H; Leach, K L; La Forest, A C; O'Toole, T E; Wagner, R; Pratt, W B

    1981-01-10

    Although glucocorticoids are not cytolytic for and do not inhibit the growth of the IM-9 line of cultured human lymphoblasts, these cells have a high steroid-binding capacity. We have used IM-9 cells in order to examine whether unoccupied glucocorticoid receptors are inactivated and activated in intact cells. when IM-9 cells are incubated in glucose-free medium in a nitrogen atmosphere, both their ability to bind triamcinolone acetonide and their ATP levels decline and, when glucose and oxygen are reintroduced, ATP levels and receptor activity return. The specific glucocorticoid-binding activity of cytosol prepared from cells exposed to various degrees of energy limitation is directly correlated with the ATP content. Receptor activation in intact cells is rapid and independent of protein synthesis. Cytosol prepared from inactivated cells cannot be activated by addition of ATP. The inactivation of glucocorticoid receptors that occurs when cytosol from normal IM-9 cells is incubated at 25 degrees C is inhibited by molybdate, vanadate, fluoride, ATP, and several other nucleotides. The experiments with intact human lymphoblasts suggest that assays of specific glucocorticoid-binding capacity do not necessarily reflect the cellular content of receptor protein.

  9. Eliminating Barriers to Physical Activity: Using Cultural Negotiation and Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Physical and sport educators who incorporate cultural negotiation acknowledge that their teaching, routines, and plans for learning encompass a cultural act. In today's society, culture-free teaching or learning is nonexistent. Education is woven into the fabric of nearly every group; therefore, recognizing the impact of cultural norms on the…

  10. Navigating Two Cultures: An Investigation of Cultures of a Responsibility-Based Physical Activity Program and School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okseon; Martinek, Tom

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the culture of a responsibility-based physical activity program called Project Effort as well as the school culture of its participants. Five children who had at least one full semester of participation in the program participated in the study. We collected data from participants' individual interviews and observations of their…

  11. Grow Beasts: Growing Mathematical Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roddy, Mark; Behrend, Kat

    2015-01-01

    What do you do when you want to get your Stage 3 students authentically and enthusiastically engaged in the active construction of their understanding and fluency with measurement, data collection, representation and interpretation? How do you enable them to make choices about their learning, to measure with purpose, to record and organise the…

  12. Hepatoprotective activity of cultured mycelium of Morel mushroom, Morchella esculenta.

    PubMed

    Nitha, B; Fijesh, P V; Janardhanan, K K

    2013-01-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of cultured mycelium of morel mushroom Morchella esculenta against CCl(4) and ethanol induced chronic hepatotoxicity was investigated. Hepatotoxicity was induced by challenging the animals with CCl(4) (1:5, v/v, 3.75 ml/kg body weight, i.p., 30 doses) and ethanol (36%, v/v, 6 ml/animal, p.o., 35 doses) and the extract was administered at two concentrations (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight). Hepatoprotection was evaluated by determining the activities of liver function marker enzymes and antioxidant status of liver and also by histopathological observations of liver tissue. Administration of both ethanol and CCl(4) elevated the levels of liver function enzymes, GOT, GPT and ALP in serum drastically. The treatment with the extract decreased the elevated serum GOT, GPT and ALP activities in a dose dependent manner. The extract also restored the depleted levels of antioxidants in liver consequent to CCl(4) and ethanol challenge. The results indicated that aqueous-ethanolic extract of M. esculenta mycelium possessed significant hepatoprotective activity. The conclusion is also supported by the biochemical determinations and histopathological observations. The findings thus suggest the potential therapeutic use of morel mushroom mycelium as a novel hepatoprotective agent.

  13. GROWING SEEDS, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT, "GROWING SEEDS," IN WHICH SUCH BASIC SCIENCE SKILLS AND PROCESSES AS MEASUREMENT, OBSERVATION, AND HYPOTHESIS FORMATION ARE INTRODUCED THROUGH STUDENT ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SEEDS, GERMINATION, AND SEEDLING GROWTH. THE MATERIALS WERE DEVELOPED FOR USE IN…

  14. Density-dependent induction of 92-kd type IV collagenase activity in cultures of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Xie, B.; Bucana, C. D.; Fidler, I. J.

    1994-01-01

    We examined the in vitro regulation of the production of two type IV collagenases, MMP-2 and MMP-9, by A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. The A431 cells were cultured under sparse or confluent conditions. The addition of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) or phorbolester-TPA to sparse cultures induced low levels of MMP-9 secretion, whereas in confluent cultures only TGF-beta produced this effect. Neither treatment altered the level of constitutive secretion of MMP-2. Treatment of sparse, actively growing cultures but not confluent stationary cultures with both TGF-beta and TPA produced synergistic induction of MMP-9 but did not affect MMP-2. A431 cells were grown as discrete large monolayer colonies. Radiolabeling with [3H]leucine or [3H]thymidine followed by autoradiography revealed that all the A431 cells in the colonies were metabolically active and only those on the periphery were dividing. Only these dividing A431 cells stained positive by anti-MMP-9 antibodies. Our results demonstrate that the synergistic induction of MMP-9 secretion in A431 cells occurs subsequent to stimulation by external signals in only noncontact-inhibited dividing tumor cells. These regulatory mechanisms may account for the in vivo finding that many proteinases are localized at the invasion front of a neoplasm where tumor cells are dividing and accessible to various environmental signals. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8178929

  15. Structure and expression profiling of a novel calcium-dependent protein kinase gene, CDPK3a, in leaves, stems, grapes, and cell cultures of wild-growing grapevine Vitis amurensis Rupr.

    PubMed

    Kiselev, K V; Dubrovina, A S; Shumakova, O A; Karetin, Y A; Manyakhin, A Y

    2013-03-01

    KEY MESSAGE : VaCDPK3a is actively expressed in leaves, stems, inflorescences, and berries of Vitis amurensis and may act as a positive growth regulator, but is not involved in the regulation of resveratrol biosynthesis. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are known to play important roles in plant development and defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. It has previously been shown that CDPK3a is the predominant CDPK transcript in cell cultures of wild-growing grapevine Vitis amurensis Rupr., which is known to possess high resistance against environmental stresses and to produce resveratrol, a polyphenol with valuable pharmacological effects. In this study, we aimed to define the full cDNA sequence of VaCDPK3a and analyze its organ-specific expression, responses to plant hormones, temperature stress and exogenous NaCl, and the effects of VaCDPK3a overexpression on biomass accumulation and resveratrol content in V. amurensis calli. VaCDPK3a was actively expressed in all analyzed V. amurensis organs and tissues and was not transcriptionally regulated by salt and temperature stresses. The highest VaCDPK3a expression was detected in young leaves and the lowest in stems. A reduction in the VaCDPK3a expression correlated with a lower rate of biomass accumulation and higher resveratrol content in calli of V. amurensis under different growth conditions. Overexpression of the VaCDPK3a gene in the V. amurensis calli significantly increased cell growth for a short period of time but did not have an effect on resveratrol production. Further subculturing of the transformed calli resulted in cell death and a decrease in expression of the endogenous VaCDPK3a. The data suggest that while VaCDPK3a acts as a positive regulator of V. amurensis cell growth, it is not involved in the signaling pathway regulating resveratrol biosynthesis and resistance to salt and temperature stresses.

  16. Climate change in winter versus the growing-season leads to different effects on soil microbial activity in northern hardwood forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, P. O.; Templer, P. H.; Finzi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Mean winter air temperatures have risen by approximately 2.5˚ C per decade over the last fifty years in the northeastern U.S., reducing the maximum depth of winter snowpack by approximately 26 cm over this period and the duration of winter snow cover by 3.6 to 4.2 days per decade. Forest soils in this region are projected to experience a greater number of freeze-thaw cycles and lower minimum winter soil temperatures as the depth and duration of winter snow cover declines in the next century. Climate change is likely to result not only in lower soil temperatures during winter, but also higher soil temperatures during the growing-season. We conducted two complementary experiments to determine how colder soils in winter and warmer soils in the growing-season affect microbial activity in hardwood forests at Harvard Forest, MA and Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH. A combination of removing snow via shoveling and buried heating cables were used to induce freeze-thaw events during winter and to warm soils 5˚C above ambient temperatures during the growing-season. Increasing the depth and duration of soil frost via snow-removal resulted in short-term reductions in soil nitrogen (N) production via microbial proteolytic enzyme activity and net N mineralization following snowmelt, prior to tree leaf-out. Declining mass specific rates of carbon (C) and N mineralization associated with five years of snow removal at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest may be an indication of microbial physiological adaptation to winter climate change. Freeze-thaw cycles during winter reduced microbial extracellular enzyme activity and the temperature sensitivity of microbial C and N mineralization during the growing-season, potentially offsetting nutrient and soil C losses due to soil warming in the growing-season. Our multiple experimental approaches show that winter climate change is likely to contribute to reduced microbial activity in northern hardwood forests.

  17. Culture Independent Geochemical Tools for Adressing Microbial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomstein, B. A.; Langerhuus, A. T.; Jørgensen, B. B.; Alperin, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Decades of ocean drilling have demonstrated wide-spread microbial life in deep sub-seafloor sediment, and surprisingly high numbers of microbial cells and endospores. Despite the ubiquity of life in the deep biosphere, the large community sizes are not yet understood given the extremely low energy fluxes. We have developed and applied new approaches to the deep sub-seafloor to quantify distributions and turnover times of living microbial biomass, endospores and microbial necromass. The approach combines sensitive analyses of unique bacterial marker molecules (muramic acid and d-amino acids) and the bacterial endospore marker (dipicolinic acid) with a series of models that link microscopic (e.g., racemization dynamics of stereo-isomeric amino acids) and macroscopic (e.g., porewater geochemistry) properties. Model output includes production rates and turnover times of microbial biomass and necromass, concentration profiles of reactive organic carbon, and rates of organic carbon decomposition. In combination, these results allow us to assess the role of microbial activity in the sub-seafloor carbon budget. One key result is that the turnover time of biomass is far longer than turnover times found in cultures and active surface sediments.

  18. Integrating cultural community psychology: activity settings and the shared meanings of intersubjectivity.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Clifford R; Tharp, Roland G

    2012-03-01

    Cultural and community psychology share a common emphasis on context, yet their leading journals rarely cite each other's articles. Greater integration of the concepts of culture and community within and across their disciplines would enrich and facilitate the viability of cultural community psychology. The contextual theory of activity settings is proposed as one means to integrate the concepts of culture and community in cultural community psychology. Through shared activities, participants develop common experiences that affect their psychological being, including their cognitions, emotions, and behavioral development. The psychological result of these experiences is intersubjectivity. Culture is defined as the shared meanings that people develop through their common historic, linguistic, social, economic, and political experiences. The shared meanings of culture arise through the intersubjectivity developed in activity settings. Cultural community psychology presents formidable epistemological challenges, but overcoming these challenges could contribute to the transformation and advancement of community psychology.

  19. Activity of Protease-Activated Receptors in Primary Cultured Human Myenteric Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kugler, Eva M.; Mazzuoli, Gemma; Demir, Ihsan E.; Ceyhan, Güralp O.; Zeller, Florian; Schemann, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Activity of the four known protease-activated receptors (PARs) has been well studied in rodent enteric nervous system and results in animal models established an important role for neuronal PAR2. We recently demonstrated that, unlike in rodents, PAR1 is the dominant neuronal protease receptor in the human submucous plexus. With this study we investigated whether this also applies to the human myenteric plexus. We used voltage sensitive dye recordings to detect action potential discharge in primary cultures of human myenteric neurons in response to PAR activating peptides (APs). Application of the PAR1-AP (TFLLR) or PAR4-AP (GYPGQV) evoked spike discharge in 79 or 23% of myenteric neurons, respectively. The PAR1-AP response was mimicked by the endogenous PAR1 activator thrombin and blocked by the PAR1 antagonists SCH79797. Human myenteric neurons did not respond to PAR2-AP. This was not due to culture conditions because all three PAR-APs evoked action potentials in cultured guinea pig myenteric neurons. Consecutive application of PAR-APs revealed coexpression (relative to the population responding to PAR-APs) of PAR1/PAR2 in 51%, PAR1/PAR4 in 43%, and of PAR2/PAR4 in 29% of guinea pig myenteric neurons. Our study provided further evidence for the prominent role of neuronal PAR1 in the human enteric nervous system. PMID:22988431

  20. EGFR trans-activation mediates pleiotrophin-induced activation of Akt and Erk in cultured osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jian-Bo; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Kun; Zhu, Xin-Hui; Xu, Da-Wei; Chen, Jia-Jia; Cui, Zhi-Ming

    2014-05-09

    Pleiotrophin (Ptn) plays an important role in bone growth through regulating osteoblasts' functions. The underlying signaling mechanisms are not fully understood. In the current study, we found that Ptn induced heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) release to trans-activate EGF-receptor (EGFR) in both primary osteoblasts and osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. Meanwhile, Ptn activated Akt and Erk signalings in cultured osteoblasts. The EGFR inhibitor AG1478 as well as the monoclonal antibody against HB-EGF (anti-HB-EGF) significantly inhibited Ptn-induced EGFR activation and Akt and Erk phosphorylations in MC3T3-E1 cells and primary osteoblasts. Further, EGFR siRNA depletion or dominant negative mutation suppressed also Akt and Erk activation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Finally, we observed that Ptn increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and inhibited dexamethasone (Dex)-induced cell death in both MC3T3-E1 cells and primary osteoblasts, such effects were alleviated by AG1478 or anti-HB-EGF. Together, these results suggest that Ptn-induced Akt/Erk activation and some of its pleiotropic functions are mediated by EGFR trans-activation in cultured osteoblasts.

  1. Comparison of hypoglycemic activity of fermented mushroom of Inonotus obliquus rich in vanadium and wild-growing I. obliquus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yibing; Zhao, Yong; Cui, Haifeng; Cao, Chunyu; Guo, Jianyou; Liu, Sha

    2011-12-01

    The effects of vanadium-enriched and wild Inonotus obliquus were tested on hyperglycemic mice. The vanadium content of the culture medium was 0.6%, reaching a concentration of 3.0 mg/g in the cultured mushroom while in the wild variety is 1/100 of that amount. The toxicity of vanadium at the 3.0 mg/g level is negligible, but its anti-diabetic effects are significantly different to those of the wild variety (p < 0.05). Due to its high bioavailability and low toxicity, vanadium-enriched I. obliquus could be used as a means of vanadium supplementation, with expectation of obtaining higher bioavailability and lower toxicity in animals.

  2. Salinity-Induced Anti-Angiogenesis Activities and Structural Changes of the Polysaccharides from Cultured Cordyceps Militaris

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Qiu, Peiju; Zhou, Zijing; Tang, Yang; Zhao, Yue; Zheng, Sha; Xu, Chenchen; Zhang, Xiuli; Yin, Pinghe; Jiang, Xiaolu; Lu, Hong; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps is a rare and exotic mushroom that grows out of the head of a mummified caterpillar. Many companies are cultivating Cordyceps to meet the increased demand for its medicinal applications. However, the structures and functions of polysaccharides, one of the pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps, are difficult to reproduce in vitro. We hypothesized that mimicking the salty environment inside caterpillar bodies might make the cultured fungus synthesize polysaccharides with similar structures and functions to that of wild Cordyceps. By adding either sodium sulfate or sodium chloride into growth media, we observed the salinity-induced anti-angiogenesis activities of the polysaccharides purified from the cultured C. Militaris. To correlate the activities with the polysaccharide structures, we performed the 13C-NMR analysis and observed profound structural changes including different proportions of α and β glycosidic bonds and appearances of uronic acid signals in the polysaccharides purified from the culture after the salts were added. By coupling the techniques of stable 34S-sulfate isotope labeling, aniline- and D5-aniline tagging, and stable isotope facilitated uronic acid-reduction with LC-MS analysis, our data revealed for the first time the existence of covalently linked sulfate and the presence of polygalacuronic acids in the polysaccharides purified from the salt added C. Militaris culture. Our data showed that culturing C. Militaris with added salts changed the biosynthetic scheme and resulted in novel polysaccharide structures and functions. These findings might be insightful in terms of how to make C. Militaris cultures to reach or to exceed the potency of wild Cordyceps in future. PMID:25203294

  3. Critical Projects of Latino Cultural Citizenship: Literacy and Immigrant Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeyford, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this paper argues for the consideration of cultural citizenship as a theoretical framework for pedagogies that situate the social locations of transcultural students as positions from which students are able to participate, learn and work for greater civic, social and cultural rights. Through a 5-year case study conducted…

  4. Gallium nitrate inhibits alkaline phosphatase activity in a differentiating mesenchymal cell culture.

    PubMed

    Boskey, A L; Ziecheck, W; Guidon, P; Doty, S B

    1993-02-01

    The effect of gallium nitrate on alkaline phosphatase activity in a differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell culture was monitored in order to gain insight into the observation that rachitic rats treated with gallium nitrate failed to show the expected increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Cultures maintained in media containing 15 microM gallium nitrate showed drastically decreased alkaline phosphatase activities in the absence of significant alterations in total protein synthesis and DNA content. However, addition of 15 microM gallium nitrate to cultures 18 h before assay for alkaline phosphatase activity had little effect. At the light microscopic and electron microscopic level, gallium-treated cultures differed morphologically from gallium-free cultures: with gallium present, there were fewer hypertrophic chondrocytes and cartilage nodules were flatter and further apart. Because of altered morphology, staining with an antibody against chick cartilage alkaline phosphatase appeared less extensive; however, all nodules stained equivalently relative to gallium-free controls. Histochemical staining for alkaline phosphatase activity was negative in gallium-treated cultures, demonstrating that the alkaline phosphatase protein present was not active. The defective alkaline phosphatase activity in cultures maintained in the presence of gallium was also evidenced when cultures were supplemented with the alkaline phosphatase substrate, beta-glycerophosphate (beta GP). The data presented suggest that gallium inhibits alkaline phosphatase activity in this culture system and that gallium causes alterations in the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into hypertrophic chondrocytes.

  5. Effect of cell substrate on antioxidant enzyme activities in cultured renal glomerular epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, A. H.; Oberley, T. D.; Oberley, L. W.; Ramanathan, R.

    1988-01-01

    The activities of three antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were monitored in isolated guinea pig glomeruli and primary or subcultured glomerular epithelial cells. Cell injury was assessed by morphologic studies and by measurement of cellular lipid peroxidation (levels of malondialdehyde). Antioxidant enzyme activities were very different in cultured cells than in parent glomeruli. The possible effect of culture substrates (tissue culture plastic, bovine corneal endothelial [BCE] cell basement membrane, and PF-HR-9 endodermal cell basement membrane) on antioxidant enzyme status, cell morphology, and lipid peroxidation was also assessed. Glomerular epithelial cells cultured on the BCE cell basement membrane substrate survived longer and showed less lipid peroxidation than cells cultured on plastic or the HR-9 substrate. Cells cultured on a plastic substrate had substantially less glutathione peroxidase activity than cells cultured on either BCE or HR-9 basement membranes. Images Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:3348362

  6. Ozonated saline shows activity against planktonic and biofilm growing Staphylococcus aureus in vitro: a potential irrigant for infected wounds.

    PubMed

    Al-Saadi, Hayder; Potapova, Inga; Rochford, Edward Tj; Moriarty, Thomas F; Messmer, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Infections associated with deep wounds require extensive surgical and medical care. New adjunctive treatments are required to aid in the eradication of the bacterial biofilms found on infected wounds and, in particular, any underlying hardware. Ozone has been used as a safe and efficient disinfectant in water treatment plants for many years. The purpose of this study is to investigate the anti-biofilm potential of ozonated saline against biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, a microorganism commonly implicated in wound infections. A custom-made bacterial biofilm bioreactor was used to grow S. aureus biofilms on discs of medical grade titanium alloy. An ozone generator was connected in-line and biofilms and planktonic bacteria were exposed to ozone in saline. Cytotoxicity was assessed against primary ovine osteoblasts in the same system. In tests against planktonic S. aureus, a 99% reduction in bacterial numbers was detected within 15 minutes of exposure. S. aureus biofilms were significantly more resistant to ozone, although complete eradication of the biofilm was eventually achieved within 5 hours. Ozonated saline was not found to be cytotoxic to primary ovine osteoblasts. Ozonated saline may be suitable as an adjuvant therapy to treat patients as an instillation fluid for wound irrigation and sterilisation.

  7. Postnatal growth hormone deficiency in growing rats causes marked decline in the activity of spinal cord acetylcholinesterase but not butyrylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Koohestani, Faezeh; Brown, Chester M; Meisami, Esmail

    2012-11-01

    The effects of growth hormone (GH) deficiency on the developmental changes in the abundance and activity of cholinesterase enzymes were studied in the developing spinal cord (SC) of postnatal rats by measuring the specific activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a marker for cholinergic neurons and their synaptic compartments, and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), a marker for glial cells and neurovascular cells. Specific activities of these two enzymes were measured in SC tissue of 21- and 90 day-old (P21, weaning age; P90, young adulthood) GH deficient spontaneous dwarf (SpDwf) mutant rats which lack anterior pituitary and circulating plasma GH, and were compared with SC tissue of normal age-matched control animals. Assays were carried out for AChE and BuChE activity in the presence of their specific chemical inhibitors, BW284C51 and iso-OMPA, respectively. Results revealed that mean AChE activity was markedly and significantly reduced [28% at P21, 49% at P90, (p<0.01)] in the SC of GH deficient rats compared to age-matched controls. GH deficiency had a higher and more significant effect on AChE activity of the older (P90) rats than the younger ones (P21) ones. In contrast, BuChE activity in SC showed no significant changes in GH deficient rats at either of the two ages studied. Results imply that, in the absence of pituitary GH, the postnatal proliferation of cholinergic synapses in the rat SC, a CNS structure, where AChE activity is abundant, is markedly reduced during both the pre- and postweaning periods; more so in the postweaning than preweaning ages. In contrast, the absence of any effects on BuChE activity implies that GH does not affect the development of non-neuronal elements, e.g., glia, as much as the neuronal and synaptic compartments of the developing rat SC.

  8. Decreased rate of protein synthesis, caspase-3 activity, and ubiquitin-proteasome proteolysis in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet.

    PubMed

    Batistela, Emanuele; Pereira, Mayara Peron; Siqueira, Juliany Torres; Paula-Gomes, Silvia; Zanon, Neusa Maria; Oliveira, Eduardo Brandt; Navegantes, Luiz Carlos Carvalho; Kettelhut, Isis C; Andrade, Claudia Marlise Balbinotti; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the rates of both protein synthesis and breakdown, and the activation of intracellular effectors that control these processes in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet for 15 days. The mass and the protein content, as well as the rate of protein synthesis, were decreased in the soleus from LPHC-fed rats. The availability of amino acids was diminished, since the levels of various essential amino acids were decreased in the plasma of LPHC-fed rats. Overall rate of proteolysis was also decreased, explained by reductions in the mRNA levels of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, ubiquitin conjugates, proteasome activity, and in the activity of caspase-3. Soleus muscles from LPHC-fed rats showed increased insulin sensitivity, with increased levels of insulin receptor and phosphorylation levels of AKT, which probably explains the inhibition of both the caspase-3 activity and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The fall of muscle proteolysis seems to represent an adaptive response that contributes to spare proteins in a condition of diminished availability of dietary amino acids. Furthermore, the decreased rate of protein synthesis may be the driving factor to the lower muscle mass gain in growing rats fed the LPHC diet.

  9. Growing and Growing: Promoting Functional Thinking with Geometric Growing Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Design research methodology is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated instruction theory about students' development of functional thinking in the context of geometric growing patterns. The two research questions are: (1) How does students' functional thinking develop in the context of geometric growing patterns? (2) What are…

  10. Cultured Neuronal Networks Express Complex Patterns of Activity and Morphological Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raichman, Nadav; Rubinsky, Liel; Shein, Mark; Baruchi, Itay; Volman, Vladislav; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    The following sections are included: * Cultured Neuronal Networks * Recording the Network Activity * Network Engineering * The Formation of Synchronized Bursting Events * The Characterization of the SBEs * Highly-Active Neurons * Function-Form Relations in Cultured Networks * Analyzing the SBEs Motifs * Network Repertoire * Network under Hypothermia * Summary * Acknowledgments * References

  11. Researching Contradictions: Cultural Historical Activity Theory Research (CHAT) in the English Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) is an appropriate theoretical and methodological framework for researchers in English interested in the social contexts of culture and its relationship with the formation of mind and activity in the English classroom. Two key concepts in Vygotsky's thought central to understanding…

  12. Composition, antibacterial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of essential oils from three Origanum species growing wild in Lebanon and Greece.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Conforti, Filomena; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Arnold, Nelly Apostolides; Menichini, Francesco; Senatore, Felice

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils from Origanum dictamnus, Origanum libanoticum and Origanum microphyllum were analysed by GC-MS, finding carvacrol, p-cymene, linalool, γ-terpinene and terpinen-4-ol as major components. The antioxidant activity by the DPPH and FRAP tests and the antiproliferative activity against two human cancer cell lines, LoVo and HepG2, were investigated, showing that the essential oil of O. dictamnus was statistically the most inhibitory on both the cell lines, while all the oils exerted a weak antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the samples were tested against 10 Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria; all the oils were active on Gram-positive bacteria but O. dictamnus essential oil was the most effective (MIC = 25-50 μg/mL), showing also a good activity against the Gram-negative Escherichia coli (MIC = 50 μg/mL). Data suggest that these essential oils and particularly O. dictamnus oil could be used as valuable new flavours with functional properties for food or nutraceutical products.

  13. Protozoan Grazing, Bacterial Activity, and Mineralization in Two-Stage Continuous Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Bloem, Jaap; Starink, Mathieu; Bär-Gilissen, Marie-José B.; Cappenberg, Thomas E.

    1988-01-01

    In two-stage continuous cultures, at bacterial concentrations, biovolumes, and growth rates similar to values found in Lake Vechten, ingestion rates of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNAN) increased from 2.3 bacteria HNAN−1 · h−1 at a growth rate of 0.15 day−1 to 9.2 bacteria · HNAN−1 · h−1 at a growth rate of 0.65 day−1. On a yeast extract medium with a C/N/P ratio of 100:15:1.2 (Redfield ratio), a mixed bacterial population showed a yield of 18% (C/C) and a specific carbon content of 211 fg of C · μm−3. The HNAN carbon content and yield were estimated at 127 fg of C · μm−3 and 47% (C/C). Although P was not growth limiting, HNAN accelerated the mineralization of PO4-P from dissolved organic matter by 600%. The major mechanism of P remineralization appeared to be direct consumption of bacteria by HNAN. N mineralization was performed mainly (70%) by bacteria but was increased 30% by HNAN. HNAN did not enhance the decomposition of the relatively mineral-rich dissolved organic matter. An accelerated decomposition of organic carbon by protozoa may be restricted to mineral-poor substrates and may be explained mainly by protozoan nutrient regeneration. Growth and grazing in the cultures were compared with methods for in situ estimates. Thymidine incorporation by actively growing bacteria yielded an empirical conversion factor of 1.1 × 1018 bacteria per mol of thymidine incorporated into DNA. However, nongrowing bacteria also showed considerable incorporation. Protozoan grazing was found to be accurately measured by uptake of fluorescently labeled bacteria, whereas artificial fluorescent microspheres were not ingested, and selective prokaryotic inhibitors blocked not only bacterial growth but also protozoan grazing. PMID:16347801

  14. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the…

  15. L-band active/passive time series measurements over a growing season usign the COMRAD ground-based SMAP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scheduled to launch in October 2014, NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will provide high-resolution global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state every 2-3 days. These new measurements of the hydrological condition of the Earth’s surface will build on data from European Spa...

  16. Anti-plasmodial and insecticidal activities of the essential oils of aromatic plants growing in the Mediterranean area

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sardinia is a Mediterranean area endemic for malaria up to the last century. During a screening study to evaluate the anti-plasmodial activity of some aromatic plants traditionally used in Sardinia, Myrtus communis (myrtle, Myrtaceae), Satureja thymbra (savory, Lamiaceae), and Thymus herba-barona (caraway thyme, Lamiaceae) were collected in three vegetative periods: before, during and after flowering. Methods The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation, fractionated by silica gel column chromatography and analysed by GC-FID-MS. Total oil and three main fractions were tested on D10 and W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Larvicidal and adulticidal activities were tested on Anopheles gambiae susceptible strains. Results The essential oil of savory, rich in thymol, was the most effective against P. falciparum with an inhibitory activity independent from the time of collection (IC50 17–26 μg/ml on D10 and 9–11 μg/ml on W2). Upon fractionation, fraction 1 was enriched in mono-sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbons; fraction 2 in thymol (73-83%); and fraction 3 contained thymol, carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol, with a different composition depending on the time of collection. Thymol-enriched fractions were the most active on both strains (IC50 20–22 μg/ml on D10 and 8–10 μg/ml on W2) and thymol was confirmed as mainly responsible for this activity (IC50 19.7± 3.0 and 10.6 ± 2.0 μg/ml on D10 and W2, respectively). The essential oil of S. thymbra L. showed also larvicidal and adulticidal activities. The larvicidal activity, expressed as LC50, was 0.15 ± 0.002; 0.21 ± 0.13; and 0.15 ± 0.09 μg/ml (mean ± sd) depending on the time of collection: before, during and after flowering, respectively. Conclusions This study provides evidence for the use of essential oils for treating malaria and fighting the vector at both the larval and adult stages. These findings open the possibility for further investigation aimed at

  17. Diversity of Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in three red grape varieties cultured in the Serranía de Ronda (Spain) vine-growing region.

    PubMed

    Clavijo, Almudena; Calderón, Isabel L; Paneque, Patricia

    2010-10-15

    For the first time, an ecological survey of wine yeasts present in grapes growing in two vineyards located in the region of "Serranía de Ronda" (Málaga, southern Spain) has been carried out. During the 2006 and 2007 vintages, grapes from different varieties were aseptically collected and allowed to ferment spontaneously in the laboratory. From a total of 1586 colonies isolated from microvinifications, 1281 were identified according to ITS polymorphisms and their identity confirmed by sequencing of the D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA. Most of the isolates (84%) corresponded to thirteen different non-Saccharomyces species with Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Issatchenkia orientalis accounting for 42.7% of the total. Mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates revealed a low diversity since only eleven different profiles were found, nine of them corresponding to local strains and two to commercial ones that had been used in different campaigns and that very likely were disseminated from the winery to the adjacent vineyard. A different distribution of strains was found in the three grape varieties studied.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of neutralized extracellular culture filtrates of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a cultured Indian milk product ('dahi').

    PubMed

    Varadaraj, M C; Devi, N; Keshava, N; Manjrekar, S P

    1993-12-01

    Neutralized extracellular culture filtrate obtained from isolates of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbruecki ssp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis from 'dahi' showed weak to moderate inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus laterosporus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa when tested by the diffusion agar well assay method. The effective minimum quantity of lactic culture filtrates required to obtain complete inhibition of an inoculum of 10(3) cfu/ml of the bacteria tested was between 20 and 26% (vol/vol), as determined by the agar incorporation method. Neutralized extracellular culture filtrate of these lactic cultures added at a level of 10% in sterile, 10% reconstituted non-fat dry milk was able to either suppress or retard growth of selected bacterial cultures when incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h. This study indicated the antimicrobial activity of dahi and the potential of using neutralized extracellular culture filtrate of lactic acid bacteria in the biopreservation of foods.

  19. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas growing wild in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kirmizibekmez, Hasan; Demirci, Betül; Yeşilada, Erdem; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih

    2009-07-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the dried leaves and flowers of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas were separately identified by GC-FID and GC-MS analyses. The main components were alpha-fenchone (41.9 +/- 1.2%), 1,8-cineole (15.6 +/- 0.8%), camphor (12.1 +/- 0.5%), and viridiflorol (4.1 +/- 0.4%) in the leaves; and alpha-fenchone (39.2 +/- 0.9%), myrtenyl acetate (9.5 +/- 0.4%), alpha-pinene (6.1 +/- 0.09%), camphor (5.9 +/- 0.05%) and 1,8-cineole (3.8 +/- 0.1%) in the flowers. Overall, 55 and 66 constituents were identified in the leaf and flower essential oils representing more than 90% and 94% of the total, respectively. In addition, the essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial and anticandidal activities by broth microdilution. The flower essential oil was found to be relatively more active than the leaf oil towards the tested pathogenic microorganisms. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was more susceptible to the flower oil (MIC = 31.2 microg/mL). The oils, evaluated for their free radical scavenging activity using a TLC-DPPH assay, were inactive at a concentration of 2 mg/mL.

  20. Salinity-induced modulation of growth and antioxidant activity in the callus cultures of miswak (Salvadora persica).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Varsha; Ramawat, Kishan Gopal

    2013-02-01

    Miswak (Salvadora persica Linn.) is a medium-sized tree, desert facultative halophytic plant. Besides edible fruits and non-edible seed oil, the plant contains several bioactive compounds like alkaloids, tannins, saponins and sterols related to food and cosmetic industries. In the present study, physiological responses and antioxidant potential under salinity stress were investigated in callus cultures of S. persica to evaluate its use as a source of antioxidant. The callus cultures were grown on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l each of 2,4,5-T and BAP, which could be established successfully by regular subcultures of slow growing callus on this medium for several months. Increased dry weight, soluble proteins, proline, soluble carbohydrates and CAT activity were recorded under NaCl stress in comparison to control cultures. The DPPH and FRAP antioxidant activities were gradually elevated in NaCl-treated callus, whereas SOD quenching was recorded maximum at 200 mM. A significant correlation between antioxidant capacity and phenol content was observed, indicating that phenolic compounds are the major contributors to the antioxidant potential in S. persica. These findings suggest that increased salinity stress caused elevated antioxidant potentials and the plants grown in such conditions may serve as potential source of antioxidant.

  1. Eelgrass slabs, a soilless culture substrate that inhibits adhesion of fungi and oomycetes and enhances antioxidant activity in tomato.

    PubMed

    Meot-Duros, Laetitia; Le Floch, Gaëtan; Meot, Benoit; Letousey, Patricia; Jacob, Bruno; Barbier, Georges

    2011-10-26

    Composed of a marine plant, Zostera sp., eelgrass slabs are a novel organic substrate for soilless cultures used in tomato production. The benefit of using eelgrass slabs for growing tomatoes was assessed by comparing it with coconut fiber slabs in regard to contamination by Pythium spp. and to the antioxidant properties of tomato fruits. First, tomato root contamination by Pythium spp. was studied by direct plate counting, and a molecular comparison of fungal and oomycete communities was conducted using PCR-DHPLC. Second, the antioxidant properties of tomato fruits were analyzed by measuring total phenol and carotenoid contents and by evaluating radical scavenging activity. Compared to plants grown on coconut fiber slabs, those on eelgrass slabs presented a lower rate of Pythium spp. root contamination. Moreover, culture on eelgrass slabs produced fruits with better radical scavenging activity and higher total phenol content compared to controls. Carotenoid content was not affected by the type of substrate. This study highlights the value of detrital leaves of Zostera sp. as a substrate for soilless culture that reduces root contamination and also promotes the production of tomato fruits with better nutritional value.

  2. Denudation of Actively Growing Mountain Ranges in the Foreland of NE Tibet Inferred From in- Situ Produced Cosmogenic Be-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, L.; Hetzel, R.; Tao, M.; Li, X.

    2007-12-01

    At the northeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau ranges bounded by active thrust faults offer the unique opportunity to study the competing effects of uplift and erosion during the early stages of mountain building. Owing to along- strike variations in relief, slope, and lithology, these ranges are an ideal target for studying the influence of topography, lithology, and active faulting on denudation. Here we report spatially-averaged erosion rates for catchments situated along two of these ranges based on Be-10 concentrations of quartz in stream sediments. The Yumu Shan and the western Long Shou Shan are about 60 km long and their overall shape as well as the presence of wind gaps illustrates their vertical-lateral growth during Plio-Quaternary thrust faulting (Hetzel et al. 2004a). Erosion rates determined so far for 20 small catchments are variable and range from 20 to 550 mm/kyr. The observed variability results from at least three factors: (1) the erosion rate in catchments exposing the same lithology is positively correlated with relief and mean slope, (2) weakly consolidated Cretaceous sediments generally erode faster than low-grade Paleozoic bedrock, and (3) the erosion rate seems to decrease from the centre of the fault-bounded ranges towards their propagating tips. As rates of thrust faulting and rock uplift in the region (600-1200 mm/kyr; Hetzel et al., 2004a, b) exceed the denudation rates, the active growth of mountains and the lateral growth of Tibet has not yet come to rest. References Hetzel, R., Tao, M., Niedermann, S., Strecker, M.R., Ivy-Ochs, S., Kubik, P.W., Gao, B. (2004a). Implications of the fault scaling law for the growth of topography: Mountain ranges in the broken foreland of NE Tibet, Terra Nova 16, 157-162. Hetzel, R., Tao, M., Stokes, S., Niedermann, S., Ivy-Ochs, S., Gao, B., Strecker, M.R., Kubik, P.W. (2004b). Late Pleistocene-Holocene slip rate of the Zhangye thrust (Qilian Shan, China) and implications for the active growth of the

  3. Active immunization against ghrelin decreases weight gain and alters plasma concentrations of growth hormone in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Vizcarra, J A; Kirby, J D; Kim, S K; Galyean, M L

    2007-08-01

    Ghrelin has been implicated in the control of food intake and in the long-term regulation of body weight. We theorize that preventing the ability of ghrelin to interact with its receptors, would eventually lead to decreased appetite and thereby decrease body weight gain. To test our hypothesis, pigs were actively immunized against ghrelin. Ghrelin((1-10)) was conjugated to BSA and emulsified in Freund's incomplete adjuvant and diethylaminoethyl-dextran. Primary immunization was given at 19 weeks of age (WOA), with booster immunizations given 20 and 40 days after primary immunization. Body weight (BW) and plasma samples were collected weekly beginning at 19 WOA, and feed intake was measured daily. Fourteen days after primary immunization, the percentage of bound (125)I-ghrelin in plasma from immunized pigs was increased compared with control animals (P<0.001). Voluntary feed intake was decreased more than 15% in animals that were actively immunized against ghrelin compared with controls. By the end of the experiment, immunized pigs weighed 10% less than control animals (P<0.1). Concentrations of GH were increased (P<0.05) in immunized pigs. Apoptosis was not observed in post-mortem samples obtained from the fundic region of the stomach. Our observations suggest that immunization against ghrelin induces mild anorexia. This procedure could potentially be used as a treatment to control caloric intake and obesity.

  4. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as “Hair Waste”

    PubMed Central

    Cavello, Ivana A.; Crespo, Juan M.; García, Sabrina S.; Zapiola, José M.; Luna, María F.; Cavalitto, Sebastián F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P. lilacinum's supernatant. Besides antifungal activity, P. lilacinum demonstrates the capability to produce indoleacetic acid and ammonia during time cultivation on hair waste medium. Plant growth-promoting activity by cell-free supernatant was evidenced through the increase of the percentage of tomato seed germination from 71 to 85% after 48 hours. A 21-day plant growth assay using tomato plants indicates that crude supernatant promotes the growth of the plants similar to a reference fertilizer (p > 0.05). These results suggest that both strain and the supernatant may have potential to be considered as a potent biocontrol agent with multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal, IAA production and tomato growth enhancing compounds produced by P. lilacinum LPSC #876. PMID:26697226

  5. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Origanum libanoticum, Origanum ehrenbergii, and Origanum syriacum Growing Wild in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Al Hafi, Monay; El Beyrouthy, Marc; Ouaini, Naim; Stien, Didier; Rutledge, Douglas; Chaillou, Sylvain

    2016-05-01

    The essential oils (EOs) of the aerial parts of Origanum libanoticum and Origanum ehrenbergii, endemic to Lebanon, and Origanum syriacum, endemic to the Levantine, were obtained by distillation with a Clevenger apparatus. GC and GC/MS allowed identification of 96.4%, 93.5%, and 95.2% of their constituents, respectively. Carvacrol was the major component of both O. syriacum EO (79%) and O. ehrenbergii EO (60.8%). This compound was absent in O. libanoticum EO and the major compounds were β-caryophyllene (26.8%), caryophyllene oxide (22.6%), and germacrene D (17.2%). The assessment of their antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans and six pathogenic bacteria revealed that O. libanoticum EO was inactive, while O. syriacum and O. ehrenbergii showed moderate antimicrobial activity with minimal inhibitory concentrations varying from 400 to 1200 μg/ml. These results support the traditional use of these last two species in traditional herbal preparations in Lebanon.

  6. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pinus peuce (Pinaceae) growing wild in R. Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Karapandzova, Marija; Stefkova, Gjose; Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Trajkovska-Dokik, Elena; Kaftandzieva, Ana; Kulevanova, Svetlana

    2014-11-01

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils isolated from twigs with needles (T+N) and from twigs without needles (T-N) from wild Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae), from three different locations in R. Macedonia, were investigated. Essential oil yields of T+N ranged from 7.5 mL/kg to 12.5 mL/kg and for T-N from 13.8 mL/kg to 17.3 mL/kg. GC/FID/MS analysis of the essential oils revealed eighty-four components, representing 93.7-95.7% and 91.2-92.0% of the T+N and T-N oils, respectively. The major components in T+N and T-N oils were monoterpenes: α-pinene (23.8-39.9%, 21.2-23.3%), camphene (2.2-5.5%, 0.7-2.0%), β-pinene (10.1-17.1%, 8.2-16.4%), myrcene (1.2-1.41%, 1.6-2.5%), limonene+β-phellandrene (6.8-14.0%, 8.8-23.6%) and bornyl acetate (2.3-6.9%, 1.1-3.4%), followed by the sesquiterpenes: trans-(E)-caryophyllene (3.6-4.3%, 3.2-7.3%), germacrene D (7.1-9.5%, 5.0-10.3%) and δ-cadinene (2.1-3.1%, 3.3-4.2%, respectively). Antimicrobial screening of the essential oils was made by disk diffusion and broth dilution methods against 13 bacterial isolates of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. T-N essential oils showed antimicrobial activity toward Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Candida albicans as well as Streptococcus agalactiae, Acinetobacter spp. and Haemophilus influenzae. The antimicrobial activity of T+N essential oils was greater, especially against Streptococcus agalactiae, S. pyogenes, Enterococcus and Candida albicans, followed by Haemophilus influenzae, Acinetobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of all tested essential oils ranged from 15-125 μL/mL. Summarizing the obtained results, the antimicrobial activity of Pinus peuce T+N and T-N essential oils collected from different localities in R. Macedonia varied considerably. These alterations in the

  7. Assessing Bacterial Diversity in the Rhizosphere of Thymus zygis Growing in the Sierra Nevada National Park (Spain) through Culture-Dependent and Independent Approaches.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Javier; Blanco, Silvia; García-López, Marina; García-Salamanca, Adela; Bursakov, Sergey A; Genilloud, Olga; Bills, Gerald F; Ramos, Juan L; van Dillewijn, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Little is known of the bacterial communities associated with the rhizosphere of wild plant species found in natural settings. The rhizosphere bacterial community associated with wild thyme, Thymus zygis L., plants was analyzed using cultivation, the creation of a near-full length 16S rRNA gene clone library and 454 amplicon pyrosequencing. The bacterial community was dominated by Proteobacteria (mostly Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria), Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Gemmatimonadetes. Although each approach gave a different perspective of the bacterial community, all classes/subclasses detected in the clone library and the cultured bacteria could be found in the pyrosequencing datasets. However, an exception caused by inconclusive taxonomic identification as a consequence of the short read length of pyrotags together with the detection of singleton sequences which corresponded to bacterial strains cultivated from the same sample highlight limitations and considerations which should be taken into account when analysing and interpreting amplicon datasets. Amplicon pyrosequencing of replicate rhizosphere soil samples taken a year later permit the definition of the core microbiome associated with Thymus zygis plants. Abundant bacterial families and predicted functional profiles of the core microbiome suggest that the main drivers of the bacterial community in the Thymus zygis rhizosphere are related to the nutrients originating from the plant root and to their participation in biogeochemical cycles thereby creating an intricate relationship with this aromatic plant to allow for a feedback ecological benefit.

  8. Assessing Bacterial Diversity in the Rhizosphere of Thymus zygis Growing in the Sierra Nevada National Park (Spain) through Culture-Dependent and Independent Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Javier; Blanco, Silvia; García-López, Marina; García-Salamanca, Adela; Bursakov, Sergey A.; Genilloud, Olga; Bills, Gerald F.; Ramos, Juan L.; van Dillewijn, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Little is known of the bacterial communities associated with the rhizosphere of wild plant species found in natural settings. The rhizosphere bacterial community associated with wild thyme, Thymus zygis L., plants was analyzed using cultivation, the creation of a near-full length 16S rRNA gene clone library and 454 amplicon pyrosequencing. The bacterial community was dominated by Proteobacteria (mostly Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria), Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Gemmatimonadetes. Although each approach gave a different perspective of the bacterial community, all classes/subclasses detected in the clone library and the cultured bacteria could be found in the pyrosequencing datasets. However, an exception caused by inconclusive taxonomic identification as a consequence of the short read length of pyrotags together with the detection of singleton sequences which corresponded to bacterial strains cultivated from the same sample highlight limitations and considerations which should be taken into account when analysing and interpreting amplicon datasets. Amplicon pyrosequencing of replicate rhizosphere soil samples taken a year later permit the definition of the core microbiome associated with Thymus zygis plants. Abundant bacterial families and predicted functional profiles of the core microbiome suggest that the main drivers of the bacterial community in the Thymus zygis rhizosphere are related to the nutrients originating from the plant root and to their participation in biogeochemical cycles thereby creating an intricate relationship with this aromatic plant to allow for a feedback ecological benefit. PMID:26741495

  9. The Interdependence of Leisure Activity and Cultural Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asker, Don

    Important contributors to significant changes occurring worldwide are: the emergence of a global economy; substantial political and social change; new transmigration; and enormous technological development. The effects of these changes on cultural values, both at small community and national levels, are far reaching. National boundaries are no…

  10. The snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum grows faster and is more active in the shade, independent of food quality.

    PubMed

    Liess, A; Lange, K

    2011-09-01

    Ecological stoichiometry has advanced food web ecology by emphasising the importance of food quality over food quantity for herbivores. Here, we focus on the effects of abiotic factors such as nutrients and light (known to influence food quality) on grazer growth rates. As model organism we used the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum that is native to New Zealand but invasive elsewhere. In a stream channel experiment in New Zealand, we manipulated light (two levels) and nutrients (four levels) to achieve a range of primary producer carbon: nutrient ratios and added mudsnails (3 densities + ungrazed control) to 128 periphyton covered stream channels in a 2 × 4 × 4 full factorial design. We measured snail growth rate and activity, food quality and nutritional imbalance, to test the predictions that (1) less light and more nutrients increase periphyton food quality and thus snail growth rates, and (2) less crowding leads to higher food availability and thus higher snail growth rates. We found that snail growth rates were higher under low light than under high light intensities and this difference increased with increasing nutrient addition. These changes in growth rate were not mediated by food quality in terms of periphyton nutrient ratios. Furthermore, experimental treatments strongly affected snail behaviour. Snails grazed more actively in the low light treatments, and thus it is more likely that snail growth rates were directly affected by light levels, maybe as a result of innate predator avoidance behaviour or as a reaction to high UV intensities. We conclude that in our stream channels snail growth rate was limited by factors other than food quality and quantity such as UV exposure, algal defences or the relatively low ambient water temperature.

  11. Exploring the benefits of growing bioenergy crops to activate lead-contaminated agricultural land: a case study on sweet potatoes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shu-Fen; Huang, Chin-Yuan; Chen, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Sheng-Chien; Lin, Yung-Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Phytoremediation is the most environmentally friendly remediation technology for heavy metal contaminated soil. However, the phytoremediation approach requires a long time to yield results, and the plants used must be economically profitable to maintain the sustainability of the process. Because high levels of bioethanol can be produced from sweet potatoes, an experiment was conducted by planting sweet potatoes in a lead-contaminated site to observe their growth and lead-uptake capacity, thereby enabling the evaluation of the phytoremediation efficiency of sweet potatoes. The lead content in the soil was approximately 6000 mg kg(-1), and the phytoavailable Pb content was 1766 mg kg(-1). Three starch-rich sweet potato varieties, Tainung No. 10 (TNG-10), Tainung No. 31 (TNG-31), and Tainung No. 57 (TNG-57), were used in the experiment. The results indicated that TNG-10, TNG-31, and TNG-57 had fresh root tuber yields of 94.5, 133.0, and 47.5 ton ha(-1) year(-1), produced 9450, 13,297, and 4748 L ha(-1) year(-1) of bioethanol, and removed 2.68, 7.73, and 3.22 kg ha(-1) year(-1) of lead, respectively. TNG-31 yielded the highest bioethanol production and the highest lead removal in the lead-contaminated site. Therefore, implementing phytoremediation by planting TNG-31 would decrease lead content and generate income, thereby rendering the sustainable and applicable activation of contaminated soil possible.

  12. Volatile oil constituents and antibacterial activity of different parts of Falcaria vulgaris Bernh. growing wild in two localities from Iran.

    PubMed

    Shafaghat, A

    2011-02-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the flower, leaf and stem of Falcaria vulgaris Bernh., which is endemic to Iran, were analysed by GC and GC/MS (samples were from two different localities: A from Ardabil and B from Khalkhal). α-Pinene was the major constituent in all the three oils (flower, leaf and stem) from sample A (43.8%, 33.0% and 50.9%, respectively). The oil of F. vulgaris flower was characterised by a higher amount of β-caryophyllene (25.2%) and 1,8-cineole (12.8%) among the eight components comprising 96.2% of the total oil detected. α-Terpinyl acetate (23.2%) and limonene (14.4%) predominated in the leaf oil. In the oils of sample B, α-pinene (16.1% in the flower oil, 31.5% in the leaf oil and 34.5% in the stem oil) was the major compound. Limonene (14.2%) and germacrene D (32.1%) were also the main constituents found in the leaf oil from sample B. α-Terpinyl acetate (21.9% in the leaf oil) and limonene (29.8% in stem oil) were the other major compounds obtained from this sample. Antibacterial activity was determined by the measurement of growth inhibitory zones.

  13. Self-Efficacy and Social Support as Mediators Between Culturally Specific Dance and Lifestyle Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Murrock, Carolyn J.; Madigan, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Culturally specific dance has the potential to generate health benefits but is seldom used even among studies advocating culturally specific interventions. This study examined the components of self-efficacy and social support as mediators between culturally specific dance and lifestyle physical activity in African American women (N = 126). An experimental design compared intervention and control groups for mediating effects of self-efficacy and social support on lifestyle physical activity. Findings indicated that only outcome expectations and social support from friends mediated effects. Culturally specific dance is a first step in encouraging African American women to become more physically active and improve health outcomes. The implications are that culturally specific dance programs can improve health outcomes by including members of underserved populations. PMID:18763475

  14. The Relationship between Cross-Culture Communication Activities and Student Motivation in Studying Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youssef, Hussein Zanaty Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the positive impact of second language learners' cross-cultural awareness in the target language. More specifically, the pedagogical desired outcomes include: (1) exploring how students can increase their motivation in learning a foreign language by engaging in the cross-cultural activity "Sister…

  15. The Effects of Information Exposure Activities on Attitudinal Changes Among Co-Culturals: Some Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civikly, Jean M.; Plax, Timothy G.

    To examine the effect of various activities and interactions on the attitudes of members of co-cultures toward each other was the purpose of this study. The research was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, semantic differential scales were developed for the measurement of attitudes toward co-cultures. Each of five sets of scales was used…

  16. A Cultural and Historical Perspective on Pregnancy-related Activity among U.S. Teenagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Anita C.

    1982-01-01

    Compares changes in birth rates, sexual activity, abortion rates, illegitimate births, and incidence of giving babies up for adoption among White and Black adolescents and explores social and cultural influences on the racial differences. Presents suggestions for culturally related interventions in the area of teenage pregnancy. (Author/MJL)

  17. Spatiotemporal Stability of Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocyte Monolayers Spontaneous Activity Is Dependent on the Culture Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau-Béland, Jonathan; Duverger, James Elber; Petitjean, Estelle; Maguy, Ange; Ledoux, Jonathan; Comtois, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In native conditions, cardiac cells must continuously comply with diverse stimuli necessitating a perpetual adaptation. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is commonly used in cell culture to study cellular response to changes in the mechanical environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of using PDMS substrates on the properties of spontaneous activity of cardiomyocyte monolayer cultures. We compared PDMS to the gold standard normally used in culture: a glass substrate. Although mean frequency of spontaneous activity remained unaltered, incidence of reentrant activity was significantly higher in samples cultured on glass compared to PDMS substrates. Higher spatial and temporal instability of the spontaneous rate activation was found when cardiomyocytes were cultured on PDMS, and correlated with decreased connexin-43 and increased CaV3.1 and HCN2 mRNA levels. Compared to cultures on glass, cultures on PDMS were associated with the strongest response to isoproterenol and acetylcholine. These results reveal the importance of carefully selecting the culture substrate for studies involving mechanical stimulation, especially for tissue engineering or pharmacological high-throughput screening of cardiac tissue analog. PMID:26035822

  18. Modernity, the Individual, and the Foundations of Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blunden, Andy

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that the problem of individual agency in relation to social institutions can be resolved within Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) by the use of the "subject" as a unit of analysis. Such an approach implies a reaffirmation of the fundamental tenets of CHAT but also a critique of the concepts of society and culture, which are…

  19. A Process of Environmental Education Communication through Community Cultural Activity Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongpaibool, Duangporn; Rawang, Wee; Supapongpichate, Ratchanont; Pichayapibool, Pataraboon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was: 1. To investigate social context, environment, way of life and community culture. 2. To gather the views and opinions regarding environmental conservation and restoration. 3. To synthesize a process of environmental education communication based on community cultural activity area. 4. To evaluate the efficacy of…

  20. Students' Evaluation of Google Hangouts through a Cross-Cultural Group Discussion Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Michiko

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated perceived ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts as an instructional/learning tool. Forty-two teacher education students at U.S and Japanese universities participated in an online cross-cultural activity using Google Hangouts and discussed cultural differences between the two countries and their teaching philosophies.…

  1. Chinese Language and Culture Curriculum: Teacher's Manual [and] Student Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Yong-Kian; And Others

    This curriculum is designed to introduce Chinese language and culture in the elementary grades, and consists of a teacher's manual and student activity book. The teacher's guide consists of an introductory section, which outlines the rationale, objectives, suggested teaching techniques and materials, and language and culture content of the…

  2. Global transcription regulation by DNA topoisomerase I in exponentially growing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells: activation of telomere-proximal genes by TOP1 deletion.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Luca; Russo, Alessandra; Chillemi, Giovanni; Bueno, Susana; Cavalieri, Duccio; Capranico, Giovanni

    2008-03-21

    To establish the cellular functions of DNA topoisomerase I-B (Top1p) at a global level, we have determined the expression profiles and histone modification patterns affected by TOP1 gene deletion (DeltaTOP1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In exponentially growing cells, DeltaTOP1 specifically increases transcription of telomere-proximal genes and decreases glucose utilization and energy production pathways. Immunoprecipitation data demonstrate that Top1p can bind to and is catalytically active at telomeric DNA repeats, and that both DeltaTOP1 and an inactive Y727F Top1p mutant increase H4 histone acetylation at telomere-proximal regions. Interestingly, while the Y727F mutation has no influence on enzyme recruitment to chromatin sites, it has a marked effect on H4 K16 acetylation at subtelomeric regions. The Top1p mutation also increases H3 histone K4 dimethylation, which has been associated with gene transcription, at 3' termini of subtelomeric genes. No major effect of DeltaTOP1 or mutation was detected on Sir3p recruitment; however, DeltaTOP1 has an effect on transcript levels of genes known to regulate telomeric silencing. Thus, the findings indicate that Top1p activity can favor both a repressed chromatin organization and a reduced gene expression level at telomere-proximal regions in yeast. As telomere-proximal regions are known to be enriched for stress-activated genes, our findings show that Top1p can optimize transcript levels for cell growth in exponentially growing cells under a synthetic medium with glucose.

  3. Correlation between erythropoietic activity and body growth rate in hypertransfused polycythemic growing rats as the result of an erythropoietin-dependent operating mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Bozzini, C.E.; Alippi, R.M.; Barcelo, A.C.; Caro, J.

    1989-02-01

    The established relationship between erythropoietic activity and body growth rate in the polycythemic growing rat could be the result of either an erythropoietin (EPO)-dependent or an EPO-independent operating mechanism. The present study was thus undertaken to elucidate the nature of the aforementioned mechanism by assessing the ratio between plasma immunoreactive EPO (iEPO) concentration and erythropoietic activity in young hypertransfused rats for different body growth rates. Red blood cell (RBC)-59Fe uptake was about 75% in 21-day-old rats; it rapidly decreased with time when the animals were placed on a protein-free diet, approaching a level of about 1% by the 10th day of protein starvation. Over the same period plasma iEPO decreased from 55 mU/ml to 7 mU/ml. Body growth rate was 0. Following this ''protein depletion period'' the rats received diets containing different amounts of casein (''protein repletion period'') added isocalorically to the protein-free diet to elicit a rise in body growth rate. Statistically significant relationships (p less than 0.001) were found between dietary casein concentration and body growth rate (r = 0.991), dietary casein concentration and RBC-59Fe uptake (r = 0.991), dietary casein concentration and plasma iEPO level (r = 0.992), body growth rate and RBC-59Fe (r = 0.986), and body growth rate and plasma iEPO level (r = 0.994) in hypertransfused polycythemic rats during the protein repletion period. These findings suggest that the correlation between erythropoietic activity and growth rate in the growing rat is the result of an erythropoietin-dependent operating mechanism, which appears to be independent of the ratio tissue oxygen supply/tissue oxygen demand.

  4. The role of food culture and marketing activity in health disparities.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jerome D; Crockett, David; Harrison, Robert L; Thomas, Kevin D

    2012-11-01

    Marketing activities have attracted increased attention from scholars interested in racial disparities in obesity prevalence, as well as the prevalence of other preventable conditions. Although reducing the marketing of nutritionally poor foods to racial/ethnic communities would represent a significant step forward in eliminating racial disparities in health, we focus instead on a critical-related question. What is the relationship between marketing activities, food culture, and health disparities? This commentary posits that food culture shapes the demand for food and the meaning attached to particular foods, preparation styles, and eating practices, while marketing activities shape the overall environment in which food choices are made. We build on prior research that explores the socio-cultural context in which marketing efforts are perceived and interpreted. We discuss each element of the marketing mix to highlight the complex relationship between food culture, marketing activities, and health disparities.

  5. The Impact of the Campus Culture on Students' Civic Activities, Values, and Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Meredith S.; Terkla, Dawn Geronimo

    2014-01-01

    A supportive campus culture is critical to institutionalizing civic engagement and instilling the principles of active citizenship. This chapter explores a model that quantitatively measures the impact of the campus environment on civic engagement outcomes.

  6. Inhibition of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) in human ovary in vitro results in increased activation of primordial follicles but compromises development of growing follicles.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Marie; Kinnell, Hazel L; Anderson, Richard A; Telfer, Evelyn E

    2014-08-01

    In the mammalian ovary a small number of follicles are steadily recruited from the quiescent pool to undergo development. Follicle loss, maintenance and growth are strictly controlled by complex molecular interactions including the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (Akt) signalling pathway. Stimulation of PI3K promotes phosphorylation of Akt resulting in follicle survival and activation of growth whereas this pathway is suppressed by the actions of the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dipotassium bisperoxo(5-hydroxypyridine-2-carboxyl)oxovanadate (bpV), a reversible inhibitor of PTEN, on the activation, survival and development of human ovarian follicles in vitro. Biopsied ovarian tissue fragments were obtained from 17 women aged 23-46 years and exposed to 1 µM bpV(HOpic) (n = 146) or control medium (n = 128) for 24 h. Media were then replaced with control medium and all tissue incubated for a further 5 days. Ovarian tissue from each treatment group was fixed after the initial 24 h culture period and phosphorylated Akt was quantified by western blotting. After 6 days incubation all tissue fragments were inspected under light microscopy and any secondary follicles ≥100 µm isolated. Isolated follicles were cultured individually in control medium supplemented with 100 ng/ml recombinant human activin A. Tissue fragments without follicles suitable for isolation were fixed and processed for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. During 6 days culture, follicle activation occurred in tissue samples from both treatment groups but with significantly more follicles progressing to the secondary stage of development in the presence of 1 µM bpV(HOpic) compared with control (31 versus 16%; P < 0.05). Increased activation was associated with increased Akt phosphorylation and increased nuclear export of FOXO3. However isolated and cultured follicles that had been exposed to bpV(HOpic) showed

  7. Selective regulation of current densities underlies spontaneous changes in the activity of cultured neurons.

    PubMed

    Turrigiano, G; LeMasson, G; Marder, E

    1995-05-01

    We study the electrical activity patterns and the expression of conductances in adult stomatogastric ganglion (STG) neurons as a function of time in primary cell culture. When first plated in culture, these neurons had few active properties. After 1 d in culture they produced small action potentials that rapidly inactivated during maintained depolarization. After 2 d in culture they fired large action potentials tonically when depolarized, and their properties resembled very closely the properties of STG neurons pharmacologically isolated in the ganglion. After 3-4 d in culture, however, their electrical properties changed and they fired in bursts when depolarized. We characterized the currents expressed by these neurons in culture. They included two TTX-sensitive sodium currents, a calcium current, a delayed-rectifier-like current, a calcium-dependent potassium current, and two A-type currents. The changes in firing properties with time in culture were accompanied by an increase in inward and decrease in outward current densities. A single-compartment conductance-based model of an STG neuron was constructed by fitting the currents measured in the biological neurons. When the current densities in the model neuron were matched to those measured for the biological neurons in each activity state, the model neuron closely reproduced each state, indicating that the changes in current densities are sufficient to account for the changes in intrinsic properties. These data indicate that STG neurons isolated in culture change their intrinsic electrical properties by selectively adjusting the magnitudes of their ionic conductances.

  8. Understanding Synchronous Computer-Mediated Classroom Discussion through Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Yangjoo

    2015-01-01

    This study is about graduate students' discourse practices in classroom text-based synchronous computer mediated discussions (SCMD). Cultural historical activity theory (in short, Activity Theory) is the primary theoretical lens through which the data are analyzed. Engeström's (1987) Activity System model among the various theoretical positions or…

  9. Designing Culturally Responsive Organized After-School Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpkins, Sandra D.; Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Ngo, Bic; Vest Ettekal, Andrea; Okamoto, Dina

    2017-01-01

    Organized after-school activities promote positive youth development across a range of outcomes. To be most effective, organized activities need to meet high-quality standards. The eight features of quality developed by the National Research Council's Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth have helped guide the field in this regard.…

  10. Differences in activity profile of bacterial cultures studied by dynamic speckle patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Miquet, E. E.; Otero, I.; Rodríguez, D.; Darias, J. G.; Combarro, A. M.; Contreras, O. R.

    2013-02-01

    We outline the main differences in the activity profile of bacterial cultures studied by dynamic laser speckle (or biospeckle) patterns. The activity is detected in two sorts of culture mediums. The optical setup and the experimental procedure are presented. The experimentally obtained images are processed by the temporal difference method and a qualitative assessment is made with the time history of speckle patterns of the sample. The main differences are studied after changing the culture medium composition. We conclude that the EC medium is suitable to detect the E. coli bacterial presence in early hours and that Mueller Hinton agar delays some additional hours to make possible the assessment of bacteria in time.

  11. Inducible Transposition of a Heat-Activated Retrotransposon in Tissue Culture.

    PubMed

    Masuta, Yukari; Nozawa, Kosuke; Takagi, Hiroki; Yaegashi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Keisuke; Ito, Tasuku; Saito, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Hisato; Matsunaga, Wataru; Masuda, Seiji; Kato, Atsushi; Ito, Hidetaka

    2016-12-23

    A transposition of a heat-activated retrotransposon named ONSEN required compromise of a small RNA-mediated epigenetic regulation that includes RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) machinery after heat treatment. In the current study, we analyzed the transcriptional and transpositional activation of ONSEN to better understand the underlying molecular mechanism involved in the maintenance and/or induction of transposon activation in plant tissue culture. We found the transposition of heat-primed ONSEN during tissue culture independently of RdDM mutation. The heat activation of ONSEN transcripts was not significantly up-regulated in tissue culture compared with that in heat-stressed seedlings, indicating that the transposition of ONSEN was regulated independently of the transcript level. RdDM-related genes were up-regulated by heat stress in both tissue culture and seedlings. The level of DNA methylation of ONSEN did not show any change in tissue culture, and the amount of ONSEN-derived small RNAs was not affected by heat stress. The results indicated that the transposition of ONSEN was regulated by an alternative mechanism in addition to the RdDM-mediated epigenetic regulation in tissue culture. We applied the tissue culture-induced transposition of ONSEN to Japanese radish, an important breeding species of the family Brassicaceae. Several new insertions were detected in a regenerated plant derived from heat-stressed tissues and its self-fertilized progeny, revealing the possibility of molecular breeding without genetic modification.

  12. Active cortical innervation protects striatal neurons from slow degeneration in culture.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Ianai; Segal, Menahem

    2011-03-01

    Spiny striatal GABAergic neurons receive most of their excitatory input from the neocortex. In culture, striatal neurons form inhibitory connections, but the lack of intrinsic excitatory afferents prevents the development of spontaneous network activity. Addition of cortical neurons to the striatal culture provides the necessary excitatory input to the striatal neurons, and in the presence of these neurons, striatal cultures do express spontaneous network activity. We have confirmed that cortical neurons provide excitatory drive to striatal neurons in culture using paired recording from cortical and striatal neurons. In the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX), which blocks action potential discharges, the connections between cortical and striatal neurons are still formed, and in fact synaptic currents generated between them when TTX is removed are far larger than in control, undrugged cultures. Interestingly, the continuous presence of TTX in the co-culture caused striatal cell death. These observations indicate that the mere presence of cortical neurons is not sufficient to preserve striatal neurons in culture, but their synchronous activity, triggered by cortical excitatory synapses, is critical for the maintenance of viability of striatal neurons. These results have important implications for understanding the role of activity in neurodegenerative diseases of the striatum.

  13. Does reading keep you thin? Leisure activities, cultural tastes, and body weight in comparative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.

    2011-01-01

    While sedentary leisure-time activities such as reading, going to movies, attending cultural events, attending sporting events, watching TV, listening to music, and socializing with friends would seem to contribute to excess weight, a perspective focusing on SES differences in cultural tastes suggests the opposite, that some sedentary activities are associated with lower rather than higher body weight. This study aims to test theories of cultural distinction by examining relationships between leisure-time activities and body weight. Using 2007 data on 17 nations from the International Social Survey Program, the analysis estimates relationships between the body mass index and varied leisure-time activities while controlling for SES, physical activities, and sociodemographic variables. Net of controls for SES and physical activities, participation time in cultural activities is associated with lower rather than higher body weight, particularly in high-income nations. The results suggest that both cultural activities and body weight reflect forms of distinction that separate SES-based lifestyles. PMID:21707664

  14. The generation of rhythmic activity in dissociated cultures of rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Streit, J; Tscherter, A; Heuschkel, M O; Renaud, P

    2001-07-01

    Locomotion in vertebrates is controlled by central pattern generators in the spinal cord. The roles of specific network architecture and neuronal properties in rhythm generation by such spinal networks are not fully understood. We have used multisite recording from dissociated cultures of embryonic rat spinal cord grown on multielectrode arrays to investigate the patterns of spontaneous activity in randomised spinal networks. We were able to induce similar patterns of rhythmic activity in dissociated cultures as in slice cultures, although not with the same reliability and not always with the same protocols. The most reliable rhythmic activity was induced when a partial disinhibition of the network was combined with an increase in neuronal excitability, suggesting that both recurrent synaptic excitation and neuronal excitability contribute to rhythmogenesis. During rhythmic activity, bursts started at several sites and propagated in variable ways. However, the predominant propagation patterns were independent of the protocol used to induce rhythmic activity. When synaptic transmission was blocked by CNQX, APV, strychnine and bicuculline, asynchronous low-rate activity persisted at approximately 50% of the electrodes and approximately 70% of the sites of burst initiation. Following the bursts, the activity in the interval was transiently suppressed below the level of intrinsic activity. The degree of suppression was proportional to the amount of activity in the preceding burst. From these findings we conclude that rhythmic activity in spinal cultures is controlled by the interplay of intrinsic neuronal activity and recurrent excitation in neuronal networks without the need for a specific architecture.

  15. Submerged culture screening of two strains of Streptomyces sp. with high keratinolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Kirchner, O; Bautista-Ramirez, M E; Segura-Granados, M

    1998-01-01

    Keratinases can be used for the production of potentially important hydrolyzed proteins and chemicals. This study investigated the keratinolytic activity of Streptomyces sp on keratinaceous materials like wool. High levels of proteolytic and keratinolytic activity were obtained after 96 h of culture when two Streptomyces sp strains were grown on basal medium containing mineral salts and 3% (w/v) of defatted wool as a source of energy, carbon, and nitrogen. The cell-free culture filtrates exhibited rapid proteolytic digestion of keratin powder. Currently, the authors are testing whether the enzymatic activity obtained is in fact keratinolytic, and not only an alkaline protease activity.

  16. The maximum specific hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures: definition and determination

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Yang; Yang, Hou-Yun; Wang, Ya-Zhou; He, Chuan-Shu; Zhao, Quan-Bao; Wang, Yi; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Fermentative hydrogen production from wastes has many advantages compared to various chemical methods. Methodology for characterizing the hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures is essential for monitoring reactor operation in fermentative hydrogen production, however there is lack of such kind of standardized methodologies. In the present study, a new index, i.e., the maximum specific hydrogen-producing activity (SHAm) of anaerobic mixed cultures, was proposed, and consequently a reliable and simple method, named SHAm test, was developed to determine it. Furthermore, the influences of various parameters on the SHAm value determination of anaerobic mixed cultures were evaluated. Additionally, this SHAm assay was tested for different types of substrates and bacterial inocula. Our results demonstrate that this novel SHAm assay was a rapid, accurate and simple methodology for determining the hydrogen-producing activity of anaerobic mixed cultures. Thus, application of this approach is beneficial to establishing a stable anaerobic hydrogen-producing system. PMID:24912488

  17. The IRC7 gene encodes cysteine desulphydrase activity and confers on yeast the ability to grow on cysteine as a nitrogen source.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Margarita; Gardner, Richard C

    2015-07-01

    Although cysteine desulphydrase activity has been purified and characterized from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the gene encoding this activity in vivo has never been defined. We show that the full-length IRC7 gene, encoded by the YFR055W open reading frame, encodes a protein with cysteine desulphydrase activity. Irc7p purified to homogeneity is able to utilize l-cysteine as a substrate, producing pyruvate and hydrogen sulphide as products of the reaction. Purified Irc7p also utilized l-cystine and some other cysteine conjugates, but not l-cystathionine or l-methionine, as substrates. We further show that, in vivo, the IRC7 gene is both necessary and sufficient for yeast to grow on l-cysteine as a nitrogen source, and that overexpression of the gene results in increased H2 S production. Strains overexpressing IRC7 are also hypersensitive to a toxic analogue, S-ethyl-l-cysteine. While IRC7 has been identified as playing a critical role in converting cysteine conjugates to volatile thiols that are important in wine aroma, its biological role in yeast cells is likely to involve regulation of cysteine and redox homeostasis.

  18. The Growing Culture of Nature Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Melody

    2013-01-01

    The importance of nature-based play has gradually become forefront in an array of research fields. From the more obvious physical benefits to the complex mental benefits, nature has proved time and time again to be the cure-all for a variety of common ailments. Richard Louv, author of the famed "Last Child in the Woods," has spawned a…

  19. An inverse relationship between allelopathic activity and salt tolerance in suspension cultures of three mangrove species, Sonneratia alba, S. caseolaris and S. ovata: development of a bioassay method for allelopathy, the protoplast co-culture method.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Ai; Oyanagi, Tomoya; Minagawa, Reiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2014-11-01

    A bioassay method for allelopathy, the 'protoplast co-culture method' was developed to study the relationship between salt tolerance and allelopathy of three mangrove species, Sonneratia alba, S. caseolaris, and S. ovata. Plants of S. alba grow in the seaward-side high salinity region and plants of the latter two species grow in upstream-side regions of a mangrove forest, respectively. Effects of five sea salts (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, MgSO4 and CaCl2) on the growth of the suspension cells of the latter two species were first investigated by a small-scale method using 24-well culture plates. S. ovata cells showed higher tolerance than S. caseolaris cells to NaCl and other salts, but were not as halophilic as S. alba cells. Protoplasts isolated from suspension cells were co-cultured with lettuce protoplasts in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium containing 1 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0.1 μM benzyladenine, 3% sucrose and 0.6-0.8 M osmoticum. S. caseolaris protoplasts had a higher inhibitory effect on lettuce protoplast cell divisions than S. alba protoplasts at any lettuce protoplast density, and the effect of S. ovata was intermediate between the two. These results were similar to those obtained from a different in vitro bioassay method for allelopathy, the 'sandwich method' with dried leaves. The inverse relationship between allelopathic activity and salt tolerance in suspension cells of Sonneratia mangroves is discussed.

  20. Exploring Formative Assessment Using Cultural Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asghar, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    Formative assessment is a pedagogic practice that has been the subject of much research and debate, as to how it can be used most effectively to deliver enhanced student learning in the higher education setting. Often described as a complex concept it embraces activities that range from facilitating students understanding of assessment standards,…

  1. Anthropological Approach and Activity Theory: Culture, Communities and Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagrange, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate the contribution of the anthropological approach (AA) concurrently to Activity Theory (AT) in view of overarching questions about classroom use of technology for teaching and learning mathematics. I will do it first from a philosophical point of view, presenting the main notions of AA that have been used to…

  2. Black History and Culture. Ideas and Activities for Studying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Roland; And Others

    This booklet contains information, ideas, and activities to help schools celebrate Black History Week. It is devoted to black achievements in the areas of music, politics, and business with the intention of developing respect for, awareness of, and a sense of the relationship between past and present events in the history of black Americans. There…

  3. Forming a Learning Culture to Promote Fracture Prevention Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjalmarson, Helene V.; Strandmark, Margaretha

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore interprofessional experiences of incorporating fracture prevention activities in clinical practice inspired by an empowerment approach. Design/methodology/approach: Data collection consisted primarily of focus groups interviews, systematized and analyzed by the grounded theory method. The study took…

  4. Multi-cellular 3D human primary liver cell culture elevates metabolic activity under fluidic flow.

    PubMed

    Esch, Mandy B; Prot, Jean-Matthieu; Wang, Ying I; Miller, Paula; Llamas-Vidales, Jose Ricardo; Naughton, Brian A; Applegate, Dawn R; Shuler, Michael L

    2015-05-21

    We have developed a low-cost liver cell culture device that creates fluidic flow over a 3D primary liver cell culture that consists of multiple liver cell types, including hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells (fibroblasts, stellate cells, and Kupffer cells). We tested the performance of the cell culture under fluidic flow for 14 days, finding that hepatocytes produced albumin and urea at elevated levels compared to static cultures. Hepatocytes also responded with induction of P450 (CYP1A1 and CYP3A4) enzyme activity when challenged with P450 inducers, although we did not find significant differences between static and fluidic cultures. Non-parenchymal cells were similarly responsive, producing interleukin 8 (IL-8) when challenged with 10 μM bacterial lipoprotein (LPS). To create the fluidic flow in an inexpensive manner, we used a rocking platform that tilts the cell culture devices at angles between ±12°, resulting in a periodically changing hydrostatic pressure drop between reservoirs and the accompanying periodically changing fluidic flow (average flow rate of 650 μL min(-1), and a maximum shear stress of 0.64 dyne cm(-2)). The increase in metabolic activity is consistent with the hypothesis that, similar to unidirectional fluidic flow, primary liver cell cultures increase their metabolic activity in response to fluidic flow periodically changes direction. Since fluidic flow that changes direction periodically drastically changes the behavior of other cells types that are shear sensitive, our findings support the theory that the increase in hepatic metabolic activity associated with fluidic flow is either activated by mechanisms other than shear sensing (for example increased opportunities for gas and metabolite exchange), or that it follows a shear sensing mechanism that does not depend on the direction of shear. Our mode of device operation allows us to evaluate drugs under fluidic cell culture conditions and at low device manufacturing and operation

  5. Children's activities and their meanings for parents: a mixed-methods study in six Western cultures.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Sara; Zylicz, Piotr Olaf; Super, Charles M; Welles-Nyström, Barbara; Bermúdez, Moisés Ríos; Bonichini, Sabrina; Moscardino, Ughetta; Mavridis, Caroline Johnston

    2011-12-01

    Theoretical perspectives and research in sociology, anthropology, sociolinguistics, and cultural psychology converge in recognizing the significance of children's time spent in various activities, especially in the family context. Knowing how children's time is deployed, however, only gives us a partial answer to how children acquire competence; the other part must take into account the culturally constructed meanings of activities, from the perspective of those who organize and direct children's daily lives. In this article, we report on a study of children's routine daily activities and on the meanings that parents attribute to them in six Western middle-class cultural communities located in Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the United States (N = 183). Using week-long time diaries kept by parents, we first demonstrate similarities as well as significant differences in children's daily routines across the cultural samples. We then present brief vignettes--"a day in the life" --of children from each sample. Parent interviews were coded for themes in the meanings attributed to various activities. Excerpts from parent interviews, focusing on four major activities (meals, family time, play, school- or developmentally related activities), are presented to illustrate how cultural meanings and themes are woven into parents' organization and understanding of their children's daily lives. The results of this mixed-method approach provide a more reliable and nuanced picture of children's and families' daily lives than could be derived from either method alone.

  6. Pressure Points in Growing Up Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Shirley Hill

    1980-01-01

    Describes the cultural contradictions between traditional American Indian child-rearing practices and "mainstream" Anglo expectations. Discusses the psychological consequences of growing up with such culture conflict, and condemns educational and social policies which ignore the American Indians' traditions and exacerbate their alienation. (GC)

  7. The relevance of cultural activities in ethnic identity among California Native American youth.

    PubMed

    Schweigman, Kurt; Soto, Claradina; Wright, Serena; Unger, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed data from a large statewide sample of Native American adolescents throughout California to determine whether participation in cultural practices was associated with stronger ethnic identity. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scale was used to measure the ethnic identity of 945 Native American adolescents (416 male, 529 female) aged 13 - 19 across California. Respondents who participated in cultural activities including pow-wows, sweat lodge, drum group and roundhouse dance reported significantly higher Native American ethnic identity than their counterparts who did not take part in cultural activities. The association between cultural activities and ethnic identity was only significant among urban youth and not among reservation youth. Higher grades in school were associated with ethnic identity among females but not among males. Findings from this study show a strong association between cultural activities and traditional practices with tribal enculturation among Native American youth in California. Cultural-based practices to enhance Native identity could be useful to improve mental and behavioral health among Native American youth.

  8. Interactive effects of UV radiation and reduced precipitation on the seasonal leaf phenolic content/composition and the antioxidant activity of naturally growing Arbutus unedo plants.

    PubMed

    Nenadis, Nikolaos; Llorens, Laura; Koufogianni, Agathi; Díaz, Laura; Font, Joan; Gonzalez, Josep Abel; Verdaguer, Dolors

    2015-12-01

    The effects of UV radiation and rainfall reduction on the seasonal leaf phenolic content/composition and antioxidant activity of the Mediterranean shrub Arbutus unedo were studied. Naturally growing plants of A. unedo were submitted to 97% UV-B reduction (UVA), 95% UV-A+UV-B reduction (UV0) or near-ambient UV levels (UVBA) under two precipitation regimes (natural rainfall or 10-30% rainfall reduction). Total phenol, flavonol and flavanol contents, levels of eight phenols and antioxidant activity [DPPH(●) radical scavenging and Cu (II) reducing capacity] were measured in sun-exposed leaves at the end of four consecutive seasons. Results showed a significant seasonal variation in the leaf content of phenols of A. unedo, with the lowest values found in spring and the highest in autumn and/or winter. Leaf ontogenetic development and/or a possible effect of low temperatures in autumn/winter may account for such findings. Regardless of the watering regime and the sampling date, plant exposure to UV-B radiation decreased the total flavanol content of leaves, while it increased the leaf content in quercitrin (the most abundant quercetin derivative identified). By contrast, UV-A radiation increased the leaf content of theogallin, a gallic acid derivative. Other phenolic compounds (two quercetin derivatives, one of them being avicularin, and one kaempferol derivative, juglanin), as well as the antioxidant activity of the leaves, showed different responses to UV radiation depending on the precipitation regime. Surprisingly, reduced rainfall significantly decreased the total amount of quantified quercetin derivatives as well as the DPPH scavenging activity in A. unedo leaves. To conclude, present findings indicate that leaves of A. unedo can be a good source of antioxidants throughout the year, but especially in autumn and winter.

  9. Milk kefir: composition, microbial cultures, biological activities, and related products

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Maria R.; Blandón, Lina Marcela; Vandenberghe, Luciana P. S.; Rodrigues, Cristine; Castro, Guillermo R.; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir’s exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir’s microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance. PMID:26579086

  10. Grand minima of solar activity and sociodynamics of culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirsky, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Indices of creative productivity introduced by C. Murrey were used to verify S. Ertel's conclusion about a global increase in creative productivity during the prolonged minimum of solar activity in 1640-1710. It was found that these indices for mathematicians, philosophers, and scientists increase in the Maunder era by factor of 1.6 in comparison with intervals of the same length before and after the minimum. A similar effect was obtained for mathematicians and philosophers for five earlier equitype minima in total (an increase by a factor of 1.9). The regularity that is revealed is confirmed by the fact that the most important achievements of high-ranking mathematicians and philosophers during the whole time period (2300 years) considered in this study fall on epochs of reduced levels of solar activity. The rise in the probability of the generation of rational ideas during grand minima is reflected also in the fact that they precede the appearance of written language and farming. Ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic fields appear to serve as a physical agent stimulating the activity of the brain's left hemisphere during the epochs of minima.

  11. Understanding Preschool Emergent Science in a Cultural Historical Context through Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Bodil; Areljung, Sofie; Due, Karin; Ekström, Kenneth; Ottander, Christina; Tellgren, Britt

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore how cultural factors interact with preschool teachers' shaping of activities with science content, and also how Activity Theory (AT) as a theoretical framework can be useful for examining interrelations within preschool systems. Qualitative data was collected from three preschools in the form of guided group…

  12. Emotion at Work: A Contribution to Third-Generation Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-01-01

    Second-generation cultural-historical activity theory, which drew its inspiration from Leont'ev's work, constituted an advance over Vygotsky's first-generation theory by explicitly articulating the dialectical relation between individual and collective. As part of an effort to develop third-generation-historical activity theory, I propose in this…

  13. Dialogue--Missing in Action Competence: A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Approach in a Botswana School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silo, Nthalivi

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth case study on children's participation in environmental management activities in a primary school in Botswana was undertaken, drawing on cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) and the action competence model. This research revealed that due to a lack of dialogue between teachers and children, teachers tended to view children's…

  14. An Overview of Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) Use in Classroom Research 2000 to 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussbaumer, Doris

    2012-01-01

    Western educational researchers have eagerly accepted activity theory (AT) also known as cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) to collect and analyze data in rich description of complex situations. As this theory is applicable to a wide variety of disciplines, this review is limited to education and specifically to qualitative studies of…

  15. Game for Anything: Multi-Cultural Games and Activities for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Anna Rita

    A collection of Native and newcomer Canadian children's activities and games have been gleaned from various cultural sources for children to benefit from Alberta's diversity of ethnic groups. The handbook forms a framework for the teacher/parent to organize activities for children allowing change and modification if necessary. The first section…

  16. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory and Domain Analysis: Metatheoretical Implications for Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cultural-historical activity theory is an important theory in modern psychology. In recent years, it has drawn more attention from related disciplines including information science. Argument: This paper argues that activity theory and domain analysis which uses the theory as one of its bases could bring about some important…

  17. Osteoinductive activity of insulin-functionalized cell culture surfaces obtained using diazonium chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulska, Anna; Filipowska, Joanna; Osyczka, Anna; Nowakowska, Maria; Szczubiałka, Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    Polymeric surfaces suitable for cell culture (DR/Pec) were constructed from diazoresin (DR) and pectin (Pec) in a form of ultrathin films using the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. The surfaces were functionalized with insulin using diazonium chemistry. Such functionalized surfaces were used to culture human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to assess their suitability for bone tissue engineering and regeneration. The activity of insulin immobilized on the surfaces (DR/Pec/Ins) was compared to that of insulin dissolved in the culture medium. Human MSC grown on insulin-immobilized DR/Pec surfaces displayed increased proliferation and higher osteogenic activity. The latter was determined by means of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, which increases at early stages of osteoblasts differentiation. Insulin dissolved in the culture medium did not stimulate cell proliferation and its osteogenic activity was significantly lower. Addition of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) to the culture medium further increased ALP activity in hMSCs indicating additive osteogenic action of immobilized insulin and rhBMP-2

  18. Phosphatase activity and culture conditions of the yeast Candida mycoderma sp. and analysis of organic phosphorus hydrolysis ability.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mang; Yu, Liufang; Zhang, Liang; Guo, Yuexia; Dai, Kewei; Chen, Yuru

    2014-11-01

    Orthophosphate is an essential but limiting macronutrient for plant growth. About 67% cropland in China lacks sufficient phosphorus, especially that with red soil. Extensive soil phosphorus reserves exist in the form of organic phosphorus, which is unavailable for root uptake unless hydrolyzed by secretory acid phosphatases. Thus, many microorganisms with the ability to produce phosphatase have been exploited. In this work, the activity of an extracellular acid phosphatase and yeast biomass from Candida mycoderma was measured under different culture conditions, such as pH, temperature, and carbon source. A maximal phosphatase activity of 8.47×10(5)±0.11×10(5)U/g was achieved by C. Mycoderma in 36 hr under the optimal conditions. The extracellular acid phosphatase has high activity over a wide pH tolerance range from 2.5 to 5.0 (optimum pH3.5). The effects of different phosphorus compounds on the acid phosphatase production were also studied. The presence of phytin, lecithin or calcium phosphate reduced the phosphatase activity and biomass yield significantly. In addition, the pH of the culture medium was reduced significantly by lecithin. The efficiency of the strain in releasing orthophosphate from organic phosphorus was studied in red soil (used in planting trees) and rice soil (originating as red soil). The available phosphorus content was increased by 230% after inoculating 20 days in rice soil and decreased by 50% after inoculating 10 days in red soil. This work indicates that the yeast strain C. mycoderma has potential application for enhancing phosphorus utilization in plants that grow in rice soil.

  19. Starter Culture Selection for Making Chinese Sesame-Flavored Liquor Based on Microbial Metabolic Activity in Mixed-Culture Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798

  20. PACAP Interacts with PAC1 Receptors to Induce Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) Expression and Activity in Schwann Cell-Like Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Castorina, Alessandro; Waschek, James A.; Marzagalli, Rubina; Cardile, Venera; Drago, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of peripheral nerves depends on the abilities of rejuvenating axons to migrate at the injury site through cellular debris and altered extracellular matrix, and then grow along the residual distal nerve sheath conduit and reinnervate synaptic targets. Considerable evidence suggest that glial cells participate in this process, although the mechanisms remain to be clarified. In cell culture, regenerating neurites secrete PACAP, a peptide shown to induce the expression of the protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in neural cell types. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that PACAP can stimulate peripheral glial cells to produce tPA. More specifically, we addressed whether or not PACAP promoted the expression and activity of tPA in the Schwann cell line RT4-D6P2T, which shares biochemical and physical properties with Schwann cells. We found that PACAP dose- and time-dependently stimulated tPA expression both at the mRNA and protein level. Such effect was mimicked by maxadilan, a potent PAC1 receptor agonist, but not by the PACAP-related homolog VIP, suggesting a PAC1-mediated function. These actions appeared to be mediated at least in part by the Akt/CREB signaling cascade because wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, prevented peptide-driven CREB phosphorylation and tPA increase. Interestingly, treatment with BDNF mimicked PACAP actions on tPA, but acted through both the Akt and MAPK signaling pathways, while causing a robust increase in PACAP and PAC1 expression. PACAP6-38 totally blocked PACAP-driven tPA expression and in part hampered BDNF-mediated effects. We conclude that PACAP, acting through PAC1 receptors, stimulates tPA expression and activity in a Akt/CREB-dependent manner to promote proteolytic activity in Schwann-cell like cultures. PMID:25658447

  1. Enhancement of Neuromuscular Activity by Natural Specimens and Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, K. P.; Meena, H. S.; Negi, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (P<0.05) enhancement in neuromuscular endurance and antidepressant activity at 300 and 500 mg/kg as compared to the control group. However, the fungus did not proved to be as effective as fluoxetine in exhibiting antidepressant action. Muscular endurance was determined on a Rota rod apparatus while antidepressant (mood elevating) activity was measured on a photoactometer in Swiss albino mice. The effects produced by both natural specimens and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis were comparable and showed almost equal potency. PMID:25425763

  2. A common soil flagellate (Cercomonas sp.) grows slowly when feeding on the bacterium Rhodococcus fascians in isolation, but does not discriminate against it in a mixed culture with Sphingopyxis witflariensis.

    PubMed

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Rønn, Regin

    2008-07-01

    Flagellates are very important predators on bacteria in soil. Because of their high growth rates, flagellate populations respond rapidly to changes in bacterial numbers. Previous results indicate that actinobacteria are generally less suitable than proteobacteria as food for flagellates. In this study, we investigated the growth of the flagellate Cercomonas sp. (ATCC 50334) on each of the two bacteria Sphingopyxis witflariensis (Alphaproteobacteria) and Rhodococcus fascians (actinobacteria) separately and in combination. The growth rate of the flagellate was lower and the lag phase was longer when fed with R. fascians than when fed with S. witflariensis. This supports our initial hypothesis that the actinobacterium is less suitable as food than the alphaproteobacterium. However, after longer periods of growth the peak abundance of flagellates was higher on R. fascians, indicating that the food quality of bacterial prey depends on the time perspective of the flagellate-bacterial interaction. There was no evidence that the flagellates selected against the actinobacterium when feeding in mixed cultures of the two bacteria. Experiments where flagellates were fed with washed bacterial cells or with bacteria growing with different substrate concentrations suggested that the low food quality of R. fascians is related both to the intrinsic cell properties and to the extracellular metabolites.

  3. Culture and Tourism in the Learning Age: A Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Cultural services and tourism are among the United Kingdom's fastest growing sectors in terms of employment and consumer demand. Cultural services and tourism bring the following elements to lifelong learning: active rather than passive learning; a means of interpreting the world around us; exposure to cultures other than one's own; confidence and…

  4. Seed-induced growing various TiO₂ nanostructures on g-C₃N₄ nanosheets with much enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongli; Wang, Jinshu; Yang, Yilong; Zhang, Yan; He, Di; An, Qier; Cao, Guozhong

    2015-07-15

    In this study, we provide a seed-induced solvothermal method to grow various TiO2 nanostructures on the surfaces of g-C3N4, such as 0D nanoparticles, 1D nanowires 2D nanosheets and 3D mesoporous nanocrystals. We show that the "seeding" endows g-C3N4 with anchoring sites toward the heterogeneous nucleation growth of TiO2, and the distribution of the loaded TiO2 can be controlled by tuning the amount of nucleation in the dispersion. Among synthesized nanostructures, seed-grown Meso-TiO2/g-C3N4 hybrids exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity upon visible light irradiation using methyl orange and phenol as probe organics, which are about 2-4 times and 29-37 times as high as those of direct-grown Meso-TiO2/g-C3N4 without seeding and bare g-C3N4 for degradation of MO and phenol, respectively. The enhancement of photocatalysis can be ascribed to the adequate separation of photogenerated electrons at the heterojunction interfaces and dominant contribution of photoinduced holes mainly caused by the well-constructed nano- architectures.

  5. A CAD system for nodule detection in low-dose lung CTs based on region growing and a new active contour model

    SciTech Connect

    Bellotti, R.; De Carlo, F.; Gargano, G.; Tangaro, S.; Cascio, D.; Catanzariti, E.; Cerello, P.; Cheran, S. C.; Delogu, P.; De Mitri, I.; Fulcheri, C.; Grosso, D.; Retico, A.; Squarcia, S.; Tommasi, E.; Golosio, Bruno

    2007-12-15

    A computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the selection of lung nodules in computer tomography (CT) images is presented. The system is based on region growing (RG) algorithms and a new active contour model (ACM), implementing a local convex hull, able to draw the correct contour of the lung parenchyma and to include the pleural nodules. The CAD consists of three steps: (1) the lung parenchymal volume is segmented by means of a RG algorithm; the pleural nodules are included through the new ACM technique; (2) a RG algorithm is iteratively applied to the previously segmented volume in order to detect the candidate nodules; (3) a double-threshold cut and a neural network are applied to reduce the false positives (FPs). After having set the parameters on a clinical CT, the system works on whole scans, without the need for any manual selection. The CT database was recorded at the Pisa center of the ITALUNG-CT trial, the first Italian randomized controlled trial for the screening of the lung cancer. The detection rate of the system is 88.5% with 6.6 FPs/CT on 15 CT scans (about 4700 sectional images) with 26 nodules: 15 internal and 11 pleural. A reduction to 2.47 FPs/CT is achieved at 80% efficiency.

  6. Ghrelin accelerates synapse formation and activity development in cultured cortical networks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While ghrelin was initially related to appetite stimulation and growth hormone secretion, it also has a neuroprotective effect in neurodegenerative diseases and regulates cognitive function. The cellular basis of those processes is related to synaptic efficacy and plasticity. Previous studies have shown that ghrelin not only stimulates synapse formation in cultured cortical neurons and hippocampal slices, but also alters some of the electrophysiological properties of neurons in the hypothalamus, amygdala and other subcortical areas. However, direct evidence for ghrelin’s ability to modulate the activity in cortical neurons is not available yet. In this study, we investigated the effect of acylated ghrelin on the development of the activity level and activity patterns in cortical neurons, in relation to its effect on synaptogenesis. Additionally, we quantitatively evaluated the expression of the receptor for acylated ghrelin – growth hormone secretagogue receptor-1a (GHSR-1a) during development. Results We performed electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry on dissociated cortical cultures from neonates, treated chronically with acylated ghrelin. On average 76 ± 4.6% of the cortical neurons expressed GHSR-1a. Synapse density was found to be much higher in ghrelin treated cultures than in controls across all age groups (1, 2 or 3 weeks). In all cultures (control and ghrelin treated), network activity gradually increased until it reached a maximum after approximately 3 weeks, followed by a slight decrease towards a plateau. During early developmental stages (1–2 weeks), the activity was much higher in ghrelin treated cultures and consequently, they reached the plateau value almost a week earlier than controls. Conclusions Acylated ghrelin leads to earlier network formation and activation in cultured cortical neuronal networks, the latter being a possibly consequence of accelerated synaptogenesis. PMID:24742241

  7. Silicone Granulomas, a Growing Problem?

    PubMed Central

    Curreri, Alexis T.; Taylor, Gina A.; Burris, Katy

    2016-01-01

    The formation of granulomas is known to be a possible adverse effect of liquid silicone administration, used for soft tissue augmentation. Its plumping effects provide enhancement of certain body parts, such as the lips, hips, and buttocks. The desire for enhancement, perhaps influenced by popular culture and an unrealistic standard of beauty, leads individuals to seek silicone injections. There is a growing population of women and men receiving injections by unlicensed, unskilled “practitioners” not related to the healthcare profession. Complications under such circumstances are not uncommon, particularly the emergence of silicone granulomas, and the authors’ medical center has seen an increase in such cases. In this case report, the authors illustrate a young patient with significant complications from her silicone injections, review current therapies for silicone granulomas, and discuss this growing medical problem. PMID:27386046

  8. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Office FY 2010 Activity Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hollie K. Gilbert; Clayton F. Marler; Christina L. Olson; Brenda R. Pace; Julie Braun Williams

    2011-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site is home to vast numbers and a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least a 13,500 year span of human land use in the region. As a federal agency, the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) has legal responsibility for the management and protection of the resources and has contracted these responsibilities to Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). The BEA professional staff is committed to maintaining a cultural resource management program that accepts the challenge of preserving INL cultural resources in a manner reflecting their importance in local, regional, and national history. This report summarizes activities performed by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office (CRMO) staff during fiscal year 2010. This work is diverse, far-reaching and though generally confined to INL cultural resource compliance, also includes a myriad of professional and voluntary community activities. This document is intended to be informative to both internal and external stakeholders and to serve as a planning tool for future INL cultural resource management work.

  9. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Office FY 2011 Activity Report

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Braun Williams; Brenda R. Pace; Hollie K. Gilbert; Christina L. Olson

    2012-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site is home to vast numbers and a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least a 13,500 year span of human land use in the region. As a federal agency, the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) has legal responsibility for the management and protection of the resources and has contracted these responsibilities to Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). The BEA professional staff is committed to maintaining a cultural resource management program that accepts the challenge of preserving INL cultural resources in a manner reflecting their importance in local, regional, and national history. This report is intended as a stand-alone document that summarizes activities performed by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office (CRMO) staff during fiscal year 2011. This work is diverse, far-reaching and though generally confined to INL cultural resource compliance, also includes a myriad of professional and voluntary community activities. This document is intended to be informative to both internal and external stakeholders, serve as a planning tool for future INL cultural resource management work, and meet an agreed upon legal requirement.

  10. Mineral Type and Solution Chemistry Affect the Structure and Composition of Actively Growing Bacterial Communities as Revealed by Bromodeoxyuridine Immunocapture and 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Kelly, L C; Colin, Y; Turpault, M-P; Uroz, S

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how minerals affect bacterial communities and their in situ activities in relation to environmental conditions are central issues in soil microbial ecology, as minerals represent essential reservoirs of inorganic nutrients for the biosphere. To determine the impact of mineral type and solution chemistry on soil bacterial communities, we compared the diversity, composition, and functional abilities of a soil bacterial community incubated in presence/absence of different mineral types (apatite, biotite, obsidian). Microcosms were prepared containing different liquid culture media devoid of particular essential nutrients, the nutrients provided only in the introduced minerals and therefore only available to the microbial community through mineral dissolution by biotic and/or abiotic processes. By combining functional screening of bacterial isolates and community analysis by bromodeoxyuridine DNA immunocapture and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, we demonstrated that bacterial communities were mainly impacted by the solution chemistry at the taxonomic level and by the mineral type at the functional level. Metabolically active bacterial communities varied with solution chemistry and mineral type. Burkholderia were significantly enriched in the obsidian treatment compared to the biotite treatment and were the most effective isolates at solubilizing phosphorous or mobilizing iron, in all the treatments. A detailed analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the OTUs or isolated strains assigned as Burkholderia in our study showed high homology with effective mineral-weathering bacteria previously recovered from the same experimental site.

  11. Uplift and denudation rates of an actively growing mountain range inferred from in-situ produced cosmogenic 10Be: the Yumu Shan (NE Tibetan Plateau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, L.; Hetzel, R.; Minxing, T.; Li, X.; Guo, J.

    2009-04-01

    Located in the foreland of the Quilian Shan (NE Tibet), the Yumu Shan is an isolated mountain range bounded by an active NW-SE striking thrust fault. Geomorphic and structural features such as fault scarps and wind gaps suggest that the ~70 km long range is actively growing (Hetzel et al., 2004; Tapponnier et al., 1990), hence the tectonic uplift should exceed the rate of denudation. Here we quantify the rate of these two competing processes using in-situ produced cosmogenic 10Be. Catchment-wide denudation rates are derived from 10Be concentrations in stream sediments, whereas rock uplift rates are obtained by combining scarp topographic profiles with dating of geomorphic surfaces deformed by active thrust faults at the Yumu Shan mountain front. Both denudation and rock uplift rates integrate over a similar temporal scale (~10-100 ka) and thus over many earthquake cycles. Our data document that catchment wide-denudation rates vary from ~100 to ~400 mm ka-1 as a function of morphology and lithology, while rock uplift takes place at the rate of ~0.7 mm ka-1. The difference between these values confirms that the Yumu Shan is in a topographic pre-steady state and in accordance with geomorphic and structural features. Tectonic features indicate that over few millions of years the Yumu Shan may rise to a similar height as the main ranges of the Qilian Shan farther south, which have peaks with elevations between ~5 and ~5.5 km. References: Hetzel R., Tao M., Niedermann S., Strecker M.R., Ivy-Ochs S., Kubik P.W., Gao B. (2004). Implications of the fault scaling law for the growth of topography: Mountain ranges in the broken foreland of NE Tibet, Terra Nova, 16, 157-162. Tapponnier P., Meyer B., Avouac J.P., Peltzer G., Gaudemer Y., Guo S., Xiang H., Yin K., Chen Z., Cai S., Dai H. (1990). Active thrusting and folding in the Quilian Shan, and decoupling between upper crust and mantle in northeastern Tibet, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 97, 382-403.

  12. Growing Pains (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Feeding Your 4- to 7-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Growing ... > For Parents > Growing Pains Print A A A What's in ...

  13. T Lymphocyte Activation Threshold and Membrane Reorganization Perturbations in Unique Culture Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, C. L.; Sams, C. F.

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative activation thresholds and cellular membrane reorganization are mechanisms by which resting T cells modulate their response to activating stimuli. Here we demonstrate perturbations of these cellular processes in a unique culture system that non-invasively inhibits T lymphocyte activation. During clinorotation, the T cell activation threshold is increased 5-fold. This increased threshold involves a mechanism independent of TCR triggering. Recruitment of lipid rafts to the activation site is impaired during clinorotation but does occur with increased stimulation. This study describes a situation in which an individual cell senses a change in its physical environment and alters its cell biological behavior.

  14. Domoic acid disrupts the activity and connectivity of neuronal networks in organotypic brain slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Hiolski, E M; Ito, S; Beggs, J M; Lefebvre, K A; Litke, A M; Smith, D R

    2016-09-01

    Domoic acid is a neurotoxin produced by algae and is found in seafood during harmful algal blooms. As a glutamate agonist, domoic acid inappropriately stimulates excitatory activity in neurons. At high doses, this leads to seizures and brain lesions, but it is unclear how lower, asymptomatic exposures disrupt neuronal activity. Domoic acid has been detected in an increasing variety of species across a greater geographical range than ever before, making it critical to understand the potential health impacts of low-level exposure on vulnerable marine mammal and human populations. To determine whether prolonged domoic acid exposure altered neuronal activity in hippocampal networks, we used a custom-made 512 multi-electrode array with high spatial and temporal resolution to record extracellular potentials (spikes) in mouse organotypic brain slice cultures. We identified individual neurons based on spike waveform and location, and measured the activity and functional connectivity within the neuronal networks of brain slice cultures. Domoic acid exposure significantly altered neuronal spiking activity patterns, and increased functional connectivity within exposed cultures, in the absence of overt cellular or neuronal toxicity. While the overall spiking activity of neurons in domoic acid-exposed cultures was comparable to controls, exposed neurons spiked significantly more often in bursts. We also identified a subset of neurons that were electrophysiologically silenced in exposed cultures, and putatively identified those neurons as fast-spiking inhibitory neurons. These results provide evidence that domoic acid affects neuronal activity in the absence of cytotoxicity, and suggest that neurodevelopmental exposure to domoic acid may alter neurological function in the absence of clinical symptoms.

  15. Coniochaeta ligniaria: antifungal activity of the cryptic endophytic fungus associated with autotrophic cultures of the medicinal plant Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few studies have addressed the presence and bioactivity of endophytic fungi living in plantlets growing under in vitro conditions. We isolated a fungus UM 109 from autotrophic cultures of the medicinal plant Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon). The species was identified as Coniochaeta ligniaria using ...

  16. The importance of culturally meaningful activity for health benefits among older Korean immigrant living in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, May; Han, Areum; Chin, Seungtae

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that participation in culturally meaningful activity is beneficial for immigrants’ health and well-being, yet older Korean immigrants struggle with accepting new cultural perspectives, which can negatively affect their health and well-being. Using in-depth interviews, this study was designed to capture the value of culturally meaningful activities for health among older Korean immigrants. Three themes were identified: (a) improved psychological well-being, (b) enhanced positive emotions and feelings, and (c) social connections developed with others. The findings suggest that by engaging in various culturally meaningful activities, older Korean immigrants gain a sense of social, cultural, and psychological significance in life. This study also provided evidence that older Korean immigrants maintain and develop their cultural identity through culturally meaningful activities. PMID:26084272

  17. Depression of alcohol dehydrogenase activity in rat hepatocyte culture by dihydrotestosterone.

    PubMed

    Mezey, E; Potter, J J; Diehl, A M

    1986-01-15

    Hepatocytes harvested from castrated rats retained a higher alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.1) activity than hepatocytes harvested from normal rats during 7 days of culture. Dihydrotestosterone (1 microM) decreased the enzyme activity, after 2 and 5 days of culture, in hepatocytes from castrated and control animals respectively. Dihydrotestosterone decreased the enzyme activity to similar values in both groups of hepatocytes by the end of 7 days of culture. Testosterone (1 microM) had no effect on the enzyme activity in normal hepatocytes and only a transitory effect in decreasing the enzyme activity in hepatocytes from castrated animals. The increases in alcohol dehydrogenase activity after castration and their suppression by dihydrotestosterone were associated with parallel changes in the rate of ethanol elimination. Additions of substrates of the malate-aspartate shuttle or dinitrophenol did not modify ethanol elimination. These observations indicate that dihydrotestosterone has a direct suppressant effect on hepatocyte alcohol dehydrogenase and that the enzyme activity is a major determinant of the rate of ethanol elimination.

  18. Rapid Activation of Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in Elicitor-Treated Hybrid Poplar (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray × Populus deltoides Marsh) Suspension-Cultured Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    de Sá, Mário Moniz; Subramaniam, Rajgopal; Williams, Frank E.; Douglas, Carl J.

    1992-01-01

    Elicitor induction of phenylpropanoid metabolism was investigated in suspension-cultured cells of the fast-growing poplar hybrid (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray × Populus deltoides Marsh) H11-11. Treatment of cells with polygalacturonic acid lyase or two fungal elicitors resulted in rapid and transient increases in extractable l-phenylalanine ammonia lyase and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase enzyme activities. The substrate specificity of the inducible 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase enzyme activity appeared to differ from substrate specificity of 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase enzyme activity in untreated control cells. Large and transient increases in the accumulation of l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase mRNAs preceded the increases in enzyme activities and were detectable by 30 minutes after the start of elicitor treatment. Chalcone synthase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and coniferin β-glucosidase enzyme activities were unaffected by the elicitors, but a large and transient increase in β-glucosidase activity capable of hydrolyzing 4-nitrophenyl-β-glucoside was observed. Subsequent to increases in l-phenylalanine ammonialyase and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase enzyme activities, cell wall-bound thioglycolic acid-extractable compounds accumulated in elicitor-treated cultures, and these cells exhibited strong staining with phloroglucinol, suggesting the accumulation of wall-bound phenolic compounds. ImagesFigure 7Figure 9 PMID:16668702

  19. Lymph node culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...

  20. Culture - joint fluid

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  1. Chinese Wild-Growing Vitis amurensis ICE1 and ICE2 Encode MYC-Type bHLH Transcription Activators that Regulate Cold Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weirong; Jiao, Yuntong; Li, Ruimin; Zhang, Ningbo; Xiao, Dongming; Ding, Xiaoling; Wang, Zhenping

    2014-01-01

    Winter hardiness is an important trait for grapevine breeders and producers, so identification of the regulatory mechanisms involved in cold acclimation is of great potential value. The work presented here involves the identification of two grapevine ICE gene homologs, VaICE1 and VaICE2, from an extremely cold-tolerant accession of Chinese wild-growing Vitis amurnensis, which are phylogenetically related to other plant ICE1 genes. These two structurally different ICE proteins contain previously reported ICE-specific amino acid motifs, the bHLH-ZIP domain and the S-rich motif. Expression analysis revealed that VaICE1 is constitutively expressed but affected by cold stress, unlike VaICE2 that shows not such changed expression as a consequence of cold treatment. Both genes serve as transcription factors, potentiating the transactivation activities in yeasts and the corresponding proteins localized to the nucleus following transient expression in onion epidermal cells. Overexpression of either VaICE1 or VaICE2 in Arabidopsis increase freezing tolerance in nonacclimated plants. Moreover, we show that they result in multiple biochemical changes that were associated with cold acclimation: VaICE1/2-overexpressing plants had evaluated levels of proline, reduced contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased levels of electrolyte leakage. The expression of downstream cold responsive genes of CBF1, COR15A, and COR47 were significantly induced in Arabidopsis transgenically overexpressing VaICE1 or VaICE2 upon cold stress. VaICE2, but not VaICE1 overexpression induced KIN1 expression under cold-acclimation conditions. Our results suggest that VaICE1 and VaICE2 act as key regulators at an early step in the transcriptional cascade controlling freezing tolerance, and modulate the expression levels of various low-temperature associated genes involved in the C-repeat binding factor (CBF) pathway. PMID:25019620

  2. Screening for oestrogenic activity of plant and food extracts using in vitro trout hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Bennetau-Pelissero, C; Latonnelle, K Gontier; Lamothe, V; Shinkaruk-Poix, S; Kaushik, S J

    2004-01-01

    The use of in vitro trout hepatocyte cultures is shown to provide a simple and effective way to screen plant and food products for oestrogenic activity. The relative oestrogenic activities of 0.1 g each of extracts of phytosterol, soy isoflavone, red clover, kudzu and soybean extracts were determined using this assay and found to be equivalent to 212, 1, 3.2, 132 and 1025 nM of 17beta-estradiol, respectively. Controls were performed on soybean and kudzu extracts using specific ELISAs for isoflavones and these confirmed the validity of the cell culture assay. The method described offers an advantage over current methods in that it can detect increased oestrogenic activity that may occur as a result of metabolic activation of pre- or pro-oestrogens liver cells.

  3. Framing Cross-Cultural Ethical Practice in Adapt[ive] Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donna; Howe, P. David

    2016-01-01

    Academics and practitioners are often at a loss when it comes to understanding the ethical socio-political and cultural contexts that invade the world of adapted physical activity. Ethical practice is situated in the local and the specific. In this article we highlight the reality that both academics and practitioners need to be ever mindful that…

  4. Methodologies in Cultural-Historical Activity Theory: The Example of School-Based Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postholm, May Britt

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Relatively little research has been conducted on methodology within Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT). CHAT is mainly used as a framework for developmental processes. The purpose of this article is to discuss both focuses for research and research questions within CHAT and to outline methodologies that can be used…

  5. Cell in situ zymography: an in vitro cytotechnology for localization of enzyme activity in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Aastha; Jaiswal, Astha; Malhotra, Umang; Kohli, Shrey; Rani, Vibha

    2012-09-01

    In situ zymography is a unique technique for detection and localization of enzyme-substrate interactions majorly in histological sections. Substrate with quenched fluorogenic molecule is incorporated in gel over which tissue sections are mounted and then incubated in buffer. The enzymatic activity is observed in the form of fluorescent signal. With the advancements in the field of biological research, use of in vitro cell culture has become very popular and holds great significance in multiple fields including inflammation, cancer, stem cell biology and the still emerging 3-D cell cultures. The information on analysis of enzymatic activity in cell lines is inadequate presently. We propose a single-step methodology that is simple, sensitive, cost-effective, and functional to perform and study the 'in position' activity of enzyme on substrate for in vitro cell cultures. Quantification of enzymatic activity to carry out comparative studies on cells has also been illustrated. This technique can be applied to a variety of enzyme classes including proteases, amylases, xylanases, and cellulases in cell cultures.

  6. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory: Vygotsky's Forgotten and Suppressed Legacy and Its Implication for Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-01-01

    Cultural-historical activity theory--with historical roots in dialectical materialism and the social psychology to which it has given rise--has experienced exponential growth in its acceptance by scholars interested in understanding knowing and learning writ large. In education, this theory has constituted something like a well kept secret that is…

  7. Children's Preferences for Group Musical Activities in Child Care Centres: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a cross-cultural research study of children's preferences for group musical activities in child care centres. A total of 228 young children aged 4-5 years in seven child care centres in Hong Kong and in the Adelaide City of South Australia participated in the study. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected via a…

  8. Critical Incident Analysis Based Training: An Approach for Developing Active Racial/Cultural Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Noah M.; Pieterse, Alex L.

    2007-01-01

    The authors discuss 2 perspectives on the Multicultural Counseling Competencies (D. W. Sue, P. Arredondo, & R. J. McDavis, 1992): fixed goal and process. Noting that the process has been underemphasized, they introduce active racial/cultural awareness as an operationalization of this perspective. Current training approaches are critiqued from this…

  9. Human Prostate Cancer Infiltrating Lymphocytes: Raft Microdomains, Signaling and Activation in Organ Cultures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    NKG2D, and CD94 CXCR1 - 4 (Table I). CXCR2 - 4 CXCR3 + + 4 Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte activation in prostate CXCR4 ++ 4 carcinoma organ cultures... CXCR3 and CCR7 obtained posal of nitrogenous waste. Arginase inhibitors might thus from R&D Systems; CD137 obtained from Ancell Corporation; NKp30

  10. The Transformation of Learning: Advances in Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oers, Bert, Ed.; Wardekker, Wim, Ed.; Elbers, Ed, Ed.; van der Veer, Rene, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Learning is a changing phenomenon, depending on the advances in theory and research. This book presents a relatively new approach to learning, based on meaningful human activities in cultural practices and in collaboration with others. It draws extensively from the ideas of Lev Vygotsky and his recent followers. The book presents ideas that…

  11. Research in the Work of New Zealand Teacher Educators: A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, David A. G.; Gunn, Alexandra C.; Hill, Mary F.; Haigh, Mavis

    2016-01-01

    In this article we use cultural-historical activity theory to explore the place of research in the work of New Zealand university-based teacher educators (TEs). We consider how aspirations for a research-informed initial teacher education are served by New Zealand universities' recruitment practices and TEs' actual work. We suggest that TEs value…

  12. Using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory to Design and Evaluate an Educational Game in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarou, D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a methodology for using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) at the initial stages of the design process of an educational game, by exploring how the theory can be used as a framework for producing not only usable but also useful computer tools. The research also aimed to investigate how the theory could…

  13. Discourse and Identity in Cultural-Historical Activity Theory: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Harry

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a response to two of the papers in the collection. In doing so it takes up two issues: the conceptualization and analysis of discourse within Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) and notions of identity and subject positioning within CHAT. Bernstein [(2000). "Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity: Theory research…

  14. Growing vascularized heart tissue from stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Shiang Y; Hernández, Damián; Dusting, Gregory J

    2013-08-01

    The promise of stem cells to repair the heart after damage or heart attack has not been realized because most such cells are lost after transplantation. A new approach is to grow substantial viable pieces of cardiac tissue from human stem cells by cardiac tissue engineering. Such constructs must be fully vascularized and perfused to ensure the viability of clinically relevant volumes of tissue. This requires careful choice of cells, culture conditions, a biomaterial to act as scaffold, and crucial strategies for vascularization. Autologous stem cells with high plasticity, which would avoid the need for antirejection therapies after transplantation, are an attractive source of both cardiomyocytes and vascular cells. Most stem cells also have inherent paracrine activity, releasing cytoprotective factors and growth-promoting cytokines that can further stimulate tissue regeneration and neovascularization through recruitment of endogenous stem and progenitor cells. Current advances for growing vascularized and functional cardiac constructs with human stem cells are described, bringing us a step closer to the engineering of complex cardiac tissues such as pacemaker, conducting tissue, or contractile myocardial flaps ideal for transplantation. From studies in rats successful transplantation of thin constructs to the ventricle has been reported, but there remain further issues to resolve before larger human constructs will be available to test in the clinic.

  15. Intense association of non-culturable endophytic bacteria with antibiotic-cleansed in vitro watermelon and their activation in degenerating cultures.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Pious

    2011-12-01

    The study was undertaken with a view to unravel the source of bacterial colony growth observed in a section of micropropagated triploid watermelon cultures that were supposedly cleansed of the associated endophytic bacteria through antibiotic treatment, and thereafter maintained under stringent sterility checks to prevent lateral intrusion of contaminants. Five different bacteria were retrieved from colony growth-displaying watermelon cultures that were previously treated with gentamycin and five isolates from cefazolin-treated stocks with the organisms showing tolerance to the respective antibiotic. These watermelon cultures were in degeneration phase (over 6 months after the previous sub-culturing), while the actively maintained counterpart stocks appeared healthy with no colony growth on different bacteriological media during tissue-screenings. The latter cultures, however, revealed abundant motile, tetrazolium-stained bacterial cells in microscopy, suggesting tissue colonization by non-culturable endophytes. PCR screening on healthy cultures endorsed tissue colonization by different bacterial phylogenic groups. A few organisms could be activated to cultivation from healthy watermelon stocks through host tissue extract supplementation, which also enhanced the growth of all the organisms. The study indicated that a fraction of antibiotic-tolerant bacteria survived intra-tissue in non-culturable form during the preceding cleansing activity, multiplied to substantial numbers thereafter, and turned cultivable in degenerating cultures contributed by tissue breakdown products. This study brings out the existence of a deep endophyte association in tissue cultures which is not easily dissociable. It also signifies the utility of in vitro system for investigations into plant-endophyte association and to bring normally non-culturable novel organisms to cultivation facilitating their future exploitation.

  16. Apparatus for growing crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Thomas J. (Inventor); Witt, August F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for growing crystals from a melt employing a heat pipe, consisting of one or more sections, each section serving to control temperature and thermal gradients in the crystal as it forms inside the pipe.

  17. How Your Baby Grows

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Pregnancy week by week Pregnancy week by week Week by week Videos Swipe to advance Learn ... grows each week during pregnancy. Pick your week. Weeks 1-2 Conception (also called fertilization) usually happens ...

  18. The Growing Human Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyfitz, Nathan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the issue of human population. Illustrates the projections of the growing human population in terms of developed and less developed countries. Describes the family planning programs in several countries. Lists three references for further reading. (YP)

  19. Growing America's Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    The emerging U.S. bioenergy industry provides a secure and growing supply of transportation fuels, biopower, and bioproducts produced from a range of abundant, renewable biomass resources. Bioenergy can help ensure a secure, sustainable, and economically sound future by reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil, developing domestic clean energy sources, and generating domestic green jobs. Bioenergy can also help address growing concerns about climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to create a healthier environment for current and future generations.

  20. Challenging C. P. Snow: Active Interaction between Arts, Cultural Heritage and the Universe in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markkanen, T.

    2010-10-01

    Many events in Finland during the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) clearly demonstrated that there can be real interactions between the arts, humanities and science. We have found the 50-year-old concept, introduced by C. P. Snow, of two cultures unable to engage in a dialogue to be irrelevant. In Finland, astronomy has always been popular. The IYA2009 was celebrated in Finland with many local, national and international events. Altogether there were more than 400 events of all sizes. Arts and cultural activities were essential parts of many of these events.

  1. Tissue Factor Activity in Lymphocyte Cultures from Normal Individuals and Patients with Hemophilia A

    PubMed Central

    Rickles, Frederick R.; Hardin, John A.; Pitlick, Frances A.; Hoyer, Leon W.; Conrad, Marcel E.

    1973-01-01

    The procoagulant material of lymphocytes has been characterized as tissue factor. Lymphocytes stimulated with phytohemagglutinin or the purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacillus developed procoagulant activity with incubation in tissue culture. While this material corrected the prolonged clotting time of factor VIII (AHF) deficient plasma, we have shown, utilizing a sensitive radioimmunoassay, that no AHF antigen was present in the cell cultures. Further, we have demonstrated this material to be tissue factor by coagulation techniques and immunological cross-reactivity. The published data regarding factor VIII synthesis is reviewed in light of these observations and comments are made regarding the role of the lymphocyte procoagulant. PMID:4634046

  2. Inhibition of intracellular proteolysis in muscle cultures by multiplication-stimulating activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janeczko, Richard A.; Etlinger, Joseph D.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of the insulin-like growth factor, multiplication-stimulating activity (MSA), on chick myotube cultures are studied. The results indicate that MSA is an effective anabolic agent regulating protein metabolism and amino acid uptake, but not sugar transport. Similar size effects on protein metabolism and amino acid uptake in serum-free media were observed in parallel studies with insulin, although insulin levels well in excess of the normal physiological range are required to produce significant effects. It is suggested that there is a generally low insulin sensitivity in cultured chick myotubes relative to adult tissues.

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mediates the activity-dependent regulation of inhibition in neocortical cultures.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, L C; DeWan, A; Lauer, H M; Turrigiano, G G

    1997-06-15

    The excitability of cortical circuits is modulated by interneurons that release the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. In primate and rodent visual cortex, activity deprivation leads to a decrease in the expression of GABA. This suggests that activity is able to adjust the strength of cortical inhibition, but this has not been demonstrated directly. In addition, the nature of the signal linking activity to GABA expression has not been determined. Activity is known to regulate the expression of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and BDNF has been shown to influence the phenotype of GABAergic interneurons. We use a culture system from postnatal rat visual cortex to test the hypothesis that activity is regulating the strength of cortical inhibition through the regulation of BDNF. Cultures were double-labeled against GABA and the neuronal marker MAP2, and the percentage of neurons that were GABA-positive was determined. Blocking spontaneous activity in these cultures reversibly decreased the number of GABA-positive neurons without affecting neuronal survival. Voltage-clamp analysis of inhibitory currents demonstrated that activity blockade also decreased GABA-mediated inhibition onto pyramidal neurons and raised pyramidal neuron firing rates. All of these effects were prevented by incubation with BDNF during activity blockade, but not by neurotrophin 3 or nerve growth factor. Additionally, blockade of neurotrophin signaling mimicked the effects of activity blockade on GABA expression. These data suggest that activity regulates cortical inhibition through a BDNF-dependent mechanism and that this neurotrophin plays an important role in the control of cortical excitability.

  4. L-Asparaginase Activity in Cell Lysates and Culture Media of Halophilic Bacterial Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Barati, Mahmood; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Nafissi-Varcheh, Nastaran; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Houshdar Tehrani, Mohammad Hassan; Vahidi, Hossein; Adrangi, Sina

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate halophilic bacteria with the ability to produce intracellular or extracellular L-asparaginase. A total number of 120 halophilic bacteria were isolated from 17 different saline habitats of Iran including salt lakes, wetlands, brine springs and deserts. Among these, 68 were able to grow in the presence of 1.5 M NaCl and 52 demonstrated the ability to grow in the selection medium containing 3.5 M NaCl. None of the isolates appeared to produce appreciable amounts of extracellular L-asparaginase. Among the isolates that produced intracellular L-asparaginase, 5 moderate and 1 extreme halophiles were selected for further study based on their observed activity level. The moderately halophilic isolates were shown to belong to the genus Halomonas while the extreme halophile was identified as a member of the genus Aidingimonas. PMID:27980578

  5. L-Asparaginase Activity in Cell Lysates and Culture Media of Halophilic Bacterial Isolates.

    PubMed

    Barati, Mahmood; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Nafissi-Varcheh, Nastaran; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Houshdar Tehrani, Mohammad Hassan; Vahidi, Hossein; Adrangi, Sina

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate halophilic bacteria with the ability to produce intracellular or extracellular L-asparaginase. A total number of 120 halophilic bacteria were isolated from 17 different saline habitats of Iran including salt lakes, wetlands, brine springs and deserts. Among these, 68 were able to grow in the presence of 1.5 M NaCl and 52 demonstrated the ability to grow in the selection medium containing 3.5 M NaCl. None of the isolates appeared to produce appreciable amounts of extracellular L-asparaginase. Among the isolates that produced intracellular L-asparaginase, 5 moderate and 1 extreme halophiles were selected for further study based on their observed activity level. The moderately halophilic isolates were shown to belong to the genus Halomonas while the extreme halophile was identified as a member of the genus Aidingimonas.

  6. Estimating biodiversity of fungi in activated sludge communities using culture-independent methods.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tegan N; Seviour, Robert J

    2012-05-01

    Fungal diversity of communities in several activated sludge plants treating different influent wastes was determined by comparative sequence analyses of their 18S rRNA genes. Methods for DNA extraction and choice of primers for PCR amplification were both optimised using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile patterns. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the levels of fungal biodiversity in some communities, like those treating paper pulp wastes, were low, and most of the fungi detected in all communities examined were novel uncultured representatives of the major fungal subdivisions, in particular, the newly described clade Cryptomycota. The fungal populations in activated sludge revealed by these culture-independent methods were markedly different to those based on culture-dependent data. Members of the genera Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, which have been commonly identified in mixed liquor, were not identified in any of these plant communities. Non-fungal eukaryotic 18S rRNA genes were also amplified with the primer sets used. This is the first report where culture-independent methods have been applied to flocculated activated sludge biomass samples to estimate fungal community composition and, as expected, the data obtained gave a markedly different view of their population biodiversity compared to that based on culture-dependent methods.

  7. Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) extract exhibits atropine-sensitive activity in a cultured cardiomyocyte assay.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Satin; Long, Shannon R; Proteau, Philip J; Filtz, Theresa M

    2009-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) plant extract is used as a herbal alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it was shown that hawthorn extract preparations caused negative chronotropic effects in a cultured neonatal murine cardiomyocyte assay, independent of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effect of hawthorn extract to decrease the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes. To test the hypothesis that hawthorn is acting via muscarinic receptors, the effect of hawthorn extract on atrial versus ventricular cardiomyocytes in culture was evaluated. As would be expected for activation of muscarinic receptors, hawthorn extract had a greater effect in atrial cells. Atrial and/or ventricular cardiomyocytes were then treated with hawthorn extract in the presence of atropine or himbacine. Changes in the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes revealed that both muscarinic antagonists significantly attenuated the negative chronotropic activity of hawthorn extract. Using quinuclidinyl benzilate, L-[benzylic-4,4'-(3)H] ([(3)H]-QNB) as a radioligand antagonist, the effect of a partially purified hawthorn extract fraction to inhibit muscarinic receptor binding was quantified. Hawthorn extract fraction 3 dose-dependently inhibited [(3)H]-QNB binding to mouse heart membranes. Taken together, these findings suggest that decreased contraction frequency by hawthorn extracts in neonatal murine cardiomyocytes may be mediated via muscarinic receptor activation.

  8. Metabolic alterations induced in cultured skeletal muscle by stretch-relaxation activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfaludy, Sophia; Shansky, Janet; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1989-01-01

    Muscle cells differentiated in vitro are repetitively stretched and relaxed in order to determine the presence of short- and long-term alterations occurring in glucose uptake and lactate efflux that are similar to the metabolic alterations occurring in stimulated organ-cultured muscle and in vivo skeletal muscle during the active state. It is observed that whereas mechanical stimulation increases these metabolic parameters within 4-6 h of starting activity, unstimulated basal rates in control cultures also increase during this period of time, and by 8 h, their rates have reached or exceeded the rates in continuously stimulated cells. Measurements of these parameters in media of different compositions show that activity-induced long-term alterations in the parameters occur independently of growth factors in serium and embryo extracts.

  9. Chemical Constituents of the Culture Broth of Phellinus linteus and Their Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong-Seok; Hwang, Byung Soon; Lee, In-Kyoung; Seo, Geon-Sik; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2015-03-01

    The medicinal fungus Phellinus linteus, in the family Hymenochaetaceae, has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. In this study, the chemical constituents of the culture broth of P. linteus were investigated. P. linteus was cultured in potato dextrose broth medium, and the culture broth was extracted with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate-soluble portion was concentrated and subjected to ODS column chromatography, followed by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Six compounds (1~6) were purified by preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Spectroscopic methods identified their structures as caffeic acid (1), inotilone (2), 4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one (3), phellilane H (4), (2E,4E)-(+)-4'-hydroxy-γ-ionylideneacetic acid (5), and (2E,4E)-γ-ionylideneacetic acid (6). Compounds 1, 2, and 3 exhibited potent dose-dependent antioxidant activity.

  10. The influence of family and culture on physical activity among female adolescents from the Indian diaspora.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Subha; Crocker, Peter R E

    2009-04-01

    In this study we explored the role of personal, familial, and cultural attitudes and social norms for physical activity (PA) on actual PA behavior among female adolescents of the Indian diaspora. Six girls, 15 to 19 years of age, from a spiritual center participated in interviews and a focus group. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Participants were high in familism, and felt that PA was important for physical and mental health, and to strengthen relationships with family. Fathers and brothers were considered most influential on PA patterns. Differentiated gender roles in PA emerged: boys were deemed more aggressive and competitive, and girls were perceived to promote fun-based learning environments. The importance of religion and spirituality as influences on PA emerged among participants with strong affinities for Indian cultures. Results show that cultural heritage impacts PA norms, attitudes, and patterns, and must be considered when evaluating adolescent PA participation in multicultural societies.

  11. Chemical Constituents of the Culture Broth of Phellinus linteus and Their Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myeong-Seok; Hwang, Byung Soon; Lee, In-Kyoung; Seo, Geon-Sik

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal fungus Phellinus linteus, in the family Hymenochaetaceae, has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. In this study, the chemical constituents of the culture broth of P. linteus were investigated. P. linteus was cultured in potato dextrose broth medium, and the culture broth was extracted with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate-soluble portion was concentrated and subjected to ODS column chromatography, followed by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Six compounds (1~6) were purified by preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Spectroscopic methods identified their structures as caffeic acid (1), inotilone (2), 4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one (3), phellilane H (4), (2E,4E)-(+)-4'-hydroxy-γ-ionylideneacetic acid (5), and (2E,4E)-γ-ionylideneacetic acid (6). Compounds 1, 2, and 3 exhibited potent dose-dependent antioxidant activity. PMID:25892914

  12. Structural features and biological activity of xyloglucans from suspension-cultured plant cells.

    PubMed

    Joseleau, J P; Cartier, N; Chambat, G; Faik, A; Ruel, K

    1992-01-01

    Different xyloglucan (XG) fractions were isolated from Rubus fruticosus cells cultured in suspension. Sequential extraction showed that two distinct xyloglucans existed in the primary walls. The first could be easily extracted in alkali and the second was tightly associated to cellulose. A third fraction was isolated from the extracellular polysaccharides of the culture medium. The alkali-soluble XG and the extracellular XG showed many structural features in common. By use of an anti-XG polyclonal antibody, electron microscopy examination suggests that the extracellular hemicellulose is progressively released from the wall by a sloughing mechanism. Oligosaccharides prepared from the extracellular XG were purified and their structure examined by FAB-ms technique. When the nonasaccharide was added at low concentrations (10(-5) mg/ml) to the culture medium it was able to elicit several different glycanohydrolase activities associated to the cell wall.

  13. Effects of culture medium compositions on antidiabetic activity and anticancer activity of marine endophitic bacteria isolated from sponge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryani, Faiza; Mulyani, Hani; Artanti, Nina; Udin, Linar Zalinar; Dewi, Rizna Triana; Hanafi, Muhammad; Murniasih, Tutik

    2017-01-01

    High diversity of Indonesia marine spesies and their ability in producing secondary metabolite that can be used as a drug candidate cause this fascinating topic need to explore. Most of marine organisms explored to discover drug is macroorganism whereas microorganism (such as Indonesia marine bacteria) is very limited. Therefore, in this report, antidiabetic and anticancer activity of Indonesia marine bacteria isolated from Sponges's extract have been studied. Bacteria strain 8.9 which are collection of Research Center for Oseanography, Indonesian Institute of Sciences were from Barrang Lompo Island, Makasar, Indonesia. Bacteria were cultured in different culture medium compositions (such as: different pH, source of glucose and water) for 48 hours on a shaker, then they were extracted with ethyl asetate. Extracts of bacteria were tested by DPPH method (antioxidant activity), alpha glucosidase inhibitory activity method (antidiabetic activity), and Alamar Blue assay (anticancer activity) at 200 ppm. According to result, extract of bacteria in pH 8.0 exhibited the greatest antioxidant (19.27% inhibition), antidiabetic (63.95% inhibition) and anticancer activity of T47D cell line (44.62% cell viability) compared to other extracts. However, effect of addition of sugar sources (such as: glucose, sucrose, and soluble starch) and effect of addition of water/sea water exhibited less influence on their bioactivities. In conclusion, Indonesia marine bacteria isolated from sponge have potential a source of bioactive compound in drug discovery field.

  14. Zumba: From Secondary Physical Education Classes to Adulthood Workouts: Staying up to Date with the Growing Trends of Physical Activity in and out of the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benham, Lindsey; Hall, Amber; Barney, David

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the background of Zumba, the need for it as a result of its growing popularity, the national standards it supports, and the necessary steps that need to be taken to properly implement Zumba in physical education programs. When taking a closer look at the standards that Zumba supports, it is evident that Zumba can serve as a…

  15. Dietary Zinc Reduces Osteoclast Resorption Activities and Increases Markers of Osteoblast Differentiation, Matrix Maturation, and Mineralization in the Long Bones of Growing Rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutritional influence of zinc (Zn) on markers of bone extracellular matrix (ECM) resorption and mineralization was investigated in growing rats. Thirty male weanling rats were randomly assigned to consume AIN-93G based diets containing 2.5, 5, 7.5, 15, or 30 µg Zn/g diet for 24 d. Femur Zn incre...

  16. Obesity reduces bone density through activation of PPAR gamma and suppression of Wnt/Beta-Catenin in rapidly growing male rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between obesity and skeletal development remains largely ambiguous. In this report, total enteral nutrition (TEN) was used to feed growing male rats intragastrically, with a high 45% fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. We found that fat mass was increased (P<0.05) compared to rats fed...

  17. Vasopressin activates Akt/mTOR pathway in smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Montes, Daniela K.; Brenet, Marianne; Muñoz, Vanessa C.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Villanueva, Carolina I.; Figueroa, Carlos D.; González, Carlos B.

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •AVP induces mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells cultured in high glucose concentration. •The mTOR phosphorylation is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation. •The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation inhibited autophagy and stimulated cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on mTOR activation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration. AVP induced the mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells grown in high glucose, in contrast to cells cultured in normal glucose; wherein, only basal phosphorylation was observed. The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor. Moreover, the AVP-induced mTOR activation inhibited autophagy and increased thymidine incorporation in cells grown in high glucose. This increase was abolished by rapamycin which inhibits the mTORC1 complex formation. Our results suggest that AVP stimulates mTOR phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and, subsequently, inhibits autophagy and raises cell proliferation in A-10 cells maintained in high glucose concentration.

  18. High isoflavone content and estrogenic activity of 25 year-old Glycine max tissue cultures.

    PubMed

    Federici, Ermanno; Touché, André; Choquart, Sandie; Avanti, Ornella; Fay, Laurent; Offord, Elizabeth; Courtois, Didier

    2003-10-01

    Soy isoflavones are phytoestrogens which have been associated with several health benefits. In the present study, we report the production of isoflavones in a collection of 40 strains of soya cell cultures established in 1975. A large variability in the isoflavone composition was observed and high-producing strains, with an isoflavone content of up to 46.3 mg g(-1) dry wt., were found. In comparison with soybeans, many callus strains had a higher isoflavone concentration (10-40 times) and a different ratio of genistin to daidzin forms. The highest producing strain was transferred to liquid medium in an Erlenmeyer flask and in a 10 l stirred-tank bioreactor where high isoflavone content (7% dry wt.), concentration (880 mg l(-1)) and a maximum productivity estimated to 60 mg l(-1) d(-1) were obtained. We further studied the estrogenic activity of pure compounds compared to plant cell culture extracts in the estrogen-responsive human endometrial Ishikawa cell line. Estrogen was confirmed to be 1000-10,000 times more active than isoflavones. The estrogenic activity of the extracts correlated to their isoflavone content. The activity of the malonyl isoflavones, assessed here for the first time, was lower than the aglycones. Taken together, these results suggest that soya cell cultures can be used as an alternative source to soybeans to provide high concentrations of bioactive isoflavones.

  19. Mitochondrial activity assessed by cytofluorescence after in-vitro-irradiation of primary rat brain cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Cervos-Navarro, J.; Hamdorf, G. )

    1993-05-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in cell homeostasis and are the first cell organells affected by ionizing irradiation, as it was proved by previous electron microscopic investigations. In order to observe functional parameters of mitochondria after low-dose irradiation, primary rat brain cultures (prepared from 15-day-old rat fetuses) were irradiated from a [sup 60]Co-source with 0.5 and 1 Gy at the age of 2 or 7 days in vitro (div). Cytofluorescence measurement was made by a Cytofluor[sup [trademark]2350] using Rhodamine 123. This fluorescent dye is positively charged and accumulates specifically in the mitochondria of living cells without cytotoxic effect. Since its retention depends on the negative membrane potential as well as the proton gradient that exists across the inner mitochondrial membrane, Rhodamine 123 accumulation reflects the status of mitochondrial activity as a whole. After irradiation with 0.5 and 1 Gy on day 2 in culture there was a decrease in Rhodamine uptake in the irradiated cultures during the first week after the irradiation insult which reached minimum values after 3 days. Rhodamine uptake increased during the following period and finally reached the values of the control cultures. In the second experiment with irradiated cultures on day 7 and the same doses of 0.5 and 1 Gy the accumulation of Rhodamine decreased only initially then increased tremendously. After both doses values of Rhodamine-accumulation were higher than the control level. The results demonstrated that irradiation caused a change in mitochondrial activity depending on the time of irradiation. The dramatic increase over the control levels after irradiation on day 7 in vitro is attributed to the fact that at this time synapses have already developed. Deficiency of mitochondrial activity as well as hyperactivity and the consequent change in energy production may lead to changes in neuronal metabolism including an increase in production of free radicals.

  20. Defective Multilayer Carbon Nanotubes Increase Alkaline Phosphatase Activity and Bone-Like Nodules in Osteoblast Cultures.

    PubMed

    Zancanela, Daniela Cervelle; Simaã, Ana Maria Sper; Matsubara, Elaine Yoshiko; Rosolen, José Maurício; Ciancaglini, Pietro

    2016-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) is one of the most studied biomaterials, and issues about its cytotoxicity remain. The objective of our study was to investigate the in vitro influence of defective CNT on culture growth and on the formation of mineralized matrix nodules by primary osteoblastic cells grown in plastic or titanium (Ti) surfaces. Cellular viability, alkaline phosphatase activity and formation of mineral nodules were evaluated, besides the CNT characterization tests. The CNT studies showed better cell viability for osteoblasts incubated at stationary phase of culture in the presence of Ti (about 70%), but for the other phases, the cells suffered a significant reduction in viability. A peak of maximum alkaline phosphatase activity in the intermediate stage of growth (14 days of culture), which is characteristic for osteoblasts, was not affected, regardless of the presence of Ti or combination of CNT and Ti. Mineralized matrix nodules grew much more when the cells were incubated with CNT in the last 2 phases than when incubated in the first week, mainly when the cultures were grown on Ti discs. This study provides information for the application of CNT associated or not with Ti in processes of mineralization biostimulation.

  1. Children's Avoidance of Interrupting Others' Activities in Requesting Help: Cultural Aspects of Considerateness.

    PubMed

    Ruvalcaba, Omar; Rogoff, Barbara; López, Angélica; Correa-Chávez, Maricela; Gutiérrez, Kris

    2015-01-01

    To be able to collaborate skillfully, people need to coordinate well with others, taking into account how their actions fit with those of their partners. This is a key aspect of an approach to learning called Learning by Observing and Pitching In, hypothesized to be common in many Indigenous-heritage communities of the Americas. This chapter considers cultural values that emphasize considerateness and awareness of how one's actions impact others such as the Mexican cultural value of respeto and cultural differences in children's efforts to avoid interrupting others' activity. US Mexican-heritage children showed more evidence of avoiding interrupting the ongoing activity of an adult when they requested help, compared with European American children from families with extensive schooling experience. Most of the Mexican-heritage children's requests for help that gave evidence of avoiding interruption were made nonverbally, which may facilitate unobtrusive requests. There were no significant differences among children from two US Mexican-heritage backgrounds varying in experience with Western schooling and likely experience with Indigenous-American practices, suggesting that the Mexican cultural value of respeto and associated considerateness is widespread even among US Mexican-heritage families with extensive experience with Western schooling and life in the United States.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Human and Rodent Brain Primary Neuronal Culture Spontaneous Activity Using Micro-Electrode Array Technology.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Alessandro; Obeid, Iyad

    2016-03-01

    Electrical activity in embryonic brain tissue has typically been studied using Micro Electrode Array (MEA) technology to make dozens of simultaneous recordings from dissociated neuronal cultures, brain stem cell progenitors, or brain slices from fetal rodents. Although these rodent neuronal primary culture electrical properties are mostly investigated, it has not been yet established to what extent the electrical characteristics of rodent brain neuronal cultures can be generalized to those of humans. A direct comparison of spontaneous spiking activity between rodent and human primary neurons grown under the same in vitro conditions using MEA technology has never been carried out before and will be described in the present study. Human and rodent dissociated fetal brain neuronal cultures were established in-vitro by culturing on a glass grid of 60 planar microelectrodes neurons under identical conditions. Three different cultures of human neurons were produced from tissue sourced from a single aborted fetus (at 16-18 gestational weeks) and these were compared with seven different cultures of embryonic rat neurons (at 18 gestational days) originally isolated from a single rat. The results show that the human and rodent cultures behaved significantly differently. Whereas the rodent cultures demonstrated robust spontaneous activation and network activity after only 10 days, the human cultures required nearly 40 days to achieve a substantially weaker level of electrical function. These results suggest that rat neuron preparations may yield inferences that do not necessarily transfer to humans.

  3. Anti-HIV-1 activity of propolis in CD4(+) lymphocyte and microglial cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Gekker, Genya; Hu, Shuxian; Spivak, Marla; Lokensgard, James R; Peterson, Phillip K

    2005-11-14

    An urgent need for additional agents to treat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection led us to assess the anti-HIV-1 activity of the natural product propolis in CD4(+) lymphocytes and microglial cell cultures. Propolis inhibited viral expression in a concentration-dependent manner (maximal suppression of 85 and 98% was observed at 66.6 microg/ml propolis in CD4(+) and microglial cell cultures, respectively). Similar anti-HIV-1 activity was observed with propolis samples from several geographic regions. The mechanism of propolis antiviral property in CD4(+) lymphocytes appeared to involve, in part, inhibition of viral entry. While propolis had an additive antiviral effect on the reverse transcriptase inhibitor zidovudine, it had no noticeable effect on the protease inhibitor indinavir. The results of this in vitro study support the need for clinical trials of propolis or one or more of its components in the treatment of HIV-1 infection.

  4. Ethanol Affects Network Activity in Cultured Rat Hippocampus: Mediation by Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Korkotian, Eduard; Bombela, Tatyana; Odegova, Tatiana; Zubov, Petr; Segal, Menahem

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ethanol on neuronal network activity were studied in dissociated cultures of rat hippocampus. Exposure to low (0.25–0.5%) ethanol concentrations caused an increase in synchronized network spikes, and a decrease in the duration of individual spikes. Ethanol also caused an increase in rate of miniature spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents. Higher concentrations of ethanol eliminated network spikes. These effects were reversible upon wash. The effects of the high, but not the low ethanol were blocked by the GABA antagonist bicuculline. The enhancing action of low ethanol was blocked by apamin, an SK potassium channel antagonist, and mimicked by 1-EBIO, an SK channel opener. It is proposed that in cultured hippocampal networks low concentration of ethanol is associated with SK channel activity, rather than the GABAergic receptor. PMID:24260098

  5. Effects of culture conditions on monosaccharide composition of Ganoderma lucidum exopolysaccharide and on activities of related enzymes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lin; Qiao, Shuangkui; Xu, Zhenghong; Guan, Feng; Ding, Zhongyang; Gu, Zhenghua; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Guiyang

    2015-11-20

    We investigated the relationship between monosaccharide composition of Ganoderma lucidum exopolysaccharide (EPS) and activities of EPS synthesis enzymes under various culture temperatures and initial pH values. The mole percentages of three major EPS monosaccharides, glucose, galactose and mannose, varied depending on culture conditions and the resulting EPS displayed differing anti-tumor activities. In nine tested enzymes, higher enzyme activities were correlated with higher temperature and lower initial pH. Altered mole percentages of galactose and mannose under various culture conditions were associated with activities of α-phosphoglucomutase (PGM) and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), respectively, and that of mannose was also associated with phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) activity only under various pH. Our findings suggest that mole percentages of G. lucidum EPS monosaccharides can be manipulated by changes of culture conditions that affect enzyme activities, and that novel fermentation strategies based on this approach may enhance production and biological activity of EPS.

  6. Growing evening primroses (Oenothera)

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Stephan; Köhl, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The model plant Oenothera has contributed significantly to the biological sciences and it dominated the early development of plant genetics, cytogenetics, and evolutionary biology. The great advantage of using Oenothera as a model system is a large body of genetic, cytological, morphological, and ecological information collected over more than a century. The Oenothera system offers a well-studied taxonomy, population structure, and ecology. Cytogenetics and formal genetics at the population level are extensively developed, providing an excellent basis to study evolutionary questions. Further, Oenothera is grown as an oil seed crop for the production of essential fatty acids (gamma-linoleic acid) and is considered to be a medicinal plant due to its many pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites, such as ellagitannins. Although Oenothera has been cultivated as a laboratory organism since the end of the 19th century, there is a substantial lack of literature dealing with modern greenhouse techniques for the genus. This review compiles an overview about the growth requirements for the genus Oenothera, with a special focus on its genetically best-studied subsections Oenothera and Munzia. Requirements for greenhouse, field, and agronomic cultures are presented, together with information on substrate types, pest control, as well as vegetative and seed propagation, cross pollination, harvest, and seed storage. Particular aspects like germination, bolting, and flowering induction in taxonomically diverse material are reviewed. Methods recommended are supported by ecological and experimental data. An overview of the possibilities for wide hybridization and polyploidy induction in the genus is given. Germplasm resources are referenced. In summary, a comprehensive guideline for successful laboratory cultivation of Oenothera species is provided. PMID:24592268

  7. Pyrazinamide Is Active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cultures at Neutral pH and Low Temperature.

    PubMed

    den Hertog, Alice L; Menting, Sandra; Pfeltz, Richard; Warns, Matthew; Siddiqi, Salman H; Anthony, Richard M

    2016-08-01

    For the past decades, an acidic pH has been used to render Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptible to pyrazinamide for in vitro testing. Here, we show that at the standard breakpoint concentration and reduced culture temperatures, pyrazinamide (PZA) is active against tuberculosis (TB) at neutral pH. This finding should help unravel the mechanism of action of PZA and allow drug susceptibility testing (DST) methods to be optimized.

  8. Chronic exposure to alcohol alters network activity and morphology of cultured hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Korkotian, Eduard; Botalova, Alena; Odegova, Tatiana; Segal, Menahem

    2015-03-01

    The effects of chronic exposure to moderate concentrations of ethanol were studied in cultured hippocampal neurons. Network activity, assessed by imaging of [Ca(2+)]i variations, was markedly suppressed following 5 days of exposure to 0.25-1% ethanol. The reduced activity was sustained following extensive washout of ethanol, but the activity recovered by blockade of inhibition with bicuculline. This reduction of network activity was associated with a reduction in rates of mEPSCs, but not in a change in inhibitory synaptic activity. Chronic exposure to ethanol caused a significant reduction in the density of mature dendritic spines, without an effect on dendritic length or arborization. These results indicate that chronic exposure to ethanol causes a reduction in excitatory network drive in hippocampal neurons adding another dimension to the chronic effects of alcohol abuse.

  9. Association of tissue factor activity with the surface of cultured cells.

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, J R; Heckman, C A; Pitlick, F A; Nemerson, Y

    1975-01-01

    Tissue factor occurs in a dormant state on the surface of cultured normal human fibroblasts and WISH 1 amnion cells. The activity of undisturbed monolayers or cells lifted with brief trypsin treatment (0.125 per cent trypsin for 1 min) increases up to 60-fold upon prolonged digestion with dilute trypsin (0.0025 per cent trypsin for 30 min); activity appears subsequent to cell detachment. Up to 70 per cent of the total cellular tissue factor becomes active under these conditions and is released from the cells. The ruthenium red staining coat of the cells is lost during detachment, but cell viability (more than 90 per cent exclude trypan blue) and cell morphology do not change during the subsequent development of tissue factor activity. Furthermore, less than 10 percent of four intracellular enzymes and less than 20 per cent of two plasma membrane enzymes are released during this period of time. We therefore conclude that cells in culture do have tissue factor activity, that it exists in a latent form, and that total cell disruption is not necessary for this activity to initiate blood coagulation. Images PMID:47334

  10. Growing Old in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglind, Hans

    This document contains the bases of lectures delivered in Florida by a visiting Stockholm University sociology professor. The first chapter, "Growing Old in Sweden," includes information on the income, standard of living, and quality of services available to the elderly in that country. That information is presented within the changing…

  11. Growing into Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvy, Harvey; Robbins, Pam

    2005-01-01

    New school principals have the necessity to lead at the very time they are learning the ropes of their new jobs. Some essential themes are identified that can guide new principals into growing in their new leadership roles, which are presented and discussed.

  12. Growing through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Barbara J.

    "Growing through Literature" is a curriculum using Joan M. and Erik H. Erikson's theory of the Life Cycle as a structure for selecting and teaching literature to inner-city high school students at Brighton High School in Massachusetts. The program consists of four component parts: Journals, Selected Stories, Discussion, and…

  13. Growing Up with "1984."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franza, August

    1983-01-01

    Relates changing student reaction to George Orwell's "1984" over 20 years of teaching. Finds present high school students' acceptance of Orwell's bleak world vision both a sign of student honesty and a frightening indication of the growing reality of the book. (MM)

  14. Families on the Grow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Irene K.; Phillips, Marjorie M.

    This correspondence course was designed to help parents better understand their growing children and themselves as parents. The introduction briefly sketches the importance of the family in child development. Each of the five illustrated lessons contains 7 to 12 pages on one aspect of family life. Each lesson contains a set of objectives, a…

  15. Growing Vegetables. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes farm operations and some activities in the lives of six vegetable farmers throughout the United States. The booklet visits the tomato growing of Carl Schneider and his partners and the lettuce growing farm of Norman Martella, both in California. It then includes brief accounts of…

  16. Improving Cross-Cultural Training and Measurement of Cross-Cultural Learning. Volume I of the Report of Supplemental Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Research and Education, Denver, CO.

    An in-depth study of the process of adaption among Peace Corps volunteers in Brazil and cross-cultural training methodology is presented in this volume, the first of two reports resulting from the project. Since ultimate aims of cross-cultural learning tend to be described in abstract terms, the fundamental issue had to do with specifying and…

  17. Physicochemical characteristics and biological activities of polysaccharide fractions from Phellinus baumii cultured with different methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingting; Yang, Yan; Liu, Yanfang; Zhou, Shuai; Yan, Meng Qiu; Wu, Di; Zhang, Jingsong; Tang, Chuanhong

    2015-11-01

    Nine polysaccharide fractions were obtained from the fruiting bodies, submerged mycelia, and solid state fermented products of Phellinus baumii using different concentrations of ethanol precipitation. The chemical characteristics and in vitro immunological activities of the nine polysaccharide fractions were compared and studied. Results indicated that the fractions precipitated with 50% ethanol had higher yields of polysaccharides and submerged mycelia contributed to high extraction yields of polysaccharides and possessed higher polysaccharide contents. HPSEC-MALLS-RI analysis showed that the molecular weight (Mw) of polysaccharide fractions from these three materials decreased with the increasing of precipitated ethanol concentration. The Mw of fruiting body polysaccharide fractions ranged from 1.98×10(4)Da to 1.89×10(6)Da. Large-molecular-weight polysaccharides (from 2.11×10(6)Da to 2.01×10(7)Da) were found in submerged mycelia. Some lower-molecular-weight polysaccharide components were found in solid fermented products. Different culture methods contributed to significant differences in monosaccharide components and molar ratios. The 50% ethanol precipitated fractions exhibited more complexity on monosaccharide compositions comparing with fractions precipitated with 30% and 70% ethanol. Polysaccharide fractions derived from submerged mycelia exhibited higher macrophages stimulation activities. Submerged culture was found to be a suitable method to prepare active polysaccharides because of its short culture span and reasonable cost.

  18. Influence of combined pollution of antimony and arsenic on culturable soil microbial populations and enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiongshan; He, Mengchang; Wang, Ying

    2011-01-01

    The effects of both combined and single pollution of antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) in different concentrations on culturable soil microbial populations and enzyme activities were studied under laboratory conditions. Joint effects of both Sb and As were different from that of Sb or As alone. The inhibition rate of culturable soil microbial populations under Sb and As pollution followed the order: bacterial > fungi > actinomycetes. There existed antagonistic inhibiting effect on urease and acid phophatase and synergistic inhibiting effect on protease under the combined pollution of Sb (III) and As (III). Only urease appeared to be the most sensitive indicator under Sb (V) and As (V) pollution, and there existed antagonistic inhibiting effect on acid phophatase and synergistic inhibiting effect on urease and protease under Sb (V) and As (V) combined pollution at most time. In this study, we also confirmed that the trivalent states of Sb and As were more toxic to all the microbes tested and more inhibitory on microbial enzyme activities then their pentavalent counterparts. The results also suggest that not only the application rate of the two metalloids but also the chemical form of metalloids should be considered while assessing the effect of metalloid on culturable microbial populations and enzyme activities. Urease and acid phosphatase can be used as potential biomarkers to evaluate the intensity of Sb (III) and As (III) stress.

  19. Dual effects of microwaves on single Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels in cultured kidney cells Vero.

    PubMed

    Geletyuk, V I; Kazachenko, V N; Chemeris, N K; Fesenko, E E

    1995-02-06

    Using the patch voltage-clamp method, possible effects of millimetre microwaves (42.25 GHz) on single Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels in cultured kidney cells (Vero) were investigated. It was found that exposure to the field of non-thermal power (about 100 microW/cm2) for 20-30 min greatly modifies both the Hill coefficient and an apparent affinity of the channels for Ca2+(i). The data suggest that the field alters both cooperativity and binding characteristics of the channel activation by internal Ca2+. The effects depend on initial sensitivity of the channels to Ca2+ and the Ca2+ concentration applied.

  20. Large sample neutron activation analysis: a challenge in cultural heritage studies.

    PubMed

    Stamatelatos, Ion E; Tzika, Faidra

    2007-07-01

    Large sample neutron activation analysis compliments and significantly extends the analytical tools available for cultural heritage and authentication studies providing unique applications of non-destructive, multi-element analysis of materials that are too precious to damage for sampling purposes, representative sampling of heterogeneous materials or even analysis of whole objects. In this work, correction factors for neutron self-shielding, gamma-ray attenuation and volume distribution of the activity in large volume samples composed of iron and ceramic material were derived. Moreover, the effect of inhomogeneity on the accuracy of the technique was examined.

  1. Alternatively Activated (M2) Macrophage Phenotype Is Inducible by Endothelin-1 in Cultured Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Soldano, Stefano; Pizzorni, Carmen; Paolino, Sabrina; Trombetta, Amelia Chiara; Montagna, Paola; Brizzolara, Renata; Ruaro, Barbara; Sulli, Alberto; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background Alternatively activated (M2) macrophages are phenotypically characterized by the expression of specific markers, mainly macrophage scavenger receptors (CD204 and CD163) and mannose receptor-1 (CD206), and participate in the fibrotic process by over-producing pro-fibrotic molecules, such as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFbeta1) and metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is implicated in the fibrotic process, exerting its pro-fibrotic effects through the interaction with its receptors (ETA and ETB). The study investigated the possible role of ET-1 in inducing the transition from cultured human macrophages into M2 cells. Methods Cultured human monocytes (THP-1 cell line) were activated into macrophages (M0 macrophages) with phorbol myristate acetate and subsequently maintained in growth medium (M0-controls) or treated with either ET-1 (100nM) or interleukin-4 (IL-4, 10ng/mL, M2 inducer) for 72 hours. Similarly, primary cultures of human peripheral blood monocyte (PBM)-derived macrophages obtained from healthy subjects, were maintained in growth medium (untreated cells) or treated with ET-1 or IL-4 for 6 days. Both M0 and PBM-derived macrophages were pre-treated with ET receptor antagonist (ETA/BRA, bosentan 10-5M) for 1 hour before ET-1 stimulation. Protein and gene expression of CD204, CD206, CD163, TGFbeta1 were analysed by immunocytochemistry, Western blotting and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Gene expression of interleukin(IL)-10 and macrophage derived chemokine (CCL-22) was evaluated by qRT-PCR. MMP-9 production was investigated by gel zymography. Results ET-1 significantly increased the expression of M2 phenotype markers CD204, CD206, CD163, IL-10 and CCL-22, and the production of MMP-9 in both cultures of M0 and PBM-derived macrophages compared to M0-controls and untreated cells. In cultured PBM-derived macrophages, ET-1 increased TGFbeta1 protein and gene expression compared to untreated cells. The ET-1

  2. Effects of model inducers on thyroxine UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase activity in vitro in rat and mouse hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Viollon-Abadie, C; Bigot-Lasserre, D; Nicod, L; Carmichael, N; Richert, L

    2000-12-01

    Thyroxine (T(4))-UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activity was measured directly in cultured male Sprague-Dawley rat and OF-1 mouse hepatocyte monolayers. The activity of T(4)-UGT (pmol/min/g liver) in vitro in hepatocyte cultures was, after 24 hr in culture, equivalent to that previously measured in vivo in rat and mouse liver microsomes (Viollon-Abadie et al., 1999). A progressive decline in T(4)-UGT activity occurred over time in both rat and mouse hepatocyte cultures. Treatment of cultures with various model inducers such as phenobarbital (PB), beta-naphthoflavone (NF) and clofibric acid (CLO) induced a strong increase in T(4)-UGT activity in rat hepatocyte monolayers. In addition, and as expected from available in vivo data, treatment of rat hepatocyte cultures with NF also increased p-nitrophenol (PNP)-UGT activity and treatment with PB or CLO increased bilirubin (Bili)-UGT activity. In contrast, T(4)-UGT activity in mouse hepatocyte monolayers was not affected by the treatments, neither were PNP- and Bili- UGT activities. These in vitro data confirm our previous in vivo observations that these inducers increase rat but not mouse liver T(4)-UGT activities (Viollon-Abadie et al., 1999). The present study thus demonstrates that hepatocyte monolayers are appropriated for the evaluation and inter-species comparison of the effects of xenobiotics on T(4)-UGT activities.

  3. Impact of active soil carbonate and burn size on the capacity of the rockrose Cistus laurifolius to produce Tuber melanosporum carpophores in truffle culture.

    PubMed

    García-Montero, Luis G; Casermeiro, Miguel A; Manjón, José L; Hernando, Isabel

    2007-06-01

    There are very few studies on Tuber melanosporum associated with Cistus populations. In central Spain, we confirm that C. laurifolius shows carpophore production of Tuber melanosporum. This study demonstrates a correlation between T. melanosporum production and the size of the 41 burns, with burn size explaining 26% of the variability in carpophore production. However, statistical analysis of the results indicates that average production of 21 burns with Cistus laurifolius is 73% lower than the production of 20 burns associated with Quercus/Corylus without Cistus laurifolius in this zone, respectively. C. laurifolius develops small burns, which has an impact on their carpophore production, and their soils have 92% less active carbonate than the burns associated with Quercus/Corylus in this zone, respectively. The low levels of active carbonate allow Cistus laurifolius to grow, but impair Tuber melanosporum production. We thus provide a mechanism, based on the inability of Cistus laurifolius to grow in highly carbonated soils, which contradicts the well-known fact that C. laurifolius might act as a transmitter of Tuber melanosporum mycorrhizae. These results indicate that this rockrose can not be considered a useful species for truffle culture. We thus recommend that particular attention should be given to the concentration of active carbonate present in the soil in future studies on the relationship between Cistus species and truffles.

  4. Tissue plasminogen activator inhibits NMDA-receptor-mediated increases in calcium levels in cultured hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Samuel D.; Lee, Tet Woo; Christie, David L.; Birch, Nigel P.

    2015-01-01

    NMDA receptors (NMDARs) play a critical role in neurotransmission, acting as essential mediators of many forms of synaptic plasticity, and also modulating aspects of development, synaptic transmission and cell death. NMDAR-induced responses are dependent on a range of factors including subunit composition and receptor location. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease that has been reported to interact with NMDARs and modulate NMDAR activity. In this study we report that tPA inhibits NMDAR-mediated changes in intracellular calcium levels in cultures of primary hippocampal neurons stimulated by low (5 μM) but not high (50 μM) concentrations of NMDA. tPA also inhibited changes in calcium levels stimulated by presynaptic release of glutamate following treatment with bicucculine/4-aminopyridine (4-AP). Inhibition was dependent on the proteolytic activity of tPA but was unaffected by α2-antiplasmin, an inhibitor of the tPA substrate plasmin, and receptor-associated protein (RAP), a pan-ligand blocker of the low-density lipoprotein receptor, two proteins previously reported to modulate NMDAR activity. These findings suggest that tPA can modulate changes in intracellular calcium levels in a subset of NMDARs expressed in cultured embryonic hippocampal neurons through a mechanism that involves the proteolytic activity of tPA and synaptic NMDARs. PMID:26500501

  5. Acid phosphatase activity: a marker of androgen action in prostate explant cultures.

    PubMed

    Shao, T C; Kong, A Y; Cunningham, G R

    1987-01-01

    Acid phosphatase activity in rat ventral prostate explants has been assayed to determine if this parameter could serve as a specific and quantitative marker of androgen action in this in vitro model. Dihydrotestosterone (10 nM) caused an absolute increase in both total (42.5 +/- 2.9 vs control 27.1 +/- 4.0 nmoles p-nitrophenol generated in 30 min/micrograms DNA, P less than .01) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity (34.1 +/- 1.5 vs control 17.2 +/- 2.8 U/micrograms DNA, P less than .05), and this effect was maximal on the 4th day of culture. This was the time when explant weight and DNA content tended to fall or only to be maintained by androgen. Similar changes were observed with the potent synthetic androgen, mibolerone. The addition of either the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate or flutamide in a 100-fold excess to that of androgen caused significant inhibition in acid phosphatase activity. No significant change was observed at low concentrations of estradiol or progesterone, and only minimal and inconsistent increases in activity were noted at high concentrations. No increase was noted when cortisol, cyproterone acetate, or flutamide was added to the media. We conclude that measurement of acid phosphatase activity in cultured explants of rat ventral prostate provides a biochemical marker of androgenicity that is more specific than measurement of [3H]-thymidine incorporation.

  6. Macrophage-mediated osteogenesis activation in co-culture with osteoblast on calcium silicate cement.

    PubMed

    Tu, Ming-Gene; Chen, Yi-Wen; Shie, Ming-You

    2015-12-01

    The use of calcium silicate (CS) cement holds great promise for bone substitute biomaterials. However, the effects of CS on osteoblast and macrophage cells are not fully understood. This study examines cell proliferation and differentiation of mono- or co-cultured MC3T3-E1 and Raw 264.7 cells on CS cement. Very few studies to date have looked at the effects of osteoblast and macrophages on biomaterial-regulated osteogenesis. In this study the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1, Raw 264.7 and co-cultured MC3T3-E1/Raw 264.7 on CS cements have been analyzed using a PrestoBlue kit and ELISA. In addition, the effect of macrophages on CS-coordinated osteogenesis of MC3T3-E1 has been investigated. Results show that MC3T3-E1, Raw 264.7 and co-cultured MC3T3-E1/Raw 264.7 adhere to and proliferate well on the CS cement. In a co-culture, the CS cements inhibit receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand expression of both genes and proteins in Raw 264.7 cells when compared to those grown in mono-cultured system. Ca deposition of MC3T3-E1 in the co-culture is higher than that of cells in a mono-culture. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) is also significantly up-regulated by the CS cement stimulation, indicating that macrophages may participate in the CS stimulated osteogenesis. Interestingly, when macrophage are cultured with BMP2 receptor-blocking MC3T3-E1 on the CS cements, the osteogenesis differentiation of the cells is significantly inhibited, indicating the important role of macrophages in biomaterial-induced osteogenesis via BMP2 receptors. It is assumed that it is an increase in the secretion of the BMP2 from the Raw 264.7 cell that is primarily involved in the promotion of the osteogenesis of the MC3T3-E1. These results provide valuable insights into both the mechanism of CS-stimulated osteogenesis, and strategies to optimize the evaluation system for the in vitro osteogenesis capacity of bone substitute biomaterials.

  7. Effect of CO sub 2 enrichment and high photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) on rubisco and PEP-case activities of in vitro cultured strawberry plants

    SciTech Connect

    Desjardins, Y.; Beeson, R.; Gosselin, A. )

    1989-04-01

    Standard growing conditions in vitro (low light and CO{sub 2}) are not conducive to autotrophy. An experiment was conducted to improve photosynthesis in vitro in the hope of increasing survival in acclimatization. A factorial experiment was elaborated where CO{sub 2} and PPFD were supplied to in vitro cultured strawberry plants in the rooting stage. Activities of carboxylating enzymes were determined after 4 weeks of culture. The activities of non-activated and activated rubisco and PEP-Case were measured after extraction of the enzymes and a reaction with NaH{sup 14}CO{sub 3} followed by scintillation counting spectroscopy. High CO{sub 2} concentration significantly increased net assimilation rates (NAR) by 165% over the control for both 1650 and 3000 ppm CO{sub 2}. High PPFD only increased NAR by 12 and 35% for 150 and 250 {mu}mol{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} respectively over the control. Plants grown at 3000 ppm CO{sub 2} had the highest level of chlorophyll/g FW with 97% more than the control. The activity of PEP-Case was the highest at high light levels and high CO{sub 2} with rates of 1.65 for 1650 ppm versus 1.22 mmol CO{sub 2} mg{sup {minus}1} chl. h{sup {minus}1} at 250 {mu}mol{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1}. There was no difference in PEP activity at low light levels. The rubisco activity was lower at 1650 and 3000 ppm CO{sub 2}. Increases in NAR correlate more closely to the PEP-Case than to Rubisco activity. Physiological significance of high activity of PEP-Case over rubisco will be discussed.

  8. Activity Changes Induced by Spatio-Temporally Correlated Stimuli in Cultured Cortical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Yuzo; Moriguchi, Hiroyuki; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    Activity-dependent plasticity probably plays a key role in learning and memory in biological information processing systems. Though long-term potentiation and depression have been extensively studied in the filed of neuroscience, little is known on the mechanisms for integrating these modifications on network-wide activity changes. In this report, we studied effects of spatio-temporally correlated stimuli on the neuronal network activity. Rat cortical neurons were cultured on substrates with 64 embedded micro-electrodes and the evoked responses were extracellularly recorded and analyzed. We compared spatio-temporal patterns of the responses between before and after repetitive application of correlated stimuli. After the correlated stimuli, the networks showed significantly different responses from those in the initial states. The modified activity reflected structures of the repeatedly applied correlated stimuli. The results suggested that spatiotemporally correlated inputs systematically induced modification of synaptic strengths in neuronal networks, which could serve as an underlying mechanism of associative memory.

  9. Regulation of thyroid peroxidase activity by thyrotropin, epidermal growth factor and phorbol ester in porcine thyroid follicles cultured in suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Kasai, Kikuo; Hiraiwa, Masaki; Emoto, Tatsushi; Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Shimoda, Shin-Ichi ); Ohmori, Takeshi; Koizumi, Narumi; Hosoya, Toichiro )

    1989-01-01

    The activity of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in porcine follicles cultured for 96 h in suspension with five hormones (5H) still attained over 50% of that in the freshly isolated follicles. On the other hand, the activity in those cultured with 5H + TSH (6H) was several times higher than that cultured with 5H after 96 h, although an initial decrease of TPO activity during the first 24 h of culture was observed in both conditions. The ability of follicles to metabolize iodide when cultured with 6H for 96 h was also several times higher than that of those cultured with 5H. The half-maximal dose of TSH for stimulation of TPO activity and iodide metabolism was 0.03 - 0.04 mU/ml and the effect was mediated by cAMP. These results indicate that in porcine thyroid follicles in primary suspension culture, TPO activity as well as the ability of iodide metabolism is induced by chronic TSH stimulation. In addition, epidermal growth factor and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate completely inhibited TSH stimulation on both activities and also basal (5H) activity of iodide metabolism.

  10. Jasmonic and salicylic acids enhanced phytochemical production and biological activities in cell suspension cultures of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb).

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Thiruvengadam, Muthu

    2017-03-01

    In vitro cell suspension culture was established for the production of commercially valuable phytochemicals in Momordica dioica. The influence of elicitors in jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) increased their effect on phytochemical production and biomass accumulation in M. dioica. The results indicate that compared with non-elicited cultures, JA- and SA-elicited cell suspension cultures had significantly enhanced phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid production, as well as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities. Furthermore, elicited cultures produced 22 phenolic compounds, such as flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids, and hydroxybenzoic acids. Greater biomass production, phytochemical accumulation, and biological activity occurred in JA- than in SA-elicited cell cultures. This study is the first to successfully establish M. dioica cell suspension cultures for the production of phenolic compounds and carotenoids, as well as for biomass accumulation.

  11. Macromolecular crystal growing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S. (Inventor); Herren, Blair J. (Inventor); Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Yost, Vaughn H. (Inventor); Bugg, Charles E. (Inventor); Delucas, Lawrence J. (Inventor); Suddath, Fred L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A macromolecular crystal growing system especially designed for growing crystals in the low gravity of space as well as the gravity of earth includes at least one tray assembly, a carrier assembly which receives the tray, and a refrigeration-incubation module in which the carrier assembly is received. The tray assembly includes a plurality of sealed chambers with a plastic syringe and a plug means for the double tip of the syringe provided therein. Ganging mechanisms operate the syringes and plugs simultaneously in a precise and smooth operation. Preferably, the tray assemblies are mounted on ball bearing slides for smooth operation in inserting and removing the tray assemblies into the carrier assembly. The plugging mechanism also includes a loading control mechanism. A mechanism for leaving a syringe unplugged is also provided.

  12. Growing up with Retinoblastoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Tom

    2005-01-01

    An account is given of growing up as a child blinded as a result of a cancer of the eye known as retinoblastoma. The role of his mother is brought out, variously as a source of objective knowledge, of one's personal worth, and of the worth of other people in one's community. The strengths and weaknesses of his first school in his home area and…

  13. Effects of nitrendipine on growth activity in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Absher, M P; Baldor, L; Warshaw, D M

    1988-01-01

    Proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the arterial wall may play a role in the development of atherosclerosis and hypertension. If cell migration and proliferation are dependent on extracellular calcium, then treatment with calcium channel blockers such as nitrendipine may alter these cellular responses. In the studies reported here, proliferation and migration activities were assessed in cultured bovine carotid artery smooth muscle cells exposed to nitrendipine. SMCs in long-term culture are characterized by periods of either stable or enhanced proliferative activity. During the stable periods, 1 microM nitrendipine has no effect on proliferation, but during periods of enhanced proliferation, 1 microM nitrendipine augments growth by approximately 20%. SMC migration rates and interdivision times were determined from analysis of time-lapse cinematography films. During stable periods of growth, cell migration rate was inversely related to interdivision time (i.e., fast migrating cells had the shortest interdivision times). Treatment with 1 microM nitrendipine abolished the relationship between migration rate and interdivision time and prolonged interdivision times. These data suggest that the ability of nitrendipine to alter SMC proliferation, interdivision time, and migration is dependent upon the overall proliferative state of the culture.

  14. Indigenous teachers' experiences of the implementation of culture-based mathematics activities in Sámi school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutti, Ylva Jannok

    2013-03-01

    The goal of Indigenous education is that it should be approached on the basis of the Indigenous language and culture; this is also the case with Sámi education. The Sámi School Board has stated that all teaching in Sámi schools should be culturally based, despite the fact that Sámi culture-based teaching is not specifically defined. Therefore, teachers themselves must adapt the teaching and as a result, usually no Sámi culture-based mathematics teaching takes place. The aim of this article is to discuss Indigenous teachers' experiences with designing and implementing culture-based mathematics activities in Sámi preschool and primary school. The teachers' work with culture-based mathematics activities took the form of Sámi cultural thematic work with ethnomathematical content, Multicultural school mathematics with Sámi cultural elements, and Sámi intercultural mathematics teaching. Culture-based mathematics activities took place within an action research study in the Swedish part of Sápmi. Sápmi comprises northern Norway, Sweden, and Finland, as well as the Kola Peninsula in Russia. In the action research study, six teachers conducted culture-based mathematics activities in preschool and primary school on the basis of the action research loop "plan-act-observe-reflect." During the study the teachers changed from a problem-focused perspective to a possibility-focused culture-based teaching perspective characterised by a self-empowered Indigenous teacher role, as a result of which they started to act as agents for Indigenous school change. The concept of "decolonisation" was visible in the teachers' narratives. The teachers' newly developed knowledge about the ethnomathematical research field seemed to enhance their work with Indigenous culture-based mathematics teaching.

  15. A method for determining beta-galactosidase activity of yogurt cultures in skim milk.

    PubMed

    Lin, W J; Savaiano, D A; Harlander, S K

    1989-02-01

    A method was developed for determining the specific activity of bacterial beta-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) during growth of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus in skim milk. Individual and mixed strain cultures of S. thermophilus (St 3642, St14485) and L. bulgaricus (Lb11842, Lb880) were examined for growth (OD at 600 nm and viable cell counts), acid production, and beta-galactosidase activity (expressed as a function of recoverable TCA-precipitable cellular protein). Cultures were inoculated into 10% skim milk (2% inoculum) and incubated at 40 degrees C for 12 h. Aliquots were removed at 2-h intervals and diluted with ice cold EDTA, pH 12. The EDTA chelates calcium and solubilizes milk protein, allowing separation of the bacteria by centrifugation. Cells were then washed twice with 20 mM phosphate buffer and disrupted by sonication. Cell debris and intact cells were removed by centrifugation and the cell-free extract evaluated for beta-galactosidase activity using o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside as substrate. Specific activities ranged from 0 to 6 units/mg protein. This simple and reproducible method is applicable for enzyme assays and measurement of cellular components where contamination by milk proteins is a potential problem.

  16. EGFR-AKT-mTOR activation mediates epiregulin-induced pleiotropic functions in cultured osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jian-Bo; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Xin-Hui; Yuan, Kun; Xu, Da-Wei; Chen, Jia-Jia; Cui, Zhi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) emerges as an essential molecule for the regulating of osteoblast cellular functions. In the current study, we explored the effect of epiregulin, a new EGFR ligand, on osteoblast functions in vitro, and studied the underlying mechanisms. We found that epiregulin-induced EGFR activation in both primary osteoblasts and osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. Meanwhile, epiregulin activated AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Erk-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalings in cultured osteoblasts, which were blocked by EGFR inhibitor AG1478 or monoclonal antibody against EGFR (anti-EGFR). Further, in primary and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, epiregulin promoted cell proliferation and increased alkaline phosphatase activity, while inhibiting dexamethasone (Dex)-induced cell death. Such effects by epiregulin were largely inhibited by AG1478 or anti-EGFR. Notably, AKT-mTOR inhibitors, but not Erk inhibitors, alleviated epiregulin-induced above pleiotropic functions in osteoblasts. Meanwhile, siRNA depletion of Sin1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), also suppressed epiregulin-exerted effects in MC3T3-E1 cells. Together, these results suggest that epiregulin-induced pleiotropic functions in cultured osteoblasts are mediated through EGFR-AKT-mTOR signalings.

  17. Neuroprotective effects of active ingredients isolated from Pegasus laternarius on cultured cerebral neurons.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengtao; Chen, Minhui; Huang, Hai; Tao, Wucheng; Cui, Jihong; Xiang, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Seamoth (Pegasus laternarius Cuvier) is extensively used to treat various diseases on the coastland of Guangdong Province in China, such as scrofula, cough, and diarrhea. The total extract of Pegasus laternarius (EP) was subjected to column chromatography to acquire three different constituents (EPC1, EPC2, and EPC3). Cerebral neuron injury was induced by glutamate, H₂O₂, and serum deprivation. After treating with or without different extracts, cell viability was assessed with the MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, and cell apoptosis was analyzed with Hoechst 33258 staining and agarose gel electrophoresis. We also determined the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), maleic dialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). The results showed that both EP and EPC2 promoted the outgrowth of cultural neurons, increased antioxidant enzyme activity, and protected neurons from neuronal injury or apoptosis induced by glutamate, H₂O₂, and serum deprivation. EPC1 and EPC3 had little or no effect on neurons. These results suggest that the active ingredients obtained from Pegasus laternarius have potential neuroprotective effects on injured neurons by promoting the outgrowth of cultured neurons, increasing the activity of intracellular antioxidants, and exerting antiapoptotic effects. This neuroprotection may be attributable to specific active ingredients, such as taurine, novel ceramide, and cholesterol.

  18. Antifatigue Activity of Liquid Cultured Tricholoma matsutake Mycelium Partially via Regulation of Antioxidant Pathway in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Li, Quan; Wang, Yanzhen; Cai, Guangsheng; Kong, Fange; Wang, Xiaohan; Liu, Yang; Yang, Chuanbin; Wang, Di; Teng, Lirong

    2015-01-01

    Tricholoma matsutake has been popular as food and biopharmaceutical materials in Asian countries for its various pharmacological activities. The present study aims to analyze the antifatigue effects on enhancing exercise performance of Tricholoma matsutake fruit body (ABM) and liquid cultured mycelia (TM) in mouse model. Two-week Tricholoma matsutake treatment significantly enhances the exercise performance in weight-loaded swimming, rotating rod, and forced running test. In TM- and ABM-treated mice, some factors were observed at 60 min after swimming compared with nontreated mice, such as the increased levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), antioxidative enzymes, and glycogen and the reduced levels of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species in muscle, liver, and/or serum. Further data obtained from western blot show that CM and ABM have strongly enhanced the activation of 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and the expressions of peroxisome proliferator have activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1) in liver. Our data suggest that both Tricholoma matsutake fruit body and liquid cultured mycelia possess antifatigue effects related to AMPK-linked antioxidative pathway. The information uncovered in our study may serve as a valuable resource for further identification and provide experimental evidence for clinical trials of Tricholoma matsutake as an effective agent against fatigue related diseases. PMID:26697489

  19. Interleukin 1 stimulates platelet-activating factor production in cultured human endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bussolino, F; Breviario, F; Tetta, C; Aglietta, M; Mantovani, A; Dejana, E

    1986-01-01

    Monocyte-derived interleukin 1 (IL-1) was found to be a potent inducer of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in cultured human vascular endothelial cells (HEC). The product was identified as PAF by its behavior in chromatographic systems, its recovery of biological activity, and its physico-chemical properties and susceptibility to lipases. The response of HEC to IL-1 was concentration-dependent, took more than 2 h to become apparent, and decreased after 18 h of incubation. Most of the PAF produced was cell-associated and only a small amount (about 25% of the total) was released in the culture medium. To study the mechanism of IL-1-induced HEC-PAF production we tested the activity of 1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine:acetyl/coenzyme A acetyltransferase in HEC. Acetyltransferase activity measured in IL-1-stimulated HEC lysates showed a three to five times greater maximum velocity, but the same Michaelis constant, as untreated cells. The regulation of PAF generation in HEC by IL-1 may be an important aspect of the two-way interaction between immunocompetent cells and vascular tissue. PMID:2872233

  20. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activities and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Property from Mycelium Culture Extracts.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki Moon; Kwon, Kyung Min; Lee, Seung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Since mushrooms have many bioactive components, they have been used as components in folk medicine. Because mycelium has an advantage when it comes to large-scale production, this study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties and anti-tyrosinase activity from 55 mycelia in culture media. Relatively high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity was detected from the ethanol extract of culture media including mycelium (EECiM) of Morchella esculenta var. esculenta (MEVE), Auricularia polytricha (APO), Tremella aurantia (TAU), Volvariella bombycina (VBO), and Oudemansiella sp. (Osp), which also showed strong reducing power and inhibitory activity in relation to the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value. On the other hand, relatively high tyrosinase inhibitory activity was detected in Inonotus mikadoi (IMI), Coriolus versicolor (CVE), Volvariella volvacea (VVO), Panellus serotinus (PSE), Auricularia auricula (AAU), and Fomitopsis sp. (Fsp). Interestingly, the APO EECiM exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging rate (77.5 ± 4.3%) and reducing power (1.18 ± 0.041), while the highest inhibitory power of the TBA value and antityrosinase activity were detected in that of TAU (64.5 ± 4.1%) and IMI (46.0 ± 7.5%), respectively. Overall, our study suggested potential candidates for EECiMs that exhibited powerful antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory properties and might be used as natural antioxidant tyrosinase inhibitor.

  1. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activities and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Property from Mycelium Culture Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki Moon; Kwon, Kyung Min; Lee, Seung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Since mushrooms have many bioactive components, they have been used as components in folk medicine. Because mycelium has an advantage when it comes to large-scale production, this study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties and anti-tyrosinase activity from 55 mycelia in culture media. Relatively high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity was detected from the ethanol extract of culture media including mycelium (EECiM) of Morchella esculenta var. esculenta (MEVE), Auricularia polytricha (APO), Tremella aurantia (TAU), Volvariella bombycina (VBO), and Oudemansiella sp. (Osp), which also showed strong reducing power and inhibitory activity in relation to the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value. On the other hand, relatively high tyrosinase inhibitory activity was detected in Inonotus mikadoi (IMI), Coriolus versicolor (CVE), Volvariella volvacea (VVO), Panellus serotinus (PSE), Auricularia auricula (AAU), and Fomitopsis sp. (Fsp). Interestingly, the APO EECiM exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging rate (77.5 ± 4.3%) and reducing power (1.18 ± 0.041), while the highest inhibitory power of the TBA value and antityrosinase activity were detected in that of TAU (64.5 ± 4.1%) and IMI (46.0 ± 7.5%), respectively. Overall, our study suggested potential candidates for EECiMs that exhibited powerful antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory properties and might be used as natural antioxidant tyrosinase inhibitor. PMID:26345142

  2. Phospholipase B activity and organophosphorus compound toxicity in cultured neural cells

    SciTech Connect

    Read, David J.; Langford, Lynda; Barbour, Helen R.; Forshaw, Philip J.; Glynn, Paul . E-mail: pg8@le.ac.uk

    2007-03-15

    Organophosphorus compounds (OP) such as phenyl saligenin phosphate (PSP) and mipafox (MPX) which cause delayed neuropathy, inhibit neuropathy target esterase (NTE), while OPs such as paraoxon (PXN) react more readily with acetylcholinesterase. In yeast and mammalian cell lines, NTE has been shown to have phospholipase B (PLB) activity which deacylates intracellular phosphatidylcholine to glycerophosphocholine (GroPCho) and can be detected by metabolic labeling with [{sup 14}C]choline. Here we investigated PLB activity in primary cultures of mouse neural cells. In cortical and cerebellar granule neurons and astrocytes, [{sup 14}C]GroPCho labeling was inhibited by PSP and MPX: phenyl dipentylphosphinate (PDPP), a non-neuropathic NTE inhibitor, was more potent, while PXN, was substantially less so. In all three cell types, conversion of [{sup 14}C]phosphatidylcholine to [{sup 14}C]GroPCho over 24 h was relatively small (2.3-14%). Consequently, even with > 80% inhibition of [{sup 14}C]GroPCho production, increased [{sup 14}C]phosphatidylcholine was not detected. At concentrations of 1-10 {mu}M, only PSP was cytotoxic to cortical and cerebellar granule neurons after 24-h exposure. Moreover, dramatic changes in glial cell morphology were induced by PSP, but not PDPP or MPX, with rapid (2-3 h) rounding up of astrocytes and of Schwann cells in cultures of dissociated mouse dorsal root ganglia. We conclude that PLB activity is present in a variety of cultured mouse neural cell types but that acute loss of this activity is not cytotoxic. Conversely, the rapid toxic effects of PSP in vitro suggest that a serine hydrolase distinct from NTE is required continuously by neurons and glia.

  3. Radioresistance of culture-induced augmented natural killer-like activity

    SciTech Connect

    Brovall, C.; Levitz, S.M.; Ellner, J.J.; Schacter, B.

    1983-07-01

    Human NK activity is radiosensitive under the control of X-linked genes. We have evaluated the expression of these genes in other forms of cellular cytotoxicity. The NK radioresistant and radiosensitive phenotype is expressed in ADCC. Specific cellular cytotoxicity, generated in a MLC with a radiosensitive donor as responder, was radioresistant. NK-like activity recruited from nonadherent cells of radiosensitive subjects stimulated with allogenic cells, mitogens (PHA, Con A or PWM), or recall antigens (TT or PPD) was radioresistant. The acquisition of radioresistance was relatively rapid, beginning within 24 hr after exposure to PHA, prior to detectable proliferation. Radioresistance of MLR augmented NK-like activity was maximal 3 days after initiation of the culture. MLR augmented NK-like activity was spared by the immunosuppressive polypeptide antibiotic CsA at doses up to 1 mu gm/ml. CsA did, however, reduce acquisition of radioresistance by the NK-like activity at doses above 0.01 mu gm/ml, a concentration which does not inhibit uptake of /sup 3/H-thymidine but does reduce the level of specific CML. These data suggest that mitogens and antigens, including allogeneic cells, are recruiting radioresistant NK-like activity which can be distinguished from the radiosensitive spontaneous NK activity of the cell donor. Further, in the MLR, both radiosensitive and radioresistant NK-like activity may be recruited.

  4. Production of anthraquinones, phenolic compounds and biological activities from hairy root cultures of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Praveen, Nagella; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chung, Ill-Min

    2014-05-01

    Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. is a highly important medicinal plant producing anthraquinones (emodin and physcion) and phenolic compounds which has pharmaceutical use. In vitro seedling explants such as roots, internodals, nodals and leaves were inoculated with A. rhizogenes strain KCTC 2703. Transformed roots were induced from internodals and leaf explants. Six transgenic clones of hairy roots were established and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) using rolC specific primers. Hairy roots cultured using MS liquid medium supplemented with 30 g/l sucrose showed highest accumulation of biomass (99.05 g/l FW [fresh weight] and 10.95 g/l DW [dry weight]) and highest production of anthraquinones content (emodin 211.32 μg/g DW and physcion 353.23 μg/g DW) were observed at 20 days. Nearly 9.5-fold increment of biomass was evident in suspension cultures at 20 days of culture and hairy root biomass produced in suspension cultures possessed 3.7- and 3.5-fold higher content of emodin and physcion, respectively, when compared with the untransformed control roots. MS basal liquid medium was superior for the growth of hairy roots and production of anthraquinones compared with other culture media evaluated (SH, B5 and N6), with MS-basal liquid medium supplemented with 30 g/l sucrose was optimal for secondary metabolite production. A total of 23 polyphenolic compounds were identified and quantified from P. multiflorum untransformed and hairy roots, which includes hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols and other groups of phenolic compounds. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis of the phenolic compounds profile revealed that pyrogallol, hesperidin, naringenin and formononetin were higher in hairy roots compared to untransformed roots. The total phenolics, flavonoids content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity was high in hairy roots compared to untransformed roots. This is the first

  5. Larvicidal and Growth-Inhibitory Activity of Entomopathogenic Bacteria Culture Fluids Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, João Luiz Rosa; Undurraga Schwalm, Fernanda; Eugênio Silva, Carlos; da Costa, Marisa; Heermann, Ralf; Santos da Silva, Onilda

    2017-01-06

    Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika are important vector-borne diseases, and Aedes aegypti L. is their main transmitter. As the disease management is mainly based on mosquito control strategies, the search for alternative and cost-effective approaches is ongoing. The Gram-negative bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus luminescens are symbiotically associated with entomopathogenic nematodes and are highly pathogenic for insect larvae. After we have recently confirmed the toxicity of these bacteria in Ae. aegypti larvae, we here evaluated the toxic activity of culture fluids on the development of this mosquito species. Larval susceptibility was assessed by exposing larvae to different concentrations of P. luminescens or X. nematophila culture fluids to confirm whether secondary metabolites might cause the mosquitos' death. Xenorhabdus nematophila culture fluid was more effective and stable during the mosquito pathogenicity bioassays compared to that of P. luminescens Larval mortality started a few hours after exposure of the insects to the fluids. Furthermore, the residual effect of larvicidal activity of X. nematophila fluid persisted at full efficiency for 4 d. Particularly, larval mortality was still higher than 50% for up to 8 d. Exposure of larvae to a sublethal dose of X. nematophila fluid delayed pupation as well as emergence of adult mosquitoes and caused cumulative larval mortality higher than 90% by day 14. Here, we describe for the first time the use of stable culture fluids and therefore secondary metabolites of P. luminescens and X. nematophila as a promising basis for the use as biopesticide for control of Ae. aegypti in the future.

  6. Chemical diversity of biologically active metabolites in the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus and submerged culture strategies for up-regulating their production.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weifa; Miao, Kangjie; Liu, Yubing; Zhao, Yanxia; Zhang, Meimei; Pan, Shenyuan; Dai, Yucheng

    2010-07-01

    Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat is a white rot fungus belonging to the family Hymenochaetaceae in the Basidiomycota. In nature, this fungus rarely forms a fruiting body but usually an irregular shape of sclerotial conk called 'Chaga'. Characteristically, I. obliquus produces massive melanins released to the surface of Chaga. As early as in the sixteenth century, Chaga was used as an effective folk medicine in Russia and Northern Europe to treat several human malicious tumors and other diseases in the absence of any unacceptable toxic side effects. Chemical investigations show that I. obliquus produces a diverse range of secondary metabolites including phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Among these are the active components for antioxidant, antitumoral, and antiviral activities and for improving human immunity against infection of pathogenic microbes. Geographically, however, this fungus is restricted to very cold habitats and grows very slowly, suggesting that Chaga is not a reliable source of these bioactive compounds. Attempts for culturing this fungus axenically all resulted in a reduced production of bioactive metabolites. This review examines the current progress in the discovery of chemical diversity of Chaga and their biological activities and the strategies to modulate the expression of desired pathways to diversify and up-regulate the production of bioactive metabolites by the fungus grown in submerged cultures for possible drug discovery.

  7. Growing Up Whole

    PubMed Central

    Alarcon, Renato D.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This is the second phase of a study aimed at determining the cultural characteristics, psychiatric needs, acculturative stressors, and management approaches of immigrant Somali children's experience in the United States. Methods: A 10-year demographics review of the Minnesota Departments of Human Services, and Children, Families, and Learning was completed. Data was obtained through unstructured interviews with educational staff, healthcare providers, and Somali children and their families in three communities, regarding cultural characteristics, barriers to care, perceptions of medical/psychiatric needs, and issues of acculturation. Health professionals/psychiatrists at a tertiary care center were also surveyed. Results: Identified acculturation issues of adolescent Somali immigrants included acculturative stress, racial discrimination, khat use, legal difficulties, language barriers, school opportunities, changes in family dynamics and developmental issues, clinical vulnerabilities, unique experiences of adolescent females, and development of new public/social behavior patterns. Conclusion: Immigrant Somali adolescents are at high risk for mental health problems due to the unique challenges they face as they attempt to assimilate two very polar cultures into one self-identity during a phase of development characterized by physical, cognitive, and emotional upheaval. Current management experiences warrant recommendations that include integration of community services, schools, and the medical system to provide education in cultural diversity, multicultural school and community publications, team sports, individual education plans, support groups, and Somali representation in school staff that has established trust with families and acceptance of mental health issues and care. PMID:21152169

  8. DEPENDENCE OF A HIGH-RATE, PCE-DECHLORINATING ENRICHMENT CULTURE ON METHANOGENIC ACTIVITY. (R825549C053)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role served by the presence of methanogenic activity within a tetrachloroethene (PCE)-dechlorinating culture was investigated through a series of supplementation experiments. An acclimated lactate-enrichment culture (LEC 1) capable of rapidly converting PCE to ethene was s...

  9. Deconstructing dementia and delirium hospital practice: using cultural historical activity theory to inform education approaches.

    PubMed

    Teodorczuk, Andrew; Mukaetova-Ladinska, Elizabeta; Corbett, Sally; Welfare, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Older patients with dementia and delirium receive suboptimal hospital care. Policy calls for more effective education to address this though there is little consensus on what this entails. The purpose of this clarification study is to explore how practice gaps are constructed in relation to managing the confused hospitalised older patient. The intent is to inform educational processes in the work-place beyond traditional approaches such as training. Adopting grounded theory as a research method and working within a social constructionist paradigm we explored the practice gaps of 15 healthcare professionals by interview and conducted five focus groups with patients, carers and Liaison mental health professionals. Data were thematically analysed by constant comparison and theoretical sampling was undertaken until saturation reached. Categories were identified and pragmatic concepts developed grounded within the data. Findings were then further analysed using cultural historical activity theory as a deductive lens. Practice gaps in relation to managing the confused older patient are determined by factors operating at individual (knowledge and skill gaps, personal philosophy, task based practice), team (leadership, time and ward environmental factors) and organisational (power relationships, dominance of medical model, fragmentation of care services) levels. Conceptually, practice appeared to be influenced by socio-cultural ward factors and compounded by a failure to join up existing "patient" knowledge amongst professionals. Applying cultural historical activity theory to further illuminate the findings, the central object is defined as learning about the patient and the mediating artifacts are the care relationships. The overarching medical dominance emerges as an important cultural historical factor at play and staff rules and divisions of labour are exposed. Lastly key contradictions and tensions in the system that work against learning about the patient are

  10. Competency-based medical education and scholarship: Creating an active academic culture during residency.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, James A; Hategan, Ana; Azzam, Amin

    2015-10-01

    The competency-based medical education movement has been adopted in several medical education systems across the world. This has the potential to result in a more active involvement of residents in the educational process, inasmuch as scholarship is regarded as a major area of competency. Substantial scholarly activities are well within the reach of motivated residents, especially when faculty members provide sufficient mentoring. These academically empowered residents have the advantage of early experience in the areas of scholarly discovery, integration, application, and teaching. Herein, the authors review the importance of instituting the germinal stages of scholarly productivity in the creation of an active scholarly culture during residency. Clear and consistent institutional and departmental strategies to promote scholarly development during residency are highly encouraged.

  11. Integration of active thermography into the assessment of cultural heritage buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maierhofer, Christiane; Röllig, Mathias; Krankenhagen, Rainer

    2010-10-01

    Applications of infrared thermography in civil engineering are not limited to the identification of heat losses in building envelopes. Active infrared thermography methods enable structural investigations of building elements with one-sided access up to a depth of about 10 cm. Masonry and especially historical masonry has a very heterogeneous structure containing several different materials (brick, stone, mortar, plaster, wood, metal, etc.) with various thermal properties. As many classes of damage originate from defects that are close to the surface, active thermography is in general very well suited to assessing different test problems in cultural heritage buildings. In this paper, the physical background, equipment, environmental influences and material properties are discussed. Several application results are presented. It is shown how active thermography can be integrated into a holistic approach for the assessment of historical structures.

  12. Activation of antioxidant response element in mouse primary cortical cultures with sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Tanacetum parthenium

    PubMed Central

    Fischedick, Justin T; Standiford, Miranda; Johnson, Delinda A.; De Vos, Ric C.H.; Todorović, Slađana; Banjanac, Tijana; Verpoorte, Rob; Johnson, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Tanacetum parthenium (Asteraceae) produces biologically active sesquiterpene lactones (SL). Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor known to activate a series of genes termed the antioxidant response element (ARE). Activation of the Nrf2/ARE may be useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. In this study we isolated 11 sesquiterpene lactones from T. parthenium with centrifugal partition chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. Compounds were screened in-vitro for their ability to activate the ARE on primary mouse cortical cultures as well as for their toxicity towards the cultures. All sesquiterpene lactones containing the α-methylene-γ-lactone moiety were able to activate the ARE although a number of compounds displayed significant cellular toxicity towards the cultures. The structure activity relationship of the sesquiterpene lactones indicate that the guaianolides isolated were more active and less toxic then the germacranolides. PMID:22923197

  13. Voltage-activated currents recorded from rabbit pigmented ciliary body epithelial cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Fain, G L; Farahbakhsh, N A

    1989-01-01

    1. The whole-cell recording mode of the patch-clamp technique was used to investigate the presence of voltage-activated currents in the isolated pigmented cells from the rabbit ciliary body epithelium grown in culture. 2. In Ringer solution with composition similar to that of the rabbit aqueous humour, depolarizing voltage steps activated a transient inward current and a delayed outward current, while hyperpolarization elicited an inwardly rectified current. 3. The depolarization-activated inward current was mainly carried by Na+ and was blocked by submicromolar concentrations of tetrodotoxin. This current in many cells was sufficiently large to produce a regenerative Na+ spike. 4. The depolarization-activated outward current was carried by K+ and blocked by external TEA and Ba2+. Its activation appeared to be Ca2(+)-independent. 5. The hyperpolarization-activated inward current was almost exclusively carried by K+ and was blocked by Ba2+ and Cs+. For large hyperpolarizations below -120 mV, this current exhibited a biphasic activation with a fast transient peak followed by a slower sag, that appeared to be due to K+ depletion. 6. The voltage-dependent K+ conductances probably act to stabilize the cell membrane resting potential and may also play a role in ion transport. The function of the Na(+)-dependent inward current is unclear, but it may permit the electrically coupled epithelial cells of the ciliary body to conduct propagated action potentials. Images Fig. 2 PMID:2621623

  14. Expression, localisation and functional activation of NFAT-2 in normal human skin, psoriasis, and cultured keratocytes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daraji, Wael I; Malak, Tamer T.; Prescott, Richard J.; Abdellaoui, Adel; Ali, Mahmud M.; Dabash, Tarek; Zelger, Bettina G.; Zelger, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Ciclosporin A (CsA) is widely utilized for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis. The therapeutic effects of CsA are thought to be mediated via its immunosuppressive action on infiltrating lymphocytes in skin lesions. CsA and tacrolimus block T cell activation by inhibiting the phosphatase calcineurin and preventing translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of the transcription factor Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT). As calcineurin and NFAT 1 have been shown to be functionally active in cultured human keratocytes, expression of other NFAT family members such as NFAT-2 and possible functional activation was investigated in human keratocytes. RT-PCR and Western Analysis were used to investigate the presence of NFAT-2 mRNA and protein in human keratocytes. Tissue culture of human keratocytes and immunostaining of cells on coverslips and confocal microscopy were used to assess the degree of nuclear localisation of NFAT-2 in cultured cells. Keratome biopsies were taken from patients with psoriasis (lesional and non-lesional skin) and normal skin and immunohistochemistry was used to assess the NFAT-2 localisation in these biopsies using a well characterized anti-NFAT-2 antibody. The NFAT-2 mRNA and protein expression was demonstrated using RT-PCR and Western blotting. Moreover, the expression of NFAT-2 in normal skin, non-lesional and lesional psoriasis showed a striking basal staining suggesting a role for NFAT-2 in keratocytes proliferation. A range of cell types in the skin express NFAT-2. The expression of NFAT-2 in human keratocytes and response to different agonists provides perhaps a unique opportunity to examine the regulation, subcellular localization and kinetics of translocation of different NFATs in primary cultured human cells. In these experiments the author assessed the expression, localization of NFAT-2 in cultured human keratocytes and measured the degree of nuclear localisaion of NFAT-2 using immunofluorescence

  15. Simultaneous activation of gamma and theta network oscillations in rat hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Yacov; Wittner, Lucia; Freund, Tamas F; Gähwiler, Beat H

    2002-03-15

    Hippocampal activity in vivo is characterized by concurrent oscillations at theta (4-15 Hz) and gamma (20-80 Hz) frequencies. Here we show that cholinergic receptor activation (methacholine 10-20 nm) in hippocampal slice cultures induces an oscillatory mode of activity, in which the intrinsic network oscillator (located in the CA3 area) expresses simultaneous theta and gamma network oscillations. Pyramidal cells display synaptic theta oscillations, characterized by cycles consisting of population EPSP-IPSP sequences that are dominated by population IPSPs. These rhythmic IPSPs most probably result from theta-modulated spiking activity of several interneurons. At the same time, the majority of interneurons consistently display synaptic gamma oscillations. These oscillatory cycles consist of fast depolarizing rhythmic events that are likely to reflect excitatory input from CA3 pyramidal cells. Interneurons comprising this functional group were identified morphologically. They include four known types of interneurons (basket, O-LM, bistratified and str. lucidum-specific cells) and one new type of CA3 interneuron (multi-subfield cell). The oscillatory activity of these interneurons is only weakly correlated between neighbouring cells, and in about half of these (44 %) is modulated by depolarizing theta rhythmicity. The overall characteristics of acetylcholine-induced oscillations in slice cultures closely resemble the rhythmicity observed in hippocampal field and single cell recordings in vivo. Both rhythmicities depend on intrinsic synaptic interactions, and are expressed by different cell types. The fact that these oscillations persist in a network lacking extra-hippocampal connections emphasizes the importance of intrinsic mechanisms in determining this form of hippocampal activity.

  16. Obesity, physical activity and sedentary behavior amongst British and Saudi youth: a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Lyons, Mark; Collins, Peter; Al-Nuaim, Anwar; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa; Duncan, Michael J; Nevill, Alan

    2012-04-01

    This study explores differences in weight status, obesity and patterns of physical activity (PA) in relation to gender and age of youth from two culturally, environmentally and geographically diverse countries, the United Kingdom (UK) and Saudi Arabia (SA). A total of 2,290 males and females (15-17 years) volunteered to participate in this study. Participants completed a validated self-report questionnaire that contained 47 items relating to patterns of PA, sedentary activity and eating habits. The questionnaire allows the calculation of total energy expenditure in metabolic equivalent (MET-min) values per week. Significant differences in percentage of overweight/obese and levels of PA were evident between the youth from the two countries, with males being generally more physically active than females. Additionally, there were significant associations between Body Mass Index (BMI), PA and sedentary behaviors; the youth with higher BMI reported lower levels of PA and higher amounts of sedentary time. These findings highlight the diverse nature of lifestyle of youth living in different geographical areas of the world and the need for further research to explore the socio-cultural factors that impact on the prevalence of obesity and patterns of PA of youth in different populations.

  17. Conditioned Media from Microvascular Endothelial Cells Cultured in Simulated Microgravity Inhibit Osteoblast Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cazzaniga, Alessandra; Castiglioni, Sara; Maier, Jeanette A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims. Gravity contributes to the maintenance of bone integrity. Accordingly, weightlessness conditions during space flight accelerate bone loss and experimental models in real and simulated microgravity show decreased osteoblastic and increased osteoclastic activities. It is well known that the endothelium and bone cells cross-talk and this intercellular communication is vital to regulate bone homeostasis. Because microgravity promotes microvascular endothelial dysfunction, we anticipated that the molecular cross-talk between endothelial cells exposed to simulated microgravity and osteoblasts might be altered. Results. We cultured human microvascular endothelial cells in simulated microgravity using the rotating wall vessel device developed by NASA. Endothelial cells in microgravity show growth inhibition and release higher amounts of matrix metalloproteases type 2 and interleukin-6 than controls. Conditioned media collected from microvascular endothelial cells in simulated microgravity were used to culture human osteoblasts and were shown to retard osteoblast proliferation and inhibit their activity. Discussion. Microvascular endothelial cells in microgravity are growth retarded and release high amounts of matrix metalloproteases type 2 and interleukin-6, which might play a role in retarding the growth of osteoblasts and impairing their osteogenic activity. Conclusions. We demonstrate that since simulated microgravity modulates microvascular endothelial cell function, it indirectly impairs osteoblastic function. PMID:25210716

  18. Butyrate stimulates tissue-type plasminogen-activator synthesis in cultured human endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kooistra, T; van den Berg, J; Töns, A; Platenburg, G; Rijken, D C; van den Berg, E

    1987-01-01

    Incubation of cultured human endothelial cells with 5 mM-dibutyryl cyclic AMP led to an approx. 2-fold increase in tissue-type plasminogen-activator (t-PA) production over a 24 h incubation period. The stimulating effect of dibutyryl cyclic AMP could be explained by the slow liberation of butyrate, as the effect could be reproduced by addition of free butyrate to the medium, but not by addition of 8-bromo cyclic AMP or forskolin, agents known to raise intracellular cyclic AMP levels. With butyrate, an accelerated accumulation of t-PA antigen in the conditioned medium (CM) was observed after a lag period of about 6 h. Increasing amounts of butyrate caused an increasingly stimulatory effect, reaching a plateau at 5 mM-butyrate. The relative enhancement of t-PA production in the presence of 5 mM-butyrate varied among different endothelial cell cultures from 6- to 25-fold in 24 h CM. Such an increase in t-PA production was observed with both arterial and venous endothelial cells. The butyrate-induced increases in t-PA production were accompanied by increased t-PA mRNA levels. Analysis of radiolabelled CM and cell extracts by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis indicated that the potent action of butyrate is probably restricted to a small number of proteins. The accumulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in CM from butyrate-treated cells varied only moderately. In our study of the relationship between structure and stimulatory activity, we found that a straight-chain C4 monocarboxylate structure with a methyl group at one end and a carboxy moiety at the other seems to be required for the optimal induction of t-PA in cultured endothelial cells. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. PMID:2827633

  19. Activity of an antimicrobial peptide mimetic against planktonic and biofilm cultures of oral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Beckloff, Nicholas; Laube, Danielle; Castro, Tammy; Furgang, David; Park, Steven; Perlin, David; Clements, Dylan; Tang, Haizhong; Scott, Richard W; Tew, Gregory N; Diamond, Gill

    2007-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are naturally occurring, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents that have recently been examined for their utility as therapeutic antibiotics. Unfortunately, they are expensive to produce and are often sensitive to protease digestion. To address this problem, we have examined the activity of a peptide mimetic whose design was based on the structure of magainin, exhibiting its amphiphilic structure. We demonstrate that this compound, meta-phenylene ethynylene (mPE), exhibits antimicrobial activity at nanomolar concentrations against a variety of bacterial and Candida species found in oral infections. Since Streptococcus mutans, an etiological agent of dental caries, colonizes the tooth surface and forms a biofilm, we quantified the activity of this compound against S. mutans growing under conditions that favor biofilm formation. Our results indicate that mPE can prevent the formation of a biofilm at nanomolar concentrations. Incubation with 5 nM mPE prevents further growth of the biofilm, and 100 nM mPE reduces viable bacteria in the biofilm by 3 logs. Structure-function analyses suggest that mPE inhibits the bioactivity of lipopolysaccharide and binds DNA at equimolar ratios, suggesting that it may act both as a membrane-active molecule, similar to magainin, and as an intracellular antibiotic, similar to other AMPs. We conclude that mPE and similar molecules display great potential for development as therapeutic antimicrobials.

  20. Chronic exposure to GSM 1800-MHz microwaves reduces excitatory synaptic activity in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shujun; Ning, Wei; Xu, Zhengping; Zhou, Suya; Chiang, Huai; Luo, Jianhong

    2006-05-08

    The world wide proliferation of mobile phones raises the concern about the health effects of 1800-MHz microwaves on the brain. The present study assesses the effects of microwave exposure on the function of cultured hippocampal neurons of rats using whole cell patch-clamp analysis combined with immunocytochemistry. We showed that chronic exposure (15 min per day for 8 days) to Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) 1800-MHz microwaves at specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2.4 W/kg induced a selective decrease in the amplitude of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-soxazole propionic acid (AMPA) miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), whereas the frequency of AMPA mEPSCs and the amplitude of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) mEPSCs did not change. Furthermore, the GSM microwave treatment decreased the expression of postsynaptic density 95 (PSD95) in cultured neurons. Our results indicated that 2.4 W/kg GSM 1800-MHz microwaves may reduce excitatory synaptic activity and the number of excitatory synapses in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

  1. Tuning a cellular lipid kinase activity adapts hepatitis C virus to replication in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Harak, Christian; Meyrath, Max; Romero-Brey, Inés; Schenk, Christian; Gondeau, Claire; Schult, Philipp; Esser-Nobis, Katharina; Saeed, Mohsan; Neddermann, Petra; Schnitzler, Paul; Gotthardt, Daniel; Perez-Del-Pulgar, Sofia; Neumann-Haefelin, Christoph; Thimme, Robert; Meuleman, Philip; Vondran, Florian W R; Francesco, Raffaele De; Rice, Charles M; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Lohmann, Volker

    2016-12-19

    With a single exception, all isolates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) require adaptive mutations to replicate efficiently in cell culture. Here, we show that a major class of adaptive mutations regulates the activity of a cellular lipid kinase, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIα (PI4KA). HCV needs to stimulate PI4KA to create a permissive phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate-enriched membrane microenvironment in the liver and in primary human hepatocytes (PHHs). In contrast, in Huh7 hepatoma cells, the virus must acquire loss-of-function mutations that prevent PI4KA overactivation. This adaptive mechanism is necessitated by increased PI4KA levels in Huh7 cells compared with PHHs, and is conserved across HCV genotypes. PI4KA-specific inhibitors promote replication of unadapted viral isolates and allow efficient replication of patient-derived virus in cell culture. In summary, this study has uncovered a long-sought mechanism of HCV cell-culture adaptation and demonstrates how a virus can adapt to changes in a cellular environment associated with tumorigenesis.

  2. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-01-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using ‘bouts’ of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252

  3. Activator protein-1 complex expressed by magnetism in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Takao; Nakamichi, Noritaka; Yoneda, Yukio

    2002-03-22

    Brief exposure for 15 min to static magnetic filed at 100 mT led to marked but transient potentiation of binding of a radiolabeled probe for activator protein-1 (AP1) in immature cultured rat hippocampal neurons with high expression of growth-associated protein-43. Immunoblotting and supershift analyses revealed that brief exposure to static magnetic field increased AP1 DNA binding through expression of Fra-2, c-Jun, and Jun-D proteins in immature cultured hippocampal neurons. Significantly less potent increases were seen in both intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration and AP1 binding following the addition of N-methyl-d-aspartate in these immature neurons exposed to magnetism 24 h before. These results suggest that brief exposure to weak static magnetic field may lead to desensitization of NMDA receptor channels through modulation of de novo synthesis of particular inducible target proteins at the level of gene transcription by the AP1 complex expressed in the nucleus of immature cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

  4. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-03-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using 'bouts' of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described.

  5. Secretion of active recombinant phytase from soybean cell-suspension cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Li, J; Hegeman, C E; Hanlon, R W; Lacy, G H; Denbow, M D; Grabau, E A

    1997-01-01

    Phytase, an enzyme that degrades the phosphorus storage compound phytate, has the potential to enhance phosphorus availability in animal diets when engineered into soybean (Glycine max) seeds. The phytase gene from Aspergillus niger was inserted into soybean transformation plasmids under control of constitutive and seed-specific promoters, with and without a plant signal sequence. Suspension cultures were used to confirm phytase expression in soybean cells. Phytase mRNA was observed in cultures containing constitutively expressed constructs. Phytase activity was detected in the culture medium from transformants that received constructs containing the plant signal sequence, confirming expectations that the protein would follow the default secretory pathway. Secretion also facilitated characterization of the biochemical properties of recombinant phytase. Soybean-synthesized phytase had a lower molecular mass than did the fungal enzyme. However, deglycosylation of the recombinant and fungal phytase yielded polypeptides of identical molecular mass (49 kD). Temperature and pH optima of the recombinant phytase were indistinguishable from the commercially available fungal phytase. Thermal inactivation studies of the recombinant phytase suggested that the additional protein stability would be required to withstand the elevated temperatures involved in soybean processing. PMID:9232886

  6. Copper diethyldithiocarbamate as an activator of Nrf2 in cultured vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fujie, Tomoya; Murakami, Masaki; Yoshida, Eiko; Tachinami, Tadashi; Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Chika; Kumagai, Yoshito; Naka, Hiroshi; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    The interest in organic-inorganic hybrid molecules as molecular probes for biological systems has been growing rapidly. Such hybrid molecules exhibit unique biological activities. Herein, copper(II) bis(diethyldithiocarbamate) (Cu10) was found to activate the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which is responsible for regulating antioxidant and phase II xenobiotic enzymes, in vascular endothelial cells. The copper complex rapidly accumulated within cells and induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2, leading to upregulation of the expression of downstream proteins without cytotoxic effects. However, while copper bis(2-hydroxyethyl)dithiocarbamate activated Nrf2, copper ion, diethyldithiocarbamate ligand with or without zinc or iron failed to exhibit this activity. Intracellular accumulation of Cu10 was higher than that of Cu(II) and Cu(I). While the accumulation of copper(II) bis(dimethyldithiocarbamate) was reduced by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of the copper transporter CTR1, the knockdown did not affect Cu10 accumulation, indicating that Cu10 rapidly enters vascular endothelial cells via CTR1-independent mechanisms. In addition, copper and iron complexes with other ligands tested could not activate Nrf2, suggesting that the intramolecular interaction between copper and dithiocarbamate ligand is important for the activation of the transcription factor. Cu10 induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1, and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, downstream proteins of Nrf2. It was suggested that Cu10-induced activation of Nrf2 was due to proteasome inhibition as well as binding to Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1. Since the effects of Cu10 on vascular endothelial cells are unique and diverse, the copper complex may be a good molecular probe to analyze the functions of the cells.

  7. Childhood Obesity in Colorado: A Growing Problem--The Impact of the Epidemic and Recommendations for Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Tara

    2007-01-01

    Colorado traditionally has ranked as one of the healthiest states in the nation, a claim that reinforces a culture of activity, community and well-being. Though Colorado is ahead of the curve in this area, Coloradans aren't immune to the growing trends that threaten the health of people across the nation. One of the most concerning elements of…

  8. Generation of parthenogenetic goat blastocysts: effects of different activation methods and culture media.

    PubMed

    Malik, Hruda Nanda; Singhal, Dinesh Kumar; Saugandhika, Shrabani; Dubey, Amit; Mukherjee, Ayan; Singhal, Raxita; Kumar, Sudarshan; Kaushik, Jai Kumar; Mohanty, Ashok Kumar; Das, Bikash Chandra; Bag, Sadhan; Bhanja, Subrata Kumar; Malakar, Dhruba

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of different activation methods and culture media on the in vitro development of parthenogenetic goat blastocysts. Calcium (Ca2+) ionophore, ethanol or a combination of the two, used as activating reagents, and embryo development medium (EDM), modified Charles Rosenkrans (mCR2a) medium and research vitro cleave (RVCL) medium were used to evaluate the developmental competence of goat blastocysts. Quantitative expression of apoptosis, stress and developmental competence-related genes were analysed in different stages of embryos. In RVCL medium, the cleavage rate of Ca2+ ionophore-treated oocytes (79.61 ± 0.86) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in ethanol (74.90 ± 1.51) or in the combination of both Ca2+ ionophore and ethanol. In mCR2a or EDM, hatched blastocyst production rate of Ca2+ ionophore-treated oocytes (8.33 ± 1.44) was significantly higher than in ethanol (6.46 ± 0.11) or in the combined treatment (6.70 ± 0.24). In ethanol, the cleavage, blastocyst and hatched blastocyst production rates in RVCL medium (74.90 ± 1.51, 18.30 ± 1.52 and 8.24 ± 0.15, respectively) were significantly higher than in EDM (67.81 ± 3.21, 14.59 ± 0.27 and 5.59 ± 0.42) or mCR2a medium (65.09 ± 1.57, 15.36 ± 0.52 and 6.46 ± 0.11). The expression of BAX, Oct-4 and GlUT1 transcripts increased gradually from 2-cell stage to blastocyst-stage embryos, whereas the transcript levels of Bcl-2 and MnSOD were significantly lower in blastocysts. In addition, different activation methods and culture media had little effect on the pattern of variation and relative abundance of the above genes in different stages of parthenogenetic activated goat embryos. In conclusion, Ca2+ ionophore as the activating agent, and RVCL as the culture medium are better than other tested options for development of parthenogenetic activated goat blastocysts.

  9. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Wild Growing Aromatic Plant Species of Skimmia laureola and Juniperus macropoda from Western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Stappen, Iris; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Ali, Abbas; Wedge, David E; Wanner, Jürgen; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar K; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2015-06-01

    The Himalayan region is very rich in a great variety of medicinal plants. In this investigation the essential oils of two selected species are described for their antimicrobial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the odors are characterized. Analyzed by simultaneous GC-MS and GC-FID, the essential oils' chemical compositions are given. The main components of Skimmia laureola oil were linalool and linalyl acetate whereas sabinene was found as the main compound for Juniperus macropoda essential oil. Antibacterial testing by agar dilution assay revealed highest activity of S. laureola oil against all tested bacteria, followed by J. macropoda oil. Antifungal activity was evaluated against the strawberry anthracnose causing plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides. Juniperus macropoda essential oil indicated higher antifungal activity against all three pathogens than S. laureola oil. Both essential oils showed biting deterrent activity above solvent control but low larvicidal activity.

  10. Profound influence of LDL oxidative status and monocyte co-cultures on baboon endothelial activation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Juan; Hondara, Vida; Wang, Xing Li; VandeBerg, John L; Shi, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate how increased LDL levels interact with endothelial cells by using well-defined LDL preparations to limit experimental biases caused by heterogeneity of LDL preparations. Methods We pooled LDL from multiple subjects and prepared several types of LDL from a single source. Then we observed their effects on cultured endothelial cells with and without monocyte co-culture. Results Native and minimally oxidized LDL did not cause significant cell death under most circumstances, and did not up-regulate cellular adhesion molecule (CAM) expression. Native LDL did result in significant increases of MCP-1 release in five of eight subjects. However, extensively oxidized LDL caused a significant amount of cell death and dramatically decreased MCP-1 secretion. Minimally oxidized LDL elicited a mixed response pattern, with a great deal of variation among subjects. When endothelial cells were co-cultured with monocytes and treated with native LDL, significant up-regulation of CAMs was detected after 24 hours of exposure. Up-regulation was not seen in any treatment group that contained either native LDL or monocytes only, indicating a synergistic effect of LDL and monocytes on endothelial cells. Incubation of cultured monocytes with native LDL also resulted in TNF-α and IL-1β release in a dosage- and time-dependent manner. Neutralization of both TNF-α and IL-1β by 10 μg/mL polyclonal antibodies inhibited the up-regulation of CAMs. Conclusion Our results suggest that varying extents of oxidative modification of LDL lead to fundamentally different cytological effects and that native LDL exhibits greater endothelial activation capacity when it interactively cooperates with monocytes. PMID:22254208

  11. Effects of scorched food leachates with or without activated charcoal pretreatment on AhR activation in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Morita, Koji; Kinoshita, Makoto; Fujimori, Shin; Ishikawa, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor activated by xenobiotics, including dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although AhR is also activated by some dietary constituents, it has not been completely clarified in what circumstances AhR ligands are ingested in our daily life. Because PAHs are formed by the incomplete combustion of organic materials, we hypothesized that scorched foods might contain and leach out AhR ligands sufficient to stimulate AhR in vitro. To test this hypothesis, scorched foods (bread, cheese, etc.) were mixed vigorously with water, and the supernatants were retrieved as samples. The samples were added to HepG2 cells stably expressing an AhR-responsive reporter gene. Also, expression of CYP1A1, an endogenous AhR-responsive gene, was analyzed by RT-PCR in different cell lines treated with the samples. We further tested whether pretreatment of the samples with activated charcoal would alter their AhR-stimulating activity. All the supernatant samples tested induced AhR-dependent reporter gene activity and CYP1A1 mRNA expression. In some samples, these inductions were inhibited by pretreatment with activated charcoal. Our findings indicate that scorched food leachates stimulate AhR in cultured cells and that activated charcoal adsorbs the AhR-stimulating substances in some leachates. Thus, people who habitually eat scorched foods are exposed to AhR ligands on a regular basis. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether burnt foods actually exert biological effects on our health.

  12. Contribution of Sp1 to Telomerase Expression and Activity in Skin Keratinocytes Cultured With a Feeder Layer.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Francis; Paquet, Claudie; Bourget, Jean-Michel; Zaniolo, Karine; Rochette, Patrick J; Landreville, Solange; Damour, Odile; Boudreau, François; Auger, François A; Guérin, Sylvain L; Germain, Lucie

    2015-02-01

    The growth of primary keratinocytes is improved by culturing them with a feeder layer. The aim of this study was to assess whether the feeder layer increases the lifespan of cultured epithelial cells by maintaining or improving telomerase activity and expression. The addition of an irradiated fibroblast feeder layer of either human or mouse origin (i3T3) helped maintain telomerase activity as well as expression of the transcription factor Sp1 in cultured keratinocytes. In contrast, senescence occurred earlier, together with a reduction of Sp1 expression and telomerase activity, in keratinocytes cultured without a feeder layer. Telomerase activity was consistently higher in keratinocytes grown on the three different feeder layers tested relative to cells grown without them. Suppression of Sp1 expression by RNA inhibition (RNAi) reduced both telomerase expression and activity in keratinocytes and also abolished their long-term growth capacity suggesting that Sp1 is a key regulator of both telomerase gene expression and cell cycle progression of primary cultured human skin keratinocytes. The results of the present study therefore suggest that the beneficial influence of the feeder layer relies on its ability to preserve telomerase activity in cultured human keratinocytes through the maintenance of stable levels of Sp1 expression.

  13. In vitro equine embryo production using air-dried spermatozoa, with different activation protocols and culture systems.

    PubMed

    Alonso, A; Baca Castex, C; Ferrante, A; Pinto, M; Castañeira, C; Trasorras, V; Gambarotta, M C; Losinno, L; Miragaya, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of air-dried spermatozoa for in vitro production of equine embryos and verify if sperm extract activation and in vivo culture improve in vitro embryo production. Cooled spermatozoa (control) and air-dried spermatozoa stored for 2, 14 or 28 days were used for ICSI sperm extract, or ionomycin was used for oocyte activation, and embryos were in vitro or in vivo (in mare's oviduct) cultured for 7 days. With in vitro culture, cleavage rate was higher when activating with sperm extract (P < 0.05). No differences in embryo development were seen between the two activation treatments nor between storage periods (P > 0.05). Blastocysts were obtained with cooled spermatozoa, and morulae were achieved using in vivo culture with 28-day storage spermatozoa and ionomycin-activated oocytes. When in vivo culture was performed, sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed using the sperm chromatin dispersion test and did not show statistical correlation with cleavage nor embryo recovery rates. In conclusion, equine embryos can be produced using air-dried spermatozoa stored for several weeks. Sperm extract activation increased cleavage rates but did not improve embryo development. In vivo culture allowed intrauterine stage embryos to be achieved.

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mediates activity-dependent dendritic growth in nonpyramidal neocortical interneurons in developing organotypic cultures.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaoming; Hu, Hang; Mathers, Peter H; Agmon, Ariel

    2003-07-02

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes postnatal maturation of GABAergic inhibition in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, and its expression and release are enhanced by neuronal activity, suggesting that it acts in a feedback manner to maintain a balance between excitation and inhibition during development. BDNF promotes differentiation of cerebellar, hippocampal, and neostriatal inhibitory neurons, but its effects on the dendritic development of neocortical inhibitory interneurons remain unknown. Here, we show that BDNF mediates depolarization-induced dendritic growth and branching in neocortical interneurons. To visualize inhibitory interneurons, we biolistically transfected organotypic cortical slice cultures from neonatal mice with green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)67 promoter. Nearly all GAD67-GFP-expressing neurons were nonpyramidal, many contained GABA, and some expressed markers of neurochemically defined GABAergic subtypes, indicating that GAD67-GFP-expressing neurons were GABAergic. We traced dendritic trees from confocal images of the same GAD67-GFP-expressing neurons before and after a 5 d growth period, and quantified the change in total dendritic length (TDL) and total dendritic branch points (TDBPs) for each neuron. GAD67-GFP-expressing neurons growing in control medium exhibited a 20% increase in TDL, but in 200 ng/ml BDNF or 10 mm KCl, this increase nearly doubled and was accompanied by a significant increase in TDBPs. Blocking action potentials with TTX did not prevent the BDNF-induced growth, but antibodies against BDNF blocked the growth-promoting effect of KCl. We conclude that BDNF, released by neocortical pyramidal neurons in response to depolarization, enhances dendritic growth and branching in nearby inhibitory interneurons.

  15. Characterization of Amino Acid Profile and Enzymatic Activity in Adult Rat Astrocyte Cultures.

    PubMed

    Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Hansel, Gisele; Arús, Bernardo Assein; Bellaver, Gabriela; Longoni, Aline; Kolling, Janaina; Wyse, Angela T S; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2016-07-01

    Astrocytes are multitasking players in brain complexity, possessing several receptors and mechanisms to detect, participate and modulate neuronal communication. The functionality of astrocytes has been mainly unraveled through the study of primary astrocyte cultures, and recently our research group characterized a model of astrocyte cultures derived from adult Wistar rats. We, herein, aim to characterize other basal functions of these cells to explore the potential of this model for studying the adult brain. To characterize the astrocytic phenotype, we determined the presence of GFAP, GLAST and GLT 1 proteins in cells by immunofluorescence. Next, we determined the concentrations of thirteen amino acids, ATP, ADP, adenosine and calcium in astrocyte cultures, as well as the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and acetylcholine esterase. Furthermore, we assessed the presence of the GABA transporter 1 (GAT 1) and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB 1) in the astrocytes. Cells demonstrated the presence of glutamine, consistent with their role in the glutamate-glutamine cycle, as well as glutamate and D-serine, amino acids classically known to act as gliotransmitters. ATP was produced and released by the cells and ADP was consumed. Calcium levels were in agreement with those reported in the literature, as were the enzymatic activities measured. The presence of GAT 1 was detected, but the presence of CB 1 was not, suggesting a decreased neuroprotective capacity in adult astrocytes under in vitro conditions. Taken together, our results show cellular functionality regarding the astrocytic role in gliotransmission and neurotransmitter management since they are able to produce and release gliotransmitters and to modulate the cholinergic and GABAergic systems.

  16. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Italian version of the Voice Activity Participation Profile.

    PubMed

    Fava, Gaetano; Paolillo, Nico Paolo; Oliveira, Gisele; Behlau, Mara

    2014-01-01

    The Vocal Activity Participation Profile (VAPP), originally developed in English, is a self-assessment tool used to measure individuals' voice activity limitation and participation restriction. Based on the fact that the cultural/linguistic adaptation is an essential step of validating a protocol in another language, the purpose was to linguistically and culturally adapt the VAPP into Italian. The adaptation was performed in accordance to the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Medical Outcomes Trust. The translation was performed by one bilingual speech-language pathologist and by one bilingual interpreter, who knew about the purpose of this project. A bilingual English teacher, who had not participated in the previous step, performed the back translation. A committee composed by three speech-language pathologists specialized in voice and one laryngologist compared the forward and backward translations, to assess for any discrepancies. A final version was produced and called Profilo di Attività e Partecipazione Vocale (PAPV). A "not applicable" option was included to each item and was administered to 17 individuals with voice problems, six males and 11 females, aged between 21 to 55 years. All items were relevant, as no patients chose the "not applicable" option. However, four individuals, who had a lower educational level, did not fully understand the instructions of the opening statement. Therefore, the questionnaire was further reviewed and adjusted to clarify the information. Otherwise, no items were changed and/or deleted. The PAPV kept the same structure as the original version. The cultural equivalence of the Italian VAPP was demonstrated and entitled PAPV, whose validation is currently in process.

  17. Growth and activity of Bulgarian yogurt starter culture in iron-fortified milk.

    PubMed

    Simova, Emilina; Ivanov, Galin; Simov, Zhelyazko

    2008-10-01

    Bulgarian yogurts were manufactured and fortified with 8, 15 and 27 mg of iron kg(-1) of yogurt. The growth and acidifying activity of the starter culture bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus 13a and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11 were monitored during milk fermentation and over 15 days of yogurt storage at 4 degrees C. Fortifying milk with iron did not affect significantly the growth of the starter culture during manufacture and storage of yogurt. Counts of yogurt bacteria at the end of fermentation of iron-fortified milks were between 2.1 x 10(10) and 4.6 x 10(10) CFU ml(-1), which were not significantly different from numbers in unfortified yogurts. In all batches of yogurt, the viable cell counts of S. thermophilus 13a were approximately three times higher than those of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11. Greater decrease in viable cell count over 15 days of storage was observed for S. thermophilus 13a compared to L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11. Intensive accumulation of lactic acid was observed during incubation of milk and all batches reached pH 4.5 +/- 0.1 after 3.0 h. At the end of fermentation process, lactic acid concentrations in iron-fortified yogurts were between 6.9 +/- 0.4 and 7.3 +/- 0.5 g l(-1). The acidifying activity of starter culture bacteria in the control and iron-fortified milks was similar. There was no increase in oxidized, metallic and bitter off-flavors in iron-fortified yogurts compared to the control. Iron-fortified yogurts did not differ significantly in their sensorial, chemical and microbiological characteristics with unfortified yogurt, suggesting that yogurt is a suitable vehicle for iron fortification and that the ferrous lactate is an appropriate iron source for yogurt fortification.

  18. Sleep to grow smart?

    PubMed

    Volk, Carina; Huber, Reto

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is undisputable an essential part of our life, if we do not sleep enough we feel the consequences the next day. The importance of sleep for healthy brain functioning has been well studied in adults, but less is known for the role of sleep in the paediatric age. Childhood and adolescence is a critical phase for brain development. The increased need for sleep during this developmental phase fosters the growing recognition for a central role of sleep during development. In this review we summarize the findings that demonstrate a close relationship between sleep and brain maturation, discuss the consequences of insufficient sleep during childhood and adolescence and outline initial attempts that have been made in order to improve sleep in this age range.

  19. Growing a market economy

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  20. Developmental stability of taurine's activation on glycine receptors in cultured neurons of rat auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zheng-Quan; Lu, Yun-Gang; Chen, Lin

    2008-01-03

    Taurine is an endogenous amino acid that can activate glycine and/or gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors in the central nervous system. During natural development, taurine's receptor target undergoes a shift from glycine receptors to GABA(A) receptors in cortical neurons. Here, we demonstrate that taurine's receptor target in cortical neurons remains stable during in vitro development. With whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we found that taurine always activated glycine receptors, rather than GABA(A) receptors, in neurons of rat auditory cortex cultured for 5-22 days. Our results suggest that the functional sensitivity of glycine and GABA(A) receptors to taurine is critically regulated by their developmental environments.

  1. Agents that activate protein kinase C reduce acetylcholine sensitivity in cultured myotubes

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    We have examined acetylcholine (ACh)-elicited potentials or currents in current- or voltage-clamped cultured myotubes exposed to 12-O- tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a potent tumor promoter that activates protein kinase C. Although this agent had little action on either membrane resting potential or electrical resistance, a reversible decrease in ACh sensitivity was induced on 3-4-d-old chick myotubes. Depression of transmitter action by TPA was extended to 7-8-d mouse myotubes only when they were treated with phosphatidylserine. Glyceryl dioleate had effects on myotubes similar to those of TPA but with a reduced efficacy. We conclude that the activation of protein kinase C might be involved with the capacity of ACh receptors to respond to transmitter stimulation. PMID:3156868

  2. Activation of protein kinase C inhibits potassium currents in cultured endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Weir, B; Daniel, E E

    1995-04-01

    The effect of protein kinase C on potassium channels in cultured endothelial cells was investigated by using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), but not phorbol 12-monomyristate (PMM), an inactive analogue of phorbol esters, depressed an outward calcium-dependent potassium current. The inhibitory actions of PMA and PDBu could be reversed by the kinase inhibitor H-7. Cyclopiazonic acid, an inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump, and LP-805, a novel vasodilator which also releases endothelium-derived relaxing factors, activated the outward calcium-dependent potassium conductance. PMA and PDBu, but not PMM, reduced the outward conductance induced by cyclopiazonic acid and LP-805. These effects of PMA and PDBu on potassium currents may be mediated either by phosphorylation of ion channels, or by decreasing intracellular calcium concentration.

  3. Bacterial diversity and bioprospecting for cold-active hydrolytic enzymes from culturable bacteria associated with sediment from Nella Fjord, Eastern Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong; Li, Hui-Rong; Zeng, Yin-Xin; Chen, Bo

    2011-01-31

    The diversity and cold-active hydrolytic enzymes of culturable bacteria associated with sandy sediment from Nella Fjord, Eastern Antarctica (69°22'6″ S, 76°21'45″ E) was investigated. A total of 33 aerobic heterotrophic bacterial strains were isolated at 4 °C. These bacterial isolates could be sorted into 18 phylotypes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence belonging to four phyla, namely Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Only seven isolates were psychrophilic, 15 isolates were moderately psychrophilic, and 11 isolates were psychrotolerant. More than 72% of the isolates required sodium chloride to grow. Esterase, β-glucosidase and proteases activities at 4 °C were detected in more than 45% of the strains while approximately 21%, 15% and 12% of the strains possessed lipase, amylase and chitinase, respectively. These results indicate that a relatively high culturable bacterial diversity is present within marine sediment of Nella Fjord and it could serve as an ideal candidate region for bioprospecting.

  4. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcumin Using Phosphatidylserine-Containing Nanoparticles in Cultured Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji; Kang, Yu-Xia; Pan, Wen; Lei, Wan; Feng, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Juan

    2016-06-20

    Macrophages are one kind of innate immune cells, and produce a variety of inflammatory cytokines in response to various stimuli, such as oxidized low density lipoprotein found in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, the effect of phosphatidylserine on anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers was investigated using macrophage cultures. Different amounts of phosphatidylserine were used in the preparation of curcumin nanoparticles, their physicochemical properties and biocompatibilities were then compared. Cellular uptake of the nanoparticles was investigated using a confocal laser scanning microscope and flow cytometry analysis in order to determine the optimal phosphatidylserine concentration. In vitro anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated in macrophages to test whether curcumin and phosphatidylserine have interactive effects on macrophage lipid uptake behavior and anti-inflammatory responses. Here, we showed that macrophage uptake of phosphatidylserine-containing nanostructured lipid carriers increased with increasing amount of phosphatidylserine in the range of 0%-8%, and decreased when the phosphatidylserine molar ratio reached over 12%. curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and pro-inflammatory factor production in cultured macrophages, and evidently promoted release of anti-inflammatory cytokines, when compared with curcumin or phosphatidylserine alone. These results suggest that the delivery system using PS-based nanoparticles has great potential for efficient delivery of drugs such as curcumin, specifically targeting macrophages and modulation of their anti-inflammatory functions.

  5. Production, characterization and antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharides from submerged culture of Morchella crassipes.

    PubMed

    He, Peixin; Geng, Lujing; Mao, Duobin; Xu, Chunping

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the fermentation optimization, molecular characterization, and antioxidant activity in vitro of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from Morchella crassipes in submerged culture. Firstly, an optimal medium for EPS production was obtained by single-factor experiment and central composite design as follows: maltose 44.79 g/L and tryptone 4.21 g/L. Then, one fraction of EPS was obtained from the culture filtrates by size exclusion chromatography and the molecular characteristics were examined by a multi-angle laser light scattering and refractive index detector system. The weight-average molar mass and the polydispersity ratio of the EPS fraction were revealed to be 1.961 × 10(4) g/mol and 1.838, respectively. FT-IR spectroscopy was used for obtaining vibrational spectra of the purified EPS fraction. Finally, the antioxidant activity of EPS was investigated and the relationship with molecular properties was discussed as well.

  6. Simultaneous storage and degradation of PHB and glycogen in activated sludge cultures.

    PubMed

    Carta, F; Beun, J J; Van Loosdrecht, M C; Heijnen, J J

    2001-08-01

    Bacteria in activated sludge are subjected to periods of substrate availability and absence of external substrates. The response of bacteria to such dynamic conditions was studied in a 2 L sequencing batch reactor (SBR) by subjecting a mixed microbial population to successive periods of external substrate availability (feast period) and no external substrate availability (famine period). In previous studies, acetate or glucose was used as single substrate leading to the storage of polyhydroxybutyrate or glycogen, respectively. In this study, a mixture of acetate and glucose was used. It appeared that both substrates were consumed simultaneously. The relative contribution of growth and storage processes was in these experiments similar as in the systems fed with a single substrate only. The ratio of substrate uptake over substrate storage was 0.6 Cmol/Cmol for both substrates. The uptake rate of acetate was not influenced by the simultaneous uptake of glucose. The degradation kinetics and rates of the storage compounds were the same as for the systems in which only one compound was stored in the activated sludge. The global performance of the culture grown on mixed substrates could therefore be described as the sum of the conversions observed in cultures fed with the individual substrates.

  7. Various sulfatase activities in leukocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts from heterozygotes for the multiple sulfatase deficiency (mukosulfatidosis).

    PubMed

    Eto, Y; Tahara, T; Tokoro, T; Maekawa, K

    1983-02-01

    In heterozygotes for multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD), several sulfatase activities including arylsulfatases A, B1, B2, and C, and cholesterol sulfatase were 40-50% of normals in cultured skin fibroblasts and 70-80% of normals in leukocytes. In MSD patients, these enzyme activities were deficient or reduced. DEAE-Sepharose column chromatographic patterns of 4-methylumbelliferyl sulfatases A, B1, and B2 in leukocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts from MSD patients and heterozygotes were also consistent with the above data. These data indicate that several sulfatase activities in heterozygotes of MSD exhibited intermediate activities as observed in the heterozygote state of other autosomal recessive inherited diseases.

  8. Silver and gold nanoparticles exposure to in vitro cultured retina--studies on nanoparticle internalization, apoptosis, oxidative stress, glial- and microglial activity.

    PubMed

    Söderstjerna, Erika; Bauer, Patrik; Cedervall, Tommy; Abdshill, Hodan; Johansson, Fredrik; Johansson, Ulrica Englund

    2014-01-01

    The complex network of neuronal cells in the retina makes it a potential target of neuronal toxicity--a risk factor for visual loss. With growing use of nanoparticles (NPs) in commercial and medical applications, including ophthalmology, there is a need for reliable models for early prediction of NP toxicity in the eye and retina. Metal NPs, such as gold and silver, gain much of attention in the ophthalmology community due to their potential to cross the barriers of the eye. Here, NP uptake and signs of toxicity were investigated after exposure to 20 and 80 nm Ag- and AuNPs, using an in vitro tissue culture model of the mouse retina. The model offers long-term preservation of retinal cell types, numbers and morphology and is a controlled system for delivery of NPs, using serum-free defined culture medium. AgNO3-treatment was used as control for toxicity caused by silver ions. These end-points were studied; gross morphological organization, glial activity, microglial activity, level of apoptosis and oxidative stress, which are all well described as signs of insult to neural tissue. TEM analysis demonstrated cellular- and nuclear uptake of all NP types in all neuronal layers of the retina. Htx-eosin staining showed morphological disruption of the normal complex layered retinal structure, vacuole formation and pyknotic cells after exposure to all Ag- and AuNPs. Significantly higher numbers of apoptotic cells as well as an increased number of oxidative stressed cells demonstrated NP-related neuronal toxicity. NPs also caused increased glial staining and microglial cell activation, typical hallmarks of neural tissue insult. This study demonstrates that low concentrations of 20 and 80 nm sized Ag- and AuNPs have adverse effects on the retina, using an organotypic retina culture model. Our results motivate careful assessment of candidate NP, metallic or-non-metallic, to be used in neural systems for therapeutic approaches.

  9. Insights in public health: Is the gap growing? Patterns in poverty-related disparities in nutrition and physical activity in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Buchthal, Vanessa

    2014-10-01

    A recent Harvard study on national dietary trends found that the gap in healthy dietary behaviors between low-income and middle/upper-income Americans widened between 2000 and 2010. Hawai'i Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 2001-2009 on differences in obesity-related behaviors between moderate-high income, low-income, and poverty-level Hawai'i residents were examined to explore whether Hawai'i data on obesity-related behaviors reflected this national trend. While most differences between groups were not statistically significant, a consistent pattern was seen across all measures that suggested a growing gap between low-income and moderate/high income Hawai'i residents. Data from community studies on pedestrian injury, park use, transportation, and healthy food access were examined. This data suggests that individuals residing in low-income neighborhoods in Hawai'i experience higher barriers to the adoption of healthier behaviors. Further data is needed to document poverty-related gaps in the adoption of health behaviors among youth and within Hawai'i's ethnic groups, communities and geographic areas.

  10. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 + 0.7% and 8.8 + 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 + 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 + 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 + 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  11. A novel ribonuclease with potent HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity from cultured mushroom Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong-Chang; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Wang, He-Xiang

    2011-10-01

    A 20-kDa ribonuclease (RNase) was purified from fresh fruiting bodies of cultured Schizophyllum commune mushrooms. The RNase was not adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel but adsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and CM-cellulose. It exhibited maximal RNase activity at pH 6.0 and 70°C. It demonstrated the highest ribonucleolytic activity toward poly (U) (379.5 μ/mg), the second highest activity toward poly (C) (244.7 μ/mg), less activity toward poly (A) (167.4 μ/mg), and much weaker activity toward poly (G) (114.5 μ/mg). The RNase inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 65 μM. No effect on [(3)H-methyl]-thymidine uptake by lymphoma MBL2 cells and leukemia L1210 cells was observed at 100 μM concentration of the RNase. A comparison of RNases from S. commune and Volvariella volvacea revealed that they demonstrated some similarities in N-terminal amino acid sequence, optimum pH and polyhomoribonucleotide specificity. However, some differences in chromatographic behavior and molecular mass were observed.

  12. Growing plant in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Bula, R. J.; Tibbits, T. W.

    1989-01-01

    Space agencies in several countries are planning for the culture of plants in long duration space bases. The challenge of developing crop production procedures suitable for space projects will result in a new approach of problems we may meet today or in the near future in our common production systems. You may keep in mind subjects as: minimizing wastes or pollution problems, saving materials, introductions robotic helps. Discussion between scientists involved with food production for space programmes and protected horticultural cultivation may open new perspectives.

  13. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the essential oils from Pimpinellatragium Vill. subsp. glauca (C. Presl.) C. Brullo & Brullo (Apiaceae) growing wild in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Antonella; Bruno, Maurizio; Spadaro, Vivienne; Scialaba, Anna; Senatore, Felice; Oliviero, Filomena

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils from flowers, leaves and stems hydrodistilled from Pimpinella tragium Vill, subsp. glauca were characterised by GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The C-12 nor-sesquiterpenes are the principal class of metabolites (56.6-70.6%) among which geijerene (28.9÷49.3%) and pregeijerene (10÷19.1%) predominate. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration values indicate that oil obtained from the stems is the most active for antimicrobial activities and the sample with the biggest antioxidant capacity is the flower oil.

  14. Targeted SPECT/CT Imaging of Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in the Evaluation of Remodeling Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts Implanted in a Growing Lamb Model

    PubMed Central

    Stacy, Mitchel R.; Naito, Yuji; Maxfield, Mark W.; Kurobe, Hirotsugu; Tara, Shuhei; Chan, Chung; Rocco, Kevin A.; Shinoka, Toshiharu; Sinusas, Albert J.; Breuer, Christopher K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s) The clinical translation of tissue-engineered vascular grafts has been demonstrated in children. The remodeling of biodegradable, cell-seeded scaffolds to functional neovessels is partially attributed to matrix metalloproteinases. Noninvasive assessment of matrix metalloproteinase activity may indicate graft remodeling and elucidate the progression of neovessel formation. Therefore, matrix metalloproteinase activity was evaluated in grafts implanted in lambs using in vivo and ex vivo hybrid imaging. Graft growth and remodeling was quantified using in vivo X-ray computed tomography angiography. Methods Cell-seeded and unseeded scaffolds were implanted in lambs (n=5) as inferior vena cava interposition grafts. At 2 and 6 months post-implantation, in vivo angiography assessed graft morphology. In vivo and ex vivo single photon emission tomography/X-ray computed tomography imaging was performed with a radiolabeled compound targeting matrix metalloproteinase activity at 6 months. Neotissue was examined at 6 months using qualitative histologic and immunohistochemical staining and quantitative biochemical analysis. Results Seeded grafts demonstrated significant luminal and longitudinal growth from 2 to 6 months. In vivo imaging revealed subjectively higher matrix metalloproteinase activity in grafts vs. native tissue. Ex vivo imaging confirmed a quantitative increase in matrix metalloproteinase activity and demonstrated higher activity in unseeded vs. seeded grafts. Glycosaminoglycan content was increased in seeded grafts vs. unseeded grafts, without significant differences in collagen content. Conclusions Matrix metalloproteinase activity remains elevated in tissue-engineered grafts 6 months post-implantation and may indicate remodeling. Optimization of in vivo imaging to noninvasively evaluate matrix metalloproteinase activity may assist in serial assessment of vascular graft remodeling. PMID:24952823

  15. Correlations between social-emotional feelings and anterior insula activity are independent from visceral states but influenced by culture

    PubMed Central

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Damasio, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    The anterior insula (AI) maps visceral states and is active during emotional experiences, a functional confluence that is central to neurobiological accounts of feelings. Yet, it is unclear how AI activity correlates with feelings during social emotions, and whether this correlation may be influenced by culture, as studies correlating real-time AI activity with visceral states and feelings have focused on Western subjects feeling physical pain or basic disgust. Given psychological evidence that social-emotional feelings are cognitively constructed within cultural frames, we asked Chinese and American participants to report their feeling strength to admiration and compassion-inducing narratives during fMRI with simultaneous electrocardiogram recording. Trial-by-trial, cardiac arousal and feeling strength correlated with ventral and dorsal AI activity bilaterally but predicted different variance, suggesting that interoception and social-emotional feeling construction are concurrent but dissociable AI functions. Further, although the variance that correlated with cardiac arousal did not show cultural effects, the variance that correlated with feelings did. Feeling strength was especially associated with ventral AI activity (the autonomic modulatory sector) in the Chinese group but with dorsal AI activity (the visceral-somatosensory/cognitive sector) in an American group not of Asian descent. This cultural group difference held after controlling for posterior insula (PI) activity and was replicated. A bi-cultural East-Asian American group showed intermediate results. The findings help elucidate how the AI supports feelings and suggest that previous reports that dorsal AI activation reflects feeling strength are culture related. More broadly, the results suggest that the brain's ability to construct conscious experiences of social emotion is less closely tied to visceral processes than neurobiological models predict and at least partly open to cultural influence and

  16. Maintenance and induction of naphthalene degradation activity in Pseudomonas putida and an Alcaligenes sp. under different culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Guerin, W F; Boyd, S A

    1995-11-01

    The expression of xenobiotic-degradative genes in indigenous bacteria or in bacteria introduced into an ecosystem is essential for the successful bioremediation of contaminated environments. The maintenance of naphthalene utilization activity is studied in Pseudomonas putida (ATCC 17484) and an Alcaligenes sp. (strain NP-Alk) under different batch culture conditions. Levels of activity decreased exponentially in stationary phase with half-lives of 43 and 13 h for strains ATCC 17484 and NP-Alk, respectively. Activity half-lives were 2.7 and 5.3 times longer, respectively, in starved cultures than in stationary-phase cultures following growth on naphthalene. The treatment of starved cultures with chloramphenicol caused a loss of activity more rapid than that measured in untreated starved cultures, suggesting a continued enzyme synthesis in starved cultures in the absence of a substrate. Following growth in nutrient medium, activity decreased to undetectable levels in the Alcaligenes sp. but remained at measurable levels in the pseudomonad even after 9 months. The induction of naphthalene degradation activities in these cultures, when followed by radiorespirometry with 14C-labeled naphthalene as the substrate, was consistent with activity maintenance data. In the pseudomonad, naphthalene degradation activity was present constitutively at low levels under all growth conditions and was rapidly (in approximately 15 min) induced to high levels upon exposure to naphthalene. Adaptation in the uninduced Alcaligenes sp. occurred after many hours of exposure to naphthalene. In vivo labeling with 35S, to monitor the extent of de novo enzyme synthesis by naphthalene-challenged cells, provided an independent confirmation of the results.

  17. Maintenance and induction of naphthalene degradation activity in Pseudomonas putida and an Alcaligenes sp. under different culture conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, W.F.; Boyd, S.A.

    1995-11-01

    The expression of xenobiotic-degradative genes in indigenous bacteria or in bacteria introduced into an ecosystem is essential for the successful bioremediation of contaminated environments. The maintenance of naphthalene utilization activity is studied in Pseudomonas putida (ATCC 17484) and an Alcaligenes sp. (strain NP-Alk) under different batch culture conditions. Levels of activity decreased exponentially in stationary phase with half-lives of 43 and 13 h for strains ATCC 17484 nad NP-Alk, respectively. Activity half-lives were 2.7 and 5.3 times longer, respectively, in starved cultures than in stationary-phase cultures following growth on naphthalene. The treatment of starved cultures with chloramphenicol caused a loss of activity more rapid than that measured in untreated starved cultures, suggesting a continued enzyme synthesis in starved cultures in the absence of a substrate. Following growth in nutrient medium, activity decreased to undetectable levels in the Alcaligenes sp. but remained at measureable levels int he pseudomonad even after 9 months. The induction of naphthalene degradation activities in these cultures, when followed by radiorespirometry with {sup 14}C-labeled naphthalene as the substrate, was consistent with activity maintenance data. In the pseudomonad, naphthalene degradation activity was present constitutively at low levels under all growth conditions and was rapidly (in approximately 15 min) induced to high levels upon exposure to naphthalene. Adaptation in the uninduced Alcaligenes sp. occurred after many hours of exposure to naphthalene. In vivo labeling with {sup 35}S, to monitor the extent of de novo enzyme synthesis by naphthalene-challenged cells, provided an independent confirmation of the results. 43 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Screening chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils from Origanum syriacum L. growing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alma, Mehmet Hakki; Mavi, Ahmet; Yildirim, Ali; Digrak, Metin; Hirata, Toshifumi

    2003-12-01

    In the present study, essential oil from the leaves of Syrian oreganum [Origanum syriacum L. (Lauraceae)] grown in Turkish state forests of the Dortyol district, Turkey, was obtained by steam distillation. The chemical composition of oil was analysed by GC and GC-MS, and was found to contain 49.02% monoterpenes, 36.60% oxygenated monoterpenes and 12.59% sesquiterpenes. The major components are as follows: gamma-terpinene, carvacrol, p-cymene and beta-caryophyllene. Subsequently, the reducing power, antioxidant and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities of the essential oil were studied. The reducing power was compared with ascorbic acid, and the other activities were compared with 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol (BHT, butylated hydroxytoluene). The results showed that the activities were concentration dependent. The antioxidant activities of the oil were slightly lower than those of ascorbic acid or BHT, so the oil can be considered an effective natural antioxidant. Antimicrobial activities of the essential oil from the leaves of Origanum syriacum was also determined on 16 microorganisms tested using the agar-disc diffusion method, and showed antimicrobial activity against 13 of these.

  19. Enhanced Production of Anthraquinones and Phenolic Compounds and Biological Activities in the Cell Suspension Cultures of Polygonum multiflorum.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Lee, Taek-Jun; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chung, Ill-Min

    2016-11-16

    Anthraquinones (AQs) and phenolic compounds are important phytochemicals that are biosynthesized in cell suspension cultures of Polygonum multiflorum. We wanted to optimize the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs), media, sucrose, l-glutamine, jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) for the production of phytochemicals and biomass accumulation in a cell suspension culture of P. multiflorum. The medium containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts and 4% sucrose supplemented with 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0.5 mg/L thidiazuron, and 100 µM l-glutamine at 28 days of cell suspension culture was suitable for biomass accumulation and AQ production. Maximum biomass accumulation (12.5 and 12.35 g fresh mass (FM); 3 and 2.93 g dry mass (DM)) and AQ production (emodin 295.20 and 282 mg/g DM; physcion 421.55 and 410.25 mg/g DM) were observed using 100 µM JA and SA, respectively. JA- and SA-elicited cell cultures showed several-fold higher biomass accumulation and AQ production than the control cell cultures. Furthermore, the cell suspension cultures effectively produced 23 phenolic compounds, such as flavonols and hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. PGR-, JA-, and SA-elicited cell cultures produced a higher amount of AQs and phenolic compounds. Because of these metabolic changes, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities were high in the PGR-, JA-, and SA-elicited cell cultures. The results showed that the elicitors (JA and SA) induced the enhancement of biomass accumulation and phytochemical (AQs and phenolic compounds) production as well as biological activities in the cell suspension cultures of P. multiflorum. This optimized protocol can be developed for large-scale biomass accumulation and production of phytochemicals (AQs and phenolic compounds) from cell suspension cultures, and the phytochemicals can be used for various biological activities.

  20. Enhanced Production of Anthraquinones and Phenolic Compounds and Biological Activities in the Cell Suspension Cultures of Polygonum multiflorum

    PubMed Central

    Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Lee, Taek-Jun; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chung, Ill-Min

    2016-01-01

    Anthraquinones (AQs) and phenolic compounds are important phytochemicals that are biosynthesized in cell suspension cultures of Polygonum multiflorum. We wanted to optimize the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs), media, sucrose, l-glutamine, jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) for the production of phytochemicals and biomass accumulation in a cell suspension culture of P. multiflorum. The medium containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts and 4% sucrose supplemented with 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0.5 mg/L thidiazuron, and 100 µM l-glutamine at 28 days of cell suspension culture was suitable for biomass accumulation and AQ production. Maximum biomass accumulation (12.5 and 12.35 g fresh mass (FM); 3 and 2.93 g dry mass (DM)) and AQ production (emodin 295.20 and 282 mg/g DM; physcion 421.55 and 410.25 mg/g DM) were observed using 100 µM JA and SA, respectively. JA- and SA-elicited cell cultures showed several-fold higher biomass accumulation and AQ production than the control cell cultures. Furthermore, the cell suspension cultures effectively produced 23 phenolic compounds, such as flavonols and hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. PGR-, JA-, and SA-elicited cell cultures produced a higher amount of AQs and phenolic compounds. Because of these metabolic changes, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities were high in the PGR-, JA-, and SA-elicited cell cultures. The results showed that the elicitors (JA and SA) induced the enhancement of biomass accumulation and phytochemical (AQs and phenolic compounds) production as well as biological activities in the cell suspension cultures of P. multiflorum. This optimized protocol can be developed for large-scale biomass accumulation and production of phytochemicals (AQs and phenolic compounds) from cell suspension cultures, and the phytochemicals can be used for various biological activities. PMID:27854330

  1. Activity-induced internalization and rapid degradation of sodium channels in cultured fetal neurons

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    A regulatory mechanism for neuronal excitability consists in controlling sodium channel density at the plasma membrane. In cultured fetal neurons, activation of sodium channels by neurotoxins, e.g., veratridine and alpha-scorpion toxin (alpha-ScTx) that enhance the channel open state probability induced a rapid down-regulation of surface channels. Evidence that the initial step of activity-induced sodium channel down-regulation is mediated by internalization was provided by using 125I-alpha-ScTx as both a channel probe and activator. After its binding to surface channels, the distribution of 125I-alpha-ScTx into five subcellular compartments was quantitatively analyzed by EM autoradiography. 125I-alpha-ScTx was found to accumulate in tubulovesicular endosomes and disappear from the cell surface in a time-dependent manner. This specific distribution was prevented by addition of tetrodotoxin (TTX), a channel blocker. By using a photoreactive derivative to covalently label sodium channels at the surface of cultured neurons, we further demonstrated that they are degraded after veratridine-induced internalization. A time-dependent decrease in the amount of labeled sodium channel alpha subunit was observed after veratridine treatment. After 120 min of incubation, half of the alpha subunits were cleaved. This degradation was prevented totally by TTX addition and was accompanied by the appearance of an increasing amount of a 90-kD major proteolytic fragment that was already detected after 45-60 min of veratridine treatment. Exposure of the photoaffinity-labeled cells to amphotericin B, a sodium ionophore, gave similar results. In this case, degradation was prevented when Na+ ions were substituted by choline ions and not blocked by TTX. After veratridine- or amphotericin B-induced internalization of sodium channels, breakdown of the labeled alpha subunit was inhibited by leupeptin, while internalization was almost unaffected. Thus, cultured fetal neurons are capable of

  2. Measurement of Microbial DNA Polymerase Activity Enables Detection and Growth Monitoring of Microbes from Clinical Blood Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Zweitzig, Daniel R.; Riccardello, Nichol M.; Morrison, John; Rubino, Jason; Axelband, Jennifer; Jeanmonod, Rebecca; Sodowich, Bruce I.; Kopnitsky, Mark J.; O’Hara, S. Mark

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance of bloodstream infections (BSI) is a high priority within the hospital setting. Broth-based blood cultures are the current gold standard for detecting BSI, however they can require lengthy incubation periods prior to detection of positive samples. We set out to demonstrate the feasibility of using enzymatic template generation and amplification (ETGA)-mediated measurement of DNA polymerase activity to detect microbes from clinical blood cultures. In addition to routine-collected hospital blood cultures, one parallel aerobic blood culture was collected and immediately refrigerated until being transported for ETGA analysis. After refrigeration holding and transport, parallel-collected cultures were placed into a BACTEC incubator and ETGA time-course analysis was performed. Of the 308 clinical blood cultures received, 22 were BACTEC positive, and thus were initially selected for ETGA time course analysis. The ETGA assay detected microbial growth in all 22 parallel-positive blood cultures in less time than a BACTEC incubator and also yielded genomic DNA for qPCR-based organism identification. In summary, feasibility of detecting microbes from clinical blood culture samples using the ETGA blood culture assay was demonstrated. Additional studies are being considered towards development of clinically beneficial versions of this methodology. PMID:24155986

  3. Fluorescent-based evaluation of chaperone-mediated autophagy and microautophagy activities in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masahiro; Seki, Takahiro; Konno, Ayumu; Hirai, Hirokazu; Kurauchi, Yuki; Hisatsune, Akinori; Katsuki, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    The autophagy-lysosome protein degradation is further classified into macroautophagy (MA), microautophagy (mA), and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). While MA is involved in various functions and disease pathogenesis, little is known about CMA and mA because of the absence of easy methods to assess their activities. We have recently established a method to assess CMA activity using glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a CMA substrate, and HaloTag (HT) system. Another group has recently identified a mammalian mA pathway, in which substrates are delivered to late endosomes in an heat shock cognate protein (Hsc)70-dependent manner. Because Hsc70 is also involved in CMA, our method would detect both CMA and mA activities. In this study, we attempted to assess CMA and mA activities separately through the siRNA-mediated knockdown of CMA- and mA-related proteins. Knockdown of LAMP2A, a CMA-related protein, and TSG101, an mA-related protein, significantly but only partially decreased the punctate accumulation of GAPDH-HT in AD293 cells and primary cultured rat cortical neurons. Compounds that activate CMA significantly increased GAPDH-HT puncta in TSG101-knockdown cells, but not in LAMP2A-knockdown cells, suggesting that punctate accumulation of GAPDH-HT under LAMP2A- and TSG101-knockdown represents mA and CMA activities, respectively. We succeeded in establishing the method to separately evaluate CMA and mA activities by fluorescence observation.

  4. Glycosylated human oxyhaemoglobin activates nuclear factor-κB and activator protein-1 in cultured human aortic smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Peiró, Concepción; Matesanz, Nuria; Nevado, Julián; Lafuente, Nuria; Cercas, Elena; Azcutia, Verónica; Vallejo, Susana; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos F

    2003-01-01

    Diabetic vessels undergo structural changes that are linked to a high incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate cell signalling in the vasculature, where they can promote cell growth and activate redox-regulated transcription factors, like activator protein-1 (AP-1) or nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which are involved in remodelling and inflammation processes. Amadori adducts, formed through nonenzymatic glycosylation, can contribute to ROS formation in diabetes. In this study, we analysed whether Amadori-modified human oxyhaemoglobin, glycosylated at either normal (N-Hb) or elevated (E-Hb) levels, can induce cell growth and activate AP-1 and NF-κB in cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). E-Hb (1 nM–1 μM), but not N-Hb, promoted a concentration-dependent increase in cell size from nanomolar concentrations, although it failed to stimulate HASMC proliferation. At 10 nM, E-Hb stimulated both AP-1 and NF-κB activity, as assessed by transient transfection, electromobility shift assays or immunofluorescence staining. The effects of E-Hb resembled those of the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). E-Hb enhanced intracellular superoxide anions content and its effects on HASMC were abolished by different ROS scavengers. In conclusion, E-Hb stimulates growth and activates AP-1 and NF-κB in human vascular smooth muscle by redox-sensitive pathways, thus suggesting a possible direct role for Amadori adducts in diabetic vasculopathy. PMID:14504138

  5. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in Pinus mugo needles growing at elevated stands in the mountains, and their photochemical efficiency of PSII.

    PubMed

    Miszalski, Zbigniew; Libik, Marta; Surówka, Ewa; Niewiadomska, Ewa

    2005-08-01

    Pinus mugo needles were sampled at different altitudes (1420, 1590 and 1920 m a.s.l.) to analyse levels of oxidative stress and changes in maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that almost all superoxide dismutase activity represented Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, and only 4-6% represents Mn superoxide dismutase. In extracts from plants sampled at 1590 and 1920 m a.s.l., lower activity of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase was found. Comparing these data with immunoblots, it can be concluded that the differences in superoxide dismutase activity was related to protein amount. In needles from higher altitudes, a decrease in catalase activity was detected, as opposed to the protein amount, which was higher in needles from the higher stands. Considering the decrease in catalase and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase activities in needles collected at 1590 and 1920 m a.s.l., we suggest that higher levels of oxidative stress may induce changes in photochemical efficiency of PSII.

  6. Succinate dehydrogenase activity in cultured human skin fibroblasts and amniotic fluid cells. A methodological study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, T L; Andersen, H

    1983-01-01

    Through a methodological evaluation, reliable histochemical and biochemical methods for succinate dehydrogenase activity in cultured human skin fibroblasts and amniotic fluid cells were developed. The histochemical method includes a cleaning of the cultured cells in 1 mM malonate in 0.9% NaCl, air-drying and fixation in acetone (5 min at -20 degrees C), coating of cells with CoQ10 (0.2 mg/ml in ether/acetone) and incubation for 1 h at 37 degrees C in 50 mM succinate and 0.5 mg/ml Nitro BT in 200 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.6 PMS as an intermediate electron carrier was found inferior to exogenous CoQ10. Both types of cells exhibit equal activity. In the biochemical method homogenizing was performed in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5, and 200 mM sucrose. The standard incubation was 2.0 mM INT and 10 mM succinate in 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5 for 1 h at 37 degrees C. The apparent Km values for INT and succinate were estimated to 0.39 mM and 0.13 mM, respectively, while I0.5 for malonate was 0.46 mM. Activity in amniotic fluid cells was 18.1 pkat/mg protein and in human skin fibroblasts 20.3 pkat/mg protein. Specificity of the methods was tested by use of a Chinese hamster fibroblast strain B9 known to be succinate dehydrogenase deficient in addition to various control experiments. Congruent results were obtained with the two methods.

  7. Simulation of TGF-Beta Activation by Low-Dose HZE Radiation in a Cell Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    High charge (Z) and energy (E) (HZE) nuclei comprised in the galactic cosmic rays are main contributors to space radiation risk. They induce many lesions in living matter such as non-specific oxidative damage and the double-strand breaks (DSBs), which are considered key precursors of early and late effects of radiation. There is increasing evidence that cells respond collectively rather than individually to radiation, suggesting the importance of cell signaling1. The transforming growth factor (TGF ) is a signaling peptide that is expressed in nearly all cell type and regulates a large array of cellular processes2. TGF have been shown to mediate cellular response to DNA damage3 and to induce apoptosis in non-irradiated cells cocultured with irradiated cells4. TFG molecules are secreted by cells in an inactive complex known as the latency-associated peptide (LAP). TGF is released from the LAP by a conformational change triggered by proteases, thrombospondin-1, integrins, acidic conditions and .OH radical5. TGF then binds to cells receptors and activates a cascade of events mediated by Smad proteins6, which might interfere with the repair of DNA. Meanwhile, increasingly sophisticated Brownian Dynamics (BD) algorithms have appeared recently in the literature7 and can be applied to study the interaction of molecules with receptors. These BD computer models have contributed to the elucidation of signal transduction, ligand accumulation and autocrine loops in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EFGR) system8. To investigate the possible roles of TGF in an irradiated cell culture, our Monte-Carlo simulation codes of the radiation track structure9 will be used to calculate the activation of TFG triggered by .OH produced by low doses of HZE ions. The TGF molecules will then be followed by a BD algorithm in a medium representative of a cell culture to estimate the number of activated receptors.

  8. Diversity and Antimicrobial Activity of Culturable Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Moso Bamboo Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chun-Ju; Fan, Li; Gao, Jian; Hou, Cheng-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Bamboos, regarded as therapeutic agents in ethnomedicine, have been used to inhibit inflammation and enhance natural immunity for a long time in Asia, and there are many bamboo associated fungi with medical and edible value. In the present study, a total of 350 fungal strains were isolated from the uncommon moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) seeds for the first time. The molecular diversity of these endophytic fungi was investigated and bioactive compound producers were screened for the first time. All the fungal endophytes were categorized into 69 morphotypes according to culturable characteristics and their internal transcriber spacer (ITS) regions were analyzed by BLAST search with the NCBI database. The fungal isolates showed high diversity and were divided in Ascomycota (98.0%) and Basidiomycota (2.0%), including at least 19 genera in nine orders. Four particular genera were considered to be newly recorded bambusicolous fungi, including Leptosphaerulina, Simplicillium, Sebacina and an unknown genus in Basidiomycetes. Furthermore, inhibitory effects against clinical pathogens and phytopathogens were screened preliminarily and strains B09 (Cladosporium sp.), B34 (Curvularia sp.), B35 (undefined genus 1), B38 (Penicillium sp.) and zzz816 (Shiraia sp.) displayed broad-spectrum activity against clinical bacteria and yeasts by the agar diffusion method. The crude extracts of isolates B09, B34, B35, B38 and zzz816 under submerged fermentation, also demonstrated various levels of bioactivities against bambusicolous pathogenic fungi. This study is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with moso bamboo seeds, and the results show that they could be exploited as a potential source of bioactive compounds and plant defense activators. In addition, it is the first time that strains of Shiraia sp. have been isolated and cultured from moso bamboo seeds, and one of them (zzz816) could produce hypocrellin A at high yield, which is

  9. Effect of NSAIDs on the aminopeptidase activity of cultured human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Lucena, G; Reyes-Botella, C; García-Martínez, O; Ramos-Torrecillas, J; De Luna Bertos, E; Ruiz, C

    2016-05-05

    Aminopeptidases (APs) are involved in various physiological and pathological processes. In tumor tissues the expression of APs, cyclooxygenase-2 and its metabolites are increased. The objective was to determine the effect of certain NSAIDs on the AP activity of osteoblasts. Primary cultures of osteoblast were treated with different concentrations of indomethacin, meloxicam, naproxen, nimesulide, and piroxicam. The AP activity was fluorimetrically determined using aminoacyl-β-naphthylamides (aa-βNAs) as substrates: Ala-βNA, Arg-βNA, Gly-βNA, Leu-βNA, Lys-βNA, Met-βNA, and Phe-βNA. The five NSAIDs showed an inhibitory effect of AP activity against the study substrates depending on the dose tested. Meloxicam and piroxicam had the highest inhibitory effect on enzymatic activity, with an IC50 of around 70 μM. Our results suggest that the physiological alteration of osteoblasts in the presence of NSAIDs may be a consequence of AP inhibition, suggesting a potential clinical role for these drugs against cancer in combination with chemotherapeutic agents.

  10. Nitrogen-regulated transcription and enzyme activities in continuous cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    ter Schure, E G; Silljé, H H; Raeven, L J; Boonstra, J; Verkleij, A J; Verrips, C T

    1995-05-01

    Variations in the transcription of nitrogen-regulated genes and in the activities of nitrogen-regulated enzymes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied by changing the carbon and nitrogen fluxes. S. cerevisiae was grown in continuous culture at various dilution rates (D) under nitrogen limitation with NH4Cl as sole nitrogen source. With an increase in D from 0.05 to 0.29 h-1, both the glucose and the ammonia flux increased sixfold. The activities of the two ammonia-incorporating enzymes, NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NADPH-GDH) and glutamine synthetase (GS), encoded by GDH1 and GLN1, respectively, increased with increasing D, while the activity of the glutamate-degrading enzyme, NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH), decreased. Surprisingly, no changes were observed in the transcription of GDH1 and GLN1; however increased D was accompanied by an increase in GAP1 transcription. At the metabolite level, the increase in the glucose and nitrogen flux did not result in changes in the intracellular 2-oxoglutarate, glutamate or glutamine concentrations. It is shown that growth on ammonia alone is not sufficient to cause repression of GAP1 and GLN1 transcription and that the regulation of GAP1 transcription and both NADPH-GDH and GS activity is not an on/off switch, but is gradually modulated in correlation with the ammonia concentration.

  11. Growing for different ends.

    PubMed

    Catts, Oron; Zurr, Ionat

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative biology are usually discussed in relation to biomedical research and applications. However, hand in hand with developments of this field in the biomedical context, other approaches and uses for non-medical ends have been explored. There is a growing interest in exploring spin off tissue engineering and regenerative biology technologies in areas such as consumer products, art and design. This paper outlines developments regarding in vitro meat and leather, actuators and bio-mechanic interfaces, speculative design and contemporary artistic practices. The authors draw on their extensive experience of using tissue engineering for non-medical ends to speculate about what lead to these applications and their possible future development and uses. Avoiding utopian and dystopian postures and using the notion of the contestable, this paper also mentions some philosophical and ethical consideration stemming from the use of non-medical approaches to tissue constructs. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation.

  12. [Growing old differently: Transdisciplinary perspective].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, H-P

    2015-04-01

    Growing old differently: the phrase is intended to call something other to mind than merely the fact that images and forms of old age and aging have multiplied and diversified to an enormous extent. The suggestion put forward here is that otherness (as opposed to mere differences) should be positively reinforced. In other words, it is not just a matter of noting different forms of old age and aging but more than this, of seeking out opportunities for aging differently. In order to explore this, the article follows an older strand of theory, which has recently come to be frequently quoted in gerontology: the phenomenology of difference as reasoned analytically by Lévinas and Sartre and applied to gerontology by Améry and de Beauvoir. Here, opportunities for aging crucially depend on the way we look at it, how we observe and describe it and not least, how gerontology frames it. A distinction is made between two perspectives and their associated consequences for old age: alienation and alterity. Alienation means looking at old age above all as a disconcerting "other", as a perplexing, problematic deviation from the norm of vitality. Alterity, by contrast, refers to different options for living life in old age: options to be explored and opened up in contradistinction to cultural or academic alienation. Not least, the article appeals for diversity in scholarly approaches and for cross-disciplinary perspectives.

  13. Platelet activating factors alters calcium homeostasis in cultured vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, T.A.; Gimbrone, M.A. Jr.

    1986-06-01

    Platelet activating factor (1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphorylcholine; PAF), a potent in vivo mediator of allergic and inflammatory reactions, induced a rapid (onset less than 30 s), concentration-dependent (threshold approximately 10(-11) M, half-maximal approximately 10(-10) M, maximal approximately 10(-8)-10(-7) M) efflux of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ from preloaded cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). In contrast, deacetylated and other PAF analogues were essentially ineffective. PAF (10(-7) M) was also shown to increase cytosolic free calcium (49 +/- 5%) in suspensions of quin 2 (calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye)-loaded BAEC. PAF-stimulated /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux was not blocked by aspirin treatment (100 or 500 microM, 30 min). In the absence of external calcium, PAF was still highly effective in stimulating unidirectional /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux, thus suggesting that PAF mobilized a sequestered pool of intracellular calcium. CV-3988, a PAF antagonist, inhibited PAF-stimulated /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of BAEC with PAF (10(-8) M, 15 min), but not with other PAF analogues, resulted in a decrease in subsequent PAF-stimulated /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux, thus suggesting an agonist-specific desensitization. PAF also stimulated a 30% net decrease in the equilibrium /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ content of BAEC within 1 min, which gradually recovered to prestimulus levels in 10-15 min. PAF-stimulated /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux was also observed in endothelial cells cultured from human umbilical vein and baboon cephalic vein but not from cultured human dermal fibroblasts or bovine aortic smooth muscle. These studies provide direct evidence for agonist- and cell-specific effects of PAF on vascular endothelium.

  14. Correlation between chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from fifteen Eucalyptus species growing in the Korbous and Jbel Abderrahman arboreta (North East Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Elaissi, Ameur; Rouis, Zyed; Mabrouk, Samia; Salah, Karima Bel Haj; Aouni, Mahjoub; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi; Farhat, Farhat; Chemli, Rachid; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2012-03-12

    The essential oils of fifteen Eucalyptus species harvested from the Jbel Abderrahman and Korbous arboreta (North East Tunisia) were screened for their antibacterial activities by the agar disc diffusion method. Eighteen major components as identified by GC/FID and GC/MS were selected for a study of the chemical and biological activity variability. The main one was 1,8-cineole, followed by spathulenol, trans-pinocarveol, α-pinene, p-cymene, globulol, cryptone, β-phellandrene, viridiflorol, borneol, limonene and isospathulenol. The chemical principal component analysis identified five species groups and subgroups, where each group constituted a chemotype, however that of the values of zone diameter of the inhibition (zdi) identified six groups of Eucalyptus oils, characterized by their antibacterial inhibition ability. The strongest activity was shown by E. platypus oil against Enterococcus faecalis and by E. lamannii oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. A correlation between the levels of some major components and the antibacterial activities was observed.

  15. Astronomy for a Better World: IAU Office of Astronomy for Development Activities to Grow and Advance Astronomy Education and Research at Universities in the Developing World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Kolenberg, Katrien

    2016-10-01

    In 2012, the International Astronomical Union (IAU), through its Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD), established the three Task Forces which drive global activities using astronomy as a tool to stimulate development. These Task Forces are: (i) Astronomy for Universities and Research; (ii) Astronomy for Children and Schools; and (iii) Astronomy for the Public.

  16. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils from wild growing aromatic plant species of Skimmia laureola and Juniperus macropoda from Western Himalaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Himalayan region is very rich in a great variety of medicinal plants. In this investigation the essential oils of two selected species are described for their antimicrobial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the odors are characterized. Analyzed by simultaneous ...

  17. Seeing How Money Grows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, James

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity designed to help students connect the ideas of linear growth and exponential growth through graphs of the future value of accounts that earn simple interest and accounts that earn compound interest. Includes worksheets and solutions. (KHR)

  18. Our Growing Planet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lener, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Discusses population growth in the U.S. and questions the appropriate time to teach about environmental protection to elementary school students. Introduces activities on conservation, natural resources, and endangered species. (YDS)

  19. Garbage Grows Great Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittain, Alexander N.

    1996-01-01

    Describes activities in which students explore composting. Enables students to learn that all organic material returns naturally to the earth through a process of decomposition that involves many living organisms. (JRH)

  20. Base excision repair activities in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Rolseth, Veslemøy; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Neurauter, Christine Gran; Yndestad, Arne; Luna, Luisa; Aukrust, Pål; Ottersen, Ole Petter; Bjørås, Magnar

    2008-06-01

    The capacity for DNA repair is likely to be one of the factors that determine the vulnerability of neurons to ischemic stress and may influence the pathological outcome of stroke. In this report, initiation of base excision repair (BER) was assessed by analysis of enzyme activity and gene expression level of DNA glycosylases and AP-endonucleases in rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) - an in vitro model of stroke. Under basal conditions, AP-endonuclease activity and base removal of ethenoadenine and 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) were higher (by approximately 20-35 %) in CA3/fascia dentata (FD) than in CA1. Base removal of uracil did not differ between the two hippocampal regions, while removal of 5-hydroxyuracil (5-OHU) was slightly less efficient in CA3/FD than in CA1. Analyses performed immediately after 30 min of OGD revealed a decreased AP-endonuclease activity (by approximately 20%) in CA1 as well as CA3/FD, and an increased ethenoadenine activity (by approximately 25%) in CA1. Activities for 8-oxoG, 5-OHU and uracil showed no significant changes at this time point. At 8h after OGD, none of the enzyme activities differed from control values. Real-time RT-PCR showed that transcription of DNA glycosylases, including Ogg1, Nth1, Ung, Aag, Neil1 and Neil2 were not changed in response to OGD treatment (t=0 h). The hippocampal expression of Neil2 was low compared with the other DNA glycosylases. These data indicate that CA1 has a lower capacity than CA3/FD for removal of base lesions under basal conditions. The relatively low capacity for BER in basal conditions and the apparent failure to upregulate repair of oxidative damage after OGD might contribute to the high vulnerability of CA1 to ischemic injury.

  1. Ergosterol Is the Active Compound of Cultured Mycelium Cordyceps sinensis on Antiliver Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yuan; Tao, Yanyan; Wang, Qinglan; Shen, Li; Yang, Tao; Liu, Zulong; Liu, Chenghai

    2014-01-01

    Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis (CMCS) is a Chinese herbal medicine, which is widely used for a variety of diseases including liver injury in clinic. The current study aims to investigate the protective effects of CMCS against liver fibrosis and to exploit its active antifibrotic substances in vivo and in vitro. For evaluating the antifibrotic effect of CMCS and ergosterol, male C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and treated with CMCS (120 mg/kg/d) or ergosterol (50 mg/kg/d). Four weeks later, serum liver function, hepatic hydroxyproline (Hyp) content, liver inflammation, collagen deposition, and expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in liver tissue were evaluated. Besides, toxicological effects of active compounds of CMCS on hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were detected and expressions of permeability of the lysosomal membrane, EdU, F-actin, and α-SMA of activated HSCs were analyzed to screen the antifibrotic substance in CMCS in vitro. Our results showed that CMCS could significantly alleviate levels of serum liver functions, attenuate hepatic inflammation, decrease collagen deposition, and relieve levels of α-SMA in liver, respectively. Ergosterol, the active compound in CMCS that was detected by HPLC, played a dose-dependent inhibition role on activated HSCs via upregulating expressions of permeability of the lysosomal membrane and downregulating levels of EdU, F-actin, and α-SMA on activated HSCs in vitro. Moreover, ergosterol revealed the antifibrotic effect alike in vivo. In conclusion, CMCS is effective in alleviating liver fibrosis induced by CCl4 and ergosterol might be the efficacious antifibrotic substance in CMCS in vivo and in vitro. PMID:25386220

  2. Antifungal activity change of Streptomyces rimosus MY02 mediated by confront culture with other microorganism.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jicheng; Liu, Qiu; Chen, Chao; Qi, Xiaohui

    2017-03-01

    Streptomyces rimosus can produce antibacterial and antifungal antibiotics, which have important applications in medicine and agriculture. Seventy-nine microbial strains were employed to assay interaction between S. rimosus MY02 and different fungi, actinomyces, and bacteria when confront cultured on solid media. The results showed that the presence of a microorganism might affect the activity of another one. When S. rimosus MY02 confront cultured with other microorganisms, the inductive effect might be positive or negative. In this study, fungi showed to be effective elicitors, with a highest inductivity rate of 90.1%, and all of fungi showed positive induction behavior. Followed by bacteria with 59.6% of the tested bacterial strains showing positive inductivity, and the highest inductivity was 54.9%. Only six actinomyces (counting for 40% of the tested actinomyces strains) showed positive inductivity, and the highest induction rate of the strain NK413 was 34.1%. We also found that growth of most of bacteria or actinomyces which showed negative inductivity were similar or better than that of the strain MY02. However, the growth status of the strains was not positive related to inducing ability directly.

  3. The use of activity-based cost estimation as a management tool for cultural change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt; Bilby, Curt

    1991-01-01

    It will be shown that the greatest barrier to American exploration of the planet Mars is not the development of the technology needed to deliver humans and return them safely to earth. Neither is it the cost of such an undertaking, as has been previously suggested, although certainly, such a venture may not be inexpensive by some measures. The predicted costs of exploration have discouraged serious political dialog on the subject. And, in fact, even optimistic projections of the NASA budget do not contain the resources required, under the existing development and management paradigm, for human space exploration programs. It will be demonstrated that the perception of the costs of such a venture, and the cultural responses to the perceptions are factors inhibiting American exploration of the moon and the planet Mars. Cost models employed in the aerospace industry today correctly mirror the history of past space programs, and as such, are representative of the existing management and development paradigms. However, if, under this current paradigm no major exploration programs are feasible, then cost analysis methods based in the past may not have great utility in exploring the needed cultural changes. This paper explores the use of a new type of model, the activity based cost model, which will treat management style as an input variable, in a sense providing a tool whereby a complete, affordable program might be designed, including both the technological and management aspects.

  4. Rosmarinic acid and antioxidant enzyme activities in Lavandula vera MM cell suspension culture: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Milen; Abrashev, Radoslav; Krumova, Ekaterina; Demirevska, Klimentina; Ilieva, Mladenka; Angelova, Maria

    2009-11-01

    The growth and intracellular protein content of lavender (Lavandula vera MM) cell suspension culture was followed along with some antioxidant defense system members-non-enzymatic (rosmarinic acid) and enzymatic [superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6)]. It was found that the media content and the cultivation mode strongly influenced the production of plant defense compounds as well as the ratio between non-enzymatic and enzymatic ones. The bioreactor culture contains about two times more rosmarinic acid, superoxide dismutase, and catalase compared to the shake-flask cultivation. These findings are discussed with respect to the relative stress levels and plant antioxidant orchestra system. It was concluded that investigated defense system components (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) were closely associated in a complex balance. The three isoenzyme forms of SOD (Cu/ZnSOD, FeSOD, and MnSOD) in the cells of Lavandula vera were revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, and the FeSOD isoform exhibited highest activity.

  5. Oxalic Acid from Lentinula edodes Culture Filtrate: Antimicrobial Activity on Phytopathogenic Bacteria and Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, A-Min; Lee, In-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Yeop

    2016-01-01

    The culture filtrate of Lentinula edodes shows potent antimicrobial activity against the plant pathogenic bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum. Bioassay-guided fractionation was conducted using Diaion HP-20 column chromatography, and the insoluble active compound was not adsorbed on the resin. Further fractionation by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) suggested that the active compounds were organic acids. Nine organic acids were detected in the culture filtrate of L. edodes; oxalic acid was the major component and exhibited antibacterial activity against nine different phytopathogenic bacteria. Quantitative analysis by HPLC revealed that the content of oxalic acid was higher in the water extract from spent mushroom substrate than in liquid culture. This suggests that the water extract of spent L. edodes substrate is an eco-friendly control agent for plant diseases. PMID:28154495

  6. The Ethico-Moral Nature of Identity: Prolegomena to the Development of Third-Generation Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-01-01

    Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), which had been termed the best-held secret of education about 15 years ago, has had an exponential growth over the past three decades. Because it thematizes largely the structural aspects of activity systems, the theory only recently has been developed to include emotional, motivational, and…

  7. Katimavik Participant's Manual, Book VII, Socio-Cultural Activities = Katimavik manuel du participant, cahier VII, activites socio-culturelles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OPCAN, Montreal (Quebec).

    The bilingual student manual, devoted to the socio-cultural learning activity portion of Katimavik (a nine-month volunteer community service and experiential learning program for 17 to 21 year old Canadians), contains sections on learning program objectives and trimester guidelines, optional activities, resume recordkeeping, general topic…

  8. The Impact of Institutional Culture on Student Activism: A Multi-Case Study in Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    This study contributes to the description and meaning of student activism within the context of Christian college environments and cultures, and is interpreted through the sociological concept of symbolic interactionism. The purpose of this study is to help fill the void in the literature on student activism at Christian colleges and universities,…

  9. Growing Research Among Osteopathic Residents and Medical Students: A Consortium-Based Research Education Continuum Model.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Grace D

    2016-05-01

    In general, physicians' interest in research continues to be a challenge. The lack of research culture is more pronounced in the osteopathic medical profession, which is historically not research oriented. With increasing focus on evidence-based medicine and with the single accreditation system for graduate medical education in motion, growing research and scholarly activities among osteopathic physicians and students and residents becomes imperative. This article illustrates how an educational consortium, such as an osteopathic postdoctoral training institution, can play a pivotal role in creating a culture of research through broad-based training of medical students and residents.

  10. How Do Galaxies Grow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-08-01

    Astronomers have caught multiple massive galaxies in the act of merging about 4 billion years ago. This discovery, made possible by combining the power of the best ground- and space-based telescopes, uniquely supports the favoured theory of how galaxies form. ESO PR Photo 24/08 ESO PR Photo 24/08 Merging Galaxies in Groups How do galaxies form? The most widely accepted answer to this fundamental question is the model of 'hierarchical formation', a step-wise process in which small galaxies merge to build larger ones. One can think of the galaxies forming in a similar way to how streams merge to form rivers, and how these rivers, in turn, merge to form an even larger river. This theoretical model predicts that massive galaxies grow through many merging events in their lifetime. But when did their cosmological growth spurts finish? When did the most massive galaxies get most of their mass? To answer these questions, astronomers study massive galaxies in clusters, the cosmological equivalent of cities filled with galaxies. "Whether the brightest galaxies in clusters grew substantially in the last few billion years is intensely debated. Our observations show that in this time, these galaxies have increased their mass by 50%," says Kim-Vy Tran from the University of Zürich, Switzerland, who led the research. The astronomers made use of a large ensemble of telescopes and instruments, including ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Hubble Space Telescope, to study in great detail galaxies located 4 billion light-years away. These galaxies lie in an extraordinary system made of four galaxy groups that will assemble into a cluster. In particular, the team took images with VIMOS and spectra with FORS2, both instruments on the VLT. From these and other observations, the astronomers could identify a total of 198 galaxies belonging to these four groups. The brightest galaxies in each group contain between 100 and 1000 billion of stars, a property that makes them comparable

  11. Growing Galaxies Gently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  12. Cultural-historical activity theory: Vygotsky's forgotten and suppressed legacy and its implication for mathematics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-03-01

    Cultural-historical activity theory—with historical roots in dialectical materialism and the social psychology to which it has given rise—has experienced exponential growth in its acceptance by scholars interested in understanding knowing and learning writ large. In education, this theory has constituted something like a well kept secret that is only in the process of gaining larger levels of acceptance. Mathematics educators are only beginning to realise the tremendous advantages that the theory provides over other theories. In this review essay, I articulate the theory as it may relate to the issues that concern mathematics education and educators with a particular focus on the way in which it addresses logical contradictions in existing theories.

  13. Terpenoids with alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity from the submerged culture of Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Ying, You-Min; Zhang, Lin-Yan; Zhang, Xia; Bai, Hai-Bo; Liang, Dong-E; Ma, Lie-Feng; Shan, Wei-Guang; Zhan, Zha-Jun

    2014-12-01

    Lanostane-type triterpenoids, inotolactones A and B, a drimane-type sesquiterpenoid, inotolactone C, and five known terpenoids 6β-hydroxy-trans-dihydroconfertifolin, inotodiol, 3β,22-dihydroxyanosta-7,9(11),24-triene, 3β-hydroxycinnamolide, and 17-hydroxy-ent-atisan-19-oic acid, were isolated from the submerged culture of chaga mushroom, Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were characterized by spectroscopic methods, including MS and NMR (1D and 2D) spectroscopic techniques. Inotolactones A and B, examples of lanostane-type triterpenoids bearing α,β-dimethyl, α,β-unsaturated δ-lactone side chains, exhibited more potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities than the positive control acarbose. This finding might be related to the anti-hyperglycemic properties of the fungus and to its popular role as a diabetes treatment. In addition, a drimane-type sesquiterpenoid and an atisane-type diterpenoid were isolated from I. obliquus.

  14. The Detour of an Obstetric Technology: Active Management of Labor Across Cultures.

    PubMed

    Maffi, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Active management of labor (AML) is an obstetric technology developed in Ireland in the 1970s to accelerate labor in nulliparous women. This technology achieved rapid success in Great Britain and in English-speaking countries outside America, which adopted it before many other states around the world. In this article, I explore AML's technical and social characteristics when it was first designed, and then examine its local inflections in a Jordanian and a Swiss maternity hospital to shed light on the ways its transnational circulation modifies its script. I argue that its application is shaped by local material constraints and specific sociocultural configurations, gender regimes, and hospital cultures. Finally, I make a comparative analysis of AML practices in these two settings and in the foundational textbook to disentangle the technical and sociocultural components modeling its local applications.

  15. Neferine inhibits cultured hepatic stellate cell activation and facilitates apoptosis: A possible molecular mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hui; Shi, Jinghong; Wang, Ying; Guo, Jia; Zhao, Juhui; Dong, Lei

    2011-01-10

    Neferine is a major alkaloid component of "Lian Zi Xin", embryos of the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner, Nymphaeaceae. Previous studies have shown that neferine has an inhibitory effect on pulmonary fibrosis through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities and inhibition of cytokines and NF-κB. However, it is unknown whether neferine also has an inhibitory effect on liver fibrosis through inhibition of TGF-β1 and collagen I and facilitation of apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells. This study examined the effects of neferine on cultured hepatic stellate (HSC-T6) cells and explored its possible action mechanisms by means of MTT assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow-cytometric annexin V-PI assay and Hoechst 33258 staining, as well as real-time PCR and western blotting. The results showed that neferine administration (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10μmol/l) significantly decreased the TGF-β1 and collagen I produced in HSC-T6 cells, and increased the HSC-T6 cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Neferine treatment for 48h at concentrations of 6 and 10μmol/l significantly increased Bax and caspase 3 mRNAs and proteins, and reduced Bcl2 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) mRNAs and proteins. Our data indicate that neferine efficiently inhibits cultured HSC-T6 cell activation and induces apoptosis by increasing Bax and caspase 3 expression via the mitochondrial pathway.

  16. Comparison of Selective Culturing and Biochemical Techniques for Measuring Biological Activity in Geothermal Process Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Pryfogle, Peter Albert

    2000-09-01

    For the past three years, scientists at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have been conducting studies aimed at determining the presence and influence of bacteria found in geothermal plant cooling water systems. In particular, the efforts have been directed at understanding the conditions that lead to the growth and accumulation of biomass within these systems, reducing the operational and thermal efficiency. Initially, the methods selected were based upon the current practices used by the industry and included the collection of water quality parameters, the measurement of soluble carbon, and the use of selective medial for the determination of the number density of various types of organisms. This data has been collected on a seasonal basis at six different facilities located at the Geysers’ in Northern California. While this data is valuable in establishing biological growth trends in the facilities and providing an initial determination of upset or off-normal conditions, more detailed information about the biological activity is needed to determine what is triggering or sustaining the growth in these facilities in order to develop improved monitoring and treatment techniques. In recent years, new biochemical approaches, based upon the analyses of phospholipid fatty acids and DNA recovered from environmental samples, have been developed and commercialized. These techniques, in addition to allowing the determination of the quantity of biomass, also provide information on the community composition and the nutritional status of the organisms. During the past year, samples collected from the condenser effluents of four of the plants from The Geysers’ were analyzed using these methods and compared with the results obtained from selective culturing techniques. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the cost-benefit of implementing these techniques for tracking microbial activity in the plant study, in place of the selective culturing

  17. Insecticidal Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Culture Filtrates of Mangrove Fungal Endophytes

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Silva; Basukriadi, Adi; Pawiroharsono, Suyanto

    2015-01-01

    In the search for novel potent fungi-derived bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications, crude ethyl acetate culture filtrate extracts from 110 mangrove fungal endophytes were screened for their toxicity. Toxicity tests of all extracts against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were performed. The extracts with the highest toxicity were further examined for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura larvae and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity. The results showed that the extracts of five isolates exhibited the highest toxicity to brine shrimp at 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 7.45 to 10.24 ppm. These five fungal isolates that obtained from Rhizophora mucronata were identified based on sequence data analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA as Aspergillus oryzae (strain BPPTCC 6036), Emericella nidulans (strains BPPTCC 6035 and BPPTCC 6038), A. tamarii (strain BPPTCC 6037), and A. versicolor (strain BPPTCC 6039). The mean percentage of S. litura larval mortality following topical application of the five extracts ranged from 16.7% to 43.3%. In the AChE inhibition assay, the inhibition rates of the five extracts ranged from 40.7% to 48.9%, while eserine (positive control) had an inhibition rate of 96.8%, at a concentration of 100 ppm. The extracts used were crude extracts, so their potential as sources of AChE inhibition compounds makes them likely candidates as neurotoxins. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the five extracts differed, indicating variations in their chemical constituents. This study highlights the potential of culture filtrate ethyl acetate extracts of mangrove fungal endophytes as a source of new potential bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications. PMID:26190921

  18. Insecticidal Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Culture Filtrates of Mangrove Fungal Endophytes.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Silva; Basukriadi, Adi; Pawiroharsono, Suyanto; Sjamsuridzal, Wellyzar

    2015-06-01

    In the search for novel potent fungi-derived bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications, crude ethyl acetate culture filtrate extracts from 110 mangrove fungal endophytes were screened for their toxicity. Toxicity tests of all extracts against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were performed. The extracts with the highest toxicity were further examined for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura larvae and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity. The results showed that the extracts of five isolates exhibited the highest toxicity to brine shrimp at 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 7.45 to 10.24 ppm. These five fungal isolates that obtained from Rhizophora mucronata were identified based on sequence data analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA as Aspergillus oryzae (strain BPPTCC 6036), Emericella nidulans (strains BPPTCC 6035 and BPPTCC 6038), A. tamarii (strain BPPTCC 6037), and A. versicolor (strain BPPTCC 6039). The mean percentage of S. litura larval mortality following topical application of the five extracts ranged from 16.7% to 43.3%. In the AChE inhibition assay, the inhibition rates of the five extracts ranged from 40.7% to 48.9%, while eserine (positive control) had an inhibition rate of 96.8%, at a concentration of 100 ppm. The extracts used were crude extracts, so their potential as sources of AChE inhibition compounds makes them likely candidates as neurotoxins. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the five extracts differed, indicating variations in their chemical constituents. This study highlights the potential of culture filtrate ethyl acetate extracts of mangrove fungal endophytes as a source of new potential bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications.

  19. Expression of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C isoenzymes in cultured astrocytes activated after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Lo Vasco, Vincenza Rita; Fabrizi, Cinzia; Fumagalli, Lorenzo; Cocco, L

    2010-04-01

    Signal transduction pathways, involved in cell cycle and activities, depend on various components including lipid signalling molecules, such as phosphoinositides and related enzymes. Many evidences support the hypothesis that inositol lipid cycle is involved in astrocytes activation during neurodegeneration. Previous studies investigated the pattern of expression of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) family isoforms in astrocytes, individuating in cultured neonatal rat astrocytes, supposed to be quiescent cells, the absence of some isoforms, accordingly to their well known tissue specificity. The same study was conducted in cultured rat astrocytoma C6 cells and designed a different pattern of expression of PI-PLCs in the neoplastic counterpart, accordingly to literature suggesting a PI signalling involvement in tumour progression. It is not clear the role of PI-PLC isoforms in inflammation; recent data demonstrate they are involved in cytokines production, with special regard to IL-6. PI-PLCs expression in LPS treated neonatal rat astrocytes performed by using RT-PCR, observed at 3, 6, 18 and 24 h intervals, expressed: PI-PLC beta1, beta4 and gamma1 in all intervals analysed; PI-PLC delta1 at 6, 18 and 24 h; PI-PLC delta3 at 6 h after treatment. PI-PLC beta3, delta4 and epsilon, present in untreated astrocytes, were not detected after LPS treatment. Immunocytochemical analysis, performed to visualize the sub-cellular distribution of the expressed isoforms, demonstrated different patterns of localisation at different times of exposure. These observations suggest that PI-PLCs expression and distribution may play a role in ongoing inflammation process of CNS.

  20. Examining Cultural Correlates of Active Coping Among African American Female Trauma Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Sharma, Sakshi; Knighton, Joi Sheree’; Oser, Carrie B.; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2013-01-01

    African American women are at a greater risk for exposure to multiple traumatic events and are less likely to seek mental health services than White women. Many women report avoidant and passive coping strategies placing them at an increased risk for lower psychological adjustment. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to examine the role of culturally relevant factors such as spirituality, self-esteem, and social support as significant correlates of John Henryism Active Coping among African American female trauma survivors. The study utilized secondary data from the B-WISE project (Black Women in a Study of Epidemics) with a sample of 161 community-based African American women with a self-reported history of trauma. Results indicate that participants with higher self-esteem and existential well-being were more likely to cope actively with daily life stressors. However, socio-demographics were not significant correlates of John Henryism Active Coping at the multivariate level. Implications for clinical practice are discussed along with the Strong Black Woman (SBW) ideology, which may explain over-reporting of positive attributes such as self-esteem and existential well-being. Limitations of the study and directions of future research are also discussed. PMID:25180071

  1. Properties of osmolyte fluxes activated during regulatory volume decrease in cultured cerebellar granule neurons.

    PubMed

    Pasantes-Morales, H; Chacón, E; Murray, R A; Morán, J

    1994-04-15

    Efflux pathways for amino acids, K, and Cl activated during regulatory volume decrease (RVD) were characterized in cultured cerebellar granule neurons exposed to hyposmotic conditions. Results of this study favor diffusion pores (presumably channels) over energy-dependent transporters as the mechanisms responsible for the efflux of these osmolytes. The selectivity of osmolyte pathways activated by RVD was assessed by increasing the extracellular concentrations of cations, anions, and amino acids to such an extent that upon opening of the pathway, a permeable compound will enter the cell and block RVD by reducing the efflux of water carried by the exit of intracellular osmolytes. The cationic pathway was found selective for K (and Rb), whereas the anionic pathway was rather unselective being permeable to Cl, nitrate, iodine, benzoate, thiocyanate, and sulfate but impermeable to gluconate. Glutamate and aspartate as K but not as Na salts were permeable through the anion channel. RVD was slightly inhibited by quinidine but otherwise was insensitive to known K channel blockers. RVD was inhibited by 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2-2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), niflumic acid, and dipyridamole. Gramicidin did not affect cell volume in isosmotic conditions but greatly accelerated RVD, suggesting that cell permeability to Cl is low in isosmotic conditions but increases markedly during RVD making K permeability the rate limit of the process. The permeability pathway for amino acids activated during RVD as permeable to short chain alpha- and beta-amino acids, but excluded glutamine and basic amino acids.

  2. Effects of cultural medium on the formation and antitumor activity of polysaccharides by Cordyceps gunnii.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Liu, Xiao-Cui; Tang, Ya-Li; Dong, Feng-Ying; Sun, Hui-Qing; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2016-10-01

    The effects of culture medium composition (i.e., carbon and nitrogen sources) on the growth of mycelia, molecular weight distribution and antitumor activity of intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) from Cordyceps gunnii were investigated. Sucrose and peptone were proved to be the best carbon and nitrogen sources for mycelia growth and remarkably improved IPS production. When the sucrose concentration was 2.0%, the mycelium yield reached up to 15.94±1.26 g/L, but with lower IPS yield; whereas the sucrose concentration was 4.5%, IPS yield reached to a maximum of 138.78±3.89 mg/100 mL. The effects of different carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios with equal amounts of carbon source matter on the mycelia and IPS formation were optimized. It found that the yield of mycelia and IPS were both reached to the highest at a C/N ratio of 10:3. In addition, the IPS had the highest macro molecular polysaccharide content and antitumor activity when sucrose concentration was 3.5% and the C/N ratio was 10:1.5. Thus, there was a positive correlation between molecular weight distribution and antitumor activity of IPS by C. gunnii.

  3. Modulation of voltage-activated channels by calcitonin gene-related peptide in cultured rat neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Zona, C; Farini, D; Palma, E; Eusebi, F

    1991-01-01

    1. Whole-cell currents were recorded from cultures of dissociated neocortical neurones of the rat. Rat alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP; 1 nM-1 microM) caused significant dose-dependent decreases in the voltage-activated transient (A-current) and delayed rectifier K+ currents. Forskolin (10 nM-20 microM) mimicked this effect. Peak K+ currents were gradually decreased after loading neurones with cyclic AMP (100 microM) through patch pipettes. CGRP was ineffective in neurones loaded with cyclic AMP. 2. CGRP (0.5-2 microM) increased cytosolic cyclic AMP concentration and this effect was mimicked by forskolin (5-40 microM). 3. CGRP (0.1-1 microM) reduced high-threshold Ca2+ currents; as did forskolin (5-20 microM) and cyclic AMP loaded into the neurones. In contrast, low-threshold Ca2+ currents were not affected by any of these agents. 4. Voltage-activated Na+ currents were significantly reduced by both CGRP (0.1-1 microM) and forskolin (5-20 microM). A similar effect was observed when cells were loaded with cyclic AMP. 5. We conclude that, in neocortical neurones, CGRP attenuates voltage-activated currents by stimulating the intracellular cyclic AMP signalling system. PMID:1726796

  4. Selective enrichment and production of highly urease active bacteria by non-sterile (open) chemostat culture.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2013-10-01

    In general, bioprocesses can be subdivided into naturally occurring processes, not requiring sterility (e.g., beer brewing, wine making, lactic acid fermentation, or biogas digestion) and other processes (e.g., the production of enzymes and antibiotics) that typically require a high level of sterility to avoid contaminant microbes overgrowing the production strain. The current paper describes the sustainable, non-sterile production of an industrial enzyme using activated sludge as inoculum. By using selective conditions (high pH, high ammonia concentration, and presence of urea) for the target bacterium, highly active ureolytic bacteria, physiologically resembling Sporosarcina pasteurii were reproducibly enriched and then continuously produced via chemostat operation of the bioreactor. When using a pH of 10 and about 0.2 M urea in a yeast extract-based medium, ureolytic bacteria developed under aerobic chemostat operation at hydraulic retention times of about 10 h with urease levels of about 60 μmol min⁻¹ ml⁻¹ culture. For cost minimization at an industrial scale the costly protein-rich yeast extract medium could be replaced by commercial milk powder or by lysed activated sludge. Glutamate, molasses, or glucose-based media did not result in the enrichment of ureolytic bacteria by the chemostat. The concentration of intracellular urease was sufficiently high such that the produced raw effluent from the reactor could be used directly for biocementation in the field.

  5. Sociocultural perspectives on physical activity in the lives of older African American and American Indian women: a cross cultural activity participation study.

    PubMed

    Henderson, K A; Ainsworth, B E

    2000-01-01

    Illuminating the diversity and sociocultural specificity of women's experiences may be important if healthy lifestyles and quality of life are to be achieved. The incidence of cardiovascular disease linked to physical inactivity is high among African American and American Indian women. If more is understood about the experience of physical activity involvement, healthier living might be encouraged. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the sociocultural meanings of physical activity for older (over the age of 40 years) African American and American Indian women who participated in the Cross Cultural Activity Participation Study (CAPS). Through qualitative in-depth interviews, we explored how sociocultural perspectives are related to perceptions about physical activity. Gender and other sociocultural factors influenced physical involvement on a continuum from negligible to significant. Both groups interviewed showed evidence that opportunities for physical activity in their free time did not always exist for them. For African American women, history and daily living issues were important factors limiting their involvement. Marginality limited American Indian women, but their cultural pride was often a source of physical activity. The juxtaposition of cultural and personal values emerged as a determinant of physical activity involvement among the women in this study. A further expansion of cultural and personal life situation perspectives is recommended to help understand the complex dimensions of physical activity as it relates to healthy living.

  6. Hydroponic Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steucek, G. L.; Yurkiewicz, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a hydroponic culture technique suitable for student exercises in biology. This technique of growing plants in nutrient solutions enhances plant growth, and is an excellent way to obtain intact plants with root systems free of soil or other particulate matter. (JR)

  7. Programmed cell death activated by Rose Bengal in Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension cultures requires functional chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Jorge; González-Pérez, Sergio; García-García, Francisco; Daly, Cara T.; Lorenzo, Óscar; Revuelta, José L.; McCabe, Paul F.; Arellano, Juan B.

    2014-01-01

    Light-grown Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture (ACSC) were subjected to mild photooxidative damage with Rose Bengal (RB) with the aim of gaining a better understanding of singlet oxygen-mediated defence responses in plants. Additionally, ACSC were treated with H2O2 at concentrations that induced comparable levels of protein oxidation damage. Under low to medium light conditions, both RB and H2O2 treatments activated transcriptional defence responses and inhibited photosynthetic activity, but they differed in that programmed cell death (PCD) was only observed in cells treated with RB. When dark-grown ACSC were subjected to RB in the light, PCD was suppressed, indicating that the singlet oxygen-mediated signalling pathway in ACSC requires functional chloroplasts. Analysis of up-regulated transcripts in light-grown ACSC, treated with RB in the light, showed that both singlet oxygen-responsive transcripts and transcripts with a key role in hormone-activated PCD (i.e. ethylene and jasmonic acid) were present. A co-regulation analysis proved that ACSC treated with RB exhibited higher correlation with the conditional fluorescence (flu) mutant than with other singlet oxygen-producing mutants or wild-type plants subjected to high light. However, there was no evidence for the up-regulation of EDS1, suggesting that activation of PCD was not associated with the EXECUTER- and EDS1-dependent signalling pathway described in the flu mutant. Indigo Carmine and Methylene Violet, two photosensitizers unable to enter chloroplasts, did not activate transcriptional defence responses in ACSC; however, whether this was due to their location or to their inherently low singlet oxygen quantum efficiencies was not determined. PMID:24723397

  8. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Bupleurum fontanesii (Apiaceae) Growing Wild in Sicily and its Activity on Microorganisms Affecting Historical Art Crafts.

    PubMed

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Federica; Senatore, Felice

    2016-01-01

    Hydrodistillation of the flowers (BpFI) of and fruits (BpFr) of Bupleurumfontanesii Guss. ex Caruel gave two oils that were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The main components were α-elemol (16.7%), caryophyllene oxide (16.4%) and heptacosane (15.9%) in BpFl, and spathulenol (16.8%), caryophylladienol I (13.2%) and α-elemol (12.8%) in BpFr. A good antimicrobial activity against several microorganisms, including Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus niger, all infesting historical art craft, was also determined.

  9. Composition of the Essential Oil of Allium neapolitanum Cirillo Growing Wild in Sicily and its Activity on Microorganisms Affecting Historical Art Crafts.

    PubMed

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Federica; Senatore, Felice

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of the aerial parts of Allium neapolitanum Cirillo collected in Sicily were analyzed by gas-chromatography-flame-ionization detection and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nineteen compounds were identified in the oil and the main components were found to be (E)-chrysanthenyl acetate (28.1%), (Z)-chrysanthenyl acetate (23.8%), (E)-β-farnesene (9.6%), dimethyl trisulfide (9.6%), camphor (7.4%), methyl allyl disulfide (6.8%) and 1-methyl-3-allyl trisulfide (5.8%). The essential oil showed good antimicrobial activity against 11 strains of test microorganisms, including several species infesting historical material.

  10. Never Stop Growing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Learning is a lifelong process. That's something career and technical educators are always telling their students, but through their professional development activities they are also practicing what they are preaching. Why is professional development so important? According to the U.S. Department of Education initiative "Building Bridges: The…

  11. Growing without Schooling, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffer, Susannah, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These six bimonthly issues focus on home schooling, providing parents in the United States and other nations with ideas, activities, research, and resources to teach their children at home. Each issue contains short news items and reports on home schooling, letters from parents, letter on the challenges and concerns of home schooling, a focus…

  12. See How They Grow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandy, Marlin Robert

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory activities which encourage students to develop and test hypotheses related to the effects of changing environmental factors on plant growth. Uniform (fair) testing and careful observation and measurement, supplemented by graphing, are emphasized as important in reaching valid conclusions. (JM)

  13. Carbenoxolone blockade of neuronal network activity in culture is not mediated by an action on gap junctions

    PubMed Central

    Rouach, N; Segal, M; Koulakoff, A; Giaume, C; Avignone, E

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous activity in the central nervous system is strongly suppressed by blockers of gap junctions (GJs), suggesting that GJs contribute to network activity. However, the lack of selective GJ blockers prohibits the determination of their site of action, i.e. neuronal versus glial. Astrocytes are strongly coupled through GJs and have recently been shown to modulate synaptic transmission, yet their role in neuronal network activity was not analysed. The present study investigated the effects and site of action of the GJ blocker, carbenoxolone (CBX), on neuronal network activity. To this end, we used cultures of hippocampal or cortical neurons, plated on astrocytes. In these cultures neurons display spontaneous synchronous activity and GJs are found only in astrocytes. CBX induced in these neurons a reversible suppression of spontaneous action potential discharges, synaptic currents and synchronised calcium oscillations. Moreover, CBX inhibited oscillatory activity induced by the GABAA antagonist, bicuculline. These effects were not due to blockade of astrocytic GJs, since they were not mimicked nor occluded by endothelin-1 (ET-1), a peptide known to block astrocytic GJs. Also, these effects were still present in co-cultures of wild-type neurons plated on astrocytes originating from connexin-43 (Cx43) knockout mice, and in neuronal cultures which contain few isolated astrocytes. CBX was not likely to exert its effect through neuronal GJs either, as immunostaining for major neuronal connexins (Cx) as well as dye or electrical coupling, were not detected in the different models of cultured neurons examined. Finally while CBX (at 100 μm) did not modify presynaptic transmitter release and postsynaptic responses to glutamate, it did cause an increase in the action potential threshold and strongly decreased the firing rate in response to a sustained depolarising current. These data demonstrate that CBX does not exert its action on network activity of cultured neurons

  14. Hovenia dulcis Thunb Extract and Its Ingredient Methyl Vanillate Activate Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway and Increase Bone Mass in Growing or Ovariectomized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Pu-Hyeon; Shin, Wookjin; Zahoor, Muhammad; Kim, Hyun-Yi; Min, Do Sik; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2014-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a potential target for development of anabolic agents to treat osteoporosis because of its role in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. However, there is no clinically available anti-osteoporosis drug that targets this Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In this study, we screened a library of aqueous extracts of 350 plants and identified Hovenia dulcis Thunb (HDT) extract as a Wnt/β-catenin pathway activator. HDT extract induced osteogenic differentiation of calvarial osteoblasts without cytotoxicity. In addition, HDT extract increased femoral bone mass without inducing significant weight changes in normal mice. In addition, thickness and area of femoral cortical bone were also significantly increased by the HDT extract. Methyl vanillate (MV), one of the ingredients in HDT, also activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and induced osteoblast differentiation in vitro. MV rescued trabecular or cortical femoral bone loss in the ovariectomized mice without inducing any significant weight changes or abnormality in liver tissue when administrated orally. Thus, natural HDT extract and its ingredient MV are potential anabolic agents for treating osteoporosis. PMID:24465596

  15. Contact zoonosis related to aquaculture: a growing concern

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture develops fast worldwide, with new cultured species and increased global transport of live aquaculture products. There is a growing recognition of zoonotic disease agents causing epidemics and carrier states in cultured fish and shellfish, especially from warm water systems, transmitted t...

  16. Growing with the wind

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Maximiliano J; Acevedo, Julieta M; Wappner, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    In this Extra View we comment on our recent work on Sudestada1 (Sud1), a Drosophila 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenase that belongs to the Ribosomal Oxygenase (ROX) subfamily. Sud1 is required for normal growth in Drosophila, and is conserved in yeast and mammals. We reported that Sud1 hydroxylates the ribosomal protein S23 (RPS23), and that its loss of function restricts growth and provokes activation of the unfolded protein response, apoptosis and autophagy. In this Extra View we speculate on the role that RPS23 hydroxylation might play in stop codon recognition and on the possible link between Sud1 loss-of-function and activation of the Unfolded Protein Response, Stress Granules formation and growth impairment. PMID:25482726

  17. 75 FR 42818 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Collection of Safety Culture Data for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ...; Collection of Safety Culture Data for Program Evaluation AGENCY: Research & Innovative Technology... Culture Data for Program Evaluation. Type of Request: Approval of a new information collection. OMB... separate OMB approval for the collection of the remaining safety culture surveys because of changes to...

  18. Interaction of electrically evoked activity with intrinsic dynamics of cultured cortical networks with and without functional fast GABAergic synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Baltz, Thomas; Voigt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The modulation of neuronal activity by means of electrical stimulation is a successful therapeutic approach for patients suffering from a variety of central nervous system disorders. Prototypic networks formed by cultured cortical neurons represent an important model system to gain general insights in the input–output relationships of neuronal tissue. These networks undergo a multitude of developmental changes during their maturation, such as the excitatory–inhibitory shift of the neurotransmitter GABA. Very few studies have addressed how the output properties to a given stimulus change with ongoing development. Here, we investigate input–output relationships of cultured cortical networks by probing cultures with and without functional GABAAergic synaptic transmission with a set of stimulation paradigms at various stages of maturation. On the cellular level, low stimulation rates (<15 Hz) led to reliable neuronal responses; higher rates were increasingly ineffective. Similarly, on the network level, lowest stimulation rates (<0.1 Hz) lead to maximal output rates at all ages, indicating a network wide refractory period after each stimulus. In cultures aged 3 weeks and older, a gradual recovery of the network excitability within tens of milliseconds was in contrast to an abrupt recovery after about 5 s in cultures with absent GABAAergic synaptic transmission. In these GABA deficient cultures evoked responses were prolonged and had multiple discharges. Furthermore, the network excitability changed periodically, with a very slow spontaneous change of the overall network activity in the minute range, which was not observed in cultures with absent GABAAergic synaptic transmission. The electrically evoked activity of cultured cortical networks, therefore, is governed by at least two potentially interacting mechanisms: A refractory period in the order of a few seconds and a very slow GABA dependent oscillation of the network excitability. PMID:26236196

  19. Determination of the cellulase activity distribution in Clostridium thermocellum and Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis cultures using a fluorescent substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.; Elkins, James G.; Wang, Zhi-Wu

    2015-05-30

    This study took advantage of resorufin cellobioside as a fluorescent substrate to determine the distribution of cellulase activity in cellulosic biomass fermentation systems. Cellulolytic biofilms were found to express nearly four orders greater cellulase activity compared to planktonic cultures of Clostridium thermocellum and Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis, which can be primarily attributed to the high cell concentration and surface attachment. The formation of biofilms results in cellulases being secreted close to their substrates, which appears to be an energetically favorable stategy for insoluble substrate utilization. For the same reason, cellulases should be closely associated with the surfaces of suspended cell in soluble substrate-fed culture, which has been verified with cellobiose-fed cultures of C. thermocellum and C. obsidiansis. This study addressed the importance of cellulase activity distribution in cellulosic biomass fermentation, and provided theoretical foundation for the leading role of biofilm in cellulose degradation. System optimization and reactor designs that promote biofilmformation in cellulosic biomass hydrolysismay promise an improved cellulosic biofuel process.

  20. An ideal oocyte activation protocol and embryo culture conditions for somatic cell nuclear transfer using sheep oocytes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hiren; Chougule, Shruti; Chohan, Parul; Shah, Naval; Bhartiya, Deepa

    2014-10-01

    Pluripotent stem cells are possibly the best candidates for regenerative medicine, and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is one of the viable options to make patient-specific embryonic stem cells. Till date efficacy of SCNT embryos is very low and requires further improvement like ideal oocyte activation and in vitro culture system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate ideal oocyte activation using different stimulation protocols and to study the effect of cumulus co-culture conditions on embryo development. Results demonstrate that between electric stimulation and chemical stimulation using calcium ionomycin and ionophore, best oocyte activation was obtained using calcium ionomycin (5 microM for 5 min) which resulted in 83% cleavage followed by 7% of early blastocyst which further increased to 15% when a cumulus bed was also introduced during embryo culture. Sequential modified Charles Rosenkrans 2 (mCR2) medium was used for embryo culture in which glucose levels were increased from 1 mM to 5 mM from Day 3 onwards. SCNT using cumulus cells as donor somatic cell, calcium ionomycin to activate the reconstructed oocyte and embryo culture on a cumulus bed in sequential mCR2 medium, resulted in the development of 6% embryos to early blastocyst stage. Such technological advances will make SCNT a viable option to make patient-specific pluripotent stem cell lines in near future.

  1. RNA-seq-mediated transcriptome analysis of actively growing and winter dormant shoots identifies non-deciduous habit of evergreen tree tea during winters.

    PubMed

    Paul, Asosii; Jha, Ashwani; Bhardwaj, Shruti; Singh, Sewa; Shankar, Ravi; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-08-04

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is a perennial tree which undergoes winter dormancy and unlike deciduous trees, the species does not shed its leaves during winters. The present work dissected the molecular processes operating in the leaves during the period of active growth and winter dormancy through transcriptome analysis to understand a long-standing question: why should tea be a non-deciduous species? Analyses of 24,700 unigenes obtained from 57,767 primarily assembled transcripts showed (i) operation of mechanisms of winter tolerance, (ii) down-regulation of genes involved in growth, development, protein synthesis and cell division, and (iii) inhibition of leaf abscission due to modulation of senescence related processes during winter dormancy in tea. These senescence related processes exhibited modulation to favour leaf abscission (i) in deciduous Populus tremula during winters, and (ii) also in tea but under osmotic stress during which leaves also abscise. These results validated the relevance of the identified senescence related processes for leaf abscission and suggested their operation when in need in tea.

  2. HST WFC3/IR OBSERVATIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS HOST GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2: SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES GROW IN DISK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, C. Megan; Treister, Ezequiel; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Simmons, Brooke; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2011-02-01

    We present the rest-frame optical morphologies of active galactic nucleus (AGN) host galaxies at 1.5 < z < 3, using near-infrared imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, the first such study of AGN host galaxies at these redshifts. The AGNs are X-ray-selected from the Chandra Deep Field South and have typical luminosities of 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}

  3. GC-MS Analysis: In Vivo Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. Growing in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Said, Mansour S.; Mothana, Ramzi A.; Al-Yahya, Mohammed M.; Rafatullah, Syed; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed O.; Khaled, Jamal M.; Alatar, Abdulrahman; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Kurkcuoglu, Mine; Baser, Husnu C.

    2016-01-01

    Liver disease is a worldwide problem. It represents one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in humans. Achillea biebersteinii is used as herbal remedy for various ailments including liver diseases. But the scientific basis for its medicinal use remains unknown. Thus, this research was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of A. biebersteinii essential oil (ABEO) (0.2 mL/kg) in the amelioration of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rodent model. Moreover, the chemical content of the oil was investigated using GC and GC-MS. The following biochemical parameters were evaluated: serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (γ-GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin. Furthermore, lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA), nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH), and total protein (TP) contents in liver tissue were estimated. 44 components (92.0%) of the total oil have been identified by GC-MS analysis where α-terpinene and p-cymene were the most abundant. The high serum enzymatic (GOT, GPT, GGT, and ALP) and bilirubin concentrations as well as the level of MDA, NP-SH, and TP contents in liver tissues were significantly reinstated towards normalization by the ABEO. Histopathological study further confirmed these findings. In addition, ABEO showed mild antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. PMID:27293452

  4. Linking Expression of Fructan Active Enzymes, Cell Wall Invertases and Sucrose Transporters with Fructan Profiles in Growing Taproot of Chicory (Cichorium intybus): Impact of Hormonal and Environmental Cues

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hongbin; Bausewein, Anja; Steininger, Heike; Su, Tao; Zhao, Hongbo; Harms, Karsten; Greiner, Steffen; Rausch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In chicory taproot, the inulin-type fructans serve as carbohydrate reserve. Inulin metabolism is mediated by fructan active enzymes (FAZYs): sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST; fructan synthesis), fructan:fructan-1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT; fructan synthesis and degradation), and fructan 1-exohydrolases (1-FEH1/2a/2b; fructan degradation). In developing taproot, fructan synthesis is affected by source-to-sink sucrose transport and sink unloading. In the present study, expression of FAZYs, sucrose transporter and CWI isoforms, vacuolar invertase and sucrose synthase was determined in leaf blade, petiole and taproot of young chicory plants (taproot diameter: 2 cm) and compared with taproot fructan profiles for the following scenarios: (i) N-starvation, (ii) abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, (iii) ethylene treatment (via 1-aminoyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid [ACC]), and (iv) cold treatment. Both N-starvation and ABA treatment induced an increase in taproot oligofructans. However, while under N-starvation this increase reflected de novo synthesis, under ABA treatment gene expression profiles indicated a role for both de novo synthesis and degradation of long-chain fructans. Conversely, under ACC and cold treatment oligofructans slightly decreased, correlating with reduced expression of 1-SST and 1-FFT and increased expression of FEHs and VI. Distinct SUT and CWI expression profiles were observed, indicating a functional alignment of SUT and CWI expression with taproot fructan metabolism under different source-sink scenarios. PMID:27994611

  5. Biological activities of indoleacetylamino acids and their use as auxins in tissue culture

    SciTech Connect

    Hangarter, R.P.; Peterson, M.D.; Good, N.E.

    1980-05-01

    The auxin activities of a number of indoleacetylamino acid conjugates have been determined in three test systems: growth of tomato hypocotyl explants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Marglobe); growth of tobacco callus cultures (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Wisconsin 38); and ethylene production from pea stems (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska). The activities of the conjugates differ greatly depending on the amino acid moiety. Indoleacetyl-L-alanine supports rapid callus growth from the tomato hypocotyls while inhibiting growth of shoots and roots. Indoleacetlyglycine behaves in a similar manner but is somewhat less effective in supporting callus growth and in inhibiting growth of shoots and roots. Indoleacetylglycine behaves in a similar manner but is somewhat less effective in supporting callus growth and in inhibiting shoot formation. The other amino acid conjugates tested (valine, leucine, aspartic acid, threonine, methionine, phenylalanine, and proline) support shoot formation without supporting root formation or much callus growth. The tobacco callus system, which forms abundant shoots in the presence or absence of free indoleacetic acid, produces only rapid undifferentiated growth in the presence of indoleacetyl-L-alanine and indoleacetylglycine. The other conjugates inhibit shoot formatin weakly if at all. Most of the conjugates induce sustained ethylene production from the pea stems but at rates well below the initial rates observed with free indoleacetic acid. Many, but not all of the effects of conjugates such as indoleacetyl-L-alanine can be mimicked by frequent renewals of the supply of free indoleacetic acid.

  6. High in vitro antibacterial activity of Pac-525 against Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms cultured on titanium.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-yin; Wang, Xue-jin; Wang, Li-na; Ying, Xiao-xia; Ren, Xiang; Liu, Hui-ying; Xu, Li; Ma, Guo-wu

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the potential of short antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as alternative antibacterial agents during the treatment of peri-implantitis, the cytotoxic activity of three short AMPs, that is, Pac-525, KSL-W, and KSL, was determined using the MTT assay. The antimicrobial activity of these AMPs, ranging in concentration from 0.0039 mg/mL to 0.5 mg/mL, against the predominant planktonic pathogens, including Streptococcus sanguis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, involved in peri-implantitis was investigated. Furthermore, 2-day-old P. gingivalis biofilms cultured on titanium surfaces were treated with Pac-525 and subsequently observed and analysed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The average cell proliferation curve indicated that there was no cytotoxicity due to the three short AMPs. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of Pac-525 were 0.0625 mg/mL and 0.125 mg/mL, respectively, for P. gingivalis and 0.0078 mg/mL and 0.0156 mg/mL, respectively, for F. nucleatum. Using CLSM, we confirmed that compared to 0.1% chlorhexidine, 0.5 mg/mL of Pac-525 caused a significant decrease in biofilm thickness and a decline in the percentage of live bacteria. These data indicate that Pac-525 has unique properties that might make it suitable for the inhibition the growth of pathogenic bacteria around dental implants.

  7. Tetrodotoxin-insensitive Na+ channel activator palytoxin inhibits tyrosine uptake into cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, K.; Teraoka, K.; Azuma, M.; Oka, M.; Hamano, S. )

    1991-07-01

    The effects of the tetrodotoxin-insensitive Na+ channel activator palytoxin on both the secretion of endogenous catecholamines and the formation of 14C-catecholamines from (14C)tyrosine were examined using cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Palytoxin was shown to cause the stimulation of catecholamine secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. However, this toxin caused the reduction rather than the stimulation of 14C-catecholamine formation at the same concentrations. Palytoxin failed to cause any alteration in the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase prepared from bovine adrenal medulla. Furthermore, the uptake of (14C)tyrosine into the cells was shown to be inhibited by this toxin under the conditions in which the suppression of 14C-catecholamine formation was observed, and this inhibitory action on tyrosine uptake was closely correlated with that on catecholamine formation. The inhibitory action of palytoxin on tyrosine uptake into the cells was observed to be noncompetitive, and this effect was not altered by the removal of Na+ from the incubation mixture. These results suggest that palytoxin may be able to inhibit the uptake of (14C)tyrosine into the cells, resulting in the suppression of 14C-catecholamine formation, probably through its direct action on the plasma membranes of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.

  8. Biological activities of indoleacetylamino acids and their use as auxins in tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Hangarter, R P; Peterson, M D; Good, N E

    1980-05-01

    THE AUXIN ACTIVITIES OF A NUMBER OF INDOLEACETYLAMINO ACID CONJUGATES HAVE BEEN DETERMINED IN THREE TEST SYSTEMS: growth of tomato hypocotyl explants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Marglobe); growth of tobacco callus cultures (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Wisconsin 38); and ethylene production from pea stems (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska). The activities of the conjugates differ greatly depending on the amino acid moiety. Indoleacetyl-l-alanine supports rapid callus growth from the tomato hypocotyls while inhibiting growth of shoots and roots. Indoleacetylglycine behaves in a similar manner but is somewhat less effective in supporting callus growth and in inhibiting shoot formation. The other amino acid conjugates tested (valine, leucine, aspartic acid, threonine, methionine, phenylalanine, and proline) support shoot formation without supporting root formation or much callus growth. The tobacco callus system, which forms abundant shoots in the presence or absence of free indoleacetic acid, produces only rapid undifferentiated growth in the presence of indoleacetyl-l-alanine and indoleacetylglycine. The other conjugates inhibit shoot formation weakly if at all. Most of the conjugates induce sustained ethylene production from the pea stems but at rates well below the initial rates observed with free indoleacetic acid. Many, but not all of the effects of conjugates such as indoleacetyl-l-alanine can be mimicked by frequent renewals of the supply of free indoleacetic acid.

  9. Biological Activities of Indoleacetylamino Acids and Their Use as Auxins in Tissue Culture 1

    PubMed Central

    Hangarter, Roger P.; Peterson, Michael D.; Good, Norman E.

    1980-01-01

    The auxin activities of a number of indoleacetylamino acid conjugates have been determined in three test systems: growth of tomato hypocotyl explants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Marglobe); growth of tobacco callus cultures (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Wisconsin 38); and ethylene production from pea stems (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska). The activities of the conjugates differ greatly depending on the amino acid moiety. Indoleacetyl-l-alanine supports rapid callus growth from the tomato hypocotyls while inhibiting growth of shoots and roots. Indoleacetylglycine behaves in a similar manner but is somewhat less effective in supporting callus growth and in inhibiting shoot formation. The other amino acid conjugates tested (valine, leucine, aspartic acid, threonine, methionine, phenylalanine, and proline) support shoot formation without supporting root formation or much callus growth. The tobacco callus system, which forms abundant shoots in the presence or absence of free indoleacetic acid, produces only rapid undifferentiated growth in the presence of indoleacetyl-l-alanine and indoleacetylglycine. The other conjugates inhibit shoot formation weakly if at all. Most of the conjugates induce sustained ethylene production from the pea stems but at rates well below the initial rates observed with free indoleacetic acid. Many, but not all of the effects of conjugates such as indoleacetyl-l-alanine can be mimicked by frequent renewals of the supply of free indoleacetic acid. Images PMID:16661279

  10. Diversity, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of culturable bacterial endophyte communities in Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Akinsanya, Mushafau Adewale; Goh, Joo Kheng; Lim, Siew Ping; Ting, Adeline Su Yien

    2015-12-01

    Twenty-nine culturable bacterial endophytes were isolated from surface-sterilized tissues (root, stem and leaf) of Aloe vera and molecularly characterized to 13 genera: Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Pantoea, Chryseobacterium, Sphingobacterium, Aeromonas, Providencia, Cedecea, Klebsiella, Cronobacter, Macrococcus and Shigella. The dominant genera include Bacillus (20.7%), Pseudomonas (20.7%) and Enterobacter (13.8%). The crude and ethyl acetate fractions of the metabolites of six isolates, species of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Chryseobacterium and Shigella, have broad spectral antimicrobial activities against pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes and Candida albicans, with inhibition zones ranging from 6.0 ± 0.57 to 16.6 ± 0.57 mm. In addition, 80% of the bacterial endophytes produced 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with scavenging properties of over 75% when their crude metabolites were compared with ascorbic acid (92%). In conclusion, this study revealed for the first time the endophytic bacteria communities from A. vera (Pseudomonas hibiscicola, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Enterobacter ludwigii, Bacillus anthracis) that produce bioactive compounds with high DPPH scavenging properties (75-88%) and (Bacillus tequilensis, Pseudomonas entomophila, Chryseobacterium indologenes, Bacillus aerophilus) that produce bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activities against bacterial pathogens. Hence, we suggest further investigation and characterization of their bioactive compounds.

  11. Electroosmotic sampling. Application to determination of ectopeptidase activity in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongjuan; Guy, Yifat; Hamsher, Amy; Shi, Guoyue; Sandberg, Mats; Weber, Stephen G

    2010-08-01

    We hypothesize that peptide-containing solutions pulled through tissue should reveal the presence and activity of peptidases in the tissue. Using the natural zeta-potential in the organotypic hippocampal slice culture (OHSC), physiological fluids can be pulled through the tissue with an electric field. The hydrolysis of the peptides present in the fluid drawn through the tissue can be determined using capillary HPLC with electrochemical detection of the biuret complexes of the peptides following a postcolumn reaction. We have characterized this new sampling method by measuring the flow rate, examining the use of internal standards, and examining cell death caused by sampling. The sampling flow rate ranges from 60 to 150 nL/min with a 150 microm (ID) sampling capillary with an electric field (at the tip of the capillary) from 30 to 60 V/cm. Cell death can be negligible with controlled sampling conditions. Using this sampling approach, we have electroosmotically pulled Leu-enkephalin through OHSCs to identify ectopeptidase activity in the CA3 region. These studies show that a bestatin-sensitive aminopeptidase may be critical for the hydrolysis of exogenous Leu-enkephalin, a neuropeptide present in the CA3 region of OHSCs.

  12. Human proximal tubule epithelial cells cultured on hollow fibers: living membranes that actively transport organic cations.

    PubMed

    Jansen, J; De Napoli, I E; Fedecostante, M; Schophuizen, C M S; Chevtchik, N V; Wilmer, M J; van Asbeck, A H; Croes, H J; Pertijs, J C; Wetzels, J F M; Hilbrands, L B; van den Heuvel, L P; Hoenderop, J G; Stamatialis, D; Masereeuw, R

    2015-11-16

    The bioartificial kidney (BAK) aims at improving dialysis by developing 'living membranes' for cells-aided removal of uremic metabolites. Here, unique human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell (ciPTEC) monolayers were cultured on biofunctionalized MicroPES (polyethersulfone) hollow fiber membranes (HFM) and functionally tested using microfluidics. Tight monolayer formation was demonstrated by abundant zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein expression along the tight junctions of matured ciPTEC on HFM. A clear barrier function of the monolayer was confirmed by limited diffusion of FITC-inulin. The activity of the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) in ciPTEC was evaluated in real-time using a perfusion system by confocal microscopy using 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP(+)) as a fluorescent substrate. Initial ASP(+) uptake was inhibited by a cationic uremic metabolites mixture and by the histamine H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine. In conclusion, a 'living membrane' of renal epithelial cells on MicroPES HFM with demonstrated active organic cation transport was successfully established as a first step in BAK engineering.

  13. Human proximal tubule epithelial cells cultured on hollow fibers: living membranes that actively transport organic cations

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, J.; De Napoli, I. E; Fedecostante, M.; Schophuizen, C. M. S.; Chevtchik, N. V.; Wilmer, M. J.; van Asbeck, A. H.; Croes, H. J.; Pertijs, J. C.; Wetzels, J. F. M.; Hilbrands, L. B.; van den Heuvel, L. P.; Hoenderop, J. G.; Stamatialis, D.; Masereeuw, R.

    2015-01-01

    The bioartificial kidney (BAK) aims at improving dialysis by developing ‘living membranes’ for cells-aided removal of uremic metabolites. Here, unique human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell (ciPTEC) monolayers were cultured on biofunctionalized MicroPES (polyethersulfone) hollow fiber membranes (HFM) and functionally tested using microfluidics. Tight monolayer formation was demonstrated by abundant zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein expression along the tight junctions of matured ciPTEC on HFM. A clear barrier function of the monolayer was confirmed by limited diffusion of FITC-inulin. The activity of the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) in ciPTEC was evaluated in real-time using a perfusion system by confocal microscopy using 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP+) as a fluorescent substrate. Initial ASP+ uptake was inhibited by a cationic uremic metabolites mixture and by the histamine H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine. In conclusion, a ‘living membrane’ of renal epithelial cells on MicroPES HFM with demonstrated active organic cation transport was successfully established as a first step in BAK engineering. PMID:26567716

  14. Electroosmotic Sampling. Application to Determination of Ectopeptidase Activity in Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongjuan; Guy, Yifat; Hamsher, Amy; Shi, Guoyue; Sandberg, Mats; Weber, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesize that peptide-containing solutions pulled through tissue should reveal the presence and activity of peptidases in the tissue. Using the natural ζ-potential in the organotypic hippocampal slice culture (OHSC), physiological fluids can be pulled through the tissue with an electric field. The hydrolysis of the peptides present in the fluid drawn through the tissue can be determined using capillary HPLC with electrochemical detection of the biuret complexes of the peptides following a postcolumn reaction. We have characterized this new sampling method by measuring the flow rate, examining the use of internal standards, and examining cell death caused by sampling. The sampling flow rate ranges from 60 to 150 nL/min with a 150 μm (ID) sampling capillary with an electric field (at the tip of the capillary) from 30 to 60 V/cm. Cell death can be negligible with controlled sampling conditions. Using this sampling approach, we have electroosmotically pulled Leu-enkephalin through OHSCs to identify ectopeptidase activity in the CA3 region. These studies show that a bestatin-sensitive aminopeptidase may be critical for the hydrolysis of exogenous Leu-enkephalin, a neuropeptide present in the CA3 region of OHSCs. PMID:20669992

  15. Activity of Extracts from Submerged Cultured Mycelium of Winter Mushroom, Flammulina velutipes (Agaricomycetes), on the Immune System In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Kashina, Svetlana; Villavicencio, Lerida Liss Flores; Zaina, Silvio; Ordaz, Marco Balleza; Sabanero, Gloria Barbosa; Fujiyoshi, Victor Tsutsumi; Lopez, Myrna Sabanero

    2016-01-01

    Extracts from submerged cultured mycelium of two strains of Flammulina velutipes, a popular culinary mushroom, were obtained by ultrasound and tested in vitro to determine their activity in innate immunity (monocytes/ macrophages). In addition, polyclonal antibodies against the extracts were produced. Both extracts have similar glycoproteins that contain mannose and glucose but have different glycoproteins with galactoseamine units. Two novel immunogenic glycoproteins with molecular weights of 32 and 25 kDa have been revealed. It is thought that these proteins are produced only by submerged cultured mycelium. Both extracts show immune-enhancing activity based on the significant modification of various parameters such as cytokine production, phagocytosis, and reactive oxygen species production.

  16. Teachers' instructional goals for science practice: Identifying knowledge gaps using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, Cynthia Hamen

    In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to

  17. Kinetics of hematopoietic stem cells and supportive activities of stromal cells in a three-dimensional bone marrow culture system.

    PubMed

    Harada, Tomonori; Hirabayashi, Yukio; Hatta, Yoshihiro; Tsuboi, Isao; Glomm, Wilhelm Robert; Yasuda, Masahiro; Aizawa, Shin

    2015-01-01

    In the bone marrow, hematopoietic cells proliferate and differentiate in close association with a three-dimensional (3D) hematopoietic microenvironment. Previously, we established a 3D bone marrow culture system. In this study, we analyzed the kinetics of hematopoietic cells, and more than 50% of hematopoietic progenitor cells, including CFU-Mix, CFU-GM and BFU-E in 3D culture were in a resting (non-S) phase. Furthermore, we examined the hematopoietic supportive ability of stromal cells by measuring the expression of various mRNAs relevant to hematopoietic regulation. Over the 4 weeks of culture, the stromal cells in the 3D culture are not needlessly activated and "quietly" regulate hematopoietic cell proliferation and differentiation during the culture, resulting in the presence of resting hematopoietic stem cells in the 3D culture for a long time. Thus, the 3D culture system may be a new tool for investigating hematopoietic stem cell-stromal cell interactions in vitro.

  18. Composition of the essential oils and antibacterial activities of Hymenocrater yazdianus, Stachys obtusicrena and Nepeta asterotricha three Labiatae herbs growing wild in Iran.

    PubMed

    Masoudi, Shiva; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein; Mohebat, Razieh; Mosslemin, Mohammad Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Water-distilled essential oils from leaves of Hymenocrater yazdianus Rech.f., flowers of Stachys obtusicrena Boiss., and stems and flowers of Nepeta asterotricha Rech.f., which are endemic to Iran, were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Fifty-five components of the leaf oil of H. yazdianus were characterized, representing 95.1% of the total components detected. The major constituents were identified as 1,8-cineole (17.6%), beta-caryophyllene (13.9%), alpha-pinene (10.6%) and caryophyllene oxide (10.4%). Germacrene-D (37.5%) and alpha-bisabolol (23.5%) were the main components among the twenty constituents characterized in the flower oil of S. obtusicrena, representing 90.8% of the total components detected. Thirty-five compounds representing 93.0% of the stem oil of N. asterotrica were identified among which terpinen-4-ol (22.8%) and gamma-terpinene (14.1%) were the major ones. The flower oil of the species was characterized by higher amounts of terpinen-4-ol (24.8%), 4a alpha, 7a beta-nepetalactone (18.2%) and 1,8-cineole (11.6%) among the thirty-three components comprising 98.5% of the total oil detected. The antibacterial activity of the stem, leaf and flower oils of Hymenocrater yazdianus, Stachys obtusicrena and Nepeta asterotricha against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were determined using the MIC method. The growth inhibitory zone (mm) was also measured.

  19. Effects of quebracho tannin extract (Schinopsis balansae Engl.) and activated charcoal on nitrogen balance, rumen microbial protein synthesis and faecal composition of growing Boer goats.

    PubMed

    Al-Kindi, Amal; Dickhoefer, Uta; Schlecht, Eva; Sundrum, Albert; Schiborra, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Under irrigated arid conditions, organic fertiliser rich in slowly decomposable nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) is needed for soil fertility maintenance. Feeding ruminants with condensed tannins will lower ruminal protein degradation, reduce urinary N excretion and might increase the faecal fraction of slowly decomposable N. Supplementation with activated charcoal (AC) might enrich manure with slowly degrading C. Therefore, we investigated the effects of feeding quebracho tannin extract (QTE) and AC on the N balance of goats, the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen (EMPS) and the composition of faeces. The feeding trial comprised three periods; in each period, 12 male Boer goats (28 ± 3.9 kg live weight) were assigned to six treatments: a Control diet (per kg diet 500 g grass hay and 500 g concentrate) and to further five treatments the Control diet was supplemented with QTE (20 g and 40 g/kg; diets QTE2 and QTE4, respectively), with AC (15 g and 30 g/kg, diets AC1.5 and AC3.0, respectively) and a mixture of QTE (20 g/kg) plus AC (15 g/kg) (diet QTEAC). In addition to the N balance, EMPS was calculated from daily excretions of purine derivatives, and the composition of faecal N was determined. There was no effect of QTE and AC supplementation on the intake of organic matter (OM), N and fibre, but apparent total tract digestibility of OM was reduced (p = 0.035). Feeding QTE induced a shift in N excretion from urine to faeces (p ≤ 0.001) without altering N retention. Total N excretion tended to decrease with QTE treatments (p = 0.053), but EMPS was not different between treatments. Faecal C excretion was higher in QTE and AC treatments (p = 0.001) compared with the Control, while the composition of faecal N differed only in concentration of undigested dietary N (p = 0.001). The results demonstrate that QTE can be included into diets of goats up to 40 g/kg, without affecting N utilisation, but simultaneously increasing the

  20. Hyperosmotic stress-dependent NFkappaB activation is regulated by reactive oxygen species and IGF-1 in cultured cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Verónica; Criollo, Alfredo; Quiroga, Clara; Olea-Azar, Claudio; Santibañez, Juan Francisco; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Chiong, Mario; Díaz-Araya, Guillermo; Foncea, Rocío; Lavandero, Sergio

    2006-08-07

    We have recently shown that hyperosmotic stress activates p65/RelB NFkappaB in cultured cardiomyocytes with dichotomic actions on caspase activation and cell death. It remains unexplored how NFkappaB is regulated in cultured rat cardiomyocytes exposed to hyperosmotic stress. We study here: (a) if hyperosmotic stress triggers reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and in turn whether they regulate NFkappaB and (b) if insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) modulates ROS production and NFkappaB activation in hyperosmotically-stressed cardiomyocytes. The results showed that hyperosmotic stress generated ROS in cultured cardiac myocytes, in particular the hydroxyl and superoxide species, which were inhibited by N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Hyperosmotic stress-induced NFkappaB activation as determined by IkappaBalpha degradation and NFkappaB DNA binding. NFkappaB activation and procaspase-3 and -9 fragmentation were prevented by NAC and IGF-1. However, this growth factor did not decrease ROS generation induced by hyperosmotic stress, suggesting that its actions over NFkappaB and caspase activation may be due to modulation of events downstream of ROS generation. We conclude that hyperosmotic stress induces ROS, which in turn activates NFkappaB and caspases. IGF-1 prevents NFkappaB activation by a ROS-independent mechanism.