Science.gov

Sample records for actively open-minded thinking

  1. "There Is No Single Right Answer": The Potential for Active Learning Classrooms to Facilitate Actively Open-Minded Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Education is meant to open your mind, but is that what universities are really doing? Rather than fostering open-minded thinking, the format of lecturing, the lack of interaction among students and instructors, and the passive nature of learning are likely producing the opposite, students with closed-minds. The development and implementation of…

  2. Open Minds to Equality: A Source Book of Learning Activities to Affirm Diversity and Promote Equity. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schniedewind, Nancy; Davidson, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    "Open Minds to Equality" is an educator's sourcebook of activities to help students understand and change inequalities based on: race, gender, class, age, language, sexual orientation, physical/mental ability, and religion. The activities promote respect for diversity and interpersonal equality among students, fostering a classroom that is…

  3. Open-Minded Cognition.

    PubMed

    Price, Erika; Ottati, Victor; Wilson, Chase; Kim, Soyeon

    2015-11-01

    The present research conceptualizes open-minded cognition as a cognitive style that influences how individuals select and process information. An open-minded cognitive style is marked by willingness to consider a variety of intellectual perspectives, values, opinions, or beliefs-even those that contradict the individual's opinion. An individual's level of cognitive openness is expected to vary across domains (such as politics and religion). Four studies develop and validate a novel measure of open-minded cognition, as well as two domain-specific measures of religious and political open-minded cognition. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (controlling for acquiescence bias) are used to develop the scales in Studies 1 to 3. Study 4 demonstrates that these scales possess convergent and discriminant validity. Study 5 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcome of Empathic Concern (Davis, 1980). Study 6 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcomes of warmth toward racial, religious, and sexual minorities. PMID:26315581

  4. Open Mind Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Alexander H.

    1995-01-01

    Open Mind, The Association for the achievement of diversity in higher education, met in conference in Albuquerque, New Mexico, between October 16 and 18, 1992. A number of workgroups met to discuss the goals, structure, and generally evaluate the Association and its achievements. A summary of the workgroup sessions and their minutes are included.

  5. Open Books, Open Minds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMath, Joan; King, Margaret

    1993-01-01

    Describes using picture books and science activities in early childhood science instruction. Suggests titles of books and activities for the following topics: Time for Pets; Environmental Awareness; Dinosaurs Galore; Nighttime Science; Simple Machines; Insect Collections; Snowy Days; Water, Water, Everywhere; and Experimental Activities. (PR)

  6. Opening Minds in Canada: Targeting Change

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Heather; Chen, Shu-Ping; Christie, Romie; Dobson, Keith; Kirsh, Bonnie; Knaak, Stephanie; Koller, Michelle; Krupa, Terry; Lauria-Horner, Bianca; Luong, Dorothy; Modgill, Geeta; Patten, Scott B; Pietrus, Mike; Szeto, Andrew; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the ongoing activities of the Opening Minds (OM) Anti-Stigma Initiative of the Mental Health Commission of Canada regarding the 4 groups targeted (youth, health care providers, media, and workplaces), highlight some of the key methodological challenges, and review lessons learned. Method: The approach used by OM is rooted in community development philosophy, with clearly defined target groups, contact-based education as the central organizing element across interventions, and a strong evaluative component so that best practices can be identified, replicated, and disseminated. Contact-based education occurs when people who have experienced a mental illness share their personal story of recovery and hope. Results: Results have been generally positive. Contact-based education has the capacity to reduce prejudicial attitudes and improve social acceptance of people with a mental illness across various target groups and sectors. Variations in program outcomes have contributed to our understanding of active ingredients. Conclusions: Contact-based education has become a cornerstone of the OM approach to stigma reduction. A story of hope and recovery told by someone who has experienced a mental illness is powerful and engaging, and a critical ingredient in the fight against stigma. Building partnerships with existing community programs and promoting systematic evaluation using standardized approaches and instruments have contributed to our understanding of best practices in the field of anti-stigma programming. The next challenge will be to scale these up so that they may have a national impact. PMID:25565697

  7. Opening Minds: Using Language to Change Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes a single word changes everything. In his groundbreaking book "Choice Words", Peter Johnston demonstrated how the things teachers say (and don't say) have surprising consequences for the literate lives of students. Now, in "Opening Minds: Using Language to Change Lives", Peter shows how the words teachers choose affect the worlds students…

  8. Rational thinking and cognitive sophistication: development, cognitive abilities, and thinking dispositions.

    PubMed

    Toplak, Maggie E; West, Richard F; Stanovich, Keith E

    2014-04-01

    We studied developmental trends in 5 important reasoning tasks that are critical components of the operational definition of rational thinking. The tasks measured denominator neglect, belief bias, base rate sensitivity, resistance to framing, and the tendency toward otherside thinking. In addition to age, we examined 2 other individual difference domains that index cognitive sophistication: cognitive ability (intelligence and executive functioning) and thinking dispositions (actively open-minded thinking, superstitious thinking, and need for cognition). All 5 reasoning domains were consistently related to cognitive sophistication regardless of how it was indexed (age, cognitive ability, thinking dispositions). The implications of these findings for taxonomies of developmental trends in rational thinking tasks are discussed. PMID:24188038

  9. Classroom Activities in Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Janice, Comp.

    Intended as a resource for teachers of grades four and up who are eager to improve their students' thinking skills while teaching their regular curriculum, this booklet contains activities that can be used to teach a new concept or to review a previously taught skill. Following an introduction, the topics of the chapters of the resource guide and…

  10. Activities to Stimulate Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Thomas B.; Schroeder, Connie

    1989-01-01

    Describes sample vocational activities that stimulate critical thinking: (1) setting up an accounting system (business education); (2) developing a marketing plan (marketing education); (3) developing a fertilizer application plan (agricultural education); (4) making the best purchase (home economics); (5) planning a repair/remodeling project…

  11. Opening Minds in Canada: Background and Rationale

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Heather; Chen, Shu-Ping; Christie, Romie; Dobson, Keith; Kirsh, Bonnie; Knaak, Stephanie; Koller, Michelle; Krupa, Terry; Lauria-Horner, Bianca; Luong, Dorothy; Modgill, Geeta; Patten, Scott B; Pietrus, Mike; Szeto, Andrew; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the background and rationale of the approach taken by the Mental Health Commission of Canada’s Opening Minds (OM) Anti-Stigma Initiative. Method: The approach taken by OM incorporates a grassroots, community development philosophy, has clearly defined target groups, uses contact-based education as the central organizing element across interventions, and has a strong evaluative component, so that best practices can be identified, replicated, and disseminated. Contact-based education occurs when people who have experienced a mental illness share their personal story of recovery and hope. Results: OM has acted as a catalyst to develop partnerships between community groups who are undertaking anti-stigma work and an interdisciplinary team of academic researchers in 5 universities who are evaluating the results of these programs. Conclusions: Building partnerships with existing community programs and promoting systematic evaluation using standardized approaches and instruments have contributed to our understanding of best practices in the field of anti-stigma programming. PMID:25565705

  12. Active Learning Strategies to Promote Critical Thinking

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To provide a brief introduction to the definition and disposition to think critically along with active learning strategies to promote critical thinking. Data Sources: I searched MEDLINE and Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) from 1933 to 2002 for literature related to critical thinking, the disposition to think critically, questioning, and various critical-thinking pedagogic techniques. Data Synthesis: The development of critical thinking has been the topic of many educational articles recently. Numerous instructional methods exist to promote thought and active learning in the classroom, including case studies, discussion methods, written exercises, questioning techniques, and debates. Three methods—questioning, written exercises, and discussion and debates—are highlighted. Conclusions/Recommendations: The definition of critical thinking, the disposition to think critically, and different teaching strategies are featured. Although not appropriate for all subject matter and classes, these learning strategies can be used and adapted to facilitate critical thinking and active participation. PMID:16558680

  13. RSA Opening Minds: A Curriculum for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candy, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the RSA Opening Minds competence framework, an innovative curriculum to meet the needs of young people as future employees, lifelong learners and as citizens of the twenty-first century.

  14. Probing Scientists' Beliefs: How Open-Minded Are Modern Scientists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Richard; Taylor, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews…

  15. The Impact of Directed Viewing-Thinking Activity on Students' Critical Thinking: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ee, Neo Chin; Sum, Cheung Wing

    2005-01-01

    Background: Critical thinking disposition is an area that has been overlooked in various academic fields until recent years. Critical thinking occurs only when individuals possess thinking dispositions. This study explores the possibility of using directed viewing-thinking activity (DVTA) to cultivate the critical thinking dispositions of…

  16. Probing scientists' beliefs: how open-minded are modern scientists?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, Richard K.; Taylor, Neil

    2004-06-01

    Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews of scientists across a variety of disciplines. The interviews sought to understand the basis on which scientists form beliefs and how they judge evidence for various propositions, including those from the Exeter questionnaire and other contentious beliefs introduced during discourse. The scientists are dismissive of traditional superstitions like bad luck associated with black cats and inauspicious numbers such as 13, seeing such beliefs as socially grounded. There is a strong socio-cultural aspect to other beliefs and personal experiences, and strongly held personal beliefs are influential, resulting in the scientists keeping an open mind about contentious beliefs like alien life and the existence of ghosts. Testimony of others including media reports are deemed unreliable unless provided by credible witnesses such as 'educated people' or 'experts', or if they coincide with the scientists' personal beliefs. These scientists see a need for potential theoretical explanations for beliefs and are generally dismissive of empirical evidence without underlying explanations.

  17. Using a Pseudoscience Activity to Teach Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Aimee; Manson, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    In two studies, we assessed the effectiveness of a classroom activity designed to increase students' ability to think critically. This activity involved watching and discussing an infomercial that contained pseudoscientific claims, thus incorporating course material on good research design and critical thinking. In Study 1, we used a…

  18. Environmental Activities for Teaching Critical Thinking. [Environmental Education Information Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Robert W.; Disinger, John F.

    The ability to think critically is essential if individuals are to live, work, and function effectively in our current and changing society. The activities included in this publication were selected to identify a variety of effective strategies for teaching critical thinking skills through environmental education. Activities include library…

  19. Thinking Science: Classroom Activities in Secondary Science. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adey, Philip; And Others

    This teacher's guide is part of a program of activities that help secondary-level students develop the complex thinking skills needed to succeed in science. This program can be used with current curriculum materials. It is designed to help students integrate ideas and develop concepts that demonstrate higher level thinking. A rich environment of…

  20. Predicting Work Activities with Divergent Thinking Tests: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapham, Maria M.; Cowdery, Edwina M.; King, Kelly E.; Montang, Melissa A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined whether divergent thinking test scores obtained from engineering students during college predicted creative work activities fifteen years later. Results showed that a subscore of the "Owens Creativity Test", which assesses divergent thinking about mechanical objects, correlated significantly with self-ratings of creative work…

  1. Moderate Levels of Activation Lead to Forgetting In the Think/No-Think Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Detre, Greg J.; Natarajan, Annamalai; Gershman, Samuel J.; Norman, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Using the think/no-think paradigm (Anderson & Green, 2001), researchers have found that suppressing retrieval of a memory (in the presence of a strong retrieval cue) can make it harder to retrieve that memory on a subsequent test. This effect has been replicated numerous times, but the size of the effect is highly variable. Also, it is unclear from a neural mechanistic standpoint why preventing recall of a memory now should impair your ability to recall that memory later. Here, we address both of these puzzles using the idea, derived from computational modeling and studies of synaptic plasticity, that the function relating memory activation to learning is U-shaped, such that moderate levels of memory activation lead to weakening of the memory and higher levels of activation lead to strengthening. According to this view, forgetting effects in the think/no-think paradigm occur when the suppressed item activates moderately during the suppression attempt, leading to weakening; the effect is variable because sometimes the suppressed item activates strongly (leading to strengthening) and sometimes it does not activate at all (in which case no learning takes place). To test this hypothesis, we ran a think/no-think experiment where participants learned word-picture pairs; we used pattern classifiers, applied to fMRI data, to measure how strongly the picture associates were activating when participants were trying not to retrieve these associates, and we used a novel Bayesian curve-fitting procedure to relate this covert neural measure of retrieval to performance on a later memory test. In keeping with our hypothesis, the curve-fitting procedure revealed a nonmonotonic relationship between memory activation (as measured by the classifier) and subsequent memory, whereby moderate levels of activation of the to-be-suppressed item led to diminished performance on the final memory test, and higher levels of activation led to enhanced performance on the final test. PMID:23499722

  2. Critical Thinking Activities To Improve Writing Skills: Arguments A-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael O.

    Emphasizing real-life communication skills, this book offers cooperative activities to help teachers supplement their writing programs with easy-to-use critical thinking activities. The 16 activities in the book are suitable for grades 4 through 8, for gifted younger students, or as a remediation tool for older students. The activities expose…

  3. Upper-Division Activities That Foster ``Thinking Like A Physicist''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manogue, Corinne A.; Cerny, Leonard; Gire, Elizabeth; Mountcastle, Donald B.; Price, Edward; van Zee, Emily H.

    2010-10-01

    In this targeted poster session, curriculum developers presented their favorite upper-division activity to small groups of session participants. The developers and participants were asked to identify hidden curriculum goals related to "thinking like a physicist" and discuss how the different styles of activities might help students achieve these goals.

  4. Do Active-Learning Strategies Improve Students' Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry P.; Crow, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Improving students' ability to recognize work-related problems and apply effective strategies and solutions to fundamental challenges in the field is at the crux of a good college preparation. This paper attempts to investigate if active-learning strategies improve students' critical thinking ability in this regard. Participants were pre-service…

  5. Activating Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applebaum, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' critical thinking skills are essential for fostering the development of the same skills in their students. To demonstrate how teachers' ability to examine solutions critically can be developed and supported, we analyse a classroom activity performed by a group of pre-service secondary school mathematics teachers (N = 37) who were asked:…

  6. Attribute Block Thinking Activities--Analogies. Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draze, Dianne

    Designed to develop K-3 children's thinking skills before the children have mastered reading, this book presents 32 activities in which children learn to complete analogies--presented with an "attribute block" with 3 attributes, children choose a fourth attribute block to complete the analogy. The attribute blocks in the book are of 4 types--shape…

  7. Right Brain Activities to Improve Analytical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Marion E.

    Schools tend to have a built-in bias toward left brain activities (tasks that are linear and sequential in nature), so the introduction of right brain activities (functions related to music, rhythm, images, color, imagination, daydreaming, dimensions) brings a balance into the classroom and helps those students who may be right brain oriented. To…

  8. Perspectives on Learning, Thinking, and Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.; Greeno, James G.; Reder, Lynne M.; Simon, Herbert A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the cognitive and situative research approaches, identifying several points on which they agree (e.g., individual and social perspectives on activity are fundamental in education; learning can be general, and abstractions can be efficacious, but sometimes they are not; and situative and cognitive approaches can cast light on different…

  9. Thinking with Hands-On Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conover, Patricia Ross

    2009-01-01

    The goal for library media specialists and teachers is to lead students to use technology to communicate, in a powerful and meaningful way, and to creatively display what they have learned. With these ideas in mind, this article details several projects using Microsoft PowerPoint XP. The activities, with simplified instructions, can be adapted to…

  10. Hybrid Tasks: Promoting Statistical Thinking and Critical Thinking through the Same Mathematical Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aizikovitsh-Udi, Einav; Clarke, David; Kuntze, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Even though statistical thinking and critical thinking appear to have strong links from a theoretical point of view, empirical research into the intersections and potential interrelatedness of these aspects of competence is scarce. Our research suggests that thinking skills in both areas may be interdependent. Given this interconnection, it should…

  11. Teaching Critical Thinking in an Introductory Leadership Course Utilizing Active Learning Strategies: A Confirmatory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burbach, Mark E.; Matkin, Gina S.; Fritz, Susan M.

    2004-01-01

    Critical thinking is often seen as a universal goal of higher education but is seldom confirmed as an outcome. This study was conducted to determine whether an introductory level college leadership course that encouraged active learning increased critical thinking skills. A pre- and post-assessment of critical thinking skills was conducted using…

  12. Critical Thinking: Inert Information, Activated Ignorance, and Activated Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that there are three ways of taking in information: internalizing inert information, forming activated ignorance, or achieving activated knowledge. Explains that only activated knowledge leads the learner, by implication, to more knowledge, and that seeking the logic of things can lead to discovery of activated knowledge. (NB)

  13. Investigating the Synergy of Critical Thinking and Creative Thinking in the Course of Integrated Activity in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yulin; Li, Bei-Di; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chiu, Fa-Chung

    2015-01-01

    The relationship lying between critical thinking and creative thinking is opposite or complementary, results of previous relevant researches have not yet concluded. However, most of researches put the effort to compare the respective effect of the thinking methods, either the teaching of creative thinking or that of critical thinking. Less of them…

  14. The Effect of Reflective Activities on Reflective Thinking Ability in an Undergraduate Pharmacy Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Schneider, Carl R.; Smith, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of integrating reflective practice activities into a second-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and their impact on reflective thinking ability. Design. A cross-over design with repeated measures was employed. Newly developed reflective modules based on real hospital and community pharmacy cases were integrated into the second-year pharmacy practice curriculum. A novel strategy, the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA), was introduced to enhance self- and peer reflection. Assessment. Student responses (n=214) to the adapted Kember et al1 Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ) were compared before and after reflective activities were undertaken. Significant improvement in three indicators of reflective thinking was shown after students engaged in reflective activities. Conclusion. Integration of reflective activities into a pharmacy curriculum increased the reflective thinking capacity of students. Enhancing reflective thinking ability may help students make better informed decisions and clinical judgments, thus improving future practice. PMID:27293232

  15. The Effect of Reflective Activities on Reflective Thinking Ability in an Undergraduate Pharmacy Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Tsingos-Lucas, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Schneider, Carl R; Smith, Lorraine

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of integrating reflective practice activities into a second-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and their impact on reflective thinking ability. Design. A cross-over design with repeated measures was employed. Newly developed reflective modules based on real hospital and community pharmacy cases were integrated into the second-year pharmacy practice curriculum. A novel strategy, the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA), was introduced to enhance self- and peer reflection. Assessment. Student responses (n=214) to the adapted Kember et al(1) Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ) were compared before and after reflective activities were undertaken. Significant improvement in three indicators of reflective thinking was shown after students engaged in reflective activities. Conclusion. Integration of reflective activities into a pharmacy curriculum increased the reflective thinking capacity of students. Enhancing reflective thinking ability may help students make better informed decisions and clinical judgments, thus improving future practice. PMID:27293232

  16. Effects of Active Learning on Enhancing Student Critical Thinking in an Undergraduate General Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyoungna; Sharma, Priya; Land, Susan M.; Furlong, Kevin P.

    2013-01-01

    To enhance students' critical thinking in an undergraduate general science course, we designed and implemented active learning modules by incorporating group-based learning with authentic tasks, scaffolding, and individual reports. This study examined the levels of critical thinking students exhibited in individual reports and the students'…

  17. Is Truthiness Enough? Classroom Activities for Encouraging Evidence-Based Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Sue; Sears, Sharon R.; Burke, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching students how to think critically and develop lifelong habits of evidence-based inquiry outside of the classroom is a primary goal for educators today. This paper describes nine activities designed to promote evidence-based critical thinking in college or high school classrooms in any discipline. We have developed a seven step process for…

  18. Project IMPACT. Improve Minimal Proficiences by Activating Critical Thinking. Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    The major goal of Project IMPACT (Improve Minimal Proficiencies by Activating Critical Thinking) is to improve student achievement on district tests of basic skill competency. The program seeks to improve student performance on tests requiring critical thinking with emphasis on reading and mathematics. Students involved in Project IMPACT work in a…

  19. Creative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Examines creative thinking in relation to modern instructional programs and information literacy and compares creative and critical thinking. Discusses teaching for thinking, techniques for sparking creativity, activities for creating a mental museum, synectics (a group creative process to create new insights), and creating meaning through story…

  20. Let's Debate: Active Learning Encourages Student Participation and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oros, Andrew L.

    2007-01-01

    Structured classroom debates (SCDs), whereby teams of students debate a question prepared outside of class, help advance two goals many political science instructors struggle to achieve with their students: classroom participation beyond the "usual suspects" present in every classroom and critical thinking and analysis of political issues. This…

  1. Construct Validity Examination of Critical Thinking Dispositions for Undergraduate Students in University Putra Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghadi, Ibrahim; Alwi, Nor Hayati; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Talib, Othman

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to evaluate the psychology properties of the construct validity for the Critical Thinking Disposition (CTD) instrument. The CTD instrument consists of 39 Likert-type items measuring seven dispositions, namely analyticity, open-mind, truth-seeking, systematicity, self-confidence inquisitiveness and maturity. The study involves…

  2. The physical sacrifice of thinking: Investigating the relationship between thinking and physical activity in everyday life.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Todd; Dickinson, David L; Stroh, Nathan; Dickinson, Christopher A

    2016-08-01

    Physical activity level is an important contributor to overall human health and obesity. Research has shown that humans possess a number of traits that influence their physical activity level including social cognition. We examined whether the trait of "need for cognition" was associated with daily physical activity levels. We recruited individuals who were high or low in need for cognition and measured their physical activity level in 30-second epochs over a 1-week period. The overall findings showed that low-need-for-cognition individuals were more physically active, but this difference was most pronounced during the 5-day work week and lessened during the weekend. PMID:25609406

  3. Critical Thinking Activities To Improve Writing Skills: Descriptive Mysteries A-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertus, Karen; And Others

    Emphasizing real-life communication skills, this book offers cooperative activities to help teachers supplement their writing programs with easy-to-use critical thinking activities. The activities in the book are suitable for grades 4 through 8, for gifted younger students, or as a remediation tool for older students. The activities in the book…

  4. Critical Thinking Activities To Improve Writing Skills: Whatcha-Macallits A-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael; And Others

    Emphasizing real-life communication skills, this book offers cooperative activities to help teachers supplement their writing programs with easy-to-use critical thinking activities. The activities in the book are suitable for grades 4 through 8, for gifted younger students, or as a remediation tool for older students. The activities in the book…

  5. Critical Thinking Activities To Improve Writing Skills: Where-Abouts A-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertus, Karen; And Others

    Emphasizing real-life communication skills, this book offers cooperative activities to help teachers supplement their writing programs with easy-to-use critical thinking activities. The activities in the book are suitable for grades 4 through 8, for gifted younger students, or as a remediation tool for older students. The activities are aimed at…

  6. Activating Children's Thinking Skills (ACTS): The Effects of an Infusion Approach to Teaching Thinking in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Jessica; Bento, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent interest in the teaching of thinking skills within education has led to an increase in thinking skills packages available to schools. However many of these are not based on scientific evaluation (DfEE, 1999). This paper endeavours to examine the effectiveness of one approach, that of infusion, to teaching thinking. Aims: To…

  7. Promoting Higher Level Thinking in Psychology: Is Active Learning the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Hagan, Lisa Kindelberger

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate which common instructional methods (active vs. direct) best promote higher level thinking in a psychology course. Over a 5-week period, 71 undergraduates were taught psychology using both active learning and direct instruction. Pre- and post-course assessments were coded as either higher or lower level…

  8. Getting Acquainted: Thinking about the Soviet Union. Elementary Teaching Activities: Days of Dialogue, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keys, Charlotte; And Others

    This guide is designed to replace the ignorance, misinformation, and negative stereotypes that many students hold about the Soviet Union and its peoples with a reasoned and rational outlook based on critical thinking and class activities. The introduction to these activities provides background and a rationale for teaching about the Soviet Union.…

  9. How does participation in inquiry-based activities influence gifted students' higher order thinking?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reger, Barbara H.

    Inquiry-based learning is considered a useful technique to strengthen the critical thinking skills of students. The National Science Standards emphasize its use and the complexities and challenge it provides are well suited for meeting the needs of the gifted. While many studies have documented the effectiveness of this type of instruction, there is a lack of research on growth in higher-order thinking through participation in science inquiry. This study investigated such growth among a small group of gifted fifth-grade students. In this study a group of fifth-grade gifted science students completed a series of three forensics inquiry lessons, and documented questions, ideas and reflections as they constructed evidence to solve a crime. From this class of students, one small group was purposely selected to serve as the focus of the study. Using qualitative techniques, the questions and statements students made as they interacted in the activity were analyzed. Videotaped comments and student logs were coded for emerging patterns and also examined for evidence of increased levels of higher-order thinking based on a rubric that was designed using the six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Evidence from this study showed marked increase in and deeper levels of higher-order thinking for two of the students. The other boy and girl showed progress using the inquiry activities, but it was not as evident. The social dynamics of the group seemed to hinder one girl's participation during some of the activities. The social interactions played a role in strengthening the exchange of ideas and thinking skills for the others. The teacher had a tremendous influence over the production of higher-level statements by modeling that level of thinking as she questioned the students. Through her practice of answering a question with a question, she gradually solicited more analytical thinking from her students.

  10. The Effects of the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity on EFL Students' Referential and Inferential Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Koumy, Abdel Salam Abdel Khalek

    2006-01-01

    A study investigated the effects of the Directed Reading Thinking Activity on Egyptian first-year secondary stage EFL students' referential and inferential reading comprehension. The study utilized a pretest-posttest control group experimental design. The subjects consisted of 72 first-year secondary students in Menouf Secondary School for Boys at…

  11. Active Learning and Threshold Concepts in Multiple Testing That Can Further Develop Student Critical Statistical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Desley

    2015-01-01

    Two practical activities are described, which aim to support critical thinking about statistics as they concern multiple outcomes testing. Formulae are presented in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, which are used to calculate the inflation of error associated with the quantity of tests performed. This is followed by a decision-making exercise, where…

  12. Creative Thinking Development Program for Learning Activity Management of Secondary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pukdeewut, Sutinan; Chantarasombat, Chalard; Satapornwong, Pattananusorn

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this research were: to design a creative thinking development program for learning activity management of secondary school teachers, and to study the program's efficiency and effectiveness of usage. The results of the study were as follows: the program includes the vision, principles, objectives, content, program development…

  13. Developing Critical Thinking Skills through the Use of Guided Laboratory Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croner, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    In a study to evaluate an approach for improving the critical thinking skills of middle school science students, 60 students were given the assignment of completing three guided laboratory activities and writing a report for each. In writing their reports, students were expected to identify the manipulated variable, identify the responding…

  14. Thinking Globally and Acting Locally: Environmental Education Teaching Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Lori D.; Stapp, William B.

    Provided are teaching activities related to: (1) food production and distribution; (2) energy; (3) transportation; (4) solid waste; (5) chemicals in the environment; (6) resource management; (7) pollution; (8) population; (9) world linkages; (10) endangered species; and (11) lifestyle and environment. The activities, designed to help learners…

  15. Think Texas! Suggested Activities to Help Celebrate Our Sesquicentennial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    A packet of teaching activities helps elementary and secondary teachers commemorate the sesquicentennial of Texas' independence. Activities include listening to stories about the mockingbird, bluebonnet, and pecan tree, drawing interpretations of these stories, and using a graphics tablet, light pen, or graphics software to illustrate a Texas folk…

  16. Creating Stimulating Learning and Thinking Using New Models of Activity-Based Learning and Metacognitive-Based Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a novel way to stimulate learning, creativity, and thinking based on a new understanding of activity-based learning (ABL) and two methods for developing metacognitive-based activities for the classroom. ABL, in this model, is based on the premise that teachers are distillers and facilitators of information…

  17. Implementing the Opening Minds Curriculum in a Secondary School in England: An Alternative to the One-Size-Fits-All National Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Grant; Jones, Marion; Murphy, Jan

    2012-01-01

    "The Importance of Teaching: The Schools White Paper 2010," which grants schools increased autonomy in curriculum development and implementation, heralded a new era of curriculum reform in England. This article critically examines how this process took place in a Catholic secondary school that decided to use the RSA Opening Minds (OM) curriculum…

  18. Good Thinking! Activity Cards to Reinforce Language and Reasoning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow Thurman, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    This full-color, kid-pleasing collection of language-arts activities is ideal for K-2 children of all ability levels--and for English language learners too. The practical and easy-to-implement lessons also are convenient for substitute teachers, classroom assistants, and volunteers. Flexible and versatile, these unique cards can be used for guided…

  19. Communicating and Thinking through Drawing Activity in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papandreou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This article considers drawing as a meaning-making activity that takes place in certain sociocultural contexts to find evidence for its communicative potentials as well as the relationship between thought and drawing in early childhood. The researcher challenges traditional views about young children's drawing that focus on the result of the…

  20. Media-Smart Youth: Eat, Think, and Be Active!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document provides an overview for the Media-Smart Youth Program, which is an education program that helps young people ages 11 to 13 understand the complex media world around them, and how it can influence their health--especially in regard to nutrition and physical activity. The following questions are answered in this document: (1) Why is…

  1. Conversations on Engaged Pedagogies, Independent Thinking Skills and Active Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    This paper will consider the relationship between engaged pedagogies and the development of what is referred to as independent skills, as well as active citizenship. The significance for their development in the context of the Irish teaching and learning context will be sketched, particularly at first and second level. In particular, the author…

  2. Thinking Ethically about Professional Practice in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donna L.; Rossow-Kimball, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    There has been little critical exploration of the ethical issues that arise in professional practice common to adapted physical activity. We cannot avoid moral issues as we inevitably will act in ways that will negatively affect the well-being of others. We will make choices, which in our efforts to support others, may hurt by violating dignity or…

  3. Thinking-in-Concert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Aislinn

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I examine the concept of thinking in Hannah Arendt's writings. Arendt's interest in the experience of thinking allowed her to develop a concept of thinking that is distinct from other forms of mental activity such as cognition and problem solving. For her, thinking is an unending, unpredictable and destructive activity without fixed…

  4. A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies on divergent thinking using activation likelihood estimation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin; Yang, Wenjing; Tong, Dandan; Sun, Jiangzhou; Chen, Qunlin; Wei, Dongtao; Zhang, Qinglin; Zhang, Meng; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-07-01

    In this study, an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis was used to conduct a quantitative investigation of neuroimaging studies on divergent thinking. Based on the ALE results, the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies showed that distributed brain regions were more active under divergent thinking tasks (DTTs) than those under control tasks, but a large portion of the brain regions were deactivated. The ALE results indicated that the brain networks of the creative idea generation in DTTs may be composed of the lateral prefrontal cortex, posterior parietal cortex [such as the inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and precuneus (BA 7)], anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) (BA 32), and several regions in the temporal cortex [such as the left middle temporal gyrus (BA 39), and left fusiform gyrus (BA 37)]. The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46) was related to selecting the loosely and remotely associated concepts and organizing them into creative ideas, whereas the ACC (BA 32) was related to observing and forming distant semantic associations in performing DTTs. The posterior parietal cortex may be involved in the semantic information related to the retrieval and buffering of the formed creative ideas, and several regions in the temporal cortex may be related to the stored long-term memory. In addition, the ALE results of the structural studies showed that divergent thinking was related to the dopaminergic system (e.g., left caudate and claustrum). Based on the ALE results, both fMRI and structural MRI studies could uncover the neural basis of divergent thinking from different aspects (e.g., specific cognitive processing and stable individual difference of cognitive capability). PMID:25891081

  5. Creative Activities for Teaching about the 1940's & 50's. Problem Solving and Critical Thinking Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lawrence

    This unit focuses on the decades of the 1940s and 1950s by studying key events from the eras. Students analyze issues and think critically about decisions made during the time. Topics of the unit include: (1) "Japanese Relocation"; (2) "Rationing: Who Should Get What?"; (3) "War in the Pacific"; (4) "The Draft: Who Should Fight a War?"; (5)…

  6. Brain activity in valuation regions while thinking about the future predicts individual discount rates.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Nicole; Kable, Joseph W; Kim, B Kyu; Zauberman, Gal

    2013-08-01

    People vary widely in how much they discount delayed rewards, yet little is known about the sources of these differences. Here we demonstrate that neural activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and ventral striatum (VS) when human subjects are asked to merely think about the future--specifically, to judge the subjective length of future time intervals--predicts delay discounting. High discounters showed lower activity for longer time delays, while low discounters showed the opposite pattern. Our results demonstrate that the correlation between VMPFC and VS activity and discounting occurs even in the absence of choices about future rewards, and does not depend on a person explicitly evaluating future outcomes or judging their self-relevance. This suggests a link between discounting and basic processes involved in thinking about the future, such as temporal perception. Our results also suggest that reducing impatience requires not suppression of VMPFC and VS activity altogether, but rather modulation of how these regions respond to the present versus the future. PMID:23926268

  7. Brain Activity in Valuation Regions while Thinking about the Future Predicts Individual Discount Rates

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Nicole; Kim, B. Kyu; Zauberman, Gal

    2013-01-01

    People vary widely in how much they discount delayed rewards, yet little is known about the sources of these differences. Here we demonstrate that neural activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and ventral striatum (VS) when human subjects are asked to merely think about the future—specifically, to judge the subjective length of future time intervals—predicts delay discounting. High discounters showed lower activity for longer time delays, while low discounters showed the opposite pattern. Our results demonstrate that the correlation between VMPFC and VS activity and discounting occurs even in the absence of choices about future rewards, and does not depend on a person explicitly evaluating future outcomes or judging their self-relevance. This suggests a link between discounting and basic processes involved in thinking about the future, such as temporal perception. Our results also suggest that reducing impatience requires not suppression of VMPFC and VS activity altogether, but rather modulation of how these regions respond to the present versus the future. PMID:23926268

  8. Open Mind, Open Heart: An Anthropological Study of the Therapeutics of Meditation Practice in the US

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Neely; Lewis, Sara; Dutton, MaryAnn

    2015-01-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews collected with meditation teachers and students in the United States, this article will argue that active training in meditation-based practices occasions the opportunity for people with traumatic stress to develop a stronger mind-body connection through heightened somatic awareness and a focus on the present moment that they find to be therapeutic. Three important themes related to healing through meditation for trauma emerged from the data and centered around the ways our interlocutors attempted to realign their sense of self, mind and body, after a traumatic experience. The themes helped explain why US women perceive meditation as therapeutic for trauma, namely that the practice of meditation enables one to focus on the lived present rather than traumatic memories, to accept pain and “open” one's heart, and to make use of silence instead of speech as a healing modality. As meditation practices increasingly enter global popular culture, promoted for postulated health benefits, the driving question of this research—how meditation may perpetuate human resilience for women who have experienced trauma based on their own perspectives of meditation practices—is a critical addition to the literature. PMID:25613595

  9. Open Mind, Open Heart: An Anthropological Study of the Therapeutics of Meditation Practice in the US.

    PubMed

    Myers, Neely; Lewis, Sara; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2015-09-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews collected with meditation teachers and students in the United States, this article will argue that active training in meditation-based practices occasions the opportunity for people with traumatic stress to develop a stronger mind-body connection through heightened somatic awareness and a focus on the present moment that they find to be therapeutic. Three important themes related to healing through meditation for trauma emerged from the data and centered around the ways our interlocutors attempted to realign their sense of self, mind and body, after a traumatic experience. The themes helped explain why US women perceive meditation as therapeutic for trauma, namely that the practice of meditation enables one to focus on the lived present rather than traumatic memories, to accept pain and "open" one's heart, and to make use of silence instead of speech as a healing modality. As meditation practices increasingly enter global popular culture, promoted for postulated health benefits, the driving question of this research--how meditation may perpetuate human resilience for women who have experienced trauma based on their own perspectives of meditation practices--is a critical addition to the literature. PMID:25613595

  10. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts. PMID:19062433

  11. Visual Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnheim, Rudolf

    Based on the more general principle that all thinking (including reasoning) is basically perceptual in nature, the author proposes that visual perception is not a passive recording of stimulus material but an active concern of the mind. He delineates the task of visually distinguishing changes in size, shape, and position and points out the…

  12. Thinking about Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Sarah J.

    The teaching of decision-making, problem-solving, and higher-order thinking skills is necessary to ensure adaptability to our world of accelerated change. Living skills in the technology and information age will include the understanding and application of higher level thinking skills, which will be the educational "basics" of tomorrow. Although…

  13. Increasing Higher Level Thinking Skills in Science of Gifted Students in Grades 1-4 through "Hands-On" Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dindial, Myrna J.

    This practicum was designed to increase higher level thinking skills of gifted students in primary school. The project sought to retrain students from recalling science information from the textbook to a more challenging and active form of learning through individual projects and small group and large group activities. Students were given…

  14. Foundations for Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.

    2015-01-01

    "Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…

  15. Measuring Gains in Critical Thinking in Food Science and Human Nutrition Courses: The Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Problem-Based Learning Activities, and Student Journal Entries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Li, Yong; Rhee, Walter Y.

    2010-01-01

    The Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTT) is one of the many multiple-choice tests with validated questions that have been reported to measure general critical thinking (CT) ability. One of the IFT Education Standards for undergraduate degrees in Food Science is the emphasis on the development of critical thinking. While this skill is easy to list…

  16. Brain correlates underlying creative thinking: EEG alpha activity in professional vs. novice dancers.

    PubMed

    Fink, Andreas; Graif, Barbara; Neubauer, Aljoscha C

    2009-07-01

    Neuroscientific research on creativity has revealed valuable insights into possible brain correlates underlying this complex mental ability domain. However, most of the studies investigated brain activity during the performance of comparatively simple (verbal) type of tasks and the majority of studies focused on samples of the normal population. In this study we investigate EEG activity in professional dancers (n=15) who have attained a high level of expertise in this domain. This group was compared with a group of novices (n=17) who have only basic experience in dancing and completed no comprehensive training in this field. The EEG was recorded during performance of two different dancing imagery tasks which differed with respect to creative demands. In the first task participants were instructed to mentally perform a dance which should be as unique and original as possible (improvisation dance). In the waltz task they were asked to imagine dancing the waltz, a standard dance which involves a sequence of monotonous steps (lower creative demands). In addition, brain activity was also measured during performance of the Alternative Uses test. We observed evidence that during the generation of alternative uses professional dancers show stronger alpha synchronization in posterior parietal brain regions than novice dancers. During improvisation dance, professional dancers exhibited more right-hemispheric alpha synchronization than the group of novices did, while during imagining dancing the waltz no significant group differences emerged. The findings complement and extend existing findings on the relationship between EEG alpha activity and creative thinking. PMID:19269335

  17. Quantity, Quality, and Variety of Pupil Responses during an Open-Communication Structured Group Directed Reading-Thinking Activity and a Closed Communication Structured Group Directed Reading Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petre, Richard M.

    The quality, quantity, and variety of pupil responses while using two different group directed reading activities, the Directed Reading Activity (DRA), and the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA) were investigated in this study. The subjects, all fourth graders in two nearby communities, were grouped into above-grade-level, at-grade-level,…

  18. The Effect of Mastery Learning Model with Reflective Thinking Activities on Medical Students' Academic Achievement: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elaldi, Senel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of mastery learning model supported with reflective thinking activities on the fifth grade medical students' academic achievement. Mixed methods approach was applied in two samples (n = 64 and n = 6). Quantitative part of the study was based on a pre-test-post-test control group design with an experiment…

  19. Effect of Modeling-Based Activities Developed Using Virtual Environments and Concrete Objects on Spatial Thinking and Mental Rotation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurt, Eyup; Sunbul, Ali Murat

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of modeling based activities using virtual environments and concrete objects on spatial thinking and mental rotation skills was investigated. The study was designed as a pretest-posttest model with a control group, which is one of the experimental research models. The study was carried out on sixth grade students…

  20. The Efficacy of Some Proposed Activities For Developing Creative Thinking of English Learners at the Preparatory Stage (Second Year)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakr, Samira M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of some proposed activities for developing creative thinking of English learners at the preparatory stage. The current study adopted the quasi- experimental design. Two groups of English learners were randomly chosen from one of Port- Said governmental preparatory schools. The experimental…

  1. Using Directed Reading Thinking Activity Strategies To Teach Students Reading Comprehension Skills in Middle Grades Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFoe, Marguerite Corbitt

    This practicum was designed to use directed reading thinking activity strategies to teach reading comprehension skills to middle grades language arts students who frequently failed to make passing scores in reading comprehension exercises. The program included three specific strategies. The first strategy was to teach the students higher-order…

  2. Activities to Promote Critical Thinking. Classroom Practices in Teaching English, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL.

    Intended to involve students in language and communication study in such a way that significant thinking occurs, this collection of teaching ideas outlines ways to teach literature and composition that engage the students in such thinking processes as inferring, sequencing, predicting, classifying, problem solving, and synthesizing. The activities…

  3. The Impact of the Systems Thinking Approach on Teaching and Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandinach, Ellen B.; And Others

    The Systems Thinking and Curriculum Innovation (STACI) project is a multi-year research effort intended to examine the cognitive demands and consequences of learning from a systems thinking approach to instruction and from using simulation-modeling software. This study tests the potentials and effects of integrating the systems approach into…

  4. Do We Need More "Doing" Activities or "Thinking" Activities in the Field Practicum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mingun; Fortune, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    How do MSW students learn new professional skills in the field practicum? Does students' reflection affect the use of other learning activities during the field practicum? Students in field practica participate in activities that involve observation, doing (participatory), and conceptual linkage. In this study of MSW students, conceptual…

  5. The Effects of Aesthetic Science Activities on Improving At-Risk Families Children's Anxiety About Learning Science and Positive Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zuway-R.; Lin, Huann-shyang; Chen, Hsiang-Ting; Wang, Hsin-Hui; Lin, Chia-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of aesthetic science activities on improving elementary school at-risk families' children's positive thinking, attitudes toward science, and decreasing their anxiety about learning science. Thirty-six 4th-grade children from at-risk families volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group; another 97 typical 4th graders were randomly selected to participant in the assessment and were used as the comparison group. The treatment for experimental group children emphasized scaffolding aesthetic science activities and inquiry strategies. The Elementary School Student Questionnaire was administered to assess all children's positive thinking, attitudes toward science, and anxiety about learning science. In addition, nine target children from the experimental group with the lowest scores on either positive thinking, or attitudes toward science, or with the highest scores on anxiety about learning science in the pre-test were recruited to be interviewed at the end of the intervention and observed weekly. Confirmatory factor analyses, analyses of covariance, and content theme analysis assessed the similarities and differences between groups. It was found that the at-risk families' children were motivated by the treatment and made significant progress on positive thinking and attitudes toward science, and also decreased their anxiety about learning science. The findings from interviews and classroom observations also revealed that the intervention made differences in children's affective perceptions of learning science. Implication and research recommendation are discussed.

  6. Thinking about Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Deborah

    1991-01-01

    This document summarizes five studies that offer insight into the nature of higher-order thinking skills and the most effective methods for teaching them to students. The reviews outline the conclusions, definitions, recommendations, specific methods of teaching, instructional strategies, and programs detailed in the documents themselves.…

  7. Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Distinguishes between critical and creative thinking and discusses critical-thinking in relation to modern instructional programs and information literacy. Outlines goals in critical-thinking curriculum, critical thinking skills (student disposition, interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, presenting argument, and reflection), and…

  8. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  9. Supporting Prospective Teachers to Notice Students' Mathematical Thinking through Rehearsal Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Glenda; Hunter, Jodie; Hunter, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there have been calls for ambitious mathematics teaching which places student thinking and reasoning at the centre of instruction. Drawing on a larger study concerning implementation of practice-based pedagogies within our initial teacher education mathematics programme, this paper examines the range of opportunities for…

  10. Schematising Activities as a Means for Encouraging Young Children to Think Abstractly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oers, Bert; Poland, Marielle

    2007-01-01

    One of the missions of education is to prepare children for complex tasks that occur in their cultural environment. By means of abstracting, the effects of this complexity can be reduced. Recent research and theoretical development show us that young children already seem to be able to think abstractly. The acknowledgement of this potential in…

  11. Functional Thinking in a Year 1 Classroom: Activities that Support Its Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Elizabeth; Benson, Samantha; Green, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    The concept of a function is fundamental to virtually every aspect of mathematics and every branch of quantitative science. Presently this type of thinking is carolled at the secondary level, and yet it has many benefits for deepening the understanding of early arithmetic. This is particularly so in the way that operations can be considered as…

  12. Wiki Activities in Blended Learning for Health Professional Students: Enhancing Critical Thinking and Clinical Reasoning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Health professionals use critical thinking, a key problem solving skill, for clinical reasoning which is defined as the use of knowledge and reflective inquiry to diagnose a clinical problem. Teaching these skills in traditional settings with growing class sizes is challenging, and students increasingly expect learning that is flexible and…

  13. Thinking with Your Hands: Speech-Gesture Activity during an L2 Awareness-Raising Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Compernolle, Remi A.; Williams, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study of second language (L2) French learners' self-generated use of gesture to think through and resolve a metalinguistic awareness-raising task during small-group work with an expert mediator. Although the use of gesture in L2 communication and pedagogy has recently received increasing attention, little research has…

  14. Critically Thinking about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissberg, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author states that "critical thinking" has mesmerized academics across the political spectrum and that even high school students are now being called upon to "think critically." He furthers adds that it is no exaggeration to say that "critical thinking" has quickly evolved into a scholarly…

  15. Transforming Critical Thinking: Thinking Constructively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.

    This book presents a reconceptualization of critical thinking theory. Drawing on pragmatic, feminist, and postmodern philosophies, the book offers an overview of the history of critical thinking and identifies its major theorists. It critiques how critical thinking is conceptualized and applied in classrooms and offers a newly delineated platform…

  16. Traditional Literacy and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dando, Priscille

    2016-01-01

    How school librarians focus on activating critical thinking through traditional literacy development can proactively set the stage for the deep thinking that occurs in all literacy development. The critical-thinking skills students build while becoming accomplished readers and writers provide the foundation for learning in a variety of…

  17. Young Children's Knowledge about Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavell, John H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports results of 14 studies on children's knowledge about thinking. Suggests that preschoolers appear to know that thinking is an internal mental activity that can refer to real or imaginary objects or events. However, preschoolers are poor at determining when a person is and is not thinking. This shortcoming is considerably less evident in…

  18. Thinking is believing.

    PubMed

    Kasturirangan, Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    Philosophers as well lay people often think of beliefs as psychological states with dubious epistemic properties. Beliefs are conceptualized as unregulated conceptual structures, for the most part hypothetical and often fanciful or deluded. Thinking and reasoning on the other hand are seen as rational activities regulated by rules and governed by norms. Computational modeling of the mind has focused on rule-governed behavior, ultimately trying to reduce them to rules of logic. What if thinking is less like reasoning and more like believing? I argue that the classical model of thought as rational is mistaken and that thinking is fundamentally constituted by believing. This new approach forces us to re-evaluate classical epistemic concepts like "truth", "justification" etc. Furthermore, if thinking is believing, then it is not clear how thoughts can be modeled computationally. We need new mathematical ideas to model thought, ideas that are quite different from traditional logic-based mathematical structures. PMID:18166389

  19. Nuclear age thinking

    SciTech Connect

    Depastas, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    According to the practicalist school, thinking emerges from activity and each human practice is giving food to its own distinctive kinds of perception, conduct, and perspective of the world. The author, while studying and describing developments after the commencement of the nuclear age in many fields of human behavior and knowledge, including the social sciences, particularly psychology and international politics, became an adherent to the practicalist philosophy when he perceived new relevant thoughts coming to his mind at the same time. Indeed writing is a learning experience. He has, therefore, systematically included these thoughts in the following pages and synoptically characterized them in the title: Nuclear Age Thinking. He considers this kind of thinking as automatic, conscious activity which is gradually influencing our choices and decisions. The author has reservations as regards Albert Einstein's saying that the unleashed power of the atom changed everything save our modes of thinking, because the uncontrollability of nuclear energy is apparently in the subconscious of mankind nowadays, influencing the development of a new mode of thinking, and that is the nuclear age thinking which is the subject of this book. Nuclear age thinking drives from the collective fear of extinction of life on earth due to this new power at man's disposal, and it is not only limited to the change in the conventional meaning of the words war and peace.

  20. Thinking creatively is thinking critically.

    PubMed

    Gruenfeld, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The Cartoneras projects aim to promote the celebration of language, culture, and creativity through a collaboration between top literary minds and cardboard collectors in Buenos Aires and Lima. They produce and publish beautiful books with hand-painted cardboard covers that speak of the wonderful literature inside. Inspired by those projects, the Paper Picker Press (PPP) program in Boston aims to engage higher-order thinking through an arts-based approach to rediscovering literature through play. PPP starts with the premise that a student who is thinking creatively is also thinking critically. Creative play is critical thinking. PMID:20391619

  1. Teaching Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Paul

    1986-01-01

    As the world moves from the industrial age into the information age people become less dependent on basic facts and skills and more dependent on the ability to manipulate information. The higher level thinking skills that are needed in this new age must be taught in the schools. When selecting programs for teaching thinking, educators should…

  2. [Frequency-spatial organization of brain electrical activity in creative verbal thinking: role of the gender factor].

    PubMed

    Razumnikova, O M; Bryzgalova, A O

    2005-01-01

    Gender differences in EEG patterns associated with verbal creativity were studied by EEG mapping. The EEGs of 18 males and 21 females (right-handed university students) were recorded during a performance of Remote Associates Task (RAT) compared with the letter-fluency and simple associate's tasks. Gender differences were found in a factor structure of the indices of verbal thinking and a score of generating words was greater in women than men. No significant gender differences in originality of associations were revealed, however, gender-related differences in the EEG-patterns were found at the final and initial stages of RAT. In men, the beta2-power was increased in both hemispheres at the beginning of test. To the end of testing, the power of oscillations in the beta2 band increased only in the central part of the cortex. In women, the beta2-power was increased to a greater extent in the right than in the left hemisphere at the initial stage of task performance, whereas the final stage was characterized by a relative decrease in beta-activity in parietotemporal cortical regions and increase in the left prefrontal region. It is suggested that the verbal creative thinking in men is based mostly on "insight" strategy whereas women additionally involve the "intellectual" strategy. PMID:16217962

  3. Media-Smart Youth: Eat, Think, and Be Active! A Workshop Curriculum for Youth Ages 11 to 13. Guide for Training Program Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Eunice Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    The Media-Smart Youth: Eat, Think, and Be Active! program is an engaging curriculum that helps young people understand the complex media world around them so they can make thoughtful decisions about issues important to their health, specifically nutrition and physical activity. This training guide was developed in response to the requests of…

  4. How We Think We Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Philip W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The intellectual context of this essay is the nature of human thought as examined by philosophers and psychologists past and present. Focus of study: The study focuses on the treatment of thinking by John Dewey in his two editions of "How We Think" and by William James in his "Talks to Teachers". Research Design: This is a…

  5. Critical Thinking: Thinking with Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Linda; Paul, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Urges education to help students learn through conceptual thinking. States that the first step must be to teach the subtleties of words--without a command of the language, important discriminations can be confused. Asserts that if students are to think well conceptually, surface language must dissolve, and alternative ways to communicate must be…

  6. Critical Thinking: Thinking to Some Purpose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Linda; Paul, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Argues that students should continuously question the purpose of their daily classroom activities and assignments. Explains that when students are required to consider purpose, they begin to develop important intellectual skills, and to bring relevance to their critical thinking and daily life. (NB)

  7. Thinking and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Alan

    2006-01-01

    The importance of thinking for language learning has been recognized for some time. ELT activities which encourage active mental processing have become increasingly common. However, there is evidence that the use of such activities has still not become widespread in a number of ELT situations. One reason for this may be lack of awareness about how…

  8. The Effect of Scratch- and Lego Mindstorms Ev3-Based Programming Activities on Academic Achievement, Problem-Solving Skills and Logical-Mathematical Thinking Skills of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkmaz, Özgen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the Scratch and Lego Mindstorms Ev3 programming activities on academic achievement with respect to computer programming, and on the problem-solving and logical-mathematical thinking skills of students. This study was a semi-experimental, pretest-posttest study with two experimental groups and…

  9. Adding Value to the Learning Process by Online Peer Review Activities: Towards the Elaboration of a Methodology to Promote Critical Thinking in Future Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Caroline; Nascimento, Maria M.; Payan-Carreira, Rita; Cruz, Gonçalo; Silva, Helena; Lopes, José; Morais, Maria da Felicidade A.; Morais, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Considering the results of research on the benefits and difficulties of peer review, this paper describes how teaching faculty, interested in endorsing the acquisition of communication and critical thinking (CT) skills among engineering students, has been implementing a learning methodology throughout online peer review activities. While…

  10. The Effects of Aesthetic Science Activities on Improving At-Risk Families Children's Anxiety about Learning Science and Positive Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Zuway-R.; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Chen, Hsiang-Ting; Wang, Hsin-Hui; Lin, Chia-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of aesthetic science activities on improving elementary school at-risk families' children's positive thinking, attitudes toward science, and decreasing their anxiety about learning science. Thirty-six 4th-grade children from at-risk families volunteered to participate in a 12-week…

  11. Assessing the Use of YouTube Videos and Interactive Activities as a Critical Thinking Stimulator for Tertiary Students: An Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    June, Sethela; Yaacob, Aizan; Kheng, Yeoh Khar

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to investigate the use of YouTube videos and interactive activities in stimulating critical thinking among students from a public university in Malaysia. There were 50 students of mixed background, comprised of local and foreign students who participated in this study which lasted for one semester. Data was…

  12. Improved Creative Thinkers in a Class: A Model of Activity Based Tasks for Improving University Students' Creative Thinking Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oncu, Elif Celebi

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was improving university students' from different faculties creativity thinking through a creativity education process. The education process took twelve weeks' time. As pretest, Torrance test of creative thinking (TTCT) figural form was used. Participants were 24 university students from different faculties who…

  13. Psychological Knowledge for Teaching Critical Thinking: The Agency of Epistemic Activity, Metacognitive Regulative Behaviour and (Student-Centred) Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclellan, Effie; Soden, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This study considers the case of a tutor whose students repeatedly evidenced significantly superior critical thinking in summative assessment. For the purpose of surfacing appropriate pedagogical action to promote critical thinking (Bassey, "Case Study Research in Educational Settings," 1999), the singularity of one tutor's reported pedagogical…

  14. Ideological Think Tanks in the States: An Inventory of Their Prevalence, Networks, and Higher Education Policy Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Erik C.; Gándara, Denisa

    2014-01-01

    This study takes an inventory of a particular type of intermediary organization ascendant within the state-level higher education policy: ideological think tanks. Our inventory identifies 99 think tanks: 59 affiliated with the conservative State Policy Network and 40 with the Progressive States Network. The analysis shows that state-level…

  15. Organizational change through Lean Thinking.

    PubMed

    Tsasis, Peter; Bruce-Barrett, Cindy

    2008-08-01

    In production and manufacturing plants, Lean Thinking has been used to improve processes by eliminating waste and thus enhancing efficiency. In health care, Lean Thinking has emerged as a comprehensive approach towards improving processes embedded in the diagnostic, treatment and care activities of health-care organizations with cost containment results. This paper provides a case study example where Lean Thinking is not only used to improve efficiency and cost containment, but also as an approach to effective organizational change. PMID:18647948

  16. Evolutionary thinking

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Tam

    2014-01-01

    Evolution as an idea has a lengthy history, even though the idea of evolution is generally associated with Darwin today. Rebecca Stott provides an engaging and thoughtful overview of this history of evolutionary thinking in her 2013 book, Darwin's Ghosts: The Secret History of Evolution. Since Darwin, the debate over evolution—both how it takes place and, in a long war of words with religiously-oriented thinkers, whether it takes place—has been sustained and heated. A growing share of this debate is now devoted to examining how evolutionary thinking affects areas outside of biology. How do our lives change when we recognize that all is in flux? What can we learn about life more generally if we study change instead of stasis? Carter Phipps’ book, Evolutionaries: Unlocking the Spiritual and Cultural Potential of Science's Greatest Idea, delves deep into this relatively new development. Phipps generally takes as a given the validity of the Modern Synthesis of evolutionary biology. His story takes us into, as the subtitle suggests, the spiritual and cultural implications of evolutionary thinking. Can religion and evolution be reconciled? Can evolutionary thinking lead to a new type of spirituality? Is our culture already being changed in ways that we don't realize by evolutionary thinking? These are all important questions and Phipps book is a great introduction to this discussion. Phipps is an author, journalist, and contributor to the emerging “integral” or “evolutionary” cultural movement that combines the insights of Integral Philosophy, evolutionary science, developmental psychology, and the social sciences. He has served as the Executive Editor of EnlightenNext magazine (no longer published) and more recently is the co-founder of the Institute for Cultural Evolution, a public policy think tank addressing the cultural roots of America's political challenges. What follows is an email interview with Phipps. PMID:26478766

  17. Classification: Something to Think About.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Joan P.; Jacobs, Judith E.

    1981-01-01

    Advocates the use of classification activities in the elementary school curriculum as a means of developing thinking skills in children. Critical preclassification skills, classification activities (including simple and multiple classification), and classification tasks and materials are discussed. (Author/RH)

  18. Reading, Writing, and Thinking about Disability Issues: Five Activities for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Tammie M.; Menten, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors share five practical teaching activities for introducing disability into the secondary English curriculum that also address NCTE/IRA objectives for the English language arts. They have used these lessons to help students better analyze the language/rhetoric of disability, understand how disability is represented in…

  19. The Improvement of Thinking Skills in Young Children Using Computer Activities: A Replication and Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riding, R. J.; Powell, S. D.

    1986-01-01

    Replicates and extends Riding and Powells' study of four-year-olds' problem-solving abilities using computer activities. Achieves similar results, namely significantly greater improvement between the pretest and posttest scores for the treatment group. Suggests that computers could aid worthwhile improvement in young children's thinking…

  20. Language Activation in the Thinking Processes of a Multilingual Language User

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrys-Barker, Danuta

    2006-01-01

    The present study looks at the levels of activation of different languages a trilingual language user operates in at the moment of text construction in one of these languages. Forty-eight Portuguese advanced users of English (L2) and intermediate in German (L3) were asked to perform a translation task. The subjects were divided into two subgroups:…

  1. Thinking about the thoughts of others; temporal and spatial neural activation during false belief reasoning.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sarah I; AuCoin-Power, Michelle; Urbain, Charline; Smith, Mary Lou; Pang, Elizabeth W; Taylor, Margot J

    2016-07-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to understand the perspectives, mental states and beliefs of others in order to anticipate their behaviour and is therefore crucial to social interactions. Although fMRI has been widely used to establish the neural networks implicated in ToM, little is known about the timing of ToM-related brain activity. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure the neural processes underlying ToM, as MEG provides very accurate timing and excellent spatial localization of brain processes. We recorded MEG activity during a false belief task, a reliable measure of ToM, in twenty young adults (10 females). MEG data were recorded in a 151 sensor CTF system (MISL, Coquitlam, BC) and data were co-registered to each participant's MRI (Siemens 3T) for source reconstruction. We found stronger right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) activations in the false belief condition from 150ms to 225ms, in the right precuneus from 275ms to 375ms, in the right inferior frontal gyrus from 200ms to 300ms and the superior frontal gyrus from 300ms to 400ms. Our findings extend the literature by demonstrating the timing and duration of neural activity in the main regions involved in the "mentalizing" network, showing that activations related to false belief in adults are predominantly right lateralized and onset around 100ms. The sensitivity of MEG will allow us to determine spatial and temporal differences in the brain processes in ToM in younger populations or those who demonstrate deficits in this ability. PMID:27039146

  2. Thinking Outside the Box: Rectilinear Shapes Selectively Activate Scene-Selective Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Echavarria, Cesar E.; Tootell, Roger B.H.

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, an intriguing area was found in human visual cortex. This area (the parahippocampal place area [PPA]) was initially interpreted as responding selectively to images of places. However, subsequent studies reported that PPA also responds strongly to a much wider range of image categories, including inanimate objects, tools, spatial context, landmarks, objectively large objects, indoor scenes, and/or isolated buildings. Here, we hypothesized that PPA responds selectively to a lower-level stimulus property (rectilinear features), which are common to many of the above higher-order categories. Using a novel wavelet image filter, we first demonstrated that rectangular features are common in these diverse stimulus categories. Then we tested whether PPA is selectively activated by rectangular features in six independent fMRI experiments using progressively simplified stimuli, from complex real-world images, through 3D/2D computer-generated shapes, through simple line stimuli. We found that PPA was consistently activated by rectilinear features, compared with curved and nonrectangular features. This rectilinear preference was (1) comparable in amplitude and selectivity, relative to the preference for category (scenes vs faces), (2) independent of known biases for specific orientations and spatial frequency, and (3) not predictable from V1 activity. Two additional scene-responsive areas were sensitive to a subset of rectilinear features. Thus, rectilinear selectivity may serve as a crucial building block for category-selective responses in PPA and functionally related areas. PMID:24828628

  3. Thinking Allowed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Viv

    2008-01-01

    Disability equality and improving life chances for disabled people are high on the U.K. Government's agenda at present. As someone who was once a practitioner and a manager in a busy further education environment, the author knows how difficult it is to find time to think about, and discuss with colleagues, the implications of policy. This article…

  4. Quantitative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBridge, Lee A.

    An appeal for more research to determine how to educate children as effectively as possible is made. Mathematics teachers can readily examine the educational problems of today in their classrooms since learning progress in mathematics can easily be measured and evaluated. Since mathematics teachers have learned to think in quantitative terms and…

  5. Thinking Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stu; Sharp, Janet; Zachary, Loren

    2004-01-01

    Most people think that engineering and mathematics go hand in hand. To many, being an engineer means manipulating equations and calculating measurements to design and build structures of all kinds. And they are right. Engineering does involve a great deal of mathematics. But, building structures to withstand certain environmental conditions or…

  6. Teaching Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Dwight

    2002-01-01

    If history teachers' aim is to teach students how to think, why not ask: What forms of thought do historians use, and what specific techniques will inculcate these forms? In this article, the author proposes a fundamental shift, from courses with a focus on the mastery of data to courses with a priority on learning the historian's craft. The…

  7. Thinking in Terms of Structure-Activity-Relationships (T-SAR): A Tool to Better Understand Nanofiltration Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, José F.; Jastorff, Bernd; Störmann, Reinhold; Stolte, Stefan; Thöming, Jorg

    2011-01-01

    A frontier to be conquered in the field of membrane technology is related to the very limited scientific base for the rational and task-specific design of membranes. This is especially true for nanofiltration membranes with properties that are based on several solute-membrane interaction mechanisms. “Thinking in terms of Structure-Activity-Relationships” (T-SAR) is a methodology which applies a systematic analysis of a chemical entity based on its structural formula. However, the analysis become more complex with increasing size of the molecules considered. In this study, T-SAR was combined with classical membrane characterization methods, resulting in a new methodology which allowed us not only to explain membrane characteristics, but also provides evidence for the importance of the chemical structure for separation performance. We demonstrate an application of the combined approach and its potential to discover stereochemistry, molecular interaction potentials, and reactivity of two FilmTec nanofiltration membranes (NF-90 and NF-270). Based on these results, it was possible to predict both properties and performance in the recovery of hydrophobic ionic liquids from aqueous solution. PMID:24957730

  8. Thinking like an Ecologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jenn

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a lesson in which students examine current field research on global change. In particular, students investigate the effect of carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone on ecosystems by applying their knowledge of scientific inquiry and photosynthesis. The goal of the activity is for students to think like ecologists and draw…

  9. Activating Patients for Sustained Chronic Disease Self-Management: Thinking Beyond Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dye, Cheryl J; Williams, Joel E; Evatt, Janet H

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the impact of an 8-week community program implemented by trained volunteers on the hypertension self-management of 185 patients who were batch randomized to intervention or wait-list control groups. Compared with control group participants, a higher proportion of treatment group participants moved from the cognitive to behavioral stages of motivational readiness for being physically active (P < .001), practicing healthy eating habits (P = .001), handling stress well (P = .001), and living an overall healthy lifestyle (P = .003). They also demonstrated a greater average increase in perceived competence for self-management, F(1.134) = 4.957, P = .028, η2 = .036, and a greater increase in mean hypertension-related knowledge, F(1.160) = 16.571, P < .0005, η(2) = .094. Enduring lifestyle changes necessary for chronic disease self-management require that psychosocial determinants of health behavior are instilled, which is typically beyond standard medical practice. We recommend peer-led, community-based programs as a complement to clinical care and support the increasing health system interest in promoting population health beyond clinical walls. PMID:26792906

  10. Neural activity associated with self, other, and object-based counterfactual thinking

    PubMed Central

    De Brigard, Felipe; Spreng, R. Nathan; Mitchell, Jason P.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that autobiographical episodic counterfactual thinking—i.e., mental simulations about alternative ways in which one’s life experiences could have occurred—engages the brain’s default network (DN). However, it remains unknown whether or not the DN is also engaged during impersonal counterfactual thoughts, specifically those involving other people or objects. The current study compares brain activity during counterfactual simulations involving the self, others and objects. In addition, counterfactual thoughts involving others were manipulated in terms of similarity and familiarity with the simulated characters. The results indicate greater involvement of DN during person-based (i.e., self and other) as opposed to object-based counterfactual simulations. However, the involvement of different regions of the DN during other-based counterfactual simulations was modulated by how close and/or similar the simulated character was perceived to be by the participant. Simulations involving unfamiliar characters preferentially recruited dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Simulations involving unfamiliar similar characters, characters with whom participants identified personality traits, recruited lateral temporal gyrus. Finally, our results also revealed differential coupling of right hippocampus with lateral prefrontal and temporal cortex during counterfactual simulations involving familiar similar others, but with left transverse temporal gyrus and medial frontal and inferior temporal gyri during counterfactual simulations involving either oneself or unfamiliar dissimilar others. These results suggest that different brain mechanisms are involved in the simulation of personal and impersonal counterfactual thoughts, and that the extent to which regions associated with autobiographical memory are recruited during the simulation of counterfactuals involving others depends on the perceived similarity and familiarity with the simulated individuals

  11. Critical thinking in physics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadidi, Farahnaz

    2016-07-01

    We agree that training the next generation of leaders of the society, who have the ability to think critically and form a better judgment is an important goal. It is a long-standing concern of Educators and a long-term desire of teachers to establish a method in order to teach to think critically. To this end, many questions arise on three central aspects: the definition, the evaluation and the design of the course: What is Critical Thinking? How can we define Critical Thinking? How can we evaluate Critical Thinking? Therefore, we want to implement Critical Thinking in physics education. How can we teach for Critical Thinking in physics? What should the course syllabus and materials be? We present examples from classical physics and give perspectives for astro-particle physics. The main aim of this paper is to answer the questions and provide teachers with the opportunity to change their classroom to an active one, in which students are encouraged to ask questions and learn to reach a good judgment. Key words: Critical Thinking, evaluation, judgment, design of the course.

  12. Classroom Discussions with Student-Led Feedback: A Useful Activity to Enhance Development of Critical Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Kirby D.; Devitt, Amy A.

    2008-01-01

    Critical thinking skills (CTS) are the core learning outcome measures for higher education. Generally, CTS are not extensively developed or practiced during primary and secondary education. As such, early cultivation of CTS is essential for mastery prior to collegiate matriculation. Weekly engagement in 50 min of classroom discussion with student…

  13. Promoting University Students' Critical Thinking Skills through Peer Feedback Activity in an Online Discussion Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekahitanond, Visara

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of the critical inquiry model through peer feedback strategies in an online environment on university students' critical thinking skills and examined their attitudes towards learning through the critical inquiry model and peer feedback strategies. Pre-and post-tests were employed to measure critical thinking…

  14. From Passive to Active: The Impact of the Flipped Classroom through Social Learning Platforms on Higher Education Students' Creative Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zahrani, Abdulrahman M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of the flipped classroom on the promotion of students' creative thinking. Students were recruited from the Faculty of Education at King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia during the first semester of 2014. A multiple method research design was used to address the research questions. First, a two-group…

  15. On three forms of thinking: magical thinking, dream thinking, and transformative thinking.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2010-04-01

    The author believes that contemporary psychoanalysis has shifted its emphasis from the understanding of the symbolic meaning of dreams, play, and associations to the exploration of the processes of thinking, dreaming, and playing. In this paper, he discusses his understanding of three forms of thinking-magical thinking, dream thinking, and transformative thinking-and provides clinical illustrations in which each of these forms of thinking figures prominently. The author views magical thinking as a form of thinking that subverts genuine thinking and psychological growth by substituting invented psychic reality for disturbing external reality. By contrast, dream thinking--our most profound form of thinking-involves viewing an emotional experience from multiple perspectives simultaneously: for example, the perspectives of primary process and secondary process thinking. In transformative thinking, one creates a new way of ordering experience that allows one to generate types of feeling, forms of object relatedness, and qualities of aliveness that had previously been unimaginable. PMID:20496835

  16. Thinking Routines: Replicating Classroom Practices within Museum Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolberg, Rochelle Ibanez; Goff, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This article describes thinking routines as tools to guide and support young children's thinking. These learning strategies, developed by Harvard University's Project Zero Classroom, actively engage students in constructing meaning while also understanding their own thinking process. The authors discuss how thinking routines can be used in both…

  17. A Mini-Workshop in Critical and Creative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Judy R.

    Critical thinking and creative thinking are explored. Critical thinking is the process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, or evaluating information. It includes affective strategies such as thinking independently and developing intellectual perseverance. Certain teaching behaviors can encourage critical…

  18. Adding value to the learning process by online peer review activities: towards the elaboration of a methodology to promote critical thinking in future engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Caroline; Nascimento, Maria M.; Payan-Carreira, Rita; Cruz, Gonçalo; Silva, Helena; Lopes, José; Morais, Maria da Felicidade A.; Morais, Eva

    2015-09-01

    Considering the results of research on the benefits and difficulties of peer review, this paper describes how teaching faculty, interested in endorsing the acquisition of communication and critical thinking (CT) skills among engineering students, has been implementing a learning methodology throughout online peer review activities. While introducing a new methodology, it is important to weight the advantages found and the conditions that might have restrained the activity outcomes, thereby modulating its overall efficiency. Our results show that several factors are decisive for the success of the methodology: the use of specific and detailed orientation guidelines for CT skills, the students' training on how to deliver a meaningful feedback, the opportunity to counter-argument, the selection of good assignments' examples, and the constant teacher's monitoring of the activity. Results also tackle other aspects of the methodology such as the thinking skills evaluation tools (grades and tests) that most suit our reality. An improved methodology is proposed taking in account the encountered limitations, thus offering the possibility to other interested institutions to use/test and/or improve it.

  19. Fossils, Facies and Geologic Time: Active Learning Yields More Expert-Like Thinking in a Large Class for Senior Science Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, S.; Jones, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    Teaching and assessing concepts involving the relationships between deep time and the Earth System can be challenging. This is especially true in elective courses for senior general science students who should be starting to think more like experts, but lack background knowledge in geology. By comparing student activities and work, both before and after introducing active learning strategies, we show that increased maturity of thinking about geological time was achieved in the science elective "Earth and Life through Time" taken by 150 upper level general science students. Student demographics were very similar in 2010 and 2011 allowing comparison of data from a consistent end of term survey, classroom observations, and test or exercise questions used in both years. Students identified the workload as greater in 2011, yet they also gave the course a stronger overall rating of excellence. Also, students in 2011 felt assessments and homework were more appropriate and expressed a nearly unanimous preference for group versus solo class work. More objective indicators of improvement include item analysis on test questions which shows increased difficulty and discrimination without compromising overall scores. The wide variety of changes introduced in 2011 do make it difficult to rigorously ascribe specific causes for improvement in how students think about geologic time. However the shift towards more sophisticated thinking involving skills rather than recall can be demonstrated by comparing geological interpretations produced by students in early and improved versions of exercises. For example, labs have always involved basic identification of rocks and fossils. Now, the new in-class group-based activities enable students to use data to establish the relative history of a geologic section, including environments, ages of known materials, and time spans of materials missing at unconformities. In addition to activities, specific exam questions and corresponding results

  20. Critical Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly newsletter focuses on the theme of critical thinking skills. "Critical Thinking Skills: An Interview with Dr. Richard Paul" (Barbara Christopher) is the text of an interview in which the director of research at Sonoma State University's Center for Critical Thinking examines the meaning of critical thinking and the ways…

  1. Design thinking.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tim

    2008-06-01

    In the past, design has most often occurred fairly far downstream in the development process and has focused on making new products aesthetically attractive or enhancing brand perception through smart, evocative advertising. Today, as innovation's terrain expands to encompass human-centered processes and services as well as products, companies are asking designers to create ideas rather than to simply dress them up. Brown, the CEO and president of the innovation and design firm IDEO, is a leading proponent of design thinking--a method of meeting people's needs and desires in a technologically feasible and strategically viable way. In this article he offers several intriguing examples of the discipline at work. One involves a collaboration between frontline employees from health care provider Kaiser Permanente and Brown's firm to reengineer nursing-staff shift changes at four Kaiser hospitals. Close observation of actual shift changes, combined with brainstorming and rapid prototyping, produced new procedures and software that radically streamlined information exchange between shifts. The result was more time for nursing, better-informed patient care, and a happier nursing staff. Another involves the Japanese bicycle components manufacturer Shimano, which worked with IDEO to learn why 90% of American adults don't ride bikes. The interdisciplinary project team discovered that intimidating retail experiences, the complexity and cost of sophisticated bikes, and the danger of cycling on heavily trafficked roads had overshadowed people's happy memories of childhood biking. So the team created a brand concept--"Coasting"--to describe a whole new category of biking and developed new in-store retailing strategies, a public relations campaign to identify safe places to cycle, and a reference design to inspire designers at the companies that went on to manufacture Coasting bikes. PMID:18605031

  2. Reading for the Able: The Think Box.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jack

    1983-01-01

    A Think Box is a collection of independent activities based on one theme and housed in an easily transportable container. It is intended to be used as enrichment for students who have already completed their assigned work. The activities are designed to develop higher level skills such as critical thinking or creative reading. They can be part of…

  3. Helping Students to Recognize and Evaluate an Assumption in Quantitative Reasoning: A Basic Critical-Thinking Activity with Marbles and Electronic Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slisko, Josip; Cruz, Adrian Corona

    2013-01-01

    There is a general agreement that critical thinking is an important element of 21st century skills. Although critical thinking is a very complex and controversial conception, many would accept that recognition and evaluation of assumptions is a basic critical-thinking process. When students use simple mathematical model to reason quantitatively…

  4. Computational thinking and thinking about computing

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Jeannette M.

    2008-01-01

    Computational thinking will influence everyone in every field of endeavour. This vision poses a new educational challenge for our society, especially for our children. In thinking about computing, we need to be attuned to the three drivers of our field: science, technology and society. Accelerating technological advances and monumental societal demands force us to revisit the most basic scientific questions of computing. PMID:18672462

  5. Visual Thinking Strategies = Creative and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Mary; Cutler, Kay; Fiedler, Dave; Weier, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) into the Camelot Intermediate School curriculum in Brookings, South Dakota, has fostered the development of creative and critical thinking skills in 4th- and 5th-grade students. Making meaning together by observing carefully, deciphering patterns, speculating, clarifying, supporting opinions, and…

  6. Critical Thinking: Frameworks and Models for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahim, Mansoor; Eslamdoost, Samaneh

    2014-01-01

    Developing critical thinking since the educational revolution gave rise to flourishing movements toward embedding critical thinking (CT henceforth) stimulating classroom activities in educational settings. Nevertheless the process faced with complications such as teachability potentiality, lack of practical frameworks concerning actualization of…

  7. Philosophy, Critical Thinking and Philosophy for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Marie-France; Auriac, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    For centuries, philosophy has been considered as an intellectual activity requiring complex cognitive skills and predispositions related to complex (or critical) thinking. The Philosophy for Children (P4C) approach aims at the development of critical thinking in pupils through philosophical dialogue. Some contest the introduction of P4C in the…

  8. Self-Reflection and the Inner Voice: Activation of the Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus During Perceptual and Conceptual Self-Referential Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Alain; Hamper, Breanne

    2012-01-01

    Inner speech involvement in self-reflection was examined by reviewing 130 studies assessing brain activation during self-referential processing in key self-domains: agency, self-recognition, emotions, personality traits, autobiographical memory, and miscellaneous (e.g., prospection, judgments). The left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) has been shown to be reliably recruited during inner speech production. The percentage of studies reporting LIFG activity for each self-dimension was calculated. Fifty five percent of all studies reviewed indicated LIFG (and presumably inner speech) activity during self-reflection tasks; on average LIFG activation is observed 16% of the time during completion of non-self tasks (e.g., attention, perception). The highest LIFG activation rate was observed during retrieval of autobiographical information. The LIFG was significantly more recruited during conceptual tasks (e.g., prospection, traits) than during perceptual tasks (agency and self-recognition). This constitutes additional evidence supporting the idea of a participation of inner speech in self-related thinking. PMID:23049653

  9. Self-reflection and the inner voice: activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus during perceptual and conceptual self-referential thinking.

    PubMed

    Morin, Alain; Hamper, Breanne

    2012-01-01

    Inner speech involvement in self-reflection was examined by reviewing 130 studies assessing brain activation during self-referential processing in key self-domains: agency, self-recognition, emotions, personality traits, autobiographical memory, and miscellaneous (e.g., prospection, judgments). The left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) has been shown to be reliably recruited during inner speech production. The percentage of studies reporting LIFG activity for each self-dimension was calculated. Fifty five percent of all studies reviewed indicated LIFG (and presumably inner speech) activity during self-reflection tasks; on average LIFG activation is observed 16% of the time during completion of non-self tasks (e.g., attention, perception). The highest LIFG activation rate was observed during retrieval of autobiographical information. The LIFG was significantly more recruited during conceptual tasks (e.g., prospection, traits) than during perceptual tasks (agency and self-recognition). This constitutes additional evidence supporting the idea of a participation of inner speech in self-related thinking. PMID:23049653

  10. Critical Thinking Concept Reconstructed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, Mary Kennedy

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the proposition that teaching of critical thinking (CT) should include: (1) identifying and addressing the many environmental variables acting as barriers to our human thinking, i.e., an open system approach, and (2) utilizing the interrelatedness of the CT building blocks, i.e., creative thinking techniques, levels of…

  11. Effective Thinking Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Rod

    1997-01-01

    Effective Thinking Outdoors (ETO) is an organization that teaches thinking skills and strategies via significant outdoor experiences. Identifies the three elements of thinking as creativity, play, and persistence; presents a graphic depiction of the problem-solving process and aims; and describes an ETO exercise, determining old routes of travel…

  12. Encouragement for Thinking Critically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivares, Sonia; Saiz, Carlos; Rivas, Silvia F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Here we report the results obtained in an innovative teaching experience that encourages the development of Critical Thinking skills through motivational intervention. Understanding Critical Thinking as a theory of action, "we think to solve problems", and accompanying this concept with a program aimed at teaching/learning…

  13. Beyond Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bono, Edward

    1986-01-01

    Suggests our society strongly needs thinking that is constructive, generative, and organizing; describes an educational program, CoRT (Cognitive Research Trust), which teaches creative thinking as a skill; and presents reasons for teaching thinking as a specific subject area. (MBR)

  14. A Ladder of Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovrich, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    Scientists and students often believe that if they just think harder about a problem, a solution will follow. However, thinking about one's thinking, or using metacognition, can be a more productive expenditure of mental energy. Introducing students to metacognition allows them to discover the value of reflection. This article presents a lesson on…

  15. What Were They Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rachael Adams

    2012-01-01

    Too often, teachers scratch their heads and ask, "What were my students thinking?" then answer, "I don't want to know." But teachers should want to know, and students should question their own thinking, as well. Critical thinking involves not just problem solving, creativity, analysis, and synthesis but also self-awareness of learning and learning…

  16. Insights on Teaching Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soffian, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Examines the process of teaching critical thinking in an adult basic education classroom. Introduces an alternative learning process that challenges the traditional model of unquestioning, uncritical acceptance of teacher and text and enables students to become more active and equal participants in learning. (Author/JOW)

  17. Critical Thinking about Political Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckowski, Jean A.; Lopach, James J.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that political commentary is excellent pedagogical raw material to help secondary students develop critical thinking. Outlines a lesson plan based on comparing the political commentaries of Rush Limbaugh and Will Rogers. Includes suggested evaluation activities, a list of annotated resources, and excerpts from the writings or statements of…

  18. Developmental Writing: Trust, Challenge, and Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David

    2002-01-01

    Explores the idea that basic writing students, when positioned in a classroom setting where safety and trust are paramount, will be willing to take risks. Notes that successful risks will lead students into a more positive relationship with their own writing abilities. Concludes that success in writing leads to a more open-minded approach which…

  19. [The EEG and thinking].

    PubMed

    Petsche, H

    1990-12-01

    The on-going EEG contains information on thinking strategies during cognitive and creative tasks and during listening to music. This was demonstrated by a method taking use of the fact that both the amount of local current production and the degree of electric coupling of brain regions is characteristically changed by mental tasks. In groups of volunteers the significant changes of absolute power and coherence caused by different mental tasks are computed and entered into schematic brain maps (EEG probability maps). The results indicate the existence of general brain strategies even in mental activities as specific as those referred to above. Moreover, several relationships between EEG, psychological test scores, degree of special education and intelligence were found. Studies with extreme value validation according to intelligence and creativity test scores yielded significant differences between the groups of the best and the poorest performers during a creative task in the EEG. The EEG thus can be conceived of as deterministic chaos with different degrees of organization according to its information content. In this context, the question arises as to a possible function of the EEG for the optimization of thinking processes. PMID:2127009

  20. Computer Software Genres That Help Students Think! Electronic Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    To effectively integrate computers into teaching, students' thinking skills must be a priority. The goal is to align thinking processes appropriately with the software's function. By categorizing software by genre and matching it to the desired thinking skills, teachers can plan lesson activities that teach discrete skills as well as complex…

  1. Helping Students Acquire Thinking Skills through Mathematics Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Devender, Evelyn M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes three activities that the teacher can employ to help students develop thinking skills through mathematics instruction: (1) memorization using the technique of chunking; (2) higher order thinking with magic squares; and (3) predicting games. Identifies eight facets of the teacher's role in promoting thinking skills. (MDH)

  2. The experience matters more than you think: People value intrinsic incentives more inside than outside an activity.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Kaitlin; Fishbach, Ayelet

    2015-12-01

    We document a shift in the value assigned to intrinsic incentives: people value these incentives more inside an activity than outside the activity (i.e., during vs. before or after pursuit). For example, people care more about the level of interest of their present work task than of past or future work tasks. We document this shift across a variety of activities (exercising, visiting a museum, and lab tasks) and using various measures, including rated importance of intrinsic incentives inside and outside pursuit, actual and planned persistence on activities that offer these incentives, and regret when choosers outside pursuit forgo intrinsic incentives that pursuers later seek. This shift in valuation occurs because intrinsic incentives improve the experience during action pursuit, and therefore, this shift is unique to intrinsic incentives. Extrinsic incentives, by contrast, are valued similarly inside and outside pursuit. PMID:26371401

  3. The geography of thinking.

    PubMed

    Mole, John

    2002-01-01

    People in different cultures are taught to think differently. How we gather information, process, rationalise, justify and communicate our ideas is culturally determined. Europe is divided between the pragmatic, inductive thinking of North Sea cultures and the rationalist thinking of the rest of the continent. Westerners and Asians have different mental skills and capacities deriving from the nature of written and spoken language, the relative importance of learning by rote or investigation and the social environment. Western children are expected to ask questions and test ideas for themselves, while in Asia it is unacceptable to question anyone senior in age or authority, including teachers. Westerners base thinking on reason; Asians base thinking on harmony. Whenever people of different cultures work together, different ways of thinking create barriers to understanding and communication. This applies to many spheres of work, including the medical profession. PMID:12195863

  4. ThinkSpace: Spatial Thinking in Middle School Astronomy Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Plummer, Julia; Sadler, Philip M.; Johnson, Erin; Sunbury, Susan; Zhang, Helen; Dussault, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Critical breakthroughs in science (e.g., Einstein's Theory of General Relativity, and Watson & Crick's discovery of the structure of DNA), originated with those scientists' ability to think spatially, and research has shown that spatial ability correlates strongly with likelihood of entering a career in STEM. Mounting evidence also shows that spatial skills are malleable, i.e., they can be improved through training. We report early work from a new project that will build on this research to create a series of middle schools science labs called "Thinking Spatially about the Universe" (ThinkSpace), in which students will use a blend of physical and virtual models (in WorldWide Telescope) to explore complex 3-dimensional phenomena in space science. In the three-year ThinkSpace labs project, astronomers, technologists, and education researchers are collaborating to create and test a suite of three labs designed to improve learners' spatial abilities through studies of: 1) Moon phases and eclipses; 2) planetary systems around stars other than the Sun; and 3.) celestial motions within the broader universe. The research program will determine which elements in the labs will best promote improvement of spatial skills within activities that emphasize disciplinary core ideas; and how best to optimize interactive dynamic visualizations to maximize student understanding.

  5. Implications of Spatiotemporal Regulation of Shigella flexneri Type Three Secretion Activity on Effector Functions: Think Globally, Act Locally

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Valois, F.-X.; Pontier, Stéphanie M.

    2016-01-01

    Shigella spp. are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that infect human colonic epithelia and cause bacterial dysentery. These bacteria express multiple copies of a syringe-like protein complex, the Type Three Secretion apparatus (T3SA), which is instrumental in the etiology of the disease. The T3SA triggers the plasma membrane (PM) engulfment of the bacteria by host cells during the initial entry process. It then enables bacteria to escape the resulting phagocytic-like vacuole. Freed bacteria form actin comets to move in the cytoplasm, which provokes bacterial collision with the inner leaflet of the PM. This phenomenon culminates in T3SA-dependent secondary uptake and vacuolar rupture in neighboring cells in a process akin to what is observed during entry and named cell-to-cell spread. The activity of the T3SA of Shigella flexneri was recently demonstrated to display an on/off regulation during the infection. While the T3SA is active when bacteria are in contact with PM-derived compartments, it switches to an inactive state when bacteria are released within the cytosol. These observations indicate that effector proteins transiting through the T3SA are therefore translocated in a highly time and space constrained fashion, likely impacting on their cellular distribution. Herein, we present what is currently known about the composition, the assembly and the regulation of the T3SA activity and discuss the consequences of the on/off regulation of T3SA on Shigella effector properties and functions during the infection. Specific examples that will be developed include the role of effectors IcsB and VirA in the escape from LC3/ATG8-positive vacuoles formed during cell-to-cell spread and of IpaJ protease activity against N-miristoylated proteins. The conservation of a similar regulation of T3SA activity in other pathogens such as Salmonella or Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27014638

  6. Implications of Spatiotemporal Regulation of Shigella flexneri Type Three Secretion Activity on Effector Functions: Think Globally, Act Locally.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Valois, F-X; Pontier, Stéphanie M

    2016-01-01

    Shigella spp. are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that infect human colonic epithelia and cause bacterial dysentery. These bacteria express multiple copies of a syringe-like protein complex, the Type Three Secretion apparatus (T3SA), which is instrumental in the etiology of the disease. The T3SA triggers the plasma membrane (PM) engulfment of the bacteria by host cells during the initial entry process. It then enables bacteria to escape the resulting phagocytic-like vacuole. Freed bacteria form actin comets to move in the cytoplasm, which provokes bacterial collision with the inner leaflet of the PM. This phenomenon culminates in T3SA-dependent secondary uptake and vacuolar rupture in neighboring cells in a process akin to what is observed during entry and named cell-to-cell spread. The activity of the T3SA of Shigella flexneri was recently demonstrated to display an on/off regulation during the infection. While the T3SA is active when bacteria are in contact with PM-derived compartments, it switches to an inactive state when bacteria are released within the cytosol. These observations indicate that effector proteins transiting through the T3SA are therefore translocated in a highly time and space constrained fashion, likely impacting on their cellular distribution. Herein, we present what is currently known about the composition, the assembly and the regulation of the T3SA activity and discuss the consequences of the on/off regulation of T3SA on Shigella effector properties and functions during the infection. Specific examples that will be developed include the role of effectors IcsB and VirA in the escape from LC3/ATG8-positive vacuoles formed during cell-to-cell spread and of IpaJ protease activity against N-miristoylated proteins. The conservation of a similar regulation of T3SA activity in other pathogens such as Salmonella or Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27014638

  7. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  8. The Effect on Reasoning, Reading and Number Performance of Computer-Presented Critical Thinking Activities in Five-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riding, R. J.; Powell, S. D.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study which investigated the possibility of improving five-year-olds' critical thinking skills in reading and mathematics by using computers. Results indicate improvement in the reading area but not in the mathematics area. (RKM)

  9. An Hypothesis on Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclennan, Ian

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that there exists a "finite" number of elementary concepts and distinguishable modes of thinking, that all human beings tend to acquire the same set of elements of thinking and the same strategies with which to understand and control their physical environment, and that the method of analysis used here is a standard scientific method.…

  10. It Makes You Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the "It Makes You Think" resource. The lessons provided by this resource show how students can learn about the global dimension through science. The "It Makes You Think" resource contains ten topics: (1) Metals in jewellery worldwide; (2) Global food market; (3) The worldwide travels of paper; (4) Mobile phones…

  11. Thinking in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Ruth A.

    It is proposed that a major obstacle for intermediate-level learners of English as a Second Language is the transition from thinking in the native language to thinking in English, that this transition must be made before proceeding from the intermediate level, and that it should begin as early as possible in language training. Early in-class…

  12. Vitalistic thinking in adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stuart

    2013-11-01

    Vitalistic thinking has traditionally been associated with reasoning about biological phenomena. The current research aimed to investigate a broader range of vitalistic thinking than previously studied. Esoteric notions of 'energy' are frequently used by individuals when making causal attributions for strange occurrences, and previous literature has linked such thinking with paranormal, magical, and superstitious beliefs. Two experiments are described that aim to investigate whether adults are vitalistic when asked to make causal judgments, and whether this can be predicted by thinking styles and prior paranormal belief. Experiment 1 asked participants to rate three causal options (one of which was vitalistic) for six vignettes. Scores on one dimension of paranormal belief (New Age Philosophy) and analytical thinking significantly predicted vitalism, but scores on intuitive thinking and Traditional Paranormal Beliefs did not. Experiment 2 extended the findings by asking participants to generate their own causal responses. Again, paranormal belief was found to be the best predictor of vitalism, but this time Traditional Paranormal Beliefs were associated with vitalistic responses whilst both intuitive and analytical thinking were unable to significantly predict classification. Results challenge previous findings, suggesting that vitalistic thinking may operate differently when applied to everyday causal reasoning. PMID:24094281

  13. Against Critical Thinking Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking pedagogy is misguided. Ostensibly a cure for narrowness of thought, by using the emotions appropriate to conflict, it names only one mode of relation to material among many others. Ostensibly a cure for fallacies, critical thinking tends to dishonesty in practice because it habitually leaps to premature ideas of what the object…

  14. The Global Thinking Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassard, Jack; Weisburg, Julie

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Global Thinking Project, a collaborative effort between Georgia State University and the Russian Academy of Pedagogical Sciences to develop strategies, methods, and teaching materials to help students think globally. Students are connected through the AppleLink network. Student and teacher attitudes toward the project are reported.…

  15. Critical Thinking and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces some of the debates in the field of critical thinking by highlighting differences among thinkers such as Siegel, Ennis, Paul, McPeck, and Martin, and poses some questions that arise from these debates. Does rationality transcend particular cultures, or are there different kinds of thinking, different styles of reasoning? What…

  16. Rethinking Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    Critical thinking is of primary importance in higher education, yet the concept remains slippery and the skill elusive. The author argues that most current critical thinking textbooks are out of line with the seminal work of John Dewey. Rather than logical argument and justification, it is suggested that carefulness, open-mindedness and creativity…

  17. Thinking Skills & Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    A review of research and the views of researchers prominent in the field of thinking skill development discusses the role of thinking skills in the ability to formulate problems, resolve issues, determine the most effective decisions, and create effective solutions to problems. The views of Edward deBono, Robert Ennis, Reuven Feuerstein, Matthew…

  18. Thinking inside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    When one thinks of 21st century schools, one thinks of geometric modern architecture, sustainable building materials, and high-tech modular classrooms. It's rare, though, that a district has the space or the money to build that school from the ground up. Instead, the challenge for most is the transformation of the 20th century architecture to…

  19. Supporting Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houssart, Jenny; Roaf, Caroline; Watson, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This book looks at how practitioners have focused on the fully educational application of intellect to the problem of developing mathematical thinking among one's pupils. Each chapter demonstrates reflective minds at work, relying on close observation, willingness to understand the student's thinking processes and patient commitment to students…

  20. Scheme of thinking quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.

    2009-11-01

    A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.

  1. What Hong Kong Teachers and Parents Think about Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Mei-Yung Lam; Lim, Swee Eng; Ma, Jung Chen; Adams, Leah D.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of teachers and parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong regarding what constitutes thinking skills, the importance of thinking skills in children's lives, strategies they use to foster thinking skills in young children, and their perceived roles in facilitating thinking skills. Responses revealed the need for more…

  2. The Critical Thinking Workout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Terry McDaniel

    1991-01-01

    Presents a critical thinking exercise program, modeled on a physical exercise workout, for elementary teachers to use in the classroom. It includes warm-up exercises, a more strenuous workout, and a cool-down period for the brain. (SM)

  3. Teaching critical thinking

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, N. G.; Wieman, Carl E.; Bonn, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to make decisions based on data, with its inherent uncertainties and variability, is a complex and vital skill in the modern world. The need for such quantitative critical thinking occurs in many different contexts, and although it is an important goal of education, that goal is seldom being achieved. We argue that the key element for developing this ability is repeated practice in making decisions based on data, with feedback on those decisions. We demonstrate a structure for providing suitable practice that can be applied in any instructional setting that involves the acquisition of data and relating that data to scientific models. This study reports the results of applying that structure in an introductory physics laboratory course. Students in an experimental condition were repeatedly instructed to make and act on quantitative comparisons between datasets, and between data and models, an approach that is common to all science disciplines. These instructions were slowly faded across the course. After the instructions had been removed, students in the experimental condition were 12 times more likely to spontaneously propose or make changes to improve their experimental methods than a control group, who performed traditional experimental activities. The students in the experimental condition were also four times more likely to identify and explain a limitation of a physical model using their data. Students in the experimental condition also showed much more sophisticated reasoning about their data. These differences between the groups were seen to persist into a subsequent course taken the following year. PMID:26283351

  4. Thinking outside our cages.

    PubMed

    Patterson-Kane, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Researchers seem to be stuck reiterating the now-familiar argument that barren boxes are bad for welfare and that rodents are due ethical consideration. But the prerequisites for real progress are new kinds of arguments, new types of data, and removal of very real practical and cultural obstacles to implementation of meaningful enrichment. We must discover what we have to do to effectively change the practices of people who have care and control of rodents in the laboratory, not just husbandry staff but those who develop the institution's protocols, job descriptions, and resourcing. Researchers are inventers of information, and like any inventor we should experience no satisfaction until our ideas are fully implemented-and we must be an active participant in that process. If we are asking animal caretakers to make deep, paradigmatic changes in their thinking, it is imperative that we in turn develop an emotionally positive understanding of areas important to them. For unless the welfare advocates truly understand the issues such as budgets, biosecurity, and branding, why should the people responsible for those subjects listen to us? PMID:20017050

  5. Systems Thinking (and Systems Doing).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brethower, Dale M.; Dams, Peter-Cornelius

    1999-01-01

    Introduces human performance technology (HPT) by answering the following questions related to: what systems does; practical issues and questions to which systems thinking is relevant; research questions and answers with respect to systems thinking; how HPT practitioners can do systems thinking; systems thinking tools; what is and is not known…

  6. Seeing Thinking on the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Daisy; Wineburg, Sam

    2008-01-01

    Teaching a way of thinking requires making thinking visible. Educators need to pull back the curtains from historical cognition to show students not only what historians think, but "how" they think. Given that many students believe that history is a single story to be committed to memory and that texts speak for themselves, teaching historical…

  7. The Curiosity in Marketing Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Mark E.; McGinnis, John

    2007-01-01

    This article identifies the curiosity in marketing thinking and offers ways to teach for marketing thinking through an environment that fosters students' curiosity. The significance of curiosity in its relationship with thinking is that when curiosity is absent, so is thinking. Challenges are discussed in recognizing the fragility of curiosity…

  8. An Arts-Based Supplemental Resource's Effect on Teachers' Perceptions of Curriculum Integration, Instructional Materials Development, Learning Activities Selections, and Critical Thinking Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eutsler, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Indiana's declining SAT scores prompted the publisher of a statewide magazine covering the literary, performing, and visual arts to take action and create a program to use the magazine as a supplemental resource for students. It was believed that such a supplemental resource could enhance critical thinking and writing skills and help raise SAT…

  9. Evaluating the ParticipACTION "Think Again" Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainforth, Heather L.; Jarvis, Jocelyn W.; Berry, Tanya R.; Chulak-Bozzer, Tala; Deshpande, Sameer; Faulkner, Guy; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Spence, John C.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: ParticipACTION's 2011 "Think Again" campaign aimed to draw parents', and specifically mothers', attention to the amount of physical activity (PA) their children do relative to the national guidelines (physical activity guidelines [PAG]). Purpose: To evaluate ParticipACTION's "Think Again" campaign in the context…

  10. Observing Young Children's Creative Thinking: Engagement, Involvement and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sue; Rowe, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at young children's creative thinking as inferred through observations of their activities. A total of 52 episodes of child-initiated and adult-initiated activities in 3- to 4-year-olds in an English Children's Centre were analysed using the Analysing Children's Creative Thinking (ACCT) Framework. Results showed that activities…

  11. Thinking about Thinking: An Exploration of Preservice Teachers' Views about Higher Order Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Thinking skills have long been regarded as an essential outcome of the educational process. Yet, research shows that the teaching of thinking skills in K-12 education does not follow a coherent path. Several factors affect the teaching and use of thinking skills in the classroom, with teacher knowledge and beliefs about thinking skills among the…

  12. Magazine Mania Gets Kids Writing and Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gozzi, Joan Daniels

    1987-01-01

    Magazine Mania is a series of seven reproducible self-motivating activities involving magazines such as "National Geographic" and "Ranger Rick." While enjoying the activities pupils will be increasing their self awareness, appreciation of foreign cultures, divergent thinking skills, skimming, research skills, creative writing skills, vocabulary,…

  13. Foundations of resilience thinking.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

    2014-08-01

    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. PMID:24975863

  14. Critical Thinking and Constructivism: Mambo Dog Fish to the Banana Patch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boghossian, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Constructivist pedagogies cannot achieve their critical thinking ambitions. Constructivism, and constructivist epistemological presuppositions, actively thwarts the critical thinking process. Using Wittgenstein's private language argument, this paper argues that corrective mechanisms--the ability to correct a student's propositions and cognitions…

  15. Thinking Like a Ssssscientist!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Catherine; Tomasek, Terry; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2010-01-01

    A fear of snakes developed into an opportunity to teach students about the process of science: formulating questions, collecting and analyzing data, and communicating findings to the public. By using snakes to help students "think like a scientist," the authors engaged students in a five-day unit on inquiry while providing information about snakes…

  16. Learning How to Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, John C.; Cracolice, Mark S.

    2004-01-01

    Teaching strategies are becoming increasingly oriented toward guiding students' knowledge construction through cooperative learning. Enhancing students' cognitive development is a priority; students must "learn how to think." Inquiry instruction provides students with tools to make decisions based upon available evidence and an opportunity to…

  17. Learning to Think Critically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Social Studies Project.

    Having a twofold purpose, this booklet serves as an instructional guide for teachers and as a text for junior high students. Emphasis is upon students learning to think reflectively about major issues facing a Democratic society and to analyze various claims that they read and hear everyday in the world around them. An objective of the study is to…

  18. [A seminar for thinking?].

    PubMed

    Touzet, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The sociopolitical context in which we carry out our caregiving profession influences our methods of working. In our world marked by rationalism, thinking about care, in the framework of a seminar, is a way of engaging ourselves and of not simply becoming a functionary of care. PMID:25095584

  19. Enhancing Learning and Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Robert F., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 16 papers on programs and approaches that have been developed around the world to enhance learning and thinking skills for children and adults. Papers are divided among three main sections focussing respectively on issues and applications, specific applications to school content, and assessment and evaluation. Papers have the…

  20. Thinking about Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochman, Jere

    This book on middle school uses a very free-form structure to encourage educators to think about middle school's philosophy and purpose, and about how to create a successful middle school. The preface claims that it is not a book "about" teaming, advisory, interdisciplinary units, intramurals, parent-teacher conferences, and other middle school…

  1. Thinking Big, Aiming High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Viv

    2010-01-01

    What do teachers, providers and policymakers need to do in order to support disabled learners to "think big and aim high"? That was the question put to delegates at NIACE's annual disability conference. Some clear themes emerged, with delegates raising concerns about funding, teacher training, partnership-working and employment for disabled…

  2. Creativity as Creative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    Identifies four characteristics of the creative endeavor: (1) musical imagination; (2) model of the creative process; (3) measures of creative aptitude; and (4) the observation of creative behavior. Examines the role of technology in creativity, and contends that creative thinking can be measured. Includes suggested readings. (RW)

  3. Creative Thinking in Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Maud; Webster, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the meaning of creativity, focusing on music education. Emphasizes the four "p's" while examining the meaning of creativity: (1) the creative person; (2) the creative process; (3) the creative product; and (4) the creative place. Addresses how creative thinking can be at the center of teaching. (CMK)

  4. Thinking Copernican Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Richard D.

    1977-01-01

    The governor of Colorado explores two views related to causes of energy shortage: inadequate supply and excessive demand. Supports both increased supply and decreased demand, but offers reasons for conservation and adjustment in habits and thinking. The synthetic fuels program of Colorado is mentioned as an example. (CS)

  5. Conductive Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paetkau, Mark

    2007-01-01

    One of my goals as an instructor is to teach students critical thinking skills. This paper presents an example of a student-led discussion of heat conduction at the first-year level. Heat loss from a human head is calculated using conduction and radiation models. The results of these plausible (but wrong) models of heat transfer contradict what…

  6. Teaching Thinking Skills: Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narode, Ronald; And Others

    This document addresses some of the factors involved in teaching critical thinking skills in the science classroom. It contains sections that deal with: (1) pair problem solving--creating a Socratic learning environment (emphasizes the role of the teacher); (2) writing to learn science (the thought-process protocol); (3) integrating science…

  7. Developing Thinking in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, John; Graham, Alan; Johnson-Wilder, Sue

    2005-01-01

    This book is for people with an interest in algebra whether as a learner, or as a teacher, or perhaps as both. It is concerned with the "big ideas" of algebra and what it is to understand the process of thinking algebraically. The book has been structured according to a number of pedagogic principles that are exposed and discussed along the way,…

  8. Thinking Like a Mathematician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Michael K.; Moore-Russo, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to think like a mathematician? One of the great paradoxes of mathematics education is that, although mathematics teachers are immersed in mathematical work every day of their professional lives, most of them nevertheless have little experience with the kind of work that research mathematicians do. Their ideas of what doing…

  9. Thinking Data "with" Deleuze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzei, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the author is thinking with Deleuze's philosophical concept of the "image" of the speech-act in cinema and the implications for methodology and ethics in qualitative research. Drawing on research in the USA with white teachers, this paper will specifically engage with Deleuzian concepts presented in his two books on cinema and his…

  10. Engineering Design Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lammi, Matthew; Becker, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Engineering design thinking is "a complex cognitive process" including divergence-convergence, a systems perspective, ambiguity, and collaboration (Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer, 2005, p. 104). Design is often complex, involving multiple levels of interacting components within a system that may be nested within or connected to other systems.…

  11. Europeana: Think Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Europeana: Think Culture (http://www.europeana.eu) is a wonderful cultural repository. It includes more than 15 million items (images, text, audio, and video) from 1,500 European institutions. Europeana provides access to an abundance of cultural and heritage information and knowledge. Because Europeana has partnered with and brought together so…

  12. Think Exit at Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Tom; Satterfield, Coy E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the "Think Exit at Entry" program that has become the guiding principle for the Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ). The Georgia DJJ believes that the transition process begins the day the youth enters the system and continues well after release from the institution. Literature points the need for transition planning…

  13. Thinking and Believing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freie, John F.

    1987-01-01

    Critical thinking is seldom effective at encouraging students to challenge and examine preconceived positions. There is a tendency to use the rigorous questioning methods to defend preconceived positions and deflect the serious consideration of alternatives. An exercise that focused on the Cuban missile crisis is described. (MLW)

  14. Remember to Just Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2014-01-01

    This article picks up on columnist Mike Barnicle's lazy style and "I was just thinking" format in his column for the "Boston Globe." Using that model, John Harney shares a few of his thoughts on various education topics such as co ops, "competency-based education," and making civics part of the curriculum at…

  15. Tools for Smarter Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbett, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    You read in the paper this morning that people who take multivitamins have fewer heart attacks and are less likely to get cancer than people who don't. Does this information make you more likely to want to take multivitamins? To truly prepare students for life, schools need to teach them the critical thinking skills they need to answer questions…

  16. Creative Thinking through Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adolf, Jane W.

    Common questions that children ask can promote creative thinking. The question, "What will happen if...?" can set the stage for creative problem solving by encouraging the use of the scientific method. The scientific method involves learning how to hypothesize, recording procedures for experimentation, developing skills in observation and data…

  17. Design Thinking for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    According to Vande Zande (2007), understanding the Design Process can help students become stronger critical thinkers. With this in mind, Andrew Watson decided to undertake an observational case study in which he focused directly on Design Thinking and addressed it more intentionally in his teaching. The hope was to understand how students saw…

  18. Computational Thinking Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannidou, Andri; Bennett, Vicki; Repenning, Alexander; Koh, Kyu Han; Basawapatna, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    The iDREAMS project aims to reinvent Computer Science education in K-12 schools, by using game design and computational science for motivating and educating students through an approach we call Scalable Game Design, starting at the middle school level. In this paper we discuss the use of Computational Thinking Patterns as the basis for our…

  19. Writing, Thinking and Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the potential of word processors for changing the ways in which students process written text and think about writing. Three levels of computer-aided writing are considered: simple word processors; computer-aided writing programs; and higher-level computer-aided processing; and improvements in writing quality. (41 references) (LRW)

  20. Developing Higher Level Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbach, Barbara; Waugh, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This paper identifies an interdisciplinary, five-step process, built upon existing theory and best practices in cognitive development, effective learning environments, and outcomes-based assessment. The "Process for the Development of Higher Level Thinking Skills" provides teachers with an easy to implement method of moving toward a more…

  1. Creativity and Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollen, Patsy Phillips

    How to deal with the absence of creativity and critical thinking in the educational setting is discussed. All efforts to improve education will be futile if we don't take into account the absence of relationship among the participants and between the participants and the content of education. Relationship--i.e., connecting with others and with…

  2. Knowing Is Not Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janko, Edmund

    1989-01-01

    What disturbs teachers most is not students' ignorance about our culture and history, but their unwillingness or inability to think critically about subjects that ostensibly interest them. Teachers often exacerbate this problem by oversimplifying complex issues, using "defensive" or controlling teaching strategies, and squelching debate. (MLH)

  3. Nurturing Creative, Thinking Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goel, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes some ideas and experiences with training student engineers in creativity and critical thinking. In our survey, a large majority (82%) of respondents felt that as compared to all other kind of academic engagements, their projects had contributed most to develop their creativity. About 50% had also felt that their projects were…

  4. Creative Thinking, Values and Design and Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Howard

    2005-01-01

    The development of Design and Technology curricula has always been premised on the importance of the act of designing and of the value of the contingent activity of creative thinking. Despite this, there has been a great deal of uncertainty about methods for developing creative thinking abilities in design and technology students. However, the…

  5. Learning with Touchscreen Devices: Game Strategies to Improve Geometric Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soldano, Carlotta; Arzarello, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the importance of the students' game-strategic thinking during the development of mathematical activities. In particular, we hypothesise that this type of thinking helps students in the construction of logical links between concepts during the "argumentation phase" of the proving process. The…

  6. Critical Thinking: Implications for Instruction of the Stage Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the implications of the stage theory of critical thinking development. Argues that people actively pass through the predictable stages of unreflective, challenged, beginning, practicing, advanced, and master thinkers and that educators must bring critical thinking into instruction at the foundational level. Analyzes implications for…

  7. Stimulation of Thinking Skills in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, Maria Luisa; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, Maria Teresa; Oliver, Maria Soria

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine the effects of the instruction method "thinking actively in an academic context (TAAC)" on thinking skills, creativity, self-regulation and academic achievement. The design was pre-test-intervention-post-test with control group. The sample included 46 participants (aged 16 to 18 years), 24 experimental…

  8. Feedback Dialogues That Stimulate Students' Reflective Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Schaaf, Marieke; Baartman, Liesbeth; Prins, Frans; Oosterbaan, Anne; Schaap, Harmen

    2013-01-01

    How can feedback dialogues stimulate students' reflective thinking? This study aims to investigate: (1) the effects of feedback dialogues between teachers and students on students' perceptions of teacher feedback and (2) the relation between features of feedback dialogues and students' thinking activities as part of reflective…

  9. Thinking Skills Intervention for Low-Achieving First Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotulainen, Risto; Mononen, Riikka; Aunio, Pirjo

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the improving thinking skills (ITS-1) intervention study on the thinking skills of low-achieving first graders. The intervention programme consists of 12 lessons, each lasting for 45 min. Lessons offer enriched-discovery learning activities and tasks to be solved through inductive reasoning. We used a…

  10. Psychological Intervention in Thinking Skills with Primary Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, Maria Luisa; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, Maria Teresa; Oliver, Maria Soria

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the instruction method "Thinking Actively in an Academic Context" (TAAC) in the thinking skills of 6th grade students in primary education. The sample consisted of 58 subjects, aged between 11- and 13-years-of-age, 27 in the experimental group and 31 in the control group. A pre-test…

  11. Critical Thoughts on Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Dean E.

    2006-01-01

    Scholars in many academic areas, including librarians, devote a significant amount of thought to critical thinking. Surveying views of its use and possibility, the author considers some key librarians' thoughts on critical thinking. In conclusion, the inability to define critical thinking means that librarians need to emphasize control of…

  12. The Importance of Undisciplined Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This past year, Baylor University created a program to reward some of its best teachers and challenge them to do something truly daring: teach their students how to think--not just how to think "about" course material, but rather how to think "through" the material. The idea is to help students learn how teachers, as practitioners of their…

  13. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  14. Teaching Thinking in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In recent years there has been growing interest across the world in ways of developing children's thinking and learning skills. This interest has been fed by new knowledge about how the brain works and how people learn, and evidence that specific interventions can improve children's thinking and intelligence. Thinking skills are important because…

  15. Promoting Thinking Skills in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glevey, Kwame E.

    2006-01-01

    How children are guided in the development of their thinking is now crucial in the twenty-first century. Over the past decades special thinking skills programmes have been developed to enhance thinking but these programmes have so far been unable to produce clear evidence to support their effectiveness. This article argues that due to the complex…

  16. Cabbage Worms and Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Patricia

    1993-01-01

    Argues that an approach to composition instruction that emphasizes critical thinking skills produces a more analytical writer. Describes a school project that examined research on critical thinking, implemented changes in the teaching of thinking and composition, and assessed student learning. (HB)

  17. Developing Historical Thinking through Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viator, Martha Graham

    2012-01-01

    The social studies classroom can and should be a place where students learn critical thinking skills, but too often, especially in the middle grades, students are asked to focus on discrete facts on which they can be tested. The purpose of this article is to suggest that sixth graders can learn the critical thinking skills of "historical thinking"…

  18. Online Discussion, Student Engagement, and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Leonard; Lahman, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Recent research into the merits of online discussion (computer-mediated communication) has shown that it promotes active learning behaviors and enhances learner outcomes. Scholars have also shown that, when instructors employ effective questioning and moderating skills, students can show higher levels of critical thinking in online discussion. In…

  19. Gestures and Insight in Advanced Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Caroline; Thomas, Michael O. J.; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    What role do gestures play in advanced mathematical thinking? We argue that the role of gestures goes beyond merely communicating thought and supporting understanding--in some cases, gestures can help generate new mathematical insights. Gestures feature prominently in a case study of two participants working on a sequence of calculus activities.…

  20. Hannah Arendt and the "Freedom" to Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Dissatisfied with the Western tradition of political philosophy, Arendt maintained a tension between the political, which she associates primarily with the freedom to act, and the philosophical, which she associates principally with the activity of thinking, throughout her works. Whilst Arendt's work is underpinned by a focus on political action,…

  1. The Development of the Simulation Thinking Rubric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolen, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    High fidelity simulation has become a widespread and costly learning strategy in nursing education because it can fill the gap left by a shortage of clinical sites. In addition, high fidelity simulation is an active learning strategy that is thought to increase higher order thinking such as clinical reasoning and judgment skills in nursing…

  2. Thinking Like a Geologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Kirsty

    2010-01-01

    Geology is not something that people tend to think about in their day-to-day lives; at least, not until it is time to dig out the dusty old rock collection from the back of the science cupboard and teach the rocks and soils unit again! Geology is very much part of people's lives. Geology is about so much more than just looking at rocks and…

  3. Exploration on Cultivation of Critical Thinking in College Intensive Reading Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Lingying

    2016-01-01

    Critical thinking has drawn great concern from researchers in America and western world since 1980s. Chinese researchers have come to realize the fundamental function of critical thinking for innovation. However, it does not take effect to cultivate students' critical thinking in English classroom. English classroom activities are generally…

  4. Using Word Clouds in Online Discussions to Support Critical Thinking and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deNoyelles, Aimee; Reyes-Foster, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Being actively engaged in a task is often associated with critical thinking. Cultivating critical thinking skills, such as purposefully reflecting and analyzing one's own thinking, is a major goal of higher education. However, there is a challenge in providing college students opportunities to clearly demonstrate these skills in online courses.…

  5. Linkographic Evidence for Concurrent Divergent and Convergent Thinking in Creative Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, the creativity literature has stressed the role of divergent thinking in creative endeavor. More recently, it has been recognized that convergent thinking also has a role in creativity, and the design literature, which sees design as a creative activity a priori, has largely adopted this view: Divergent and convergent thinking are…

  6. Performance-Based Thinking and Training for Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Joel

    1982-01-01

    Discusses five job behavior functions viewed as necessary for practicing performance-based thinking in instructional development activities. Functions examined include the abilities to plan to perform a job, execute a task, monitor or control execution, troubleshoot, and evaluate. (MER)

  7. Implementing NICU critical thinking programs: one unit's experience.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Denise; Pilcher, Jobeth

    2008-01-01

    Critical thinking is the hallmark of today's nursing practice environment. Nowhere is this more critical than in the high-tech environment of the NICU. Despite the importance of critical thinking in nursing practice, there is limited information on the process of teaching new NICU nurses to think critically. Based on the principles of adult education, orientation and continuing education for NICU nurses should be goal directed, build on the learner's prior experience, and build in opportunities for active participation, reflection, and experiential learning. This article reviews the principles of adult education and their application to the process of teaching critical thinking in the NICU. One unit's experience of critical thinking education is used to provide concrete examples of how NICU education can be transformed from a traditional didactic methodology to a more dynamic experiential approach. PMID:18697653

  8. [Concept analysis of reflective thinking].

    PubMed

    Van Vuuren, M; Botes, A

    1999-09-01

    The nursing practice is described as a scientific practice, but also as a practice where caring is important. The purpose of nursing education is to provide competent nursing practitioners. This implies that future practitioners must have both critical analytical thinking abilities, as well as empathy and moral values. Reflective thinking could probably accommodate these thinking skills. It seems that the facilitation of reflective thinking skills is essential in nursing education. The research question that is relevant in this context is: "What is reflective thinking?" The purpose of this article is to report on the concept analysis of reflective thinking and in particular on the connotative meaning (critical attributes) thereof. The method used to perform the concept analysis is based on the original method of Wilson (1987) as described by Walker & Avant (1995). As part of the concept analysis the connotations (critical attributes) are identified, reduced and organized into three categories, namely pre-requisites, processes and outcomes. A model case is described which confirms the essential critical attributes of reflective thinking. Finally a theoretical definition of reflective thinking is derived and reads as follows: Reflective thinking is a cyclic, hierarchical and interactive construction process. It is initiated, extended and continued because of personal cognitive-affective interaction (individual dimension) as well as interaction with the social environment (social dimension). to realize reflective thinking, a level of internalization on the cognitive and affective domain is required. The result of reflective thinking is a integrated framework of knowledge (meaningful learning) and a internalized value system providing a new perspective on and better understanding of a problem. Reflective thinking further leads to more effective decision making- and problem solving skills. PMID:11040626

  9. Applying critical thinking to nursing.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2015-08-19

    Critical thinking and writing are skills that are not easy to acquire. The term 'critical' is used differently in social and clinical contexts. Nursing students need time to master the inquisitive and ruminative aspects of critical thinking that are required in academic environments. This article outlines what is meant by critical thinking in academic settings, in relation to both theory and reflective practice. It explains how the focus of a question affects the sort of critical thinking required and offers two taxonomies of learning, to which students can refer when analysing essay requirements. The article concludes with examples of analytical writing in reference to theory and reflective practice. PMID:26285997

  10. The critical thinking curriculum model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, William Haviland

    The Critical Thinking Curriculum Model (CTCM) utilizes a multidisciplinary approach that integrates effective learning and teaching practices with computer technology. The model is designed to be flexible within a curriculum, an example for teachers to follow, where they can plug in their own critical issue. This process engages students in collaborative research that can be shared in the classroom, across the country or around the globe. The CTCM features open-ended and collaborative activities that deal with current, real world issues which leaders are attempting to solve. As implemented in the Critical Issues Forum (CIF), an educational program administered by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the CTCM encompasses the political, social/cultural, economic, and scientific realms in the context of a current global issue. In this way, students realize the importance of their schooling by applying their efforts to an endeavor that ultimately will affect their future. This study measures student attitudes toward science and technology and the changes that result from immersion in the CTCM. It also assesses the differences in student learning in science content and problem solving for students involved in the CTCM. A sample of 24 students participated in classrooms at two separate high schools in New Mexico. The evaluation results were analyzed using SPSS in a MANOVA format in order to determine the significance of the between and within-subjects effects. A comparison ANOVA was done for each two-way MANOVA to see if the comparison groups were equal. Significant findings were validated using the Scheffe test in a Post Hoc analysis. Demographic information for the sample population was recorded and tracked, including self-assessments of computer use and availability. Overall, the results indicated that the CTCM did help to increase science content understanding and problem-solving skills for students, thereby positively effecting critical thinking. No matter if the

  11. Do Critical Thinking Exercises Improve Critical Thinking Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Ellen M.; Tally, Carrie Sacco

    2009-01-01

    Although textbooks routinely include exercises to improve critical thinking skills, the effectiveness of these exercises has not been closely examined. Additionally, the connection between critical thinking skills and formal operational thought is also relatively understudied. In the study reported here, college students completed measures of…

  12. Critical Thinking: Ethical Reasoning and Fairminded Thinking, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda

    2009-01-01

    In the last column we introduced the idea of ethical reasoning (see Paul & Elder, 2006) and discussed its importance to education, assuming the intention is to cultivate fairminded critical thinking. We also discussed the problem of intrinsic egocentric thinking as a fundamental barrier to ethical reasoning. In this column we focus on conceptual…

  13. Critical Thinking: A Stage Theory of Critical Thinking. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Linda; Paul, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Discusses six stages of the development of critical thinkers: unreflective, challenged, beginning, practicing, advanced, and master thinkers. For each stage, describes the defining feature, the principle challenge, the knowledge or insight into thinking expressed, and the individual's skill in thinking. (AJL)

  14. Critical Thinking and Disciplinary Thinking: A Continuing Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Tim John

    2011-01-01

    I report a study that investigated ideas about critical thinking across three disciplines: Philosophy, History and Literary Studies. The findings point to a diversity of understandings and practices, ones that suggest the limitations of a more generic approach. I argue that a more useful conception of critical thinking is as a form of…

  15. Thinking about "Design Thinking": A Study of Teacher Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retna, Kala S.

    2016-01-01

    Schools are continuously looking for new ways of enhancing student learning to equip students with skills that would enable them to cope with twenty-first century demands. One promising approach focuses on design thinking. This study examines teacher's perceptions, experiences and challenges faced in adopting design thinking. There is a lack of…

  16. Thinking Like a Lawyer, Thinking Like a Legal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Richard Clay

    2013-01-01

    The legal system is the product of lawyers. Lawyers are the product of a specific educational system. Therefore, to understand the legal system, we must first explore how lawyers are trained and conditioned to think. What does it mean to "Think Like a Lawyer?'' This dissertation makes use of autoethnography to explore the experience…

  17. Think3d!: Training Spatial Thinking Fundamental to STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Holly A.; Hutton, Allyson

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the initial implementation of an innovative program for elementary-age children involving origami and pop-up paper engineering to promote visuospatial thinking. While spatial ability measures correlate with science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) success, a focus on spatial thinking is all but missing in elementary…

  18. Online course design for teaching critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Schaber, Patricia; Shanedling, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Teaching critical thinking (CT) skills, a goal in higher education, is seldom considered in the primary design of either classroom or online courses, and is even less frequently measured in student learning. In health professional education, CT along with clinical reasoning skills is essential for the development of clinical practitioners. This study, measuring CT skill development in an online theory course, supports using a cyclical course design to build higher level processes in student thinking. Eighty-six Masters of Occupational Therapy students in four sections of an occupation-based theory course were evaluated on elements in the Paul and Elder CT Model throughout the course and surveyed for their perceptions in their ability to think critically at course completion. Results of this study demonstrated that the online theory course design contributed to improving critical thinking skills and student's perceived CT skill development as applicable to their future professional practice. In a focus group, eight students identified four effective course design features that contributed to their CT skill development: highly structured learning, timely feedback from instructor, repetition of assignments, and active engagement with the material. PMID:22544412

  19. Think about Your Thinking: Reclaiming a Foundation of Liberal Education at the Evergreen State College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppelman, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    At colleges and universities, thinking one's own thoughts is at the heart of all the other activity that, together, constitutes a liberal education. Self-examination and reflection enable people to make sense of the world and their places in it. Each individual can experience the mind as it grasps its own dynamics and spawns deep and unique…

  20. Reflections on Classroom Thinking Strategies: Practical Strategies to Encourage Thinking in Your Classroom. Sixth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frangenheim, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The major purpose of this book is to introduce teachers (and by that the author means all types of teachers-classroom teachers, administrators, teacher aids, parents and coaches) to various individual and group thinking strategies related to specific questions and activities. This guide is a personal interpretation and critique of those strategies…

  1. Neural correlates of wishful thinking

    PubMed Central

    Nusbaum, Howard C.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Wishful thinking (WT) implies the overestimation of the likelihood of desirable events. It occurs for outcomes of personal interest, but also for events of interest to others we like. We investigated whether WT is grounded on low-level selective attention or on higher level cognitive processes including differential weighting of evidence or response formation. Participants in our MRI study predicted the likelihood that their favorite or least favorite team would win a football game. Consistent with expectations, favorite team trials were characterized by higher winning odds. Our data demonstrated activity in a cluster comprising parts of the left inferior occipital and fusiform gyri to distinguish between favorite and least favorite team trials. More importantly, functional connectivities of this cluster with the human reward system were specifically involved in the type of WT investigated in our study, thus supporting the idea of an attention bias generating WT. Prefrontal cortex activity also distinguished between the two teams. However, activity in this region and its functional connectivities with the human reward system were altogether unrelated to the degree of WT reflected in the participants’ behavior and may rather be related to social identification, ensuring the affective context necessary for WT to arise. PMID:22198967

  2. What Do the Pupils Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borthwick, Alison

    2012-01-01

    What pupils think about mathematics often features in discussion between mathematics educators. But, how often is "what learners think about their mathematics lessons" a feature of enquiry? It could be a "high risk" strategy to garner honest comment that relates to the "classroom experience". Notions of "risk" apart, the process of collecting data…

  3. Critical Thinking vs. Critical Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores four kinds of critical thinking. The first is found in Socratic dialogues, which employ critical thinking mainly to reveal logical fallacies in common opinions, thus cleansing superior minds of error and leaving philosophers free to contemplate universal verities. The second is critical interpretation (hermeneutics) which…

  4. Thinking with a Futures Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Dorothy A.

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the theory and practice of developing futures study for high ability students. It provides a brief history of the development of futures study, examines why futuristic thinking is particularly applicable to high ability students, and discusses specific strategies for developing futuristic thinking. (Contains references.)…

  5. Scrutiny of Critical Thinking Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atabaki, Ali Mohammad Siahi; Keshtiaray, Narges; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.

    2015-01-01

    Learning critical thinking skills are the goal of educational systems so the term "critical thinking" (CT) is frequently found in educational policy documents. Despite this frequency, however, precise understandings among teachers of what CT really means do not exit. The present study is designed to answer the following question. We can…

  6. Critical Thinking in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Changes in American education require that teachers are evaluated more often, and expectations increasingly include teaching to develop critical thinking skills. This article uses Bloom's taxonomy in describing ways physical educators can include critical thinking in their lessons, both to enhance their teaching and to meet expectations of…

  7. Principals Who Think Like Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Being a principal is a complex job, requiring quick, on-the-job learning. But many principals already have deep experience in a role at the very essence of the principalship. They know how to teach. In interviews with principals, Fahey and his colleagues learned that thinking like a teacher was key to their work. Part of thinking the way a teacher…

  8. Thinking, Creativity, and Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSiano, Michael; DeSiano, Salvatore

    This document provides an introduction to the relationship between the current knowledge of focused and creative thinking and artificial intelligence. A model for stages of focused and creative thinking gives: problem encounter/setting, preparation, concentration/incubation, clarification/generation and evaluation/judgment. While a computer can…

  9. Team Based Engineering Design Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore design thinking among teams of high school students. This objective is encompassed in the research question driving this inquiry: How do teams of high school students allocate time across stages of design? Design thinking on the professional level typically occurs in a team environment. Many…

  10. Team Based Engineering Design Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore design thinking among teams of high school students. This objective was encompassed in the research question driving the inquiry: How do teams of high school students allocate time across stages of design? Design thinking on the professional level typically occurs in a team environment. Many…

  11. Critical Thinking and Legal Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolever, Kristin R.

    Although law professors often say that first year law students need training to "think like lawyers," many law students survive law school by practicing the "skill" of rote memory. It is when they take the bar examination or actually begin to work in a law office that they need the faculty of analytical thinking, for notes must be organized into a…

  12. Assessing Business Student Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gerald F.

    2014-01-01

    The development of student thinking skills is a major goal of business education. As with other such goals, student outcomes assessment must be undertaken to measure goal achievement. Thinking is difficult to teach; it is also difficult to assess. The purpose of this article is to improve management educators' understanding of student…

  13. Preschoolers' Thinking during Block Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccolo, Diana L.; Test, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Children build foundations for mathematical thinking in early play and exploration. During the preschool years, children enjoy exploring mathematical concepts--such as patterns, shape, spatial relationships, and measurement--leading them to spontaneously engage in mathematical thinking during play. Block play is one common example that engages…

  14. Affective Induction and Creative Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Abascal, Enrique G.; Díaz, María D. Martín

    2013-01-01

    Three studies explored the relation between affect and production of creative divergent thinking, assessed with the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (Figural TTCT). In the first study, general, positive, and negative affect, assessed with the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were compared with creative production. In the second study,…

  15. Quantifying Learning in Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fliegel, Richard; Holland, John

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a three-year study assessing change in critical thinking demonstrated in essays written for regular class assignments. A rubric was designed and scorers trained to assess critical thinking holistically without knowledge of the writing prompt or author's status. The longitudinal improvement in scores earned by freshmen…

  16. Geospatial Thinking of Information Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Bradley Wade; Johnston, Melissa P.

    2013-01-01

    Geospatial thinking skills inform a host of library decisions including planning and managing facilities, analyzing service area populations, facility site location, library outlet and service point closures, as well as assisting users with their own geospatial needs. Geospatial thinking includes spatial cognition, spatial reasoning, and knowledge…

  17. Is Creative Thinking Normally Distributed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, John F.

    The hypothesis of positive skew in distributions of response to creative thinking tasks was studied. Data were obtained from examinees' responses to problem-solving tasks in three published studies of creative thinking. Subjects included 23 fifth graders (12 females and 11 males), 29 high school students (10 females and 19 males), and 47 female…

  18. Enhancing Thinking through Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Neil, Ed.; Worsham, Toni, Ed.

    This collection of papers provides a theoretical foundation on current practice in cooperative thinking. The papers offer many practical methods that can be applied to a full range of classroom settings. After an introduction, "HOTSICLE: Higher Order Thinking Skills in Cooperative Learning Environments" (Neil Davidson and Toni Worsham), there are…

  19. Contributions of Teachers' Thinking Styles to Critical Thinking Dispositions (Istanbul-Fatih Sample)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emir, Serap

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of the research was to determine the contributions of the teachers' thinking styles to critical thinking dispositions. Hence, it is aimed to determine whether thinking styles are related to critical thinking dispositions and thinking styles measure critical thinking dispositions or not. The research was designed in relational…

  20. Thinking Evolutionarily About Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Genné-Bacon, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are growing worldwide health concerns, yet their causes are not fully understood. Research into the etiology of the obesity epidemic is highly influenced by our understanding of the evolutionary roots of metabolic control. For half a century, the thrifty gene hypothesis, which argues that obesity is an evolutionary adaptation for surviving periods of famine, has dominated the thinking on this topic. Obesity researchers are often not aware that there is, in fact, limited evidence to support the thrifty gene hypothesis and that alternative hypotheses have been suggested. This review presents evidence for and against the thrifty gene hypothesis and introduces readers to additional hypotheses for the evolutionary origins of the obesity epidemic. Because these alternate hypotheses imply significantly different strategies for research and clinical management of obesity, their consideration is critical to halting the spread of this epidemic. PMID:24910556

  1. Promoting innovative thinking.

    PubMed

    Ness, Roberta B

    2015-03-01

    Innovation is the engine of scientific progress, yet we do not train public health students to think creatively. I present the key concepts within an evidence-based method currently taught at the University of Texas. Habitual thought patterns involve deeply held framed expectations. Finding alternatives generates originality. Because frame breaking is difficult, a series of innovation heuristics and tools are offered including enhancing observation, using analogies, changing point of view, juggling opposites, broadening perspective, reversal, reorganization and combination, and getting the most from groups. Gaining cognitive attributes such as nonjudgment, willingness to question, mindfulness, and plasticity is also emphasized. Students completing the class demonstrate substantial increases on a standardized test of idea fluency and originality, more joyful attitudes toward science, and more pluralistic approaches. PMID:25706005

  2. How successful leaders think.

    PubMed

    Martin, Roger

    2007-06-01

    In search of lessons to apply in our own careers, we often try to emulate what effective leaders do. Roger Martin says this focus is misplaced, because moves that work in one context may make little sense in another. A more productive, though more difficult, approach is to look at how such leaders think. After extensive interviews with more than 50 of them, the author discovered that most are integrative thinkers -that is, they can hold in their heads two opposing ideas at once and then come up with a new idea that contains elements of each but is superior to both. Martin argues that this process of consideration and synthesis (rather than superior strategy or faultless execution) is the hallmark of exceptional businesses and the people who run them. To support his point, he examines how integrative thinkers approach the four stages of decision making to craft superior solutions. First, when determining which features of a problem are salient, they go beyond those that are obviously relevant. Second, they consider multidirectional and nonlinear relationships, not just linear ones. Third, they see the whole problem and how the parts fit together. Fourth, they creatively resolve the tensions between opposing ideas and generate new alternatives. According to the author, integrative thinking is an ability everyone can hone. He points to several examples of business leaders who have done so, such as Bob Young, cofounder and former CEO of Red Hat, the dominant distributor of Linux opensource software. Young recognized from the beginning that he didn't have to choose between the two prevailing software business models. Inspired by both, he forged an innovative third way, creating a service offering for corporate customers that placed Red Hat on a path to tremendous success. PMID:17580648

  3. The Progressive Development of Early Embodied Algebraic Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radford, Luis

    2014-06-01

    In this article I present some results from a 5-year longitudinal investigation with young students about the genesis of embodied, non-symbolic algebraic thinking and its progressive transition to culturally evolved forms of symbolic thinking. The investigation draws on a cultural-historical theory of teaching and learning—the theory of objectification. Within this theory, thinking is conceived of as a form of reflection and action that is simultaneously material and ideal: It includes inner and outer speech, sensuous forms of imagination and visualisation, gestures, rhythm, and their intertwinement with material culture (symbols, artifacts, etc.). The theory articulates a cultural view of development as an unfolding dialectic process between culturally and historically constituted forms of mathematical knowing and semiotically mediated classroom activity. Looking at the experimental data through these theoretical lenses reveals a developmental path where embodied forms of thinking are sublated or subsumed into more sophisticated ones through the mediation of properly designed classroom activity.

  4. Two Thinking Skills Assessment Approaches: "Assessment of Pupils' Thinking Skills" and "Individual Thinking Skills Assessments"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lynsey A.; Williams, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is linked to a previous paper outlining an evaluation of a thinking skills intervention (Burke & Williams, 2008). Following extensive requests for the assessment tools used in the intervention, this short paper presents the development and potential uses of two thinking skills assessment tools. The aim of the paper is simply to make…

  5. To Think or Not to Think: A Preliminary Investigation into the Effects of Teaching Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simister, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Opinion may be unnecessarily divided as to whether it is possible to teach skills such as critical and creative thinking as subjects in their own right or whether students would more usefully develop such skills within the context of their curriculum subjects. A study was undertaken into the effects of teaching a 25-lesson "thinking skills"…

  6. Learning to Think/Thinking to Learn: A Bibliographic Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witucke, Virginia

    1980-01-01

    Describes 18 books on thinking and learning for elementary school-aged children. Each book is critically discussed and evaluated in an appropriate category--problem solving, the scientific method, observation, or logic. (BK)

  7. Why Think Along? Using "Think Alouds" in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Becky

    1995-01-01

    Details how a fifth-grade teacher implemented Roger Farr's "Think-Along" strategy for developing metacognitive reading strategies for use with the novel "Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes" by Eleanor Coerr. (SR)

  8. Enhancing Critical Thinking with Aesthetic, Critical, and Creative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Inquiry-based classroom activities require students to solve problems and answer questions that have more than one possible resolution. These types of activities stimulate critical thinking skills and dispositions in students. PreK-12 art classrooms are rich with opportunity for inquiry-based activities for children and adolescents. This article…

  9. What Medical Oncologist Residents Think about the Italian Speciality Schools: A Survey of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) on Educational, Clinical and Research Activities

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Anna; De Angelis, Carmine; Lambertini, Matteo; Cremolini, Chiara; Imbimbo, Martina; Berardi, Rossana; Di Maio, Massimo; Cascinu, Stefano; La Verde, Nicla

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Relevant heterogeneity exists among Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology, also within the same country. In order to provide a comprehensive overview of the landscape of Italian Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology, the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) undertook an online survey, inviting all the residents to describe their daily activities and to express their overall satisfaction about their programs. Methods A team composed of five residents and three consultants in medical oncology prepared a 38 items questionnaire that was published online in a reserved section, accessible through a link sent by e-mail. Residents were invited to anonymously fill in the questionnaire that included the following sub-sections: quality of teaching, clinical and research activity, overall satisfaction. Results Three-hundred and eleven (57%) out of 547 invited residents filled in the questionnaire. Two-hundred and twenty-three (72%) participants declared that attending lessons was frequently difficult and 153 (49%) declared they did not gain substantial improvement in their knowledge from them. Fifty-five percent stated that they did not receive lessons on palliative care. Their overall judgment about didactic activity was low in 63% of the interviewed. The satisfaction for clinical activity was in 86% of cases good: 84% recognized that, during the training period, they acquired a progressive independence on patients' management. About research activity, the majority (79%) of participants in the survey was actively engaged in managing patients included in clinical trials but the satisfaction level for the involvement in research activities was quite low (54%). Overall, 246 residents (79%) gave a positive global judgment of their Medical Oncology Schools. Conclusions The landscape of Italian Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology is quite heterogeneous across the country. Some improvements in the organization of teaching and in the

  10. Cognitive Psychology and Mathematical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Brian

    1981-01-01

    This review illustrates aspects of cognitive psychology relevant to the understanding of how people think mathematically. Developments in memory research, artificial intelligence, visually mediated processes, and problem-solving research are discussed. (MP)

  11. New Thinking for Old Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gere, Anne R.

    1976-01-01

    Teachers need to fuse creative thinking with multi-ethnic education, so students do not see cultures as monolithic groups but learn to see beyond the generalizations to the individuality of minority group people. (JH)

  12. Brain Hemispheres and Thinking Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Esther Cappon

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews some research, particularly that of Roger Sperry, substantiating the existence of different thinking styles in the two brain hemispheres and the development of this differentiation in infancy and childhood. She draws some implications for elementary teaching. (SJL)

  13. The Inventive Thinking Curriculum Project. An Outreach Program of the United States Patent and Trademark Office. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.

    The Inventive Thinking Curriculum Project is one of the many projects included in the national outreach program of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. It is designed to be used in conjunction with a thinking skills program as a means of applying critical and creative thinking and problem-solving skills through the activity of creating an…

  14. High-School Students Believe School Physics Helps in Developing Logical but Not Creative Thinking: Active Learning Can Change This Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marušic, Mirko; Sliško, Josip

    2014-01-01

    This study is based on two exploratory questions with the aim of determining the relative effectiveness of two different student activities, called "Reading, Presenting and Questioning" (RPQ) and "Experimenting and Discussing" (ED), in changing students' perceptions and attitudes about the impact of physics learning on the…

  15. Stop Thinking and Start Doing: Switching from Cognitive Therapy to Behavioral Activation in a Case of Chronic Treatment-Resistant Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottonari, Kathryn A.; Roberts, John E.; Thomas, Sherilyn N.; Read, Jennifer P.

    2008-01-01

    Several recent investigations have demonstrated that Cognitive Therapy (CT) and Behavioral Activation (BA) are both efficacious treatments for depression (Butler, Chapman, Forman, & Beck, 2006; Dimidjian et al., 2006; Dobson, 1989; Gloaguen, Cottraux, Cucherat, & Blackburn, 1998; Hollon, Thase, & Markowitz, 2002; Jacobson et al., 1996). This…

  16. Tools to Enhance Young Children's Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Angela K.

    2010-01-01

    During a neighborhood walk, preschool children from Ms. Silvia's class took pictures of buildings, businesses, and people. Back in the classroom, Ms. Silvia displayed their pictures on a large screen and used the "See/Think/Wonder" thinking routine to help the children think and talk about their experiences on the walk. Thinking routines are…

  17. Measuring Psychological Critical Thinking: An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Timothy J.; Jordan-Fleming, Mary Kay; Bodle, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking is widely considered an important skill for psychology majors. However, few measures exist of the types of critical thinking that are specific to psychology majors. Lawson (1999) designed the Psychological Critical Thinking Exam (PCTE) to measure students' ability to "think critically, or evaluate claims, in a way that…

  18. Thinking laterally about genomes.

    PubMed

    Ragan, Mark A

    2009-10-01

    Perhaps the most-surprising discovery of the genome era has been the extent to which prokaryotic and many eukaryotic genomes incorporate genetic material from sources other than their parent(s). Lateral genetic transfer (LGT) among bacteria was first observed about 100 years ago, and is now accepted to underlie important phenomena including the spread of antibiotic resistance and ability to degrade xenobiotics. LGT is invoked, perhaps too readily, to explain a breadth of awkward data including compositional heterogeneity of genomes, disagreement among gene-sequence trees, and mismatch between physiology and systematics. At the same time many details of LGT remain unknown or controversial, and some key questions have scarcely been asked. Here I critically review what we think we know about the existence, extent, mechanism and impact of LGT; identify important open questions; and point to research directions that hold particular promise for elucidating the role of LGT in genome evolution. Evidence for LGT in nature is not only inferential but also direct, and potential vectors are ubiquitous. Genetic material can pass between diverse habitats and be significantly altered during residency in viruses, complicating the inference of donors, In prokaryotes about twice as many genes are interrupted by LGT as are transferred intact, and about 5Short protein domains can be privileged units of transfer. Unresolved phylogenetic issues include the correct null hypothesis, and genes as units of analysis. Themes are beginning to emerge regarding the effect of LGT on cellular networks, but I show why generalization is premature. LGT can associate with radical changes in physiology and ecological niche. Better quantitative models of genome evolution are needed, and theoretical frameworks remain to be developed for some observations including chromosome assembly by LGT. PMID:20180279

  19. Developing Algebraic Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alejandre, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Presents a teaching experience that resulted in students getting to a point of full understanding of the kinesthetic activity and the algebra behind it. Includes a lesson plan for a traffic jam activity. (KHR)

  20. What we think before a voluntary movement

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, L.; Houdayer, E.; Bai, O.; Hallett, M.

    2016-01-01

    A central feature of voluntary movement is the sense of volition, but when this sense arises in the course of movement formulation and execution is not clear. Many studies have explored how the brain might be actively preparing movement prior to the sense of volition, however, because the timing of the sense of volition has depended on subjective and retrospective judgements these findings are still regarded with a degree of scepticism. Electroencephalographic (EEG) events such as beta event-related desynchronization (βERD) and movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) are associated with the brain’s programming of movement. Using an optimized EEG signal derived from multiple variables we were able to make real-time predictions of movements in advance of their occurrence with a low false positive rate. We asked subjects what they were thinking at the time of prediction: sometimes they were thinking about movement, and other times they were not. Our results indicate that the brain can be preparing to make voluntary movements while subjects are thinking about something else. PMID:23363409

  1. Solitary Play and Convergent and Divergent Thinking Skills in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Bronwen; Howe, Nina

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between multiple forms of solitary play (solitary-active, solitary-passive, reticence) and convergent and divergent thinking in preschool children. Found that reticent behavior was more strongly negatively associated with convergent and divergent thinking than either solitary-active or solitary-passive play, whereas…

  2. Does the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire measure what we think it does? Construct validity evidence from an active controlled randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Simon B; Wielgosz, Joseph; Dahl, Cortland; Schuyler, Brianna; MacCoon, Donal S; Rosenkranz, Melissa; Lutz, Antoine; Sebranek, Chad A; Davidson, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    The current study attempted a rigorous test of the construct validity of a widely used self-report measure of dispositional mindfulness, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), within the context of an active controlled randomized trial (n = 130). The trial included three arms: mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), an active control condition that did not include instruction in mindfulness meditation (Health Enhancement Program [HEP]), and a waitlist control condition. Partial evidence for the convergent validity of the FFMQ was shown in correlations at baseline between FFMQ facets and measures of psychological symptoms and psychological well-being. In addition, facets of the FFMQ were shown to increase over the course of an MBSR intervention relative to a waitlist control condition. However, the FFMQ failed to show discriminant validity. Specifically, facets of the FFMQ were shown to increase over the course of the HEP intervention relative to the waitlist control condition. MBSR and HEP, in contrast, did not differ in changes in FFMQ score over time. Implications of these findings for the measurement and theory of mindfulness and MBSR are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26460893

  3. Improving Critical Thinking with Interactive Mobile Tools and Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lin; Widdall, Chris; Ward, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how integrating interactive mobile tools into elementary pedagogy can generate enthusiasm and critical thinking among students as they learn about the world. The activities described took place over the course of six one-hour periods spanning six days. These activities address three major social studies…

  4. Stimulating Critical Thinking in the Undergrad Classroom: The Spanking Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan K.; Benson, Lisa J.

    2010-01-01

    To encourage critical thinking and expression of viewpoints by undergraduate students, an in-class debate on the issue of spanking as a disciplinary practice and its impact on children's development is presented as a class activity. Specific details on how the debate is conducted are provided. Evaluation results suggest that the activity is…

  5. Development: Ages & Stages--How Abstract Thinking Develops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    Babies are active participants in their learning and need to explore a variety of objects. Nurturing relationships support these explorations. Objects are more clearly remembered and understood. Thus, one activity this article suggests doing with a 12-month-old to encourage abstract thinking, is talking about how squeezing the bottle of ketchup…

  6. Thinking Out Loud while Studying Text: Rehearsing Key Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muth, K. Denise; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study involving 32 undergraduate students was conducted to identify mechanisms by which instructional objectives affect learning. Protocols for thinking out loud were examined for evidence of rehearsal activity. Results suggest that instructional objectives enhanced real-time rehearsal activity, recall, and reading time. (TJH)

  7. Creative Thinking and Creative Performance in Israeli Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgram, Roberta M.; Milgram, Norman A.

    1976-01-01

    The Wallach and Kogan Creativity Battery, a self report questionnaire of creative activities, and a group intelligence test were administered to an entire Israeli high school senior class. Creative activity was found to be related to creative thinking but not to intelligence or school grades. (Author/DEP)

  8. Thinking Like a Geographer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernosky, Margaret Shaw

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an activity that engages the student in the geographic inquiry process, the student acquires geographic data and analyzes geographic information to answer a geographic question. The question is: "Do students in my class have place name mastery of the 50 states?" The activity assesses students' geo-literacy and shows the…

  9. Hippocampal amnesia disrupts creative thinking

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Melissa C.; Kurczek, Jake; Rubin, Rachael; Cohen, Neal J.; Tranel, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Creativity requires the rapid combination and recombination of existing mental representations to create novel ideas and ways of thinking. The hippocampal system, through its interaction with neocortical storage sites, provides a relational database necessary for the creation, updating, maintenance, and juxtaposition of mental representations used in service of declarative memory. Given this functionality, we hypothesized that hippocampus would play a critical role in creative thinking. We examined creative thinking, as measured by verbal and figural forms of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT), in a group of participants with hippocampal damage and severe declarative memory impairment as well as in a group of demographically matched healthy comparison participants. The patients with bilateral hippocampal damage performed significantly worse than comparison participants on both the verbal and figural portions of the TTCT. These findings suggest that hippocampus plays a role critical in creative thinking, adding to a growing body of work pointing to the diverse ways the hallmark processing features of hippocampus serve a variety of behaviors that require flexible cognition. PMID:24123555

  10. Research Thinking Development by Teaching Archaeoastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muglova, P. V.; Stoev, A. D.

    2006-08-01

    A model of research thinking development by teaching archaeoastronomy in specialized three-year extra-curriculum Astronomy programme and creation of favourable socio-educational surroundings is suggested. It is shown as a didactic system of conditions, influences and possibilities of answering specific hierarchic complex of personal needs in the 14 - 18 year age interval. Transformation of these needs in worldly values secures an active position of the students in the educational process and determines their personality development. It is also shown that the Archaeoastronomy School, as an educational environment, executes specific work of students' teaching, upbringing and progress as well as their inclusion in the real process of scientific research. Thus, they have the possibility of generating scientific ideas and obtaining results in the science archaeoastronomy. In consequence of this, their activity acquires social significance. Usages of this model of scientific school in the extra-curriculum Astronomy education reproduces norms and traditions of the real scientific research and directly relay subject content, cultural norms and values of archaeoastronomy in the educative process. Students' participation in archaeoastronomical expeditions, their competent work during the research of concrete archaeoastronomical objects create an investigation style of thinking and steady habits of scientific activity.

  11. Re-thinking residential mobility

    PubMed Central

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  12. Thinking Differently about Difference. Think Global Thinkpiece 2012 Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Fran

    2012-01-01

    In this thinkpiece Fran Martin looks at cultural similarity and difference within the context of global learning. The use of the words similarity and difference are often heard in the context of global learning. Drawing on academic theory, Martin, explores three different ways of thinking about cultural similarity and difference followed by a…

  13. Creating the Thinking Practitioner: Critical Thinking in Clinical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaslip, Penny

    This essay looks at training nurses in British Columbia (Canada) to be critical thinkers through the use of nurses' narrative notes of patient care. The paper argues that the registered nurse can use the Nursing Process, a nursing problem solving framework that relies on the nurse's ability to think logically, to critically reflect on care…

  14. WRITING, A THINKING PROCESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ARAPOFF, NANCY

    A NEW METHOD OF TEACHING WRITING TO STUDENTS OF ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IS PRESENTED. THE AUTHOR DEFINES LEARNING TO WRITE, WHICH IS ESSENTIALLY DIFFERENT FROM THE OTHER LANGUAGE SKILLS (ORAL PRODUCTION, GRAMMAR, AND READING), AS A PROCESS THAT REQUIRES ACTIVE THOUGHT IN THE NECESSARY SELECTION AND ORGANIZATION OF EXPERIENCE. WRITING…

  15. Thinking Inside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Barry

    2011-01-01

    The "men's sheds" movement is a grassroots phenomenon that has engaged and inspired men from communities across Australia in hands-on, workshop-based social activity. This article seeks to "unwrap" one of several forms of learning that have been found to be enthusiastically embraced by older men previously thought of, almost patronisingly, as…

  16. Thinking Visually about Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroudi, Ziad

    2015-01-01

    Many introductions to algebra in high school begin with teaching students to generalise linear numerical patterns. This article argues that this approach needs to be changed so that students encounter variables in the context of modelling visual patterns so that the variables have a meaning. The article presents sample classroom activities,…

  17. An Open Mind: Cynthia Fuerst--Kankakee Public Library, IL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Librarians like to say their libraries are the heart of their communities, and in Cynthia Fuerst's case, it is a fact. For the Kankakee Public Library, this took long, hard effort by an inspired library director, the mayor, and a developer who wanted to revive business in an economically devastated downtown. When Fuerst became the library's…

  18. Opening Minds, Opening Doors: The Rebirth of American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Dan

    This book describes the tech prep/associate degree initiative and illustrates its characteristics and promise through examples of collaborative efforts. Chapter 1 introduces a model or vision for tech prep and shows how it has grown from its vocational education roots to encompass a much broader educational spectrum. Chapter 2 addresses nine basic…

  19. Integrating Reading, Writing, and Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Philip M., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The eight articles in this focused journal issue are concerned with integrating reading, writing, and thinking, with varying attention to other language processes such as listening and speaking. The titles and authors of the articles are (1) "Does What You Read Influence How You Write?" by Dennis Adams; (2) "Dictation: Building Listening, Writing,…

  20. Critical Thinking or Cony Cozenage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matulich, Loretta

    Teachers of history, introductory chemistry, and literature from Portland State University, Portland Community College, Clark College, Mt. Hood Community College, and Clackamas Community College (Oregon) have been working together to foster critical thinking in their students. Teachers in these disciplines have been meeting at their respective…

  1. The Classroom "Think Aloud" Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Bonnie W.; Bash, Mary A.

    This program adapts the Think Aloud method, originally designed to assist young aggressive boys in achieving greater self-control, to improve problem-solving skills among first and second graders. Modeling of self-instructional verbalizations is used to teach children a systematic approach to analyzing a problem, planning an attack and evaluating…

  2. Global Thinking. Teacher's Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassard, Jack; Weisberg, Julie

    The teaching materials contained in this teacher's guide provide a framework for teachers in different cultures to engage their students in collaborative projects. The guide is divided into five parts. Part 1 introduces the Global Thinking Project. Three chapters provide an overview of the project, step-by-step procedures on using collaborative…

  3. Forward Thinking. Progress Report, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Since 2007, "Forward Thinking" has provided the roadmap for the department's work. These goals have served the department well in aligning and focusing the work at hand. The goals are: (1) Provide guidance and support to meet school and district needs; (2) Enhance professional development involving best practices; (3) Develop tools to eliminate…

  4. Teaching Machines to Think Fuzzy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Fuzzy logic programs for computers make them more human. Computers can then think through messy situations and make smart decisions. It makes computers able to control things the way people do. Fuzzy logic has been used to control subway trains, elevators, washing machines, microwave ovens, and cars. Pretty much all the human has to do is push one…

  5. Thinking through Language. Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Dan; Kuykendall, Carol

    One of three related documents produced in response to a need for direct instruction in thinking skills, this program for middle school or junior high school students bases its approach on involvement of students in direct experiences. The book contains four units. Focusing on perception, Unit 1: "Experiencing the Arts" begins with ways sensory…

  6. The Re-Think Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gear, Jim

    1993-01-01

    The Re-Think Tree is a simple framework to help individuals assess and improve their behaviors related to environmental issues. The branches of the tree in order of priority are refuse, reduce, re-use, and recycle. Roots of the tree include such things as public opinion, education, and watchdog groups. (KS)

  7. Scientific Writing = Thinking in Words

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ensuring that research results are reported accurately and effectively is an eternal challenge for scientists. The book Science Writing = Thinking in Words (David Lindsay, 2011. CSIRO Publishing) is a primer for researchers who seek to improve their impact through better written (and oral) presentat...

  8. Critical Thinking: Developing Intellectual Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Linda; Paul, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Stresses that critical thinking is more than a set of skills; it also involves intellectual traits that should be cultivated. These traits include intellectual humility, courage, empathy, integrity, and perseverance; faith in reason; and fair-mindedness. Self-questioning is an important means of developing these traits. (SL)

  9. Creative Thinking in Instrumental Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on ways to develop student creative thinking, improvisation, and composition skills in instrumental classes. Provides suggestions, such as the importance of offering students creative opportunities, supplying examples, giving control to students, and encouraging expressive integrity. Includes a bibliography of resources for developing…

  10. Objectification in Common Sense Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markova, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    In epistemologies of both scientific and common sense thinking "objectification" characterizes the formation of knowledge and concepts, yet in each case its meaning is different. In the former, objectification in acquiring knowledge refers to the individual's rationalistic reification of an object or of another person and to disengagement or…

  11. Thinking outside the Teacher's Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darn, Steve

    2006-01-01

    This article applies theories of alternative thinking and problem solving to the teaching context. Teachers working in static situations are prone to stagnation leading to a paradigm crisis where they are forced to question the status quo. Techniques for confronting such situations are examined, along with personal management strategies and the…

  12. An Assessment for Criminal Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Kevin; Garner, Bryan R.; Simpson, D. Dwayne; Morey, Janis T.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2006-01-01

    Risk assessments generally rely on actuarial measures of criminal history. However, these static measures do not address changes in risk as a result of intervention. To this end, this study examines the basic psychometric properties of the TCU Criminal Thinking Scales (TCU CTS), a brief (self-rating) instrument developed to assess cognitive…

  13. Supporting Right-Brained Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mescolotto, Lee M.

    2010-01-01

    In his book, "A Whole New Mind", Daniel Pink champions the benefits of right-brained thinking: creativity, flexibility, empathy, and meaning. He stresses the need to not only be logical, but also aware of emotion; to not only be sequential, but also conceptual; and to not only be calculating, but also recognize value. The project described in this…

  14. A New Way of Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Governor's Planning Council on Developmental Disabilities, St. Paul.

    The report describes policies and services for individuals with developmental disabilities in Minnesota. It emphasizes changes in the way of thinking about individuals with developmental disabilities as knowledge increases concerning what they are capable of doing and what is important in their lives and how they can be supported in communities.…

  15. Divergent Thinking and Interview Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batey, Mark; Rawles, Richard; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    This study examined divergent thinking (DT) test scores of applicants taking part in a selection procedure for an undergraduate psychology degree (N = 370). Interviewers made six specific (creative intelligence, motivation, work habits, emotional stability, sociability, and social responsibility) and one overall recommendation rating on each…

  16. Hats Off to Thinking Caps!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Lynne E.

    2005-01-01

    This document describes a third grade teachers' new twist to get her students' minds motivated for another school year. She purchased some "thinking caps." The purpose of the caps was to help students focus on various academic tasks. The children were thrilled to have a new tool to help them concentrate.

  17. A Think Tank Cultivates Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knodt, Jean Sausele

    1997-01-01

    In a Virginia school grounded in Gardner's multiple-intelligences theory, K-12 students flock to the think tank, a hands-on discovery room, to explore their varied abilities. This well-equipped room synthesizes many ideas and theories, such as Socratic questioning and John Dewey's discovery-learning ideas. Because multiple ways of smartness are…

  18. Thinking Styles and Job Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, James C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the problem of stress in the workplace. Presents the theory that persons whose thinking styles are not in sync with their work responsibilities may suffer from greater stress than their peers. Recommends (1) person-job fitting, (2) early symptom screening, (3) job redesign programs, and (4) training and development. (CH)

  19. Critical Thinking Is Not Enough.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bono, Edward

    1984-01-01

    Critical thinking alone is reactive, in that it lacks the creative elements necessary for social progress. Accordingly, the author has developed the CoRT (Cognitive Research Trust) program to teach the two aspects of perception: breadth (developing a perceptual map) and change (using the map to discover solutions). (TE)

  20. Foreign Language "Think Tank" Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Kathleen H.

    At the Foreign Language"Think Tank" Symposium of April 1975, the following major problems of community college foreign language teachers were identified: (1) low enrollment; (2) attrition; (3) low achievers; (4) articulation with universities; and (5) lack of interest. Suggested solutions included: (Problem 1) advertisement, a foreign language…

  1. Hard Thinking about Soft Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, Guy; Costa, Arthur L.; Kallick, Bena

    2016-01-01

    People use various terms to refer to traits and tendencies connected to social-emotional behavior and ways of thinking or approaching problems--from 21st century skills to mindsets to habits of mind. Such traits are also often called soft skills or non-cognitive skills. The authors contend that these latter terms imply that these traits and…

  2. Thinking Relationally about Studying "Up"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stich, Amy E.; Colyar, Julia E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors argue that despite a resurgence of elite studies, the majority of existing scholarship works to reify and legitimize social inequality through its language and method. In particular, the authors utilize Pierre Bourdieu's concept of relational thinking to review and critique contemporary research on elite education and…

  3. Algebraic Thinking in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Myrna; Ginsburg, Lynda

    2010-01-01

    In adult education, algebraic thinking can be a sense-making tool that introduces coherence among mathematical concepts for those who previously have had trouble learning math. Further, a modeling approach to algebra connects mathematics and the real world, demonstrating the usefulness of math to those who have seen it as just an academic…

  4. Thinking Strategies for Interpreting Artworks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sydney R.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes the art criticism of nine university art education students writing about the work of Robert Rauschenberg. Identifies the students' use or nonuse of thematic unity, intertextuality, opposition, and description. These thinking strategies are primarily found in the works of three professional art critics. (MJP)

  5. LEAN thinking in Finnish healthcare.

    PubMed

    Jorma, Tapani; Tiirinki, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Turkki, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to evaluate how LEAN thinking is used as a management and development tool in the Finnish public healthcare system and what kind of outcomes have been achieved or expected by using it. The main focus is in managing and developing patient and treatment processes. Design/methodology/approach - A mixed-method approach incorporating the Webropol survey was used. Findings - LEAN is quite a new concept in Finnish public healthcare. It is mainly used as a development tool to seek financial savings and to improve the efficiency of patient processes, but has not yet been deeply implemented. However, the experiences from LEAN initiatives have been positive, and the methodology is already quite well-known. It can be concluded that, because of positive experiences from LEAN, the environment in Finnish healthcare is ready for the deeper implementation of LEAN. Originality/value - This paper evaluates the usage of LEAN thinking for the first time in the public healthcare system of Finland as a development tool and a management system. It highlights the implementation and achieved results of LEAN thinking when used in the healthcare environment. It also highlights the expectations for LEAN thinking in Finnish public healthcare. PMID:26764958

  6. Think before you bounce.

    PubMed

    Calf, Jessica; Wilkinson, Rachel; Paul, Siba Prosad

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, trampolining has become a common recreational activity for children and young people. Its popularity in the UK has been on the increase since 2005, reflected in the sale of almost 250,000 trampolines in 2014 ( RoSPA 2015 ) and the emergence of indoor trampoline parks and trampolining as a competitive sport ( Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness 2012 ). PMID:27384799

  7. "Thinking about a Sustainable Earth"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeshita, Makoto

    2014-05-01

    1.Introduction The Course of study for Junior high school teaching was changed in 2008 in Japan. We should especially mention about this change that ESD, "Education for Sustainable Development," was written as a point of view. ESD is a kind of educations that is studied with a target for a region and that aims at reorganize of consciousness through thinking of how to be a better region. ESD's view was written for Social studies, Science, Foreign Languages, Health and Physical Education, Home Economics and Technical Arts, and the Period for Integrated Studies. Of these subjects, Social studies are the one of core subjects. Social studies for Junior high school consist of Geography, History and Civics. "Problem of us and international society" is the last part of Civics. Teacher helps students to understand international society deeply and think about the role of our country for it. Students research many problems (global environment, resources and energy, poverty etc.) and organize their thoughts on how make a better society as a part of the human family. I taught them to think about how to solve many themes like religious problems, terrorism problems, the North-South problems, and resource and energy problems. It is my practice to let them think about what they should do to solve the global warming problem. 2.The truth of my class I pointed out to the students that the length of summer time in Japan is increasing, and we can anticipate it will continue to increase in the future. After that, I explained to them that occurrence of sudden, heavy downpour of rain is increasing and helped them understand the process of this kind of downpour through some diagrams and pictures. I helped them understand the context of this increase of the length of summer time and heavy downpour within the whole earth's ecosystem. Such increases as these things are causing global warming. I asked them to think about what are the possible problems if global warming progresses. The ideas the

  8. An Exploration of Students' Statistical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Randall E.

    2006-01-01

    The statistical thinking exhibited by 14-19 year-old students during clinical interview sessions is described. The students' thinking with regard to fundamental statistics concepts is reported in order to help inform instructional practice.

  9. Testing College-Level Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facione, Peter A.

    1986-01-01

    At the college level, the obstacles to machine-testing of critical thinking are more pedagogical and practical than theoretical and include creating an operational definition, differentiating critical thinking skills and subskills, and establishing test reliability and validity. (MSE)

  10. The Thinking Curriculum. Video Conference 2. Restructuring To Promote Learning in America's Schools, A Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennimore, Todd F.; Tinzmann, Margaret Banker

    A redefinition of the concept of learning necessitates the development of a "thinking curriculum." Second in a series of nine video conferences, this guidebook describes components of a thinking curriculum, which is characterized by a dual agenda of content and process. Contents of the guidebook include pre- and post-conference activities, a…

  11. Using Thinking Skills as a Bridge between ELA and Science Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Robin Lee

    2008-01-01

    This article presents five activities that demonstrate developing thinking skills in students, uses comparable ELA and science skills. The thinking skills of Blooms Taxonomy are the organizer. Skills and processes gleaned from NYS ELA and Science Standards included in the article are: categorizing, comparing, following procedures, sequencing,…

  12. Effects of Critical Thinking Strategy Training on Male/Female EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahim, Mansoor; Barjesteh, Hamed; Vaseghi, Reza

    2012-01-01

    The development of critical thinking (CT) skills has become a key goal for educators in first and second language contexts. There is evidence that the use of such activities has still not become widespread in a number of ELT situations. One reason for this may be lack of awareness about how levels of thinking can be conceptualized in ELT…

  13. Developing Thinking and Understanding in Young Children: An Introduction for Students. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Developing "Thinking and Understanding in Young Children" presents a comprehensive and accessible overview of contemporary theory and research about young children's developing thinking and understanding. Throughout this second edition, the ideas and theories presented are enlivened by transcripts of children's activities and conversations taken…

  14. A Multi-Level Model of Moral Thinking Based on Neuroscience and Moral Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Changwoo; Han, Hye Min

    2011-01-01

    Developments in neurobiology are providing new insights into the biological and physical features of human thinking, and brain-activation imaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging have become the most dominant research techniques to approach the biological part of thinking. With the aid of neurobiology, there also have been…

  15. Promoting Critical-Thinking Dispositions by Using Problem Solving in Middle School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leader, Lars F.; Middleton, James A.

    2004-01-01

    This review of research generates principles for the design of instructional programs that foster critical-thinking dispositions. The dispositional aspect of critical thinking may be considered part of attitudinal memory, readily activated if sufficiently strong. We describe evidence suggesting that ill-structured problem-solving can provide…

  16. The Impact of Student Thinking Journals and Generic Problem Solving Software on Problem Solving Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Gary E.

    This study examined the effects of specially designed thinking journal activities that have been attributed with encouraging reflective thinking, on instruction using generic, or content-free, problem solving software. Sixty-three fourth grade students participated in four instructional sessions using the software package called "Moptown Hotel."…

  17. Cultivating Students' Critical Thinking Ability through Simplified Modal United Nations Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Cun

    2016-01-01

    Cultivating EFL learners' critical thinking ability is an urgent task for English teachers. To integrate the training of language skills and cultivation of critical thinking ability into one language course, the author designed an activity called simplified Modal United Nations conference, which is based on the revised Bloom's Taxonomy that…

  18. Math Activities that Encourage Inductive Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    There are two kinds of logical reasoning: "inductive" and "deductive". Inductive reasoning proceeds from effect back to cause, from special case to general principle. Detectives use it, examining the clues and conjecturing the actions that caused them. On the other hand, deductive reasoning proceeds from cause to effect, from principle to…

  19. Integrative thinking and learning in undergraduate nursing education: three strategies.

    PubMed

    Dickieson, Patti; Carter, Lorraine M; Walsh, Mireille

    2008-01-01

    This article describes three learning activities used in the undergraduate nursing degree program at a mid-sized university in northeastern Ontario, Canada. Each activity, a reflective writing assignment, scenario testing, and an OSCE experience, is considered in terms of integrative thinking. Formal and informal evaluation of the activities is also discussed.Based on the authors' experiences, integrative thinking including habits of mind and cognitive skills can be directed and enhanced. To maximize students' growth as integrative thinkers, they should be exposed to many kinds of activities that target this growth. Generally, such activities tend to be case-based and interactive in nature. They also require a level of scaffolding or directedness. To develop and implement such activities, teachers are encouraged to work with educational researchers and instructional designers. PMID:18976236

  20. Teaching and Thinking: A Literature Review of the Teaching of Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assaf, Mohammad Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to study some of the most famous works in teaching thinking skills. Teaching thinking is an arguable issue in the UAE. Some teachers are in favour of teaching thinking skills implicitly while others support the view that students have to learn thinking skills explicitly. The study aimed at answering two…

  1. Think Pair Share: A Teaching Learning Strategy to Enhance Students' Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaddoura, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the change in critical thinking (CT) skills of baccalaureate nursing students who were educated using a Think-Pair-Share (TPS) or an equivalent Non-Think-Pair-Share (Non-TPS) teaching method. Critical thinking has been an essential outcome of nursing students to prepare them to provide effective and safe quality care for…

  2. Thinking Like a Social Worker: Examining the Meaning of Critical Thinking in Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, John

    2015-01-01

    "Critical thinking" is frequently used to describe how social workers ought to reason. But how well has this concept helped us to develop a normative description of what it means to think like a social worker? This critical review mines the literature on critical thinking for insight into the kinds of thinking social work scholars…

  3. Understanding Criminals' Thinking: Further Examination of the Measure of Offender Thinking Styles-Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandracchia, Jon T.; Morgan, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    The Measure of Offender Thinking Styles (MOTS) was originally developed to examine the structure of dysfunctional thinking exhibited by criminal offenders. In the initial investigation, a three-factor model of criminal thinking was obtained using the MOTS. These factors included dysfunctional thinking characterized as Control, Cognitive…

  4. Algebraic Thinking: A Problem Solving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windsor, Will

    2010-01-01

    Algebraic thinking is a crucial and fundamental element of mathematical thinking and reasoning. It initially involves recognising patterns and general mathematical relationships among numbers, objects and geometric shapes. This paper will highlight how the ability to think algebraically might support a deeper and more useful knowledge, not only of…

  5. Fostering Critical Thinking in Physical Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodewyk, Ken R.

    2009-01-01

    Critical thinking is essentially "better thinking." When students think critically they consider complex information from numerous sources and perspectives in order to make a reasonable judgment that they can justify. It has been associated with academic qualities such as decision-making, creativity, reasoning, problem-solving, debating,…

  6. Toward an Integrating Framework for Teaching Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Debra; Harvey, Karen

    1988-01-01

    Teachers in Cherry Creek, Colorado, have selected a variety of programs for teaching thinking, according to the needs of their students and their own interests. A thinking skills framework modeled after ASCD's Dimensions of Thinking (Marzano et al., 1988) is now being proposed. (TE)

  7. A Sequence of Critical Thinking Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, John

    2010-01-01

    Critical thinking skills remain at the forefront of educational discussions. These higher order thinking processes, including but not limited to reflection, inference, and synthesizing information, enable individuals to make reasoned judgments not only in the classroom but in everyday life. School systems demand that critical thinking be…

  8. Encouraging Critical Thinking in Online Threaded Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arend, Bridget

    2009-01-01

    Critical thinking is a highly desirable goal of online higher education courses. This article presents qualitative data from a mixed-method study that explores how asynchronous discussions within online courses influence critical thinking among students. In this study, online discussions were related to higher levels of critical thinking, but…

  9. Thinking Skills: Meanings, Models, and Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presseisen, Barbara Z.

    In order for educators to plan for thinking skills in the curriculum, what is meant by thinking must first be determined. Drawing from current research, this report provides working definitions of thinking skills and practical models to explain the working relationships among different levels and different kinds of thought processes. These…

  10. Cultivating Teacher Thinking: Ideas and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jia-Li

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to develop, through a literature analysis, a portrait of the functioning and practice of teacher thinking at government and university levels. Teacher thinking is defined as habits and strategies or the habit of thinking used to collect information, analyze, understand institution, reflect, solve problems, inform decisions,…

  11. Exploring Young Children's Conceptions about Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Angela K.; Lucas, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the importance of nurturing children's thinking. This article reports on an investigation of the influence of teachers' implementation of the Visible Thinking approach developed within the Harvard Graduate School of Education Project Zero on very young children's concepts of thinking, as measured by the…

  12. Evaluating Critical Thinking Skills: Two Conceptualizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Cheryl L.

    2005-01-01

    In this study two complementary models, which were based on the strengths of existing models, were developed to analyze students' critical thinking skills. One model was used to categorize the types of critical thinking displayed by students; the other was used to evaluate the quality of the critical thinking. The models were refined and tested…

  13. Think Tanks, Education and Elite Policy Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Glenn C.

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen think tanks operate in sophisticated ways to influence the development of education policies. In this paper, I reflect upon the influence of think tanks in the formation of national reform, using the Common Core State Standards initiative in the USA as an illustrative case. In doing so, I explore how certain think tanks,…

  14. Are Thinking Styles and Personality Types Related?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-Fang

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between thinking styles and personality types by having 600 undergraduate students from the University of Hong Kong respond to the Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI) and the Short-version Self-directed Search (SVSDS). Reports that thinking styles and personality types overlap to a degree. (CMK)

  15. Improving the Quality of Think-Alouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly; Kenny, MaryBeth

    2016-01-01

    An essential element in teaching children to effectively comprehend text is the use of teacher-led think alouds. This article presents a three-step model to improve the quality and quantity of think alouds in K-6 classrooms. The article follows elementary teachers who planned, implemented, transcribed, and reflected upon think aloud lessons to…

  16. Divergent Thinking and Age-Related Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Aging can affect cognition in different ways. The extent to which aging affects divergent thinking is unclear. In this study, younger and older adults were compared at the performance on the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking in visual and verbal form. Results showed that older adults can think divergently as younger participants, although they…

  17. New Thinking for Connexions and Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Bill

    This material sets out recent thinking on career development to inform the future of Connexions and education for citizenship. It contains abstracts of significant publications; summaries of background thinking; references to sources of information and ideas; ways to link thinking to practice; and summary charts. Each of 10 sections is in 2 parts.…

  18. Begging the Question: Is Critical Thinking Biased?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Kal

    1995-01-01

    Discusses whether critical thinking is biased, examining what is meant by critical thinking and bias and what the consequences are for addressing bias in different ways. The paper responds to the three previous papers in the critical thinking symposium in this issue of the journal. (SM)

  19. Visible Thinking in High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sliman, Emily

    2013-01-01

    If a teacher asked their students what thinking looks like, what would they say? Would they just look at the teacher quizzically? The question is challenging because thinking is largely an invisible endeavor, and developing thoughtful students can be a daunting task. However, the job of mathematics teachers is to develop students who think about…

  20. Enhancing Systems-Thinking Skills with Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Woei

    2008-01-01

    Systems thinking is an essential cognitive skill that enables individuals to develop an integrative understanding of a given subject at the conceptual and systemic level. Yet, systems thinking is not usually an innate skill. Helping students develop systems-thinking skills warrants attention from educators. This paper describes a study examining…

  1. Critical Thinking: Its Nature, Measurement, and Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    Critical thinking comprises the mental processes, strategies, and representations people use to solve problems, make decisions, and learn new concepts. The study of critical thinking combines the educational, philosophical, and psychological traditions of thought. R. Ennis offers a philosophical taxonomy suggesting that critical thinking results…

  2. Red Dirt Thinking on Aspiration and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Sam; Guenther, John

    2013-01-01

    This article sets the scene for the series of five articles on "red dirt thinking". It first introduces the idea behind red dirt thinking as opposed to "blue sky thinking". Both accept that there are any number of creative and expansive solutions and possibilities to identified challenges--in this case, the challenge of…

  3. Thinking Styles of Teachers, Principals, and Inspectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastug, Özlem Yesim Özbek; Çelik, Bünyamin

    2014-01-01

    Much of current studies focus on the investigation of the thinking styles of students and teachers. However, exploring school administrators' and inpectors' thinking styles is also critical for increasing students' achievement at school. For that purpose, this study was performed to determine the thinking styles of teachers,…

  4. Augustine and Education in Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puolimatka, Tapio

    2005-01-01

    Augustine's concept of the deep self provides a basis for a complex and many-faceted account of critical thinking. He uncovers the moral sources of thinking in the inner depths of the self and shows that critical thinking presupposes radical self-reflection ready to face the truth about oneself. Self-knowledge assumes transparency, consciousness…

  5. Thinking and Feeling Poetry: Exploring Meanings Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eva-Wood, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    What role can emotions play in informing readers' interpretations of poems? This think-aloud study, with an experimental design, featured 10 college freshmen randomly assigned to 2 groups. The think-aloud (TA) group verbalized thoughts while reading 2 poems, and the think-and-feel-aloud (TFA) group voiced both thoughts and feelings. Participants…

  6. Enhancing Thinking Skills in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Carol; Ghent, Kathryn; Kanira, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    A case study approach was adopted to investigate two thinking skills programmes for a maximum variation sample of five- to six-year-olds in four schools, in two local authorities (LAs), in England and Wales, using multiple methods. School staff interviewed felt that thinking skills programmes enhanced critical thinking skills and improved use of…

  7. Using Thinking Skills To Enhance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Andrew P.

    In theory, effective thinking is a trait that is valued by schools at all levels; however, it is a skill that is very rarely taught. Teaching thinking skills explicitly and embedding them into a literacy curriculum can help students become more effective critical and creative thinkers. This article defines thinking skills, describes how they…

  8. Design Thinking and the School Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Mary Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This past school year, the author set out to develop lessons that incorporated the design thinking process into her literature exploration curriculum in the school library. Design thinking is a term that the author has heard many times over the past few years in the context of education. Design thinking has been incorporated into the school…

  9. Embedding Critical Thinking in IS Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Theda; Davis, Tim; Kazlauskas, Alanah

    2007-01-01

    It is important for students to develop critical thinking and other higher-order thinking skills during their tertiary studies. Along with the ability to think critically comes the need to develop students' meta-cognitive skills. These abilities work together to enable students to control, monitor, and regulate their own cognitive processes and…

  10. Assessing an Introduction to Systems Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Martha C.; Plate, Richard R.; Colley, Lara

    2015-01-01

    This research study investigated the learning outcomes of a brief systems thinking intervention at the undergraduate level. A pre/post experimental design (n = 50) was used to address two primary questions: (1) Can a brief introduction to systems thinking improve students' understanding of systems thinking? and (2) Which teaching method (of…

  11. Taoist Thinking Pattern as Reflected in Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Ringo

    Students' exposure to the Taoist thinking pattern should have a significant meaning in their cognitive development and life enrichment. The thinking pattern reflected in Taoist discourse is in sharp contrast to what is demonstrated in Aristotelian rhetoric. The circular thinking pattern usually resided in a paradoxical and/or relativistic…

  12. ThinkFirst National Injury Prevention Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... all ages how to prevent traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries! The ThinkFirst Foundation is a 501c3 nonprofit organization. ... The mission of ThinkFirst is to prevent brain, spinal cord and other traumatic injuries through education, research and advocacy. Support ThinkFirst Support ...

  13. How Persuasive Writing Aids Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhalter, Nancy

    Even though the importance of critical thinking skills has been recognized and studied by experts in several fields, the research has not yielded a clear definition, nor has a clear explanation been proffered of how writing can foster critical thinking. This article reviews the literature on the various definitions of critical thinking and…

  14. Thinking about Thinking: A Constructivist Approach to Critical Thinking in the College Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Thomas J.; And Others

    This project sought to focus on elements of critical thinking and reflective judgement specific to the college classroom experience using the Reflective Judgment (RJ) Model developed by P. M. King and K. M. Strohm-Kitchener. The project included an exploration of college instructors' assumptions and beliefs about college students, and an…

  15. Academic Debate and Critical Thinking: A Look at the Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstreet, Robert

    Despite its longevity as an educational activity, little empirical evidence exists to support the notion that academic debate is of value to participants. Numerous contemporary texts have proposed and advanced the claim that debating enhances the critical thinking skills of participants. Several of these texts find this claim so apparent that it…

  16. Thinking and Talking about Books: Using Prompts to Stimulate Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Irene H.; Koskinen, Patricia S.; Bhartiya, Purnima; Hluboky, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Four first-grade teachers used discussion prompts to encourage thinking about and responding to text in different ways. This article describes how the teachers introduced the prompts and provides examples of how the prompts were integrated into classroom activities. Teachers found that using the prompts was an effective way to initiate and…

  17. Using Media as Subject Matter to Teach Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Kannel-Ray, Nancy; Newlin-Haus, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Learning should occur in social environments in which students are engaged in meaningful activities that require them to think critically and solve problems (Dewey, 1933; Phillips & Soltis, 1998). This article describes how an urban middle school interdisciplinary teaching team partnered with the authors to create a hands-on, highly engaging…

  18. Writing To Think Critically: The Seeds of Social Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomer, Randy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how English/language-arts teachers can actively teach students to use a socially critical lens for thinking. Considers three modes of teaching this. Discusses how, once students have a least 10 notebook entries focused on social issues, "noticings," and questions, they should be able to reread their notebooks for themes that have…

  19. Stretch-It! Creative Geoboard Tasks for Developing Mathematical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Anne

    The purpose of this book is to introduce the geoboard as an effective tool that can help young children understand geometry as they develop spatial sense and mathematical thinking. Activities are clustered into three main sections: beginning geoboard explorations, exploring polygons, and coordinates. Blackline masters are included. (MKR)

  20. Promoting Higher Order Thinking Skills Using Inquiry-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhuri, G. V.; Kantamreddi, V. S. S. N; Prakash Goteti, L. N. S.

    2012-01-01

    Active learning pedagogies play an important role in enhancing higher order cognitive skills among the student community. In this work, a laboratory course for first year engineering chemistry is designed and executed using an inquiry-based learning pedagogical approach. The goal of this module is to promote higher order thinking skills in…

  1. Sensational Thinking: A Teaching/Learning Model for Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Sharon; Shallcross, Doris

    1994-01-01

    A five-step model intervention called "Sensational Thinking," which incorporates readiness, reception, reflection, revelation, and re-creation activities, was evaluated with four kindergarten classes. Experimental groups showed increased creativity over control groups in solving paradoxical problems. The study is seen as supporting the premise…

  2. Promoting Critical-Thinking Skills by Using Negotiation Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Diana; Mukherjee, Arup

    2007-01-01

    Many writers argue that it is necessary to develop critical thinking skills in business students because these skills are needed to deal with the increasing complexities of real-life problems. Although the goal appears to be laudable, it is not always clear how to go about achieving it. In this article, the authors describe active learning…

  3. INVESTIGATIONS OF THINKING VIA SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRIGGS, LESLIE J.; AND OTHERS

    OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY WERE (1) TO STIMULATE THINKING ON THE PART OF STUDENTS BY EMPLOYING NEW FORMS OF AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL SEQUENCES AND (2) TO SEEK INCREASED UNDERSTANDING OF THOUGHT PROCESSES. IN PHASE ONE LINEAR PROGRAMS WERE ANALYZED TO IDENTIFY CHARACTERISTICS OF THOSE PROGRAMS THAT INCREASED ACTIVE RESPONSE BY THE STUDENT. THE ANALYSES…

  4. Strategic Planning and Strategic Thinking Clothed in STRATEGO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baaki, John; Moseley, James L.

    2011-01-01

    This article shares experiences that participants had playing the game of STRATEGO and how the activity may be linked to strategic planning and thinking. Among the human performance technology implications of playing this game are that gamers agreed on a framework for rules, took stock on where they wanted to go in the future, and generated a risk…

  5. Computational Thinking in Elementary and Secondary Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadav, Aman; Mayfield, Chris; Zhou, Ninger; Hambrusch, Susanne; Korb, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Computational thinking (CT) is broadly defined as the mental activity for abstracting problems and formulating solutions that can be automated. In an increasingly information-based society, CT is becoming an essential skill for everyone. To ensure that students develop this ability at the K-12 level, it is important to provide teachers with an…

  6. Vocational Education for a Thinking Workforce: A Vygotskian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soden, Rebecca

    1993-01-01

    Scottish further education lecturers trained 51 students in thinking skills using the Vygotsky-Leontiev-Luria activity theory. After 13 weeks, experimentals' test scores were better than those of 41 controls, but numbers were less than significant, possibly because of students' and teachers' negative beliefs and assumptions about their ability and…

  7. Think Twice and Then: Combining or Choosing in Dialectical Bootstrapping?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Stefan M.; Hertwig, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Individuals can partly recreate the "wisdom of crowds" within their own minds by combining nonredundant estimates they themselves have generated. Herzog and Hertwig (2009) showed that this accuracy gain could be boosted by urging people to actively think differently when generating a 2nd estimate ("dialectical bootstrapping").…

  8. Teaching Activities for the Construction of a Precursor Model in 5- to 6-Year-Old Children's Thinking: The Case of Thermal Expansion and Contraction of Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravanis, Konstantinos; Papandreou, Maria; Kampeza, Maria; Vellopoulou, Angeliki

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of empirical research on the construction of a precursor model of the phenomenon of thermal expansion and contraction of metals in preschool children's thinking, which is compatible with the model used in science education. The research included 87 children aged 5-6. It was conducted at four stages, during…

  9. Is thinking computable?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    Strong artificial intelligence claims that conscious thought can arise in computers containing the right algorithms even though none of the programs or components of those computers understand which is going on. As proof, it asserts that brains are finite webs of neurons, each with a definite function governed by the laws of physics; this web has a set of equations that can be solved (or simulated) by a sufficiently powerful computer. Strong AI claims the Turing test as a criterion of success. A recent debate in Scientific American concludes that the Turing test is not sufficient, but leaves intact the underlying premise that thought is a computable process. The recent book by Roger Penrose, however, offers a sharp challenge, arguing that the laws of quantum physics may govern mental processes and that these laws may not be computable. In every area of mathematics and physics, Penrose finds evidence of nonalgorithmic human activity and concludes that mental processes are inherently more powerful than computational processes.

  10. We Think Green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulat, Sanja; Jokic, Ivana

    2015-04-01

    Environmental issues are the focal point in many parts of the world and scientists and ecologists undertake numerous activities to raise awareness of the citizens of the necessity to give their contribution to environmental protection. Discussing different ecological topics with our students, we came to the conclusion that they are only superficially aware of their role in the protection of nature. They do not fully realize that every contribution, no matter how small, means a lot. In order to inform them in more detail we first contacted the "RECAN" non-governmental foundation which is engaged in the protection of the environment, and they organized plenary lecture about recycling for our students. The seventh grade students attended this lecture. Consequently, they were involved in the project "Can by Can" and collected cans for recycling. But this time not only the seventh graders were involved. Our mission was to spread the word around the whole school and students from the first to the eighth grade participated and gave their contribution. Afterwards, Centre for the Talented Youth organized a workshop about the renewable energy sources for the students in eighth grade. They were given the opportunity to debate about energy sources, to express their own opinions and attitudes and to ask questions as well. All this was aimed at making our students more aware of their own responsibility for their environment and nature. Equipped with this newly acquired knowledge, our students conducted researches on the topic of solar panels and windmills and renewable energy solutions for houses.

  11. Fit between Future Thinking and Future Orientation on Creative Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Fa-Chung

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the impact of future thinking, and the fit between future thinking and future orientation on creative thinking. In Study 1, 83 undergraduates were randomly assigned to three groups: 50-year future thinking, 5-year future thinking, and the present-day thinking. First, the priming tasks, in which…

  12. Critical Thinking: Rationality, and the Vulcanization of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Kerry S.

    1990-01-01

    Although critical thinking has become a pedagogical industry, its endorsement by educators is uncritical. The conventional critical thinking model assumes that only logical thinking is good thinking. However, good thinking also includes rational but nonlogical cognitive functions. To ignore them is to train students in only one aspect of thinking.…

  13. The chemists' style of thinking.

    PubMed

    Bensaude-Vincent, Bernadette

    2009-12-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of the notion of "styles of scientific thinking" introduced by Alistair Crombie and revisited by Ian Hacking, for understanding how chemistry shaped its identity. Although neither Crombie nor Hacking applied this notion to individual disciplines, it seems appropriate to use it in the case of chemistry because it helps to address a puzzling issue: how did chemists manage to shape an identity of their own, despite shifting territories and theoretical transformations? Following a presentation of the notion of style, I will argue that the stable identity of chemistry is rooted in laboratory practices, which determined the specific questions that chemists put to nature as well as the answers to their questions. The "chemical style of thinking" is characterized by (i) a specific way of knowing through making, (ii) the concern with individual materials rather than matter in general and (iii) a specific commitment to nature. PMID:20481060

  14. Research locally, think globally

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2008-07-02

    Biological knowledge is concentrated in a few areas separated by large swaths of ignorance. There are many different reasons why. Some of this stems from a few schools churning out a disproportionate number of scientists in a particular field. Anyone know the story of Yale graduates and their influence on cell biology research? George Palade, a Nobel Prize winner, started a graduate program in cell biology at Yale in the early 1970s. This program generated over 100 PhDs mostly focused on intracellular organelle biogenesis, which thus became a dominant theme in the field. Technology is also a prominent reason for the heterogeneity of biological knowledge, because a new technology can tell us a lot about specific processes while leaving others obscure. For example, anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies have allowed us to easily follow tyrosine kinase signaling pathways, but downstream signaling events mediated by other activated enzymes remain a mystery. There are ways to bridge these gaps. Take new technologies - for example, microRNAs, which were discovered using genomics technologies, could fill many holes in our knowledge of mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene regulation and signal transduction. I do have a fear, however, that microRNAs will also become a specialized field, as has happened so many times before. Why? Because biologists are typically reductionists, who tend to pursue a general observation down to its most fundamental level. Reductionism is driven by basic human nature and our difficulty in comprehending complex processes. Reductionism in biology is also strongly driven by journal reviewers. I can’t count the number of times that I have submitted a paper only to have some reviewer ask for more details, extra experiments and clarification of some arcane mechanism that was beside the point. Eventually, reviewer expectations become our own when we have the opportunity to review our colleagues’ papers. However, it is not realistic to expect that

  15. Think crisis-think female: the glass cliff and contextual variation in the think manager-think male stereotype.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Michelle K; Haslam, S Alexander; Hersby, Mette D; Bongiorno, Renata

    2011-05-01

    The "think manager-think male" (TMTM) association underlies many gender inequalities in the workplace. However, research into the "glass cliff" has demonstrated that the suitability of male and female managers varies as a function of company performance such that in times of poor performance people may "think female" (Ryan & Haslam, 2005, 2007). Three studies examined gender and managerial stereotypes in the context of companies that are doing well or doing badly. Study 1 reproduced TMTM associations for descriptions of managers of successful companies but demonstrated a reversal for managers of unsuccessful companies. Study 2 examined the prescriptive nature of these stereotypes. No TMTM relationship was found for ideal managers of successful companies, but ideal managers of unsuccessful companies were associated with the female stereotype. Study 3 suggested that women may be favored in times of poor performance, not because they are expected to improve the situation, but because they are seen to be good people managers and can take the blame for organizational failure. Together, the studies illustrate the importance of context as a moderator of the TMTM association. Practical and theoretical implications for gender discrimination in the workplace are discussed. PMID:21171729

  16. Adaptive memory: thinking about function.

    PubMed

    Bell, Raoul; Röer, Jan P; Buchner, Axel

    2015-07-01

    Rating the relevance of words for the imagined situation of being stranded in the grasslands without survival material leads to exceptionally good memory for these words. This survival processing effect has received much attention because it promises to elucidate the evolutionary foundations of memory. However, the proximate mechanisms of the survival processing effect have to be identified before informed speculations about its adaptive function are possible. Here, we test and contrast 2 promising accounts of the survival processing effect. According to the 1st account, the effect is the consequence of the prioritized processing of threat-related information. According to the 2nd account, thinking about the relevance of items for survival stimulates thinking about object function, which is a particularly elaborate form of encoding. Experiment 1 showed that the emotional properties of the survival scenario, as manipulated by the negative or positive framing of the scenario, did not influence recall. A focus on threat at encoding led to worse recall than a focus on function. The latter finding was replicated in Experiment 2, which further showed that focusing on threat did not lead to a memory advantage over a pleasantness control condition. The beneficial effect of inducing a functional focus at encoding even surpasses that of the standard survival processing instruction. Together, the results support the theory that thinking about function is an important component of the survival processing effect. PMID:25419817

  17. Neural correlates of creative thinking and schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Park, Haeme R P; Kirk, Ian J; Waldie, Karen E

    2015-07-01

    Empirical studies indicate a link between creativity and schizotypal personality traits, where individuals who score highly on schizotypy measures also display greater levels of creative behaviour. However, the exact nature of this relationship is not yet clear, with only a few studies examining this association using neuroimaging methods. In the present study, the neural substrates of creative thinking were assessed with a drawing task paradigm in healthy individuals using fMRI. These regions were then statistically correlated with the participants' level of schizotypy as measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE), which is a questionnaire consisting of four dimensions. Neural activations associated with the creativity task were observed in bilateral inferior temporal gyri, left insula, left parietal lobule, right angular gyrus, as well as regions in the prefrontal cortex. This widespread pattern of activation suggests that creative thinking utilises multiple neurocognitive networks, with creative production being the result of collaboration between these regions. Furthermore, the correlational analyses found the Unusual Experiences factor of the O-LIFE to be the most common dimension associated with these areas, followed by the Impulsive Nonconformity dimension. These correlations were negative, indicating that individuals who scored the highest in these factors displayed the least amount of activation when performing the creative task. This is in line with the idea that 'less is more' for creativity, where the deactivation of specific cortical areas may facilitate creativity. Thus, these findings contribute to the evidence of a common neural basis between creativity and schizotypy. PMID:25979607

  18. Enhancing Students' Critical Thinking in Science: A Two-Year Design Based Exploration in a Large Undergraduate Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Suhyun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how to enhance students' critical thinking in an introductory undergraduate science course. As a design experiment, this study aimed to design, develop, implement, and refine learning activities, and investigate how the learning activities worked in fostering students' critical thinking in a large size…

  19. The Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Modulates Dialectical Self-Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Peng, Kaiping; Bai, Yang; Li, Rui; Zhu, Ying; Sun, Pei; Guo, Hua; Yuan, Chun; Rotshtein, Pia; Sui, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Dialectical self-thinking involves holding the view that one can possess contradictory traits such as extraverted and introverted. Prior work has demonstrated that the dorsal part of anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) plays a crucial role in conflict monitoring as well as self-related processing. Here, we tested the function of dACC in dialectical self-thinking using a modified classical self-referential paradigm (self- vs. other-referential thinking), in which participants had to make a judgment whether a simultaneously presented pair of contradictory or non-contradictory traits properly described them while brain activity was recording using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The data showed that activity in the dACC during the processing of self-relevant conflicting information was positively correlated with participants’ dispositional level of naïve dialecticism (measured with the Dialectical Self Scale). Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses further revealed increased functional connectivity between the dACC and the caudate, middle temporal gyrus and hippocampus during the processing of self-relevant conflicting information for dialectical thinkers. These results support the hypothesis that the dACC has a key role in dialectical self-thinking. PMID:26903940

  20. The Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Modulates Dialectical Self-Thinking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Peng, Kaiping; Bai, Yang; Li, Rui; Zhu, Ying; Sun, Pei; Guo, Hua; Yuan, Chun; Rotshtein, Pia; Sui, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Dialectical self-thinking involves holding the view that one can possess contradictory traits such as extraverted and introverted. Prior work has demonstrated that the dorsal part of anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) plays a crucial role in conflict monitoring as well as self-related processing. Here, we tested the function of dACC in dialectical self-thinking using a modified classical self-referential paradigm (self- vs. other-referential thinking), in which participants had to make a judgment whether a simultaneously presented pair of contradictory or non-contradictory traits properly described them while brain activity was recording using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The data showed that activity in the dACC during the processing of self-relevant conflicting information was positively correlated with participants' dispositional level of naïve dialecticism (measured with the Dialectical Self Scale). Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses further revealed increased functional connectivity between the dACC and the caudate, middle temporal gyrus and hippocampus during the processing of self-relevant conflicting information for dialectical thinkers. These results support the hypothesis that the dACC has a key role in dialectical self-thinking. PMID:26903940

  1. Was Rumpelstiltskin Robbed? Using Fairy Tales to Promote Higher Level Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rycik, Mary Taylor; Rycik, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Recommends using fairy tales to help students use higher-order thinking skills. Offers reading activities designed to promote analysis, synthesis, and evaluation while preserving the magic and fun of fairy tales. (MG)

  2. Think Scientifically: Hiding Science in a Storybook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Norden, W. M.; Wawro, M.

    2013-12-01

    The pressure to focus on math and reading at the elementary level has increased in recent years. As a result, science education has taken a back seat in elementary classrooms. The Think Scientifically book series provides a way for science to easily integrate with existing math and reading curriculum. This story-based science literature program integrates a classic storybook format with solid solar science, to make an educational product that meets state literacy standards. Each story is accompanied by hands-on labs and activities that teachers can easily conduct in their classrooms with minimal training and materials, as well as math and language arts extensions and assessment questions. These books are being distributed through teacher workshops and conferences.

  3. The Concept of Thinking: A Reappraisal of Ryle’s Work

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nilanjan

    2011-01-01

    In The Concept of Mind, Ryle’s official position seems to be that mental acts cannot be intrinsically private. In The Concept of Mind as well as his later work on thinking, Ryle views thinking as an activity that terminates in a thought, which is a state of being prepared for a performance. Thinking is characterised by what Ryle calls intention-parasitism; for it is, insofar as its underlying motive is concerned, parasitic on the final performance which will take place later. Ryle shows that acts of thinking, owing to their intention-parasitism, can be described in a tactical idiom, with reference to the final performance for which it was intended. However, this framework of intention-parasitism is not adequate to describe all instances of thinking in all their aspects, which therefore remain inextricably private. The task of this paper is to accommodate such privacy within the theoretical framework suggested in The Concept of Mind. PMID:21694977

  4. Facilitatory effect of thinking about movement on magnetic motor-evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Kiers, L; Fernando, B; Tomkins, D

    1997-08-01

    To investigate the facilitatory effect of thinking about movement on motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude, we recorded MEPs in two test muscles during rest, with the subject thinking about contracting the test muscle but without subsequent contraction, and during 10% maximum voluntary contraction. Stimuli were delivered at 10% above resting motor threshold and at 90-100% stimulator output. H-reflexes, recorded in flexor carpi radialis, were obtained during rest and think conditions. MEP threshold was lower during the think condition (P = 0.004). At both stimulus intensities, median MEP amplitudes and areas were significantly (P < 0.001) larger during the think paradigm compared with rest. This effect was greater at the lower stimulus intensity. There was no significant difference in latency (P = 0.15). In 4/8 subjects, H-reflex amplitudes were mildly facilitated (P < 0.05) during the think condition. We conclude that thinking about movement without detectable EMG activity has a facilitatory effect on magnetic MEPs. The absence of a MEP latency shift between rest and think conditions and absence of a consistent increase in H-reflex amplitude suggests this effect occurs largely at the cortical level. In some subjects, however, an increase in spinal motoneuron excitability may also contribute. PMID:9284233

  5. From Disinformation to Wishful Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.; Conway, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    In our book, Merchants of Doubt, we documented how deliberate disinformation campaigns served to confuse the American people about the reality and significance of climate change over more than two decades. We showed how a variety of strategies were used to persuade the public that the scientific "jury was still out" on climate change, including deliberate mispresentation of facts, cherry-picking of evidence, and personal attacks on scientists. And we documented the links, both conceptual and actual, between doubt-mongering about climate change and the rejection of scientific evidence of the harms of tobacco, acid rain, the ozone hole, nuclear winter, and DDT. These tactics are still in use today, but they are now reinforced by a new problem, the problem of wishful thinking. Increasingly, we see commentators who accept the reality of climate change assuring us that the problem can be solved by natural gas, or even by some as yet unknown and uninvented technological innovations. In this paper we argue that these forms of wishful thinking, while not malicious in the same way that previous doubt-mongering campaigns have been, contribute substantially to scientific illiteracy and misunderstanding both of the character of the challenges that we face and of the history of technological innovation.

  6. The Need for Bold Thinking.

    PubMed

    Lowi-Young, Mimi; DuBois-Wing, Gwen

    2016-01-01

    Amol Verma and Sacha Bhatia's (2016) paper presents policy recommendations that merit serious consideration on a system-wide level. While they make compelling arguments about why provincial governments are ideally suited to adapt Triple Aim innovation, we are concerned that the current health system climate limits this possibility. In our commentary, we present our thoughts about the authors' admittedly aspirational goals and the realities of the pan-Canadian healthcare system. We commence our commentary by confirming our agreement about the potential inherent within the Triple Aim framework. Second, we argue how important progress can take place that may not reflect a provincial-wide system. Next, we maintain that a learning health system is an essential ingredient to advancing Triple Aim and other health system-wide improvements. Third, we wonder whether the stewardship role of government is real and possible. Finally, we question the concept of our current health system's readiness for system change. While we have raised some questions about Verma and Bhatia's thinking around provincial adoption of the Triple Aim, we applaud their ideas. We believe that transformation in provincial health systems requires bold thinking. PMID:27009585

  7. Investigating how students communicate tree-thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, Carrie Jo

    Learning is often an active endeavor that requires students work at building conceptual understandings of complex topics. Personal experiences, ideas, and communication all play large roles in developing knowledge of and understanding complex topics. Sometimes these experiences can promote formation of scientifically inaccurate or incomplete ideas. Representations are tools used to help individuals understand complex topics. In biology, one way that educators help people understand evolutionary histories of organisms is by using representations called phylogenetic trees. In order to understand phylogenetics trees, individuals need to understand the conventions associated with phylogenies. My dissertation, supported by the Tree-Thinking Representational Competence and Word Association frameworks, is a mixed-methods study investigating the changes in students' tree-reading, representational competence and mental association of phylogenetic terminology after participation in varied instruction. Participants included 128 introductory biology majors from a mid-sized southern research university. Participants were enrolled in either Introductory Biology I, where they were not taught phylogenetics, or Introductory Biology II, where they were explicitly taught phylogenetics. I collected data using a pre- and post-assessment consisting of a word association task and tree-thinking diagnostic (n=128). Additionally, I recruited a subset of students from both courses (n=37) to complete a computer simulation designed to teach students about phylogenetic trees. I then conducted semi-structured interviews consisting of a word association exercise with card sort task, a retrospective pre-assessment discussion, a post-assessment discussion, and interview questions. I found that students who received explicit lecture instruction had a significantly higher increase in scores on a tree-thinking diagnostic than students who did not receive lecture instruction. Students who received both

  8. Making Student Thinking Visible through a Concept Map in Computer-Based Assessment of Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Yigal; Tager, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Major educational initiatives in the world place great emphasis on fostering rich computer-based environments of assessment that make student thinking and reasoning visible. Using thinking tools engages students in a variety of critical and complex thinking, such as evaluating, analyzing, and decision making. The aim of this study was to explore…

  9. Reflective Thinking and Teaching Practices: A Precursor for Incorporating Critical Thinking into the Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, S. Chee; Oo, Pou San

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reflective thinking as a precursor for incorporating critical thinking has been not been adequately researched. Most research has not given any effective strategies on how to incorporate these two concepts. There is a constant need to incorporate critical thinking into the classroom without much success. This study will attempt to…

  10. Critical Thinking: The Role of Management Education. Developing Managers To Think Critically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Gloria

    Emphasizing critical thinking as the source of renewal and survival of organizations, this document begins by analyzing the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the destruction of the space shuttle Challenger as examples of inadequate critical thinking. The role of management education in promoting critical thinking is explored as well as the need for a…

  11. Thinking Styles: Their Relationships with Modes of Thinking and Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-Fang

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the nature of thinking styles as described in the theory of mental self-government. States that U.S. university students (n=212) responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory and the Styles of Learning and Thinking. Discusses the results in relation to educational implications. Includes references. (CMK)

  12. Computational Thinking in the Wild: Uncovering Complex Collaborative Thinking through Gameplay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berland, Matthew; Duncan, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Surprisingly few empirical studies address how computational thinking works "in the wild" or how games and simulations can support developing computational thinking skills. In this article, the authors report results from a study of computational thinking (CT) as evinced through player discussions around the collaborative board game…

  13. When Students Say "I Just Couldn't Think": Challenges in Teaching Skilful Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Row, Bavani Nageswana; Subramaniam, Selvaranee; Sathasivam, Renuka V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses challenges encountered by selected Year Four science teachers regarding their knowledge and implementation of skilful thinking (ST) in their classrooms. ST is a complex concept comprising three elements; specific thinking strategies, habits of mind and metacognitive thinking. Due of the complexity of ST, the implementation of…

  14. Teaching to Their Thinking: A Strategy to Meet the Critical-Thinking Needs of Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Felicia A.; Prater,Kimberly A.; Vine, Heidi M.; Wark,Mary Jo; Williams, Tasha; Hanchon, Tim; Shobe,Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    Critical thinking is important for lessons in classes for gifted and talented students. Since definitions of critical thinking are plentiful and varied, teachers must decide what behaviors are most productive in the classroom. One viable method to promote critical thinking through productive discussion is the Dixon-Hegelian method. This paper…

  15. Does a Business Curriculum Develop or Filter Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, B. Jay; Mason, Paul; Steagall, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate whether a business curriculum develops critical thinking ability or at least serves as a filter for critical thinking (i.e., students who cannot think critically tend not to progress toward graduation). We measure critical thinking by performance on the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal Short Form which was administered to a…

  16. Nontraditional teaching techniques and critical thinking in an introductory postsecondary environmental science course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buerdsell, Sherri Lynn

    2009-12-01

    As an institution of higher education and as a Hispanic-serving institution, New Mexico State University has a responsibility to its students to provide the skills and experiences necessary for each and every student to become a responsible, reflective citizen, capable of making informed decisions. Postsecondary science has traditionally been taught through lectures. Traditional lecture classes simply do not meet the needs of diverse groups of students in the modern multicultural student body like New Mexico State University's. However, the implementation of nontraditional pedagogy without evaluation of the results is useless as a step to reform; it is necessary to evaluate the results of in situ nontraditional pedagogy to determine its worth. The purpose of this research is to analyze the development and change in students' critical thinking skills, and critical thinking dispositions in single semester in an introductory Environmental Science course. This study utilized a mixed methods approach. The California Critical Thinking Skills Test and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory were administered in the beginning and at the end of the semester. The pretest was used to provide a baseline for each participant against which the posttest score was compared. In addition, student interviews, field notes, and a survey provided qualitative data, which generated themes regarding the development of student critical thinking in this course. The results indicated there were no significant differences in the critical thinking test scores. However, qualitative analysis indicated that students experienced significant changes in critical thinking. Three themes emerged from the qualitative analysis pertaining to the amount of influence on student learning. These themes are active thinking and learning, dialogue, and professor's influence. Due to the conflict between the quantitative and the qualitative results, it is suggested that the critical thinking tests

  17. Creating Science Simulations through Computational Thinking Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basawapatna, Ashok Ram

    2012-01-01

    Computational thinking aims to outline fundamental skills from computer science that everyone should learn. As currently defined, with help from the National Science Foundation (NSF), these skills include problem formulation, logically organizing data, automating solutions through algorithmic thinking, and representing data through abstraction.…

  18. Teaching Understanding and Developing Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eulie, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Examines the relationship between teaching content or knowledge, and teaching the skills of critical thinking and problem solving. Presents key strategies to help students understand and develop critical thinking skills. Recommends use of the developmental lesson and provides several model lessons. (LS)

  19. Think for Yourself. Your Middle School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Since Socrates first posed questions to his ga-clad philosophers, teachers have encouraged students to think. This author, a fifth-grade teacher, explains the importance of teaching children to think for themselves rather than merely coaxing them to come up with the instructor's answer. Some of the methods he uses in his classroom include building…

  20. Developing Students' Futures Thinking in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Alister; Buntting, Cathy; Hipkins, Rose; McKim, Anne; Conner, Lindsey; Saunders, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Futures thinking involves a structured exploration into how society and its physical and cultural environment could be shaped in the future. In science education, an exploration of socio-scientific issues offers significant scope for including such futures thinking. Arguments for doing so include increasing student engagement, developing students'…

  1. Rational Thinking in School-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Mary Kristen; Flynn, Perry

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We reflect on Alan Kamhi's (2011) prologue on balancing certainty and uncertainty as it pertains to school-based practice. Method: In schools, rational thinking depends on effective team processes, much like professional learning communities. We consider the conditions that are required for rational thinking and how rational team dialogue…

  2. Teaching Critical Thinking in Undergraduate Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Paul; Sleet, Ray; Logan, Peter; Hooper, Mal

    2003-01-01

    Explains the design and evaluation of a project aimed at fostering the critical thinking abilities and dispositions of first year students at an Australian university. Most of the tasks relate to applications of chemistry and physics in everyday life. Many students revealed that their thinking skills were enhanced by their experience in attempting…

  3. Using Questioning To Guide Student Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zee, Emily; Minstrell, Jim

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes ways in which an experienced physics teacher uses questioning to guide student thinking during a benchmark discussion on measurement. Proposes that teachers may shift toward more reflective discourse by asking questions that help students clarify their meanings, consider various points of view, and monitor their own thinking. (Author/DKM)

  4. Assessing Postgraduate Students' Critical Thinking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javed, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Qurat-Ul-Ain, Ansa

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses to assess the critical thinking ability of postgraduate students. The target population was the male and female students at University level in Pakistan. A small sample of 45 male and 45 female students were selected randomly from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Cornell Critical Thinking Test Series, The…

  5. Critical Thinking in the Business Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Joanne R.; Anderson, Phyllis R.

    2012-01-01

    A minicourse in critical thinking was implemented to improve student outcomes in two sessions of a senior-level business course at a Midwestern university. Statistical analyses of two quantitative assessments revealed significant improvements in critical thinking skills. Improvements in student outcomes in case studies and computerized business…

  6. Teaching Thinking Skills Using the Concept Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Allan; Splittgerber, Fred

    A category system for organizing six thinking skills and methods for teaching these skills, using the concept of time, are provided. Representing a proposed sequential order of development, the six thinking skills are: (1) imaging--the creating of an internal mental representation of an external thing and the labeling of that representation, (2)…

  7. Issues in Designing Assessments of Historical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercikan, Kadriye; Seixas, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Similar to educators in mathematics, science, and reading, history educators around the world have mobilized curricular reform movements toward including complex thinking in history education, advancing historical thinking, developing historical consciousness, and teaching competence in historical sense making. These reform movements, including…

  8. Computational Thinking Concepts for Grade School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, John F.; Naidu, Jaideep T.

    2016-01-01

    Early education has classically introduced reading, writing, and mathematics. Recent literature discusses the importance of adding "computational thinking" as a core ability that every child must learn. The goal is to develop students by making them equally comfortable with computational thinking as they are with other core areas of…

  9. Thinking Styles in Implicit and Explicit Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qiuzhi; Gao, Xiangping; King, Ronnel B.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether individual differences in thinking styles influence explicit and implicit learning. Eighty-seven university students in China participated in this study. Results indicated that performance in the explicit learning condition was positively associated with Type I thinking styles (i.e. legislative and liberal styles)…

  10. Bringing critical thinking into introductory astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-04-01

    Critical thinking is often a desired outcome in an introductory astronomy course, but it is often poorly defined. The model developed by Linda Elder and Richard Paul provides an internally consistent framework for both defining and implementing critical thinking. This article provides suggestions for using it in a typical introductory astronomy course.

  11. ROLE OF EVALUATION IN CREATIVE THINKING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TORRANCE, E.P.; AND OTHERS

    THE OBJECTIVES WERE TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF TEACHERS' ATTITUDES TOWARD CREATIVE THINKING ON THEIR EVALUATIVE BEHAVIOR IN THE CLASSROOM AND ON THE CREATIVE THINKING OF THEIR PUPILS. FURTHER OBJECTIVES WERE TO ASCERTAIN THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS KINDS OF EVALUATIVE COMMENTS ON THE IDEAS OFFERED BY STUDENTS, AND TO DETERMINE WHETHER OR NOT…

  12. The Thinking Styles of University Mathematics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moutsios-Rentzos, Andreas; Simpson, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the relationship between studying university mathematics and the "thinking styles" of both undergraduate and postgraduate mathematics students. A cross-sectional quantitative study (N = 238) was conducted in a large Greek university, identifying the thinking styles of second, third and fourth year…

  13. Optimizing Reasonableness, Critical Thinking, and Cyberspace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikuenobe, Polycarp

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the author argues that the quantity, superabundance of information, easy availability, and quick access to information in cyberspace may engender critical thinking and the optimization of reasonableness. This point is different from, but presupposes, the commonplace view that critical thinking abilities, criteria, processes, and…

  14. A Model for Teaching Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Marnice K.

    2013-01-01

    In an age in which information is available almost instantly and in quantities unimagined just a few decades ago, most educators would agree that teaching adult learners to think critically about what they are reading, seeing, and hearing has never been more important. But just what is critical thinking? Do adult learners agree with educators that…

  15. First Person: Critical Thinking and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelman, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    From freshman composition courses to high school exit exams, the term "critical thinking" is everywhere. The educationally ubiquitous term has been defined as criticism that combines research, knowledge of historical context, and balanced judgment. In theory then, critical thinking should be taught in virtually every course in the humanities. In…

  16. The Theory of Critical Thinking of Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Cheryl

    2002-01-01

    Nursing students (n=47), entry-level nurses (n=48), and expert nurses (n=54) viewed and analyzed simulated nursing incidents. Findings determined that critical thinking and decision making increased with the level of clinical expertise. Grade point average was also correlated with critical thinking and decision making. (Contains 22 references.)…

  17. Infusing Systems Thinking into Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Charles W.; Tomlin, James H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the role of career counselors in infusing systems thinking into occupational advising. The authors conducted a qualitative review and analysis of selected literature on systems thinking and analyzed trends for adaptation to career counseling practice. This analysis suggests that career counselors need to infuse systems…

  18. Critical Thinking, Autonomy and Practical Reason

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2004-01-01

    This article points out an internal tension, or even conflict, in the conceptual foundations of Harvey Siegel's conception of critical thinking. Siegel justifies critical thinking, or critically rational autonomy, as an educational ideal first and foremost by an appeal to the Kantian principle of respect for persons. It is made explicit that this…

  19. Critical Thinking: More than Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Vernon G.; Szymanski, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    This article is for practicing or aspiring school administrators. The demand for excellence in public education has lead to an emphasis on standardized test scores. This article explores the development of a professional enhancement program designed to prepare teachers to teach higher order thinking skills. Higher order thinking is the primary…

  20. Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills among Authoritarian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson Hurley, Martha; Hurley, David

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on assignments designed to enhance critical thinking skills for authoritarian personality types. This paper seeks to add to the literature by exploring instructional methods to overcome authoritarian traits that could inhibit the development of critical thinking skills. The article presents a strategy which can be employed…

  1. Understanding Historical Thinking at Historic Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the interpretive processes historians engage in when "reading" historic buildings and examines what qualifies as historical thinking about historic buildings and sites. To gather evidence of what historical thinking looks like as it pertains to buildings, 5 practicing historians were recorded as they toured the Old North…

  2. Kinds of Thinking, Styles of Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    There is no more central issue to education than thinking and reasoning. Certainly, such an emphasis chimes with the rationalist and cognitive deep structure of the Western educational tradition. The contemporary tendency reinforced by cognitive science is to treat thinking ahistorically and aculturally as though physiology, brain structure and…

  3. A Technique for Teaching Creative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bono, Edward

    1986-01-01

    Offers information on and examples of the Cognitive Research Trust (CoRT) Thinking Program, internationally the most widely used program for the teaching of thinking as part of the school curriculum. Describes various CoRT tools, including one in which students list the pluses, minuses, and interesting points about a given issue. (DMM)

  4. Lateral Thinking; Creativity Step by Step.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bono, Edward

    The purpose of thinking is to collect information and to make the best possible use of it. Because of the way the mind works to create fixed concept patterns we cannot make the best use of new information unless we have some means for restructuring the old patterns and bringing them up to date. Our traditional methods of thinking teach us how to…

  5. The Thinking Styles of Human Resource Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Paul; Zhang, Li-fang

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Drawing upon Sternberg's theory of mental self-government, this paper aims to investigate the thinking styles and workplace experiences of 152 human resource (HR) practitioners pursuing Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) membership. It seeks to explore whether their thinking styles complemented their jobs and consider…

  6. Intuitive vs Analytical Thinking: Four Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leron, Uri; Hazzan, Orit

    2009-01-01

    This article is an attempt to place mathematical thinking in the context of more general theories of human cognition. We describe and compare four perspectives--mathematics, mathematics education, cognitive psychology, and evolutionary psychology--each offering a different view on mathematical thinking and learning and, in particular, on the…

  7. Analytic thinking reduces belief in conspiracy theories.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Voracek, Martin; Stieger, Stefan; Tran, Ulrich S; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Belief in conspiracy theories has been associated with a range of negative health, civic, and social outcomes, requiring reliable methods of reducing such belief. Thinking dispositions have been highlighted as one possible factor associated with belief in conspiracy theories, but actual relationships have only been infrequently studied. In Study 1, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and a range of measures of thinking dispositions in a British sample (N=990). Results indicated that a stronger belief in conspiracy theories was significantly associated with lower analytic thinking and open-mindedness and greater intuitive thinking. In Studies 2-4, we examined the causational role played by analytic thinking in relation to conspiracist ideation. In Study 2 (N=112), we showed that a verbal fluency task that elicited analytic thinking reduced belief in conspiracy theories. In Study 3 (N=189), we found that an alternative method of eliciting analytic thinking, which related to cognitive disfluency, was effective at reducing conspiracist ideation in a student sample. In Study 4, we replicated the results of Study 3 among a general population sample (N=140) in relation to generic conspiracist ideation and belief in conspiracy theories about the July 7, 2005, bombings in London. Our results highlight the potential utility of supporting attempts to promote analytic thinking as a means of countering the widespread acceptance of conspiracy theories. PMID:25217762

  8. Future Teachers' Spatial Thinking Skills and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Euikyung E.; Milson, Andrew J.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial thinking skills and attitudes of geography majors were compared with those of future teachers majoring in elementary education and secondary social studies education. Scores were obtained for each group on two measures: the spatial skills test and the attitude toward spatial thinking inventory. Mean differences were examined based on…

  9. Reflective Thinking as a Goal of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Jonathan

    1981-01-01

    Dewey's notion of "reflective thinking" is discussed. A model of phases of reflective thinking is described: problem recognition, enumeration of possibilities, reasoning, revision, and evaluation. Each phase has at least one parameter governing its operation and one rule for setting the optimum parameter value. Sources of individual variability…

  10. A transactional perspective on critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Gendrop, S C; Eisenhauer, L A

    1996-01-01

    The quality of thinking has received much attention within the last decade. The scientific inquiry models introduced by Dewey, Dressel and Mayhew, and Watson-Glaser have been expanded to incorporate such aspects as reflection, development, attitude, skill, and knowledge domain. Dichotomies between critical and creative thinking have been eased. While this scholarship on thinking has been impressive, current pedagogy remains focused on scientific inquiry and on received knowledge. In nursing the learning paradigm has been similarly focused for the past 3 decades on a scientific inquiry model and received knowledge. The major cognitive approach to education and practice has been the nursing process, a linear problem-solving paradigm equivalent to the scientific method. This linear approach does not fully account for how nurses think and make judgments in clinical practice. The Transactional Model of Critical Thinking presented in this paper addresses the complexity of critical thinking in nursing. The model provides an educative and novel vision of thinking based on a transactional view of the individual, personal attributes, and the environment. Components and elements of the model are described and suggestions made for teaching-learning and for evaluation of critical thinking in nursing. PMID:9197159

  11. Critical Thinking Skills. Analysis and Action Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiman, Marcia; Slomianko, Joshua

    Intended for teachers across grade levels and disciplines, this monograph reviews research on the development of critical thinking skills and introduces a series of these skills that can be incorporated into classroom teaching. Beginning with a definition of critical thinking, the monograph contains two main sections. The first section reviews…

  12. Strategic Thinking: The Untapped Resource for Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    Strategic thinking is an organized, analytical process by which college leaders can assess: (1) existing and potential competitors; (2) sources of competitive advantage; and (3) college capabilities and competitive position. Three outcomes of strategic thinking are: (1) clear institutional strategy and direction; (2) improved institutional…

  13. Critical Thinking and the Art of Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Craig

    "Six Steps of Argument Analysis" is a model for a critical thinking class which illustrates where and how the teacher can break off from the well-ordered sequence of critical thinking skills in order to provide occasions for each student to realize where he or she is making a judgment. Through use of this model the teacher can encourage the…

  14. Critical Thinking as Cultural-Historical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panofsky, Carolyn P.

    1999-01-01

    Explores critical thinking as it has been constructed in schooling and in dominant traditions of psychological theory, presenting a dialectical view of critical thinking suggested in the social and philosophical writings of critical theorists (e.g., Theodor Adorno and Herbert Marcuse) and supported by the sociohistorical or cultural-historical…

  15. Enhancing Creative Thinking through Designing Electronic Slides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokaram, Al-Ali Khaled; Al-Shabatat, Ahmad Mohammad; Fong, Fook Soon; Abdallah, Andaleeb Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    During the shifting of teaching and learning methods using computer technologies, much emphasis was paid on the knowledge content more than the thinking skills. Thus, this study investigated the effects of a computer application, namely, designing electronic slides on the development of creative thinking skills of a sample of undergraduate…

  16. Teaching Thinking: The Mission of the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, James J.

    1987-01-01

    Explores various prewriting techniques that can be used to teach thinking skills (e.g., keeping a metaphor journal to teach students to think and write metaphorically; free-writing and focused free-writing; and Plus, Minus, Interesting (PMI) and Alternative Ways of Looking (AWOL) techniques, which teach students to consider both sides of an…

  17. Social psychology. Just think: the challenges of the disengaged mind.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Timothy D; Reinhard, David A; Westgate, Erin C; Gilbert, Daniel T; Ellerbeck, Nicole; Hahn, Cheryl; Brown, Casey L; Shaked, Adi

    2014-07-01

    In 11 studies, we found that participants typically did not enjoy spending 6 to 15 minutes in a room by themselves with nothing to do but think, that they enjoyed doing mundane external activities much more, and that many preferred to administer electric shocks to themselves instead of being left alone with their thoughts. Most people seem to prefer to be doing something rather than nothing, even if that something is negative. PMID:24994650

  18. Insurance, risk, and magical thinking.

    PubMed

    Tykocinski, Orit E

    2008-10-01

    The possession of an insurance policy may not only affect the severity of a potential loss but also its perceived probability. Intuitively, people may feel that if they are insured nothing bad is likely to happen, but if they do not have insurance they are at greater peril. In Experiment 1, respondents who were reminded of their medical insurance felt they were less likely to suffer health problems in the future compared to people who were not reminded of their medical insurance. In Experiment 2a, participants who were unable to purchase travel insurance judged the probability of travel-related calamities higher compared to those who were insured. These results were replicated in Experiment 3a in a simulation of car accident insurance. The findings are explained in terms of intuitive magical thinking, specifically, the negative affective consequences of "tempting fate" and the sense of safety afforded by the notion of "being covered." PMID:18612038

  19. Thinking Style Diversity and Collaborative Design Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpentesta, Antonio P.; Ammirato, Salvatore; Sofo, Francesco

    The paper explores the impact of structured learning experiences that were designed to challenge students’ ways of thinking and promote creativity. The aim was to develop the ability of students, coming from different engineering disciplines and characterized by particular thinking style profiles, to collaboratively work on a project-based learning experience in an educational environment. Three project-based learning experiences were structured using critical thinking methods to stimulate creativity. Pre and post-survey data using a specially modified thinking style inventory for 202 design students indicated a thinking style profile of preferences with a focus on exploring and questioning. Statistically significant results showed students successfully developed empathy and openness to multiple perspectives.

  20. Developing critical thinking in the perioperative environment.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jackie H

    2010-02-01

    Critical thinking is considered an essential skill for nurses by many, including major accrediting agencies, health care administrators, and AORN. This is in part because of the environment in which nurses function. Health care, medicine, technology, and nursing are dynamic and constantly changing. The perioperative environment is complex, fast paced, unique, and oftentimes unpredictable. Critical thinking skills enable perioperative nurses to function effectively and evolve in this ever-changing environment. Nursing education programs are mandated to teach critical thinking skills. It is the practice arena, however, that refines, hones, and grows these skills. This article provides an overview of critical thinking in the context of nursing, as well as strategies and interventions designed to teach critical thinking skills. PMID:20152198

  1. Food for creativity: tyrosine promotes deep thinking.

    PubMed

    Colzato, Lorenza S; de Haan, Annelies M; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that creative people sometimes use food to overcome mental blocks and lack of inspiration, but empirical support for this possibility is still lacking. In this study, we investigated whether creativity in convergent- and divergent-thinking tasks is promoted by the food supplement L-Tyrosine (TYR)-a biochemical precursor of dopamine, which is assumed to drive cognitive control and creativity. We found no evidence for an impact of TYR on divergent thinking ("brainstorming") but it did promote convergent ("deep") thinking. As convergent thinking arguably requires more cognitive top-down control, this finding suggests that TYR can facilitate control-hungry creative operations. Hence, the food we eat may affect the way we think. PMID:25257259

  2. Relationships Between Refraining From Catastrophic Thinking, Repetitive Negative Thinking, and Psychological Distress.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Tomoko; Sugiura, Yoshinori

    2016-10-01

    Skills to refrain from catastrophic thinking were negatively related to worry and a wide range of psychological distress. Repetitive negative thinking (including worry) is proposed as a common etiological factor for a wide range of psychological distress. Therefore, reduced repetitive negative thinking would mediate the negative relation between refraining from catastrophic thinking and psychological distress (depression, social anxiety, phobia, generalized anxiety, and obsessions and compulsions). As an overlap between five indices of psychological distress was expected, we first computed latent factors underlying them, which were then predicted by refraining from catastrophic thinking and repetitive negative thinking. Cross-sectional questionnaire data from 125 nonclinical voluntarily participating students (M age = 19.0 years, SD = 3.6; 54% women) supported the predictions: refraining from catastrophic thinking was negatively correlated with depression, social anxiety, phobia, generalized anxiety, and obsession and compulsion. Repetitive negative thinking mediated the negative relationship between refraining from catastrophic thinking and latent factors underlying psychological distress (Fear and Distress). Refraining from catastrophic thinking may be negatively correlated with psychological distress due to its negative relation to repetitive negative thinking. PMID:27511967

  3. Get Active

    MedlinePlus

    ... section Health Conditions 4 of 10 sections Take Action! Take Action: How Active Are You? First, think about your ... section Learn More 5 of 10 sections Take Action: Get Started I’m just getting started. Start ...

  4. The Influence of Ground Rules on Chinese Students' Learning of Critical Thinking in Group Work: A Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a one-year longitudinal study examining a teaching intervention designed to enhance students' learning of critical thinking in Hong Kong. Seventy participating students (age 16-18) learned how to make reasoned arguments through a series of collaborative activities, including critical-thinking modelling…

  5. Two Approaches for Using Web Sharing and Photography Assignments to Increase Critical Thinking in the Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Katherine Ott; Baller, Stephanie L.; Kuntz, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing student critical thinking and active engagement with course content is an ongoing challenge in tertiary education. The present article explores the use of photography in two health sciences courses as a catalyst for the encouragement of critical thinking, creativity, engagement, and problem solving. The authors adapted photography…

  6. Effects of Pre-Service Information Technologies (IT) Teachers' Thinking Styles on Their Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagci, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Thinking styles are considered as approaches and tendencies of individuals toward various problems, incidents, phenomenon and variables which they face through their thinking processes. Preservice teachers are expected to be capable of using information and communication technologies (ICT) in intra- and extra- curricular activities and be a role…

  7. Higher order thinking skills competencies required by outcomes-based education from learners.

    PubMed

    Chabeli, M M

    2006-08-01

    Outcomes-Based Education (OBE) brought about a significant paradigm shift in the education and training of learners in South Africa. OBE requires a shift from focusing on the teacher input (instruction offerings or syllabuses expressed in terms of content), to focusing on learner outcomes. OBE is moving away from 'transmission' models to constructivistic, learner-centered models that put emphasis on learning as an active process (Nieburh, 1996:30). Teachers act as facilitators and mediators of learning (Norms and Standards, Government Gazette vol 415, no 20844 of 2000). Facilitators are responsible to create the environment that is conducive for learners to construct their own knowledge, skills and values through interaction (Peters, 2000). The first critical cross-field outcome accepted by the South African Qualification Framework (SAQA) is that learners should be able to identify and solve problems by using critical and creative thinking skills. This paper seeks to explore some higher order thinking skills competencies required by OBE from learners such as critical thinking, reflective thinking, creative thinking, dialogic / dialectic thinking, decision making, problem solving and emotional intelligence and their implications in facilitating teaching and learning from the theoretical perspective. The philosophical underpinning of these higher order thinking skills is described to give direction to the study. It is recommended that a study focusing on the assessment of these intellectual concepts be made. The study may be qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods in nature (Creswell 2005). PMID:17131612

  8. Critical Thinking: The Development of an Essential Skill for Nursing Students

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.; Kleisiaris, Christos F.; Fradelos, Evangelos C.; Kakou, Katerina; Kourkouta, Lambrini

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking is defined as the mental process of actively and skillfully perception, analysis, synthesis and evaluation of collected information through observation, experience and communication that leads to a decision for action. In nursing education there is frequent reference to critical thinking and to the significance that it has in daily clinical nursing practice. Nursing clinical instructors know that students face difficulties in making decisions related to clinical practice. The main critical thinking skills in which nursing students should be exercised during their studies are critical analysis, introductory and concluding justification, valid conclusion, distinguish of facts and opinions, evaluation the credibility of information sources, clarification of concepts and recognition of conditions. Specific behaviors are essentials for enhancing critical thinking. Nursing students in order to learn and apply critical thinking should develop independence of thought, fairness, perspicacity in personal and social level, humility, spiritual courage, integrity, perseverance, self-confidence, interest for research and curiosity. Critical thinking is an essential process for the safe, efficient and skillful nursing practice. The nursing education programs should adopt attitudes that promote critical thinking and mobilize the skills of critical reasoning. PMID:25395733

  9. Analogy, higher order thinking, and education.

    PubMed

    Richland, Lindsey Engle; Simms, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Analogical reasoning, the ability to understand phenomena as systems of structured relationships that can be aligned, compared, and mapped together, plays a fundamental role in the technology rich, increasingly globalized educational climate of the 21st century. Flexible, conceptual thinking is prioritized in this view of education, and schools are emphasizing 'higher order thinking', rather than memorization of a cannon of key topics. The lack of a cognitively grounded definition for higher order thinking, however, has led to a field of research and practice with little coherence across domains or connection to the large body of cognitive science research on thinking. We review literature on analogy and disciplinary higher order thinking to propose that relational reasoning can be productively considered the cognitive underpinning of higher order thinking. We highlight the utility of this framework for developing insights into practice through a review of mathematics, science, and history educational contexts. In these disciplines, analogy is essential to developing expert-like disciplinary knowledge in which concepts are understood to be systems of relationships that can be connected and flexibly manipulated. At the same time, analogies in education require explicit support to ensure that learners notice the relevance of relational thinking, have adequate processing resources available to mentally hold and manipulate relations, and are able to recognize both the similarities and differences when drawing analogies between systems of relationships. PMID:26263071

  10. The parallel impact of episodic memory and episodic future thinking on food intake.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Chen, William H; Reily, Natalie M; Castel, Alan D

    2016-06-01

    This research examined the effects of both episodic memory and episodic future thinking (EFT) on snack food intake. In Study 1, female participants (n = 158) were asked to recall their lunch from earlier in the day, to think about the dinner they planned to have later in the day, or to think about a non-food activity before taking part in a cookie taste test. Participants who recalled their lunch or who thought about their dinner ate less than did participants who thought about non-food activities. These effects were not explained by group differences in the hedonic value of the food. Study 2 examined whether the suppression effect observed in Study 1 was driven by a general health consciousness. Female participants (n = 74) were asked to think about their past or future exercise (or a non-exercise activity), but thinking about exercise had no impact on participants' cookie consumption. Overall, both thinking about past food intake and imagining future food intake had the same suppression effect on participants' current food intake, but further research is needed to determine the underlying mechanism. PMID:26923744

  11. Targeting Critical Thinking Skills in a First-Year Undergraduate Research Course.

    PubMed

    Carson, Susan

    2015-12-01

    TH!NK is a new initiative at NC State University focused on enhancing students' higher-order cognitive skills. As part of this initiative, I explicitly emphasized critical and creative thinking in an existing bacteriophage discovery first-year research course. In addition to the typical activities associated with undergraduate research such as review of primary literature and writing research papers, another strategy employed to enhance students' critical thinking skills was the use of discipline-specific, real-world scenarios. This paper outlines a general "formula" for writing scenarios, as well as several specific scenarios created for the described course. I also present how embedding aspects of the scenarios in reviews of the primary literature enriched the activity. I assessed student gains in critical thinking skills using a pre-/posttest model of the Critical Thinking Assessment Test (CAT), developed by Tennessee Technological University. I observed a positive gain trend in most of the individual skills assessed in the CAT, with a statistically significant large effect on critical thinking skills overall in students in the test group. I also show that a higher level of critical thinking skills was demonstrated in research papers written by students who participated in the scenarios compared with similar students who did not participate in the scenario activities. The scenario strategy described here can be modified for use in biology and other STEM disciplines, as well as in diverse disciplines in the social sciences and humanities. PMID:26753022

  12. Targeting Critical Thinking Skills in a First-Year Undergraduate Research Course †

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Susan

    2015-01-01

    TH!NK is a new initiative at NC State University focused on enhancing students’ higher-order cognitive skills. As part of this initiative, I explicitly emphasized critical and creative thinking in an existing bacteriophage discovery first-year research course. In addition to the typical activities associated with undergraduate research such as review of primary literature and writing research papers, another strategy employed to enhance students’ critical thinking skills was the use of discipline-specific, real-world scenarios. This paper outlines a general “formula” for writing scenarios, as well as several specific scenarios created for the described course. I also present how embedding aspects of the scenarios in reviews of the primary literature enriched the activity. I assessed student gains in critical thinking skills using a pre-/posttest model of the Critical Thinking Assessment Test (CAT), developed by Tennessee Technological University. I observed a positive gain trend in most of the individual skills assessed in the CAT, with a statistically significant large effect on critical thinking skills overall in students in the test group. I also show that a higher level of critical thinking skills was demonstrated in research papers written by students who participated in the scenarios compared with similar students who did not participate in the scenario activities. The scenario strategy described here can be modified for use in biology and other STEM disciplines, as well as in diverse disciplines in the social sciences and humanities. PMID:26753022

  13. Coupled Human-Atmosphere-System Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmale, Julia; Chabay, Ilan

    2014-05-01

    minimize atmospheric release, but rather only complies with either climate or air quality requirements. Nor do current narratives promote behavioral change for the overall reduction of emissions (e.g., you can drive your diesel SUV as long as it has a low fuel consumption). This divide and thinking has not only been manifested in policy and regulations and hence media coverage, but has also shaped the public's general perception of this issue. There is no public conceptual understanding regarding humanity's modification of the atmosphere through the continuously and simultaneously released substances by almost any kind of activity and resulting impacts. Here, we propose a conceptual framework that provides a new perspective on the coupled human-atmosphere-system. It makes tangible the inherent linkages between the socio-economic system, the atmospheric physico-chemical changes and impacts, and legal frameworks for sustainable transformations at all levels. To implement HAS-thinking in decision and policy making, both salient disciplinary and interdisciplinary research and comprehensive science-society interactions in the form of transdisciplinary research are necessary. Societal transformations for the sake of a healthy human-atmosphere relationship are highly context dependent and require discussions of normative and value-related issues, which can only be solved through co-designed solutions. We demonstrate the importance of HAS-thinking by examples of sustainable development in the Arctic and Himalayan countries.

  14. If Constructively Creative Divergent Thinking Equals Entrepreneur...How Can We Help Create More of Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipper, Arthur, III

    1987-01-01

    The early training of children in divergent thinking skills can help foster entrepreneurship. Such training would include activities to develop natural creativity, activities allowing children to win, activities which accept different solutions, teachers who recognize and encourage creative children, and an understanding of basic business…

  15. Experiential Collaborative Learning and Preferential Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpentesta, Antonio P.; Ammirato, Salvatore; Sofo, Francesco

    The paper presents a Project-Based Learning (shortly, PBL) approach in a collaborative educational environment aimed to develop design ability and creativity of students coming from different engineering disciplines. Three collaborative learning experiences in product design were conducted in order to study their impact on preferred thinking styles of students. Using a thinking style inventory, pre- and post-survey data was collected and successively analyzed through ANOVA techniques. Statistically significant results showed students successfully developed empathy and an openness to multiple perspectives. Furthermore, data analysis confirms that the proposed collaborative learning experience positively contributes to increase awareness in students' thinking styles.

  16. A Tangible Programming Tool for Children to Cultivate Computational Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danli; Liu, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Game and creation are activities which have good potential for computational thinking skills. In this paper we present T-Maze, an economical tangible programming tool for children aged 5–9 to build computer programs in maze games by placing wooden blocks. Through the use of computer vision technology, T-Maze provides a live programming interface with real-time graphical and voice feedback. We conducted a user study with 7 children using T-Maze to play two levels of maze-escape games and create their own mazes. The results show that T-Maze is not only easy to use, but also has the potential to help children cultivate computational thinking like abstraction, problem decomposition, and creativity. PMID:24719575

  17. Charting Multidisciplinary Team External Dynamics Using a Systems Thinking Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois; Waszak, Martin R.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Silcox, Richard J.; Silva, Walter A.; Nowaczyk, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Using the formalism provided by the Systems Thinking approach, the dynamics present when operating multidisciplinary teams are examined in the context of the NASA Langley Research and Technology Group, an R&D organization organized along functional lines. The paper focuses on external dynamics and examines how an organization creates and nurtures the teams and how it disseminates and retains the lessons and expertise created by the multidisciplinary activities. Key variables are selected and the causal relationships between the variables are identified. Five "stories" are told, each of which touches on a different aspect of the dynamics. The Systems Thinking Approach provides recommendations as to interventions that will facilitate the introduction of multidisciplinary teams and that therefore will increase the likelihood of performing successful multidisciplinary developments. These interventions can be carried out either by individual researchers, line management or program management.

  18. A tangible programming tool for children to cultivate computational thinking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danli; Wang, Tingting; Liu, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Game and creation are activities which have good potential for computational thinking skills. In this paper we present T-Maze, an economical tangible programming tool for children aged 5-9 to build computer programs in maze games by placing wooden blocks. Through the use of computer vision technology, T-Maze provides a live programming interface with real-time graphical and voice feedback. We conducted a user study with 7 children using T-Maze to play two levels of maze-escape games and create their own mazes. The results show that T-Maze is not only easy to use, but also has the potential to help children cultivate computational thinking like abstraction, problem decomposition, and creativity. PMID:24719575

  19. Visual thinking in organizational analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, Charles E.

    1991-06-01

    The ability to visualize the relationship among elements of large complex databases is a trend which is yielding new insights into several fields. The author demonstrates the use of 'visual thinking' as an analytical tool to the analysis of formal, complex organizations. Recent developments in organizational design and office automation are making the visual analysis of workflows possible. An analytical mental model of organizational functioning can be built upon a depiction of information flows among work group members. The dynamics of organizational functioning can be described in terms of six essential processes. Furthermore, each of these sub-systems develop within a staged cycle referred to as an enneagram model. Together these mental models present a visual metaphor of healthy function in large formal organizations; both in static and dynamic terms. These models can be used to depict the 'state' of an organization at points in time by linking each process to quantitative data taken from the monitoring of the flow of information in computer networks.

  20. Spatiotemporal Thinking in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, T. F.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Tikoff, B.

    2011-12-01

    Reasoning about spatial relations is a critical skill for geoscientists. Within the geosciences different disciplines may reason about different sorts of relationships. These relationships may span vastly different spatial and temporal scales (from the spatial alignment in atoms in crystals to the changes in the shape of plates). As part of work in a research center on spatial thinking in STEM education, we have been working to classify the spatial skills required in geology, develop tests for each spatial skill, and develop the cognitive science tools to promote the critical spatial reasoning skills. Research in psychology, neurology and linguistics supports a broad classification of spatial skills along two dimensions: one versus many objects (which roughly translates to object- focused and navigation focused skills) and static versus dynamic spatial relations. The talk will focus on the interaction of space and time in spatial cognition in the geosciences. We are working to develop measures of skill in visualizing spatiotemporal changes. A new test developed to measure visualization of brittle deformations will be presented. This is a skill that has not been clearly recognized in the cognitive science research domain and thus illustrates the value of interdisciplinary work that combines geosciences with cognitive sciences. Teaching spatiotemporal concepts can be challenging. Recent theoretical work suggests analogical reasoning can be a powerful tool to aid student learning to reason about temporal relations using spatial skills. Recent work in our lab has found that progressive alignment of spatial and temporal scales promotes accurate reasoning about temporal relations at geological time scales.