Science.gov

Sample records for actively open-minded thinking

  1. "There Is No Single Right Answer": The Potential for Active Learning Classrooms to Facilitate Actively Open-Minded Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Education is meant to open your mind, but is that what universities are really doing? Rather than fostering open-minded thinking, the format of lecturing, the lack of interaction among students and instructors, and the passive nature of learning are likely producing the opposite, students with closed-minds. The development and implementation of…

  2. Pre-Service Teachers' Open-Minded Thinking Dispositions, Readiness to Learn, and Attitudes about Learning and Behavioural Difficulties in Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elik, Nezihe; Wiener, Judith; Corkum, Penny

    2010-01-01

    This self-report study investigated 274 pre-service teachers' attitudes toward students with learning and behavioural difficulties (LBD) and the factors that predict their attitudes. Using four scenarios describing students with LBD, we investigated the degree to which pre-service teachers' open-minded thinking dispositions, readiness to learn…

  3. Open Minds to Equality: A Source Book of Learning Activities to Affirm Diversity and Promote Equity. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schniedewind, Nancy; Davidson, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    "Open Minds to Equality" is an educator's sourcebook of activities to help students understand and change inequalities based on: race, gender, class, age, language, sexual orientation, physical/mental ability, and religion. The activities promote respect for diversity and interpersonal equality among students, fostering a classroom that is…

  4. Open-Minded Cognition.

    PubMed

    Price, Erika; Ottati, Victor; Wilson, Chase; Kim, Soyeon

    2015-11-01

    The present research conceptualizes open-minded cognition as a cognitive style that influences how individuals select and process information. An open-minded cognitive style is marked by willingness to consider a variety of intellectual perspectives, values, opinions, or beliefs-even those that contradict the individual's opinion. An individual's level of cognitive openness is expected to vary across domains (such as politics and religion). Four studies develop and validate a novel measure of open-minded cognition, as well as two domain-specific measures of religious and political open-minded cognition. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (controlling for acquiescence bias) are used to develop the scales in Studies 1 to 3. Study 4 demonstrates that these scales possess convergent and discriminant validity. Study 5 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcome of Empathic Concern (Davis, 1980). Study 6 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcomes of warmth toward racial, religious, and sexual minorities. PMID:26315581

  5. Open-Minded Cognition.

    PubMed

    Price, Erika; Ottati, Victor; Wilson, Chase; Kim, Soyeon

    2015-11-01

    The present research conceptualizes open-minded cognition as a cognitive style that influences how individuals select and process information. An open-minded cognitive style is marked by willingness to consider a variety of intellectual perspectives, values, opinions, or beliefs-even those that contradict the individual's opinion. An individual's level of cognitive openness is expected to vary across domains (such as politics and religion). Four studies develop and validate a novel measure of open-minded cognition, as well as two domain-specific measures of religious and political open-minded cognition. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (controlling for acquiescence bias) are used to develop the scales in Studies 1 to 3. Study 4 demonstrates that these scales possess convergent and discriminant validity. Study 5 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcome of Empathic Concern (Davis, 1980). Study 6 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcomes of warmth toward racial, religious, and sexual minorities.

  6. Open Mind Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Alexander H.

    1995-01-01

    Open Mind, The Association for the achievement of diversity in higher education, met in conference in Albuquerque, New Mexico, between October 16 and 18, 1992. A number of workgroups met to discuss the goals, structure, and generally evaluate the Association and its achievements. A summary of the workgroup sessions and their minutes are included.

  7. Open Books, Open Minds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMath, Joan; King, Margaret

    1993-01-01

    Describes using picture books and science activities in early childhood science instruction. Suggests titles of books and activities for the following topics: Time for Pets; Environmental Awareness; Dinosaurs Galore; Nighttime Science; Simple Machines; Insect Collections; Snowy Days; Water, Water, Everywhere; and Experimental Activities. (PR)

  8. Opening Minds in Canada: Targeting Change

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Heather; Chen, Shu-Ping; Christie, Romie; Dobson, Keith; Kirsh, Bonnie; Knaak, Stephanie; Koller, Michelle; Krupa, Terry; Lauria-Horner, Bianca; Luong, Dorothy; Modgill, Geeta; Patten, Scott B; Pietrus, Mike; Szeto, Andrew; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the ongoing activities of the Opening Minds (OM) Anti-Stigma Initiative of the Mental Health Commission of Canada regarding the 4 groups targeted (youth, health care providers, media, and workplaces), highlight some of the key methodological challenges, and review lessons learned. Method: The approach used by OM is rooted in community development philosophy, with clearly defined target groups, contact-based education as the central organizing element across interventions, and a strong evaluative component so that best practices can be identified, replicated, and disseminated. Contact-based education occurs when people who have experienced a mental illness share their personal story of recovery and hope. Results: Results have been generally positive. Contact-based education has the capacity to reduce prejudicial attitudes and improve social acceptance of people with a mental illness across various target groups and sectors. Variations in program outcomes have contributed to our understanding of active ingredients. Conclusions: Contact-based education has become a cornerstone of the OM approach to stigma reduction. A story of hope and recovery told by someone who has experienced a mental illness is powerful and engaging, and a critical ingredient in the fight against stigma. Building partnerships with existing community programs and promoting systematic evaluation using standardized approaches and instruments have contributed to our understanding of best practices in the field of anti-stigma programming. The next challenge will be to scale these up so that they may have a national impact. PMID:25565697

  9. Opening Minds: Using Language to Change Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes a single word changes everything. In his groundbreaking book "Choice Words", Peter Johnston demonstrated how the things teachers say (and don't say) have surprising consequences for the literate lives of students. Now, in "Opening Minds: Using Language to Change Lives", Peter shows how the words teachers choose affect the worlds students…

  10. Rational thinking and cognitive sophistication: development, cognitive abilities, and thinking dispositions.

    PubMed

    Toplak, Maggie E; West, Richard F; Stanovich, Keith E

    2014-04-01

    We studied developmental trends in 5 important reasoning tasks that are critical components of the operational definition of rational thinking. The tasks measured denominator neglect, belief bias, base rate sensitivity, resistance to framing, and the tendency toward otherside thinking. In addition to age, we examined 2 other individual difference domains that index cognitive sophistication: cognitive ability (intelligence and executive functioning) and thinking dispositions (actively open-minded thinking, superstitious thinking, and need for cognition). All 5 reasoning domains were consistently related to cognitive sophistication regardless of how it was indexed (age, cognitive ability, thinking dispositions). The implications of these findings for taxonomies of developmental trends in rational thinking tasks are discussed.

  11. Classroom Activities in Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Janice, Comp.

    Intended as a resource for teachers of grades four and up who are eager to improve their students' thinking skills while teaching their regular curriculum, this booklet contains activities that can be used to teach a new concept or to review a previously taught skill. Following an introduction, the topics of the chapters of the resource guide and…

  12. Activities to Stimulate Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Thomas B.; Schroeder, Connie

    1989-01-01

    Describes sample vocational activities that stimulate critical thinking: (1) setting up an accounting system (business education); (2) developing a marketing plan (marketing education); (3) developing a fertilizer application plan (agricultural education); (4) making the best purchase (home economics); (5) planning a repair/remodeling project…

  13. Opening Minds in Canada: Background and Rationale

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Heather; Chen, Shu-Ping; Christie, Romie; Dobson, Keith; Kirsh, Bonnie; Knaak, Stephanie; Koller, Michelle; Krupa, Terry; Lauria-Horner, Bianca; Luong, Dorothy; Modgill, Geeta; Patten, Scott B; Pietrus, Mike; Szeto, Andrew; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the background and rationale of the approach taken by the Mental Health Commission of Canada’s Opening Minds (OM) Anti-Stigma Initiative. Method: The approach taken by OM incorporates a grassroots, community development philosophy, has clearly defined target groups, uses contact-based education as the central organizing element across interventions, and has a strong evaluative component, so that best practices can be identified, replicated, and disseminated. Contact-based education occurs when people who have experienced a mental illness share their personal story of recovery and hope. Results: OM has acted as a catalyst to develop partnerships between community groups who are undertaking anti-stigma work and an interdisciplinary team of academic researchers in 5 universities who are evaluating the results of these programs. Conclusions: Building partnerships with existing community programs and promoting systematic evaluation using standardized approaches and instruments have contributed to our understanding of best practices in the field of anti-stigma programming. PMID:25565705

  14. RSA Opening Minds: A Curriculum for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candy, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the RSA Opening Minds competence framework, an innovative curriculum to meet the needs of young people as future employees, lifelong learners and as citizens of the twenty-first century.

  15. Thinking Patterns, Brain Activity and Strategy Choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Kazuo; Okada, Akira; Inagawa, Michiyo; Tobinaga, Yoshikazu

    2012-03-01

    In this study we analyzed the relationship between thinking patterns, behavior and associated brain activity. Subjects completed a self-report assessing whether they could voluntarily stop thinking or not, and were then divided into two groups: those with the ability to stop thinking and those without. We measured subjects' brain activity using magnetoencephalography while giving them a series of tasks intended to encourage or discourage spontaneous thinking. Our findings revealed differences between the two groups in terms of which portions of the brain were active during the two types of task. A second questionnaire confirmed a relationship between the ability to stop thinking and strategy choices in a dilemma game. We found that subjects without the ability to stop thinking had a tendency to choose cooperative behavior.

  16. Probing Scientists' Beliefs: How Open-Minded Are Modern Scientists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Richard; Taylor, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews…

  17. The Impact of Directed Viewing-Thinking Activity on Students' Critical Thinking: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ee, Neo Chin; Sum, Cheung Wing

    2005-01-01

    Background: Critical thinking disposition is an area that has been overlooked in various academic fields until recent years. Critical thinking occurs only when individuals possess thinking dispositions. This study explores the possibility of using directed viewing-thinking activity (DVTA) to cultivate the critical thinking dispositions of…

  18. Probing scientists' beliefs: how open-minded are modern scientists?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, Richard K.; Taylor, Neil

    2004-06-01

    Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews of scientists across a variety of disciplines. The interviews sought to understand the basis on which scientists form beliefs and how they judge evidence for various propositions, including those from the Exeter questionnaire and other contentious beliefs introduced during discourse. The scientists are dismissive of traditional superstitions like bad luck associated with black cats and inauspicious numbers such as 13, seeing such beliefs as socially grounded. There is a strong socio-cultural aspect to other beliefs and personal experiences, and strongly held personal beliefs are influential, resulting in the scientists keeping an open mind about contentious beliefs like alien life and the existence of ghosts. Testimony of others including media reports are deemed unreliable unless provided by credible witnesses such as 'educated people' or 'experts', or if they coincide with the scientists' personal beliefs. These scientists see a need for potential theoretical explanations for beliefs and are generally dismissive of empirical evidence without underlying explanations.

  19. Using a Pseudoscience Activity to Teach Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Aimee; Manson, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    In two studies, we assessed the effectiveness of a classroom activity designed to increase students' ability to think critically. This activity involved watching and discussing an infomercial that contained pseudoscientific claims, thus incorporating course material on good research design and critical thinking. In Study 1, we used a…

  20. Environmental Activities for Teaching Critical Thinking. [Environmental Education Information Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Robert W.; Disinger, John F.

    The ability to think critically is essential if individuals are to live, work, and function effectively in our current and changing society. The activities included in this publication were selected to identify a variety of effective strategies for teaching critical thinking skills through environmental education. Activities include library…

  1. Predicting Work Activities with Divergent Thinking Tests: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapham, Maria M.; Cowdery, Edwina M.; King, Kelly E.; Montang, Melissa A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined whether divergent thinking test scores obtained from engineering students during college predicted creative work activities fifteen years later. Results showed that a subscore of the "Owens Creativity Test", which assesses divergent thinking about mechanical objects, correlated significantly with self-ratings of creative work…

  2. Critical Thinking Activities To Improve Writing Skills: Arguments A-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael O.

    Emphasizing real-life communication skills, this book offers cooperative activities to help teachers supplement their writing programs with easy-to-use critical thinking activities. The 16 activities in the book are suitable for grades 4 through 8, for gifted younger students, or as a remediation tool for older students. The activities expose…

  3. Developing Geometric Thinking through Activities That Begin with Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hiele, Pierre M.

    1999-01-01

    Rich and stimulating instruction in geometry can be provided through playful activities with mosaics such as pattern blocks or design tiles. Presents an intriguing mosaic puzzle to describe activities at various developmental levels and how the activities can help develop children's geometric thinking. (ASK)

  4. Do Active-Learning Strategies Improve Students' Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry P.; Crow, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Improving students' ability to recognize work-related problems and apply effective strategies and solutions to fundamental challenges in the field is at the crux of a good college preparation. This paper attempts to investigate if active-learning strategies improve students' critical thinking ability in this regard. Participants were pre-service…

  5. Words Work: Activities for Developing Vocabulary, Style, and Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnicelli, Thomas A.

    This book offers integrated activities in which students explore words and, at the same time, develop their language arts and thinking skills. The book states that this way teachers can pay more attention to word study, without sacrificing other parts of the English curriculum and without resorting to word lists and memorization. In the first…

  6. Activating Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applebaum, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' critical thinking skills are essential for fostering the development of the same skills in their students. To demonstrate how teachers' ability to examine solutions critically can be developed and supported, we analyse a classroom activity performed by a group of pre-service secondary school mathematics teachers (N = 37) who were asked:…

  7. Right Brain Activities to Improve Analytical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Marion E.

    Schools tend to have a built-in bias toward left brain activities (tasks that are linear and sequential in nature), so the introduction of right brain activities (functions related to music, rhythm, images, color, imagination, daydreaming, dimensions) brings a balance into the classroom and helps those students who may be right brain oriented. To…

  8. Thinking with Hands-On Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conover, Patricia Ross

    2009-01-01

    The goal for library media specialists and teachers is to lead students to use technology to communicate, in a powerful and meaningful way, and to creatively display what they have learned. With these ideas in mind, this article details several projects using Microsoft PowerPoint XP. The activities, with simplified instructions, can be adapted to…

  9. Hybrid Tasks: Promoting Statistical Thinking and Critical Thinking through the Same Mathematical Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aizikovitsh-Udi, Einav; Clarke, David; Kuntze, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Even though statistical thinking and critical thinking appear to have strong links from a theoretical point of view, empirical research into the intersections and potential interrelatedness of these aspects of competence is scarce. Our research suggests that thinking skills in both areas may be interdependent. Given this interconnection, it should…

  10. The Inventive Mind in Science: Creative Thinking Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Christine; Ebert, Edward S., II

    Creative thinking and how to foster it is the focus of this resource book for teachers. Part One of this book emphasizes the theoretical background of the creative thinking concept and discusses the relationship between creative thinking, problem solving, science, and technology. Part Two focuses on three levels of inventing, each examining…

  11. The Effect of Reflective Activities on Reflective Thinking Ability in an Undergraduate Pharmacy Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Schneider, Carl R.; Smith, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of integrating reflective practice activities into a second-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and their impact on reflective thinking ability. Design. A cross-over design with repeated measures was employed. Newly developed reflective modules based on real hospital and community pharmacy cases were integrated into the second-year pharmacy practice curriculum. A novel strategy, the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA), was introduced to enhance self- and peer reflection. Assessment. Student responses (n=214) to the adapted Kember et al1 Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ) were compared before and after reflective activities were undertaken. Significant improvement in three indicators of reflective thinking was shown after students engaged in reflective activities. Conclusion. Integration of reflective activities into a pharmacy curriculum increased the reflective thinking capacity of students. Enhancing reflective thinking ability may help students make better informed decisions and clinical judgments, thus improving future practice. PMID:27293232

  12. The Effect of Reflective Activities on Reflective Thinking Ability in an Undergraduate Pharmacy Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Tsingos-Lucas, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Schneider, Carl R; Smith, Lorraine

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of integrating reflective practice activities into a second-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and their impact on reflective thinking ability. Design. A cross-over design with repeated measures was employed. Newly developed reflective modules based on real hospital and community pharmacy cases were integrated into the second-year pharmacy practice curriculum. A novel strategy, the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA), was introduced to enhance self- and peer reflection. Assessment. Student responses (n=214) to the adapted Kember et al(1) Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ) were compared before and after reflective activities were undertaken. Significant improvement in three indicators of reflective thinking was shown after students engaged in reflective activities. Conclusion. Integration of reflective activities into a pharmacy curriculum increased the reflective thinking capacity of students. Enhancing reflective thinking ability may help students make better informed decisions and clinical judgments, thus improving future practice. PMID:27293232

  13. Investigating the Synergy of Critical Thinking and Creative Thinking in the Course of Integrated Activity in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yulin; Li, Bei-Di; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chiu, Fa-Chung

    2015-01-01

    The relationship lying between critical thinking and creative thinking is opposite or complementary, results of previous relevant researches have not yet concluded. However, most of researches put the effort to compare the respective effect of the thinking methods, either the teaching of creative thinking or that of critical thinking. Less of them…

  14. The Development of Strategic Thinking: Learning to Impact Human Systems in a Youth Activism Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Reed; Hansen, David

    2005-01-01

    Human systems, including institutional systems and informal social networks, are a major arena of modern life. We argue that distinct forms of pragmatic reasoning or "strategic thinking" are required to exercise agency within such systems. This article explores the development of strategic thinking in a youth activism program in which young people…

  15. Is Truthiness Enough? Classroom Activities for Encouraging Evidence-Based Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Sue; Sears, Sharon R.; Burke, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching students how to think critically and develop lifelong habits of evidence-based inquiry outside of the classroom is a primary goal for educators today. This paper describes nine activities designed to promote evidence-based critical thinking in college or high school classrooms in any discipline. We have developed a seven step process for…

  16. Integrating Active Learning, Critical Thinking and Multicultural Education in Teaching Media Ethics across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brislin, Tom

    This paper presents four teaching strategies, grounded in pedagogical theory, to encourage an active, challenging, creative, and meaningful experience for journalism and mass communication students grappling with moral issues, and developing higher order thinking in ethical decision-making processes. Strategies emphasizing critical thinking and…

  17. Project IMPACT. Improve Minimal Proficiences by Activating Critical Thinking. Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    The major goal of Project IMPACT (Improve Minimal Proficiencies by Activating Critical Thinking) is to improve student achievement on district tests of basic skill competency. The program seeks to improve student performance on tests requiring critical thinking with emphasis on reading and mathematics. Students involved in Project IMPACT work in a…

  18. Effects of Active Learning on Enhancing Student Critical Thinking in an Undergraduate General Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyoungna; Sharma, Priya; Land, Susan M.; Furlong, Kevin P.

    2013-01-01

    To enhance students' critical thinking in an undergraduate general science course, we designed and implemented active learning modules by incorporating group-based learning with authentic tasks, scaffolding, and individual reports. This study examined the levels of critical thinking students exhibited in individual reports and the students'…

  19. OpenMinds: creating a mental health workshop for teenagers to tackle stigma and raise awareness.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sammy; Sinha, Kathryn; Swinton, Martin; Millar, Christina; Rayment, Dane; Simmons, Meinou

    2011-09-01

    As a group of four clinical medical students from Cambridge University, we undertook a Student Selected Module (SSC- "OpenMinds") whereby we designed and delivered a workshop about mental health to year 9 pupils. The aim of our SSC was to produce an interactive, informative lesson which addressed the complex issues of stigma and discrimination against those suffering from a mental illness as well as teaching the pupils how to recognise mental health problems and provide them with guidance on how to seek help. We split a fifty minute session into the following sections: tackling stigma; how common mental illness is; celebrity examples; real life examples; role play; and small group work. To engage the pupils we used a combination of teaching modalities targeting all learning. We delivered the workshop to four separate classes and received feedback from the pupils after each. We used this feedback to adapt and improve our presentation and assess the efficacy. Feedback was overwhelmingly positive with the striking results of 101/109 pupils saying that they would recommend the workshop to a friend and 68/109 pupils saying they enjoyed all aspects. Our SSC built upon work by a contingent of trainee Psychiatrists who undertook a similar project of mental health education for teenagers, called "Heads above the rest", in Northern Ireland with great success. By continuing their work we were able to demonstrate that medical students can successfully complete the same project under the guidance of a Psychiatrist, thus increasing the sustainability of the project by reducing the time burden on the Psychiatrists. Participating in the project was also valuable to our own personal development of teaching skills. PMID:21894106

  20. Think tank (3) - Present activities of other representative organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Michio

    There were some think tank businesses in Japan before the war. South Manchuria Railway Company established its Research Department for the purpose of getting power to control Manchuria as a colony, and got the good results. Think tank business was flourishing three times after the war. This business attracts much attention when the social and economic paradigm is going to change. Among the key large-scale think tanks in Japan, Nomura Research Institute, Ltd. (NRI) was the first to enhance the system functions by the merger, and posted think tank function up in the SI business. Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. (MRI) intends to be an orthodox think tank, and established an advanced research institute and the laboratory for R&D. Daiwa Institute of Research, Ltd. (DIR) focuses on economic forecast by using system. Fuji Research Institute, Corp. (FUJI RIC) focuses on survey and policy proposing in macro-economics, and analyzing technology. The Japan Research Institute, Ltd. (JRI) focuses on regional development, and R&D in advanced technology.

  1. Construct Validity Examination of Critical Thinking Dispositions for Undergraduate Students in University Putra Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghadi, Ibrahim; Alwi, Nor Hayati; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Talib, Othman

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to evaluate the psychology properties of the construct validity for the Critical Thinking Disposition (CTD) instrument. The CTD instrument consists of 39 Likert-type items measuring seven dispositions, namely analyticity, open-mind, truth-seeking, systematicity, self-confidence inquisitiveness and maturity. The study involves…

  2. Detection of Neural Activity Associated with Thinking in Frontal Lobe by Magnetoencephalograpy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, K.; Tobinaga, Y.; Tonoike, M.

    We measured brain activity in normal subjects using magnetoencephalography while they were presented a series of thinking tasks intended to induce the natural thought. Changes in the spontaneous brain activity were assessed with a Super-conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) neuromagnetometer. We detected transitions in the active portions of the brain during non-thinking tasks by analyzing brain magnetic filed of the frontal lobe in each various frequency range, α wave (8-12Hz), β wave (12-24Hz), γ wave (24-60Hz), and θ wave (4-8Hz). The α wave in the left hemisphere was more prominent than and waves, a distinctive feature of brain activity of the non-thinking state in our study. In addition, the α wave was prominent in the left hemisphere throughout every task including the non-thinking task.

  3. Critical Thinking Activities To Improve Writing Skills: Descriptive Mysteries A-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertus, Karen; And Others

    Emphasizing real-life communication skills, this book offers cooperative activities to help teachers supplement their writing programs with easy-to-use critical thinking activities. The activities in the book are suitable for grades 4 through 8, for gifted younger students, or as a remediation tool for older students. The activities in the book…

  4. Critical Thinking Activities To Improve Writing Skills: Where-Abouts A-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertus, Karen; And Others

    Emphasizing real-life communication skills, this book offers cooperative activities to help teachers supplement their writing programs with easy-to-use critical thinking activities. The activities in the book are suitable for grades 4 through 8, for gifted younger students, or as a remediation tool for older students. The activities are aimed at…

  5. Activating Children's Thinking Skills (ACTS): The Effects of an Infusion Approach to Teaching Thinking in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Jessica; Bento, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent interest in the teaching of thinking skills within education has led to an increase in thinking skills packages available to schools. However many of these are not based on scientific evaluation (DfEE, 1999). This paper endeavours to examine the effectiveness of one approach, that of infusion, to teaching thinking. Aims: To…

  6. How does participation in inquiry-based activities influence gifted students' higher order thinking?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reger, Barbara H.

    Inquiry-based learning is considered a useful technique to strengthen the critical thinking skills of students. The National Science Standards emphasize its use and the complexities and challenge it provides are well suited for meeting the needs of the gifted. While many studies have documented the effectiveness of this type of instruction, there is a lack of research on growth in higher-order thinking through participation in science inquiry. This study investigated such growth among a small group of gifted fifth-grade students. In this study a group of fifth-grade gifted science students completed a series of three forensics inquiry lessons, and documented questions, ideas and reflections as they constructed evidence to solve a crime. From this class of students, one small group was purposely selected to serve as the focus of the study. Using qualitative techniques, the questions and statements students made as they interacted in the activity were analyzed. Videotaped comments and student logs were coded for emerging patterns and also examined for evidence of increased levels of higher-order thinking based on a rubric that was designed using the six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Evidence from this study showed marked increase in and deeper levels of higher-order thinking for two of the students. The other boy and girl showed progress using the inquiry activities, but it was not as evident. The social dynamics of the group seemed to hinder one girl's participation during some of the activities. The social interactions played a role in strengthening the exchange of ideas and thinking skills for the others. The teacher had a tremendous influence over the production of higher-level statements by modeling that level of thinking as she questioned the students. Through her practice of answering a question with a question, she gradually solicited more analytical thinking from her students.

  7. Eat, Think, and Be Healthy! Creative Nutrition Activities for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeller, Paula Klevan; Jacobson, Michael F.

    This book provides an activity-oriented guide to a nutrition instruction program. The 56 activities, described and illustrated, are suitable for children from the third to the sixth grade. For each activity, a description is presented as well as the purpose of the activity, materials and resources needed, and the procedures to follow. Reproducible…

  8. Implementing the Opening Minds Curriculum in a Secondary School in England: An Alternative to the One-Size-Fits-All National Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Grant; Jones, Marion; Murphy, Jan

    2012-01-01

    "The Importance of Teaching: The Schools White Paper 2010," which grants schools increased autonomy in curriculum development and implementation, heralded a new era of curriculum reform in England. This article critically examines how this process took place in a Catholic secondary school that decided to use the RSA Opening Minds (OM) curriculum…

  9. Third-Grader's Think-Aloud Protocols: Types of Reading Activities in Reading an Expository Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellings, Gonny; Aarnoutse, Cor; van Leeuwe, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the reading activities of young readers, while reading an expository text. A total of 24 third-graders was administered a think-aloud task on two occasions. Their protocols were analysed by a coding system that captured two levels of the reading process: the word identification level and the reading comprehension…

  10. Creative Thinking Development Program for Learning Activity Management of Secondary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pukdeewut, Sutinan; Chantarasombat, Chalard; Satapornwong, Pattananusorn

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this research were: to design a creative thinking development program for learning activity management of secondary school teachers, and to study the program's efficiency and effectiveness of usage. The results of the study were as follows: the program includes the vision, principles, objectives, content, program development…

  11. Working memory training is associated with lower prefrontal cortex activation in a divergent thinking task.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, O; Jobidon, M-E; Bouak, F; Nakashima, A; Smith, I; Lam, Q; Cheung, B

    2013-04-16

    Working memory (WM) training has been shown to lead to improvements in WM capacity and fluid intelligence. Given that divergent thinking loads on WM and fluid intelligence, we tested the hypothesis that WM training would improve performance and moderate neural function in the Alternate Uses Task (AUT)-a classic test of divergent thinking. We tested this hypothesis by administering the AUT in the functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner following a short regimen of WM training (experimental condition), or engagement in a choice reaction time task not expected to engage WM (active control condition). Participants in the experimental group exhibited significant improvement in performance in the WM task as a function of training, as well as a significant gain in fluid intelligence. Although the two groups did not differ in their performance on the AUT, activation was significantly lower in the experimental group in ventrolateral prefrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices-two brain regions known to play dissociable and critical roles in divergent thinking. Furthermore, gain in fluid intelligence mediated the effect of training on brain activation in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. These results indicate that a short regimen of WM training is associated with lower prefrontal activation-a marker of neural efficiency-in divergent thinking.

  12. The Effects of the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity on EFL Students' Referential and Inferential Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Koumy, Abdel Salam Abdel Khalek

    2006-01-01

    A study investigated the effects of the Directed Reading Thinking Activity on Egyptian first-year secondary stage EFL students' referential and inferential reading comprehension. The study utilized a pretest-posttest control group experimental design. The subjects consisted of 72 first-year secondary students in Menouf Secondary School for Boys at…

  13. Active Learning and Threshold Concepts in Multiple Testing That Can Further Develop Student Critical Statistical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Desley

    2015-01-01

    Two practical activities are described, which aim to support critical thinking about statistics as they concern multiple outcomes testing. Formulae are presented in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, which are used to calculate the inflation of error associated with the quantity of tests performed. This is followed by a decision-making exercise, where…

  14. Creating Stimulating Learning and Thinking Using New Models of Activity-Based Learning and Metacognitive-Based Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a novel way to stimulate learning, creativity, and thinking based on a new understanding of activity-based learning (ABL) and two methods for developing metacognitive-based activities for the classroom. ABL, in this model, is based on the premise that teachers are distillers and facilitators of information…

  15. Think Texas! Suggested Activities to Help Celebrate Our Sesquicentennial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    A packet of teaching activities helps elementary and secondary teachers commemorate the sesquicentennial of Texas' independence. Activities include listening to stories about the mockingbird, bluebonnet, and pecan tree, drawing interpretations of these stories, and using a graphics tablet, light pen, or graphics software to illustrate a Texas folk…

  16. Thinking Globally and Acting Locally: Environmental Education Teaching Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Lori D.; Stapp, William B.

    Provided are teaching activities related to: (1) food production and distribution; (2) energy; (3) transportation; (4) solid waste; (5) chemicals in the environment; (6) resource management; (7) pollution; (8) population; (9) world linkages; (10) endangered species; and (11) lifestyle and environment. The activities, designed to help learners…

  17. Doing is for thinking! Stereotype activation by stereotypic movements.

    PubMed

    Mussweiler, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Three studies demonstrate that stereotypic movements activate the corresponding stereotype. In Study 1, participants who were unobtrusively induced to move in the portly manner that is stereotypic of overweight people subsequently ascribed more overweight-stereotypic characteristics to an ambiguous target person than did control participants. In Study 2, participants who were unobtrusively induced to move in the slow manner that is stereotypic of elderly people subsequently ascribed more elderly-stereotypic characteristics to a target than did control participants. In Study 3, participants who were induced to move slowly were faster than control participants to respond to elderly-stereotypic words in a lexical decision task. Using three different movement inductions, two different stereotypes, and two classic measures of stereotype activation, these studies converge in demonstrating that stereotypes may be activated by stereotypic movements.

  18. Conversations on Engaged Pedagogies, Independent Thinking Skills and Active Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    This paper will consider the relationship between engaged pedagogies and the development of what is referred to as independent skills, as well as active citizenship. The significance for their development in the context of the Irish teaching and learning context will be sketched, particularly at first and second level. In particular, the author…

  19. Good Thinking! Activity Cards to Reinforce Language and Reasoning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow Thurman, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    This full-color, kid-pleasing collection of language-arts activities is ideal for K-2 children of all ability levels--and for English language learners too. The practical and easy-to-implement lessons also are convenient for substitute teachers, classroom assistants, and volunteers. Flexible and versatile, these unique cards can be used for guided…

  20. Thinking Ethically about Professional Practice in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donna L.; Rossow-Kimball, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    There has been little critical exploration of the ethical issues that arise in professional practice common to adapted physical activity. We cannot avoid moral issues as we inevitably will act in ways that will negatively affect the well-being of others. We will make choices, which in our efforts to support others, may hurt by violating dignity or…

  1. A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies on divergent thinking using activation likelihood estimation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin; Yang, Wenjing; Tong, Dandan; Sun, Jiangzhou; Chen, Qunlin; Wei, Dongtao; Zhang, Qinglin; Zhang, Meng; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-07-01

    In this study, an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis was used to conduct a quantitative investigation of neuroimaging studies on divergent thinking. Based on the ALE results, the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies showed that distributed brain regions were more active under divergent thinking tasks (DTTs) than those under control tasks, but a large portion of the brain regions were deactivated. The ALE results indicated that the brain networks of the creative idea generation in DTTs may be composed of the lateral prefrontal cortex, posterior parietal cortex [such as the inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and precuneus (BA 7)], anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) (BA 32), and several regions in the temporal cortex [such as the left middle temporal gyrus (BA 39), and left fusiform gyrus (BA 37)]. The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46) was related to selecting the loosely and remotely associated concepts and organizing them into creative ideas, whereas the ACC (BA 32) was related to observing and forming distant semantic associations in performing DTTs. The posterior parietal cortex may be involved in the semantic information related to the retrieval and buffering of the formed creative ideas, and several regions in the temporal cortex may be related to the stored long-term memory. In addition, the ALE results of the structural studies showed that divergent thinking was related to the dopaminergic system (e.g., left caudate and claustrum). Based on the ALE results, both fMRI and structural MRI studies could uncover the neural basis of divergent thinking from different aspects (e.g., specific cognitive processing and stable individual difference of cognitive capability).

  2. Open Mind, Open Heart: An Anthropological Study of the Therapeutics of Meditation Practice in the US.

    PubMed

    Myers, Neely; Lewis, Sara; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2015-09-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews collected with meditation teachers and students in the United States, this article will argue that active training in meditation-based practices occasions the opportunity for people with traumatic stress to develop a stronger mind-body connection through heightened somatic awareness and a focus on the present moment that they find to be therapeutic. Three important themes related to healing through meditation for trauma emerged from the data and centered around the ways our interlocutors attempted to realign their sense of self, mind and body, after a traumatic experience. The themes helped explain why US women perceive meditation as therapeutic for trauma, namely that the practice of meditation enables one to focus on the lived present rather than traumatic memories, to accept pain and "open" one's heart, and to make use of silence instead of speech as a healing modality. As meditation practices increasingly enter global popular culture, promoted for postulated health benefits, the driving question of this research--how meditation may perpetuate human resilience for women who have experienced trauma based on their own perspectives of meditation practices--is a critical addition to the literature.

  3. Open Mind, Open Heart: An Anthropological Study of the Therapeutics of Meditation Practice in the US

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Neely; Lewis, Sara; Dutton, MaryAnn

    2015-01-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews collected with meditation teachers and students in the United States, this article will argue that active training in meditation-based practices occasions the opportunity for people with traumatic stress to develop a stronger mind-body connection through heightened somatic awareness and a focus on the present moment that they find to be therapeutic. Three important themes related to healing through meditation for trauma emerged from the data and centered around the ways our interlocutors attempted to realign their sense of self, mind and body, after a traumatic experience. The themes helped explain why US women perceive meditation as therapeutic for trauma, namely that the practice of meditation enables one to focus on the lived present rather than traumatic memories, to accept pain and “open” one's heart, and to make use of silence instead of speech as a healing modality. As meditation practices increasingly enter global popular culture, promoted for postulated health benefits, the driving question of this research—how meditation may perpetuate human resilience for women who have experienced trauma based on their own perspectives of meditation practices—is a critical addition to the literature. PMID:25613595

  4. Brain activity in valuation regions while thinking about the future predicts individual discount rates.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Nicole; Kable, Joseph W; Kim, B Kyu; Zauberman, Gal

    2013-08-01

    People vary widely in how much they discount delayed rewards, yet little is known about the sources of these differences. Here we demonstrate that neural activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and ventral striatum (VS) when human subjects are asked to merely think about the future--specifically, to judge the subjective length of future time intervals--predicts delay discounting. High discounters showed lower activity for longer time delays, while low discounters showed the opposite pattern. Our results demonstrate that the correlation between VMPFC and VS activity and discounting occurs even in the absence of choices about future rewards, and does not depend on a person explicitly evaluating future outcomes or judging their self-relevance. This suggests a link between discounting and basic processes involved in thinking about the future, such as temporal perception. Our results also suggest that reducing impatience requires not suppression of VMPFC and VS activity altogether, but rather modulation of how these regions respond to the present versus the future.

  5. Brain Activity in Valuation Regions while Thinking about the Future Predicts Individual Discount Rates

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Nicole; Kim, B. Kyu; Zauberman, Gal

    2013-01-01

    People vary widely in how much they discount delayed rewards, yet little is known about the sources of these differences. Here we demonstrate that neural activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and ventral striatum (VS) when human subjects are asked to merely think about the future—specifically, to judge the subjective length of future time intervals—predicts delay discounting. High discounters showed lower activity for longer time delays, while low discounters showed the opposite pattern. Our results demonstrate that the correlation between VMPFC and VS activity and discounting occurs even in the absence of choices about future rewards, and does not depend on a person explicitly evaluating future outcomes or judging their self-relevance. This suggests a link between discounting and basic processes involved in thinking about the future, such as temporal perception. Our results also suggest that reducing impatience requires not suppression of VMPFC and VS activity altogether, but rather modulation of how these regions respond to the present versus the future. PMID:23926268

  6. Brain activity in valuation regions while thinking about the future predicts individual discount rates.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Nicole; Kable, Joseph W; Kim, B Kyu; Zauberman, Gal

    2013-08-01

    People vary widely in how much they discount delayed rewards, yet little is known about the sources of these differences. Here we demonstrate that neural activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and ventral striatum (VS) when human subjects are asked to merely think about the future--specifically, to judge the subjective length of future time intervals--predicts delay discounting. High discounters showed lower activity for longer time delays, while low discounters showed the opposite pattern. Our results demonstrate that the correlation between VMPFC and VS activity and discounting occurs even in the absence of choices about future rewards, and does not depend on a person explicitly evaluating future outcomes or judging their self-relevance. This suggests a link between discounting and basic processes involved in thinking about the future, such as temporal perception. Our results also suggest that reducing impatience requires not suppression of VMPFC and VS activity altogether, but rather modulation of how these regions respond to the present versus the future. PMID:23926268

  7. Scope of Semantic Activation and Innovative Thinking in College Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Holly A.; Shah, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show high divergent thinking on standardized laboratory measures. This study assessed innovative thinking in adults with ADHD using a realistic task and investigated a possible cognitive mechanism for ADHD-related advantages in innovative thinking. College students with and without ADHD…

  8. When the future becomes the past: Differences in brain activation patterns for episodic memory and episodic future thinking.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Julia A; Suchan, Boris; Daum, Irene

    2010-10-15

    Episodic memory and episodic future thinking activate a network of overlapping brain regions, but little is known about the mechanism with which the brain separates the two processes. It was recently suggested that differential activity for memory and future thinking may be linked to differences in the phenomenal properties (e.g., richness of detail). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects and a novel experimental design, we investigated the networks involved in the imagery of future and the recall of past events for the same target occasion, i.e. the Christmas and New Year's holidays, thereby keeping temporal distance and content similar across conditions. Although ratings of phenomenal characteristics were comparable for future thoughts and memories, differential activation patterns emerged. The right posterior hippocampus exhibited stronger memory-related activity during early event recall, and stronger future thought-related activity during late event imagination. Other regions, e.g., the precuneus and lateral prefrontal cortex, showed the reverse activation pattern with early future-associated and late past-associated activation. Memories compared to future thoughts were further related to stronger activation in several visual processing regions, which accords with a reactivation of the original perceptual experience. In conclusion, the results showed for the first time unique neural signatures for both memory and future thinking even in the absence of differences in phenomenal properties and suggested different time courses of brain activation for episodic memory and future thinking.

  9. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts. PMID:19062433

  10. Visual Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnheim, Rudolf

    Based on the more general principle that all thinking (including reasoning) is basically perceptual in nature, the author proposes that visual perception is not a passive recording of stimulus material but an active concern of the mind. He delineates the task of visually distinguishing changes in size, shape, and position and points out the…

  11. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts.

  12. Creating active environments across the life course: "thinking outside the square".

    PubMed

    Giles-Corti, B; King, A C

    2009-02-01

    The built environment and physical activity agenda provides a unique opportunity for public health, physical activity and planning researchers to be front and centre of a movement aimed at creating healthier and more sustainable environments. However, in order to optimise environments that encourage physical activity across the life course, researchers in this field need to think beyond their "square" -that is, the target group, setting and physical activity behaviour with which they work. We suggest that researchers working in this field need a better understanding of systems theory to appreciate that a change to one part of a complex system can positively and negatively influence other parts of the system. An understanding of systems theory would help minimise unintended negative consequences to other population subgroups or to other types of physical activity from the implementation of our research findings. In this way, a more comprehensive set of research, practice and programme-related activities may emerge, which will advance physical activity research and practice, and improve population health across the life course.

  13. Assessing Metacognitive Activities: The In-Depth Comparison of a Task-Specific Questionnaire with Think-Aloud Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellings, Gonny L.; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette H. A .M.; Veenman, Marcel V. J.; Meijer, Joost

    2013-01-01

    Teaching and assessing metacognitive activities are important educational objectives, and teachers are calling for efficient instruments. The advantages of questionnaires in measuring metacognitive activities are obvious, but serious validity issues appear. For example, correlations of questionnaire data with think-aloud measures are generally…

  14. Foundations for Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.

    2015-01-01

    "Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…

  15. Measuring Gains in Critical Thinking in Food Science and Human Nutrition Courses: The Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Problem-Based Learning Activities, and Student Journal Entries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Li, Yong; Rhee, Walter Y.

    2010-01-01

    The Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTT) is one of the many multiple-choice tests with validated questions that have been reported to measure general critical thinking (CT) ability. One of the IFT Education Standards for undergraduate degrees in Food Science is the emphasis on the development of critical thinking. While this skill is easy to list…

  16. Quantity, Quality, and Variety of Pupil Responses during an Open-Communication Structured Group Directed Reading-Thinking Activity and a Closed Communication Structured Group Directed Reading Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petre, Richard M.

    The quality, quantity, and variety of pupil responses while using two different group directed reading activities, the Directed Reading Activity (DRA), and the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA) were investigated in this study. The subjects, all fourth graders in two nearby communities, were grouped into above-grade-level, at-grade-level,…

  17. Effect of Modeling-Based Activities Developed Using Virtual Environments and Concrete Objects on Spatial Thinking and Mental Rotation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurt, Eyup; Sunbul, Ali Murat

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of modeling based activities using virtual environments and concrete objects on spatial thinking and mental rotation skills was investigated. The study was designed as a pretest-posttest model with a control group, which is one of the experimental research models. The study was carried out on sixth grade students…

  18. The Effect of Mastery Learning Model with Reflective Thinking Activities on Medical Students' Academic Achievement: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elaldi, Senel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of mastery learning model supported with reflective thinking activities on the fifth grade medical students' academic achievement. Mixed methods approach was applied in two samples (n = 64 and n = 6). Quantitative part of the study was based on a pre-test-post-test control group design with an experiment…

  19. Activities to Promote Critical Thinking. Classroom Practices in Teaching English, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL.

    Intended to involve students in language and communication study in such a way that significant thinking occurs, this collection of teaching ideas outlines ways to teach literature and composition that engage the students in such thinking processes as inferring, sequencing, predicting, classifying, problem solving, and synthesizing. The activities…

  20. Do We Need More "Doing" Activities or "Thinking" Activities in the Field Practicum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mingun; Fortune, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    How do MSW students learn new professional skills in the field practicum? Does students' reflection affect the use of other learning activities during the field practicum? Students in field practica participate in activities that involve observation, doing (participatory), and conceptual linkage. In this study of MSW students, conceptual…

  1. The Effects of Aesthetic Science Activities on Improving At-Risk Families Children's Anxiety About Learning Science and Positive Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zuway-R.; Lin, Huann-shyang; Chen, Hsiang-Ting; Wang, Hsin-Hui; Lin, Chia-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of aesthetic science activities on improving elementary school at-risk families' children's positive thinking, attitudes toward science, and decreasing their anxiety about learning science. Thirty-six 4th-grade children from at-risk families volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group; another 97 typical 4th graders were randomly selected to participant in the assessment and were used as the comparison group. The treatment for experimental group children emphasized scaffolding aesthetic science activities and inquiry strategies. The Elementary School Student Questionnaire was administered to assess all children's positive thinking, attitudes toward science, and anxiety about learning science. In addition, nine target children from the experimental group with the lowest scores on either positive thinking, or attitudes toward science, or with the highest scores on anxiety about learning science in the pre-test were recruited to be interviewed at the end of the intervention and observed weekly. Confirmatory factor analyses, analyses of covariance, and content theme analysis assessed the similarities and differences between groups. It was found that the at-risk families' children were motivated by the treatment and made significant progress on positive thinking and attitudes toward science, and also decreased their anxiety about learning science. The findings from interviews and classroom observations also revealed that the intervention made differences in children's affective perceptions of learning science. Implication and research recommendation are discussed.

  2. Thinking about Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Deborah

    1991-01-01

    This document summarizes five studies that offer insight into the nature of higher-order thinking skills and the most effective methods for teaching them to students. The reviews outline the conclusions, definitions, recommendations, specific methods of teaching, instructional strategies, and programs detailed in the documents themselves.…

  3. Neural activity associated with self, other, and object-based counterfactual thinking.

    PubMed

    De Brigard, Felipe; Nathan Spreng, R; Mitchell, Jason P; Schacter, Daniel L

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has shown that autobiographical episodic counterfactual thinking-i.e., mental simulations about alternative ways in which one's life experiences could have occurred-engages the brain's default network (DN). However, it remains unknown whether or not the DN is also engaged during impersonal counterfactual thoughts, specifically those involving other people or objects. The current study compares brain activity during counterfactual simulations involving the self, others and objects. In addition, counterfactual thoughts involving others were manipulated in terms of similarity and familiarity with the simulated characters. The results indicate greater involvement of DN during person-based (i.e., self and other) as opposed to object-based counterfactual simulations. However, the involvement of different regions of the DN during other-based counterfactual simulations was modulated by how close and/or similar the simulated character was perceived to be by the participant. Simulations involving unfamiliar characters preferentially recruited dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Simulations involving unfamiliar similar characters, characters with whom participants identified personality traits, recruited lateral temporal gyrus. Finally, our results also revealed differential coupling of right hippocampus with lateral prefrontal and temporal cortex during counterfactual simulations involving familiar similar others, but with left transverse temporal gyrus and medial frontal and inferior temporal gyri during counterfactual simulations involving either oneself or unfamiliar dissimilar others. These results suggest that different brain mechanisms are involved in the simulation of personal and impersonal counterfactual thoughts, and that the extent to which regions associated with autobiographical memory are recruited during the simulation of counterfactuals involving others depends on the perceived similarity and familiarity with the simulated individuals. PMID

  4. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  5. Change Your Thinking in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primary Science, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Members of the Primary Science Editorial Board put their heads together and did some thinking about some of the activities they use to encourage children (and adults) to think. This article presents the outcome.

  6. Cognetics: Thinking Skills Activities in Inventions/Technology and Science. Teacher's Manual and Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burr, Judith E.; And Others

    Cognetics provides an exciting cooperative learning experience for students that develops both thinking skills and content knowledge. In Cognetics, teams of students in grades 3 to 12 create solutions to problems. This set contains a student manual and a teacher's manual. The teacher's manual explains the concept of cognetics and then provides…

  7. Wiki Activities in Blended Learning for Health Professional Students: Enhancing Critical Thinking and Clinical Reasoning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Health professionals use critical thinking, a key problem solving skill, for clinical reasoning which is defined as the use of knowledge and reflective inquiry to diagnose a clinical problem. Teaching these skills in traditional settings with growing class sizes is challenging, and students increasingly expect learning that is flexible and…

  8. Functional Thinking in a Year 1 Classroom: Activities that Support Its Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Elizabeth; Benson, Samantha; Green, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    The concept of a function is fundamental to virtually every aspect of mathematics and every branch of quantitative science. Presently this type of thinking is carolled at the secondary level, and yet it has many benefits for deepening the understanding of early arithmetic. This is particularly so in the way that operations can be considered as…

  9. Teaching for Thinking Today: Theory, Strategies, and Activities for the K-8 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassermann, Selma

    2009-01-01

    These are turbulent times. We live in a climate of vigorous testing and memorization, so how can we both engage and challenge our children to learn and become thinking citizens in our society? In her invaluable new book, Selma Wassermann takes a step forward from Louis Rath's seminal work and gives us some truly helpful answers to this modern…

  10. Supporting Prospective Teachers to Notice Students' Mathematical Thinking through Rehearsal Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Glenda; Hunter, Jodie; Hunter, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there have been calls for ambitious mathematics teaching which places student thinking and reasoning at the centre of instruction. Drawing on a larger study concerning implementation of practice-based pedagogies within our initial teacher education mathematics programme, this paper examines the range of opportunities for…

  11. Thinking about Eating Food Activates Visual Cortex with Reduced Bilateral Cerebellar Activation in Females with Anorexia Nervosa: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Samantha J.; O'Daly, Owen; Uher, Rudolf; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael; Williams, Steven C. R.; Schiöth, Helgi B.; Treasure, Janet; Campbell, Iain C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have aberrant cognitions about food and altered activity in prefrontal cortical and somatosensory regions to food images. However, differential effects on the brain when thinking about eating food between healthy women and those with AN is unknown. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examined neural activation when 42 women thought about eating the food shown in images: 18 with AN (11 RAN, 7 BPAN) and 24 age-matched controls (HC). Results Group contrasts between HC and AN revealed reduced activation in AN in the bilateral cerebellar vermis, and increased activation in the right visual cortex. Preliminary comparisons between AN subtypes and healthy controls suggest differences in cortical and limbic regions. Conclusions These preliminary data suggest that thinking about eating food shown in images increases visual and prefrontal cortical neural responses in females with AN, which may underlie cognitive biases towards food stimuli and ruminations about controlling food intake. Future studies are needed to explicitly test how thinking about eating activates restraint cognitions, specifically in those with restricting vs. binge-purging AN subtypes. PMID:22479499

  12. Re/Thinking Critical Thinking: The Seductions of Everyday Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Kal

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that both critical thinking and obstacles to successful critical thinking are most commonly found in the activities of everyday life. Argues for a connective criticism approach that does not assume critical means adversarial and acknowledges that critical thinking can be used as a means of opening worlds of meaning. (KS)

  13. Thinking Is Literacy, Literacy Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Terry; Billings, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing the profound relationship between thinking and language, the authors have developed the traditional Paideia seminar into a literacy cycle of instruction that involves students in reading, speaking, listening, writing, and thinking. As staff members of the National Paideia Center, they have observed that learning to think requires…

  14. Critically Thinking about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissberg, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author states that "critical thinking" has mesmerized academics across the political spectrum and that even high school students are now being called upon to "think critically." He furthers adds that it is no exaggeration to say that "critical thinking" has quickly evolved into a scholarly…

  15. Creative Thinking with Fairy Tales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flack, Jerry

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses how creative thinking can be encouraged in students through such classic tools as brainstorming and the productive thinking elements of fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration. It describes how fairy tales can be used to foster these thinking skills and suggests classroom activities. (Contains two references.) (CR)

  16. Traditional Literacy and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dando, Priscille

    2016-01-01

    How school librarians focus on activating critical thinking through traditional literacy development can proactively set the stage for the deep thinking that occurs in all literacy development. The critical-thinking skills students build while becoming accomplished readers and writers provide the foundation for learning in a variety of…

  17. Healthy Thinking: A Group Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Janet N.; Carty, Laurie

    1994-01-01

    A "Healthy Thinking" group, based on a modified Aaron Beck Cognitive Therapy model, teaches depressed clients to realistically appraise their experiences by monitoring and changing distorted thinking. Clients learn that situational stress activates long held assumptions (negative beliefs) leading to distorted thinking and ultimately depression.…

  18. The Self-Evaluation of the Project Activities by the Student Using an Assistant Tool for Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiriyama, Satoshi; Hanabusa, Takao

    In the Center for Innovation and Creativity Development of the University of Tokushima, we have regarded the training to make plans as an important educational subject for young people, and we have taken measures. In advance of the last presentation of student-projects, we realized the idea of an assistant tool for thinking, and we made students analyze and evaluate their own project activities by using the tool. Moreover, the trial which pulls out an effective question from an audience was performed by applying the tool and by using a graphical presentation form. The Students estimated both trials as useful methods.

  19. Using Think Alouds, Think Afters, and Think Togethers to Research Adolescents' Inquiry Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents three research methods--Think Alouds, Think Afters, and Think Togethers--as ways of gathering data to describe the experiences of adolescents during instructional activities. These verbal report methods were used in two studies that examined the information-seeking processes of adolescents in Inuvik, Northwest Territories and…

  20. Thinking is believing.

    PubMed

    Kasturirangan, Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    Philosophers as well lay people often think of beliefs as psychological states with dubious epistemic properties. Beliefs are conceptualized as unregulated conceptual structures, for the most part hypothetical and often fanciful or deluded. Thinking and reasoning on the other hand are seen as rational activities regulated by rules and governed by norms. Computational modeling of the mind has focused on rule-governed behavior, ultimately trying to reduce them to rules of logic. What if thinking is less like reasoning and more like believing? I argue that the classical model of thought as rational is mistaken and that thinking is fundamentally constituted by believing. This new approach forces us to re-evaluate classical epistemic concepts like "truth", "justification" etc. Furthermore, if thinking is believing, then it is not clear how thoughts can be modeled computationally. We need new mathematical ideas to model thought, ideas that are quite different from traditional logic-based mathematical structures.

  1. Nuclear age thinking

    SciTech Connect

    Depastas, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    According to the practicalist school, thinking emerges from activity and each human practice is giving food to its own distinctive kinds of perception, conduct, and perspective of the world. The author, while studying and describing developments after the commencement of the nuclear age in many fields of human behavior and knowledge, including the social sciences, particularly psychology and international politics, became an adherent to the practicalist philosophy when he perceived new relevant thoughts coming to his mind at the same time. Indeed writing is a learning experience. He has, therefore, systematically included these thoughts in the following pages and synoptically characterized them in the title: Nuclear Age Thinking. He considers this kind of thinking as automatic, conscious activity which is gradually influencing our choices and decisions. The author has reservations as regards Albert Einstein's saying that the unleashed power of the atom changed everything save our modes of thinking, because the uncontrollability of nuclear energy is apparently in the subconscious of mankind nowadays, influencing the development of a new mode of thinking, and that is the nuclear age thinking which is the subject of this book. Nuclear age thinking drives from the collective fear of extinction of life on earth due to this new power at man's disposal, and it is not only limited to the change in the conventional meaning of the words war and peace.

  2. Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suhor, Charles

    One of a series dealing with current issues affecting language arts instruction, this paper focuses on thinking skills. The paper begins by raising two issues: whether thinking skills should be taught as part of each subject area, as a separate skill, or both, and whether English and language arts teachers have a special role in the teaching of…

  3. Opening Minds: Why I Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    A high school English teacher explains why after a long teaching career, he is still motivated to remain in the classroom, focusing on his use of literature to motivate students. This teacher believes that literature reveals more about humanity than theology, philosophy, psychology, or history ever can. He notes that it also teaches beauty and…

  4. Media-Smart Youth: Eat, Think, and Be Active! A Workshop Curriculum for Youth Ages 11 to 13. Guide for Training Program Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Eunice Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    The Media-Smart Youth: Eat, Think, and Be Active! program is an engaging curriculum that helps young people understand the complex media world around them so they can make thoughtful decisions about issues important to their health, specifically nutrition and physical activity. This training guide was developed in response to the requests of…

  5. How We Think We Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Philip W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The intellectual context of this essay is the nature of human thought as examined by philosophers and psychologists past and present. Focus of study: The study focuses on the treatment of thinking by John Dewey in his two editions of "How We Think" and by William James in his "Talks to Teachers". Research Design: This is a…

  6. Milestones of critical thinking: a developmental model for medicine and nursing.

    PubMed

    Papp, Klara K; Huang, Grace C; Lauzon Clabo, Laurie M; Delva, Dianne; Fischer, Melissa; Konopasek, Lyuba; Schwartzstein, Richard M; Gusic, Maryellen

    2014-05-01

    Critical thinking is essential to a health professional's competence to assess, diagnose, and care for patients. Defined as the ability to apply higher-order cognitive skills (conceptualization, analysis, evaluation) and the disposition to be deliberate about thinking (being open-minded or intellectually honest) that lead to action that is logical and appropriate, critical thinking represents a "meta-competency" that transcends other knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors required in health care professions. Despite its importance, the developmental stages of critical thinking have not been delineated for nurses and physicians. As part of a task force of educators who considered different developmental stage theories, the authors have iteratively refined and proposed milestones in critical thinking. The attributes associated with unreflective, beginning, practicing, advanced, accomplished, and challenged critical thinkers are conceived as independent of an individual's level of training. Depending on circumstances and environmental factors, even the most experienced clinician may demonstrate attributes associated with a challenged thinker. The authors use the illustrative case of a patient with abdominal pain to demonstrate how critical thinking may manifest in learners at different stages of development, analyzing how the learner at each stage applies information obtained in the patient interaction to arrive at a differential diagnosis and plan for evaluation. The authors share important considerations and provide this work as a foundation for the development of effective approaches to teaching and promoting critical thinking and to establishing expectations for learners in this essential meta-competency.

  7. Teach Thinking through TV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faggella, Kathy

    1993-01-01

    Offers eight projects and activities designed to make elementary students wiser television viewers and better thinkers. The activities help students get more out of television, determine what is questionable, and develop visual literacy and thinking skills. Children become active consumers of television and other visual media. (SM)

  8. Think Locally, Act Globally! Linking Local and Global Communities through Democracy and Environment. Hands-On! Developing Active Learning Modules on the Human Dimensions of Global Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowler, Lorraine

    Designed so that it can be adapted to a wide range of student abilities and institutional settings, this learning module on the human dimensions of global change seeks to: actively engage students in problem solving, challenge them to think critically, invite them to participate in the process of scientific inquiry, and involve them in cooperative…

  9. The Effect of Scratch- and Lego Mindstorms Ev3-Based Programming Activities on Academic Achievement, Problem-Solving Skills and Logical-Mathematical Thinking Skills of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkmaz, Özgen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the Scratch and Lego Mindstorms Ev3 programming activities on academic achievement with respect to computer programming, and on the problem-solving and logical-mathematical thinking skills of students. This study was a semi-experimental, pretest-posttest study with two experimental groups and…

  10. Assessing the Use of YouTube Videos and Interactive Activities as a Critical Thinking Stimulator for Tertiary Students: An Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    June, Sethela; Yaacob, Aizan; Kheng, Yeoh Khar

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to investigate the use of YouTube videos and interactive activities in stimulating critical thinking among students from a public university in Malaysia. There were 50 students of mixed background, comprised of local and foreign students who participated in this study which lasted for one semester. Data was…

  11. The Effects of Aesthetic Science Activities on Improving At-Risk Families Children's Anxiety about Learning Science and Positive Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Zuway-R.; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Chen, Hsiang-Ting; Wang, Hsin-Hui; Lin, Chia-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of aesthetic science activities on improving elementary school at-risk families' children's positive thinking, attitudes toward science, and decreasing their anxiety about learning science. Thirty-six 4th-grade children from at-risk families volunteered to participate in a 12-week…

  12. Using Activity Theory to Design Constructivist Online Learning Environments for Higher Order Thinking: A Retrospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    This paper examined a particular online learning activity, embedded within a computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment incorporated as part of the larger context of participation in a unique national agricultural leadership development program. Process outcomes such as a high level of collaboration and active peer facilitation…

  13. Psychological Knowledge for Teaching Critical Thinking: The Agency of Epistemic Activity, Metacognitive Regulative Behaviour and (Student-Centred) Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclellan, Effie; Soden, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This study considers the case of a tutor whose students repeatedly evidenced significantly superior critical thinking in summative assessment. For the purpose of surfacing appropriate pedagogical action to promote critical thinking (Bassey, "Case Study Research in Educational Settings," 1999), the singularity of one tutor's reported pedagogical…

  14. Improved Creative Thinkers in a Class: A Model of Activity Based Tasks for Improving University Students' Creative Thinking Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oncu, Elif Celebi

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was improving university students' from different faculties creativity thinking through a creativity education process. The education process took twelve weeks' time. As pretest, Torrance test of creative thinking (TTCT) figural form was used. Participants were 24 university students from different faculties who…

  15. Ideological Think Tanks in the States: An Inventory of Their Prevalence, Networks, and Higher Education Policy Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Erik C.; Gándara, Denisa

    2014-01-01

    This study takes an inventory of a particular type of intermediary organization ascendant within the state-level higher education policy: ideological think tanks. Our inventory identifies 99 think tanks: 59 affiliated with the conservative State Policy Network and 40 with the Progressive States Network. The analysis shows that state-level…

  16. Organizational change through Lean Thinking.

    PubMed

    Tsasis, Peter; Bruce-Barrett, Cindy

    2008-08-01

    In production and manufacturing plants, Lean Thinking has been used to improve processes by eliminating waste and thus enhancing efficiency. In health care, Lean Thinking has emerged as a comprehensive approach towards improving processes embedded in the diagnostic, treatment and care activities of health-care organizations with cost containment results. This paper provides a case study example where Lean Thinking is not only used to improve efficiency and cost containment, but also as an approach to effective organizational change.

  17. Thinking about the thoughts of others; temporal and spatial neural activation during false belief reasoning.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sarah I; AuCoin-Power, Michelle; Urbain, Charline; Smith, Mary Lou; Pang, Elizabeth W; Taylor, Margot J

    2016-07-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to understand the perspectives, mental states and beliefs of others in order to anticipate their behaviour and is therefore crucial to social interactions. Although fMRI has been widely used to establish the neural networks implicated in ToM, little is known about the timing of ToM-related brain activity. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure the neural processes underlying ToM, as MEG provides very accurate timing and excellent spatial localization of brain processes. We recorded MEG activity during a false belief task, a reliable measure of ToM, in twenty young adults (10 females). MEG data were recorded in a 151 sensor CTF system (MISL, Coquitlam, BC) and data were co-registered to each participant's MRI (Siemens 3T) for source reconstruction. We found stronger right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) activations in the false belief condition from 150ms to 225ms, in the right precuneus from 275ms to 375ms, in the right inferior frontal gyrus from 200ms to 300ms and the superior frontal gyrus from 300ms to 400ms. Our findings extend the literature by demonstrating the timing and duration of neural activity in the main regions involved in the "mentalizing" network, showing that activations related to false belief in adults are predominantly right lateralized and onset around 100ms. The sensitivity of MEG will allow us to determine spatial and temporal differences in the brain processes in ToM in younger populations or those who demonstrate deficits in this ability. PMID:27039146

  18. Evolutionary thinking

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Tam

    2014-01-01

    Evolution as an idea has a lengthy history, even though the idea of evolution is generally associated with Darwin today. Rebecca Stott provides an engaging and thoughtful overview of this history of evolutionary thinking in her 2013 book, Darwin's Ghosts: The Secret History of Evolution. Since Darwin, the debate over evolution—both how it takes place and, in a long war of words with religiously-oriented thinkers, whether it takes place—has been sustained and heated. A growing share of this debate is now devoted to examining how evolutionary thinking affects areas outside of biology. How do our lives change when we recognize that all is in flux? What can we learn about life more generally if we study change instead of stasis? Carter Phipps’ book, Evolutionaries: Unlocking the Spiritual and Cultural Potential of Science's Greatest Idea, delves deep into this relatively new development. Phipps generally takes as a given the validity of the Modern Synthesis of evolutionary biology. His story takes us into, as the subtitle suggests, the spiritual and cultural implications of evolutionary thinking. Can religion and evolution be reconciled? Can evolutionary thinking lead to a new type of spirituality? Is our culture already being changed in ways that we don't realize by evolutionary thinking? These are all important questions and Phipps book is a great introduction to this discussion. Phipps is an author, journalist, and contributor to the emerging “integral” or “evolutionary” cultural movement that combines the insights of Integral Philosophy, evolutionary science, developmental psychology, and the social sciences. He has served as the Executive Editor of EnlightenNext magazine (no longer published) and more recently is the co-founder of the Institute for Cultural Evolution, a public policy think tank addressing the cultural roots of America's political challenges. What follows is an email interview with Phipps. PMID:26478766

  19. Thinking Outside the Box: Rectilinear Shapes Selectively Activate Scene-Selective Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Echavarria, Cesar E.; Tootell, Roger B.H.

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, an intriguing area was found in human visual cortex. This area (the parahippocampal place area [PPA]) was initially interpreted as responding selectively to images of places. However, subsequent studies reported that PPA also responds strongly to a much wider range of image categories, including inanimate objects, tools, spatial context, landmarks, objectively large objects, indoor scenes, and/or isolated buildings. Here, we hypothesized that PPA responds selectively to a lower-level stimulus property (rectilinear features), which are common to many of the above higher-order categories. Using a novel wavelet image filter, we first demonstrated that rectangular features are common in these diverse stimulus categories. Then we tested whether PPA is selectively activated by rectangular features in six independent fMRI experiments using progressively simplified stimuli, from complex real-world images, through 3D/2D computer-generated shapes, through simple line stimuli. We found that PPA was consistently activated by rectilinear features, compared with curved and nonrectangular features. This rectilinear preference was (1) comparable in amplitude and selectivity, relative to the preference for category (scenes vs faces), (2) independent of known biases for specific orientations and spatial frequency, and (3) not predictable from V1 activity. Two additional scene-responsive areas were sensitive to a subset of rectilinear features. Thus, rectilinear selectivity may serve as a crucial building block for category-selective responses in PPA and functionally related areas. PMID:24828628

  20. Think tank on school-aged children: nutrition and physical activity to prevent the rise in obesity.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Rena

    2007-06-01

    The rise in childhood obesity has generated concern across a range of sectors. Stakeholders and experts in the area of children's health met at a Think Tank in Toronto organized by the Canadian Council for Food and Nutrition and the Program in Food Safety, Nutrition, and Regulatory Affairs at the University of Toronto to discuss the current evidence in place to inform the development of school policies to reduce childhood obesity. Although there is some evidence to suggest that school interventions may reduce obesity in children, there are other examples of programs that have had very little impact. The role of parents in the development of healthy eating and physical activity patterns is critical from the earliest stages of life and warrants further attention. Delegates agreed that we need ongoing input of experts and leaders from all sectors and fields to help us to effectively promote healthy lifestyles at schools and within the home, while respecting each child's need for safety, security, and respect.

  1. Thinking in Terms of Structure-Activity-Relationships (T-SAR): A Tool to Better Understand Nanofiltration Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, José F.; Jastorff, Bernd; Störmann, Reinhold; Stolte, Stefan; Thöming, Jorg

    2011-01-01

    A frontier to be conquered in the field of membrane technology is related to the very limited scientific base for the rational and task-specific design of membranes. This is especially true for nanofiltration membranes with properties that are based on several solute-membrane interaction mechanisms. “Thinking in terms of Structure-Activity-Relationships” (T-SAR) is a methodology which applies a systematic analysis of a chemical entity based on its structural formula. However, the analysis become more complex with increasing size of the molecules considered. In this study, T-SAR was combined with classical membrane characterization methods, resulting in a new methodology which allowed us not only to explain membrane characteristics, but also provides evidence for the importance of the chemical structure for separation performance. We demonstrate an application of the combined approach and its potential to discover stereochemistry, molecular interaction potentials, and reactivity of two FilmTec nanofiltration membranes (NF-90 and NF-270). Based on these results, it was possible to predict both properties and performance in the recovery of hydrophobic ionic liquids from aqueous solution. PMID:24957730

  2. Quantitative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBridge, Lee A.

    An appeal for more research to determine how to educate children as effectively as possible is made. Mathematics teachers can readily examine the educational problems of today in their classrooms since learning progress in mathematics can easily be measured and evaluated. Since mathematics teachers have learned to think in quantitative terms and…

  3. Think Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermeyer, Fred; Ice, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Describes a series of environmental education instructional units for grades K-6 developed by the Think Earth Consortium that cover topics such as conservation, pollution control, and waste reduction. Provides testimony from one sixth-grade teacher that field tested the second-grade unit. (MDH)

  4. Thinking big

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Harry

    2008-02-01

    Physicists are often quick to discount social research based on qualitative techniques such as ethnography and "deep case studies" - where a researcher draws conclusions about a community based on immersion in the field - thinking that only quantitative research backed up by statistical analysis is sound. The balance is not so clear, however.

  5. Activating Patients for Sustained Chronic Disease Self-Management: Thinking Beyond Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dye, Cheryl J; Williams, Joel E; Evatt, Janet H

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the impact of an 8-week community program implemented by trained volunteers on the hypertension self-management of 185 patients who were batch randomized to intervention or wait-list control groups. Compared with control group participants, a higher proportion of treatment group participants moved from the cognitive to behavioral stages of motivational readiness for being physically active (P < .001), practicing healthy eating habits (P = .001), handling stress well (P = .001), and living an overall healthy lifestyle (P = .003). They also demonstrated a greater average increase in perceived competence for self-management, F(1.134) = 4.957, P = .028, η2 = .036, and a greater increase in mean hypertension-related knowledge, F(1.160) = 16.571, P < .0005, η(2) = .094. Enduring lifestyle changes necessary for chronic disease self-management require that psychosocial determinants of health behavior are instilled, which is typically beyond standard medical practice. We recommend peer-led, community-based programs as a complement to clinical care and support the increasing health system interest in promoting population health beyond clinical walls.

  6. Teaching for Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, James W., Ed.; Walberg, Herbert J., Ed.

    This volume represents a variety of current efforts to incorporate thought-provoking methods into teaching. There are three sections. "Curriculum Developments" defines key curricular terms and offers a framework and general examples of teaching tactics. In this section, Barbara Presseisen distinguishes thinking from other cognitive activities and…

  7. Thinking about Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowball, Diane

    1994-01-01

    Describes classroom word games and reading activities that encourage students to think for themselves. These include word substitution drills, reassembling sentences, and spelling-related words. Notes that encouraging students to analyze, synthesize, and apply their knowledge teaches them the skills needed to succeed as independent learners. (MDM)

  8. Thinking like an Ecologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jenn

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a lesson in which students examine current field research on global change. In particular, students investigate the effect of carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone on ecosystems by applying their knowledge of scientific inquiry and photosynthesis. The goal of the activity is for students to think like ecologists and draw…

  9. Neural activity associated with self, other, and object-based counterfactual thinking

    PubMed Central

    De Brigard, Felipe; Spreng, R. Nathan; Mitchell, Jason P.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that autobiographical episodic counterfactual thinking—i.e., mental simulations about alternative ways in which one’s life experiences could have occurred—engages the brain’s default network (DN). However, it remains unknown whether or not the DN is also engaged during impersonal counterfactual thoughts, specifically those involving other people or objects. The current study compares brain activity during counterfactual simulations involving the self, others and objects. In addition, counterfactual thoughts involving others were manipulated in terms of similarity and familiarity with the simulated characters. The results indicate greater involvement of DN during person-based (i.e., self and other) as opposed to object-based counterfactual simulations. However, the involvement of different regions of the DN during other-based counterfactual simulations was modulated by how close and/or similar the simulated character was perceived to be by the participant. Simulations involving unfamiliar characters preferentially recruited dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Simulations involving unfamiliar similar characters, characters with whom participants identified personality traits, recruited lateral temporal gyrus. Finally, our results also revealed differential coupling of right hippocampus with lateral prefrontal and temporal cortex during counterfactual simulations involving familiar similar others, but with left transverse temporal gyrus and medial frontal and inferior temporal gyri during counterfactual simulations involving either oneself or unfamiliar dissimilar others. These results suggest that different brain mechanisms are involved in the simulation of personal and impersonal counterfactual thoughts, and that the extent to which regions associated with autobiographical memory are recruited during the simulation of counterfactuals involving others depends on the perceived similarity and familiarity with the simulated individuals

  10. Holographic thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien-Ohlmann, Odile

    2000-10-01

    Holographic thinking is everywhere although we do not realize it. Turn on your TV and you will see many representations of holographic images. It is in many science fiction movies, as well as in books and the news. Now, start your computer and search the Web. What do you see, a screen with plenty of little boxes or frames, each one containing information. You can choose to go deeper by clicking here and there, but ultimately all the little boxes are related to each other. What do you have? A holographic principle where each point stands by itself, containing the whole entity while composing part of it at the same time. The following paragraphs, discussing and evaluating the characteristics of holographic thinking can be read in any order you wish. Each paragraph contributes an understanding of just one aspect of all the ideas which cannot be limited to this paper alone.

  11. Classroom Discussions with Student-Led Feedback: A Useful Activity to Enhance Development of Critical Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Kirby D.; Devitt, Amy A.

    2008-01-01

    Critical thinking skills (CTS) are the core learning outcome measures for higher education. Generally, CTS are not extensively developed or practiced during primary and secondary education. As such, early cultivation of CTS is essential for mastery prior to collegiate matriculation. Weekly engagement in 50 min of classroom discussion with student…

  12. Promoting University Students' Critical Thinking Skills through Peer Feedback Activity in an Online Discussion Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekahitanond, Visara

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of the critical inquiry model through peer feedback strategies in an online environment on university students' critical thinking skills and examined their attitudes towards learning through the critical inquiry model and peer feedback strategies. Pre-and post-tests were employed to measure critical thinking…

  13. From Passive to Active: The Impact of the Flipped Classroom through Social Learning Platforms on Higher Education Students' Creative Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zahrani, Abdulrahman M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of the flipped classroom on the promotion of students' creative thinking. Students were recruited from the Faculty of Education at King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia during the first semester of 2014. A multiple method research design was used to address the research questions. First, a two-group…

  14. Critical thinking in physics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadidi, Farahnaz

    2016-07-01

    We agree that training the next generation of leaders of the society, who have the ability to think critically and form a better judgment is an important goal. It is a long-standing concern of Educators and a long-term desire of teachers to establish a method in order to teach to think critically. To this end, many questions arise on three central aspects: the definition, the evaluation and the design of the course: What is Critical Thinking? How can we define Critical Thinking? How can we evaluate Critical Thinking? Therefore, we want to implement Critical Thinking in physics education. How can we teach for Critical Thinking in physics? What should the course syllabus and materials be? We present examples from classical physics and give perspectives for astro-particle physics. The main aim of this paper is to answer the questions and provide teachers with the opportunity to change their classroom to an active one, in which students are encouraged to ask questions and learn to reach a good judgment. Key words: Critical Thinking, evaluation, judgment, design of the course.

  15. Critical Thinking in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Rodney D.

    Critical thinking is often defined as that which a particular instrument measures. The most prominent tests are the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, the Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test, and the Cornell Critical Thinking Tests. Watson and Glaser's (1980) view of critical thinking is "a composite of attitudes, knowledge, and…

  16. Paranoid thinking as a heuristic.

    PubMed

    Preti, Antonio; Cella, Matteo

    2010-08-01

    Paranoid thinking can be viewed as a human heuristic used by individuals to deal with uncertainty during stressful situations. Under stress, individuals are likely to emphasize the threatening value of neutral stimuli and increase the reliance on paranoia-based heuristic to interpreter events and guide their decisions. Paranoid thinking can also be activated by stress arising from the possibility of losing a good opportunity; this may result in an abnormal allocation of attentional resources to social agents. A better understanding of the interplay between cognitive heuristics and emotional processes may help to detect situations in which paranoid thinking is likely to exacerbate and improve intervention for individuals with delusional disorders. PMID:20712733

  17. Thinking Routines: Replicating Classroom Practices within Museum Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolberg, Rochelle Ibanez; Goff, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This article describes thinking routines as tools to guide and support young children's thinking. These learning strategies, developed by Harvard University's Project Zero Classroom, actively engage students in constructing meaning while also understanding their own thinking process. The authors discuss how thinking routines can be used in both…

  18. Adding value to the learning process by online peer review activities: towards the elaboration of a methodology to promote critical thinking in future engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Caroline; Nascimento, Maria M.; Payan-Carreira, Rita; Cruz, Gonçalo; Silva, Helena; Lopes, José; Morais, Maria da Felicidade A.; Morais, Eva

    2015-09-01

    Considering the results of research on the benefits and difficulties of peer review, this paper describes how teaching faculty, interested in endorsing the acquisition of communication and critical thinking (CT) skills among engineering students, has been implementing a learning methodology throughout online peer review activities. While introducing a new methodology, it is important to weight the advantages found and the conditions that might have restrained the activity outcomes, thereby modulating its overall efficiency. Our results show that several factors are decisive for the success of the methodology: the use of specific and detailed orientation guidelines for CT skills, the students' training on how to deliver a meaningful feedback, the opportunity to counter-argument, the selection of good assignments' examples, and the constant teacher's monitoring of the activity. Results also tackle other aspects of the methodology such as the thinking skills evaluation tools (grades and tests) that most suit our reality. An improved methodology is proposed taking in account the encountered limitations, thus offering the possibility to other interested institutions to use/test and/or improve it.

  19. Fossils, Facies and Geologic Time: Active Learning Yields More Expert-Like Thinking in a Large Class for Senior Science Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, S.; Jones, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    Teaching and assessing concepts involving the relationships between deep time and the Earth System can be challenging. This is especially true in elective courses for senior general science students who should be starting to think more like experts, but lack background knowledge in geology. By comparing student activities and work, both before and after introducing active learning strategies, we show that increased maturity of thinking about geological time was achieved in the science elective "Earth and Life through Time" taken by 150 upper level general science students. Student demographics were very similar in 2010 and 2011 allowing comparison of data from a consistent end of term survey, classroom observations, and test or exercise questions used in both years. Students identified the workload as greater in 2011, yet they also gave the course a stronger overall rating of excellence. Also, students in 2011 felt assessments and homework were more appropriate and expressed a nearly unanimous preference for group versus solo class work. More objective indicators of improvement include item analysis on test questions which shows increased difficulty and discrimination without compromising overall scores. The wide variety of changes introduced in 2011 do make it difficult to rigorously ascribe specific causes for improvement in how students think about geologic time. However the shift towards more sophisticated thinking involving skills rather than recall can be demonstrated by comparing geological interpretations produced by students in early and improved versions of exercises. For example, labs have always involved basic identification of rocks and fossils. Now, the new in-class group-based activities enable students to use data to establish the relative history of a geologic section, including environments, ages of known materials, and time spans of materials missing at unconformities. In addition to activities, specific exam questions and corresponding results

  20. Design thinking.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tim

    2008-06-01

    In the past, design has most often occurred fairly far downstream in the development process and has focused on making new products aesthetically attractive or enhancing brand perception through smart, evocative advertising. Today, as innovation's terrain expands to encompass human-centered processes and services as well as products, companies are asking designers to create ideas rather than to simply dress them up. Brown, the CEO and president of the innovation and design firm IDEO, is a leading proponent of design thinking--a method of meeting people's needs and desires in a technologically feasible and strategically viable way. In this article he offers several intriguing examples of the discipline at work. One involves a collaboration between frontline employees from health care provider Kaiser Permanente and Brown's firm to reengineer nursing-staff shift changes at four Kaiser hospitals. Close observation of actual shift changes, combined with brainstorming and rapid prototyping, produced new procedures and software that radically streamlined information exchange between shifts. The result was more time for nursing, better-informed patient care, and a happier nursing staff. Another involves the Japanese bicycle components manufacturer Shimano, which worked with IDEO to learn why 90% of American adults don't ride bikes. The interdisciplinary project team discovered that intimidating retail experiences, the complexity and cost of sophisticated bikes, and the danger of cycling on heavily trafficked roads had overshadowed people's happy memories of childhood biking. So the team created a brand concept--"Coasting"--to describe a whole new category of biking and developed new in-store retailing strategies, a public relations campaign to identify safe places to cycle, and a reference design to inspire designers at the companies that went on to manufacture Coasting bikes. PMID:18605031

  1. Helping Students to Recognize and Evaluate an Assumption in Quantitative Reasoning: A Basic Critical-Thinking Activity with Marbles and Electronic Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slisko, Josip; Cruz, Adrian Corona

    2013-01-01

    There is a general agreement that critical thinking is an important element of 21st century skills. Although critical thinking is a very complex and controversial conception, many would accept that recognition and evaluation of assumptions is a basic critical-thinking process. When students use simple mathematical model to reason quantitatively…

  2. Computational thinking and thinking about computing.

    PubMed

    Wing, Jeannette M

    2008-10-28

    Computational thinking will influence everyone in every field of endeavour. This vision poses a new educational challenge for our society, especially for our children. In thinking about computing, we need to be attuned to the three drivers of our field: science, technology and society. Accelerating technological advances and monumental societal demands force us to revisit the most basic scientific questions of computing.

  3. Computational thinking and thinking about computing

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Jeannette M.

    2008-01-01

    Computational thinking will influence everyone in every field of endeavour. This vision poses a new educational challenge for our society, especially for our children. In thinking about computing, we need to be attuned to the three drivers of our field: science, technology and society. Accelerating technological advances and monumental societal demands force us to revisit the most basic scientific questions of computing. PMID:18672462

  4. Visual Thinking Strategies = Creative and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Mary; Cutler, Kay; Fiedler, Dave; Weier, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) into the Camelot Intermediate School curriculum in Brookings, South Dakota, has fostered the development of creative and critical thinking skills in 4th- and 5th-grade students. Making meaning together by observing carefully, deciphering patterns, speculating, clarifying, supporting opinions, and…

  5. Critical Thinking: Frameworks and Models for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahim, Mansoor; Eslamdoost, Samaneh

    2014-01-01

    Developing critical thinking since the educational revolution gave rise to flourishing movements toward embedding critical thinking (CT henceforth) stimulating classroom activities in educational settings. Nevertheless the process faced with complications such as teachability potentiality, lack of practical frameworks concerning actualization of…

  6. Philosophy, Critical Thinking and Philosophy for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Marie-France; Auriac, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    For centuries, philosophy has been considered as an intellectual activity requiring complex cognitive skills and predispositions related to complex (or critical) thinking. The Philosophy for Children (P4C) approach aims at the development of critical thinking in pupils through philosophical dialogue. Some contest the introduction of P4C in the…

  7. Beyond Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bono, Edward

    1986-01-01

    Suggests our society strongly needs thinking that is constructive, generative, and organizing; describes an educational program, CoRT (Cognitive Research Trust), which teaches creative thinking as a skill; and presents reasons for teaching thinking as a specific subject area. (MBR)

  8. Critical Thinking Concept Reconstructed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, Mary Kennedy

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the proposition that teaching of critical thinking (CT) should include: (1) identifying and addressing the many environmental variables acting as barriers to our human thinking, i.e., an open system approach, and (2) utilizing the interrelatedness of the CT building blocks, i.e., creative thinking techniques, levels of…

  9. Effective Thinking Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Rod

    1997-01-01

    Effective Thinking Outdoors (ETO) is an organization that teaches thinking skills and strategies via significant outdoor experiences. Identifies the three elements of thinking as creativity, play, and persistence; presents a graphic depiction of the problem-solving process and aims; and describes an ETO exercise, determining old routes of travel…

  10. Philosophical Thinking in Educational Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heslep, Robert D.

    This text presents educational philosophy mainly as a variety of philosophical thinking, or thought, which includes both process and content or method and principles. More specifically, the text takes such intellectual activity chiefly to be the quest for a certain kind of understanding, the quest that the ancient Greeks called "the love of…

  11. Critical Thinking about Political Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckowski, Jean A.; Lopach, James J.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that political commentary is excellent pedagogical raw material to help secondary students develop critical thinking. Outlines a lesson plan based on comparing the political commentaries of Rush Limbaugh and Will Rogers. Includes suggested evaluation activities, a list of annotated resources, and excerpts from the writings or statements of…

  12. Critical assumptions: thinking critically about critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Riddell, Thelma

    2007-03-01

    The concept of critical thinking has been featured in nursing literature for the past 20 years. It has been described but not defined by both the American Association of Colleges of Nursing and the National League for Nursing, although their corresponding accreditation bodies require that critical thinking be included in nursing curricula. In addition, there is no reliable or valid measurement tool for critical thinking ability in nursing. As a result, there is a lack of research support for the assumptions that critical thinking can be learned and that critical thinking ability improves clinical competence. Brookfield suggested that commitments should be made only after a period of critically reflective analysis, during which the congruence between perceptions and reality are examined. In an evidence-based practice profession, we, as nurse educators, need to ask ourselves how we can defend our assumptions that critical thinking can be learned and that critical thinking improves the quality of nursing practice, especially when there is virtually no consensus on a definition.

  13. The Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA) and the Traditional Approach Using Tales of Virtue Based on His Majesty the King's Teaching Concepts in Seventh Grade Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaemsai, Rungruedee; Rattanavich, Saowalak

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the English reading comprehension and ethical awareness of 7th grade students, when using either a directed reading-thinking activity (DR-TA), or a more traditional approach, involving tales of virtue based on His Majesty the King's teaching concepts. A randomized control group pretest-posttest design was used for the study,…

  14. [The EEG and thinking].

    PubMed

    Petsche, H

    1990-12-01

    The on-going EEG contains information on thinking strategies during cognitive and creative tasks and during listening to music. This was demonstrated by a method taking use of the fact that both the amount of local current production and the degree of electric coupling of brain regions is characteristically changed by mental tasks. In groups of volunteers the significant changes of absolute power and coherence caused by different mental tasks are computed and entered into schematic brain maps (EEG probability maps). The results indicate the existence of general brain strategies even in mental activities as specific as those referred to above. Moreover, several relationships between EEG, psychological test scores, degree of special education and intelligence were found. Studies with extreme value validation according to intelligence and creativity test scores yielded significant differences between the groups of the best and the poorest performers during a creative task in the EEG. The EEG thus can be conceived of as deterministic chaos with different degrees of organization according to its information content. In this context, the question arises as to a possible function of the EEG for the optimization of thinking processes.

  15. Open Minded, Thought-Filled Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelsen, Jerald

    A model adapting the ideas of the British Infant School to the culture of American education is presented. The model presents open education as potentially most useful to Indian and Migrant Education and incorporates already existing concepts, such as training in linguistics and thought. This document is divided into three parts: (1) development…

  16. Group Discussion and Individual Critical Thinking Processes: An Interactive Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixson, Marcia D.

    This paper offers a small group discussion model as a viable alternative for facilitating critical thinking. The paper first review literature discussing what critical thinking is and whether it can be taught. After defining critical thinking as an active process which involves constructing arguments, the paper concludes that an optimally…

  17. The Nature of Student Thinking in Life Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepardson, Daniel P.

    1997-01-01

    Compares the nature of student thinking in confirmation and open-inquiry laboratory activities. Reports that student thinking processes exhibited in confirmation laboratories emphasized procedures and techniques--making sense of and doing the laboratory, whereas student thinking in open-inquiry laboratories emphasized data analysis--making sense…

  18. The experience matters more than you think: People value intrinsic incentives more inside than outside an activity.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Kaitlin; Fishbach, Ayelet

    2015-12-01

    We document a shift in the value assigned to intrinsic incentives: people value these incentives more inside an activity than outside the activity (i.e., during vs. before or after pursuit). For example, people care more about the level of interest of their present work task than of past or future work tasks. We document this shift across a variety of activities (exercising, visiting a museum, and lab tasks) and using various measures, including rated importance of intrinsic incentives inside and outside pursuit, actual and planned persistence on activities that offer these incentives, and regret when choosers outside pursuit forgo intrinsic incentives that pursuers later seek. This shift in valuation occurs because intrinsic incentives improve the experience during action pursuit, and therefore, this shift is unique to intrinsic incentives. Extrinsic incentives, by contrast, are valued similarly inside and outside pursuit. PMID:26371401

  19. Implementation and evaluation of critical thinking strategies to enhance critical thinking skills in Middle Eastern nurses.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elaine; Courtney, Mary

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop, implement and evaluate critical thinking strategies to enhance critical thinking skills in Middle Eastern nurses. Critical thinking strategies such as questioning, debate, role play and small group activity were developed and used in a professional development programme, which was trialled on a sample of Middle Eastern nurses (n = 20), to promote critical thinking skills, encourage problem solving, development of clinical judgment making and care prioritization in order to improve patient care and outcomes. Classroom learning was transformed from memorization to interaction and active participation. The intervention programme was successful in developing critical thinking skills in both the nurse educators and student nurses in this programme. This programme successfully integrated critical thinking strategies into a Middle Eastern nursing curriculum. Recommendations are as follows: (1) utilize evidence-based practice and stem questions to encourage the formulation of critical thinking questions; (2) support the needs of nurse educators for them to effectively implement teaching strategies to foster critical thinking skills; and (3) adopt creative approaches to (i) transform students into interactive participants and (ii) open students' minds and stimulate higher-level thinking and problem-solving abilities.

  20. ThinkSpace: Spatial Thinking in Middle School Astronomy Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Plummer, Julia; Sadler, Philip M.; Johnson, Erin; Sunbury, Susan; Zhang, Helen; Dussault, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Critical breakthroughs in science (e.g., Einstein's Theory of General Relativity, and Watson & Crick's discovery of the structure of DNA), originated with those scientists' ability to think spatially, and research has shown that spatial ability correlates strongly with likelihood of entering a career in STEM. Mounting evidence also shows that spatial skills are malleable, i.e., they can be improved through training. We report early work from a new project that will build on this research to create a series of middle schools science labs called "Thinking Spatially about the Universe" (ThinkSpace), in which students will use a blend of physical and virtual models (in WorldWide Telescope) to explore complex 3-dimensional phenomena in space science. In the three-year ThinkSpace labs project, astronomers, technologists, and education researchers are collaborating to create and test a suite of three labs designed to improve learners' spatial abilities through studies of: 1) Moon phases and eclipses; 2) planetary systems around stars other than the Sun; and 3.) celestial motions within the broader universe. The research program will determine which elements in the labs will best promote improvement of spatial skills within activities that emphasize disciplinary core ideas; and how best to optimize interactive dynamic visualizations to maximize student understanding.

  1. The geography of thinking.

    PubMed

    Mole, John

    2002-01-01

    People in different cultures are taught to think differently. How we gather information, process, rationalise, justify and communicate our ideas is culturally determined. Europe is divided between the pragmatic, inductive thinking of North Sea cultures and the rationalist thinking of the rest of the continent. Westerners and Asians have different mental skills and capacities deriving from the nature of written and spoken language, the relative importance of learning by rote or investigation and the social environment. Western children are expected to ask questions and test ideas for themselves, while in Asia it is unacceptable to question anyone senior in age or authority, including teachers. Westerners base thinking on reason; Asians base thinking on harmony. Whenever people of different cultures work together, different ways of thinking create barriers to understanding and communication. This applies to many spheres of work, including the medical profession. PMID:12195863

  2. I think therefore I am: Rest-related prefrontal cortex neural activity is involved in generating the sense of self.

    PubMed

    Gruberger, M; Levkovitz, Y; Hendler, T; Harel, E V; Harari, H; Ben Simon, E; Sharon, H; Zangen, A

    2015-05-01

    The sense of self has always been a major focus in the psychophysical debate. It has been argued that this complex ongoing internal sense cannot be explained by any physical measure and therefore substantiates a mind-body differentiation. Recently, however, neuro-imaging studies have associated self-referential spontaneous thought, a core-element of the ongoing sense of self, with synchronous neural activations during rest in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as the medial and lateral parietal cortices. By applying deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over human PFC before rest, we disrupted activity in this neural circuitry thereby inducing reports of lowered self-awareness and strong feelings of dissociation. This effect was not found with standard or sham TMS, or when stimulation was followed by a task instead of rest. These findings demonstrate for the first time a critical, causal role of intact rest-related PFC activity patterns in enabling integrated, enduring, self-referential mental processing. PMID:25778382

  3. Implications of Spatiotemporal Regulation of Shigella flexneri Type Three Secretion Activity on Effector Functions: Think Globally, Act Locally.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Valois, F-X; Pontier, Stéphanie M

    2016-01-01

    Shigella spp. are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that infect human colonic epithelia and cause bacterial dysentery. These bacteria express multiple copies of a syringe-like protein complex, the Type Three Secretion apparatus (T3SA), which is instrumental in the etiology of the disease. The T3SA triggers the plasma membrane (PM) engulfment of the bacteria by host cells during the initial entry process. It then enables bacteria to escape the resulting phagocytic-like vacuole. Freed bacteria form actin comets to move in the cytoplasm, which provokes bacterial collision with the inner leaflet of the PM. This phenomenon culminates in T3SA-dependent secondary uptake and vacuolar rupture in neighboring cells in a process akin to what is observed during entry and named cell-to-cell spread. The activity of the T3SA of Shigella flexneri was recently demonstrated to display an on/off regulation during the infection. While the T3SA is active when bacteria are in contact with PM-derived compartments, it switches to an inactive state when bacteria are released within the cytosol. These observations indicate that effector proteins transiting through the T3SA are therefore translocated in a highly time and space constrained fashion, likely impacting on their cellular distribution. Herein, we present what is currently known about the composition, the assembly and the regulation of the T3SA activity and discuss the consequences of the on/off regulation of T3SA on Shigella effector properties and functions during the infection. Specific examples that will be developed include the role of effectors IcsB and VirA in the escape from LC3/ATG8-positive vacuoles formed during cell-to-cell spread and of IpaJ protease activity against N-miristoylated proteins. The conservation of a similar regulation of T3SA activity in other pathogens such as Salmonella or Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27014638

  4. Implications of Spatiotemporal Regulation of Shigella flexneri Type Three Secretion Activity on Effector Functions: Think Globally, Act Locally

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Valois, F.-X.; Pontier, Stéphanie M.

    2016-01-01

    Shigella spp. are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that infect human colonic epithelia and cause bacterial dysentery. These bacteria express multiple copies of a syringe-like protein complex, the Type Three Secretion apparatus (T3SA), which is instrumental in the etiology of the disease. The T3SA triggers the plasma membrane (PM) engulfment of the bacteria by host cells during the initial entry process. It then enables bacteria to escape the resulting phagocytic-like vacuole. Freed bacteria form actin comets to move in the cytoplasm, which provokes bacterial collision with the inner leaflet of the PM. This phenomenon culminates in T3SA-dependent secondary uptake and vacuolar rupture in neighboring cells in a process akin to what is observed during entry and named cell-to-cell spread. The activity of the T3SA of Shigella flexneri was recently demonstrated to display an on/off regulation during the infection. While the T3SA is active when bacteria are in contact with PM-derived compartments, it switches to an inactive state when bacteria are released within the cytosol. These observations indicate that effector proteins transiting through the T3SA are therefore translocated in a highly time and space constrained fashion, likely impacting on their cellular distribution. Herein, we present what is currently known about the composition, the assembly and the regulation of the T3SA activity and discuss the consequences of the on/off regulation of T3SA on Shigella effector properties and functions during the infection. Specific examples that will be developed include the role of effectors IcsB and VirA in the escape from LC3/ATG8-positive vacuoles formed during cell-to-cell spread and of IpaJ protease activity against N-miristoylated proteins. The conservation of a similar regulation of T3SA activity in other pathogens such as Salmonella or Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27014638

  5. Episodic future thinking.

    PubMed

    Atance, Cristina M.; O'Neill, Daniela K.

    2001-12-01

    Thinking about the future is an integral component of human cognition - one that has been claimed to distinguish us from other species. Building on the construct of episodic memory, we introduce the concept of 'episodic future thinking': a projection of the self into the future to pre-experience an event. We argue that episodic future thinking has explanatory value when considering recent work in many areas of psychology: cognitive, social and personality, developmental, clinical and neuropsychology. Episodic future thinking can serve as a unifying concept, connecting aspects of diverse research findings and identifying key questions requiring further reflection and study.

  6. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  7. Critical Thinking in Business Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sormunen, Carolee

    Critical thinking is currently a prominent issue in education. For business educators, four issues must be considered: the meaning of critical thinking, how critical thinking can be introduced into the curriculum, how critical thinking is developed in courses, and how critical thinking can be evaluated. The literature identifies three theoretical…

  8. Blue Ocean Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  9. Critical Thinking in Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronis, Diane

    This booklet includes a wheel of problem solving strategies and a seven-step process for approaching and solving complicated problems. The information provided gives students a variety of ways to approach, analyze, and think critically about mathematics problems. The chapters present guides to promoting critical thinking in cooperative groups…

  10. An Hypothesis on Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclennan, Ian

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that there exists a "finite" number of elementary concepts and distinguishable modes of thinking, that all human beings tend to acquire the same set of elements of thinking and the same strategies with which to understand and control their physical environment, and that the method of analysis used here is a standard scientific method.…

  11. Supporting Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houssart, Jenny; Roaf, Caroline; Watson, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This book looks at how practitioners have focused on the fully educational application of intellect to the problem of developing mathematical thinking among one's pupils. Each chapter demonstrates reflective minds at work, relying on close observation, willingness to understand the student's thinking processes and patient commitment to students…

  12. It Makes You Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the "It Makes You Think" resource. The lessons provided by this resource show how students can learn about the global dimension through science. The "It Makes You Think" resource contains ten topics: (1) Metals in jewellery worldwide; (2) Global food market; (3) The worldwide travels of paper; (4) Mobile phones…

  13. Against Critical Thinking Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking pedagogy is misguided. Ostensibly a cure for narrowness of thought, by using the emotions appropriate to conflict, it names only one mode of relation to material among many others. Ostensibly a cure for fallacies, critical thinking tends to dishonesty in practice because it habitually leaps to premature ideas of what the object…

  14. Thinking Skills & Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    A review of research and the views of researchers prominent in the field of thinking skill development discusses the role of thinking skills in the ability to formulate problems, resolve issues, determine the most effective decisions, and create effective solutions to problems. The views of Edward deBono, Robert Ennis, Reuven Feuerstein, Matthew…

  15. Rethinking Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    Critical thinking is of primary importance in higher education, yet the concept remains slippery and the skill elusive. The author argues that most current critical thinking textbooks are out of line with the seminal work of John Dewey. Rather than logical argument and justification, it is suggested that carefulness, open-mindedness and creativity…

  16. Thinking inside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    When one thinks of 21st century schools, one thinks of geometric modern architecture, sustainable building materials, and high-tech modular classrooms. It's rare, though, that a district has the space or the money to build that school from the ground up. Instead, the challenge for most is the transformation of the 20th century architecture to…

  17. Critical Thinking and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces some of the debates in the field of critical thinking by highlighting differences among thinkers such as Siegel, Ennis, Paul, McPeck, and Martin, and poses some questions that arise from these debates. Does rationality transcend particular cultures, or are there different kinds of thinking, different styles of reasoning? What…

  18. Reading is Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkeljohann, Rosemary

    1979-01-01

    The focus article in this newsletter contains a discussion of the theory of reading as a thinking process and offers practical suggestions for implementing instruction in teaching reading as a thinking process. The section on theory is based on observations of the reading process as perceived by psycholinguists such as Frank Smith and Kenneth…

  19. Clinical thinking in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Wells, Lloyd A

    2015-06-01

    I discuss the lack of precision in the term 'clinical reasoning' and its relationship to evidence-based medicine and critical thinking. I examine critical thinking skills, their underemphasis in medical education and successful attempts to remediate them. Evidence-based medicine (and evidence-based psychiatry) offer much but are hampered by the ubiquity and flaws of meta-analysis. I explore views of evidence-based medicine among psychiatry residents, as well as capacity for critical thinking in residents before and after a course in philosophy. I discuss decision making by experienced doctors and suggest possible futures of this issue.

  20. The Critical Thinking Workout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Terry McDaniel

    1991-01-01

    Presents a critical thinking exercise program, modeled on a physical exercise workout, for elementary teachers to use in the classroom. It includes warm-up exercises, a more strenuous workout, and a cool-down period for the brain. (SM)

  1. Stop, Breathe & Think app.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Natalie

    2014-07-15

    The Stop, Breathe & Think app is free, thanks to underwriting from Tools for Peace, the non-profit organisation that teaches people of all ages how to develop and apply kindness and compassion in their daily lives.

  2. Creative Thinking Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Clive

    1972-01-01

    A look at the latest package from a British managment training organization, which explains and demonstrates creative thinking techniques, including brainstorming. The package, designed for groups of twelve or more, consists of tapes, visuals, and associated exercises. (Editor/JB)

  3. Thinking outside our cages.

    PubMed

    Patterson-Kane, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Researchers seem to be stuck reiterating the now-familiar argument that barren boxes are bad for welfare and that rodents are due ethical consideration. But the prerequisites for real progress are new kinds of arguments, new types of data, and removal of very real practical and cultural obstacles to implementation of meaningful enrichment. We must discover what we have to do to effectively change the practices of people who have care and control of rodents in the laboratory, not just husbandry staff but those who develop the institution's protocols, job descriptions, and resourcing. Researchers are inventers of information, and like any inventor we should experience no satisfaction until our ideas are fully implemented-and we must be an active participant in that process. If we are asking animal caretakers to make deep, paradigmatic changes in their thinking, it is imperative that we in turn develop an emotionally positive understanding of areas important to them. For unless the welfare advocates truly understand the issues such as budgets, biosecurity, and branding, why should the people responsible for those subjects listen to us? PMID:20017050

  4. Teaching critical thinking

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, N. G.; Wieman, Carl E.; Bonn, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to make decisions based on data, with its inherent uncertainties and variability, is a complex and vital skill in the modern world. The need for such quantitative critical thinking occurs in many different contexts, and although it is an important goal of education, that goal is seldom being achieved. We argue that the key element for developing this ability is repeated practice in making decisions based on data, with feedback on those decisions. We demonstrate a structure for providing suitable practice that can be applied in any instructional setting that involves the acquisition of data and relating that data to scientific models. This study reports the results of applying that structure in an introductory physics laboratory course. Students in an experimental condition were repeatedly instructed to make and act on quantitative comparisons between datasets, and between data and models, an approach that is common to all science disciplines. These instructions were slowly faded across the course. After the instructions had been removed, students in the experimental condition were 12 times more likely to spontaneously propose or make changes to improve their experimental methods than a control group, who performed traditional experimental activities. The students in the experimental condition were also four times more likely to identify and explain a limitation of a physical model using their data. Students in the experimental condition also showed much more sophisticated reasoning about their data. These differences between the groups were seen to persist into a subsequent course taken the following year. PMID:26283351

  5. Teaching critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Holmes, N G; Wieman, Carl E; Bonn, D A

    2015-09-01

    The ability to make decisions based on data, with its inherent uncertainties and variability, is a complex and vital skill in the modern world. The need for such quantitative critical thinking occurs in many different contexts, and although it is an important goal of education, that goal is seldom being achieved. We argue that the key element for developing this ability is repeated practice in making decisions based on data, with feedback on those decisions. We demonstrate a structure for providing suitable practice that can be applied in any instructional setting that involves the acquisition of data and relating that data to scientific models. This study reports the results of applying that structure in an introductory physics laboratory course. Students in an experimental condition were repeatedly instructed to make and act on quantitative comparisons between datasets, and between data and models, an approach that is common to all science disciplines. These instructions were slowly faded across the course. After the instructions had been removed, students in the experimental condition were 12 times more likely to spontaneously propose or make changes to improve their experimental methods than a control group, who performed traditional experimental activities. The students in the experimental condition were also four times more likely to identify and explain a limitation of a physical model using their data. Students in the experimental condition also showed much more sophisticated reasoning about their data. These differences between the groups were seen to persist into a subsequent course taken the following year.

  6. An Arts-Based Supplemental Resource's Effect on Teachers' Perceptions of Curriculum Integration, Instructional Materials Development, Learning Activities Selections, and Critical Thinking Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eutsler, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Indiana's declining SAT scores prompted the publisher of a statewide magazine covering the literary, performing, and visual arts to take action and create a program to use the magazine as a supplemental resource for students. It was believed that such a supplemental resource could enhance critical thinking and writing skills and help raise SAT…

  7. The Curiosity in Marketing Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Mark E.; McGinnis, John

    2007-01-01

    This article identifies the curiosity in marketing thinking and offers ways to teach for marketing thinking through an environment that fosters students' curiosity. The significance of curiosity in its relationship with thinking is that when curiosity is absent, so is thinking. Challenges are discussed in recognizing the fragility of curiosity…

  8. Seeing Thinking on the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Daisy; Wineburg, Sam

    2008-01-01

    Teaching a way of thinking requires making thinking visible. Educators need to pull back the curtains from historical cognition to show students not only what historians think, but "how" they think. Given that many students believe that history is a single story to be committed to memory and that texts speak for themselves, teaching historical…

  9. Evaluating the ParticipACTION "Think Again" Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainforth, Heather L.; Jarvis, Jocelyn W.; Berry, Tanya R.; Chulak-Bozzer, Tala; Deshpande, Sameer; Faulkner, Guy; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Spence, John C.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: ParticipACTION's 2011 "Think Again" campaign aimed to draw parents', and specifically mothers', attention to the amount of physical activity (PA) their children do relative to the national guidelines (physical activity guidelines [PAG]). Purpose: To evaluate ParticipACTION's "Think Again" campaign in the context…

  10. Observing Young Children's Creative Thinking: Engagement, Involvement and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sue; Rowe, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at young children's creative thinking as inferred through observations of their activities. A total of 52 episodes of child-initiated and adult-initiated activities in 3- to 4-year-olds in an English Children's Centre were analysed using the Analysing Children's Creative Thinking (ACCT) Framework. Results showed that activities…

  11. Thinking about Thinking: An Exploration of Preservice Teachers' Views about Higher Order Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Thinking skills have long been regarded as an essential outcome of the educational process. Yet, research shows that the teaching of thinking skills in K-12 education does not follow a coherent path. Several factors affect the teaching and use of thinking skills in the classroom, with teacher knowledge and beliefs about thinking skills among the…

  12. Magazine Mania Gets Kids Writing and Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gozzi, Joan Daniels

    1987-01-01

    Magazine Mania is a series of seven reproducible self-motivating activities involving magazines such as "National Geographic" and "Ranger Rick." While enjoying the activities pupils will be increasing their self awareness, appreciation of foreign cultures, divergent thinking skills, skimming, research skills, creative writing skills, vocabulary,…

  13. Foundations of resilience thinking.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

    2014-08-01

    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems.

  14. Foundations of resilience thinking.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

    2014-08-01

    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. PMID:24975863

  15. Critical Thinking and Constructivism: Mambo Dog Fish to the Banana Patch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boghossian, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Constructivist pedagogies cannot achieve their critical thinking ambitions. Constructivism, and constructivist epistemological presuppositions, actively thwarts the critical thinking process. Using Wittgenstein's private language argument, this paper argues that corrective mechanisms--the ability to correct a student's propositions and cognitions…

  16. Teaching Thinking Skills: Social Studies. Building Students' Thinking Skills Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum-Cale, Karen

    Critical or creative thinking is simply thinking of a higher order by persons informed by fact and logic, insight and empathy. It is necessary for problem solving, invention, and achievement. Every child has the ability to be a thinker. Thinking is an act and, as such, improves with practice. The curriculum and the teacher can help student…

  17. Thinking Skills Intervention for Low-Achieving First Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotulainen, Risto; Mononen, Riikka; Aunio, Pirjo

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the improving thinking skills (ITS-1) intervention study on the thinking skills of low-achieving first graders. The intervention programme consists of 12 lessons, each lasting for 45 min. Lessons offer enriched-discovery learning activities and tasks to be solved through inductive reasoning. We used a…

  18. Stimulation of Thinking Skills in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, Maria Luisa; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, Maria Teresa; Oliver, Maria Soria

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine the effects of the instruction method "thinking actively in an academic context (TAAC)" on thinking skills, creativity, self-regulation and academic achievement. The design was pre-test-intervention-post-test with control group. The sample included 46 participants (aged 16 to 18 years), 24 experimental…

  19. Psychological Intervention in Thinking Skills with Primary Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, Maria Luisa; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, Maria Teresa; Oliver, Maria Soria

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the instruction method "Thinking Actively in an Academic Context" (TAAC) in the thinking skills of 6th grade students in primary education. The sample consisted of 58 subjects, aged between 11- and 13-years-of-age, 27 in the experimental group and 31 in the control group. A pre-test…

  20. Learning with Touchscreen Devices: Game Strategies to Improve Geometric Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soldano, Carlotta; Arzarello, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the importance of the students' game-strategic thinking during the development of mathematical activities. In particular, we hypothesise that this type of thinking helps students in the construction of logical links between concepts during the "argumentation phase" of the proving process. The…

  1. Feedback Dialogues That Stimulate Students' Reflective Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Schaaf, Marieke; Baartman, Liesbeth; Prins, Frans; Oosterbaan, Anne; Schaap, Harmen

    2013-01-01

    How can feedback dialogues stimulate students' reflective thinking? This study aims to investigate: (1) the effects of feedback dialogues between teachers and students on students' perceptions of teacher feedback and (2) the relation between features of feedback dialogues and students' thinking activities as part of reflective…

  2. Thinking Data "with" Deleuze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzei, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the author is thinking with Deleuze's philosophical concept of the "image" of the speech-act in cinema and the implications for methodology and ethics in qualitative research. Drawing on research in the USA with white teachers, this paper will specifically engage with Deleuzian concepts presented in his two books on cinema and his…

  3. Engineering Design Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lammi, Matthew; Becker, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Engineering design thinking is "a complex cognitive process" including divergence-convergence, a systems perspective, ambiguity, and collaboration (Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer, 2005, p. 104). Design is often complex, involving multiple levels of interacting components within a system that may be nested within or connected to other systems.…

  4. Conductive Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paetkau, Mark

    2007-01-01

    One of my goals as an instructor is to teach students critical thinking skills. This paper presents an example of a student-led discussion of heat conduction at the first-year level. Heat loss from a human head is calculated using conduction and radiation models. The results of these plausible (but wrong) models of heat transfer contradict what…

  5. Wishful thinking in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Stéphane; Clément, Fabrice; Mercier, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The current experiment sought to demonstrate the presence of wishful thinking--when wishes influence beliefs--in young children. A sample of 77 preschoolers needed to predict, eight times in a row, which of two plastic eggs, one containing one toy and the other containing three toys, would be drawn by a blinded experimenter. On the four trials in which the children could not keep the content of the egg drawn, they were equally likely to predict that either egg would be drawn. By contrast, on the four trials in which the children got to keep the content of the egg, they were more likely to predict that the egg with three toys would be drawn. Any effort the children exerted would be the same across conditions, so that this demonstration of wishful thinking cannot be accounted for by an effort heuristic. One group of children--a subgroup of the 5-year-olds--did not engage in wishful thinking. Children from this subgroup instead used the representativeness heuristic to guide their answers. This result suggests that having an explicit representation of the outcome inhibits children from engaging in wishful thinking in the same way as explicit representations constrain the operation of motivated reasoning in adults.

  6. Higher Level Thinking Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Barbara, Ed.

    This report describes two systems designed to improve teaching competencies and to develop higher level thinking abilities, and presents the evaluation design, statistical results, and a brief history of the major events which occurred during development. The McCollum-Davis Model is designed to develop understanding of and skill in relating a…

  7. Creativity and Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollen, Patsy Phillips

    How to deal with the absence of creativity and critical thinking in the educational setting is discussed. All efforts to improve education will be futile if we don't take into account the absence of relationship among the participants and between the participants and the content of education. Relationship--i.e., connecting with others and with…

  8. Tools for Smarter Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbett, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    You read in the paper this morning that people who take multivitamins have fewer heart attacks and are less likely to get cancer than people who don't. Does this information make you more likely to want to take multivitamins? To truly prepare students for life, schools need to teach them the critical thinking skills they need to answer questions…

  9. Forward Thinking: Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In September 2007 the Colorado Department of Education and the Colorado State Board of Education jointly announced the launch of "Forward Thinking", an ambitious plan "to create a purpose-driven and dynamic system of educational leadership, service and support that relentlessly focuses on the learning of all students." The steps detailed in this…

  10. Writing, Thinking and Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the potential of word processors for changing the ways in which students process written text and think about writing. Three levels of computer-aided writing are considered: simple word processors; computer-aided writing programs; and higher-level computer-aided processing; and improvements in writing quality. (41 references) (LRW)

  11. Thinking Like a Ssssscientist!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Catherine; Tomasek, Terry; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2010-01-01

    A fear of snakes developed into an opportunity to teach students about the process of science: formulating questions, collecting and analyzing data, and communicating findings to the public. By using snakes to help students "think like a scientist," the authors engaged students in a five-day unit on inquiry while providing information about snakes…

  12. Think Exit at Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Tom; Satterfield, Coy E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the "Think Exit at Entry" program that has become the guiding principle for the Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ). The Georgia DJJ believes that the transition process begins the day the youth enters the system and continues well after release from the institution. Literature points the need for transition planning…

  13. Developing Thinking in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, John; Graham, Alan; Johnson-Wilder, Sue

    2005-01-01

    This book is for people with an interest in algebra whether as a learner, or as a teacher, or perhaps as both. It is concerned with the "big ideas" of algebra and what it is to understand the process of thinking algebraically. The book has been structured according to a number of pedagogic principles that are exposed and discussed along the way,…

  14. Computational Thinking Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannidou, Andri; Bennett, Vicki; Repenning, Alexander; Koh, Kyu Han; Basawapatna, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    The iDREAMS project aims to reinvent Computer Science education in K-12 schools, by using game design and computational science for motivating and educating students through an approach we call Scalable Game Design, starting at the middle school level. In this paper we discuss the use of Computational Thinking Patterns as the basis for our…

  15. Learning How to Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, John C.; Cracolice, Mark S.

    2004-01-01

    Teaching strategies are becoming increasingly oriented toward guiding students' knowledge construction through cooperative learning. Enhancing students' cognitive development is a priority; students must "learn how to think." Inquiry instruction provides students with tools to make decisions based upon available evidence and an opportunity to…

  16. [A seminar for thinking?].

    PubMed

    Touzet, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The sociopolitical context in which we carry out our caregiving profession influences our methods of working. In our world marked by rationalism, thinking about care, in the framework of a seminar, is a way of engaging ourselves and of not simply becoming a functionary of care.

  17. Thinking Like a Mathematician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Michael K.; Moore-Russo, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to think like a mathematician? One of the great paradoxes of mathematics education is that, although mathematics teachers are immersed in mathematical work every day of their professional lives, most of them nevertheless have little experience with the kind of work that research mathematicians do. Their ideas of what doing…

  18. Learning to Think Critically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Social Studies Project.

    Having a twofold purpose, this booklet serves as an instructional guide for teachers and as a text for junior high students. Emphasis is upon students learning to think reflectively about major issues facing a Democratic society and to analyze various claims that they read and hear everyday in the world around them. An objective of the study is to…

  19. Nurturing Creative, Thinking Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goel, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes some ideas and experiences with training student engineers in creativity and critical thinking. In our survey, a large majority (82%) of respondents felt that as compared to all other kind of academic engagements, their projects had contributed most to develop their creativity. About 50% had also felt that their projects were…

  20. Design Thinking for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    According to Vande Zande (2007), understanding the Design Process can help students become stronger critical thinkers. With this in mind, Andrew Watson decided to undertake an observational case study in which he focused directly on Design Thinking and addressed it more intentionally in his teaching. The hope was to understand how students saw…

  1. Developing Higher Level Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbach, Barbara; Waugh, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This paper identifies an interdisciplinary, five-step process, built upon existing theory and best practices in cognitive development, effective learning environments, and outcomes-based assessment. The "Process for the Development of Higher Level Thinking Skills" provides teachers with an easy to implement method of moving toward a more…

  2. Europeana: Think Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Europeana: Think Culture (http://www.europeana.eu) is a wonderful cultural repository. It includes more than 15 million items (images, text, audio, and video) from 1,500 European institutions. Europeana provides access to an abundance of cultural and heritage information and knowledge. Because Europeana has partnered with and brought together so…

  3. Thinking Big, Aiming High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Viv

    2010-01-01

    What do teachers, providers and policymakers need to do in order to support disabled learners to "think big and aim high"? That was the question put to delegates at NIACE's annual disability conference. Some clear themes emerged, with delegates raising concerns about funding, teacher training, partnership-working and employment for disabled…

  4. Remember to Just Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2014-01-01

    This article picks up on columnist Mike Barnicle's lazy style and "I was just thinking" format in his column for the "Boston Globe." Using that model, John Harney shares a few of his thoughts on various education topics such as co ops, "competency-based education," and making civics part of the curriculum at…

  5. Creative critical-thinking strategies.

    PubMed

    Chubinski, S

    1996-01-01

    Are you looking for strategies to teach critical thinking? The author presents a variety of quick, creative strategies to facilitate teaching critical-thinking skills. These strategies engage students in their learning and are adaptable to any nursing course.

  6. Teaching Thinking in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In recent years there has been growing interest across the world in ways of developing children's thinking and learning skills. This interest has been fed by new knowledge about how the brain works and how people learn, and evidence that specific interventions can improve children's thinking and intelligence. Thinking skills are important because…

  7. Developing Historical Thinking through Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viator, Martha Graham

    2012-01-01

    The social studies classroom can and should be a place where students learn critical thinking skills, but too often, especially in the middle grades, students are asked to focus on discrete facts on which they can be tested. The purpose of this article is to suggest that sixth graders can learn the critical thinking skills of "historical thinking"…

  8. Cabbage Worms and Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Patricia

    1993-01-01

    Argues that an approach to composition instruction that emphasizes critical thinking skills produces a more analytical writer. Describes a school project that examined research on critical thinking, implemented changes in the teaching of thinking and composition, and assessed student learning. (HB)

  9. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  10. The Importance of Undisciplined Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This past year, Baylor University created a program to reward some of its best teachers and challenge them to do something truly daring: teach their students how to think--not just how to think "about" course material, but rather how to think "through" the material. The idea is to help students learn how teachers, as practitioners of their…

  11. Are There Levels of Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Francis

    1989-01-01

    This article argues that attempts to identify criteria that mark out higher-order thinking and distinguish it from lower-order thinking are still far from satisfactory. Bloom's cognitive hierarchy is discussed, as are the characteristics of higher-order thinking assembled by Resnick. (IAH)

  12. Hannah Arendt and the "Freedom" to Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Dissatisfied with the Western tradition of political philosophy, Arendt maintained a tension between the political, which she associates primarily with the freedom to act, and the philosophical, which she associates principally with the activity of thinking, throughout her works. Whilst Arendt's work is underpinned by a focus on political action,…

  13. The Development of the Simulation Thinking Rubric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolen, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    High fidelity simulation has become a widespread and costly learning strategy in nursing education because it can fill the gap left by a shortage of clinical sites. In addition, high fidelity simulation is an active learning strategy that is thought to increase higher order thinking such as clinical reasoning and judgment skills in nursing…

  14. Gestures and Insight in Advanced Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Caroline; Thomas, Michael O. J.; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    What role do gestures play in advanced mathematical thinking? We argue that the role of gestures goes beyond merely communicating thought and supporting understanding--in some cases, gestures can help generate new mathematical insights. Gestures feature prominently in a case study of two participants working on a sequence of calculus activities.…

  15. Relatively fast! Efficiency advantages of comparative thinking.

    PubMed

    Mussweiler, Thomas; Epstude, Kai

    2009-02-01

    Comparisons are a ubiquitous process in information processing. Seven studies examine whether, how, and when comparative thinking increases the efficiency of judgment and choice. Studies 1-4 demonstrate that procedurally priming participants to engage in more vs. less comparison influences how they process information about a target. Specifically, they retrieve less information about the target (Studies 1A, 1B), think more about an information-rich standard (Study 2) about which they activate judgment-relevant information (Study 3), and use this information to compensate for missing target information (Study 4). Studies 2-5 demonstrate the ensuing efficiency advantages. Participants who are primed on comparative thinking are faster in making a target judgment (Studies 2A, 2B, 4, 5) and have more residual processing capacities for a secondary task (Study 5). Studies 6 and 7 establish two boundary conditions by demonstrating that comparative thinking holds efficiency advantages only if target and standard are partly characterized by alignable features (Study 6) that are difficult to evaluate in isolation (Study 7). These findings indicate that comparative thinking may often constitute a useful mechanism to simplify information processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Sharpening your critical thinking skills.

    PubMed

    Kyzer, S P

    1996-01-01

    In the current environment of constant and rapid change in health care, critical thinking is essential. Both personal ability to think critically and a willingness to do so are involved and are related to the individual and to the organization in which the individual works. Knowledge, experience, attitudes, thinking strategies, skills, and an organizational culture that values critical thinking are essential factors in the development and practice of those skills. There is no magic solution. There must be a commitment by all levels of the organization to develop and use the principles and skills of critical thinking. PMID:9110811

  17. Sharpening your critical thinking skills.

    PubMed

    Kyzer, S P

    1996-01-01

    In the current environment of constant and rapid change in health care, critical thinking is essential. Both personal ability to think critically and a willingness to do so are involved and are related to the individual and to the organization in which the individual works. Knowledge, experience, attitudes, thinking strategies, skills, and an organizational culture that values critical thinking are essential factors in the development and practice of those skills. There is no magic solution. There must be a commitment by all levels of the organization to develop and use the principles and skills of critical thinking.

  18. Using a kinesthetic learning strategy to engage nursing student thinking, enhance retention, and improve critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Elissa A

    2014-06-01

    This article reports the outcomes of a kinesthetic learning strategy used during a cardiac lecture to engage students and to improve the use of classroom-acquired knowledge in today's challenging clinical settings. Nurse educators are constantly faced with finding new ways to engage students, stimulate critical thinking, and improve clinical application in a rapidly changing and complex health care system. Educators who deviate from the traditional pedagogy of didactic, content-driven teaching to a concept-based, student-centered approach using active and kinesthetic learning activities can enhance engagement and improve clinical problem solving, communication skills, and critical thinking to provide graduates with the tools necessary to be successful. The goals of this learning activity were to decrease the well-known classroom-clinical gap by enhancing engagement, providing deeper understanding of cardiac function and disorders, enhancing critical thinking, and improving clinical application.

  19. Thinking Like a Geologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Kirsty

    2010-01-01

    Geology is not something that people tend to think about in their day-to-day lives; at least, not until it is time to dig out the dusty old rock collection from the back of the science cupboard and teach the rocks and soils unit again! Geology is very much part of people's lives. Geology is about so much more than just looking at rocks and…

  20. Cultivating strategic thinking skills.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2012-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author presents an overview of strategic leadership and offers approaches for cultivating strategic thinking skills.

  1. Using Word Clouds in Online Discussions to Support Critical Thinking and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deNoyelles, Aimee; Reyes-Foster, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Being actively engaged in a task is often associated with critical thinking. Cultivating critical thinking skills, such as purposefully reflecting and analyzing one's own thinking, is a major goal of higher education. However, there is a challenge in providing college students opportunities to clearly demonstrate these skills in online courses.…

  2. Exploration on Cultivation of Critical Thinking in College Intensive Reading Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Lingying

    2016-01-01

    Critical thinking has drawn great concern from researchers in America and western world since 1980s. Chinese researchers have come to realize the fundamental function of critical thinking for innovation. However, it does not take effect to cultivate students' critical thinking in English classroom. English classroom activities are generally…

  3. Linkographic Evidence for Concurrent Divergent and Convergent Thinking in Creative Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, the creativity literature has stressed the role of divergent thinking in creative endeavor. More recently, it has been recognized that convergent thinking also has a role in creativity, and the design literature, which sees design as a creative activity a priori, has largely adopted this view: Divergent and convergent thinking are…

  4. Thinking Skills Instruction: Concepts and Techniques. Building Students' Thinking Skills Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiman, Marcia, Ed.; Slomianko, Joshua, Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays on thinking skills instruction and includes the following chapters and their authors: "Encounter with Thinking" (H. Anderson); "Thinking Skills: Neither an Add-on nor a Quick Fix" (A. Costa); "Teaching for Thinking, of Thinking, and about Thinking" (J. McTighe); "Thinking and Curriculum: Critical Crossroads for…

  5. Performance-Based Thinking and Training for Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Joel

    1982-01-01

    Discusses five job behavior functions viewed as necessary for practicing performance-based thinking in instructional development activities. Functions examined include the abilities to plan to perform a job, execute a task, monitor or control execution, troubleshoot, and evaluate. (MER)

  6. Facilitating the process of critical thinking for nursing.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, L

    1998-05-01

    An exploratory study was conducted during 1995 to examine the degree to which critical thinking was encouraged in nursing education throughout New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The study identified whether a sample of graduate nurses and nurse educators at 12 faculties of nursing in NSW shared similar ideas about what critical thinking entails, the best ways in which to develop critical thinking processes and whether critical thinking is a reasonable way for nurses to achieve skilled and effective nursing interventions. The findings indicate that both nursing students and nurse educators favour the facilitation of critical thinking for nursing for very practical reasons. These refer to improving professional standards of practice, stimulating inquiry and promoting sound reasoning in practice, as well as contributing to personal and professional development. Study participants were found to favour a variety of teaching and learning strategies for critical thinking, and this finding is the focus for this discussion paper. The majority of participants stated that nurses would perhaps be better able to abstract principles of thinking from the specific contexts in which they are practised. Strategies found effective for nursing practice included a variety of approaches: direct learning of skills that contribute to critical thinking, such as analysis; infusion, or integration of critical thinking in all areas of learning; and learning to think critically within distinct disciplines of thought. Analysis of the findings, therefore, suggests that critical thinking is thought to be an important component of nursing practice and that in nursing it is a complex activity, requiring a combination of dispositions, abilities and approaches that can be developed by drawing on a range of learning strategies.

  7. Development and evaluation of web-based animated pedagogical agents for facilitating critical thinking in nursing.

    PubMed

    Morey, Diane J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Web-based animated pedagogical agents on critical thinking among nursing students. A pedagogical agent or virtual character provides a possible innovative tool for critical thinking through active engagement of students by asking questions and providing feedback about a series of nursing case studies. This mixed methods experimental study used a pretest, posttest design with a control group. ANCOVA demonstrated no significant difference between the groups on the Critical Thinking Process Test. Pre- and post-think-alouds were analyzed using a rating tool and rubric for the presence of eight cognitive processes, level of critical thinking, and for accuracy of nursing diagnosis, conclusions, and evaluation. Chi-square analyses for each group revealed a significant difference for improvement of the critical thinking level and correct conclusions from pre-think-aloud to post-think-aloud, but only the pedagogical agent group had a significant result for appropriate evaluations.

  8. Applying critical thinking to nursing.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2015-08-19

    Critical thinking and writing are skills that are not easy to acquire. The term 'critical' is used differently in social and clinical contexts. Nursing students need time to master the inquisitive and ruminative aspects of critical thinking that are required in academic environments. This article outlines what is meant by critical thinking in academic settings, in relation to both theory and reflective practice. It explains how the focus of a question affects the sort of critical thinking required and offers two taxonomies of learning, to which students can refer when analysing essay requirements. The article concludes with examples of analytical writing in reference to theory and reflective practice.

  9. The critical thinking curriculum model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, William Haviland

    The Critical Thinking Curriculum Model (CTCM) utilizes a multidisciplinary approach that integrates effective learning and teaching practices with computer technology. The model is designed to be flexible within a curriculum, an example for teachers to follow, where they can plug in their own critical issue. This process engages students in collaborative research that can be shared in the classroom, across the country or around the globe. The CTCM features open-ended and collaborative activities that deal with current, real world issues which leaders are attempting to solve. As implemented in the Critical Issues Forum (CIF), an educational program administered by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the CTCM encompasses the political, social/cultural, economic, and scientific realms in the context of a current global issue. In this way, students realize the importance of their schooling by applying their efforts to an endeavor that ultimately will affect their future. This study measures student attitudes toward science and technology and the changes that result from immersion in the CTCM. It also assesses the differences in student learning in science content and problem solving for students involved in the CTCM. A sample of 24 students participated in classrooms at two separate high schools in New Mexico. The evaluation results were analyzed using SPSS in a MANOVA format in order to determine the significance of the between and within-subjects effects. A comparison ANOVA was done for each two-way MANOVA to see if the comparison groups were equal. Significant findings were validated using the Scheffe test in a Post Hoc analysis. Demographic information for the sample population was recorded and tracked, including self-assessments of computer use and availability. Overall, the results indicated that the CTCM did help to increase science content understanding and problem-solving skills for students, thereby positively effecting critical thinking. No matter if the

  10. Thinking Like a Lawyer, Thinking Like a Legal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Richard Clay

    2013-01-01

    The legal system is the product of lawyers. Lawyers are the product of a specific educational system. Therefore, to understand the legal system, we must first explore how lawyers are trained and conditioned to think. What does it mean to "Think Like a Lawyer?'' This dissertation makes use of autoethnography to explore the experience…

  11. Do Critical Thinking Exercises Improve Critical Thinking Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Ellen M.; Tally, Carrie Sacco

    2009-01-01

    Although textbooks routinely include exercises to improve critical thinking skills, the effectiveness of these exercises has not been closely examined. Additionally, the connection between critical thinking skills and formal operational thought is also relatively understudied. In the study reported here, college students completed measures of…

  12. Think3d!: Training Spatial Thinking Fundamental to STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Holly A.; Hutton, Allyson

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the initial implementation of an innovative program for elementary-age children involving origami and pop-up paper engineering to promote visuospatial thinking. While spatial ability measures correlate with science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) success, a focus on spatial thinking is all but missing in elementary…

  13. Thinking about "Design Thinking": A Study of Teacher Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retna, Kala S.

    2016-01-01

    Schools are continuously looking for new ways of enhancing student learning to equip students with skills that would enable them to cope with twenty-first century demands. One promising approach focuses on design thinking. This study examines teacher's perceptions, experiences and challenges faced in adopting design thinking. There is a lack of…

  14. Reflections on Classroom Thinking Strategies: Practical Strategies to Encourage Thinking in Your Classroom. Sixth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frangenheim, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The major purpose of this book is to introduce teachers (and by that the author means all types of teachers-classroom teachers, administrators, teacher aids, parents and coaches) to various individual and group thinking strategies related to specific questions and activities. This guide is a personal interpretation and critique of those strategies…

  15. Where's Waldo and What is He Thinking? A Search for Critical Thinking in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Phyllis

    1997-01-01

    Describes two classroom activities that introduce critical-thinking skills into social studies instruction. One is a debate, followed by position papers, on the contribution of Christopher Columbus. The other is a simulation of a Constitutional Amendment conference. Discusses which parts of the lessons specifically focus on critical-thinking…

  16. Incorporating Critical Thinking into a Regular High School Biology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohar, Anat; Tamir, Pinchas

    1993-01-01

    Describes the rationale and activities developed and tested by the Biology Critical Thinking project (BCT). Presents the project guidelines for developing activities, a list of skills selected as goals of BCT, instruments used in determining effectiveness of the activities, results of the pilot study, and a sample activity involving vitamins. (MDH)

  17. Thinking about think tanks in health care: a call for a new research agenda.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Sara E; Russell, Jill; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Korica, Maja

    2014-03-01

    Little sociological attention has been given to the role of think tanks in health policy and planning. Existing work in political science and public administration tends to define and categorise think tanks and situate them as a disinterested source of policy expertise. Despite the increasingly visible presence of think tanks in the world of health care, such work has done little to reveal how they operate, by whom and to what ends. Our article seeks to redress this firstly by examining why they have remained relatively hidden in academic analyses and secondly by advocating an interpretive approach that incorporates think tanks within the wider landscape of health policy and planning. In contrast to most existing literature, an interpretive approach acknowledges that much of the messy business of healthcare policy and planning remains hidden from view and that much can be gleaned by examining the range of organisations, actors, coalitions, everyday activities, artefacts and interactions that make up the think tank stage and that work together to shape health policy and planning. Given the paucity of research in this area, we urge the medical sociology community to open the field to further academic scrutiny.

  18. Making the link between critical appraisal, thinking and analysis.

    PubMed

    Whiffin, Charlotte Jane; Hasselder, Alison

    Nursing has become an all-graduate profession; as such, student nurses must develop their skills of critical analysis. The need to develop critical analytical thinking has been identified as the single most important skill in undergraduate education and reaching the academic requirements of level six study. In degree-level healthcare programmes, students are frequently asked to complete a structured critical appraisal of research. This paper examines how critical appraisal activities can be an opportunity for students to develop transferable critical thinking skills. Critical appraisal teaches objectivity, reflection, logic and discipline, which encourage students to think critically in both theory and practice.

  19. Critical Thinking vs. Critical Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores four kinds of critical thinking. The first is found in Socratic dialogues, which employ critical thinking mainly to reveal logical fallacies in common opinions, thus cleansing superior minds of error and leaving philosophers free to contemplate universal verities. The second is critical interpretation (hermeneutics) which…

  20. Scrutiny of Critical Thinking Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atabaki, Ali Mohammad Siahi; Keshtiaray, Narges; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.

    2015-01-01

    Learning critical thinking skills are the goal of educational systems so the term "critical thinking" (CT) is frequently found in educational policy documents. Despite this frequency, however, precise understandings among teachers of what CT really means do not exit. The present study is designed to answer the following question. We can…

  1. Team Based Engineering Design Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore design thinking among teams of high school students. This objective was encompassed in the research question driving the inquiry: How do teams of high school students allocate time across stages of design? Design thinking on the professional level typically occurs in a team environment. Many…

  2. Critical Thinking in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Changes in American education require that teachers are evaluated more often, and expectations increasingly include teaching to develop critical thinking skills. This article uses Bloom's taxonomy in describing ways physical educators can include critical thinking in their lessons, both to enhance their teaching and to meet expectations of…

  3. Thinking, Creativity, and Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSiano, Michael; DeSiano, Salvatore

    This document provides an introduction to the relationship between the current knowledge of focused and creative thinking and artificial intelligence. A model for stages of focused and creative thinking gives: problem encounter/setting, preparation, concentration/incubation, clarification/generation and evaluation/judgment. While a computer can…

  4. Quantifying Learning in Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fliegel, Richard; Holland, John

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a three-year study assessing change in critical thinking demonstrated in essays written for regular class assignments. A rubric was designed and scorers trained to assess critical thinking holistically without knowledge of the writing prompt or author's status. The longitudinal improvement in scores earned by freshmen…

  5. Preschoolers' Thinking during Block Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccolo, Diana L.; Test, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Children build foundations for mathematical thinking in early play and exploration. During the preschool years, children enjoy exploring mathematical concepts--such as patterns, shape, spatial relationships, and measurement--leading them to spontaneously engage in mathematical thinking during play. Block play is one common example that engages…

  6. Geospatial Thinking of Information Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Bradley Wade; Johnston, Melissa P.

    2013-01-01

    Geospatial thinking skills inform a host of library decisions including planning and managing facilities, analyzing service area populations, facility site location, library outlet and service point closures, as well as assisting users with their own geospatial needs. Geospatial thinking includes spatial cognition, spatial reasoning, and knowledge…

  7. Assessing Business Student Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gerald F.

    2014-01-01

    The development of student thinking skills is a major goal of business education. As with other such goals, student outcomes assessment must be undertaken to measure goal achievement. Thinking is difficult to teach; it is also difficult to assess. The purpose of this article is to improve management educators' understanding of student…

  8. A Study of Intuitive Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goethe, Susan E. A. M.

    The development and use of intuitive thinking, at all levels of education, have been of concern to scholars in recent years. This paper discusses the findings and theories of various scholars about intuitive thinking and learning, including the work of Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, Richard Jones, and Robert Ornstein. The paper also explores the use…

  9. Principals Who Think Like Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Being a principal is a complex job, requiring quick, on-the-job learning. But many principals already have deep experience in a role at the very essence of the principalship. They know how to teach. In interviews with principals, Fahey and his colleagues learned that thinking like a teacher was key to their work. Part of thinking the way a teacher…

  10. Critical Thinking and Legal Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolever, Kristin R.

    Although law professors often say that first year law students need training to "think like lawyers," many law students survive law school by practicing the "skill" of rote memory. It is when they take the bar examination or actually begin to work in a law office that they need the faculty of analytical thinking, for notes must be organized into a…

  11. Teaching Students to Think Critically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author stresses that teachers need to teach their students to think critically and to reason their way. One prerequisite for teaching critical thinking is a classroom climate of high expectations, teacher warmth and encouragement, and pleasant physical surroundings. Schools should see to it that students become progressively…

  12. Critical Thinking: Schemata vs. Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Allan R.

    1989-01-01

    Refutes the idea that critical thinking is not a skill by analyzing it from the phenomenological perspective of Edmund Husserl, and from the hermeneutic perspective of Martin Heidegger. Develops the thesis that critical thinking is a restructuring of schemata. Addresses the problem of attention or student engagement. (LS)

  13. Affective Induction and Creative Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Abascal, Enrique G.; Díaz, María D. Martín

    2013-01-01

    Three studies explored the relation between affect and production of creative divergent thinking, assessed with the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (Figural TTCT). In the first study, general, positive, and negative affect, assessed with the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were compared with creative production. In the second study,…

  14. Team Based Engineering Design Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore design thinking among teams of high school students. This objective is encompassed in the research question driving this inquiry: How do teams of high school students allocate time across stages of design? Design thinking on the professional level typically occurs in a team environment. Many…

  15. Contributions of Teachers' Thinking Styles to Critical Thinking Dispositions (Istanbul-Fatih Sample)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emir, Serap

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of the research was to determine the contributions of the teachers' thinking styles to critical thinking dispositions. Hence, it is aimed to determine whether thinking styles are related to critical thinking dispositions and thinking styles measure critical thinking dispositions or not. The research was designed in relational…

  16. Thinking Evolutionarily About Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Genné-Bacon, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are growing worldwide health concerns, yet their causes are not fully understood. Research into the etiology of the obesity epidemic is highly influenced by our understanding of the evolutionary roots of metabolic control. For half a century, the thrifty gene hypothesis, which argues that obesity is an evolutionary adaptation for surviving periods of famine, has dominated the thinking on this topic. Obesity researchers are often not aware that there is, in fact, limited evidence to support the thrifty gene hypothesis and that alternative hypotheses have been suggested. This review presents evidence for and against the thrifty gene hypothesis and introduces readers to additional hypotheses for the evolutionary origins of the obesity epidemic. Because these alternate hypotheses imply significantly different strategies for research and clinical management of obesity, their consideration is critical to halting the spread of this epidemic. PMID:24910556

  17. The Progressive Development of Early Embodied Algebraic Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radford, Luis

    2014-06-01

    In this article I present some results from a 5-year longitudinal investigation with young students about the genesis of embodied, non-symbolic algebraic thinking and its progressive transition to culturally evolved forms of symbolic thinking. The investigation draws on a cultural-historical theory of teaching and learning—the theory of objectification. Within this theory, thinking is conceived of as a form of reflection and action that is simultaneously material and ideal: It includes inner and outer speech, sensuous forms of imagination and visualisation, gestures, rhythm, and their intertwinement with material culture (symbols, artifacts, etc.). The theory articulates a cultural view of development as an unfolding dialectic process between culturally and historically constituted forms of mathematical knowing and semiotically mediated classroom activity. Looking at the experimental data through these theoretical lenses reveals a developmental path where embodied forms of thinking are sublated or subsumed into more sophisticated ones through the mediation of properly designed classroom activity.

  18. How successful leaders think.

    PubMed

    Martin, Roger

    2007-06-01

    In search of lessons to apply in our own careers, we often try to emulate what effective leaders do. Roger Martin says this focus is misplaced, because moves that work in one context may make little sense in another. A more productive, though more difficult, approach is to look at how such leaders think. After extensive interviews with more than 50 of them, the author discovered that most are integrative thinkers -that is, they can hold in their heads two opposing ideas at once and then come up with a new idea that contains elements of each but is superior to both. Martin argues that this process of consideration and synthesis (rather than superior strategy or faultless execution) is the hallmark of exceptional businesses and the people who run them. To support his point, he examines how integrative thinkers approach the four stages of decision making to craft superior solutions. First, when determining which features of a problem are salient, they go beyond those that are obviously relevant. Second, they consider multidirectional and nonlinear relationships, not just linear ones. Third, they see the whole problem and how the parts fit together. Fourth, they creatively resolve the tensions between opposing ideas and generate new alternatives. According to the author, integrative thinking is an ability everyone can hone. He points to several examples of business leaders who have done so, such as Bob Young, cofounder and former CEO of Red Hat, the dominant distributor of Linux opensource software. Young recognized from the beginning that he didn't have to choose between the two prevailing software business models. Inspired by both, he forged an innovative third way, creating a service offering for corporate customers that placed Red Hat on a path to tremendous success. PMID:17580648

  19. Two Thinking Skills Assessment Approaches: "Assessment of Pupils' Thinking Skills" and "Individual Thinking Skills Assessments"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lynsey A.; Williams, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is linked to a previous paper outlining an evaluation of a thinking skills intervention (Burke & Williams, 2008). Following extensive requests for the assessment tools used in the intervention, this short paper presents the development and potential uses of two thinking skills assessment tools. The aim of the paper is simply to make…

  20. What Medical Oncologist Residents Think about the Italian Speciality Schools: A Survey of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) on Educational, Clinical and Research Activities

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Anna; De Angelis, Carmine; Lambertini, Matteo; Cremolini, Chiara; Imbimbo, Martina; Berardi, Rossana; Di Maio, Massimo; Cascinu, Stefano; La Verde, Nicla

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Relevant heterogeneity exists among Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology, also within the same country. In order to provide a comprehensive overview of the landscape of Italian Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology, the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) undertook an online survey, inviting all the residents to describe their daily activities and to express their overall satisfaction about their programs. Methods A team composed of five residents and three consultants in medical oncology prepared a 38 items questionnaire that was published online in a reserved section, accessible through a link sent by e-mail. Residents were invited to anonymously fill in the questionnaire that included the following sub-sections: quality of teaching, clinical and research activity, overall satisfaction. Results Three-hundred and eleven (57%) out of 547 invited residents filled in the questionnaire. Two-hundred and twenty-three (72%) participants declared that attending lessons was frequently difficult and 153 (49%) declared they did not gain substantial improvement in their knowledge from them. Fifty-five percent stated that they did not receive lessons on palliative care. Their overall judgment about didactic activity was low in 63% of the interviewed. The satisfaction for clinical activity was in 86% of cases good: 84% recognized that, during the training period, they acquired a progressive independence on patients' management. About research activity, the majority (79%) of participants in the survey was actively engaged in managing patients included in clinical trials but the satisfaction level for the involvement in research activities was quite low (54%). Overall, 246 residents (79%) gave a positive global judgment of their Medical Oncology Schools. Conclusions The landscape of Italian Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology is quite heterogeneous across the country. Some improvements in the organization of teaching and in the

  1. Higher-Order Thinking: A "Basic" Skill for Everyone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chancellor, Dinah

    1991-01-01

    Described are activities involving higher order thinking skills developed for gifted students that can be used for all students. Discussed is a framework for designing activities using Bloom's Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain and William's Student Behaviors. Sample activities are included. (KR)

  2. Why Think Along? Using "Think Alouds" in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Becky

    1995-01-01

    Details how a fifth-grade teacher implemented Roger Farr's "Think-Along" strategy for developing metacognitive reading strategies for use with the novel "Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes" by Eleanor Coerr. (SR)

  3. Dichotic listening and allusive thinking.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, M S; Blaszczynski, A P; McConaghy, N

    1978-02-01

    Previous work suggests that allusive thinkers have a broader attentional process associated with weak central inhibition. The method of dichotic stimulation was used to investigate this concept. Sixty-three university students completed a battery of tests including 2 dichotic listening tasks. The Object Sorting Test was used as a measure of allusive thinking. Allusive thinkers showed a trend towards impaired shadowing performance. Mislabelling of shadow as distractor words and vice versa, on recall and recognition tasks, showed the strongest correlation with allusive thinking. Such mislabelling was considered to reflect impaired discrimination learning, and provides further support for a hypothesis relating allusive thinking to weak Pavlovaian central inhibition.

  4. Use of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal with BSN students.

    PubMed

    Frye, B; Alfred, N; Campbell, M

    1999-01-01

    The complexity and changing nature of nursing today requires proficiency in thinking skills to ensure knowledgeable, confident, creative, and sensitive decisions regarding client care. Nurse educators are faced with the task of promoting educational strategies to develop the abilities of nursing students to think critically in all health care settings (1). However, a lack of consensus on what characterizes critical thinking leads to difficulty in the development of instruments for adequate measurement. It is important to decide on a definition of critical thinking that faculty support and are willing to use in practice. The term is diversely defined in the literature. For example, Alfaro-LeFevre states that critical thinking in nursing "entails purposeful, goal directed thinking; aims to make judgments based on evidence (fact) rather than conjecture (guesswork); is based on principles of science and scientific method; requires strategies that maximize human potential and compensate for problems caused by human nature" (2). The authors of this study use a definition by Paul: "thinking about your thinking while you are thinking in order to make your thinking better, more clear, more accurate, more defensible" (3). The authors believe that the development and/or enhancement of critical thinking ability must be the result of conscious, deliberate activity throughout the nursing program. As the student matures, the ability to think critically will be manifested in decision making that reflects accurate assessment and resolution of problems. The nursing faculty selected an instrument to evaluate the critical thinking abilities of baccalaureate nursing students that had strong reliability and validity documented in the nursing literature: the total and subtest scores of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA), Form A (4). The instrument was deemed to be congruent with the definition of critical thinking supported by the faculty.

  5. Stop Thinking and Start Doing: Switching from Cognitive Therapy to Behavioral Activation in a Case of Chronic Treatment-Resistant Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottonari, Kathryn A.; Roberts, John E.; Thomas, Sherilyn N.; Read, Jennifer P.

    2008-01-01

    Several recent investigations have demonstrated that Cognitive Therapy (CT) and Behavioral Activation (BA) are both efficacious treatments for depression (Butler, Chapman, Forman, & Beck, 2006; Dimidjian et al., 2006; Dobson, 1989; Gloaguen, Cottraux, Cucherat, & Blackburn, 1998; Hollon, Thase, & Markowitz, 2002; Jacobson et al., 1996). This…

  6. High-School Students Believe School Physics Helps in Developing Logical but Not Creative Thinking: Active Learning Can Change This Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marušic, Mirko; Sliško, Josip

    2014-01-01

    This study is based on two exploratory questions with the aim of determining the relative effectiveness of two different student activities, called "Reading, Presenting and Questioning" (RPQ) and "Experimenting and Discussing" (ED), in changing students' perceptions and attitudes about the impact of physics learning on the…

  7. Think tank (1) - Its definition and the overseas situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Michio

    The definition as organization is that 1) the think tank should be policy oriented and propose the current issues, 2) it should be interdisciplinary and future oriented, and 3) it should be independent without any outside interference upon it. It is divided into three types in terms of business activity; 1) policy proposing, 2) R&D undertaking and 3) business consulting think tanks. Historically the U.S. has been leading the world because the first think tank was born in this country, and three types of think tanks have brought out the mature business undertakings there. Most of the countries other than the U.S. has held policy proposing type think tanks. The notable think tanks are Brookings Research Institute, Rand Research Institute, Battelle Memorial Institute, Arthur D. Little Co. Ltd. SRI International in the U.S.A., IFO Economic Research Institute, German Economic Research Institute in Germany, France International Relations Research Institute in France, Royal International Relations Research institute, International Strategic Matters Research Institute in the U.K., and Korean Development Research Institute, Korean industrial Research Institute in Korea. All of these have been active in the areas of politics, economics, industry and technology.

  8. New Thinking for Old Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gere, Anne R.

    1976-01-01

    Teachers need to fuse creative thinking with multi-ethnic education, so students do not see cultures as monolithic groups but learn to see beyond the generalizations to the individuality of minority group people. (JH)

  9. Brain Hemispheres and Thinking Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Esther Cappon

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews some research, particularly that of Roger Sperry, substantiating the existence of different thinking styles in the two brain hemispheres and the development of this differentiation in infancy and childhood. She draws some implications for elementary teaching. (SJL)

  10. Cognitive Psychology and Mathematical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Brian

    1981-01-01

    This review illustrates aspects of cognitive psychology relevant to the understanding of how people think mathematically. Developments in memory research, artificial intelligence, visually mediated processes, and problem-solving research are discussed. (MP)

  11. "I think they believe in me": the predictive effects of teammate- and classmate-focused relation-inferred self-efficacy in sport and physical activity settings.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Ben; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Lonsdale, Chris; Whipp, Peter R; Dimmock, James A

    2014-10-01

    Despite the prevalence of group-/team-based enactment within sport and physical activity settings, to this point the study of relation-inferred self-efficacy (RISE) has been focused upon estimations regarding a single target individual (e.g., one's coach). Accordingly, researchers have not yet considered whether individuals may also form RISE estimations regarding the extent to which the others in their group/team as a whole are confident in their ability. We applied structural equation modeling analyses with cross-sectional and prospective data collected from members of interdependent sport teams (Studies 1 and 2) and undergraduate physical activity classes (Studies 3 and 4), with the purpose of exploring these group-focused RISE inferences. Analyses showed that group-focused RISE perceptions (a) predicted individuals' confidence in their own ability, (b) were empirically distinct from conceptually related constructs, and (c) directly and/or indirectly predicted a range of downstream outcomes over and above the effects of other efficacy perceptions. Taken together, these findings provide preliminary evidence that individuals' group-focused RISE appraisals may be important to consider when investigating the network of efficacy perceptions that develops in group-based physical activity contexts. PMID:25356612

  12. Tools to Enhance Young Children's Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Angela K.

    2010-01-01

    During a neighborhood walk, preschool children from Ms. Silvia's class took pictures of buildings, businesses, and people. Back in the classroom, Ms. Silvia displayed their pictures on a large screen and used the "See/Think/Wonder" thinking routine to help the children think and talk about their experiences on the walk. Thinking routines are…

  13. Measuring Psychological Critical Thinking: An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Timothy J.; Jordan-Fleming, Mary Kay; Bodle, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking is widely considered an important skill for psychology majors. However, few measures exist of the types of critical thinking that are specific to psychology majors. Lawson (1999) designed the Psychological Critical Thinking Exam (PCTE) to measure students' ability to "think critically, or evaluate claims, in a way that…

  14. Thinking outside the cleft to understand synaptic activity: contribution of the cystine-glutamate antiporter (System xc-) to normal and pathological glutamatergic signaling.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Richard; Lutgen, Victoria; Lobner, Doug; Baker, David A

    2012-07-01

    System x(c)(-) represents an intriguing target in attempts to understand the pathological states of the central nervous system. Also called a cystine-glutamate antiporter, system x(c)(-) typically functions by exchanging one molecule of extracellular cystine for one molecule of intracellular glutamate. Nonvesicular glutamate released during cystine-glutamate exchange activates extrasynaptic glutamate receptors in a manner that shapes synaptic activity and plasticity. These findings contribute to the intriguing possibility that extracellular glutamate is regulated by a complex network of release and reuptake mechanisms, many of which are unique to glutamate and rarely depicted in models of excitatory signaling. Because system x(c)(-) is often expressed on non-neuronal cells, the study of cystine-glutamate exchange may advance the emerging viewpoint that glia are active contributors to information processing in the brain. It is noteworthy that system x(c)(-) is at the interface between excitatory signaling and oxidative stress, because the uptake of cystine that results from cystine-glutamate exchange is critical in maintaining the levels of glutathione, a critical antioxidant. As a result of these dual functions, system x(c)(-) has been implicated in a wide array of central nervous system diseases ranging from addiction to neurodegenerative disorders to schizophrenia. In the current review, we briefly discuss the major cellular components that regulate glutamate homeostasis, including glutamate release by system x(c)(-). This is followed by an in-depth discussion of system x(c)(-) as it relates to glutamate release, cystine transport, and glutathione synthesis. Finally, the role of system x(c)(-) is surveyed across a number of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders.

  15. Improving Critical Thinking with Interactive Mobile Tools and Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lin; Widdall, Chris; Ward, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how integrating interactive mobile tools into elementary pedagogy can generate enthusiasm and critical thinking among students as they learn about the world. The activities described took place over the course of six one-hour periods spanning six days. These activities address three major social studies…

  16. A Mathematical Mystery Tour: Higher-Thinking Math Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Mark

    This book contains mathematics activities based upon the concepts of Fibonacci numbers and the Golden Ratio. The activities include higher order thinking skills, calculation practice, integration with different subject areas, mathematics history, extensions and home tasks, teaching notes, and questions for thought and comprehension. A visual map…

  17. Development: Ages & Stages--How Abstract Thinking Develops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    Babies are active participants in their learning and need to explore a variety of objects. Nurturing relationships support these explorations. Objects are more clearly remembered and understood. Thus, one activity this article suggests doing with a 12-month-old to encourage abstract thinking, is talking about how squeezing the bottle of ketchup…

  18. Thinking Like a Geographer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernosky, Margaret Shaw

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an activity that engages the student in the geographic inquiry process, the student acquires geographic data and analyzes geographic information to answer a geographic question. The question is: "Do students in my class have place name mastery of the 50 states?" The activity assesses students' geo-literacy and shows the…

  19. Hippocampal amnesia disrupts creative thinking.

    PubMed

    Duff, Melissa C; Kurczek, Jake; Rubin, Rachael; Cohen, Neal J; Tranel, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Creativity requires the rapid combination and recombination of existing mental representations to create novel ideas and ways of thinking. The hippocampal system, through its interaction with neocortical storage sites, provides a relational database necessary for the creation, updating, maintenance, and juxtaposition of mental representations used in service of declarative memory. Given this functionality, we hypothesized that hippocampus would play a critical role in creative thinking. We examined creative thinking, as measured by verbal and figural forms of the torrance tests of creative thinking (TTCT), in a group of participants with hippocampal damage and severe declarative memory impairment as well as in a group of demographically matched healthy comparison participants. The patients with bilateral hippocampal damage performed significantly worse than comparison participants on both the verbal and figural portions of the TTCT. These findings suggest that hippocampus plays a role critical in creative thinking, adding to a growing body of work pointing to the diverse ways the hallmark processing features of hippocampus serve a variety of behaviors that require flexible cognition.

  20. Hippocampal amnesia disrupts creative thinking

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Melissa C.; Kurczek, Jake; Rubin, Rachael; Cohen, Neal J.; Tranel, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Creativity requires the rapid combination and recombination of existing mental representations to create novel ideas and ways of thinking. The hippocampal system, through its interaction with neocortical storage sites, provides a relational database necessary for the creation, updating, maintenance, and juxtaposition of mental representations used in service of declarative memory. Given this functionality, we hypothesized that hippocampus would play a critical role in creative thinking. We examined creative thinking, as measured by verbal and figural forms of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT), in a group of participants with hippocampal damage and severe declarative memory impairment as well as in a group of demographically matched healthy comparison participants. The patients with bilateral hippocampal damage performed significantly worse than comparison participants on both the verbal and figural portions of the TTCT. These findings suggest that hippocampus plays a role critical in creative thinking, adding to a growing body of work pointing to the diverse ways the hallmark processing features of hippocampus serve a variety of behaviors that require flexible cognition. PMID:24123555

  1. An Open Mind: Cynthia Fuerst--Kankakee Public Library, IL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Librarians like to say their libraries are the heart of their communities, and in Cynthia Fuerst's case, it is a fact. For the Kankakee Public Library, this took long, hard effort by an inspired library director, the mayor, and a developer who wanted to revive business in an economically devastated downtown. When Fuerst became the library's…

  2. Gestures and insight in advanced mathematical thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Caroline; Thomas, Michael O. J.; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2011-10-01

    What role do gestures play in advanced mathematical thinking? We argue that the role of gestures goes beyond merely communicating thought and supporting understanding - in some cases, gestures can help generate new mathematical insights. Gestures feature prominently in a case study of two participants working on a sequence of calculus activities. One participant uses gestures to clarify the relationships between a function, its derivative and its antiderivative. We show how these gestures help create a virtual mathematical construct, which in turn leads to a new problem-solving strategy. These results suggest that gestures are a productive, but potentially undertapped resource for generating new insights in advanced levels of mathematics.

  3. Thinking through Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Ralph

    2000-01-01

    Describes the metacognitive process as an important means of clarifying the complexity of nature. Presents an activity on sorting solids, liquids, and gases that incorporates a metacognitive technique. (WRM)

  4. Concerning technology: thinking with Heidegger.

    PubMed

    Zitzelsberger, Hilde M

    2004-10-01

    In human lives, technology holds sway in mundane and extraordinary ways, such as in the ways we work, entertain, transport, and feed ourselves, and importantly in the ways we encounter and manage health, disease, illness, and death. A significant area of Heidegger's later work is questioning technology. Unlike many current inquiries that centre on contemporary technology's function, utility, and positive transformations, Heidegger offers a radical way of thinking about technology through developing an inquiry that uncovers technology's essence of revealing. In this article, Heidegger's thinking about technological modes of revealing in regard to bodies, health, and illness is explored. In Heidegger's view, the ordered revealing of modern technology has overshadowed other modes of revealing. This article highlights how remembering concealment and unconcealment in its many modes can be relevant to nurses and others involved in health care. Through tracing Heidegger's thinking about technology, a more critical approach to the effects and outcomes of modern technologies within health care systems can be generated.

  5. Neural correlates of creative thinking and schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Park, Haeme R P; Kirk, Ian J; Waldie, Karen E

    2015-07-01

    Empirical studies indicate a link between creativity and schizotypal personality traits, where individuals who score highly on schizotypy measures also display greater levels of creative behaviour. However, the exact nature of this relationship is not yet clear, with only a few studies examining this association using neuroimaging methods. In the present study, the neural substrates of creative thinking were assessed with a drawing task paradigm in healthy individuals using fMRI. These regions were then statistically correlated with the participants' level of schizotypy as measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE), which is a questionnaire consisting of four dimensions. Neural activations associated with the creativity task were observed in bilateral inferior temporal gyri, left insula, left parietal lobule, right angular gyrus, as well as regions in the prefrontal cortex. This widespread pattern of activation suggests that creative thinking utilises multiple neurocognitive networks, with creative production being the result of collaboration between these regions. Furthermore, the correlational analyses found the Unusual Experiences factor of the O-LIFE to be the most common dimension associated with these areas, followed by the Impulsive Nonconformity dimension. These correlations were negative, indicating that individuals who scored the highest in these factors displayed the least amount of activation when performing the creative task. This is in line with the idea that 'less is more' for creativity, where the deactivation of specific cortical areas may facilitate creativity. Thus, these findings contribute to the evidence of a common neural basis between creativity and schizotypy.

  6. Research Thinking Development by Teaching Archaeoastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muglova, P. V.; Stoev, A. D.

    2006-08-01

    A model of research thinking development by teaching archaeoastronomy in specialized three-year extra-curriculum Astronomy programme and creation of favourable socio-educational surroundings is suggested. It is shown as a didactic system of conditions, influences and possibilities of answering specific hierarchic complex of personal needs in the 14 - 18 year age interval. Transformation of these needs in worldly values secures an active position of the students in the educational process and determines their personality development. It is also shown that the Archaeoastronomy School, as an educational environment, executes specific work of students' teaching, upbringing and progress as well as their inclusion in the real process of scientific research. Thus, they have the possibility of generating scientific ideas and obtaining results in the science archaeoastronomy. In consequence of this, their activity acquires social significance. Usages of this model of scientific school in the extra-curriculum Astronomy education reproduces norms and traditions of the real scientific research and directly relay subject content, cultural norms and values of archaeoastronomy in the educative process. Students' participation in archaeoastronomical expeditions, their competent work during the research of concrete archaeoastronomical objects create an investigation style of thinking and steady habits of scientific activity.

  7. Re-thinking residential mobility

    PubMed Central

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  8. When Technical Rationality Fails: Thinking about Terminally Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Still, A; Todd, C

    1998-01-01

    The theory that thinking is modelled on the social activity of argument is investigated through the views of general practitioners about terminally ill patients. The social activity of general practice centres on the consultation, which the doctor manages by 'technical rationality'. But this is difficult when the patient is terminally ill. In that case technical rationality is seen to fail and rhetorical skills are invoked. GPs' thinking about such consultations can be described using an agonistic model based on a hierarchy of objectives, strategies and tactics. The objective of keeping patients comfortable and dignified is aimed at through three strategies, and a variety of rhetorical tactics is drawn on in thinking about these strategies.

  9. Thinking Differently about Difference. Think Global Thinkpiece 2012 Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Fran

    2012-01-01

    In this thinkpiece Fran Martin looks at cultural similarity and difference within the context of global learning. The use of the words similarity and difference are often heard in the context of global learning. Drawing on academic theory, Martin, explores three different ways of thinking about cultural similarity and difference followed by a…

  10. Critical thinking and learning styles of nursing students at the Baccalaureate nursing program in Korea.

    PubMed

    Gyeong, Ju An; Myung, Sook Yoo

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the critical thinking dispositions and learning styles, as well as the relationships between critical thinking and learning styles of nursing students enrolled in Baccalaureate nursing programs in Korea. The convenient sample consisted of 724 students from five cities. The learning style inventory of Kolb (1976) and critical thinking disposition inventory of Rudd et al (2000) were used for collecting data. Learning styles of the subjects were Diverging 315 (43.5%), Accommodating 223 (30.4%), Assimilating 78 (10.8%), and Converging 65 (9.0%). There were no significant differences in learning styles among grades (p=.197). The level of critical thinking significantly differed among learning styles (p=.000), and grades (p=.043). Critical thinking positively related to learning styles (r=.219) and grades (r=.097). This study suggested that adopting Abstract Conceptualization and Active Experimentation modes of pedagogy may promote critical thinking.

  11. [Clinical decision making and critical thinking in the nursing diagnostic process].

    PubMed

    Müller-Staub, Maria

    2006-10-01

    The daily routine requires complex thinking processes of nurses, but clinical decision making and critical thinking are underestimated in nursing. A great demand for educational measures in clinical judgement related with the diagnostic process was found in nurses. The German literature hardly describes nursing diagnoses as clinical judgements about human reactions on health problems / life processes. Critical thinking is described as an intellectual, disciplined process of active conceptualisation, application and synthesis of information. It is gained through observation, experience, reflection and communication and leads thinking and action. Critical thinking influences the aspects of clinical decision making a) diagnostic judgement, b) therapeutic reasoning and c) ethical decision making. Human reactions are complex processes and in their course, human behavior is interpreted in the focus of health. Therefore, more attention should be given to the nursing diagnostic process. This article presents the theoretical framework of the paper "Clinical decision making: Fostering critical thinking in the nursing diagnostic process through case studies".

  12. Thinking Visually about Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroudi, Ziad

    2015-01-01

    Many introductions to algebra in high school begin with teaching students to generalise linear numerical patterns. This article argues that this approach needs to be changed so that students encounter variables in the context of modelling visual patterns so that the variables have a meaning. The article presents sample classroom activities,…

  13. Thinking Inside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Barry

    2011-01-01

    The "men's sheds" movement is a grassroots phenomenon that has engaged and inspired men from communities across Australia in hands-on, workshop-based social activity. This article seeks to "unwrap" one of several forms of learning that have been found to be enthusiastically embraced by older men previously thought of, almost patronisingly, as…

  14. Using Thinking Skills as a Bridge between ELA and Science Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Robin Lee

    2008-01-01

    This article presents five activities that demonstrate developing thinking skills in students, uses comparable ELA and science skills. The thinking skills of Blooms Taxonomy are the organizer. Skills and processes gleaned from NYS ELA and Science Standards included in the article are: categorizing, comparing, following procedures, sequencing,…

  15. Effects of Critical Thinking Strategy Training on Male/Female EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahim, Mansoor; Barjesteh, Hamed; Vaseghi, Reza

    2012-01-01

    The development of critical thinking (CT) skills has become a key goal for educators in first and second language contexts. There is evidence that the use of such activities has still not become widespread in a number of ELT situations. One reason for this may be lack of awareness about how levels of thinking can be conceptualized in ELT…

  16. Developing Thinking and Understanding in Young Children: An Introduction for Students. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Developing "Thinking and Understanding in Young Children" presents a comprehensive and accessible overview of contemporary theory and research about young children's developing thinking and understanding. Throughout this second edition, the ideas and theories presented are enlivened by transcripts of children's activities and conversations taken…

  17. Cultivating Students' Critical Thinking Ability through Simplified Modal United Nations Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Cun

    2016-01-01

    Cultivating EFL learners' critical thinking ability is an urgent task for English teachers. To integrate the training of language skills and cultivation of critical thinking ability into one language course, the author designed an activity called simplified Modal United Nations conference, which is based on the revised Bloom's Taxonomy that…

  18. Debate: a teaching strategy to improve verbal communication and critical-thinking skills.

    PubMed

    Garrett, M; Schoener, L; Hood, L

    1996-01-01

    Debate is presented as a valuable learning activity for teaching critical thinking and improving communication skills. Included in the discussion are a brief history of the use of debate as a teaching strategy, the responsibilities of the teacher and learner when using debate in the classroom, and its many advantages for developing competencies in communication and critical thinking.

  19. The Application of Critical Thinking Skills in the Public Relations Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicer, Karin-Leigh

    Public relations (PR) research on the teaching of critical thinking shows that PR practitioners must possess the communications skills and social sensitivity necessary to help organizations adapt to their environments. PR students must learn to think critically and to take an active role in learning. Practice in questioning educators' and…

  20. A Multi-Level Model of Moral Thinking Based on Neuroscience and Moral Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Changwoo; Han, Hye Min

    2011-01-01

    Developments in neurobiology are providing new insights into the biological and physical features of human thinking, and brain-activation imaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging have become the most dominant research techniques to approach the biological part of thinking. With the aid of neurobiology, there also have been…

  1. Original Thinking as a Predictor of Creative Performance in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The predictive validity of original thinking, as measured by two subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, to the performance of real-world creative activities (in such domains as art, drama, sport, music, and dance) was examined in 60 second-graders. Original thinking was significantly related to creative performance but not to…

  2. Promoting Critical-Thinking Dispositions by Using Problem Solving in Middle School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leader, Lars F.; Middleton, James A.

    2004-01-01

    This review of research generates principles for the design of instructional programs that foster critical-thinking dispositions. The dispositional aspect of critical thinking may be considered part of attitudinal memory, readily activated if sufficiently strong. We describe evidence suggesting that ill-structured problem-solving can provide…

  3. Critical Thinking or Cony Cozenage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matulich, Loretta

    Teachers of history, introductory chemistry, and literature from Portland State University, Portland Community College, Clark College, Mt. Hood Community College, and Clackamas Community College (Oregon) have been working together to foster critical thinking in their students. Teachers in these disciplines have been meeting at their respective…

  4. Foreign Language "Think Tank" Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Kathleen H.

    At the Foreign Language"Think Tank" Symposium of April 1975, the following major problems of community college foreign language teachers were identified: (1) low enrollment; (2) attrition; (3) low achievers; (4) articulation with universities; and (5) lack of interest. Suggested solutions included: (Problem 1) advertisement, a foreign language…

  5. Mock Trials and Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karraker, Meg Wilkes

    1993-01-01

    One college teacher's use of mock trials in sociology instruction is described. Students are assigned roles as petitioner, respondent, attorneys, judge, courtroom staff, witnesses, reporters, and jurors. Pretrial investigations provide experience in information-gathering and critical thinking. Posttrial debriefing reveals others' thinking…

  6. Critical Thinking Is Not Enough.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bono, Edward

    1984-01-01

    Critical thinking alone is reactive, in that it lacks the creative elements necessary for social progress. Accordingly, the author has developed the CoRT (Cognitive Research Trust) program to teach the two aspects of perception: breadth (developing a perceptual map) and change (using the map to discover solutions). (TE)

  7. Forward Thinking. Progress Report, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Since 2007, "Forward Thinking" has provided the roadmap for the department's work. These goals have served the department well in aligning and focusing the work at hand. The goals are: (1) Provide guidance and support to meet school and district needs; (2) Enhance professional development involving best practices; (3) Develop tools to eliminate…

  8. Scientific Writing = Thinking in Words

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ensuring that research results are reported accurately and effectively is an eternal challenge for scientists. The book Science Writing = Thinking in Words (David Lindsay, 2011. CSIRO Publishing) is a primer for researchers who seek to improve their impact through better written (and oral) presentat...

  9. Thinking outside the Teacher's Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darn, Steve

    2006-01-01

    This article applies theories of alternative thinking and problem solving to the teaching context. Teachers working in static situations are prone to stagnation leading to a paradigm crisis where they are forced to question the status quo. Techniques for confronting such situations are examined, along with personal management strategies and the…

  10. Thinking Relationally about Studying "Up"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stich, Amy E.; Colyar, Julia E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors argue that despite a resurgence of elite studies, the majority of existing scholarship works to reify and legitimize social inequality through its language and method. In particular, the authors utilize Pierre Bourdieu's concept of relational thinking to review and critique contemporary research on elite education and…

  11. Supporting Right-Brained Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mescolotto, Lee M.

    2010-01-01

    In his book, "A Whole New Mind", Daniel Pink champions the benefits of right-brained thinking: creativity, flexibility, empathy, and meaning. He stresses the need to not only be logical, but also aware of emotion; to not only be sequential, but also conceptual; and to not only be calculating, but also recognize value. The project described in this…

  12. Forward Thinking: Progress Report, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In fall 2007, and in alignment with the strategic plan of the Colorado State Board of Education, the Colorado Department of Education released "Forward Thinking," a plan which publicly announced seven goals that, when attained, would culminate in a statewide system of accountability and support addressing the needs of all districts. Some called…

  13. Hard Thinking about Soft Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, Guy; Costa, Arthur L.; Kallick, Bena

    2016-01-01

    People use various terms to refer to traits and tendencies connected to social-emotional behavior and ways of thinking or approaching problems--from 21st century skills to mindsets to habits of mind. Such traits are also often called soft skills or non-cognitive skills. The authors contend that these latter terms imply that these traits and…

  14. Something Essential about Interdisciplinary Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfuss, Simeon

    2011-01-01

    The integrative thinking essential to interdisciplinary inquiry requires not only critical reflection concerning the points of convergence and dissonance between disciplinary insights, but also something more personal and less predictable that this paper describes as "holding in relationship difference ways of knowing." Using the process…

  15. Teaching Machines to Think Fuzzy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Fuzzy logic programs for computers make them more human. Computers can then think through messy situations and make smart decisions. It makes computers able to control things the way people do. Fuzzy logic has been used to control subway trains, elevators, washing machines, microwave ovens, and cars. Pretty much all the human has to do is push one…

  16. The Re-Think Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gear, Jim

    1993-01-01

    The Re-Think Tree is a simple framework to help individuals assess and improve their behaviors related to environmental issues. The branches of the tree in order of priority are refuse, reduce, re-use, and recycle. Roots of the tree include such things as public opinion, education, and watchdog groups. (KS)

  17. Divergent Thinking and Interview Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batey, Mark; Rawles, Richard; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    This study examined divergent thinking (DT) test scores of applicants taking part in a selection procedure for an undergraduate psychology degree (N = 370). Interviewers made six specific (creative intelligence, motivation, work habits, emotional stability, sociability, and social responsibility) and one overall recommendation rating on each…

  18. Teacher Thinking and Student Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Chris

    This review investigated the available literature on diversity and its relationship to teacher thinking. The literature review produced 36 studies, from which five categories emerged: beliefs teachers hold about student diversity and student performance; effective teaching in diverse settings; the impact of teacher experience on teacher cognition…

  19. Objectification in Common Sense Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markova, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    In epistemologies of both scientific and common sense thinking "objectification" characterizes the formation of knowledge and concepts, yet in each case its meaning is different. In the former, objectification in acquiring knowledge refers to the individual's rationalistic reification of an object or of another person and to disengagement or…

  20. LEAN thinking in Finnish healthcare.

    PubMed

    Jorma, Tapani; Tiirinki, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Turkki, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to evaluate how LEAN thinking is used as a management and development tool in the Finnish public healthcare system and what kind of outcomes have been achieved or expected by using it. The main focus is in managing and developing patient and treatment processes. Design/methodology/approach - A mixed-method approach incorporating the Webropol survey was used. Findings - LEAN is quite a new concept in Finnish public healthcare. It is mainly used as a development tool to seek financial savings and to improve the efficiency of patient processes, but has not yet been deeply implemented. However, the experiences from LEAN initiatives have been positive, and the methodology is already quite well-known. It can be concluded that, because of positive experiences from LEAN, the environment in Finnish healthcare is ready for the deeper implementation of LEAN. Originality/value - This paper evaluates the usage of LEAN thinking for the first time in the public healthcare system of Finland as a development tool and a management system. It highlights the implementation and achieved results of LEAN thinking when used in the healthcare environment. It also highlights the expectations for LEAN thinking in Finnish public healthcare.

  1. ThinkFirst National Injury Prevention Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... these injuries are motor vehicle crashes, violence, falls, sports and recreation. What might surprise you is that ... supporting ThinkFirst! Ticket sales and Silent Auction proceeds benefit... Read more 2016 ThinkFirst Conference on Injury Prevention ...

  2. Testing College-Level Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facione, Peter A.

    1986-01-01

    At the college level, the obstacles to machine-testing of critical thinking are more pedagogical and practical than theoretical and include creating an operational definition, differentiating critical thinking skills and subskills, and establishing test reliability and validity. (MSE)

  3. Musings on Critical Thinking (Middle Ground).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Allen, Lanny

    1995-01-01

    Gives suggestions for fostering critical thinking skills among English students. Summarizes the views and theories of several educators, all of whom participated in a critical thinking conference in Boston in the summer of 1994. (HB)

  4. "Thinking about a Sustainable Earth"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeshita, Makoto

    2014-05-01

    1.Introduction The Course of study for Junior high school teaching was changed in 2008 in Japan. We should especially mention about this change that ESD, "Education for Sustainable Development," was written as a point of view. ESD is a kind of educations that is studied with a target for a region and that aims at reorganize of consciousness through thinking of how to be a better region. ESD's view was written for Social studies, Science, Foreign Languages, Health and Physical Education, Home Economics and Technical Arts, and the Period for Integrated Studies. Of these subjects, Social studies are the one of core subjects. Social studies for Junior high school consist of Geography, History and Civics. "Problem of us and international society" is the last part of Civics. Teacher helps students to understand international society deeply and think about the role of our country for it. Students research many problems (global environment, resources and energy, poverty etc.) and organize their thoughts on how make a better society as a part of the human family. I taught them to think about how to solve many themes like religious problems, terrorism problems, the North-South problems, and resource and energy problems. It is my practice to let them think about what they should do to solve the global warming problem. 2.The truth of my class I pointed out to the students that the length of summer time in Japan is increasing, and we can anticipate it will continue to increase in the future. After that, I explained to them that occurrence of sudden, heavy downpour of rain is increasing and helped them understand the process of this kind of downpour through some diagrams and pictures. I helped them understand the context of this increase of the length of summer time and heavy downpour within the whole earth's ecosystem. Such increases as these things are causing global warming. I asked them to think about what are the possible problems if global warming progresses. The ideas the

  5. Integrative thinking and learning in undergraduate nursing education: three strategies.

    PubMed

    Dickieson, Patti; Carter, Lorraine M; Walsh, Mireille

    2008-01-01

    This article describes three learning activities used in the undergraduate nursing degree program at a mid-sized university in northeastern Ontario, Canada. Each activity, a reflective writing assignment, scenario testing, and an OSCE experience, is considered in terms of integrative thinking. Formal and informal evaluation of the activities is also discussed.Based on the authors' experiences, integrative thinking including habits of mind and cognitive skills can be directed and enhanced. To maximize students' growth as integrative thinkers, they should be exposed to many kinds of activities that target this growth. Generally, such activities tend to be case-based and interactive in nature. They also require a level of scaffolding or directedness. To develop and implement such activities, teachers are encouraged to work with educational researchers and instructional designers.

  6. Thinking Like a Social Worker: Examining the Meaning of Critical Thinking in Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, John

    2015-01-01

    "Critical thinking" is frequently used to describe how social workers ought to reason. But how well has this concept helped us to develop a normative description of what it means to think like a social worker? This critical review mines the literature on critical thinking for insight into the kinds of thinking social work scholars…

  7. Critical Thinking Ability and Disposition as Factors of Performance on a Written Critical Thinking Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taube, Kurt T.

    Critical thinking has been conceptualized as a two-factor system in which critical thinking ability and critical thinking disposition combine to determine actual thinking performance. The present study used confirmatory factor analysis to investigate such a two-factor model empirically. One hundred ninety-eight Purdue University undergraduates…

  8. Think Pair Share: A Teaching Learning Strategy to Enhance Students' Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaddoura, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the change in critical thinking (CT) skills of baccalaureate nursing students who were educated using a Think-Pair-Share (TPS) or an equivalent Non-Think-Pair-Share (Non-TPS) teaching method. Critical thinking has been an essential outcome of nursing students to prepare them to provide effective and safe quality care for…

  9. Thinking and Feeling Poetry: Exploring Meanings Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eva-Wood, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    What role can emotions play in informing readers' interpretations of poems? This think-aloud study, with an experimental design, featured 10 college freshmen randomly assigned to 2 groups. The think-aloud (TA) group verbalized thoughts while reading 2 poems, and the think-and-feel-aloud (TFA) group voiced both thoughts and feelings. Participants…

  10. Think Tanks, Education and Elite Policy Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Glenn C.

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen think tanks operate in sophisticated ways to influence the development of education policies. In this paper, I reflect upon the influence of think tanks in the formation of national reform, using the Common Core State Standards initiative in the USA as an illustrative case. In doing so, I explore how certain think tanks,…

  11. Visible Thinking in High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sliman, Emily

    2013-01-01

    If a teacher asked their students what thinking looks like, what would they say? Would they just look at the teacher quizzically? The question is challenging because thinking is largely an invisible endeavor, and developing thoughtful students can be a daunting task. However, the job of mathematics teachers is to develop students who think about…

  12. Contextualism and Critical Thinking: Programmatic Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatz, Charles V.

    1989-01-01

    A view of the nature of critical thinking contexts is outlined, and several levels of generality at which the principles and procedures of critical thinking might be addressed are identified. Mastery, assessment, and the curricular place of critical thinking are discussed. (IAH)

  13. Thinking Styles of Teachers, Principals, and Inspectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastug, Özlem Yesim Özbek; Çelik, Bünyamin

    2014-01-01

    Much of current studies focus on the investigation of the thinking styles of students and teachers. However, exploring school administrators' and inpectors' thinking styles is also critical for increasing students' achievement at school. For that purpose, this study was performed to determine the thinking styles of teachers,…

  14. Critical Thinking: Its Nature, Measurement, and Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    Critical thinking comprises the mental processes, strategies, and representations people use to solve problems, make decisions, and learn new concepts. The study of critical thinking combines the educational, philosophical, and psychological traditions of thought. R. Ennis offers a philosophical taxonomy suggesting that critical thinking results…

  15. Enhancing Systems-Thinking Skills with Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Woei

    2008-01-01

    Systems thinking is an essential cognitive skill that enables individuals to develop an integrative understanding of a given subject at the conceptual and systemic level. Yet, systems thinking is not usually an innate skill. Helping students develop systems-thinking skills warrants attention from educators. This paper describes a study examining…

  16. A Sequence of Critical Thinking Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, John

    2010-01-01

    Critical thinking skills remain at the forefront of educational discussions. These higher order thinking processes, including but not limited to reflection, inference, and synthesizing information, enable individuals to make reasoned judgments not only in the classroom but in everyday life. School systems demand that critical thinking be…

  17. Divergent Thinking and Age-Related Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Aging can affect cognition in different ways. The extent to which aging affects divergent thinking is unclear. In this study, younger and older adults were compared at the performance on the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking in visual and verbal form. Results showed that older adults can think divergently as younger participants, although they…

  18. Exploring Young Children's Conceptions about Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Angela K.; Lucas, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the importance of nurturing children's thinking. This article reports on an investigation of the influence of teachers' implementation of the Visible Thinking approach developed within the Harvard Graduate School of Education Project Zero on very young children's concepts of thinking, as measured by the…

  19. Evaluating Critical Thinking Skills: Two Conceptualizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Cheryl L.

    2005-01-01

    In this study two complementary models, which were based on the strengths of existing models, were developed to analyze students' critical thinking skills. One model was used to categorize the types of critical thinking displayed by students; the other was used to evaluate the quality of the critical thinking. The models were refined and tested…

  20. Augustine and Education in Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puolimatka, Tapio

    2005-01-01

    Augustine's concept of the deep self provides a basis for a complex and many-faceted account of critical thinking. He uncovers the moral sources of thinking in the inner depths of the self and shows that critical thinking presupposes radical self-reflection ready to face the truth about oneself. Self-knowledge assumes transparency, consciousness…

  1. Toward an Integrating Framework for Teaching Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Debra; Harvey, Karen

    1988-01-01

    Teachers in Cherry Creek, Colorado, have selected a variety of programs for teaching thinking, according to the needs of their students and their own interests. A thinking skills framework modeled after ASCD's Dimensions of Thinking (Marzano et al., 1988) is now being proposed. (TE)

  2. Embedding Critical Thinking in IS Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Theda; Davis, Tim; Kazlauskas, Alanah

    2007-01-01

    It is important for students to develop critical thinking and other higher-order thinking skills during their tertiary studies. Along with the ability to think critically comes the need to develop students' meta-cognitive skills. These abilities work together to enable students to control, monitor, and regulate their own cognitive processes and…

  3. Thinking Skills: Meanings, Models, and Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presseisen, Barbara Z.

    In order for educators to plan for thinking skills in the curriculum, what is meant by thinking must first be determined. Drawing from current research, this report provides working definitions of thinking skills and practical models to explain the working relationships among different levels and different kinds of thought processes. These…

  4. Cultivating Teacher Thinking: Ideas and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jia-Li

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to develop, through a literature analysis, a portrait of the functioning and practice of teacher thinking at government and university levels. Teacher thinking is defined as habits and strategies or the habit of thinking used to collect information, analyze, understand institution, reflect, solve problems, inform decisions,…

  5. Red Dirt Thinking on Aspiration and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Sam; Guenther, John

    2013-01-01

    This article sets the scene for the series of five articles on "red dirt thinking". It first introduces the idea behind red dirt thinking as opposed to "blue sky thinking". Both accept that there are any number of creative and expansive solutions and possibilities to identified challenges--in this case, the challenge of…

  6. Developing Creative Thinking Skills in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearn, Leif

    A distinction can be made between the term "creativity" and creative thinking skills. Creativity typically refers to a talent for original and masterful production in the arts and sciences, and there is scant evidence that teachers have any influence on creativity of this kind. Creative thinking refers to a group of six thinking skills that if…

  7. Improving the Quality of Think-Alouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly; Kenny, MaryBeth

    2016-01-01

    An essential element in teaching children to effectively comprehend text is the use of teacher-led think alouds. This article presents a three-step model to improve the quality and quantity of think alouds in K-6 classrooms. The article follows elementary teachers who planned, implemented, transcribed, and reflected upon think aloud lessons to…

  8. Fostering Critical Thinking in Physical Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodewyk, Ken R.

    2009-01-01

    Critical thinking is essentially "better thinking." When students think critically they consider complex information from numerous sources and perspectives in order to make a reasonable judgment that they can justify. It has been associated with academic qualities such as decision-making, creativity, reasoning, problem-solving, debating,…

  9. Helping Elementary Teachers to Think Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2014-01-01

    An essential element in teaching children to effectively comprehend text is the use of teacher-led think alouds. The article follows a semester-long project with 31 inservice teachers, who planned, implemented, transcribed, and reflected upon think aloud lessons to build student comprehension. Through multiple exposures to think alouds, teachers…

  10. Design Thinking and the School Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Mary Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This past school year, the author set out to develop lessons that incorporated the design thinking process into her literature exploration curriculum in the school library. Design thinking is a term that the author has heard many times over the past few years in the context of education. Design thinking has been incorporated into the school…

  11. Assessing an Introduction to Systems Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Martha C.; Plate, Richard R.; Colley, Lara

    2015-01-01

    This research study investigated the learning outcomes of a brief systems thinking intervention at the undergraduate level. A pre/post experimental design (n = 50) was used to address two primary questions: (1) Can a brief introduction to systems thinking improve students' understanding of systems thinking? and (2) Which teaching method (of…

  12. Using Media as Subject Matter to Teach Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Kannel-Ray, Nancy; Newlin-Haus, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Learning should occur in social environments in which students are engaged in meaningful activities that require them to think critically and solve problems (Dewey, 1933; Phillips & Soltis, 1998). This article describes how an urban middle school interdisciplinary teaching team partnered with the authors to create a hands-on, highly engaging…

  13. Strategic Planning and Strategic Thinking Clothed in STRATEGO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baaki, John; Moseley, James L.

    2011-01-01

    This article shares experiences that participants had playing the game of STRATEGO and how the activity may be linked to strategic planning and thinking. Among the human performance technology implications of playing this game are that gamers agreed on a framework for rules, took stock on where they wanted to go in the future, and generated a risk…

  14. Think Twice and Then: Combining or Choosing in Dialectical Bootstrapping?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Stefan M.; Hertwig, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Individuals can partly recreate the "wisdom of crowds" within their own minds by combining nonredundant estimates they themselves have generated. Herzog and Hertwig (2009) showed that this accuracy gain could be boosted by urging people to actively think differently when generating a 2nd estimate ("dialectical bootstrapping").…

  15. Topical Articles: A Course Designed to Improve Psychological Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penningroth, Suzanna L.; Despain, Laran H.; Gray, Matt J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors developed a one-credit freshman-level course designed to enhance psychological critical thinking. They based the new curriculum on Stanovich's (2004) text, with an emphasis on active learning and critically evaluating claims by applying scientific concepts. To assess the effectiveness of this course, they used a pretest-posttest design…

  16. Computational Thinking in Elementary and Secondary Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadav, Aman; Mayfield, Chris; Zhou, Ninger; Hambrusch, Susanne; Korb, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Computational thinking (CT) is broadly defined as the mental activity for abstracting problems and formulating solutions that can be automated. In an increasingly information-based society, CT is becoming an essential skill for everyone. To ensure that students develop this ability at the K-12 level, it is important to provide teachers with an…

  17. Promoting Critical-Thinking Skills by Using Negotiation Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Diana; Mukherjee, Arup

    2007-01-01

    Many writers argue that it is necessary to develop critical thinking skills in business students because these skills are needed to deal with the increasing complexities of real-life problems. Although the goal appears to be laudable, it is not always clear how to go about achieving it. In this article, the authors describe active learning…

  18. Creativity and Ways of Thinking: The Japanese Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikuchi, Makoto

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates how Japanese cultural and social factors influence ways of thinking about science and carrying on technological activities. Suggests that nonlinear modes of thought using pattern-recognition rather than Western "digital" approaches and a highly formalized education contribute to the Japanese scientific method. (SK)

  19. Creating a Collaborative Context for Critical Thinking in Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Marlene A.

    This paper describes the efforts of the director of a composition program who is also a teacher of composition at an open admissions college to teach critical thinking by showing students how to use content rather than just acquire it. Applying Jean Piaget's learning theory to classroom teaching, the director attempts to create an active learning…

  20. Vocational Education for a Thinking Workforce: A Vygotskian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soden, Rebecca

    1993-01-01

    Scottish further education lecturers trained 51 students in thinking skills using the Vygotsky-Leontiev-Luria activity theory. After 13 weeks, experimentals' test scores were better than those of 41 controls, but numbers were less than significant, possibly because of students' and teachers' negative beliefs and assumptions about their ability and…

  1. Making the Write Connections: Thinking and Writing across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    Noting that the process of making and supporting generalizations and argumentation are two thinking strategies that cut across almost every subject area, this paper presents several class activities designed to improve students' ability to make and support generalizations and produce arguments in a written (or oral) composition. The first activity…

  2. Reverse case study: to think like a nurse.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Deborah A

    2011-01-01

    Reverse case study is a collaborative, innovative, active learning strategy that nurse educators can use in the classroom. Groups of students develop a case study and a care plan from a list of medications and a short two- to three-sentence scenario. The students apply the nursing process to thoroughly develop a complete case study written as a concept map. The strategy builds on previous learned information and applies the information to new content, thus promoting critical thinking and problem solving. Reverse case study has been used in both associate and baccalaureate nursing degree theory courses to generate discussion and assist students in thinking like a nurse.

  3. Teaching Activities for the Construction of a Precursor Model in 5- to 6-Year-Old Children's Thinking: The Case of Thermal Expansion and Contraction of Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravanis, Konstantinos; Papandreou, Maria; Kampeza, Maria; Vellopoulou, Angeliki

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of empirical research on the construction of a precursor model of the phenomenon of thermal expansion and contraction of metals in preschool children's thinking, which is compatible with the model used in science education. The research included 87 children aged 5-6. It was conducted at four stages, during…

  4. Fit between Future Thinking and Future Orientation on Creative Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Fa-Chung

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the impact of future thinking, and the fit between future thinking and future orientation on creative thinking. In Study 1, 83 undergraduates were randomly assigned to three groups: 50-year future thinking, 5-year future thinking, and the present-day thinking. First, the priming tasks, in which…

  5. Critical Thinking: Rationality, and the Vulcanization of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Kerry S.

    1990-01-01

    Although critical thinking has become a pedagogical industry, its endorsement by educators is uncritical. The conventional critical thinking model assumes that only logical thinking is good thinking. However, good thinking also includes rational but nonlogical cognitive functions. To ignore them is to train students in only one aspect of thinking.…

  6. We Think Green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulat, Sanja; Jokic, Ivana

    2015-04-01

    Environmental issues are the focal point in many parts of the world and scientists and ecologists undertake numerous activities to raise awareness of the citizens of the necessity to give their contribution to environmental protection. Discussing different ecological topics with our students, we came to the conclusion that they are only superficially aware of their role in the protection of nature. They do not fully realize that every contribution, no matter how small, means a lot. In order to inform them in more detail we first contacted the "RECAN" non-governmental foundation which is engaged in the protection of the environment, and they organized plenary lecture about recycling for our students. The seventh grade students attended this lecture. Consequently, they were involved in the project "Can by Can" and collected cans for recycling. But this time not only the seventh graders were involved. Our mission was to spread the word around the whole school and students from the first to the eighth grade participated and gave their contribution. Afterwards, Centre for the Talented Youth organized a workshop about the renewable energy sources for the students in eighth grade. They were given the opportunity to debate about energy sources, to express their own opinions and attitudes and to ask questions as well. All this was aimed at making our students more aware of their own responsibility for their environment and nature. Equipped with this newly acquired knowledge, our students conducted researches on the topic of solar panels and windmills and renewable energy solutions for houses.

  7. Is thinking computable?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    Strong artificial intelligence claims that conscious thought can arise in computers containing the right algorithms even though none of the programs or components of those computers understand which is going on. As proof, it asserts that brains are finite webs of neurons, each with a definite function governed by the laws of physics; this web has a set of equations that can be solved (or simulated) by a sufficiently powerful computer. Strong AI claims the Turing test as a criterion of success. A recent debate in Scientific American concludes that the Turing test is not sufficient, but leaves intact the underlying premise that thought is a computable process. The recent book by Roger Penrose, however, offers a sharp challenge, arguing that the laws of quantum physics may govern mental processes and that these laws may not be computable. In every area of mathematics and physics, Penrose finds evidence of nonalgorithmic human activity and concludes that mental processes are inherently more powerful than computational processes.

  8. "Thinking like a Neuroscientist": Using Scaffolded Grant Proposals to Foster Scientific Thinking in a Freshman Neuroscience Course.

    PubMed

    Köver, Hania; Wirt, Stacey E; Owens, Melinda T; Dosmann, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Learning and practicing scientific inquiry is an essential component of a STEM education, but it is often difficult to teach to novices or those outside of a laboratory setting. To promote scientific thinking in a freshmen introductory neuroscience course without a lab component, we developed a series of learning activities and assignments designed to foster scientific thinking through the use of scientific grant proposals. Students wrote three short grant proposals on topics ranging from molecular to cognitive neuroscience during a 10-week class (one quarter). We made this challenging and advanced task feasible for novice learners through extensive instructional scaffolding, opportunity for practice, and frequent peer and instructor feedback. Student and instructor reports indicate that the assignments were highly intellectually engaging and that they promoted critical thinking, a deeper understanding of neuroscience material, and effective written communication skills. Here we outline the mechanics of the assignment, student and instructor impressions of learning outcomes, and the advantages and disadvantages of implementing this approach.

  9. The chemists' style of thinking.

    PubMed

    Bensaude-Vincent, Bernadette

    2009-12-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of the notion of "styles of scientific thinking" introduced by Alistair Crombie and revisited by Ian Hacking, for understanding how chemistry shaped its identity. Although neither Crombie nor Hacking applied this notion to individual disciplines, it seems appropriate to use it in the case of chemistry because it helps to address a puzzling issue: how did chemists manage to shape an identity of their own, despite shifting territories and theoretical transformations? Following a presentation of the notion of style, I will argue that the stable identity of chemistry is rooted in laboratory practices, which determined the specific questions that chemists put to nature as well as the answers to their questions. The "chemical style of thinking" is characterized by (i) a specific way of knowing through making, (ii) the concern with individual materials rather than matter in general and (iii) a specific commitment to nature. PMID:20481060

  10. Critical thinking and accuracy of nurses' diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Lunney, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Interpretations of patient data are complex and diverse, contributing to a risk of low accuracy nursing diagnoses. This risk is confirmed in research findings that accuracy of nurses' diagnoses varied widely from high to low. Highly accurate diagnoses are essential, however, to guide nursing interventions for the achievement of positive health outcomes. Development of critical thinking abilities is likely to improve accuracy of nurses' diagnoses. New views of critical thinking serve as a basis for critical thinking in nursing. Seven cognitive skills and ten habits of mind are identified as dimensions of critical thinking for use in the diagnostic process. Application of the cognitive skills of critical thinking illustrates the importance of using critical thinking for accuracy of nurses' diagnoses. Ten strategies are proposed for self-development of critical thinking abilities.

  11. Research locally, think globally

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2008-07-02

    Biological knowledge is concentrated in a few areas separated by large swaths of ignorance. There are many different reasons why. Some of this stems from a few schools churning out a disproportionate number of scientists in a particular field. Anyone know the story of Yale graduates and their influence on cell biology research? George Palade, a Nobel Prize winner, started a graduate program in cell biology at Yale in the early 1970s. This program generated over 100 PhDs mostly focused on intracellular organelle biogenesis, which thus became a dominant theme in the field. Technology is also a prominent reason for the heterogeneity of biological knowledge, because a new technology can tell us a lot about specific processes while leaving others obscure. For example, anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies have allowed us to easily follow tyrosine kinase signaling pathways, but downstream signaling events mediated by other activated enzymes remain a mystery. There are ways to bridge these gaps. Take new technologies - for example, microRNAs, which were discovered using genomics technologies, could fill many holes in our knowledge of mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene regulation and signal transduction. I do have a fear, however, that microRNAs will also become a specialized field, as has happened so many times before. Why? Because biologists are typically reductionists, who tend to pursue a general observation down to its most fundamental level. Reductionism is driven by basic human nature and our difficulty in comprehending complex processes. Reductionism in biology is also strongly driven by journal reviewers. I can’t count the number of times that I have submitted a paper only to have some reviewer ask for more details, extra experiments and clarification of some arcane mechanism that was beside the point. Eventually, reviewer expectations become our own when we have the opportunity to review our colleagues’ papers. However, it is not realistic to expect that

  12. Think crisis-think female: the glass cliff and contextual variation in the think manager-think male stereotype.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Michelle K; Haslam, S Alexander; Hersby, Mette D; Bongiorno, Renata

    2011-05-01

    The "think manager-think male" (TMTM) association underlies many gender inequalities in the workplace. However, research into the "glass cliff" has demonstrated that the suitability of male and female managers varies as a function of company performance such that in times of poor performance people may "think female" (Ryan & Haslam, 2005, 2007). Three studies examined gender and managerial stereotypes in the context of companies that are doing well or doing badly. Study 1 reproduced TMTM associations for descriptions of managers of successful companies but demonstrated a reversal for managers of unsuccessful companies. Study 2 examined the prescriptive nature of these stereotypes. No TMTM relationship was found for ideal managers of successful companies, but ideal managers of unsuccessful companies were associated with the female stereotype. Study 3 suggested that women may be favored in times of poor performance, not because they are expected to improve the situation, but because they are seen to be good people managers and can take the blame for organizational failure. Together, the studies illustrate the importance of context as a moderator of the TMTM association. Practical and theoretical implications for gender discrimination in the workplace are discussed. PMID:21171729

  13. Think crisis-think female: the glass cliff and contextual variation in the think manager-think male stereotype.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Michelle K; Haslam, S Alexander; Hersby, Mette D; Bongiorno, Renata

    2011-05-01

    The "think manager-think male" (TMTM) association underlies many gender inequalities in the workplace. However, research into the "glass cliff" has demonstrated that the suitability of male and female managers varies as a function of company performance such that in times of poor performance people may "think female" (Ryan & Haslam, 2005, 2007). Three studies examined gender and managerial stereotypes in the context of companies that are doing well or doing badly. Study 1 reproduced TMTM associations for descriptions of managers of successful companies but demonstrated a reversal for managers of unsuccessful companies. Study 2 examined the prescriptive nature of these stereotypes. No TMTM relationship was found for ideal managers of successful companies, but ideal managers of unsuccessful companies were associated with the female stereotype. Study 3 suggested that women may be favored in times of poor performance, not because they are expected to improve the situation, but because they are seen to be good people managers and can take the blame for organizational failure. Together, the studies illustrate the importance of context as a moderator of the TMTM association. Practical and theoretical implications for gender discrimination in the workplace are discussed.

  14. Adaptive memory: thinking about function.

    PubMed

    Bell, Raoul; Röer, Jan P; Buchner, Axel

    2015-07-01

    Rating the relevance of words for the imagined situation of being stranded in the grasslands without survival material leads to exceptionally good memory for these words. This survival processing effect has received much attention because it promises to elucidate the evolutionary foundations of memory. However, the proximate mechanisms of the survival processing effect have to be identified before informed speculations about its adaptive function are possible. Here, we test and contrast 2 promising accounts of the survival processing effect. According to the 1st account, the effect is the consequence of the prioritized processing of threat-related information. According to the 2nd account, thinking about the relevance of items for survival stimulates thinking about object function, which is a particularly elaborate form of encoding. Experiment 1 showed that the emotional properties of the survival scenario, as manipulated by the negative or positive framing of the scenario, did not influence recall. A focus on threat at encoding led to worse recall than a focus on function. The latter finding was replicated in Experiment 2, which further showed that focusing on threat did not lead to a memory advantage over a pleasantness control condition. The beneficial effect of inducing a functional focus at encoding even surpasses that of the standard survival processing instruction. Together, the results support the theory that thinking about function is an important component of the survival processing effect. PMID:25419817

  15. Neural correlates of creative thinking and schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Park, Haeme R P; Kirk, Ian J; Waldie, Karen E

    2015-07-01

    Empirical studies indicate a link between creativity and schizotypal personality traits, where individuals who score highly on schizotypy measures also display greater levels of creative behaviour. However, the exact nature of this relationship is not yet clear, with only a few studies examining this association using neuroimaging methods. In the present study, the neural substrates of creative thinking were assessed with a drawing task paradigm in healthy individuals using fMRI. These regions were then statistically correlated with the participants' level of schizotypy as measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE), which is a questionnaire consisting of four dimensions. Neural activations associated with the creativity task were observed in bilateral inferior temporal gyri, left insula, left parietal lobule, right angular gyrus, as well as regions in the prefrontal cortex. This widespread pattern of activation suggests that creative thinking utilises multiple neurocognitive networks, with creative production being the result of collaboration between these regions. Furthermore, the correlational analyses found the Unusual Experiences factor of the O-LIFE to be the most common dimension associated with these areas, followed by the Impulsive Nonconformity dimension. These correlations were negative, indicating that individuals who scored the highest in these factors displayed the least amount of activation when performing the creative task. This is in line with the idea that 'less is more' for creativity, where the deactivation of specific cortical areas may facilitate creativity. Thus, these findings contribute to the evidence of a common neural basis between creativity and schizotypy. PMID:25979607

  16. A Study of Prospective Elementary Teachers' Perceptions and Reflections while Investigating Children's Thinking in a Mathematics for Teaching Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeman, Laura Kondek

    2009-01-01

    Teacher educators use children's thinking activities as a means to prepare prospective teachers to teach mathematics. Research in methods courses and student teaching practica has shown these types of activities help prospective teachers deepen their own mathematical knowledge as well as better understand how children think. This study…

  17. The Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Modulates Dialectical Self-Thinking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Peng, Kaiping; Bai, Yang; Li, Rui; Zhu, Ying; Sun, Pei; Guo, Hua; Yuan, Chun; Rotshtein, Pia; Sui, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Dialectical self-thinking involves holding the view that one can possess contradictory traits such as extraverted and introverted. Prior work has demonstrated that the dorsal part of anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) plays a crucial role in conflict monitoring as well as self-related processing. Here, we tested the function of dACC in dialectical self-thinking using a modified classical self-referential paradigm (self- vs. other-referential thinking), in which participants had to make a judgment whether a simultaneously presented pair of contradictory or non-contradictory traits properly described them while brain activity was recording using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The data showed that activity in the dACC during the processing of self-relevant conflicting information was positively correlated with participants' dispositional level of naïve dialecticism (measured with the Dialectical Self Scale). Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses further revealed increased functional connectivity between the dACC and the caudate, middle temporal gyrus and hippocampus during the processing of self-relevant conflicting information for dialectical thinkers. These results support the hypothesis that the dACC has a key role in dialectical self-thinking. PMID:26903940

  18. The Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Modulates Dialectical Self-Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Peng, Kaiping; Bai, Yang; Li, Rui; Zhu, Ying; Sun, Pei; Guo, Hua; Yuan, Chun; Rotshtein, Pia; Sui, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Dialectical self-thinking involves holding the view that one can possess contradictory traits such as extraverted and introverted. Prior work has demonstrated that the dorsal part of anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) plays a crucial role in conflict monitoring as well as self-related processing. Here, we tested the function of dACC in dialectical self-thinking using a modified classical self-referential paradigm (self- vs. other-referential thinking), in which participants had to make a judgment whether a simultaneously presented pair of contradictory or non-contradictory traits properly described them while brain activity was recording using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The data showed that activity in the dACC during the processing of self-relevant conflicting information was positively correlated with participants’ dispositional level of naïve dialecticism (measured with the Dialectical Self Scale). Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses further revealed increased functional connectivity between the dACC and the caudate, middle temporal gyrus and hippocampus during the processing of self-relevant conflicting information for dialectical thinkers. These results support the hypothesis that the dACC has a key role in dialectical self-thinking. PMID:26903940

  19. Think Scientifically: Hiding Science in a Storybook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Norden, W. M.; Wawro, M.

    2013-12-01

    The pressure to focus on math and reading at the elementary level has increased in recent years. As a result, science education has taken a back seat in elementary classrooms. The Think Scientifically book series provides a way for science to easily integrate with existing math and reading curriculum. This story-based science literature program integrates a classic storybook format with solid solar science, to make an educational product that meets state literacy standards. Each story is accompanied by hands-on labs and activities that teachers can easily conduct in their classrooms with minimal training and materials, as well as math and language arts extensions and assessment questions. These books are being distributed through teacher workshops and conferences.

  20. Think Scientifically: Science Hidden in a Storybook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Norden, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory's Think Scientifically (TS) program links literacy and science in the elementary classroom through an engaging storybook format and hands-on, inquiry based activities. TS consists of three illustrated storybooks, each addressing a different solar science concept. Accompanying each book is a hands-on science lesson plan that emphasizes the concepts addressed in the book, as well as math, reading, and language arts activities. Written by teachers, the books are designed to be extremely user-friendly and easy to implement in classroom instruction. The objectives of the program are: (1) to increase time spent on science in elementary school classrooms, (2) to assist educators in implementing hands-on science activities that reinforce concepts from the book, (3) to increase teacher capacity and comfort in teaching solar concepts, (4) to increase student awareness and interest in solar topics, especially students in under-served and under-represented communities. Our program meets these objectives through the National Science Standards-based content delivered in each story, the activities provided in the books, and the accompanying training that teachers are offered through the program.; ;

  1. Investigating how students communicate tree-thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, Carrie Jo

    Learning is often an active endeavor that requires students work at building conceptual understandings of complex topics. Personal experiences, ideas, and communication all play large roles in developing knowledge of and understanding complex topics. Sometimes these experiences can promote formation of scientifically inaccurate or incomplete ideas. Representations are tools used to help individuals understand complex topics. In biology, one way that educators help people understand evolutionary histories of organisms is by using representations called phylogenetic trees. In order to understand phylogenetics trees, individuals need to understand the conventions associated with phylogenies. My dissertation, supported by the Tree-Thinking Representational Competence and Word Association frameworks, is a mixed-methods study investigating the changes in students' tree-reading, representational competence and mental association of phylogenetic terminology after participation in varied instruction. Participants included 128 introductory biology majors from a mid-sized southern research university. Participants were enrolled in either Introductory Biology I, where they were not taught phylogenetics, or Introductory Biology II, where they were explicitly taught phylogenetics. I collected data using a pre- and post-assessment consisting of a word association task and tree-thinking diagnostic (n=128). Additionally, I recruited a subset of students from both courses (n=37) to complete a computer simulation designed to teach students about phylogenetic trees. I then conducted semi-structured interviews consisting of a word association exercise with card sort task, a retrospective pre-assessment discussion, a post-assessment discussion, and interview questions. I found that students who received explicit lecture instruction had a significantly higher increase in scores on a tree-thinking diagnostic than students who did not receive lecture instruction. Students who received both

  2. The Need for Bold Thinking.

    PubMed

    Lowi-Young, Mimi; DuBois-Wing, Gwen

    2016-01-01

    Amol Verma and Sacha Bhatia's (2016) paper presents policy recommendations that merit serious consideration on a system-wide level. While they make compelling arguments about why provincial governments are ideally suited to adapt Triple Aim innovation, we are concerned that the current health system climate limits this possibility. In our commentary, we present our thoughts about the authors' admittedly aspirational goals and the realities of the pan-Canadian healthcare system. We commence our commentary by confirming our agreement about the potential inherent within the Triple Aim framework. Second, we argue how important progress can take place that may not reflect a provincial-wide system. Next, we maintain that a learning health system is an essential ingredient to advancing Triple Aim and other health system-wide improvements. Third, we wonder whether the stewardship role of government is real and possible. Finally, we question the concept of our current health system's readiness for system change. While we have raised some questions about Verma and Bhatia's thinking around provincial adoption of the Triple Aim, we applaud their ideas. We believe that transformation in provincial health systems requires bold thinking. PMID:27009585

  3. From Disinformation to Wishful Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.; Conway, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    In our book, Merchants of Doubt, we documented how deliberate disinformation campaigns served to confuse the American people about the reality and significance of climate change over more than two decades. We showed how a variety of strategies were used to persuade the public that the scientific "jury was still out" on climate change, including deliberate mispresentation of facts, cherry-picking of evidence, and personal attacks on scientists. And we documented the links, both conceptual and actual, between doubt-mongering about climate change and the rejection of scientific evidence of the harms of tobacco, acid rain, the ozone hole, nuclear winter, and DDT. These tactics are still in use today, but they are now reinforced by a new problem, the problem of wishful thinking. Increasingly, we see commentators who accept the reality of climate change assuring us that the problem can be solved by natural gas, or even by some as yet unknown and uninvented technological innovations. In this paper we argue that these forms of wishful thinking, while not malicious in the same way that previous doubt-mongering campaigns have been, contribute substantially to scientific illiteracy and misunderstanding both of the character of the challenges that we face and of the history of technological innovation.

  4. Why Be Rational? On Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking. Resource Publication, Series 2 No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Harvey

    Critical thinkers must be critical about critical thinking itself, and because there is a close conceptual connection between critical thinking and rationality, the demand for justification for a commitment to critical thinking is tantamount to a demand for reasons that justify a commitment to rationality. Several authors have argued that the…

  5. The Relationship among Creative, Critical Thinking and Thinking Styles in Taiwan High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shu Ching; Lin, Wen Chaun

    2004-01-01

    The study investigated the relationships among demographic variables (class grades, school types, major field, parent's education level, etc.), psychological type, thinking style, critical thinking, and creative thinking in senior high school students. The study explored the extent to which students' inclinations and perceived competence to engage…

  6. When Students Say "I Just Couldn't Think": Challenges in Teaching Skilful Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Row, Bavani Nageswana; Subramaniam, Selvaranee; Sathasivam, Renuka V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses challenges encountered by selected Year Four science teachers regarding their knowledge and implementation of skilful thinking (ST) in their classrooms. ST is a complex concept comprising three elements; specific thinking strategies, habits of mind and metacognitive thinking. Due of the complexity of ST, the implementation of…

  7. Reflective Thinking and Teaching Practices: A Precursor for Incorporating Critical Thinking into the Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, S. Chee; Oo, Pou San

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reflective thinking as a precursor for incorporating critical thinking has been not been adequately researched. Most research has not given any effective strategies on how to incorporate these two concepts. There is a constant need to incorporate critical thinking into the classroom without much success. This study will attempt to…

  8. Teaching to Their Thinking: A Strategy to Meet the Critical-Thinking Needs of Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Felicia A.; Prater,Kimberly A.; Vine, Heidi M.; Wark,Mary Jo; Williams, Tasha; Hanchon, Tim; Shobe,Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    Critical thinking is important for lessons in classes for gifted and talented students. Since definitions of critical thinking are plentiful and varied, teachers must decide what behaviors are most productive in the classroom. One viable method to promote critical thinking through productive discussion is the Dixon-Hegelian method. This paper…

  9. Making Student Thinking Visible through a Concept Map in Computer-Based Assessment of Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Yigal; Tager, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Major educational initiatives in the world place great emphasis on fostering rich computer-based environments of assessment that make student thinking and reasoning visible. Using thinking tools engages students in a variety of critical and complex thinking, such as evaluating, analyzing, and decision making. The aim of this study was to explore…

  10. Computational Thinking in the Wild: Uncovering Complex Collaborative Thinking through Gameplay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berland, Matthew; Duncan, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Surprisingly few empirical studies address how computational thinking works "in the wild" or how games and simulations can support developing computational thinking skills. In this article, the authors report results from a study of computational thinking (CT) as evinced through player discussions around the collaborative board game…

  11. Critical Thinking, Belief Bias, Epistemological Assumptions, and the Minnesota Test of Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edman, Laird R. O.; Robey, Jennifer; Bart, William M.

    The Minnesota Test of Critical Thinking-II (MTCT) has been designed to measure both critical thinking (CT) skills and the willingness to evaluate critically arguments that are congruent with one's own goals and beliefs. The MTCT uses a taxonomy of CT skills derived from the American Philosophical Association's definition of critical thinking.…

  12. Food Design Thinking: A Branch of Design Thinking Specific to Food Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zampollo, Francesca; Peacock, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Is there a need for a set of methods within Design Thinking tailored specifically for the Food Design process? Is there a need for a branch of Design Thinking dedicated to Food Design alone? Chefs are not generally trained in Design or Design Thinking, and we are only just beginning to understand how they ideate and what recourses are available to…

  13. Critical Thinking: The Role of Management Education. Developing Managers To Think Critically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Gloria

    Emphasizing critical thinking as the source of renewal and survival of organizations, this document begins by analyzing the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the destruction of the space shuttle Challenger as examples of inadequate critical thinking. The role of management education in promoting critical thinking is explored as well as the need for a…

  14. Does a Business Curriculum Develop or Filter Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, B. Jay; Mason, Paul; Steagall, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate whether a business curriculum develops critical thinking ability or at least serves as a filter for critical thinking (i.e., students who cannot think critically tend not to progress toward graduation). We measure critical thinking by performance on the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal Short Form which was administered to a…

  15. Can Learning a Foreign Language Foster Analytic Thinking?—Evidence from Chinese EFL Learners' Writings

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jingyang; Ouyang, Jinghui; Liu, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Language is not only the representation of thinking, but also shapes thinking. Studies on bilinguals suggest that a foreign language plays an important and unconscious role in thinking. In this study, a software—Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count 2007—was used to investigate whether the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) can foster Chinese high school students’ English analytic thinking (EAT) through the analysis of their English writings with our self-built corpus. It was found that: (1) learning English can foster Chinese learners’ EAT. Chinese EFL learners’ ability of making distinctions, degree of cognitive complexity and degree of thinking activeness have all improved along with the increase of their English proficiency and their age; (2) there exist differences in Chinese EFL learners’ EAT and that of English native speakers, i. e. English native speakers are better in the ability of making distinctions and degree of thinking activeness. These findings suggest that the best EFL learners in high schools have gained native-like analytic thinking through six years’ English learning and are able to switch their cognitive styles as needed. PMID:27741270

  16. Assessing Postgraduate Students' Critical Thinking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javed, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Qurat-Ul-Ain, Ansa

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses to assess the critical thinking ability of postgraduate students. The target population was the male and female students at University level in Pakistan. A small sample of 45 male and 45 female students were selected randomly from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Cornell Critical Thinking Test Series, The…

  17. Teaching Understanding and Developing Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eulie, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Examines the relationship between teaching content or knowledge, and teaching the skills of critical thinking and problem solving. Presents key strategies to help students understand and develop critical thinking skills. Recommends use of the developmental lesson and provides several model lessons. (LS)

  18. The Thinking Styles of Human Resource Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Paul; Zhang, Li-fang

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Drawing upon Sternberg's theory of mental self-government, this paper aims to investigate the thinking styles and workplace experiences of 152 human resource (HR) practitioners pursuing Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) membership. It seeks to explore whether their thinking styles complemented their jobs and consider…

  19. Teaching Critical Thinking, Part 2: Possible Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    Critical thinking programs should explore both practical and academic problems, including problems without "correct" answers. The year-long "Intelligence Applied" program avoids common critical thinking program pitfalls and covers intelligence theories, intellectual and experiential skills, techniques for everyday application, and methods for…

  20. Understanding Historical Thinking at Historic Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the interpretive processes historians engage in when "reading" historic buildings and examines what qualifies as historical thinking about historic buildings and sites. To gather evidence of what historical thinking looks like as it pertains to buildings, 5 practicing historians were recorded as they toured the Old North…

  1. Critical Thinking: More than Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Vernon G.; Szymanski, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    This article is for practicing or aspiring school administrators. The demand for excellence in public education has lead to an emphasis on standardized test scores. This article explores the development of a professional enhancement program designed to prepare teachers to teach higher order thinking skills. Higher order thinking is the primary…

  2. Rational Thinking in School-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Mary Kristen; Flynn, Perry

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We reflect on Alan Kamhi's (2011) prologue on balancing certainty and uncertainty as it pertains to school-based practice. Method: In schools, rational thinking depends on effective team processes, much like professional learning communities. We consider the conditions that are required for rational thinking and how rational team dialogue…

  3. Analytic thinking reduces belief in conspiracy theories.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Voracek, Martin; Stieger, Stefan; Tran, Ulrich S; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Belief in conspiracy theories has been associated with a range of negative health, civic, and social outcomes, requiring reliable methods of reducing such belief. Thinking dispositions have been highlighted as one possible factor associated with belief in conspiracy theories, but actual relationships have only been infrequently studied. In Study 1, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and a range of measures of thinking dispositions in a British sample (N=990). Results indicated that a stronger belief in conspiracy theories was significantly associated with lower analytic thinking and open-mindedness and greater intuitive thinking. In Studies 2-4, we examined the causational role played by analytic thinking in relation to conspiracist ideation. In Study 2 (N=112), we showed that a verbal fluency task that elicited analytic thinking reduced belief in conspiracy theories. In Study 3 (N=189), we found that an alternative method of eliciting analytic thinking, which related to cognitive disfluency, was effective at reducing conspiracist ideation in a student sample. In Study 4, we replicated the results of Study 3 among a general population sample (N=140) in relation to generic conspiracist ideation and belief in conspiracy theories about the July 7, 2005, bombings in London. Our results highlight the potential utility of supporting attempts to promote analytic thinking as a means of countering the widespread acceptance of conspiracy theories. PMID:25217762

  4. Teaching Strategies for Developing Student Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Carolyn S.

    1986-01-01

    Describes 10 key elements of generic teaching strategies for developing student thinking and provides a rationale for the participation of school library media specialists in developing student thinking skills. The role of media specialists within the school and the importance of information-based decision making in a free society are discussed.…

  5. Kinds of Thinking, Styles of Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    There is no more central issue to education than thinking and reasoning. Certainly, such an emphasis chimes with the rationalist and cognitive deep structure of the Western educational tradition. The contemporary tendency reinforced by cognitive science is to treat thinking ahistorically and aculturally as though physiology, brain structure and…

  6. Think for Yourself. Your Middle School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Since Socrates first posed questions to his ga-clad philosophers, teachers have encouraged students to think. This author, a fifth-grade teacher, explains the importance of teaching children to think for themselves rather than merely coaxing them to come up with the instructor's answer. Some of the methods he uses in his classroom include building…

  7. Future Teachers' Spatial Thinking Skills and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Euikyung E.; Milson, Andrew J.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial thinking skills and attitudes of geography majors were compared with those of future teachers majoring in elementary education and secondary social studies education. Scores were obtained for each group on two measures: the spatial skills test and the attitude toward spatial thinking inventory. Mean differences were examined based on…

  8. Lateral Thinking; Creativity Step by Step.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bono, Edward

    The purpose of thinking is to collect information and to make the best possible use of it. Because of the way the mind works to create fixed concept patterns we cannot make the best use of new information unless we have some means for restructuring the old patterns and bringing them up to date. Our traditional methods of thinking teach us how to…

  9. A Technique for Teaching Creative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bono, Edward

    1986-01-01

    Offers information on and examples of the Cognitive Research Trust (CoRT) Thinking Program, internationally the most widely used program for the teaching of thinking as part of the school curriculum. Describes various CoRT tools, including one in which students list the pluses, minuses, and interesting points about a given issue. (DMM)

  10. Analytic thinking reduces belief in conspiracy theories.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Voracek, Martin; Stieger, Stefan; Tran, Ulrich S; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Belief in conspiracy theories has been associated with a range of negative health, civic, and social outcomes, requiring reliable methods of reducing such belief. Thinking dispositions have been highlighted as one possible factor associated with belief in conspiracy theories, but actual relationships have only been infrequently studied. In Study 1, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and a range of measures of thinking dispositions in a British sample (N=990). Results indicated that a stronger belief in conspiracy theories was significantly associated with lower analytic thinking and open-mindedness and greater intuitive thinking. In Studies 2-4, we examined the causational role played by analytic thinking in relation to conspiracist ideation. In Study 2 (N=112), we showed that a verbal fluency task that elicited analytic thinking reduced belief in conspiracy theories. In Study 3 (N=189), we found that an alternative method of eliciting analytic thinking, which related to cognitive disfluency, was effective at reducing conspiracist ideation in a student sample. In Study 4, we replicated the results of Study 3 among a general population sample (N=140) in relation to generic conspiracist ideation and belief in conspiracy theories about the July 7, 2005, bombings in London. Our results highlight the potential utility of supporting attempts to promote analytic thinking as a means of countering the widespread acceptance of conspiracy theories.

  11. Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills among Authoritarian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson Hurley, Martha; Hurley, David

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on assignments designed to enhance critical thinking skills for authoritarian personality types. This paper seeks to add to the literature by exploring instructional methods to overcome authoritarian traits that could inhibit the development of critical thinking skills. The article presents a strategy which can be employed…

  12. Teaching Critical Thinking in Undergraduate Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Paul; Sleet, Ray; Logan, Peter; Hooper, Mal

    2003-01-01

    Explains the design and evaluation of a project aimed at fostering the critical thinking abilities and dispositions of first year students at an Australian university. Most of the tasks relate to applications of chemistry and physics in everyday life. Many students revealed that their thinking skills were enhanced by their experience in attempting…

  13. Enhancing Creative Thinking through Designing Electronic Slides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokaram, Al-Ali Khaled; Al-Shabatat, Ahmad Mohammad; Fong, Fook Soon; Abdallah, Andaleeb Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    During the shifting of teaching and learning methods using computer technologies, much emphasis was paid on the knowledge content more than the thinking skills. Thus, this study investigated the effects of a computer application, namely, designing electronic slides on the development of creative thinking skills of a sample of undergraduate…

  14. Using Questioning To Guide Student Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zee, Emily; Minstrell, Jim

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes ways in which an experienced physics teacher uses questioning to guide student thinking during a benchmark discussion on measurement. Proposes that teachers may shift toward more reflective discourse by asking questions that help students clarify their meanings, consider various points of view, and monitor their own thinking. (Author/DKM)

  15. Critical Thinking, Autonomy and Practical Reason

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2004-01-01

    This article points out an internal tension, or even conflict, in the conceptual foundations of Harvey Siegel's conception of critical thinking. Siegel justifies critical thinking, or critically rational autonomy, as an educational ideal first and foremost by an appeal to the Kantian principle of respect for persons. It is made explicit that this…

  16. Facilitating Critical Thinking through Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunney, Margaret; Frederickson, Keville; Spark, Arlene; McDuffie, Georgia

    2008-01-01

    Development of critical thinking abilities is essential for students in clinical disciplines of the health sciences. Past research has shown that critical thinking is a learned skill that can be fostered through teaching strategies. Ten educational strategies that were developed and tested by the authors in online courses are presented to assist…

  17. Critical Thinking in the Business Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Joanne R.; Anderson, Phyllis R.

    2012-01-01

    A minicourse in critical thinking was implemented to improve student outcomes in two sessions of a senior-level business course at a Midwestern university. Statistical analyses of two quantitative assessments revealed significant improvements in critical thinking skills. Improvements in student outcomes in case studies and computerized business…

  18. Critical Thinking in the Business Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Nora M.

    2004-01-01

    The call to make improved critical thinking a national education goal is often heard in the business world, where volumes of information must be reviewed daily for decision making. Business educators are charged with accomplishing the task of improving critical thinking in business school graduates. In this study, the author investigated the steps…

  19. Critical Thinking Skills. Analysis and Action Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiman, Marcia; Slomianko, Joshua

    Intended for teachers across grade levels and disciplines, this monograph reviews research on the development of critical thinking skills and introduces a series of these skills that can be incorporated into classroom teaching. Beginning with a definition of critical thinking, the monograph contains two main sections. The first section reviews…

  20. Critical Thinking: A Model for Collaborative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochse, Roger

    The use of critical thinking and collaborative learning enhances the research process by establishing a disciplined yet supportive research and publication procedure. In addition, these methods provide common assumptions about the validity and reliability of research findings, while encouraging diverse points of view. Critical thinking helps…

  1. Computational Thinking Concepts for Grade School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, John F.; Naidu, Jaideep T.

    2016-01-01

    Early education has classically introduced reading, writing, and mathematics. Recent literature discusses the importance of adding "computational thinking" as a core ability that every child must learn. The goal is to develop students by making them equally comfortable with computational thinking as they are with other core areas of…

  2. Reliability of assessment of critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Allen, George D; Rubenfeld, M Gaie; Scheffer, Barbara K

    2004-01-01

    Although clinical critical thinking skills and behaviors are among the most highly sought characteristics of BSN graduates, they remain among the most difficult to teach and assess. Three reasons for this difficulty have been (1) lack of agreement among nurse educators as to the definition of critical thinking, (2) low correlation between clinical critical thinking and existing standardized tests of critical thinking, and (3) poor reliability in scoring other evidences of critical thinking, such as essays. This article first describes a procedure for teaching critical thinking that is based on a consensus definition of 17 dimensions of critical thinking in clinical nursing practice. This procedure is easily taught to nurse educators and can be flexibly and inexpensively incorporated into any undergraduate nursing curriculum. We then show that students' understanding and use of these dimensions can be assessed with high reliability (coefficient alpha between 0.7 and 0.8) and with great time efficiency for both teachers and students. By using this procedure iteratively across semesters, students can develop portfolios demonstrating attainment of competence in clinical critical thinking, and educators can obtain important summary evaluations of the degree to which their graduates have succeeded in this important area of their education.

  3. Creating Science Simulations through Computational Thinking Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basawapatna, Ashok Ram

    2012-01-01

    Computational thinking aims to outline fundamental skills from computer science that everyone should learn. As currently defined, with help from the National Science Foundation (NSF), these skills include problem formulation, logically organizing data, automating solutions through algorithmic thinking, and representing data through abstraction.…

  4. Computational Thinking in Constructionist Video Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintrop, David; Holbert, Nathan; Horn, Michael S.; Wilensky, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Video games offer an exciting opportunity for learners to engage in computational thinking in informal contexts. This paper describes a genre of learning environments called constructionist video games that are especially well suited for developing learners' computational thinking skills. These games blend features of conventional video games with…

  5. Optimizing Reasonableness, Critical Thinking, and Cyberspace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikuenobe, Polycarp

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the author argues that the quantity, superabundance of information, easy availability, and quick access to information in cyberspace may engender critical thinking and the optimization of reasonableness. This point is different from, but presupposes, the commonplace view that critical thinking abilities, criteria, processes, and…

  6. Thinking Styles in Implicit and Explicit Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qiuzhi; Gao, Xiangping; King, Ronnel B.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether individual differences in thinking styles influence explicit and implicit learning. Eighty-seven university students in China participated in this study. Results indicated that performance in the explicit learning condition was positively associated with Type I thinking styles (i.e. legislative and liberal styles)…

  7. Exploring the Thinking of Thoughtful Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onosko, Joseph J.

    1992-01-01

    A recent study examined 20 social studies teachers' beliefs and theories in 4 areas: instructional goals, depth vs. breadth of content coverage, perceptions of students, and conceptions of thinking. Teachers who reflect about their own practices, value thinking, and emphasize depth over breadth of coverage tend to have classrooms with a measurable…

  8. Critical Thinking and the Art of Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Craig

    "Six Steps of Argument Analysis" is a model for a critical thinking class which illustrates where and how the teacher can break off from the well-ordered sequence of critical thinking skills in order to provide occasions for each student to realize where he or she is making a judgment. Through use of this model the teacher can encourage the…

  9. Infusing Systems Thinking into Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Charles W.; Tomlin, James H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the role of career counselors in infusing systems thinking into occupational advising. The authors conducted a qualitative review and analysis of selected literature on systems thinking and analyzed trends for adaptation to career counseling practice. This analysis suggests that career counselors need to infuse systems…

  10. Some Thinking from, and Away from, Heidegger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mika, Carl

    2016-01-01

    How do we encourage Heidegger's notion of originary thinking in education, and indeed how should one engage with thinking at all? In this response, I consider the challenge that Heidegger lays down for speculation that refers certainty to the unknown. In my answer to the contributors of this special issue, I highlight the fact that all of us are…

  11. Issues in Designing Assessments of Historical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercikan, Kadriye; Seixas, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Similar to educators in mathematics, science, and reading, history educators around the world have mobilized curricular reform movements toward including complex thinking in history education, advancing historical thinking, developing historical consciousness, and teaching competence in historical sense making. These reform movements, including…

  12. Critical Thinking as Cultural-Historical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panofsky, Carolyn P.

    1999-01-01

    Explores critical thinking as it has been constructed in schooling and in dominant traditions of psychological theory, presenting a dialectical view of critical thinking suggested in the social and philosophical writings of critical theorists (e.g., Theodor Adorno and Herbert Marcuse) and supported by the sociohistorical or cultural-historical…

  13. Critical Thinking. Special Collection Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Bloomington, IN.

    Designed to help practitioners become more familiar with the underpinnings, currents, pros and cons, and research studies produced by the critical-thinking movement in the United States, this special collection offers eight digests and three FAST (Focused Access to Selected Topics) annotated bibliographies concerning critical thinking at all…

  14. Responses to Hugh Heclo's "On Thinking Institutionally"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Robert C.; Ascough, Richard S.; Liew, Tat-siong Benny; McLain, Michael; Westfield, Nancy Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Hugh Heclo's recent book "On Thinking Institutionally" (Paradigm Publishers, 2008) analyzes changes that have taken place in the past half century in how North Americans tend to think and act in institutions. The volume is receiving particular attention as it can be applied to higher education and to religious denominations, and so deserves…

  15. Intuitive vs Analytical Thinking: Four Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leron, Uri; Hazzan, Orit

    2009-01-01

    This article is an attempt to place mathematical thinking in the context of more general theories of human cognition. We describe and compare four perspectives--mathematics, mathematics education, cognitive psychology, and evolutionary psychology--each offering a different view on mathematical thinking and learning and, in particular, on the…

  16. Mathematical Thinking: From Cacophony to Consensus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argyle, Sean F.

    2012-01-01

    Various standards have demanded that teachers improve "mathematical thinking," but definitions are vague--if present at all. What little research on the subject exists is disjointed and dissenting, leading some researchers to lament the possibility of ever coming to an agreement on how to define "mathematical thinking" as a…

  17. Start with Higher-Order Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    "Memorizing facts is boring. Drill-and-practice is boring. But thinking, for most students most of the time, is actually fun," writes Susan M. Brookhart. The author recommends that teachers build interest and engagement into every lesson plan by creating opportunities for deep thinking. She describes three strategies to accomplish this.…

  18. Critical Thinking for Environmental Health Risk Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Robin

    1991-01-01

    Proposes an approach for helping school-age children to think critically about environmental health risks. Discusses elements of a school curriculum--defining a decision perspective, making choices under uncertainty, and thinking about consequences--and recommends classroom implementation procedures. (Author/JOW)

  19. Social psychology. Just think: the challenges of the disengaged mind.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Timothy D; Reinhard, David A; Westgate, Erin C; Gilbert, Daniel T; Ellerbeck, Nicole; Hahn, Cheryl; Brown, Casey L; Shaked, Adi

    2014-07-01

    In 11 studies, we found that participants typically did not enjoy spending 6 to 15 minutes in a room by themselves with nothing to do but think, that they enjoyed doing mundane external activities much more, and that many preferred to administer electric shocks to themselves instead of being left alone with their thoughts. Most people seem to prefer to be doing something rather than nothing, even if that something is negative.

  20. Thinking Style Diversity and Collaborative Design Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpentesta, Antonio P.; Ammirato, Salvatore; Sofo, Francesco

    The paper explores the impact of structured learning experiences that were designed to challenge students’ ways of thinking and promote creativity. The aim was to develop the ability of students, coming from different engineering disciplines and characterized by particular thinking style profiles, to collaboratively work on a project-based learning experience in an educational environment. Three project-based learning experiences were structured using critical thinking methods to stimulate creativity. Pre and post-survey data using a specially modified thinking style inventory for 202 design students indicated a thinking style profile of preferences with a focus on exploring and questioning. Statistically significant results showed students successfully developed empathy and openness to multiple perspectives.

  1. Two Approaches for Using Web Sharing and Photography Assignments to Increase Critical Thinking in the Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Katherine Ott; Baller, Stephanie L.; Kuntz, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing student critical thinking and active engagement with course content is an ongoing challenge in tertiary education. The present article explores the use of photography in two health sciences courses as a catalyst for the encouragement of critical thinking, creativity, engagement, and problem solving. The authors adapted photography…

  2. Effects of Pre-Service Information Technologies (IT) Teachers' Thinking Styles on Their Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagci, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Thinking styles are considered as approaches and tendencies of individuals toward various problems, incidents, phenomenon and variables which they face through their thinking processes. Preservice teachers are expected to be capable of using information and communication technologies (ICT) in intra- and extra- curricular activities and be a role…

  3. The Influence of Ground Rules on Chinese Students' Learning of Critical Thinking in Group Work: A Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a one-year longitudinal study examining a teaching intervention designed to enhance students' learning of critical thinking in Hong Kong. Seventy participating students (age 16-18) learned how to make reasoned arguments through a series of collaborative activities, including critical-thinking modelling…

  4. Relationships Between Refraining From Catastrophic Thinking, Repetitive Negative Thinking, and Psychological Distress.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Tomoko; Sugiura, Yoshinori

    2016-10-01

    Skills to refrain from catastrophic thinking were negatively related to worry and a wide range of psychological distress. Repetitive negative thinking (including worry) is proposed as a common etiological factor for a wide range of psychological distress. Therefore, reduced repetitive negative thinking would mediate the negative relation between refraining from catastrophic thinking and psychological distress (depression, social anxiety, phobia, generalized anxiety, and obsessions and compulsions). As an overlap between five indices of psychological distress was expected, we first computed latent factors underlying them, which were then predicted by refraining from catastrophic thinking and repetitive negative thinking. Cross-sectional questionnaire data from 125 nonclinical voluntarily participating students (M age = 19.0 years, SD = 3.6; 54% women) supported the predictions: refraining from catastrophic thinking was negatively correlated with depression, social anxiety, phobia, generalized anxiety, and obsession and compulsion. Repetitive negative thinking mediated the negative relationship between refraining from catastrophic thinking and latent factors underlying psychological distress (Fear and Distress). Refraining from catastrophic thinking may be negatively correlated with psychological distress due to its negative relation to repetitive negative thinking.

  5. Relationships Between Refraining From Catastrophic Thinking, Repetitive Negative Thinking, and Psychological Distress.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Tomoko; Sugiura, Yoshinori

    2016-10-01

    Skills to refrain from catastrophic thinking were negatively related to worry and a wide range of psychological distress. Repetitive negative thinking (including worry) is proposed as a common etiological factor for a wide range of psychological distress. Therefore, reduced repetitive negative thinking would mediate the negative relation between refraining from catastrophic thinking and psychological distress (depression, social anxiety, phobia, generalized anxiety, and obsessions and compulsions). As an overlap between five indices of psychological distress was expected, we first computed latent factors underlying them, which were then predicted by refraining from catastrophic thinking and repetitive negative thinking. Cross-sectional questionnaire data from 125 nonclinical voluntarily participating students (M age = 19.0 years, SD = 3.6; 54% women) supported the predictions: refraining from catastrophic thinking was negatively correlated with depression, social anxiety, phobia, generalized anxiety, and obsession and compulsion. Repetitive negative thinking mediated the negative relationship between refraining from catastrophic thinking and latent factors underlying psychological distress (Fear and Distress). Refraining from catastrophic thinking may be negatively correlated with psychological distress due to its negative relation to repetitive negative thinking. PMID:27511967

  6. The Original "Fatal Attraction": Metaphorical Thinking and "Medea."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Donna

    1988-01-01

    Stresses that metaphorical thinking encourages students to see relationships and requires them to use higher level critical thinking, particularly analysis and synthesis. Describes strategies to get students to think metaphorically in order to understand the elements of Greek tragedy. (MS)

  7. Critical thinking: the development of an essential skill for nursing students.

    PubMed

    Papathanasiou, Ioanna V; Kleisiaris, Christos F; Fradelos, Evangelos C; Kakou, Katerina; Kourkouta, Lambrini

    2014-08-01

    Critical thinking is defined as the mental process of actively and skillfully perception, analysis, synthesis and evaluation of collected information through observation, experience and communication that leads to a decision for action. In nursing education there is frequent reference to critical thinking and to the significance that it has in daily clinical nursing practice. Nursing clinical instructors know that students face difficulties in making decisions related to clinical practice. The main critical thinking skills in which nursing students should be exercised during their studies are critical analysis, introductory and concluding justification, valid conclusion, distinguish of facts and opinions, evaluation the credibility of information sources, clarification of concepts and recognition of conditions. Specific behaviors are essentials for enhancing critical thinking. Nursing students in order to learn and apply critical thinking should develop independence of thought, fairness, perspicacity in personal and social level, humility, spiritual courage, integrity, perseverance, self-confidence, interest for research and curiosity. Critical thinking is an essential process for the safe, efficient and skillful nursing practice. The nursing education programs should adopt attitudes that promote critical thinking and mobilize the skills of critical reasoning. PMID:25395733

  8. Critical Thinking: The Development of an Essential Skill for Nursing Students

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.; Kleisiaris, Christos F.; Fradelos, Evangelos C.; Kakou, Katerina; Kourkouta, Lambrini

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking is defined as the mental process of actively and skillfully perception, analysis, synthesis and evaluation of collected information through observation, experience and communication that leads to a decision for action. In nursing education there is frequent reference to critical thinking and to the significance that it has in daily clinical nursing practice. Nursing clinical instructors know that students face difficulties in making decisions related to clinical practice. The main critical thinking skills in which nursing students should be exercised during their studies are critical analysis, introductory and concluding justification, valid conclusion, distinguish of facts and opinions, evaluation the credibility of information sources, clarification of concepts and recognition of conditions. Specific behaviors are essentials for enhancing critical thinking. Nursing students in order to learn and apply critical thinking should develop independence of thought, fairness, perspicacity in personal and social level, humility, spiritual courage, integrity, perseverance, self-confidence, interest for research and curiosity. Critical thinking is an essential process for the safe, efficient and skillful nursing practice. The nursing education programs should adopt attitudes that promote critical thinking and mobilize the skills of critical reasoning. PMID:25395733

  9. Critical thinking: the development of an essential skill for nursing students.

    PubMed

    Papathanasiou, Ioanna V; Kleisiaris, Christos F; Fradelos, Evangelos C; Kakou, Katerina; Kourkouta, Lambrini

    2014-08-01

    Critical thinking is defined as the mental process of actively and skillfully perception, analysis, synthesis and evaluation of collected information through observation, experience and communication that leads to a decision for action. In nursing education there is frequent reference to critical thinking and to the significance that it has in daily clinical nursing practice. Nursing clinical instructors know that students face difficulties in making decisions related to clinical practice. The main critical thinking skills in which nursing students should be exercised during their studies are critical analysis, introductory and concluding justification, valid conclusion, distinguish of facts and opinions, evaluation the credibility of information sources, clarification of concepts and recognition of conditions. Specific behaviors are essentials for enhancing critical thinking. Nursing students in order to learn and apply critical thinking should develop independence of thought, fairness, perspicacity in personal and social level, humility, spiritual courage, integrity, perseverance, self-confidence, interest for research and curiosity. Critical thinking is an essential process for the safe, efficient and skillful nursing practice. The nursing education programs should adopt attitudes that promote critical thinking and mobilize the skills of critical reasoning.

  10. Higher order thinking skills competencies required by outcomes-based education from learners.

    PubMed

    Chabeli, M M

    2006-08-01

    Outcomes-Based Education (OBE) brought about a significant paradigm shift in the education and training of learners in South Africa. OBE requires a shift from focusing on the teacher input (instruction offerings or syllabuses expressed in terms of content), to focusing on learner outcomes. OBE is moving away from 'transmission' models to constructivistic, learner-centered models that put emphasis on learning as an active process (Nieburh, 1996:30). Teachers act as facilitators and mediators of learning (Norms and Standards, Government Gazette vol 415, no 20844 of 2000). Facilitators are responsible to create the environment that is conducive for learners to construct their own knowledge, skills and values through interaction (Peters, 2000). The first critical cross-field outcome accepted by the South African Qualification Framework (SAQA) is that learners should be able to identify and solve problems by using critical and creative thinking skills. This paper seeks to explore some higher order thinking skills competencies required by OBE from learners such as critical thinking, reflective thinking, creative thinking, dialogic / dialectic thinking, decision making, problem solving and emotional intelligence and their implications in facilitating teaching and learning from the theoretical perspective. The philosophical underpinning of these higher order thinking skills is described to give direction to the study. It is recommended that a study focusing on the assessment of these intellectual concepts be made. The study may be qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods in nature (Creswell 2005). PMID:17131612

  11. Higher order thinking skills competencies required by outcomes-based education from learners.

    PubMed

    Chabeli, M M

    2006-08-01

    Outcomes-Based Education (OBE) brought about a significant paradigm shift in the education and training of learners in South Africa. OBE requires a shift from focusing on the teacher input (instruction offerings or syllabuses expressed in terms of content), to focusing on learner outcomes. OBE is moving away from 'transmission' models to constructivistic, learner-centered models that put emphasis on learning as an active process (Nieburh, 1996:30). Teachers act as facilitators and mediators of learning (Norms and Standards, Government Gazette vol 415, no 20844 of 2000). Facilitators are responsible to create the environment that is conducive for learners to construct their own knowledge, skills and values through interaction (Peters, 2000). The first critical cross-field outcome accepted by the South African Qualification Framework (SAQA) is that learners should be able to identify and solve problems by using critical and creative thinking skills. This paper seeks to explore some higher order thinking skills competencies required by OBE from learners such as critical thinking, reflective thinking, creative thinking, dialogic / dialectic thinking, decision making, problem solving and emotional intelligence and their implications in facilitating teaching and learning from the theoretical perspective. The philosophical underpinning of these higher order thinking skills is described to give direction to the study. It is recommended that a study focusing on the assessment of these intellectual concepts be made. The study may be qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods in nature (Creswell 2005).

  12. The parallel impact of episodic memory and episodic future thinking on food intake.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Chen, William H; Reily, Natalie M; Castel, Alan D

    2016-06-01

    This research examined the effects of both episodic memory and episodic future thinking (EFT) on snack food intake. In Study 1, female participants (n = 158) were asked to recall their lunch from earlier in the day, to think about the dinner they planned to have later in the day, or to think about a non-food activity before taking part in a cookie taste test. Participants who recalled their lunch or who thought about their dinner ate less than did participants who thought about non-food activities. These effects were not explained by group differences in the hedonic value of the food. Study 2 examined whether the suppression effect observed in Study 1 was driven by a general health consciousness. Female participants (n = 74) were asked to think about their past or future exercise (or a non-exercise activity), but thinking about exercise had no impact on participants' cookie consumption. Overall, both thinking about past food intake and imagining future food intake had the same suppression effect on participants' current food intake, but further research is needed to determine the underlying mechanism.

  13. Targeting Critical Thinking Skills in a First-Year Undergraduate Research Course.

    PubMed

    Carson, Susan

    2015-12-01

    TH!NK is a new initiative at NC State University focused on enhancing students' higher-order cognitive skills. As part of this initiative, I explicitly emphasized critical and creative thinking in an existing bacteriophage discovery first-year research course. In addition to the typical activities associated with undergraduate research such as review of primary literature and writing research papers, another strategy employed to enhance students' critical thinking skills was the use of discipline-specific, real-world scenarios. This paper outlines a general "formula" for writing scenarios, as well as several specific scenarios created for the described course. I also present how embedding aspects of the scenarios in reviews of the primary literature enriched the activity. I assessed student gains in critical thinking skills using a pre-/posttest model of the Critical Thinking Assessment Test (CAT), developed by Tennessee Technological University. I observed a positive gain trend in most of the individual skills assessed in the CAT, with a statistically significant large effect on critical thinking skills overall in students in the test group. I also show that a higher level of critical thinking skills was demonstrated in research papers written by students who participated in the scenarios compared with similar students who did not participate in the scenario activities. The scenario strategy described here can be modified for use in biology and other STEM disciplines, as well as in diverse disciplines in the social sciences and humanities.

  14. Targeting Critical Thinking Skills in a First-Year Undergraduate Research Course.

    PubMed

    Carson, Susan

    2015-12-01

    TH!NK is a new initiative at NC State University focused on enhancing students' higher-order cognitive skills. As part of this initiative, I explicitly emphasized critical and creative thinking in an existing bacteriophage discovery first-year research course. In addition to the typical activities associated with undergraduate research such as review of primary literature and writing research papers, another strategy employed to enhance students' critical thinking skills was the use of discipline-specific, real-world scenarios. This paper outlines a general "formula" for writing scenarios, as well as several specific scenarios created for the described course. I also present how embedding aspects of the scenarios in reviews of the primary literature enriched the activity. I assessed student gains in critical thinking skills using a pre-/posttest model of the Critical Thinking Assessment Test (CAT), developed by Tennessee Technological University. I observed a positive gain trend in most of the individual skills assessed in the CAT, with a statistically significant large effect on critical thinking skills overall in students in the test group. I also show that a higher level of critical thinking skills was demonstrated in research papers written by students who participated in the scenarios compared with similar students who did not participate in the scenario activities. The scenario strategy described here can be modified for use in biology and other STEM disciplines, as well as in diverse disciplines in the social sciences and humanities. PMID:26753022

  15. Targeting Critical Thinking Skills in a First-Year Undergraduate Research Course †

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Susan

    2015-01-01

    TH!NK is a new initiative at NC State University focused on enhancing students’ higher-order cognitive skills. As part of this initiative, I explicitly emphasized critical and creative thinking in an existing bacteriophage discovery first-year research course. In addition to the typical activities associated with undergraduate research such as review of primary literature and writing research papers, another strategy employed to enhance students’ critical thinking skills was the use of discipline-specific, real-world scenarios. This paper outlines a general “formula” for writing scenarios, as well as several specific scenarios created for the described course. I also present how embedding aspects of the scenarios in reviews of the primary literature enriched the activity. I assessed student gains in critical thinking skills using a pre-/posttest model of the Critical Thinking Assessment Test (CAT), developed by Tennessee Technological University. I observed a positive gain trend in most of the individual skills assessed in the CAT, with a statistically significant large effect on critical thinking skills overall in students in the test group. I also show that a higher level of critical thinking skills was demonstrated in research papers written by students who participated in the scenarios compared with similar students who did not participate in the scenario activities. The scenario strategy described here can be modified for use in biology and other STEM disciplines, as well as in diverse disciplines in the social sciences and humanities. PMID:26753022

  16. The parallel impact of episodic memory and episodic future thinking on food intake.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Chen, William H; Reily, Natalie M; Castel, Alan D

    2016-06-01

    This research examined the effects of both episodic memory and episodic future thinking (EFT) on snack food intake. In Study 1, female participants (n = 158) were asked to recall their lunch from earlier in the day, to think about the dinner they planned to have later in the day, or to think about a non-food activity before taking part in a cookie taste test. Participants who recalled their lunch or who thought about their dinner ate less than did participants who thought about non-food activities. These effects were not explained by group differences in the hedonic value of the food. Study 2 examined whether the suppression effect observed in Study 1 was driven by a general health consciousness. Female participants (n = 74) were asked to think about their past or future exercise (or a non-exercise activity), but thinking about exercise had no impact on participants' cookie consumption. Overall, both thinking about past food intake and imagining future food intake had the same suppression effect on participants' current food intake, but further research is needed to determine the underlying mechanism. PMID:26923744

  17. Control deprivation and styles of thinking.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyue; He, Lingnan; Yang, Qing; Lao, Junpeng; Baumeister, Roy F

    2012-03-01

    Westerners habitually think in analytical ways, whereas East Asians tend to favor holistic styles of thinking. We replicated this difference but showed that it disappeared after control deprivation (Experiment 1). Brief experiences of control deprivation, which stimulate increased desire for control, caused Chinese participants to shift toward Western-style analytical thinking in multiple ways (Experiments 2-5). Western Caucasian participants also increased their use of analytical thinking after control deprivation (Experiment 6). Manipulations that required Chinese participants to think in Western, analytical ways caused their sense of personal control to increase (Experiments 7-9). Prolonged experiences of control deprivation, which past work suggested foster an attitude more akin to learned helplessness than striving for control, had the opposite effect of causing Chinese participants to shift back toward a strongly holistic style of thinking (Experiments 10-12). Taken together, the results support the reality of cultural differences in cognition but also the cross-cultural similarity of using analytical thinking when seeking to enhance personal control.

  18. Analogy, higher order thinking, and education.

    PubMed

    Richland, Lindsey Engle; Simms, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Analogical reasoning, the ability to understand phenomena as systems of structured relationships that can be aligned, compared, and mapped together, plays a fundamental role in the technology rich, increasingly globalized educational climate of the 21st century. Flexible, conceptual thinking is prioritized in this view of education, and schools are emphasizing 'higher order thinking', rather than memorization of a cannon of key topics. The lack of a cognitively grounded definition for higher order thinking, however, has led to a field of research and practice with little coherence across domains or connection to the large body of cognitive science research on thinking. We review literature on analogy and disciplinary higher order thinking to propose that relational reasoning can be productively considered the cognitive underpinning of higher order thinking. We highlight the utility of this framework for developing insights into practice through a review of mathematics, science, and history educational contexts. In these disciplines, analogy is essential to developing expert-like disciplinary knowledge in which concepts are understood to be systems of relationships that can be connected and flexibly manipulated. At the same time, analogies in education require explicit support to ensure that learners notice the relevance of relational thinking, have adequate processing resources available to mentally hold and manipulate relations, and are able to recognize both the similarities and differences when drawing analogies between systems of relationships.

  19. Analogy, higher order thinking, and education.

    PubMed

    Richland, Lindsey Engle; Simms, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Analogical reasoning, the ability to understand phenomena as systems of structured relationships that can be aligned, compared, and mapped together, plays a fundamental role in the technology rich, increasingly globalized educational climate of the 21st century. Flexible, conceptual thinking is prioritized in this view of education, and schools are emphasizing 'higher order thinking', rather than memorization of a cannon of key topics. The lack of a cognitively grounded definition for higher order thinking, however, has led to a field of research and practice with little coherence across domains or connection to the large body of cognitive science research on thinking. We review literature on analogy and disciplinary higher order thinking to propose that relational reasoning can be productively considered the cognitive underpinning of higher order thinking. We highlight the utility of this framework for developing insights into practice through a review of mathematics, science, and history educational contexts. In these disciplines, analogy is essential to developing expert-like disciplinary knowledge in which concepts are understood to be systems of relationships that can be connected and flexibly manipulated. At the same time, analogies in education require explicit support to ensure that learners notice the relevance of relational thinking, have adequate processing resources available to mentally hold and manipulate relations, and are able to recognize both the similarities and differences when drawing analogies between systems of relationships. PMID:26263071

  20. A tangible programming tool for children to cultivate computational thinking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danli; Wang, Tingting; Liu, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Game and creation are activities which have good potential for computational thinking skills. In this paper we present T-Maze, an economical tangible programming tool for children aged 5-9 to build computer programs in maze games by placing wooden blocks. Through the use of computer vision technology, T-Maze provides a live programming interface with real-time graphical and voice feedback. We conducted a user study with 7 children using T-Maze to play two levels of maze-escape games and create their own mazes. The results show that T-Maze is not only easy to use, but also has the potential to help children cultivate computational thinking like abstraction, problem decomposition, and creativity. PMID:24719575

  1. A Tangible Programming Tool for Children to Cultivate Computational Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danli; Liu, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Game and creation are activities which have good potential for computational thinking skills. In this paper we present T-Maze, an economical tangible programming tool for children aged 5–9 to build computer programs in maze games by placing wooden blocks. Through the use of computer vision technology, T-Maze provides a live programming interface with real-time graphical and voice feedback. We conducted a user study with 7 children using T-Maze to play two levels of maze-escape games and create their own mazes. The results show that T-Maze is not only easy to use, but also has the potential to help children cultivate computational thinking like abstraction, problem decomposition, and creativity. PMID:24719575

  2. Charting Multidisciplinary Team External Dynamics Using a Systems Thinking Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois; Waszak, Martin R.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Silcox, Richard J.; Silva, Walter A.; Nowaczyk, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Using the formalism provided by the Systems Thinking approach, the dynamics present when operating multidisciplinary teams are examined in the context of the NASA Langley Research and Technology Group, an R&D organization organized along functional lines. The paper focuses on external dynamics and examines how an organization creates and nurtures the teams and how it disseminates and retains the lessons and expertise created by the multidisciplinary activities. Key variables are selected and the causal relationships between the variables are identified. Five "stories" are told, each of which touches on a different aspect of the dynamics. The Systems Thinking Approach provides recommendations as to interventions that will facilitate the introduction of multidisciplinary teams and that therefore will increase the likelihood of performing successful multidisciplinary developments. These interventions can be carried out either by individual researchers, line management or program management.

  3. A tangible programming tool for children to cultivate computational thinking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danli; Wang, Tingting; Liu, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Game and creation are activities which have good potential for computational thinking skills. In this paper we present T-Maze, an economical tangible programming tool for children aged 5-9 to build computer programs in maze games by placing wooden blocks. Through the use of computer vision technology, T-Maze provides a live programming interface with real-time graphical and voice feedback. We conducted a user study with 7 children using T-Maze to play two levels of maze-escape games and create their own mazes. The results show that T-Maze is not only easy to use, but also has the potential to help children cultivate computational thinking like abstraction, problem decomposition, and creativity.

  4. Coupled Human-Atmosphere-System Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmale, Julia; Chabay, Ilan

    2014-05-01

    minimize atmospheric release, but rather only complies with either climate or air quality requirements. Nor do current narratives promote behavioral change for the overall reduction of emissions (e.g., you can drive your diesel SUV as long as it has a low fuel consumption). This divide and thinking has not only been manifested in policy and regulations and hence media coverage, but has also shaped the public's general perception of this issue. There is no public conceptual understanding regarding humanity's modification of the atmosphere through the continuously and simultaneously released substances by almost any kind of activity and resulting impacts. Here, we propose a conceptual framework that provides a new perspective on the coupled human-atmosphere-system. It makes tangible the inherent linkages between the socio-economic system, the atmospheric physico-chemical changes and impacts, and legal frameworks for sustainable transformations at all levels. To implement HAS-thinking in decision and policy making, both salient disciplinary and interdisciplinary research and comprehensive science-society interactions in the form of transdisciplinary research are necessary. Societal transformations for the sake of a healthy human-atmosphere relationship are highly context dependent and require discussions of normative and value-related issues, which can only be solved through co-designed solutions. We demonstrate the importance of HAS-thinking by examples of sustainable development in the Arctic and Himalayan countries.

  5. Nursing research: perspectives on critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Banning, Maggi

    Critical thinking is an important component of professional practice. It is the hallmark of the competent nursing practitioner and yet there is no consensus on its definition, teaching or learning strategies of critical thinking skills in nursing students. Although critical thinking appears to be desirable at all levels of nursing practice, evidence to support its educational development in nurses appears to be limited. If educators are to prepare nurses to become leaders in their profession, the educational development of these essential skills in nurses needs to be addressed. PMID:16723953

  6. Experiential Collaborative Learning and Preferential Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpentesta, Antonio P.; Ammirato, Salvatore; Sofo, Francesco

    The paper presents a Project-Based Learning (shortly, PBL) approach in a collaborative educational environment aimed to develop design ability and creativity of students coming from different engineering disciplines. Three collaborative learning experiences in product design were conducted in order to study their impact on preferred thinking styles of students. Using a thinking style inventory, pre- and post-survey data was collected and successively analyzed through ANOVA techniques. Statistically significant results showed students successfully developed empathy and an openness to multiple perspectives. Furthermore, data analysis confirms that the proposed collaborative learning experience positively contributes to increase awareness in students' thinking styles.

  7. Spatiotemporal Thinking in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, T. F.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Tikoff, B.

    2011-12-01

    Reasoning about spatial relations is a critical skill for geoscientists. Within the geosciences different disciplines may reason about different sorts of relationships. These relationships may span vastly different spatial and temporal scales (from the spatial alignment in atoms in crystals to the changes in the shape of plates). As part of work in a research center on spatial thinking in STEM education, we have been working to classify the spatial skills required in geology, develop tests for each spatial skill, and develop the cognitive science tools to promote the critical spatial reasoning skills. Research in psychology, neurology and linguistics supports a broad classification of spatial skills along two dimensions: one versus many objects (which roughly translates to object- focused and navigation focused skills) and static versus dynamic spatial relations. The talk will focus on the interaction of space and time in spatial cognition in the geosciences. We are working to develop measures of skill in visualizing spatiotemporal changes. A new test developed to measure visualization of brittle deformations will be presented. This is a skill that has not been clearly recognized in the cognitive science research domain and thus illustrates the value of interdisciplinary work that combines geosciences with cognitive sciences. Teaching spatiotemporal concepts can be challenging. Recent theoretical work suggests analogical reasoning can be a powerful tool to aid student learning to reason about temporal relations using spatial skills. Recent work in our lab has found that progressive alignment of spatial and temporal scales promotes accurate reasoning about temporal relations at geological time scales.

  8. When we think about thinking: The acquisition of belief verbs

    PubMed Central

    Papafragou, Anna; Cassidy, Kimberly; Gleitman, Lila

    2009-01-01

    Mental-content verbs such as think, believe, imagine and hope seem to pose special problems for the young language learner. One possible explanation for these difficulties is that the concepts that these verbs express are hard to grasp and therefore their acquisition must await relevant conceptual development. According to a different, perhaps complementary, proposal, a major contributor to the difficulty of these items lies with the informational requirements for identifying them from the contexts in which they appear. The experiments reported here explore the implications of these proposals by investigating the contribution of observational and linguistic cues to the acquisition of mental predicate vocabulary. We first demonstrate that particular observed situations can be helpful in prompting reference to mental contents, specifically, contexts that include a salient and/or unusual mental state such as a false belief. We then compare the potency of such observational support to the reliability of alternate or concomitant syntactic information (e.g., sentential complementation) in tasks where both children and adults are asked to hypothesize the meaning of novel verbs. The findings support the efficacy of false belief situations for increasing the saliency of mental state descriptions, but also show that syntactic information is a more reliable indicator of mentalistic interpretations than even the most cooperative contextual cues. Moreover, when syntactic and observational information sources converge, both children and simulated adult learners are vastly more likely to build conjectures involving mental verbs. This is consistent with a multiple-cue constraint satisfaction view of vocabulary acquisition. Taken together, our findings support the position that the informational demands of mapping, rather than age-related cognitive deficiency, can bear much of the explanatory burden for the learning problems posed by abstract words. PMID:17094956

  9. Critical thinking in clinical nurse education: application of Paul's model of critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Andrea Sullivan, E

    2012-11-01

    Nurse educators recognize that many nursing students have difficulty in making decisions in clinical practice. The ability to make effective, informed decisions in clinical practice requires that nursing students know and apply the processes of critical thinking. Critical thinking is a skill that develops over time and requires the conscious application of this process. There are a number of models in the nursing literature to assist students in the critical thinking process; however, these models tend to focus solely on decision making in hospital settings and are often complex to actualize. In this paper, Paul's Model of Critical Thinking is examined for its application to nursing education. I will demonstrate how the model can be used by clinical nurse educators to assist students to develop critical thinking skills in all health care settings in a way that makes critical thinking skills accessible to students.

  10. Developing Critical Thinking through Leadership Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Daniel M.; Andenoro, Anthony C.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides the critical leadership logic model as a tool to help educators develop leadership-learning opportunities. This proactive logic model includes curricular and co-curricular educational experiences to ensure critical thinking through leadership education.

  11. A Case for Thinking Without Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Dijksterhuis, Ap; Strick, Madelijn

    2016-01-01

    People can engage in prolonged thought processes, such as when they are facing an important decision or when they are working on a scientific discovery. Such thought processes can take months or even years. We argue that while people engage in such thinking, they make progress not only when they consciously think but also sometimes when they are consciously thinking about something else-that is, while they think unconsciously. We review the literature on unconscious thought (UT) processes and conclude that there is indeed quite some evidence for UT. Conceptualized as a form of unconscious goal pursuit, UT is likely to be especially fruitful for thought processes that are complex, important, or interesting to the thinker. In addition, we discuss other characteristics of the UT process. We end with proposing Type 3 processes, in addition to Type 1 and Type 2 (or Systems 1 and 2) processes, to accommodate prolonged thought processes in models on thought. PMID:26817729

  12. Using the Genogram to Teach Systems Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole

    1997-01-01

    Describes graduate students' personal genograms as an exercise to facilitate training in systems thinking. Discussion covers the objectives, the assignment, evaluation of the students' work, and evaluation of the exercise. (Author/MKA)

  13. New thinking, innateness and inherited representation

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The New Thinking contained in this volume rejects an Evolutionary Psychology that is committed to innate domain-specific psychological mechanisms: gene-based adaptations that are unlearnt, developmentally fixed and culturally universal. But the New Thinking does not simply deny the importance of innate psychological traits. The problem runs deeper: the concept of innateness is not suited to distinguishing between the New Thinking and Evolutionary Psychology. That points to a more serious problem with the concept of innateness as it is applied to human psychological phenotypes. This paper argues that the features of recent human evolution highlighted by the New Thinking imply that the concept of inherited representation, set out here, is a better tool for theorizing about human cognitive evolution. PMID:22734066

  14. Imaginative Thinking and the Learning of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis; Fotinos, Nick

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the role of imagination in science education. It provides a justification for imaginative thinking in the context of school science, as well as some strategies that can be implemented by science teachers in their classrooms.

  15. Modeling Student Thinking about Motion in Tutorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Brian W.; Scherr, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    In an ongoing study, we are analyzing students’ conceptual resources for understanding motion. Previous work used results of surveys, written questions, and interviews to infer the nature of students’ ideas. Video of students working together in tutorial groups now allows us to access the details of their reasoning as they express themselves to their peers. We present examples of students in the algebra-based introductory physics course at the University of Maryland analyzing segments of ticker tape to develop an understanding of constant, instantaneous, and average speeds. The most commonly observed resources involve direct and indirect relationships among speed, distance, and time. Various constructions of ideas built from these resources led to both correct and incorrect accounts of the physical phenomena. We characterize the nature of these various constructions based on a model of student thinking as arising from the activation of conceptual resources, analyze shifts in student reasoning, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the resources model in accounting for student performance.

  16. Major hazards—Thinking the unthinkable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Stuart; Tromp, Fred; Lam, Alain

    1992-11-01

    It is a common experience that public administrations tend to shy away from the explicit acknowledgment of quantitative risk levels. Faced with extreme concentrations of population and of industrial activities, including LPG and liquid chlorine storage, within a very small land area, Hong Kong has faced up to the issue of major man-made hazards by “thinking the unthinkable” and adopting explicit risk guidelines. This article describes how these guidelines were developed and the arguments that led to their adoption. It is emphasized that the risk guidelines are not rigid standards but simply a method of focusing decision making and ensuring that any decision to contravene the guidelines is taken at an appropriately senior level in the administration. The way in which the guidelines have been incorporated intimately into the planning and decision-making process is described and details are given on how this has led to the implementation of a variety of measures that have greatly reduced both societal and individual risk from certain types of chemical storage and chemical processing installations in Hong Kong.

  17. Integrating Systems Thinking Into Nursing Education.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Janet M; Stalter, Ann M

    2016-09-01

    A critical need exists for nursing leadership in current complex health care settings. Systems thinking can be incorporated into nursing education at all levels by using evidence-based principles in education. Teaching tips are provided using a systems awareness model to guide nurse educators in the assessment and integration of systems thinking and engaging learners in interprofessional education and practice. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(9):395-397. PMID:27580505

  18. Episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking: Intersections between memory and decisions

    PubMed Central

    Schacter, Daniel L.; Benoit, Roland G.; De Brigard, Felipe; Szpunar, Karl K.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers two recent lines of research concerned with the construction of imagined or simulated events that can provide insight into the relationship between memory and decision making. One line of research concerns episodic future thinking, which involves simulating episodes that might occur in one’s personal future, and the other concerns episodic counterfactual thinking, which involves simulating episodes that could have happened in one’s personal past. We first review neuroimaging studies that have examined the neural underpinnings of episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking. We argue that these studies have revealed that the two forms of episodic simulation engage a common core network including medial parietal, prefrontal, and temporal regions that also supports episodic memory. We also note that neuroimaging studies have documented neural differences between episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking, including differences in hippocampal responses. We next consider behavioral studies that have delineated both similarities and differences between the two kinds of episodic simulation. The evidence indicates that episodic future and counterfactual thinking are characterized by similarly reduced levels of specific detail compared with episodic memory, but that the effects of repeatedly imagining a possible experience have sharply contrasting effects on the perceived plausibility of those events during episodic future thinking versus episodic counterfactual thinking. Finally, we conclude by discussing the functional consequences of future and counterfactual simulations for decisions. PMID:24373942

  19. Towards a Dialogic Theory of How Children Learn to Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegerif, Rupert

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a dialogic theory of thinking and of learning to think that has implications for education. The theory is offered as a contrast to theories that are based on both Piaget and Vygotsky. The paper proceeds by unpacking and interweaving three key concepts: dialogue, thinking and learning in order to argue that learning to think can…

  20. "Thinking Schools, Learning Nations" Implementation of Curriculum Review in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saravanan, Vanithamani

    2005-01-01

    "Thinking schools" will be sites of learning for everyone declared the Singapore Prime Minister, Goh Chok and Minister of Education Teo Chee Hean's in 1997 also spoke on the model of "thinking schools, learning nation". Gardner's model was used for the thinking school model in Singapore, in order to develop critical and creative thinking in…