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Sample records for actively q-switched laser

  1. Actively Q-switched Raman fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, A. G.; Podivilov, E. V.; Babin, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    A new scheme providing actively Q-switched operation of a Raman fiber laser (RFL) has been proposed and tested. The RFL consists of a 1 km single-mode fiber with a switchable loop mirror at one end and an angled cleaved output end. An 1080 nm pulse with microsecond duration is generated at the output by means of acousto-optic switching of the mirror at ~30 kHz in the presence of 6 W backward pumping at 1030 nm. In the proposed scheme, the generated pulse energy is defined by the pump energy distributed along the passive fiber, which amounts to 30 μJ in our case. The available pump energy may be increased by means of fiber lengthening. Pulse shortening is also expected.

  2. Doubly active Q switching and mode locking of an all-fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado-Laborde, Christian; Díez, Antonio; Cruz, Jose L; Andrés, Miguel V

    2009-09-15

    Simultaneous and independent active Q switching and active mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser is demonstrated using all-fiber modulation techniques. A magnetostrictive rod attached to the output fiber Bragg grating modulates the Q factor of the Fabry-Perot cavity, whereas active mode locking is achieved by amplitude modulation with a Bragg-grating-based acousto-optic device. Fully modulated Q-switched mode-locked trains of optical pulses were obtained for a wide range of pump powers and repetition rates. For a Q-switched repetition rate of 500 Hz and a pump power of 100 mW, the laser generates trains of 12-14 mode-locked pulses of about 1 ns each, within an envelope of 550 ns, an overall energy of 0.65 microJ, and a peak power higher than 250 W for the central pulses of the train.

  3. Efficient high repetition rate electro-optic Q-switched laser with an optically active langasite crystal.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shihui; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Han, Xuekun; Lu, Qingming; Ma, Changqin; Boughton, Robert I; Wang, Jiyang

    2016-01-01

    With an optically active langasite (LGS) crystal as the electro-optic Q-switch, we demonstrate an efficient Q-switched laser with a repetition rate of 200 kHz. Based on the theoretical analysis of the interaction between optical activity and electro-optic property, the optical activity of the crystal has no influence on the birefringence during Q-switching if the quarter wave plate used was rotated to align with the polarization direction. With a Nd:LuVO4 crystal possessing a large emission cross-section and a short fluorescence lifetime as the gain medium, a stable LGS Q-switched laser was designed with average output power of 4.39 W, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 29.4% and with a minimum pulse width of 5.1 ns. This work represents the highest repetition rate achieved so far in a LGS Q-switched laser and it can provide a practical Q-switched laser with a tunable high repetition rates for many applications, such as materials processing, laser ranging, medicine, military applications, biomacromolecule materials, remote sensing, etc.

  4. Efficient high repetition rate electro-optic Q-switched laser with an optically active langasite crystal

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shihui; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Han, Xuekun; Lu, Qingming; Ma, Changqin; Boughton, Robert I.; Wang, Jiyang

    2016-01-01

    With an optically active langasite (LGS) crystal as the electro-optic Q-switch, we demonstrate an efficient Q-switched laser with a repetition rate of 200 kHz. Based on the theoretical analysis of the interaction between optical activity and electro-optic property, the optical activity of the crystal has no influence on the birefringence during Q-switching if the quarter wave plate used was rotated to align with the polarization direction. With a Nd:LuVO4 crystal possessing a large emission cross-section and a short fluorescence lifetime as the gain medium, a stable LGS Q-switched laser was designed with average output power of 4.39 W, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 29.4% and with a minimum pulse width of 5.1 ns. This work represents the highest repetition rate achieved so far in a LGS Q-switched laser and it can provide a practical Q-switched laser with a tunable high repetition rates for many applications, such as materials processing, laser ranging, medicine, military applications, biomacromolecule materials, remote sensing, etc. PMID:27461819

  5. Efficient high repetition rate electro-optic Q-switched laser with an optically active langasite crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shihui; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Han, Xuekun; Lu, Qingming; Ma, Changqin; Boughton, Robert I.; Wang, Jiyang

    2016-07-01

    With an optically active langasite (LGS) crystal as the electro-optic Q-switch, we demonstrate an efficient Q-switched laser with a repetition rate of 200 kHz. Based on the theoretical analysis of the interaction between optical activity and electro-optic property, the optical activity of the crystal has no influence on the birefringence during Q-switching if the quarter wave plate used was rotated to align with the polarization direction. With a Nd:LuVO4 crystal possessing a large emission cross-section and a short fluorescence lifetime as the gain medium, a stable LGS Q-switched laser was designed with average output power of 4.39 W, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 29.4% and with a minimum pulse width of 5.1 ns. This work represents the highest repetition rate achieved so far in a LGS Q-switched laser and it can provide a practical Q-switched laser with a tunable high repetition rates for many applications, such as materials processing, laser ranging, medicine, military applications, biomacromolecule materials, remote sensing, etc.

  6. Efficient high repetition rate electro-optic Q-switched laser with an optically active langasite crystal.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shihui; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Han, Xuekun; Lu, Qingming; Ma, Changqin; Boughton, Robert I; Wang, Jiyang

    2016-01-01

    With an optically active langasite (LGS) crystal as the electro-optic Q-switch, we demonstrate an efficient Q-switched laser with a repetition rate of 200 kHz. Based on the theoretical analysis of the interaction between optical activity and electro-optic property, the optical activity of the crystal has no influence on the birefringence during Q-switching if the quarter wave plate used was rotated to align with the polarization direction. With a Nd:LuVO4 crystal possessing a large emission cross-section and a short fluorescence lifetime as the gain medium, a stable LGS Q-switched laser was designed with average output power of 4.39 W, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 29.4% and with a minimum pulse width of 5.1 ns. This work represents the highest repetition rate achieved so far in a LGS Q-switched laser and it can provide a practical Q-switched laser with a tunable high repetition rates for many applications, such as materials processing, laser ranging, medicine, military applications, biomacromolecule materials, remote sensing, etc. PMID:27461819

  7. Transform-limited pulses generated by an actively Q-switched distributed fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado-Laborde, C; Pérez-Millán, P; Andrés, M V; Díez, A; Cruz, J L; Barmenkov, Yu O

    2008-11-15

    A single-mode, transform-limited, actively Q-switched distributed-feedback fiber laser is presented, based on a new in-line acoustic pulse generator. Our technique permits a continuous adjustment of the repetition rate that modulates the Q factor of the cavity. Optical pulses of 800 mW peak power, 32 ns temporal width, and up to 20 kHz repetition rates were obtained. The measured linewidth demonstrates that these pulses are transform limited: 6 MHz for a train of pulses of 10 kHz repetition rate, 80 ns temporal width, and 60 mW peak power. Efficient excitation of spontaneous Brillouin scattering is demonstrated.

  8. Transform-limited pulses generated by an actively Q-switched distributed fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado-Laborde, C; Pérez-Millán, P; Andrés, M V; Díez, A; Cruz, J L; Barmenkov, Yu O

    2008-11-15

    A single-mode, transform-limited, actively Q-switched distributed-feedback fiber laser is presented, based on a new in-line acoustic pulse generator. Our technique permits a continuous adjustment of the repetition rate that modulates the Q factor of the cavity. Optical pulses of 800 mW peak power, 32 ns temporal width, and up to 20 kHz repetition rates were obtained. The measured linewidth demonstrates that these pulses are transform limited: 6 MHz for a train of pulses of 10 kHz repetition rate, 80 ns temporal width, and 60 mW peak power. Efficient excitation of spontaneous Brillouin scattering is demonstrated. PMID:19015677

  9. Performance of an actively Q-switched Er3+:Yb3+:YVO4 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingjian; Zhu, Liang; Zhou, Jun; Chen, Weibiao; Fan, Dianyuan

    2013-08-01

    We report, for the first time to our knowledge, an acousto-optic Q-switched Er3+:Yb3+:YVO4 laser end-pumped by a fiber-coupled diode laser at 976 nm. A maximum continuous wave output power of 230 mW at 1602.6 nm was obtained with an output coupler of 2% transmission under an absorbed pump power of 7.2 W. In Q-switched operation, a wide range of repetition rates from 500 Hz to 50 kHz was demonstrated. 0.19 mJ maximum pulse energy with 130 ns pulse duration was obtained at a repetition rate of 500 Hz. A reduced storage time of the upper laser level was discovered, which was suggested to be a result of up-conversion loss.

  10. Q-Switching in a Neodymium Laser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holgado, Warein; Sola, Inigo J.; Jarque, Enrique Conejero; Jarabo, Sebastian; Roso, Luis

    2012-01-01

    We present a laboratory experiment for advanced undergraduate or graduate laser-related classes to study the performance of a neodymium laser. In the experiment, the student has to build the neodymium laser using an open cavity. After that, the cavity losses are modulated with an optical chopper located inside, so the Q-switching regime is…

  11. A Q-switched Nd:YCOB laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, C. J.; Tsang, Y. H.; Binks, D. J.; Zhang, H.; Wang, J.

    2008-04-01

    The first demonstration of a pulsed Nd:YCOB laser at 1060 nm is reported, with results for both gain switching and Qswitching presented. Active Q-switching is achieved using the spinning disc technique pulses of 50 ns duration with pulse energies up to 0.6 mJ are obtained. Optimisation is performed for both pulse energy and slope efficiency of the laser. A Q-switched slope efficiency of 56% is achieved.

  12. A random Q-switched fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yulong; Xu, Jianqiu

    2015-01-01

    Extensive studies have been performed on random lasers in which multiple-scattering feedback is used to generate coherent emission. Q-switching and mode-locking are well-known routes for achieving high peak power output in conventional lasers. However, in random lasers, the ubiquitous random cavities that are formed by multiple scattering inhibit energy storage, making Q-switching impossible. In this paper, widespread Rayleigh scattering arising from the intrinsic micro-scale refractive-index irregularities of fiber cores is used to form random cavities along the fiber. The Q-factor of the cavity is rapidly increased by stimulated Brillouin scattering just after the spontaneous emission is enhanced by random cavity resonances, resulting in random Q-switched pulses with high brightness and high peak power. This report is the first observation of high-brightness random Q-switched laser emission and is expected to stimulate new areas of scientific research and applications, including encryption, remote three-dimensional random imaging and the simulation of stellar lasing. PMID:25797520

  13. Active Q-switching of a fiber laser using a modulated fiber Fabry-Perot filter and a fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Manuel, Rodolfo; Kaboko, J. J. M.; Shlyagin, M. G.

    2016-02-01

    We propose and demonstrate a simple and robust actively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber ring cavity laser. The Q-switching is based on dynamic spectral overlapping of two filters, namely a fiber Bragg grating-based filter and a fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filter. Using 3.5 m of erbium-doped fiber and a pump power of only 60 mW, Q-switched pulses with a peak power of 9.7 W and a pulse duration of 500 ns were obtained. A pulse repetition rate can be continuously varied from a single shot to a few KHz.

  14. High-efficient diode-pumped actively Q-switched Nd:YAG/KTP Raman laser at 1096 nm wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Fufang; Zhang, Xingyu; Wang, Weitao; Cong, Zhenhua; Shi, Men; Yang, Xiuqin; Kong, Weijin; Ma, Lili; Wu, Wendi

    2013-09-01

    With Nd:YAG as the gain medium and KTP crystal as the Raman medium, the characteristics of an LD pumped intracavity actively Q-switched Nd:YAG/KTP Raman laser at 1096 nm wavelength were studied. The output characteristics of 1096 nm were investigated. At a pulse repetition rate of 30 kHz an average power up to 1.97 W was obtained with the incident pump power of 11.75 W, corresponding to a diode-to-Stokes conversion efficiency of 16.8%.

  15. Q-switched laser prelase detection circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, George E.

    1991-01-01

    A compact electronic circuit was developed to detect prelasing in Q-swithed pulsed laser systems and once detected to shut down the laser before the next laser pulse occurs. The circuit is small, compact, and uses a minimum of components which makes it quite economical, thus readily lending itself to commercial applications. It can easily be incorporated into virtually any Q-switched laser system or reliability of a laser system by reducing a source of possible costly optical damage. The circuit operation and instrument requirements necessary to incorporate the circuit into a laser system are discussed.

  16. Circuit Stops Prelasing In A Q-Switched Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, George E.

    1995-01-01

    Protective shutdown circuit stops prelasing in Q-switched laser operating at pulse-repetition rate of about 10 Hz. During normal operation, Q-switch prevents emission of light from laser cavity during application of Q-switch-trigger pulse. When circuit detects prelasing, it triggers relay turning off laser power supply. Circuit integrated into almost any Q-switched-laser system, provided one gains access to laser light, Q-switch-trigger pulse, and safety-interlock line of laser power supply.

  17. All fiber passively Q-switched laser

    DOEpatents

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Bisson, Scott E

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments relate to an all fiber passively Q-switched laser. The laser includes a large core doped gain fiber having a first end. The large core doped gain fiber has a first core diameter. The laser includes a doped single mode fiber (saturable absorber) having a second core diameter that is smaller than the first core diameter. The laser includes a mode transformer positioned between a second end of the large core doped gain fiber and a first end of the single mode fiber. The mode transformer has a core diameter that transitions from the first core diameter to the second core diameter and filters out light modes not supported by the doped single mode fiber. The laser includes a laser cavity formed between a first reflector positioned adjacent the large core doped gain fiber and a second reflector positioned adjacent the doped single mode fiber.

  18. Development of a compact vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser end-pumped actively Q-switched laser for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Liu, Lei; Chen, Rongzhang; Nelsen, Bryan; Huang, Xi; Lu, Yongfeng; Chen, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports the development of a compact and portable actively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and its applications in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The laser was end-pumped by a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). The cavity lases at a wavelength of 1064 nm and produced pulses of 16 ns with a maximum pulse energy of 12.9 mJ. The laser exhibits a reliable performance in terms of pulse-to-pulse stability and timing jitter. The LIBS experiments were carried out using this laser on NIST standard alloy samples. Shot-to-shot LIBS signal stability, crater profile, time evolution of emission spectra, plasma electron density and temperature, and limits of detection were studied and reported in this paper. The test results demonstrate that the VCSEL-pumped solid-state laser is an effective and compact laser tool for laser remote sensing applications. PMID:27036765

  19. Development of a compact vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser end-pumped actively Q-switched laser for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuo; Liu, Lei; Chen, Rongzhang; Nelsen, Bryan; Huang, Xi; Lu, Yongfeng; Chen, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports the development of a compact and portable actively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and its applications in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The laser was end-pumped by a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). The cavity lases at a wavelength of 1064 nm and produced pulses of 16 ns with a maximum pulse energy of 12.9 mJ. The laser exhibits a reliable performance in terms of pulse-to-pulse stability and timing jitter. The LIBS experiments were carried out using this laser on NIST standard alloy samples. Shot-to-shot LIBS signal stability, crater profile, time evolution of emission spectra, plasma electron density and temperature, and limits of detection were studied and reported in this paper. The test results demonstrate that the VCSEL-pumped solid-state laser is an effective and compact laser tool for laser remote sensing applications.

  20. Injection Seeding Of A Q-Switched Alexandrite Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zukowski, Barbara J. K.; Glesne, Thomas R.; Schwemmer, Geary; Czechanski, James P.; Kay, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    Experiment demonstrates that standing-wave, Q-switched, tunable alexandrite laser can be injection-seeded to increase stability of output frequency and significantly reduce bandwidth from 750 GHz to 180 MHz. Injecting laser acts as oscillator or master, while Q-switched laser into which ouput of seed laser injected acts as amplifier or slave.

  1. Dual-kind Q-switching of erbium fiber laser

    SciTech Connect

    Barmenkov, Yuri O. Kir'yanov, Alexander V.; Cruz, Jose L.; Andres, Miguel V.

    2014-03-03

    Two different regimes of Q-switching in the same implementation of an actively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser are demonstrated. Depending on the active fiber length and repetition rate of an intracavity Q-cell (acousto-optic modulator), the laser operates either in the regime of common, rather long and low-power, pulses composed of several sub-pulses or in the one of very short and powerful stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced pulses. The basic physical reason of the laser system to oscillate in one of these two regimes is the existence or absence of CW narrow-line “bad-cavity” lasing in the intervals when the Q-cell is blocked.

  2. Comparison of actively Q-switched laser performance of disordered Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystals cut along the crystallographic axes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yeqing; Chen, Aixi; Tu, Chaoyang

    2015-03-10

    In this paper, actively Q-switched laser operation with an acousto-optic switch has been demonstrated by using Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystals cut along the a, b, and c crystallographic axes. The most efficient Q-switched laser operation was obtained by using b-cut Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal with 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency, generating laser pulses of 0.5 mJ, 42.56 KW peak power and 9 ns pulse width, when the output couplings were 3%, 5%, and 5%, respectively. Pulse performances and output laser spectra of the a-, b-, and c-cut Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystals were compared under similar experimental conditions. PMID:25968384

  3. Q-switched fiber laser based on an acousto-optic modulator with injection seeding technique.

    PubMed

    Li, Wencai; Liu, Haowei; Zhang, Ji; Long, Hu; Feng, Sujuan; Mao, Qinghe

    2016-06-10

    The operation mechanism and the pulse property of an actively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) switch with the injection seeding technique are investigated. Our results show that the Q-switched pulses can be locked to oscillate near a fixed frequency higher than that of the seed laser, though the frequency-shift effect of the AOM impedes stable cavity mode oscillations. The operation mechanism of such Q-switch fiber lasers can be explained by the mutual locking-in among the shifted frequency components originated from the injected coherence seed with the help of the gain dynamics of the Q-switch cavity. Moreover, narrow-linewidth Q-switched pulses with different repetition rates can be obtained with different cavity lengths for incredibly stable output pulses without any use of cavity-stabilized techniques. PMID:27409015

  4. A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser employing subharmonic cavity modulation.

    PubMed

    Chang, You Min; Lee, Junsu; Lee, Ju Han

    2011-12-19

    We present a new and simple approach for the generation of Q-switched, mode-locked pulses from a laser cavity. The approach is based on cavity loss modulation that employs a subharmonic frequency of the fundamental intermode frequency spacing. A range of experiments have been carried out using an erbium-doped fiber-based ring cavity laser in order to verify that this simple approach can readily produce high quality Q-switched, mode-locked pulses. An active tuning of the Q-switched envelope repetition rate is also shown to be easily achievable by adjusting the order of the applied subharmonic frequency.

  5. Q-switched operation of a Nd:YCOB laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, C. J.; Tsang, Y. H.; Binks, D. J.; Zhang, H.; Wang, J.

    2009-01-01

    Q-switched operation of a Nd:YCOB laser is demonstrated. A Nd:YCOB crystal was end-pumped by laser diodes operating at a wavelength of 0.8 μm and with a peak power of 22 W, and Q-switching was achieved by the spinning disc technique. Pulses that were as short as 50 ns and with up to 0.5 mJ of energy were obtained. After optimization, a threshold of 0.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of 13% were achieved.

  6. Photoconductive semiconductor switches: Laser Q-switch trigger and switch-trigger laser integration

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.M.; Mar, A.; Hamil, R.A.; Zutavern, F.J.; Helgeson, W.D.

    1997-12-01

    This report provides a summary of the Pulser In a Chip 9000-Discretionary LDRD. The program began in January of 1997 and concluded in September of 1997. The over-arching goal of this LDRD is to study whether laser diode triggered photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) can be used to activate electro-optic devices such as Q-switches and Pockels cells and to study possible laser diode/switch integration. The PCSS switches we used were high gain GaAs switches because they can be triggered with small amounts of laser light. The specific goals of the LDRD were to demonstrate: (1) that small laser diode arrays that are potential candidates for laser-switch integration will indeed trigger the PCSS switch, and (2) that high gain GaAs switches can be used to trigger optical Q-switches in lasers such as the lasers to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and the laser used for direct optical initiation (DOI) of explosives. The technology developed with this LDRD is now the prime candidate for triggering the Q switch in the multiple lasers in the laser trigger system of the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and may be utilized in other accelerators. As part of the LDRD we developed a commercial supplier. To study laser/switch integration we tested triggering the high gain GaAs switches with: edge emitting laser diodes, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), and transverse junction stripe (TJS) lasers. The first two types of lasers (edge emitting and VCSELs) did activate the PCSS but are harder to integrate with the PCSS for a compact package. The US lasers, while easier to integrate with the switch, did not trigger the PCSS at the US laser power levels we used. The PCSS was used to activate the Q-switch of the compact laser to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source.

  7. High-power thulium fiber laser Q switched with single-layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yulong; Yu, Xuechao; Li, Xiaohui; Yan, Zhiyu; Wang, Qi Jie

    2014-02-01

    We report high-power 2 μm Tm3+ fiber lasers passively Q switched by double-piece single-layer graphene transferred onto a glass plate. Through manipulating intracavity laser beam size and increasing pump ratios, an average power of 5.2 W is directly achieved from the laser oscillator with an optical-to-optical slope efficiency of 26%. The laser pulse energy can be as high as ∼18  μJ, comparable to that from actively Q-switched fiber lasers. The narrowest pulse width is 320 ns, and the pulse repetition rate can be tuned from tens of kilohertz to 280 kHz by changing the pump power. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest average power and pulse energy, as well as the narrowest pulse width, from graphene-based Q-switched 2 μm fiber lasers.

  8. Q-Switched Alexandrite Laser-induced Chrysiasis

    PubMed Central

    Victor Ross, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chyriasis is an uncommon side effect that occurs in patients who are receiving prolonged treatment with either intravenous or intramuscular gold as a distinctive blue-gray pigmentation of light-exposed skin. Laser-induced chrysiasis is a rarely described phenomenon in individuals who have received systemic gold and are subsequently treated with a Q-switched laser. Purpose: To describe the characteristics of patients with laser-induced chrysiasis. Methods: The authors describe a 60-year-old woman who developed chrysiasis at Q-switched alexandrite laser treatment sites. They also reviewed the medical literature using PubMed, searching the terms chrysiasis, gold, and laser-induced. Patient reports and previous reviews of these subjects were critically assessed and the salient features are presented. Results: Including the authors’ patient, laser-induced chrysiasis has been described in five Caucasian arthritis patients (4 women and 1 man); most of the patients had received more than 8g of systemic gold therapy during a period of 3 to 13 years. Gold therapy was still occurring or had been discontinued as long as 26 years prior to laser treatment. All of the patients immediately developed blue macules at the Q-switched laser treatment site. Resolution of the dyschromia occurred in a 70-year-old woman after two treatment sessions with a long-pulsed ruby laser and the authors’ patient after a sequential series of laser sessions using a long-pulsed alexandrite laser, followed by a nonablative fractional laser and an ablative carbon dioxide laser. Conclusion: Laser-induced chrysiasis has been observed following treatment with Q-switched lasers in patients who are receiving or have previously been treated with systemic gold. It can occur decades after treatment with gold has been discontinued. Therefore, inquiry regarding a prior history of treatment with gold—particularly in older patients with arthritis—should be considered prior to treatment with a Q-switched

  9. Q-Switched Nd: YAG Laser Micro-Machining System

    SciTech Connect

    Messaoud, S.; Allam, A.; Siserir, F.; Bouceta, Y.; Kerdja, T.; Ouadjaout, D.

    2008-09-23

    In this paper, we present the design of a low cost Q-switched Nd: YAG laser micro-machining system for photo masks fabrication. It consists of: Nd:YAG laser source, beam delivery system, X-Y table, PC, The CCD camera and TV monitor. The synchronization between the laser source and the X-Y table is realised by NI PCI-7342, the two axis MID-7602 and LabVIEW based program. The first step of this work consists of engraving continuous and discontinuous lines on a thin film metal with a 100 {mu}m resolution by using the YG 980 Quantel Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.

  10. Q-Switched Raman laser system

    DOEpatents

    George, E. Victor

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for use of a Raman or Brillouin switch together with a conventional laser and a saturable absorber that is rapidly bleached at a predetermined frequency .nu.=.nu..sub.0, to ultimately produce a Raman or Brillouin pulse at frequency .nu.=.nu..sub.0 .+-..nu..sub.Stokes.

  11. Q-switched Raman laser system

    DOEpatents

    George, E.V.

    Method and apparatus for use of a Raman or Brillouin switch together with a conventional laser and a saturable absorber that is rapidly bleached at a predeterimined frequency nu = nu/sub O/, to ultimately produce a Raman or Brillouin pulse at frequency nu = nu/sub O/ +- nu /sub Stokes/.

  12. An acoustic-optically Q-switched Tm:SSO laser at 2 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, T. L.; Yang, K. J.; Zhao, S. Z.; Qiao, W. C.; Zhao, J.; Li, D. C.; Li, G. Q.; Li, T.; Zheng, L. H.; Xu, J.; Wang, Q. G.; Xu, X. D.; Su, L. B.

    2015-02-01

    An actively Q-switched Tm:SSO laser was realized by using an acoustic-optical (AO) modulator, and stable Q-switching operation was obtained with the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) varying from 1 kHz to 10 kHz. At PRF of 1 kHz, the Tm:SSO laser yielded a shortest 308 ns pulse with M2 factor less than 1.6 at 1968 nm, corresponding to a single pulse energy of 128 μJ and pulse peak power of 416 W. The experimental results indicate the Tm:SSO crystal is favorable for obtaining low PRF 2 μm laser pulses.

  13. Graphene Q-switched Yb:KYW planar waveguide laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jun Wan; Young Choi, Sun; Jun Ahn, Kwang; Yeom, Dong-Il E-mail: rotermun@ajou.ac.kr; Rotermund, Fabian E-mail: rotermun@ajou.ac.kr; Aravazhi, Shanmugam; Pollnau, Markus; Griebner, Uwe; Petrov, Valentin; Bae, Sukang

    2015-01-15

    A diode-pumped Yb:KYW planar waveguide laser, single-mode Q-switched by evanescent-field interaction with graphene, is demonstrated for the first time. Few-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition is transferred onto the top of a guiding layer, which initiates stable Q-switched operation in a 2.4-cm-long waveguide laser operating near 1027 nm. Average output powers up to 34 mW and pulse durations as short as 349 ns are achieved. The measured output beam profile, clearly exhibiting a single mode, agrees well with the theoretically calculated mode intensity distribution inside the waveguide. As the pump power is increased, the repetition rate and pulse energy increase from 191 to 607 kHz and from 7.4 to 58.6 nJ, respectively, whereas the pulse duration decreases from 2.09 μs to 349 ns.

  14. High Speed Crystal Growth by Q-switched Laser Melting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullis, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    The modification of the structural and electrical properties of semiconductors short radiation pulses obtained from Q-switched lasers is described. These modifications are accomplished by high heating and cooling rates. This processing revealed novel crystal growth and high speed resolidification phenomena. The behavior of semiconductor Si is analyzed. The annealing process typically employs short pulses of radiation in or near the visible region of the spectrum. The Q-switched ruby and Nd-YAG lasers are commonly used and these are sometimes mode locked to reduce the pulse length still further. Material to be annealed can be processed with a single large area radiation spot. Alternatively, a small radiation spot size can be used and a large sample area is covered by overlapping irradiated regions.

  15. Tm:germanate Fiber Laser: Tuning And Q-switching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Walsh, Brian M.; Reichle, Donald J.; DeYoung, R. J.; Jiang, Shibin

    2007-01-01

    A Tm:germanate fiber laser produced >0.25 mJ/pulse in a 45 ns pulse. It is capable of producing multiple Q-switched pulses from a single p ump pulse. With the addition of a diffraction grating, Tm:germanate f iber lasers produced a wide, but length dependent, tuning range. By s electing the fiber length, the tuning range extends from 1.88 to 2.04 ?m. These traits make Tm:germanate lasers suitable for remote sensin g of water vapor.

  16. Q-switched all-fiber laser based on magnetostriction modulation of a Bragg grating.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Millán, P; Díez, A; Andrés, M; Zalvidea, D; Duchowicz, R

    2005-06-27

    We report an actively Q-switched all-fiber laser based on magnetostriction modulation of a Bragg grating. The laser employs a pair of Bragg gratings as reflective mirrors, one of which is bonded to a magnetostrictive element. Lengthening of the magnetostrictive element when a magnetic field is applied shifts the Bragg wavelength of the grating, allowing control of the Q-factor of the cavity and, thus, performing active Q-switching. The magnetostrictive modulator is small, compact and requires less than 300 mW electrical drive power. Using erbium-doped fiber and a maximum pump power of 120 mW, Q-switch pulses of more than 1 W peak power were obtained, with a pulse repetition rate that can be continuously varied from 1 Hz to 125 kHz. PMID:19498492

  17. Theory of the optimally coupled Q-switched laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J.

    1989-01-01

    The general equations describing Q-switched laser operation are transcendental in nature and require numerical solutions, which greatly complicates the optimization of real devices. Here, it is shown that, using the mathematical technique of Lagrange multipliers, one can derive simple analytic expressions for all of the key parameters of the optimally coupled laser, i.e., one which uses an optimum reflector to obtain maximum laser efficiency for a given pump level. These parameters can all be expressed as functions of a single dimensionless variable z, defined as the ratio of the unsaturated small-signal gain to the dissipative (nonuseful) optical loss, multiplied by a few simple constants. Laser design tradeoff studies and performance projections can be accomplished quickly with the help of several graphs and a simple hand calculator. Sample calculations for a high-gain Nd:YAG and a low-gain alexandrite laser are presented as illustrations of the technique.

  18. Diode edge-pumped passively Q-switched microchip laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Weipeng; Tsunekane, Masaki; Taira, Takunori

    2015-09-01

    There is an increasing demand for high-intensity subnanosecond lasers for emerging industrial applications. While femtosecond and picosecond laser sources are considered promising, they suffer from the significant drawbacks of increased complexity and cost. In this regard, we demonstrate a unique edge-pumped passively Q-switched Nd∶YAG/Cr4+∶YAG microchip laser. The microchip is made of a Nd∶YAG/Sm∶YAG composite ceramic, and a Sm∶YAG cladding is utilized as both the pump beam waveguide and amplified spontaneous emission absorber. With the use of a flat-concave laser cavity, we obtain single-pulse energy of 1.66 mJ for an absorbed pump energy of 24 mJ. Further, the resulting pulse width is 683 ps, and the repetition rate is 10 Hz.

  19. Passively Q-switched side pumped monolithic ring laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Steven X. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein are systems and methods for generating a side-pumped passively Q-switched non-planar ring oscillator. The method introduces a laser into a cavity of a crystal, the cavity having a round-trip path formed by a reflection at a dielectrically coated front surface, a first internal reflection at a first side surface of the crystal at a non-orthogonal angle with the front, a second internal reflection at a top surface of the crystal, and a third internal reflection at a second side surface of the crystal at a non-orthogonal angle with the front. The method side pumps the laser at the top or bottom surface with a side pump diode array beam and generates an output laser emanating at a location on the front surface. The design can include additional internal reflections to increase interaction with the side pump. Waste heat may be removed by mounting the crystal to a heatsink.

  20. Simulation of tunable Cr:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsiu-Fen; Hsieh, Shang-Wei; Kuo, Yen-Kuang

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we numerically investigate the passive Q-switching performance of the tunable Cr:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser over its entire tuning range. Specifically, the optical performance of the Cr:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser as functions of the initial population in the ground state of the Cr:YSO saturable absorber, the pumping rate, the reflectivity of the output coupler, and the dissipative loss inside the laser cavity are studied. Simulation results show that the Cr:YSO is an effective saturable absorber Q switch for the Cr:LiSAF laser over its entire tuning range. Unlike the Cr:YSO Q-switched alexandrite laser and the Cr:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiCAF laser, the Cr:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser has similar passive Q-switching performance when the laser polarization is along each of the three principal axes of the Cr:YSO. The results obtained numerically in this work are in good agreement with those obtained experimentally by other researchers. Our simulation results indicate that, a Q-switched laser pulse with an output energy of 10 mJ and a pulse width of 17 ns may be obtained at 850 nm, the peak of its tuning spectrum.

  1. Repetitively Q-switched Nd:BeL lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, J.; Birnbaum, M.; Deshazer, L. G.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal and mechanical characteristics which will ultimately limit the performance of Nd:BeL at high average power levels were investigated. The output beam characteristics (pulse width, peak power, beam dimensions and collimation) were determined at high repetition rates for both Nd:BeL and Nd:YAG. The output of Nd:BeL was shown to exceed that of Nd:YAG by a factor of 2.7 at low Q-switched repetition rates (1 Hz). This result follows from the smaller stimulated emission cross section of x-axis Nb:BeL compared to that of NdYAG by the same factor. At high repetition rates (10 Hz) the output of Nd:Bel falls to a level of three-fifths of its low repetition rate value while under similar tests the output of Nd:YAG remains essentially constant. A comparison of the measured values of the elasto-optic coefficients, the dn/dT values and the linear expansion coefficients for BeL and YAG failed to provide an explanation for the performance of BeL; however, thermal lensing was observed in Nd:BeL. Results imply that the output of a high repetition rate Q-switched Nd:BeL laser (high thermal loading) could be dramatically increased by utilization of a resonator design to compensate for the thermal lensing effects.

  2. A non-critically phase matched KTA optical parametric oscillator intracavity pumped by an actively Q-switched Nd:GYSGG laser with dual signal wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Kai; Guo, Shibei; Wang, Maorong; Mei, Jialin; Xu, Degang; Yao, Jianquan

    2015-06-01

    A non-critically phase matched eye-safe KTA optical parametric oscillator intracavity pumped by a dual-wavelength acousto-optically Q-switched Nd:GYSGG laser is demonstrated. Simultaneous dual signal wavelength at 1525.1 nm/1531.2 nm can be realized using only one laser crystal and one nonlinear crystal. When the absorbed diode pump power at 808 nm is 7.48 W, the maximum output power, single pulse energy and peak power are 296 mW, 2.96 μJ and 6.4 kW, respectively. As the signal wavelengths exactly locates at the absorption band of C2H2, such an Nd:GYSGG/KTA eye-safe laser has good application prospects in differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for C2H2 detection and difference frequency generation for terahertz waves at 0.77 THz.

  3. Theory of the optimally coupled Q-switched laser

    SciTech Connect

    Degnan, J.J.

    1989-02-01

    The general equations describing Q-switched laser operation are transcendental in nature and require numerical solutions. This greatly complicates the optimization of real devices. In this paper, we demonstrate that, using the mathematical technique of Lagrange multipliers, one can derive simple analytic expressions for all of the key parameters of the optimally coupled laser, i.e., one which uses an optimum reflector to obtain maximum laser efficiency for a given pump level. These parameters (which include the optimum reflectivity, output energy, extraction efficiency, pulsewidth, peak power, etc.) can all be expressed as functions of a single dimensionless variable z, defined as the ratio of the unsaturated small-signal gain to the dissipative (non-useful) optical loss, multiplied by a few simple constants. Laser design tradeoff studies and performance projections can be accomplished quickly with the help of several graphs and a simple hand calculator. Sample calculations for a high-gain Nd:YAG and a low-gain alexandrite laser are presented as illustrations of the technique.

  4. Q-switched ruby laser in cosmetic dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopera, Daisy

    1996-12-01

    The q-switched ruby laser has shown promising results in the treatment of blue and black tattoos. The red light of the ruby laser, 694 nm wavelength, selectively absorbed by dark pigments, is converted into heat and pigments are immediately vaporized. Energy levels range between 4, 5 and 12 J/cm2. Short exposure time does not exceed the thermal relaxation time of the target structures. Thus, thermal damage of the surrounding tissue is minimal. Not only exogenous pigment as tattoo ink but also physiological pigmented structures as melanocytes, melanosome loaden keratinocytes, and melanophages are affected by this type of laser application. Therefore the ruby laser represents a new option in the treatment of a variety of benign pigmented lesions in cosmetic dermatology. The benefit of this source can be seen in efficient clearing of the lesions without scarring. As a side effect transient hypopigmentation may occur. Ruby laser treatment of melanocytic lesions cannot be recommended because unpigmented nevus cells do not absorb red light and persist unaltered. They still bear the potency of further transformation, as into malignancy.

  5. Self-Q-switching behavior of erbium-doped tellurite microstructured fiber lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Zhi-Xu; Yao, Chuan-Fei; Kang, Zhe; Qin, Guan-Shi Qin, Wei-Ping; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2014-06-14

    We reported self-Q-switching behavior of erbium-doped tellurite microstructured fiber (EDTMF) lasers and further demonstrated a self-Q-switched EDTMF laser with a high repetition rate of more than 1 MHz. A 14 cm EDTMF was used as the gain medium. Upon a pump power of ∼705 mW at 1480 nm, output pulses with a lasing wavelength of ∼1558 nm, a repetition rate of ∼1.14 MHz, and a pulse width of ∼282 ns were generated from the fiber by employing a linear cavity. The maximum output power was ∼316 mW and the slope efficiency was about 72.6% before the saturation of the laser power. Moreover, the influence of the fiber length on laser performances was investigated. The results showed that self-Q-switching behavior in our experiments was caused by the re-absorption originated from the ineffectively pumped part of the active fiber.

  6. Inexpensive timing circuit for a Q-switched solid-state laser using NE555 Timers

    SciTech Connect

    Subhash, N.; Sathianandan, K.

    1980-08-01

    A simple circuit using NE555 Timers for controlling a low repetition rate (upto 10 pulses/min.) Q-switched solid-state laser is described. This circuit produces two pulses, one for firing the flashlamp and the other for driving the electro-optic Q-switch, whose delay can be continuously varied up to 700 ..mu..s.

  7. Method and apparatus for detection and control of prelasing in a Q-switched laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, George E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention detects prelasing in a Q-switch laser and terminates laser operation upon such detection. A detector senses the presence of light beyond a Q-switch and generates an appropriate electrical signal. A comparison stage circuit compares this detector signal with an established threshold value indicative of prelasing and generates a trigger signal if this detector signal exceeds this threshold value. A control stage circuit receives both this trigger value and a sampled Q-switch signal indicative of an opening of the Q-switch. The control stage circuit terminates operation of the laser if the trigger signal from the comparison stage is received while the sampled Q-switch signal is being received to avoid the effects of prelasing. Appropriate delays and timing sequences are established.

  8. Fast acousto-optic q-switch laser

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, F.E.

    1981-12-29

    A fast acousto-optic q-switch laser is taught comprising a lasing medium, reflecting means mounted substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the lasing medium and spaced from a first end thereof, feedback reflecting means spaced from a second end of the lasing medium, optical pumping means for pumping the lasing medium, an acousto-optic switch mounted along and tilted at a preselected angle with respect to the longitudinal axis of the lasing medium between the second end of the lasing medium and said feedback reflecting means and spaced from the second end of said lasing medium for deflecting a portion of the radiation emitted by the lasing medium, and first and second transducers mounted in opposition to each other on the switch, the first transducer mounted with respect to the switch such that the gradient of the envelope of the acoustic energy introduced into and propagated through the switch approximates the gradient of the non-uniform population inversion directly in the lasing medium, and the second transducer mounted with respect to the switch such that acoustic energy introduced into and propagated through the switch has a velocity vector opposite to the first transducer and timed to provide maximum feedback when lasing occurs, said feedback reflecting means positioned along and tilted at a preselected angle with respect to the longitudinal axis of said lasing medium related to the path to be taken by the deflected portion of radiation for reflecting said deflected portion of radiation back to said switch.

  9. Analysis of bulk and nanostructured passive Q-switches for erbium laser oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miclos, Sorin; Lancranjan, Ion; Savastru, Roxana; Savastru, Dan

    2013-06-01

    Numerical simulation results obtained in investigating the generation of laser pulses with 1.55 μm wavelength generated by an Er3+, Er3+-Yb3+ or Cr3+-Yb3+-Er3+ laser or fiber laser oscillator operated in passive optical Q-switching regime are presented. Three types of passive optical Q-switch cell are investigated: the usual one based on Co2+ or UO2 embedded in different hosts; the second consisting of Co2+ nano-crystals. The spectroscopic characteristics of these Q-switch cells are analyzed and correlated with criteria obtained with a numerical simulation procedure based on solving a rate equation system.

  10. Experimental study of electro-optical Q-switched pulsed Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Maleki; M Kavosh, Tehrani; H, Saghafifar; M, H. Moghtader Dindarlu

    2016-03-01

    We report the specification of a compact and stable side diode-pumped Q-switched pulsed Nd:YAG laser. We experimentally study and compare the performance of the pulsed Nd:YAG laser in the free-running and Q-switched modes at different pulse repetition rates from 1 Hz to 100 Hz. The laser output energy is stabilized by using a special configuration of the optical resonator. In this laser, an unsymmetrical concave-concave resonator is used and this structure helps the mode volume to be nearly fixed when the pulse repetition rate is increased. According to the experimental results in the Q-switched operation, the laser output energy is nearly constant around 70 mJ with an FWHM pulse width of 7 ns at 100 Hz. The optical-to-optical conversion efficiency in the Q-switched regime is 17.5%.

  11. Oscillatory phenomena and Q switching in a model for laser with a saturable absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Antoranz, J.C.; Gea, J.; Velarde, M.G.

    1981-12-28

    Sufficiently long population decay times and sufficiently short dipole decay times in a single-mode laser with saturable absorber permit passive Q switching in the form of a hard-mode sustained relaxation oscillation.

  12. Injection-seeded operation of a Q-switched Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Sammy W.; Hale, Charley P.; Magee, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Single-frequency Tm,Ho:YAG lasers operating near 2 microns are attractive sources for several applications including eye-safe laser radar (lidar) and pumping of AgGaSe2 parametric oscillators for efficient generation of longer wavelengths. As part of a program to develop a coherent lidar system using Tm,Ho:YAG lasers, a diode laser-pumped tunable CW single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG laser and a flashlamp-pumped single-transverse-mode Q-switched Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG laser were developed. The CW laser was used to injection-seed the flashlamp-pumped laser, resulting in SLM Q-switched output. Operational characteristics of the CW and Q-switched lasers and injection-seeding results are reported.

  13. Q-switched and mode-locked Er{sup 3+}-doped fibre laser using a single-multi-single fibre filter and piezoelectric

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Wang; Yunjun Zhang; Aotuo Dong; Xiaoxin Xu; Youlun Ju; Baoquan Yao

    2014-04-28

    The active Q-switched and passive mode-locked Er{sup 3+}-doped all-fibre laser is presented. The fibre laser centre wavelength is located at 1563 nm and determined by the homemade singlemulti- single (SMS) in-line fibre filter. The laser spectrum width is nearly 0.1 nm. The active Q-switched mechanism relies on the polarisation state control using a piezoelectric to press a segment of passive fibre on the circular cavity. The nonlinear polarisation rotation technology is used to realise the passive self-started modelocked operation. In the passive mode-locked regimes, the output average power is 2.1 mW, repetition frequency is 11.96 MHz, and single pulse energy is 0.18 nJ. With the 100-Hz Q-switched regimes running, the output average power is 1.5 mW. The total Q-switched pulse width is 15 μs, and every Q-switched pulse is made up by several tens of mode-locked peak pulses. The calculated output pulse energy of the Q-switched fibre laser is about 15 μJ, and the energy of every mode-locked pulse is about 64–68 nJ during a Q-switched pulse taking into account the power fraction propagating between pulses. (lasers)

  14. Theoretical and experimental analysis of injection seeding a Q-switched alexandrite laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, C. R.; Lee, H. S.; Glesne, T. R.; Monosmith, B.; Schwemmer, G. K.

    1991-01-01

    Injection seeding is a method for achieving linewidths of less than 500 MHz in the output of broadband, tunable, solid state lasers. Dye lasers, CW and pulsed diode lasers, and other solid state lasers have been used as injection seeders. By optimizing the fundamental laser parameters of pump energy, Q-switched pulse build-up time, injection seed power and mode matching, one can achieve significant improvements in the spectral purity of the Q-switched output. These parameters are incorporated into a simple model for analyzing spectral purity and pulse build-up processes in a Q-switched, injection-seeded laser. Experiments to optimize the relevant parameters of an alexandrite laser show good agreement.

  15. VCSEL-pumped passively Q-switched monolithic solid-state lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Leeuwen, Robert; Xu, Bing; Chen, Tong; Wang, Qing; Seurin, Jean-Francois; Xu, Guoyang; Zhou, Delai; Ghosh, Chuni

    2016-03-01

    High power 808 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays were used to end-pump diffusion-bonded composite laser rods consisting of an Nd:YAG gain medium and a Cr:YAG saturable absorber. The laser pulse energy, q-switch delay time, and optical efficiency of a passively Q-switched monolithic solid state laser in a compact rugged package were measured as a function of VCSEL power for various heatsink temperatures. Up to 19 mJ laser pulse energy was produced with 13% optical efficiency.

  16. Q-switched and mode-locked Er3+-doped fibre laser using a single-multi-single fibre filter and piezoelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji; Zhang, Yunjun; Dong, Aotuo; Xu, Xiaoxin; Ju, Youlun; Yao, Baoquan

    2014-04-01

    The active Q-switched and passive mode-locked Er3+-doped all-fibre laser is presented. The fibre laser centre wavelength is located at 1563 nm and determined by the homemade singlemulti- single (SMS) in-line fibre filter. The laser spectrum width is nearly 0.1 nm. The active Q-switched mechanism relies on the polarisation state control using a piezoelectric to press a segment of passive fibre on the circular cavity. The nonlinear polarisation rotation technology is used to realise the passive self-started modelocked operation. In the passive mode-locked regimes, the output average power is 2.1 mW, repetition frequency is 11.96 MHz, and single pulse energy is 0.18 nJ. With the 100-Hz Q-switched regimes running, the output average power is 1.5 mW. The total Q-switched pulse width is 15 μs, and every Q-switched pulse is made up by several tens of mode-locked peak pulses. The calculated output pulse energy of the Q-switched fibre laser is about 15 μJ, and the energy of every mode-locked pulse is about 64-68 nJ during a Q-switched pulse taking into account the power fraction propagating between pulses.

  17. Laser-Tissue Interaction in Tattoo Removal by Q-Switched Lasers

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Shyamanta

    2015-01-01

    Q-switched (QS) lasers are widely considered the gold standard for tattoo removal, with excellent clinical results, impressive predictability, and a good safety profile. The generation of giant pulses by the method of Q-switching is responsible for the unique laser-tissue interaction that is seen in tattoo removal by QS lasers. The QS lasers work by impaction and dissolution of the tattoo pigments. Mechanical fragmentation of the tattoo pigments encased in intracellular lamellated organelles followed by their phagocytosis by macrophages is thought to be the major event in the clearance of pigments by QS lasers. A few novel techniques have been tried in recent times to hasten the clearance of tattoo pigments. PMID:25949016

  18. Laser-tissue interaction in tattoo removal by q-switched lasers.

    PubMed

    Barua, Shyamanta

    2015-01-01

    Q-switched (QS) lasers are widely considered the gold standard for tattoo removal, with excellent clinical results, impressive predictability, and a good safety profile. The generation of giant pulses by the method of Q-switching is responsible for the unique laser-tissue interaction that is seen in tattoo removal by QS lasers. The QS lasers work by impaction and dissolution of the tattoo pigments. Mechanical fragmentation of the tattoo pigments encased in intracellular lamellated organelles followed by their phagocytosis by macrophages is thought to be the major event in the clearance of pigments by QS lasers. A few novel techniques have been tried in recent times to hasten the clearance of tattoo pigments.

  19. Q-switched laser at 912 nm using ground-state-depleted neodymium in yttrium orthosilicate.

    PubMed

    Beach, R; Albrecht, G; Solarz, R; Krupke, W; Comaskey, B; Mitchell, S; Brandle, C; Berkstresser, G

    1990-09-15

    A ground-state-depleted laser is demonstrated in the form of a Q-switched oscillator operating at 912 nm. By using Nd(3+) as the active ion and Y(2)SiO(5) as the host material, the laser transition is from the lowest-lying Stark level of the Nd(3+4)F(?) level to a Stark level 355 cm(-1) above the lowest-lying one in the (4)I(9/2) manifold. The necessity of depleting the ground (4)I(9/2) manifold is evident for this level scheme as transparency requires a 10% inversion. To achieve the high excitation levels required for the efficient operation of this laser, bleach-wave pumping using an alexandrite laser at 745 nm has been employed. With KNbO(3), noncritical phase matching is possible at 140 degrees C using d(32) and is demonstrated. PMID:19770985

  20. Optimization of a Fabry-Perot Q-switch fiber optic laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armas Rivera, Ivan; Beltrán Pérez, Georgina; Kuzin, Evgene; Castillo Mixcóatl, Juan; Muñoz Aguirre, Severino

    2013-11-01

    Optical fiber Q-Switch lasers have been used in a variety of application areas in science as well as in industry owing to their multiple characteristics. A possible application is that owing to their high output power they can be used as pumping sources for supercontinuum generation. Such source can be employed in optical coherence tomography (OCT) focused to dermatology. Therefore it is important to develop sources with emission wavelength that are not injurious to human skin. In the present work erbium doped fiber (EDF) was used owing that its emission wavelength (1550 nm) is adequate for this purpose. The most efficient way of achieving high power in a Q-Switch laser is optimizing all the parameters involved in the pulses generation, such as pumping power, active medium length and modulation frequency. The results show that using a fiber length of 7 meters is possible to get 10 μJ of energy, a peak power of 140 W, an average power of 27.5mW with temporal widths of 500 ns. The laser uses an acousto-optic device to modulate the internal loses inside the cavity. As highly reflecting mirrors, a Sagnac Interferometer and a Fiber Bragg Grating was employed.

  1. Q-switched laser in an SMS cavity for inhibiting nonlinear effects.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiaqi; Lu, Yi; He, Bing; Gu, Xijia

    2015-07-01

    In the design of high-power Q-switched fiber lasers, nonlinear effects often become barriers that prevent the scale up of pulse energy and peak power. New designs and components that could inhibit or suppress nonlinear effects are in high demand, particularly in all-fiber configurations. In this paper, we demonstrated a Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser in a single-mode multimode single-mode (SMS) structure to inhibit fiber nonlinear effects. The laser-generated Q-switched pulses with a peak power close to 1 kW (pulse width and energy of 100 ns and 92 μJ, respectively). The output spectrum of this laser was compared with that of a Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser built in a conventional configuration with similar output peak power. The results showed, for the first time to our knowledge, that the SMS Q-switched laser completely inhibited the stimulated Raman scattering and significantly reduced self-phase modulation. PMID:26193155

  2. An LD-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser using La 3 Ga 5 SiO 14 for the electro-optic modulator and optical activity compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H.; Huang, J. H.; Zhao, X.; Wang, J. Y.; Shi, F.; Li, J. H.; Deng, J.; Liu, H. G.; Weng, W.; Ge, Y.; Dai, S. T.; Ruan, K. M.; Wu, H. C.; Lin, W. X.

    2014-04-01

    La3Ga5SiO14 (LGS) has been designed and used successfully not only as an electro-optical (EO) Q-switch but also as the optically active crystal in an Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) pulse-off laser cavity with two-rod birefringence compensation in this paper. A maximum average output power of 15.8 W with a pulse width of 21 ns was obtained at the maximum repetition rate of 1 kHz, and the dynamic-static ratio was 75%. Experimental results revealed that the spatial distribution of the laser intensity with the two LGS crystals inserted between two identical Nd:YAG rods was significantly better than the spatial distribution with no birefringence compensation or a KD ∗ P EO Q-switcher.

  3. Ocular dynamics and visual tracking performance after Q-switched laser exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwick, Harry; Stuck, Bruce E.; Lund, David J.; Nawim, Maqsood

    2001-05-01

    In previous investigations of q-switched laser retinal exposure in awake task oriented non-human primates (NHPs), the threshold for retinal damage occurred well below that of the threshold for permanent visual function loss. Visual function measures used in these studies involved measures of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. In the present study, we examine the same relationship for q-switched laser exposure using a visual performance task, where task dependency involves more parafoveal than foveal retina. NHPs were trained on a visual pursuit motor tracking performance task that required maintaining a small HeNe laser spot (0.3 degrees) centered in a slowly moving (0.5deg/sec) annulus. When NHPs reliably produced visual target tracking efficiencies > 80%, single q-switched laser exposures (7 nsec) were made coaxially with the line of sight of the moving target. An infrared camera imaged the pupil during exposure to obtain the pupillary response to the laser flash. Retinal images were obtained with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope 3 days post exposure under ketamine and nembutol anesthesia. Q-switched visible laser exposures at twice the damage threshold produced small (about 50mm) retinal lesions temporal to the fovea; deficits in NHP visual pursuit tracking were transient, demonstrating full recovery to baseline within a single tracking session. Post exposure analysis of the pupillary response demonstrated that the exposure flash entered the pupil, followed by 90 msec refractory period and than a 12 % pupillary contraction within 1.5 sec from the onset of laser exposure. At 6 times the morphological threshold damage level for 532 nm q-switched exposure, longer term losses in NHP pursuit tracking performance were observed. In summary, q-switched laser exposure appears to have a higher threshold for permanent visual performance loss than the corresponding threshold to produce retinal threshold injury. Mechanisms of neural plasticity within the retina and at

  4. Efficient use of Q-switched lasers in the treatment of cutaneous lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xin-Hua

    1995-05-01

    The use of Q-switched laser has been well documented in the treatment of pigmented lesions, particularly in the tattoo removal. To better understand the ablation process by Q-switched lasers, we carried out an analysis on the states and other physical properties of certain tissue/pigment under the action of a strong transient electric field associated with the high energy nanosecond laser pulses. The dependence of the ablation threshold of transient electric field on the chromophore absorption has been found to be weak. A plasma ablation model is used to interpret previous experimental results. The comparison of the plasma model with the conventional selective photothermolysis model has led to a new design concept of Q-switched lasers for dermatology surgery.

  5. Narrow-band tunable alexandrite laser with passive Q switching

    SciTech Connect

    Tyryshkin, I S; Ivanov, N A; Khulugurov, V M

    1998-06-30

    An alexandrite laser with a self-injection of narrow-band radiation into its cavity was developed. A Fabry - Perot interferometer and a diffraction grating were used as dispersive components in an additional cavity. The cavity was switched by an LiF crystal with F{sub 3}{sup -} colour centres. The laser generated a single pulse of {approx} 180 ns duration and of 1.5 mJ energy, and with a spectrum 5 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup -1} wide. The laser emitted in the spectral range 720 - 780 nm. (lasers, active media)

  6. High Power Q-Switched Thulium Doped Fibre Laser using Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite Saturable Absorber.

    PubMed

    Chernysheva, Maria; Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; AlAraimi, Mohammed; Rümmeli, Mark; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser (TDFL) with a 'Yin-Yang' all-fibre cavity scheme based on a combination of nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) and nonlinear amplified loop mirror (NALM). Unidirectional lasing operation has been achieved without any intracavity isolator. By using a carbon nanotube polymer composite based saturable absorber (SA), we demonstrated the laser output power of ~197 mW and pulse energy of 1.7 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power from a nanotube polymer composite SA based Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser. PMID:27063511

  7. High Power Q-Switched Thulium Doped Fibre Laser using Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite Saturable Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Chernysheva, Maria; Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; AlAraimi, Mohammed; Rümmeli, Mark; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser (TDFL) with a ‘Yin-Yang’ all-fibre cavity scheme based on a combination of nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) and nonlinear amplified loop mirror (NALM). Unidirectional lasing operation has been achieved without any intracavity isolator. By using a carbon nanotube polymer composite based saturable absorber (SA), we demonstrated the laser output power of ~197 mW and pulse energy of 1.7 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power from a nanotube polymer composite SA based Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser. PMID:27063511

  8. High Power Q-Switched Thulium Doped Fibre Laser using Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite Saturable Absorber.

    PubMed

    Chernysheva, Maria; Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; AlAraimi, Mohammed; Rümmeli, Mark; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser (TDFL) with a 'Yin-Yang' all-fibre cavity scheme based on a combination of nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) and nonlinear amplified loop mirror (NALM). Unidirectional lasing operation has been achieved without any intracavity isolator. By using a carbon nanotube polymer composite based saturable absorber (SA), we demonstrated the laser output power of ~197 mW and pulse energy of 1.7 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power from a nanotube polymer composite SA based Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser.

  9. High Power Q-Switched Thulium Doped Fibre Laser using Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite Saturable Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernysheva, Maria; Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; Alaraimi, Mohammed; Rümmeli, Mark; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2016-04-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser (TDFL) with a ‘Yin-Yang’ all-fibre cavity scheme based on a combination of nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) and nonlinear amplified loop mirror (NALM). Unidirectional lasing operation has been achieved without any intracavity isolator. By using a carbon nanotube polymer composite based saturable absorber (SA), we demonstrated the laser output power of ~197 mW and pulse energy of 1.7 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power from a nanotube polymer composite SA based Q-switched Thulium doped fibre laser.

  10. A compact and efficient four-wavelength Q-switched Nd:YAP laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. H.; Zhang, G.; Wei, Y.; Zhu, H. Y.; Huang, L. X.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, a four-wavelength electro-optic (E-O) Q-switched solid-state laser system was presented. This laser system only use one Nd:YAP laser crystal, which irradiates 1079.5 nm and 1341.4 nm fundamental wavelengths. Both of these wavelength lasers and their second harmonic generation (SHG) compose a four-wavelength Nd:YAP Q-switched laser. The Q-switched output energies of 277 mJ for 1079.5 nm and 61 mJ for 539.8 nm and that of 190 mJ for 1341.4 nm and 51 mJ for 670.7 nm wavelengths were achieved. The pulse durations of 1079.5 and 539.8 nm lasers and that of 1341.4 and 670.7 nm lasers are 20 and 40 ns, respectively. Due to this laser system has the larger chance and convenience for selecting the wavelengths and operation modes by moving a stepping motor and controlling the Q-switched devices, it will broaden applications in the fields of laser cosmetology, dermatotis therapy, material processing and laser display etc.

  11. Er/Yb glass laser with compact mechanical Q-switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Brian; Hough, Nathaniel; Hays, Alan; Nettleton, John; Goldberg, Lew

    2016-03-01

    We describe a compact, side-pumped, Er/Yb glass laser with a low cost mechanical Q-switch. The Q-switch uses a mirror or reflecting prism mounted on a cantilever resonant spring that is driven by a small electromagnetic coil. The demonstrated laser used a 5 mm long Er/Yb glass gain element, and was side-pumped by a 940 nm, 5 mm wide diode bar generating up to 100 W peak power. Target energies of 3mJ have been realized in a near-diffraction limited mode, with pulse widths of 15-25ns, and an optical-to-optical efficiency of greater than 2%. The mechanical Q-switch assembly was fully athermalized via mounting a displacing porro reflector to the cantilever spring, where a 2.5mJ laser was observed to operate with less than 5% variance over -35°C to+60°C.

  12. Wavelength switchable graphene Q-switched fiber laser with cascaded fiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Man; Chen, Shuqing; Chen, Yu; Li, Ying

    2016-06-01

    We have demonstrated a wavelength switchable graphene Q-switched fiber laser with two cascaded fiber Bragg gratings. Stable Q-switching operation with central wavelength 1542.9 nm (1543.7 nm), repetition rate 28.4 kHz (22.58 kHz), and pulse duration 2.16 μs (2.65 μs) can be obtained by adjusting the intra-cavity birefringence. Moreover, stable dual-wavelength operation with wavelength spacing 0.8 nm can also be observed. The cascaded fiber gratings combined with the graphene saturable absorber provide a simple and feasible way to get versatile pulsed fiber laser.

  13. Numerical simulation and optimization of passively q-switched erbium microchip lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belghachem, Nabil; Mlynczak, Jarslow

    2015-08-01

    In this article we present a procedure of optimization of passively q-switched erbium microchip lasers. The procedure is based on the rate equation model, validated by comparing the numerical results to the experimental results of pulse generation in different types of erbium/ytterbium glass microchips q-switched by Co2+ : MgAl2O4 saturable absorber. Some Degnan’s optimization limitations in case of microchip lasers were also shown and the reabsorbtion cross section of erbium glass was also estimated.

  14. One-Joule-per-Pulse Q-Switched 2-micron Solid State Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Modlin, Ed A.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Chen, Songsheng; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Pual J.; Petros, Mulugeta

    2005-01-01

    Q-switched output of 1.1 J per pulse at 2-micron wavelength has been achieved in a diode pumped Ho:Tm:LuLF laser using a side-pumped rod configuration in a Master-Oscillator-Power-Amplifier (MOPA) architecture. This is the first time that a 2-micron laser has broken the Joule per pulse barrier for Q-switched operation. The total system efficiency reaches 5% and 6.2% for single and double pulse operation, respectively. The system produces excellent 1.4 times of transform limited beam quality.

  15. High average power of Q-switched Tm:YAG slab laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Lin; Liu, Pian; Liu, Xuan; Huang, Haitao; Yao, Weichao; Shen, Deyuan

    2016-08-01

    A laser-diode end-pumped Tm:YAG single crystal slab laser in acousto-optic Q-switched operation was demonstrated. For Q-switched operation, the average output power of 20.7 W at 1 kHz was achieved under the absorbed pump power of 83.6 W, corresponding to the slope efficiency of 36.1%, the shortest pulse width of 84 ns and the maximum pulse energy of 20.7 mJ with peak power of 250 kW were obtained.

  16. The effect of the depth of single longitudinal mode modulation in Q-switching pre-Pr3+:YLF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing-Song, Li; Ling-Xi, Zhu; Xi-He, Zhang; Yuan, Dong; Yong-Ji, Yu; Guang-Yong, Jin

    2016-08-01

    The single longitudinal mode (SLM) can be obtained under the condition of Q-switching pre-lase. In this paper, the model of Q-switching pre-lase is firstly established. Taking the Pr3+:YLF laser as an example, the process of Q-switching pre-lase is simulated and optimized, then the optimized parameters and best output characteristics under different depth of SLM modulation are obtained. Comparing with the normal Q-switching laser, the SLM pulse energy can reach to 79.29%, the pulse width exceeds 16.45% and the depth of SLM modulation get to be 20. The results show that the Q-switching pre-lase output characteristics can be effected obviously by the SLM modulation depth, and the pulse energy and pulse width can be close to the normal Q-switching laser as long as the depth of SLM modulation is optimized.

  17. Injection seeding of a Q-switched alexandrite laser: Study of frequency stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Lamarr A.

    1992-01-01

    AlGaAs diode lasers were used to injection seed a pulsed Q-switched alexandrite laser which produces a narrowband of radiation. Injection seeding is a method for achieving linewidths of less than 500 mega-Hz in the output of the broadband, tunable solid state laser. When the laser was set at a current of 59.8 milli-A and a temperature of 14.04 C, the wavelength was 767.6 nano-m. The Q-switched alexandrite laser was injection seeded and frequency stabilization was studied. The linewidth requirement was met, but the stability requirement was not due to drifting in the feedback voltage. Improvements on injection seeding should focus on increasing the feedback voltage to the laser diode, filtering the laser diode by using temperature controlled narrowband filters, and the use of diamond (SiC) grating placed inside the alexandrite laser's resonator cavity.

  18. Electronically tuned Cr:ZnSe laser pumped with Q-switched Tm:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Yumoto, Masaki; Saito, Norihito; Takagi, Utako; Wada, Satoshi

    2015-09-21

    We demonstrated a Q-switched, Tm:YAG-laser-pumped electronically tuned Cr:ZnSe laser, which was equipped with an acousto-optic tunable filter as a wavelength-tuning element. A tuning range from 2.17 to 2.71 μm and a maximum output energy of 7.9 mJ at 2.41 μm were realized. The energy conversion efficiency reached 34.1% at 2.41 μm. In addition, the Cr:ZnSe laser produced a high-quality beam in the TEM(00) mode. PMID:26406701

  19. Compact frequency-modulation Q-switched single-frequency fiber laser at 1083 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanfei; Feng, Zhouming; Xu, Shanhui; Mo, Shupei; Yang, Changsheng; Li, Can; Gan, Jiulin; Chen, Dongdan; Yang, Zhongmin

    2015-12-01

    A compact frequency-modulation Q-switched single-frequency fiber laser is demonstrated at 1083 nm. The short linear resonant cavity consists of a 12 mm long homemade Yb3+-doped phosphate fiber and a pair of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in which the Q-switching and the frequency excursion is achieved by a tensile-induced period modulation. Over 375 MHz frequency-tuning range is achieved with a modulation frequency varying from tens to hundreds of kilohertz. The highest peak power of the output pulse reaching 6.93 W at the repetition rate of 10 kHz is obtained.

  20. Diode pumped CW and passively Q-switched Nd:LGGG laser at 1062 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Jia, Z. T.; Zhang, B. T.; He, J. L.; Liu, S. D.; Yang, Y.; Tao, X. T.

    2012-05-01

    We report a Nd:LGGG laser at 1062 nm in the operations of the continuous-wave (CW) and passively Q-switching. The maximum CW output power of 5.62 W was obtained, corresponding to an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 49.0% and slope efficiency of 55.9%. By using Cr4+:YAG with initial transmission of 94% as the saturable absorber, for the first time, we got the maximum passively Q-switched output power of 1.21 W, accompanied with a highest pulse repetition rate of 27.1 kHz and a shortest pulse width of 9.1 ns.

  1. Hybrid Nd 3+-doped passively Q-switched waveguide laser made by ion exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas-Montiel, Rafael; Bastard, Lionel; Broquin, Jean-Emmanuel

    2008-02-01

    In the mid 80's, the doping of optical fiber's core with rare earth atoms has been a major breakthrough in the field of optical telecommunications since it allowed the realization of in-line optical amplifiers. However, erbium-doped fiber amplifiers are a few meters long and a huge effort has been made in order to realize compact and efficient active devices based on rare-earth-doped waveguides. For this purpose the use of phosphate glasses instead of silicate ones has been investigated because they allow a better solubility of the inserted rare earths. In this paper we present the realization of a hybrid Neodymium-doped passively Q-switched waveguide laser made by ion exchange on a Schott IOG-1 phosphate laser glass combined with the deposition of a BDN saturable absorber diluted in a cellulose acetate polymer cladding. In a first step, we present the CW operation of the laser with an undoped cladding. We show that for a 3.5-μm wide, 1.4-cm long waveguide realized by a silver-sodium ion exchange, a 6 mW output has been achieved by creating a Fabry-Perot cavity with dielectric multilayers mirrors sticked to the chip facets. Then, the characterizations performed on the BDN doped layers are presented. It is shown that a proper selection of the hybrid guiding structure and saturable absorber concentration entail an excess absorption ranging from 1 to 10 dB/cm at zero flux. Finally, results on Q-switched behavior are presented. Optical pulse duration of 2-ns (FWHM) was obtained with repetition rates ranging from 5 to around 50 kHz for a 22 W pulse peak power.

  2. Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhengqian; Zhou, Min; Weng, Jian; Huang, Guoming; Xu, Huiying; Ye, Chenchun; Cai, Zhiping

    2010-11-01

    We demonstrate a compact Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser based on graphene as a saturable absorber (SA). By optically driven deposition of graphene on a fiber core, the SA is constructed and inserted into a diode-pumped EDF laser cavity. Also benefiting from the strong third-order optical nonlinearity of graphene to suppress the mode competition of EDF, a stable dual-wavelength Q-switching operation has been achieved using a two-reflection peak fiber Bragg grating as the external cavity mirror. The Q-switched EDF laser has a low pump threshold of 6.5 mW at 974 nm and a wide range of pulse-repetition rate from 3.3 to 65.9 kHz. The pulse duration and the pulse energy have been characterized. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of a graphene-based Q-switched laser.

  3. A self-Q-switched all-fiber erbium laser at 1530 nm using an auxiliary 1570-nm erbium laser.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tzong-Yow; Fang, Yen-Cheng

    2009-11-23

    We demonstrate a self-Q-switched, all-fiber, tunable, erbium laser at 1530 nm with high pulse repetition rates of 0.9-10 kHz. Through the use of an auxiliary 10-mW, 1570 nm laser that shortened the relaxation time of erbium, sequentially Q-switched pulses with pulse energies between 4 and 6 microJ and pulse widths of 40 ns were steadily achieved. A peak pulse power of 165 W was obtained.

  4. Cavity length dependence of mode beating in passively Q-switched Nd-solid state lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zameroski, Nathan D.; Wanke, Michael; Bossert, David

    2013-03-01

    The temporal intensity profile of pulse(s) from passively Q-switched and passively Q-switched mode locked (QSML) solid-state lasers is known to be dependent on cavity length. In this work, the pulse width, modulation depth, and beat frequencies of a Nd:Cr:GSGG laser using a Cr+4:YAG passive Q-switch are investigated as function cavity length. Measured temporal widths are linearly correlated with cavity length but generally 3-5 ns larger than theoretical predictions. Some cavity lengths exhibit pulse profiles with no modulation while other lengths exhibit complete amplitude modulation. The observed beat frequencies at certain cavity lengths cannot be accounted for with passively QSML models in which the pulse train repetition rate is τRT-1, τRT= round-trip time. They can be explained, however, by including coupled cavity mode-locking effects. A theoretical model developed for a two section coupled cavity semiconductor laser is adapted to a solid-state laser to interpret measured beat frequencies. We also numerically evaluate the temporal criterion required to achieve temporally smooth Q-switched pulses, versus cavity length and pump rate. We show that in flash lamp pumped systems, the difference in buildup time between longitudinal modes is largely dependent on the pump rate. In applications where short pulse delay is important, the pumping rate may limit the ability to achieve temporally smooth pulses in passively Q-switched lasers. Simulations support trends in experimental data. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Q-switching of mid-infrared Er:YAG laser and its radiation delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinkova, Helena; Koranda, Petr; Nemec, Michal; Sulc, Jan; Cech, Miroslav; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji

    2004-09-01

    Q-switching of mid-infrared Er:YAG laser was obtained with an electro-optical shutter. For that the LiNbO3 Pockels cell was used in transversal quarter-wave arrangement with the Brewster angle cut faces used as a polarizer. Parameters and dependences of this Q-switched system were investigated, i.e. a pulse length and generated pulse energy, delay between switching of flashlamp and Q-switch circuit, high voltage applied on Pockels cell were measured and optimized. The resulted giant pulse length and energy was 60 ns and 55 mJ, respectively. This generated pulse was obtained for the applied voltage around 1.4 kV and for the optimum delay value 450 us. Problem of mid-infrared giant pulse delivery, which is needed for various technological applications, was solved by a specially designed cyclic olefin polymer coated silver hollow glass (COP/Ag) waveguide. Parameters of this waveguide were: diameter 700/850 um and length 1 m. The measured transmission was 74 % which corresponded to delivered intensity 86 MW/cm2. Q-switched Er:YAG laser radiation in connection with this special delivery system gives a possibility of the surgical treatment in many medicine branches, for example ophthalmology, urology or dentistry.

  6. Pulse synchronisation in passively Q-switched lasers emitting at 1.053 and 1.064 {mu}m

    SciTech Connect

    Bagdasarov, V Kh; Denisov, N N; Malyutin, A A; Chigaev, I A

    2009-10-31

    Pulse synchronisation with an accuracy of no worse than {+-}5 ns is demonstrated in passively Q-switched neodymium phosphate glass and Nd:YAG lasers. Two operating regimes are realised: the 'sub-threshold' regime (when the slave Nd:YAG laser does not generate a giant pulse if its passive Q switch is not irradiated by the master Nd:glass laser) and the 'above-threshold' regime (when the pulse irradiating the passive Q switch of the slave laser advances its generation). (control of laser radiation parameters)

  7. Finite-difference time-domain methods to analyze ytterbium-doped Q-switched fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Haroldo T; Khaleque, Abdul

    2016-03-01

    Q-switched lasers are widely used in material processing, laser ranging, medicine, and nonlinear optics--in particular, Q-switched lasers in optical fibers are important since they cannot only generate high peak powers but can also concentrate high peak powers in small areas. In this paper, we present new finite-difference time-domain methods that analyze the dynamics of Q-switched fiber lasers, which are more flexible and robust than previous methods. We extend the method to analyze fiber ring lasers and compare the results with our experiments. PMID:26974625

  8. Diode-pumped passively Q-switched high-repetition-rate Yb microchip laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kisel', V E; Yasukevich, A S; Kondratyuk, N V; Kuleshov, N V

    2009-11-30

    The system of balance equations is modified for quasi-three-level passively Q-switched lasers with a slow saturable absorber. Optimal parameters of a Yb{sup 3+}:YAG microchip laser with a passive Cr{sup 4+}:YAG Q switch are calculated at a pulse repetition rate of {approx}100 kHz. The single-mode operation of the Yb:YAG-Cr:YAG laser with a pulse repetition rate above 100 kHz, the average output power 0.45 W and peak power 1.5 kW is experimentally demonstrated. In the multimode lasing regime, pulses with a peak power of 4.2 kW are obtained at an average output power of 0.8 W and a pulse repetition rate of 10 kHz. (lasers)

  9. Passively Q-switched nd:YAG laser via a WS2 saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi; Wang, Yonggang; Duan, Lina; Li, Lu; Sun, Hang

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we report a passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm by using WS2 solution as the saturable absorber (SA). The WS2 solution with different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml) were fabricated by the liquid-phase-exfoliated method and injected into quartz cells. Such liquid absorbers have the virtues of adjustable optical absorption, high heat dissipation and non-contact damage. By inserting those WS2 solutions in the laser cavity, stable Q-switched laser operations were obtained. The corresponding pulse duration as short as 922 ns was obtained. The result shows that the WS2 material can be act as absorber for solid-state lasers.

  10. Failure of Q-switched ruby laser to eradicate atypical-appearing solar lentigo: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Lee, P K; Rosenberg, C N; Tsao, H; Sober, A J

    1998-02-01

    Cutaneous lasers, including argon, Q-switched Nd:YAG, Q-switched ruby, Q-switched alexandrite, and short pulsed dye lasers, have been used to treat solar lentigines and other benign melanocytic lesions. However, the effects of these lasers at standard fluences on atypical melanocytic lesions have not been examined. We describe two patients in whom the Q-switched ruby laser failed to successfully treat clinically atypical-appearing solar lentigines. In both, clinically atypical-appearing melanocytic lesions were treated with excellent initial cosmetic results. In the first patient, the pigmentation returned several months after treatment and continued to increase in size and color. A biopsy specimen 30 months after Q-switched ruby laser therapy revealed a lentigo maligna melanoma. In the second patient, the lesion recurred 6 months after Q-switched ruby laser therapy, and a biopsy specimen 1 year after treatment showed an early lentigo maligna. Thus Q-switched ruby lasers and other cutaneous lasers capable of targeting melanin may be inadequate to eliminate lentigo maligna and other atypical melanocytic lesions completely. These cases emphasize the importance of careful clinical assessment before any laser surgery and the need to advise patients to return for evaluation should pigmentation return.

  11. Colour centre LiF:F{2/s-} passive Q-switch for cw pumped Nd:Yag laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A. A.; Kubeček, V.; Sochor, V.; Kubelka, J.

    1987-06-01

    Operation of a cw pumped Nd:YAG laser Q-switched by a LiF crystal containing F{2/s-} centres is reported. Pulses of duration of 230 ns with a repetition rate of 1 3 kHz were generated. The colour centre Q-switch was used for the period of three months without any observable deterioration.

  12. Stress waves generated in thin metallic films by a Q-switched ruby laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.

    1974-01-01

    Investigation results on stress waves generated by Q-switched ruby laser irradiated thin metal films under confinement, studied over a wide range of film materials and film thicknesses, are reviewed. The results indicate that the dependence on these parameters is much weaker than is predicted by heat transfer estimations commonly used to describe the interaction of laser irradiation with unconfined bulk-solid surfaces.

  13. Generation of single longitudinal mode in a pulsed passively Q -switched Nd:YAG laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hariri, A.; Soltanmoradi, F.; Nayeri, M. )

    1990-08-01

    It is shown that a single longitudinal mode in a passively {ital Q}-switch Nd:YAG laser can be obtained by adjusting an intracavity saturable absorber gelatin film (BDN) to work as a mirror in a three-mirror Fabry--Perot resonator. With a 0.13-mm-thick gelatin film of 40% unsaturated transmission, a temporally smooth single-laser pulse of {similar to}10 ns duration has been obtained.

  14. Fast recharge circuit for q-switched lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Cavity-dumped lasers employ electrooptic-effect cell to alternately block and release laser pulse. Cell requires high-speed switching circuit that can apply and remove high voltage. Solid-state circuit employs complementary transistor switches which can switch at rates greater than 5 kHz, eliminate warmup time, provide variable voltage wave-form, and allow polarity reversal.

  15. Passive Q-switching of microchip lasers based on Ho:YAG ceramics.

    PubMed

    Lan, R; Loiko, P; Mateos, X; Wang, Y; Li, J; Pan, Y; Choi, S Y; Kim, M H; Rotermund, F; Yasukevich, A; Yumashev, K; Griebner, U; Petrov, V

    2016-06-20

    A Ho:YAG ceramic microchip laser pumped by a Tm fiber laser at 1910 nm is passively Q-switched by single- and multi-layer graphene, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and Cr2+:ZnSe saturable absorbers (SAs). Employing SWCNTs, this laser generated an average power of 810 mW at 2090 nm with a slope efficiency of 68% and continuous wave to Q-switching conversion efficiency of 70%. The shortest pulse duration was 85 ns at a repetition rate of 165 kHz, and the pulse energy reached 4.9 μJ. The laser performance and pulse stability were superior compared to graphene SAs even for a different number of graphene layers (n=1 to 4). A model for the description of the Ho:YAG laser Q-switched by carbon nanostructures is presented. This modeling allowed us to estimate the saturation intensity for multi-layered graphene and SWCNT SAs to be 1.2±0.2 and 7±1  MW/cm2, respectively. When using Cr2+:ZnSe, the Ho:YAG microchip laser generated 11 ns/25 μJ pulses at a repetition rate of 14.8 kHz. PMID:27409113

  16. Environmental testing of a Q-switched Nd:YLF laser and a Nd:YAG ring laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    A Q-switched Nd:YLF laser (model 110-02) and a Nd:YAG ring laser (model 120-04) from Lightwave Electronics were subjected to thermal and vibration tests similar to what can be expected during launch and flight on a spacecraft. Even though these lasers were not designed for space flight, environmental tests were performed to identify major design weaknesses. Laser performance (output power, energy, pulsewidth, lasing threshold etc.) were measured prior to and after thermal vibration tests. Average output power of the Q-switched laser degraded 15-20 percent after thermal tests and an additional 20-25 percent after vibration tests. Post diagnostic tests revealed that degradation of the Q-switched laser was due to misalignment of pump focusing optics and the laser cavity.

  17. Dual-wavelength passively Q-switched Nd:GYSGG laser by tungsten disulfide saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y J; Zhang, B Y; Song, Q; Wang, G J; Wang, W J; Hong, M H; Dou, R Q; Sun, D L; Zhang, Q L

    2016-06-20

    A dual-wavelength passively Q-switched Nd:GYSGG laser using vacuum evaporating tungsten disulfide (WS2) as a saturable absorber was demonstrated for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The WS2 saturable absorber was prepared simply by evaporating nanometer WS2 powders onto a quartz substrate in a vacuum. By inserting the WS2 saturable absorber into the laser cavity, stable Q-switched laser operation was achieved with a maximum average output power of 367 mW, a pulse repetition rate of 70.7 kHz, the shortest pulse width of 591 ns, and pulse energy of about 1.05 μJ. By vacuum evaporation method, a high-quality WS2 saturable absorber can be produced, and it seems to be a suitable method for fabrication of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides. PMID:27409120

  18. The output beam quality of a Q-switched Nd:glass slab laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Murray K.; Byer, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have constructed and tested a flashlamp pumped, Q-switched, Nd:glass zigzag slab laser. The thermally induced optical distortion through the slab is minimized by uniform pumping and cooling and the use of corrective pump shields at the slab ends. The laser spatial output for Q-switched resonators has been measured and modeled. It is shown that a larger aperture planar oscillator has an output divergence many times above the diffraction limit. Operation as a one-dimensional unstable resonator in the wide direction of the slab allows the efficient extraction of energy in a high-quality beam. Near-diffraction-limited laser output of 5 J at 4 Hz is achieved with a resonator that includes an intracavity telescope to correct for residual defocusing in the thin direction of the slab.

  19. Wideband tunable graphene-based passively Q-switched Tm:YAP laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chenjie; Li, Diao; Bai, Yang; Ren, Zhaoyu; Bai, Jintao

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the characteristics of a graphene Q-switched Tm:YAP laser operating in a wavelength tunable regime. By using a volume Bragg grating (VBG) as the intra-cavity wavelength selection element, and graphene as the saturable absorber (SA), a tunable Q-switched Tm:YAP laser was realized with a continuous tunable wavelength range from 1965.2 to 2000.7 nm. Through careful alignment of the VBG and the graphene SA in coordination, stable pulsed laser operations were achieved at this wavelength range. A maximum output power of 920 mW was obtained at a wavelength of 1989.3 nm, corresponding to a pulse duration of 2.1 μs, a repetition rate of 91.6 kHz and a single pulse energy of 10.1 μJ.

  20. Q -switched laser at 912 nm using ground-state-depleted neodymium in yttrium orthosilicate

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.; Albrecht, G.; Solarz, R.; Krupke, W.; Comaskey, B.; Mitchell, S. ); Brandle, C.; Berkstresser, G. )

    1990-09-15

    A ground-state-depleted laser is demonstrated in the form of a {ital Q}-switched oscillator operating at 912 nm. By using Nd{sup 3+} as the active ion and Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} as the host material, the laser transition is from the lowest-lying Stark level of the Nd{sup 3+} {sup 4}{ital F}{sub 3/2} level to a Stark level 355 cm{sup {minus}1} above the lowest-lying one in the {sup 4}{ital I}{sub 9/2} manifold. The necessity of depleting the ground {sup 4}{ital I}{sub 9/2} manifold is evident for this level scheme as transparency requires a 10% inversion. To achieve the high excitation levels required for the efficient operation of this laser, bleach-wave pumping using an alexandrite laser at 745 nm has been employed. With KNbO{sub 3}, noncritical phase matching is possible at 140{degree} C using {ital d}{sub 32} and is demonstrated.

  1. A high repetition rate passively Q-switched microchip laser for controllable transverse laser modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jun; Bai, Sheng-Chuang; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Ueda, Ken-Ichi; Kaminskii, Alexander A.

    2016-05-01

    A Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser for versatile controllable transverse laser modes has been demonstrated by adjusting the position of the Nd:YVO4 crystal along the tilted pump beam direction. The pump beam diameter-dependent asymmetric saturated inversion population inside the Nd:YVO4 crystal governs the oscillation of various Laguerre-Gaussian, Ince-Gaussian and Hermite-Gaussian modes. Controllable transverse laser modes with repetition rates over 25 kHz and up to 183 kHz, depending on the position of the Nd:YVO4 crystal, have been achieved. The controllable transverse laser beams with a nanosecond pulse width and peak power over hundreds of watts have been obtained for potential applications in optical trapping and quantum computation.

  2. Characterization of energy transfer for passively Q-switched laser ignition.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, S; Bärwinkel, M; Heinz, P; Lehmann, S; Mühlbauer, W; Brüggemann, D

    2015-02-01

    Miniaturized passively Q-switched Nd:YAG/Cr(4+):YAG lasers are promising candidates as spark sources for sophisticated laser ignition. The influence of the complex spatial-temporal pulse profile of such lasers on the process of plasma breakdown and on the energy transfer is studied. The developed measurement technique is applied to an open ignition system as well as to prototypes of laser spark plugs. A detected temporal breakdown delay causes an advantageous separation of plasma building phase from energy transfer. In case of fast rising laser pulses, an advantageous reduction of the plasma breakdown delay occurs instead. PMID:25836128

  3. Treatment of tattoos by Q-switched ruby laser. A dose-response study

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.R.; Gange, R.W.; Dover, J.S.; Flotte, T.J.; Gonzalez, E.; Michaud, N.; Anderson, R.R. )

    1990-07-01

    Tattoo treatment with Q-switched ruby laser pulses (694 nm, 40 to 80 nanoseconds) was studied by clinical assessment and light and electron microscopy. Fifty-seven blue-black tattoos or portions thereof (35 amateur and 22 professional) were irradiated with 1.5 to 8.0 J/cm2 at a mean interval of 3 weeks. Substantial lightening or total clearing occurred in 18 (78%) of 23 amateur tattoos and 3 (23%) of 13 professional tattoos in which the protocol was completed. Response was related to exposure dose. Scarring occurred in one case, and persistent confettilike hypopigmentation was frequent. Optimal fluence was 4 to 8 J/cm2. Clinicohistologic correlation was poor. Q-switched ruby laser pulses can provide an effective treatment for tattoos.

  4. Dual-wavelength passively q-switched single-frequency fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanfei; Yang, Changsheng; Feng, Zhouming; Deng, Huaqiu; Peng, Mingying; Yang, Zhongmin; Xu, Shanhui

    2016-07-11

    We propose a compact dual-wavelength Q-switched single-frequency fiber laser based on a 17-mm-long home-made highly Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped phosphate fiber (EYDPF) and a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). The short cavity length and a polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating (PM-FBG) ensure that only one longitudinal mode is supported by each reflection peak. The maximum pulse energy of more than 34.5 nJ was realized with the shortest pulse duration of 110.5 ns and the Q-switched fiber laser has a repetition rate reaching over 700 kHz with a temporal synchronization of pulses at two wavelengths. Besides, the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) of larger than 64.5 dB was achieved. PMID:27410881

  5. A black phosphorus-based tunable Q-switched ytterbium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, H.; Salim, M. A. M.; Thambiratnam, K.; Norizan, S. F.; Harun, S. W.

    2016-09-01

    A compact, passively Q-switched fiber laser with a tunable output is demonstrated. The proposed system uses a short length ytterbium doped fiber to create a very stable and compact optical circuit that uses black phosphorus (BP) as a saturable absorber to generate the desired short pulses. A stable Q-switch pulse train is obtained, with an operational wavelength range from 1056.6–1083.3 nm. Concurrently, a maximum pulse energy and minimum pulse width as well as a repetition rate range of 7.1 nJ, 4 µs and 6.0–44.8 kHz respectively was obtained. The proposed system will be able to cater to a multitude of applications that require a compact yet robust and cost-effective pulse laser.

  6. A black phosphorus-based tunable Q-switched ytterbium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, H.; Salim, M. A. M.; Thambiratnam, K.; Norizan, S. F.; Harun, S. W.

    2016-09-01

    A compact, passively Q-switched fiber laser with a tunable output is demonstrated. The proposed system uses a short length ytterbium doped fiber to create a very stable and compact optical circuit that uses black phosphorus (BP) as a saturable absorber to generate the desired short pulses. A stable Q-switch pulse train is obtained, with an operational wavelength range from 1056.6-1083.3 nm. Concurrently, a maximum pulse energy and minimum pulse width as well as a repetition rate range of 7.1 nJ, 4 µs and 6.0-44.8 kHz respectively was obtained. The proposed system will be able to cater to a multitude of applications that require a compact yet robust and cost-effective pulse laser.

  7. Two-wavelength passively Q-switched ytterbium doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lei; Utkin, Ilya; Fedosejevs, Robert

    2008-08-01

    A high power passively Q-switched dual wavelength Yb fiber laser using a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber has been realized. Two wavelengths centered at 1040 nm and 1070 nm are generated directly from the cladding pumped Yb doped fiber laser. The pulse trains exhibit regions of stability and instability dependent on the pump power. At a pump power of 7.8 W, 1040 nm and 1070 nm pulses are generated alternatively, with pulse durations of 105 ns, pulse-repetition rates of 32 KHz and average pulse energies of 56 microJ and 47 microJ, respectively. A theoretical model is developed to simulate the two-wavelength Q-switched operation, which gives qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.

  8. High repetition rate Q-switched radially polarized laser with a graphene-based output coupler

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lifei; Jin, Chenjie; Qi, Mei; Chen, Xiaoming; Ren, Zhaoyu E-mail: rzy@nwu.edu.cn; Zheng, Xinliang E-mail: rzy@nwu.edu.cn; Bai, Jintao; Sun, Zhipei

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate a Q-switched radially polarized all-solid-state laser by transferring a graphene film directly onto an output coupler. The laser generates Q-switched radially polarized beam (QRPB) with a pulse width of 192 ns and 2.7 W average output power. The corresponding single pulse energy is up to 16.2 μJ with a high repetition rate of 167 kHz. The M{sup 2} factor and the polarization purity are ∼2.1 and 96%, respectively. Our QRPB source is a simple and low-cost source for a variety of applications, such as industrial material processing, optical trapping, and microscopy.

  9. Clinical effects of iridectomy performed by laser YAG Nd+3 Q switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecik, Tadeusz; Zydecki, Miroslaw

    1995-03-01

    Clinical effects of iridectomy performed by the use of laser Yag Nd+3-Q-switch on 38 patients treated for intra-ocular pressure increase were analyzed. In 32 cases primary glaucoma was diagnosed. In 11 cases secondary glaucoma was caused by pupil blocking. Pressure normalization was obtained in 27 cases (71%). In the remaining 11 patients pressure decreasing was acquired but at the same time administration of antiglaucoma medicines was indispensable. Time of observation took from 4 weeks to 3 years.

  10. Efficient energy extraction from a diode-pumped Q-switched Tm,Ho:YLiF4 laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguckin, B. T.; Menzies, R. T.; Hemmati, H.

    1991-01-01

    The operation of a diode-laser pumped thulium, holmium yttrium-lithium-fluoride laser (Tm,Ho:YLF) in Q-switched mode is reported. Output energies of 200 microjoules in pulses of 22 ns duration are recorded at Q-switch frequencies commensurate with an effective upper laser level lifetime of 6 ms. This lifetime is appreciably longer than that observed in other hosts permitting stored energy extraction of 64 percent, close to the projected maximum performance from these materials.

  11. Q-switched Ho:Lu2O3 laser at 2.12 μm.

    PubMed

    Lamrini, Samir; Koopmann, Philipp; Scholle, Karsten; Fuhrberg, Peter

    2013-06-01

    We report on a Q-switched Ho:Lu2O3 laser resonantly pumped by a GaSb-based laser diode stack at 1.9 μm. The maximum output energy extracted from the compact plano-plano acousto-optically Q-switched resonator was 8 mJ at a 100 Hz pulse repetition rate, while the peak power was 40 kW. The laser wavelength was 2.124 μm.

  12. Single Longitudinal Mode, High Repetition Rate, Q-switched Ho:YLF Laser for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Petzar, Paul; Petros, M.; Chen, Songsheng; Trieu, Bo; Lee, Nyung; Singh, U.

    2009-01-01

    Ho:YLF/LuLiF lasers have specific applications for remote sensing such as wind-speed measurement and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration measurement in the atmosphere because the operating wavelength (around 2 m) is located in the eye-safe range and can be tuned to the characteristic lines of CO2 absorption and there is strong backward scattering signal from aerosol (Mie scattering). Experimentally, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser has been successfully used as the transmitter of coherent differential absorption lidar for the measurement of with a repetition rate of 5 Hz and pulse energy of 75 mJ [1]. For highly precise CO2 measurements with coherent detection technique, a laser with high repetition rate is required to averaging out the speckle effect [2]. In addition, laser efficiency is critically important for the air/space borne lidar applications, because of the limited power supply. A diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser is difficult to efficiently operate in high repetition rate due to the large heat loading and up-conversion. However, a Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF laser with low heat loading can be operated at high repetition rates efficiently [3]. No matter whether wind-speed or carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration measurement is the goal, a Ho:YLF/LuLiF laser as the transmitter should operate in a single longitudinal mode. Injection seeding is a valid technique for a Q-switched laser to obtain single longitudinal mode operation. In this paper, we will report the new results for a single longitudinal mode, high repetition rate, Q-switched Ho:YLF laser. In order to avoid spectral hole burning and make injection seeding easier, a four mirror ring cavity is designed for single longitudinal mode, high repetition rate Q-switched Ho:YLF laser. The ramp-fire technique is chosen for injection seeding.

  13. Passively Q-switched waveguide lasers based on two-dimensional transition metal diselenide.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chen; Liu, Hongliang; Tan, Yang; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Chen, Feng

    2016-05-16

    We reported on the passively Q-switched waveguide lasers based on few-layer transition metal diselenide, including molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) and tungsten diselenide (WSe2), as saturable absorbers. The MoSe2 and WSe2 membranes were covered on silica wafers by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). A low-loss depressed cladding waveguide was produced by femtosecond laser writing in a Nd:YAG crystal. Under optical pump at 808 nm, the passive Q-switching of the Nd:YAG waveguide lasing at 1064 nm was achieved, reaching maximum average output power of 115 mW (MoSe2) and 45 mW (WSe2), respectively, which are corresponding to single-pulse energy of 36 nJ and 19 nJ. The repetition rate of the Q-switched waveguide lasers was tunable from 0.995 to 3.334 MHz (MoSe2) and 0.781 to 2.938 MHz (WSe2), and the obtained minimum pulse duration was 80ns (MoSe2) and 52 ns (WSe2), respectively.

  14. Multiwall carbon nanotube polyvinyl alcohol-based saturable absorber in passively Q-switched fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, H; Ismail, M F; Hassan, S N M; Ahmad, F; Zulkifli, M Z; Harun, S W

    2014-10-20

    In this work, we demonstrated a compact Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser capable of generating high-energy pulses using a newly developed multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) thin film based saturable absorber. Q-switched pulse operation is obtained by sandwiching the thin film between two fiber ferrules forming a saturable absorber. A saturable absorber with 1.25 wt. % of PVA concentration shows a consistency in generating pulsed laser with a good range of tunable repetition rate, shortest pulse width, and produces a high pulse energy and peak power. The pulse train generated has a maximum repetition rate of 29.9 kHz with a corresponding pulse width of 3.49 μs as a function of maximum pump power of 32.15 mW. The maximum average output power of the Q-switched fiber laser system is 1.49 mW, which translates to a pulse energy of 49.8 nJ. The proposed method of multiwall CNT/PVA thin film fabrication is low in cost and involves uncomplicated processes. PMID:25402790

  15. Passively Q-switched waveguide lasers based on two-dimensional transition metal diselenide.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chen; Liu, Hongliang; Tan, Yang; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Chen, Feng

    2016-05-16

    We reported on the passively Q-switched waveguide lasers based on few-layer transition metal diselenide, including molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) and tungsten diselenide (WSe2), as saturable absorbers. The MoSe2 and WSe2 membranes were covered on silica wafers by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). A low-loss depressed cladding waveguide was produced by femtosecond laser writing in a Nd:YAG crystal. Under optical pump at 808 nm, the passive Q-switching of the Nd:YAG waveguide lasing at 1064 nm was achieved, reaching maximum average output power of 115 mW (MoSe2) and 45 mW (WSe2), respectively, which are corresponding to single-pulse energy of 36 nJ and 19 nJ. The repetition rate of the Q-switched waveguide lasers was tunable from 0.995 to 3.334 MHz (MoSe2) and 0.781 to 2.938 MHz (WSe2), and the obtained minimum pulse duration was 80ns (MoSe2) and 52 ns (WSe2), respectively. PMID:27409862

  16. Generation of 1.6 ns Q-switched pulses based on Yb:YAG/Cr:YAG microchip laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena; Nejezchleb, Karel; Škoda, Václav

    2015-05-01

    The highly-stable Q-switched longitudinally diode-pumped microchip laser, emitting radiation at wavelength 1031 nm, was designed and realized. This laser was based on monolith crystal which combines in one piece an active laser part (YAG crystal doped with Yb3+ ions, 10 at.% Yb/Y, 3mm long) and saturable absorber (YAG crystal doped with Cr3+ ions, 1.36mm long). The diameter of the diffusion bonded monolith was 3 mm. The initial transmission of the Cr:YAG part was 90% @ 1031 nm. The microchip resonator consisted of dielectric mirrors directly deposited on the monolith surfaces. The pump mirror (HT for pump radiation, HR for generated radiation) was placed on the Yb:YAG part. The output coupler with reflection 55% for the generated wavelength was placed on the Cr3+-doped part. Q-switched microchip laser was tested under CW diode pumping. For longitudinal pumping of Yb:YAG part, a fibre coupled (core diameter 100 μm, NA= 0.22) laser diode, operating at wavelength 968 nm, was used. The laser threshold was 3.3W. The laser slope efficiency calculated for output mean power in respect to incident CW pumping was 17%. The wavelength of linearly polarized laser emission was fixed to 1031 nm. The generated transversal intensity beam profile was close to the fundamental Gaussian mode. The generated pulse length was equal to 1.6 ns (FWHM). This value was mostly stable and independent on investigated pumping powers in the range from the threshold up to 9.3W. The single pulse energy was linearly increasing with the pumping power. Close to the laser threshold the generated pulse energy was 45 μJ. For maximum investigated CW pumping 9.3W the pulse energy was stabilized to 74 μJ which corresponds to the Q-switched pulse peak power 46 kW. The corresponding Q-switched pulses repetition rate was 13.6 kHz. The maximum Yb:YAG/Cr:YAG microchip laser mean output power of 1W was reached without observable thermal roll-over.

  17. Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser using MoSe2 as saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, H.; Suthaskumar, M.; Tiu, Z. C.; Zarei, A.; Harun, S. W.

    2016-05-01

    A Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser by using MoSe2 thin film as saturable absorber is experimentally demonstrated. The bulk MoSe2 is processed into few layer MoSe2 based on liquid phase exfoliation technique, and further fabricated into thin film by using polyvinyl alcohol polymer. Q-switching operation is obtained from pump power range of 22.4-102.0 mW. The pulse repetition rate shows an increasing trend from 16.9 kHz to 32.8 kHz, whereas the pulse width exhibits a decreasing trend from 59.1 μs to 30.4 μs. The highest pulse energy of 57.9 nJ is obtained at pump power of 102.0 mW.

  18. Multiple folded resonator for LD pulse end pumped Q-switched Yb:YAG slab laser.

    PubMed

    Jun, Liu; Jianguo, Xin; Ye, Lang; Jiabin, Chen

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a multiple folded resonator is presented which consists of a multiple optical folding setup, a flat total reflector, a flat output coupler, a Q-switch crystal and a polarizer. By this technique, the output energy of 32.6mJ and pulse width of 13.4ns with a repetition rate of 5Hz was obtained, which is three times higher than that reported in the past publications by the use of the currently existing technique of the Q-switched slab gain lasers with the unstable resonator. The output beam with a quality of M² = 1.55 in the slow axis and M² = 1.40 in the fast axis was also obtained. PMID:25321590

  19. Passively Q-switched flashlamp pumped Nd:YAG laser using liquid graphene oxide as saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan, N. N.; Bidin, N.; Taib, N. A. M.; Haris, H.; Fakaruddin, M.; Hashim, A. M.; Krishnan, G.; Harun, S. W.

    2016-06-01

    The performance of passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 1060 nm is demonstrated using liquid graphene oxide (GO) composite solution as saturable absorber for the first time. The Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is pumped by a xenon flashlamp. The GO was prepared using the simplified Hummer's method and then mixed with polyethylene oxide to form a composite solution. The Q-switched pulsed laser operates at wavelength of 1064.5 nm with a threshold pump energy of 33.64 J. The maximum output Q-switched laser energy of 41.6 mJ achieved at the maximum pump energy of 81 J. The corresponding pulse width is 98.67 ns.

  20. Advances in high-power harmonic generation: Q-switched lasers with electronically adjustable pulse width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyres, Loren A.; Morehead, James J.; Gregg, Jeffrey; Richard, Derek J.; Grossman, William

    2006-02-01

    We demonstrate a variable pulse width, internally-frequency-converted, near-diffraction-limited Nd:YAG laser with output power up to 40 Watts at 532 nm and pulse widths electronically adjustable over a 40-300 ns range. The variable pulse width is achieved by clipping the pulse decaying edge with the Q-switch in a laser cavity optimized for post-pulse gain insensitivity. This approach makes possible frequency converted lasers with pulse width and output power substantially independent of repetition rate.

  1. Q-switching of a thulium-doped fibre laser using a holmium-doped fibre saturable absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Sadovnikova, Ya E; Kamynin, V A; Kurkov, A S; Medvedkov, O I; Marakulin, A V; Minashina, L A

    2014-01-31

    We have proposed and demonstrated a new passively Q-switched thulium-doped fibre laser configuration. A distinctive feature of this configuration is the use of a heavily holmium-doped fibre for Q-switching. Lasing was obtained at 1.96 μm, with a pulse energy of 3 μJ and pulse duration of 600 ns. The highest pulse repetition rate was 80 kHz. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  2. Experimental demonstration of a passive all-fiber Q-switched erbium- and samarium-doped laser.

    PubMed

    Preda, Cristina Elena; Ravet, Gautier; Mégret, Patrice

    2012-02-15

    Self-Q-switched operation of the all-fiber laser using erbium and samarium fibers in the cavity is realized experimentally. This passively Q-switched all-fiber laser produces very stable pulses with energy of 142 nJ and duration of 450 ns. The experimental results were well reproduced by the results obtained through the numerical integration of a rate-equations model.

  3. High-power actively Q-switched single-mode 1342 nm Nd:YVO4 ring laser, injection-locked by a cw single-frequency microchip laser.

    PubMed

    Koch, Peter; Bartschke, Juergen; L'huillier, Johannes A

    2015-11-30

    In this paper we report on the realization of a single-mode Q-switched Nd:YVO4 ring laser at 1342 nm. Unidirectional and single-mode operation of the ring laser is achieved by injection-locking with a continuous wave Nd:YVO4 microchip laser, emitting a single-frequency power of up to 40 mW. The ring laser provides a single-mode power of 13.9 W at 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency with a pulse duration of 18.2 ns and an excellent beam quality (M2 < 1.05). By frequency doubling of the fundamental 1342 nm laser, a power of 8.7 W at 671 nm with a pulse duration of 14.8 ns and a beam propagation factor of M2 < 1.1 is obtained. The 671 nm radiation features a long-term spectral width of 75 MHz.

  4. High-power actively Q-switched single-mode 1342 nm Nd:YVO4 ring laser, injection-locked by a cw single-frequency microchip laser.

    PubMed

    Koch, Peter; Bartschke, Juergen; L'huillier, Johannes A

    2015-11-30

    In this paper we report on the realization of a single-mode Q-switched Nd:YVO4 ring laser at 1342 nm. Unidirectional and single-mode operation of the ring laser is achieved by injection-locking with a continuous wave Nd:YVO4 microchip laser, emitting a single-frequency power of up to 40 mW. The ring laser provides a single-mode power of 13.9 W at 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency with a pulse duration of 18.2 ns and an excellent beam quality (M2 < 1.05). By frequency doubling of the fundamental 1342 nm laser, a power of 8.7 W at 671 nm with a pulse duration of 14.8 ns and a beam propagation factor of M2 < 1.1 is obtained. The 671 nm radiation features a long-term spectral width of 75 MHz. PMID:26698762

  5. Modulation frequency characteristics of the Q-switched envelope in a doubly Q-switched and mode-locked laser with acousto-optic modulator and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Junpeng; Zhao, Jia; Li, Yufei; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Qiao, Wenchao; Chu, Hongwei

    2015-11-01

    The modulation frequency characteristics of the Q-switched envelope in a doubly Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:GGG laser with an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber are given. At a fixed incident pump power, the repetition rates of the Q-switched envelope and the related laser characteristics versus the modulation frequency of AOM for different small signal transmissions of Cr4+:YAG saturable absorbers have been measured. The experimental results show that the repetition rates of the Q-switched envelope, the average output power, the average peak power, and the pulse widths of the Q-switched envelopes are subharmonics of the modulation frequency at a fixed incident pump power. Furthermore, the mechanism for these behaviors is discussed.

  6. Cardiovascular damage after cw and Q-switched 2μm laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Ingo; Masch, Jennifer-M.; Theisen-Kunde, Dirk; Marczynski-Bühlow, Martin; Lutter, Georg; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2013-06-01

    Aiming for laser-assisted resection of calcified aortic valve structures for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI), a Q-switched Tm:YAG laser emitting at a wavelength of 2.01 μm was used to evaluate the cutting efficiency on highly calcified human aortic leaflets in-vitro. The calcified aortic leaflets were examined regarding ablation rates and debris generation, using a pulse energy of 4.3 mJ, a pulse duration of 0.8-1 μs and a repetition rate of 1 kHz. The radiation was transmitted via a 200 μm core diameter quartz fiber. Resection was performed in a fiber-tissue contact mode on water-covered samples in a dish. The remnant particles were analyzed with respect to quantity and size by light microscopy. Additionally, soft tissue of porcine aortic vessels was examined for histologically detectable thermo-mechanical damage after continuous wave and Q-switched 2μm laser irradiation. An ablation rate of 36.7 +/- 25.3 mg/min could be realised on highly calcified aortic leaflets, with 85.4% of the remnant particles being <6 μm in diameter. The maximum damaged area of the soft tissue was < 1 mm for both, cw and pulsed laser irradiation. This limits the expected collateral damage of healthy tissue during the medical procedure. Overall, the Q-switched Tm:YAG laser system showed promising results in cutting calcified aortic valves, transmitting sufficient energy through a small flexible fibre.

  7. LD-pumped acousto-optical Q-switched burst-mode Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hu; Yan, Renpeng; Li, Xudong; Ma, Yufei; Yu, Xin; Chen, Deying

    2016-04-01

    A high-repetition-rate, high-peak-power burst-mode laser for laser-based measurement applications is presented by using a master oscillator power amplifier structure. An laser diode arrays (LDA) side-pumped Nd:YAG acousto-optical (A-O) Q-switched laser serves as the master oscillator. Under pulsed pumping, pulse trains with 2-25 pulses are obtained when the repetition rate changes from 10 kHz to 100 kHz. The maximum pulse burst energy of 31.2 mJ is achieved in the A-O Q-switched pulse burst laser oscillator at 10 kHz. Two LDA side pumped Nd:YAG modules are employed in the amplification stage. After the amplification, the pulse burst energy at 10 kHz reaches ~170 mJ with a single pulse energy of 85.2 mJ and a pulse width of 14.5 ns, generating a peak power of 6.1 MW. At 100 kHz, the total burst energy reaches 220 mJ with a single pulse energy of 8.8 mJ in the pulse burst laser system.

  8. Q-switched operation of a coupled-resonator vertical-cavity laser diode

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,ARTHUR J.; CHOW,WENG W.; CHOQUETTE,KENT D.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.; GEIB,KENT M.

    2000-02-08

    The authors report Q-switched operation from an electrically-injected monolithic coupled-resonator structure which consists of an active cavity with InGaAs quantum wells optically coupled to a passive cavity. The passive cavity contains a bulk GaAs region which is reverse-biased to provide variable absorption at the lasing wavelength of 990 nm. Cavity coupling is utilized to effect large changes in output intensity with only very small changes in passive cavity absorption. The device is shown to produce pulses as short as 150 ps at repetition rates as high 4 GHz. A rate equation approach is used to model the Q-switched operation yielding good agreement between the experimental and theoretical pulse shape. Small-signal frequency response measurements also show a transition from a slower ({approximately} 300 MHZ) forward-biased modulation regime to a faster ({approximately} 2 GHz) modulation regime under reverse-bias operation.

  9. Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser at 1600 nm for photoacoustic imaging application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Zhonglie; Zeng, Lvming; Chen, Zhongping; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2016-04-01

    We present a nanosecond Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser system operating at 1600 nm with a tunable repetition rate from 100 kHz to 1 MHz. A compact fiber coupled, acousto-optic modulator-based EDF ring cavity was used to generate a nanosecond seed laser at 1600 nm, and a double-cladding EDF based power amplifier was applied to achieve the maximum average power of 250 mW. In addition, 12 ns laser pulses with the maximum pulse energy of 2.4 μJ were obtained at 100 kHz. Furthermore, the Stokes shift by Raman scattering over a 25 km long fiber was measured, indicating that the laser can be potentially used to generate the high repetition rate pulses at the 1.7 μm region. Finally, we detected the photoacoustic signal from a human hair at 200 kHz repetition rate with a pulse energy of 1.2 μJ, which demonstrates that a Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser can be a promising light source for the high speed functional photoacoustic imaging.

  10. Laser diode and pumped Cr:Yag passively Q-switched yellow-green laser at 543 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Y.; Ling, Zhao; Li, B.; Qu, D. P.; Zhou, K.; Zhang, Y. B.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, Q.

    2013-03-01

    Efficient and compact yellow green pulsed laser output at 543 nm is generated by frequency doubling of a passively Q-switched end diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser at 1086 nm under the condition of sup-pressing the higher gain transition near 1064 nm. With 15 W of diode pump power and the frequency doubling crystal LBO, as high as 1.58 W output power at 543 nm is achieved. The optical to optical conversion efficiency from the corresponding Q-switched fundamental output to the yellow green output is 49%. The peak power of the Q-switched yellow green pulse laser is up to 30 kW with 5 ns pulse duration. The output power stability over 8 hours is better than 2.56% at the maximum output power. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest watt-level laser at 543 nm generated by frequency doubling of a passively Q-switched end diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser at 1086 nm.

  11. Correct calibration procedure for the Q-switched ruby laser and checking the treatment irradiation pattern

    PubMed Central

    Ohshiro, Takafumi; Sasaki, Katsumi; Takenouchi, Kiyofumi; Kozuma, Mituaki; Ohshiro, Naoyuki; Kageyama, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: There are many Q-switched lasers. The Q-switched ruby laser is the one most popularly used in dermatology, aesthetic surgery and plastic surgery, to remove pigmented lesions or tattoos. Correct and regular calibration of such a system is essential. However, some clinics fail to perform this with the excuse of having no measuring instrument (MI) in their offices or treatment rooms in some of their hospitals or clinics, or even the case of well-known medical universities in Japan. The present article explains the precise calibration procedure and beam pattern checking for the Q-switched ruby systems in the first author's clinic. Rationale: In the case of treatment with a medical laser, the calibration and the irradiated pattern (IP) check of the laser being used for treatment are the most important factors for treatment efficacy and safety. If these factors change, the treatment result could be different from that expected. Such kind of data are not acceptable as scientific information for a presentation or published paper. With such unreliable results and incorrect beam pattern, replicating such a study would be impossible Regular calibration check: In our clinic, we have 2 Q-switched ruby laser systems. On a daily basis, the beam patterns, both the optical axis of the beam and its treatment footprint, are checked on dedicated printed sheets and footprint paper, respectively, at the beginning of the day and after the last procedure. Every two weeks we calibrate our systems in-house using a precise MI. Every six months we calibrate the systems in-house with the MI, and then we send the systems back to the manufacturers for calibration. Once every year, we have our MI calibrated by an accredited facility in Japan. In this way, we are not only ensuring accurate and safe treatment for our patients, but we are also producing accurate system and treatment data which can be replicated by others, the basis of evidence-based medicine. PMID:24204090

  12. Narrow-linewidth Q-switched random distributed feedback fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiangming; Ye, Jun; Xiao, Hu; Leng, Jinyong; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Hanwei; Zhou, Pu

    2016-08-22

    A narrow-linewidth Q-switched random fiber laser (RFL) based on a half-opened cavity, which is realized by narrow-linewidth fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and a section of 3 km passive fiber, has been proposed and experimentally investigated. The narrow-linewidth lasing is generated by the spectral filtering of three FBGs with linewidth of 1.21 nm, 0.56 nm, and 0.12 nm, respectively. The Q switching of the distributed cavity is achieved by placing an acousto-optical modulator (AOM) between the FBG and the passive fiber. The maximal output powers of the narrow-linewidth RFLs with the three different FBGs are 0.54 W, 0.27 W, and 0.08 W, respectively. Furthermore, the repetition rates of the output pulses are 500 kHz, and the pulse durations are about 500 ns. The corresponding pulse energies are about 1.08 μJ, 0.54 μJ, and 0.16 μJ, accordingly. The linewidth of FBG can influence the output characteristics in full scale. The narrower the FBG, the higher the pump threshold; the lower the output power at the same pump level, the more serious the linewidth broadening; and thus the higher the proportion of the CW-ground exists in the output pulse trains. Thanks to the assistance of the band-pass filter (BPF), the proportion of the CW-ground of narrow-linewidth Q-switched RFL under the relative high-pump-low-output condition can be reduced effectively. The experimental results indicate that it is challenging to demonstrate a narrow-linewidth Q-switched RFL with high quality output. But further power scaling and linewidth narrowing is possible in the case of operating parameters, optimization efforts, and a more powerful pump source. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of narrow-linewidth generation in a Q-switched RFL. PMID:27557200

  13. Characterization of the Q-switched MOBLAS Laser Transmitter and Its Ranging Performance Relative to a PTM Q-switched System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, J. J., III; Zagwodski, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype Q-switched Nd:YAG laser transmitter intended for use in the NASA mobile laser ranging system was subjected to various tests of temporal pulse shape and stability, output energy and stability, beam divergence, and range bias errors. Peak to peak variations in the mean range were as large as 30 cm and drift rates of system bias with time as large as 6 mm per minute of operation were observed. The incorporation of a fast electro-optic cavity dump into the oscillator gave significantly improved results. Reevaluation of the ranging performance after modification showed a reduction in the peak to peak variation in the mean range to the 2 or 3 cm level and a drift rate of system time biases of less than 1 mm per minute of operation. A qualitative physical explanation for the superior performance of cavity dumped lasers is given.

  14. Pigmented guinea pig skin irradiated with Q-switched ruby laser pulses. Morphologic and histologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, J.S.; Margolis, R.J.; Polla, L.L.; Watanabe, S.; Hruza, G.J.; Parrish, J.A.; Anderson, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Q-switched ruby laser pulses cause selective damage to cutaneous pigmented cells. Repair of this selective damage has not been well described. Therefore, using epilated pigmented and albino guinea pig skin, we studied the acute injury and tissue repair caused by 40-ns, Q-switched ruby laser pulses. Gross observation and light and electron microscopy were performed. No specific changes were evident in the albino guinea pigs. In pigmented animals, with radiant exposures of 0.4 J/cm2 or greater, white spots confined to the 2.5-mm exposure sites developed immediately and faded over 20 minutes. Delayed depigmentation occurred at seven to ten days, followed by full repigmentation by four to eight weeks. Regrowing hairs in sites irradiated at and above 0.4 J/cm2 remained white for at least four months. Histologically, vacuolation of pigment-laden cells was seen immediately in the epidermis and the follicular epithelium at exposures of 0.3 J/cm2 and greater. Melanosomal disruption was seen immediately by electron microscopy at and above 0.3 J/cm2. Over the next seven days, epidermal necrosis was followed by regeneration of a depigmented epidermis. By four months, melanosomes and melanin pigmentation had returned; however, hair follicles remained depigmented and devoid of melanocytes. This study demonstrates that selective melanosomal disruption caused by Q-switched ruby laser pulses leads to transient cutaneous depigmentation and persistent follicular depigmentation. Potential exists for selective treatment of pigmented epidermal and dermal lesions with this modality.

  15. Melanosomes are a primary target of Q-switched ruby laser irradiation in guinea pig skin

    SciTech Connect

    Polla, L.L.; Margolis, R.J.; Dover, J.S.; Whitaker, D.; Murphy, G.F.; Jacques, S.L.; Anderson, R.R.

    1987-09-01

    The specific targeting of melanosomes may allow for laser therapy of pigmented cutaneous lesions. The mechanism of selective destruction of pigmented cells by various lasers, however, has not been fully clarified. Black, brown, and albino guinea pigs were exposed to optical pulses at various radiant exposure doses from a Q-switched, 40 nsec, 694 nm ruby laser. Biopsies were analyzed by light and electron microscopy (EM). Albino animals failed to develop clinical or microscopic evidence of cutaneous injury after irradiation. In both black and brown animals, the clinical threshold for gross change was 0.4 J/cm2, which produced an ash-white spot. By light microscopy, alterations appeared at 0.3 J/cm2 and included separation at the dermoepidermal junction, and the formation of vacuolated epidermal cells with a peripheral cytoplasmic condensation of pigment. By EM, enlarged melanosomes with a central lucent zone were observed within affected epidermal cells at 0.3 J/cm2. At 0.8 and 1.2 J/cm2, individual melanosomes were more intensely damaged and disruption of melanosomes deep in the hair papillae was observed. Dermal-epidermal blisters were formed precisely at the lamina lucida, leaving basal cell membranes and hemidesmosomes intact. Possible mechanisms for melanosomal injury are discussed. These observations show that the effects of the Q-switched ruby laser are melanin-specific and melanin-dependent, and may be useful in the selective destruction of pigmented as well as superficial cutaneous lesions.

  16. Compact MEMS mirror based Q-switch module for pulse-on-demand laser range finders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanović, Veljko; Kasturi, Abhishek; Atwood, Bryan; Su, Yu; Limkrailassiri, Kevin; Nettleton, John E.; Goldberg, Lew; Cole, Brian J.; Hough, Nathaniel

    2015-02-01

    A highly compact and low power consuming Q-switch module was developed based on a fast single-axis MEMS mirror, for use in eye-safe battery-powered laser range finders The module's 1.6mm x 1.6mm mirror has <99% reflectance at 1535nm wavelength and can achieve mechanical angle slew rates of over 500 rad/sec when switching the Er/Yb:Glass lasing cavity from pumping to lasing state. The design targeted higher efficiency, smaller size, and lower cost than the traditional Electro-Optical Q-Switch. Because pulse-on-demand capability is required, resonant mirrors cannot be used to achieve the needed performance. Instead, a fast point-to-point analog single-axis tilt actuator was designed with a custom-coated high reflectance (HR) mirror to withstand the high intra-cavity laser fluence levels. The mirror is bonded on top of the MEMS actuator in final assembly. A compact MEMS controller was further implemented with the capability of autonomous on-demand operation based on user-provided digital trigger. The controller is designed to receive an external 3V power supply and a digital trigger and it consumes ~90mW during the short switching cycle and ~10mW in standby mode. Module prototypes were tested in a laser cavity and demonstrated high quality laser pulses with duration of ~20ns and energy of over 3mJ.

  17. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with super-Gaussian resonators.

    PubMed

    De Silvestri, S; Magni, V; Taccheo, S; Valentini, G

    1991-05-01

    An unstable resonator that uses radially variable-reflectivity mirrors of super-Gaussian profile has been used in a Nd:YAG laser in the Q-switching regime. Three reflectivity profiles, corresponding to different super-Gaussian orders, have been tested. The output energy increases with the super-Gaussian order and can be higher than that of a traditional stable multimode resonator. The output beams are diffraction limited, showing only moderate spreading of energy out of the central lobe in the far field. PMID:19774024

  18. Diode-end-pumped electro-optically Q-switched Nd:YLF slab laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hengli; Du, Keming; Li, Daijun; Shi, Peng; Wang, Yongdong; Diart, Robert

    2004-05-10

    We report a very compact Nd:YLF slab laser that is end pumped by a quasi-continuous-wave diode stack. A hybrid resonator is used to generate high output power in a near-diffraction-limited beam (i.e., a beam propogation M2 factor of less than 1.2). A pulse energy of 14.3 mJ was obtained with a pulse width of 8.5 ns at a repetition rate of 500 Hz, which corresponds to a Q-switched peak power of 1.68 MW.

  19. The passive Q-switching regime in a solid state laser with a multiloop cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogoda, A. P.; Burkovskii, G. V.; Makarchuk, P. S.; Khakhalin, I. S.; Boreisho, A. S.; Fedin, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    A compact, pulsed-periodic YAG: Nd3+ laser with self-pumped phase-conjugate multiloop cavity and passive Q-switching by YAG: Cr 4+ and GSGG: Cr 4+ crystals has been studied. It is established that the energy and temporal parameters of radiation in separate pulses of a periodic train can be controlled almost without changing the pulse train energy. A regime of generating modulated radiation pulses with a peak power of up to 30 MW and a spatial brightness of 1.7 × 1015 W/(cm2 sr) at a radiation beam quality parameter of M 2 < 1.2 has been realized in experiment.

  20. Diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:YLF laser at 1313 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shan; Gao, Shufang; Zheng, Chunyan

    2016-06-01

    In this letter, we describe the operation of an end-pumped acousto-optic Q-switched Nd:YLF laser. According to the theoretical analysis and calculation for Nd:YLF crystal, the thermal focal length of σ-polarized laser is positive in plane-parallel resonator, while that of π-polarized laser is negative. Hence laser operation at σ-polarized 1313 nm should be stable in plane-parallel cavity. When absorbed pump power is 12.45 W and the pulse repetition frequency is 10 kHz, 3.1 W output laser at 1313 nm is achieved. As a result, the optical-optical conversion efficiency is 25.4 % and slope efficiency is 31.2 %, respectively.

  1. Compact, passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for the MESSENGER mission to Mercury.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Danny J; Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Li, Steven X; Lindauer, Steven J; Afzal, Robert S; Yu, Anthony W

    2005-03-20

    A compact, passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been developed for the Mercury Laser Altimeter, an instrument on the Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging mission to the planet Mercury. The laser achieves 5.4% efficiency with a near-diffraction-limited beam. It passed all space-flight environmental tests at subsystem, instrument, and satellite integration testing and successfully completes a postlaunch aliveness check en route to Mercury. The laser design draws on a heritage of previous laser altimetry missions, specifically the Ice Cloud and Elevation Satellite and the Mars Global Surveyor, but incorporates thermal management features unique to the requirements of an orbit of the planet Mercury. PMID:15813276

  2. Effect of Q-switched Laser Surface Texturing of Titanium on Osteoblast Cell Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voisey, K. T.; Scotchford, C. A.; Martin, L.; Gill, H. S.

    Titanium and its alloys are important biomedical materials. It is known that the surface texture of implanted medical devices affects cell response. Control of cell response has the potential to enhance fixation of implants into bone and, in other applications, to prevent undesired cell adhesion. The potential use of a 100W Q-switched YAG laser miller (DMG Lasertec 60 HSC) for texturing titanium is investigated. A series of regular features with dimensions of the order of tens of micrometers are generated in the surface of titanium samples and the cell response to these features is determined. Characterisation of the laser milled features reveals features with a lengthscale of a few microns superposed on the larger scale structures, this is attributed to resolidification of molten droplets generated and propelled over the surface by individual laser pulses. The laser textured samples are exposed to osteoblast cells and it is seen that cells do respond to the features in the laser textured surfaces.

  3. Acousto-optic Q-switching laser performance of Yb:GdCa(4)O(BO(3))(3)crystal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaowen; Xu, Honghao; Guo, Yunfeng; Han, Wenjuan; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Liu, Junhai

    2015-08-20

    We report on the active Q-switching laser performance of Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystal, demonstrated by employing an acousto-optic Q-switch in a compact plano-concave resonator. Stable repetitively Q-switched operation is achieved with pulse repetition rates varying from 30 to 0.2 kHz, producing an average output power of 10.2 W at 1027.5 nm at 30 kHz of repetition rate, with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 30%. The maximum pulse energy generated at the lowest repetition rate of 0.2 kHz is 4.75 mJ, with a pulse width being 11 ns, gives rise to a peak power that amounts to 432 kW. PMID:26368745

  4. Observation of repetitively nanosecond pulse-width transverse patterns in microchip self-Q-switched laser

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Jun; Ueda, Ken-ichi

    2006-05-15

    Repetitively nanosecond pulse-width transverse pattern formation in a plane-parallel microchip Cr,Nd: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) self-Q-switched laser was investigated. The complex point-symmetric transverse patterns were observed by varying the pump beam diameter incident on the Cr,Nd:YAG crystal. The gain guiding effect and the thermal effect induced by the pump power in microchip Cr,Nd:YAG laser control the oscillating transverse modes. These transverse pattern formations were due to the variation of the saturated inversion population and the thermal induced index profile along radial and longitudinal direction in the Cr,Nd:YAG crystal induced by the pump power incident on the Cr,Nd:YAG crystal. These were intrinsic properties of such a microchip self-Q-switched laser. The longitudinal distribution of the saturated inversion population inside the gain medium plays an important role on the transverse pattern formation. Different sets of the transverse patterns corresponds to the different saturated inversion population distribution inside microchip Cr,Nd:YAG crystal.

  5. Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched Nd:LYSO lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, S. D.; Xu, X. D.; Wang, Z. P.; Li, D. Z.; Yu, H. H.; Xu, J.; Guo, L.; Chen, L. J.; Zhao, Y. G.; Xu, X. G.

    2011-04-01

    Continuous-wave (CW) and passively Q-switched performance of a Nd-doped oyorthosilicate mixing crystal, (Nd0.005Lu0.4975Y0.4975)2SiO5 (Nd:LYSO), were reported. As a result, new dual-wavelength all-solid-state lasers at 1075 and 1079 nm were achieved. When the absorbed pump power was 3.87 W, the CW laser produced 1.1 W output, corresponding to an optical conversion efficiency of 28.4% and a slope efficiency of 32.4%. By using a Cr4+:YAG wafer as the saturable absorber, we achieved Q-switching operation of Nd:LYSO crystal. The maximal average output power, shortest pulse width, largest pulse energy and highest peak power were measured to be 294 mW, 27.5 ns, 34.3 μJ and 1.18 kW, respectively. By difference frequency, these dual-wavelength lasers have potential applications for the generation of a broadband coherent radiation from 0.7-1.3 THz.

  6. High brightness sub-nanosecond Q-switched laser using volume Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Brian M.; Hale, Evan; Venus, George; Ott, Daniel; Divliansky, Ivan; Glebov, Leonid

    2016-03-01

    The design of Q-switched lasers capable of producing pulse widths of 100's of picoseconds necessitates the cavity length be shorter than a few centimeters. Increasing the amount of energy extracted per pulse requires increasing the mode area of the resonator that for the same cavity length causes exciting higher order transverse modes and decreasing the brightness of the output radiation. To suppress the higher order modes of these multimode resonators while maintaining the compact cavity requires the use of intra-cavity angular filters. A novel Q-switched laser design is presented using transmitting Bragg gratings (TBGs) as angular filters to suppress the higher order transverse modes. The laser consists of a 5 mm thick slab of Nd:YAG, a 3 mm thick slab of Cr:YAG with a 20% transmission, one TBG aligned to suppress the higher order modes along the x-axis, and a 40% output coupler. The gratings are recorded in photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass, which has a high damage threshold that can withstand both the high peak powers and high average powers present within the resonator. Using a 4.1 mrad TBG in a 10.8 mm long resonator with an 800μm x 400 μm pump beam, a nearly diffraction limited beam quality of M2 = 1.3 is obtained in a 0.76 mJ pulse with a pulse width of 614 ps.

  7. Frequency stability of RF-excited CO2 waveguide lasers in gain-switched and Q-switched regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapucci, A.; Cangioli, G.; Meucci, R.

    1993-03-01

    In this paper we analyze the behavior of RF-excited waveguide laser both in a gain-switched and a Q-switched regime measuring the frequency sweep during the optical pulse. This enables us to directly distinguish laser induced medium perturbations (LIMP) from the effects of the discharge power loading. Our experimental observations confirm that the main perturbation in the laser output frequency is to be attributed to thermal energy variations. This gives the result of a Q-switch chirp more than one order of magnitude smaller than in the pulsed current mode, suggesting the use of Q-switching waveguide lasers in applications such as long range or Doppler laser radar systems. The chirp behavior in the pulsed current mode can show overshot relaxation corresponding to the propagation of density waves in the guide.

  8. Temporal synchronization and spectral combining of pulses from fiber lasers Q-switched by independent MEMS micro-mirrors.

    PubMed

    Fabert, Marc; Desfarges-Berthelemot, Agnès; Kermène, Vincent; Crunteanu, Aurelian

    2012-09-24

    We present what we believe to be the first demonstration of spectral combining of multiple fiber lasers Q-switched by independent micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS). By correlating the actuation of the individual MEMS devices, the associated Q-switched lasers can be operated in either synchronous or asynchronous modes in such a way that their overall combined output may result in high energy emission pulses or in laser emission with higher pulse repetition rate. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we demonstrate the combination of four individual Q-switched lasers (each of them operating at 20 kHz repetition rate) leading to a final laser system generating pulses with a repetition rate of 80 kHz.

  9. Q-switched all-solid-state lasers and application in processing of thin-film solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liangqing; Wang, Feng

    2009-08-01

    Societal pressure to renewable clean energy is increasing which is expected to be used as part of an overall strategy to address global warming and oil crisis. Photovoltaic energy conversion devices are on a rapidly accelerating growth path driven by government, of which the costs and prices lower continuously. The next generation thin-film devices are considered to be more efficiency and greatly reduced silicon consumption, resulting in dramatically lower per unit fabrication costs. A key aspect of these devices is patterning large panels to create a monolithic array of series-interconnected cells to form a low current, high voltage module. This patterning is accomplished in three critical scribing processes called P1, P2, and P3. All-solid-state Q-switched lasers are the technology of choice for these processes, due to their advantages of compact configuration, high peak-value power, high repeat rate, excellent beam quality and stability, delivering the desired combination of high throughput and narrow, clean scribes. The end pumped all-solid-state lasers could achieve 1064nm IR resources with pulse width of nanoseconds adopting acoustic-optics Q-switch, shorter than 20ns. The repeat rate is up to 100kHz and the beam quality is close to diffraction limit. Based on this, 532nm green lasers, 355nm UV lasers and 266nm DUV lasers could be carried out through nonlinear frequency conversion. Different wave length lasers are chose to process selective materials. For example, 8-15 W IR lasers are used to scribe the TCO film (P1); 1-5 W green lasers are suitable for scribing the active semiconductor layers (P2) and the back contact layers (P3). Our company, Wuhan Lingyun Photo-electronic System Co. Ltd, has developed 20W IR and 5W green end-pumped Q-switched all-solid-state lasers for thin-film solar industry. Operating in high repeat rates, the speed of processing is up to 2.0 m/s.

  10. Q-switched ruby laser irradiation of normal human skin. Histologic and ultrastructural findings.

    PubMed

    Hruza, G J; Dover, J S; Flotte, T J; Goetschkes, M; Watanabe, S; Anderson, R R

    1991-12-01

    The Q-switched ruby laser is used for treatment of tatoos. The effects of Q-switched ruby laser pulses on sun-exposed and sun-protected human skin, as well as senile lentigines, were investigated with clinical observation, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. A pinpricklike sensation occurred at radiant exposures as low as 0.2 J/cm2. Immediate erythema, delayed edema, and immediate whitening occurred with increasing radiant exposure. The threshold for immediate whitening varied inversely with skin pigmentation, ranging from a mean of 1.4 J/cm2 in lentigines to 3.1 J/cm2 in sun-protected skin. Transmission electron microscopy showed immediate alteration of mature melanosomes and nuclei within keratinocytes and melanocytes, but stage I and II melanosomes were unaffected. Histologically, immediate injury was confined to the epidermis. There was minimal inflammatory response 1 day after exposure. After 1 week, subthreshold exposures induced hyperpigmentation, with epidermal hyperplasia and increased melanin staining noted histologically. At higher radiant exposures, hypopigmentation occurred with desquamation of a pigmented scale/crust. All sites returned to normal skin color and texture without scarring within 3 to 6 months. These observations suggest that the human skin response to selective photothermolysis of pigmented cells is similar to that reported in animal models, including low radiant exposure stimulation of melanogenesis and high radiant exposure lethal injury to pigmented epidermal cells. PMID:1845279

  11. Passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with a MoS2 solution saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tao; Sun, Hang; Wang, Xi; Mao, Dong; Wang, Yonggang; Li, Lu; Duan, Lina

    2015-12-01

    This study presents a passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser using a MoS2 solution as a saturable absorber. The prepared MoS2 solution saturable absorber features adjustable optical absorption, high heat dissipation, and non-contact damage. By inserting the MoS2 solution saturable absorber into a Z-type Nd:YAG laser cavity, a stable Q-switched laser with the maximum repetition rate of 20.8 KHz centered at 1064.24 nm was achieved, with the shortest pulse width at 2.8 μs. The results experimentally confirm the potential application of a MoS2 solution saturable absorber for high performance Q-switched solid-state lasers.

  12. Passively Q-switched mode-locking of Tm:YAP laser based on Cr:ZnS saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaowei; Zhang, Baitao; He, Jingliang; Yang, Kejian; Han, Kezhen; Ning, Jian; Hou, Jia; Lou, Fei

    2015-05-10

    Using a Cr:ZnS wafer as the saturable absorber, diode-pumped passively Q-switched mode-locking of a Tm:YAP laser at 1976 nm has been realized for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, and nearly 100% modulation depth of Q-switched mode-locking was achieved. The width of the mode-locked pulse was estimated to be about 980 ps with a repetition rate of 350 MHz within a roughly 300-ns-long Q-switched pulse envelope. A maximum output power of 940 mW was obtained, corresponding to the Q-switched pulse energy of 0.55 mJ. The emission wavelength evolution between the continuous-wave and Q-switched mode-locked operations was presented and discussed. The experimental results indicate that the Cr:ZnS absorber is a promising saturable absorber for passively Q-switched mode-locking operation around 2 μm. PMID:25967485

  13. Permanent makeup removal using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Lee, C N; Bae, E Y; Park, J G; Lim, S H

    2009-12-01

    Red-brown tattoos are usually treated with a frequency-doubled Q-switched (QS) neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), because red and pink pigments show maximum absorption between 500 and 570 nm. Using a QS laser for red-brown tattoo removal has sometimes led to paradoxical darkening of the tattoo pigments, and this darkened grey-black colour may be difficult to remove. A woman with red-brown cosmetic tattoos on her eyebrows was treated using a QS Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) initially with low fluence and subsequently with increasing fluences at 6-weekly intervals. After the first treatment, a slight darkening of the tattoo pigments was seen, but this faded and complete clearance was achieved after five treatments. There was no downtime during every treatment and there were no scars, pigmentary alterations or textural changes.

  14. Experimental investigation on CFRP milling by low power Q-switched Yb:YAG laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genna, S.; Tagliaferri, F.; Papa, I.; Leone, C.; Palumbo, B.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, laser milling of CFRP plate by means of a 30W Q-Switched Yb:YAG fiber laser is investigated through statistical analysis. Milling tests were performed at the nominal power changing the pulse power; the scanning speed, the hatch distance and the released energy. Design of Experiments (DoE) and ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA) were applied with the aim to improve the process performances in term of material removal rate and heat affected zone extension. The results show that, the adopted laser is an effective solution for the CFRP milling. Moreover, adopting an accurate approach to the problem, process variability and material damages can be easily reduced.

  15. Q-switched laser removal of tattoos: a clinical and spectroscopic investigation of the mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siomos, Konstadinos; Bailey, Raymond T.; Cruickshank, Frank R.; Murphy, Michael

    1996-01-01

    The liquid phase spectra of tatoo pigments are shown to be unreliable as a basis for mechanistic deductions. The reflectance spectra of the solids from 2000 nm to 500 nm (5000 to 20,000 cm-1) are shown to accurately assess the relative loss of laser light for different pigments and to be useful in examining these to check for similarities in the pigments. The absorbance differences between the pigments are shown to be largely irrelevant in assessing the ease of tatoo removal by laser radiation of a variety of wavelengths. A multiphoton absorption mechanism with its concomitant shock wave is proposed to be responsible for the reduction of pigment particles to small sizes which the lymph system can remove. The different behavior of blue and green tattoos, treated by Q-switched ruby and Nd:YAG lasers, is attributed to the particle aggregation size of the pigments in the tattoo.

  16. Passive compensation of the thermal drift of magnetostriction based Q-switched fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Millán, P.; Díez, A.; Cruz, J. L.; Andrés, M. V.

    2009-02-01

    The authors propose and demonstrate a method to compensate the thermal drift of magnetostriction based Q-switched fiber lasers, which is caused by the eddy currents induced in the Terfenol-D magnetostrictive actuators. The consequent wavelength detuning between the fiber gratings of the laser is passively compensated by the use of Monel 400 as thermal actuator of the non-modulated grating. A highly stable pulsed signal is achieved in the range of 1 Hz-5 kHz, with a wavelength detuning between gratings maintained below 10 pm. Furthermore, an optimization of the use of the pump power is proposed, utilizing part of it for simultaneously pumping a fiber optic based amplification stage.

  17. Diode-side-pumped, passively Q-switched Yb:LuAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaskow, Mateusz; Galecki, Lukasz; Jabczynski, Jan K.; Skorczakowski, Marek; Zendzian, Waldemar; Sulc, Jan; Nemec, Michal; Jelinkova, Helena

    2015-10-01

    A high-gain, diode-side-pumped Yb:LuAG slab laser was designed and investigated for use at room temperature. Pumping occurred from a fast-axis collimated 2D laser diode stack emitting at a wavelength of 970 nm, with 0.8 J over a duration of 0.8 ms. The pump scheme, which enabled efficient mode matching and high gain, was analysed and experimentally verified for different dopant levels. An energy of 100 mJ with 23% slope efficiency in a near fundamental mode was achieved in the free-running regime. A peak power of 2.5 MW and a pulse energy of 10.1 mJ were demonstrated in passive Q-switching by means of a Cr:YAG saturable absorber with 39% initial transmission. The study defined the indications for optimizing such a system.

  18. Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GGG laser with a double-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hongwei; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Yufei; Yang, Kejian; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Jia; Qiao, Wenchao; Li, Tao; Feng, Chuansheng; Wang, Yonggang; Wang, Yishan

    2014-03-01

    A diode-end-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GGG laser with a double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) saturable absorber is demonstrated for the first time. A maximum output power of 1.03 W and a minimum pulse duration of 24.3 ns with a highest peak power of 121 W were obtained. The pulse repetition rate varied from 122 to 350 kHz as the pump power increased. The experimental results show that DWCNT is an excellent saturable absorber for passive Q-switched lasers.

  19. Q-switching and mode-locking in a diode-pumped frequency-doubled Nd : YAG laser

    SciTech Connect

    Donin, Valerii I; Yakovin, Dmitrii V; Gribanov, A V

    2012-02-28

    A new method for obtaining Q-switching simultaneously with mode-locking using one travelling-wave acousto-optic modulator in a frequency-doubled Nd : YAG laser cavity is described. Further shortening of output laser pulses (from 40 to 3.25 ps) is achieved by forming a Kerr lens in the frequency-doubling crystal. At an average power of {approx} 2 W and a Q-switching rate of 2 kHz, the peak power of the stably operating reached {approx} 50 MW.

  20. Output-stabilized high-repetition-rate 1. 545-. mu. m Q-switched Er:glass laser

    SciTech Connect

    Morishige, Y.; Kishida, S.; Washio, K.; Toratani, H.; Nakawawa, M.

    1984-05-01

    A newly developed Q-switched Er:glass laser with a long pulse length, suitable for fiber-fault location is described. A specially prepared athermal rod has made it possible to operate at a 5-Hz repetition rate. A feedback-stabilized Q-switched method involving fluorescence monitoring has been applied to this three-level laser system. A +- 3% power stability (standard deviation) has been obtained for a 2-..mu..sec pulse with a 1-mJ output energy.

  1. Q-switching of a high-power solid-state laser by a fast scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Baburin, N V; Borozdov, Yu V; Danileiko, Yu K; Denker, B I; Ivanov, A D; Osiko, Vyacheslav V; Sverchkov, S E; Sidorin, A V; Chikov, V A; Ifflander, R; Hack, R; Kertesz, I; Kroo, N

    1998-07-31

    An investigation was made of the suitability of a Q-switch, based on a piezoelectrically scanned short-base Fabry-Perot interferometer, for an Nd{sup 3+}:YAG laser with an average output radiation power up to 2 kW. The proposed switch made it possible to generate of giant pulses of 60 - 300 ns duration at a repetition rate of 20 - 100 kHz. Throughout the investigated range of the pulse repetition rates the average power was at least equal to that obtained by cw lasing. Special requirements to be satisfied by the interferometer, essential for efficient Q-switching, were considered. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  2. All-optical Q-switching limiter for high-power gigahertz modelocked diode-pumped solid-state lasers.

    PubMed

    Klenner, Alexander; Keller, Ursula

    2015-04-01

    Passively modelocked diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSLs) with pulse repetition rates in the gigahertz regime suffer from an increased tendency for Q-switching instabilities. Low saturation fluence intracavity saturable absorbers - such as the semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) - can solve this problem up to a certain average output power limited by the onset of SESAM damage. Here we present a passive stabilization mechanism, an all-optical Q-switching limiter, to reduce the impact of Q-switching instabilities and increase the potential output power of SESAM modelocked lasers in the gigahertz regime. With a proper cavity design a Kerr lens induced negative saturable absorber clamps the maximum fluence on the SESAM and therefore limits the onset of Q-switching instabilities. No critical cavity alignment is required because this Q-switching limiter acts well within the cavity stability regime. Using a proper cavity design, a high-power diode-pumped Yb:CALGO solid-state laser generated sub-100 fs pulses with an average output power of 4.1 W at a pulse repetition rate of 5 GHz. With a pulse duration of 96 fs we can achieve a peak power as high as 7.5 kW directly from the SESAM modelocked laser oscillator without any further external pulse amplification and/or pulse compression. We present a quantitative analysis of this Kerr lens induced Q-switching limiter and its impact on modelocked operation. Our work provides a route to compact high-power multi-gigahertz frequency combs based on SESAM modelocked diode-pumped solid-state lasers without any additional external amplification or pulse compression. PMID:25968691

  3. Antiphase state in passively Q-switched Yb:YAG microchip multimode lasers with a saturable absorber GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Qiulin; Feng Baohua; Zhang Dongxiang; Fu Panming; Zhang Zhiguo; Zhao Zhiwei; Deng Peizhen; Xu Jun; Xu Xiaodong; Wang Yonggang; Ma Xiaoyu

    2004-05-01

    We report on recent experimental results of the spontaneous antiphase dynamics that occurs in a laser-diode-pumped multimode passively Q-switched microchip Yb:YAG (where YAG is yttrium aluminum garnet) lasers with a saturable absorber GaAs. We observe that the pulse sequence of the first mode characterized by one, two, and three pulses as a group and all the modes display an antiphase state as the pumping ratio rises. We modify the multimode rate equations to account for nonlinear absorption due to GaAs in the presence of spatial hole burning. We perform numerical simulations based on the proposed rate equations and reproduce the observed antiphase state of two and three active modes.

  4. Passively dual-wavelength Q-switched ytterbium doped fiber laser using Selenium Bismuth as saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, H.; Salim, M. A. M.; Soltanian, M. R. K.; Azzuhri, Saaidal R.; Harun, S. W.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes a demonstration of a passively dual-wavelength Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using a selenium bismuth-based saturable absorber. By utilizing a short-length photonic crystal fiber in a ring cavity and performing adjustments to the polarization state of an incorporated polarization controller (PC), we obtained a stable dual-wavelength Q-switched output at 1037.14 and 1037.69 nm, with maximum pulse energy of 0.65 nJ, shortest pulse width of 8.46 μs, and pulse repetition rate from 15.37 to 59.24 kHz. The Q-switched laser output consistently achieved high-power stability with a 0.8 dB maximum fluctuation over a period of 20 min.

  5. Design and construction of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser system for LIBS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, Khaled.; Imam, Hisham; Harfoosh, Amro; Hassebo, Yasser; Elbaz, Yasser; Aziz, Mouayed; Mansour, Mohy

    2012-02-01

    A passive, Q-switched pulsed, Nd:YAG laser system was designed and built, which can provide a potential compact robust laser source for portable laser induced breakdown spectroscopy systems. The developed laser system operates at 1064 nm. Each laser shot contains a train of pulses having maximum total output energy of 170 mJ. The number of pulses varies from 1-6 pulses in each laser shot depending on the pump energy. The pulse width of each pulse ranges from 20 to 30 ns. The total duration of the output pulse train is within 300 μs. The multi-pulse nature of the laser shots was employed to enhance the LIBS signal. To validate the system, LIBS measurements and analysis were performed on ancient ceramic samples collected from Al-Fustat excavation in Old Cairo. The samples belong to different Islamic periods in Egypt history. The results obtained are highly indicative that useful information can be provided to archeologists for use in restoring and repairing of precious archeological objects.

  6. Treatment of traumatic tattoo with the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Gorouhi, Farzam; Davari, Parastoo; Kashani, Mansour Nassiri; Firooz, Alireza

    2007-12-01

    Traumatic tattoos are undesirable tattoos caused by different foreign bodies such as fireworks' particles, sand, metals, glass, gunpowder, asphalt, dust, or petroleum products embedded forcefully in the dermis. We report the case of a 54-year-old man who presented with sand and asphalt tattooing on his face following a bomb explosion 15 years ago. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm with a spot size of 4 mm and a fluence of 7.96 J/cm(2) were applied to treat the patient. The patient tolerated the treatment very well. Most of the blue dots became whitened immediately after the procedure and remained almost clear after a 6-month follow-up. PMID:18236246

  7. Treatment of traumatic tattoo with the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Gorouhi, Farzam; Davari, Parastoo; Kashani, Mansour Nassiri; Firooz, Alireza

    2007-12-01

    Traumatic tattoos are undesirable tattoos caused by different foreign bodies such as fireworks' particles, sand, metals, glass, gunpowder, asphalt, dust, or petroleum products embedded forcefully in the dermis. We report the case of a 54-year-old man who presented with sand and asphalt tattooing on his face following a bomb explosion 15 years ago. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm with a spot size of 4 mm and a fluence of 7.96 J/cm(2) were applied to treat the patient. The patient tolerated the treatment very well. Most of the blue dots became whitened immediately after the procedure and remained almost clear after a 6-month follow-up.

  8. Synchronous initiation of optical detonators by Q-switched solid laser sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goujon, J.; Musset, O.; Marchand, A.; Bigot, C.

    2008-10-01

    The initiation of pyrotechnic substances by a laser light has been studied for more than 30 years. But until recently the use of this technology for defence applications encountered three main technical problems: the volume and the mass of lasers, the linear loss of optical fibres and their possible damage caused by the transport of strong laser power. Recent technical progress performed in the field of electrical and optical devices are now very promising for future opto-pyrotechnic functional chains. The objective of this paper is to present a demonstrator developed in order to initiate in a synchronous way four optical detonators and to measure the dispersion of their functioning times. It includes four compact Q-switched Nd:Cr:GSGG solid laser sources, pumped by flash lamp (energy ~110mJ, FWHM ~8.5 ns), two ultra-fast electro-optical selectors (based on RTP crystals) used to steer the laser beam and six optical fibre lines to transmit the laser pulses to the optical detonators. The set-up integrates also complex control and safety systems, as well as cameras allowing an optimal alignment of optical fibres. Experiments led us to initiate in a synchronous way four detonators with a mean scattering of 50 ns. The perspectives in this domain of initiation concern mainly the miniaturization and the hardening to the environments of electrical and optical components.

  9. Treatment of early-stage erythematotelangiectatic rosacea with a Q-switched 595-nm Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Goo, Boncheol Leo; Kang, Jin-Soo; Cho, Sung Bin

    2015-06-01

    Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea presents as persistent erythema and telangiectasia with frequent flushing and blushing on the facial and extrafacial skin. Additionally, papulopustular rosacea shows acneiform papules, pustules, and nodules with persistent plaque-form edema. Despite garnering only grade-C or -D level recommendations, a 585-nm or 595-nm flashlamp-pumped pulsed-dye laser can be considered as an effective therapeutic modality for the treatment of rosacea in patients who are refractory to topical and/or systemic treatments. In this report, treatment with a Q-switched 595-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser with low non-purpuragenic fluence proved to be safe and effective in treating early-stage erythematotelangiectatic rosacea in two female Korean patients. Laser treatment for rosacea was delivered with the settings of pulse energy of 0.4-0.5 J/cm(2), pulse duration of 5-10 ns, 5-mm spot size, 5 Hz, and 500 shots. Additionally, we found that remarkable therapeutic effects were achieved for both rosacea and melasma by combining Q-switched quick pulse-to-pulse 1,064-nm Nd:YAG and Q-switched 595-nm Nd:YAG laser treatments, which required only the changing of handpieces equipped with solid dye. In conclusion, we suggest that treatment with a Q-switched 595-nm Nd:YAG laser with low fluence may provide an additional therapeutic option for treating early-stage erythematotelangiectatic rosacea.

  10. Dual-loss-modulated Q-switched Tm:LuAG laser with AOM and monolayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Luan, Chao; Yang, Ke Jian; Zhao, Jia; Zhao, Sheng Zhi; Qiao, Wen Chao; Li, Tao; Feng, Tian Li; Liu, Cheng; Qiao, Jun Peng; Zheng, Li He; Xu, Jun; Wang, Qing Guo; Su, Liang Bi

    2015-09-20

    A laser-diode-pumped dual-loss-modulated Q-switching Tm:LuAG laser with an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) and monolayer graphene saturable absorber (SA) around 2 μm is presented for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The average output power and the pulse widths for different repetition rates have been measured. In comparison with the singly Q-switching laser with AOM or with monolayer graphene SA, the dual-loss-modulated Q-switching laser could generate shorter pulse width and higher peak power. The maximum pulse width compression ratio was found to be 3.11, and the highest peak power was enhanced 97.4 times. The experimental results show that the dual-loss-modulated technology is an efficient method for compressing the pulse width, improving the peak power, and enhancing the pulse stability for the Q-switched lasers at 2 μm. PMID:26406500

  11. Comment on ‘Dual-wavelength Q-switched Er:YAG laser around 1.6 μm for methane differential absorption lidar’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubourg, A.; Balembois, F.; Georges, P.

    2014-04-01

    A recent publication (Wang et al 2013 Laser Phys. Lett. 10 115804) described an actively Q-switched and diode-pumped Er:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser source. The novelty of that letter lies in the use of a very bright and spectrally narrowed fiber-coupled laser diode as a pump, thus leading to very good performance in continuous wave mode. In Q-switch operation, the output energy reported is surprisingly high (6.6 mJ) for this kind of setup with a low pump power (only 10 W) and with small beam diameter (250 μm). In this letter, we demonstrate that the output energy exceeds the maximum extractable energy of the gain medium.

  12. Side-pumped neodymium slab lasers Q-switched by V:YAG on 1.3μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabczyński, Jan K.; Żendzian, Waldemar; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Šulc, Jan; Němec, Michal; Jelínkova, Helena

    2006-02-01

    Nd:YAG and Nd:YAP crystals in form of triangle which makes possible to realize a slab side-pumped configuration with one total internal reflection were tested as an active media for diode-pumped laser. The resonator arrangements for Q-switched regime were prepared for the emission corresponding to Nd 3+ ion transition 4F 3/2--> 4I 13/2 referring to each crystal (λ= 1318 nm Nd:YAG and λ= 1342 nm Nd:YAP). Optical pumping was accomplished by a fast axis collimated quasi-CW diode DILAS E7Y1-808.3-600Q-H175V with peak power 600 W. Pumping radiation was focused by two plan-convex lenses into an active medium. The parameters of the pumping radiation were: wavelength 806nm, maximum pumping energy was 150mJ, pulse length 250μs, repetition rate up to 14 Hz. In free running regime the maximum reached energy was 24 mJ and 27.5 mJ for Nd:YAG and Nd:YAP, respectively. The corresponding obtained slope efficiency was 19.9 % and 23.7 % for Nd:YAG and Nd:YAP laser oscillator, respectively. Proper Q-switching for 1.3 μm was realized with saturable absorber V:YAG which initial transmission was optimized for shortest possible pulse length. For that obtained pulses were 6 ns with the energies 740 μJ and 432 μJ for Nd:YAG and Nd:YAP, respectively. This results correspond to peak power reached 125 kW (Nd:YAG), and 77 kW (Nd:YAP) in fundamental TEM 00 mode which allows this laser to be used as an efficient source for further nonlinear conversion or other applications.

  13. Multiparameter bifurcations and mixed-mode oscillations in Q-switched CO2 lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doedel, Eusebius J.; Pando L., Carlos L.

    2014-05-01

    We study the origin of mixed-mode oscillations and related bifurcations in a fully molecular laser model that describes CO2 monomode lasers with a slow saturable absorber. Our study indicates that the presence of isolas of periodic mixed-mode oscillations, as the pump parameter and the cavity-frequency detuning change, is inherent to Q-switched CO2 monomode lasers. We compare this model, known as the dual four-level model, to the more conventional 3:2 model and to a CO2 laser model for fast saturable absorbers. In these models, we find similarities as well as qualitative differences, such as the different nature of the homoclinic tangency to a relevant unstable periodic orbit, where the Gavrilov-Shilnikov theory and its extensions may hold. We also show that there are isolas of periodic mixed-mode oscillations in a model for CO2 lasers with modulated losses, as the pump parameter varies. The coarse-grained bifurcation diagrams of the periodic mixed-mode oscillations in these models suggest that these oscillations belong to similar classes.

  14. Water content contribution in calculus phantom ablation during Q-switched Tm:YAG laser lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian J.; Rajabhandharaks, Danop; Xuan, Jason Rongwei; Wang, Hui; Chia, Ray W. J.; Hasenberg, Tom; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2015-12-01

    Q-switched (QS) Tm:YAG laser ablation mechanisms on urinary calculi are still unclear to researchers. Here, dependence of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance was investigated. White gypsum cement was used as a calculus phantom model. The calculus phantoms were ablated by a total 3-J laser pulse exposure (20 mJ, 100 Hz, 1.5 s) and contact mode with N=15 sample size. Ablation volume was obtained on average 0.079, 0.122, and 0.391 mm3 in dry calculus in air, wet calculus in air, and wet calculus in-water groups, respectively. There were three proposed ablation mechanisms that could explain the effect of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance, including shock wave due to laser pulse injection and bubble collapse, spallation, and microexplosion. Increased absorption coefficient of wet calculus can cause stronger spallation process compared with that caused by dry calculus; as a result, higher calculus ablation was observed in both wet calculus in air and wet calculus in water. The test result also indicates that the shock waves generated by short laser pulse under the in-water condition have great impact on the ablation volume by Tm:YAG QS laser.

  15. Continuously-tunable, narrow-linewidth, Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser for lidar applications

    SciTech Connect

    Early, J.W.; Lester, C.S.; Quick, C.R.; Tiee, J.J.; Shimada, T.; Cockroft, N.J.

    1995-02-01

    A continuously-tunable, narrow-linewidth, flashlamp-pumped, Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser has been developed (energy: 30 mJ, pulsewidth: 40 ns, linewidth:<2 GHz) and was used successfully for the DIAL(differential absorption lidar) measurements of atmospheric water vapor and LIF lidar for the remote detection of metal oxide fluorescence.

  16. Coupled-cavity electro-optically {ital Q}-switched Nd:YVO{sub 4} microchip lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Zayhowski, J.J.; Dill, C. III

    1995-04-01

    Nd:YVO{sub 4} microchip lasers have been electro-optically {ital Q} switched to produce 12-{mu}J pulses of 115-ps duration at repetition rates of up to 1 kHz. At a repetition rate of 2.25 MHz, 0.16-{mu}J pulses with an 8.8-ns duration were obtained.

  17. Electro-optically Q-switched dual-wavelength Nd:YLF laser emitting at 1047 nm and 1053 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Shaojie; Liu, Zhaojun; Cong, Zhenhua; Li, Yongfu; Zhang, Xingyu

    2015-05-01

    A flash-lamp pumped electro-optically Q-switched dual-wavelength Nd:YLF laser is demonstrated. Two Nd:YLF crystals placed in two cavities are employed to generate orthogonally polarized 1047 nm and 1053 nm radiations, respectively. The two cavities are jointed together by a polarizer and share the same electro-optical Q-switch. Two narrow-band pass filters are used to block unexpected oscillations at the hold-off state of the electro-optical Q-switch. In this case, electro-optical Q-switching is able to operate successfully. With pulse synchronization realized, the maximum output energy of 66.2 mJ and 83.9 mJ are obtained for 1047 nm and 1053 nm lasers, respectively. Correspondingly, the minimum pulse width is both 17 ns for 1047 nm and 1053 nm lasers. Sum frequency generation is realized. This demonstrates the potential of this laser in difference-frequency generations to obtain terahertz wave.

  18. Continuously-tunable, narrow-linewidth, Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser for lidar applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Early, J.W.; Lester, C.S.; Quick, C.R.; Tiee, J.J.; Cockroft, N.J.

    1994-10-01

    A continuously-tunable, narrow-linewidth, flashlamp-pumped, Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser has been developed (energy: 30 mJ, pulsewidth: 40 ns, linewidth: <2 GHz) and was used successfully for the DIAL (differential absorption lidar) measurements of atmospheric water vapor.

  19. Processing of Diamond for Integrated Optic Devices Using Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser at Different Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheer, S. K.; Pillai, V. P. Mahadevan; Nayar, V. U.

    In the present investigation, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is used to study the various aspects of diamond processing for fabricating integrated optic and UV optoelectronic devices. Diamond is a better choice of substrate compared to silicon and gallium arsenide for the fabrication of waveguides to perform operations such as modulation, switching, multiplexing, and filtering, particularly in the ultraviolet spectrum. The experimental setup of the present investigation consists of two Q-Switched Nd:YAG lasers capable of operating at wavelengths of 1064 nm and 532 nm. The diamond cutting is performed using these two wavelengths by making the "V"-shaped groove with various opening angle. The variation of material loss of diamond during cutting is noted for the two wavelengths. The cut surface morphology and elemental and structural analysis of graphite formed during processing in both cases are compared using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser Raman spectroscopy. Both the Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser systems (at 1064 nm and 532 nm) show very good performance in terms of peak-to-peak output stability, minimal spot diameter, smaller divergence angle, higher peak power in Q-switched mode, and good fundamental TEM00 mode quality for processing natural diamond stones. Less material loss and minimal micro cracks are achieved with wavelength 532 nm whereas a better diamond cut surface is achieved with processing at 1064 nm with minimum roughness.

  20. Treatment of persistent Mongolian spots with Q-switched alexandrite laser.

    PubMed

    Kagami, Shinji; Asahina, Akihiko; Uwajima, Yuta; Miyamoto, Akie; Yamada, Daisuke; Shibata, Sayaka; Yamamoto, Mizuho; Masui, Yuri; Sato, Shinichi

    2012-11-01

    Mongolian spots are congenital and confluent hyperpigmented areas that are usually grayish blue in color. They are found most frequently in the sacral region in infants and typically disappear during childhood. Occasionally, they persist to adulthood. We retrospectively examined outcomes of laser treatment of persistent Mongolian spots. We used Q-switched alexandrite laser to treat persistent Mongolian spots of 16 Japanese patients at 14 years old or older. A good therapeutic outcome was achieved overall; however, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation were observed in two patients, respectively. While laser treatment was effective for all seven patients with extrasacral Mongolian spots, four out of ten patients with sacral Mongolian spots were refractory to treatment. Of these patients, two received laser irradiation only twice and abandoned treatment, simply because of unsatisfactory results without any adverse events. The other two patients received treatments at intervals of 3 months, which resulted in postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Contrary to children, who generally show good response after two or three sessions of irradiation, we should consider more frequent irradiation, longer intervals between treatment sessions, and use of bleaching creams in the treatment of persistent sacral Mongolian spots in adults.

  1. Morphologic evaluations of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser injury of human retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scales, David K.; Schuschereba, Steven T.; Lund, David J.; Stuck, Bruce E.

    1997-05-01

    Depiction of the cellular and immune responses in the human model is critical to design rational therapies preventing/limiting cellular destruction and ultimately functional visual loss following acute laser injuries. We report the light and electron microscopy histologic findings in a controlled ocular human laser exposure. Following informed consent, the normal eye of a patient scheduled to undergo exenteration for invasive carcinoma of the orbit was exposed to both continuous wave and Q-switched lasers. Four hours prior to exenteration, argon G lesions were placed in the superior/temporal quadrant and Nd:YAG lesions were placed in the inferior/temporal quadrant. After enucleation, the retina was prepared for routine light and transmission electron microscopy. Histology of the argon G lesions showed primarily photoreceptor and RPE photocoagulation damage. Neutrophil adhesion was limited within the choroid and no neutrophils were observed in the subretinal space. In contrast, the 4 hr Nd:YAG lesions showed extensive retinal disruption, hemorrhage within subretinal and intraretinal spaces, neutrophil accumulation in the retina, and an extensive neutrophil chemotaxic and emigration response in the choroid. Severe laser injuries elicit a significant neutrophil response by 4 hr, suggesting that neutrophils should be an early stage therapeutic target.

  2. Treatment of persistent Mongolian spots with Q-switched alexandrite laser.

    PubMed

    Kagami, Shinji; Asahina, Akihiko; Uwajima, Yuta; Miyamoto, Akie; Yamada, Daisuke; Shibata, Sayaka; Yamamoto, Mizuho; Masui, Yuri; Sato, Shinichi

    2012-11-01

    Mongolian spots are congenital and confluent hyperpigmented areas that are usually grayish blue in color. They are found most frequently in the sacral region in infants and typically disappear during childhood. Occasionally, they persist to adulthood. We retrospectively examined outcomes of laser treatment of persistent Mongolian spots. We used Q-switched alexandrite laser to treat persistent Mongolian spots of 16 Japanese patients at 14 years old or older. A good therapeutic outcome was achieved overall; however, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation were observed in two patients, respectively. While laser treatment was effective for all seven patients with extrasacral Mongolian spots, four out of ten patients with sacral Mongolian spots were refractory to treatment. Of these patients, two received laser irradiation only twice and abandoned treatment, simply because of unsatisfactory results without any adverse events. The other two patients received treatments at intervals of 3 months, which resulted in postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Contrary to children, who generally show good response after two or three sessions of irradiation, we should consider more frequent irradiation, longer intervals between treatment sessions, and use of bleaching creams in the treatment of persistent sacral Mongolian spots in adults. PMID:22565344

  3. Laboratory model for the study and treatment of traumatic tattoos with the Q-switched ruby laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Richard T.; Lach, Elliot

    1994-09-01

    The outcome of laser tattoo removal is dependent on the type of laser and characteristics of the tattoo. A rabbit model was developed to study the Q-switched ruby laser in the treatment of traumatic tattooing. On the backs of white New Zealand rabbits, three 3 cm patches were dermabraded and dressed with carbon black and antibiotic ointment. After a healing period of eight weeks, pre-treatment biopsies were obtained, and the rabbits were treated with the Q- switched ruby laser at various fluence settings with a pulse width of 34 nsec. At set intervals, further biopsies were obtained and studied with light and electron microscopic analysis, and photodocumentation was performed. Grossly, clearance of the tattooed areas was noted in the laser treated specimens. More effective clearance was observed with higher fluence treatment. No infections occurred, and hair regrowth was noted in all cases, though the rate seemed to be altered by laser treatment.

  4. High repetition rate passive Q-switching of diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser at 912 nm with V3+:YAG as the saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H. W.; Huang, H. T.; He, J. L.; Liu, S. D.; Liu, F. Q.; Yang, X. Q.; Xu, J. L.; Yang, J. F.; Zhang, B. T.

    2011-01-01

    The character of a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4/V3+:YAG 912 nm laser was demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge. With an absorbed pump power of 7.4 W, an average output power of 360 mW with a Q-switched pulse width of 328 ns at a pulse repetition rate of 163 kHz was obtained. The Q-switching efficiency was found to be 32.7%. Our work further indicated V3+:YAG could be an effective fast passive Q-switch for 0.9 μm radiation.

  5. Treatment of 153 Japanese patients with Q-switched alexandrite laser.

    PubMed

    Kagami, Shinji; Asahina, Akihiko; Watanabe, Rei; Mimura, Yoshihiro; Shirai, Akira; Hattori, Naoko; Watanabe, Takahiro; Tamaki, Kunihiko

    2007-09-01

    We have recently used Q-switched alexandrite laser for the treatment of various kinds of pigmented skin lesions. We retrospectively compared therapeutic outcomes of 153 Japanese patients who consulted our department. This approach was not very efficient for nevus spilus/café-au-lait spots, which seemed laser-resistant, especially when the pigmentation had appeared after 1 year of age, was treated after 5 years of age, was located on the face, was oval with a smooth border, and the patient was male. This approach was equally effective for senile lentigo, nevus of Ota, and Mongolian spots, but less effective for acquired bilateral nevus of Ota-like macules. Some patients with sacral Mongolian spots or those with light-colored, senile lentigo developed severe post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation after treatment. As a whole, good therapeutic outcome was achieved after multiple treatment sessions. However, the use of other lasers or other treatment modalities should be considered to treat nevus spilus/café-au-lait spots.

  6. All-fiber Q-switched and self-mode-locking Er3+/Yb3+-codoped ring laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shumin; Lu, Fuyun; Wang, Jian; Xie, Chunxia; Wang, Hongjie; Dong, Xiaoyi

    2005-01-01

    A high efficiency Q-switched and self-mode-locked Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped fiber ring laser with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is proposed. The fiber laser with threshold of 126.84 mw and linewidth of 0.06nm has been demonstrated. The average power of 62.6mW, the peak power of 1231.8mW of the Q-switched giant pulses with the pulse duration of 2.6μs can be achieved. It is found that in order to generate Q-switched giant pulses, different repetition frequency must be selected as pumping power is changed. This phenomenon is observed for the first time to our knowledge. In the experiment, it is also found that stable passive Q-switch pulses can be observed, which waveform is not the same with the different pump power, although the arms lengths of the interferometer is not changed. When the absorbed pumped power is increased to 591.8mW, a self-mode-locking pulse can be formed and it is given a detailed theoretically illustration in this paper.

  7. Highly efficient high power CW and Q-switched Ho:YLF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, J.

    2015-06-01

    An efficient operation of a Ho:YLF laser pumped by a Tm-doped fibre laser is reported. The research in a continuous-wave (CW) operation was done for two crystals of the same 0.5 at.%Ho dopant concentration and with different lengths (3×3×30 mm3 and 3×3×50 mm3). For an output coupling transmission of 20% and a crystal length of 50 mm, the maximum CWoutput power of 38.9 W for 81.4 W of incident pump power, corresponding to the slope efficiency of 52.3% and optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 47.8% (determined with respect to the incident pump power) was achieved. The highest opti- cal-to-optical conversion efficiency of 70.2% with respect to the absorbed pump power was obtained. The influence of a heat-sink cooling water temperature on theCWlaser performance was studied. For a Q-switched operation the pulse repe- tition frequency (PRF) was changed from 2 to 10 kHz. The maximum average output power of 34.1 W at the PRF of 10 kHz was obtained for a 50 mm holmium crystal length. For 2 kHz PRF and 71.9 W of incident pump power, pulse energies of 13.7 mJ with a 21 ns FWHM pulse width corresponding to 652 kW peak power were recorded.

  8. Light and electron microscopic analysis of tattoos treated by Q-switched ruby laser

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.R.; Anderson, R.R.; Gange, R.W.; Michaud, N.A.; Flotte, T.J. )

    1991-07-01

    Short-pulse laser exposures can be used to alter pigmented structures in tissue by selective photothermolysis. Potential mechanisms of human tattoo pigment lightening with Q-switched ruby laser were explored by light and electron microscopy. Significant variation existed between and within tattoos. Electron microscopy of untreated tattoos revealed membrane-bound pigment granules, predominantly within fibroblasts and macrophages, and occasionally in mast cells. These granules contained pigment particles ranging from 2-in diameter. Immediately after exposure, dose-related injury was observed in cells containing pigment. Some pigment particles were smaller and lamellated. At fluences greater than or equal to 3 J/cm2, dermal vacuoles and homogenization of collagen bundles immediately adjacent to extracellular pigment were occasionally observed. A brisk neutrophilic infiltrate was apparent by 24 h. Eleven days later, the pigment was again intracellular. Half of the biopsies at 150 d revealed a mild persistent lymphocytic infiltrate. There was no fibrosis except for one case of clinical scarring. These findings confirm that short-pulse radiation can be used to selectively disrupt cells containing tattoo pigments. The physial alteration of pigment granules, redistribution, and elimination appear to account for clinical lightening of the tattoos.

  9. High-damage-resistant tungsten disulfide saturable absorber mirror for passively Q-switched fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Chen, YuShan; Yin, Jinde; Zhang, Xuejun; Guo, Tuan; Yan, Peiguang

    2016-07-25

    In this paper, we demonstrate a high-damage-resistant tungsten disulfide saturable absorber mirror (WS2-SAM) fabricated by magnetron sputtering technique. The WS2-SAM has an all-fiber-integrated configuration and high-damage-resistant merit because the WS2 layer is protected by gold film so as to avoid being oxidized and destroyed at high pump power. Employing the WS2-SAM in an Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with linear cavity, the stable Q-switching operation is achieved at central wavelength of 1560 nm, with the repetition rates ranging from 29.5 kHz to 367.8 kHz and the pulse duration ranging from 1.269 μs to 154.9 ns. For the condition of the maximum pump power of 600 mW, the WS2-SAM still works stably with an output power of 25.2 mW, pulse energy of 68.5 nJ, and signal-noise-ratio of 42 dB. The proposed WS2-SAM configuration provides a promising solution for advanced pulsed fiber lasers with the characteristics of high damage resistance, high output energy, and wide tunable frequency. PMID:27464082

  10. Diode-pumped high-efficiency high-brightness Q-switched ND:YAG slab laser.

    PubMed

    Armandillo, E; Norrie, C; Cosentino, A; Laporta, P; Wazen, P; Maine, P

    1997-08-01

    A high-efficiency diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG oscillator designed for future spaceborne applications has been demonstrated and characterized. The laser is based on a side-pumped slab geometry and uses an unstable resonator with a radially variable-reflectivity output coupler. The laser provides an output pulse energy of 100 mJ at a 100-Hz repetition rate, with a near-diffraction-limited beam and an overall electrical optical efficiency exceeding 6%. PMID:18185784

  11. Every good virtue you ever wanted in a Q-switched solid-state laser and more: Monolithic, diode-pumped, self-Q-switched, highly reproducible, diffraction-limited Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. C.; Lee, K. K.

    The applications of Q-switched lasers are well known, for example, laser radar, laser remote sensing, satellite orbit determination, Moon orbit and 'moon quake' determination, satellite laser communication, and many nonlinear optics applications. Most of the applications require additional properties of the Q-switched lasers, such as single-axial and/or single-transverse mode, high repetition rate, stable pulse shape and pulse width, or ultra compact and rugged oscillators. Furthermore, space based and airborne lasers for lidar and laser communication applications require efficient, compact, lightweight, long-lived, and stable-pulsed laser sources. Diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSL) have recently shown the potential for satisfying all of these requirements. We will report on the operating characteristics of a diode-pumped, monolithic, self-Q-switched Cr,Nd:YAG laser where the chromium ions act as a saturable absorber for the laser emission at 1064 nm. The pulse duration is 3.5 ns and the output is highly polarized with an extinction ratio of 700:1. It is further shown that the output is single-longitudinal-mode with transform-limited spectral line width without pulse-to-pulse mode competition. Consequently, the pulse-to-pulse intensity fluctuation is less than the instrument resolution of 0.25 percent. This self-stabilization mechanism is because the lasing mode bleaches the distributed absorber and establishes a gain-loss grating similar to that used in the distributed feedback semiconductor lasers. A repetition rate above 5 KHz has also been demonstrated. For higher power, this laser can be used for injection seeding an amplifier (or amplifier chain) or injection locking of a power oscillator pumped by diode lasers. We will discuss some research directions on the master oscillator for higher output energy per pulse as well as how to scale the output power of the diode-pumped amplifier(s) to multi-kilowatt average power.

  12. Every Good Virtue You Ever Wanted in a Q-switched Solid-state Laser and More: Monolithic, Diode-pumped, Self-q-switched, Highly Reproducible, Diffraction-limited Nd:yag Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y. C.; Lee, K. K.

    1993-01-01

    The applications of Q-switched lasers are well known, for example, laser radar, laser remote sensing, satellite orbit determination, Moon orbit and 'moon quake' determination, satellite laser communication, and many nonlinear optics applications. Most of the applications require additional properties of the Q-switched lasers, such as single-axial and/or single-transverse mode, high repetition rate, stable pulse shape and pulse width, or ultra compact and rugged oscillators. Furthermore, space based and airborne lasers for lidar and laser communication applications require efficient, compact, lightweight, long-lived, and stable-pulsed laser sources. Diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSL) have recently shown the potential for satisfying all of these requirements. We will report on the operating characteristics of a diode-pumped, monolithic, self-Q-switched Cr,Nd:YAG laser where the chromium ions act as a saturable absorber for the laser emission at 1064 nm. The pulse duration is 3.5 ns and the output is highly polarized with an extinction ratio of 700:1. It is further shown that the output is single-longitudinal-mode with transform-limited spectral line width without pulse-to-pulse mode competition. Consequently, the pulse-to-pulse intensity fluctuation is less than the instrument resolution of 0.25 percent. This self-stabilization mechanism is because the lasing mode bleaches the distributed absorber and establishes a gain-loss grating similar to that used in the distributed feedback semiconductor lasers. A repetition rate above 5 KHz has also been demonstrated. For higher power, this laser can be used for injection seeding an amplifier (or amplifier chain) or injection locking of a power oscillator pumped by diode lasers. We will discuss some research directions on the master oscillator for higher output energy per pulse as well as how to scale the output power of the diode-pumped amplifier(s) to multi-kilowatt average power.

  13. Frequency stabilization of a single-frequency Q-switched Tm:YAG laser by using injection seeding technique.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunshan; Gao, Chunqing; Gao, Mingwei; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Lei; Wang, Ran

    2011-07-20

    A stable single-frequency Q-switched Tm:YAG laser was demonstrated. The laser was injection seeded by a monolithic nonplanar ring oscillator laser utilizing the ramp-hold-fire technique. The measurements of the output parameters were presented. This paper focused on investigation of the frequency stability of the injection-seeded laser, which was measured by optical heterodyne technique. A method used to restrict the frequency jitter of the laser was discussed. The fluctuation of the laser frequency was reduced from 2.36 MHz (rms) to 1.07 MHz (rms) in 1 h by optimizing the voltage of the piezoelectric translator. PMID:21772412

  14. Frequency stabilization of a single-frequency Q-switched Tm:YAG laser by using injection seeding technique.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunshan; Gao, Chunqing; Gao, Mingwei; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Lei; Wang, Ran

    2011-07-20

    A stable single-frequency Q-switched Tm:YAG laser was demonstrated. The laser was injection seeded by a monolithic nonplanar ring oscillator laser utilizing the ramp-hold-fire technique. The measurements of the output parameters were presented. This paper focused on investigation of the frequency stability of the injection-seeded laser, which was measured by optical heterodyne technique. A method used to restrict the frequency jitter of the laser was discussed. The fluctuation of the laser frequency was reduced from 2.36 MHz (rms) to 1.07 MHz (rms) in 1 h by optimizing the voltage of the piezoelectric translator.

  15. Numerical Study of Passive Q Switching of a Tm:YAG Laser with a Ho:YLF Solid-State Saturable Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yen-Kuang; Chang, Yi-An

    2003-03-01

    In a previous work [Appl. Phys. Lett. 65 , 3060 (1994) we experimentally demonstrated that passive ]Q switching of a 2017-nm, flashlamp-pumped Tm,Cr:YAG laser with a Ho:YLF saturable absorber could be obtained with an internal focusing lens. We numerically investigate the optical performance of the Ho:YLF Q -switched Tm:YAG laser system by solving the coupled rate equations. The simulation results indicate that the results obtained numerically are in good agreement with those obtained experimentally. With typical laser configuration, a Q -switched laser pulse of 35 mJ in 30 ns is obtained.

  16. Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GGG laser with a Bi-doped GaAs semiconductor saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Wen; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Xiangyang; Qiao, Hui; Liu, Ji

    2014-12-01

    Passive Q-switching of a diode-pumped Nd:GGG laser is demonstrated using Bi-doped GaAs as saturable absorber. The Bi-doped GaAs wafer is fabricated by ion implantation and subsequent annealing. Compared with the Q-switched laser by undoped GaAs semiconductor saturable absorber, the laser with Bi-doped GaAs as saturable absorber can produce higher output power, shorter pulses, higher single pulse energies and higher peak powers. These results suggest that Bi-doped GaAs can be a promising new candidate of semiconductor saturable absorber in Q-switched laser.

  17. Q-switched erbium-doped fiber ring laser with piezoelectric transducer-based PS-CFBG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liangying; Pei, Li; Wang, Jianshuai; Li, Jing; Ning, Tigang; Liu, Shuo

    2016-09-01

    In this letter, a Q-switched erbium-doped fiber ring laser (EDFRL) with piezoelectric transducer (PZT)-based phase shift chirped fiber Bragg grating (PS-CFBG) has been proposed and demonstrated first. As known, the phase shift can be induced and wiped periodically by applying a modulation signal on the PZT. This makes it possible for the PZT-based PS-CFBG to be used in Q-switched EDFRL. To verify the performance of this Q-switched EDFRL system, some theoretical analyses and experiments have been performed. It is found that, when the PZT is modulated by a signal with frequencies of 1 and 2 kHz, pulse widths of the Q-switched pulse train are 19.8 μs and 15.6 μs, respectively. Besides, the corresponding pulse energies are 1.16 μJ (1 kHz) and 1.91 μJ (2 kHz) with a pump power of 90 mW.

  18. Doubly Q-switched Ho:LuAG laser with acoustic-optic modulator and Cr²⁺:ZnS saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Cui, Z; Duan, X M; Yao, B Q; Yang, H Y; Li, J; Yuan, J H; Dai, T Y; Li, C Y; Pan, Y B

    2015-12-01

    A doubly Q-switched (DQS) Ho:LuAG laser resonantly pumped by a 1.91-μm laser was first presented with an acoustic-optic modulator (AOM) and a Cr2+:ZnS saturable absorber. A comparison among the active Q-switched (AQS), passively Q-switched (PQS), and DQS laser performances was carried out. The maximum continuous wave (CW) output power of 6 W with the central wavelength of 2100.65 nm was obtained at an incident pump power of 35.2 W. Compared with CW laser, the AQS, PQS, and DQS lasers shared the same central wavelength of 2098.34 nm under the same incident pump power. The central wavelength of the AQS and DQS lasers remained constant with the change of AOM repetition frequency (RF). When the incident pump power was 35.2 W and the AOM RF was 15 kHz, the DQS Ho:LuAG laser at a maximum RF of 2.13 kHz achieved the maximum average output power of 4.95 W. At the AOM RF of 10 kHz, the DQS Ho:LuAG laser achieved the shortest pulse width of 40.4 ns with the highest peak power of 61.5 kW. At an incident pump power of 35.2 W, the PQS Ho:LuAG laser obtained the shortest pulse width of 46.1 ns, corresponding to the RF of 2.25 kHz. Experiment results showed that the pulse width could be compressed effectively with a significant increase of peak power for a 2-μm DQS laser. PMID:26836687

  19. Lidar-radar velocimetry using a pulse-to-pulse coherent rf-modulated Q-switched laser.

    PubMed

    Vallet, M; Barreaux, J; Romanelli, M; Pillet, G; Thévenin, J; Wang, L; Brunel, M

    2013-08-01

    An rf-modulated pulse train from a passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been generated using an extra-cavity acousto-optic modulator. The rf modulation reproduces the spectral quality of the local oscillator. It leads to a high pulse-to-pulse phase coherence, i.e., phase memory, over thousands of pulses. The potentialities of this transmitter for lidar-radar are demonstrated by performing Doppler velocimetry on indoor moving targets. The experimental results are in good agreement with a model based on elementary signal processing theory. In particular, we show experimentally and theoretically that lidar-radar is a promising technique that allows discrimination between translation and rotation movements. Being independent of the laser internal dynamics, this scheme can be applied to any Q-switched laser. PMID:23913058

  20. Watt-level passively Q-switched heavily Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yanlong; Wang, Yishan; Luan, Kunpeng; Huang, Ke; Tao, Mengmeng; Chen, Hongwei; Yi, Aiping; Feng, Guobin; Si, Jinhai

    2016-01-01

    A diode-cladding pumped mid-infrared passively Q-switched Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with an average output power of watt-level based on a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) is demonstrated. Stable pulse train was produced at a slope efficiency of 17.8% with respect to launched pump power. The maximum average power of 1.01 W at a repetition rate of 146.3 kHz was achieved with a corresponding pulse energy of 6.9 μJ, from which the maximum peak power was calculated to be 21.9 W. To the best of our knowledge, the average power and the peak power are the highest in 3 μm region passively Q-switched fiber lasers. The influence of gain fiber length on the operation regime of the fiber laser has been investigated in detail. PMID:27225029

  1. Lidar-radar velocimetry using a pulse-to-pulse coherent rf-modulated Q-switched laser.

    PubMed

    Vallet, M; Barreaux, J; Romanelli, M; Pillet, G; Thévenin, J; Wang, L; Brunel, M

    2013-08-01

    An rf-modulated pulse train from a passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been generated using an extra-cavity acousto-optic modulator. The rf modulation reproduces the spectral quality of the local oscillator. It leads to a high pulse-to-pulse phase coherence, i.e., phase memory, over thousands of pulses. The potentialities of this transmitter for lidar-radar are demonstrated by performing Doppler velocimetry on indoor moving targets. The experimental results are in good agreement with a model based on elementary signal processing theory. In particular, we show experimentally and theoretically that lidar-radar is a promising technique that allows discrimination between translation and rotation movements. Being independent of the laser internal dynamics, this scheme can be applied to any Q-switched laser.

  2. High-energy resonantly diode-pumped Q-switched Er:YAG laser at 1617 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhenzhen; Wang, Mingjian; Hou, Xia; Chen, Weibiao

    2016-04-01

    We report high-energy linearly polarized operation of an Er:YAG laser at 1617 nm, resonantly pumped by quasi-continuous-wave 1470-nm laser diodes. A U-shape resonator incorporating two 0.25 at.% Er:YAG rods and an acousto-optic Q-switch was employed. Polarized output with pulse energy of 20.5 mJ and pulse width of 52 ns at a 50 Hz repetition rate was obtained. At the maximum output energy, the output beam quality M 2 was approximately 1.02 and 1.03 in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this polarized pulse energy is the highest ever reported for a directly diode-pumped Q-switched Er:YAG laser operating at 1617 nm.

  3. Watt-level passively Q-switched heavily Er(3+)-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanlong; Wang, Yishan; Luan, Kunpeng; Huang, Ke; Tao, Mengmeng; Chen, Hongwei; Yi, Aiping; Feng, Guobin; Si, Jinhai

    2016-01-01

    A diode-cladding pumped mid-infrared passively Q-switched Er(3+)-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with an average output power of watt-level based on a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) is demonstrated. Stable pulse train was produced at a slope efficiency of 17.8% with respect to launched pump power. The maximum average power of 1.01 W at a repetition rate of 146.3 kHz was achieved with a corresponding pulse energy of 6.9 μJ, from which the maximum peak power was calculated to be 21.9 W. To the best of our knowledge, the average power and the peak power are the highest in 3 μm region passively Q-switched fiber lasers. The influence of gain fiber length on the operation regime of the fiber laser has been investigated in detail. PMID:27225029

  4. Watt-level passively Q-switched heavily Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanlong; Wang, Yishan; Luan, Kunpeng; Huang, Ke; Tao, Mengmeng; Chen, Hongwei; Yi, Aiping; Feng, Guobin; Si, Jinhai

    2016-05-01

    A diode-cladding pumped mid-infrared passively Q-switched Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser with an average output power of watt-level based on a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) is demonstrated. Stable pulse train was produced at a slope efficiency of 17.8% with respect to launched pump power. The maximum average power of 1.01 W at a repetition rate of 146.3 kHz was achieved with a corresponding pulse energy of 6.9 μJ, from which the maximum peak power was calculated to be 21.9 W. To the best of our knowledge, the average power and the peak power are the highest in 3 μm region passively Q-switched fiber lasers. The influence of gain fiber length on the operation regime of the fiber laser has been investigated in detail.

  5. Short-term effects of Q-switched ruby laser on monkey anterior chamber angle

    SciTech Connect

    Bonney, C.H.; Gaasterland, D.E.; Rodrigues, M.M.; Raymond, J.J.; Donohoo, P.

    1982-03-01

    Three Q-switched ruby laser pulses were applied to the trabecular meshwork of 10 monkey eyes. Pulse energies ranging from 20 to 110 mJ were studied. The spot size ranged from 100 to 200 micrometer (in air), and the pulse durations was 28 sec. Gonioscopic examinations showed a graded response from no appreciable change at 20 mJ per pulse to marked disruption of anterior chamber angle structures at 100 mJ or more per pulse. Perfusions done within an hour of treatment showed no consistent alteration of the outflow facility. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the graded anterior chamber angle response. No disruption of the angle structures was seen after the 20 mJ treatment, but discrete trabecular damage occurred after treatments with 25 mJ. After pulses equal to or greater than 45 mJ the anterior chamber angle structures were markedly altered. The power density causing extensive tissue disruption was equal to or greater than 150 X 10(8) watts/cm2. In each specimen with an identifiable trabecular lesion, tissue debris and endothelial edema were found on the adjacent inner surface of the cornea. Tearing of Descemet's membrane next to the trabecular meshwork occurred with the 100 mJ pulses.

  6. High-power passively Q-switched Nd:KGW laser pumped at 877 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, K.; Ge, W. Q.; Zhao, T. Z.; Feng, C. Y.; Yu, J.; He, J. G.; Xiao, H.; Fan, Z. W.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate, for the first time, a high-power passively Q-switched Ng-cut Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2/Cr4+:YAG laser pumped at 877 nm. The maximum average output power of ~1.6 W is obtained at the pump power of 5.22 W, when a saturable absorber with 98 % of initial transmission is used. The corresponding pulse energy is up to 16 µJ. The maximum pulse energy of 25.3 µJ is achieved at a repetition rate of 59 kHz, by employing a saturable absorber with 95 % of initial transmission. The corresponding pulse width and average output power are 89.0 ns and 1.5 W, respectively. A careful cavity design and a good thermal management ensure nearly TEM00 output with M 2 ≤ 1.22 within the whole range of operation in both N p and N m directions at 877 nm pump.

  7. Removal of tattoos by q-switched laser: variables influencing outcome and sequelae in a large cohort of treated patients.

    PubMed

    Bencini, Pier Luca; Cazzaniga, Simone; Tourlaki, Athanasia; Galimberti, Michela Gianna; Naldi, Luigi

    2012-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze variables affecting the treatment course and prognosis of Q-switched laser tattoo removal. DESIGN Observational prospective cohort study. SETTING The study was carried out in a referral center for surgery and laser surgery in Milan. PARTICIPANTS Of 397 consecutive patients initially enrolled from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2010, 352 patients (201 men and 151 women; median age, 30 years) were included in the analysis. INTERVENTION All patients were treated by the same investigator with Q-switched 1064/532-nm Nd:YAG laser and Q-switched 755-nm alexandrite laser according to tattoo colors. Laser sessions were scheduled at 6-week or longer intervals. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Successful therapy was defined as removal of the tattoo, with no adverse effects other than transient hypochromia or darkening. RESULTS The cumulative rates of patients with successful tattoo removal were 47.2% (95% CI, 41.8%-52.5%) after 10 sessions and 74.8% (95% CI, 68.9%-80.7%) after 15 sessions. Smoking, the presence of colors other than black and red, a tattoo larger than 30 cm2, a tattoo located on the feet or legs or older than 36 months, high color density, treatment intervals of 8 weeks or less, and development of a darkening phenomenon were associated with a reduced clinical response to treatment. CONCLUSIONS To our knowledge, this study is the first to formally assess prognostic factors for effective tattoo removal by Q-switched laser. Several variables influence response rates and should be considered when planning tattoo removal treatments. PMID:22986584

  8. Switchable Q-switched and modelocked operation in ytterbium doped fiber laser under all-normal-dispersion configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Pranb K. Gupta, Pradeep K.; Singh, Chandra Pal; Singh, Amarjeet; Sharma, Sunil K.; Bindra, Kushvinder S.; Oak, Shrikant M.

    2015-03-15

    We have constructed an Yb-doped fiber laser in all-normal-dispersion configuration which can be independently operated in Q-switched or modelocked configuration with the help of a simple fiber optic ring resonator (FORR). In the presence of FORR, the laser operates in Q-switched mode producing stable pulses in the range of 1 μs-200 ns with repetition rate in the range of 45 kHz-82 kHz. On the other hand, the laser can be easily switched to mode-locked operation by disjoining the FORR loop producing train of ultrashort pulses of ∼5 ps duration (compressible to ∼150 fs) at ∼38 MHz repetition rate. The transmission characteristics of FORR in combination with the nonlinear polarization rotation for passive Q-switching operation is numerically investigated and experimentally verified. The laser can serve as a versatile seed source for power amplifier which can be easily configured for application in the fields that require different pulsed fiber lasers.

  9. Passively Q-switched Nd:YCOB laser with a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Song, Yanrong; Yu, Zhenhua; Tian, Cuicui; Li, Yanlin; Wang, Yonggang

    2012-11-01

    A passively Single-walled carbon nanotube is a new material as a saturable absorber to obtain a Q-switched laser or a mode-locked laser because of it's broadband absorption wavelength and cheaper price comparing with SESAM. Here, by using a single-walled carbon nanotube as saturable absorber (SWCNT-SA), a passively Q-switched Nd:YCOB (Nd3+:YCa4O(BO3)3)laser was realized at 1085.3nm pumped by a 808 nm diode laser .The fluorescence spectrum of Nd:YCOB crystal near 1.06 μm. The output power of the Q-switched laser of 175 mW were obtained at the pump power of 9W in a V-type cavity. The range of the repetition rate was from 35 kHz to 62.5 kHz and pulse width was 1.6μs (FWHM) at 62.5 kHz.

  10. Switchable Q-switched and modelocked operation in ytterbium doped fiber laser under all-normal-dispersion configuration.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Pranb K; Gupta, Pradeep K; Singh, Chandra Pal; Singh, Amarjeet; Sharma, Sunil K; Bindra, Kushvinder S; Oak, Shrikant M

    2015-03-01

    We have constructed an Yb-doped fiber laser in all-normal-dispersion configuration which can be independently operated in Q-switched or modelocked configuration with the help of a simple fiber optic ring resonator (FORR). In the presence of FORR, the laser operates in Q-switched mode producing stable pulses in the range of 1 μs-200 ns with repetition rate in the range of 45 kHz-82 kHz. On the other hand, the laser can be easily switched to mode-locked operation by disjoining the FORR loop producing train of ultrashort pulses of ∼5 ps duration (compressible to ∼150 fs) at ∼38 MHz repetition rate. The transmission characteristics of FORR in combination with the nonlinear polarization rotation for passive Q-switching operation is numerically investigated and experimentally verified. The laser can serve as a versatile seed source for power amplifier which can be easily configured for application in the fields that require different pulsed fiber lasers.

  11. High-peak-power single-oscillator actively Q-switched mode-locked Tm3+-doped fiber laser and its application for high-average output power mid-IR supercontinuum generation in a ZBLAN fiber.

    PubMed

    Kneis, Christian; Donelan, Brenda; Manek-Hönninger, Inka; Robin, Thierry; Cadier, Benoît; Eichhorn, Marc; Kieleck, Christelle

    2016-06-01

    A single-oscillator actively Q-switched mode-locked (QML) thulium-doped silica fiber laser is presented and used to pump a ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN) fiber for mid-infrared (mid-IR) supercontinuum (SC) generation. The fiber laser provided high-peak-power levels directly from the oscillator delivering single mode-locked pulse energies up to 48 μJ, being 2-4 orders of magnitude higher than conventional continuous wave mode-locked lasers. By pumping a ZBLAN fiber specially designed for high-output-power SC generation, 7.8 W have been achieved in all spectral bands with a spectrum extending to 4.2 μm. PMID:27244410

  12. High-peak-power single-oscillator actively Q-switched mode-locked Tm3+-doped fiber laser and its application for high-average output power mid-IR supercontinuum generation in a ZBLAN fiber.

    PubMed

    Kneis, Christian; Donelan, Brenda; Manek-Hönninger, Inka; Robin, Thierry; Cadier, Benoît; Eichhorn, Marc; Kieleck, Christelle

    2016-06-01

    A single-oscillator actively Q-switched mode-locked (QML) thulium-doped silica fiber laser is presented and used to pump a ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN) fiber for mid-infrared (mid-IR) supercontinuum (SC) generation. The fiber laser provided high-peak-power levels directly from the oscillator delivering single mode-locked pulse energies up to 48 μJ, being 2-4 orders of magnitude higher than conventional continuous wave mode-locked lasers. By pumping a ZBLAN fiber specially designed for high-output-power SC generation, 7.8 W have been achieved in all spectral bands with a spectrum extending to 4.2 μm.

  13. ACTIVE MEDIA: Chromium-activated forsterite crystal as the passive Q switch in the cavity of an Nd:YAG laser and as the active medium in an Nd:YAG—Cr:forsterite laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skripko, G. A.; Tarazevich, I. G.

    1996-03-01

    An investigation was made of the generation and self-modulation of the λ = 1.064 and 1.25 μm radiation in an Nd:YAG—Cr:forsterite laser system. The advantages of this system over those with traditional methods were demonstrated. The feasibility of self-control of the rate of pumping of the Cr:forsterite crystal was revealed and recommendations on optimisation of the system were developed.

  14. Compact, Passively Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser for the MESSENGER Mission to the Planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, Danny J.; Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Li, Steven X.; Lindauer, Steven J.; Afzal, Robert S.; Yu, Antony

    2004-01-01

    A compact, passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been developed for the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) instrument which is an instrument on the MESSENGER mission to the planet Mercury. The laser achieves 5.4 percent efficiency with a near diffraction limited beam. It has passed all space flight environmental tests at system, instrument, and satellite integration. The laser design draws on a heritage of previous laser altimetry missions, specifically ISESAT and Mars Global Surveyor; but incorporates thermal management features unique to the requirements of an orbit of the planet Mercury.

  15. In vitro assessment of fiber sweeping speed during Q-switched 532-nm laser tissue ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabhandharaks, Danop; Kang, Hyun Wook; Ko, Woo Jin; Stinson, Douglas; Choi, Benjamin

    2011-03-01

    Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) is considered a minimally invasive procedure to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). During the PVP, the prostate gland is irradiated by the 532-nm laser and the fiber is swept and dragged along the urethra. In this study the speed of sweeping fiber during the PVP is being investigated. In vitro porcine kidney model was used (N=100) throughout the experiment. A Q-switched 532-nm laser, equipped with sidefiring 750-Um fiber, was employed and set to power levels of 120 and 180 W. The speed of fiber sweeping was the only variable in this study and varied at 0 (i.e. no sweeping), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 sweep/s. Ablation rate, depth, and coagulation thickness were quantified. Based on the current settings, ablation rate decreased as sweeping speed increased and was maximized between 0 to 1.0 sweep/s for 120-W power level and between 0 to 0.5 sweep/s for 180-W power level. Ablation rate at 180 W was higher than that at 120 W, regardless of sweeping speed. Ablation depth at both 120 and 180 W was maximized at 0 sweep/s and decreased 35% at 0.5 sweep/s. The overall coagulation thickness was less than 1.5 mm and comparable from 0 to 1.5 sweep/s (0.8~0.9 mm) and increased at 2.0 sweep/s (~1.1 mm). This study demonstrated that tissue ablation performance was contingent upon sweeping speed and maximized at slow sweeping speed due to longer laser-tissue interaction time and larger area coverage by the 532-nm light.

  16. A novel miniaturized passively Q-switched pulse-burst laser for engine ignition.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yufei; Li, Xudong; Yu, Xin; Fan, Rongwei; Yan, Renpeng; Peng, Jiangbo; Xu, Xinrui; Sun, Rui; Chen, Deying

    2014-10-01

    A novel miniaturized Cr⁴⁺:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:YAG pulse-burst laser under 808 nm diode-laser pulse-pumping was demonstrated for the purpose of laser-induced plasma ignition, in which pulse-burst mode can realize both high repetition rate and high pulse energy simultaneously in a short period. Side-pumping configuration and two different types of laser cavities were employed. The pumping pulse width was constant at 250 μs. For the plane-plane cavity, the output beam profile was flat-top Gaussian and the measured M² value was 4.1 at the maximum incident pump energy of 600 mJ. The pulse-burst laser contained a maximum of 8 pulses, 7 pulses and 6 pulses for pulse-burst repetition rate of 10 Hz, 50 Hz and 100 Hz, respectively. The energy obtained was 15.5 mJ, 14.9 mJ and 13.9 mJ per pulse for pulse-burst repetition rate of 10 Hz, 50 Hz and 100 Hz, respectively. The maximum repetition rate of laser pulses in pulse-burst was 34.6 kHz for 8 pulses at the incident pump energy of 600 mJ and the single pulse width was 13.3 ns. The thermal lensing effect of Nd:YAG rod was investigated, and an plane-convex cavity was adopted to compensate the thermal lensing effect of Nd:YAG rod and improve the mode matching. For the plane-convex cavity, the output beam profile was quasi-Gaussian and the measured M2 value was 2.2 at the incident pump energy of 600 mJ. The output energy was 10.6 mJ per pulse for pulse-burst repetition rate of 100 Hz. The maximum repetition rate of laser pulses in pulse-burst was 27.4 kHz for 6 pulses at the incident pump energy of 600 mJ and the single pulse width was 14.2 ns. The experimental results showed that this pulse-burst laser can produce high repetition rate (>20 kHz) and high pulse energy (>10 mJ) simultaneously in a short period for both two different cavities. PMID:25322040

  17. LD end-pumped acousto-optic Q-switched 1319 nm/1338 nm dual-wavelength Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. T.; Yu, M.; Wang, C.; Yu, K.; Yu, Y. J.; Chen, X. Y.; Jin, G. Y.

    2016-10-01

    Laser characteristics of acousto-optic Q-switched operation of 1319 nm/1338 nm dual-wavelength composite Nd:YAG laser were studied. Maximum output power of 5.77 W was achieved in CW operation. Under Q-switched operation, the maximum peak power of 3.96 kW and minimum pulse width of 65.6 ns was obtained at repetition frequency of 20 kHz with the duty ratio of 96%. The influence of the duration of the ultrasonic field acted on the Q-switch to the output characteristics of dual-wavelength composite Nd:YAG laser had been reported first time.

  18. Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror passively Q-switched 2.97 μm fluoride fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianfeng; Luo, Hongyu; He, Yulian; Liu, Yong; Luo, Binbin; Sun, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Lin; Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    2014-05-01

    A diode-cladding-pumped mid-infrared passively Q-switched Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser using a reverse designed broad band semiconductor saturable mirror (SESAM) was demonstrated. Nonlinear reflectivity of the SESAM was measured using an in-house Yb3+-doped mode-locked fiber laser at 1062 nm. Stable pulse train was produced at a slope efficient of 12.1% with respect to the launched pump power. Maximum pulse energy of 6.65 μJ with a pulse width of 1.68 μs and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of ~50 dB was achieved at a repetition rate of 47.6 kHz and center wavelength of 2.971 μm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first 3 μm region SESAM based Q-switched fiber laser with the highest average power and pulse energy, as well as the longest wavelength from mid-infrared passively Q-switched fluoride fiber lasers.

  19. Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror passively Q-switched 2.97 μm fluoride fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. F.; Luo, H. Y.; He, Y. L.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Zhou, K. M.; Rozhin, A. G.; Turistyn, S. K.

    2014-06-01

    A diode-cladding-pumped mid-infrared passively Q-switched Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser using a reverse designed broad band semiconductor saturable mirror (SESAM) was demonstrated. Nonlinear reflectivity of the SESAM was measured using an in-house Yb3+-doped mode-locked fiber laser at 1062 nm. Stable pulse train was produced at a slope efficient of 12.1% with respect to the launched pump power. Maximum pulse energy of 6.65 µJ with a pulse width of 1.68 µs and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ~50 dB was achieved at a repetition rate of 47.6 kHz and center wavelength of 2.971 µm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first 3 µm region SESAM-based Q-switched fiber laser with the highest average power and pulse energy, as well as the longest wavelength from mid-infrared passively Q-switched fluoride fiber lasers.

  20. Application systems for intracorporeal laser-induced shockwave lithotripsy using the Nd:YAG Q-switched laser.

    PubMed

    Frank, F; Eichenlaub, M; Hessel, S; Wondrazek, F

    1990-10-01

    For laser-induced shockwave lithotripsy, the electromagnetic energy of a laser light pulse is converted intracorporeally into the acoustic energy of a shockwave. The lithotriptor is based on a specially developed, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser whose high power light pulses (70 mJ, 25 nsec) are coupled into a flexible quartz fiber with a core diameter of 600 mum. Using focusing elements, energy densities higher than 6 x 10 5 J m -2 can be achieved, resulting in an optical breakdown in water followed by a shockwave. As a result of different absorption mechanisms, the breakdown threshold can be decreased by placing a metallic target into the laser beam. The different shockwave formations of such optomechanical transducers have been measured. First clinical applications have been performed.

  1. Experimental investigation on laser milling of aluminium oxide using a 30 W Q-switched Yb:YAG fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, C.; Genna, S.; Tagliaferri, F.; Palumbo, B.; Dix, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, laser milling tests were carried out on aluminium oxide (Al2O3) plate, 3 mm in thickness, using a Q-Switched 30 W Yb:YAG fiber laser. A systematic approach based on Design of Experiment (DoE) has been successfully adopted with the aim to detect which and how the process parameters affect the laser beam-material interaction, and to explain the effect of the process parameters on the material removal rate and surface quality. The examined process parameters were the laser beam scan speed, the pulse frequency, the total energy released for surface unit, the distance between two consecutive scan lines and the scanning strategy. A full factorial design and ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA) were applied for the results analysis. Finally, the various effects of the process parameters on the material removal rate and surface roughness have been analysed and discussed.

  2. Characteristics of a Q-switched multicore photonic crystal fiber laser with a very large mode field area.

    PubMed

    Michaille, Laurent; Taylor, David M; Bennett, Charlotte R; Shepherd, Terence J; Ward, Benjamin G

    2008-01-01

    We model and characterize the behavior of a Q-switched fiber laser. The fiber is a doped multicore photonic crystal fiber having six cores in a ring-type geometry. The fiber laser is Q-switched using an intracavity acousto-optic modulator. Using a mode filtering technique in the far field, a mode very close to the fundamental in-phase supermode is obtained with a mode field area of 4200 microm(2) and a divergence of 9 mrad. Pulses with energies of up to 2.2 mJ and durations of 26 ns (limited by end facet damage) at a repetition rate of 10 kHz are obtained. PMID:18157262

  3. Passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser using Fe3O4-nanoparticle saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xuekun; Mou, Chengbo; Xu, Luxi; Wang, Shaofei; Pu, Shengli; Zeng, Xianglong

    2016-04-01

    We experimentally demonstrate passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) operation using a saturable absorber (SA) based on Fe3O4 nanoparticles (FONPs). As a type of transition metal oxide, the FONPs have a large nonlinear optical response and fast response time. The FONP-based SA possesses a modulation depth of 8.2% and nonsaturable absorption of 56.6%. Stable passively Q-switched EDFL pulses with an output pulse energy of 23.76 nJ, a repetition rate of 33.3 kHz, and a pulse width of 3.2 µs were achieved when the input pump power was 110 mW. The laser features a low threshold pump power of ∼15 mW.

  4. Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, M.; Hu, Guohua; Hu, Guoqing; Howe, R. C. T.; Chen, L.; Zheng, Z.; Hasan, T.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a ytterbium (Yb) and an erbium (Er)-doped fiber laser Q-switched by a solution processed, optically uniform, few-layer tungsten disulfide saturable absorber (WS2-SA). Nonlinear optical absorption of the WS2-SA in the sub-bandgap region, attributed to the edge-induced states, is characterized by 3.1% and 4.9% modulation depths with 1.38 and 3.83 MW/cm2 saturation intensities at 1030 and 1558 nm, respectively. By integrating the optically uniform WS2-SA in the Yb- and Er-doped laser cavities, we obtain self-starting Q-switched pulses with microsecond duration and kilohertz repetition rates at 1030 and 1558 nm. Our work demonstrates broadband sub-bandgap saturable absorption of a single, solution processed WS2-SA, providing new potential efficacy for WS2 in ultrafast photonic applications. PMID:26657601

  5. S-band Q-switched fiber laser using molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Harith; Afiq Ismail, Mohd; Suthaskumar, Muneswaran; Cheak Tiu, Zian; Wadi Harun, Sulaiman; Zamani Zulkifli, Mohd; Samikannu, Sathiyan; Sivaraj, Sivabalan

    2016-03-01

    In this letter, a molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber (SA) is fabricated using a simple drop cast method to generate Q-switched fiber laser operating in the S-band region (1460 nm-1530 nm). The MoS2 solution was prepared using the liquid phase exfoliation (LPE) method where MoS2 crystals were added into dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent and subsequently sonicated and centrifuged. They were then repeatedly dripped onto fiber ferrules and dried in an oven. The resultant Q-switched fiber laser starts with some physical disturbance when the pump power was set at 40 mW and continues to operate until the pump power reaches 120 mW. The resultant repetition rate varies with pump power between 27.17 to 101.17 kHz while the changes in pulse widths are from 3.0 to 1.4 μs.

  6. Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; Hu, Guohua; Hu, Guoqing; Howe, R C T; Chen, L; Zheng, Z; Hasan, T

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a ytterbium (Yb) and an erbium (Er)-doped fiber laser Q-switched by a solution processed, optically uniform, few-layer tungsten disulfide saturable absorber (WS2-SA). Nonlinear optical absorption of the WS2-SA in the sub-bandgap region, attributed to the edge-induced states, is characterized by 3.1% and 4.9% modulation depths with 1.38 and 3.83 MW/cm(2) saturation intensities at 1030 and 1558 nm, respectively. By integrating the optically uniform WS2-SA in the Yb- and Er-doped laser cavities, we obtain self-starting Q-switched pulses with microsecond duration and kilohertz repetition rates at 1030 and 1558 nm. Our work demonstrates broadband sub-bandgap saturable absorption of a single, solution processed WS2-SA, providing new potential efficacy for WS2 in ultrafast photonic applications. PMID:26657601

  7. Minocycline-induced hyperpigmentation: comparison of 3 Q-switched lasers to reverse its effects.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Mahrukh S; Iyer, Karthik; Brodell, Robert T; Lloyd, Jenifer R; Shin, Thuzar M; Ahmad, Asad

    2013-01-01

    Minocycline is a tetracycline derivative antibiotic commonly prescribed for acne, rosacea, and other inflammatory skin disorders. Minocycline turns black when oxidized, leading to discoloration of the skin, nails, bulbar conjunctiva, oral mucosa, teeth, bones, and thyroid gland. Hyperpigmentation has been reported after long-term minocycline therapy with at least 100 mg/day. Three types of minocycline-induced cutaneous hyperpigmentation can result. Type I is the most common, and is associated with blue-black discoloration in areas of previous inflammation and scarring. Type II most commonly affects the legs and is characterized by blue-gray pigmentation of previously normal skin. Type III is the least common and is characterized by diffuse muddy-brown discoloration predominantly on sun exposed skin. Minocycline-induced hyperpigmentation may be cosmetically disfiguring and prompt identification is essential. Without treatment, symptoms may take several months, to years to resolve, after discontinuation of the drug. However, the pigmentation may never completely disappear. In fact, there have been few reports of complete resolution associated with any therapeutic intervention. We report a case of a patient on long-term minocycline therapy utilized as an anti-inflammatory agent to control symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, which led to minocycline-induced hyperpigmentation of the face. To remove the blue-gray cutaneous deposits, 3 Q-switched lasers (Neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) 1064 nm, Alexandrite 755 nm, and Ruby 694 nm) were used in test areas. The Alexandrite 755 nm laser proved to provide effective clearing of the minocycline hyperpigmentation requiring just 2 treatments, with minimal treatment discomfort and down time. PMID:23754872

  8. Microstructure and mechanical changes induced by Q-Switched pulse laser on human enamel with aim of caries prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apsari, R.; Pratomo, D. A.; Hikmawati, D.; Bidin, N.

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of Q-Switched Nd: YAG laser energy dose to human enamel caries. The specifications of Q-Switched Nd: YAG laser as followed: wavelength of 1064 nm and 6 ns pulse width. Caries enamel samples taken from human teeth molars of 17-35 ages and the type of media caries. Energy doses used in this study were 723.65 mJ/cm2, 767.72 mJ/cm2, and 1065.515 mJ/cm2; 5 Hz repetition rate, and 20 second exposure time. Samples characterized the surface morphology and the percentage of constituent elements, especially calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) with FESEM-EDAX. The fraction volume and crystallinity percentage of hydroxyapatite (HA) with XRD and hardness value using Vickers Microhardness Test. The results indicated that exposure of Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser on enamel caries resulting cracks, holes, and melt due to plasma production effects in the surface. Plasma production effect also resulted in micro properties such as percentage of Ca/P was close to normal, the fraction volume and crystallinity percentage of HA went up but did not change the crystal structure (in terms of the lattice structure). The hardness value also rose as linear as exposure energy dose caused by phototermal effect. Based on the results, Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser can be used as contactless drill dental caries replacement candidate with the additional therapy effect such as localized caries in order to avoid the spread, the ratio of Ca/P approaching healthy teeth, the fraction volume and crystallinity percentage of HA rose and established stronger teeth with peak energy dose 1065.515 mJ/cm2.

  9. Single frequency operation of a tunable injection-seeded Nd:GSAG Q-switched laser around 942nm.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhifeng; Wang, Xin; Kallmeyer, Frank; Eichler, Hans Joachim; Gao, Chunqing

    2010-03-15

    Single frequency operation of a diode-pumped tunable injection-seeded Nd:GSAG Q-switched laser around 942nm was demonstrated. With a three-mirror ring cavity, the single frequency laser pulse with output energy of 13.2mJ was obtained at a repetition rate of 10Hz. The linewidth of the single frequency laser was less than 100MHz. The wavelength of the single frequency Nd:GSAG laser can be tuned from 942.38nm to 943.10nm.

  10. A Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser for controllable high-order Hermite–Gaussian modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jun; He, Yu; Bai, Sheng-Chuang; Ueda, Ken-ichi; Kaminskii, Alexander A.

    2016-09-01

    A nanosecond, high peak power, passively Q-switched laser for controllable Hermite–Gaussian (HG) modes has been achieved by manipulating the saturated inversion population inside the gain medium. The stable HG modes are generated in a Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser by applying a tilted pump beam. The asymmetrical saturated inversion population distribution inside the Nd:YVO4 crystal for desirable HG modes is manipulated by choosing the proper pump beam diameter and varying pump power. A HG9,8 mode passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser with average output power of 265 mW has been obtained. Laser pulses with a pulse width of 7.3 ns and peak power of over 1.7 kW working at 21 kHz have been generated in the passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser.

  11. A Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser for controllable high-order Hermite-Gaussian modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jun; He, Yu; Bai, Sheng-Chuang; Ueda, Ken-ichi; Kaminskii, Alexander A.

    2016-09-01

    A nanosecond, high peak power, passively Q-switched laser for controllable Hermite-Gaussian (HG) modes has been achieved by manipulating the saturated inversion population inside the gain medium. The stable HG modes are generated in a Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser by applying a tilted pump beam. The asymmetrical saturated inversion population distribution inside the Nd:YVO4 crystal for desirable HG modes is manipulated by choosing the proper pump beam diameter and varying pump power. A HG9,8 mode passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser with average output power of 265 mW has been obtained. Laser pulses with a pulse width of 7.3 ns and peak power of over 1.7 kW working at 21 kHz have been generated in the passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser.

  12. Tunable diode laser-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF laser operated in continuous-wave and Q-switched modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguckin, B. T.; Hemmati, H.; Menzies, R. T.

    1992-01-01

    Tunable continuous-wave and pulsed laser output was obtained from a Tm-sensitized Ho:YLiF4 crystal at subambient temperatures when longitudinally pumped with a diode laser array. A conversion efficiency of 42 percent and slope efficiency of approximately 60 percent relative to the absorbed pumped power have been achieved at a crystal temperature of 275 K. The emission spectrum was etalon tunable over a range of 16/cm centered at 2067 nm with fine tuning capability of the transition frequency with crystal temperature at measured rate of -0.03/cm/K. Output energies of 0.22 mJ per pulse and 22 ns pulse duration were recorded at Q-switch frequencies that correspond to an effective upper laser level lifetime of 6 ms, and a pulse energy extraction efficiency of 64 percent.

  13. Q-switched operation of a pulsed-laser-deposited Yb:Y(2)O(3) waveguide using graphene as a saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Amol; Dhingra, Shonali; D'Urso, Brian; Parsonage, Tina L; Sloyan, Katherine A; Eason, Robert W; Shepherd, David P

    2014-08-01

    The first, to the best of our knowledge, Q-switched operation of a pulsed-laser-deposited waveguide laser is presented. A clad Yb:Y(2)O(3) waveguide was Q-switched using an output coupling mirror coated with a single layer of graphene deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. During continuous-wave operation, a maximum power of 83 mW at a slope efficiency of 25% was obtained. During Q-switched operation, pulses as short as 98 ns were obtained at a repetition rate of 1.04 MHz and a central wavelength of 1030.8 nm.

  14. Efficient diode-pumped acousto-optic Q-switched Er:Yb:GdAl(3)(BO(3))(4) pulse laser at 1522  nm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y J; Lin, Y F; Huang, J H; Gong, X H; Luo, Z D; Huang, Y D

    2015-11-01

    End-pumped by a continuous-wave 976 nm diode laser, efficient 1522 nm laser operation was demonstrated in an Er:Yb:GdAl(3)(BO(3))(4) crystal when a sapphire crystal was used as a heat diffuser. A continuous-wave 1522 nm laser with a maximum output power of 750 mW and slope efficiency of 36% was realized at an absorbed pump power of 4.1 W. The pulse performances of an acousto-optic Q-switched laser with various repetition frequencies were investigated in detail. In a repetition frequency range of 1-10 kHz, 1522 nm pulse lasers with a slope efficiency of about 10%, peak output power at the kilowatt level, and width of about 50 ns were first obtained in an Er:Yb:GdAl(3)(BO(3))(4) crystal pumped by a continuous-wave diode laser. The results indicate that the crystal is a promising gain medium for an actively Q-switched 1.5 μm laser.

  15. Efficient diode-pumped acousto-optic Q-switched Er:Yb:GdAl(3)(BO(3))(4) pulse laser at 1522  nm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y J; Lin, Y F; Huang, J H; Gong, X H; Luo, Z D; Huang, Y D

    2015-11-01

    End-pumped by a continuous-wave 976 nm diode laser, efficient 1522 nm laser operation was demonstrated in an Er:Yb:GdAl(3)(BO(3))(4) crystal when a sapphire crystal was used as a heat diffuser. A continuous-wave 1522 nm laser with a maximum output power of 750 mW and slope efficiency of 36% was realized at an absorbed pump power of 4.1 W. The pulse performances of an acousto-optic Q-switched laser with various repetition frequencies were investigated in detail. In a repetition frequency range of 1-10 kHz, 1522 nm pulse lasers with a slope efficiency of about 10%, peak output power at the kilowatt level, and width of about 50 ns were first obtained in an Er:Yb:GdAl(3)(BO(3))(4) crystal pumped by a continuous-wave diode laser. The results indicate that the crystal is a promising gain medium for an actively Q-switched 1.5 μm laser. PMID:26512485

  16. Q-switched Tm3+-doped fiber laser with a micro-fiber based black phosphorus saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yazhou; Li, Jianfeng; Han, Lian; Lu, Rongguo; Hu, Yunxiao; Li, Zhuo; Liu, Yong

    2016-06-01

    We report a passively Q-switched Tm3+-doped fiber laser using a black phosphorus deposited micro-fiber (BPDMF) as a saturable absorption (SA) device for the first time. The BPDMF prepared by depositing black phosphorus (BP) on the micro-fiber waist with heat convention effect and optical tweezer effect has a measured modulation depth of 40.2% and a nonsaturable loss of 55.9%. By employing this device in an all-fiber ring cavity, a stable Q-switched pulse train at 1948 nm was achieved with a repetition rate from 12.5 to 28.1 kHz and a pulse width from 15.1 to 5.6 μs, respectively.

  17. A continuous-wave and passively Q-switched Nd:LaGGG laser at 937 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.-Y.; Ying, H.-Y.; Yang, H.; He, J.-L.

    2013-10-01

    A diode-end-pumped continuous-wave (CW) and passively Q-switched Nd:LaGGG (GGG: gadolinium gallium garnet) laser at about 937 nm was demonstrated for the first time. The maximum CW output power of 540 mW was obtained with the optical-optical conversion efficiency of 3.2% and the slope efficiency of 4.4%. A V3+:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) saturable absorber with the initial transmission of 97% was used for the passive Q-switching regime. The shortest pulse width was achieved as 500 ns with the pulse repetition rate of 96 kHz. The corresponding single-pulse energy and pulse peak power were determined as 1.56 μJ and 3.12 W, respectively.

  18. Using a black phosphorus saturable absorber to generate dual wavelengths in a Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, F. A. A.; Azzuhri, Saaidal R.; Salim, M. A. M.; Shaharuddin, R. A.; Ismail, M. A.; Ismail, M. F.; Razak, M. Z. A.; Ahmad, H.

    2016-08-01

    Using a few-layer black phosphorus (BP) thin film that acts as a saturable absorber (SA) in an ytterbium-doped fiber laser setup, we experimentally demonstrated a passively dual-wavelength Q-switching laser operation. The setup also incorporated a D-shaped polished fiber as a wavelength selective filter. As the SA was used in the ring cavity, a dual-wavelength Q-switch produced consistent outputs at 1038.68 and 1042.05 nm. A maximum pulse energy of 2.09 nJ with a shortest pulse width of 1.16 µs was measured for the achieved pulses. In addition, the repetition rate increased from 52.52 to 58.73 kHz with the increment of the pump level. Throughout the measurement process, the results were obtained consistently and this demonstrates that the BP film is a very good candidate to produce Q-switching pulses for the 1 micron region.

  19. Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS(2), MoSe(2), WS(2), and WSe(2).

    PubMed

    Chen, Bohua; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wu, Kan; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jun; Chen, Jianping

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we report 4 different saturable absorbers based on 4 transition metal dichalcogenides (MoS(2), MoSe(2), WS(2), WSe(2)) and utilize them to Q-switch a ring-cavity fiber laser with identical cavity configuration. It is found that MoSe(2) exhibits highest modulation depth with similar preparation process among four saturable absorbers. Q-switching operation performance is compared from the aspects of RF spectrum, optical spectrum, repetition rate and pulse duration. WS(2) Q-switched fiber laser generates the most stable pulse trains compared to other 3 fiber lasers. These results demonstrate the feasibility of TMDs to Q-switch fiber laser effectively and provide a meaningful reference for further research in nonlinear fiber optics with these TMDs materials.

  20. Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched 1.06 μm ceramic Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ying; Ma, Yufei; Li, Jiang; Li, Xudong; Yan, Renpeng; Gao, Jing; Yu, Xin; Sun, Rui; Pan, Yubai

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a diode-pumped continuous-wave and passively Q-switched 1.06 μm laser with gain medium of ceramic was demonstrated. Laser output characteristics using Nd:YAG ceramics with different doping concentrations of 1.0%, 2.0%, and 4.0% were studied. A maximum output power of 7.74 W with optical efficiency of 51.6% was obtained through the optimization of the coupler's transmission. By using Cr4+:YAG crystals with initial transmissions of 80% and 90% as saturable absorbers, the pulsed ceramic Nd:YAG laser performance was investigated.

  1. Passively Q-switched Nd:S-VAP laser with a Cr4+:YAG crystal saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Deyuan; Li, Cheng; Song, Jie; Ueda, Ken-ichi

    2000-04-01

    With Cr4+:YAG crystal as the saturable absorber, diode- pumped compact passively Q-switched Nd:S-VAP lasers have been demonstrated using a simple two-mirror linear cavity. When CW pumped with a 1 W high-brightness laser diode, stable laser pulses of duration of 2.9 ns and energy of 13.7 (mu) J are observed with kilohertz repetition rates. The highest peak power of 4.6 kW was obtained at an incident pump power of 904 mW.

  2. Diode-pumped Nd:S-VAP lasers passively Q-switched with Cr 4+:YAG saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Deyuan; Li, Cheng; Song, Jie; Kobayashi, Takao; Ueda, Kenichi

    1999-10-01

    A compact diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:S-VAP laser has been demonstrated with Cr 4+:YAG crystal as the saturable absorber. When CW pumped with a 1 W high-brightness laser diode, stable laser pulses of duration of 2.9 ns and energy of 13.7 μJ are observed with kilohertz repetition rates. The highest peak power of 4.6 kW was obtained at a incident pump power of 904 mW.

  3. Short pulse diode-pumped Tm:YAG slab laser electro-optically Q-switched by RbTiOPO4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Lin; Liu, Pian; Huang, Haitao; Liu, Xuan; Shen, Deyuan

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a laser diode end pumped RbTiOPO4 (RTP) electro-optically Q-switched Tm:YAG slab laser was demonstrated. Stable Q-switched pulse with the shortest pulse width of 58 ns and an average output power of 7.5 W were realized at the repetition rate of 1 KHz, corresponding to the slope efficiency of 21.7%.

  4. Laser based analysis using a passively Q-switched laser employing analysis electronics and a means for detecting atomic optical emission of the laser media

    DOEpatents

    Woodruff, Steven D.; Mcintyre, Dustin L.

    2016-03-29

    A device for Laser based Analysis using a Passively Q-Switched Laser comprising an optical pumping source optically connected to a laser media. The laser media and a Q-switch are positioned between and optically connected to a high reflectivity mirror (HR) and an output coupler (OC) along an optical axis. The output coupler (OC) is optically connected to the output lens along the optical axis. A means for detecting atomic optical emission comprises a filter and a light detector. The optical filter is optically connected to the laser media and the optical detector. A control system is connected to the optical detector and the analysis electronics. The analysis electronics are optically connected to the output lens. The detection of the large scale laser output production triggers the control system to initiate the precise timing and data collection from the detector and analysis.

  5. Comparison of clinical efficacy and complications between Q-switched alexandrite laser and Q-switched Nd:YAG laser on nevus of Ota: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Panxi; Yu, Nanze; Diao, Wenqi; Yang, Xiaonan; Feng, Yongqiang; Qi, Zuoliang

    2016-04-01

    Although the application of Q-switched lasers on nevus of Ota (OTA) is well demonstrated, debates about clinical option between Q-switched alexandrite laser (QSA) and Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (QSNY) still remain. This systematic review and meta-analysis estimated the overall successful rate of OTA pigment clearance and complication rate of QSA and QSNY and evaluated which laser could produce a better result. English articles evaluating pigment clearance and complications of QSA and/or QSNY on OTA were screened through predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria and analyzed. The successful rate of pigment clearance and complication rate of QSA and QSNY were respectively calculated using a random-effects or fixed-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. The successful rate and complication rate of QSA and QSNY were compared statistically. Of the 140 articles searched, 13 met inclusion criteria. Totally, 2153 OTA patients treated by QSA and 316 patients treated by QSNY were analyzed. In QSA and QSNY groups, respectively, the successful rate of OTA pigment clearance was 48.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 19.9-76.8%) and 41% (95% CI 9.7-72.2%), while the complication rate was 8.0% (95% CI 3.9-12.2%) and 13.4% (95% CI 7.7-19.0%). When compared with QSNY, QSA had a significantly higher successful rate (P = 0.017), and a lower complication rate (P = 0.000). According to this review, QSA may surpass QSNY in treatment for OTA as it had a superior successful rate of pigment clearance and a lower complication rate than QSNY did.

  6. Comparison of clinical efficacy and complications between Q-switched alexandrite laser and Q-switched Nd:YAG laser on nevus of Ota: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Panxi; Yu, Nanze; Diao, Wenqi; Yang, Xiaonan; Feng, Yongqiang; Qi, Zuoliang

    2016-04-01

    Although the application of Q-switched lasers on nevus of Ota (OTA) is well demonstrated, debates about clinical option between Q-switched alexandrite laser (QSA) and Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (QSNY) still remain. This systematic review and meta-analysis estimated the overall successful rate of OTA pigment clearance and complication rate of QSA and QSNY and evaluated which laser could produce a better result. English articles evaluating pigment clearance and complications of QSA and/or QSNY on OTA were screened through predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria and analyzed. The successful rate of pigment clearance and complication rate of QSA and QSNY were respectively calculated using a random-effects or fixed-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. The successful rate and complication rate of QSA and QSNY were compared statistically. Of the 140 articles searched, 13 met inclusion criteria. Totally, 2153 OTA patients treated by QSA and 316 patients treated by QSNY were analyzed. In QSA and QSNY groups, respectively, the successful rate of OTA pigment clearance was 48.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 19.9-76.8%) and 41% (95% CI 9.7-72.2%), while the complication rate was 8.0% (95% CI 3.9-12.2%) and 13.4% (95% CI 7.7-19.0%). When compared with QSNY, QSA had a significantly higher successful rate (P = 0.017), and a lower complication rate (P = 0.000). According to this review, QSA may surpass QSNY in treatment for OTA as it had a superior successful rate of pigment clearance and a lower complication rate than QSNY did. PMID:26861980

  7. Partial unilateral lentiginosis treated with alexandrite Q-switched laser: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pretel, Maider; Irarrazaval, Isabel; Aguado, Leyre; Lera, José Miguel; Navedo, María; Giménez de Azcárate, Ana

    2013-08-01

    Partial unilateral lentiginosis (PUL) is a rare pigmentary disorder characterized by multiple lentigines grouped within an area of normal skin, often in a segmental pattern and appearing at birth or in childhood. There is no established standard treatment for this condition. We present two cases of PUL succesfully treated with alexandrite Q-switched laser. In our cases, this laser proved to be a safe and effective treatment for cosmetically disfiguring lentigines. Special precautions are needed when treating dark-skinned patients because side effects are more likely. We propose that this modality be considered in the treatment of this rare disorder.

  8. Macroscopic enrichment of12C by a high-power mechanically Q-switched CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göthel, J.; Ivanenko, M.; Hering, P.; Fuß, W.; Kompa, K. L.

    1996-04-01

    The isotope-selective multiphoton dissociation of CHClF2 in a multipass refocusing Herriott cell was used to enrich more than 4 moles of chlorodifluoromethane to 99.99% of12C isotopic purity. It is the largest isotope quantity ever separated by a laser process. A cw excited mechanically Q-switched CO2 laser, which delivers 16 mJ pulses at 5 kHz was used. The enrichment controlled by a mass-spectrometer and guided by a PC was run with a rate of 25 g12C per 24 h.

  9. A wide angle search technique for a 10.6 micron ladar. [scanning radar using Q switched carbon dioxide laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, S.; Adelman, S.; Lowrey, D. O.

    1975-01-01

    A ladar (laser radar) sensor designed around a pulsed passively Q-switched CO2 laser, capable of a efficient and rapid scans with a narrow beam over a wide field of view, is considered for surveillance and tracking applications in space. The output is a train of narrow pulses with a controllable pulse repetition rate. A resonant vibrating mirror in back of a classical Gregorian telescope, and a plane pointing mirror in front for beam steering, are used in scanning. Scan pulse sequences are described and illustrated. The 10.6 micron ladar set is under consideration as baseline sensor for various space rendezvous and docking applications.

  10. Passive Q-switching of diode-pumped Yb:YAG microchip laser with ion-implanted GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonggang; Ma, Xiaoyu; Zhong, Bin; Wang, Desong; Zhang, Qiulin; Feng, Baohua

    2004-01-01

    We reported a passive Q-switched diode laser pumped Yb:YAG microchip laser with an ion-implanted semi-insulating GaAs wafer. The wafer was implanted with 400-keV As^(+) in the concentration of 10^(16) ions/cm^(2). To decrease the non-saturable loss, we annealed the ion-implanted GaAs at 500 oC for 5 minutes and coated both sides of the ion-implanted GaAs with antireflection (AR) and highreflection (HR) films, respectively. Using GaAs wafer as an absorber and an output coupler, we obtained 52-ns pulse duration of single pulse.

  11. Partial unilateral lentiginosis treated with alexandrite Q-switched laser: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pretel, Maider; Irarrazaval, Isabel; Aguado, Leyre; Lera, José Miguel; Navedo, María; Giménez de Azcárate, Ana

    2013-08-01

    Partial unilateral lentiginosis (PUL) is a rare pigmentary disorder characterized by multiple lentigines grouped within an area of normal skin, often in a segmental pattern and appearing at birth or in childhood. There is no established standard treatment for this condition. We present two cases of PUL succesfully treated with alexandrite Q-switched laser. In our cases, this laser proved to be a safe and effective treatment for cosmetically disfiguring lentigines. Special precautions are needed when treating dark-skinned patients because side effects are more likely. We propose that this modality be considered in the treatment of this rare disorder. PMID:23384078

  12. A frequency-locked and frequency-doubled, hybrid Q-switched Yb:KYW laser at 515 nm with a widely adjustable repetition rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjörnhammar, S.; Zukauskas, A.; Canalias, C.; Pasiskevicius, V.; Laurell, F.

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate a compact wavelength-stabilized, frequency-doubled Yb-doped double-tungstate laser with widely tunable repetition rate, spanning from 35 Hz to 3 kHz obtained by hybrid Q-switching. The Q-switching unit consisted of a combination of a passive Cr:YAG crystal and an opto-mechanical active intensity modulator. The fundamental wavelength was locked at 1029 nm with a volume Bragg grating, and the pulse length and energy were 42 ns and 250 µJ, respectively. As the laser was stabilized with the VBG and the opto-mechanical modulator, the frequency instability was reduced six times from free running down to 0.29 %. Frequency doubling was done extra-cavity in PPKTP, and a repetition rate-independent conversion efficiency of 63 % was obtained. The controllable repetition rate together with stable temporal and spatial characteristics makes this laser a suitable candidate in many biology-related experiments, as a pump source for in vivo excitation of fluorophores, e.g., pumping of "living lasers" and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectroscopy.

  13. Development of flashlamp-pumped Q-switched Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG lasers for mid-infrared LIDAR application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Young S.; Kim, Kyong H.; Whitney, Donald A.; Hess, Robert V.; Barnes, Norman P.; Bair, Clayton H.; Brockman, Philip

    1989-01-01

    A flashlamp-pumped 2.1 micron Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG laser was studied for both normal mode and Q-switched operations under a wide variety of experimental conditions in order to optimize performance. Laser output energy, slope efficiency, threshold and pulselength were determined as a function of operating temperature, output mirror reflectivity, input electrical energy and Q-switch opening time. The measured normal-mode laser thresholds of a Ho(3+) (0.45 atomic percent):Tm(3+) (2.5 atomic percent):Cr(3+) (0.8 atomic percent):YAG crystal ranged form 26 to 50 J between 120 and 200 K with slope efficiencies up to 0.36 percent with a 60 percent reflective output mirror. Under Q-switched operation the slope efficiency was 90 percent of the normal-mode result. Development of solid state lasers with Ho(3+), Tm(3+) and/or Er(3+) doped crystals has been pursued by NASA for eye-dafe mid-infrared LIDAR (light detection and ranging) application. As a part of the project, the authors have been working on evaluating Ho(3+):Tm(3+):Cr(3+):YAG crystals for normal-mode and Q-switched 2.1 micron laser operations in order to determine an optimum Tm(3+) concentration under flashlamp pumping conditions. Lasing properties of the Ho(3+) in the mid-infrared region have been studied by many research groups since the early 1960's. However, the technology of those lasers is still premature for lidar application. In order to overcome the inefficiency related to narrow absorption bands of the Ho(3+), Tm(3+) and Er(3+), the erbium has been replaced by chromium. The improvement in flashlamp-pumped Ho(3+) laser efficiency has been demonstrated recently by several research groups by utilizing the broad absorption spectrum of Cr(3+) which covers the flashlamp's emission spectrum. Efficient energy transfer to the Tm(3+) and then the Ho(3+) occurs subsequently. It is known that high Tm(3+) concentration and low Ho(3+) concentration are preferred to achieve a quantum efficiency approaching two and to avoid

  14. Q-switched quasi-phase-matched self-frequency doubling and summing in a laser based on a periodically poled Nd : Mg : LiNbO{sub 3} crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, G D; Novikov, Aleksei A; Firsov, V V

    2004-03-31

    Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation at 542 nm by self-frequency doubling laser radiation at 1084 nm and quasi-phase-matched sum-frequency generation at 464 nm by summing frequencies of laser radiation and of nonabsorbed fraction of diode laser pump radiation at 810 nm are experimentally achieved. These processes are realised in a Q-switched laser based on a periodically poled active nonlinear Nd : Mg : LiNbO{sub 3} crystal. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  15. Optimization of peak power of doubly Q-switched lasers with both an acousto-optic modulator and a Cr4+-doped saturable absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Li Dechun; Zhao Shengzhi; Li Guiqiu; Yang Kejian

    2006-08-01

    A doubly Q-switched laser can obtain a shorter pulse with a stable repetition rate and high pulse peak power, which has been experimentally proved. By taking into account the Gaussian spatial distributions of the intracavity photon density and the initial population-inversion density as well as the influence of the acousto-optic (AO) Q switch, we introduce the coupled rate equations for a doubly Q-switched laser with both an AO modulator and a Cr4+-doped saturable absorber. These coupled rate equations are solved numerically. The key parameters of an optimally coupled doubly Q-switched laser are determined based on maximizing the peak power, which include the optimal normalized coupling parameter, the optimal normalized saturable absorber parameters, and the normalized parameters of the AO Q switch. The optimal normalized peak power, the corresponding normalized energy, and the normalized pulse width are also given, and a group of general curves are generated for the first time to our knowledge. The curves can give us a good understanding of the dependence of the optimal key parameters on the parameters of the gain medium, the saturable absorber, the AO Q switch, the resonator, and the spatial distributions of the intracavity photon density. The optimal calculations for a diode-pumped Nd3+:YVO4 laser with both an AO modulator and a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber are presented to demonstrate the use of the curves and the related formulas.

  16. High-power diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:S-VAP laser with Cr4+:YAG crystal saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Deyuan; Tang, Ding Y.; Tam, Siu Chung; Ueda, Ken-ichi

    2001-10-01

    Neodymium-doped strontium fluoro-vanadate is a favorable laser material for diode-pumped, compact, and passively Q-switched lasers. We have constructed a high power passively Q-switched Nd:S-VAP laser with a fiber coupled 10 W laser diode pumping. To avoid severe thermal deposition and thermal induced crystal fracture, several measures have been taken in the laser design. With a Cr4+:YAG of initial transmission of 80%, stable laser pulses of duration of 3 ns, energy of 45 micro-joule and repetition rate of 23 kHz are obtained at an incident pump power of 7.75 W.

  17. 2 × 2 arrayed and passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser under Dammann-arrayed pumping.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Yu, Junjie; Xia, Kegui; Zhou, Changhe; Li, Jianlang

    2014-04-20

    We reported our proof-of-concept investigation in developing an arrayed and passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser. In the investigation, we used a Dammann grating to diffract the pumping light from a 808 nm laser diode into 2×2 pump beam array, and then used this pump array to pump a monolithic Nd:YVO4 laser crystal standing with a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber inside a simple plano-plano resonator. As a result, 2×2 arrayed and nanosecond laser pulses were emitted. The laser-diode-pumped monolithic solid-state laser incorporated with a Dammann grating is promising for application in high-peak-power and multipoint pulse ignition of an automobile engine. PMID:24787593

  18. Acousto-optic Q-switched self-frequency-doubling Er:Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser at 800 nm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yujin; Lin, Yanfu; Gong, Xinghong; Huang, Jianhua; Luo, Zundu; Huang, Yidong

    2012-05-01

    Actively Q-switched self-frequency-doubling laser at 800 nm was first reported in an Er:Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 crystal by using an acousto-optical modulator. At incident pump power of 16 W and pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz, 1600 nm fundamental pulse laser with energy of 130 μJ and width of 170 ns, and self-frequency-doubling 800 nm pulse laser with energy of 20 μJ and width of 96 ns were respectively achieved in a hemispherical resonator end-pumped by a 970 nm laser diode. Pulse characteristics of fundamental and self-frequency-doubling lasers at different pulse repetition frequencies were also investigated.

  19. Single-frequency operation of a resonantly pumped 1.645μm Er:YAG Q-switched laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ran; Ye, Qing; Zheng, Yan; Gao, Mingwei; Gao, Chunqing

    2014-02-01

    In this paper a resonantly pumped 1.645 μm injection-seeded single frequency Er:YAG Q-switched laser is reported. Firstly we introduce a monolithic Er:YAG non-planar ring oscillator (NPRO) developed by ourselves. The Er:YAG NPRO generated up to 10.5W 1.645 μm single frequency laser output power, with a slope efficiency of 60% and a linewidth of 18.6 kHz. The slave laser is a resonantly pumped Q-switched Er:YAG laser with a U-shape resonator and a 0.25 at.% Er:YAG crystal as the laser medium. When the pulse repetition rate was 1kHz, the Q-switched pulse energy was 5.4 mJ. Then one fraction of the single frequency laser beam from the Er:YAG NPRO was injection-seeded into a Q-switched slave laser. The Ramp-Hold-Fire technique was used to ensure the single frequency operation. Finally we obtained 1.645 μm single frequency Q-switched laser output with a pulse energy of 4.75mJ, pulse width of 336ns and pulse repetition rate of 200Hz, respectively.

  20. Yb:YAG thin disk laser passively Q-switched by a hydro-thermal grown molybdenum disulfide saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Yi; Wang, Li; Wang, Jie Yu; Li, Hong Wei; Yu, Zhen Huang

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate a passively Q-switched Yb:YAG thin disk solid-state laser based on nanoflake MoS2 as a saturable absorber. MoS2 is synthesized by a hydro-thermal process. The prepared MoS2 is transferred onto the BK7 glass for ease-of-use in the solid-state laser as a saturable absorber. The average output power could reach up to 250 mW, center wavelength 1030 nm corresponding to a pulse width, a pulse repetition rate, and a per pulse energy of 12 μs, 17 kHz, and 15 μJ, respectively. Our results show that nanoflake MoS2 could be a promising saturable absorber for Q-switching solid-state lasers. The over saturation of the MoS2 saturable absorber at a high pump strength limit in a solid-state laser could be also effective for high power operation.

  1. Q-switched-like soliton bunches and noise-like pulses generation in a partially mode-locked fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenhong; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Yan-Ge; Zhao, Wenjing; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Shangcheng; Yang, Guang; He, Ruijing

    2016-06-27

    We report an intermediate regime between c.w. emission and noise-like pulses (NLPs) regime in an Er-doped partially mode-locked fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation. In this regime, the soliton bunches stochastically turn up from a quasi-cw background in the Q-switched-like envelope. The soliton bunches normally last for tens or hundreds of intracavity round-trips. When the soliton bunches vanish, typical NLPs chains are generated sporadically at location where the soliton bunches collapses. These results would be helpful to understand the generation and property of the NLPs regime. PMID:27410624

  2. Preparation and study of epitaxial Cr{sup 4+} : GGG films for passive Q switches in neodymium lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Bufetova, G A; Gusev, M Yu; Ivanov, I A; Nikolaev, D A; Seregin, V F; Tsvetkov, V B; Shcherbakov, Ivan A E-mail: tsvetkov@lsk.gpi.r

    2006-07-31

    The efficient technology is developed for growing Cr- and Ca-doped gadolinium-gallium garnet single-crystal films of thickness up to 100 {mu}m on large substrates (76 mm) by the method of liquid-phase epitaxy from a solution-melt. The dependences of the absorption spectra of films and optical losses at 1 {mu}m on the growth conditions and the solution-melt composition are studied. It is shown that Cr{sup 4+} ions are formed in the films, and these films can be used as passive Q switches in lasers. (special issue devoted to the 90th anniversary of a.m. prokhorov)

  3. Doubly passively Q-switched Nd:GGG laser with a monolayer graphene saturable absorber and GaAs wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, J.; Zhao, S.; Li, Y.; Li, D.; Yang, K.; Li, G.; Zhao, J.; Qiao, W.; Chu, H.

    2014-10-01

    A doubly passively Q-switched Nd:GGG laser with monolayer graphene and GaAs wafer working as saturable absorbers is presented, in which the GaAs wafer also works as the output coupler. At the maximum incident pump power of 7.69 W, the obtained output power, the pulse duration and the pulse repetition rate are 820 mW, 1.06 ns, and 21.5 kHz, respectively, corresponding to pulse energy of 38.2 μJ and peak power of 35.9 kW, respectively.

  4. Electro-optic Q-switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zou, Yingyin (Inventor); Chen, Qiushui (Inventor); Zhang, Run (Inventor); Jiang, Hua (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An electro-optic Q-switch for generating sequence of laser pulses was disclosed. The Q-switch comprises a quadratic electro-optic material and is connected with an electronic unit generating a radio frequency wave with positive and negative pulses alternatively. The Q-switch is controlled by the radio frequency wave in such a way that laser pulse is generated when the radio frequency wave changes its polarity.

  5. Stable all-fiber Er-doped Q-switched laser with a WS2/fluorine mica (FM) saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lu; Wang, ZhenFu; Wang, Yonggang; Wang, Xi; Yang, Guowen; Jiang, Shouzhen

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a stable all-fiber Q-switched Er-doped fiber (EDF) laser with WS2/fluorine mica (FM) as the saturable absorber (SA). The SA device is obtained by depositing WS2 nanosheet layers onto a 20 µm thick one-layer FM substrate using a thermal decomposition method. The modulation depth (MD) of the SA is 8.22% and the non-saturable loss (NL) is 16.38%. By inserting the SA into the EDF laser cavity, stable Q-switched operation is achieved with a central wavelength of 1567 nm. The repetition rate can be tuned from 20.98 kHz to 33.74 kHz and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8.3 µs to 6.98 µs by increasing the pump power. The maximum output power and the maximum pulse energy are measured to be 2.07 mW and 61.4 nJ, respectively. The experimental results evidently show that the WS2/FM can be regarded as a high-performance SA for fiber lasers.

  6. Plate-shaped Yb:LuPO4 crystal for efficient CW and passively Q-switched microchip lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junhai; Wang, Lisha; Han, Wenjuan; Xu, Honghao; Zhong, Degao; Teng, Bing

    2016-10-01

    It is demonstrated that plate-shaped crystals of Yb:LuPO4, which are grown from spontaneous nucleation by high-temperature solution method, can be utilized to make microchip lasers operating in continuous-wave (CW) or passively Q-switched mode. Efficient operation of such a microchip laser, which is built with a 0.3 mm thick crystal plate in a 2 mm long plane-parallel cavity, is realized at room temperature. With 2.37 W of pump power absorbed, 1.45 W of CW output power is generated with a slope efficiency of 73%. When passively Q-switched with a Cr4+:YAG crystal plate as saturable absorber, the laser produces a maximum pulsed output power of 0.53 W at 1013.3 nm, at a pulse repetition rate of 23.8 kHz, the resulting pulse energy, duration, and peak power are 22.3 μJ, 4.0 ns, and 5.6 kW, respectively.

  7. Optimum design on thermal lensing effect of high-repetition-frequency laser based on LGS Q-switched

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Li, Li; Sun, Xinhua; Jin, Yezhou; Mao, Shaojuan; Wang, Yuanbo

    2014-12-01

    The thermal lensing effect of crystal is the biggest problem for the output of laser pulse with high power and high beam quality. Through the design of laser cavity, this effect can be removed a certain extent. In this paper, a high-repetition-frequency laser based on electro-optic Q-switch made of LGS is designed. Using flat-flat cavity, the purposes of simple structure and steady output are achieved. Firstly, using a LGS as Q-switched crystal, a Brewster plate as a polarizer, a xenon flash-lamp pumped 1064 nm high-repetition-frequency pulsed Nd:YAG laser with flat-flat cavity is demonstrated. Then, the stability of the laser cavity is analysed. Considering the thermal lensing effect of Nd:YAG crystal, the focal length of thermal lens is calculated. Utilizing MathCAD, the ABCD matrix of laser cavity is calculated, and the G value is obtained, that is G=0.792<1, so the laser cavity is steady. Furthermore, the distribution of light beam in the laser cavity is also simulated by using LAS-CAD, the results indicate that the laser works at stead state. Thirdly, the thermal lensing effect of Nd:YAG crystal is analysed by using LAS-CAD. The temperature and refractive index distributions of Nd:YAG crystal are simulated, the results show that the crystal can be equivalented as a lens with certain focal length. Furthermore, utilizing finite element analysis (FEA) method, the three-dimensional view of temperature field is obtained.

  8. Control of phase locking in a set of lasers with self-pumped phase-conjugate gain-grating mirrors using a passive Q-switch

    SciTech Connect

    Basiev, Tasoltan T; Gavrilov, A V; Smetanin, Sergei N; Fedin, Aleksandr V

    2011-03-31

    We studied the possibility of controlling phase-locked lasing of a set of lasers with self-pumped phase-conjugate gain-grating mirrors by using a passive Q-switch and selecting the gain of one of the lasers. The ranges of stable operation are calculated by mathematical simulation and well agree with the experimental results. Single-mode radiation in the form of trains of phase-locked laser pulses are experimentally obtained for the first time in a three-channel diffraction-coupled gain-grating Nd : YAG laser system with a LiF :F {sup -}{sub 2} passive Q-switch. The space-time pattern of the trains of 1.064-{mu}m nanosecond pulses is the same in the channels with and without Q-switch and their interference pattern contrast reaches 0.81. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  9. Passively Q-switched and mode-locked dual-wavelength Nd:GGG laser with Cr4+:YAG as a saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hongwei; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Yufei; Yang, Kejian; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Jia; Qiao, Wenchao; Li, Tao; Feng, Chuansheng; Zhang, Haijuan

    2014-03-01

    By using neodymium-doped gadolinium gallium garnet (Nd:GGG) as a laser medium, a simultaneously passively Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) dual-wavelength laser with Cr4+:YAG as a saturable absorber is presented. The laser simultaneously oscillated at 1061 nm and 1063 nm, corresponding to a frequency difference of 0.53 THz. QML pulses with nearly 100% modulation depth were observed. The mode-locked pulse duration underneath the Q-switched envelope was estimated to be about 908 ps. The experimental results indicated that the dual-wavelength QML Nd:GGG laser can be an excellent candidate for the generation of THz waves.

  10. A high-energy cladding-pumped 80 nanosecond Q-switched fiber laser using a tapered fiber saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Sean W.; Soh, Daniel B. S.; Bisson, Scott E.; Patterson, Brian D.; Hsu, Wen L.

    2013-02-01

    We report a passively Q-switched all-fiber laser using a large mode area (LMA) Yb3+-doped fiber cladding-pumped at 915 nm and an unpumped single-mode Yb3+-doped fiber as the saturable absorber (SA). The saturable absorber and gain fibers were first coupled with a free-space telescope to better study the composite system, and then fusion spliced with fiber tapers to match the mode field diameters. ASE generated in the LMA gain fiber preferentially bleaches the SA fiber before depleting the gain, thereby causing the SA fiber to act as a passive saturable absorber. Using this scheme we first demonstrate a Q-switched oscillator with 40 μJ 79 ns pulses at 1026 nm using a free-space taper, and show that pulses can be generated from 1020 nm to 1040 nm. We scale the pulse energy to 0.40 mJ using an Yb3+-doped cladding pumped fiber amplifier. Experimental studies in which the saturable absorber length, pump times, and wavelengths are independently varied reveal the impact of these parameters on laser performance. Finally, we demonstrate 60 μJ 81 ns pulses at 1030 nm in an all fiber architecture using tapered mode field adaptors to match the mode filed diameters of the gain and SA fibers.

  11. Passively Q-switched dual-wavelength Yb:LSO laser based on tungsten disulphide saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing-Hui, Liu; Jin-Rong, Tian; He-Yang, Guoyu; Run-Qin, Xu; Ke-Xuan, Li; Yan-Rong, Song; Xin-Ping, Zhang; Liang-Bi, Su; Jun, Xu

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a passively Q-switched Yb:LSO laser based on tungsten disulphide (WS2) saturable absorber operating at 1034 nm and 1056 nm simultaneously. The saturable absorbers were fabricated by spin coating method. With low speed, the WS2 nanoplatelets embedded in polyvinyl alcohol could be coated on a BK7 glass substrate coated with high-refractive-index thin polymer. The shortest pulse width of 1.6 μs with a repetition rate of 76.9 kHz is obtained. As the pump power increases to 9 W, the maximum output power is measured to be 250 mW, corresponding to a single pulse energy of 3.25 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to obtain dual-wavelength Q-switched solid-state laser using few-layer WS2 nanoplatelets. Project supported by the National Scientific Research Project of China (Grant No. 61177047), Beijing Municipal Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 1102005), and the Basic Research Foundation of Beijing University of Technology, China (Grant No. X3006111201501).

  12. Investigation of the laser pumping power impact on the operating regimes of a laser passively Q-switched by a saturated absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benarab, Mustapha; Mokdad, Rabah; Djellout, Hocine; Benfdila, Arezki; Lamrous, Omar; Meyrueis, Patrick

    2011-09-01

    We have adapted the point model for the study of an all-fiber laser doped with Nd3+ and Q-switched by a saturable fiber absorber doped with Cr4+. Calculations of the output power of the 1084 nm laser are considered as a function of the pump power supplied by a 790 nm laser diode. The analysis of the simulation results reveals the existence of pulsed, sinusoidal, and dc operating regimes.

  13. Diverse output states from an all-normal dispersion ytterbium-doped fiber laser: Q-switch, dissipative soliton resonance, and noise-like pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z. W.; Zhang, Z. X.

    2013-06-01

    An all-normal-dispersion ytterbium-doped fiber ring laser has been demonstrated, with different operation regimes: Q-switch, CW mode-locking and noise-like pulses, depending on the pump power and suitable orientation of the polarization controllers. As a transition between Q-switch and CW mode-locking, Q-switched mode-locking has also been observed. Moreover, our experiment shows that the CW mode-locking operation is the result of dissipative soliton resonance in the all-normal-dispersion fiber laser without external filter, which is a new way to generate high-energy pulses. This fiber laser with diverse outputs has many potential applications, and is helpful to investigate laser dynamics.

  14. Q-switched waveguide laser based on two-dimensional semiconducting materials: tungsten disulfide and black phosphorous.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yang; Guo, Zhinan; Ma, Linan; Zhang, Han; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Zhou, Shengqiang; Chen, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Owing to their unique properties, graphene-like two dimensional semiconducting materials, including Tungsten Disulfide (WS2) and Black Phosphorous (BP), have attracted increasing interest from basic research to practical applications. Herein, we demonstrated the ultrafast nonlinear saturable absorption response of WS2 and BP films in the waveguide structure. Through fabricating WS2 and BP films by evaporating the solutions on glass wafers. Saturable absorber films were attached onto the end-facet of the waveguide, which therefore constitutes a resonant cavity for the waveguide laser. Under a pump laser at 810 nm, we could obtain a stable Q-switched operation in the waveguide structure. This work indicated the significant potential of WS2 and BP for the ultrafast waveguide laser.

  15. CW and passively Q-switched laser performance of Nd:Lu2SiO5 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaodong; Di, Juqing; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Dingyuan; Xu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated an efficient and controllable dual-wavelength continuous-wave (CW) laser of Nd:Lu2SiO5 (Nd:LSO) crystal. The maximum output power was 3.02 W at wavelength of 1075 nm and 1079 nm, and with increasing of absorbed pump power, the ratio of 1079 nm laser rose. The slope efficiency of 65.6% and optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 63.3% were obtained. The passively Q-switched laser properties of Nd:LSO were investigated for the first time. The shortest pulse, maximum pulse energy and peak power were 11.58 ns, 29.05 μJ and 2.34 kW, respectively.

  16. Treatment of Laugier-Hunziker syndrome with the Q-switched alexandrite laser in 22 Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ya-Gang; Ma, Dong-Lai; Jin, Hong-Zhong; Liu, Yue-Hua; Wang, Hong-Wei; Sun, Qiu-Ning

    2010-03-01

    Laugier-Hunziker syndrome (LHS), a rare, acquired pigmentary disorder of the lips, oral mucosa, and fingers, is known to be an entirely benign disease with no systemic manifestations. In the past, the pigmentation has been treated efficiently in a few patients with the Q-switched neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and the Q-switched alexandrite laser (QSAL). In order to evaluate the efficacy and safety of QSAL on Chinese patients of LHS, we treated 22 patients with QSAL in the past 5 years. Treatments were delivered on a bimonthly or trimonthly basis until the abnormal pigmentation totally disappeared. Patients were evaluated at each visit for evidence of dyspigmentation, scarring, or other untoward effects from the laser treatment. Our 22 subjects consisted of 18 females and 4 males with a mean age of 42.4 years. After only one session of laser treatment, the clearing on the lips was as follow: 18 (81.8%) excellent, 2 (9.1%) good, 1 (4.5%) fair and 1 (4.5%) poor. Eighteen patients (81.8%) with LHS, who had achieved excellent clearing after only one session of laser treatment, did not receive further treatment. Among the left four patients, three patients (13.6%) achieved complete results after three laser treatments. Only one patient required six sessions to achieve complete clearance. No scarring was noted after any of the treatments. The appearance of pigmentation on mucous membranes in a middle-aged patient without a significant family history for skin disorders should prompt consideration for the possible diagnosis of LHS. Our study has also demonstrated QSAL to be highly effective and safe in the treatment of LHS.

  17. A randomized, split-face clinical trial of Q-switched alexandrite laser versus Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of bilateral nevus of Ota.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiang; Li, Yong; Jiang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Different types of Q-switched (QS) lasers have been used successfully to treat nevus of Ota. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy and complication of QS alexandrite (QS Alex) laser versus QS neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) (QS Nd:YAG) laser for bilateral nevus of Ota. Seventeen patients with bilateral nevus of Ota were treated randomly with QS Alex in one half of face and QS Nd:YAG in the other half with an interval of at least 3 months between each. Subjective assessment was made by both patients and dermatologists. Patients were also examined for evidence of complications. All patients experienced improvement (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the two sides (p > 0.05). The pain after a short period of laser therapy was more severe for QS Alex than for QS Nd:YAG laser. Vesicles developed in 1 patient after QS Alex therapy. Both QS Alex laser and QS Nd:YAG laser were equally effective at improving bilateral nevus of Ota. Patients tolerate QS Nd:YAG laser better than QS Alex laser.

  18. A randomized, split-face clinical trial of Q-switched alexandrite laser versus Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of bilateral nevus of Ota.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiang; Li, Yong; Jiang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Different types of Q-switched (QS) lasers have been used successfully to treat nevus of Ota. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy and complication of QS alexandrite (QS Alex) laser versus QS neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) (QS Nd:YAG) laser for bilateral nevus of Ota. Seventeen patients with bilateral nevus of Ota were treated randomly with QS Alex in one half of face and QS Nd:YAG in the other half with an interval of at least 3 months between each. Subjective assessment was made by both patients and dermatologists. Patients were also examined for evidence of complications. All patients experienced improvement (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the two sides (p > 0.05). The pain after a short period of laser therapy was more severe for QS Alex than for QS Nd:YAG laser. Vesicles developed in 1 patient after QS Alex therapy. Both QS Alex laser and QS Nd:YAG laser were equally effective at improving bilateral nevus of Ota. Patients tolerate QS Nd:YAG laser better than QS Alex laser. PMID:25968166

  19. Q-switched mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator Bi(2)Se(3) deposited fiber taper.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Jing Dong; Zhu, Tao; Zhang, Han; Zhao, Chu Jun; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Hua

    2014-08-10

    We have demonstrated the passive Q-switching mode-locking operation in an erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser by using topological insulator Bi(2)Se(3) deposited on fiber taper, whose damage threshold can be further increased by the large evanescent field interacting length. Due to the low saturation intensity, stable Q-switched mode-locked fiber lasers centered at 1562 nm can be generated at a pump power of 10 mW. The temporal and spectral characteristics for different pump strengths have also been investigated. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time a Q-switched mode-locked EDF laser based on the fiber taper deposited by Bi(2)Se(3) was generated. PMID:25320919

  20. Nanosecond pulse generation in a passively Q-switched Nd:GGG laser at 1331 nm by CVD graphene saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bin; Wang, Yi; Cheng, Yongjie; Yang, Han; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping

    2015-10-01

    We report on a nanosecond pulse generation in a diode end-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GGG laser at the low-gain transition line of 1331 nm. A three-layer CVD graphene thin film was transferred from Cu foil to a BK7 glass substrate for the use of saturable absorber. A stable Q-switching laser operation was obtained with maximum average output power of 0.69 W and slope efficiency of about 11.0% with respect to the absorbed pump power. The shortest pulse duration and the maximum repetition rate of the pulse trains were registered to be 556 ns and 166.7 kHz with corresponding maximum pulse energy 4.14 μJ and pulse peak power 7.45 W. This is the first demonstration of CVD-graphene-based Q-switched laser operation at 1.3 μm, to the best of our knowledge.

  1. Q-switched mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator Bi(2)Se(3) deposited fiber taper.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Jing Dong; Zhu, Tao; Zhang, Han; Zhao, Chu Jun; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Hua

    2014-08-10

    We have demonstrated the passive Q-switching mode-locking operation in an erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser by using topological insulator Bi(2)Se(3) deposited on fiber taper, whose damage threshold can be further increased by the large evanescent field interacting length. Due to the low saturation intensity, stable Q-switched mode-locked fiber lasers centered at 1562 nm can be generated at a pump power of 10 mW. The temporal and spectral characteristics for different pump strengths have also been investigated. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time a Q-switched mode-locked EDF laser based on the fiber taper deposited by Bi(2)Se(3) was generated.

  2. Evaluation of a commercially available passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with LiF: F2- saturable absorber for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Cantwell G.; Goueguel, Christian L.; Sanghapi, Hervé; Jain, Jinesh; McIntyre, Dustin

    2016-05-01

    Interest in passively Q-switched microchip lasers as a means for miniaturization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) apparatus has rapidly grown in the last years. To explore the possibility of using a comparatively UV-vis transparent absorber, we herein present the first report on the evaluation of a commercially available flash lamp-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with LiF: F2- saturable absorber as an excitation source in LIBS. Quantitative measurements of barium, strontium, rubidium and lithium in granite, rhyolite, basalt and syenite whole-rock glass samples were performed. Using a gated intensified benchtop spectrometer, limits of detection of 0.97, 23, 37, and 144 ppm were obtained for Li, Sr, Rb, and Ba, respectively. Finally, we discuss the advantages of using such a laser unit for LIBS applications in terms of ablation efficiency, analytical performances, output energy, and standoff capabilities.

  3. Optimization of doubly Q-switched lasers with both an acousto-optic modulator and a GaAs saturable absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Li Dechun; Zhao Shengzhi; Li Guiqiu; Yang Kejian

    2007-08-20

    A doubly Q-switched laser with both an acousto-optic (AO) modulator and a GaAs saturable absorber can obtain a more symmetric and shorter pulse with high pulse peak power, which has been experimentally proved. The key parameters of an optimally coupled doubly Q-switched laser with both an AO modulator and a GaAs saturable absorber are determined, and a group of general curves are generated for what we believe is the first time, when the single-photon absorption (SPA) and two-photon absorption (TPA) processes of GaAs are combined, and the Gaussian spatial distributions of the intracavity photon density and the initial population-inversion density as well as the influence of the AO Q-switch are considered. These key parameters include the optimal normalized coupling parameter, the optimal normalized GaAs saturable absorber parameters, and the normalized parameters of the AO Q-switch, which can maximize the output energy. Meanwhile, the corresponding normalized energy, the normalized peak power, and the normalized pulse width are given. The curves clearly show the dependence of the optimal key parameters on the parameters of the gain medium, the GaAs saturable absorber,the AO Q-switch, and the resonator. Sample calculations for a diode-pumpedNd3+:YVO4 laser with both an AO modulator and a GaAs saturable absorber are presented to demonstrate the use of the curves and the relevant formulas.

  4. Optimization of doubly Q-switched lasers with both an acousto-optic modulator and a GaAs saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Li, Dechun; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Guiqiu; Yang, Kejian

    2007-08-20

    A doubly Q-switched laser with both an acousto-optic (AO) modulator and a GaAs saturable absorber can obtain a more symmetric and shorter pulse with high pulse peak power, which has been experimentally proved. The key parameters of an optimally coupled doubly Q-switched laser with both an AO modulator and a GaAs saturable absorber are determined, and a group of general curves are generated for what we believe is the first time, when the single-photon absorption (SPA) and two-photon absorption (TPA) processes of GaAs are combined, and the Gaussian spatial distributions of the intracavity photon density and the initial population-inversion density as well as the influence of the AO Q-switch are considered. These key parameters include the optimal normalized coupling parameter, the optimal normalized GaAs saturable absorber parameters, and the normalized parameters of the AO Q-switch, which can maximize the output energy. Meanwhile, the corresponding normalized energy, the normalized peak power, and the normalized pulse width are given. The curves clearly show the dependence of the optimal key parameters on the parameters of the gain medium, the GaAs saturable absorber, the AO Q-switch, and the resonator. Sample calculations for a diode-pumped Nd3+:YVO4 laser with both an AO modulator and a GaAs saturable absorber are presented to demonstrate the use of the curves and the relevant formulas.

  5. Narrow-band 1 W source at 257 nm using frequency quadrupled passively Q-switched Yb:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Lew; Cole, Brian; McIntosh, Chris; King, Vernon; Hays, A D; Chinn, Stephen R

    2016-07-25

    We describe generation of 1.1 W of 257 nm emission by frequency quadrupling the 1030 nm emission from a compact passively Q-switched Yb:YAG laser. The laser utilized a volume Bragg grating to achieve a 0.1 nm linewidth required for UV-Raman spectroscopic applications, generated 100 kW peak power, 250 μJ pulses and 3.6 W of average power at 1030 nm. Fourth harmonic generation (FHG) was carried out using a 10 mm lithium triborate (LBO) crystal to generate 515 nm second harmonic with 70% conversion efficiency, followed by a 7 mm beta-barium borate (BBO) crystal to generate 257 nm fourth harmonic with 45% efficiency, resulting in an overall nonlinear conversion efficiency of 31%. Far-field and near-field of the FHG emission were characterized.

  6. Stable and wavelength-locked Q-switched narrow-linewidth Er:YAG laser at 1645 nm.

    PubMed

    Tang, Pinghua; Liu, Jun; Huang, Bin; Xu, Changwen; Zhao, Chujun; Wen, Shuangchun

    2015-05-01

    A stable and wavelength-locked Q-switched narrow-linewidth Er:YAG laser with compact cavity structure, utilizing a volume Bragg grating (VBG) as a wavelength selector and a pump input mirror simultaneously, is reported. It yields high energy nanosecond pulse with pulse duration of 185 ns and pulse energy of 1.36 mJ at 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency for incident pump power of 21.6 W. The central wavelength of the Er:YAG laser is locked at 1645.3 nm with a spectral 3-dB linewidth of less than 0.08 nm, which coincides to the methane (CH4) absorption-line. The output has near diffraction-limited beam quality with M2 parameter of 1.08. Our work may provide an inroad for developing more miniaturized space-based integrated path differential absorption (IDPA) lidar transmitter. PMID:25969199

  7. Passively Q-switched erbium all-fiber lasers by use of thulium-doped saturable-absorber fibers.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tzong-Yow; Fang, Yen-Cheng; Hung, Shih-Hao

    2010-05-10

    We demonstrate all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium lasers at 1570 nm using Tm(3+)-doped saturable-absorber fibers. The absorption cross section of a Tm(3+)-doped fiber at 1570 nm was measured in a bleaching experiment to be about 1.44 x 10(-20) cm(2). With a thulium-doped fiber, sequential pulses with a pulse energy of 9 microJ and a pulse duration of about 420 ns were stably produced at repetition rates in the range 0.1 to 2 kHz. The maximum pulse repetition rate was 6 kHz, limited by the maximum pump power of a 980-nm laser diode, about 230 mW.

  8. Narrow-band 1 W source at 257 nm using frequency quadrupled passively Q-switched Yb:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Lew; Cole, Brian; McIntosh, Chris; King, Vernon; Hays, A D; Chinn, Stephen R

    2016-07-25

    We describe generation of 1.1 W of 257 nm emission by frequency quadrupling the 1030 nm emission from a compact passively Q-switched Yb:YAG laser. The laser utilized a volume Bragg grating to achieve a 0.1 nm linewidth required for UV-Raman spectroscopic applications, generated 100 kW peak power, 250 μJ pulses and 3.6 W of average power at 1030 nm. Fourth harmonic generation (FHG) was carried out using a 10 mm lithium triborate (LBO) crystal to generate 515 nm second harmonic with 70% conversion efficiency, followed by a 7 mm beta-barium borate (BBO) crystal to generate 257 nm fourth harmonic with 45% efficiency, resulting in an overall nonlinear conversion efficiency of 31%. Far-field and near-field of the FHG emission were characterized. PMID:27464186

  9. Fiber-optic delivery of high-peak-power Q-switched laser pulses for in-cylinder flow measurement.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Timothy J; Haste, Martin J; Towers, David P; Thomson, Martin J; Taghizadeh, Mohammed R; Jones, Julian D C; Hand, Duncan P

    2003-07-20

    A bundle of optical fibers was constructed to deliver Q-switched frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser pulses for the purpose of particle image velocimetry. Data loss that is due to fiber speckle was reduced by ensuring that each fiber was different in length by more than the coherence length of the laser being delivered. Hence, their speckle patterns will overlap but not interfere, producing more even illumination that is shown to reduce data loss. A custom-made diffractive optical element and careful endface preparation help to reduce damage to the fibers by the required high peak powers. With this method, pulse energies in excess of 25 mJ were delivered for a series of experimental trials within the cylinder head of an optically accessed internal combustion engine. Results from these trials are presented along with a comparison of measurements generated by conventionally delivered beams.

  10. Delivering dispersion-managed soliton and Q-switched pulse in fiber laser based on graphene and nonlinear optical loop mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. B.; Wang, F.; Yu, Q.; Zhang, X.; Lu, Y. X.; Gu, J.

    2016-11-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a bidirectional erbium-doped fiber laser delivering dispersion-managed soliton (DMS) and Q-switched pulse based on a graphene-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) saturable absorbers (SAs). In proposed structure, the DMS is achieved in clockwise (CW) direction and Q-switched pulse is obtained in counter-clockwise (CCW) direction. By properly adjusting the intracavity attenuators (ATT) and polarizer controllers (PCs), DMS in the CW direction and Q-switched pulse in the CCW direction can be obtained, respectively or simultaneously. The DMS with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ~480 fs, signal to noise ratio (SNR) of ~60 dB and repetition frequency about 3.907 MHz is obtained. The Q-switched pulse is established at a pump power of 180 mW with a repetition rate of ~43.5 kHz and FWHM of ~8.18 μs. When the pump power is increased to 700 mW, Q-switched pulse with a repetition rate of ~107.1 kHz and FWHM of ~2.15 μs is generated. When the two type pulses are formed simultaneously, the maximum repetition rate of Q-switched pulse is 55.8 kHz and minimum FWHM is 2.81 μs, the DMS can be formed by properly adjusting PC and ATT in this case. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that Q-switched pulse and DMS have been acquired respectively or simultaneously in a fiber laser.

  11. All-fiber dual wavelength passive Q-switched fiber laser using a dispersion-decreasing taper fiber in a nonlinear loop mirror.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Harith; Dernaika, Mohamad; Harun, Sulaiman Wadi

    2014-09-22

    This paper describes a proposal and successful demonstration of a dual wavelength all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber ring laser. The Q-switch operation was realized by using a nonlinear loop mirror that incorporated an unbalanced dispersion-decreasing taper fiber to act as a saturable absorber without additional elements. This setup enabled a fiber ring laser to achieve a performance of 48.7 kHz repetition rate with pulse duration of around 3.2 μs and approximate pulse energy of 20 nJ. PMID:25321748

  12. Passive q-switching of CO/sub 2/ TEA laser using sulfur hexafluoride (SF/sub 6/). Report for April-August 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Pastel, R.

    1986-10-01

    Passive Q-switching of a CO/sub 2/ TEA laser using sulfur hexafluoride (SF/sub 6/) was demonstrated at 10.2 micron. There is minimum loss of peak power, narrowing of the pulse, and elimination of the tail. Q-switching at 9.6 micron was not observed. Also discussed is the use of SF/sub 6/ to frequency the laser to the strong gain lines of the 10.2-m and 9.6-m branch of the CO/sub 2/ emission. Both theory and experimental results are given.

  13. Compact self-Q-switched green upconversion Er:ZBLAN all-fiber laser operating at 543.4  nm.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhengqian; Ruan, Qiujun; Zhong, Min; Cheng, Yongjie; Yang, Runhua; Xu, Bin; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping

    2016-05-15

    We report the demonstration of a compact self-Q-switched green upconversion Er3+:ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN) fiber laser operating at 543.4 nm. The all-fiber green laser simply consists of a 45 cm high-concentration Er3+:ZBLAN fiber, a 976 nm pump source, and a pair of fiber end-facet mirrors. Under the strong excitation of the 976 nm pump laser, green upconversion lasing at 543.4 nm is achieved from the compact Er3+:ZBLAN fiber laser. Interestingly, the green laser exhibits stable self-Q-switching operation. As the 976 nm pump power is increased, the pulse repetition rate linearly increases from 25.9 to 50.8 kHz and the pulse width narrows from 7.2 to 1.95 μs. The Q-switched green laser has a pump threshold of 118 mW and a maximum output power of 6.9 mW with a slope efficiency of 30%. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the shortest-wavelength operation of a self-started or passively Q-switched fiber laser. PMID:27176977

  14. Prelase stabilization of the polarization state and frequency of a {ital Q}-switched, diode-pumped, Nd:YAG laser

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, T.; Lowrie, C.; Thompson, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the energy statistics of the linear polarization components of pulses from a Nd:YAG laser that is repetitively Q-switched with an acousto-optic modulator. Varying the modulator-induced diffraction losses leads to changes in the pulse polarization state and the energy statistics of the polarization components. For conventional Q-switching there is no laser oscillation during the low-Q intervals, and we find that the orthogonal components of the pulses can display large relative energy fluctuations even though the total pulse energy is quite stable. In the prelase mode, a weak continuous-wave background seeds the Q-switched pulses and results in the emission of highly linearly polarized, single-longitudinal-mode pulses with small relative energy fluctuations. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  15. Wavelength tunable Q-switch laser in visible region with Pr3+-doped fluoride-glass fiber pumped by GaN diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojou, Junichiro; Watanabe, Yojiro; Agrawal, Priyanka; Kamimura, Toshihiro; Kannari, Fumihiko

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate pulse laser operation of a 4-cm-long Pr3+-doped fluoride-glass fiber laser pumped by InGaN laser diodes (444 nm) using an acousto-optic modulator. We obtained maximum laser peak power of 105.6 W (2.1 μJ/pulse) with a pulse width of 20 ns at an 8.3-kHz repetition rate for a 607-nm wavelength. Employing a prism tuning cavity, we obtained wavelength tunable Q-switch pulse laser oscillation in the visible region (488-491, 520-526, 601-624, 631-644 nm).

  16. Severe unexpected adverse effects after permanent eye makeup and their management by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Alberto; Wollina, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Permanent makeup is a cosmetic tattoo that is used to enhance one's appearance, and which has become more popular among middle-aged and elderly women. A couple of benefits seem to be associated with permanent tattoos in the elderly: saving time (wake up with makeup); poor eyesight (difficult to apply makeup); and saving money. On the other hand, cosmetic tattoos bear the same risks as other tattoo procedures. We report on fading and unintended hyperpigmentation after tattooing on eyebrows and eyelids, and discuss the scientific and anatomical background behind the possible cause. Dermatochalasis may be a possible risk factor for excessive unwanted discolorations. Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser is an appropriate and safe therapeutic tool that can manage such adverse effects. Consumer protection warrants better information and education of the risks of cosmetic tattoos - in particular, for elderly women.

  17. Severe unexpected adverse effects after permanent eye makeup and their management by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Alberto; Wollina, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Permanent makeup is a cosmetic tattoo that is used to enhance one’s appearance, and which has become more popular among middle-aged and elderly women. A couple of benefits seem to be associated with permanent tattoos in the elderly: saving time (wake up with makeup); poor eyesight (difficult to apply makeup); and saving money. On the other hand, cosmetic tattoos bear the same risks as other tattoo procedures. We report on fading and unintended hyperpigmentation after tattooing on eyebrows and eyelids, and discuss the scientific and anatomical background behind the possible cause. Dermatochalasis may be a possible risk factor for excessive unwanted discolorations. Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser is an appropriate and safe therapeutic tool that can manage such adverse effects. Consumer protection warrants better information and education of the risks of cosmetic tattoos – in particular, for elderly women. PMID:25143716

  18. The formation of iron aluminides on aluminum surface by using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser

    SciTech Connect

    Bidin, Noriah; Al-Wafi, Yusef A.

    2014-03-05

    The formation and growth of Fe based aluminum diffusion layers at the Fe-Al interface have been investigated to improve the surface hardness. The diffusion of Fe into Al has been accomplished by focusing a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser on the modified surface. The variety of the layer depth is achieved based on the type of heating and quenching media. Microstructural characterization and mechanical properties of the modified surface were carried out via gas discharge spectrometer GDS, X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Vickers Hardness tester. The results indicate that hardness at the interface of Fe-Al layer is increased. The optimum hardness achieved as 93 HV at corresponding critical energy density of 438 Jcm{sup −2}.

  19. In vitro assessment of fiber sweeping angle during Q-switched 532-nm laser tissue ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabhandharaks, Danop; Kang, Hyun Wook; Ko, Woo Jin; Stinson, Douglas; Choi, Benjamin

    2011-03-01

    Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) has been widely used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It is well regarded as a safe and minimally invasive procedure and an alternative to the gold standard transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Despite of its greatness, as well aware of, the operative procedure time during the PVP is still prolonged. Such attempts have been tried out in order to shorten the operative time and increase its efficacy. However, scientific study to investigate techniques used during the PVP is still lacking. The objective of this study is to investigate how sweeping angle might affect the PVP performance. Porcine kidneys acquired from a local grocery store were used (N=140). A Q-switched 532-nm GreenLight XPSTM (American Medical Systems, Inc., MN, USA), together with 750- μm core MoXyTM fiber, was set to have power levels of 120 W and 180 W. Treatment speed and sweeping speed were fixed at 2 mm/s and 0.5 sweep/s, respectively. Sweeping angles were varied from 0 (no sweeping motion) to 120 degree. Ablation rate, depth, and coagulation zone were measured and quantified. Tissue ablation rate was peaked at 15 and 30 degree for both 120- and 180-W power levels and dramatically decreased beyond 60 degree. At 180 W, ablation rate increased 20% at 30 degree compared to 0 degree. This study demonstrated that ablation rate could be maximized and was contingent upon sweeping angle.

  20. 2.79 μm high peak power LGS electro-optically Q-switched Cr,Er:YSGG laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Wang, Jintao; Yang, Jingwei; Wu, Xianyou; Sun, Dunlu; Yin, Shaotang; Jiang, Haihe; Wang, Jiyang; Xu, Changqing

    2013-06-15

    A flash lamp pumped Cr,Er:YSGG laser utilizing a langasite (LGS) crystal as an electro-optic Q-switch is proposed and demonstrated. It is proved that a LGS crystal with relatively high damage threshold can be used as the electro-optic Q-switch at 2.79 μm, and 216 mJ pulse energy with 14.36 ns pulse width is achieved. Its corresponding peak power of pulse can reach 15 MW, to our knowledge the best result at a 2.79 μm wavelength.

  1. InGaAs/GaAs saturable absorber for diode-pumped passively Q-switched dual-wavelength Tm:YAP lasers.

    PubMed

    Yao, Baoquan; Tian, Yi; Li, Gang; Wang, Yuezhu

    2010-06-21

    We demonstrate the first use of InGaAs/GaAs as a saturable absorber in the Q-switching of a diode pumped Tm(3+) doped laser operating at the wavelengths of 1940 nm and 1986 nm. The influence of the semiconductor saturable absorber's (SESA) position and thermal lens effect on the Q-switch characteristics was investigated. With a pump power of 35 W, the maximum pulse energy of 28.1 microJ with a pulse width of 447 ns at the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 43.7 kHz was obtained by selecting the appropriate position of the SESA.

  2. LD-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GGG laser at 1062 nm with a GaAs saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. N.; Li, P.; Wang, Q. P.; Chen, X. H.

    2011-11-01

    we have experimentally studied the passively Q-switched performance of a diode-pumped Nd:GGG laser at 1062 nm with a GaAs saturable absorber, in the experiment when the pumped power was 9.8 W, the maximum CW output power of 5.1 W was obtained. The optical conversion efficiency and the slop efficiency were 52 and 53%, respectively. The threshold was 0.9 W. In the passively Q-switched regime, we get the average output power of 0.93 W. The shortest pulse width and pulse repetition rate were 7 ns and 188 kHz, respectively.

  3. Broadband tuning in a passively Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser (EDFL) via multiwall carbon nanotubes/polyvinyl alcohol (MWCNT/PVA) saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, H.; Hassan, S. N. M.; Ahmad, F.; Zulkifli, M. Z.; Harun, S. W.

    2016-04-01

    An MWCNT/PVA-based Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) that uses a tunable bandpass filter (TBPF) as the wavelength tuning and filtering mechanism to achieve a broadband tuning range is proposed and demonstrated. The tuning range of the generated Q-switched pulses covered a wide wavelength range of 50 nm, which spanned from 1519 nm to 1569 nm and corresponded to the S- and C-band regions. In addition, the lasing and Q-switching operations had low thresholds of 8.9 mW and 22.4 mW respectively. The highest pulse energy of 52.13 nJ was obtained at an output wavelength of 1569 nm, with a corresponding repetition rate of 26.53 kHz and pulse width of 6.10 μs, at the maximum power of 114.8 mW.

  4. 4.5 W mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a ZBLAN fiber pumped by a Q-switched mode-locked Tm3+- doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneis, C.; Donelan, B.; Berrou, A.; Manek-Hönninger, I.; Cadier, B.; Robin, T.; Poulain, M.; Joulain, F.; Eichhorn, M.; Kieleck, C.

    2015-02-01

    The generation of mid-infrared (mid-IR) supercontinuum (SC) radiation, ranging from 2 - 5 μm, is subject of intense research due to its wide range of applications. A very popular host media for mid-IR SC generation are soft glass fibers owing to their low-loss transmission in the mid-IR wavelength regime, particularly fluoride fibers are very attractive for high-power operation. In this research study, a diode-pumped Q-switched mode-locked (QML) thulium (Tm3+)-doped double-clad silica fiber laser is used to pump a ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN) fiber for mid-IR SC generation. The QML regime of the fiber laser is actively generated by two acousto-optic modulators. The Tm3+-fiber laser provided up to 23.5 W (26 W) of average output power in QML (continuous wave) regime with a slope efficiency of 36 % (32 %). The measured beam quality has been close to the diffraction-limit in QML regime. The system delivered mode-locked pulses with a duration of 7.5 ps, measured with a commercial autocorrelator system, at a repetition rate of 46 MHz. The Q-switched envelopes had a width between 50 and 150 ns depending on the output power level and the adjustable repetition rate. Mid-IR SC with an average output power in all spectral bands of 4.5 W have been achieved with more than 3 W/ 1.7 W/ 1 W/ 0.36 W after a long-wave-pass filter with a 3 dB-edge at 2.15 μm/ 2.65 μm/ 3.1 μm/ 3.5 μm.

  5. MoS2 nanoflowers as high performance saturable absorbers for an all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Wei, Rongfei; Zhang, Hang; Tian, Xiangling; Qiao, Tian; Hu, Zhongliang; Chen, Zhi; He, Xin; Yu, Yongze; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-04-14

    Strong saturable absorption was observed in MoS2 nanoflowers, which were synthesized by a facile solvothermal method. A MoS2 nanoflower-based saturable absorber with a high modulation depth of 51.8% and a large saturable intensity of 275.5 GW cm(-2) was introduced to the application of passively Q-switched fiber laser generation. Stable passively Q-switched fiber laser pulses at 1.56 μm with a low threshold power of 16.10 mW, high signal-to-noise ratio of 52.5 dB and short pulse duration of 1.9 μs were obtained. More importantly, a high output power of 3.10 mW related to a large pulse energy of about 51.84 nJ can be attained at a very low pump power. The efficiency of the laser reaches 4.71%, which is larger than that of the prepared layered MoS2 and recently reported MoS2-based passively Q-switching operations. Such results imply that the MoS2 nanoflowers are an excellent candidate for a saturable absorber in passively Q-switched fiber lasers at a low pump intensity. PMID:26997036

  6. Observation of a 100-MHz frequency variation across the output of a frequency-doubled injection-seeded unstable-resonator Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Forkey, J N; Lempert, W R; Miles, R B

    1997-02-15

    We report high-resolution measurements of the spatial variation of the optical frequency of an injection-seeded unstable-resonator Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Images of the second harmonic taken through a molecular-iodine notch filter show frequency variations of as much as 100 MHz (second harmonic) between the center and the edge of the beam. PMID:18183159

  7. MoS2 nanoflowers as high performance saturable absorbers for an all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Wei, Rongfei; Zhang, Hang; Tian, Xiangling; Qiao, Tian; Hu, Zhongliang; Chen, Zhi; He, Xin; Yu, Yongze; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-04-14

    Strong saturable absorption was observed in MoS2 nanoflowers, which were synthesized by a facile solvothermal method. A MoS2 nanoflower-based saturable absorber with a high modulation depth of 51.8% and a large saturable intensity of 275.5 GW cm(-2) was introduced to the application of passively Q-switched fiber laser generation. Stable passively Q-switched fiber laser pulses at 1.56 μm with a low threshold power of 16.10 mW, high signal-to-noise ratio of 52.5 dB and short pulse duration of 1.9 μs were obtained. More importantly, a high output power of 3.10 mW related to a large pulse energy of about 51.84 nJ can be attained at a very low pump power. The efficiency of the laser reaches 4.71%, which is larger than that of the prepared layered MoS2 and recently reported MoS2-based passively Q-switching operations. Such results imply that the MoS2 nanoflowers are an excellent candidate for a saturable absorber in passively Q-switched fiber lasers at a low pump intensity.

  8. Experimental retinectomy with a 6.1 μm Q-switched Raman-shifted alexandrite laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joos, Karen M.; Prasad, Ratna; Kozub, John; Ivanov, Borislav; Agarwal, Anita; Shen, Jin H.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: It is hypothesized that 6.1 μm produced by a portable laser would be useful for incising tissue layers such as performing a retinectomy in detached retina with extensive anterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Methods: An alexandrite laser system, which provides a high-intensity Q-switched pulse (780 nm, 50-100 ns duration, 10 Hz), is wavelength-shifted by a two-stage stimulated Raman conversion process into the 6-7 μm range (Light Age, Inc.). Fresh cadaver porcine retinas were lased with 6.1 μm using a 200 μm diameter spot at 0.6 mJ after removal of the vitreous. Specimens were examined grossly and prepared for histological examination. Results: The Raman-shifted alexandrite laser produced a smooth Gaussian profile. A narrow spectrum was produced at 6.1 μm. A full-thickness retinal incision with minimal thermal damage was obtained at a low energy level of 0.6 mJ in the retinas. However, the depth of the incision did vary from an incomplete incision to a full-thickness incision involving the underlying choroidal layer in attached retinas. Conclusions: The 6.1 μm mid-infrared energy produced by a portable laser is capable of incising detached retinas with minimal thermal damage.

  9. Output characteristics of diode-end-pumped electro-optically Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser at 1064 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weifang; Zhang, Ling; Yu, Haijuan; Qi, Yaoyao; He, Chaojian; Zhang, Jingyuan; Lin, Xuechun

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrated a Q-switched Nd:LuVO4 laser with fundamental mode at 1064 nm using BaB2O4 electro-optic Q-switching. High-efficiency operation of Q-switched laser with dynamic to static ratio of 91.4% was realized. When the absorbed pump power was 6.59 W, the maximum average output power of 2.88 W was achieved with a repetition rate of 50 kHz. The optical conversion efficiency and slope efficiency were 43.7% and 55.5%, respectively. The minimum pulse width of 17.8 ns was achieved. Meanwhile, the pulse energy and peak power were 57.6 μJ and 3.2 kW, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate about the electro-optically Q-switched laser in Nd:LuVO4 crystal.

  10. Single-frequency, injection-seeded Q-switched operation of resonantly pumped Er:YAG ceramic laser at 1645 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qing; Gao, Chunqing; Wang, Shuo; Na, Quanxin; Shi, Yang; Wang, Qing; Gao, Mingwei; Zhang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    A single-frequency Q-switched Er:YAG polycrystalline ceramic laser is reported for the first time. The `Ramp-Hold-Fire' injection-seeding technique was employed to obtain single-frequency pulses, with an Er:YAG NPRO as a seed laser. Single-frequency laser operation was obtained with pulse energy of 4.7 mJ, pulse width of 250 ns and pulse repetition rate of 200 Hz.

  11. Lean-Burn Stationary Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine Operation with a Prototype Miniature Diode Side Pumped Passively Q-switched Laser Spark Plug

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, D.L.; Woodruff, S.D.; McMillian, M.H.; Richardson, S.W.; Gautam, Mridul

    2008-04-01

    To meet the ignition system needs of large bore lean burn stationary natural gas engines a laser diode side pumped passively Q-switched laser igniter was developed and used to ignite lean mixtures in a single cylinder research engine. The laser design was produced from previous work. The in-cylinder conditions and exhaust emissions produced by the miniaturized laser were compared to that produced by a laboratory scale commercial laser system used in prior engine testing. The miniaturized laser design as well as the combustion and emissions data for both laser systems was compared and discussed. It was determined that the two laser systems produced virtually identical combustion and emissions data.

  12. Low-pulse energy Q-switched Nd:YAG laser treatment for hair-dye-induced Riehl's melanosis.

    PubMed

    On, Hye Rang; Hong, Won Jin; Roh, Mi Ryung

    2015-06-01

    Riehl's melanosis, a form of dermatitis characterized by reticulate pigmentation, typically presents as a gray-brown to black hyperpigmentation on the face and neck. Among the various etiologic factors suggested, photoallergic reaction and pigmented contact dermatitis resulting from exposure to drugs, coal tar dyes, optical whitener, or other ingredients found in cosmetics are believed to be the major contributing factors in this disease. The histopathological features of Riehl's melanosis mainly consist of pigmentary incontinence along with infiltration of numerous dermal melanophages and lymphohistiocytes.1,2 Additionally, notable clinical improvements in the treatment of this condition have been reported for intense pulsed light (IPL) therapy, in comparison to long-term topical application of bleaching agents.2 Here, we report the cases of two Asian patients treated with a low-pulse energy 1,064-nm Q-switched (QS) Nd:YAG laser for hair dye-induced Riehl's melanosis on the face and neck. In conclusion, we observed that Riehl's melanosis on the face and neck was effectively and safely treated with a low-pulse energy 1,064-nm QS Nd:YAG laser. We suggest that this method can be used in Asian patients with Riehl's melanosis at risk of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation from excessive light or laser energy delivery. PMID:25602355

  13. Removal of graffiti from the mortar by using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanjeevan, Poologanathan; Klemm, Agnieszka J.; Klemm, Piotr

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents part of the larger study on microstructural features of mortars and it's effects on laser cleaning process. It focuses on the influence of surface roughness, porosity and moisture content of mortars on the removal of graffiti by Nd:YAG laser. The properties of this laser are as follows: wavelength ( λ) 1.06 μm, energy: 500 mJ per pulse, pulse duration: 10 ns. The investigation shows that the variation of laser fluence with the number of pulses required for the laser cleaning can be divided into two zones, namely effective zone and ineffective zone. There is a linear relationship observed between number of pulses required for laser cleaning and the laser fluence in the effective zone, while the number of pulses required for the laser cleaning is almost constant even though the laser fluence increases in the ineffective zone. Moreover, surface roughness, porosity and moisture content of mortar samples have influence on the laser cleaning process. The effect of these parameters become however negligible at the high level of laser fluence. The number of pulses required for the laser cleaning is low for smooth surface or less porous mortar. Furthermore, the wetness of the samples facilitates the cleaning process.

  14. Q-switched 2 μm thulium bismuth co-doped fiber laser with multi-walled carbon nanotubes saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidin, N.; Zen, D. I. M.; Ahmad, F.; Haris, H.; Ahmad, H.; Dimyati, K.; Harun, S. W.; Halder, A.; Paul, M. C.; Pal, M.; Bhadra, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    We report a passively Q-switched fiber laser operating at 1900 nm region using the newly developed thulium bismuth co-doped lithium-alumino-germano-silicate fiber (TBF) as a gain medium in conjunction with a multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based saturable absorber (SA). The TBF and MWCNTs are fabricated and prepared in-house. By increasing the 802 nm pump power from 106.6 to 160 mW, stable generation of Q-switched TBFL has been obtained at 1857.8 nm wavelength. The pulse repetition rate varies from 12.84 to 29.48 kHz while pulse width is increased from 9.6 to 6.1 μs. The performance of the laser is also compared with the Q-switched TDFL, which was obtained using a similar MWCNTs SA and pump wavelength. The Q-switched TDFL generates an optical pulse train with a repetition rate increasing from 3.8 to 4.6 kHz and pulse width reducing from 22.1 to 18.3 μs when the pump power is tuned from 187.3 to 194.2 mW. This shows that the TBFL performs better than the TDFL in terms of threshold pump power, repetition rate and pulse width.

  15. Generation of more than 40  W of average output power from a passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Usha; Kuruvilla, Antony; Singh, Ravindra; Upadhyaya, B N; Bindra, K S; Oak, S M

    2016-01-10

    We report on the generation of 41.6 W of average output power from a passively Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using Cr4+:YAG crystal as a saturable absorber (SA). This is the highest average power from passively Q-switched fiber lasers reported so far in the literature, to our knowledge, and it has been achieved by using a specially designed T-type double-end pumping configuration. Variation in average output power, pulse energy, pulse duration, pulse frequency, and pulse-to-pulse stability has also been studied using SAs of different linear transmissions. The effect of an intracavity SA on self-pulsing dynamics was also investigated and it was observed that, at lower input pump power near threshold, the presence of an SA enhances the peak power of relaxation oscillations to trigger the generation of stimulated Raman scattering in the gain fiber. With an increase in pump power, when the passive Q-switching threshold is reached, high peak power random self-pulses regenerate into low amplitude regular Q-switched pulses. The effect of the length of the gain medium on dual-wavelength generation at very low input pump power and broadband generation at sufficiently higher pump power has also been explored. PMID:26835764

  16. Dynamic photopatterning of cells in situ by Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium ortho-vanadate laser.

    PubMed

    Deka, Gitanjal; Okano, Kazunori; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Cellular micropattering has been increasingly adopted in quantitative biological experiments. A Q-switched pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium ortho-vanadate (Nd∶YVO4) laser directed in-situ microfabrication technique for cell patterning is presented. A platform is designed uniquely to achieve laser ablation. The platform is comprised of thin gold coating over a glass surface that functions as a thermal transducer and is over-layered by a cell repellant polymer layer. Micropatterns are engraved on the platform, subsequently exposing specific cell adhesive micro-domains by ablating the gold-polymer coating photothermally. Experimental results indicate that the proposed approach is applicable under culture conditions, viable toward cells, and has a higher engraving speed. Possible uses in arraying isolated single cells on the platform are also shown. Additionally, based on those micro-patterns, dynamic cellular morphological changes and migrational speed in response to geometrical barriers are studied to demonstrate the potential applications of the proposed approach. Our results further demonstrate that cells in narrower geometry had elongated shapes and higher migrational speed than those in wider geometry. Importantly, the proposed approach will provide a valuable reference for efforts to study single cell dynamics and cellular migration related processes for areas such as cell division, wound healing, and cancer invasion.

  17. Biostimulative effects of Nd:YAG Q-switch dye on normal human fibroblast cultures: study of a new chemosensitizing agent for the Nd:YAG laser

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, D.J.; Saxton, R.E.; Fetterman, H.R.; Castro, D.J.; Ward, P.H.

    1987-12-01

    Kodak Q-switch II is a new chemical with an absorption maxima at 1051 nm, designed to be used as an Nd:YAG dye laser. The potential for this dye as a new chemosensitizing agent in the treatment of connective tissue diseases and wound healing with low energy Nd:YAG laser was examined. Two normal fibroblast cell lines were tested for sensitivity to various levels of this dye in vitro. These cells were exposed to Q-switch II dye at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 50, and 100 micrograms/ml for 1 and 24 hours. Cell viability was assessed by the trypan blue exclusion test. Cell duplication and DNA synthesis were measured by the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)-thymidine at 6 and 24 hours postexposure to Q-switch II dye. At concentrations up to 10 micrograms/ml, both cell lines tested showed no changes in cell viability. However, at concentrations equal or higher than 50 micrograms/ml, more than 40% of the fibroblasts incorporated trypan blue after 24 hours of exposure to this dye, indicating significant cell destruction. The results indicate that Q-switch II dye is nontoxic to normal human fibroblast cultures and showed significant biostimulative effects on cell duplication at concentrations equal to or lower than 10 micrograms/ml. Further studies will be required to determine the usefulness of Q-switch II dye as a new photochemosensitizing agent for potential biostimulation of wound healing and/or treatment of connective tissue diseases with the Nd:YAG laser (near infrared, 1060 nm) at nonthermal levels of energies.

  18. Bindi Tattoo on Forehead: Success with Modified R-20 Technique Using Low Fluence Q-Switched Nd Yag Laser: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Zawar, Vijay; Sarda, Aarti; De, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Bindi tattoo on the forehead, is one of the cultural practice in Indian women from rural areas. Many patients are not pleased with the appearance of their tattoo and thus seek removal. The development of quality-switched lasers has revolutionized the removal of unwanted tattoos. However, despite multiple treatment sessions, the efficacy is often found to be limited. We herein report a case of green-blue bindi tattoo which failed to clear after 8 sessions of Q-switched Nd YAG laser. The tattoo significantly cleared with R-20 method using low fluence Q-switched Nd YAG Laser. R-20 technique seems to be an effective method of tattoo removal and might be a boon for patients who are reluctant to pursue laser treatment because of fear of expenditure, side effects and uncertainty of result. We report efficacy of R-20 technique for a bindi tattoo on forehead. PMID:24761103

  19. Bi2Te3 based passively Q-switched fiber laser with cylindrical vector beam emission.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ke; Lin, Jian; Zhou, Yong; Gu, Chun; Xu, Lixin; Wang, Anting; Yao, Peijun; Zhan, Qiwen

    2016-04-10

    We report a passively Q-switched fiber laser with cylindrical vector beam output modes using a few-mode fiber Bragg grating as a polarization-selective output coupler and Bi2Te3 as the saturable absorber. Both radially and azimuthally polarized beams can be readily generated, and the output polarization can be switchable by tuning the polarization controllers inside the laser cavity. The repetition rate of the Q-switched laser can be tuned from 31.54 to 49.40 kHz when the pump power increases from 103.5 to 139.5 mW. The fiber laser operates at a single wavelength of 1557.5 nm with a 3 dB linewidth of <0.04  nm. PMID:27139870

  20. Diode-pumped passively Q-switched 912 nm Nd:GdVO 4 laser and pulsed deep-blue laser by intracavity frequency-doubling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Yu, Xin; Li, Xudong; Yan, Renpeng; Wang, Cheng; Luo, Ming; Zhang, Zhonghua; Yu, Junhua

    2010-10-01

    A diode-end-pumped passively Q-switched 912 nm Nd:GdVO 4/Cr 4+:YAG laser and its efficient intracavity frequency-doubling to 456 nm deep-blue laser were demonstrated in this paper. Using a simple V-type laser cavity, pulsed 912 nm laser characteristics were investigated with two kinds of Cr 4+:YAG crystal as the saturable absorbers, which have the different initial transmissivity ( TU) of 95% and 90% at 912 nm. When the TU = 95% Cr 4+:YAG was used, as much as an average output power of 2.8 W 912 nm laser was achieved at an absorbed pump power of 34.0 W, and the pulse width and the repetition rate were ˜ 40.5 ns and ˜ 76.6 kHz, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest average output power of diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd 3+-doped quasi-three-level laser. Employing a BiBO as the frequency-doubling crystal, 456 nm pulsed deep-blue laser was obtained with a maximum average output power of 1.2 W at a repetition rate ˜ 42.7 kHz.

  1. Passively Q-switched Yb3+:YCa4O(BO3)3 laser with InGaAs quantum wells as saturable absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, H. C.; Huang, J. Y.; Su, K. W.; Lai, H. C.; Chen, Y. F.; Huang, K. F.; Zhang, H. J.; Wang, J. Y.; Jiang, M. H.

    2007-04-01

    A diode-pumped Yb:YCOB laser at 1086 nm is passively Q switched by using InGaAs quantum wells as saturable absorbers and utilizing the Bragg mirror structure as an output coupler. With an absorbed pump power of 9.2 W the laser produces pulses of 100 ms duration with average pulse energy of as much as 165 μJ at a pulse repetition rate of 7 kHz.

  2. Passively Q-switched Yb3+:YCa4O(BO3)3 laser with InGaAs quantum wells as saturable absorbers.

    PubMed

    Liang, H C; Huang, J Y; Su, K W; Lai, H C; Chen, Y F; Huang, K F; Zhang, H J; Wang, J Y; Jiang, M H

    2007-04-20

    A diode-pumped Yb:YCOB laser at 1086 nm is passively Q switched by using InGaAs quantum wells as saturable absorbers and utilizing the Bragg mirror structure as an output coupler. With an absorbed pump power of 9.2 W the laser produces pulses of 100 ms duration with average pulse energy of as much as 165 microJ at a pulse repetition rate of 7 kHz.

  3. An optimized fiber delivery system for Q-switched, Nd:YAG lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Setchell, R.E.

    1996-11-01

    Interest in the transmission of high intensities through optical fibers is being motivated by an increasing number of applications. Using different laser types and fiber materials, various studies are encountering transmission limitations due to laser-induced damage processes. The authors have found that fiber transmission is often limited by a plasma-forming breakdown occurring at the fiber entrance face. System attributes that will affect breakdown and damage thresholds include laser characteristics, the design and alignment of laser-to-fiber injection optics, and fiber end-face preparation. In the present work the authors have combined insights gained in past studies in order to establish what thresholds can be achieved if all system attributes can be optimized to some degree. The multimode laser utilized past modifications that produced a relatively smooth, quasi-Gaussian profile. The laser-to-fiber injection system achieved a relatively low value for the ratio of peak-to-average fluences at the fiber entrance face, incorporated a mode scrambler to generate a broad mode power distribution within the initial segment of the fiber path, and had improved fixturing to insure that the fiber axis was collinear with the incident laser beam. Fiber end faces were prepared by a careful mechanical polishing schedule followed by surface conditioning using a CO{sub 2} laser. In combination, these factors resulted in higher thresholds for breakdown and damage than they had achieved previously in studies that utilized a simple lens injection system.

  4. Influence of focal point properties on energy transfer and plasma evolution during laser ignition process with a passively q-switched laser.

    PubMed

    Bärwinkel, Mark; Lorenz, Sebastian; Stäglich, Robert; Brüggemann, Dieter

    2016-07-11

    Miniaturized passively q-switched laser ignition systems are a promising alternative to conventional ignition sources to ensure a reliable ignition under difficult conditions. In this study the influences of focal point properties on energy transfer from laser to plasma as well as plasma formation and propagation are investigated as the first steps of the laser induced ignition process. Maximum fluence and fluence volume are introduced to characterize focal point properties for varying laser pulse energies and focusing configurations. The results show that the transferred laser energy increases with increasing maximum fluence. During laser emission plasma propagates along the beam path of the focused laser beam. Rising maximum fluence results in increased plasma volume, but expansion saturates when fluence volume reaches its maximum. PMID:27410797

  5. Influence of focal point properties on energy transfer and plasma evolution during laser ignition process with a passively q-switched laser.

    PubMed

    Bärwinkel, Mark; Lorenz, Sebastian; Stäglich, Robert; Brüggemann, Dieter

    2016-07-11

    Miniaturized passively q-switched laser ignition systems are a promising alternative to conventional ignition sources to ensure a reliable ignition under difficult conditions. In this study the influences of focal point properties on energy transfer from laser to plasma as well as plasma formation and propagation are investigated as the first steps of the laser induced ignition process. Maximum fluence and fluence volume are introduced to characterize focal point properties for varying laser pulse energies and focusing configurations. The results show that the transferred laser energy increases with increasing maximum fluence. During laser emission plasma propagates along the beam path of the focused laser beam. Rising maximum fluence results in increased plasma volume, but expansion saturates when fluence volume reaches its maximum.

  6. Treatment of Melasma with the Photoacoustic Twin Pulse Mode of Low-Fluence 1,064 nm Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jee Young; Choi, Misoo; Nam, Chan Hee; Kim, Ji Seok; Kim, Myung Hwa; Park, Byung Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-fluence 1,064 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been widely used for the treatment of melasma. Although new Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers with photoacoustic twin pulse (PTP) mode have been recently developed for high-efficiency, there is limited information available for the new technique. Objective This study was designed to investigate the efficacy and adverse effects after few sessions of repeated low fluence 1,064 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser treatment with PTP mode in Asian women with melasma. Methods Twenty-two Korean women were treated with a total of five sessions of low-fluence PTP mode Nd:YAG laser treatment (Pastelle®) at 2 weeks interval. Responses to treatments were evaluated by using Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) scoring, colorimeter measurement, and the investigators' and patients' overall assessments. Adverse events were recorded at each visit. Results Investigators' and patients' overall assessment showed that 'significantly improved' was assessed by 13 (59.1%) and 19 of 22 patients (86.4%), respectively. MASI scores were significantly reduced by 20.4%. The lightness, measured by using a colorimeter, was significantly increased by 1.3 point. Notable adverse events were not observed. Conclusion After 5 sessions of laser therapy alone, about 60% of the subjects showed significant improvement. Few sessions of repeated laser toning treatment using the PTP mode is a safe and effective way to treat facial melasma. PMID:27274626

  7. Compact diode-pumped continuous-wave and passively Q-switched Nd:GYSO laser at 1.07 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhi; Huang, Xiaoxu; Lan, Jinglong; Cui, Shengwei; Wang, Yi; Xu, Bin; Luo, Zhengqian; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Xu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jun; Xu, Jun

    2016-08-01

    We report diode-pumped continuous-wave (CW) and Q-switched Nd:GYSO lasers using a compact two-mirror linear laser cavity. Single-wavelength laser emissions at 1074.11 nm with 4.1-W power and at 1058.27 nm with 1.47-W power have been obtained in CW mode. The slope efficiencies with respect to the absorbed pump powers are 48.5% and 22.9%, respectively. Wavelength tunability is also demonstrated with range of about 8 nm. Using a MoS2 saturable absorber, maximum average output power up to 410 mW at 1074 nm can be yielded with absorbed pump power 6.41 W and the maximum pulse energy reaches 1.20 μJ with pulse repetition rate of 342.5 kHz and shortest pulse width of 810 ns. The CW laser results represent the best laser performance and the Q-switching also present the highest output power for Q-switched Nd3+ lasers with MoS2 as saturable absorber.

  8. Savior of post-blepharoepicanthoplasty scarring: Novel use of a low-fluence 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei Cheng Brian Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Blepharoplasty with medial epicanthoplasty is popular in Asia. However, known complications include scarring, which can take the form of hypertrophic scars or keloids. Treatments for scars include pressure dressing, silicone gels, retinoic acids, radiotherapy, cryotherapy, triamcinolone injections, and surgical revision. These methods, however, have variable outcomes. Recently, there is an interest in post-surgical scar remodeling with lasers. Although the 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG is primarily a pigment laser, it has recently been shown to be effective for treating scars. In the management of post-blepharoepicanthoplasty scarring, this is certainly unheard of. In this paper, we present a novel technique of treating a patient with post-blepharoepicanthoplasty hypertrophic scarring with a low-fluence 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. PMID:26820981

  9. A Q-Switched All-Solid-State Single-Longitudinal-Mode Laser with Adjustable Pulse-Width and High Repetition Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Xu, Shi-Zhong; Hou, Xia; Wei, Hui; Chen, Wei-Biao

    2006-01-01

    A single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) laser-diode pumped Nd: YAG laser with adjustable pulse width is developed by using the techniques of pre-lasing and changing polarization of birefingent crystal. The Q-switching voltage is triggered by the peak of the pre-lasing pulse to achieve the higher stability of output pulse energy. The output energy of more than 1 mJ is obtained with output energy stability of 3% (rms) at 100 Hz. The pulse-width can be adjusted from 30 ns to 300 ns by changing the Q-switching voltage. The probability of putting out single-longitudinal-mode pulses is almost 100%. The laser can be run over four hours continually without mode hopping.

  10. 2.78 μm passively Q-switched Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser based on PLD-Fe2+:ZnSe film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Feng, Guoying; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Xianheng; Dai, Shenyu; Zhou, Shouhuan

    2016-07-01

    Based on the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method, we first fabricated a mid-infrared Fe2+:ZnSe film saturable absorber (SA). By employing the PLD Fe2+:ZnSe film SA, we have demonstrated a passively Q-switched double-clad Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser operating at a wavelength of 2.78 μm. Stable Q-switched pulses with pulse energy of 7.98 μJ and pulse duration of 0.742 μs, corresponding to a peak power of 10.76 W, were obtained at a repetition rate of 102.94 kHz. The maximum average output power is 822 mW. Our results demostrate that the PLD-Fe2+:ZnSe film SA is promising for high power pulse generation in compact mid-infrared fiber lasers.

  11. Numerical Simulations of a 2.05 μm Q-switched Ho:YLF Laser for CO2 IPDA Space Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrientos Pellegrino, Jessica; Edouart, Dimitri; Gibert, Fabien; Cenac, Claire

    2016-06-01

    We report on numerical simulations of the performances of a 2.05 μm double pulse Q-switched Ho:YLF laser for the monitoring of CO2 from space. A Q-switched Holmium laser set-up based on a MOPA configuration is proposed to fulfill the requirements of a IPDA space-borne measurement. Double pulse operation is considered to obtain a 250 μs delay time between the ON and OFF pulse emissions. Numerical simulations results show that up to 40 mJ ON pulse can be extracted from the Ho:YLF laser at a repetition rate of 350 Hz with an optical efficiency of 17 %.

  12. Advanced Q-switched DPSS lasers for ID-card marking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertwig, Michael; Paster, Martin; Terbrueggen, Ralf

    2008-02-01

    Increased homeland security concerns across the world have generated a strong demand for forgery-proof ID documents. Manufacturers currently employ a variety of high technology techniques to produce documents that are difficult to copy. However, production costs and lead times are still a concern when considering any possible manufacturing technology. Laser marking has already emerged as an important tool in the manufacturer's arsenal, and is currently being utilized to produce a variety of documents, such as plastic ID cards, drivers' licenses, health insurance cards and passports. The marks utilized can range from simple barcodes and text to high resolution, true grayscale images. The technical challenges posed by these marking tasks include delivering adequate mark legibility, minimizing substrate burning or charring, accurately reproducing grayscale data, and supporting the required process throughput. This article covers the advantages and basic requirements on laser marking of cards and reviews how laser output parameters affect marking quality, speed and overall process economics.

  13. Magneto-optical Q-switching using magnetic garnet film with micromagnetic domains.

    PubMed

    Goto, Taichi; Morimoto, Ryohei; Pritchard, John W; Mina, Mani; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yuichi; Lim, Pang Boey; Taira, Takunori; Inoue, M

    2016-08-01

    High-power giant pulses can be used applied in various applications with Q-switched micro-lasers. This method can shorten the pulse duration; however, active control is currently impossible in micro-lasers. To achieve precise pulse control while maintaining compactness and simplicity, we exploit the magneto-optical effect in magnetic garnet films with micromagnetic domains that can be actively controlled by a pulsed magnetic field. Our Q-switching technique enhances the output power by a factor of 4 × 103. Moreover, the device itself is smaller than other Q-switching devices. This novel type of active Q-switch can be combined with a micro-laser to obtain megawatt-order pulses. PMID:27505732

  14. High power diode-pumped passively Q-switched and mode-locking Nd:GdVO 4 laser at 912 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Yu, Xin; Li, Xudong; Yan, Renpeng; Wang, Cheng; Chen, Deying; Zhang, Zhonghua; Yu, Junhua

    2011-01-01

    A high power diode-end-pumped passively Q-switched and mode-locking (QML) Nd:GdVO 4 laser at 912 nm was demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. A Z-type laser cavity with Cr 4+:YAG crystals as the intracavity saturable absorber were employed in the experiments. Influence of the initial transmission ( TU) of the saturable absorber on the QML laser performance was investigated. Using the TU = 95% Cr 4+:YAG, as much as an average output power of 2.0 W pulsed 912 nm laser was produced at an absorbed pump power of 25.0 W, then the repetition rates of the Q-switched envelope and the mode-locking pulse were ~ 224 kHz and ~ 160 MHz, respectively. Whereas the maximum output power was reduced to 1.3 W using the TU = 90% Cr 4+:YAG, we obtained a 100% modulation depth for the mode-locking pulses inside the Q-switched envelope.

  15. Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhipeng; Xie, Guoqiang; Zhang, Han; Zhao, Chujun; Yuan, Peng; Wen, Shuangchun; Qian, Liejia

    2015-09-21

    Black phosphorus, a newly emerged two-dimensional material, has attracted wide attention as novel photonic material. Here, multilayer black phosphorus is successfully fabricated by liquid phase exfoliation method. By employing black phosphorus as saturable absorber, we demonstrate a passively Q-switched Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser at the wavelength of 2.8 μm. The modulation depth and saturation fluence of the black phosphorus saturable absorber are measured to be 15% and 9 μJ/cm(2), respectively. The Q-switched fiber laser delivers a maximum average power of 485 mW with corresponding pulse energy of 7.7 μJ and pulse width of 1.18 μs at repetition rate of 63 kHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to demonstrate that black phosphorus can realize Q-switching of 2.8-μm fiber laser. Our research results show that black phosphorus is a promising saturable absorber for mid-infrared pulsed lasers.

  16. Cw and Q-switched Nd:NaLa(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} laser noncritical to the temperature drift of the diode pump laser wavelength

    SciTech Connect

    Ushakov, S N; Lis, Denis A; Subbotin, Kirill A; Romanyuk, V A; Shestakov, A V; Ryabochkina, P A; Shestakova, I A; Zharikov, Evgeny V

    2010-08-27

    Lasing in Nd:NaLa(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} crystals is obtained without stabilisation of the diode pump wavelength. A dependence of the cw laser power (at a wavelength of 1059 nm) on the pump diode temperature is found within a range of 10-458C. It is shown that the variations in the diode temperature within this region change the lasing efficiency no more than by 30%. In the passive Q-switching regime, the experiments were performed under both pulsed and cw pumping. Upon pulsed pumping, the laser energy was 16 {mu}J at the output pulse duration of 11 ns. The laser wavelength was 1059 nm, as well as in the case of cw operation. Upon cw pumping with a power of 1.5 W, laser pulses were obtained with an energy of 15 {mu}J. (lasers)

  17. Switchable dual-wavelength Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers using a large-angle tilted fiber grating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zuxing; Mou, Chengbo; Yan, Zhijun; Wang, Yongjin; Zhou, Kaiming; Zhang, Lin

    2015-01-26

    We proposed and demonstrated pulsed fiber lasers Q-switched and mode-locked by using a large-angle tilted fiber grating, for the first time to our best knowledge. Owing to the unique polarization properties of the large-angle tilted fiber grating (LA-TFG), i.e. polarization-dependent loss and polarization-mode splitting, switchable dual-wavelength Q-switched and mode-locked pulses have been achieved with short and long cavities, respectively. For the mode-locking case, the laser was under the operation of nanosecond rectangular pulses, due to the peak-power clamping effect. With the increasing pump power, the durations of both single- and dual-wavelength rectangular pulses increase. It was also found that each filtered wavelength of the dual-wavelength rectangular pulse corresponds to an individual nanosecond rectangular pulse by employing a tunable bandpass filter.

  18. As-grown uniform MoS2/mica saturable absorber for passively Q-switched mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Cheng; Ge, Pengguang; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Shouzhen; Li, Chun; Man, Baoyuan

    2016-08-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has recently attracted growing attention due to its distinctive properties and potential applications in optoelectronics and electronics. Here, large-area and high-quality MoS2 film with uniform thickness was obtained by thermally decomposing ammonium thiomolybdate. Besides, it is firstly demonstrated that the as-grown MoS2/mica can be directly inserted into Nd:GdVO4 laser cavity as saturable absorber for the output of diode-pumped passively Q-switched mode-locked pulse trains. Using the MoS2 saturable absorbers, the stable Q-switched mode-locked pulse trains with high modulation depth were realized, suggesting that the broadband MoS2 SA could potentially be employed in mode-locking laser system

  19. Model of the self-Q-switching instability of passively phased fiber laser arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Bochove, Erik J.; Aceves, Alejandro B.; Braiman, Yehuda; Colet, Pere R.; Deiterding, Ralf; Jacobo, Adrian; Miller, Casey A; Rhodes, Charles; Shakir, Sami A.

    2011-01-01

    A simple physical model is presented to explain observed self-pulsations in passively phased rare earth-doped fiber laser arrays. Their essential features are the feedback level s sensitivity to small perturbations in the phases of array fields, hence altering the cavity s Q-value, and the nonlinear changes in the refractive index of the amplifier gain media. The model s qualitative prediction for an array having at least two elements that is operated at sufficiently high power levels, of the growth of an initial disturbance, is confirmed by a linearized stability analysis of the field and medium equations.

  20. Passively Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:GGG laser with a Bi-doped GaAs saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wen; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Xiangyang; Qiao, Hui; Liu, Ji

    2014-06-16

    A simultaneously passively Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) Nd:GGG laser using a Bi-doped GaAs wafer as saturable absorber is accomplished for the first time. The Bi-doped GaAs wafer is fabricated by ion implantation and subsequent annealing. In comparison to the passively QML laser with GaAs, the QML laser with Bi-doped GaAs can generate more stable pulses with 99% modulation depth. The experiment results indicate that the Bi-doped GaAs could be an excellent saturable absorber for diode-pumped QML lasers.

  1. Passively Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:GGG laser with a Bi-doped GaAs saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wen; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Xiangyang; Qiao, Hui; Liu, Ji

    2014-06-16

    A simultaneously passively Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) Nd:GGG laser using a Bi-doped GaAs wafer as saturable absorber is accomplished for the first time. The Bi-doped GaAs wafer is fabricated by ion implantation and subsequent annealing. In comparison to the passively QML laser with GaAs, the QML laser with Bi-doped GaAs can generate more stable pulses with 99% modulation depth. The experiment results indicate that the Bi-doped GaAs could be an excellent saturable absorber for diode-pumped QML lasers. PMID:24977576

  2. Solitary pulse-on-demand production by optical injection locking of passively Q-switched InGaN diode laser near lasing threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, X. E-mail: dmitri.boiko@csem.ch; Stadelmann, T.; Grossmann, S.; Hoogerwerf, A. C.; Boïko, D. L. E-mail: dmitri.boiko@csem.ch; Sulmoni, L.; Lamy, J.-M.; Grandjean, N.

    2015-02-16

    In this letter, we investigate the behavior of a Q-switched InGaN multi-section laser diode (MSLD) under optical injection from a continuous wave external cavity diode laser. We obtain solitary optical pulse generation when the slave MSLD is driven near free running threshold, and the peak output power is significantly enhanced with respect to free running configuration. When the slave laser is driven well above threshold, optical injection reduces the peak power. Using standard semiconductor laser rate equation model, we find that both power enhancement and suppression effects are the result of partial bleaching of the saturable absorber by externally injected photons.

  3. Resonant photoacoustic detection of NO2 traces with a Q-switched green laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slezak, Verónica; Codnia, Jorge; Peuriot, Alejandro L.; Santiago, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    Resonant photoacoustic detection of NO2 traces by means of a high repetition pulsed green laser is presented. The resonator is a cylindrical Pyrex glass cell with a measured Q factor 380 for the first radial mode in air at atmospheric pressure. The system is calibrated with known mixtures in dry air and a minimum detectable volume concentration of 50 parts in 109 is obtained (S/N=1). Its sensitivity allows one to detect and quantify NO2 traces in the exhaust gases of cars. Previously, the analysis of gas adsorption and desorption on the walls and of changes in the sample composition is carried out in order to minimize errors in the determination of NO2 content upon application of the extractive method. The efficiency of catalytic converters of several models of automobiles is studied and the NO2 concentration in samples from exhausts of different types of engine (gasoline, diesel, and methane gas) at idling operation are measured.

  4. Complete resolution of minocycline pigmentation following a single treatment with non-ablative 1550-nm fractional resurfacing in combination with the 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser.

    PubMed

    Vangipuram, Ramya K; DeLozier, Whitney L; Geddes, Elizabeth; Friedman, Paul M

    2016-03-01

    Pigmentation secondary to minocycline ingestion is an uncommon adverse event affecting 3.7-14.8% of treated individuals for which few effective therapies are available. Three patterns of minocycline pigmentation have a characteristic clinical and histological appearance. The pigment composition in each variety is different and occurs at varying skin depths. Accordingly, a tailored approach according to the type of minocycline pigmentation is crucial for treatment success. The purpose of this intervention was to evaluate the efficacy of non-ablative fractional photothermolysis in combination with the Q-switched alexandrite laser for the treatment of type I minocycline pigmentation on the face. A patient with type I minocycline pigmentation was treated with non-ablative 1550-nm fractional photothermolysis followed immediately by 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser and then observed clinically to determine the outcome of this modality. The patient was seen in clinic 1 month later following her single treatment session and 100% clearance of all blue facial pigment was observed. Non-ablative fractional photothermolysis in combination with the 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser should be considered for treatment of type I minocycline pigmentation.

  5. Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yizhong; Luo, Zhengqian; Li, Yingyue; Zhong, Min; Xu, Bin; Che, Kaijun; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Peng, Jian; Weng, Jian

    2014-10-20

    We propose and demonstrate a MoS2-based passively Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser with a wide tuning range of 1519.6-1567.7 nm. The few-layer MoS2 nano-platelets are prepared by the liquid-phase exfoliation method, and are then made into polymer-composite film to construct the fiber-compatible MoS2 saturable absorber (SA). It is measured at 1560 nm wavelength, that such MoS2 SA has the modulation depth of ∼ 2% and the saturable optical intensity of ∼ 10 MW/cm(2). By further inserting the filmy MoS2-SA into an Er-doped fiber laser, stable Q-switching operation with a 48.1 nm continuous tuning from S- to C-waveband is successfully achieved. The shortest pulse duration and the maximum pulse energy are 3.3 μs and 160 nJ, respectively. The repetition rate and the pulse duration under different operation conditions have been also characterized. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first demonstration of MoS2 Q-switched, widely-tunable fiber laser.

  6. Complete resolution of minocycline pigmentation following a single treatment with non-ablative 1550-nm fractional resurfacing in combination with the 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser.

    PubMed

    Vangipuram, Ramya K; DeLozier, Whitney L; Geddes, Elizabeth; Friedman, Paul M

    2016-03-01

    Pigmentation secondary to minocycline ingestion is an uncommon adverse event affecting 3.7-14.8% of treated individuals for which few effective therapies are available. Three patterns of minocycline pigmentation have a characteristic clinical and histological appearance. The pigment composition in each variety is different and occurs at varying skin depths. Accordingly, a tailored approach according to the type of minocycline pigmentation is crucial for treatment success. The purpose of this intervention was to evaluate the efficacy of non-ablative fractional photothermolysis in combination with the Q-switched alexandrite laser for the treatment of type I minocycline pigmentation on the face. A patient with type I minocycline pigmentation was treated with non-ablative 1550-nm fractional photothermolysis followed immediately by 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser and then observed clinically to determine the outcome of this modality. The patient was seen in clinic 1 month later following her single treatment session and 100% clearance of all blue facial pigment was observed. Non-ablative fractional photothermolysis in combination with the 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser should be considered for treatment of type I minocycline pigmentation. PMID:26718463

  7. 808-nm diode-pumped dual-wavelength passively Q-switched Nd:LuLiF4 laser with Bi-doped GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. X.; Li, T.; Li, D. C.; Zhao, S. Z.; Li, G. Q.; Hang, Y.; Zhang, P. X.; Li, X. Y.; Qiao, H.

    2015-09-01

    Diode-pumped CW and passively Q-switched Nd:LuLiF4 lasers with stable, synchronous dual-wavelength operations near 1047 and 1053 nm were demonstrated for the first time. The maximal CW output power of 821 mW was obtained at an incident pump power of 6.52 W. Employing high quality Bi-doped GaAs as saturable absorber, stable dual-wavelength Q-switched operation was realized. Under 6.52 W incident pump power, the minimal pulse duration of 1.5 ns, the largest single pulse energy of 11.32 μJ, and the highest peak power of 7.25 kW were achieved.

  8. Intracavity KTP-based OPO pumped by a dual-loss modulated, simultaneously Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:GGG laser.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hongwei; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Zhao, Jia; Li, Yufei; Li, Dechun; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Tao; Qiao, Wenchao

    2014-11-01

    An intracavity KTiOPO(4) (KTP) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by a simultaneously Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) Nd:Gd(3)Ga(5)O(12) (Nd:GGG) laser with an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) and a Cr(4+):YAG saturable absorber is presented. A minimum mode-locking pulse duration underneath the Q-switched envelope was evaluated to be about 290 ps. A maximum QML output power of 82 mW at the signal wavelength of 1570 nm was achieved, corresponding to a maximum mode-locked pulse energy of about 5.12 μJ. The M(2) values were measured to be about 1.3 and 1.5 for tangential and sagittal directions using knife-edge technique. PMID:25401841

  9. PVP-Assisted Solvothermal Synthesis of High-Yielded Bi2Te3 Hexagonal Nanoplates: Application in Passively Q-Switched Fiber Laser.

    PubMed

    He, Xin; Zhang, Hang; Lin, Wei; Wei, Rongfei; Qiu, Jianrong; Zhang, Mei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    High-yielded Bi2Te3 hexagonal nanoplates were fabricated via a facile solvothermal method with the assistance of poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). Effects of PVP molecular weight and concentration on the morphology and size distribution of the products were illustrated in this study. Molecular weight of PVP is significant for determining the morphology of Bi2Te3. The hexagonal nanoplates with high yield were obtained in the presence of PVP with molecular weight of 40000-45000. The average size and size distribution of Bi2Te3 nanoplates can be slightly varied by controlling concentration of PVP. High-yielded Bi2Te3 nanoplates exhibit characteristics of saturable absorption, identified by open-aperture Z-scan technique. The synthesized Bi2Te3 nanoplates with large saturation intensity of 4.6 GW/cm(2) and high modulation depth of 45.95% generated a stable passively Q-switched fiber laser pulse at 1.5 μm. In comparison with recently reported Q-switched fiber lasers utilizing exfoliated Bi2Te3 nanosheets, our passive Q-switching operations could be conducted at a relatively low threshold power of 30.2 mW or a quite high output power of 99.45 mW by tuning the cavity parameters. PMID:26511763

  10. Passive Q-switching of a Tm,Ho:KLu(WO4)2 microchip laser by a Cr:ZnS saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Serres, J M; Loiko, P; Mateos, X; Jambunathan, V; Yasukevich, A S; Yumashev, K V; Petrov, V; Griebner, U; Aguiló, M; Díaz, F

    2016-05-10

    A diode-pumped Tm,Ho:KLu(WO4)2 microchip laser passively Q-switched with a Cr:ZnS saturable absorber generated an average output power of 131 mW at 2063.6 nm with a slope efficiency of 11% and a Q-switching conversion efficiency of 58%. The pulse characteristics were 14  ns/9  μJ at a pulse repetition frequency of 14.5 kHz. With higher modulation depth of the saturable absorber, 9  ns/10.4  μJ/8.2  kHz pulses were generated at 2061.1 nm, corresponding to a record peak power extracted from a passively Q-switched Tm,Ho laser of 1.15 kW. A theoretical model is presented, predicting the pulse energy and duration. The simulations are in good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:27168288

  11. PVP-Assisted Solvothermal Synthesis of High-Yielded Bi2Te3 Hexagonal Nanoplates: Application in Passively Q-Switched Fiber Laser

    PubMed Central

    He, Xin; Zhang, Hang; Lin, Wei; Wei, Rongfei; Qiu, Jianrong; Zhang, Mei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    High-yielded Bi2Te3 hexagonal nanoplates were fabricated via a facile solvothermal method with the assistance of poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). Effects of PVP molecular weight and concentration on the morphology and size distribution of the products were illustrated in this study. Molecular weight of PVP is significant for determining the morphology of Bi2Te3. The hexagonal nanoplates with high yield were obtained in the presence of PVP with molecular weight of 40000–45000. The average size and size distribution of Bi2Te3 nanoplates can be slightly varied by controlling concentration of PVP. High-yielded Bi2Te3 nanoplates exhibit characteristics of saturable absorption, identified by open-aperture Z-scan technique. The synthesized Bi2Te3 nanoplates with large saturation intensity of 4.6 GW/cm2 and high modulation depth of 45.95% generated a stable passively Q-switched fiber laser pulse at 1.5 μm. In comparison with recently reported Q-switched fiber lasers utilizing exfoliated Bi2Te3 nanosheets, our passive Q-switching operations could be conducted at a relatively low threshold power of 30.2 mW or a quite high output power of 99.45 mW by tuning the cavity parameters. PMID:26511763

  12. PVP-Assisted Solvothermal Synthesis of High-Yielded Bi2Te3 Hexagonal Nanoplates: Application in Passively Q-Switched Fiber Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xin; Zhang, Hang; Lin, Wei; Wei, Rongfei; Qiu, Jianrong; Zhang, Mei; Hu, Bin

    2015-10-01

    High-yielded Bi2Te3 hexagonal nanoplates were fabricated via a facile solvothermal method with the assistance of poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). Effects of PVP molecular weight and concentration on the morphology and size distribution of the products were illustrated in this study. Molecular weight of PVP is significant for determining the morphology of Bi2Te3. The hexagonal nanoplates with high yield were obtained in the presence of PVP with molecular weight of 40000-45000. The average size and size distribution of Bi2Te3 nanoplates can be slightly varied by controlling concentration of PVP. High-yielded Bi2Te3 nanoplates exhibit characteristics of saturable absorption, identified by open-aperture Z-scan technique. The synthesized Bi2Te3 nanoplates with large saturation intensity of 4.6 GW/cm2 and high modulation depth of 45.95% generated a stable passively Q-switched fiber laser pulse at 1.5 μm. In comparison with recently reported Q-switched fiber lasers utilizing exfoliated Bi2Te3 nanosheets, our passive Q-switching operations could be conducted at a relatively low threshold power of 30.2 mW or a quite high output power of 99.45 mW by tuning the cavity parameters.

  13. Silver nanoparticle-film based saturable absorber for passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) in ring cavity configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, H.; Ruslan, N. E.; Ismail, M. A.; Ali, Z. A.; Reduan, S. A.; Lee, C. S. J.; Harun, S. W.

    2016-09-01

    We report a passive Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on silver (Ag) nanoparticle thin-film saturable absorber (SA). The thin film was sandwiched between two fiber ferrules, which offer flexibility and easy integration into the ring cavity. Self-started and stable Q-switching is achieved at a central wavelength of 1558.7 nm within the C-band region. The repetition rate and pulse duration shows a typical Q-switched laser profile as we increase the pump power; the repetition rate increases from 19.471–74.074 kHz while pulse duration decreases from 8.88–3.2 µs. A signal-to-noise ratio value of 35 dB was obtained at 100 mW pump power. By using a balanced twin-detector method, the modulation depth and saturation intensity of the Ag nanoparticle thin film were measured to be 31.6% and 0.54 MW cm‑2 respectively. This result offers another alternative to the existing SA materials.

  14. Silver nanoparticle-film based saturable absorber for passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) in ring cavity configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, H.; Ruslan, N. E.; Ismail, M. A.; Ali, Z. A.; Reduan, S. A.; Lee, C. S. J.; Harun, S. W.

    2016-09-01

    We report a passive Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on silver (Ag) nanoparticle thin-film saturable absorber (SA). The thin film was sandwiched between two fiber ferrules, which offer flexibility and easy integration into the ring cavity. Self-started and stable Q-switching is achieved at a central wavelength of 1558.7 nm within the C-band region. The repetition rate and pulse duration shows a typical Q-switched laser profile as we increase the pump power; the repetition rate increases from 19.471-74.074 kHz while pulse duration decreases from 8.88-3.2 µs. A signal-to-noise ratio value of 35 dB was obtained at 100 mW pump power. By using a balanced twin-detector method, the modulation depth and saturation intensity of the Ag nanoparticle thin film were measured to be 31.6% and 0.54 MW cm-2 respectively. This result offers another alternative to the existing SA materials.

  15. Q-switched thulium-doped fiber laser operating at 1940 nm region using a pencil-core as saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latiff, A. A.; Shamsudin, H.; Ahmad, H.; Harun, S. W.

    2016-04-01

    Q-switched thulium-doped fiber laser (TDFL) is demonstrated using pencil-core flakes as a saturable absorber (SA) for the first time. The SA was fabricated by exfoliating pencil-core flakes on adhesive tape surface, then repeatedly folded over the tape until the flakes homogenously deposited on the tape. A small piece of the tape is sandwiched between two ferrules and incorporated in TDFL cavity to realize a stable Q-switching pulse train. By increasing the 1552-nm pump power from 389 to 431 mW, the repetition rate of the TDFL increases from 14.95 to 34.60 kHz while the pulse width decreases from 6.70 to 4.69 μs. The maximum pulse energy of 46.05 nJ is generated with repetition rate and pulse width of 21.25 kHz and 6.27 μs, respectively. To the best our knowledge, this is a first demonstration SA from mundane object as alternative to commercial bulk graphite for Q-switched fiber laser.

  16. Passive Q-switching with GaAs or Bi-doped GaAs saturable absorber in Tm:LuAG laser operating at 2μm wavelength.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Xiangyang; Wang, Reng; Liu, Ji

    2015-06-15

    We report the first demonstration of a diode pumped passively Q-switched Tm:LuAG laser near 2μm wavelength with Bi-doped or undoped GaAs wafer as saturable absorber. For Bi-doped GaAs saturable absorber, stable Q-switched pulses with duration of 63.3ns under a repetition rate of 132.7 kHz and pulse energy of 5.51μJ are generated. In comparison to the passively Q-switched laser with undoped GaAs saturable absorber, the laser with Bi-doped GaAs can produce shorter pulses and higher peak power at almost the same incident pump power. The results suggest that Bi-doped GaAs can be an attractive candidate of saturable absorber for Q-switched laser near 2μm wavelength.

  17. Q-switched lasing at 2 {mu}m in a Tm{sup 3+}:YAlO{sub 3} laser

    SciTech Connect

    Ushakov, S N; Khromov, M N; Shestakov, A V

    2009-05-31

    The parameters of a Q-switched longitudinally-diode-pumped Tm{sup 3+}:YAlO{sub 3} laser are presented. The pulse repetition rate is f = 1-15 Hz. The maximum average output power is 5 W (at f = 5-15 kHz), the minimum pulse duration is 130 ns (f = 1 kHz), the efficiency is 26% (with the slope efficiency of 58%). The laser wavelength under pumping in the region of 803-805 nm is 1.99 {mu}m. (lasers and amplifiers)

  18. Treatment of melasma in Caucasian patients using a novel 694-nm Q-switched ruby fractional laser

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Melasma is a common hypermelanosis of the face. The use of a classical Q-switched ruby laser (QSRL) to treat melasma is discussed controversially and is associated with frequent adverse effects, such as hyper- or hypopigmentation. Recently a fractional-mode (FRx) QSRL was developed to minimize the adverse effects of classical QSRL. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel FRx-QSRL in the treatment of melasma in Caucasian patients. Methods We performed a retrospective study of 25 Caucasian melasma patients (Fitzpatrick skin types I to III). Patients received one to three FRx-QSRL treatments (Tattoostar FRx, Asclepion Laser Technologies, Jena, Germany) at pulse energies of 4 to 8 J/cm2. Three blinded investigators independently evaluated the melasma area and severity index (MASI) score before treatment and at the four- to six-week follow-ups. At additional three-month follow-ups, patients evaluated subjective improvement, pain and over-all satisfaction with the treatment according to a numeric analogue score (NAS). Side effects were documented. Results At four to six weeks post laser treatment for a mean of 1.4 sessions, we observed a significant (P = 0.0001) reduction of the MASI score from 6.54 to 1.98 (72.3%). Patients rated the pain of the intervention at a mean 2.46 points (0 = no pain; 10 = maximum pain), the improvement at a mean 5.55 points (0 = no improvement; 10 = maximum improvement) and the overall satisfaction at a mean 4.66 points (0 = not satisfied; 10 = maximum satisfaction). After three months, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) and/or recurring melasma were observed in 7 (28%) and 11 (44%) patients, respectively. Conclusion The 694-nm FRx-QSRL is a safe and effective option for treating melasma in Caucasian patients. Over periods of >3 months, PIH and/or recurring melasma may develop at significant rates and may reduce patient satisfaction. Multiple treatment

  19. Continuous-wave and high repetition rate Q-switched operation of Ho:YLF laser in-band pumped by a linearly polarized Tm:fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Zendzian, Waldemar; Jabczynski, Jan Karol; Swiderski, Jacek

    2014-11-01

    A study of Ho:YLF laser in continuous-wave (CW) and Q-switched operation, single-pass end-pumped by a Tm:fiber laser is presented. The research was made for two crystals of the same length and with different Ho dopant concentrations (0.5 at%, 3×3×30 mm3 and 1.0 at%, 5×5×30 mm3). The lasers operated on π-polarization. The lasers based on both crystals were examined under the same experimental circumstances. At room temperature, for an output coupling transmission of 40%, the maximum CW output powers of 11.5 W (0.5 at%) and 14.5 W (1.0 at%) were achieved, corresponding to slope efficiencies of 40.9% and 53.4% and optical-to-optical efficiencies of 35.4% and 44.6% with respect to the incident pump power, respectively. For a Q-switched operation, in a CW pumping regime, the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) was changed from 1 to 10 kHz. For this case, the maximum average output power of 14.2 W at the PRF of 10 kHz was obtained for a higher holmium-doping concentration crystal. For 1 kHz PRF, pulse energies of 5.7 mJ with a 11 ns FWHM pulse width corresponding to almost 520 kW peak power were recorded. The laser operated at the wavelength of 2050.08 nm with the FWHM line width of 0.86 nm delivering a near-diffraction-limited beam with M2 values of 1.05 and 1.09 in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively.

  20. High-power CW and passively Q-switched laser operation of Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Wang, Lisha; Liu, Junhai; Guo, Yunfeng; Han, Wenjuan; Xu, Honghao; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate efficient high-power CW and passively Q-switched operations of Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 lasers. An output power of 18.2 W is generated at 1031.5 nm in CW mode, with optical-to-optical and slope efficiencies being respectively 55% and 70%, with respect to incident pump power. In passively Q-switched operation with a Cr4+:YAG crystal as saturable absorber, a maximum average output power of 15.6 W is produced at a pulse repetition rate of 91 kHz, with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 44%. Low-repetition-rate Q-switched action is also realized, generating an average output power of 4.2 W at 5.7 kHz, the resulting pulse energy and duration are 737 μJ and 3.6 ns, leading to a peak power amounting to 205 kW.

  1. Q-switching of an alexandrite laser by (F/sup +//sub 2/)/sub A/ color centers in NaF

    SciTech Connect

    Kolyago, S.S.; Matrosov, V.N.; Pestryakov, E.V.; Trunov, V.I.; Gusev, Y.L.; Shkadarevich, A.P.

    1985-12-01

    Investigations were made of the characteristics of (F/sup +//sub 2/)/sub A/ color centers in NaF and of the spectral and lasing properties of an alexandrite laser Q-switched by centers of this type. When a Lyot filter and a switch having an initial transmission of approx.70% were used in this laser resonator, pulses of 80--100 nsec duration with a spectral width of approx.0.1 cm/sup -1/ and a tuning range of 0.73--0.783 ..mu.. were obtained under pulse-periodic conditions (12.5 Hz).

  2. Compact repetitively Q-switched Yb:YCa4O(BO3)3 laser with an acousto-optic modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Xu, Honghao; Han, Wenjuan; Yi, Hongying; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Liu, Junhai

    2015-07-01

    Repetitively Q-switched operation was achieved with a Yb:YCa4O(BO3)3 laser in a wide repetition rate range from 20 down to 0.1 kHz. An output power of 6.81 W at 20 kHz was generated with pulse duration of 42 ns; while operated at a low repetition rate of 0.1 kHz, the laser produced 0.53 W of output power with pulse width of 21 ns, the resulting pulse energy and peak power amounted respectively to 5.3 mJ and 252.4 kW.

  3. 550 mJ Q-switched cryogenic Ho:YLF oscillator pumped with a 100 W Tm:fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Fonnum, Helge; Lippert, Espen; Haakestad, Magnus W

    2013-06-01

    We report 550 mJ pulses with 14 ns FWHM duration at 1 Hz repetition rate from a Q-switched cryogenic Ho:YLF oscillator pumped with 100 W in 35 ms by a Tm:fiber laser. The laser has a confocal unstable resonator with a graded-reflectance output coupler, resulting in a beam quality of M(2) = 1.5. Pulse energies of 416 and 343 mJ were obtained at 10 and 20 Hz repetition rate, respectively. PMID:23722777

  4. High pulse energy passive Q-switching of a diode-pumped Tm:YLF laser by Cr:ZnSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenfeld, Arik; Sebbag, Daniel; Ben-Ami, Udi; Shalom, Eran; Marcus, Gilad; Noach, Salman

    2015-04-01

    A passively Q-switched diode-pumped Tm:YLF laser with polycrystalline Cr:ZnSe as the saturable absorber is demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. By using saturable absorbers with different initial transmission, the maximum pulse energy reached 4.22 mJ with peak power of 162.3 kW for a pulse duration of 26 ns. The maximum output average power amounted to 2.2 W. These results constitute significant improvement from the highest average power, pulse energy and peak power results for the PQS Tm:YLF laser to date.

  5. The evolution of melasma therapy: targeting melanosomes using low-fluence Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet lasers.

    PubMed

    Kauvar, Arielle N B

    2012-06-01

    Melasma is an acquired disorder of pigmentation that commonly affects women with phototypes III-V, and it has a negative impact on the quality of life in affected individuals. It presents clinically as symmetric tan or brown patches on the face, most often involving the forehead, cheeks, perioral region, and periorbital region. On histologic examination, there is increased melanin in the epidermis and/or an increased number of melanosomes in the dermis, with a normal number of highly melanized and dendritic melanocytes. The mainstay of treatment is the use of sunscreen along with topical medications that suppress melanogenesis. Clearance is usually incomplete and recurrences or exacerbations are frequent, probably because of the poor efficacy in clearing dermal melanosomes. Treatment with high-energy pigment-specific lasers, ablative resurfacing lasers, and fractional lasers results in an unacceptably high rate of postinflammatory hyper- and hypopigmentation and rebound melasma. Recently, promising results have been achieved with low-fluence Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser treatment, which can selectively target dermal melanosomes without producing inflammation or epidermal damage, in all skin phototypes. This article reviews the current treatment modalities for melasma, the rationale for using and the clinical results of combination therapy with low-fluence Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet lasers.

  6. Pump beam waist-dependent pulse energy generation in Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched microchip laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao-yu; Dong, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The incident pump beam waist-dependent pulse energy generation in Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG composite crystal passively Q-switched microchip laser has been investigated experimentally and theoretically by moving the Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG composite crystal along the pump beam direction. Highest pulse energy of 0.4 mJ has been generated when the Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG composite crystal is moved about 6 mm away from the focused pump beam waist. Laser pulses with pulse width of 1.7 ns and peak power of over 235 kW have been achieved. The theoretically calculated effective laser beam area at different positions of Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG composite crystal along the pump beam direction is in good agreement with the experimental results. The highest peak power can be generated by adjusting the pump beam waist incident on the Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG composite crystal to optimize the effective laser beam area in passively Q-switched microchip laser.

  7. Tattoo removal in micropigs with low-energy pulses from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xin-Hua; Wooden, W. A.; Cariveau, Mickael J.; Fang, Qiyin; Bradfield, J. F.; Kalmus, Gerhard W.; Vore, S. J.; Sun, Y.

    2001-05-01

    Treatment of pigmented lesions in skin with visible or near- infrared nanosecond (ns) laser pulses often causes significant collateral tissue damage because the current approach uses pulses with energy of 300 mJ or larger. Additionally, this requires large Q-switched laser systems. To overcome these disadvantages, we have investigated a different approach in delivering ns laser pulses for cutaneous lesion treatment. Tattoo removal in an animal model with a focused laser beam from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been investigated in two Yucatan micropigs tattooed with blue, black, green and red pigments. The tattoos were treated with a focused beam of 12-ns pulses at 1064 nm, with different depth under the skin surface, while the micropig was translated to achieve an effect of single pulse per ablation site in the skin. With the pulse energy reduced to a range from 38 to 63 mJ, we found that nearly complete clearance was achieved for blue and black tattoos while clearance of red and green tattoos was incomplete. Analysis of the skin appearance suggested that the pulse energy can be decreased to below 20 mJ which may lead to further reduction of the collateral tissue damage and improve the clearance of red and green tattoos.

  8. High-order Stokes generation in a KTP Raman laser pumped by a passively Q-switched ND:YLF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Maorong; Zhong, Kai; Mei, Jialin; Guo, Shibei; Xu, Degang; Yao, Jianquan

    2015-12-01

    High-order Stokes wave was observed in an x-cut KTP crystal based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) pumped by a passively Q-switched Nd:YLF laser with a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber. Output spectra including the fundamental wave at 1047 nm and six Stokes wavelengths at 1077 nm, 1110 nm, 1130 nm, 1143 nm, 1164 nm, 1180 nm based on two Raman frequency shift at 267.4 cm-1 and 693.0 cm-1 were obtained simultaneously. We also detected green light generation with output power of 12 mW from self frequency mixing in the KTP crystal. The maximum total output power reached 452 mW at the repetition frequency of 8.1 kHz, corresponding to the optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 4.61% and pump-to-Raman conversion efficiency of 3.6%.

  9. The Effect of Q-Switched Nd:YAG 1064 nm/532 nm Laser in the Treatment of Onychomycosis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kalokasidis, Kostas; Onder, Meltem; Trakatelli, Myrto-Georgia; Richert, Bertrand; Fritz, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In this prospective clinical study, the Q-Switched Nd:YAG 1064 nm/532 nm laser (Light Age, Inc., Somerset, NJ, USA) was used on 131 onychomycosis subjects (94 females, 37 males; ages 18 to 68 years). Mycotic cultures were taken and fungus types were detected. The laser protocol included two sessions with a one-month interval. Treatment duration was approximately 15 minutes per session and patients were observed over a 3-month time period. Laser fluencies of 14 J/cm2 were applied at 9 billionths of a second pulse duration and at 5 Hz frequency. Follow-up was performed at 3 months with mycological cultures. Before and after digital photographs were taken. Adverse effects were recorded and all participants completed “self-evaluation questionnaires” rating their level of satisfaction. All subjects were well satisfied with the treatments, there were no noticeable side effects, and no significant differences were found treating men versus women. At the 3-month follow-up 95.42% of the patients were laboratory mycologically cured of fungal infection. This clinical study demonstrates that fungal nail infections can be effectively and safely treated with Q-Switched Nd:YAG 1064 nm/532 nm laser. It can also be combined with systemic oral antifungals providing more limited treatment time. PMID:24396343

  10. CW and AO Q-switched operation of a dual-crystal Tm, Ho:GdVO4 laser pumped by two diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. J.; Yao, B. Q.; Bai, Y. F.; Liu, Y. W.; He, Z. L.; Zhou, S.; Wang, J.; Xing, M. N.

    2013-02-01

    Continuous wave (CW) mode and acousto-optic (AO) Q-switched mode operation of a dual-crystal Tm, Ho:GdVO4 laser is reported. The dual-crystal Tm, Ho:GdVO4 laser with output wavelength of 2.05 μm was pumped by two laser diodes (LDs). The Tm, Ho:GdVO4 crystals were cooled by liquid nitrogen and pumped by two fiber-coupled LDs with a center output wavelength of 801.0 nm. A 20.5 W output power was obtained at a 255 mm physical cavity length in CW mode operation, and a 19.6 W average power was obtained at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 10 kHz with a 19 ns pulse duration. Also, the efficiency loss of the laser is not more than 4.4% from CW mode to Q-switch mode, and the M2 factor, which is measured by the traveling knife-edge method, does not exceed 1.2.

  11. The Effect of Q-Switched Nd:YAG 1064 nm/532 nm Laser in the Treatment of Onychomycosis In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Kalokasidis, Kostas; Onder, Meltem; Trakatelli, Myrto-Georgia; Richert, Bertrand; Fritz, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In this prospective clinical study, the Q-Switched Nd:YAG 1064 nm/532 nm laser (Light Age, Inc., Somerset, NJ, USA) was used on 131 onychomycosis subjects (94 females, 37 males; ages 18 to 68 years). Mycotic cultures were taken and fungus types were detected. The laser protocol included two sessions with a one-month interval. Treatment duration was approximately 15 minutes per session and patients were observed over a 3-month time period. Laser fluencies of 14 J/cm(2) were applied at 9 billionths of a second pulse duration and at 5 Hz frequency. Follow-up was performed at 3 months with mycological cultures. Before and after digital photographs were taken. Adverse effects were recorded and all participants completed "self-evaluation questionnaires" rating their level of satisfaction. All subjects were well satisfied with the treatments, there were no noticeable side effects, and no significant differences were found treating men versus women. At the 3-month follow-up 95.42% of the patients were laboratory mycologically cured of fungal infection. This clinical study demonstrates that fungal nail infections can be effectively and safely treated with Q-Switched Nd:YAG 1064 nm/532 nm laser. It can also be combined with systemic oral antifungals providing more limited treatment time.

  12. Passively {ital Q}-switched 180-ps Nd:LaSc{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} microchip laser

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, B.; Kaertner, F.X.; Keller, U.; Meyn, J.; Huber, G.

    1996-03-01

    We passively {ital Q} switched a Nd:LaSc{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} microchip laser with an antiresonant Fabry{endash}Perot saturable absorber (A-FPSA) and achieved single-frequency, 180-ps pulses with 0.1 {mu}J of pulse energy at a repetition rate of 110 kHz. Because of the compactness and scaling possibilities offered by the A-FPSA, the pulse width can be varied from 180 ps to 30 ns and the repetition rate from 50 kHz to 7 MHz. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  13. Development of laser dimpling strategies on TiN coatings for tribological applications with a highly energetic Q-switched fibre laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Ali Gökhan; Previtali, Barbara; Lecis, Nora

    2013-12-01

    Laser micromachining and structuring of thin ceramic surface coatings is an appealing process, especially for tribological applications. Studies show increased wear resistance and friction properties of dimpled surface coatings. The nature of the material and the delicacy of the coating integrity raise the problem of tight processing conditions, especially in terms of the ablated depth. However, for the industrial scale of the application, processing strategies with industrial grade laser systems are required. For this purpose, the present work reports the use of a highly energetic Q-switched fibre laser for the laser dimpling of TiN coatings applied in very limited micrometric thickness. The processing strategy that involves ramped pulse trains and controlled defocusing of the laser beam was demonstrated to be effective for controlling the dimple radius and depth without excessive machining to cause substrate contamination. The dimples were characterised for the amount of damage done by contaminating the coating material with the substrate. Results confirm that in non-contaminated conditions chemical composition of the TiN coating was also maintained.

  14. Linearly polarized, Q-switched, erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a bulk-structured bismuth telluride/polyvinyl alcohol saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jinho; Lee, Junsu; Koo, Joonhoi; Chung, Hojai; Lee, Ju Han

    2016-07-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a linearly polarized, passively Q-switched, erbium (Er)-doped fiber laser using a saturable absorber (SA) based on a composite consisting of a bulk-structured bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) topological insulator (TI) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The SA was constructed on a polarization maintaining (PM) fiber ferrule platform, which had a sandwich structure. Its saturation intensity and modulation depth were measured to be ˜ and ˜4.1%, respectively. Using the prepared Bi2Te3/PVA SA in a PM Er-doped fiber ring laser, stable Q-switched pulses with a degree of polarization of ˜98.6% and an azimuth angle of ˜-0.34 deg were demonstrated. The minimum pulse width was measured to be ˜1.58 μs at a repetition rate of 47.1 kHz. This experimental demonstration verifies that a thin film based on a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 TI can fit into a sandwich-structured SA based on PM fiber ferrules.

  15. Linearly polarized, Q-switched, erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a bulk-structured bismuth telluride/polyvinyl alcohol saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jinho; Lee, Junsu; Koo, Joonhoi; Chung, Hojai; Lee, Ju Han

    2016-07-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a linearly polarized, passively Q-switched, erbium (Er)-doped fiber laser using a saturable absorber (SA) based on a composite consisting of a bulk-structured bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) topological insulator (TI) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The SA was constructed on a polarization maintaining (PM) fiber ferrule platform, which had a sandwich structure. Its saturation intensity and modulation depth were measured to be ˜ and ˜4.1%, respectively. Using the prepared Bi2Te3/PVA SA in a PM Er-doped fiber ring laser, stable Q-switched pulses with a degree of polarization of ˜98.6% and an azimuth angle of ˜-0.34 deg were demonstrated. The minimum pulse width was measured to be ˜1.58 μs at a repetition rate of 47.1 kHz. This experimental demonstration verifies that a thin film based on a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 TI can fit into a sandwich-structured SA based on PM fiber ferrules.

  16. Generation of Q-switched mode locking controlled rectangular noise-like soliton bunching in a Tm-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tian; Chen, Weicheng; Lin, Wei; Yang, Zhongmin

    2016-08-01

    We report on an interesting phenomenon of the combination of Q-switched mode locked pulses (QSMLP) and rectangular noise-like pulses (RNLP) as a unit in a Tm-doped ring fiber laser which contains a Fabry-Perot (F-P) subcavity based on the nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE) technique. The RNLP and QSMLP are independently generated in the ring cavity and F-P subcavity, respectively. A notable characteristic is that the physical parameters of RNLP, e.g. repetition rate and pulse duration, are controlled by QSMLP. Thus, they form as a composite bunching, which is termed as "Q-switched mode locking controlled rectangular noise-like soliton bunching (QRNSB)". Further investigation shows that the existence of QRNSB only occurs in high pumping conditions, while both fundamental mode-locking pulses and the coexistence of QSMLP and solitons are achieved in low pumping ones. Our work can enrich the understanding of the nonlinear dynamics in fiber lasers. PMID:27505838

  17. Diode-pumped short pulse passively Q-switched 912 nm Nd:GdVO4/Cr:YAG laser at high repetition rate operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, F.; Yu, X.; Wang, C.; Yan, R. P.; Li, X. D.; Gao, J.; Zhang, Z. H.; Yu, J. H.

    2010-06-01

    A diode-end-pumped passively Q-switched 912 nm Nd:GdVO4/Cr:YAG laser is demonstrated for the first time. In a concave-piano cavity, pulsed 912 nm laser performance is investigated using two kinds of Cr:YAG crystal with different unsaturated transmission ( T U) of 95% and 90% at 912 nm as the saturable absorbers. When the T U = 90% Cr:YAG is used, as much as 2.6 W average output power for short pulsed 912 nm laser is achieved at an absorbed pump power of 34.0 W, corresponding to an optical efficiency of 7.6% and a slope efficiency of 20.3%. Moreover, 10.5 ns duration pulses and up to 2.3 kW peak power is obtained at the repetition rate around 81.6 kHz.

  18. Compact high-pulse-energy passively Q-switched Nd:YLF laser with an ultra-low-magnification unstable resonator: application for efficient optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Cho, C Y; Huang, Y P; Huang, Y J; Chen, Y C; Su, K W; Chen, Y F

    2013-01-28

    We exploit an ultra-low-magnification unstable resonator to develop a high-pulse-energy side-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YLF/Cr⁴⁺:YAG laser with improving beam quality. A wedged laser crystal is employed in the cavity to control the emissions at 1047 nm and 1053 nm independently through the cavity alignment. The pulse energies at 1047 nm and 1053 nm are found to be 19 mJ and 23 mJ, respectively. The peak powers for both wavelengths are higher than 2 MW. Furthermore, the developed Nd:YLF lasers are employed to pump a monolithic optical parametric oscillator for confirming the applicability in nonlinear wavelength conversions. PMID:23389131

  19. RbTiOPO4 cascaded Raman operation with multiple Raman frequency shifts derived by Q-switched Nd:YAlO3 laser

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yanmin; Zhu, Haiyong; Zhang, Yaoju; Zhang, Ge; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Dingyuan; Kaminskii, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    An intra-cavity RbTiOPO4 (RTP) cascade Raman laser was demonstrated for efficient multi-order Stokes emission. An acousto-optic Q-switched Nd:YAlO3 laser at 1.08 μm was used as the pump source and a 20-mm-long x-cut RTP crystal was used as the Raman medium to meet the X(Z,Z)X Raman configuration. Multi-order Stokes with multiple Raman shifts (~271, ~559 and ~687 cm−1) were achieved in the output. Under an incident pump power of 9.5 W, a total average output power of 580 mW with a pulse repetition frequency of 10 kHz was obtained. The optical conversion efficiency is 6.1%. The results show that the RTP crystal can enrich laser spectral lines and generate high order Stokes light. PMID:27666829

  20. Gold nanobipyramid Q-switched Nd:LGGG eye-safe laser operating at 1423.4  nm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanian; Li, Bowen; Liu, Jie

    2016-09-10

    The performance of a laser-diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:LGGG laser at 1423.2 nm with gold nanobipyramids (Au-NBPs) as a saturable absorber was demonstrated. An average output power of 125 mW was obtained at a pump power of 12.2 W, corresponding to an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 1.36% and a slope efficiency of 1.78%. A minimum pulse width of 514 ns at a pulse repetition rate of 98.6 kHz was obtained at a pump power of 12.2 W. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report focusing on the application of Au-NBPs as a saturable absorber for pulse laser operation in the eye-safe region. PMID:27661373

  1. High resolution multiphoton ablation with negligible thermal effects in transparent materials using Q-switched microchip lasers with 300 picosecond pulses at 532 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhalla, Taghrid; Baldeck, Patrice L.

    2014-03-01

    Self-Q-switched microchip lasers are attractive alternative to femtosecond lasers for micromachining in transparent materials. They can easily reach pulse peak powers needed to trigger ablation in all materials, including diamond, ceramics, plastics, and glasses. In addition, they are low cost with compact and rugged design. In this work, we report on using microchip lasers for micro-engraving different types of transparent materials. Micro-size marking is demonstrated on the surface of borosilicate glass. Microfluidic channels are engraved on BK-7 glass microchips with ion-doped waveguides. Arrays of dense micro-channels are fabricated at the surface of thermoplastics with a zone affected by thermal effects limited to the micron range.

  2. Continuous-wave and Q-switched operation of a resonantly pumped Ho³⁺:KY₃F₁₀ laser.

    PubMed

    Schellhorn, Martin; Parisi, Daniela; Eichhorn, Marc; Tonelli, Mauro

    2014-03-01

    We report continuous-wave and repetitively Q-switched operation of a resonantly pumped Ho3+:KY3F10 laser at room temperature. End pumped by a Tm3+-doped silica fiber laser operating at 1938 nm, a maximum laser power of 7.8 W was obtained at a wavelength of ∼2041  nm for 21 W of absorbed pump power, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 60.7% with respect to absorbed power. At a repetition rate of 10 kHz up to 0.78 mJ, energy per pulse was demonstrated with pulse widths of 100 ns. The beam propagation factor (M2) was measured to be <1.26 at the maximum output power.

  3. High-repetition-rate single-frequency electro-optic Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with feedback controlled prelase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Shutao; Shi, Fei; Huang, Jianhong; Deng, Jing; Zheng, Hui; Liu, Huagang; Wu, Hongchun; Weng, Wen; Ge, Yan; Li, Jinhui; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-10-01

    A stable high-repetition-rate, high pulse energy and single-frequency electro-optic Q-switched laser has been developed and demonstrated in this paper. The prelase technique has been used in this single-frequency laser. And a PID feedback control electronics is applied to stabilize the prelase. Meanwhile, a two-plate resonant reflector take the place of traditional dielectric output coupler mirror to enhance the single-axial-mode selection. And a Cr:YAG saturable absorber is also inserted in the cavity to improve single-axial-mode selection. Output laser power over 2 W with 10 ns pulse duration has been obtained at a repetition rate of 1 kHz. And the single-axial-mode probability was 100% in one hour without any manual adjustments. The experimental results show that the prelase technique is reliable to attain single-frequency operation.

  4. FBG inscription in non-hydrogenated SMF28 fiber with a ns Q-switched Nd:VO4 laser at 213 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrang, Bianca; Polz, Leonhard; Kuttler, Rolf; Bartschke, Jürgen; Roths, Johannes

    2013-05-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) inscription efficiencies with a nanosecond (ns) KrF-Excimer laser source at 248 nm and with a ns Q-switched, 5th-harmonic Nd:VO4 laser source at 213 nm were compared. With both laser sources the phase mask method was used for FBG inscription. The growth process of the refractive index change during UV-exposure is presented as a function of cumulated fluence for inscription in standard non-hydrogenated SMF28 fibers. The inscription efficiency was found to be significantly higher for the 213 nm than for the 248 nm radiation, indicating a higher photosensitivity at 213 nm compared to 248 nm in low Ge-doped fibers.

  5. Multiple-beam, pulse-burst, passively Q-switched ceramic Nd:YAG laser under micro-lens array pumping.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yufei; He, Ying; Yu, Xin; Li, Xudong; Li, Jiang; Yan, Renpeng; Peng, Jiangbo; Zhang, Xinlu; Sun, Rui; Pan, Yubai; Chen, Deying

    2015-09-21

    A novel four-beam (named laserI, laser II, laser III and laser IV, respectively), passively Q-switched, pulse-burst ceramic Nd:YAG laser under 2 × 2 micro-lens array pumping was demonstrated for the purpose of laser-induced plasma ignition (LIPI). Multiple-beam output together with pulse-burst mode in which both high repetition rate and high pulse energy can be realized simultaneously were obtained to greatly improve the performance of LIPI. The pulse-burst contained a maximum of 5 pulses, 3 pulses, 2 pulses and 3 pulses for laserI, laser II, laser III and laser IV, respectively, and the corresponding repetition rate of laser pulses in pulse-burst was 10.8 kHz, 7.2 kHz, 6.8 kHz and 5.2 kHz, respectively. The output energy for single laser pulse in pulse-burst was in the range of 0.12 mJ to 0.22 mJ. PMID:26406695

  6. Simultaneous dual-wavelength operation around 1.06 μm of a LD-end-pumped, passively Q-switched Nd:GGG laser with GaAs as saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hongwei; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Yufei; Yang, Kejian; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Jia; Qiao, Wenchao; Feng, Chuansheng

    2013-08-01

    By using neodymium-doped gadolinium gallium garnet (Nd:GGG) as the laser medium, a passively Q-switched simultaneous dual-wavelength Nd:GGG laser with a GaAs saturable absorber has been realized. The Nd:GGG laser operates at a stable dual-wavelength peaked at 1060.8 and 1062.7 nm without any wavelength selective elements in the cavity. Stable Q-switched pulses with a shortest duration of 6 ns have been obtained, corresponding to a single pulse energy of 2.1 μJ and a peak power of 335 W.

  7. Passively Q-switched mid-infrared fluoride fiber laser around 3 µm using a tungsten disulfide (WS2) saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chen; Luo, Hongyu; Zhang, Han; Li, Chun; Xie, Jitao; Li, Jianfeng; Liu, Yong

    2016-10-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate a passively Q-switched Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped fluoride fiber laser centered at 2865.7 nm using a tungsten disulfide (WS2) saturable absorber (SA) for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. A multilayer WS2 film was fabricated using the sulfidation grown method and then transferred onto an Au mirror to act as the cavity feedback and SA device in a linear cavity. Under a launched pump power of 318.5 mW, stable Q-switched pulses with an average output power of 48.4 mW were achieved with a pulse duration of 1.73 µs and repetition rate of 131.6 kHz, resulting in a pulse energy of 0.37 µJ. Our experimental results confirm that WS2 can be an effective nonlinear modulator that is suitable for pulse generation at the 3 µm waveband.

  8. An all-fiber high-energy cladding-pumped 93 nanosecond Q-switched fiber laser using an Y 3+-doped fiber saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Sean W.; Patterson, Brian D.; Soh, Daniel B.; Bisson, Scott E.

    2014-03-01

    We report an all-fiber passively Q-switched laser using a large mode area (LMA) Yb3+ -doped fiber claddingpumped at 915 nm and an unpumped single-mode (SM) Yb3+-doped fiber as the saturable absorber (SA). The saturable absorber SM fiber and LMA gain fiber were coupled with a fiber taper designed to match the fundamental spatial mode of the LMA fiber and the expanded LP01 mode of the single mode fiber. The amplified spontaneous (ASE) intensity propagating in the single mode SA saturates the absorption before the onset of gain depletion in the pumped fiber, switching the fiber cavity to a high Q-state and producing a pulse. Using this scheme we demonstrate a Q-switched all-fiber oscillator with 32 μJ 93 ns pulses at 1030 nm. The associated peak power is nearly two orders of magnitude larger than that reported in previous experimental studies using a single Yb+3 saturable absorber fiber. The pulse energy was amplified to 0.230 mJ using an Yb3+-doped cladding pumped fiber amplifier fusion spliced to the fiber oscillator, increasing the energy by eight fold while preserving the all-fiber architecture.

  9. Continuous wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of Nd:LuxGd3-xGa5O12 crystal at 1062 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, X. W.; Jia, Z. T.; Yang, H.; Li, Y. B.; Yuan, D. S.; Zhang, B. T.; Dong, C. M.; He, J. L.; Tao, X. T.

    2012-12-01

    Continuous wave (CW) and passively Q-switched (PQS) laser properties at 1062 nm of the Nd:LuxGd3-xGa5O12 (Nd:LGGG) disordered crystal have been demonstrated. The doping concentrations of Nd3+ and Lu3+ in the as obtained crystal were measured to be 0.96 and 0.66 at.%, respectively. In the CW regime, the output power of 9.73 W was obtained with an optical-to-optical efficiency as high as 60.7% and slope efficiency of 61.2%. During the passively Q-switched operation, the maximum output power of 1.24 W was achieved under the absorbed pump power of 6.86 W. The maximum peak power of 14.20 kW and single pulse energy of 148 μJ were obtained with the Toc = 10% under the absorbed pump power of 6.36 W. The results are much better than those obtained with Nd:LGGG crystal doped with 13.6 at.% Lu3+ and 0.53 at.% Nd3+ ions.

  10. Large-energy, wavelength-tunable, all-fiber passively Q-switched Er:Yb-codoped double-clad fiber laser with mono-layer chemical vapor deposition graphene.

    PubMed

    Wu, Duanduan; Xiong, Fengfu; Zhang, Cankun; Chen, Shanshan; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Cai, Weiwei; Che, Kaijun; Luo, Zhengqian

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate a large-energy, wavelength-tunable, all-fiber passively Q-switched Er:Yb-codoped laser using a mono-layer chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene saturable absorber (SA). By exploiting the large laser gain of Er:Yb double-clad fiber and optimizing the coupling ratio of the output coupler, not only can the mono-layer CVD graphene SA be protected from oversaturation and thermal damage, but also a large pulse energy up to 1.05 μJ (corresponding to the average output power of 25.6 mW) is thus achieved. Using a tunable fiber Fabry-Perot filter, stable Q-switched pulses can operate with a tunable range from 1530.97 to 1546.92 nm, covering a wavelength range of ∼16  nm. The Q-switching states at the different lasing wavelengths have been observed and recorded. The Q-switched repetition rate and the pulse duration (with the minimum one of 2.6 μs) have been characterized as well. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the largest pulse energy from an all-fiber graphene Q-switched laser. PMID:25089965

  11. Fractional 532-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser: One of the safest novel treatment modality to treat café-au-lait macules.

    PubMed

    Won, Kwang Hee; Lee, Ye Jin; Rhee, Do Young; Chang, Sung Eun

    2016-10-01

    Café-au-lait macules (CALMs) are benign epidermal basilar hyperpigmentations that can be found in an isolated form or in association with neurocutaneous syndromes. Frequency-doubled Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser (532-nm QSNYL) does not penetrate deeply into the skin and is therefore suitable for epidermal pigmented lesion. Fractional photothermolysis (FP) targets only very small areas of the skin, without injuring adjacent areas of healthy, normal skin. Herein, we report a case of CALMs successfully treated with fractional 532-nm QSNYL. By applying FP to 532-nm QSNYL, we could treat CALMs safely with less downtime as compared to conventional laser treatments and expect more energy delivery for each microscopic hole, thereby allowing higher response rate.

  12. Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianfeng; Luo, Hongyu; Zhai, Bo; Lu, Rongguo; Guo, Zhinan; Zhang, Han; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Black phosphorus (BP) as a novel class of two-dimension (2D) materials has recently attracted enormous attention as a result of its unique physical and chemical features. The remarkably strong light-matter interaction and tunable direct band-gap at a wide range make it an ideal candidate especially in the mid-infrared wavelength region as the saturable absorber (SA). In this paper, the simple and effective liquid phase exfoliation (LPE) method was used to fabricate BP. By introducing the same BP SA into two specifically designed rare earth ions doped fluoride fiber lasers at mid-infrared wavebands, Q-switching with the pulse energy of 4.93 μJ and mode-locking with the pulse duration of 8.6 ps were obtained, respectively. The operation wavelength of ~2970 nm for generated pulse is the reported longest wavelength for BP SA based fiber lasers. PMID:27457338

  13. Diode end-pumped high-power Q-switched double Nd:YAG slab laser and its efficient near-field second-harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Peng; Li, Daijun; Qi, Bingsong; Schell, Alexander; Shi, Peng; Haas, Claus; Fu, Shaojun; Wu, Nianle; Du, Keming

    2008-10-01

    We reported on an all-solid-state double Nd:YAG slab laser. The laser was based on two diode end-pumped Nd:YAG slabs and a stable-unstable hybrid resonator. A cw output of 189 W and an average Q-switched output of 169 W at 10 kHz with an M(2) factor of 1.5 in the slow direction and 1.7 in the fast direction were obtained. We demonstrated efficient near-field frequency doubling by imaging the one-dimensional top-hat near-field to a lithium triborate frequency doubler. We obtained 93 W green light at 10 kHz with a pulse width of 10.7 ns. The efficiency of second-harmonic generation was up to 57%. PMID:18830367

  14. The GTR-KTP intracavity optical parametric oscillator driven by a diode-end-pumped acousto-optical Q-switched Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. T.; Zhang, B. T.; He, J. L.

    2013-03-01

    An efficient eye-safe gray-trace resistance-KTP (GTR-KTP) intracavity optical parametric oscillator (IOPO) excited by a diode-end-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser was demonstrated. Under a laser diode power of 11.4 W, a maximum average output power of 1.2 W at 1572 nm was obtained at a repetition rate of 15 kHz, corresponding to a diode-to-signal conversion efficiency of 10.5%. As for the common KTP IOPO under the same pump conditions and cavity design, a lower average output power of 0.96 W was obtained. Consequently, the corresponding GTR-KTP OPO conversion efficiency was increased by 25% compared with that obtained in common KTP IOPO.

  15. Fractional 532-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser: One of the safest novel treatment modality to treat café-au-lait macules.

    PubMed

    Won, Kwang Hee; Lee, Ye Jin; Rhee, Do Young; Chang, Sung Eun

    2016-10-01

    Café-au-lait macules (CALMs) are benign epidermal basilar hyperpigmentations that can be found in an isolated form or in association with neurocutaneous syndromes. Frequency-doubled Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser (532-nm QSNYL) does not penetrate deeply into the skin and is therefore suitable for epidermal pigmented lesion. Fractional photothermolysis (FP) targets only very small areas of the skin, without injuring adjacent areas of healthy, normal skin. Herein, we report a case of CALMs successfully treated with fractional 532-nm QSNYL. By applying FP to 532-nm QSNYL, we could treat CALMs safely with less downtime as compared to conventional laser treatments and expect more energy delivery for each microscopic hole, thereby allowing higher response rate. PMID:26962881

  16. Q-switching of a Tm,Ho:KLu(WO4)2 microchip laser by a graphene-based saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serres, J. M.; Loiko, P.; Mateos, X.; Jambunathan, V.; Yumashev, K.; Griebner, U.; Petrov, V.; Aguiló, M.; Díaz, F.

    2016-02-01

    The first Ho microchip laser passively Q-switched using a graphene-based saturable absorber is demonstrated based on a Tm,Ho:KLu(WO4)2 crystal cut along the N g-axis. A maximum average output power of 74 mW is extracted from the diode-pumped laser at 2061 nm with a slope efficiency of 4%. Pulses as short as 200 ns with an energy of ~0.2 μJ are obtained at a repetition rate of 340 kHz. The energy transfer (ET), 3F4 (Tm3+) ↔ 5I7 (Ho3+) is studied, yielding ET parameters of P 28  =  1.69 and P 71  =  0.15  ×  10-22 cm3 μs-1, revealing the strong prevalence of direct ET.

  17. Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Luo, Hongyu; Zhai, Bo; Lu, Rongguo; Guo, Zhinan; Zhang, Han; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Black phosphorus (BP) as a novel class of two-dimension (2D) materials has recently attracted enormous attention as a result of its unique physical and chemical features. The remarkably strong light-matter interaction and tunable direct band-gap at a wide range make it an ideal candidate especially in the mid-infrared wavelength region as the saturable absorber (SA). In this paper, the simple and effective liquid phase exfoliation (LPE) method was used to fabricate BP. By introducing the same BP SA into two specifically designed rare earth ions doped fluoride fiber lasers at mid-infrared wavebands, Q-switching with the pulse energy of 4.93 μJ and mode-locking with the pulse duration of 8.6 ps were obtained, respectively. The operation wavelength of ~2970 nm for generated pulse is the reported longest wavelength for BP SA based fiber lasers. PMID:27457338

  18. Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianfeng; Luo, Hongyu; Zhai, Bo; Lu, Rongguo; Guo, Zhinan; Zhang, Han; Liu, Yong

    2016-07-01

    Black phosphorus (BP) as a novel class of two-dimension (2D) materials has recently attracted enormous attention as a result of its unique physical and chemical features. The remarkably strong light-matter interaction and tunable direct band-gap at a wide range make it an ideal candidate especially in the mid-infrared wavelength region as the saturable absorber (SA). In this paper, the simple and effective liquid phase exfoliation (LPE) method was used to fabricate BP. By introducing the same BP SA into two specifically designed rare earth ions doped fluoride fiber lasers at mid-infrared wavebands, Q-switching with the pulse energy of 4.93 μJ and mode-locking with the pulse duration of 8.6 ps were obtained, respectively. The operation wavelength of ~2970 nm for generated pulse is the reported longest wavelength for BP SA based fiber lasers.

  19. Passive Q-switching of a 1.66-{mu}m Er{sup 3+}:YAlO{sub 3} laser by means of a Cr{sup 2+}:ZnSe crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Galagan, B I; Denker, B I; Sverchkov, S E; Kuleshov, N V; Kisel', V E; Levchenko, V I

    2007-04-30

    The passive Q-switching of 1.66-{mu}m Er{sup 3+}:YAlO{sub 3} lasers with the help of some saturable absorbers is studied. Giant 200-ns pulses are generated by using a Cr{sup 2+}:ZnSe crystal as a saturable absorber. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  20. 50-kHz, 50-ns UV pulse generation by diode-pumped frequency doubling Pr3+:YLF Q-switch laser with a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Kariyama, Ryosuke; Iijima, Kodai; Kannari, Fumihiko

    2016-08-10

    We demonstrate intracavity second-harmonic generation at 320 nm of a diode-pumped praseodymium-doped YLF laser Q-switched by a Cr4+:YAG crystal. By employing two 3.5-W high-power blue InGaN diode lasers as the pump source, we obtained 50-ns Q-switched pulses with a pulse energy of 1.54 μJ at a repetition rate of 50 kHz. A rate equation analysis shows good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:27534459

  1. Efficacy of the Q-switched Neodymium: Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser in the Treatment of Blue-black Amateur and Professional Tattoos

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Chembolli; Krishnaswamy, Gayathri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Q-switched neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG) laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm primarily targets dermal melanin and black tattoo ink. Recent studies have shown that this laser is effective in treating black tattoos. There are few studies conducted in India for the same. Aim: The aim was to assess the effectiveness of Q-switched Nd: YAG laser (QSNYL) in the treatment of blue-black tattoos following 3 treatment sessions. Materials and Methods: This study, a prospective interventional study included a total of 12 blue-black tattoos. Following informed consent for the procedure, as well as for photographs, a questionnaire was administered, and improvement perceived by the patient was recorded. In addition, global assessment score (GAS) by a blinded physician was also recorded. Photographs were taken at baseline and at every follow-up. Each patient underwent three treatment sessions with 1064 nm QSNYL at 4–6 weekly intervals. Fluences ranged from 1.8 to 9 J/cm2. The follow-up was done monthly for 4 months from the first treatment session. The response was assessed by patient assessment (PA) and GAS by comparing photographs. Results: After three treatment sessions, although no patient achieved clearance, most patients showed good response with few adverse effects. An average of 64.1% (GAS) and 54.2% (PA) improvement was observed in 12 tattoos. Tattoos more than 10-year-old showed quicker clearing than those less than 10-year-old. Amateur tattoos also showed a better response in comparison to professional tattoos. Conclusion: Totally, 1064 nm QSNYL is safe and effective for lightening blue-black tattoos in pigmented Indian skin. All patients achieved near complete clearance following the continuation of treatment (an average of six sessions) although this was spaced at longer intervals. PMID:26677271

  2. The influence of the Q-switched and free-running Er:YAG laser beam characteristics on the ablation of root canal dentine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papagiakoumou, Eirini; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios N.; Khabbaz, Marouan G.; Makropoulou, Mersini I.; Serafetinides, Alexander A.

    2004-06-01

    Laser based dental treatment is attractive to many researchers. Lasers in the 3 μm region, as the Er:YAG, are suitable especially for endodontic applications. In this study a pulsed free-running and Q-switched laser was used for the ablation experiments of root canal dentine. The laser beam was either directly focused on the dental tissue or delivered to it through an infrared fiber. For different spatial beam distributions, energies, number of pulses and both laser operations the quality characteristics (crater's shape formation, ablation efficiency and surface characteristics modification) were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The craters produced, generally, reflect the relevant beam profile. Inhomogeneous spatial beam profiles and short pulse duration result in cracks formation and lower tissue removal efficiency, while longer pulse durations cause hard dentine fusion. Any beam profile modification, due to laser characteristics variations and the specific delivering system properties, is directly reflected in the ablation crater shape and the tissue removal efficiency. Therefore, the laser parameters, as fluence, pulse repetition rate and number of pulses, have to be carefully adjusted in relation to the desirable result.

  3. Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched c-cut Nd:YVO4 self-Raman laser at 1168.6 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H. Y.; Pan, X.; Huang, X. H.; Xiao, M.; Xu, Y. C.; Zhu, W. Z.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate the first Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched c-cut Nd:YVO4 self-Raman laser at 1168.6 nm based on the Stokes shift of 816 cm-1. At the pump power of 4.7 W, the maximum output power of the Stokes line at 1168.6 nm is 270.5 mW, corresponding to an optical conversion efficiency of 5.8%. The pulse width, pulse repetition rate, pulse energy and peak power are 8.8 ns, 35.8 kHz, 7.6 μJ and 0.86 kW, respectively. At the pump of 5.0 W, the Stokes line at 1097.2 nm based on Raman shift of 259 cm-1 also appears.

  4. Wideband saturable absorption in few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe₂) for Q-switching Yb-, Er- and Tm-doped fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Woodward, R I; Howe, R C T; Runcorn, T H; Hu, G; Torrisi, F; Kelleher, E J R; Hasan, T

    2015-07-27

    We fabricate a free-standing molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) saturable absorber by embedding liquid-phase exfoliated few-layer MoSe2 flakes into a polymer film. The MoSe2-polymer composite is used to Q-switch fiber lasers based on ytterbium (Yb), erbium (Er) and thulium (Tm) gain fiber, producing trains of microsecond-duration pulses with kilohertz repetition rates at 1060 nm, 1566 nm and 1924 nm, respectively. Such operating wavelengths correspond to sub-bandgap saturable absorption in MoSe2, which is explained in the context of edge-states, building upon studies of other semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD)-based saturable absorbers. Our work adds few-layer MoSe2 to the growing catalog of TMDs with remarkable optical properties, which offer new opportunities for photonic devices. PMID:26367663

  5. Q-switched dual-wavelength fiber laser using a graphene oxide saturable absorber and singlemode-multimode-singlemode fiber structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, H.; Zulkifli, A. Z.; Yasin, M.; Thambiratnam, K.

    2016-10-01

    A Q-switched dual-wavelength fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based saturable absorber to generate the desired output pulses is proposed and demonstrated. The system utilizes a singlemode-multimode-singlemode fiber structure to control the net losses in the cavity so that only two dominant wavelengths are allowed to oscillate. The proposed system is capable of generating an output with a high repetition rate of 27.1 kHz and a narrow pulse width of 4.03 µs. The output pulses also have average output power and pulse energy of up to 0.5 mW and 18.5 nJ, respectively. The 1st harmonic obtained has a high signal-to-noise ratio of 33.2 dB, indicating a highly stable pulse output with minimum mode hopping.

  6. High-power passively Q-switched Yb:YCa4O(BO3)3 laser with a GaAs crystal plate as saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaowen; Han, Wenjuan; Xu, Honghao; Jia, Minghui; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Liu, Junhai

    2015-04-10

    We report on efficient high-power passively Q-switched operation of a Yb:YCa4O(BO3)3 laser with a GaAs crystal plate acting as the saturable absorber. An average output power of 5.7 W at 1032 nm is generated at a pulse repetition rate of 166.7 kHz when the incident pump power is 26.8 W, with a slope efficiency determined to be 24.5%. The averaged pulse energy achieved is roughly 30 μJ and is increased to about 40 μJ when the output coupling used changes from 30% to 50%, while the shortest pulse width is measured to be 153 ns.

  7. Theoretical and experimental studies on coexistent OPO and SRS from a KTiOPO4 pumped by an AO Q-switched Nd:LGGG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Junpeng; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Yufei; Yang, Kejian; Zhao, Jia; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Li, Tao; Qiao, Wenchao; Lu, Jianren; Chu, Hongwei; Luan, Chao

    2016-02-01

    Coexistent intracavity KTiOPO4 optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) processes pumped by an acousto-optical Q-switched Nd:Lu x Gd3- x Ga5O12 (Nd:LGGG) laser were presented for the first time. The Stokes radiations at 1093.2/1125.8 nm and a signal wave of 1570 nm were generated. At an incident pump power of 9.25 W and pulse repetition rate of 3 kHz, the maximum output powers of 375 mW at 1570 nm and 98 mW at 1093.2/1125.8 nm were obtained for the signal wave and Stokes radiations, respectively, corresponding to a total conversion efficiency of 5.1 %. A set of coupled rate equations for coexistent OPO and SRS processes was developed, and the numerical solutions agreed with the experiment results.

  8. Second Stokes 1129 nm generation in gray-trace resistance KTP intracavity driven by a diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.-T.; He, J.-L.; Wang, Y.

    2011-03-01

    A gray-trace resistance KTP (GTR-KTP) second Stokes Raman laser intracavity driven by a diode-pumped acousto-optic Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser was first demonstrated in this paper. With an incident pump power of 9.5 W, the intracavity GTR-KTP Raman laser, operating at the repetition rate of 20 kHz, produced the maximum average output power of 860 mW at 1129 nm. The minimum pulse width obtained in this GTR-KTP Raman laser was 10.8 ns. When the GTR-KTP was substituted with a common KTP, a lower average output power of 720 mW and longer pulse width of 15.9 ns were obtained in the common KTP Raman laser under the same pump condition and cavity setup as the GTR-KTP Raman laser. Experimental results indicated that the decreased absorption at the fundamental and Stokes wave in GTR-KTP was beneficial to improve the stimulated Raman scattering performance.

  9. Electro-optic control of a PPLN-unpoled LiNbO3 boundary for low-voltage Q switching of an intracavity frequency-doubled Nd3+:YVO4 laser.

    PubMed

    Torregrosa, A J; Maestre, H; Fernández-Pousa, C R; Pereda, J A; Capmany, J

    2009-08-01

    We present a simple technique to integrate an electro-optic Q switch in a periodically poled bulk lithium niobate crystal bounded by two unpoled (monodomain) regions. The technique exploits the high sensitivity to low applied electric fields of the total internal reflection condition in the periodic poled-unpoled boundary for the small grazing incidence angles associated with the diffraction of a focused Gaussian beam that propagates in the periodically poled region with its axis parallel to the boundary. When the arrangement is placed intracavity to a 1064 nm diode-pumped Nd(3+):YVO(4) laser, it performs simultaneously as a Q switch and as a second-harmonic generator, with Q switching starting at applied voltages as low as 1 V over a 500 microm thickness and with no additional optical elements.

  10. Electro-optic control of a PPLN-unpoled LiNbO3 boundary for low-voltage Q switching of an intracavity frequency-doubled Nd3+:YVO4 laser.

    PubMed

    Torregrosa, A J; Maestre, H; Fernández-Pousa, C R; Pereda, J A; Capmany, J

    2009-08-01

    We present a simple technique to integrate an electro-optic Q switch in a periodically poled bulk lithium niobate crystal bounded by two unpoled (monodomain) regions. The technique exploits the high sensitivity to low applied electric fields of the total internal reflection condition in the periodic poled-unpoled boundary for the small grazing incidence angles associated with the diffraction of a focused Gaussian beam that propagates in the periodically poled region with its axis parallel to the boundary. When the arrangement is placed intracavity to a 1064 nm diode-pumped Nd(3+):YVO(4) laser, it performs simultaneously as a Q switch and as a second-harmonic generator, with Q switching starting at applied voltages as low as 1 V over a 500 microm thickness and with no additional optical elements. PMID:19649073

  11. Q-switched versus free-running Er:YAG laser efficacy on the root canal walls of human teeth: a SEM study.

    PubMed

    Khabbaz, Marouan G; Makropoulou, Mersini I; Serafetinides, Alexandros A; Papadopoulos, Dimitris; Papagiakoumou, Eirini

    2004-08-01

    Twenty-one teeth with one root canal were prepared by the step-back technique, divided into three groups, and split longitudinally. Group A served as a control. In group B, 20 to 150 pulses of 100 micros, 30 to 70 mJ per pulse at 1 to 4 Hz from a free-running Er:YAG laser were applied to the root-canal dentin. In group C, the Q-switched Er:YAG laser, with the same energy parameters and a 190-ns pulse duration was used. Scanning electron microscopy examination revealed that control specimens had debris and smear layer obscuring the dentinal tubules at all levels in the canals without crack formation. Both groups of laser-treated dentin were clean with opened dentinal tubules except around the lased area in which there was an intact smear layer. Cracks were observed in both laser groups with higher frequency in group C. In group B, craters with different depth levels at the root canal walls were produced and the energy apparently was distributed equally, because craters were well-shaped. In contrast, the ablation efficiency in group C was questionable with the parameters used in this study. Consequently, suitable parameters of the free-running Er:YAG laser must be found before its careful use as an adjunct in endodontic therapy. PMID:15273641

  12. Highly efficient, versatile, self-Q-switched, high-repetition-rate microchip laser generating Ince–Gaussian modes for optical trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jun; He, Yu; Zhou, Xiao; Bai, Shengchuang

    2016-03-01

    Lasers operating in the Ince-Gaussian (IG) mode have potential applications for optical manipulation of microparticles and formation of optical vortices, as well as for optical trapping and optical tweezers. Versatile, self-Q-switched, high-peak-power, high-repetition-rate Cr, Nd:YAG microchip lasers operating in the IG mode are implemented under tilted, tightly focused laser-diode pumping. An average output power of over 2 W is obtained at an absorbed pump power of 6.4 W. The highest optical-to-optical efficiency of 33.2% is achieved at an absorbed pump power of 3.9 W. Laser pulses with a pulse energy of 7.5 μJ, pulse width of 3.5 ns and peak power of over 2 kW are obtained. A repetition rate up to 335 kHz is reached at an absorbed pump power of 5.8 W. Highly efficient, versatile, IG-mode lasers with a high repetition rate and a high peak power ensure a better flexibility in particle manipulation and optical trapping.

  13. Highly efficient, versatile, self-Q-switched, high-repetition-rate microchip laser generating Ince-Gaussian modes for optical trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jun; He, Yu; Zhou, Xiao; Bai, Shengchuang

    2016-03-01

    Lasers operating in the Ince-Gaussian (IG) mode have potential applications for optical manipulation of microparticles and formation of optical vortices, as well as for optical trapping and optical tweezers. Versatile, self-Q-switched, high-peak-power, high-repetition-rate Cr, Nd:YAG microchip lasers operating in the IG mode are implemented under tilted, tightly focused laser-diode pumping. An average output power of over 2 W is obtained at an absorbed pump power of 6.4 W. The highest optical-to-optical efficiency of 33.2% is achieved at an absorbed pump power of 3.9 W. Laser pulses with a pulse energy of 7.5 μJ, pulse width of 3.5 ns and peak power of over 2 kW are obtained. A repetition rate up to 335 kHz is reached at an absorbed pump power of 5.8 W. Highly efficient, versatile, IG-mode lasers with a high repetition rate and a high peak power ensure a better flexibility in particle manipulation and optical trapping.

  14. High Power Continuous-Wave and Acousto-Optic Q-Switched Nd:GdVO4 Laser Operated at 912 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jing; Yu, Xin; Chen, Fei; Li, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Zhen; Yu, Jun-Hua; Wang, Yue-Zhu

    2008-01-01

    We present a high power and efficient operation of the 4F3/2 → 4I9/2 transition in Nd:GdVO4 at 912nm. In the cw mode, the maximum output power of 8.6 W is achieved when the incident pump power is 40.3 W, leading to a slope efficiency of 33.3% and an optical-optical efficiency of 21.3%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest cw laser power at 912 nm obtained with the conventional Nd:GdVO4 crystal. Pulsed operation of 912 nm laser has also been realized by inserting a small acousto-optic (A-O) Q-Switch inside the resonator. As a result, the minimal pulse width of 20 ns and the average laser power 1.43 W at the repetition rate of 10 kHz are obtained, corresponding to 7.1 kW peak power. We believe that this is the highest laser peak power at 912nm. Furthermore, duration of 65ns has also been acquired when the repetition rate is 100kHz.

  15. Fluorine Penetration into Amorphous SiO2 Glass at SF6 Atmosphere Using Q-Switched Nd:YAG and Excimer Laser Irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid Reza Dehghanpour,; Parviz Parvin,

    2010-07-01

    At low pressures up to 0.1 mbar, the evidence of simultaneous SF6 gas decomposition and the morphology alteration on amorphous SiO2 glass have been investigated using various laser irradiations at typical wavelengths, i.e., ultraviolet (UV; 193 nm), visible (532 nm), and near infrared (NIR; 1064 nm). The instrumental micro-analysis of the surface were carried out by a number of instruments such as laser breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Rutherford back scattered spectroscopy (RBS), wavelength dispersive X-ray (WDX) mapping, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis and photo-spectrometry accordingly. It was shown that the excimer laser at shorter wavelengths induces microstructuring on glass mainly due to the surface UV photoablation and the subsequent collisional SF6 decomposition. Conversely, at the longer wavelengths such as the fundamental and second harmonic generation of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, the treatment of the target is done based on the micro-plasma induced ablation and the following electron-impact SF6 decomposition.

  16. A Q-switched Ho:YAG laser assisted nanosecond time-resolved T-jump transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy with high sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Deyong; Li, Yunliang; Li, Hao; Wu, Xianyou; Yu, Qingxu; Weng, Yuxiang

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of dynamical structure of protein is an important clue to understand its biological function in vivo. Temperature-jump (T-jump) time-resolved transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy is a powerful tool in elucidating the protein dynamical structures and the folding/unfolding kinetics of proteins in solution. A home-built setup of T-jump time-resolved transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy with high sensitivity is developed, which is composed of a Q-switched Cr, Tm, Ho:YAG laser with an output wavelength at 2.09 μm as the T-jump heating source, and a continuous working CO laser tunable from 1580 to 1980 cm(-1) as the IR probe. The results demonstrate that this system has a sensitivity of 1 × 10(-4) ΔOD for a single wavelength detection, and 2 × 10(-4) ΔOD for spectral detection in amide I' region, as well as a temporal resolution of 20 ns. Moreover, the data quality coming from the CO laser is comparable to the one using the commercial quantum cascade laser.

  17. A Q-switched Ho:YAG laser assisted nanosecond time-resolved T-jump transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy with high sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Deyong; Li, Yunliang; Li, Hao; Wu, Xianyou; Yu, Qingxu; Weng, Yuxiang

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of dynamical structure of protein is an important clue to understand its biological function in vivo. Temperature-jump (T-jump) time-resolved transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy is a powerful tool in elucidating the protein dynamical structures and the folding/unfolding kinetics of proteins in solution. A home-built setup of T-jump time-resolved transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy with high sensitivity is developed, which is composed of a Q-switched Cr, Tm, Ho:YAG laser with an output wavelength at 2.09 μm as the T-jump heating source, and a continuous working CO laser tunable from 1580 to 1980 cm(-1) as the IR probe. The results demonstrate that this system has a sensitivity of 1 × 10(-4) ΔOD for a single wavelength detection, and 2 × 10(-4) ΔOD for spectral detection in amide I' region, as well as a temporal resolution of 20 ns. Moreover, the data quality coming from the CO laser is comparable to the one using the commercial quantum cascade laser. PMID:26026512

  18. A Q-switched Ho:YAG laser assisted nanosecond time-resolved T-jump transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy with high sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Deyong; Li, Yunliang; Li, Hao; Weng, Yuxiang; Wu, Xianyou; Yu, Qingxu

    2015-05-15

    Knowledge of dynamical structure of protein is an important clue to understand its biological function in vivo. Temperature-jump (T-jump) time-resolved transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy is a powerful tool in elucidating the protein dynamical structures and the folding/unfolding kinetics of proteins in solution. A home-built setup of T-jump time-resolved transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy with high sensitivity is developed, which is composed of a Q-switched Cr, Tm, Ho:YAG laser with an output wavelength at 2.09 μm as the T-jump heating source, and a continuous working CO laser tunable from 1580 to 1980 cm{sup −1} as the IR probe. The results demonstrate that this system has a sensitivity of 1 × 10{sup −4} ΔOD for a single wavelength detection, and 2 × 10{sup −4} ΔOD for spectral detection in amide I′ region, as well as a temporal resolution of 20 ns. Moreover, the data quality coming from the CO laser is comparable to the one using the commercial quantum cascade laser.

  19. Multi-wavelength passively Q-switched c-cut Nd:YVO4 self-Raman laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H. Y.; Pan, X.; Huang, X. H.; Xiao, M.; Liu, X.; Sun, D.; Zhu, W. Z.

    2016-06-01

    A multi-wavelength passively Q-switched self-Raman laser with a c-cut Nd:YVO4 both as laser and Raman medium is reported. With the increasing pump power, the multi-wavelength laser including the fundamental line at 1067.4 nm, 1st-Stokes at 1097.9 nm, 2nd-Stokes at 1130.1 nm, and 3rd-Stokes at 1163.6 nm is generated sequentially. At a pump power of 5.0 W, the maximum output power of the four discrete lines are 186.8 mW, 246.5 mW, 158.4 mW and 63.6 mW, with corresponding optical conversion efficiencies of 3.7%, 4.9%, 3.2% and 1.3% respectively. The total stimulated Raman scattering conversion efficiency is 9.4%. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of the 2nd-Stokes at 1130.1 nm and 3rd-Stokes at 1163.6 nm.

  20. Highly efficient 2  μm CW and Q-switched Tm3+:Lu2O3 ceramics lasers in-band pumped by a Raman-shifted erbium fiber laser at 1670  nm.

    PubMed

    Antipov, Oleg; Novikov, Anton; Larin, Sergey; Obronov, Ivan

    2016-05-15

    Highly efficient laser oscillations at 2 μm were investigated in Tm:Lu2O3 ceramics in-band pumped at 1670 nm by a Raman-shifted erbium fiber laser. Both 23 W CW and 15 W active Q-switched oscillations with 40 ns pulse duration and 15-30 kHz repetition rate were achieved in a high-quality beam. The evolution of two generated waves at 1966 and 2064 nm in dependence on pump power was studied. PMID:27176987

  1. Highly efficient 2  μm CW and Q-switched Tm3+:Lu2O3 ceramics lasers in-band pumped by a Raman-shifted erbium fiber laser at 1670  nm.

    PubMed

    Antipov, Oleg; Novikov, Anton; Larin, Sergey; Obronov, Ivan

    2016-05-15

    Highly efficient laser oscillations at 2 μm were investigated in Tm:Lu2O3 ceramics in-band pumped at 1670 nm by a Raman-shifted erbium fiber laser. Both 23 W CW and 15 W active Q-switched oscillations with 40 ns pulse duration and 15-30 kHz repetition rate were achieved in a high-quality beam. The evolution of two generated waves at 1966 and 2064 nm in dependence on pump power was studied.

  2. Simultaneous intracavity optical parametric oscillation and stimulated Raman scattering pumped by a doubly passively Q-switched Nd:GGG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hongwei; Zhao, Jia; Li, Yufei; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Dechun; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Tao; Qiao, Wenchao

    2014-12-01

    By using a doubly passively Q-switched Nd:Gd3Ga5O12(Nd:GGG) laser with Cr4+:YAG and GaAs as saturable absorbers as pump laser, simultaneous intracavity optical parametric oscillation and stimulated Raman scattering based on a single X-cut KTiOPO4 (KTP) crystal have been realized. Under an incident diode pump power of 10.5 W, the output powers at the signal wave near 1,569 nm and the first Stokes emission near 1,094 nm were 218 and 72 mW, corresponding to the optical-to-optical conversion efficiencies of 2.08 and 0.69 %, respectively. The measured shortest pulse duration at the signal wave near 1,569 nm was 580 ps, generating a pulse peak power of 43.7 kW, while the minimum pulse duration at the first Stokes emission near 1,094 nm was 1.61 ns. By adjusting the tilt angle of the KTP crystal, up to the third Stokes scattering was also obtained.

  3. High-power multichannel PPMgLN-based optical parametric oscillator pumped by a master oscillation power amplification-structured Q-switched fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Wei, Kaihua; Jiang, Peipei; Wu, Bo; Shen, Yonghang

    2012-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a compact fiber laser-pumped multichannel PPMgLN-based optical parametric oscillator (OPO) generating total OPO output power of 15.8, 15.2, 14.2, 12.9, and 8.8 W with idler output power of 4.7, 4.3, 4.1, 3.3, and 2.1 W at the wavelength of 3.43, 3.63, 3.72, 3.83, and 3.99 μm, respectively. The OPO was pumped by a fully fiberized polarization maintaining (PM) ytterbium-doped pulsed fiber master oscillation power amplifier (MOPA) operating at 1064 nm at a repetition rate of 65 kHz with effective pump power of 28.7 W. The MOPA system was constructed with an acousto-optic Q-switched fiber laser seed and only one stage PM fiber amplifier without any free space components, which makes the pump system compact and stable in the long-term. Comparisons on efficiencies and signal wavelength shifts between different channels showed that the idler absorption was the main factor preventing high average-power OPO operation with long idler wavelength. PMID:23033106

  4. Dual-loss-modulated Q-switched mode-locked laser intracavity pumped temperature-tuned subnanosecond KTiOPO4 optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hongwei; Zhao, Jia; Yang, Kejian; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Dechun; Li, Tao; Li, Guiqiu; Qiao, Wenchao

    2015-12-10

    Using an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) and Cr4+:YAG as the dual-loss modulation, an intracavity KTiOPO4 optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by a simultaneously Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) YVO4/Nd:YVO4 laser was realized. The shortest mode-locking pulse duration of the signal wave at 1573 nm was directly measured as 450 ps at an AOM frequency of 2 kHz and a diode pump power of 10.5 W, corresponding to a peak power of 35.5 kW. The temperature tuning of the output signal wavelength was realized in the range from 1571.99 to 1572.61 nm with a blueshift ratio of 0.027  nm/°C. A set of coupled rate equations for the dual-loss-modulated QML laser pumping intracavity OPO was built for the first time to our knowledge. The numerical solutions were fitted with the experimental results. PMID:26836880

  5. Treatment of melasma with low fluence, large spot size, 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser for the treatment of melasma in Fitzpatrick skin types II-IV.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alia S; Hussain, Mussarat; Goldberg, David J

    2011-12-01

    Melasma is a common condition affecting over six million American women. Treatment of dermal or combined melasma is difficult and does not respond well to conventional topical therapies. Various light sources have been used recently in the treatment of melasma including fractionated ablative and non-ablative lasers as well as intense pulse light. We report the use of low fluence, large spot size Q-switched, Nd:Yag laser for the treatment of melasma in skin types II-IV.

  6. Diode-pumped 1 kW Q-switched Nd:YAG rod laser with high peak power and high beam quality

    SciTech Connect

    Furuta, Keisuke; Kojima, Tetsuo; Fujikawa, Shuichi; Nishimae, Jun-ichi

    2005-07-01

    We have demonstrated high-peak-power generation at 1 kW average power by applying an acousto-optic Q switch to a quasi-cw diode-pumped Nd:YAG master oscillator power amplifier. We achieved a maximum peak power of 2.3 MW by driving the Q switch in burst mode. The average repetition rate was 6 kHz. The corresponding beam quality was M{sup 2}=9.

  7. A Retrospective Study on the Characteristics of Treating Nevus of Ota by 1064-nm Q-switched Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanting; Zeng, Weihui; Geng, Songmei

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (QS Nd:YAG) laser has a significant effect in treating nevus of Ota, but there is lack of a retrospective study about the characteristics of efficacy. Aims and Objectives: To retrospectively analyze the correlation between the clinical characteristics and efficacy, complications, recurrence of QS Nd:YAG laser in treating nevus of Ota. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventy-one Chinese patients (144 female, 27 male) of nevus of Ota were treated with the 1064-nm QS Nd:YAG laser. All cases were treated with fluencies of 4–8 J/cm2 and a spot size of 2–4 mm. Clinical photographs were taken before every treatment and patients were followed up by their clinicians. Results: One hundred and forty-five patients (84.8%) acquired more than 75% improvement with an average of 4.6 sessions. The treatment effect has no significant correlation with sex (P > 0.05). The blue-black and brown lesions improved more than the light-brown (P < 0.05). Hyperpigmentation affected two (1.2%) of the patients and hypopigmentation affected one patient (0.6%). No other adverse effect was observed. Recurrence was seen in two patients (1.2%). Conclusion: The 1064-nm QS Nd:YAG laser is effective with rare complications and recurrence in the treatment of nevus of Ota. The efficacy correlated with lesion color, which is meaningful to estimate the prognosis. PMID:27293272

  8. Highly efficient tunable mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped by a wavelength locked, Q-switched Er:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Tang, Pinghua; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Chujun; Shen, Deyuan; Wen, Shuangchun; Fan, Dianyuan

    2015-08-10

    A highly efficient and stable mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator is demonstrated, pumped by an electro-optic Q-switched Er:YAG laser with operating wavelength locked at 1645 nm by a volume Bragg grating. The oscillator, based on MgO-doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN) crystal, yields a maximum overall average output power in excess of 1 W, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 35.5% and a slope efficiency of 43.6%. The signal and idler wavelengths of the OPO are around ~2.7 μm and ~4.3 μm, respectively, corresponding to the two peak absorption bands of CO(2). Lasing characteristics of the oscillator, including the time evolution of the pump, signal and idler pulses at different pump power levels, are also investigated. Temperature tuning of the MgO:PPLN crystal gives signal and idler ranges of 2.67 to 2.72 μm and 4.17 to 4.31 μm, respectively.

  9. Optical parametric oscillator of mid-IR, visible and UV ranges with synchronous pumping by a Q-switched mode-locked Nd : YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donin, V. I.; Yakovin, M. D.; Yakovin, D. V.

    2016-07-01

    The parametric generation in a nonlinear PPLN crystal synchronously pumped by a Q-switched mode-locked Nd : YAG laser with a pulse duration of 45 ps is studied. The output pump intensity in the nonlinear crystal reaches ~10 GW cm-2. At a pulse repetition rate of 1 kHz, the average output power at the idler wavelength (~3.6 μm) is ~12 mW, the peak power is ~25 kW, and the conversion efficiency (with respect to the absorbed power) is ~10%. The radiation linewidth at the signal wavelength (~1.5 μm) is 13 cm-1. Along with the signal and idler waves, the output emission spectrum contains lines at wavelengths of 822, 754, 624, 532, 463, 442, 392 and 355 nm. The tunable radiation with wavelengths in the vicinity of 392, 463 and 822 nm is observed for the first time. The tuning ranges for the new lines are measured (5 – 10 nm) and their origin is explained.

  10. Optical parametric oscillator of mid-IR, visible and UV ranges with synchronous pumping by a Q-switched mode-locked Nd : YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donin, V. I.; Yakovin, M. D.; Yakovin, D. V.

    2016-07-01

    The parametric generation in a nonlinear PPLN crystal synchronously pumped by a Q-switched mode-locked Nd : YAG laser with a pulse duration of 45 ps is studied. The output pump intensity in the nonlinear crystal reaches ~10 GW cm-2. At a pulse repetition rate of 1 kHz, the average output power at the idler wavelength (~3.6 μm) is ~12 mW, the peak power is ~25 kW, and the conversion efficiency (with respect to the absorbed power) is ~10%. The radiation linewidth at the signal wavelength (~1.5 μm) is 13 cm-1. Along with the signal and idler waves, the output emission spectrum contains lines at wavelengths of 822, 754, 624, 532, 463, 442, 392 and 355 nm. The tunable radiation with wavelengths in the vicinity of 392, 463 and 822 nm is observed for the first time. The tuning ranges for the new lines are measured (5 - 10 nm) and their origin is explained.

  11. Efficacy of 694-nm fractional Q-switched ruby laser (QSRL) combined with sonophoresis on levorotatory vitamin C for treatment of melasma in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Zhou, H L; Hu, B; Zhang, C

    2016-07-01

    Melasma is a common acquired and distressing pigmentary disorder presenting to dermatology clinics. It is notably difficult to cure and has a tendency to relapse. The efficacy of classical Q-switched laser in treatment of melasma remains controversial. This study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of 694-nm fractional QSRL combined with sonophoresis on levorotatory vitamin C for the treatment of melasma patients. Twenty-six patients with melasma were enrolled. Each patient received four to six fractional QSRL treatments at pulse energies of 2.5 to 4 J/cm(2) combined with sonophoresis on levorotatory vitamin C at 2-week intervals. The severity and the area of melasma were assessed by two investigators using the melasma area and severity index (MASI). Side effects were documented. Mean MASI score decreased from 15.51 ± 3.00 before treatment to 10.02 ± 4.39 3 months after the final treatment (P < 0.01). Side effects were few and transient. High-density coverage fractional QSRL combined with sonophoresis on levorotatory vitamin C is safe and effective for the treatment of melasma in Chinese patients. PMID:27126411

  12. A preliminary comparison of the transient effects of single versus multiple q-switched doubled-neodymium laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Previc, Fred H.

    1987-09-01

    A comparison between the effects of single and multiple laser pulse-trains of equivalent energy was performed. Visual evoked potentials (VEPS) recorded bipolarly from the visual cortex of two rhesus monkeys in response to a counterphasing grating were used to assess the magnitude of the visual loss following four types of exposures: single and multiple pulses with total energies equal to 50 and 500 percent of the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) standard for humans. The results showed that the effects of a series of laser flashes presented within 200 ms are similar to those of a single laser flash whose energy is equivalent to the cumulative energy of the multiple-pulse exposure.

  13. Diode-pumped Nd:Gd3Ga5O12-KTiOPO4 green laser doubly passively Q-switched mode-locked by GaAs and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Junpeng; Zhao, Jia; Yang, Kejian; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Yufei; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Qiao, Wenchao; Li, Tao; Chu, Hongwei

    2015-03-01

    By simultaneously employing GaAs and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorbers, a diode-pumped doubly passively Q-switched and mode-locked (DP-QML) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 (Nd:GGG)/KTiOPO4 (KTP) green laser has been presented. At the maximum incident pump power of 7.69 W, the obtained average output power, the pulse duration of the Q-switched envelope, the mode-locked pulse width and the pulse repetition rate are 62 mW, 16.8 ns, 352 ps, and 15.5 kHz, respectively, corresponding to a pulse energy of 4.2 µJ and a peak power of 0.25 kW. In comparison with singly passively Q-switched and mode-locked (SP-QML) green laser with GaAs or Cr4+:YAG saturable absorbers, the DP-QML green laser can generate shorter pulse width, deeper modulation depth and higher peak power. The coupled equations for diode-pumped doubly passively QML Nd:GGG/KTP green laser are given and the numerical simulations are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  14. High-energy passively Q-switched operation of Yb:GdCa(4)O(BO(3))(3) laser with a GaAs semiconductor saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaowen; Wang, Lisha; Han, Wenjuan; Guo, Yunfeng; Xu, Honghao; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Liu, Junhai

    2015-11-16

    High-energy passively Q-switched operation of a Yb:GdCa(4)O(BO(3))(3) laser is demonstrated, with a GaAs crystal plate acting as saturable absorber. An average output power of 1.31 W at 1027 nm is produced at a pulse repetition rate of 1.92 kHz, the resulting pulse energy, duration, and peak power being respectively 0.68 mJ, 9.0 ns, and 75.6 kW. The shortest pulse duration obtained is 4.9 ns; whereas the maximum pulse energy achievable amounts to 0.83 mJ, which proves to be nearly one order of magnitude higher than ever generated from Yb or Nd lasers passively Q-switched by a GaAs saturable absorber.

  15. High-energy passively Q-switched operation of Yb:GdCa(4)O(BO(3))(3) laser with a GaAs semiconductor saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaowen; Wang, Lisha; Han, Wenjuan; Guo, Yunfeng; Xu, Honghao; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Liu, Junhai

    2015-11-16

    High-energy passively Q-switched operation of a Yb:GdCa(4)O(BO(3))(3) laser is demonstrated, with a GaAs crystal plate acting as saturable absorber. An average output power of 1.31 W at 1027 nm is produced at a pulse repetition rate of 1.92 kHz, the resulting pulse energy, duration, and peak power being respectively 0.68 mJ, 9.0 ns, and 75.6 kW. The shortest pulse duration obtained is 4.9 ns; whereas the maximum pulse energy achievable amounts to 0.83 mJ, which proves to be nearly one order of magnitude higher than ever generated from Yb or Nd lasers passively Q-switched by a GaAs saturable absorber. PMID:26698515

  16. Stable kilo-hertz electro-optically Q-switched Tm,Ho:YAP laser at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Zhao, S.; Li, Y.; Yang, K.; Li, M.; Li, G.; Li, D.; Li, T.; Qiao, W.; Feng, T.; Chen, X.; Zheng, L.; Su, L.; Xu, J.

    2016-07-01

    A diode-pumped Tm,Ho:YAP laser utilizing a self-made LiNbO3 (LN) electro-optically modulator (EOM) at room temperature is demonstrated for the first time. A minimum pulse duration of 107.4 ns was obtained at a pulse repetition rate (PRR) of 200 Hz, giving a maximum single pulse energy of 1.65 mJ. At a PRR of 1 kHz, pulse duration of 145.8 ns was achieved under the absorbed pump power of 7.4 W, corresponding to a maximum single pulse energy of 0.546 mJ, and the pulse to pulse amplitude instabilities were measured to be about 4.6% and 5.83% for PRRs of 200 Hz and 1 kHz, respectively.

  17. Enlarged pores treated with a combination of Q-switched and micropulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser with and without topical carbon suspension: A simultaneous split-face trial

    PubMed Central

    Chung, HJ; Goo, BC; Lee, HJ; Roh, MR; Chung, KY

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims: Enlarged facial pores remain one of the major cosmetic concerns among Asian females. This study attempted to assess and compare the efficacy of a combination of the Q-switched and quasi long-pulsed (micropulsed) Nd:YAG laser to reduce the size of the enlarged pores with and without an exogenous photoenhancer. Methods: In twenty five female subjects mean age 34.04 yr and skin type II-IV, a carbon lotion as a photoenhancer was applied on one side of the face (Method 1) and the other side was used as the control (Method 2). The entire face was then treated with a single pass of the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser in the micropulsed mode, pulse fluence and width of 2.3 J/cm2 and 300 µsec, respectively. Multiple passes were then delivered in the Q-switched mode (2.5 J/cm2 and 5 nsec). Results: Three weeks after the final treatment, 75% of the subjects showed improvement with method 1 whereas 67% showed improvement with method 2. No adverse side effects were reported with either method. Conclusions: Although histological confirmation was not performed, we were able to prove both subjectively and objectively that the use of the combination of the micropulsed and Q-switched modes of the Nd:YAG laser was useful in reducing pore size, and that the photoenhancer improved the efficacy. PMID:24155527

  18. Optimization of the pulse-width of diode-pumped passively Q-switched mode-locked c-cut Nd:GdVO4 laser with a GaAs saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Han, Chao; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Dechun; Li, Guiqiu; Yang, Kejian; Zhang, Gang; Cheng, Kang

    2011-11-01

    By considering the single-photon absorption and two-photon absorption processes in the GaAs saturable absorber, the coupled rate equations for a diode-pumped passively Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) laser with GaAs coupler under Gaussian approximation are given. These rate equations are solved numerically. The key parameters of an optimally coupled passively QML laser with the shortest pulse-width envelope are determined. These key parameters include the parameters of the gain medium, the saturable absorber, and the resonator, which can minimize the pulse-width of a singly Q-switched envelope. Sample calculations for a diode-pumped passively Q-switched mode-locked c-cut Nd:GdVO(4) laser with a GaAs coupler are presented to demonstrate that the shortest pulse-width envelope can be obtained by selecting the optimal small-signal transmission of the saturable absorber and the reflectivity of the output mirror.

  19. Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of Nd:(LaxGd1-x)3Ga5O12 crystal at 1062 nm CW and PQS laser performance of Nd:LaGGG crystal at 1062 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Fu, X.-W.; Jia, Z.-T.; He, J.-L.; Yang, X.-Q.; Zhang, B.-T.; Wang, R.-H.; Liu, X.-M.; Hou, J.; Lou, F.; Wang, Z.-W.; Yang, Y.

    2012-10-01

    The performance of diode-pumped continuous-wave (CW) and passively Q-switched (PQS) Nd:(LaxGd1-x)3Ga5O12 lasers at 1062 nm were demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge. The highest CW output power of 9.9 W was obtained, corresponding to an optical-to-optical efficiency of 42.9%. For the passive Q-switching operation, when the output coupler of Toc = 27% was adopted, the maximum output power of 3.97 W was obtained by a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber with the initial transmission of T0 = 89.9%.While at T0 = 81.4% and Toc = 27%, the output power of 2.83 W, with pulse width of 7.4 ns and the repetition rate of 13.87 kHz, was obtained, corresponding to the maximum peak power of 27.6 kW and single pulse energy of 0.2 mJ, respectively.

  20. New insight in the treatment of refractory melasma: Laser Q-switched Nd: YAG non-ablative fractionated followed by intense pulsed light.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Paulo Rowilson; Pinto, Clovis Antonio Lopes; Mattos, Camila Bonati; Cabrini, Dayane Peverari; Tolosa, Joana Lugli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to verify the results of the association of Q-switched Nd: YAG non-ablative fractionated with intense pulsed light, in order to treat patients with refractory melasma. The combination of these two devices seems to be the best treatment to combat hyperpigmentation produced by melasma, with low occurrence of side effects, which may be justified by the selective photothermolysis at subcellular level.

  1. High-energy passively Q-switched laser operation of Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 disordered crystal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lisha; Han, Wenjuan; Pan, Zhongben; Xu, Honghao; Chen, Xiaowen; Liu, Junhai; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin

    2016-05-01

    Efficient high-energy passively Q-switched laser operation was demonstrated with Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 disordered crystal, producing an average output power of 3.0 W at 1018.7 nm, at a pulse repetition frequency of 5.0 kHz; the resulting pulse energy, duration, and peak power were 600 μJ, 5.3 ns, and 113.2 kW, respectively. PMID:27140354

  2. Passively Q-switched performance of a Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 eye-safe laser at 1423.4  nm with Co2+:LaMgAl11O19 as saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanian; Ma, Baomin; Chen, Xiaohan; Wang, Qingpu; Tao, Xutang; Li, Ping

    2013-12-10

    The performance of a LD-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GGG eye-safe laser at 1423.4 nm with a Co(2+):LaMgAl(11)O(19) (Co:LMA) saturable absorber is demonstrated. A maximum average output power of 627 mW with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 3.35% and a slope efficiency of 5.1% was obtained under a pump power of 18.7 W. A minimum pulsewidth of 102 ns and a pulse repetition rate of 35 kHz were obtained with the T=1.0% output coupler. PMID:24513904

  3. On the possibility of increasing the pulse energy of a passively Q-switched erbium glass minilaser

    SciTech Connect

    Izyneev, A A; Sadovskii, Pavel I; Sadovskii, S P

    2010-08-03

    A simple method to increase the output energy of a passively Q-switched erbium glass laser is proposed. Using the amplitude modulation of losses at the active element face, the fundamental mode was reliably suppressed and the laser operated in a selected higher-order mode. The output energy was experimentally increased by a factor of 2.1, and the range of allowable pump energy instability was extended threefold. (lasers)

  4. Novel treatment of Hori's nevus: A combination of fractional nonablative 2,940-nm Er:YAG and low-fluence 1,064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Brian Wei Cheng Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate a combination laser therapy to treat Hori's nevus. Design: A prospective study. Setting: A Singapore-based clinic. Participants: Five female patients, aged 30-46 years, with bilateral malar Hori's nevus. Measurements: Photographs were taken before treatment and 1 month after laser treatment was completed. These were graded by three independent physicians. The patients were also asked to grade their treatment response subjectively. They were followed up for a total of 3 months after laser treatment to monitor recurrence. Materials and Methods: The fractional nonablative 2,940-nm Er:YAG laser with a fluence of 0.7 J/cm2, spot size 12 mm, and frequency 15 Hz was used to perform a full-face single-pass treatment. Subsequently, a second pass and third pass over Hori's nevi were done bilaterally till the clinical endpoint of skin whitening. The 1,064-nm Q-switched (QS) Nd:YAG at a fluence of 2.0 J/cm2, frequency 2 Hz, and 4-mm spot size was used to deliver multiple passes over Hori's nevus till erythema with mild petechiae appeared. We repeated the treatment once a week for 3 more consecutive weeks. Results: All five patients had above 80% improvement in their pigmentation and two (skin type III) achieved complete 100% clearance. Based on the patients’ subjective assessments, all five of them expressed satisfaction and felt that their pigmentation had improved. There were no complications noted. Conclusion: The fractional nonablative 2940 nm Er:YAG laser and Q-switched 1064nm laser Nd:YAG combination is an effective and safe treatment for Hori's nevus. PMID:26865788

  5. All solid-state 191.7 nm deep-UV light source by seventh harmonic generation of an 888 nm pumped, Q-switched 1342 nm Nd:YVO₄ laser with excellent beam quality.

    PubMed

    Koch, Peter; Bartschke, Juergen; L'huillier, Johannes A

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we report on the realization of a deep-UV light source using the 1.3 μm transition of neodymium as pumping wavelength. The 191.7 nm radiation was obtained by generating the seventh harmonic of a high-power Q-switched 1342 nm Nd:YVO4 laser. A cesium lithium borate crystal was used for sum frequency mixing of the sixth harmonic and the fundamental. With a total of four conversion stages, up to 240 mW were achieved, with excellent beam quality at 155 mW (M2 < 1.7) and 190 mW (M2 < 1.9).

  6. Simultaneous operations at 1125 nm, 1161 nm, and 1567 nm from a single KTiOPO4 crystal pumped by a passively Q-switched Nd:GGG laser.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hongwei; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Yufei; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Jia; Qiao, Wenchao; Li, Tao

    2014-02-01

    A multiwavelength operation generated from an intracavity optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by a passively Q-switched Nd:GGG laser with a Cr(4+):YAG saturable absorber is demonstrated. KTiOPO4 simultaneously worked as nonlinear OPO and Raman crystal. Maximum output powers of 302 mW at 1566.8 nm and 115 mW at 1124.9/1160.7 nm were obtained at a diode power of 10.5 W, corresponding to the optical-to-optical conversion efficiencies of 2.88% and 1.1%, respectively. The measured shortest pulse duration at 1566.8 nm was 1.61 ns, while the obtained minimum pulse duration at 1124.9/1160.7 nm was 2.88 ns. PMID:24487909

  7. Investigation of a gain-switched Cr2+ : ZnSe laser pumped by an acousto-optic Q-switched Ho : YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jin-He; Chen, Yi; Yang, Hong-Yu; Yao, Bao-Quan; Duan, Xiao-Ming; Dai, Tong-Yu; Ju, You-Lun

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate a gain-switched Cr2+ : ZnSe laser pumped by a high energy Ho : YAG laser. The maximum output power of 5.5 W in the spectrum range from 2450 nm to 2570 nm is obtained at a pulse repetition rate of 2 kHz, corresponding to a pulse energy of 2.75 mJ. With a volume Bragg grating (VBG) for compressing the linewidth, a 2.4 W output power with a narrow linewidth (< 1 nm) is obtained at 2570.5 nm. The pulse shapes obtained at different pump energies are also studied and analysed. A minimum pulse width of ~28.5 ns is achieved at a pump energy of 14.6 mJ, corresponding to a peak power of ~96.5 kW.

  8. Diode-pumped acousto-optical Q-switched 912 nm Nd:GdVO4 laser and extra-cavity frequency-doubling of 456 nm deep-blue light emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, F.; Yu, X.; Zhang, K.; He, Y.; Zheng, C. B.; Wang, C. R.; Guo, J.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a diode-pumped acousto-optical (A-O) Q-switched 912 nm Nd:GdVO4 laser and pulsed 456 nm deep-blue light emission by extra-cavity frequency-doubling are demonstrated. To compensate the serious thermal-lensing effect in laser crystal, a compact unstable resonator is used. At an incident pump power of 49.5 W, a maximum average output power of 2.3 W 912 nm laser is obtained at 10 kHz, corresponding to an optical conversion efficiency of 4.6% and a slope efficiency of 9.2%. Minimum pulse width of 20 ns and maximum peak power of 10.5 kW 912 nm laser are achieved at a pump power of 45.3 W. Using a BiBO crystal as the frequency-doubler, maximum average output power of 623 mW 456 nm deep-blue light is obtained at 10 kHz, with a pulse width of 21.3 ns and a peak power of 2.3 kW. Moreover, stable operating repetition rate of 912 nm laser and 456 nm deep-blue light is up to 100 kHz.

  9. Induction of melasma by 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser therapy for acquired bilateral nevus of Ota-like macules (Hori nevus): A study on related factors in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ben; Xie, Hong-Fu; Tan, Jun; Xie, Hong-Ju; Xu, Lin-Yong; Ding, Rong; Liu, Fang-Fen; Chen, Xiang; Jian, Dan; Li, Ji

    2016-06-01

    Laser treatment has emerged as a common treatment modality for acquired bilateral nevus of Ota-like macules (ABNOM). To identify the ratio of melasma induction and exacerbation before and after laser therapy for ABNOM and to observe the risk factors related to the induction and exacerbation of melasma by laser therapy, we analyzed related factors of 1268 adult Chinese patients who underwent 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (QNYL) treatment using case series and case-control studies. Overall, 24.0% of the ABNOM patients had mixed melasma. Among the ABNOM patients without melasma, after laser therapy the development of melasma was more frequently noted in patients older than 35 years (P < 0.0001), as well in patients whose ABNOM was less than 10 cm(2) (P = 0.027), ABNOM were light (similar to yellow-brown) in color (P = 0.021) and skin types were closer to type IV (P < 0.0001). New melasma lesions also appeared most frequently in the zygomatic region (P < 0.0001). Among the ABNOM patients with melasma, 89.5% experienced worsening of their melasma, irrespective of their related factors above. We concluded that the risk of inducing melasma is great after 1064-nm QNYL treatment in ABNOM patients, and particularly in the patients with both ABNOM and melasma. ABNOM patients should be treated as early as possible and before the age of 35 years. PMID:26777390

  10. Induction of melasma by 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser therapy for acquired bilateral nevus of Ota-like macules (Hori nevus): A study on related factors in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ben; Xie, Hong-Fu; Tan, Jun; Xie, Hong-Ju; Xu, Lin-Yong; Ding, Rong; Liu, Fang-Fen; Chen, Xiang; Jian, Dan; Li, Ji

    2016-06-01

    Laser treatment has emerged as a common treatment modality for acquired bilateral nevus of Ota-like macules (ABNOM). To identify the ratio of melasma induction and exacerbation before and after laser therapy for ABNOM and to observe the risk factors related to the induction and exacerbation of melasma by laser therapy, we analyzed related factors of 1268 adult Chinese patients who underwent 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (QNYL) treatment using case series and case-control studies. Overall, 24.0% of the ABNOM patients had mixed melasma. Among the ABNOM patients without melasma, after laser therapy the development of melasma was more frequently noted in patients older than 35 years (P < 0.0001), as well in patients whose ABNOM was less than 10 cm(2) (P = 0.027), ABNOM were light (similar to yellow-brown) in color (P = 0.021) and skin types were closer to type IV (P < 0.0001). New melasma lesions also appeared most frequently in the zygomatic region (P < 0.0001). Among the ABNOM patients with melasma, 89.5% experienced worsening of their melasma, irrespective of their related factors above. We concluded that the risk of inducing melasma is great after 1064-nm QNYL treatment in ABNOM patients, and particularly in the patients with both ABNOM and melasma. ABNOM patients should be treated as early as possible and before the age of 35 years.

  11. Diode-pumped Q-switched Nd{sup 3+} : YAG laser operating in a wide temperature range without thermal stabilisation of pump diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Vainshenker, A E; Vilenskiy, A V; Kazakov, A A; Lysoy, B G; Mikhailov, L K; Pashkov, V A

    2013-02-28

    A model sample of a compact low-power-consumption Nd{sup 3+} : YAG laser emitting 20-mJ pulses with a pulse repetition rate up to 20 Hz (in cyclic duty) at a wavelength of 1064 nm is developed and studied. The laser is designed for operating at external temperatures from -40 to +50 deg C. This was achieved by using quasi-end diode pumping without thermal stabilisation of pump diodes. (laser optics 2012)

  12. Visualization and simulation of a linear explosive-induced pyroshock wave using Q-switched laser and phased array transducers in a space launcher composite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Ryul; Jang, Jae-Kyeong; Choi, Mijin; Kong, Cheol-Won

    2015-04-01

    During space flights, pyrotechnic devices are used for various purposes such as separation of boosters, satellites, fairings, and stages. In particular, the prediction of high shock structural response induced by linear explosives is important for safe operation of pyrotechnic devices. In general, repetitive explosive testing using distributed accelerometers is widely used, but multiple test structures are usually necessary because they are easily damaged and not reusable. This paper pertains to a nondestructive technology to replace the damage-causing, time-consuming, expensive, dangerous, and low-repeatability explosive test with a laser-induced shock test. The method proposed in this paper predicts nondestructively the linear explosive-induced pyroshock wave, visualizes its propagation, and allows the simulation of some detonation conditions. A ballistic test based on a linear explosive and noncontact laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) as well as a nondestructive pyroshock test using laser-induced shock and PZT array sensors is performed in a 12.68-mm thick composite sandwich panel. The optimal laser-induced shock experimental conditions to predict real pyroshock response spectra (SRSs) are investigated by controlling the optical characteristics of the laser beam and adjusting the frequency bands in signal acquisition. The similarity of the SRS of the conditioned laser-induced shock to that of the real explosive pyroshock is evaluated with the mean acceleration difference. Next, the experimentally-determined optimal conditions are applied to arbitrary points in the laser-induced shock scanning area. Finally, it is shown that the proposed method will allow nondestructive and quantitative pyroshock testing, pyroshock wave propagation visualization showing the direction and magnitude of principal wave propagation, and detonation speed simulation depending on explosive type and detonation initiation point and direction.

  13. 160mJ and 9ns electro-optics Q-switched conductively cooled 1047nm Nd:YLF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qi; Ma, Jian; Lu, Tingting; Ma, Xiuhua; Zhu, Xiaolei

    2015-02-01

    A compact diode side-pumped conductively cooled 1047 nm Nd:YLF slab laser with high energy and short pulse width is developed. Through ray tracing method, we design a home-made pump module to homogenize the pump intensity. Based on the Possion equation, a thermal conduct model of side-pump laser is established. The temperature distribution in laser crystal is obtained, and the thermal lens is caculated. With the absorbed pump energy of 818 mJ, the maximum output energy of 228 mJ is achieved in free-running mode. At a repetition rate of 50 Hz, 160 mJ, 9 ns 1047 nm infrared light is obtained under the maximum absorbed pump energy, and the slope efficiency is 27.8%.

  14. 2-μm high-power multiple-frequency single-mode Q-switched Ho:YLF laser for DIAL application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibert, Fabien; Edouart, Dimitri; Cénac, Claire; Le Mounier, Florian

    2014-09-01

    We report on the development and the demonstration of a two-wavelength single-frequency laser oscillator based on Ho:YLF crystal. This laser is especially suitable for application as a transmitter in differential absorption lidar (DIAL)/integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) using the R30 CO2 absorption line at 2,050.967 nm. The oscillator consists in a fiber-coupled and free-space solid-state hybrid system and can be used in high-energy middle-rate or moderate-energy high-rate configurations. The latter produced On and Off sequentially single-frequency laser pulses with 13 mJ of energy at a repetition rate of 2 kHz and pulse duration of 42 ns. The pulse energy and frequency stabilities are specially documented in free-running, single-frequency and two-frequency seeding single-mode operations. Standard deviation is 7.7 % for pulse energy and 2 MHz for frequency stability for the two-wavelength seeding operation. Allan variance plot shows that frequency fluctuations are reduced below 70 kHz for 10 s of averaging which is suitable for accurate CO2 DIAL or IPDA measurements.

  15. Tungsten disulphide based all fiber Q-switching cylindrical-vector beam generation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J.; Yan, K.; Zhou, Y.; Xu, L. X. Gu, C.; Zhan, Q. W.

    2015-11-09

    We proposed and demonstrated an all fiber passively Q-switching laser to generate cylindrical-vector beam, a two dimensional material, tungsten disulphide (WS{sub 2}), was adopted as a saturable absorber inside the laser cavity, while a few-mode fiber Bragg grating was used as a transverse mode-selective output coupler. The repetition rate of the Q-switching output pulses can be varied from 80 kHz to 120 kHz with a shortest duration of 958 ns. Attributed to the high damage threshold and polarization insensitivity of the WS{sub 2} based saturable absorber, the radially polarized beam and azimuthally polarized beam can be easily generated in the Q-switching fiber laser.

  16. Multiple acousto-optic q-switch

    SciTech Connect

    Deason, Vance A.

    1993-01-01

    An improved dynamic moire interferometer comprised of a lasing medium providing a plurality of beams of coherent light, a multiple q-switch producing multiple trains of 100,000 or more pulses per second, a combining means collimating multiple trains of pulses into substantially a single train and directing beams to specimen gratings affixed to a test material, and a controller, triggering and sequencing the emission of the pulses with the occurrence and recording of a dynamic loading event.

  17. Multiple acousto-optic q-switch

    SciTech Connect

    Deason, Vance A.

    1993-12-07

    An improved dynamic moire interferometer comprised of a lasing medium providing a plurality of beams of coherent light, a multiple q-switch producing multiple trains of 100,000 or more pulses per second, a combining means collimating multiple trains of pulses into substantially a single train and directing beams to specimen gratings affixed to a test material, and a controller, triggering and sequencing the emission of the pulses with the occurrence and recording of a dynamic loading event.

  18. Treatment of melasma with mixed parameters of 1,064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser toning and an enhanced effect of ultrasonic application of vitamin C: a split-face study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei-Ching; Chang, Chun-Shin; Huang, Yau-Li; Chang, Shyue-Luen; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Lin, Ying-Fang; Hu, Sindy

    2015-01-01

    Melasma is an acquired pigment disorder showing symmetrical hyperpigmentation of the face characterized by light to dark brown patches with indistinct borders on both cheeks. Melasma is prevalent in middle-aged women with harmless hormone imbalances. It is also known as the mask of pregnancy and is prevalent in most child-bearing women. It fluctuates month by month, and yet, there is no promising treatment. The Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (QS-Nd:YAG) laser (1,064-nm wavelength) was introduced in Asia years ago for both skin toning and treatment of facial pigment. This low-fluence, 1,064-nm QS-Nd: YAG laser also reportedly improved melasma. Adjunctive treatments such as vitamin C iontophoresis or chemical peels were recommended in other reports. The technique using the 1,064-nm QS-Nd:YAG laser for toning and the enhancement of adjunctive treatments need further investigation and long-term follow-up before recommendations for the ideal protocol for melasma treatment can be made. The aim of this study is to evaluate the improvement of melasma using different parameters with the 1,064-nm QS-Nd:YAG laser with ultrasonic application of topical vitamin C. Eight patients, ranging in age from 32 to 45 years (mean 37 years), with long-term melasma were studied. Most of the melasma cases were dermal or mixed-type melasma. The patients had no cosmetic treatment (laser, intense pulsed light, or chemical peel) 1 year prior to the study. The entire face of each patient was treated with the 1,064-nm QS-Nd:YAG laser for four sessions at 1-month intervals. The laser treatment was divided into three parts with different parameters. First, each patient underwent whole face exposure for one pass with an 8-mm spot size at a power of 2.0 J/cm(2). Next, the spot size was shifted to 6 mm at a power of 3.5 J/cm(2) for one full-face pass, and then ended with a 4-mm spot size at 3.2 J/cm(2) for one full-face pass, with multiple passes for the main lesions. The end point

  19. Treatment of melasma with mixed parameters of 1,064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser toning and an enhanced effect of ultrasonic application of vitamin C: a split-face study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei-Ching; Chang, Chun-Shin; Huang, Yau-Li; Chang, Shyue-Luen; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Lin, Ying-Fang; Hu, Sindy

    2015-01-01

    Melasma is an acquired pigment disorder showing symmetrical hyperpigmentation of the face characterized by light to dark brown patches with indistinct borders on both cheeks. Melasma is prevalent in middle-aged women with harmless hormone imbalances. It is also known as the mask of pregnancy and is prevalent in most child-bearing women. It fluctuates month by month, and yet, there is no promising treatment. The Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (QS-Nd:YAG) laser (1,064-nm wavelength) was introduced in Asia years ago for both skin toning and treatment of facial pigment. This low-fluence, 1,064-nm QS-Nd: YAG laser also reportedly improved melasma. Adjunctive treatments such as vitamin C iontophoresis or chemical peels were recommended in other reports. The technique using the 1,064-nm QS-Nd:YAG laser for toning and the enhancement of adjunctive treatments need further investigation and long-term follow-up before recommendations for the ideal protocol for melasma treatment can be made. The aim of this study is to evaluate the improvement of melasma using different parameters with the 1,064-nm QS-Nd:YAG laser with ultrasonic application of topical vitamin C. Eight patients, ranging in age from 32 to 45 years (mean 37 years), with long-term melasma were studied. Most of the melasma cases were dermal or mixed-type melasma. The patients had no cosmetic treatment (laser, intense pulsed light, or chemical peel) 1 year prior to the study. The entire face of each patient was treated with the 1,064-nm QS-Nd:YAG laser for four sessions at 1-month intervals. The laser treatment was divided into three parts with different parameters. First, each patient underwent whole face exposure for one pass with an 8-mm spot size at a power of 2.0 J/cm(2). Next, the spot size was shifted to 6 mm at a power of 3.5 J/cm(2) for one full-face pass, and then ended with a 4-mm spot size at 3.2 J/cm(2) for one full-face pass, with multiple passes for the main lesions. The end point

  20. Gold nanoparticles as a saturable absorber for visible 635 nm Q-switched pulse generation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Duanduan; Peng, Jian; Cai, Zhiping; Weng, Jian; Luo, Zhengqian; Chen, Nan; Xu, Huiying

    2015-09-01

    Gold nanoparticle (GNP) possesses saturable absorption bands in the visible region induced by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). We firstly applied the GNP as a visible saturable absorber (SA) for the red Q-switched pulse generation. The GNPs were embedded in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for film-forming and inserted into a praseodymium (Pr(3+))-doped fiber laser cavity to achieve 635 nm passive Q-switching. The visible 635 nm Q-switched fiber laser has a wide range of pulse-repetition-rate from 285.7 to 546.4 kHz, and a narrow pulse width of 235 ns as well as the maximum output power of 11.1 mW. The results indicate that the GNPs-based SA is available for pulsed operation in the visible spectral range. PMID:26368498

  1. Q-switching in a Cr{sup 3+}:Yb{sup 3+}:Ho{sup 3+}:YSGG crystal laser based on the {sup 5}I{sub 6} - {sup 5}I{sub 7} ({lambda}=2.92{mu}m) transition

    SciTech Connect

    Zavartsev, Yu D; Zagumennyi, A I; Kulevskii, L A; Lukashev, A V; Pashinin, Pavel P; Studenikin, P A; Shcherbakov, Ivan A; Umyskov, A F

    1999-04-30

    An investigation was made of the generation of giant pulses in a new yttrium scandium gallium garnet laser crystal doped with holmium (Cr{sup 3+}:Yb{sup 3+}:Ho{sup 3+}:YSGG) operating on the basis of the self-terminating {sup 5}I{sub 6} - {sup 5}I{sub 7} transition. Q-switching was performed by an electro-optical lithium niobate switch, a passive switch based on an epitaxial film of indium arsenide on a gallium arsenide substrate, or a passive switch consisting of water. The 2.92 {mu}m wavelength dominated giant pulse generation, whereas under free-running conditions the radiation was discretely tunable in the range 2.84 -3.05 {mu}m. Depending on the Q-switching method, pulses of 60 - 160 ns duration were generated and the pulse energy was {approx}20 mJ. The second and fourth harmonics of the holmium laser radiation were generated and the efficiency of each frequency-multiplication stage was {approx}20%. (lasers)

  2. Single-mode deep-UV light source at 191.7  nm by seventh-harmonic generation of a high-power, Q-switched, injection-locked 1342  nm Nd:YVO₄ laser.

    PubMed

    Koch, Peter; Bartschke, Juergen; L'huillier, Johannes A

    2016-03-10

    A single-mode deep-UV laser at 191.7 nm is demonstrated by seventh-harmonic generation of a single-mode 1342 nm Nd:YVO₄ laser. The fundamental laser is an injection-locked, Q-switched ring laser at 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency. By cascaded second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation, an average power of 230 mW at 191.7 nm is achieved. At 185 mW, the setup features a Gaussian beam with a beam quality factor of M²<1.5. A pulse duration of 9 ns with pulse energy fluctuations of σ<3% is obtained. The long-term spectral width is approximately 240 MHz full width at half-maximum, measured with a homemade scanning confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer. This work opens possibilities in fiber Bragg grating production, allowing the inscription of long gratings.

  3. Single-mode deep-UV light source at 191.7  nm by seventh-harmonic generation of a high-power, Q-switched, injection-locked 1342  nm Nd:YVO₄ laser.

    PubMed

    Koch, Peter; Bartschke, Juergen; L'huillier, Johannes A

    2016-03-10

    A single-mode deep-UV laser at 191.7 nm is demonstrated by seventh-harmonic generation of a single-mode 1342 nm Nd:YVO₄ laser. The fundamental laser is an injection-locked, Q-switched ring laser at 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency. By cascaded second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation, an average power of 230 mW at 191.7 nm is achieved. At 185 mW, the setup features a Gaussian beam with a beam quality factor of M²<1.5. A pulse duration of 9 ns with pulse energy fluctuations of σ<3% is obtained. The long-term spectral width is approximately 240 MHz full width at half-maximum, measured with a homemade scanning confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer. This work opens possibilities in fiber Bragg grating production, allowing the inscription of long gratings. PMID:26974775

  4. Multi-Billion Shot, High-Fluence Exposure of Cr(4+): YAG Passive Q-Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephen, Mark A.; Dallas, Joseph L.; Afzal, Robert S.

    1997-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is developing the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) employing a diode pumped, Q-Switched, ND:YAG laser operating at 40 Hz repetition rate. To meet the five-year mission lifetime goal, a single transmitter would accumulate over 6.3 billion shots. Cr(4+):YAG is a promising candidate material for passively Q-switching the laser. Historically, the performance of saturable absorbers has degraded over long-duration usage. To measure the multi-billion shot performance of Cr(4+):YAG, a passively Q-switched GLAS-like oscillator was tested at an accelerated repetition rate of 500 Hz. The intracavity fluence was calculated to be approximately 2.5 J/cm(exp 2). The laser was monitored autonomously for 165 days. There was no evidence of change in the material optical properties during the 7.2 billion shot test.. All observed changes in laser operation could be attributed to pump laser diode aging. This is the first demonstration of multi-billion shot exposure testing of Cr(4+):YAG in this pulse energy regime

  5. Continuous-Wave and Actively Q-Switched Diode-Pumped Er:LuAG Ring Laser at 1650 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong-Yu, Dai; Xu-Guang, Xu; Lin, Ju; Jing, Wu; Zhen-Guo, Zhang; Bao-Quan, Yao; Ye, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Not Available Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 61308009 and 61405047, the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation Funded Project under Grant No 2013M540288, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant Nos HIT.NSRIF.2014044 and HIT.NSRIF.2015042, the Science Fund for Outstanding Youths of Heilongjiang Province under Grant No JQ201310, and the Heilongjiang Postdoctoral Science Foundation Funded Project under Grant No LBH-Z14085.

  6. Passively Q-switching induced by the smallest single-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X. T.; Zhai, J. P.; Wang, J. S.; Chen, Y. P.; Yu, Y. Q.; Zhang, M.; Li, I. L.; Ruan, S. C.; Tang, Z. K.

    2014-04-28

    We report a passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) by using the smallest single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with a diameter of 0.3 nm as the saturable absorber. These small SWNTs are fabricated in the nanochannels of a ZnAPO-11 (AEL) single crystal. By inserting one of the AEL crystal into an EDFL cavity pumped by a 980 nm laser diode, stable passive Q-switching is achieved for a threshold pump power of 206.2 mW, and 4.73 μs pulses with a repetition rate of 41.78 kHz and an average output power of 3.75 mW are obtained for a pump power of 406 mW.

  7. Two side liquid-cooled and passively Q-switched disk oscillator with nanosheets in flowing CCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Rongzhi; She, Jiangbo; Li, Dongdong; Li, Fuli; Peng, Bo

    2016-09-01

    A passively Q-switched and two side liquid-cooled Nd:YAG disk oscillator is demonstrated, which is operated at a pump pulse width of 300 μs and a pump repetition rate of 10 Hz. The coolant flows over the two large surfaces of the disk and will be passed through by laser beam, so it can also serve as a saturable absorber. For the unmodulated laser, the pure CCl4 was employed as coolant and a plane output mirror of 15 % transmission was employed. The maximum output energy of 795 mJ is realized corresponding to the optical-optical efficiency of 27.4 % and the slope efficiency of 30 %; for the graphene Q-switched laser, the CCl4 with graphene nanosheets was employed as coolant and a plane output mirror of 40 % transmission was employed. The maximum output energy of 376 mJ is realized corresponding to the optical-optical efficiency of 13 % and the slope efficiency of 18 %. The maximum average Q-switching repetition rate is 385 kHz, and the minimum average pulse width is 116 ns; for the MoS2 Q-switched laser, the CCl4 with MoS2 nanosheets was employed as coolant and a plane output mirror of 30 % transmission was employed. The maximum output energy of 486 mJ is realized corresponding to the optical-optical efficiency of 17 % and the slope efficiency of 22 %.The maximum average Q-switching repetition rate is 470 kHz, and the minimum average pulse width is 137 ns.

  8. Solid state saturable absorbers for Q-switching at 1 and 1.3μm: investigation and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šulc, Jan; Arátor, Pavel; Jelínková, Helena; Nejezchleb, Karel; Škoda, Václav; Kokta, Milan R.

    2008-02-01

    Yttrium and Lutecium garnets (YAG and LuAG) doped by Chromium or Vanadium ions (Cr 4+ or V 3+) were investigated as saturable absorbers potentially useful for passive Q-switching at wavelengths 1 μm and/or 1.3 μm. For comparison also color center saturable absorber LiF:F - II and Cobalt doped spinel (Co:MALO) were studied. Firstly, low power absorption spectra were recorded for all samples. Next, absorbers transmission in dependence on incident energy/power density was measured using the z-scan method. Crystals Cr:YAG, Cr:LuAG, V:YAG, and LiF:F - II were tested at wavelength 1064 nm. Therefore Alexandrite laser pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser was used as a radiation source (pulse length 6.9 ns, energy up to 1.5 mJ). Crystals V:YAG, V:LuAG, and Co:MALO were tested at wavelength 1338 nm. So diode pumped Nd:YAG/V:YAG microchip laser was used as a radiation source (pulse length 6.2 ns, energy up to 0.1 mJ). Using measured data fitting, and by their comparison with numerical model of a "thick" saturable absorber transmission for Q-switched Gaussian laser beam, following parameters were estimated: saturable absorber initial transmission T 0, saturation energy density w s, ground state absorption cross-section σ GSA, saturated absorber transmission T s, excited state absorption cross-section σ ESA, ratio γ = σ GSA/σ ESA, and absorbing ions density. For V:YAG crystal, a polarization dependence of T s was also investigated. With the help of rate equation numerical solution, an impact of saturable absorber parameters on generated Q-switched pulse properties was studied in plane wave approximation. Selected saturable absorbers were also investigated as a Q-switch and results were compared with the model.

  9. The Selection of Q-Switch for a 350mJ Air-borne 2-micron Wind Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petros, Mulugeta; Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul; Singh, Upendra N.

    2008-01-01

    In the process of designing a coherent, high energy 2micron, Doppler wind Lidar, various types of Q-Switch materials and configurations have been investigated for the oscillator. Designing an oscillator with a relatively low gain laser material, presents challenges related to the management high internal circulating fluence due to high reflective output coupler. This problem is compounded by the loss of hold-off. In addition, the selection has to take into account the round trip optical loss in the resonator and the loss of hold-off. For this application, a Brewster cut 5mm aperture, fused silica AO Q-switch is selected. Once the Q-switch is selected various rf frequencies were evaluated. Since the Lidar has to perform in single longitudinal and transverse mode with transform limited line width, in this paper, various seeding configurations are presented in the context of Q-Switch diffraction efficiency. The master oscillator power amplifier has demonstrated over 350mJ output when the amplifier is operated in double pass mode and higher than 250mJ when operated in single pass configuration. The repetition rate of the system is 10Hz and the pulse length 200ns.

  10. Temperature-stable lithium niobate electro-optic Q-switch for improved cold performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jundt, Dieter H.

    2014-10-01

    Lithium niobate (LN) is commonly used as an electro optic (EO) Q-switch material in infrared targeting lasers because of its relatively low voltage requirements and low cost compared to other crystals. A common challenge is maintaining good performance at the sub-freezing temperatures often experienced during flight. Dropping to low temperature causes a pyro-electric charge buildup on the optical faces that leads to birefringence non-uniformity and depolarization resulting in poor hold-off and premature lasing. The most common solution has been to use radioactive americium to ionize the air around the crystal and bleed off the charge, but the radioactive material requires handling and disposal procedures that can be problematic. We have developed a superior solution that is now being implemented by multiple defense system suppliers. By applying a low level thermo-chemical reduction to the LN crystal optical faces we induce a small conductivity that allows pyro-charges to dissipate. As the material gets more heavily treated, the capacity to dissipate charges improves, but the corresponding optical absorption also increases, causing insertion loss. Even though typical high gain targeting laser systems can tolerate a few percent of added loss, the thermo-chemical processing needs to be carefully optimized. We describe the results of our process optimization to minimize the insertion loss while still giving effective charge dissipation. Treatment is performed at temperatures below 500°C and a conductivity layer less than 0.5mm in depth is created that is uniform across the optical aperture. Because the conductivity is thermally activated, the charge dissipation is less effective at low temperature, and characterization needs to be performed at cold temperatures. The trade-off between optical insertion loss and potential depolarization due to low temperature operation is discussed and experimental results on the temperature dependence of the dissipation time and the

  11. Analysis of an intracavity-doubled diode-pumped {ital Q} -switched Nd:YAG laser producing more than 100 W of power at 0.532thinsp{mu}m

    SciTech Connect

    Honea, E.C.; Ebbers, C.A.; Beach, R.J.; Speth, J.A.; Skidmore, J.A.; Emanuel, M.A.; Payne, S.A.

    1998-08-01

    A diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser was frequency doubled to 0.532 {mu}m with an intracavity KTiOPO{sub 4} crystal in a V-cavity arrangement, achieving an output power of 140thinspthinspW. Acousto-optic Q thinspthinspswitching was employed at repetition rates of 10{endash}30thinspthinspkHz, and the beam quality was assessed at M{sup 2}{approx}50 . It was deduced on the basis of our model that the strength of the nonlinear frequency conversion is the main parameter determining the pulse width. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Optical Society of America}

  12. An efficient continuous-wave and Q-switched single-pass two-stage Ho:YLF MOPA system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Jabczynski, Jan Karol; Zendzian, Waldemar

    2015-04-01

    We report on the efficient operation of an Ho:YLF laser single-pass in-band pumped by a Tm-doped fiber laser. The research in a continuous-wave (CW) operation in an oscillator scheme was done for a crystal of 0.5 at% Ho dopant concentration and the length of 30 mm for the output coupler transmittances of TOC=10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. At room temperature, for the output coupling transmission of 20%, the maximum CW output power of 24.5 W for 82.5 W of incident pump power, corresponding to the slope efficiency of 35.4% and optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 29.7% was achieved. The highest slope efficiency of 81.6% with respect to absorbed pump power was obtained. Carrying out the measurements of the laser spectrum, for the out-coupling transmittance of TOC=30%, we observed a very short time wavelength shift between 2051.5 and 2062.4 nm in an Ho:YLF laser operation. Trying to fully utilize the pump power unabsorbed by the active crystal in an oscillator stage, an amplifier system based on two additional Ho:YLF crystals was developed. For the output coupling transmission of 40% the slope efficiency increased from 31.5% in an oscillator scheme to 47.3% with respect to the incident pump power in a two-stage amplifier scheme with a beam quality parameter of M2 better than 1.1. For a Q-switched operation, for the maximum incident pump power and the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 1 kHz, pulse energies of 18.5 mJ with a 22 ns FWHM pulse width corresponding to 841 kW peak power in the amplifier system were recorded.

  13. High-average-power actively-mode-locked Tm3+ fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerle, Michael; Kieleck, Christelle; Hübner, Philipp; Świderski, Jacek; Jackson, Stuart D.; Mazé, Gwenael; Eichhorn, Marc

    2012-02-01

    Fiber lasers emitting in the 2 μm wavelength range doped with thulium ions can be used as highly efficient pump sources for nonlinear converters to generate mid-infrared radiation. For spectroscopic purposes, illumination and countermeasures, a broad mid-infrared emission spectrum is advantageous. This can be reached by supercontinuum generation in fibers, e.g. fluoride fibers, which up to now has, however, only been presented with either low average power, complex Raman-shifted 1.55 μm pump sources or multi-stage amplifier pump schemes. Here we present recent results of a new actively-mode-locked single-oscillator scheme that can provide the high-repetition rate sub-ns pump pulses needed for pumping supercontinuum generators. A thulium-doped silica fiber laser is presented that provides > 11 W of average power CW-mode-locked pulses at 38 MHz repetition rate at ~ 38 ps pulse width. Upgrading the setup to allow Q-switched mode-locked operation yields mode-locked 40 MHz pulses arranged in 60 kHz bunched Q-switch envelopes and thus increases further the available peak power. In this Q-switched mode-locked regime over 5 W of average power has been achieved.

  14. Repetitive Q-switched operation of x-axis Nd:La2Be2O5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, A. W.; Birnbaum, M.; Fincher, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The repetitive Q-switched performances of an x-axis neodymium-doped lanthanum beryllate (Nd:BeL) laser and the current state-of-the-art Nd:YAG laser are compared. Output beam pulse energy, peak power, pulse width, beam divergence and mode pattern were measured for a gold-plated single elliptical cavity using a xenon flashlamp for excitation. The output of the Nd:BeL laser is found to exceed that of the Nd:YAG laser by a factor of two at Q-switched repetition rates on the order of 1 Hz, due to the smaller stimulated emission cross section of the x-axis Nd:BeL. When the repetition rate is increased to 10 Hz, the Nd:BeL output falls to a level three fifths lower than its low-rate value, while Nd:YAG output remained essentially constant. Analysis reveals that the decrease in output may be attributed to a depolarization loss due to thermally induced stress birefringence.

  15. Megawatt-level peak-power from a passively Q-switched hybrid fiber-bulk amplifier and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiser, Axel; Bdzoch, Juraj; Höfer, Sven; Scholz-Riecke, Sina; Seitz, Daniel; Kugler, Nicolas; Genter, Peter

    2016-03-01

    A novel laser system with optical parameters that fill the gap between Q-switched and modelocked lasers has been developed. It consists of a high gain hybrid fiber-bulk amplifier seeded by a low power SESAM Q-switched oscillator. The mW level output power of the seed oscillator is preamplified by a single mode fiber which is limited by SRS effects. The final amplification stage is realized by a longitudinal pumped Nd:YVO4 crystal in a double pass setup. This MOPA configuration delivers sub-300ps pulses at repetition rates up to 1 MHz with an output power exceeding 60W. Nonlinear frequency conversion to 532nm and 355nm is achieved with efficiencies of >75% and >45%, respectively. Due to the high peak power, high repetition rate and high beam quality of this system, applications formerly only addressable at lower pulse repetition frequencies or with complex modelocked laser systems are now possible with high speed and lower cost of ownership. Application results that take benefit from these new laser parameters will be shown. Furthermore, the reduction of the pulse duration to sub-100ps and power scaling to output powers <100W by the use of the Innoslab concept are being presented.

  16. Side diode pumped ultra-compact Er:glass laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitkin, Vladimir V.; Polyakov, Vadim M.; Kharitonov, Artem A.; Buchenkov, Vyacheslav A.; Rodionov, Andrey Y.

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate side pumped ultra-compact Q-switched Er:glass laser for rangefinding with 1.4 mJ energy at 1.54 um. Laser diode with 75 W power and 5 ms pulse duration was used. Active medium was enveloped with diffuse reflector. Output pulse energy in free-running mode was 27 mJ with a slope efficiency of 12%. Transparent glass-ceramics containing Co2+:MgAl2O4 nanocrystals were used as a passive gate to ensure Q-switching in an operation temperature range and transverse mode selection. The Q-switch mode had steady operation at 1 Hz repetition rate with thermal effects playing no visible role.

  17. Active/passive mode-locked laser oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Fountain, William D.; Johnson, Bertram C.

    1977-01-01

    A Q-switched/mode-locked Nd:YAG laser oscillator employing simultaneous active (electro-optic) and passive (saturable absorber) loss modulation within the optical cavity is described. This "dual modulation" oscillator can produce transform-limited pulses of duration ranging from about 30 psec to about 5 nsec with greatly improved stability compared to other mode-locked systems. The pulses produced by this system lack intrapulse frequency or amplitude modulation, and hence are idealy suited for amplification to high energies and for other applications where well-defined pulses are required. Also, the pulses of this system have excellent interpulse characteristics, wherein the optical noise between the individual pulses of the pulse train has a power level well below the power of the peak pulse of the train.

  18. Intelligent attenuator for laser pulse energy and power stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. S.; Wyatt, R. W.; Brett, A. G.

    1983-06-01

    Encouraging preliminary results are presented from a feed-forward stabilized active optical filter. Its function is to greatly reduce the shot-to-shot and day-to-day pulse energy fluctuations commonly suffered by single shot Q switched lasers and their associated electro-optic gates and switchouts.

  19. Different pulse pattern generation by frequency detuning in pulse modulated actively mode-locked ytterbium doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, He; Chen, Sheng-Ping; Si, Lei; Zhang, Bin; Jiang, Zong-Fu

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of our recent experimental investigation of the modulation frequency detuning effect on the output pulse dynamics in a pulse modulated actively mode-locked ytterbium doped fiber laser. The experimental study shows the existence of five different mode-locking states that mainly depend on the modulation frequency detuning, which are: (a) amplitude-even harmonic/fundamental mode-locking, (b) Q-switched harmonic/fundamental mode-locking, (c) sinusoidal wave modulation mode, (d) pulses bundle state, and (e) noise-like state. A detailed experimental characterization of the output pulses dynamics in each operating mode is presented.

  20. Nd:SrWO 4 and Nd:BaWO 4 Raman lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šulc, J.; Jelínková, H.; Basiev, T. T.; Doroschenko, M. E.; Ivleva, L. I.; Osiko, V. V.; Zverev, P. G.

    2007-09-01

    Properties of the laser operation and simultaneously stimulated Raman scattering in the SRS-active neodymium doped SrWO4 and BaWO4 crystals coherently end-pumped at wavelength 752 nm by pulsed free-running alexandrite laser radiation were investigated. The Nd3+ ion emission at wavelength λNd ˜ 1.06 μm was corresponding to 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 transition. To reach the SRS-self-conversion threshold inside Raman crystal the Nd3+ lasers were operating in a Q-switching regime. For Q-switching LiF:F2- crystal as a saturable absorber was used. Raman self-conversion at wavelength ˜1.17 μm was successfully reached with both tungstate crystals. The shortest generated pulse (1.3 ns FWHM) and highest peak power (615 kW) was obtained with Nd:BaWO4 Raman laser Q-switched by LiF:F2- crystal with initial transmission T0 = 60%. Up to 0.8 mJ was registered at the first Stokes wavelength 1169 nm. Using Q-switched Nd:SrWO4 laser higher energy in Raman emission was obtained (1.23 mJ) but generated pulse was longer (2.9 ns FWHM) resulting in lower peak power (430 kW).

  1. Pulsed 456 nm deep-blue light generation by acousto-optical Q-switching and intracavity frequency doubling of Nd:GdVO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, J.; Yu, X.; Chen, F.; Li, X. D.; Yan, R. P.; Zhang, Z.; Yu, J. H.; Wang, Y. Z.

    2008-08-01

    We present what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first pulsed deep-blue laser at 456 nm by acousto-optical Q-switching and intracavity frequency doubling of a diode-end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser on the 4F3/2 → 4I9/2 transition at 912 nm. When the incident pump power is 36 W, the maximum single pulse energy of 44.1 μJ, pulse duration of 140 ns and peak power of 315 W are achieved at 10 kHz; the maximum average power of 770 mW, pulse duration of 200 ns and peak power of 193 W are obtained at 20 kHz. The fluctuation of the blue output power is less than 2.4% within the given 20 min at the maximum blue output power.

  2. Mid-infrared pulsed fiber lasers operating at 3μm region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Li, Jianfeng; Yu, Luohong; Zhang, Zhiyao; Li, Heping; Zhou, Xiaojun

    2014-11-01

    Mid-infrared pulsed fiber laser with centered wavelength from 2 to 5 μm have attracted substantial attention owing to their potential applications in defence, laser microsurgery, material processing, nonlinear frequency conversion, etc. We demonstrated our recent achievements at 3 μm pulsed fiber lasers by utilizing Q-switching method. Firstly, a cascaded dual wavelength actively Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber was reported by inserting an external electrically driven acoustic-optical modulator (AOM) into the cavity. The 3.0 μm and 2.07 μm pulse trains were achieved with a μs level time delay corresponding to the pulse energy of 29 μJ and 7 μJ, pulse duration of 380 ns and 260 ns, respectively. The narrower pulse width in this case compared to that in passively Q-switched fiber lasers can be attributed to the much higher modulation depth of AOM. Using a reversely designed semiconductor saturable mirror (SESAM) as the saturable absorber (SA), we presented a passively Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser operating at ~2971 nm, the obtained maximum pulse energy of 6.65 μJ only limited by the maximum pump power was also the highest level from passively Q-switched fiber lasers at this wavelength range, and corresponding pulse repetition rate and duration were 47.6 kHz and 1.68 μs, respectively. Then using a Fe2+: ZnSe crystal with an initial transmission of 69 % as the SA, a passively Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser operating at 2970.3 nm was also achieved. The obtained pulse duration and repetition rate were 1.92 μs and 62.74 kHz, respectively with an output power of 266 mW and a pulse energy of 4.24 μJ. The further performance improvements were possible because they were just limited by the maximum pump power. To sum up, the above achievements would be beneficial for further development of mid-infrared pulsed fiber lasers.

  3. Research on range-gated laser active imaging seeker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Mu; Wang, PengHui; Tan, DongJie

    2013-09-01

    Compared with other imaging methods such as millimeter wave imaging, infrared imaging and visible light imaging, laser imaging provides both a 2-D array of reflected intensity data as well as 2-D array of range data, which is the most important data for use in autonomous target acquisition .In terms of application, it can be widely used in military fields such as radar, guidance and fuse. In this paper, we present a laser active imaging seeker system based on range-gated laser transmitter and sensor technology .The seeker system presented here consist of two important part, one is laser image system, which uses a negative lens to diverge the light from a pulse laser to flood illuminate a target, return light is collected by a camera lens, each laser pulse triggers the camera delay and shutter. The other is stabilization gimbals, which is designed to be a rotatable structure both in azimuth and elevation angles. The laser image system consists of transmitter and receiver. The transmitter is based on diode pumped solid-state lasers that are passively Q-switched at 532nm wavelength. A visible wavelength was chosen because the receiver uses a Gen III image intensifier tube with a spectral sensitivity limited to wavelengths less than 900nm.The receiver is image intensifier tube's micro channel plate coupled into high sensitivity charge coupled device camera. The image has been taken at range over one kilometer and can be taken at much longer range in better weather. Image frame frequency can be changed according to requirement of guidance with modifiable range gate, The instantaneous field of views of the system was found to be 2×2 deg. Since completion of system integration, the seeker system has gone through a series of tests both in the lab and in the outdoor field. Two different kinds of buildings have been chosen as target, which is located at range from 200m up to 1000m.To simulate dynamic process of range change between missile and target, the seeker system has

  4. Composite Resonator Surface Emitting Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,ARTHUR J.; CHOQUETTE,KENT D.; CHOW,WENG W.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.; GEIB,KENT M.

    2000-05-01

    The authors have developed electrically-injected coupled-resonator vertical-cavity lasers and have studied their novel properties. These monolithically grown coupled-cavity structures have been fabricated with either one active and one passive cavity or with two active cavities. All devices use a selectively oxidized current aperture in the lower cavity, while a proton implant was used in the active-active structures to confine current in the top active cavity. They have demonstrated optical modulation from active-passive devices where the modulation arises from dynamic changes in the coupling between the active and passive cavities. The laser intensity can be modulated by either forward or reverse biasing the passive cavity. They have also observed Q-switched pulses from active-passive devices with pulses as short as 150 ps. A rate equation approach is used to model the Q-switched operation yielding good agreement between the experimental and theoretical pulseshape. They have designed and demonstrated the operation of active-active devices which la.se simultaneously at both longitudinal cavity resonances. Extremely large bistable regions have also been observed in the light-current curves for active-active coupled resonator devices. This bistability can be used for high contrast switching with contrast ratios as high as 100:1. Coupled-resonator vertical-cavity lasers have shown enhanced mode selectivity which has allowed devices to lase with fundamental-mode output powers as high as 5.2 mW.

  5. Treatment of Postinflammatory Pigmentation Due to Acne with Q-Switched Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet In 78 Indian Cases

    PubMed Central

    Zawar, Vijay P.; Agarwal, Madhuri; Vasudevan, Biju

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is a common sequela seen in the Indian population following affliction by acne. It is psychologically extremely disturbing for the patients and can severely affect the quality of life. Very few therapeutic modalities have proved to be really efficacious in this condition. Aims: The aim was to review our experience with 1,064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (QSNY) laser in the treatment of PIH. Materials and Methods: Seventy-eight patients with postacne hyperpigmentation were included in the study. They were treated with six sessions at two weekly intervals using a 1,064-nm QSNY laser. Patient and physician scores were assessed at 1 month and 3 months after the last treatment. Clinical photographs also were reviewed to determine the efficacy. Adverse effects were noted. Results: Seventy percent of the patients reported significant improvement in hyperpigmentation as compared to the baseline. The majority of the adverse events were limited to mild, brief erythema. Conclusion: The 1,064-nm QSNY laser is an effective modality for the treatment of PIH caused by acne. PMID:26865787

  6. Intracavity SRS conversion in diode-pumpedmultifunctional Nd{sup 3+}:SrMoO{sub 4} laser crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Basiev, Tasoltan T; Smetanin, Sergei N; Fedin, Aleksandr V; Shurygin, Anton S

    2010-10-15

    Lasing of a miniature all-solid-state SRS laser based on a Nd{sup 3+}:SrMoO{sub 4} crystal with a LiF:F{sub 2}{sup -}-passive Q-switch is studied. The dependences of the laser and SRS self-conversion parameters on the initial transmission of the passive Q-switch are studied experimentally and theoretically. Simulation of the lasing kinetics has shown the possibility of nonlinear cavity dumping upon highly efficient SRS self-conversion of laser radiation. An increase in the active medium length from 1 to 3mm resulted in an increase in the energy of the output 1.17-{mu}m SRS radiation from 20 {mu}J to record-high 60 {mu}J at the absorbed multimode diode pump energy of 3.7 mJ. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  7. The laser calibration system of the HARP TOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreoni, A.; Bondani, M.; Bonesini, M.; Ferri, F.; Gibin, D.; Govoni, P.; Guglielmi, A.; Menegolli, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paleari, F.; Parravicini, A.; Sottocornola-Spinelli, A.; Tonazzo, A.

    2003-09-01

    The calibration and monitoring system constructed for the HARP experiment scintillator-based time of flight system is described. It is based on a Nd-Yag laser with passive Q-switch and active/passive mode-locking, with a custom made laser light injection system based on a bundle of IR monomode optical fibers. A novel ultrafast InGaAs MSM photodiode, with 30 ps risetime, has been used for the laser pulse timing . The first results from the 2001-2002 data taking are presented, showing that drifts in timing down to about 70 ps can be traced.

  8. Actively manipulation of operation states in passively pulsed fiber lasers by using graphene saturable absorber on microfiber.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Qiwen; Feng, Ming; Xin, Wei; Han, Tianyu; Liu, Yange; Liu, Zhibo; Tian, Jianguo

    2013-06-17

    We experimentally demonstrate an operation switchable Erbium-doped fiber laser by employing graphene saturable absorber (GSA) on microfiber. With the introducing of a polydimethylsiloxane layer, a graphene can be considered as a parallel plate on microfiber and induces different propagation losses to TE and TM modes. By the use of such polarization sensitive GSA on microfiber, Erbium doped fiber laser with switchable operation states such as continuous wave, stable Q-switching, Q-switched mode-locking, and continuous-wave mode-locking, can be achieved by simply tuning the polarization states in the laser cavity. Our results show that covering graphene on microfibers could be a promising method for fabricating all fiber SA, and may have high potential in wide applications.

  9. Solid state lasers for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Ben; Taubman, Matthew; Watts, Jeffrey W.; Gaither, Gary L.

    1991-09-01

    Design and performance data on two laser transmitters for spaceborne laser ranging are presented. The first laser uses a master oscillator/power amplifier configuration consisting of a diode pumped Nd:YAG slab ring and a multipass diode pumped slab amplifier which can operate at 40 Hz for > 109 shots. The other laser is a diode pumped Nd:YAG slab standing wave oscillator which operates at 10 Hz for > 0.6 X 109 shots. For submillimeter laser ranging, one laser operates in a mode-locked cavity-dumped mode to produce 180 mJ, 40 psec pulses at 1.064 micrometers . For altimetry, the same laser operates in a Q-switched mode to produce 700 mJ, 3.5 nsec pulses at 1.064 micrometers . Second and third harmonic generators generate 0.532 micrometers and 0.355 micrometers for ranging at 2 wavelengths to terrestrial targets with inherent atmospheric correction. The oscillator utilizes a ring resonator configuration with active mode locking, active Q-switching, active pre-lase stabilization, and active cavity dumping. The mode-locked output pulsewidth is 40 psec. A second oscillator mode, remotely selectable, produces 3.5 nsec pulses. Stabilization and alignment is done with real-time feedback during the mission. The amplifier is a multipass slab. Parasitic (ASE) oscillations are suppressed despite very high stored energy in the amplifier medium. The second laser transmitter is a linearly polarized Q-switched Nd:YAG slab laser cavity. The Nd:YAG is pumped by a 44-bar array of AlGaAs laser diodes. It produces 45 mJ, 10 nsec, pulses at 1064 nm and will operate at 10 Hz for the two-earth-year on-orbit lifetime. The expected operation will produce 6 X 108 shots during the mission. The laser transmitter will consume 15 watts, which represents a 3% wall plug efficiency. The laser transmitter has a beam divergence of 0.25 mrad and will maintain boresight to the receiver within 100 (mu) rad. The lasers have been specifically developed for ultra-high reliability for use in space

  10. Optically controlled in-line graphene saturable absorber for the manipulation of pulsed fiber laser operation.

    PubMed

    Gene, Jinhwa; Park, Nam Hun; Jeong, Hwanseong; Choi, Sun Young; Rotermund, Fabian; Yeom, Dong-Il; Kim, Byoung Yoon

    2016-09-19

    We demonstrate an optically tunable graphene saturable absorber to manipulate the laser operation in pulsed fiber laser system. Owing to the strongly enhanced evanescent field interaction with monolayer graphene, we could realize an efficient control of modulation depth in the graphene saturable absorber by optical means through cross absorption modulation method. By integrating the tunable graphene saturable absorber into the fiber laser system, we could switch the laser operation from Q-switching through Q-switched mode-locking to continuous wave mode-locking by adjusting only the optical power of the control beam. In addition, we realized a hybrid Q-switching of fiber laser by periodical modulation of the absorption of the graphene saturable absorber, where we observed that the repetition rate of the Q-switched laser could be continuously tuned according to the modulation frequency of the applied external signal. PMID:27661873

  11. Repetitively pulsed Cr:LiSAF laser for lidar applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Early, J.W.; Lester, C.S.; Cockroft, N.J.

    1994-03-01

    A Cr:LiSAF laser has been successfully operated at time averaged powers up to 11 W and at pulse repetition rates to 12 Hz. During Q-switch operation, output energy as high as 450 mJ (32 ns FWHM) was obtained. Finally, line narrowed Q-switched pulses (< 0.1 nm) from the Cr:LiSAF laser were successfully used as a tunable light source for lidar to measure atmospheric water content.

  12. [Lasers].

    PubMed

    Passeron, T

    2012-11-01

    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients.

  13. Lasers.

    PubMed

    Passeron, T

    2012-12-01

    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients.

  14. High Energy 2-Micron Laser Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Koch, Grady J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    A master oscillator power amplifier, high energy Q-switched 2-micron laser system has been recently demonstrated. The laser and amplifiers are all designed in side-pumped rod configuration, pumped by back-cooled conductive packaged GaAlAs diode laser arrays. This 2-micron laser system provides nearly transform limited beam quality.

  15. Laser action in chromium-activated forsterite for near infrared excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petricevic, V.; Gayen, S. K.; Alfano, R. R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on laser action in chromium-doped forsterite (Cr:Mg2SiO4) for 1064-nm excitation of the crystal's double-hump absorption band spanning the 850-1200-nm wavelength range. The cavity arrangement used for obtaining laser action in Cr:Mg2SiO2 was similar to that described by Petricevic et al. (1988). The fundamental and second harmonic emissions from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at a 10-Hz repetition rate were used for excitation of the NIR and visible bands, respectively. Pulsed laser action was readily observed for both the 1064-nm and 532-nm pumping at or above the respective thresholds. The laser parameters of the 532-nm and 1064-nm excitations were similar, indicating that the IR band is responsible for laser action for both excitations.

  16. Space-qualified laser system for the BepiColombo Laser Altimeter.

    PubMed

    Kallenbach, Reinald; Murphy, Eamonn; Gramkow, Bodo; Rech, Markus; Weidlich, Kai; Leikert, Thomas; Henkelmann, Reiner; Trefzger, Boris; Metz, Bodo; Michaelis, Harald; Lingenauber, Kay; DelTogno, Simone; Behnke, Thomas; Thomas, Nicolas; Piazza, Daniele; Seiferlin, Karsten

    2013-12-20

    The space-qualified design of a miniaturized laser for pulsed operation at a wavelength of 1064 nm and at repetition rates up to 10 Hz is presented. This laser consists of a pair of diode-laser pumped, actively q-switched Nd:YAG rod oscillators hermetically sealed and encapsulated in an environment of dry synthetic air. The system delivers at least 300 million laser pulses with 50 mJ energy and 5 ns pulse width (FWHM). It will be launched in 2017 aboard European Space Agency's Mercury Planetary Orbiter as part of the BepiColombo Laser Altimeter, which, after a 6-years cruise, will start recording topographic data from orbital altitudes between 400 and 1500 km above Mercury's surface. PMID:24513938

  17. Stable, red laser pumped, multi-kilohertz Alexandrite laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvy, Hamish; Withford, Michael J.; Piper, James A.

    2006-04-01

    Operation of a miniature Alexandrite laser pulse-pumped at 671 nm by a Q-switched, frequency-doubled, diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser is reported. Average power output ∼150 mW at 765 nm with optical-to-optical slope efficiencies of 28% has been demonstrated for gain-switched operation of the Alexandrite laser at 80 kHz. Q-switched pump-pulse stacking has been used to reduce output pulse width by a factor of 6 and increase peak power by a factor of 38 over gain-switched operation.

  18. Linearly frequency-modulated pulsed single-frequency fiber laser at 1083 nm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanfei; Yang, Changsheng; Li, Can; Feng, Zhouming; Xu, Shanhui; Deng, Huaqiu; Yang, Zhongmin

    2016-02-22

    A linearly frequency-modulated, actively Q-switched, single-frequency ring fiber laser based on injection seeding from an ultra-short cavity is demonstrated at 1083 nm. A piezoelectric transducer is employed to obtain linearly frequency-modulating performance and over 1.05 GHz frequency-tuning range is achieved with a modulating frequency reaching tens of kilohertz. A maximum peak power of the stable output pulse is over 3.83 W during frequency-modulating process. This type of pulsed fiber laser provides a promising candidate for coherent LIDAR in the measurement of thermosphere.

  19. Bistable limit cycles in a model for a laser with a saturable absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Antoranz, J.C.; Bonilla, L.L.; Gea, J.; Velarde, M.G.

    1982-07-05

    Sufficiently long population decay times and sufficiently short dipole decay times in a single-mode model for a laser with saturable absorber permit coexistence of soft-excited oscillations and Q switching (hard-mode sustained relaxation oscillations).

  20. High-power PPMgLN-based optical parametric oscillator pumped by a linearly polarized, semi-fiber-coupled acousto-optic Q-switched fiber master oscillator power amplifier.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Jiang, Peipei; Yang, Dingzhong; Hu, Chengzhi; Wu, Bo; Shen, Yonghang

    2013-09-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated a periodically poled magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate (PPMgLN)-based, fiber-laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) generating idler wavelength of 3.82 μm. The pump fiber laser was constructed with a linearly polarized, semi-fiber-coupled acousto-optic Q-switched fiber oscillator and a polarization-maintaining fiber amplifier with pulse duration of 190 ns at the highest output power. The OPO was specifically configured in single-pass, singly resonant linear cavity structure to avoid the damage risk of the pump fiber laser, which is always a serious issue in the fiber-laser-pumped, double-pass, singly oscillating structured OPOs. Under the highest pump power of 25 W, an idler average output power of 3.27 W with one-hour peak-to-peak instability of 5.2% was obtained. The measured M2 factors were 1.98 and 1.44 for horizontal and vertical axis, respectively. The high power stability and good beam quality demonstrated the suitability of such technology for practical application. PMID:24085093