Science.gov

Sample records for actively seeking ways

  1. Medical schools seeking new ways to cope with funding cutbacks.

    PubMed

    Thorne, S

    1997-06-01

    Cuts in government funding mean that Canada's medical schools have to seek new ways to raise funds. Susan Thorne examines some of the ways faculties of medicine are coping with change. In the brave new world of medical education, schools are combining classes for medical students and other health professionals, seeking business alliances, encouraging attendance by full-tuition students from other countries and diversifying revenue bases through new programs, such as McGill's new 5-year MD-MBA degree.

  2. Everyday Life Information Seeking: Approaching Information Seeking in the Context of "Way of Life."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savolainen, Reijo

    1995-01-01

    Discusses everyday life information seeking (ELIS) and compares the seeking of orienting information versus practical information. Offers a framework for studying ELIS and presents results of testing the framework via interviews with teachers and workers as seekers of information using electronic and printed media. (JMV)

  3. Teachers Seek Ways to Gauge Rigor of Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    In the first year of a pilot program, 18 New York City schools are digging into new ways to accomplish two objectives emphasized in the common-core standards: (1) engage students in increasingly complex texts as they move through school; and (2) help them conquer literacy skills specific to disciplines such as history and science. Spearheaded by…

  4. Physical activity information seeking and advertising recall.

    PubMed

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (n=1211) showed gender, age, education, and activity-level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (n=1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18-54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information-seeking behavior on the Internet and its implications for health promotion. PMID:21347937

  5. Physical activity information seeking and advertising recall.

    PubMed

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (n=1211) showed gender, age, education, and activity-level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (n=1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18-54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information-seeking behavior on the Internet and its implications for health promotion.

  6. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention Seeking? Ways of Distinguishing Two Common Childhood Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Nigel Mellor recently retired from his work with the educational psychology service in North Tyneside. In this article, he proposes that attention-seeking behaviour may lead to major difficulties at home and school and indicates the ways in which recent research is beginning to clarify the area. Attention deficit disorders also cause great…

  7. Information-Seeking Activity of Rural Health Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Sandra; Donaldson, Joe F.

    The information-seeking activity (ISA) of 16 rural health practitioners (occupational, physical, and respiratory therapists; radiological technologists; speech/language pathologists; and nurses) was explored using qualitative methods of participant observation, document collection, and in-depth interviews. Field notes and documents were collected…

  8. 75 FR 5845 - Agency Information Collection Activity Seeking OMB Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... information there would be no means to accurately evaluate applicants' skills, knowledge, and abilities to... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Agency Information Collection Activity Seeking OMB Approval AGENCY... our intention to request the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) revision of a current...

  9. Supporting Reflective Activities in Information Seeking on the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Hitomi; Miwa, Kazuhisa

    Recently, many opportunities have emerged to use the Internet in daily life and classrooms. However, with the growth of the World Wide Web (Web), it is becoming increasingly difficult to find target information on the Internet. In this study, we explore a method for developing the ability of users in information seeking on the Web and construct a search process feedback system supporting reflective activities of information seeking on the Web. Reflection is defined as a cognitive activity for monitoring, evaluating, and modifying one's thinking and process. In the field of learning science, many researchers have investigated reflective activities that facilitate learners' problem solving and deep understanding. The characteristics of this system are: (1) to show learners' search processes on the Web as described, based on a cognitive schema, and (2) to prompt learners to reflect on their search processes. We expect that users of this system can reflect on their search processes by receiving information on their own search processes provided by the system, and that these types of reflective activity helps them to deepen their understanding of information seeking activities. We have conducted an experiment to investigate the effects of our system. The experimental results confirmed that (1) the system actually facilitated the learners' reflective activities by providing process visualization and prompts, and (2) the learners who reflected on their search processes more actively understood their own search processes more deeply.

  10. Young Children's Help-Seeking as Active Information Gathering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vredenburgh, Christopher; Kushnir, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Young children's social learning is a topic of great interest. Here, we examined preschoolers' (M = 52.44 months, SD = 9.7 months) help-seeking as a social information gathering activity that may optimize and support children's opportunities for learning. In a toy assembly task, we assessed each child's competency at assembling toys and the…

  11. Wise Water Ways. Teaching Guide. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crites, Alice; And Others

    To increase student's awareness of the need to conserve water and ways they can become personally involved in developing water-saving habits, a water conservation education program was established. The program described contains a series of activities to be presented in the form of discussions, games, and puzzles. Each activity involves the…

  12. Sensation seeking genes and physical activity in youth

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Anna V.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Wang, Jian; Bondy, Melissa L.; Dong, Qiong; Wu, Xifeng; Shete, Sanjay; Spitz, Margaret R.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies examining genetic influences on physical activity (PA) have evaluated the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to the development of lifestyle-related chronic diseases, under the hypothesis that they would be associated with PA. However, PA is a multi-determined behavior and associated with a multitude of health consequences. Thus, examining a broader range of candidate genes associated with a boarder range of PA correlates may provide new insights into the genetic underpinnings of PA. In this study we focus on one such correlate – sensation seeking behavior. Participants (N=1,130 Mexican origin youth) provided a saliva sample and data on PA and sensation seeking tendencies in 2008–09. Participants were genotyped for 630 functional and tagging variants in the dopamine, serotonin, and cannabinoid pathways. Overall 30% of participants (males – 37.6%; females – 22.0%) reported ≥60 minutes of PA on five out of seven days. After adjusting for gender, age and population stratification, and applying the Bayesian False Discovery Probability approach for assessing noteworthiness, four gene variants were significantly associated with PA. In a multivariable model, being male, having higher sensation seeking tendencies and at least one copy of the minor allele for SNPs in ACE (rs8066276 OR=1.44; p=0.012) and TPH2 (rs11615016 OR=1.73; p=0.021) were associated with increased likelihood of meeting PA recommendations. Participants with at least one copy of the minor allele for SNPs in SNAP25 (rs363035 OR=0.53; p=0.005) and CNR1 (rs6454672 OR=0.62; p=0.022) have decreased likelihood of meeting PA recommendations. Our findings extend current knowledge of the complex relationship between PA and possible genetic underpinnings. PMID:23190435

  13. Barriers and facilitators to the utilization of adult mental health services by Australia's Indigenous people: seeking a way forward.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Anton Neville; Pyett, Priscilla; Oakley-Browne, Mark A; Gruis, Hilton; Waples-Crowe, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Mental disorders are the second leading cause of disease burden among Australia's Indigenous people after cardiovascular disease. Yet Indigenous people do not access mental health services in proportion to their need. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators for Indigenous people seeking mental health services in Australia and identifies key elements in the development and maintenance of partnerships for improved service delivery and future research. The process of seeking help for mental illness has been conceptualized as four consecutive steps starting from recognizing that there is a problem to actually contacting the mental health service. We have attempted to explore the factors affecting each of these stages. While people in the general population experience barriers across all four stages of the process of seeking treatment for a mental disorder, there are many more barriers for Indigenous people at the stage of actually contacting a mental health service. These include a history of racism and discrimination and resultant lack of trust in mainstream services, misunderstandings due to cultural and language differences, and inadequate measures to reduce the stigma associated with mental illness. Further research is required to understand the mental health literacy of Indigenous people, their different perceptions of mental health and well-being, issues around stigma, and the natural history of mental illness among Indigenous people who do not access any form of professional help. Collaborations between mainstream mental health services and Aboriginal organizations have been promoted as a way to conduct research into developing appropriate services for Indigenous people.

  14. Science education in urban settings: Seeking new ways of praxis through critical ethnography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrese Barton, Angela

    2001-10-01

    The challenges faced in urban science education are deeply rooted in the ongoing struggle for racial, class and gender equity. Part of this struggle is tied to huge differences in class and involves making more equitable the distribution of resources. Another part of this struggle is tied to the rich diversity of children who attend urban schools and involves generating new ways of understanding, valuing, and genuinely incorporating into school-based practices the culture, language, beliefs, and experiences that these children bring to school. Thus, this article argues that to address these two challenges - and indeed to achieve a more just science education for all urban students - explicitly political research methodologies must be considered and incorporated into urban education. One potential route for this is critical ethnography, for this kind of methodology emerges collaboratively from the lives of the researcher and the researched and is centrally about praxis and a political commitment to the struggle for liberation and in defense of human rights. In making this argument, I have drawn from stories from my own research with homeless children.

  15. Different ways to active optical frequency standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Duo; Xue, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiaogang; Chen, Jingbiao

    2016-06-01

    Active optical frequency standard, or active optical clock, is a new concept of optical frequency standard, where a weak feedback with phase coherence information in optical bad-cavity limitation is formed, and the continuous self-sustained coherent stimulated emission between two atomic transition levels with population inversion is realized. Through ten years of both theoretical and experimental exploration, the narrow linewidth and suppression of cavity pulling effect of active optical frequency standard have been initially proved. In this paper, after a simple review, we will mainly present the most recent experimental progresses of active optical frequency standards in Peking University, including 4-level cesium active optical frequency standards and active Faraday optical frequency standards. The future development of active optical frequency standards is also discussed.

  16. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK WORKS BOTH WAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, P.-C.; Middelberg, E.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Norris, R. P.

    2013-09-01

    Simulations of galaxy growth need to invoke strong negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to suppress the formation of stars and thus prevent the over-production of very massive systems. While some observations provide evidence for such negative feedback, other studies find either no feedback or even positive feedback, with increased star formation associated with higher AGN luminosities. Here we report an analysis of several hundred AGNs and their host galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South using X-ray and radio data for sample selection. Combined with archival far-infrared data as a reliable tracer of star formation activity in the AGN host galaxies, we find that AGNs with pronounced radio jets exhibit a much higher star formation rate (SFR) than the purely X-ray-selected ones, even at the same X-ray luminosities. This difference implies that positive AGN feedback plays an important role, too, and therefore has to be accounted for in all future simulation work. We interpret this to indicate that the enhanced SFR of radio-selected AGNs arises because of jet-induced star formation, as is suggested by the different jet powers among our AGN samples, while the suppressed SFR of X-ray selected AGN is caused by heating and photo-dissociation of molecular gas by the hot AGN accretion disk.

  17. Drug Predictive Cues Activate Aversion-Sensitive Striatal Neurons That Encode Drug Seeking

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Daniel S.; Robble, Mykel A.; Hebron, Emily M.; Dupont, Matthew J.; Ebben, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Drug-associated cues have profound effects on an addict's emotional state and drug-seeking behavior. Although this influence must involve the motivational neural system that initiates and encodes the drug-seeking act, surprisingly little is known about the nature of such physiological events and their motivational consequences. Three experiments investigated the effect of a cocaine-predictive stimulus on dopamine signaling, neuronal activity, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking. In all experiments, rats were divided into two groups (paired and unpaired), and trained to self-administer cocaine in the presence of a tone that signaled the immediate availability of the drug. For rats in the paired group, self-administration sessions were preceded by a taste cue that signaled delayed drug availability. Assessments of hedonic responses indicated that this delay cue became aversive during training. Both the self-administration behavior and the immediate cue were subsequently extinguished in the absence of cocaine. After extinction of self-administration behavior, the presentation of the aversive delay cue reinstated drug seeking. In vivo electrophysiology and voltammetry recordings in the nucleus accumbens measured the neural responses to both the delay and immediate drug cues after extinction. Interestingly, the presentation of the delay cue simultaneously decreased dopamine signaling and increased excitatory encoding of the immediate cue. Most importantly, the delay cue selectively enhanced the baseline activity of neurons that would later encode drug seeking. Together these observations reveal how cocaine cues can modulate not only affective state, but also the neurochemical and downstream neurophysiological environment of striatal circuits in a manner that promotes drug seeking. PMID:25948270

  18. Drug predictive cues activate aversion-sensitive striatal neurons that encode drug seeking.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Daniel S; Robble, Mykel A; Hebron, Emily M; Dupont, Matthew J; Ebben, Amanda L; Wheeler, Robert A

    2015-05-01

    Drug-associated cues have profound effects on an addict's emotional state and drug-seeking behavior. Although this influence must involve the motivational neural system that initiates and encodes the drug-seeking act, surprisingly little is known about the nature of such physiological events and their motivational consequences. Three experiments investigated the effect of a cocaine-predictive stimulus on dopamine signaling, neuronal activity, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking. In all experiments, rats were divided into two groups (paired and unpaired), and trained to self-administer cocaine in the presence of a tone that signaled the immediate availability of the drug. For rats in the paired group, self-administration sessions were preceded by a taste cue that signaled delayed drug availability. Assessments of hedonic responses indicated that this delay cue became aversive during training. Both the self-administration behavior and the immediate cue were subsequently extinguished in the absence of cocaine. After extinction of self-administration behavior, the presentation of the aversive delay cue reinstated drug seeking. In vivo electrophysiology and voltammetry recordings in the nucleus accumbens measured the neural responses to both the delay and immediate drug cues after extinction. Interestingly, the presentation of the delay cue simultaneously decreased dopamine signaling and increased excitatory encoding of the immediate cue. Most importantly, the delay cue selectively enhanced the baseline activity of neurons that would later encode drug seeking. Together these observations reveal how cocaine cues can modulate not only affective state, but also the neurochemical and downstream neurophysiological environment of striatal circuits in a manner that promotes drug seeking.

  19. Drug predictive cues activate aversion-sensitive striatal neurons that encode drug seeking.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Daniel S; Robble, Mykel A; Hebron, Emily M; Dupont, Matthew J; Ebben, Amanda L; Wheeler, Robert A

    2015-05-01

    Drug-associated cues have profound effects on an addict's emotional state and drug-seeking behavior. Although this influence must involve the motivational neural system that initiates and encodes the drug-seeking act, surprisingly little is known about the nature of such physiological events and their motivational consequences. Three experiments investigated the effect of a cocaine-predictive stimulus on dopamine signaling, neuronal activity, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking. In all experiments, rats were divided into two groups (paired and unpaired), and trained to self-administer cocaine in the presence of a tone that signaled the immediate availability of the drug. For rats in the paired group, self-administration sessions were preceded by a taste cue that signaled delayed drug availability. Assessments of hedonic responses indicated that this delay cue became aversive during training. Both the self-administration behavior and the immediate cue were subsequently extinguished in the absence of cocaine. After extinction of self-administration behavior, the presentation of the aversive delay cue reinstated drug seeking. In vivo electrophysiology and voltammetry recordings in the nucleus accumbens measured the neural responses to both the delay and immediate drug cues after extinction. Interestingly, the presentation of the delay cue simultaneously decreased dopamine signaling and increased excitatory encoding of the immediate cue. Most importantly, the delay cue selectively enhanced the baseline activity of neurons that would later encode drug seeking. Together these observations reveal how cocaine cues can modulate not only affective state, but also the neurochemical and downstream neurophysiological environment of striatal circuits in a manner that promotes drug seeking. PMID:25948270

  20. Help-Seeking Behaviors Among Active-Duty Military Personnel: Utilization of Chaplains and Other Mental Health Service Providers

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jessica Kelley; Hourani, Laurel; Lane, Marian E.; Tueller, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Military chaplains not only conduct religious services, but also provide counseling and spiritual support to military service members, operating as liaisons between soldiers and mental health professionals. In this study, active-duty soldiers (N = 889) reported help-seeking behaviors and mental health. Using logistic regressions, we describe the issues for which soldiers reported seeking help, then outline the characteristics of those who are most likely to seek help from a chaplain. Of the soldiers who sought help from a chaplain within the previous year, 29.9% reported high levels of combat exposure, 50.8% screened positive for depression, 39.1% had probable PTSD, and 26.6% screened positive for generalized anxiety disorder. The participant’s unit firing on the enemy, personally firing on the enemy, and seeing dead bodies or human remains predicted seeing a chaplain. Future research should examine ways to engage soldiers who have had more combat experiences with the chaplain community to address spiritual issues. PMID:27191375

  1. Identifying and understanding Indigenous ways of evaluating physical activity programs.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Erica Blue; Butler Iii, James; Green, Kerry M; Chaudhary, Kaushal Raj

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous evaluation frameworks have not been investigated in the context of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) physical activity programs, an important area given the relationship between effective physical activity programs and quality of life among these populations. To address this gap, staff members of AI/AN physical activity programs were interviewed to explore their understanding of and experiences with evaluation. Findings suggest that Indigenous evaluation is perceived as narrative and holistic, Indigenous knowledge is used in program decision making, though it is not always acknowledged as evaluation, and there is not a universally desired way to evaluate AI/AN physical activity programs. PMID:27668593

  2. From the Mouths of Canadian University Students: Web-Based Information-Seeking Activities for Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Martine; Weinberg, Alysse; Sarma, Nandini; Frankoff, Mary

    2011-01-01

    This article presents student perceptions about different types of web-based activities used to seek information for French language learning. Group interviews were conducted with 71 students in five Canadian universities to elicit data on their use of the Internet for information-seeking activities. These students use the Web for three main…

  3. Nucleus accumbens core lesions enhance two-way active avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, Nina T.; Kashtelyan, Vadim; Burton, Amanda C.; Bissonette, Gregory B.; Roesch, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of work examining nucleus accumbens core (NAc) has focused on functions pertaining to behaviors guided by appetitive outcomes. These studies have pointed to NAc as being critical for motivating behavior toward desirable outcomes. For example, we have recently shown that lesions of NAc impaired performance on a reward-guided decision-making task that required rats to choose between differently valued rewards. Unfortunately, much less is known about the role that NAc plays in motivating behavior when aversive outcomes are predicted. To address this issue we asked if NAc lesions impact performance on a two-way active avoidance task in which rats must learn to shuttle back and forth in a behavioral training box in order to avoid a footshock predicted by an auditory tone. Although bilateral NAc lesions initially impaired reward-guided decision-making, we found that the same lesions improved acquisition and retention of two-way active avoidance. PMID:24275320

  4. Host-seeking activity of ixodid ticks in relation to weather variables.

    PubMed

    Hubálek, Zdenek; Halouzka, Jirí; Juricová, Zina

    2003-12-01

    Ixodid ticks were monitored in a temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest in South Moravia (Czech Republic). Relative abundance of the ticks collected before noon (10.00-12.00 h) was compared to several weather variables (air and soil temperatures, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed, and derived values) using the Pearson correlation coefficient. The tick numbers were found to be most closely related to the amplitude of the soil (-5 cm) temperature between 07 h and 14 h (TSamp, in Ixodes ricinus), and the soil temperature (TS) at noon (in Haemaphysalis concinna) or in the morning (Dermacentor reticulatus). While a growing amplitude in TSamp caused an increased host-seeking activity of I. ricinus and H. concinna, it suppressed the activity of D. reticulatus, a tick species mainly occurring in colder seasons of the year in Central Europe. The air temperature (TA) and relative humidity (RH) were also closely related to the tick activity, whereas rainfall and wind speed remained largely uncorrelated with the activity of the three tick species. Multiple linear regression on several variables (TSamp, TA, TS, TA-TS, RH) explained 48% of the variance in I. ricinus, 47% in H. concinna, and 38% in D. reticulatus. Predictive two-variable regression models of relative abundance in host-seeking ticks were based on morning temperature (TA or TS) and morning RH as the most important environmental factors: they explained 32% (I. ricinus), 39% (H. concinna), and 35% (D. reticulatus) of the variance.

  5. Improving the Blood Pressure Control With the ProActive Attitude of Hypertensive Patients Seeking Follow-up Services

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shangfeng; Bishwajit, Ghose; Ji, Lu; Feng, Da; Fang, Haiqing; Fu, Hang; Shao, Tian; Shao, Piaopiao; Liu, Chunyan; Feng, Zhanchun; Luba, Tegene R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Proactive attitude of hypertensive patients seeking follow-up services (FUS) lies at the core of self-efficacy. However, few evidence have shown the activeness of seeking FUS in the context of blood pressure control among hypertensive patients. Improvements in follow-up visits may not just by services itself cause better control of blood pressure among hypertensive patients, rather due to the patient's pro-active attitude of the patient in seeking FUS. A cross-sectional study was carried out in selected rural regions of China to explore the association between blood pressure control and sociodemographic and economic variables and activeness of hypertensive patients in seeking FUS. The primary clinical outcome for this study was blood pressure control (systolic blood pressure <140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure <90 mmHg) Out of the total 2321 participants with hypertension aged 35 years or older participated in this survey. Number of proactive FUS seekers were 3.17 times greater than those of passive seekers (odds ratio [OR] = 3.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.56–3.93, P < 0.001). In all subgroups, hypertensive patients who were seeking FUS actively were more likely to control blood pressure better than those seeking FUS passively. Proactive attitude of seeking follow-up services can improve blood pressure control among hypertensive patients. PMID:27057859

  6. The LATT way towards large active primaries for space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briguglio, Runa; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Xompero, Marco; Lisi, Franco; Riccardi, Armando; Biasi, Roberto; Patauner, Christian; Gallieni, Daniele; Lazzarini, Paolo; Tintori, Matteo; d'Amato, Francesco; Pucci, Mauro; Duò, Fabrizio; Vettore, Christian; Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    The Large Aperture Telescope Technology (LATT) goes beyond the current paradigm of future space telescopes, based on a deformable mirror in the pupil relay. Through the LATT project we demonstrated the concept of a low-weight active primary mirror, whose working principle and control strategy benefit from two decades of advances in adaptive optics for ground-based telescopes. We developed a forty centimeter spherical mirror prototype, with an areal density lower than 17 kg/m2, controlled through contactless voice coil actuators with co-located capacitive position sensors. The prototype was subjected to thermo-vacuum, vibration and optical tests, to push its technical readiness toward level 5. In this paper we present the background and the outcomes of the LATT activities under ESA contract (TRP programme), exploring the concept of a lightweight active primary mirror for space telescopes. Active primaries will open the way to very large segmented apertures, actively shaped, which can be lightweight, deployable and accurately phased once in flight.

  7. When Ideals Get in the Way of Self-Care: Perfectionism and Self-Stigma for Seeking Psychological Help among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeifman, Richard J.; Atkey, Sarah K.; Young, Rebecca E.; Flett, Gordon L.; Hewitt, Paul L.; Goldberg, Joel O.

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated whether adolescents high in perfectionism are prone to experiencing self-stigma for seeking psychological help. This work is based on the premise that the need to seek help for psychological difficulties is not consistent with idealistic personal goals of perfectionistic young people and their desire to retain…

  8. Orexin/hypocretin neuron activation is correlated with alcohol seeking and preference in a topographically specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, David E.; James, Morgan H.; Kilroy, Elisabeth A.; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Orexin (ORX, also known as hypocretin, HRCT) neurons are located exclusively in the posterior hypothalamus and are involved in a wide range of behaviors, including motivation for drugs of abuse such as alcohol. Hypothalamic subregions contain functionally distinct populations of ORX neurons that may play different roles in regulating drug- and alcohol-motivated behaviors. To investigate the role of ORX neurons in alcohol seeking, we measured Fos activation of ORX neurons in rats following three different measures of alcohol seeking and preference: 1) context-induced reinstatement, or ABA renewal, 2) cue-induced reinstatement of extinguished responding for alcohol, and 3) a home cage task in which preference for alcohol (vs. water) was measured in the absence of either reinforcer. We found significant activation of ORX neurons in multiple subregions across all three behavioral tests. Notably, ORX neuron activation in lateral hypothalamus (LH) correlated with the degree of seeking in context reinstatement and degree of preference in home cage preference testing. In addition, Fos activation in ORX neurons in dorsomedial (DMH) and perifornical (PF) areas was correlated with context- and home cage seeking/preference, respectively. Surprisingly, we found no relationship between the degree of cue-induced reinstatement and ORX neuron activation in any region despite robust activation overall during reinstatement. These results demonstrate a strong relationship between ORX neuron activation and alcohol seeking/preference, but one that is differentially expressed across ORX field subregions depending on reinstatement modality. PMID:26750264

  9. Seeking the General Explanation: A Test of Inductive Activities for Learning and Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shemwell, Jonathan T.; Chase, Catherine C.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the relation between evidence and theory should be a central activity for science learners. Evaluation comprises both hypothetico-deductive analysis, where theory precedes evidence, and inductive synthesis, where theory emerges from evidence. There is mounting evidence that induction is an especially good way to help learners grasp the…

  10. Locomotor activity and cocaine-seeking behavior during acquisition and reinstatement of operant self-administration behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Koeltzow, Timothy E; Vezina, Paul

    2005-05-28

    Recent studies indicate that administration of dopamine D2-like receptor agonists reinstates drug-seeking behavior in rodents, whereas dopamine D1-like receptor agonists do not. These effects have been related to the ability of these agonists to facilitate the expression of sensitized locomotor activity. Presently, we describe experiments in which locomotor activity was assessed concomitantly with operant performance during acquisition, extinction and reinstatement. We report that locomotor activity was inversely related to drug-seeking behavior during acquisition of cocaine self-administration under a Fixed Ratio (FR) 1 schedule of reinforcement. During a single trial extinction session, animals that had acquired cocaine self-administration exhibited a conditioned increase in drug-seeking behavior, but there was no evidence of a conditioned locomotor response. During reinstatement, cocaine (20 mg/kg) significantly increased both locomotor activity and drug-seeking behavior. The dopamine D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg) increased drug-seeking behavior, but did not significantly increase locomotor activity. In contrast, the dopamine D1-like receptor agonist SKF 81297 (0.5 mg/kg) failed to reinstate drug-seeking behavior, but produced significant locomotor activation. To determine whether the inability of SKF 81297 to promote reinstatement is related to the strength of operant conditioning, additional rats were trained to self-administer cocaine using an FR-3 schedule of reinforcement. Despite achieving response rates during training almost four times higher compared to the FR-1 condition, administration of SKF 81297 again failed to significantly increase drug-seeking behavior during reinstatement testing. These results extend previous findings, confirming the important role of D2-like, but not D1-like receptor activation in the reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. An understanding of the mechanisms by which D1- and D2-like agonists differentially

  11. Sensation Seeking and Internet Activities, Music Preference, and Personal Relationships among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.

    Individuals vary in their need for excitement, involving a personality trait known as sensation seeking (SS). Previous research has found that a preference for rock music and participation in more self-disclosing behaviors are characteristic of high sensation seekers. This study examines if college student sensation seeking relates to the…

  12. The Influence of Health Literacy and Patient Activation on Patient Information Seeking and Sharing.

    PubMed

    Ledford, Christy J W; Cafferty, Lauren A; Russell, Travis C

    2015-01-01

    This study provided an assessment of how patients looked for information to prepare for a clinical appointment and whether they shared those findings with their provider. A cross-sectional survey allowed insight into patient attitudes, motivations, and behavior in clinical real time. At two hospital-based clinics, 243 patients completed surveys before and after clinical appointments. Younger patients with higher communicative and critical health literacy prepared for clinical appointments with information searches. The predicted association of health literacy and patient activation with information sharing was not supported. This study shows that patients with higher patient activation perceived that their providers responded more positively to patient-obtained medical information. The role of critical health literacy may show that individuals choosing to seek information are considering not just their ability to conduct the search but also their ability to synthesize and critically analyze the results of the information search. An implication for providers is to become skilled in directly asking or passively surveying what outside information sources the patient has engaged with, no matter if the patient does or does not introduce the information.

  13. Activation of AMPA receptor in the infralimbic cortex facilitates extinction and attenuates the heroin-seeking behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weisheng; Wang, Yiqi; Sun, Anna; Zhou, Linyi; Xu, Wenjin; Zhu, Huaqiang; Zhuang, Dingding; Lai, Miaojun; Zhang, Fuqiang; Zhou, Wenhua; Liu, Huifen

    2016-01-26

    Infralimbic cortex (IL) is proposed to suppress cocaine seeking after extinction, but whether the IL regulates the extinction and reinstatement of heroin-seeking behavior is unknown. To address this issue, the male SD rats were trained to self-administer heroin under a FR1 schedule for consecutive 14 days, then the rats underwent 7 daily 2h extinction session in the operant chamber. The activation of IL by microinjection PEPA, an allosteric AMPA receptor potentiator into IL before each of extinction session facilitated the extinction responding after heroin self-administration, but did not alter the locomotor activity in an open field testing environment. Other rats were first trained under a FR1 schedule for heroin self-administration for 14 days, followed by 14 days of extinction training, and reinstatement of heroin-seeking induced by cues was measured for 2h. Intra-IL microinjecting of PEPA at 15min prior to test inhibited the reinstatement of heroin-seeking induced by cues. Moreover, the expression of GluR1 in the IL and NAc remarkably increased after treatment with PEPA during the reinstatement. These finding suggested that activation of glutamatergic projection from IL to NAc shell may be involved in the extinction and reinstatement of heroin-seeking. PMID:26639425

  14. Activation of AMPA receptor in the infralimbic cortex facilitates extinction and attenuates the heroin-seeking behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weisheng; Wang, Yiqi; Sun, Anna; Zhou, Linyi; Xu, Wenjin; Zhu, Huaqiang; Zhuang, Dingding; Lai, Miaojun; Zhang, Fuqiang; Zhou, Wenhua; Liu, Huifen

    2016-01-26

    Infralimbic cortex (IL) is proposed to suppress cocaine seeking after extinction, but whether the IL regulates the extinction and reinstatement of heroin-seeking behavior is unknown. To address this issue, the male SD rats were trained to self-administer heroin under a FR1 schedule for consecutive 14 days, then the rats underwent 7 daily 2h extinction session in the operant chamber. The activation of IL by microinjection PEPA, an allosteric AMPA receptor potentiator into IL before each of extinction session facilitated the extinction responding after heroin self-administration, but did not alter the locomotor activity in an open field testing environment. Other rats were first trained under a FR1 schedule for heroin self-administration for 14 days, followed by 14 days of extinction training, and reinstatement of heroin-seeking induced by cues was measured for 2h. Intra-IL microinjecting of PEPA at 15min prior to test inhibited the reinstatement of heroin-seeking induced by cues. Moreover, the expression of GluR1 in the IL and NAc remarkably increased after treatment with PEPA during the reinstatement. These finding suggested that activation of glutamatergic projection from IL to NAc shell may be involved in the extinction and reinstatement of heroin-seeking.

  15. Fatigue from multiple host-seeking activity of Aedes albopictus and its effects on bloodfeeding behavior and deet repellency.

    PubMed

    Xue, Rui-De; Debboun, Mustapha

    2014-06-01

    A decrease in host-seeking activity in female Aedes albopictus was observed after exposure to a human hand tested in an olfactometer in the laboratory. The increased treatment times resulted in a decreasing response to a human hand. Fatigued/exhausted female mosquitoes after multiple host-seeking activities did prolong the blood engorgement time, compared with untreated nonfatigued mosquitoes. Also, fatigued mosquitoes showed a significant reduction in human host-attacking rates. The mean duration of protection from mosquito bites of human hand treated with 25% deet (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) was higher in fatigued than unfatigued mosquitoes. PMID:25102594

  16. Fos activation of selective afferents to ventral tegmental area during cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Stephen V; Aston-Jones, Gary S

    2012-09-19

    Ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons are crucial for appetitive responses to Pavlovian cues, including cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. However, it is unknown which VTA inputs help activate these neurons, transducing stimuli into salient cues that drive drug-seeking behavior. Here we examined 56 VTA afferents from forebrain and midbrain that are Fos activated during cue-induced reinstatement. We injected the retrograde tracer cholera toxin β subunit (CTb) unilaterally into rostral or caudal VTA of male rats. All animals were trained to self-administer cocaine, then extinguished of this behavior. On a final test day, animals were exposed to response-contingent cocaine-associated cues, extinction conditions, a non-cocaine-predictive CS-, or a novel environment, and brains were processed to visualize CTb and Fos immunoreactivity to identify VTA afferents activated in relation to behaviors. VTA-projecting neurons in subregions of medial accumbens shell, ventral pallidum, elements of extended amygdala, and lateral septum (but not prefrontal cortex) were activated specifically during cue-induced cocaine seeking, and some of these were also activated proportionately to the degree of cocaine seeking. Surprisingly, though efferents from the lateral hypothalamic orexin field were also Fos activated during reinstatement, these were largely non-orexinergic. Also, VTA afferents from the rostromedial tegmental nucleus and lateral habenula were specifically activated during extinction and CS- tests, when cocaine was not expected. These findings point to a select set of subcortical nuclei which provide reinstatement-related inputs to VTA, translating conditioned stimuli into cocaine-seeking behavior.

  17. Active Ways to Teach Health Concepts in the Elementary Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This article provides three movement-based activities for teaching health concepts to elementary school students. Two activities focus on nutrition concepts and the other focuses on teaching body systems. Diagrams are provided to show the setup of activities, as well as links for accessing materials to help implement the activities.

  18. Effects of temperature and rainfall on the activity and dynamics of host-seeking Aedes albopictus females in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Roiz, David; Rosà, Roberto; Arnoldi, Daniele; Rizzoli, Annapaola

    2010-10-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has colonized nearly all the regions of Italy as well as other areas of Europe. During the summer of 2007 the tiger mosquito was responsible for an outbreak of Chikungunya in Italy, when this virus was brought in by a tourist of Indian origin returning from an endemic area. To increase the knowledge of tiger mosquito population dynamics, a survey was carried out from April to November 2008 in the municipalities of Arco and Riva del Garda (northern Italy) through a Biogents Sentinel™ (BG)-trap sampling. In particular, the aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of temperature and rainfall on the activity and dynamics of A. albopictus host-seeking females. The seasonal emergence of host-seeking females was strongly influenced by the minimum temperature, and a lower threshold of 13°C was identified. In addition, the threshold for the end of adult activity was found at a minimum temperature of 9°C. Host-seeking female abundance was positively affected by the accumulated temperatures over the period 3 and 4 weeks before the sampling week, possibly as a consequence of the positive effect of accumulated temperatures on larval density. Instead, accumulated precipitation over 1-4 weeks before sampling was negatively correlated with host-seeking female abundance. Finally, the activity of host-seeking females, estimated by the weekly increment in female abundance, was positively affected by the total abundance of females and by mean weekly temperatures. Our study provides useful information for predicting the dynamics of host-seeking Ae. albopictus females in northern Italy and for designing control strategies for preventing arbovirus outbreaks in areas colonized by Ae. albopictus. PMID:20059318

  19. "Finding a way out": Case histories of mental health care-seeking and recovery among long-term internally displaced persons in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Namrita S; Jakhaia, Nino; Amonashvili, Nino; Winch, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    Trajectories of illness and recovery are ongoing and incomplete processes cocreated by individuals, their informal support networks, formal care-givers and treatment contexts, and broader social systems. This analysis presents two case histories of care-seeking for, and recovery from, mental illness and psychosocial problems in the context of protracted internal displacement. These case histories present individuals with experiences of schizophrenia and depression drawn from a sample of adult long-term internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Georgia, a country in the South Caucasus. Dimensions of care-seeking were compiled into a matrix for analysis. Interviews were open coded, and codes were linked with matrix dimensions to construct each case history. Findings illustrated that individuals moved cyclically among self-care, household support, lay care, and formal services domains to understand and manage their problems. Living with mental illness and within displacement are experiences that intersect at various points, including in the recognition and perceived causes of illness, stressors such as discrimination and isolation, the affordability and availability of services, and the capacity of social networks to provide informal care. Interventions are needed to support informal care-givers and build lay referral networks, as well as to identify intervention points within care-seeking processes. Interventions that target the mental health needs of displaced persons have the potential to contribute to the development of an innovative community mental health care system in Georgia. PMID:26698164

  20. "Finding a way out": Case histories of mental health care-seeking and recovery among long-term internally displaced persons in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Namrita S; Jakhaia, Nino; Amonashvili, Nino; Winch, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    Trajectories of illness and recovery are ongoing and incomplete processes cocreated by individuals, their informal support networks, formal care-givers and treatment contexts, and broader social systems. This analysis presents two case histories of care-seeking for, and recovery from, mental illness and psychosocial problems in the context of protracted internal displacement. These case histories present individuals with experiences of schizophrenia and depression drawn from a sample of adult long-term internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Georgia, a country in the South Caucasus. Dimensions of care-seeking were compiled into a matrix for analysis. Interviews were open coded, and codes were linked with matrix dimensions to construct each case history. Findings illustrated that individuals moved cyclically among self-care, household support, lay care, and formal services domains to understand and manage their problems. Living with mental illness and within displacement are experiences that intersect at various points, including in the recognition and perceived causes of illness, stressors such as discrimination and isolation, the affordability and availability of services, and the capacity of social networks to provide informal care. Interventions are needed to support informal care-givers and build lay referral networks, as well as to identify intervention points within care-seeking processes. Interventions that target the mental health needs of displaced persons have the potential to contribute to the development of an innovative community mental health care system in Georgia.

  1. On the way of classifying new states of active matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Andreas M.

    2016-07-01

    With ongoing research into the collective behavior of self-propelled particles, new states of active matter are revealed. Some of them are entirely based on the non-equilibrium character and do not have an immediate equilibrium counterpart. In their recent work, Romanczuk et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 063015) concentrate on the characterization of smectic-like states of active matter. A new type, referred to by the authors as smectic P, is described. In this state, the active particles form stacked layers and self-propel along them. Identifying and classifying states and phases of non-equilibrium matter, including the transitions between them, is an up-to-date effort that will certainly extend for a longer period into the future.

  2. Another Way to Develop Chinese Students' Creativity: Extracurricular Innovation Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao-jiang, Zhao; Xue-ting, Zhao

    2012-01-01

    In China, improving students' creativity is becoming an important goal of modern colleges and universities, especially in the domain of science and technology. The efforts made for this goal can be observed not only in classroom, but also in activities and competitions which were held out-of-school. This paper will firstly give a brief description…

  3. Finding Your Way: Navigation Activities from the Exploratorium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Peter; And Others

    Where on Earth are you? Where is your home, your school, or the bookstore on the globe we call Earth? The activities in this book are designed to show children how to orient themselves on this planet. The book is divided into three main sections. Section 1, "Finding North, No Matter What," contains the following subsections: (1) Finding North with…

  4. Be Active Your Way: A Guide for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... you will try): ❑ Biking slowly ❑ Canoeing ❑ Dancing ❑ General gardening (raking, trimming shrubs) ❑ Tennis (doubles) ❑ Using your manual ... activities a couple of days a week: • Heavy gardening (digging,shoveling) • Lifting weights • Push-ups on the ...

  5. Activation of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 prevents relapse to cocaine seeking.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yui; Lee, Jungah; Leo, Damiana; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Hoener, Marius C; Canales, Juan J

    2014-09-01

    The trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) has emerged as a promising target for medication development in addiction because of its ability to regulate dopamine (DA) transmission. We tested in rats the efficacy of RO5203648 and RO5256390, partial and full TAAR1 agonists, respectively, in models of cocaine relapse. Using a model of context-induced relapse, both RO5203648 and RO5256390 dose-dependently suppressed cocaine seeking after a 2-week period of withdrawal from chronic cocaine self-administration. In a model of extinction-reinstatement, RO5203648 completely inhibited cocaine-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking. At doses that effectively suppressed cocaine seeking neither RO5203648 nor RO5256390 altered responding maintained by a natural reward. Moreover, fast scan cyclic voltammetry data showed that RO5203648 prevented cocaine-induced DA overflow in the nucleus accumbens without altering DA half-life, suggesting that the partial TAAR1 agonist attenuated cocaine-stimulated DA overflow by mechanisms other than direct interference with DA uptake. Collectively, these data provide strong evidence in support of TAAR1 as a neuropharmacological target for the treatment of cocaine addiction.

  6. Control over stress accelerates extinction of drug seeking via prefrontal cortical activation

    PubMed Central

    Baratta, Michael V.; Pomrenze, Matthew B.; Nakamura, Shinya; Dolzani, Samuel D.; Cooper, Donald C.

    2015-01-01

    Extinction is a form of inhibitory learning viewed as an essential process in suppressing conditioned responses to drug cues, yet there is little information concerning experiential variables that modulate its formation. Coping factors play an instrumental role in determining how adverse life events impact the transition from casual drug use to addiction. Here we provide evidence in rat that prior exposure to controllable stress accelerates the extinction of cocaine-seeking behavior relative to uncontrollable or no stress exposure. Subsequent experimentation using high-speed optogenetic tools determined if the infralimbic region (IL) of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex mediates the impact of controllable stress on cocaine-seeking behavior. Photoinhibition of pyramidal neurons in the IL during coping behavior did not interfere with subject's ability to control the stressor, but prevented the later control-induced facilitation of extinction. These results provide strong evidence that the degree of behavioral control over adverse events, rather than adverse events per se, potently modulates the extinction of cocaine-seeking behavior, and that controllable stress engages prefrontal circuitry that primes future extinction learning. PMID:25954765

  7. Activation of the Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 Prevents Relapse to Cocaine Seeking

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Yui; Lee, Jungah; Leo, Damiana; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Hoener, Marius C; Canales, Juan J

    2014-01-01

    The trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) has emerged as a promising target for medication development in addiction because of its ability to regulate dopamine (DA) transmission. We tested in rats the efficacy of RO5203648 and RO5256390, partial and full TAAR1 agonists, respectively, in models of cocaine relapse. Using a model of context-induced relapse, both RO5203648 and RO5256390 dose-dependently suppressed cocaine seeking after a 2-week period of withdrawal from chronic cocaine self-administration. In a model of extinction-reinstatement, RO5203648 completely inhibited cocaine-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking. At doses that effectively suppressed cocaine seeking neither RO5203648 nor RO5256390 altered responding maintained by a natural reward. Moreover, fast scan cyclic voltammetry data showed that RO5203648 prevented cocaine-induced DA overflow in the nucleus accumbens without altering DA half-life, suggesting that the partial TAAR1 agonist attenuated cocaine-stimulated DA overflow by mechanisms other than direct interference with DA uptake. Collectively, these data provide strong evidence in support of TAAR1 as a neuropharmacological target for the treatment of cocaine addiction. PMID:24722355

  8. Cue-elicited reward-seeking requires extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Shiflett, Michael W; Martini, Ross P; Mauna, Jocelyn C; Foster, Rebecca L; Peet, Eloise; Thiels, Edda

    2008-02-01

    The motivation to seek out rewards can come under the control of stimuli associated with reward delivery. The ability of cues to motivate reward-seeking behavior depends on the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). The molecular mechanisms in the NAcc that underlie the ability of a cue to motivate reward-seeking are not well understood. We examined whether extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), an important intracellular signaling pathway in learning and memory, has a role in these motivational processes. We first examined p42 ERK (ERK2) activation in the NAcc after rats were trained to associate an auditory stimulus with food delivery and found that, as a consequence of training, presentation of the auditory cue itself was sufficient to increase ERK2 activation in the NAcc. To examine whether inhibition of ERK in the NAcc prevents cue-induced reward-seeking, we infused an inhibitor of ERK, U0126, into the NAcc before assessing rats' instrumental responding in the presence versus absence of the conditioned cue. We found that, whereas vehicle-infused rats showed increased instrumental responding during cue presentation, rats infused with U0126 showed a profound impairment in cue-induced instrumental responding. In contrast, intra-NAcc U0126 infusion had no effect on rats' food-reinforced instrumental responding or their ability to execute conditioned approach behavior. Our results demonstrate learning-related changes in ERK signaling in the NAcc, and that disruption of ERK activation in this structure interferes with the incentive-motivational effects of conditioned stimuli. The molecular mechanisms described here may have implications for cue-elicited drug craving after repeated exposure to drugs of abuse.

  9. A little uncertainty goes a long way: state and trait differences in uncertainty interact to increase information seeking but also increase worry.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Natalie O; Knäuper, Bärbel

    2009-04-01

    This study examines the effect of an interaction between intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and situational uncertainty (SU) on worry due to uncertainty and on information seeking. Health providers may benefit from knowing when communicating uncertain information is beneficial. The study was a 2 (IU condition: high vs. low) x 2 (SU condition: high vs. low) experimental design resulting in four conditions to which university students (N = 153) were randomly assigned. IU was manipulated through a linguistic manipulation of responses to an IU questionnaire coupled with written false feedback. SU was manipulated by modifying the information participants read about a fictitious infection. Individuals in the high IU and high SU condition sought the most information and worried most due to uncertainty compared to people in the low IU and low SU condition, who sought the least information and worried least. Findings suggest that high IU may increase positive health behaviors such as screening intentions when individuals are faced with an uncertain health threat, but that it also increases worries due to that uncertainty. Providing opportunities for discussing one's emotional response to uncertainty and providing instrumental support for managing uncertainty (e.g., booking the follow-up appointment) is essential when communicating uncertain information.

  10. Dopamine D1 receptor blockade impairs alcohol seeking without reducing dorsal striatal activation to cues of alcohol availability

    PubMed Central

    Fanelli, Rebecca R; Robinson, Donita L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol-associated cues activate both ventral and dorsal striatum in functional brain imaging studies of heavy drinkers. In rodents, alcohol-associated cues induce changes in neuronal firing frequencies and increase dopamine release in ventral striatum, but the impact of alcohol-associated cues on neuronal activity in dorsal striatum is unclear. We previously reported phasic changes in action potential frequency in the dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum after cues that signaled alcohol availability, prompting approach behavior. Methods We investigated the hypothesis that dopamine transmission modulates these phasic firing changes. Rats were trained to self-administer alcohol, and neuronal activity was monitored with extracellular electrophysiology during “anticipatory” cues that signaled the start of the operant session. Sessions were preceded by systemic administration of the D1-type dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0, 10, and 20 μg/kg). Results SCH23390 significantly decreased firing rates during the 60 s prior to cue onset without reducing phasic excitations immediately following the cues. While neuronal activation to cues might be expected to initiate behavioral responses, in this study alcohol seeking was reduced despite the presence of dorsal striatal excitations to alcohol cues. Conclusions These data suggest that D1 receptor antagonism reduces basal firing rates in the dorsal striatum and modulates the ability of neuronal activation to “anticipatory” cues to initiate alcohol seeking in rats with an extensive history of alcohol self-administration. PMID:25642390

  11. A Re-Examination of Information Seeking Behaviour in the Context of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, T. D.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Activity theory, developed in the USSR as a Marxist alternative to Western psychology, has been applied widely in educational studies and increasingly in human-computer interaction research. Argument: The key elements of activity theory, Motivation, Goal, Activity, Tools, Object, Outcome, Rules, Community and Division of labour are…

  12. A role for kappa-, but not mu-opioid, receptor activation in acute food deprivation-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Sedki, Firas; Eigenmann, Karine; Gelinas, Jessica; Schouela, Nicholas; Courchesne, Shannon; Shalev, Uri

    2015-05-01

    Stress is considered to be one of the major triggers to drug relapse, even after prolonged periods of abstinence. In rats, the activation of stress-related brain systems, including corticotropin-releasing factor and norepinephrine, is critical for stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished drug seeking, an animal model for drug relapse. In addition, there are strong indications that activation of the endogenous opioid system is important for the effects of stress on drug seeking. More specifically, activation of the dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system is critically involved in the reinstatement of cocaine seeking following exposure to stressors, such as footshock, forced swimming or social stress. However, studies on the role of the dynorphin/KOR system in stress-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking are scarce. Here, rats were trained to self-administer heroin (0.1 mg/kg/infusion) for 10 days. Drug seeking was then extinguished and the rats were tested for acute (21 hours) food deprivation-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. In two separate experiments, rats were injected with the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) antagonist, naltrexone (0.0, 1.0, 10.0 mg/kg; s.c.) or the KOR antagonist, norBNI (0.0, 1.0, 10.0 mg/kg; i.p.) before the reinstatement test. Naltrexone treatment did not affect stress-induced reinstatement. In contrast, treatment with norBNI dose-dependently attenuated food deprivation-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. These results support the hypothesis that activation of KOR, but not MOR, is critically involved in stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking.

  13. Families Finding the Balance: A Parent Handbook. We Can! Ways to Enhance Children's Activity & Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    We Can! (Ways to Enhance Children's Activity & Nutrition) is a new public education outreach program designed to help children 8-13 years old stay at a healthy weight through improving food choices, increasing physical activity, and reducing screen time. The program is a collaboration of four Institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH):…

  14. Physical Activity among African American Women: Change and Ways of Knowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.

    2011-01-01

    Research has grown in the 21st century regarding the physical activity patterns of racial and ethnic minorities. Although more is now known about some groups, disparities in health have not diminished. The purpose of this paper is to further explore the research about physical activity for African American women and suggest ways that future…

  15. Physical Activity and Fitness Knowledge Learning in Physical Education: Seeking a Common Ground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Senlin; Chen, Ang; Sun, Haichun; Zhu, Xihe

    2013-01-01

    Motivation to learn is a disposition developed through exposure to learning opportunities. Guided by the expectancy-value theory of Eccles and Wigfield (1995), this study examined the extent to which expectancy belief and task value influenced elementary school students' physical activity and knowledge learning in physical education (PE).…

  16. Planets and stellar activity: hide and seek in the CoRoT-7 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haywood, R. D.; Collier Cameron, A.; Queloz, D.; Barros, S. C. C.; Deleuil, M.; Fares, R.; Gillon, M.; Lanza, A. F.; Lovis, C.; Moutou, C.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Santerne, A.; Ségransan, D.; Unruh, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Since the discovery of the transiting super-Earth CoRoT-7b, several investigations have yielded different results for the number and masses of planets present in the system, mainly owing to the star's high level of activity. We re-observed CoRoT-7 in 2012 January with both HARPS and CoRoT, so that we now have the benefit of simultaneous radial-velocity and photometric data. This allows us to use the off-transit variations in the star's light curve to estimate the radial-velocity variations induced by the suppression of convective blueshift and the flux blocked by starspots. To account for activity-related effects in the radial velocities which do not have a photometric signature, we also include an additional activity term in the radial-velocity model, which we treat as a Gaussian process with the same covariance properties (and hence the same frequency structure) as the light curve. Our model was incorporated into a Monte Carlo Markov Chain in order to make a precise determination of the orbits of CoRoT-7b and CoRoT-7c. We measure the masses of planets b and c to be 4.73 ± 0.95 and 13.56 ± 1.08 M⊕, respectively. The density of CoRoT-7b is (6.61 ± 1.72)(Rp/1.58 R⊕)-3 g cm-3, which is compatible with a rocky composition. We search for evidence of an additional planet d, identified by previous authors with a period close to 9 d. We are not able to confirm the existence of a planet with this orbital period, which is close to the second harmonic of the stellar rotation at ˜7.9 d. Using Bayesian model selection, we find that a model with two planets plus activity-induced variations is most favoured.

  17. Government Seeking Ways to Encourage Aquaculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Constance

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. imports more than half its fish foods per year. As a result, the federal government is now showing an interest in aquaculture and has designated the Department of Agriculture as the lead agency for research, extension, and education. Catfish, salmon, and oyster farming are given as examples. (MA)

  18. Hide and Seek: Radial-Velocity Searches for Planets around Active Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haywood, Raphaëlle Dawn

    2015-11-01

    The detection of low-mass extra-solar planets through radial-velocity searches is currently limited by the intrinsic magnetic activity of the host stars. The correlated noise that arises from their natural radial-velocity variability can easily mimic or conceal the orbital signals of super-Earth and Earth-mass extra-solar planets. I developed an intuitive and robust data analysis framework in which the activity-induced variations are modelled with a Gaussian process that has the frequency structure of the photometric variations of the star, thus allowing me to determine precise and reliable planetary masses. I applied this technique to three recently discovered planetary systems: CoRoT-7, Kepler-78 and Kepler-10. I determined the masses of the transiting super-Earth CoRoT-7b and the small Neptune CoRoT-7c to be 4.73 ± 0.95 M⊕ and 13.56 ± 1.08 M⊕, respectively. The density of CoRoT-7b is 6.61 ± 1.72 g.cm-3, which is compatible with a rocky composition. I carried out Bayesian model selection to assess the nature of a previously identified signal at 9 days, and found that it is best interpreted as stellar activity. Despite the high levels of activity of its host star, I determined the mass of the Earth-sized planet Kepler-78b to be 1.76 ± 0.18 M⊕. With a density of 6.2(+1.8:-1.4) g.cm-3, it is also a rocky planet. I found the masses of Kepler-10b and Kepler-10c to be 3.31 ± 0.32 M⊕ and 16.25 ± 3.66 M⊕, respectively. Their densities, of 6.4(+1.1:-0.7) g.cm-3 and 8.1 ± 1.8 g.cm-3, imply that they are both of rocky composition - even the 2 Earth-radius planet Kepler-10c! In parallel, I deepened our understanding of the physical origin of stellar radial-velocity variability through the study of the Sun, which is the only star whose surface can be imaged at high resolution. I found that the full-disc magnetic flux is an excellent proxy for activity-induced radial-velocity variations; this result may become key to breaking the activity barrier in coming

  19. Time in Bed is Associated with Decreased Physical Activity and Higher BMI in Women Seeking Weight Loss Treatment.

    PubMed

    Hart, Chantelle N; Fava, Joseph L; Subak, Leslee L; Stone, Katie; Vittinghoff, Eric; Demos, Kathryn; O'Brien, Erin; Cairns, Alyssa; Wing, Rena

    2012-01-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with obesity risk. Despite calls to incorporate strategies to enhance sleep within the context of behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment, little is known regarding the association between sleep and body mass index (BMI) among individuals presenting for BWL. Moreover, most research has focused on eating pathways linking sleep and BMI, and have not explored how sleep may impact engagement in physical activity. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether, in a sample of women seeking treatment for weight loss, there was an association between reported time in bed (TIB), higher BMI, lower physical activity, and less favorable dietary composition. Prior to randomization, 318 women completed measures of TIB, eating, and activity; weight and height were measured. Findings demonstrated that report of '6 hours or less' TIB/night was associated with higher BMI and lower reported physical activity compared to the referent (>7 to ≤ 8 hours/night). It was not associated with the number of reported calories consumed each day or with the percent of calories consumed from fat, carbohydrates or protein. Better understanding the role of sleep within the context of BWL treatment in women seems warranted.

  20. Planets and Stellar Activity: Hide and Seek in the CoRoT-7 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haywood, R. D.; Cameron, A. C.; Queloz, D.; Barros, S. C. C.; Deleuil, M.; Fares, R.; Gillon, M.; Hatzes, A.; Lanza, A. F.; Lovis, C.; Moutou, C.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Santerne, A.; Ségransan, D.; Unruh, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of the transiting Super-Earth CoRoT-7b, several investigations have been made of the number and precise masses of planets present in the system, but they all yield different results, owing to the star's high level of activity. Radial velocity (RV) variations induced by stellar activity therefore need to be modelled and removed to allow a reliable detection of all planets in the system. We re-observed CoRoT-7 in January 2012 with both HARPS and the CoRoT satellite, so that we now have the benefit of simultaneous RV and photometric data. We fitted the off-transit variations in the CoRoT lightcurve using a harmonic decomposition similar to that implemented in Queloz et al. (2009). This fit was then used to model the stellar RV contribution, according to the methods described by Aigrain et al. (2011). This model was incorporated into a Monte Carlo Markov Chain in order to make a precise determination of the orbits of CoRoT-7b and CoRoT-7c. We also assess the evidence for the presence of one or two additional planetary companions.

  1. Novelty seeking is related to individual risk preference and brain activation associated with risk prediction during decision making

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Ying; Yang, Lizhuang; Gu, Feng; Li, Xiaoming; Zha, Rujing; Wei, Zhengde; Pei, Yakun; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Yifeng; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2015-01-01

    Novelty seeking (NS) is a personality trait reflecting excitement in response to novel stimuli. High NS is usually a predictor of risky behaviour such as drug abuse. However, the relationships between NS and risk-related cognitive processes, including individual risk preference and the brain activation associated with risk prediction, remain elusive. In this fMRI study, participants completed the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire to measure NS and performed a probabilistic decision making task. Using a mathematical model, we estimated individual risk preference. Brain regions associated with risk prediction were determined via fMRI. The NS score showed a positive correlation with risk preference and a negative correlation with the activation elicited by risk prediction in the right posterior insula (r-PI), left anterior insula (l-AI), right striatum (r-striatum) and supplementary motor area (SMA). Within these brain regions, only the activation associated with risk prediction in the r-PI showed a correlation with NS after controlling for the effect of risk preference. Resting-state functional connectivity between the r-PI and r-striatum/l-AI was negatively correlated with NS. Our results suggest that high NS may be associated with less aversion to risk and that the r-PI plays an important role in relating risk prediction to NS. PMID:26065910

  2. Friends, Porn, and Punk: Sensation Seeking in Personal Relationships, Internet Activities, and Music Preference among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.

    2004-01-01

    One hundred thirty-eight college students completed a questionnaire assessing level of sensation seeking, number of close and casual friends, Internet usage, liking certain styles of music, and genre of music listened to most often. It was found that the number of casual and close friends was positively associated with sensation seeking.…

  3. Friends, porn, and punk: sensation seeking in personal relationships, internet activities, and music preference among college students.

    PubMed

    Weisskirch, Robert S; Murphy, Laurel C

    2004-01-01

    One hundred thirty-eight college students completed a questionnaire assessing level of sensation seeking, number of close and casual friends, Internet usage, liking certain styles of music, and genre of music listened to most often. It was found that the number of casual and close friends was positively associated with sensation seeking. Individuals who reported using the Internet to get sex-oriented material, download or play music, play games, and chat/instant message with friends in the previous 24 hours had higher levels of sensation seeking. Liking punk, heavy metal, and reggae music were related to higher levels of sensation seeking. Higher sensation seeking was also associated with spending more time listening to punk music. PMID:15563033

  4. Friends, porn, and punk: sensation seeking in personal relationships, internet activities, and music preference among college students.

    PubMed

    Weisskirch, Robert S; Murphy, Laurel C

    2004-01-01

    One hundred thirty-eight college students completed a questionnaire assessing level of sensation seeking, number of close and casual friends, Internet usage, liking certain styles of music, and genre of music listened to most often. It was found that the number of casual and close friends was positively associated with sensation seeking. Individuals who reported using the Internet to get sex-oriented material, download or play music, play games, and chat/instant message with friends in the previous 24 hours had higher levels of sensation seeking. Liking punk, heavy metal, and reggae music were related to higher levels of sensation seeking. Higher sensation seeking was also associated with spending more time listening to punk music.

  5. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  6. Association of Online Health Information–Seeking Behavior and Self-Care Activities Among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    AlHumud, Ahmed; Al-Duhyyim, Abdulaziz; Alrashed, Mohammed; Bin Shabr, Faisal; Alteraif, Alwalid; Almuziri, Abdullah; Househ, Mowafa; Qureshi, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Background Health information obtained from the Internet has an impact on patient health care outcomes. There is a growing concern over the quality of online health information sources used by diabetic patients because little is known about their health information–seeking behavior and the impact this behavior has on their diabetes-related self-care, in particular in the Middle East setting. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the online health-related information–seeking behavior among adult type 2 diabetic patients in the Middle East and the impact of their online health-related information–seeking behavior on their self-care activities. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 344 patients with type 2 diabetes attending inpatient and outpatient primary health care clinics at 2 teaching hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The main outcome measures included the ability of patients to access the Internet, their ability to use the Internet to search for health-related information, and their responses to Internet searches in relation to their self-care activities. Further analysis of differences based on age, gender, sociodemographic, and diabetes-related self-care activities among online health-related information seekers and nononline health-related information seekers was conducted. Results Among the 344 patients, 74.1% (255/344) were male with a mean age of 53.5 (SD 13.8) years. Only 39.0% (134/344) were Internet users; 71.6% (96/134) of them used the Internet for seeking health-related information. Most participants reported that their primary source of health-related information was their physician (216/344, 62.8%) followed by television (155/344, 45.1%), family (113/344, 32.8%), newspapers (100/344, 29.1%), and the Internet (96/344, 27.9%). Primary topics participants searched for were therapeutic diet for diabetes (55/96, 57%) and symptoms of diabetes (52/96, 54%) followed by diabetes treatment (50/96, 52%). Long history of diabetes

  7. A function-based screen for seeking RubisCO active clones from metagenomes: novel enzymes influencing RubisCO activity.

    PubMed

    Böhnke, Stefanie; Perner, Mirjam

    2015-03-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is a key enzyme of the Calvin cycle, which is responsible for most of Earth's primary production. Although research on RubisCO genes and enzymes in plants, cyanobacteria and bacteria has been ongoing for years, still little is understood about its regulation and activation in bacteria. Even more so, hardly any information exists about the function of metagenomic RubisCOs and the role of the enzymes encoded on the flanking DNA owing to the lack of available function-based screens for seeking active RubisCOs from the environment. Here we present the first solely activity-based approach for identifying RubisCO active fosmid clones from a metagenomic library. We constructed a metagenomic library from hydrothermal vent fluids and screened 1056 fosmid clones. Twelve clones exhibited RubisCO activity and the metagenomic fragments resembled genes from Thiomicrospira crunogena. One of these clones was further analyzed. It contained a 35.2 kb metagenomic insert carrying the RubisCO gene cluster and flanking DNA regions. Knockouts of twelve genes and two intergenic regions on this metagenomic fragment demonstrated that the RubisCO activity was significantly impaired and was attributed to deletions in genes encoding putative transcriptional regulators and those believed to be vital for RubisCO activation. Our new technique revealed a novel link between a poorly characterized gene and RubisCO activity. This screen opens the door to directly investigating RubisCO genes and respective enzymes from environmental samples.

  8. What Contributes to the Activeness of Ethnic Minority Patients with Chronic Illnesses Seeking Allied Health Services? A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Western China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shangfeng; Dong, Dong; Ji, Lu; Fu, Hang; Feng, Zhanchun; Bishwajit, Ghose; He, Zhifei; Ming, Hui; Fu, Qian; Xian, Yue

    2015-09-15

    Actively seeking health services lies at the core of effective models of chronic disease self-management and contributes to promoting the utilization of allied health services (AHS). However, the use of AHS by ethnic minority Chinese, especially the elderly living in rural areas, has not received much attention. This study, therefore, aims to explore the association between personal characteristics and the activeness of ethnic minority patients with chronic diseases in rural areas of western China seeking AHS. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data on the socio-demographic and economic characteristics, health knowledge level and health communication channels of the sampled patients. A logistic regression model was used to examine the association of these predictors with the activeness of the surveyed patients in seeking AHS. A total of 1078 ethnic minorities over 45 years old who had chronic conditions were randomly selected from three western provinces in China and were interviewed in 2014. It is found that the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) is the most salient predictor affecting the activeness of Chinese ethnic minorities in seeking AHS. The probability is 8.51 times greater for those insured with NCMS to actively seek AHS than those without (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 4.76-15.21; p < 0.001). Moreover, participants between 60 and 70 years old and those who have five to six household members are more likely to seek AHS compared with other social groups (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.64, 95% CI 1.28-2.97, p = 0.007; OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.15-2.36, p = 0.002). However, the activeness of patients seeking AHS is lower for those who have better household economic conditions. Besides socio-demographic predictors, the Chinese ethnic minorities' activeness in seeking AHS is clearly associated with the communication channels used for receiving health information, which include direct communication with doctors (OR = 5.18, 95% CI 3.58-7.50, p < 0.001) and

  9. The Austrian radon activities on the way to the national radon action plan.

    PubMed

    Gruber, V; Ringer, W; Wurm, G; Haider, W

    2014-07-01

    Based on the new Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS), all EU member states will be obliged to design a strategy to address long-term risks from radon exposure, which is laid down in the 'national radon action plan'. In Austria, the National Radon Centre is responsible for the development of the action plan. This paper presents the current and planned radon protection activities on the way to establish the radon action plan--like the national radon database, the definition of radon risk areas by improving the existing radon map, as well as strategies and activities to increase the radon awareness of the public and decision-makers and to involve the building sector. The impact of and the need for actions caused by the BSS requirements on the Austrian radon legislation, strategy and programme are discussed.

  10. Lightweight Privacy-Preserving Authentication Protocols Secure against Active Attack in an Asymmetric Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yank; Kobara, Kazukuni; Matsuura, Kanta; Imai, Hideki

    As pervasive computing technologies develop fast, the privacy protection becomes a crucial issue and needs to be coped with very carefully. Typically, it is difficult to efficiently identify and manage plenty of the low-cost pervasive devices like Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFID), without leaking any privacy information. In particular, the attacker may not only eavesdrop the communication in a passive way, but also mount an active attack to ask queries adaptively, which is obviously more dangerous. Towards settling this problem, in this paper, we propose two lightweight authentication protocols which are privacy-preserving against active attack, in an asymmetric way. That asymmetric style with privacy-oriented simplification succeeds to reduce the load of low-cost devices and drastically decrease the computation cost for the management of server. This is because that, unlike the usual management of the identities, our approach does not require any synchronization nor exhaustive search in the database, which enjoys great convenience in case of a large-scale system. The protocols are based on a fast asymmetric encryption with specialized simplification and only one cryptographic hash function, which consequently assigns an easy work to pervasive devices. Besides, our results do not require the strong assumption of the random oracle.

  11. Do time perspective and sensation-seeking predict quitting activity among smokers? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Hall, Peter A; Fong, Geoffrey T; Yong, Hua-Hie; Sansone, Genevieve; Borland, Ron; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    Personality factors such as time perspective and sensation-seeking have been shown to predict smoking uptake. However, little is known about the influences of these variables on quitting behavior, and no prior studies have examined the association cross-nationally in a large probability sample. In the current study it was hypothesized that future time perspective would enhance - while sensation-seeking would inhibit - quitting activity among smokers. It was anticipated that the effects would be similar across English speaking countries. Using a prospective cohort design, this cross-national study of adult smokers (N=8845) examined the associations among time perspective, sensation-seeking and quitting activity using the first three waves of data gathered from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), a random digit dialed telephone survey of adult smokers from the United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia. Findings revealed that future time perspective (but not sensation-seeking) was a significant predictor of quitting attempts over the 8-month follow-up after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, factors known to inhibit quitting (e.g., perceived addiction, enjoyment of smoking, and perceived value of smoking), and factors known to enhance quitting (e.g., quit intention strength, perceived benefit of quitting, concerns about health effects of smoking). The latter, particularly intention, were significant mediators of the effect of time perspective on quitting activity. The effects of time perspective on quitting activity were similar across all four English speaking countries sampled. If these associations are causal in nature, it may be the case that interventions and health communications that enhance future-orientation may foster more quit attempts among current smokers.

  12. One-way membrane trafficking of SOS in receptor-triggered Ras activation.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Sune M; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Jun, Jesse E; Alvarez, Steven; Triplet, Meredith G; Iwig, Jeffrey S; Yadav, Kamlesh K; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Roose, Jeroen P; Groves, Jay T

    2016-09-01

    SOS is a key activator of the small GTPase Ras. In cells, SOS-Ras signaling is thought to be initiated predominantly by membrane recruitment of SOS via the adaptor Grb2 and balanced by rapidly reversible Grb2-SOS binding kinetics. However, SOS has multiple protein and lipid interactions that provide linkage to the membrane. In reconstituted-membrane experiments, these Grb2-independent interactions were sufficient to retain human SOS on the membrane for many minutes, during which a single SOS molecule could processively activate thousands of Ras molecules. These observations raised questions concerning how receptors maintain control of SOS in cells and how membrane-recruited SOS is ultimately released. We addressed these questions in quantitative assays of reconstituted SOS-deficient chicken B-cell signaling systems combined with single-molecule measurements in supported membranes. These studies revealed an essentially one-way trafficking process in which membrane-recruited SOS remains trapped on the membrane and continuously activates Ras until being actively removed via endocytosis. PMID:27501536

  13. One-way membrane trafficking of SOS in receptor-triggered Ras activation.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Sune M; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Jun, Jesse E; Alvarez, Steven; Triplet, Meredith G; Iwig, Jeffrey S; Yadav, Kamlesh K; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Roose, Jeroen P; Groves, Jay T

    2016-09-01

    SOS is a key activator of the small GTPase Ras. In cells, SOS-Ras signaling is thought to be initiated predominantly by membrane recruitment of SOS via the adaptor Grb2 and balanced by rapidly reversible Grb2-SOS binding kinetics. However, SOS has multiple protein and lipid interactions that provide linkage to the membrane. In reconstituted-membrane experiments, these Grb2-independent interactions were sufficient to retain human SOS on the membrane for many minutes, during which a single SOS molecule could processively activate thousands of Ras molecules. These observations raised questions concerning how receptors maintain control of SOS in cells and how membrane-recruited SOS is ultimately released. We addressed these questions in quantitative assays of reconstituted SOS-deficient chicken B-cell signaling systems combined with single-molecule measurements in supported membranes. These studies revealed an essentially one-way trafficking process in which membrane-recruited SOS remains trapped on the membrane and continuously activates Ras until being actively removed via endocytosis.

  14. In What Ways Are Adolescents Who Engage in Self-Harm or Experience Thoughts of Self-Harm Different in Terms of Help-Seeking, Communication and Coping Strategies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, E.; Hawton, K.; Rodham, K.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether adolescents who deliberately harmed themselves or had thoughts of self-harm differed from other adolescents in terms of help-seeking, communication and coping strategies. The participants were 6020 15-16 year-old school pupils who were surveyed using an anonymous self-report questionnaire.…

  15. A Distant Echo of Milky Way Central Activity Closes the Galaxy’s Baryon Census

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicastro, F.; Senatore, F.; Krongold, Y.; Mathur, S.; Elvis, M.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the presence of large amounts of million-degree gas in the Milky Way’s interstellar and circum-galactic medium. This gas (1) permeates both the Galactic plane and the halo, (2) extends to distances larger than 60–200 kpc from the center, and (3) its mass is sufficient to close the Galaxy’s baryon census. Moreover, we show that a vast, ∼6 kpc radius, spherically symmetric central region of the Milky Way above and below the 0.16 kpc thick plane has either been emptied of hot gas or the density of this gas within the cavity has a peculiar profile, increasing from the center up to a radius of ∼6 kpc, and then decreasing with a typical halo density profile. This, and several other converging pieces of evidence, suggest that the current surface of the cavity, at 6 kpc from the Galaxy’s center, traces the distant echo of a period of strong nuclear activity of our supermassive black hole, occurring about 6 Myr ago.

  16. A Distant Echo of Milky Way Central Activity Closes the Galaxy’s Baryon Census

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicastro, F.; Senatore, F.; Krongold, Y.; Mathur, S.; Elvis, M.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the presence of large amounts of million-degree gas in the Milky Way’s interstellar and circum-galactic medium. This gas (1) permeates both the Galactic plane and the halo, (2) extends to distances larger than 60-200 kpc from the center, and (3) its mass is sufficient to close the Galaxy’s baryon census. Moreover, we show that a vast, ˜6 kpc radius, spherically symmetric central region of the Milky Way above and below the 0.16 kpc thick plane has either been emptied of hot gas or the density of this gas within the cavity has a peculiar profile, increasing from the center up to a radius of ˜6 kpc, and then decreasing with a typical halo density profile. This, and several other converging pieces of evidence, suggest that the current surface of the cavity, at 6 kpc from the Galaxy’s center, traces the distant echo of a period of strong nuclear activity of our supermassive black hole, occurring about 6 Myr ago.

  17. Physical activity and the perceived neighbourhood environment - looking at the association the other way around.

    PubMed

    Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit; Froboese, Ingo; Schantz, Peter

    2014-08-08

    The association between physical activity (PA) and variables of the perceived environment mainly originate from cross-sectional studies that introduced the idea that the environment influences the PA level of residents. However, the direction of cause and effect has not been solved with finality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether residents' perception of their proximate environment differs depending on their level of PA in transport and recreation. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with residents of six different parts of the city of Cologne, Germany. The sample of 470 adults (52.8% females; mean age = 35.5 ± 13.8 years) filled in the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ), as well as the European Environmental Questionnaire ALPHA. To distinguish between residents with "low" and "high" PA, we split the samples into two on the basis of the specific median in transport- and recreation-related PA. In the "high" vs. "low" PA group of the overall sample, we noted 4%-16% more "PA favourable" environmental perceptions in seven of the 15 environmental variables. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to investigate associations of socio-demographic correlates and transport- and recreation-related PA on the dependent variables of the environmental perception. In this case, levels of PA were significant predictors for eight of the 15 items concerning environmental perceptions. Thus, the present study introduces the idea that residents with higher levels of transport and recreational PA may perceive their environment in a more "PA-favourable" way than residents with lower levels.

  18. Hippocampus and two-way active avoidance conditioning: Contrasting effects of cytotoxic lesion and temporary inactivation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Bast, Tobias; Wang, Yu-Cong; Zhang, Wei-Ning

    2015-12-01

    Hippocampal lesions tend to facilitate two-way active avoidance (2WAA) conditioning, where rats learn to cross to the opposite side of a conditioning chamber to avoid a tone-signaled footshock. This classical finding has been suggested to reflect that hippocampus-dependent place/context memory inhibits 2WAA (a crossing response to the opposite side is inhibited by the memory that this is the place where a shock was received on the previous trial). However, more recent research suggests other aspects of hippocampal function that may support 2WAA learning. More specifically, the ventral hippocampus has been shown to contribute to behavioral responses to aversive stimuli and to positively modulate the meso-accumbens dopamine system, whose activation has been implicated in 2WAA learning. Permanent hippocampal lesions may not reveal these contributions because, following complete and permanent loss of hippocampal output, other brain regions may mediate these processes or because deficits could be masked by lesion-induced extra-hippocampal changes, including an upregulation of accumbal dopamine transmission. Here, we re-examined the hippocampal role in 2WAA learning in Wistar rats, using permanent NMDA-induced neurotoxic lesions and temporary functional inhibition by muscimol or tetrodotoxin (TTX) infusion. Complete hippocampal lesions tended to facilitate 2WAA learning, whereas ventral (VH) or dorsal hippocampal (DH) lesions had no effect. In contrast, VH or DH muscimol or TTX infusions impaired 2WAA learning. Ventral infusions caused an immediate impairment, whereas after dorsal infusions rats showed intact 2WAA learning for 40-50 min, before a marked deficit emerged. These data show that functional inhibition of ventral hippocampus disrupts 2WAA learning, while the delayed impairment following dorsal infusions may reflect the time required for drug diffusion to ventral hippocampus. Overall, using temporary functional inhibition, our study shows that the ventral

  19. The Role of Amygdala Nuclei in the Expression of Auditory Signaled Two-Way Active Avoidance in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, June-Seek; Cain, Christopher K.; LeDoux, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    Using a two-way signaled active avoidance (2-AA) learning procedure, where rats were trained in a shuttle box to avoid a footshock signaled by an auditory stimulus, we tested the contributions of the lateral (LA), basal (B), and central (CE) nuclei of the amygdala to the expression of instrumental active avoidance conditioned responses (CRs).…

  20. Methyl Supplementation Attenuates Cocaine-Seeking Behaviors and Cocaine-Induced c-Fos Activation in a DNA Methylation-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Katherine N.; Hollis, Fiona; Duclot, Florian; Dossat, Amanda M.; Strong, Caroline E.; Francis, T. Chase; Mercer, Roger; Feng, Jian; Dietz, David M.; Lobo, Mary Kay; Nestler, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone modifications, regulate responsiveness to drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, but relatively little is known about the regulation of addictive-like behaviors by DNA methylation. To investigate the influence of DNA methylation on the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine and on drug-seeking behavior, rats receiving methyl supplementation via chronic l-methionine (MET) underwent either a sensitization regimen of intermittent cocaine injections or intravenous self-administration of cocaine, followed by cue-induced and drug-primed reinstatement. MET blocked sensitization to the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine and attenuated drug-primed reinstatement, with no effect on cue-induced reinstatement or sucrose self-administration and reinstatement. Furthermore, upregulation of DNA methyltransferase 3a and 3b and global DNA hypomethylation were observed in the nucleus accumbens core (NAc), but not in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), of cocaine-pretreated rats. Glutamatergic projections from the mPFC to the NAc are critically involved in the regulation of cocaine-primed reinstatement, and activation of both brain regions is seen in human addicts when reexposed to the drug. When compared with vehicle-pretreated rats, the immediate early gene c-Fos (a marker of neuronal activation) was upregulated in the NAc and mPFC of cocaine-pretreated rats after cocaine-primed reinstatement, and chronic MET treatment blocked its induction in both regions. Cocaine-induced c-Fos expression in the NAc was associated with reduced methylation at CpG dinucleotides in the c-Fos gene promoter, effects reversed by MET treatment. Overall, these data suggest that drug-seeking behaviors are, in part, attributable to a DNA methylation-dependent process, likely occurring at specific gene loci (e.g., c-Fos) in the reward pathway. PMID:26063926

  1. Methyl supplementation attenuates cocaine-seeking behaviors and cocaine-induced c-Fos activation in a DNA methylation-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Wright, Katherine N; Hollis, Fiona; Duclot, Florian; Dossat, Amanda M; Strong, Caroline E; Francis, T Chase; Mercer, Roger; Feng, Jian; Dietz, David M; Lobo, Mary Kay; Nestler, Eric J; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2015-06-10

    Epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone modifications, regulate responsiveness to drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, but relatively little is known about the regulation of addictive-like behaviors by DNA methylation. To investigate the influence of DNA methylation on the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine and on drug-seeking behavior, rats receiving methyl supplementation via chronic l-methionine (MET) underwent either a sensitization regimen of intermittent cocaine injections or intravenous self-administration of cocaine, followed by cue-induced and drug-primed reinstatement. MET blocked sensitization to the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine and attenuated drug-primed reinstatement, with no effect on cue-induced reinstatement or sucrose self-administration and reinstatement. Furthermore, upregulation of DNA methyltransferase 3a and 3b and global DNA hypomethylation were observed in the nucleus accumbens core (NAc), but not in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), of cocaine-pretreated rats. Glutamatergic projections from the mPFC to the NAc are critically involved in the regulation of cocaine-primed reinstatement, and activation of both brain regions is seen in human addicts when reexposed to the drug. When compared with vehicle-pretreated rats, the immediate early gene c-Fos (a marker of neuronal activation) was upregulated in the NAc and mPFC of cocaine-pretreated rats after cocaine-primed reinstatement, and chronic MET treatment blocked its induction in both regions. Cocaine-induced c-Fos expression in the NAc was associated with reduced methylation at CpG dinucleotides in the c-Fos gene promoter, effects reversed by MET treatment. Overall, these data suggest that drug-seeking behaviors are, in part, attributable to a DNA methylation-dependent process, likely occurring at specific gene loci (e.g., c-Fos) in the reward pathway.

  2. Host-seeking activity and avian host preferences of mosquitoes associated with West Nile virus transmission in the northeastern U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suom, Channsotha; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Bernick, Andrew; Klein, Coby; Buckley, P.A.; Salvatore, Christa; LeBrun, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito host-seeking activity was studied using a custom-designed trap to explore: (1) at which time interval of the night adult mosquito abatement would be most effective, and (2) if there exists an avian-specific host-seeking preference. Overnight trials using traps baited with dry ice showed that Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) was most active at dusk and was then captured throughout the night. In contrast, Culex spp. (Cx. pipiens (Linnaeus) and Cx. restuans (Theobald) delayed most activity until about two h after dusk and were then captured through the night. This pattern suggests that management activities directed at adult Culex spp. would be most effective if initiated well after sunset. Mosquito capture rates in traps baited with birds in net bags were significantly greater than those with empty net bags, indicating that mosquitoes were attracted to the birds and not incidentally being sucked in by the custom trap's strong fan motor (Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test, n = 24, t = 30, p 2 = 0.21, p = 0.02). Trials with paired traps that contained different native bird species showed that Gray Catbirds, Dumatella carolinensis, attracted more mosquitoes than the heavier Northern Cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis (paired samples t-test, t = 2.58, df = 7, p = 0.04). However, attractiveness did not differ substantially among bird species, and Gray Catbirds did not attract more mosquitoes than all other birds combined as a group. American Robins, Turdus migratorius (n = 4) were comparable in attractiveness to other bird species, but not enough American Robins were captured for a comprehensive study of mosquito avian preference.

  3. Activation of Pyramidal Neurons in Mouse Medial Prefrontal Cortex Enhances Food-Seeking Behavior While Reducing Impulsivity in the Absence of an Effect on Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Warthen, Daniel M.; Lambeth, Philip S.; Ottolini, Matteo; Shi, Yingtang; Barker, Bryan Scot; Gaykema, Ronald P.; Newmyer, Brandon A.; Joy-Gaba, Jonathan; Ohmura, Yu; Perez-Reyes, Edward; Güler, Ali D.; Patel, Manoj K.; Scott, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in a wide range of executive cognitive functions, including reward evaluation, decision-making, memory extinction, mood, and task switching. Manipulation of the mPFC has been shown to alter food intake and food reward valuation, but whether exclusive stimulation of mPFC pyramidal neurons (PN), which form the principle output of the mPFC, is sufficient to mediate food rewarded instrumental behavior is unknown. We sought to determine the behavioral consequences of manipulating mPFC output by exciting PN in mouse mPFC during performance of a panel of behavioral assays, focusing on food reward. We found that increasing mPFC pyramidal cell output using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) enhanced performance in instrumental food reward assays that assess food seeking behavior, while sparing effects on affect and food intake. Specifically, activation of mPFC PN enhanced operant responding for food reward, reinstatement of palatable food seeking, and suppression of impulsive responding for food reward. Conversely, activation of mPFC PN had no effect on unconditioned food intake, social interaction, or behavior in an open field. Furthermore, we found that behavioral outcome is influenced by the degree of mPFC activation, with a low drive sufficient to enhance operant responding and a higher drive required to alter impulsivity. Additionally, we provide data demonstrating that DREADD stimulation involves a nitric oxide (NO) synthase dependent pathway, similar to endogenous muscarinic M3 receptor stimulation, a finding that provides novel mechanistic insight into an increasingly widespread method of remote neuronal control. PMID:27065827

  4. "I am proud of myself, just the way I am" (Mwen fyé de tét mwen, jan mwen ye ya): a qualitative study among young Haitian women seeking care for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Severe, Linda; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Deschamps, Marie M; Reif, Lindsey; Post, Kendall; Johnson, Warren D; Pape, Jean W; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2014-04-01

    Haitian women are twice as likely as men to have HIV/AIDs. Factors underlying the feminization of HIV are complex. Self-esteem is an important correlate of sexual behavior. However, its meaning and impact on health behaviors may be influenced by cultural factors. This qualitative study took place in Haiti 4 months after the 2010 earthquake and examines the meaning of self-esteem among young Haitian women seeking treatment for a recurrent sexually transmitted infection (STI). The meaning of self-esteem was derived from a sense of gratitude and was rooted in their ability to provide for family. This may have led to behaviors such as not using condoms or having sex with partners in concurrent relationships. This article highlights the resilience and resourcefulness of Haitian women, provides insight into how women with apparent positive self-images were led to make choices that placed them at high risk for contracting HIV, and concludes with recommendations for future interventions.

  5. The Navajo Way of Life: A Resource Unit with Activities for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordova, Dahlia

    A resource unit on the Navajo way of life, for grades 4-6, contains sections on Navajo history, art, and crafts, homes, music, poetry and games; Navajo and Pueblo cookery (including recipes); traditional Navajo dress, ceremony and legends; and successful Navajos, past and present. Sections include text, vocabulary words, drawings, maps, and…

  6. Managing Activity in Patients Who Have Diabetes. Practical Ways to Incorporate Exercise into Lifestyle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taunton, Jack E.; McCargar, Linda

    1995-01-01

    Diabetes control involves the appropriate balance of exercise, diet, and medication. Regular exercise has many benefits for people with diabetes. Physicians can educate patients about ways to regulate and monitor blood glucose before, during, and after workouts. Patients need to understand the effects of exercise and diet on insulin requirements.…

  7. 8 CFR 214.6 - Citizens of Canada or Mexico seeking temporary entry under NAFTA to engage in business activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... “multiple entry.” The fee prescribed under 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1) shall be remitted by Canadian Citizens upon... prescribed fee set forth in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1), provided that the original intended professional activities... appropriate form with the fee provided at 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1), in accordance with the form instructions...

  8. 8 CFR 214.6 - Citizens of Canada or Mexico seeking temporary entry under NAFTA to engage in business activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... “multiple entry.” The fee prescribed under 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1) shall be remitted by Canadian Citizens upon... prescribed fee set forth in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1), provided that the original intended professional activities... appropriate form with the fee provided at 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1), in accordance with the form instructions...

  9. 8 CFR 214.6 - Citizens of Canada or Mexico seeking temporary entry under NAFTA to engage in business activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... “multiple entry.” The fee prescribed under 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1) shall be remitted by Canadian Citizens upon... prescribed fee set forth in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1), provided that the original intended professional activities... appropriate form with the fee provided at 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1), in accordance with the form instructions...

  10. 8 CFR 214.6 - Citizens of Canada or Mexico seeking temporary entry under NAFTA to engage in business activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... “multiple entry.” The fee prescribed under 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1) shall be remitted by Canadian Citizens upon... prescribed fee set forth in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1), provided that the original intended professional activities... appropriate form with the fee provided at 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1), in accordance with the form instructions...

  11. Suicide Survivors Seeking Mental Health Services: A Preliminary Examination of the Role of an Active Postvention Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerel, Julie; Campbell, Frank R.

    2008-01-01

    Archival data from suicide survivors presenting for treatment from 1999-2005 at the Baton Rouge Crisis Intervention Center (BRCIC) were used to examine differences in those who received an active model of postvention (APM; n = 150) compared to those who received a traditional passive postvention (PP, n = 206). APM presented sooner for treatment…

  12. "I am proud of myself, just the way I am" (Mwen fyé de tét mwen, jan mwen ye ya): a qualitative study among young Haitian women seeking care for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Severe, Linda; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Deschamps, Marie M; Reif, Lindsey; Post, Kendall; Johnson, Warren D; Pape, Jean W; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2014-04-01

    Haitian women are twice as likely as men to have HIV/AIDs. Factors underlying the feminization of HIV are complex. Self-esteem is an important correlate of sexual behavior. However, its meaning and impact on health behaviors may be influenced by cultural factors. This qualitative study took place in Haiti 4 months after the 2010 earthquake and examines the meaning of self-esteem among young Haitian women seeking treatment for a recurrent sexually transmitted infection (STI). The meaning of self-esteem was derived from a sense of gratitude and was rooted in their ability to provide for family. This may have led to behaviors such as not using condoms or having sex with partners in concurrent relationships. This article highlights the resilience and resourcefulness of Haitian women, provides insight into how women with apparent positive self-images were led to make choices that placed them at high risk for contracting HIV, and concludes with recommendations for future interventions. PMID:24694329

  13. Innovative Ways to Use Modern Technology to Enhance, Rather than Hinder, Physical Activity among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nicole J.; Ameluxen-Coleman, Evan J.; Heinrichs, Derikk M.

    2015-01-01

    It is recommended that each day youth get 60 minutes or more of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity that includes aerobic, muscle, and bone strengthening activities. The majority of youth, however, do not meet these physical activity guidelines. Children and adolescents spend on average seven hours engaging in sedentary "screen-based"…

  14. Defining as a Mathematical Activity: A Framework for Characterizing Progress from Informal to More Formal Ways of Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandieh, Michelle; Rasmussen, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to further the notion of defining as a mathematical activity by elaborating a framework that structures the role of defining in student progress from informal to more formal ways of reasoning. The framework is the result of a retrospective account of a significant learning experience that occurred in an undergraduate…

  15. The social mentality theory of self-compassion and self-reassurance: The interactive effect of care-seeking and caregiving.

    PubMed

    Hermanto, Nicola; Zuroff, David Charles

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test social mentality theory, which views self-compassion/reassurance as a form of intrapersonal relating in which the interpersonal mentalities of care-seeking and caregiving are activated. Self-report measures of motivations, cognitions, and behaviors related to seeking and receiving care from others were administered to 195 students. Self-compassion/reassurance was predicted by the interaction of care-seeking and caregiving, with the positive effect of care-seeking intensified at high caregiving. As hypothesized, the combination of high care-seeking and high caregiving predicted the highest level of self-compassion/reassurance. The lowest level of self-compassion/reassurance was predicted by the combination of low care-seeking and high caregiving consistent with the concept of compulsive caregiving. Findings suggest that fostering a kinder way of relating to oneself may be achieved through more effective care-seeking and caregiving with others. PMID:26736073

  16. The social mentality theory of self-compassion and self-reassurance: The interactive effect of care-seeking and caregiving.

    PubMed

    Hermanto, Nicola; Zuroff, David Charles

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test social mentality theory, which views self-compassion/reassurance as a form of intrapersonal relating in which the interpersonal mentalities of care-seeking and caregiving are activated. Self-report measures of motivations, cognitions, and behaviors related to seeking and receiving care from others were administered to 195 students. Self-compassion/reassurance was predicted by the interaction of care-seeking and caregiving, with the positive effect of care-seeking intensified at high caregiving. As hypothesized, the combination of high care-seeking and high caregiving predicted the highest level of self-compassion/reassurance. The lowest level of self-compassion/reassurance was predicted by the combination of low care-seeking and high caregiving consistent with the concept of compulsive caregiving. Findings suggest that fostering a kinder way of relating to oneself may be achieved through more effective care-seeking and caregiving with others.

  17. Seeking Shared Practice: A Juxtaposition of the Attributes and Activities of Organized Fossil Groups with Those of Professional Paleontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippen, Kent J.; Ellis, Shari; Dunckel, Betty A.; Hendy, Austin J. W.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to define the attributes and practices of organized fossil groups (e.g., clubs, paleontological societies) as amateur paleontologists, as well as those of professional paleontologists, and explore the potential for these two groups to work collaboratively as a formalized community. Such an investigation is necessary to develop design principles for an online environment that supports this community and encourages communication and shared practice among individuals with different backgrounds in paleontology and who are geographically isolated. A national survey of fossil group representatives and professional paleontologists was used to address the research questions. The results provide a rich description of the attributes and activities of both groups and are discussed in terms of three design principles for supporting the two groups in a form of collaboration and fellowship via a coherent shared practice within an online learning community.

  18. Seeking Shared Practice: A Juxtaposition of the Attributes and Activities of Organized Fossil Groups with Those of Professional Paleontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippen, Kent J.; Ellis, Shari; Dunckel, Betty A.; Hendy, Austin J. W.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2016-05-01

    This study sought to define the attributes and practices of organized fossil groups (e.g., clubs, paleontological societies) as amateur paleontologists, as well as those of professional paleontologists, and explore the potential for these two groups to work collaboratively as a formalized community. Such an investigation is necessary to develop design principles for an online environment that supports this community and encourages communication and shared practice among individuals with different backgrounds in paleontology and who are geographically isolated. A national survey of fossil group representatives and professional paleontologists was used to address the research questions. The results provide a rich description of the attributes and activities of both groups and are discussed in terms of three design principles for supporting the two groups in a form of collaboration and fellowship via a coherent shared practice within an online learning community.

  19. Biting indices, host-seeking activity and natural infection rates of anopheline species in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil from 1996 to 1998.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Vasconcelos, Adenildo; Kató, Márcio Yukió Neves; Mourão, Eliana Neves; de Souza, Raimundo Tadeu Lessa; Lacerda, Raimundo Nonato da Luz; Sibajev, Alexander; Tsouris, Pantelis; Póvoa, Marinete Marins; Momen, Hooman; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti

    2002-03-01

    The epidemiology of the transmission of malaria parasites varies ecologically. To observe some entomological aspects of the malaria transmission in an urban environment, a longitudinal survey of anopheline fauna was performed in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. A total of 7,263 anophelines was collected in human bait at 13 de Setembro and Caranã districts: Anopheles albitarsis sensu lato (82.8%), An. darlingi (10.3%), An. braziliensis (5.5%), An. peryassui (0.9%) and An. nuneztovari (0.5%). Nightly 12 h collections showed that An. albitarsis was actively biting throughout the night with peak activities at sunset and at midnight. An. darlingi bit during all night and did not demonstrate a defined biting peak. Highest biting indices, entomological inoculation rates and malaria cases were observed seasonally during the rainy season (April-November). Hourly collections showed host seek activity for all mosquitoes peaked during the first hour after sunset. An. darlingi showed the highest plasmodial malaria infection rate followed by An. albitarsis, An. braziliensis and An. nuneztovari (8.5%, 4.6%, 3% and 2.6%, respectively). An. albitarsis was the most frequently collected anopheline, presented the highest biting index and it was the second most frequently collected infected species infected with malaria parasites. An. albitarsis and An. darlingi respectively, are the primary vectors of malaria throughout Boa Vista.

  20. Interests and Stimulus Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, George B.; Donnenwerth, Gregory V.

    1969-01-01

    Examines relationships between Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) and vocational interests measured by the Kuder and Strong Vocational Interest Blank, among alcoholics and undergraduates. Results support construct validity of the SSS and provide further evidence of modes of expression of stimulus-seeking needs in personality. (Author/CJ)

  1. Understanding the Online Information-Seeking Behaviours of Young People: The Role of Networks of Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eynon, R.; Malmberg, L.-E.

    2012-01-01

    Information seeking is one of the most popular online activities for young people and can provide an additional information channel, which may enhance learning. In this study, we propose and test a model that adds to the existing literature by examining the ways in which parents, schools, and friends (what we call networks of support) effect young…

  2. Combined activation strain model and energy decomposition analysis methods: a new way to understand pericyclic reactions.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Israel

    2014-05-01

    The recently introduced activation strain model (ASM) has allowed us to gain more insight into the intimacies of different fundamental processes in chemistry. In combination with the energy decomposition analysis (EDA) method, we have nowadays a very useful tool to quantitatively understand the physical factors that govern the activation barriers of reactions within organic and organometallic chemistry. In this Perspective article, we present selected illustrative examples of the application of this method to pericyclic reactions (Diels-Alder and double group transfer reactions) to show that this methodology nicely complements other more traditional, widely used theoretical methods.

  3. Finding a Way: Learning Activities in Geography for Grades 7-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Geographic Education.

    This set of curriculum modules contains geography learning activities that emphasize strategies to encourage young women in geography and social studies classes. Compiled in an effort to improve the motivation and achievement levels of students in geography classrooms, grades 7-11, the modules aim to boost academic performance and overall interest…

  4. Community Design and Transportation Policies: New Ways To Promote Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killingsworth, Richard E.; Schmid, Thomas L.

    2001-01-01

    Public health, city planning, and transportation officials can work toward reducing the public health burden of physical inactivity by promoting the integration of walking and bicycling into daily routines. The paper discusses urban design challenges, promotion of walking and bicycling, and the importance of physical activity for children.…

  5. Object relations theory and activity theory: a proposed link by way of the procedural sequence model.

    PubMed

    Ryle, A

    1991-12-01

    An account of object relations theory (ORT), represented in terms of the procedural sequence model (PSM), is compared to the ideas of Vygotsky and activity theory (AT). The two models are seen to be compatible and complementary and their combination offers a satisfactory account of human psychology, appropriate for the understanding and integration of psychotherapy. PMID:1786224

  6. Learning How To PLAI: Ways To Promote Learning through Active Interaction with Infants Who Are Deafblind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Deborah; Haney, Michele; Klein, M. Diane; Alsop, Linda

    This paper describes Project PLAI (Promoting Learning through Active Interaction), a 4-year research-to-practice project designed to develop and validate an early communication curriculum for infants who are deafblind and their caregivers. The curriculum provides a step-by-step approach to assist caregivers in recognizing their infants' early and…

  7. Backyards and Butterflies: Ways to Include Children with Disabilities in Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Doreen; And Others

    This sourcebook is designed for children, parents, and families, detailing ideas for outdoor play and learning activities, with emphasis on involving children with disabilities in outdoor play. A rural perspective permeates the guide, although each chapter contains ideas for making outdoor environments more accessible and safer for all children,…

  8. Running Simulations without Ruining Your Life: Simple Ways to Incorporate Active Learning into Your Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazier, Rebecca A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing availability and popularity of simulations and other active teaching techniques, many instructors may be deterred from using simulations because of the potentially high costs involved. Instructors could spend a preponderance of their time and resources developing and executing simulations, but such an approach is not necessary.…

  9. Membrane aberrancy and unfolded proteins activate the endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor Ire1 in different ways

    PubMed Central

    Promlek, Thanyarat; Ishiwata-Kimata, Yuki; Shido, Masahiro; Sakuramoto, Mitsuru; Kohno, Kenji; Kimata, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells activate the unfolded-protein response (UPR) upon endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, where the stress is assumed to be the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER. Consistent with previous in vitro studies of the ER-luminal domain of the mutant UPR initiator Ire1, our study show its association with a model unfolded protein in yeast cells. An Ire1 luminal domain mutation that compromises Ire1's unfolded-protein–associating ability weakens its ability to respond to stress stimuli, likely resulting in the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER. In contrast, this mutant was activated like wild-type Ire1 by depletion of the membrane lipid component inositol or by deletion of genes involved in lipid homeostasis. Another Ire1 mutant lacking the authentic luminal domain was up-regulated by inositol depletion as strongly as wild-type Ire1. We therefore conclude that the cytosolic (or transmembrane) domain of Ire1 senses membrane aberrancy, while, as proposed previously, unfolded proteins accumulating in the ER interact with and activate Ire1. PMID:21775630

  10. Impact of lubricant additives on the physicochemical properties and activity of three-way catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Toops, Todd J.; Lance, Michael J.; Qu, Jun; Viola, Michael B; Lewis, Samuel Arthur; Leonard, Donovan N.; Edward W. Hagaman; Xie, Chao

    2016-04-04

    As alternative lubricant anti-wear additives are sought to reduce friction and improve overall fuel economy, it is important that these additives are also compatible with current emissions control catalysts. In the present work, an oil-miscible phosphorous-containing ionic liquid (IL), trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate ([P66614][DEHP]), is evaluated for its impact on three-way catalysts (TWC) and benchmarked against the industry standard zinc-dialkyl-dithio-phosphate (ZDDP). The TWCs are aged in different scenarios: neat gasoline (no-additive, or NA), gasoline+ZDDP, and gasoline+IL. The aged samples, along with the as received TWC, are characterized through various analytical techniques including catalyst reactivity evaluation in a bench-flow reactor. The temperaturesmore » of 50% conversion (T50) for the ZDDP-aged TWCs increased by 30, 24, and 25 °C for NO, CO, and C3H6, respectively, compared to the no-additive case. Although the IL-aged TWC also increased in T50 for CO and C3H6, it was notably less than ZDDP, 7 and 9 °C, respectively. Additionally, the IL-aged samples had higher water-gas-shift reactivity and oxygen storage capacity than the ZDDP-aged TWC. Characterization of the aged samples indicated the predominant presence of CePO4 in the ZDDP-aged TWC aged by ZDDP, while its formation was retarded in the case of IL where higher levels of AlPO4 is observed. Furthermore, the results in this work indicate that the phosphonium-phosphate IL potentially has less adverse impact on TWC than ZDDP.« less

  11. Evaluating a residential asthma camp program and ways to increase physical activity.

    PubMed

    Holsey, Chanda Nicole; Cummings, Lawanda

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an educational asthma camp program emphasizing self-management skills. The camp's key program components were medical supervision, autonomy, peer support, and health education. Measurement of asthma knowledge gains and overall camp experience were reported. Children who attended the asthma camp increased the knowledge level of their condition. It has been well researched that asthma and obesity are related, and obesity is associated with a higher prevalence of asthma. Thus, this camp program is in an ideal position to incorporate an effective physical activity module while continuing to provide an exceptional asthma education experience for children with asthma.

  12. Enzyme catalysis in an aqueous/organic segment flow microreactor: ways to stabilize enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Karande, Rohan; Schmid, Andreas; Buehler, Katja

    2010-06-01

    Multiphase flow microreactors benefit from rapid mixing and high mass transfer rates, yet their application in enzymatic catalysis is limited due to the fast inactivation of enzymes used as biocatalysts. Enzyme inactivation during segment flow is due to the large interfacial area between aqueous and organic phases. The Peclet number of the system points to strong convective forces within the segments, and this results in rapid deactivation of the enzyme depending on segment length and flow rate. Addition of surfactant to the aqueous phase or enzyme immobilization prevents the biocatalyst from direct contact with the interface and thus stabilizes the enzyme activity. Almost 100% enzyme activity can be recovered compared to 45% without any enzyme or medium modification. Drop tensiometry measurements point to a mixed enzyme-surfactant interfacial adsorption, and above a certain concentration, the surfactant forms a protective layer between the interface and the biocatalyst in the aqueous compartments. Theoretical models were used to compare adsorption kinetics of the protein to the interface in the segment flow microreactor and in the drop tensiometry measurements. This study is the basis for the development of segment flow microreactors as a tool to perform productive enzymatic catalysis. PMID:20201570

  13. Ways of increasing muscular activity by means of isometric muscular exertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovalik, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of isometric muscular exertion on the human body was investigated by having subjects perform basic movements in a sitting position in the conventional manner with additional muscle tension at 50% maximum force and at maximum force. The pulse, arterial pressure, skin temperature, respiratory rate, minute respiratory volume and electrical activity of the muscles involved were all measured. Performance of the exercises with maximum muscular exertion for 20 sec and without movement resulted in the greatest shifts in these indices; in the conventional manner substantial changes did not occur; and with isometric muscular exertion with 50% maximum force with and without movement, optimal functional shifts resulted. The latter is recommended for use in industrial exercises for the prevention of hypodynamia. Ten exercises are suggested.

  14. Two types of mental fatigue affect spontaneous oscillatory brain activities in different ways

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatigue has a multi-factorial nature. We examined the effects of two types of mental fatigue on spontaneous oscillatory brain activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Methods Participants were randomly assigned to two groups in a single-blinded, crossover fashion to perform two types of mental fatigue-inducing experiments. Each experiment consisted of a 30-min fatigue-inducing 0- or 2-back test session and two evaluation sessions performed just before and after the fatigue-inducing mental task session. Results After the 0-back test, decreased alpha power was indicated in the right angular gyrus and increased levels in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, and right medial frontal gyrus. After the 2-back test, decreased alpha power was indicated in the right middle and superior frontal gyrus and increased levels in the left inferior parietal and superior parietal lobules, right parahippocampal gyrus, right uncus, left postcentral gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and right inferior frontal gyrus. For beta power, increased power following the 0-back test was indicated in the left middle temporal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus, left cingulate gyrus, and left precentral gyrus. After the 2-back test, decreased power was suggested in the left superior frontal gyrus and increased levels in the left middle temporal gyrus and left inferior parietal lobule. Some of these brain regions might be associated with task performance during the fatigue-inducing trials. Conclusions Two types of mental fatigue may produce different alterations of the spontaneous oscillatory MEG activities. Our findings would provide new perspectives on the neural mechanisms underlying mental fatigue. PMID:23305089

  15. Graphic jokes and children's mind: an unusual way to approach children's representational activity.

    PubMed

    Puche-Navarro, Rebeca

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the development of representational activity through the comprehension of graphic jokes in 2, 3 and 4-year-old children. In experiment 1 we worked with three kinds of jokes, specifically mentalistic jokes, jokes based on substitution and complex jokes. We found differentiated performances on each kind of joke, as had been expected based on the semiological analysis of the jokes prior to the experiment. The earliest comprehension, at 3 years old, occurred with mentalistic jokes where more than 70% of the total sample was successful. The substitution jokes reached 47% in the three-year-old subjects, and the latest kind of joke to be understood by this group were the complex jokes, with only 31% comprehension. In experiment 2 we wanted to specify the cognitive functioning that was taking place in the comprehension of mentalistic jokes. We found similar successful performances in two mentalistic jokes with both the 3 and 4 year-olds in the study. Children's performances were analyzed from the point of view of processes of redescription which were involved in the understanding of the jokes. We conclude that humor tasks are appropriate instruments to examine development of children's representational abilities.

  16. Giant stellar arcs in the Large Magellanic Cloud: a possible link with past activity of the Milky Way nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, Yuri N.

    2013-02-01

    The origin of the giant stellar arcs in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) remains a controversial issue, one that has been discussed since 1966. No other star/cluster arc is so perfect a segment of a circle; moreover, there is another similar arc nearby. Many hypotheses were advanced to explain these arcs and all but one of these was disproved. It was proposed in 2004 that the origin of these arcs was a bow shock from the jet that is intermittently fired by the Milky Way nucleus; during its last episode of activity the jet was pointed toward the LMC. Quite recently, evidence for such a jet indeed appeared. We suggest that it was once energetic enough to trigger star formation in the LMC, and if the jet opening angle was about 2° then it could push out H i gas from a region of about 2 kpc in size, forming a cavity LMC4, but also squeeze two dense clouds that occurred in the same area, causing the formation of stars along their surfaces facing the core of the Milky Way. As a result, spherical segments of stellar shells might arise, visible now as the arcs named the Quadrant and Sextant, the apexes of which point towards the centre of the Milky Way. The orientation of both arcs could be the key to unlocking their origin. Here we give data that confirm the above hypothesis, amongst which are the radial velocities of stars inside and outside the larger of the LMC arcs. The probability is low that a jet from an active galactic nucleus (AGN) points towards a nearby galaxy and triggers star formation there, but a few other examples are now known or suspected.

  17. Districts Cut Back Busing, Seek Ways to Save Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2008-01-01

    A struggling economy and skyrocketing fuel costs are making their grim presence felt as school districts across the country open their doors. With fewer dollars to spend, everything from teaching positions to bus transportation is on the chopping block. As students go back to school, many will find themselves in more crowded classrooms with texts…

  18. Tolerance to the locomotor-activating effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) predicts escalation of MDMA self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement of MDMA seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kevin T; Slane, Mylissa

    2014-11-01

    Pre-clinical studies of individual differences in addiction vulnerability have been increasing over recent years, but the amphetamine derivative 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) has received relatively little attention in this regard. Previously, we reported large individual differences both in rats' initial behavioral response to experimenter-administered MDMA and their degree of behavioral sensitization to repeated administration. To determine whether these differences could predict subsequent patterns of MDMA-taking or -seeking behaviors we used the self-administration-extinction-reinstatement model to examine addiction-like behavior (i.e., escalation of MDMA self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement of MDMA seeking) in rats a priori characterized for either locomotor sensitization or tolerance to MDMA. Rats that developed tolerance to the locomotor-activating effects of MDMA had a significantly larger locomotor response to the first MDMA injection relative to rats that developed sensitization. Importantly, rats that developed tolerance subsequently displayed an escalation of MDMA self-administration over days, as well as clear cue-induced reinstatement of MDMA seeking following extinction. Conversely, rats that developed locomotor sensitization to MDMA subsequently maintained relatively stable levels of MDMA self-administration over days and showed no cue-induced reinstatement of MDMA seeking. These results show that differences in the level of psychomotor activation following acute and repeated MDMA administration can reliably predict two important addiction-like behaviors in rats, which may have implications in the prediction of compulsive MDMA use in humans.

  19. Seeking Clarity About Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagstrom, David

    1999-01-01

    The "clearness committee," a Quaker practice, might provide an avenue for educators grappling with crises and seeking clarity about their worries and concerns over time. A Lewis and Clark College seminar held in April 1998 dealt with an administrator's fears about carrying on following a former student's suicide. Steps for freeing one's "inner…

  20. Corticostriatal circuitry and habitual ethanol seeking.

    PubMed

    Barker, Jacqueline M; Corbit, Laura H; Robinson, Donita L; Gremel, Christina M; Gonzales, Rueben A; Chandler, L Judson

    2015-12-01

    The development of alcohol-use disorders is thought to involve a transition from casual alcohol use to uncontrolled alcohol-seeking behavior. This review will highlight evidence suggesting that the shift toward inflexible alcohol seeking that occurs across the development of addiction consists, in part, of a progression from goal-directed to habitual behaviors. This shift in "response strategy" is thought to be largely regulated by corticostriatal network activity. Indeed, specific neuroanatomical substrates within the prefrontal cortex and the striatum have been identified as playing opposing roles in the expression of actions and habits. A majority of the research on the neurobiology of habitual behavior has focused on non-drug reward seeking. Here, we will highlight recent research identifying corticostriatal structures that regulate the expression of habitual alcohol seeking and a comparison will be made when possible to findings for non-drug rewards.

  1. Rent Seeking: A Textbook Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecorino, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The author argues that the college textbook market provides a clear example of monopoly seeking as described by Tullock (1967, 1980). This behavior is also known as rent seeking. Because this market is important to students, this example of rent seeking will be of particular interest to them. (Contains 24 notes.)

  2. [Behavioral characteristics of nicotine seeking: a role of the nicotine-conditioned effects and other mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Itasaka, Michio; Hironaka, Naoyuki; Miyata, Hisatsugu

    2015-06-01

    Nicotine dependence and its neural mechanisms have been well documented by pharmacological, behavioral and neuroscience studies. In this review, we introduce recent new findings in this theme, particularly on the role of nicotine -associated stimuli as non-pharmacological factors affecting maintaining/reinstating nicotine seeking. By using the techniques of drug self-administration and conditioned place preference, nicotine's specific property of forming seeking/taking behavior is well characterized, and the mechanisms of seeking/taking could be partly explained by discrete and/or contextual conditioned stimuli (dCS and cCS). After having the repeated Pavlovian conditioning in the training/conditioning sessions, CSs begin to play a key role for eliciting nicotine seeking behavior, with the activation of mesolimbic dopaminergic systems. In our study, intracranial self- stimulation (ICSS) was used to assess the mesolimbic dopamine activity. The nicotine-associated cCS also activated this neural system, which resulted in decreasing the ICSS threshold approximately 20% in the testing session under the cCS presentation. This finding would support the evidence of CS-induced incentive motivation for nicotine. According to the incentive salience hypothesis, the mesolimbic dopamine reflects the motivation elicited by incentives (CSs), and induces the drug seeking behavior, which is activated through amygdala--nucleus accumbens--medial prefrontal cortex circuit. Additionally, human brain imaging studies have revealed that tobacco- associated stimuli activate not only these regions, but also right temporo-parietal junction of human cortex, which is relevant to the visual attention. In summary, the above evidence shows that nicotine-conditioned stimuli might have powerful incentive salience and regulate nicotine seeking/taking behavior in animals and humans, though stress and nicotine-withdrawal could also enhance nicotine taking in the same way as other dependence -producing

  3. [Behavioral characteristics of nicotine seeking: a role of the nicotine-conditioned effects and other mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Itasaka, Michio; Hironaka, Naoyuki; Miyata, Hisatsugu

    2015-06-01

    Nicotine dependence and its neural mechanisms have been well documented by pharmacological, behavioral and neuroscience studies. In this review, we introduce recent new findings in this theme, particularly on the role of nicotine -associated stimuli as non-pharmacological factors affecting maintaining/reinstating nicotine seeking. By using the techniques of drug self-administration and conditioned place preference, nicotine's specific property of forming seeking/taking behavior is well characterized, and the mechanisms of seeking/taking could be partly explained by discrete and/or contextual conditioned stimuli (dCS and cCS). After having the repeated Pavlovian conditioning in the training/conditioning sessions, CSs begin to play a key role for eliciting nicotine seeking behavior, with the activation of mesolimbic dopaminergic systems. In our study, intracranial self- stimulation (ICSS) was used to assess the mesolimbic dopamine activity. The nicotine-associated cCS also activated this neural system, which resulted in decreasing the ICSS threshold approximately 20% in the testing session under the cCS presentation. This finding would support the evidence of CS-induced incentive motivation for nicotine. According to the incentive salience hypothesis, the mesolimbic dopamine reflects the motivation elicited by incentives (CSs), and induces the drug seeking behavior, which is activated through amygdala--nucleus accumbens--medial prefrontal cortex circuit. Additionally, human brain imaging studies have revealed that tobacco- associated stimuli activate not only these regions, but also right temporo-parietal junction of human cortex, which is relevant to the visual attention. In summary, the above evidence shows that nicotine-conditioned stimuli might have powerful incentive salience and regulate nicotine seeking/taking behavior in animals and humans, though stress and nicotine-withdrawal could also enhance nicotine taking in the same way as other dependence -producing

  4. Cancer News Coverage and Information Seeking

    PubMed Central

    NIEDERDEPPE, JEFF; FROSCH, DOMINICK L.; HORNIK, ROBERT C.

    2010-01-01

    The shift toward viewing patients as active consumers of health information raises questions about whether individuals respond to health news by seeking additional information. This study examines the relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking using a national survey of adults aged 18 years and older. A Lexis-Nexis database search term was used to identify Associated Press (AP) news articles about cancer released between October 21, 2002, and April 13, 2003. We merged these data to the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a telephone survey of 6,369 adults, by date of interview. Logistic regression models assessed the relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking. Overall, we observed a marginally significant positive relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking (p < 0.07). Interaction terms revealed that the relationship was apparent only among respondents who paid close attention to health news (p < 0.01) and among those with a family history of cancer (p < 0.05). Results suggest that a notable segment of the population actively responds to periods of elevated cancer news coverage by seeking additional information, but they raise concerns about the potential for widened gaps in cancer knowledge and behavior between large segments of the population in the future. PMID:18300068

  5. Sexual minorities seeking services.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Tracey L; Emanuel, Kristen; Bradford, Judith

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding the mental health needs of lesbian and bisexual (sexual minority) women is an integral part of designing and providing appropriate mental health services and treatment for them. In an effort to understand the mental health needs of sexual minority women who seek community treatment, a chart review was conducted of the 223 lesbian and bisexual women who presented for services between July 1, 1997 and December 31, 2000 at Fenway Community Health in Boston, MA. Data are based on clients' self-reports and clinician assessments of clients' presenting problem, relevant developmental history, prior mental health and substance abuse treatment, current reports of emotional/psychological symptoms, and areas of impaired functioning. Although substance abuse and suicidal ideation were commonly reported problems, other concerns were more frequently reported. High percentages of lesbians and bisexual women reported relationship concerns and lack of adequate social networks; rates of depression and anxiety based on clinicians' assessments were also high. Overall, lesbians and bisexual women did not differ in the issues they brought to treatment or level or types of impairment. Compared with previous community survey samples, however, study participants appeared to be healthier than general, non-clinical samples of self-identified lesbians, possibly reflecting the special characteristics of sexual minority women who seek treatment in specialized community sites such as the Fenway. Although patients who come to these sites may not represent the more general population of sexual minority women, community health centers known to serve lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals may be fruitful access points for studying the mental health status and treatment needs of sexual minority women. PMID:24815719

  6. The Sensation Seeking Motive and Media Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broihier, Mary C.; Manning-Miller, Carmen

    A study was conducted to explore the relationships between sensation seeking--a multidimensional personality trait--and categories of leisure activity choices, mass media uses and gratifications, and television program preferences. It was hypothesized that low sensation seekers would find vicarious media such as television to be attractive leisure…

  7. A Model of Adolescents’ Seeking of Sexual Content in their Media Choices

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the extent to which adolescents report actively seeking sexual content in media, identifies from which media they report seeking, estimates the association between seeking sexual information and romantic and sexual behavior, and shows that active seeking of sexual content in media sources is explained by an intention to seek such content using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, a reasoned action approach. The data are a national sample of 810 adolescents aged 13-18 years. Results show that fifty percent of adolescents reported actively seeking sexual content in their media choices, which included movies, television, music, internet pornography sites, and magazines. Males sought sex content more than females and gender differences were greatest for seeking from internet pornography sites, movies, and television. Path analysis demonstrate that seeking sexual content is well predicted by intentions to seek and intentions are primarily driven by perceived normative pressure to seek sexual content. PMID:20672214

  8. Winning Ways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Michael A. Rebell, a 61-year-old former Peace Corps volunteer, is one of a small band of lawyers whose legal efforts are changing the way many states pay for their public schools. He was among many lawyers of the era who had been inspired by landmark cases such as "Brown v. Board of Education." In the late 1980s, he noticed education cases would…

  9. Beyond the Notes: A Qualitative Study of the Information-Seeking Behavior of Ethnomusicologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Chern Li; Ng, Siong Ngor

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the information-seeking behavior of fourteen ethnomusicologists in New Zealand via interviews. The findings shed light on what information ethnomusicologists seek, the sources and services they use, and the barriers they face in information seeking and use. A number of ways in which libraries can create collections and…

  10. Attention-Seeking Displays

    PubMed Central

    Számadó, Szabolcs

    2015-01-01

    Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest. PMID:26287489

  11. The 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist lorcaserin reduces cocaine self-administration, reinstatement of cocaine-seeking and cocaine induced locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Harvey-Lewis, Colin; Li, Zhaoxia; Higgins, Guy A; Fletcher, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    Lorcaserin (Lorqess, Belviq(®)) is a selective 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist that has received FDA approval for the treatment of obesity. 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists are also efficacious in decreasing multiple aspects of cocaine motivation and reward in preclinical models. This would suggest that lorcaserin is a clinically available therapeutic with the potential to treat cocaine addiction. Here we report the effects of lorcaserin (0.1 mg/kg-1.0 mg/kg) on multiple aspects of cocaine-related behaviours in rats. We find that lorcaserin dose-dependently decreases cocaine self-administration on progressive and fixed ratio schedules of reinforcement. Lorcaserin also reduces reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behaviour in response to priming injections of cocaine and/or reintroduction of cocaine-associated cues. Finally, lorcaserin dose-dependently decreases cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. Our results, when considered in concert with similar emergent findings in non-human primates, strongly support continued research into the potential of lorcaserin as a clinical treatment for cocaine addiction.

  12. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of bone-seeking superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as contrast agents for imaging bone metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    Panahifar, Arash; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Doschak, Michael R

    2013-06-12

    In this article, we report the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a new class of nonionizing bone-targeting contrast agents based on bisphosphonate-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), for use in imaging of bone turnover with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Similar to bone-targeting (99m)Technetium medronate, our novel contrast agent uses bisphosphonates to impart bone-seeking properties, but replaces the former radioisotope with nonionizing SPIONs which enables their subsequent detection using MRI. Our reported method is relatively simple, quick and cost-effective and results in BP-SPIONs with a final nanoparticle size of 17 nm under electron microscopy technique (i.e., TEM). In-vitro binding studies of our novel bone tracer have shown selective binding affinity (around 65%) for hydroxyapatite, the principal mineral of bone. Bone-targeting SPIONs offer the potential for use as nonionizing MRI contrast agents capable of imaging dynamic bone turnover, for use in the diagnosis and monitoring of metabolic bone diseases and related bone pathology.

  13. Dealing with Activism in Canada: An Ideal Cultural Fit for the Two-Way Symmetrical Public Relations Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiniven, John E.

    2002-01-01

    Notes that disputes are seen as much less confrontational, much less zero-sum games in Canada than in the United States. Interviews 15 communications and public relations practitioners and professors with experiences on both sides of the 49th parallel and reviews relevant literature. Concludes that the greater acceptance of two-way symmetrical…

  14. 6 Ways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tom; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes six art activities for elementary and secondary art classes. Activities include designing a noise-making machine, the painting of pointillist pictures, drawing street scenes and still life photographs, making visual transparency projections to supplement student art history reports, and doing sketches of popcorn. (AM)

  15. 7 Ways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Nancy P.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes seven art activities for elementary and secondary classes. Activities include making Pueblo Indian-style pottery, casting stained glass designs in plaster, constructing cloth gnome-dolls, making ceramic reliefs of Victorian house facades and dream cars, drawing South American folk art objects, and sewing wearable art. (AM)

  16. Going their separate ways: dissociation of hippocampal and dorsolateral prefrontal activation during episodic retrieval and post-retrieval processing.

    PubMed

    Israel, Sarah L; Seibert, Tyler M; Black, Michelle L; Brewer, James B

    2010-03-01

    Hippocampal activity is modulated during episodic memory retrieval. Most consistently, a relative increase in activity during confident retrieval is observed. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is also activated during retrieval, but may be more generally activated during cognitive-control processes. The "default network," regions activated during rest or internally focused tasks, includes the hippocampus, but not DLPFC. Therefore, DLPFC and the hippocampus should diverge during difficult tasks suppressing the default network. It is unclear, however, whether a difficult episodic memory retrieval task would suppress the default network due to difficulty or activate it due to internally directed attention. We hypothesized that a task requiring episodic retrieval followed by rumination on the retrieved item would increase DLPFC activity, but paradoxically reduce hippocampal activity due to concomitant suppression of the default network. In the present study, blocked and event-related fMRI were used to examine hippocampal activity during episodic memory recollection and postretrieval processing of paired associates. Subjects were asked to make living/nonliving judgments about items visually presented (classify) or items retrieved from memory (recall-classify). Active and passive baselines were used to differentiate task-related activity from default-network activity. During the "recall-classify" task, anterior hippocampal activity was selectively reduced relative to "classify" and baseline tasks, and this activity was inversely correlated with DLPFC. Reaction time was positively correlated with DLPFC activation and default-network/hippocampal suppression. The findings demonstrate that frontal and hippocampal activity are dissociated during difficult episodic retrieval tasks and reveal important considerations for interpreting hippocampal activity associated with successful episodic retrieval. PMID:19301994

  17. 43 CFR 2804.29 - What activities may I conduct on the lands covered by the proposed right-of-way while BLM is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What activities may I conduct on the lands covered by the proposed right-of-way while BLM is processing my application? 2804.29 Section 2804.29 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND...

  18. A Rent-Seeking Experiment for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strow, Brian Kent; Strow, Claudia Wood

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that active learning techniques improve student comprehension and retention of abstract economic ideas such as rent seeking. Instructors can reinforce the concept of rent seeking with a classroom game, particularly one involving real money. The authors improve upon a game first introduced by Goeree and Holt (1999)…

  19. Four Ways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Mary Ellen; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Four art activities for high school students are described: (1) weaving using a vegetable sack; (2) creating kaleidoscope designs, from which students selected a unique, basic shape for a personalized belt buckle; (3) making boomerangs which, when thrown, return to the point of departure; and (4) constructing a mosaic in the school hall. (RM)

  20. 3 Ways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Hanna S.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes three art activities for the Christmas holidays. Upper-elementary art classes create a life-size Santa's workshop decorated with paper-mache gingerbread cookies. Kindergarten children draw the king and queen of Christmas. Elementary and secondary students decorate store windows for holidays and community celebrations. (AM)

  1. 78 FR 19491 - Walking as a Way for Americans To Get the Recommended Amount of Physical Activity for Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... Activity, and Obesity, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway NE., MS-K46, Atlanta..., Physical Activity, and Obesity, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway NE., MS-K46...-income communities and among racial/ethnic miniorities (6); and, in general, persons with...

  2. Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Kinase in Tobacco Leaves Is Activated by Light in a Similar but Not Identical Way as in Maize.

    PubMed Central

    Li, B.; Zhang, X. Q.; Chollet, R.

    1996-01-01

    We have previously reported the partial purification of a Ca2+- independent phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) protein-serine/threonine kinase (PEPC-PK) from illuminated leaves of N-sufficient tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants (Y.-H. Wang, R. Chollet [1993] FEBS Lett 328: 215-218). We now report that this C3 PEPC-kinase is reversibly light activated in vivo in a time-dependent manner. As the kinase becomes light activated, the activity and L-malate sensitivity of its target protein increases and decreases, respectively. The light activation of tobacco PEPC-PK is prevented by pretreatment of detached leaves with various photosynthesis and cytosolic protein-synthesis inhibitors. Similarly, specific inhibitors of glutamine synthetase block the light activation of tobacco leaf PEPC-kinase under both photorespiratory and nonphotorespiratory conditions. This striking effect is partially and specifically reversed by exogenous glutamine, whereas it has no apparent effect on the light activation of the maize (Zea mays L.) leaf kinase. Using an in situ "activity-gel" phosphorylation assay, we have identified two major Ca2+-independent PEPC-kinase catalytic polypeptides in illuminated tobacco leaves that have the same molecular masses (approximately 30 and 37 kD) as found in illuminated maize leaves. Collectively, these results indicate that the phosphorylation of PEPC in N-sufficient leaves of tobacco (C3) and maize (C4) is regulated through similar but not identical light-signal transduction pathways. PMID:12226305

  3. Activating Aesthetics: Working with Heidegger and Bourdieu for Engaged Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grierson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to investigate art in public urban space via a process of activating aesthetics as a way of enhancing pedagogies of engagement. It does this firstly by addressing the question of aesthetics in Enlightenment and twentieth-century frames; then it seeks to understand how artworks may be approached ontologically and…

  4. Seeking New Treatments for Endometriosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Media Resources Interviews & Selected Staff Profiles Multimedia Seeking New Treatments for Endometriosis Skip sharing on social media ... genetic mechanisms of endometriosis may help in developing new prevention and treatment strategies. The NICHD’s extramural Gynecologic ...

  5. Today's Physicians Seek Career Direction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan-Haker, Veronica R.

    1998-01-01

    Changes in the role of the physician in today's society have made their career choices risky. Career specialists have an opportunity to assist those who do not normally seek career advice outside their own profession. (JOW)

  6. SENSATION SEEKING SCALE: INDIAN ADAPTATION

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Debasish; Verma, Vijoy K.; Malhotra, Savita; Malhotra, Anil

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY Sensation seeking refers to a biologically based personality dimension defined as the need for varied, novel and complex sensations and experiences, and the willingness to take physical and social risks for the sake of such experiences. Although researched worldwide for nearly three decades now, there is to date no published Indian study utilizing the concept of sensation seeking. This paper describes adaptation of the Sensation Seeking Scale for the Indian population. After due modification of the scale, its reliability, internal consistency and discriminant validity were established Norms were developed for a defined segment of general population. This study may be seen as the beginning of research in India on the subject of sensation seeking. PMID:21743627

  7. Distribution and abundance of host-seeking Culex species at three proximate locations with different levels of West Nile virus activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rochlin, I.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Campbell, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    Culex species were monitored at three proximate sites with historically different West Nile virus (WNV) activities. The site with human WNV transmission (epidemic) had the lowest abundance of the putative bridge vectors, Culex pipiens and Cx. salinarius. The site with horse cases but not human cases (epizootic) had the highest percent composition of Cx. salinarius, whereas the site with WNV-positive birds only (enzootic) had the highest Cx. pipiens abundance and percent composition. A total of 29 WNV-positive Culex pools were collected at the enzootic site, 17 at the epidemic site, and 14 at the epizootic site. Published models of human risk using Cx. pipiens and Cx. salinarius as the primary bridge vectors did not explain WNV activity at our sites. Other variables, such as additional vector species, environmental components, and socioeconomic factors, need to be examined to explain the observed patterns of WNV epidemic activity.

  8. Hypothalamic control of male aggression-seeking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Grosenick, Logan; Davidson, Thomas J.; Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-01-01

    In many vertebrate species, certain individuals will seek out opportunities for aggression, even in the absence of threat provoking cues. While several brain areas have been implicated in generating attack in response to social threat, little is known about the neural mechanisms that promote self-initiated or “voluntary” aggression seeking when no threat is present. To explore this directly, we utilize an aggression-seeking task wherein male mice can self-initiate aggression trials to gain brief and repeated access to a weaker male that they attack. In males that exhibit rapid task learning, we find that the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl), an area with a known role in attack, is essential for aggression seeking. Using both single unit electrophysiology and population optical recording, we find that VMHvl neurons become active during aggression seeking and their activity tracks changes in task learning and extinction. Inactivation of the VMHvl reduces aggression-seeking behavior, whereas optogenetic stimulation of the VMHvl accelerates moment-to-moment aggression seeking and intensifies future attack. These data demonstrate that the VMHvl can mediate both acute attack and flexible seeking actions that precede attack. PMID:26950005

  9. Hypothalamic control of male aggression-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Falkner, Annegret L; Grosenick, Logan; Davidson, Thomas J; Deisseroth, Karl; Lin, Dayu

    2016-04-01

    In many vertebrate species, certain individuals will seek out opportunities for aggression, even in the absence of threat-provoking cues. Although several brain areas have been implicated in the generation of attack in response to social threat, little is known about the neural mechanisms that promote self-initiated or 'voluntary' aggression-seeking when no threat is present. To explore this directly, we utilized an aggression-seeking task in which male mice self-initiated aggression trials to gain brief and repeated access to a weaker male that they could attack. In males that exhibited rapid task learning, we found that the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl), an area with a known role in attack, was essential for aggression-seeking. Using both single-unit electrophysiology and population optical recording, we found that VMHvl neurons became active during aggression-seeking and that their activity tracked changes in task learning and extinction. Inactivation of the VMHvl reduced aggression-seeking behavior, whereas optogenetic stimulation of the VMHvl accelerated moment-to-moment aggression-seeking and intensified future attack. These data demonstrate that the VMHvl can mediate both acute attack and flexible seeking actions that precede attack.

  10. Health information seeking on behalf of others: Characteristics of ‘surrogate seekers’

    PubMed Central

    Cutrona, Sarah L.; Mazor, Kathleen M.; Vieux, Sana N.; Luger, Tana M.; Volkman, Julie E.; Finney Rutten, Lila J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the behaviors of surrogate-seekers (those who seek health information for others) may guide efforts to improve health information transmission. We used 2011–2012 data from the Health Information National Trends Survey to describe behaviors of online surrogate-seekers. Respondents were asked about use of the Internet for surrogate-seeking over the prior 12 months. Data were weighted to calculate population estimates. Two-thirds (66.6%) reported surrogate-seeking. Compared to those who sought health information online for only themselves, surrogate-seekers were more likely to live in households with others (weighted percent 89.4% vs. 82.5% of self-seekers; p < 0.05); no significant differences in sex, race, income or education were observed. Surrogate-seekers were more likely to report activities requiring user-generated content: email communication with healthcare providers; visits to social networking sites to read and share about medical topics and participation in online health support groups. On multivariate analysis, those who had looked online for healthcare providers were more likely to be surrogate-seekers (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.08–2.59). In addition to seeking health information, surrogate-seekers create and pass along communications that may influence medical care decisions. Research is needed to identify ways to facilitate transmission of accurate health information. PMID:24989816

  11. Giving Prizes and Awards: A New Way to Recognize and Encourage Activities That Promote Equity for Women in Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Bonny; Sandler, Bernice

    The use of awards to stimulate activities designed to help women in education is considered. Using the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business award as a model, attention is directed to why awards are important, who can give them and to whom, and how to develop an awards program. An award or prize is defined as any form of recognition…

  12. Any Way You Cut It! Molehills Out of Mountains. A Resource and Activity Guide for the Developmentally Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barringer, M. D.; Kosal-Smither, C.

    A resource and activity guide for the developmentally disabled that focuses on fine motor skills is presented. Attention is directed to fine motor behavior during the first year (vision, grasp, and release and reaching), and behaviors developing at 13 months (the interaction of fine motor and cognitive skills). An introductory section considers…

  13. Understanding Change in Teachers' Ways of Being through Collaborative Action Research: A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Allan; Weiss, Tarin

    2010-01-01

    Despite major efforts to change teachers' practice through professional development activities, much remains as it always was. Our claim is that this rarely happens because significant change in how one teaches can only come about as a result of some realization about oneself as a teacher, and the resulting changes in identity. In recent years we…

  14. Activation of D1/5 Dopamine Receptors: A Common Mechanism for Enhancing Extinction of Fear and Reward-Seeking Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Antony D; Neve, Kim A; Lattal, K Matthew

    2016-07-01

    Dopamine is critical for many processes that drive learning and memory, including motivation, prediction error, incentive salience, memory consolidation, and response output. Theories of dopamine's function in these processes have, for the most part, been developed from behavioral approaches that examine learning mechanisms in appetitive tasks. A parallel and growing literature indicates that dopamine signaling is involved in consolidation of memories into stable representations in aversive tasks such as fear conditioning. Relatively little is known about how dopamine may modulate memories that form during extinction, when organisms learn that the relation between previously associated events is severed. We investigated whether fear and reward extinction share common mechanisms that could be enhanced with dopamine D1/5 receptor activation. Pharmacological activation of dopamine D1/5 receptors (with SKF 81297) enhanced extinction of both cued and contextual fear. These effects also occurred in the extinction of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, suggesting that the observed effects on extinction were not specific to a particular type of procedure (aversive or appetitive). A cAMP/PKA biased D1 agonist (SKF 83959) did not affect fear extinction, whereas a broadly efficacious D1 agonist (SKF 83822) promoted fear extinction. Together, these findings show that dopamine D1/5 receptor activation is a target for the enhancement of fear or reward extinction.

  15. Investigation of crystal structures of one-way shape memory Nitinol wire actuators for active steerable needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honarvar, Mohammad; Konh, Bardia; Hutapea, Parsaoran

    2015-04-01

    Due to its outstanding properties of Nitinol, known as shape memory and superelasticity, Nitinol wires have been used as actuators in many medical devices. For the medical applications, it is critical to have a consistent strain response of Nitinol wires. This work focuses on studying the effect of parameters such as biased stress, maximum temperature, and wire diameters that influence the strain response of Nitinol wires. Specifically, Nitinol phase transformations were studied from microstructural point of view. The crystal structures of one-way shape memory Nitinol wires of various diameters under different thermomechanical loading conditions were studied using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) method. The location and intensity of characteristic peaks were determined prior and after the thermomechanical loading cycles. It was observed that Nitinol wires of diameters less than 0.19 mm exhibit unrecovered strain while heated to the range of 70ºC to 80ºC in a thermal cycle, whereas no unrecovered strains were found in larger wires. The observation was supported by the XRD patterns where the formation of R-phase crystal structure was showed in wire diameters less than 0.19 mm at room temperature.

  16. TNF-Α May Mediate Inflammasome Activation in the Absence of Bacterial Infection in More than One Way

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, Susana; Muñoz-Fernández, Ma Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Members of the mammalian nucleotide binding domain, leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing receptor family of proteins are key modulators of innate immunity regulating inflammation. To date, microbial pathogen-associated molecules and toxins have been identified as key triggers of activation of inflammasomes. However, recently, environmental, and neurodegenerative stimuli have been identified that lead to IL-1β release by means of inflammasomes. IL-1β plays a crucial role during brain inflammation, and caspase-1 appears to be a key modulator of IL-1β bioactivity and the consequent transcriptional regulation of gene expression within the brain during inflammation. We show here that exposure of a human neuroblastoma cell line (SK-N-MC cells) to TNF-α promotes ROS-mediated caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion. The involvement of NF-κB in the regulation of IL-1β synthesis is investigated through specific inhibition of this transcription factor. The effect of TNF-α was abolished in the presence of ROS inhibitors as NAC, or DPI. Remarkably, SK-N-MC cells do not respond to ATP stimulation in spite of P2X7R expression. These results provide a mechanism by which danger signals and particulate matter mediate inflammation via the inflammasome in the absence of microbial infection. PMID:23940760

  17. A new way towards high-efficiency thermally activated delayed fluorescence devices via external heavy-atom effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenzhi; Jin, Jiangjiang; Huang, Zhi; Zhuang, Shaoqing; Wang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) mechanism is a significant method that enables the harvesting of both triplet and singlet excitons for emission. However, up to now most efforts have been devoted to dealing with the relation between singlet-triplet splitting (ΔEST) and fluorescence efficiency, while the significance of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is usually ignored. In this contribution, a new method is developed to realize high-efficiency TADF-based devices through simple device-structure optimizations. By inserting an ultrathin external heavy-atom (EHA) perturber layer in a desired manner, it provides useful means of accelerating the T1 → S1 reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) in TADF molecules without affecting the corresponding S1 → T1 process heavily. Furthermore, this strategy also promotes the utilization of host triplets through Förster mechanism during host → guest energy transfer (ET) processes, which helps to get rid of the solely dependence upon Dexter mechanism. Based on this strategy, we have successfully raised the external quantum efficiency (EQE) in 4CzPN-based devices by nearly 38% in comparison to control devices. These findings provide keen insights into the role of EHA played in TADF-based devices, offering valuable guidelines for utilizing certain TADF dyes which possess high radiative transition rate but relatively inefficient RISC.

  18. A new way towards high-efficiency thermally activated delayed fluorescence devices via external heavy-atom effect

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenzhi; Jin, Jiangjiang; Huang, Zhi; Zhuang, Shaoqing; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) mechanism is a significant method that enables the harvesting of both triplet and singlet excitons for emission. However, up to now most efforts have been devoted to dealing with the relation between singlet-triplet splitting (ΔEST) and fluorescence efficiency, while the significance of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is usually ignored. In this contribution, a new method is developed to realize high-efficiency TADF-based devices through simple device-structure optimizations. By inserting an ultrathin external heavy-atom (EHA) perturber layer in a desired manner, it provides useful means of accelerating the T1 → S1 reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) in TADF molecules without affecting the corresponding S1 → T1 process heavily. Furthermore, this strategy also promotes the utilization of host triplets through Förster mechanism during host → guest energy transfer (ET) processes, which helps to get rid of the solely dependence upon Dexter mechanism. Based on this strategy, we have successfully raised the external quantum efficiency (EQE) in 4CzPN-based devices by nearly 38% in comparison to control devices. These findings provide keen insights into the role of EHA played in TADF-based devices, offering valuable guidelines for utilizing certain TADF dyes which possess high radiative transition rate but relatively inefficient RISC. PMID:27439967

  19. Which way do I go? Neural activation in response to feedback and spatial processing in a virtual T-maze.

    PubMed

    Baker, Travis E; Holroyd, Clay B

    2009-08-01

    In 2 human event-related brain potential (ERP) experiments, we examined the feedback error-related negativity (fERN), an ERP component associated with reward processing by the midbrain dopamine system, and the N170, an ERP component thought to be generated by the medial temporal lobe (MTL), to investigate the contributions of these neural systems toward learning to find rewards in a "virtual T-maze" environment. We found that feedback indicating the absence versus presence of a reward differentially modulated fERN amplitude, but only when the outcome was not predicted by an earlier stimulus. By contrast, when a cue predicted the reward outcome, then the predictive cue (and not the feedback) differentially modulated fERN amplitude. We further found that the spatial location of the feedback stimuli elicited a large N170 at electrode sites sensitive to right MTL activation and that the latency of this component was sensitive to the spatial location of the reward, occurring slightly earlier for rewards following a right versus left turn in the maze. Taken together, these results confirm a fundamental prediction of a dopamine theory of the fERN and suggest that the dopamine and MTL systems may interact in navigational learning tasks.

  20. A New Way of Sensing: Need-Based Activation of Antibiotic Resistance by a Flux-Sensing Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Georg; Dintner, Sebastian; Treichel, Nicole Simone; Radeck, Jara; Gerland, Ulrich; Gebhard, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sensing of and responding to environmental changes are of vital importance for microbial cells. Consequently, bacteria have evolved a plethora of signaling systems that usually sense biochemical cues either via direct ligand binding acting as “concentration sensors” or by responding to downstream effects on bacterial physiology, such as structural damage to the cell. Here, we describe a novel, alternative signaling mechanism that effectively implements a “flux sensor” to regulate antibiotic resistance. It relies on a sensory complex consisting of a histidine kinase and an ABC transporter, in which the transporter fulfills the dual role of both the sensor of the antibiotic and the mediator of resistance against it. Combining systems biological modeling with in vivo experimentation, we show that these systems in fact respond to changes in activity of individual resistance transporters rather than to changes in the antibiotic concentration. Our model shows that the cell thereby adjusts the rate of de novo transporter synthesis to precisely the level needed for protection. Such a flux-sensing mechanism may serve as a cost-efficient produce-to-demand strategy, controlling a widely conserved class of antibiotic resistance systems. PMID:26199330

  1. Seeking Instructional Specificity: An Example from Analogical Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Eric; Wieman, Carl E.

    2015-01-01

    Broad instructional methods like "interactive engagement" have been shown to be effective, but such general characterization provides little guidance on the details of how to structure instructional materials. In this study, we seek instructional specificity by comparing two ways of using an analogy to learn a target physical principle:…

  2. Completely Isolated? Health Information Seeking among Social Isolates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Carter, Knute D.

    2011-01-01

    To better target messages it is important to determine where people seek their health information. Interpersonal networks are a common way most people gather health information, but some people have limited networks. Using data from the 2004 General Social Survey (N = 984), we compared social isolates and nonisolates in their health…

  3. Why we should not seek individual informed consent for participation in health services research

    PubMed Central

    Cassell, J; Young, A

    2002-01-01

    Ethics committees now require that individuals give informed consent to much health services research, in the same way as for clinical research. This is misguided. Existing ethical guidelines do not help us decide how to seek consent in these cases, and have allowed managerial experimentation to remain largely unchecked. Inappropriate requirements for individual consent can institutionalise health inequalities and reduce access to services for vulnerable groups. This undermines the fundamental purpose of the National Health Service (NHS), and ignores our rights and duties as its members, explored here. Alternative forms of community consent should be actively pursued. PMID:12356960

  4. Why we should not seek individual informed consent for participation in health services research.

    PubMed

    Cassell, J; Young, A

    2002-10-01

    Ethics committees now require that individuals give informed consent to much health services research, in the same way as for clinical research. This is misguided. Existing ethical guidelines do not help us decide how to seek consent in these cases, and have allowed managerial experimentation to remain largely unchecked. Inappropriate requirements for individual consent can institutionalise health inequalities and reduce access to services for vulnerable groups. This undermines the fundamental purpose of the National Health Service (NHS), and ignores our rights and duties as its members, explored here. Alternative forms of community consent should be actively pursued.

  5. Designing Nature's Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Diane

    2005-01-01

    In the case of cars and other engineered objects, humans go about the design process in a very intentional way. They pretty much know what they are aiming for. The activity described in this article demonstrates how a computer can simulate biological evolution and the laws of natural selection. The article is divided into the following sections:…

  6. Stage 2--Information Seeking Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsenberg, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    A brief overview of one Big6 stage by Mike Eisenberg, followed by articles by two exemplary Big6 teachers, Barbara Jansen and Rob Darrow, offering practical uses of the Big6 in elementary and secondary situations is presented. The two-part nature of information seeking strategies that includes brainstorming and choosing is emphasized.

  7. Teachers Seek Specialized Peer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomassini, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Within the wide expanse of social networking, educators appear to be gravitating to more protected and exclusive spaces. While teachers often use such popular mainstream social networks as Facebook, they are more likely to seek out and return to less-established networks that offer the privacy, peer-to-peer connections, and resource sharing that…

  8. Seeking Clarification in Oral Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, David

    This paper examines points in oral test interviews where an interviewee explicitly seeks clarification from the interviewer on the content of a question posed, prior to attempting to answer a question. Some of the interviews are drawn from the Finnish Foreign Language Diploma for Professional Purposes examination (Tyoelaman kielidiplomi); others…

  9. The Academic and the Everyday: Investigating the Overlap in Mature Undergraduates' Information-Seeking Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Given, Lisa M.

    2002-01-01

    This study explored information-seeking behavior of mature undergraduates at a Canadian university based on the study of everyday life information seeking (ELIS). Findings include the role of social and cultural capital, ways that everyday and academic contexts inform one another, and the importance of not separating the everyday from other life…

  10. A Review of Web Information Seeking Research: Considerations of Method and Foci of Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martzoukou, Konstantina

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This review shows that Web information seeking research suffers from inconsistencies in method and a lack of homogeneity in research foci. Background: Qualitative and quantitative methods are needed to produce a comprehensive view of information seeking. Studies also recommend observation as one of the most fundamental ways of…

  11. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediates activation of NF-κB and JNK signaling cascades in retinal ganglion cells and astrocytes in opposite ways

    PubMed Central

    Dvoriantchikova, Galina; Ivanov, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is an important mediator of the innate immune response in the retina. TNF can activate various signaling cascades, including NF-κB, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways. The harmful role of these pathways, as well as of TNF, has previously been shown in several retinal neurodegenerative conditions including glaucoma and retinal ischemia. However, TNF and TNF-regulated signaling cascades are capable not only of mediating neurotoxicity, but of being protective. We performed this study to delineate the beneficial and detrimental effects of TNF signaling in the retina. To this end, we used TNF-treated primary retinal ganglion cell (RGC) and astrocyte cultures. Levels of expression of NF-κB subunits in RGCs and astrocytes were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot (WB) analysis. NF-κB and JNK activity in TNF-treated cells was determined in a time-dependent manner using ELISA and WB. Gene expression in TNF-treated astrocytes was measured by qRT-PCR. We found that NF-κB family members were present in RGCs and astrocytes at the mRNA and protein levels. RGCs failed to activate NF-κB in the presence of TNF, a phenomenon that was associated with sustained JNK activation and RGC death. However, TNF initiated the activation of NF-κB and mediated transient JNK activation in astrocytes. These events were associated with glial survival and increased expression of neurotoxic pro-inflammatory factors. Our findings suggest that, in the presence of TNF, NF-κB and JNK signaling cascades are activated in opposite ways in RGCs and astrocytes. These events can directly and indirectly facilitate RGC death. PMID:25160799

  12. Review Suggests Safe, Effective Ways to Relieve Pain Without Meds

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160744.html Review Suggests Safe, Effective Ways to Relieve Pain Without ... appear to be effective, according to a new review. Millions of Americans seek pain relief through such ...

  13. Knowledge Creation as an Approach to Facilitating Evidence Informed Practice: Examining Ways to Measure the Success of Using This Method with Early Years Practitioners in Camden (London)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris; Rogers, Sue

    2015-01-01

    This paper has three key aims. First it examines the authors' attempts to use knowledge creation activity as a way of developing evidence informed practice amongst a learning community of 36 early years practitioners in the London Borough of Camden. Second, it seeks to illustrate how the authors approached the idea of measuring evidence use…

  14. RAS Synthetic Lethal Screens Revisited: Still Seeking the Elusive Prize?

    PubMed

    Downward, Julian

    2015-04-15

    The RAS genes are critical oncogenic drivers activated by point mutation in some 20% of human malignancies. However, no pharmacologic approaches to targeting RAS proteins directly have yet succeeded, leading to suggestions that these proteins may be "undruggable." This has led to two alternative indirect approaches to targeting RAS function in cancer. One has been to target RAS signaling pathways downstream at tractable enzymes such as kinases, particularly in combination. The other, which is the focus of this review, has been to seek targets that are essential in cells bearing an activated RAS oncogene, but not those without. This synthetic lethal approach, while rooted in ideas from invertebrate genetics, has been inspired most strongly by the successful use of PARP inhibitors, such as olaparib, in the clinic to treat BRCA defective cancers. Several large-scale screens have been carried out using RNA interference-mediated expression silencing to find genes that are uniquely essential to RAS-mutant but not wild-type cells. These screens have been notable for the low degree of overlap between their results, with the possible exception of proteasome components, and have yet to lead to successful new clinical approaches to the treatment of RAS-mutant cancers. Possible reasons for these disappointing results are discussed here, along with a reevaluation of the approaches taken. On the basis of experience to date, RAS synthetic lethality has so far fallen some way short of its original promise and remains unproven as an approach to finding effective new ways of tackling RAS-mutant cancers. Clin Cancer Res; 21(8); 1802-9. ©2015 AACR. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Targeting RAS-Driven Cancers." PMID:25878361

  15. RAS Synthetic Lethal Screens Revisited: Still Seeking the Elusive Prize?

    PubMed Central

    Downward, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The RAS genes are critical oncogenic drivers activated by point mutation in some 20% of human malignancies. However, no pharmacological approaches to targeting RAS proteins directly have yet succeeded, leading to suggestions that these proteins may be “undruggable.” This has led to two alternative indirect approaches to targeting RAS function in cancer. One has been to target RAS signaling pathways downstream at tractable enzymes such as kinases, particularly in combination. The other, which is the focus of this review, has been to seek targets that are essential in cells bearing an activated RAS oncogene, but not those without. This synthetic lethal approach, while rooted in ideas from invertebrate genetics, has been inspired most strongly by the successful use of PARP inhibitors, such as olaparib, in the clinic to treat BRCA defective cancers. Several large-scale screens have been carried out using RNA interference-mediated expression silencing to find genes that are uniquely essential to RAS mutant but not wild type cells. These screens have been notable for the low degree of overlap between their results, with the possible exception of proteasome components, and have yet to lead to successful new clinical approaches to the treatment of RAS mutant cancers. Possible reasons for these disappointing results are discussed here, along with a re-evaluation of the approaches taken. Based on experience to date, RAS synthetic lethality has so far fallen some way short of its original promise and remains unproven as an approach to finding effective new ways of tackling RAS mutant cancers. PMID:25878361

  16. Operant Sensation Seeking Engages Similar Neural Substrates to Operant Drug Seeking in C57 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Christopher M; Winder, Danny G

    2009-01-01

    Novelty and sensation seeking have been associated with elevated drug intake in human and animal studies, suggesting overlap in the circuitry mediating these behaviors. In this study, we found that C57Bl/6J mice readily acquired operant responding for dynamic visual stimuli, a phenomenon we term operant sensation seeking (OSS). Like operant studies using other reinforcers, mice responded on fixed and progressive ratio schedules, were resistant to extinction, and had sustained responding with extended access. We also found that OSS, like psychostimulant self-administration, is sensitive to disruption of dopamine signaling. Low doses of the dopamine antagonist cis-flupenthixol increased active lever responding, an effect reported for psychostimulant self-administration. Additionally, D1-deficient mice failed to acquire OSS, although they readily acquired lever pressing for food. Finally, we found that one common measure of novelty seeking, locomotor activity in a novel open field, did not predict OSS performance. OSS may have predictive validity for screening compounds for use in the treatment of drug addiction. In addition, we also discuss the potential relevance of this animal model to the field of behavioral addictions. PMID:19145223

  17. Who's Most Likely to Seek Infertility Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159678.html Who's Most Likely to Seek Infertility Help They're more likely to be better ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly half of people with infertility problems don't seek treatment, according to a ...

  18. Seeking Contact: Issues to Consider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud, M.

    Seeking contact with extraterrestrial intelligence is a species enterprise that should be conducted with our shared interests in mind. We must reflect on the full range of possible outcomes; we cannot opt out of the potential consequences of actions taken by small numbers of our fellow humans. Until we have empirical evidence about alien technological civilizations, we can reason about them only by analogy with our own history and behaviour. Given that record, some degree of prudence is in order. To conduct this debate more rationally, we must free our thinking of excessively binary stereotypes.

  19. Nucleus incertus Orexin2 receptors mediate alcohol seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Kastman, Hanna E; Blasiak, Anna; Walker, Leigh; Siwiec, Marcin; Krstew, Elena V; Gundlach, Andrew L; Lawrence, Andrew J

    2016-11-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder and a major global health problem. Stress is a key precipitant of relapse in human alcoholics and in animal models of alcohol seeking. The brainstem nucleus incertus (NI) contains a population of relaxin-3 neurons that are highly responsive to psychological stressors; and the ascending NI relaxin-3/RXFP3 signalling system is implicated in stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. The NI receives orexinergic innervation and expresses orexin1 (OX1) and orexin2 (OX2) receptor mRNA. In alcohol-preferring (iP) rats, we examined the impact of yohimbine-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking on orexin neuronal activation, and the effect of bilateral injections into NI of the OX1 receptor antagonist, SB-334867 (n = 16) or the OX2 receptor antagonist, TCS-OX2-29 (n = 8) on stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. We also assessed the effects of orexin-A on NI neuronal activity and the involvement of OX1 and OX2 receptors using whole cell patch-clamp recordings in rat brain slices. Yohimbine-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking activated orexin neurons. Bilateral NI injections of TCS-OX2-29 attenuated yohimbine-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. In contrast, intra-NI injection of SB-334867 had no significant effect. In line with these data, orexin-A (600 nM) depolarized a majority of NI neurons recorded in coronal brain slices (18/28 cells), effects prevented by bath application of TCS-OX2-29 (10 μM), but not SB-334867 (10 μM). These data suggest an excitatory orexinergic input to NI contributes to yohimbine-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking, predominantly via OX2 receptor signalling. PMID:27395787

  20. Dopamine modulates novelty seeking behavior during decision making.

    PubMed

    Costa, Vincent D; Tran, Valery L; Turchi, Janita; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2014-10-01

    Novelty seeking refers to the tendency of humans and animals to explore novel and unfamiliar stimuli and environments. The idea that dopamine modulates novelty seeking is supported by evidence that novel stimuli excite dopamine neurons and activate brain regions receiving dopaminergic input. In addition, dopamine is shown to drive exploratory behavior in novel environments. It is not clear whether dopamine promotes novelty seeking when it is framed as the decision to explore novel options versus the exploitation of familiar options. To test this hypothesis, we administered systemic injections of saline or GBR-12909, a selective dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor, to monkeys and assessed their novelty seeking behavior during a probabilistic decision making task. The task involved pseudorandom introductions of novel choice options. This allowed monkeys the opportunity to explore novel options or to exploit familiar options that they had already sampled. We found that DAT blockade increased the monkeys' preference for novel options. A reinforcement learning (RL) model fit to the monkeys' choice data showed that increased novelty seeking after DAT blockade was driven by an increase in the initial value the monkeys assigned to novel options. However, blocking DAT did not modulate the rate at which the monkeys learned which cues were most predictive of reward or their tendency to exploit that knowledge. These data demonstrate that dopamine enhances novelty-driven value and imply that excessive novelty seeking-characteristic of impulsivity and behavioral addictions-might be caused by increases in dopamine, stemming from less reuptake.

  1. Women Empowerment through Health Information Seeking: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Sabzevari, Sakineh; Negahban Bonabi, Tayebeh

    2015-01-01

    Background Today, women empowering is an important issue.  Several methods have been introduced to empower women. Health information seeking is one of the most important activities in this regard. A wide range of capabilities have been reported as outcomes of health information seeking in several studies. As health information seeking is developed within personal-social interactions and also the health system context, it seems that the qualitative paradigm is appropriate to use in studies in this regard. This study aimed to explore how women’s empowerment through health information seeking is done. Methods In this qualitative content analysis study, data collection was done with regard to inclusion criteria, through purposive sampling by semi-structured interviews with 17 women and using documentation and field notes until data saturation. Qualitative data analysis was done constantly and simultaneous with data collection. Results Four central themes were emerged to explain women’s empowerment through health information seeking that included: a) Health concerns management with three subcategories of Better coping, Stress management, Control of situation, b) Collaborative care with two subcategories of Effective interaction with health professions and Participation in health decision making c) Individual development d) Self-protection with four sub- categories of Life style modification,  Preventive behaviors promoting, Self-care promoting, and  medication adherence. Conclusion The results of this study indicate the importance of women empowerment through foraging their health information seeking rights and comprehensive health information management. PMID:26005690

  2. Unprecedently Large-Scale Kinase Inhibitor Set Enabling the Accurate Prediction of Compound-Kinase Activities: A Way toward Selective Promiscuity by Design?

    PubMed

    Christmann-Franck, Serge; van Westen, Gerard J P; Papadatos, George; Beltran Escudie, Fanny; Roberts, Alexander; Overington, John P; Domine, Daniel

    2016-09-26

    Drug discovery programs frequently target members of the human kinome and try to identify small molecule protein kinase inhibitors, primarily for cancer treatment, additional indications being increasingly investigated. One of the challenges is controlling the inhibitors degree of selectivity, assessed by in vitro profiling against panels of protein kinases. We manually extracted, compiled, and standardized such profiles published in the literature: we collected 356 908 data points corresponding to 482 protein kinases, 2106 inhibitors, and 661 patents. We then analyzed this data set in terms of kinome coverage, results reproducibility, popularity, and degree of selectivity of both kinases and inhibitors. We used the data set to create robust proteochemometric models capable of predicting kinase activity (the ligand-target space was modeled with an externally validated RMSE of 0.41 ± 0.02 log units and R02 0.74 ± 0.03), in order to account for missing or unreliable measurements. The influence on the prediction quality of parameters such as number of measurements, Murcko scaffold frequency or inhibitor type was assessed. Interpretation of the models enabled to highlight inhibitors and kinases properties correlated with higher affinities, and an analysis in the context of kinases crystal structures was performed. Overall, the models quality allows the accurate prediction of kinase-inhibitor activities and their structural interpretation, thus paving the way for the rational design of compounds with a targeted selectivity profile.

  3. Unprecedently Large-Scale Kinase Inhibitor Set Enabling the Accurate Prediction of Compound–Kinase Activities: A Way toward Selective Promiscuity by Design?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Drug discovery programs frequently target members of the human kinome and try to identify small molecule protein kinase inhibitors, primarily for cancer treatment, additional indications being increasingly investigated. One of the challenges is controlling the inhibitors degree of selectivity, assessed by in vitro profiling against panels of protein kinases. We manually extracted, compiled, and standardized such profiles published in the literature: we collected 356 908 data points corresponding to 482 protein kinases, 2106 inhibitors, and 661 patents. We then analyzed this data set in terms of kinome coverage, results reproducibility, popularity, and degree of selectivity of both kinases and inhibitors. We used the data set to create robust proteochemometric models capable of predicting kinase activity (the ligand–target space was modeled with an externally validated RMSE of 0.41 ± 0.02 log units and R02 0.74 ± 0.03), in order to account for missing or unreliable measurements. The influence on the prediction quality of parameters such as number of measurements, Murcko scaffold frequency or inhibitor type was assessed. Interpretation of the models enabled to highlight inhibitors and kinases properties correlated with higher affinities, and an analysis in the context of kinases crystal structures was performed. Overall, the models quality allows the accurate prediction of kinase-inhibitor activities and their structural interpretation, thus paving the way for the rational design of compounds with a targeted selectivity profile. PMID:27482722

  4. Unprecedently Large-Scale Kinase Inhibitor Set Enabling the Accurate Prediction of Compound-Kinase Activities: A Way toward Selective Promiscuity by Design?

    PubMed

    Christmann-Franck, Serge; van Westen, Gerard J P; Papadatos, George; Beltran Escudie, Fanny; Roberts, Alexander; Overington, John P; Domine, Daniel

    2016-09-26

    Drug discovery programs frequently target members of the human kinome and try to identify small molecule protein kinase inhibitors, primarily for cancer treatment, additional indications being increasingly investigated. One of the challenges is controlling the inhibitors degree of selectivity, assessed by in vitro profiling against panels of protein kinases. We manually extracted, compiled, and standardized such profiles published in the literature: we collected 356 908 data points corresponding to 482 protein kinases, 2106 inhibitors, and 661 patents. We then analyzed this data set in terms of kinome coverage, results reproducibility, popularity, and degree of selectivity of both kinases and inhibitors. We used the data set to create robust proteochemometric models capable of predicting kinase activity (the ligand-target space was modeled with an externally validated RMSE of 0.41 ± 0.02 log units and R02 0.74 ± 0.03), in order to account for missing or unreliable measurements. The influence on the prediction quality of parameters such as number of measurements, Murcko scaffold frequency or inhibitor type was assessed. Interpretation of the models enabled to highlight inhibitors and kinases properties correlated with higher affinities, and an analysis in the context of kinases crystal structures was performed. Overall, the models quality allows the accurate prediction of kinase-inhibitor activities and their structural interpretation, thus paving the way for the rational design of compounds with a targeted selectivity profile. PMID:27482722

  5. Correlation between backpack weight and way of carrying, sagittal and frontal spinal curvatures, athletic activity, and dorsal and low back pain in schoolchildren and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Korovessis, Panagiotis; Koureas, Georgios; Papazisis, Zisis

    2004-02-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate any correlation between backpack carrying, spinal curvatures, and athletic activities on schoolchildren's dorsal (DP) and low back pain (LBP). Three thousand four hundred forty-one students aged from 9 to 15 years who carried backpacks to school were included in this study and asked for DP and LBP experiences in the school period while carrying the backpack. Nonradiating methods (surface back contour analysis) were used to indirectly measure frontal spinal curve (scoliosis) with the scoliometer and lateral curves (thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis) with the kyphometer. All data analyses were undertaken regarding school year level, age, gender, sports participation, backpack weight, and way of carrying (one versus both shoulder) in relation to magnitude of scoliosis, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, and DP and LBP while carrying the backpack. DP increased with increasing backpack weight (P < 0.05). The way (one versus both shoulder) of backpack carrying did not correlate either with DP or with LBP. Girls experienced much more LBP and DP than boys (P < 0.001). There was no difference in the prevalence of LBP and DP between adolescents and children. Students' age, height, and body weight as well as magnitude of kyphosis, lordosis, and scoliosis did not correlate with either LBP or DP. At the age of 11 years, girls and boys showed the highest prevalence for DP (72% and 38.5%, respectively), while at the age of 14 years, girls reported significantly (P < 0.05) more DP than boys. Girls showed the highest prevalence of LBP (71%) at the age of 11 years, while for the boys, it was at the age of 15 years (21%). Girls showed at the age of 11 years significantly more LBP (P < 0.05) than boys. Sports exposure seemed to increase LBP in girls (P < 0.001). The results of this study suggest a differential DP and LBP prevalence in schoolchildren and adolescents carrying backpacks with regard to gender and age. The peak

  6. Legionnaires` disease: Seeking effective prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Millar, J.D.; Morris, G.K.; Shelton, B.G.

    1997-01-01

    During the Bicentennial summer of 1976, American Legion Conventioneers in Philadelphia suffered a dramatic epidemic that left 34 dead. Near the end of 1976, scientists at the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta discovered the bacterium that caused Legionnaires` disease and named it Legionella. Nearly two decades later, a wealth of scientific information exists about the organism, its health effects, epidemiology, microbiology, aquatic ecology, molecular biology, immunology, pathophysiology, etc. Fortunately, for the engineer seeking to prevent Legionnaires` disease, it is unnecessary to master this complexity; the practice of prevention requires understanding a few, straightforward facts. The purpose of this paper is to present four messages about Legionnaires` disease that provide a conceptual framework to guide the crucial role of practical prevention. Those messages are: Legionnaires` disease is important; Legionnaires` disease is an environmental disease; Legionnaires` disease is preventable; and Legionnaires` disease prevention requires the right strategy.

  7. "The way to break the taboo is to do the taboo thing" breastfeeding in public and citizen-activism in the UK.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Kate

    2011-03-01

    Like other forms of infant feeding, breastfeeding is a fundamental act of care. Yet despite being the recommended way of feeding babies, breastfeeding is not always easy to do. In addition to lack of support, bio-physical problems and the need to return to work; discomfort with breastfeeding in public is a factor shaping infant feeding choice (and the decision to stop breastfeeding specifically). With increased awareness of breast milk's health benefits in recent years, there has been a rise in efforts to make breastfeeding in public more commonplace and socially acceptable (including through lactation advocacy or "lactivism"). This paper considers breastfeeding in public and lactation advocacy in the UK through interviews with lactation activists, non-activist breastfeeding mothers, and participant-observation at two breastfeeding picnics held in 2009. Building on existing scholarship in Geography, I suggest that lactivism can be understood as an effort to expand the boundaries of where care-work is allowed to take place: thus constituting a form of "care-work activism".

  8. The Way We Gather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahoe, Marta

    2010-01-01

    "The way you make your bed is the way your day will go." The way in which people gather is an extension of the making-the-bed analogy: "The way we gather is the way our school days go." The mindfulness people bring to the little ways they behave with one another sets the tone for the entire organization. When Montessori speaks of allowing the…

  9. Seeking a Higher Level of Arts Integration across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotiropoulou-Zormpala, Marina

    2016-01-01

    To seek a higher level of arts integration across the education curriculum, I investigated designs of teaching through arts activities that would motivate educators to adopt the spirit of "aesthetic teaching." Two different designs were tested, with the second as a continuation of the first. Each ascribes a different educational role to…

  10. An Exploratory Study of Biology Teachers' Online Information Seeking Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrault, Anne Marie

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on exploratory research that investigated biology teachers' perceptions of their online information seeking practices and how these practices influenced their instructional planning activities. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the results of an online survey and ten in-depth interviews measuring use of specific online…

  11. Some effects of way-120,491 on electrical and mechanical activity and on sup 42 K/ sup 85 Rb efflux in rat blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, G.; Weston, A.H. ); Oshiro, G. )

    1990-02-26

    The effects of WAY-120,491 (-)-(3A,4R-trans)-2-(2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-6-(trifluoromethoxy)-2H-1-benzopyran-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-1-one have been examined in vitro using portal veins and aortic segments from male Sprague-Dawley rats. In aorta, WAY-120,491 (3.3-33nM) produced a dose-dependent relaxation of 20mM KC1 contractions, an effect antagonized by glibenclamide. WAY-120,491 had no effect on tension induced by 80mM CK1. When segments of aorta were loaded with {sup 86}Rb and {sup 42}K, WAY-120,491 (330nM-33{mu}M) increased the efflux of both isotopes, an effect antagonized by glibenclamide. In portal vein, WAY 120-491 (3.3-330nM) inhibited spontaneous tension development by abolishing electrical multispike complexes. In tissues loaded with {sup 86}Rb, WAY-120,491 (330nM-33{mu}M) increased the rate of {sup 86}Rb exchange. It is concluded that these effects of WAY-120,491 in rat blood vessels are consistent with the opening of plasmalemmal K-channels and that WAY-120,491 belongs to the pharmacological grouping known as the K-channel openers.

  12. Gender Differences in Treatment-Seeking British Pathological Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Lutri, Vittorio; Smith, Neil; Clerici, Massimo; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-06-01

    Background and aim Gambling is a widespread recreational activity in the UK. A significant percentage of gamblers develop subclinical or clinically relevant problem gambling issues, but only a low percentage of them seek treatment. Although characteristics of pathological gamblers from treatment-seeking population have been examined in some research, only a few studies have explored the differences between females and males. This study aimed to examine the gender-related differences in demographics, gambling measures, and clinical variables in an outpatient sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. Methods A total of 1,178 treatment-seeking individuals with gambling disorder were assessed at the National Problem Gambling Clinic in London. Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical variables, and gambling behavior habits were obtained during the assessment evaluation. Of the total sample, 92.5% were males and 7.5% were females. Results Males were more likely to be younger, white, and employed than females. In addition, compared to women, men showed a lower PGSI score, an earlier age of onset of gambling behavior, a higher gambling involvement, and preferred specific forms gambling. Female gamblers were more anxious and depressed, while men were more likely to use alcohol and illicit drugs. Conclusions Our findings support the importance of gender differences in a treatment-seeking population of pathological gamblers both in sociodemographic characteristics, gambling behavior variables, and clinical variables. Males and females might benefit from group-specific treatment. PMID:27348561

  13. Dehydroepiandrosterone Attenuates Cocaine-Seeking Behaviour Independently of Corticosterone Fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Maayan, R; Hirsh, L; Yadid, G; Weizman, A

    2015-11-01

    The neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is involved in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders, including cocaine addiction. We have previously shown that DHEA attenuates cocaine-seeking behaviour, and also that DHEA decreases corticosterone (CORT) levels in plasma and the prefrontal cortex. Previous studies have found that rats demonstrate cocaine-seeking behaviour only when the level of CORT reaches a minimum threshold. In the present study, we investigated whether the attenuating effect of DHEA on cocaine seeking is a result of it reducing CORT levels rather than a result of any unique neurosteroid properties. Rats received either daily DHEA injections (2 mg/kg, i.p.) alone, daily DHEA (2 mg/kg, i.p.) with CORT infusion (to maintain stable basal levels of CORT; 15 mg/kg, s.c.) or vehicle (i.p.) as control, throughout self-administration training and extinction sessions. We found that both DHEA-treated and DHEA + CORT-treated groups showed a significantly lower number of active lever presses compared to controls throughout training and extinction sessions, as well as at cocaine-primed reinstatement. DHEA-treated rats showed lower CORT levels throughout the experimental phases compared to DHEA + CORT-treated and control rats. Additionally, we show that DHEA administered to cocaine-trained rats throughout extinction sessions, or immediately before reinstatement, attenuated cocaine seeking. These findings indicate that DHEA attenuates cocaine-seeking behaviour independently of fluctuations in CORT levels.

  14. The development of a four-way linking framework in Egypt: an example of the FAO, OIE and WHO joint activities to facilitate national risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Forcella, Simona; El-din El Tantawy, Nasr; Yilma, Jobre; AbdelNabi, Amira; Claes, Filip; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Mumford, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectoral assessment of health risks arising or existing at the human-animal interface is crucial to identifying and implementing effective national disease control measures. This requires availability of information from 4 functional information 'streams' - epidemiological, laboratory, animal, and human health. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/ World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)/ World Health Organization (WHO) Four-Way Linking (4WL) project promotes the establishing of a national-level joint framework for data sharing, risk assessment, and risk communication, in order to both improve communications within and among governmental public health and animal health influenza laboratories, epidemiology offices, national partners, with the aim of strengthening the national capacity to detect, report and assess risks arising from emerging influenza viruses. The project is currently being implemented in countries where H5N1 avian influenza is endemic and where human cases have been reported. The project is comprised of two main activities at country level: a 'review mission', which is the project launch in the country and has the objective to assess the existing situation; and a 'scenario based workshop', with the scope to bring together key national partners and build relationships among people working in the 4 information streams and to improve understanding of national strengths and gaps. During the workshop the delegates engaged in interactive sessions on basic risk assessment and devoted to specify the needs and roles of the 4 different streams. The participants work through a mock influenza outbreak scenario, which practically illustrates how risk assessment and communication of an emergency at the animal-human interface is more effective when there is linking of the 4 streams, collaboration, communication, and coordinated action. In 2010, Egypt was the first country where the project was successfully implemented

  15. Person × Environment Interactions on Adolescent Delinquency: Sensation Seeking, Peer Deviance and Parental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Frank D.; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a personality trait that is robustly correlated with delinquent behavior in adolescence. The current study tested specific contextual factors hypothesized to facilitate, exacerbate or attenuate this risk factor for adolescent delinquency. Individual differences in sensation seeking, peer deviance, parental monitoring and self-reported delinquent behavior were assessed in a sample of 470 adolescents. Peer deviance partially mediated the effects of sensation seeking and parental monitoring on adolescent delinquency. We also found evidence for a three-way interaction between sensation seeking, peer deviance and parental monitoring, such that the highest rates of delinquency occurred from the concurrence of high sensation seeking, high peer deviance, and low levels of parental monitoring. Results highlight the importance of considering peer- and family-level processes when evaluating personality risk and problematic adolescent behavior. PMID:25908885

  16. Boating the Right Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This monograph is a multipurpose resource document developed to meet the needs of young adults seeking boating knowledge, and to serve as a guide to the safe operation of watercraft. Chapter one deals with types of watercraft and the responsibilities of the boater. In chapter two, the water environment is discussed, including the water cycle,…

  17. Women Lead the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Female corporate leaders are becoming more common, but that does not mean it was a snap for them to get there. Much has been said about the hard road faced by women who seek top spots in corporate America. Many point out, for instance, that women executives still often are paid less than their male counterparts, and that they face stereotypes,…

  18. Information-Seeking Habits of Education Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupp-Serrano, Karen; Robbins, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the information-seeking behavior of academic education faculty from twenty large public research universities. The investigation includes an examination of how frequently education faculty seek or access information, how they stay up-to-date on current developments in the field and identify less recent journal literature, how…

  19. Postpartum depression and help-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    McGarry, Joanne; Kim, Han; Sheng, Xiaoming; Egger, Marlene; Baksh, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to investigate the demographic differences between women who report postpartum depression symptoms (PPDS) and seek help versus those who report symptoms but who do not seek help, using data from the Utah Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) 2004 dataset. Overall, 14.7% of Utah women reported experiencing PPDS in 2004. Sixty percent of the women who reported having PPDS did not seek help. Seeking help for depression during pregnancy was associated with help-seeking behavior postpartum (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04-0.2). Other factors associated with seeking help included having an infant admitted to the intensive care unit (aOR = 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9) and rural residency (aOR = 0.3; 95% CI, 0.2-0.7). Nonwhite women were 12.1 times (95% CI, 3.0-48.5) more likely to not seek help for depression compared to white women. Further, Hispanic women (aOR = 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3-8.1) and women who experienced emotional abuse had increased odds of not seeking help (aOR = 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3-6.2). Nearly 15% of Utah women in this study reported PPDS, yet fewer than half sought help. Target populations, such as nonwhite, Hispanic, emotionally abused, and urban women, have been identified for public health interventions.

  20. Job-Seeking Behavior and Vocational Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Nancy D.

    Noting that job-seeking behavior, as contrasted with the processes of vocational choice and work adjustment, has been neglected in theories of vocational development, the author identifies three job seeking behavior patterns: (1) individuals exhibiting specific goals and self actualized behavior obtain desired jobs most successfully; (2) those…

  1. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  2. Students' Help Seeking during Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Susan B.

    2008-01-01

    Seeking help with academic tasks has been regarded as an important strategy to enhance student learning (Newman, 1994; Ryan, Gheen, & Midgley, 1998; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1986). Seeking help is conceptualized as student-initiated efforts to secure task information or solicit advice when a deficiency in their understanding of the content…

  3. PRISM: a planned risk information seeking model.

    PubMed

    Kahlor, LeeAnn

    2010-06-01

    Recent attention on health-related information seeking has focused primarily on information seeking within specific health and health risk contexts. This study attempts to shift some of that focus to individual-level variables that may impact health risk information seeking across contexts. To locate these variables, the researcher posits an integrated model, the Planned Risk Information Seeking Model (PRISM). The model, which treats risk information seeking as a deliberate (planned) behavior, maps variables found in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) and the Risk Information Seeking and Processing Model (RISP; Griffin, Dunwoody, & Neuwirth, 1999), and posits linkages among those variables. This effort is further informed by Kahlor's (2007) Augmented RISP, the Theory of Motivated Information Management (Afifi & Weiner, 2004), the Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking (Johnson & Meischke, 1993), the Health Information Acquisition Model (Freimuth, Stein, & Kean, 1989), and the Extended Parallel Processing Model (Witte, 1998). The resulting integrated model accounted for 59% of the variance in health risk information-seeking intent and performed better than the TPB or the RISP alone. PMID:20512716

  4. Novelty Seeking in Adulthood: Increases Accompany Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Choi, Namok

    2004-01-01

    Using stereotypes, researchers have predicted that novelty seeking declines in adulthood. Through this cross-sectional study, the authors revealed that only the external sensational type of novelty seeking declined, whereas the internal sensational and internal and external cognitive types remained stable or increased. A population of 233 adults…

  5. All in the Family: Help-Seeking by Significant Others of Problem Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hing, Nerilee; Tiyce, Margaret; Holdsworth, Louise; Nuske, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Problem gambling can significantly affect the lives of concerned significant others (CSOs) of problem gamblers, especially family members, but little is known about their help-seeking activities and experiences. This paper explores help-seeking by CSOs of problem gamblers and their related motivators and barriers. A telephone interview was…

  6. Help-Seeking Behaviors among Athletic Training Students in the Clinical Education Setting: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakajima, Mikiko Aoyagi; Freesemann, Keith W.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Help-seeking is an important self-regulating and proactive strategy that prepares students to be successful learners. It is particularly important in the clinical education setting, in which students must actively engage in learning. Objective: To determine both the type of help-seeking behaviors used by athletic training students in the…

  7. Promoting Adolescent Help-Seeking for Mental Health Problems: Strategies for School-Based Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walcott, Christy M.; Music, Ajlana

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research suggests that adolescence is a critical developmental period, especially when it comes to factors that influence mental health problems. Systematic efforts to promote adolescent help-seeking are essential for improving long-term mental health outcomes. Defined as a "behavior of actively seeking help from other people,"…

  8. Information Seeking by Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Smith, J. David

    2011-01-01

    Animal metacognition is an active, growing research area, and one part of metacognition is flexible information-seeking behavior. In Roberts et al. (2009), pigeons failed an intuitive information-seeking task. They basically refused, despite multiple fostering experiments, to view a sample image before attempting to find its match. Roberts et al.…

  9. Another Way: Answering "Ways of Reading."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsberg, Jennifer Berne

    David Bartholomae and Anthony Petrovsky's book "Ways of Reading" creates a paradox for readers, for a primary thesis of the book is that there should be no standard or traditional readings to which a new reader must conform. A successful reader will interrogate and dispute the text at every turn. The book's organization mirrors the authors'…

  10. Seeking a healthy baby: Hispanic women's views of pregnancy and prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Pearce, C W

    1998-11-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a grounded theory of pregnancy and prenatal care for a cohort of Hispanic women residing in an industrial city in the Northeast. Twenty-one women, of predominantly Puerto Rican and Dominican heritage, participated in in-depth interviews lasting 30-50 minutes in which they shared their views of pregnancies and prenatal care including cultural influences on pregnancy, social support, initiation of prenatal care, and interest and participation in perinatal education. The core category, seeking a healthy baby, emerged from the data using a constant comparison analysis method. The women enhanced their chances of achieving the goal of having a healthy baby three ways: (1) caring for self by having a positive attitude, viewing pregnancy as normal, seeking education, eating healthily, balancing activity and rest, having good habits, and initiating and continuing prenatal care; (2) receiving support from their network in the form of receiving advice, listening to problems and concerns, and providing housing, babysitting, financial aid, and transportation; and (3) accepting care from providers in Western and folk medicine.

  11. Changing the way we change.

    PubMed

    Pascale, R; Millemann, M; Gioja, L

    1997-01-01

    More and more companies struggle with growing competition by introducing improvements into every aspect of performance. But the treadmill keeps moving faster, the companies keep working harder, and results improve slowly or not at all. The problem here is not the improvement programs. The problem is that the whole burden of change typically rests on so few people. Companies achieve real agility only when every function and process--when every person--is able and eager to rise to every challenge. This type and degree of fundamental change, commonly called revitalization or transformation, is what many companies seek but rarely achieve because they have never before identified the factors that produce sustained transformational change. The authors identify three interventions that will restore companies to vital agility and then keep them in good health: incorporating employees fully into the principal business challenges facing the company, leading the organization in a different way in order to sharpen and maintain incorporation and constructive stress, and instilling mental disciplines that will make people behave differently and then help them sustain their new behavior. The authors discovered these basic sources of revitalization by tracking the change efforts of Sears, Roebuck & Company, Royal Dutch Shell, and the United States Army. The organizations used these interventions to alter the way their people experienced their own power and identity, as well as the way they dealt with conflict and learning. As at Sears, Shell, and the U.S. Army, any major shift in those four elements will create a landmark shift in any organization's operating state or culture.

  12. PID Tuning Using Extremum Seeking

    SciTech Connect

    Killingsworth, N; Krstic, M

    2005-11-15

    ]. This method is based on the performance of the closed-loop system during a step response experiment [10], [11]. In this article we present a method for optimizing the step response of a closed-loop system consisting of a PID controller and an unknown plant with a discrete version of extremum seeking (ES). Specifically, ES is used to minimize a cost function similar to that used in [10], [11], which quantifies the performance of the PID controller. ES, a non-model-based method, iteratively modifies the arguments (in this application the PID parameters) of a cost function so that the output of the cost function reaches a local minimum or local maximum. In the next section we apply ES to PID controller tuning. We illustrate this technique through simulations comparing the effectiveness of ES to other PID tuning methods. Next, we address the importance of the choice of cost function and consider the effect of controller saturation. Furthermore, we discuss the choice of ES tuning parameters. Finally, we offer some conclusions.

  13. Host-Seeking Behavior in the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    Suchy, James T.; Lewis, Vernard R.

    2011-01-01

    The reemergence of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, has recently spawned a frenzy of public, media, and academic attention. In response to the growing rate of infestation, considerable work has been focused on identifying the various host cues utilized by the bed bug in search of a meal. Most of these behavioral studies examine movement within a confined environment, such as a Petri dish. This has prevented a more complete understanding of the insect's host-seeking process. This work describes a novel method for studying host-seeking behavior, using various movement parameters, in a time-lapse photography system. With the use of human breath as an attractant, we qualitatively and quantitatively assessed how bed bugs navigate their environment between its harborage and the host. Levels of behavioral activity varied dramatically between bed bugs in the presence and absence of host odor. Bed bugs demonstrated not simply activation, but attraction to the chemical components of breath. Localized, stop-start host-seeking behavior or alternating periods of movement and pause were observed among bed bugs placed in the environment void of human breath, while those exposed to human breath demonstrated long range, stop-start host-seeking behavior. A more comprehensive understanding of bed bug host-seeking can lead to the development of traps and monitors that account for unique subtleties in their behavior. The time-lapse photography system uses a large, artificial environment and could also be employed to study other aspects of the insect's behavioral patterns. PMID:26467497

  14. Grantmakers Seeking to Influence Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2010-01-01

    The author talks about a recent report from the nonprofit group "Grantmakers for Education" which finds that philanthropies nationwide are increasingly getting engaged with education policy matters at the local, state, and federal levels through a range of activities, in recognition of the powerful reach of government in setting priorities for…

  15. The Multiwavelength Milky Way Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, B. A.; Leisawitz, D.; Boyd, P. T.; Digel, S. W.; Friedlander, J.; Kessel, R. L.; Smale, A. P.

    2000-12-01

    We describe an ongoing effort to communicate what is known about the Milky Way, and how our understanding of the Galaxy has advanced in recent decades with observations across the electromagnetic spectrum. Our aim is to help students, educators, and the general public understand the structure of the Milky Way, and our location within it. Inspired by the warm reception to our Multiwavelength Milky Way poster (26,000 copies distributed; requested by people in over 50 countries) we created several related products and a new version of the poster. The updated poster contains ten Galactic plane maps and a legend that points out prominent features and objects. The Multiwavelength Milky Way web site at http://adc.gsfc.nasa.gov/mw provides an image browsing capability, links to data files and journal articles, lesson plans and suggested activities for teachers, and a poster order form. We created a slide set comprised of multiwavelength all-sky maps and a ``Multiwavelength Milky Way'' image corresponding to the poster. The Galactic plane maps featured on the poster raise questions in the minds of many non-astronomers: ``Where are we in this picture?'' and ``How do we know what we know?'' To help answer these questions we developed a realistic three-dimensional model of the Milky Way and used state-of-the-art animation techniques to create a 28-minute video called The Milky Way's Invisible Light. The viewer is taken on a tour of the Galaxy that ends at the Sun's location, from which the 3-D model is shown to resemble the Galactic plane surveys depicted on the Multiwavelength Milky Way poster. The video can be ordered on the web at http://space.gsfc.nasa.gov/astro/education/mw_film or from the ASP catalog. The Multiwavelength Milky Way project is sponsored by the Astrophysics Data Facility at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center.

  16. Sexual information seeking on web search engines.

    PubMed

    Spink, Amanda; Koricich, Andrew; Jansen, B J; Cole, Charles

    2004-02-01

    Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior. Seeking sexually related information on the Internet takes many forms and channels, including chat rooms discussions, accessing Websites or searching Web search engines for sexual materials. The study of sexual Web queries provides insight into sexually-related information-seeking behavior, of value to Web users and providers alike. We qualitatively analyzed queries from logs of 1,025,910 Alta Vista and AlltheWeb.com Web user queries from 2001. We compared the differences in sexually-related Web searching between Alta Vista and AlltheWeb.com users. Differences were found in session duration, query outcomes, and search term choices. Implications of the findings for sexual information seeking are discussed.

  17. Latino Immigrants’ Intentions to Seek Depression Care

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role that illness perceptions, attitudes toward depression treatments, and subjective norms played in Latino immigrants’ intentions to seek depression care. Ninety-five Latino immigrant patients were presented a vignette depicting an individual with major depression and interviewed about their intentions to seek care if confronted with a similar situation. Patients’ preferences were to rely on informal sources of care first, and then turn to formal sources to cope with depression. Findings showed Latinos immigrants’ help-seeking intentions for depression were a function of their views of depression, attitudes toward their doctors’ interpersonal skills, and social norms related to seeking professional care after controlling for demographics, health insurance status, acculturation, clinical characteristics, perceived barriers to care, and past service use. PMID:17535121

  18. Building Collaborative Cultures: Seeking Ways To Reshape Urban Schools. Urban Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Kent D.; Brietzke, Richard

    This monograph concentrates on the components of collaborative cultures and how schools develop such collaborative cultures. Urban schools face unique challenges in the frequent lack of resources and the special needs of their often disadvantaged populations. The school culture is a unique quality of the school that is a complex web of norms,…

  19. No way out? The double-bind in seeking global prosperity alongside mitigated climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, T. J.

    2012-01-01

    In a prior study (Garrett, 2011), I introduced a simple economic growth model designed to be consistent with general thermodynamic laws. Unlike traditional economic models, civilization is viewed only as a well-mixed global whole with no distinction made between individual nations, economic sectors, labor, or capital investments. At the model core is a hypothesis that the global economy's current rate of primary energy consumption is tied through a constant to a very general representation of its historically accumulated wealth. Observations support this hypothesis, and indicate that the constant's value is λ = 9.7 ± 0.3 milliwatts per 1990 US dollar. It is this link that allows for treatment of seemingly complex economic systems as simple physical systems. Here, this growth model is coupled to a linear formulation for the evolution of globally well-mixed atmospheric CO2 concentrations. While very simple, the coupled model provides faithful multi-decadal hindcasts of trajectories in gross world product (GWP) and CO2. Extending the model to the future, the model suggests that the well-known IPCC SRES scenarios substantially underestimate how much CO2 levels will rise for a given level of future economic prosperity. For one, global CO2 emission rates cannot be decoupled from wealth through efficiency gains. For another, like a long-term natural disaster, future greenhouse warming can be expected to act as an inflationary drag on the real growth of global wealth. For atmospheric CO2 concentrations to remain below a "dangerous" level of 450 ppmv (Hansen et al., 2007), model forecasts suggest that there will have to be some combination of an unrealistically rapid rate of energy decarbonization and nearly immediate reductions in global civilization wealth. Effectively, it appears that civilization may be in a double-bind. If civilization does not collapse quickly this century, then CO2 levels will likely end up exceeding 1000 ppmv; but, if CO2 levels rise by this much, then the risk is that civilization will gradually tend towards collapse.

  20. "Postdocs," Seeing Little Way Into the Academic Job Market, Seek Better Terms in the Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magner, Denise K.

    1998-01-01

    In sciences, postdoctoral fellowships have become the terminal academic credential for a research career. Positions are supposed to be temporary, but amount to a holding pattern for many unable to find permanent jobs in research or needing to assemble the required publishing record. Some institutions are beginning to acknowledge this problem and…

  1. Garbage power projects multiply as cities seek ways to get rid of trash economically

    SciTech Connect

    Smock, R.

    1984-05-01

    Trash-to-energy projects increased to at least a dozen during 1983 as the refuse-derived fuel (RDF) concept began competing with imported mass-burn technology. Although the trend is encouraging, the potential for power production will be small even if all major cities were to build facilities. The trend is encouraging new suppliers and joint ventures to the market, and the government is asking suppliers to take over the environmental impact analyses and permitting work. No utilities have become owners of garbage-to-energy systems, but many cities are interested in making local efforts. Some utilities are using RDF as a supplemental fuel in boilers designed to burn both coal and RDF. 1 figure.

  2. Inflammation fueling atrial fibrillation substrate: seeking ways to "cool" the heart.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, Georgios; Cleman, Michael W; Deftereos, Spyridon

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common chronic arrhythmia and a source of significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have identified numerous risk factors for the development of AF, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus and heart failure, which have known pathophysiologic links with inflammatory processes. The importance of inflammation in inducing and perpetuating AF has been highlighted not only by experimental, epidemiological and cohort observational studies, but also by clinical trials providing evidence that inflammatory pathways are involved in AF pathogenesis. Local and systemic measurements of biomarkers and inflammatory mediators, as well as atrial biopsy studies have also given insight as to the purported relationship between this arrhythmia and inflammation. However, the link between inflammation and AF is still poorly defined and several issues remain unresolved. The present review offers an overview of existing evidence supporting the "inflammatory" hypothesis for AF pathophysiology and potential therapeutic means for counteracting this "foul interplay" between arrhythmia and inflammation.

  3. Academic-Pharma drug discovery alliances: seeking ways to eliminate the valley of death.

    PubMed

    Hammonds, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Industrial pharmaceutical companies (Pharma) share a common goal with academic scientists (Academia) in that they wish to create an environment in which patients are treated for diseases with ever more effective therapies. As disease biology has proven to be ever more complex and money and new drugs are becoming more elusive, Pharma and Academia are reaching toward each other with ever greater collaborative intent. There are a growing number of collaboration models that allow scientists to work together and profit from the creation of new drugs. Here I give a personal view of how we came to where we are, present an overview of a number of these models and look to the future in terms of running successful discovery alliances.

  4. Violence the Western way.

    PubMed

    Roth, B E

    1997-10-01

    Despite the quiet revolution in response to changing conceptualizations of gender in psychoanalysis, the Western has remained the domain of aggressive phallic masculinity. The iconic imagery of the Western, when combined with its narrative trajectory, is used to tell stories of violent encounters between men. The acceptance of the genre, and its duplication by other cultures and film makers, indicates that the Westerns' imagery and moral solutions tap into some basic deep structures of anxiety and pleasure in violence between men. As long as societies require subtle sublimations of aggressive and violent drives, it is likely that men will seek imaginary regressive experiences to discharge frustrations.

  5. Personal cancer knowledge and information seeking through PRISM: the planned risk information seeking model.

    PubMed

    Hovick, Shelly R; Kahlor, Leeann; Liang, Ming-Ching

    2014-04-01

    This study retested PRISM, a model of risk information seeking, and found that it is applicable to the context of cancer risk communication. The study, which used an online sample of 928 U.S. adults, also tested the effect of additional variables on that model and found that the original model better fit the data. Among the strongest predictors of cancer information seeking were seeking-related subjective norms, attitude toward seeking, perceived knowledge insufficiency, and affective risk response. Furthermore, risk perception was a strong predictor of an affective risk response. The authors suggest that, given the robustness across studies, the path between seeking-related subjective norms and seeking intention is ready to be implemented in communication practice. PMID:24433251

  6. 34 CFR 403.71 - In what additional ways may funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... agencies; (b) The support for tech-prep education as described in 34 CFR part 406; (c)(1) The support of... State Programs and State Leadership Activities? 403.71 Section 403.71 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? State Programs and State Leadership Activities § 403.71 In...

  7. 34 CFR 403.71 - In what additional ways may funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... agencies; (b) The support for tech-prep education as described in 34 CFR part 406; (c)(1) The support of... State Programs and State Leadership Activities? 403.71 Section 403.71 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? State Programs and State Leadership Activities § 403.71 In...

  8. 34 CFR 403.71 - In what additional ways may funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agencies; (b) The support for tech-prep education as described in 34 CFR part 406; (c)(1) The support of... State Programs and State Leadership Activities? 403.71 Section 403.71 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? State Programs and State Leadership Activities § 403.71 In...

  9. 34 CFR 403.71 - In what additional ways may funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies; (b) The support for tech-prep education as described in 34 CFR part 406; (c)(1) The support of... State Programs and State Leadership Activities? 403.71 Section 403.71 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? State Programs and State Leadership Activities § 403.71 In...

  10. 34 CFR 403.71 - In what additional ways may funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... agencies; (b) The support for tech-prep education as described in 34 CFR part 406; (c)(1) The support of... State Programs and State Leadership Activities? 403.71 Section 403.71 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? State Programs and State Leadership Activities § 403.71 In...

  11. Understanding Health Information Seeking from an Actor-Centric Perspective.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Simon; Waldman, Linda; Bloom, Gerry; Rasheed, Sabrina; Scott, Nigel; Ahmed, Tanvir; Khan, Nazib Uz Zaman; Sharmin, Tamanna

    2015-07-15

    This paper presents a conceptual approach for discussing health information seeking among poor households in Africa and Asia. This approach is part of a larger research endeavor aimed at understanding how health systems are adapting; with possibilities and constraints emerging. These health systems can be found in a context of the changing relationships between states, markets and civil society in low and middle income countries. The paper starts from an understanding of the health sector as a "health knowledge economy", organized to provide people with access to knowledge and advice. The use of the term "health knowledge economy" draws attention to the ways the health sector is part of a broader knowledge economy changing the way individuals and households obtain and use specialist information. The paper integrates an actor centric approach with the theory of planned behavior. It seeks to identify the actors engaged in the health knowledge economy as a precursor to longer term studies on the uptake of innovations integrating health services with mobile phones, commonly designated as mHealth, contributing to an understanding of the potential vulnerabilities of poor people, and highlighting possible dangers if providers of health information and advice are strongly influenced by interest groups.

  12. Understanding Health Information Seeking from an Actor-Centric Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor, Simon; Waldman, Linda; Bloom, Gerry; Rasheed, Sabrina; Scott, Nigel; Ahmed, Tanvir; Uz Zaman Khan, Nazib; Sharmin, Tamanna

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual approach for discussing health information seeking among poor households in Africa and Asia. This approach is part of a larger research endeavor aimed at understanding how health systems are adapting; with possibilities and constraints emerging. These health systems can be found in a context of the changing relationships between states, markets and civil society in low and middle income countries. The paper starts from an understanding of the health sector as a “health knowledge economy”, organized to provide people with access to knowledge and advice. The use of the term “health knowledge economy” draws attention to the ways the health sector is part of a broader knowledge economy changing the way individuals and households obtain and use specialist information. The paper integrates an actor centric approach with the theory of planned behavior. It seeks to identify the actors engaged in the health knowledge economy as a precursor to longer term studies on the uptake of innovations integrating health services with mobile phones, commonly designated as mHealth, contributing to an understanding of the potential vulnerabilities of poor people, and highlighting possible dangers if providers of health information and advice are strongly influenced by interest groups. PMID:26184275

  13. Understanding Health Information Seeking from an Actor-Centric Perspective.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Simon; Waldman, Linda; Bloom, Gerry; Rasheed, Sabrina; Scott, Nigel; Ahmed, Tanvir; Khan, Nazib Uz Zaman; Sharmin, Tamanna

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a conceptual approach for discussing health information seeking among poor households in Africa and Asia. This approach is part of a larger research endeavor aimed at understanding how health systems are adapting; with possibilities and constraints emerging. These health systems can be found in a context of the changing relationships between states, markets and civil society in low and middle income countries. The paper starts from an understanding of the health sector as a "health knowledge economy", organized to provide people with access to knowledge and advice. The use of the term "health knowledge economy" draws attention to the ways the health sector is part of a broader knowledge economy changing the way individuals and households obtain and use specialist information. The paper integrates an actor centric approach with the theory of planned behavior. It seeks to identify the actors engaged in the health knowledge economy as a precursor to longer term studies on the uptake of innovations integrating health services with mobile phones, commonly designated as mHealth, contributing to an understanding of the potential vulnerabilities of poor people, and highlighting possible dangers if providers of health information and advice are strongly influenced by interest groups. PMID:26184275

  14. Help-Seeking Stigma and Mental Health Treatment Seeking Among Young Adult Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Corrigan, Patrick; Marshall, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Veterans underutilize mental health services. We investigated the association between treatment seeking stigma and utilization of mental health services in a sample of 812 young adult veterans. Higher perceived public stigma of treatment seeking was significantly related to lower treatment utilization. Although many veterans were concerned about negative perceptions if they were to seek treatment, a much smaller number of them endorsed that they would judge a fellow veteran negatively in similar situation. Targeting perceived public stigma of treatment seeking, through perceived norms interventions, might help in narrowing the gap between the need and receipt of help among veterans. PMID:26664795

  15. Active control and sound synthesis--two different ways to investigate the influence of the modal parameters of a guitar on its sound.

    PubMed

    Benacchio, Simon; Mamou-Mani, Adrien; Chomette, Baptiste; Finel, Victor

    2016-03-01

    The vibrational behavior of musical instruments is usually studied using physical modeling and simulations. Recently, active control has proven its efficiency to experimentally modify the dynamical behavior of musical instruments. This approach could also be used as an experimental tool to systematically study fine physical phenomena. This paper proposes to use modal active control as an alternative to sound simulation to study the complex case of the coupling between classical guitar strings and soundboard. A comparison between modal active control and sound simulation investigates the advantages, the drawbacks, and the limits of these two approaches.

  16. Active control and sound synthesis--two different ways to investigate the influence of the modal parameters of a guitar on its sound.

    PubMed

    Benacchio, Simon; Mamou-Mani, Adrien; Chomette, Baptiste; Finel, Victor

    2016-03-01

    The vibrational behavior of musical instruments is usually studied using physical modeling and simulations. Recently, active control has proven its efficiency to experimentally modify the dynamical behavior of musical instruments. This approach could also be used as an experimental tool to systematically study fine physical phenomena. This paper proposes to use modal active control as an alternative to sound simulation to study the complex case of the coupling between classical guitar strings and soundboard. A comparison between modal active control and sound simulation investigates the advantages, the drawbacks, and the limits of these two approaches. PMID:27036278

  17. My Way in Archaeomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacheva, Mary

    2014-05-01

    The talk describes the main hallmarks in my nearly half a century activity in the field of archaeomagnetism. Beginning from zero in my country in 1967, now the Bulgarian database is the longest data set comprising the three geomagnetic characteristics. I consider that the determination of the direction and absolute palaeointensity from one and the same material is the most valuable input data for the important geomagnetic field modeling. The recovered full geomagnetic vector gives much more opportunities for different geophysical applications. The maintenance, filling up and revision of the local database remained my principle obligation during my professional way. As a result taking the advantage of our country to have plenty of prehistoric single and multilevel sites the knowledge of the geomagnetic field behavior was prolonged deeply in the past going to 6000 yrs BC. The usage of 14C dates will be discussed describing possible difficulties which can be encountered. The specific multilevel prehistoric sites, found mostly in the Near East and the Balkans, with clear stratigraphy are particularly useful for archaeomagnetic discovery of the past geomagnetic field behavior. In this respect the well-timed activity of geophysical teams following the archaeological excavations is very important for the future elucidation of geomagnetic secular variations. The constant tight contact with the archaeological community of each country during this process is crucial. Examples of most valuable topics of interest for archaeologists will be given in the talk as synchronizations, magnetic characteristics related to the type of ceramics, archaeomagnetic dating etc. This is an important task because we should keep their interest towards our studies giving us the necessary materials. Some obtained questionable results will be discussed parallel with the progress in understanding the physical processes in baked clay and its magnetic mineralogy. Going deeply in diagnosis of the

  18. Does Media Use Result in More Active Communicators? Differences Between Native Dutch and Turkish-Dutch Patients in Information-Seeking Behavior and Participation During Consultations With General Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Schinkel, Sanne; Van Weert, Julia C M; Kester, Jorrit A M; Smit, Edith G; Schouten, Barbara C

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates differences between native Dutch and Turkish-Dutch patients with respect to media usage before and patient participation during medical consultations with general practitioners. In addition, the authors assessed the relation between patient participation and communication outcomes. The patients were recruited in the waiting rooms of general practitioners, and 191 patients (117 native Dutch, 74 Turkish-Dutch) completed pre- and postconsultation questionnaires. Of this sample, 120 patients (62.8%; 82 native Dutch, 38 Turkish-Dutch) agreed to have their consultations recorded to measure patient participation. Compared with Turkish-Dutch patients of similar educational levels, results showed that native Dutch patients used different media to search for information, participated to a greater extent during their consultations and were more responsive to their general practitioner. With respect to the Turkish-Dutch patients, media usage was related to increased patient participation, which was correlated with having fewer unfulfilled information needs; however, these relations were not found in the native Dutch patient sample. In conclusion, interventions that enhance participation among ethnic minority patients will better fulfill informational needs when such interventions stimulate information-seeking behavior in that group before a medical consultation.

  19. Mechanisms of host seeking by parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Gang, Spencer S; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-07-01

    The phylum Nematoda comprises a diverse group of roundworms that includes parasites of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Human-parasitic nematodes infect more than one billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases, particularly in low-resource countries [1]. Parasitic nematodes of livestock and crops result in billions of dollars in losses each year [1]. Many nematode infections are treatable with low-cost anthelmintic drugs, but repeated infections are common in endemic areas and drug resistance is a growing concern with increasing therapeutic and agricultural administration [1]. Many parasitic nematodes have an environmental infective larval stage that engages in host seeking, a process whereby the infective larvae use sensory cues to search for hosts. Host seeking is a complex behavior that involves multiple sensory modalities, including olfaction, gustation, thermosensation, and humidity sensation. As the initial step of the parasite-host interaction, host seeking could be a powerful target for preventative intervention. However, host-seeking behavior remains poorly understood. Here we review what is currently known about the host-seeking behaviors of different parasitic nematodes, including insect-parasitic nematodes, mammalian-parasitic nematodes, and plant-parasitic nematodes. We also discuss the neural bases of these behaviors.

  20. Mechanisms of host seeking by parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Gang, Spencer S; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-07-01

    The phylum Nematoda comprises a diverse group of roundworms that includes parasites of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Human-parasitic nematodes infect more than one billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases, particularly in low-resource countries [1]. Parasitic nematodes of livestock and crops result in billions of dollars in losses each year [1]. Many nematode infections are treatable with low-cost anthelmintic drugs, but repeated infections are common in endemic areas and drug resistance is a growing concern with increasing therapeutic and agricultural administration [1]. Many parasitic nematodes have an environmental infective larval stage that engages in host seeking, a process whereby the infective larvae use sensory cues to search for hosts. Host seeking is a complex behavior that involves multiple sensory modalities, including olfaction, gustation, thermosensation, and humidity sensation. As the initial step of the parasite-host interaction, host seeking could be a powerful target for preventative intervention. However, host-seeking behavior remains poorly understood. Here we review what is currently known about the host-seeking behaviors of different parasitic nematodes, including insect-parasitic nematodes, mammalian-parasitic nematodes, and plant-parasitic nematodes. We also discuss the neural bases of these behaviors. PMID:27211240

  1. Help-seeking behaviour: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Cornally, Nicola; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2011-06-01

    The concept 'help-seeking behaviour' has gained popularity in recent years as an important vehicle for exploring and understanding patient delay and prompt action across a variety of health conditions. The term is used interchangeably with health seeking and is described as part of both illness behaviour and health behaviour. Concept clarification is required to aid nurses and other health-care professionals understanding of the attributes of help-seeking behaviour and to guide theory development, practice and research. The Walker and Avant method of concept analysis was used to guide the analysis. Help-seeking behaviour was shown to be a complex decision-making process instigated by a problem that challenges personal abilities. According to the literature, the process is characterized by the following attributes: problem focused, intentional action and interpersonal interaction. Help-seeking behaviour for a health problem can therefore be defined as a problem focused, planned behaviour, involving interpersonal interaction with a selected health-care professional. PMID:21605269

  2. Nicotine elicits methamphetamine-seeking in rats previously administered nicotine.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, N M; Harrod, S B; Bardo, M T

    2010-01-01

    Research has indicated a high correlation between psychostimulant use and tobacco cigarette smoking in human substance abusers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration on responding for intravenous methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) in a rodent model of self-administration, as well as the potential of nicotine to induce reinstatement of previously extinguished drug-taking behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, it was assessed whether nicotine-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior and nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization require that nicotine be temporally paired with the methamphetamine self-administration session or the locomotor activity chamber. Nicotine acutely decreased methamphetamine self-administration, but did not persistently alter responding during the maintenance of methamphetamine self-administration. However, following extinction of methamphetamine self-administration, nicotine administration reinstated methamphetamine-seeking behavior only in rats that had previously been administered nicotine. Nicotine-induced reinstatement and expression of locomotor sensitization were not dependent on a temporal pairing of nicotine with either the methamphetamine self-administration session or the locomotor activity chamber, respectively. These results indicate that nicotine may be acting, at least in part, through a non-associative mechanism to reinstate methamphetamine-seeking behavior.

  3. This Way Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Thomas F.; Crossley, Ned

    1999-01-01

    Examines ways of developing successful climbing programs in athletic facilities through a sound business plan augmented by climbing challenges that keep climbers interested. Ideas for attracting new climbers and retaining climber interest are highlighted. (GR)

  4. [Sensation seeking, traumatic stress and coping: an empirical investigation in rescue forces].

    PubMed

    Tschiesner, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    This investigation deals with sensation seeking in rescue forces. We are interested in the scores regarding this variable and relationship between these and other relevant variables. Aim of this research is to find connections between sensation seeking and traumatic stress and what is the role of coping in this connections. All in all we are going to exam Sensation Seeking as a protective factor for traumatic stress.The subjects in this investigation are firefighters and emergency-medical-technicians. We use the German Sensation-Seeking-Scale version 5 (SSS-V) and the Arnett-Inventory-of-Sensation-Seeking (AISS-D) to assess sensation seeking. To explore the traumatic stress symptoms in subjects, we use the Posttraumatic-Stress-Diagnostic-Scale (PDS) and for the coping strategies the short version of Janke and Erdmanns Coping- Questionnaire (SVF-78).We found differences between the rescue forces and the control group in reference to subscales "thrill and adventure seeking" (TAS) and "experience seeking" (ES) as well as no connections between the sensation seeking scales and subscales and traumatic stress symptoms. We found only a significance by trend correlation concerning experience seeking and avoidance. Furthermore we found correlations between AISS-scales as well as the SSS-V-subscales and coping strategies. Partial correlation showed very low coefficients regarding Experience Seeking and Avoidance if we insert coping strategies as a control variable.When we look at the reliability of the questionnaires to assess sensation seeking, we find out that values are very low. Therefore we have to keep in mind that the assessment of Sensation Seeking is defective through an error in measurement and to interpret results carefully. Nonetheless we found that rescue forces search more actively thrills and adventures and the control group more sensual and spiritual stimuli in our sample. We can't prove that sensation seeking is a personality trait which is able to protect

  5. An Engineered Version of Human PON2 Opens the Way to Understand the Role of Its Post-Translational Modifications in Modulating Catalytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mandrich, Luigi; Cerreta, Mariangela; Manco, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The human paraoxonase 2 (PON2) has been described as a highly specific lactonase hydrolysing the quorum sensing molecule N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL) and having secondary esterase but not phosphotriesterase activity, in contrast with the related enzymes PON1 and PON3. It has been suggested that PON2 enzyme activity is dependent on glycosylation and its N-terminal region has been recently demonstrated to be a transmembrane domain mediating association to membranes. In the present study we describe a mutated form of PON2, lacking the above N-terminal region, which has been further stabilized by the insertion of six amino acidic substitutions. The engineered version, hence forth called rPON2, has been over-expressed in E.coli, refolded from inclusion bodies and purified, yielding an enzyme with the same characteristics as the full length enzyme. Therefore the first conclusion of this work was that the catalytic activity is independent from the N-terminus and protein glycosylation. The kinetic characterization confirmed the primary activity on 3OC12-HSL; accordingly, in vitro experiments of inhibition of the biofilm formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) have demonstrated that rPON2 is more effective than PON1. In addition, we observed small but significant activity against organophosphorothiotes pesticides, m-parathion, coumaphos and malathion.The availability of fair amount of active protein allowed to pinpoint, by mass-spectrometry, ubiquitination of Lys 168 induced in rPON2 by HeLa extract and to correlate such post-translational modification to the modulation of catalytic activity. A mutational analysis of the modified residue confirmed the result. PMID:26656916

  6. The Posterior Ventral Tegmental Area Mediates Alcohol-Seeking Behavior in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zheng-Ming; Getachew, Bruk; Toalston, Jamie E.; Oster, Scott M.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2011-01-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is involved in the rewarding process of drugs of abuse and is activated during the anticipation of drug availability. However, the neurocircuitry that regulates ethanol (EtOH)-seeking has not been adequately investigated. The objectives of the present study were to determine 1) whether the posterior ventral tegmental area (p-VTA) mediates EtOH-seeking, 2) whether microinjections of EtOH into the p-VTA could stimulate EtOH-seeking, and (3) the involvement of p-VTA DA neurons in EtOH-seeking. Alcohol-preferring rats were trained to self-administer 15% EtOH and water. After 10 weeks, rats underwent extinction training, followed by 2 weeks in their home cages. During the home-cage period, rats were then bilaterally implanted with guide cannulae aimed at the p-VTA or anterior ventral tegmental area (a-VTA). EtOH-seeking was assessed by the Pavlovian spontaneous recovery model. Separate experiments examined the effects of: 1) microinjection of quinpirole into the p-VTA, 2) EtOH microinjected into the p-VTA, 3) coadministration of EtOH and quinpirole into the p-VTA, 4) microinjection of quinpirole into the a-VTA, and 5) microinjection of EtOH into the a-VTA. Quinpirole microinjected into the p-VTA reduced EtOH-seeking. Microinjections of EtOH into the p-VTA increased EtOH-seeking. Pretreatment with both quinpirole and EtOH into the p-VTA reduced EtOH-seeking. Microinjections of quinpirole or EtOH into the a-VTA did not alter EtOH-seeking. Overall, the results suggest that the p-VTA is a neuroanatomical substrate mediating alcohol-seeking behavior and that activation of local DA neurons is involved. PMID:21148248

  7. Investigation of the neuroanatomical substrates of reward seeking following protracted abstinence in mice

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Heather B; Brown, Robyn M; Short, Jennifer L; Lawrence, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Persistent vulnerability to relapse represents a major challenge in the treatment of drug addiction. The brain circuitry that underlies relapse-like behaviour can be investigated using animal models of drug seeking. As yet there have been no comprehensive brain mapping studies that have specifically examined the neuroanatomical substrates of cue-induced opiate seeking following abstinence in a mouse operant paradigm. The aim of this study was to compare the brain regions involved in sucrose vs. morphine seeking following protracted abstinence in mice. Male CD1 mice were trained to respond for either sucrose (10% w/v) or intravenous morphine (0.1 mg kg−1 per infusion) in an operant paradigm in the presence of a discrete cue. Once stable responding was established, mice were subjected to abstinence in their home cages for 3 weeks and then perfused for tissue collection, or returned to the operant chambers to assess cue-induced reward seeking before being perfused for tissue collection. Brain tissue was processed for Fos immunohistochemistry and Fos expression was quantified in a range of brain nuclei. We identified unique patterns of neuronal activation for sucrose and morphine seeking mice as well as some overlap. Structures activated in both ‘relapse’ groups included the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens shell, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, substantia nigra pars compacta, ventral tegmental area, hippocampus, periaqueductal grey, locus coeruleus and lateral habenula. Structures that were more activated in morphine seeking mice included the nucleus accumbens core, basolateral amygdala, substantia nigra pars reticulata, and the central nucleus of the amygdala. The dorsal raphe was the only structure examined that was specifically activated in sucrose seeking mice. Overall our findings support a cortico-striatal limbic circuit driving opiate seeking, and we have identified some additional circuitry potentially relevant to

  8. A Rolling Stone Gathers No Moss–The Long Way from Good Intentions to Physical Activity Mediated by Planning, Social Support, and Self-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Paech, Juliane; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although many people know that an active lifestyle contributes to health they fail to translate their intentions into action. This has been explained by deficits in self-management and resources, such as enabling social support, planning, and self-regulation in the face of barriers. The present study examines the role of perceived social support, planning, and self-regulation in facilitating physical activity. Methods: In a prospective online study, intention was assessed at baseline (Time 1), planning and social support at 4-week follow-up (Time 2), self-regulation and physical activity at 6-month follow-up (Time 3). A path analysis was conducted to shed light on mediating psychological mechanisms contributing to maintenance of physical activity. Results: Perceived support (Time 2), planning (Time 2), and self-regulation (Time 3) mediated the link from intention (Time 1) to physical activity (Time 3); the specific and total indirect effects were significant. Conclusions: Findings suggest that perceived social support, planning, and self-regulation can bridge the intention-behavior gap. Behavior change interventions should target those mechanisms in vulnerable individuals. PMID:27458417

  9. "Apps"--An Innovative Way to Share Extension Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvorak, Joseph S.; Franke-Dvorak, Tanya C.; Price, Randy R.

    2012-01-01

    Extension professionals across the country are continuously seeking innovative ways to reach clientele and to disseminate timely, educational information. A new avenue to reach clientele includes the use of smartphone "apps." The "Machinery Sizing" app, which was developed to ease the estimation of tractor horsepower to…

  10. Expanding HPC and Research Computing--The Sustainable Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grush, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Increased demands for research and high-performance computing (HPC)--along with growing expectations for cost and environmental savings--are putting new strains on the campus data center. More and more, CIOs like the University of Notre Dame's (Indiana) Gordon Wishon are seeking creative ways to build more sustainable models for data center and…

  11. New Scholarship on Academic Women: Beyond "Women's Ways."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twombly, Susan B.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews four recent books on academic women. Collectively, they suggest that new scholarship on academic women is more international, reflects a postmodern attention to difference and power, rejects "women's ways" feminism as a sufficient response, and seeks to reclaim issues of power, authority, and politics through attention to policy.…

  12. Comment to Sherr and Sherr (1999): "Is there any appropriate way to distinguish different beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase activities in aquatic environments?"

    PubMed

    Vrba

    2000-07-01

    The recent paper of Sherr and Sherr on detecting low-affinity beta-glucosaminidase activity in several marine microbes extends current knowledge about hydrolytic enzyme activities in natural aquatic systems. However, their conclusions regarding the whole-cell assay with MUF-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide (MUF-[GlcNAc]) cannot be accepted. First, we explicitly demonstrate a strong correlation between extracellular activities of the high-affinity enzymes and grazing rates of bacterivorous protists. Therefore, the assay can still be recommended for the estimation of total protistan grazing on prokaryotic picoplankton. Second, the ability of many aquatic organisms to produce enzymes which cleave fluorogenic substrates, such as MUF-[GlcNAc] and/or MUF-beta-D-N,N',N"-triacetylchitotriose (MUF-[GlcNAc](3)), has been well-documented during the last decade. Thus, neither of the two substrates may be considered as exclusively specific for targeting either lysozymes or beta-N-acetylhexosaminidases.

  13. Dealing with drug-seeking behaviour.

    PubMed

    James, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    People who misuse prescription drugs most commonly seek prescriptions for opioids and benzodiazepines. Other prescription drugs that are misused include the newer antipsychotics such as quetiapine and olanzapine, and stimulants such as dexamphetamine and methylphenidate. Health professionals should be aware of behaviours that may indicate drug seeking, but dependency on prescription drugs can occur at any age, within any cultural group and across any educational class. Patients with dependencies may not necessarily display obvious drug-seeking behaviours. All general practices should have a practice policy on prescribing drugs of dependence. GPs should register with the Prescription Shopping Information Service. There is strong evidence in Australia of increasing harms from prescription drugs of dependence, including deaths from overdose. Before prescribing any drug of dependence, health professionals require an understanding of the patient's biopsychosocial status, and the evidence-based indications and potential significant harms of these drugs. PMID:27346918

  14. Understanding those who seek frequent psychiatric hospitalizations.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Phyllis; Kirkpatrick, Helen

    2002-02-01

    In the period after deinstitutionalization, there has been a rise in hospital readmission rates. It is estimated that the readmission rate for individuals who are frequent users of psychiatric inpatient services is approximately 40% to 50% within 1 year of hospital discharge. Attempts to determine predictors of recidivism have identified multiple variables, some of which are mutually contradictory. Furthermore, comparison among studies is difficult given methodological and theoretical limitations. Despite such issues, however, one consistent predictor of frequent rehospitalization is a person's history of past psychiatric hospital admissions. It seems that those who have shown a pattern of seeking inpatient services in the past tend to repeat this treatment-seeking behavior. The aim of this report is to critically examine some of the predictors of rehospitalization. A better understanding of those who engage in the persistent pattern of seeking inpatient services may assist nurses in planning care that is more suited for their needs. PMID:11877602

  15. Dealing with drug-seeking behaviour

    PubMed Central

    James, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY People who misuse prescription drugs most commonly seek prescriptions for opioids and benzodiazepines. Other prescription drugs that are misused include the newer antipsychotics such as quetiapine and olanzapine, and stimulants such as dexamphetamine and methylphenidate. Health professionals should be aware of behaviours that may indicate drug seeking, but dependency on prescription drugs can occur at any age, within any cultural group and across any educational class. Patients with dependencies may not necessarily display obvious drug-seeking behaviours. All general practices should have a practice policy on prescribing drugs of dependence. GPs should register with the Prescription Shopping Information Service. There is strong evidence in Australia of increasing harms from prescription drugs of dependence, including deaths from overdose. Before prescribing any drug of dependence, health professionals require an understanding of the patient’s biopsychosocial status, and the evidence-based indications and potential significant harms of these drugs. PMID:27346918

  16. Measuring Help-Seeking Intentions: Properties of the General Help Seeking Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Coralie J.; Deane, Frank P.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Rickwood, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Understanding help seeking intentions and behaviour is fundamental to the identification of factors that can be modified to increase engagement in counselling. Despite considerable research on these variables, integrating prior research has been impeded by a lack of consistent and psychometrically sound help-seeking measures. The General…

  17. Why doctors should seek publicity: 15+ reasons to seek media attention.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Physicians have been shy about reaching out for free publicity, even though they are some of the most well-trained and accomplished professionals in our society. There's no reason for them not to seek out attention and to promote themselves in an ethical fashion. This article will review 15+ reasons for physicians to seek publicity and become a darling of the media.

  18. [Current status of occupational health activities and the way that occupational health services should be offered to small- and medium-scale enterprises].

    PubMed

    Kayashima, Kotaro

    2013-10-01

    Activating occupational safety and health activities among Small- and Medium-scale Enterprises (SMEs) is a major issue because more than 80% of Japanese workers belong to these enterprises, in which the number of workers are less than 300 people. However, as the size of the enterprise decreases, the occurrence of problems of safety and health management systems and safety and health activities increases. Reasons for this include both the limitations of investments shortages of human resources. Occupational health services in SMEs has been provided by the cooperation of the following institutions: public associations (such as Regional Occupational Health Centers, Occupational Health Promotion Centers, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association (JISHA)), occupational health agencies which provide checkup services, health insurance associations, and regional medical services. In contrast to the low coverage of occupational health services among SMEs in Japan, there are some countries in Europe in which this coverage is almost 100%. This is because of the development of occupational health services outside the company. To show the benefits of the safety and health activities to managers of SMEs, and to motivate them to take advantage of the services, it is important to consider measurements. Also, establishing systems that provide those services, improving the quality of specialists such as occupational physicians, and educating human resources, are all necessary.

  19. [Current status of occupational health activities and the way that occupational health services should be offered to small- and medium-scale enterprises].

    PubMed

    Kayashima, Kotaro

    2013-10-01

    Activating occupational safety and health activities among Small- and Medium-scale Enterprises (SMEs) is a major issue because more than 80% of Japanese workers belong to these enterprises, in which the number of workers are less than 300 people. However, as the size of the enterprise decreases, the occurrence of problems of safety and health management systems and safety and health activities increases. Reasons for this include both the limitations of investments shortages of human resources. Occupational health services in SMEs has been provided by the cooperation of the following institutions: public associations (such as Regional Occupational Health Centers, Occupational Health Promotion Centers, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association (JISHA)), occupational health agencies which provide checkup services, health insurance associations, and regional medical services. In contrast to the low coverage of occupational health services among SMEs in Japan, there are some countries in Europe in which this coverage is almost 100%. This is because of the development of occupational health services outside the company. To show the benefits of the safety and health activities to managers of SMEs, and to motivate them to take advantage of the services, it is important to consider measurements. Also, establishing systems that provide those services, improving the quality of specialists such as occupational physicians, and educating human resources, are all necessary. PMID:24107334

  20. Enthusiastic, Realistic and Critical: Discourses of Internet Use in the Context of Everyday Life Information Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2004-01-01

    Based on the interviews of eighteen participants, the ways in which people talk about their source preferences with regard to the Internet in everyday life information seeking were investigated by using discourse analysis. Three major interpretative repertoires were identified: Enthusiastic, Realistic and Critical. The Enthusiastic repertoire…

  1. Client Discourses on the Process of Seeking Same-Sex Couple Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Jan; Peel, Elizabeth; Owen-Pugh, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    How same-sex couples manage the process of seeking help for their relationships is an under-researched area. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 people who had engaged in same-sex couple counselling, and were analysed using discourse analysis. The ways in which the couples positioned themselves as part of a "minority…

  2. Developing an Attitude Scale toward Seeking Psychological Help for Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin Baltaci, Hülya

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: Adolescence is a period during which emotional and behavioral problems are increased. Adolescents seek answers for the questions such as "what kind of person should I be?" Additionally, it is a period in which one undergoes and must adapt to physical changes. Some adolescents are not able to find their way during this…

  3. Chinese International Students in Australia: An Insight into Their Help and Information Seeking Manners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Cao; Tran, Ly Thi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the ways that international students seek information and help in the host country is essential for improving academic, social, cultural, and welfare support for this student cohort. However, there is a dearth of literature that documents how international students in the vocational education and training (VET) sector do so. This…

  4. Men's Help Seeking for Depression: The Efficacy of a Male-Sensitive Brochure about Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Joseph H.; Vogel, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Although depression among men is becoming better understood, men still underuse counseling services. Hence, there is an important need for improved ways to reach out to depressed men. This study examined the efficacy of a male-sensitive brochure aimed toward improving attitudes about seeking counseling and reducing the self-stigma of seeking…

  5. New Liberian President Seeks to Rehabilitate Country's Education System: Finding Teachers Still Country's Main Hurdle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Tracie

    2007-01-01

    Troubled by the difficulties of training teachers in Liberia, President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf says she hopes to attract them from U.S. colleges and universities. Sirleaf envisions the Liberian Education Trust as a way to help repair a country devastated by two civil wars. The trust seeks to raise money so that the West African country can build 50…

  6. Adapting interrelated two-way clustering method for quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling of mutagenicity/non- mutagenicity of a diverse set of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Subhabrata; Basak, Subhash C; Grunwald, Gregory D

    2013-12-01

    Interrelated Two-way Clustering (ITC) is an unsupervised clustering method developed to divide samples into two groups in gene expression data obtained through microarrays, selecting important genes simultaneously in the process. This has been found to be a better approach than conventional clustering methods like K-means or selforganizing map for the scenarios when number of samples is much smaller than number of variables (n«p). In this paper we used the ITC approach for classification of a diverse set of 508 chemicals regarding mutagenicity. A large number of topological indices (TIs), 3-dimensional, and quantum chemical descriptors, as well as atom pairs (APs) has been used as explanatory variables. In this paper, ITC has been used only for predictor selection, after which ridge regression is employed to build the final predictive model. The proper leave-one-out (LOO) method of cross-validation in this scenario is to take as holdout each of the 508 compounds before predictor thinning and compare the predicted values with the experimental data. ITC based results obtained here are comparable to those developed earlier.

  7. Novelty-seeking in rats--biobehavioral characteristics and possible relationship with the sensation-seeking trait in man.

    PubMed

    Dellu, F; Piazza, P V; Mayo, W; Le Moal, M; Simon, H

    1996-01-01

    A behavioral trait in rats which resembles some of the features of high-sensation seekers in man has been characterized. Given that the response to novelty is the basis of the definition of sensation-seeking, individual differences in reactivity to novelty have been studied on behavioral and biological levels. Certain individuals labeled as high responders (HR) as opposed to low responders (LR) have been shown to be highly reactive when exposed to a novel environment. These groups were investigated for free-choice responses to novel environments differing in complexity and aversiveness, and to other kinds of reinforcement, i.e. food and a drug. The HR rats appeared to seek novelty, variety and emotional stimulation. Only HR individuals have been found to be predisposed to drug-taking: they develop amphetamine self-administration whereas LR individuals do not. They also exhibit a higher sensitivity to the reinforcing properties of food. On a biological level, compared to LR rats, HR animals have an enhanced level of dopaminergic activity in the nucleus accumbens both under basal conditions or following a tail-pinch stress. HR and LR rats differ in reactivity of the corticotropic axis: HR rats exposed to a novel environment have a prolonged secretion of corticosterone compared to LR rats. The association of novelty, drug and food seeking in the same individual suggests that these characteristics share common processes. Differences in dopaminergic activity between HR and LR rats are consistent with results implicating these dopaminergic neurons in response to novelty and in drug-taking behavior. Given that rats self-administer corticosterone and that HR rats are more sensitive to the reinforcing properties of corticosteroids, it could be speculated that HR rats seek novelty for the reinforcing action of corticosterone. These characteristics may be analogous to some for the features found in human high-sensation seekers and this animal model may be useful in

  8. Aversive stimuli drive drug seeking in a state of low dopamine tone

    PubMed Central

    Twining, Robert C.; Wheeler, Daniel S.; Ebben, Amanda L.; Jacobsen, Andre J.; Robble, Mykel A.; Mantsch, John R.; Wheeler, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Stressors negatively impact emotional state and drive drug seeking, in part, by modulating the activity of the mesolimbic dopamine system. Unfortunately, the rapid regulation of dopamine signaling by the aversive stimuli that cause drug seeking is not well characterized. In a series of experiments we scrutinized the subsecond regulation of dopamine signaling by the aversive stimulus, quinine, and tested its ability to cause cocaine seeking. Additionally, we examined the midbrain regulation of both dopamine signaling and cocaine seeking by the stress-sensitive peptide, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). Methods Combining fast-scan cyclic voltammetry with behavioral pharmacology, we examined the effect of intraoral quinine administration on nucleus accumbens dopamine signaling and hedonic expression in twenty-one male, Sprague-Dawley rats. We tested the role of CRF in modulating aversion-induced changes in dopamine concentration and cocaine seeking by bilaterally infusing the CRF antagonist, CP-376395, into the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Results We found that quinine rapidly reduced dopamine signaling on two distinct timescales. We determined that CRF acted in the VTA to mediate this reduction on only one of these timescales. Further, we found that the reduction of dopamine tone and quinine-induced cocaine seeking were eliminated by blocking the actions of CRF in the VTA during the experience of the aversive stimulus. Conclusions These data demonstrate that stress-induced drug seeking can occur in a terminal environment of low dopamine tone that is dependent on a CRF-induced decrease in midbrain dopamine activity. PMID:25442790

  9. Evaluation of Changes in Ghanaian Students' Attitudes Towards Science Following Neuroscience Outreach Activities: A Means to Identify Effective Ways to Inspire Interest in Science Careers.

    PubMed

    Yawson, Nat Ato; Amankwaa, Aaron Opoku; Tali, Bernice; Shang, Velma Owusua; Batu, Emmanuella Nsenbah; Asiemoah, Kwame; Fuseini, Ahmed Denkeri; Tene, Louis Nana; Angaandi, Leticia; Blewusi, Isaac; Borbi, Makafui; Aduku, Linda Nana Esi; Badu, Pheonah; Abbey, Henrietta; Karikari, Thomas K

    2016-01-01

    The scientific capacity in many African countries is low. Ghana, for example, is estimated to have approximately twenty-three researchers per a million inhabitants. In order to improve interest in science among future professionals, appropriate techniques should be developed and employed to identify barriers and correlates of science education among pre-university students. Young students' attitudes towards science may affect their future career choices. However, these attitudes may change with new experiences. It is, therefore, important to evaluate potential changes in students' attitudes towards science after their exposure to experiences such as science outreach activities. Through this, more effective means of inspiring and mentoring young students to choose science subjects can be developed. This approach would be particularly beneficial in countries such as Ghana, where: (i) documented impacts of outreach activities are lacking; and (ii) effective means to develop scientist-school educational partnerships are needed. We have established an outreach scheme, aimed at helping to improve interaction between scientists and pre-university students (and their teachers). Outreach activities are designed and implemented by undergraduate students and graduate teaching assistants, with support from faculty members and technical staff. Through this, we aim to build a team of trainee scientists and graduates who will become ambassadors of science in their future professional endeavors. Here, we describe an approach for assessing changes in junior high school students' attitudes towards science following classroom neuroscience outreach activities. We show that while students tended to agree more with questions concerning their perceptions about science learning after the delivery of outreach activities, significant improvements were obtained for only two questions, namely "I enjoy science lessons" and "I want to be a scientist in the future." Furthermore, there was a

  10. Evaluation of Changes in Ghanaian Students’ Attitudes Towards Science Following Neuroscience Outreach Activities: A Means to Identify Effective Ways to Inspire Interest in Science Careers

    PubMed Central

    Yawson, Nat Ato; Amankwaa, Aaron Opoku; Tali, Bernice; Shang, Velma Owusua; Batu, Emmanuella Nsenbah; Asiemoah, Kwame; Fuseini, Ahmed Denkeri; Tene, Louis Nana; Angaandi, Leticia; Blewusi, Isaac; Borbi, Makafui; Aduku, Linda Nana Esi; Badu, Pheonah; Abbey, Henrietta; Karikari, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    The scientific capacity in many African countries is low. Ghana, for example, is estimated to have approximately twenty-three researchers per a million inhabitants. In order to improve interest in science among future professionals, appropriate techniques should be developed and employed to identify barriers and correlates of science education among pre-university students. Young students’ attitudes towards science may affect their future career choices. However, these attitudes may change with new experiences. It is, therefore, important to evaluate potential changes in students’ attitudes towards science after their exposure to experiences such as science outreach activities. Through this, more effective means of inspiring and mentoring young students to choose science subjects can be developed. This approach would be particularly beneficial in countries such as Ghana, where: (i) documented impacts of outreach activities are lacking; and (ii) effective means to develop scientist-school educational partnerships are needed. We have established an outreach scheme, aimed at helping to improve interaction between scientists and pre-university students (and their teachers). Outreach activities are designed and implemented by undergraduate students and graduate teaching assistants, with support from faculty members and technical staff. Through this, we aim to build a team of trainee scientists and graduates who will become ambassadors of science in their future professional endeavors. Here, we describe an approach for assessing changes in junior high school students’ attitudes towards science following classroom neuroscience outreach activities. We show that while students tended to agree more with questions concerning their perceptions about science learning after the delivery of outreach activities, significant improvements were obtained for only two questions, namely “I enjoy science lessons” and “I want to be a scientist in the future.” Furthermore

  11. Different ways to die: cell death modes of the unicellular chlorophyte Dunaliella viridis exposed to various environmental stresses are mediated by the caspase-like activity DEVDase.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Carlos; Capasso, Juan M; Edelstein, Charles L; Rivard, Christopher J; Lucia, Scott; Breusegem, Sophia; Berl, Tomás; Segovia, María

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death is necessary for homeostasis in multicellular organisms and it is also widely recognized to occur in unicellular organisms. However, the mechanisms through which it occurs in unicells, and the enzymes involved within the final response is still the subject of heated debate. It is shown here that exposure of the unicellular microalga Dunaliella viridis to several environmental stresses, induced different cell death morphotypes, depending on the stimulus received. Senescent cells demonstrated classical and unambiguous apoptotic-like characteristics such as chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, intact organelles, and blebbing of the cell membrane. Acute heat shock caused general swelling and altered plasma membrane, but the presence of chromatin clusters and DNA strand breaks suggested a necrotic-like event. UV irradiated cells presented changes typical for necrosis, together with apoptotic characteristics resembling an intermediate cell-death phenotype termed aponecrosis-like. Cells subjected to hyperosmotic shock revealed chromatin spotting without DNA fragmentation, and extensive cytoplasmic swelling and vacuolization, comparable to a paraptotic-like cell death phenotype. Nitrogen-starved cells showed pyknosis, blebbing, and cytoplasmic consumption, indicating a similarity to autophagic/vacuolar-like cell death. The caspase-like activity DEVDase was measured by using the fluorescent substrate Ac-DEVD-AMC and antibodies against the human caspase-3 active enzyme cross-reacted with bands, the intensity of which paralleled the activity. All the environmental stresses tested produced a substantial increase in both DEVDase activity and protein levels. The irreversible caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK completely inhibited the enzymatic activity whereas serine and aspartyl proteases inhibitors did not. These results show that cell death in D. viridis does not conform to a single pattern and that environmental stimuli may produce different types of

  12. Evaluation of Changes in Ghanaian Students' Attitudes Towards Science Following Neuroscience Outreach Activities: A Means to Identify Effective Ways to Inspire Interest in Science Careers.

    PubMed

    Yawson, Nat Ato; Amankwaa, Aaron Opoku; Tali, Bernice; Shang, Velma Owusua; Batu, Emmanuella Nsenbah; Asiemoah, Kwame; Fuseini, Ahmed Denkeri; Tene, Louis Nana; Angaandi, Leticia; Blewusi, Isaac; Borbi, Makafui; Aduku, Linda Nana Esi; Badu, Pheonah; Abbey, Henrietta; Karikari, Thomas K

    2016-01-01

    The scientific capacity in many African countries is low. Ghana, for example, is estimated to have approximately twenty-three researchers per a million inhabitants. In order to improve interest in science among future professionals, appropriate techniques should be developed and employed to identify barriers and correlates of science education among pre-university students. Young students' attitudes towards science may affect their future career choices. However, these attitudes may change with new experiences. It is, therefore, important to evaluate potential changes in students' attitudes towards science after their exposure to experiences such as science outreach activities. Through this, more effective means of inspiring and mentoring young students to choose science subjects can be developed. This approach would be particularly beneficial in countries such as Ghana, where: (i) documented impacts of outreach activities are lacking; and (ii) effective means to develop scientist-school educational partnerships are needed. We have established an outreach scheme, aimed at helping to improve interaction between scientists and pre-university students (and their teachers). Outreach activities are designed and implemented by undergraduate students and graduate teaching assistants, with support from faculty members and technical staff. Through this, we aim to build a team of trainee scientists and graduates who will become ambassadors of science in their future professional endeavors. Here, we describe an approach for assessing changes in junior high school students' attitudes towards science following classroom neuroscience outreach activities. We show that while students tended to agree more with questions concerning their perceptions about science learning after the delivery of outreach activities, significant improvements were obtained for only two questions, namely "I enjoy science lessons" and "I want to be a scientist in the future." Furthermore, there was a

  13. Goal-seeking neural net for recall and recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omidvar, Omid M.

    1990-07-01

    Neural networks have been used to mimic cognitive processes which take place in animal brains. The learning capability inherent in neural networks makes them suitable candidates for adaptive tasks such as recall and recognition. The synaptic reinforcements create a proper condition for adaptation, which results in memorization, formation of perception, and higher order information processing activities. In this research a model of a goal seeking neural network is studied and the operation of the network with regard to recall and recognition is analyzed. In these analyses recall is defined as retrieval of stored information where little or no matching is involved. On the other hand recognition is recall with matching; therefore it involves memorizing a piece of information with complete presentation. This research takes the generalized view of reinforcement in which all the signals are potential reinforcers. The neuronal response is considered to be the source of the reinforcement. This local approach to adaptation leads to the goal seeking nature of the neurons as network components. In the proposed model all the synaptic strengths are reinforced in parallel while the reinforcement among the layers is done in a distributed fashion and pipeline mode from the last layer inward. A model of complex neuron with varying threshold is developed to account for inhibitory and excitatory behavior of real neuron. A goal seeking model of a neural network is presented. This network is utilized to perform recall and recognition tasks. The performance of the model with regard to the assigned tasks is presented.

  14. Academic help seeking: theory and strategies for nursing faculty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Carolyn J

    2007-10-01

    This article examines the topic of academic student help seeking and its significance to nursing faculty. Content includes definitions of help seeking, pertinent theory and research on the influence of individual and environmental factors on academic help-seeking behaviors, and suggested strategies in assisting undergraduate nursing students in help seeking endeavors.

  15. Help Seeking in Online Collaborative Groupwork: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao

    2015-01-01

    This study examined predictive models for students' help seeking in the context of online collaborative groupwork. Results from multilevel analysis revealed that most of the variance in help seeking was at the individual student level, and multiple variables at the individual level were predictive of help-seeking behaviour. Help seeking was…

  16. Predicting Relationship Help Seeking Prior to a Marriage Checkup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, C. J. Eubanks; Cordova, James V.

    2012-01-01

    Although the barriers to couples' help seeking can be daunting, to date there is only a small body of literature addressing the factors that motivate couples to seek help. This study examined the association between attitudes toward relationship help seeking and relationship help seeking behaviors, as well as the association between marital…

  17. Information Seeking in a Natural Stress Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, David T. A.

    1971-01-01

    Compares hospitalized tuberculosis patients with informative and uninformative physicians as to their use of library books. Finds that the two groups did not differ in general reading, but that those with uninformative physicians tended to seek out books about tuberculosis and its treatment more often. (MB)

  18. Counseling for Women Who Seek Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth M.

    1972-01-01

    Concerned professionals in various parts of the country have formed crisis-oriented counseling services to meet the needs of women who request abortions. This article presents information obtained from a sample of women seeking abortions and discusses the counselor's role in the decision making process. (Author)

  19. Changing Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrisler, Joan C.

    Despite the increasing acceptance of the value of psychotherapy, there are still those who think people should solve their own problems. A study was conducted to investigate the attitudes of college students toward seeking professional help before and after taking a course in abnormal psychology to determine whether exposure to the purposes and…

  20. Physicians' Internet Information-Seeking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Nancy L.; Casebeer, Linda L.; Kristofco, Robert E.; Strasser, Sheryl M.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Our understanding about the role of the Internet as a resource for physicians has improved in the past several years with reports of patterns for use and measures of impact on medical practice. The purpose of this study was to begin to shape a theory base for more fully describing physicians' information-seeking behaviors as they…

  1. Firm Seeks More Patent Money for Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Research Corporation is aiding universities in locating new sources of income by finding patentable inventions, acting as broker between companies wanting to fund research and investigators with parallel interests, seeking capital for professors whose ideas have commercial possibilities, and finding private donors of scientific equipment.…

  2. Selective Information Seeking after a Single Encounter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitneva, Stanka A.; Dunfield, Kristen A.

    2010-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined whether a single act of testimony can inform children's subsequent information seeking. In Experiment 1, participants saw one informant give a correct and another informant give an incorrect answer to a question, assessed who was "right" ("wrong"), and decided to whom to address a 2nd question. Adults and…

  3. Assertiveness Training for Job-Seeking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Patricia G.; McLoughlin, Mary Ellen

    1977-01-01

    Assertiveness Training for Job-Seeking Skills includes skill development in initiating the job search; arranging actual interviews; preparing a resume; articulating strengths, weaknesses, and career objectives; responding assertively in interviews; asking appropriate questions; accepting or rejecting job offers; confronting discrimination;…

  4. Information Seeking in a Virtual Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byron, Suzanne M.; Young, Jon I.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the applicability of Kuhlthau's Information Search Process Model in the context of a virtual learning environment at the University of North Texas that used virtual collaborative software. Highlights include cognitive and affective aspects of information seeking; computer experience and confidence; and implications for future research.…

  5. Multitasking Information Seeking and Searching Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spink, Amanda; Ozmutlu, H. Cenk; Ozmutlu, Seda

    2002-01-01

    Presents findings from four studies of the prevalence of multitasking information seeking and searching by Web (via the Excite search engine), information retrieval system (mediated online database searching), and academic library users. Highlights include human information coordinating behavior (HICB); and implications for models of information…

  6. Help Seeking in English Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Barbara; Madden, Mary Catherine

    2010-01-01

    An examination of literature on the issue of help seeking (HS) has revealed a common theme: students will not always ask for help, even when they are aware that help is needed. The purpose of this action research study was to examine HS and help avoidance in the context of setting tasks in two types of English language-learning environment: a…

  7. The Help-Seeking in Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bernaud, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    This study examined help-seeking in career counseling by investigating factors that influence students' intention to consult a career counseling center. Nine hundred and eighteen participants were given the Attitudes toward Career Counseling Scale (ATCCS), an information brochure about the career counseling center; the Intention to Consult a…

  8. Children Seek Historical Traces of Owned Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Manczak, Erika M.; Was, Alexandra M.; Noles, Nicholaus S.

    2016-01-01

    An object's mental representation includes not just visible attributes but also its nonvisible history. The present studies tested whether preschoolers seek subtle indicators of an object's history, such as a mark acquired during its handling. Five studies with 169 children 3-5 years of age and 97 college students found that children (like adults)…

  9. Seeking Nominations for COSPAR Awards and Medals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) is seeking candidates to be nominated for COSPAR awards and medals. These awards and medal recognize the outstanding achievements of space scientists throughout the world in a number of areas. It is important to honor the contributions of your colleagues. Therefore, please take a moment to consider nominees for the following:

  10. Seeking Understanding by Which to Educate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Brian V.

    2009-01-01

    In retrospect, Anselm's motto "fides quaerens intellectum" (faith seeking understanding) could fairly be taken to reflect the author's life's journey, beginning with a period of intellectual rebellion against the faith of his Methodist parents as he was entering adolescence. At the age of 14, however, in a revelatory moment, and unbeknown to…

  11. Information Seeking Behaviour of AIOU Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Malik Tariq

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this research study is to investigate the information-seeking behavior of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) administrators in Pakistan. Information is obtained by using a wide variety of informal and formal sources, human sources, Internet as well as print media. The present study found that AIOU administrators are more…

  12. A Principle of Uncertainty for Information Seeking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlthau, Carol C.

    1993-01-01

    Proposes an uncertainty principle for information seeking based on the results of a series of studies that investigated the user's perspective of the information search process. Constructivist theory is discussed as a conceptual framework for studying the user's perspective, and areas for further research are suggested. (Contains 44 references.)…

  13. Multidimensional profiling of CSF1R screening hits and inhibitors: assessing cellular activity, target residence time, and selectivity in a higher throughput way.

    PubMed

    Uitdehaag, Joost C M; Sünnen, Cecile M; van Doornmalen, Antoon M; de Rouw, Nikki; Oubrie, Arthur; Azevedo, Rita; Ziebell, Michael; Nickbarg, Elliott; Karstens, Willem-Jan; Ruygrok, Simone

    2011-10-01

    Over the past years, improvements in high-throughput screening (HTS) technology and compound libraries have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amounts of good-quality screening hits, and there is a growing need for follow-on hit profiling assays with medium throughput to further triage hits. Here the authors present such assays for the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R, Fms), including tests for cellular activity and a homogeneous assay to measure affinity for inactive CSF1R. They also present a high-throughput assay to measure target residence time, which is based on competitive binding kinetics. To better fit k(off) rates, they present a modified mathematical model for competitive kinetics. In all assays, they profiled eight reference inhibitors (imatinib, sorafenib, sunitinib, tandutinib, dasatinib, GW2580, Ki20227, and J&J's pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-5-one). Using the known biochemical selectivities of these inhibitors, which can be quantified using metrics such as the selectivity entropy, the authors have determined which assay readout best predicts hit selectivity. Their profiling shows surprisingly that imatinib has a preference for the active form of CSF1R and that Ki20227 has an unusually slow target dissociation rate. This confirms that follow-on hit profiling is essential to ensure that the best hits are selected for lead optimization.

  14. Constructing and Validating High-Performance MIEC-SVM Models in Virtual Screening for Kinases: A Better Way for Actives Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Huiyong; Pan, Peichen; Tian, Sheng; Xu, Lei; Kong, Xiaotian; Li, Youyong; Dan Li; Hou, Tingjun

    2016-01-01

    The MIEC-SVM approach, which combines molecular interaction energy components (MIEC) derived from free energy decomposition and support vector machine (SVM), has been found effective in capturing the energetic patterns of protein-peptide recognition. However, the performance of this approach in identifying small molecule inhibitors of drug targets has not been well assessed and validated by experiments. Thereafter, by combining different model construction protocols, the issues related to developing best MIEC-SVM models were firstly discussed upon three kinase targets (ABL, ALK, and BRAF). As for the investigated targets, the optimized MIEC-SVM models performed much better than the models based on the default SVM parameters and Autodock for the tested datasets. Then, the proposed strategy was utilized to screen the Specs database for discovering potential inhibitors of the ALK kinase. The experimental results showed that the optimized MIEC-SVM model, which identified 7 actives with IC50 < 10 μM from 50 purchased compounds (namely hit rate of 14%, and 4 in nM level) and performed much better than Autodock (3 actives with IC50 < 10 μM from 50 purchased compounds, namely hit rate of 6%, and 2 in nM level), suggesting that the proposed strategy is a powerful tool in structure-based virtual screening. PMID:27102549

  15. Relationship Between Parental and Adolescent eHealth Literacy and Online Health Information Seeking in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Chen, Ping-Hung; Miao, Nae-Fang; Lee, Ching-Mei; Chiang, Jeng-Tung; Pan, Ying-Chun

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental and adolescent eHealth literacy and its impact on online health information seeking. Data were obtained from 1,869 junior high school students and 1,365 parents in Taiwan in 2013. Multivariate analysis results showed that higher levels of parental Internet skill and eHealth literacy were associated with an increase in parental online health information seeking. Parental eHealth literacy, parental active use Internet mediation, adolescent Internet literacy, and health information literacy were all related to adolescent eHealth literacy. Similarly, adolescent Internet/health information literacy, eHealth literacy, and parental active use Internet mediation, and parental online health information seeking were associated with an increase in adolescent online health information seeking. The incorporation of eHealth literacy courses into parenting programs and school education curricula is crucial to promote the eHealth literacy of parents and adolescents.

  16. The Way of Sweat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonhardy, Galen

    2001-01-01

    Presents a narrative description of experiences shared by the author, his father, and a Nez Perce man named Larry Greene. Explores those experiences in relation to institutionalized education in order to provide insight into not only subjugated ways of knowing but also alternative places of learning. (SG)

  17. Science the "Write" Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Young, Terrell A.

    2005-01-01

    Learning to write well is a long process that comes through teacher modeling, instruction, practice, and feedback. Luckily, the writing process can be used to improve science learning, too. There is perhaps no better place than a science journal for students to develop informational writing skills. Daily journal prompts are one way to encourage…

  18. The Discovery Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Theresa

    2005-01-01

    At the Center for Discovery (The Center), a private, non-profit agency 80 miles northwest of New York City in the Catskill Mountains, children are growing and learning at their own pace, in their own way, with careful attention focused on communication and social/emotional development. Children with autism are being educated to be social beings,…

  19. In the Usual Way...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, James

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an anecdote of the author's experience of working "in the usual way" using animation with Year 7 and with National Academy of Gifted and Talented Youth students (Y7-11) at a recent summer school in Lancaster. When he tried the animation with Year 7 and NAGTY students, the author found that this could easily be used with any…

  20. Pointing the Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, William M.

    1984-01-01

    Complying with regulations that require tactile signs to assist disabled persons is not as onerous as it seems. An intelligently developed signage system will reduce the amount of staff time needed to assist disabled people, most of whom prefer to find their own way. (TE)

  1. Special Days, Special Ways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Jacqueline

    2001-01-01

    Presents unique ways to create special rituals that recognize individual students' achievements and milestones. Ideas include throwing a send-off party for a student who is moving; holding monthly birthday luncheons; choosing an ambassador to accompany new students around school; and making a lost tooth container that students can use to safely…

  2. The Dorsal Agranular Insular Cortex Regulates the Cued Reinstatement of Cocaine-Seeking, but not Food-Seeking, Behavior in Rats.

    PubMed

    Cosme, Caitlin V; Gutman, Andrea L; LaLumiere, Ryan T

    2015-09-01

    Prior studies suggest that the insular cortex (IC), and particularly its posterior region (the PIc), is involved in nicotine craving and relapse in humans and rodents. The present experiments were conducted to determine whether the IC and its different subregions regulate relapse to cocaine-seeking behavior in rats. To address this issue, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent cocaine self-administration followed by extinction training and reinstatement tests. Before each reinstatement, the PIc or the more anterior dorsal agranular IC (AId) was inactivated to determine their roles in the reinstatement to cocaine seeking. In contrast to the nicotine findings, PIc inactivation had no effect on cue-induced reinstatement for cocaine seeking. However, AId inactivation reduced cued reinstatement while having no effect on cocaine-prime reinstatement. AId inactivation had no effect on reinstatement of food-seeking behavior induced by cues, a food-prime, or cues+food-prime. Based on previous work hypothesizing a role for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the IC during craving and relapse, a subsequent experiment found that CRF receptor-1 (CRF1) blockade in the AId similarly reduced cued reinstatement. Our results suggest that the AId, along with CRF1 receptors in this region, regulates reinstatement to cocaine seeking, but not food seeking, depending on the type of reinstatement, whereas PIc activity does not influence cue-induced reinstatement.

  3. The Dorsal Agranular Insular Cortex Regulates the Cued Reinstatement of Cocaine-Seeking, but not Food-Seeking, Behavior in Rats.

    PubMed

    Cosme, Caitlin V; Gutman, Andrea L; LaLumiere, Ryan T

    2015-09-01

    Prior studies suggest that the insular cortex (IC), and particularly its posterior region (the PIc), is involved in nicotine craving and relapse in humans and rodents. The present experiments were conducted to determine whether the IC and its different subregions regulate relapse to cocaine-seeking behavior in rats. To address this issue, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent cocaine self-administration followed by extinction training and reinstatement tests. Before each reinstatement, the PIc or the more anterior dorsal agranular IC (AId) was inactivated to determine their roles in the reinstatement to cocaine seeking. In contrast to the nicotine findings, PIc inactivation had no effect on cue-induced reinstatement for cocaine seeking. However, AId inactivation reduced cued reinstatement while having no effect on cocaine-prime reinstatement. AId inactivation had no effect on reinstatement of food-seeking behavior induced by cues, a food-prime, or cues+food-prime. Based on previous work hypothesizing a role for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the IC during craving and relapse, a subsequent experiment found that CRF receptor-1 (CRF1) blockade in the AId similarly reduced cued reinstatement. Our results suggest that the AId, along with CRF1 receptors in this region, regulates reinstatement to cocaine seeking, but not food seeking, depending on the type of reinstatement, whereas PIc activity does not influence cue-induced reinstatement. PMID:25837282

  4. The Dorsal Agranular Insular Cortex Regulates the Cued Reinstatement of Cocaine-Seeking, but not Food-Seeking, Behavior in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cosme, Caitlin V; Gutman, Andrea L; LaLumiere, Ryan T

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies suggest that the insular cortex (IC), and particularly its posterior region (the PIc), is involved in nicotine craving and relapse in humans and rodents. The present experiments were conducted to determine whether the IC and its different subregions regulate relapse to cocaine-seeking behavior in rats. To address this issue, male Sprague–Dawley rats underwent cocaine self-administration followed by extinction training and reinstatement tests. Before each reinstatement, the PIc or the more anterior dorsal agranular IC (AId) was inactivated to determine their roles in the reinstatement to cocaine seeking. In contrast to the nicotine findings, PIc inactivation had no effect on cue-induced reinstatement for cocaine seeking. However, AId inactivation reduced cued reinstatement while having no effect on cocaine-prime reinstatement. AId inactivation had no effect on reinstatement of food-seeking behavior induced by cues, a food-prime, or cues+food-prime. Based on previous work hypothesizing a role for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the IC during craving and relapse, a subsequent experiment found that CRF receptor-1 (CRF1) blockade in the AId similarly reduced cued reinstatement. Our results suggest that the AId, along with CRF1 receptors in this region, regulates reinstatement to cocaine seeking, but not food seeking, depending on the type of reinstatement, whereas PIc activity does not influence cue-induced reinstatement. PMID:25837282

  5. Sensation-seeking: Dopaminergic modulation and risk for psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Norbury, Agnes; Husain, Masud

    2015-07-15

    Sensation-seeking (SS) is a personality trait that refers to individual differences in motivation for intense and unusual sensory experiences. It describes a facet of human behaviour that has direct relevance for several psychopathologies associated with high social cost. Here, we first review ways of measuring SS behaviour in both humans and animals. We then present convergent evidence that implicates dopaminergic neurotransmission (particularly via D2-type receptors) in individual differences in SS trait. Both high tonic dopamine levels and hyper-reactive midbrain dopaminergic responses to signals of forthcoming reward are evident in higher sensations-seekers. We propose that differences in the efficacy of striatal dopaminergic transmission may result in differential expression of approach-avoidance reactions to same intensity stimuli. This constitutes a quantitative trait of intensity preference for sensory stimulation that may underlie core features of the SS personality. We review the evidence that high trait SS is a vulnerability factor for psychopathologies related to changes in brain dopamine function, in particular substance and gambling addictions. Conversely, we consider the possibility that increased tolerance of high intensity stimulation may represent a protective mechanism against the development of trauma-related psychopathologies (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) in high sensation-seeking individuals. Further understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying SS trait might not only to shed light on the aetiology of these disorders, but also aid in developing individualised therapies and prevention strategies for psychopathologies. PMID:25907745

  6. Role of cues and contexts on drug-seeking behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Christina J; Zbukvic, Isabel; Kim, Jee Hyun; Lawrence, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Environmental stimuli are powerful mediators of craving and relapse in substance-abuse disorders. This review examined how animal models have been used to investigate the cognitive mechanisms through which cues are able to affect drug-seeking behaviour. We address how animal models can describe the way drug-associated cues come to facilitate the development and persistence of drug taking, as well as how these cues are critical to the tendency to relapse that characterizes substance-abuse disorders. Drug-associated cues acquire properties of conditioned reinforcement, incentive motivation and discriminative control, which allow them to influence drug-seeking behaviour. Using these models, researchers have been able to investigate the pharmacology subserving the behavioural impact of environmental stimuli, some of which we highlight. Subsequently, we examine whether the impact of drug-associated stimuli can be attenuated via a process of extinction, and how this question is addressed in the laboratory. We discuss how preclinical research has been translated into behavioural therapies targeting substance abuse, as well as highlight potential developments to therapies that might produce more enduring changes in behaviour. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24749941

  7. Electrical Stimulation of Lateral Habenula during Learning: Frequency-Dependent Effects on Acquisition but Not Retrieval of a Two-Way Active Avoidance Response

    PubMed Central

    Wetzel, Wolfram; Scheich, Henning; Ohl, Frank W.

    2013-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic structure involved in signaling reward omission and aversive stimuli, and it inhibits dopaminergic neurons during motivated behavior. Less is known about LHb involvement in the acquisition and retrieval of avoidance learning. Our previous studies indicated that brief electrical stimulation of the LHb, time-locked to the avoidance of aversive footshock (presumably during the positive affective “relief” state that occurs when an aversive outcome is averted), inhibited the acquisition of avoidance learning. In the present study, we used the same paradigm to investigate different frequencies of LHb stimulation. The effect of 20 Hz vs. 50 Hz vs. 100 Hz stimulation was investigated during two phases, either during acquisition or retrieval in Mongolian gerbils. The results indicated that 50 Hz, but not 20 Hz, was sufficient to produce a long-term impairment in avoidance learning, and was somewhat more effective than 100 Hz in this regard. None of the stimulation parameters led to any effects on retrieval of avoidance learning, nor did they affect general motor activity. This suggests that, at frequencies in excess of the observed tonic firing rates of LHb neurons (>1–20 Hz), LHb stimulation may serve to interrupt the consolidation of new avoidance memories. However, these stimulation parameters are not capable of modifying avoidance memories that have already undergone extensive consolidation. PMID:23840355

  8. Motivational interviewing as a way to promote physical activity in obese adolescents: a randomised-controlled trial using self-determination theory as an explanatory framework.

    PubMed

    Gourlan, Mathieu; Sarrazin, Philippe; Trouilloud, David

    2013-11-01

    Using self-determination theory (SDT) as an explanatory framework, this randomised-controlled study evaluates the effect of a motivational interviewing (MI)-based intervention as an addition to a standard weight loss programme (SWLP) on physical activity (PA) practice in obese adolescents over a six-month period. Fifty-four obese adolescents (mean age = 13 years, mean BMI = 29.57 kg/m²) were randomly assigned to an SWLP group (n = 28) or SWLP + MI group (n = 26). Both groups received two SWLP sessions, supplemented for the SWLP + MI group, by six MI sessions. Perceived autonomy support, perceived competence, motivational regulations, PA and BMI were assessed at baseline, three and six months (i.e. the end of the programme). MLM analyses revealed that compared to SWLP, the SWLP + MI group had a greater BMI decrease and a greater PA practice increase over time. Moreover, the SWLP + MI group reported greater autonomy support from medical staff at the end of the programme, greater increase in integrated and identified regulations and a stronger decrease in amotivation. MI appears as an efficient counselling method as an addition to an SWLP to promote PA in the context of pediatric obesity.

  9. Obstacles and Enablers on the Way towards Integrated Physical Activity Policies for Childhood Obesity Prevention: An Exploration of Local Policy Officials' Views

    PubMed Central

    Habraken, Jolanda M.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; van Oers, Hans; Schuit, Albertine J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Limited physical activity (PA) is a risk factor for childhood obesity. In Netherlands, as in many other countries worldwide, local policy officials bear responsibility for integrated PA policies, involving both health and nonhealth domains. In practice, its development seems hampered. We explore which obstacles local policy officials perceive in their effort. Methods. Fifteen semistructured interviews were held with policy officials from health and nonhealth policy domains, working at strategic, tactic, and operational level, in three relatively large municipalities. Questions focused on exploring perceived barriers for integrated PA policies. The interviews were deductively coded by applying the Behavior Change Ball framework. Findings. Childhood obesity prevention appeared on the governmental agenda and all officials understood the multicausal nature. However, operational officials had not yet developed a tradition to develop integrated PA policies due to insufficient boundary-spanning skills and structural and cultural differences between the domains. Tactical level officials did not sufficiently support intersectoral collaboration and strategic level officials mainly focused on public-private partnerships. Conclusion. Developing integrated PA policies is a bottom-up innovation process that needs to be supported by governmental leaders through better guiding organizational processes leading to such policies. Operational level officials can assist in this by making progress in intersectoral collaboration visible. PMID:27668255

  10. Obstacles and Enablers on the Way towards Integrated Physical Activity Policies for Childhood Obesity Prevention: An Exploration of Local Policy Officials' Views

    PubMed Central

    Habraken, Jolanda M.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; van Oers, Hans; Schuit, Albertine J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Limited physical activity (PA) is a risk factor for childhood obesity. In Netherlands, as in many other countries worldwide, local policy officials bear responsibility for integrated PA policies, involving both health and nonhealth domains. In practice, its development seems hampered. We explore which obstacles local policy officials perceive in their effort. Methods. Fifteen semistructured interviews were held with policy officials from health and nonhealth policy domains, working at strategic, tactic, and operational level, in three relatively large municipalities. Questions focused on exploring perceived barriers for integrated PA policies. The interviews were deductively coded by applying the Behavior Change Ball framework. Findings. Childhood obesity prevention appeared on the governmental agenda and all officials understood the multicausal nature. However, operational officials had not yet developed a tradition to develop integrated PA policies due to insufficient boundary-spanning skills and structural and cultural differences between the domains. Tactical level officials did not sufficiently support intersectoral collaboration and strategic level officials mainly focused on public-private partnerships. Conclusion. Developing integrated PA policies is a bottom-up innovation process that needs to be supported by governmental leaders through better guiding organizational processes leading to such policies. Operational level officials can assist in this by making progress in intersectoral collaboration visible.

  11. Caffeinated Alcohol, Sensation Seeking, and Injury Risk

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Thomas P.; Egan, Kathleen L.; Goldin, Shoshanna; Rhodes, Scott D.; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background College students who consume caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CaffAlc) are at increased injury risk. This study examines the extent to which a sensation-seeking personality accounts for the relationship between consumption of CaffAlc and negative outcomes. Methods A Web-based survey was administered to stratified random samples of 4907 college students from eight North Carolina universities in Fall 2009. Sensation seeking was assessed using the Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale (BSSS) (α=0.81). Data were analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Results 3390 students (71.2%) reported past 30-day drinking, of whom 786 (23.2%) consumed CaffAlc. CaffAlc past 30-day drinkers had higher BSSS scores (3.8 vs. 3.4; p<0.001), compared to non-CaffAlc drinkers. Consumption of CaffAlc was associated with more frequent binge drinking (p<0.001) and drunken days in a typical week (p<0.001), even after adjusting for the BSSS score. CaffAlc students were more likely to be taken advantage of sexually (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.70, p=0.012), drive under the influence of alcohol (AOR=2.00, p<0.001), and ride with a driver under the influence of alcohol (AOR=1.87, p<0.001). Injury requiring medical treatment was more prevalent among CaffAlc students with higher BSSS-8 scores (interaction p=0.024), even after adjustment for drinking levels and student characteristics. Conclusions Sensation seeking does not fully account for the increase in risky drinking among college students who consume CaffAlc, nor does it moderate the relationship between CaffAlc and drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking moderates the risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment among college students who consume CaffAlc. Those with strong sensation-seeking dispositions are at the highest risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment. PMID:24761275

  12. DOE seeks to hike recovery in specific oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-10

    This paper reports that the Department of Energy is seeking proposals for demonstration projects on ways to better produce oil from U.S. shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. The $40 million research program is the second in DOE's campaign to enhance recovery from specific types of fields. It has allotted $48 million for demonstration projects for fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs and plans to target as many as eight more classes of U.S. reservoirs for research. DOE established the program to forestall premature abandonment of wells in high priority fields. It the the U.S. could lose access to more than 75% of domestic oil reserves by 2005 if the current abandonment rate of 17,000 wells/year continues.

  13. Health information seeking in the information society.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Abir; Bawden, David

    2012-09-01

    This article is the second student contribution to the Dissertations into Practice feature. It reports on a study that investigated the everyday health information-seeking practices of a small group of the 'general public' and the implications for information-seeking theory and health information provision. The first student article, about the implementation of radio frequency identification (RFID) in a hospital library, was very different, and the two articles illustrate the broad spectrum of possible subjects for the Dissertations into Practice feature. This study was conducted in summer 2011 by Abir Mukherjee for his MSc dissertation in the Library and Information Sciences programme at City University London. Further information and copies of the full dissertation may be obtained from Abir Mukherjee or David Bawden. AM. PMID:22925387

  14. Health information seeking in the information society.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Abir; Bawden, David

    2012-09-01

    This article is the second student contribution to the Dissertations into Practice feature. It reports on a study that investigated the everyday health information-seeking practices of a small group of the 'general public' and the implications for information-seeking theory and health information provision. The first student article, about the implementation of radio frequency identification (RFID) in a hospital library, was very different, and the two articles illustrate the broad spectrum of possible subjects for the Dissertations into Practice feature. This study was conducted in summer 2011 by Abir Mukherjee for his MSc dissertation in the Library and Information Sciences programme at City University London. Further information and copies of the full dissertation may be obtained from Abir Mukherjee or David Bawden. AM.

  15. Instructional Development Ways and Means. Course Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Robert E.

    A model for course planning that provides a way of looking at college instruction and an approach to preparing effective courses is presented. It is suggested that: teaching is an experimental activity, there is no correct way to teach, a teacher sets up the conditions for learning, and both the course and teacher need to assume part of the…

  16. SEEK: Signal Extraction and Emission Kartographer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akeret, Joel; Seehars, Sebastian; Chang, Chihway; Monstein, Christian; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    SEEK (Signal Extraction and Emission Kartographer) processes time-ordered-data from single dish radio telescopes or from the simulation pipline HIDE (ascl:1607.019), removes artifacts from Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), automatically applies flux calibration, and recovers the astronomical radio signal. With its companion code HIDE (ascl:1607.019), it provides end-to-end simulation and processing of radio survey data.

  17. Seeking NIH funding: Defining the process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekim, Lana

    2003-04-01

    The presentation will provide a brief introduction to the National Institute on Deafness and other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) with emphasis on the Voice and Speech program in the Division of Extramural Research. The process of seeking NIH funding will be outlined and a number of funding mechanisms will be described. The peer review process and the time course of a grant application will be highlighted.

  18. Elderly care recipients’ perceptions of treatment helpfulness for depression and the relationship with help-seeking

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Joanna; Naismith, Sharon L; Luscombe, Georgina M; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to examine perceptions of the helpfulness of treatments/interventions for depression held by elderly care recipients, to examine whether these beliefs are related to help-seeking and whether the experience of depression affects beliefs about treatment seeking, and to identify the characteristics of help-seekers. Method One hundred eighteen aged care recipients were surveyed on their beliefs about the helpfulness of a variety of treatments/interventions for depression, on their actual help-seeking behaviors, and on their experience of depression (current and past). Results From the sample, 32.4% of the participants screened positive for depression on the Geriatric Depression Scale, and of these, 24.2% reported receiving treatment. Respondents believed the most helpful treatments for depression were increasing physical activity, counseling, and antidepressant medication. Help-seeking from both professional and informal sources appeared to be related to belief in the helpfulness of counseling and antidepressants; in addition, help-seeking from informal sources was also related to belief in the helpfulness of sleeping tablets and reading self-help books. In univariate analyses, lower levels of cognitive impairment and being in the two lower age tertiles predicted a greater likelihood of help-seeking from professional sources, and female sex and being in the lower two age tertiles predicted greater likelihood of help-seeking from informal sources. In multivariate analyses, only lower levels of cognitive impairment remained a significant predictor of help-seeking from professional sources, whereas both lower age and female sex continued to predict a greater likelihood of help-seeking from informal sources. Conclusion Beliefs in the helpfulness of certain treatments were related to the use of both professional and informal sources of help, indicating the possibility that campaigns or educational programs aimed at changing beliefs about treatments

  19. Discovery of 6-({4-[2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1H-benzimidazol-4-yl]piperazin-1-yl}methyl)quinoxaline (WAY-207024): an orally active antagonist of the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R).

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Jeffrey C; Chengalvala, Murty V; Cottom, Joshua E; Feingold, Irene B; Green, Daniel M; Hauze, Diane B; Huselton, Christine A; Jetter, James W; Kopf, Gregory S; Lundquist, Joseph T; Magolda, Ronald L; Mann, Charles W; Mehlmann, John F; Rogers, John F; Shanno, Linda K; Adams, William R; Tio, Cesario O; Wrobel, Jay E

    2009-04-01

    A potent, highly insoluble, GnRH antagonist with a 2-phenyl-4-piperazinylbenzimidazole template and a quinoxaline-2,3-dione pharmacophore was modified to maintain GnRH antagonist activity and improve in vitro pharmaceutical properties. Structural changes to the quinoxaline-2,3-dione portion of the molecule resulted in several structures with improved properties and culminated in the discovery of 6-([4-[2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1H-benzimidazol-4-yl]piperazin-1-yl] methyl)quinoxaline (WAY-207024). The compound was shown to have excellent pharmacokinetic parameters and lowered rat plasma LH levels after oral administration.

  20. The Milky Way Skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucker, Catherine; Battersby, Cara; Goodman, Alyssa A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Goodman et al. (2014) argued that a very long, very thin infrared dark cloud 'Nessie' lies directly in the Galactic mid-plane and runs along the Scutum-Centaurus arm in position-position-velocity space as traced by low density CO and high density NH3 gas. Nessie was presented as the first 'bone' of the Milky Way, an extraordinarily long, thin, high contrast filament that can be used to map our galaxy's 'skeleton.' We present the first evidence of additional 'bones' in the Milky Way Galaxy, arguing that Nessie is not a curiosity but one of many filaments that could potentially trace galactic structure. Our ten bone candidates are all long, filamentary, mid-infrared extinction features which lie parallel to, and no more than twenty parsecs from, the physical Galactic mid-plane. We use CO, N2H+, and NH3 radial velocity data to establish the location of the candidates in position-velocity space. Of the ten filaments, three candidates have a projected aspect ratio of >50:1 and run along, or extremely close to, the Scutum-Centaurus arm in position-velocity space. Evidence suggests that these three candidates are Nessie-like features which mark the location of the spiral arms in both physical space and position-velocity space. Other candidates could be spurs, feathers, or interarm clouds associated with the Milky Way's galactic structure. As molecular spectral-line and extinction maps cover more of the sky at increasing resolution and sensitivity, we hope to find more bones in future studies, to ultimately create a global-fit to the Galaxy's spiral arms by piecing together individual skeletal features. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  1. The Way Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridlund, Malcolm; Hatzes, Artie; Liseau, René

    2016-05-01

    For the last few decades the study of disks around stars young and old and of different types have progressed significantly. During the same time a completely new discipline—the study of exoplanets, planets orbiting stars other than our Sun—have emerged. Both these fields, which are interconnected, have benefited from the development of new instrumentation, and especially by telescopes and detectors deployed in space. In this chapter we are describing the state of the art of such instruments and make an inventory of what is being currently developed. We also state some of the requirements of the next steps and what type of instruments will lead the way forward.

  2. The new milky way.

    PubMed

    Blitz, L; Fich, M; Kulkarni, S

    1983-06-17

    Our understanding of the large-scale structure of the Milky Way has undergone considerable revision during the past few years. The Galaxy is larger and much more massive than was previously supposed; the newly discovered mass consists of nonluminous matter which is likely to be the dominant form of matter in the universe. New analyses of the atomic hydrogen gas show that the disk of the Galaxy is about twice as extended as was previously thought. Beyond the sun, the gas is concentrated in large-scale, coherent spiral arms indicative of a regular four-armed spiral pattern. The outer edge of the disk has a remarkable scalloping.

  3. 17. MARINA WAY, HARBOUR WAY, AND MARITIME CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. MARINA WAY, HARBOUR WAY, AND MARITIME CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTER (SEE ALSO HABS No. CA-2718), WITH RICHMOND SHIPYARD NO. 3. S. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, 1401 Marina Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  4. New Ways in Teaching Reading. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    This second edition of "New Ways in Teaching Reading" bursts with new activities while retaining many of the features that made the first edition a best seller. The activities chosen for this edition are inspired by state-of-the art trends in teaching reading to English learners. Teachers now find numerous creative, classroom-ready activities in…

  5. Health Care Seeking Behavior in Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Begashaw, Bayu; Tessema, Fasil; Gesesew, Hailay Abrha

    2016-01-01

    Background Rural and urban populations have disparate socio-demographic and economic characteristics, which have an influence on equity and their health seeking behavior. We examined and compared the health care seeking behavior for perceived morbidity between urban and rural households in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Analytic cross-sectional study was conducted among urban and rural households living in Esera district of Southwest Ethiopia. A random sample of 388 head of households (126 urban and 262 rural) were selected. A pretested and structured questionnaire was used for data collection with face-to-face interview. In addition to descriptive methods, binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with health seeking behavior at p value of less than 0.05. Results Of the sample household heads, 377 (97.2%) (119 urban and 258 rural) were successfully interviewed. Among these, 58.4% (95% CI, 53.3–63.3%) of the households sought care from modern health care that was lower among rural (48.1%) than urban (80.7%) households. The prevalence of self-treatment was 35.3% in urban and 46.1% in rural households. Among the factors considered for modern health care utilization, higher monthly income (AOR, 5.6; 95% CI, 2.04–15.4), perceived severity of disease (AOR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1–5.8), acute duration of disease (AOR, 8.9; 95% CI, 2.4–33.3) and short distance from health facilities (AOR, 3; 95% CI, 1.2–8.4) among rural and being married (AOR, 11.3; 95% CI, 1.2–110.2) and perceived severity of disease (AOR, 6.6; 95% CI, 1.1–10.9) among urban households showed statistically significant association. Conclusions The general health seeking behavior of households on perceived morbidity was satisfactory but lower in rural compared to urban households. Self-medication was also widely practiced in the study area. The findings signal the need to work more on accessibility and promotion of healthcare seeking behavior especially among rural households

  6. Science Their Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Michael Elsohn

    2000-01-01

    Notes that children are scientists at play, positing theories and making observations about their activities. Suggests that successful early childhood science programs include open-ended, free-choice activities; a wide array of equipment; safe supervision; spontaneity; a variety of discovery locations; helpful print resources; and community…

  7. Ways Animals Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Kristen; Sumrall, William J.; Moore, Jerilou; Daniels, Anniece

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe a set of upper-elementary activities that focuses on how animals communicate. The activities describe procedures that students working in groups can use to investigate the topic of animal communication. An initial information sheet, resource list, and grading rubric are provided. The lesson plan was field-tested in an…

  8. Postpartum depression in refugee and asylum-seeking women in Canada: A critical health psychology perspective.

    PubMed

    Brown-Bowers, Amy; McShane, Kelly; Wilson-Mitchell, Karline; Gurevich, Maria

    2015-05-01

    Canada has one of the world's largest refugee resettlement programs in the world. Just over 48 percent of Canadian refugees are women, with many of them of childbearing age and pregnant. Refugee and asylum-seeking women in Canada face a five times greater risk of developing postpartum depression than Canadian-born women. Mainstream psychological approaches to postpartum depression emphasize individual-level risk factors (e.g. hormones, thoughts, emotions) and individualized treatments (e.g. psychotherapy, medication). This conceptualization is problematic when applied to refugee and asylum-seeking women because it fails to acknowledge the migrant experience and the unique set of circumstances from which these women have come. The present theoretical article explores some of the consequences of applying this psychiatric label to the distress experienced by refugee and asylum-seeking women and presents an alternative way of conceptualizing and alleviating this distress.

  9. Postpartum depression in refugee and asylum-seeking women in Canada: A critical health psychology perspective.

    PubMed

    Brown-Bowers, Amy; McShane, Kelly; Wilson-Mitchell, Karline; Gurevich, Maria

    2015-05-01

    Canada has one of the world's largest refugee resettlement programs in the world. Just over 48 percent of Canadian refugees are women, with many of them of childbearing age and pregnant. Refugee and asylum-seeking women in Canada face a five times greater risk of developing postpartum depression than Canadian-born women. Mainstream psychological approaches to postpartum depression emphasize individual-level risk factors (e.g. hormones, thoughts, emotions) and individualized treatments (e.g. psychotherapy, medication). This conceptualization is problematic when applied to refugee and asylum-seeking women because it fails to acknowledge the migrant experience and the unique set of circumstances from which these women have come. The present theoretical article explores some of the consequences of applying this psychiatric label to the distress experienced by refugee and asylum-seeking women and presents an alternative way of conceptualizing and alleviating this distress. PMID:25389234

  10. Fingerprinting the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers has shown how to use the chemical composition of stars in clusters to shed light on the formation of our Milky Way. This discovery is a fundamental test for the development of a new chemical tagging technique uncovering the birth and growth of our Galactic cradle. The formation and evolution of galaxies, and in particular of the Milky Way - the 'island universe' in which we live, is one of the major puzzles of astrophysics: indeed, a detailed physical scenario is still missing and its understanding requires the joint effort of observations, theories and complex numerical simulations. ESO astronomer Gayandhi De Silva and her colleagues used the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on ESO's VLT to find new ways to address this fundamental riddle. ESO PR Photo 15/07 ESO PR Photo 15/07 The Cluster Collinder 261 "We have analysed in great detail the chemical composition of stars in three star-clusters and shown that each cluster presents a high level of homogeneity and a very distinctive chemical signature," says De Silva, who started this research while working at the Mount Stromlo Observatory, Australia. "This paves the way to chemically tagging stars in our Galaxy to common formation sites and thus unravelling the history of the Milky Way," she adds. "Galactic star clusters are witnesses of the formation history of the Galactic disc," says Kenneth Freeman, also from Mount Stromlo and another member of the team. "The analysis of their composition is like studying ancient fossils. We are chasing pieces of galactic DNA!" Open star clusters are among the most important tools for the study of stellar and galactic evolution. They are composed of a few tens up to a few thousands of stars that are gravitationally bound, and they span a wide range of ages. The youngest date from a few million years ago, while the oldest (and more rare) can have ages up to ten billion years. The well

  11. Summer Reading Activities--Way back When.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Jill L.

    1992-01-01

    Describes three public library summer reading programs for children in the 1890s: Hewins' Vacation Reading Club; the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh's Summer Playground Program; and the Library League of Cleveland. The growth of similar programs and related reports in the library literature of the early twentieth century are discussed, and summer…

  12. Which Way is North?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Myrl; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Reproduces the Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) instructional module dealing with concepts of magnetic polarity and polarity reversal. Included are materials needed, teacher guides, procedures, and objectives for three activities. (SL)

  13. Help-Seeking Behaviors and Reasons for Help Seeking Reported by a Representative Sample of Women Victims of Intimate Partner Violence in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanslow, Janet L.; Robinson, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to understand and support the process of help seeking by victims of intimate partner violence are of considerable urgency if we are to design systems and responses that are capable of actively and appropriately meeting the needs of victims. Using data from the New Zealand Violence Against Women Study, which drew from a representative…

  14. [Determinants of information-seeking about crime and crime prevention: information-seeking on the Internet].

    PubMed

    Arai, Takashi; Fuji, Kei; Yoshida, Fujio

    2013-06-01

    This study explores determinants of information-seeking about crime and crime prevention on the Internet, including how it was influenced by personal conversations with others. An analysis of a web survey of mothers (N = 1,040) of 3-12 years old children in Japan indicated that many mothers briefly saw basic information about crime on the Internet, while only a few mothers sought further details. Structural equation modeling indicated the following results. Overall, an increased frequency of conversations about children's safety with family and friends made mothers realize their own responsibility for crime prevention. It also encouraged mothers to seek more information about crime prevention by increasing their willingness to cooperate with neighbors. However, when individuals' realization of responsibility for crime prevention strengthened their attitudes toward the responsibility of the police and government for crime problems, then these attitudes decreased mothers' information-seeking. Finally, while a heightened frequency of conversations about news contents directly increased information-seeking about crime, such conversations could indirectly weaken mothers' information-seeking when mothers emphasized the responsibility of the police and government.

  15. Consumer Health Information Seeking as Hypothesis Testing

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Browne, Allen C.; Kaufman, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Despite the proliferation of consumer health sites, lay individuals often experience difficulty finding health information online. The present study attempts to understand users' information seeking difficulties by drawing on a hypothesis testing explanatory framework. It also addresses the role of user competencies and their interaction with internet resources. Design Twenty participants were interviewed about their understanding of a hypothetical scenario about a family member suffering from stable angina and then searched MedlinePlus® consumer health information portal for information on the problem presented in the scenario. Participants' understanding of heart disease was analyzed via semantic analysis. Thematic coding was used to describe information seeking trajectories in terms of three key strategies: verification of the primary hypothesis, narrowing search within the general hypothesis area and bottom-up search. Results Compared to an expert model, participants' understanding of heart disease involved different key concepts, which were also differently grouped and defined. This understanding provided the framework for search-guiding hypotheses and results interpretation. Incorrect or imprecise domain knowledge led individuals to search for information on irrelevant sites, often seeking out data to confirm their incorrect initial hypotheses. Online search skills enhanced search efficiency, but did not eliminate these difficulties. Conclusions Regardless of their web experience and general search skills, lay individuals may experience difficulty with health information searches. These difficulties may be related to formulating and evaluating hypotheses that are rooted in their domain knowledge. Informatics can provide support at the levels of health information portals, individual websites, and consumer education tools. PMID:18436912

  16. A rubidium clock for SEEK-TALK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a tactical rubidium frequency standard (TRFS) for the SEEK-TALK program is discussed. This effort, which is entering the prototype stage, is directed toward the establishment of a production capability for miniature rubidium clocks of medium stability capable of fast warmup and extreme ruggedness for military avionics applications. The overall unit consists of an ultraminiature physics package and four plug-in circuit boards inside a 2 1/2-inch square by 4-inch box. This size is achieved without the extensive use of hybrid microcircuitry, yet is believed to be the smallest atomic frequency standard yet developed.

  17. Meditation to fit the person: Psychology and the meditative way.

    PubMed

    Willis, R J

    1979-04-01

    Only lately having recovered their bodies and feelings, Western devotees of various meditative practices are in increasing numbers striving to transcend both. Is such a turning inward healthy for individuals and our society? A full response requires both a clarifying discussion of exactly what meditation is and a review of its effects. Meditation, essentially a way of life, is marked by four stages: preparation, attention, active reception, and higher consciousness. Even though the Western traditions aim finally at union with the Infinite and Eastern traditions seek primarily an internal unity through the negation of consciousness, both describe essentially the same four stages, reached through the meditative pathways of the intellect, emotions, body, and action. Present scientific research is only beginning to provide data on the effects of meditation upon the person. To date, most research findings point out psychophysiological changes during meditation, indicating a low-stress state. Meditative experience lends support to the conclusion that successful meditation also positively affects growth by touching man's inner life source, expanding his consciousness, and revealing personal life directions.

  18. Patterns between Interactive Intentions and Information-Seeking Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Hong (Iris)

    2002-01-01

    Discusses information retrieval system design that supports various information-seeking strategies. Describes a study that investigated the relationship between users' information-seeking goals and their information-seeking behavior to specify hierarchical levels of user goals, and discusses results that focus on patterns of interactive intentions…

  19. 5 CFR 2635.604 - Disqualification while seeking employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disqualification while seeking employment. 2635.604 Section 2635.604 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH Seeking Other Employment § 2635.604 Disqualification while seeking employment....

  20. Students' trust judgements in online health information seeking.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jennifer; Johnson, Frances; Sbaffi, Laura

    2015-12-01

    As one of the most active groups of Internet users, students and other young people are active users of digital health information. Yet, research into young people's evaluation of health information is limited, and no previous studies have focused on trust formation. In addition, prior studies on adults' use of digital information do not reach a consensus regarding the key factors in trust formation. This study seeks to address this gap. A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data from undergraduate students studying a variety of disciplines in one UK university. The Trust in Online Health Information Scale is proposed, and it includes the following dimensions: authority, style, content, usefulness, brand, ease of use, recommendation, credibility, and verification. In addition, inspection of responses to specific items/questions provides further insights into aspects of the information that were of specific importance in influencing trust judgements. PMID:25193449

  1. Both Ways of Knowing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    The Subsistence Science and Video Project allows Alaska Native high school and college students to carry out field studies in basic and ocean science on St. Lawrence Island and to document their learning on videotape. The goal is a culturally relevant science program that links Western science with traditional subsistence activities. (LP)

  2. A Way Forward Commentary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Models for predicting adverse outcomes can help reduce and focus animal testing with new and existing chemicals. This short "thought starter" describes how quantitative-structure activity relationship and systems biology models can be used to help define toxicity pathways and li...

  3. In Their Own Ways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findley, Nicola

    2002-01-01

    Describes examples of how several students achieved their own learning connections across an integrated curriculum. Describes the use of a card-sort activity to help students construct their own connections. Suggests that student-constructed connections offer better learning opportunities for some students than teacher-constructed connections.…

  4. "There Are Other Ways To Get Happy": African American Urban Folklore. Working Papers #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregory, Jerrilyn

    "There are other ways to get happy," the slogan signifying "Say no to drugs!" is gaining attention within the African American community in the Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) area. "There are other ways to get happy" comes from learning about and understanding traditional elements of African American folklore. For those who seek to understand and…

  5. A Critical Role for the GluA1 Accessory Protein, SAP97, in Cocaine Seeking.

    PubMed

    White, Samantha L; Ortinski, Pavel I; Friedman, Shayna H; Zhang, Lei; Neve, Rachael L; Kalb, Robert G; Schmidt, Heath D; Pierce, R Christopher

    2016-02-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that the transport of GluA1 subunit-containing calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) to synapses in subregions of the nucleus accumbens promotes cocaine seeking. Consistent with these findings, the present results show that administration of the CP-AMPAR antagonist, Naspm, into the caudal lateral core or caudal medial shell of the nucleus accumbens attenuated cocaine priming-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. Moreover, viral-mediated overexpression of 'pore dead' GluA1 subunits (via herpes simplex virus (HSV) GluA1-Q582E) in the lateral core or medial shell attenuated the reinstatement of cocaine seeking. The overexpression of wild-type GluA1 subunits (via HSV GluA1-WT) in the medial shell, but not the lateral core, enhanced the reinstatement of cocaine seeking. These results indicate that activation of GluA1-containing AMPARs in subregions of the nucleus accumbens reinstates cocaine seeking. SAP97 and 4.1N are proteins involved in GluA1 trafficking to and stabilization in synapses; SAP97-GluA1 interactions also influence dendritic growth. We next examined potential roles of SAP97 and 4.1N in cocaine seeking. Viral-mediated expression of a microRNA that reduces SAP97 protein expression (HSV miSAP97) in the medial accumbens shell attenuated cocaine seeking. In contrast, a virus that overexpressed a dominant-negative form of a 4.1N C-terminal domain (HSV 4.1N-CTD), which prevents endogenous 4.1N binding to GluA1 subunits, had no effect on cocaine seeking. These results indicate that the GluA1 subunit accessory protein SAP97 may represent a novel target for pharmacotherapeutic intervention in the treatment of cocaine craving.

  6. Health-Seeking Challenges Among Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Angela L.; Nyamathi, Adeline; Greengold, Barbara; Slagle, Alexandra; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Getzoff, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background Approximately 1.5 to 2 million homeless young persons live on the streets in the United States. With the current economic situation, research is needed on quality of services geared toward homeless young adults. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore homeless young adults' perspectives on barriers and facilitators of health-care-seeking behavior and their perspectives on improving existing programs for homeless persons. Methods This article is a descriptive qualitative study using focus groups, with a purposeful sample of 24 homeless drug-using young adults. Results Identified themes were failing access to care based on perceived structural barriers (limited clinic sites, limited hours of operation, priority health conditions, and long wait times) and social barriers (perception of discrimination by uncaring professionals, law enforcement, and society in general). Discussion Results provide insight into programmatic and agency resources that facilitate health-seeking behaviors among homeless young adults and include implications for more research with providers of homeless health and social services. PMID:20404776

  7. Adaptive interface for personalizing information seeking.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, S; Koppaka, Lavanya; Edala, Narasimha; Loritz, Don; Daley, Raymond

    2004-12-01

    An adaptive interface autonomously adjusts its display and available actions to current goals and abilities of the user by assessing user status, system task, and the context. Knowledge content adaptability is needed for knowledge acquisition and refinement tasks. In the case of knowledge content adaptability, the requirements of interface design focus on the elicitation of information from the user and the refinement of information based on patterns of interaction. In such cases, the emphasis on adaptability is on facilitating information search and knowledge discovery. In this article, we present research on adaptive interfaces that facilitates personalized information seeking from a large data warehouse. The resulting proof-of-concept system, called source recommendation system (SRS), assists users in locating and navigating data sources in the repository. Based on the initial user query and an analysis of the content of the search results, the SRS system generates a profile of the user tailored to the individual's context during information seeking. The user profiles are refined successively and are used in progressively guiding the user to the appropriate set of sources within the knowledge base. The SRS system is implemented as an Internet browser plug-in to provide a seamless and unobtrusive, personalized experience to the users during the information search process. The rationale behind our approach, system design, empirical evaluation, and implications for research on adaptive interfaces are described in this paper.

  8. Reconnect on Facebook: The Role of Information Seeking Behavior and Individual- and Relationship-Level Factors.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Artemio; Sumner, Erin M; Hayes, Jameson

    2016-08-01

    Social network sites (SNSs) such as Facebook function as both venues for reconnecting with associates from a user's past and sources of social information about them. Yet, little is known about what factors influence the initial decision to reconnect with a past associate. This oversight is significant given that SNSs and other platforms provide an abundance of social information that may be utilized for reaching such decisions. The present study investigated the links among relational reconnection, information seeking (IS) behavior, and individual- and relationship-level factors in user decisions to reconnect on Facebook. A national survey of 244 Facebook users reported on their most recent experience of receiving a friend request from someone with whom they had been out of contact for an extended period. Results indicated that uncertainty about the potential reconnection partner and forecast about the reconnection's potential reward level significantly predicted IS behavior (passive on both target and mutual friends' SNS pages as well as active). However, the emergence of their two-way interaction revealed that the forecasts moderated the IS-uncertainty link on three of the strategies (extractive, both passive approaches). Moreover, social anxiety, sociability, uncertainty about the partner, the forecast about the reconnection's reward level, and extractive and passive (target SNS pages) strategies significantly predicted user decisions to reconnect. Future directions for research on relational reconnection on SNSs are offered. PMID:27447301

  9. Seeking and processing information for health decisions among elderly Chinese Singaporean women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Leanne; Basnyat, Iccha; Teo, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Information behavior includes activities of active information seeking, passive acquisition of information, and information use. Guided by the Elaboration Likelihood Model, this study explored elderly Singaporean women's health information behavior to understand how they sought, evaluated, and used health information in everyday lives. Twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted with elderly Chinese women aged 61 to 79. Qualitative analysis of the interview data yielded three meta-themes: information-seeking patterns, trustworthiness of health information, and peripheral route of decision making. Results revealed that elderly women took both systematic and heuristic approaches to processing information but relied on interpersonal networks to negotiate health choices.

  10. PROFILE OF PATIENTS WHO SEEK THE BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Paola Turchiello; PATIAS, Luciana Dapieve; ALVAREZ, Glauco da Costa; KIRSTEN, Vanessa Ramos; COLPO, Elisângela; de MORAES, Cristina Machado Bragança

    2015-01-01

    Background : Nowadays obesity is a chronic disease considered one of the greatest problems in public healthy. Showing to be effective in a short and long term, the bariatric surgery has emerged as an optional treatment for morbid obesity. Aim: Identify the profile of patients seeking bariatric surgery. Methods: Were interviewed 100 patients in preoperative nutritional monitoring of bariatric surgery. The study was conducted by applying a questionnaire prepared according to the research objectives. Results: From the individuals that were seeking bariatric surgery, 78% were female, 62% were married and 69% reported physical activity. The average age of those surveyed was 37±10.83 years and mean body mass index (BMI) was 43.51± 6.25 kg/m². The comorbidity more prevalent in this group was high blood pressure (51%). In previous treatments for weight reduction, 92% have already done hypocaloric diet followed by anorectic drug (83%). The success of these treatments was reported by 92% of patients; however, the weight lost was recovered in less than one year of 75%. Patients with diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia had higher BMI values. The patients with comorbidities showed lower levels of BMI. Conclusion: The profile of patients who sought surgical treatment for their obesity were predominantly women with a family background of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities, especially hypertension and diabetes mellitus. PMID:26734799

  11. Hypothesizing Dopaminergic Genetic Antecedents in Schizophrenia and Substance Seeking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Badgaiyan, Rajendra; Palomo, Tomas; Gold, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine system has been implicated in both substance use disorder (SUD) and schizophrenia. A recent meta- analysis suggests that A1 allele of the DRD2 gene imposes genetic risk for SUD, especially alcoholism and has been implicated in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS). We hypothesize that dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene Taq1 A2 allele is associated with a subtype of non- SUD schizophrenics and as such may act as a putative protective agent against the development of addiction to alcohol or other drugs of abuse. Schizophrenics with SUD may be carriers of the DRD2 Taq1 A1 allele, and/or other RDS reward polymorphisms and have hypodopaminergic reward function. One plausible mechanism for alcohol seeking in schizophrenics with SUD, based on previous research, may be a deficiency of gamma type endorphins that has been linked to schizophrenic type psychosis.. We also propose that alcohol seeking behavior in schizophrenics, may serve as a physiological self-healing process linked to the increased function of the gamma endorphins, thereby reducing abnormal dopaminergic activity at the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These hypotheses warrant further investigation and cautious interpretation. We, therefore, encourage research involving neuroimaging, genome wide association studies (GWAS), and epigenetic investigation into the relationship between neurogenetics and systems biology to unravel the role of dopamine in psychiatric illness and SUD. PMID:24636783

  12. Hypothesizing dopaminergic genetic antecedents in schizophrenia and substance seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Palomo, Tomas; Gold, Mark S

    2014-05-01

    The dopamine system has been implicated in both substance use disorder (SUD) and schizophrenia. A recent meta-analysis suggests that A1 allele of the DRD2 gene imposes genetic risk for SUD, especially alcoholism and has been implicated in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS). We hypothesize that dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene Taq1 A2 allele is associated with a subtype of non-SUD schizophrenics and as such may act as a putative protective agent against the development of addiction to alcohol or other drugs of abuse. Schizophrenics with SUD may be carriers of the DRD2 Taq1 A1 allele, and/or other RDS reward polymorphisms and have hypodopaminergic reward function. One plausible mechanism for alcohol seeking in schizophrenics with SUD, based on previous research, may be a deficiency of gamma type endorphins that has been linked to schizophrenic type psychosis. We also propose that alcohol seeking behavior in schizophrenics, may serve as a physiological self-healing process linked to the increased function of the gamma endorphins, thereby reducing abnormal dopaminergic activity at the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These hypotheses warrant further investigation and cautious interpretation. We, therefore, encourage research involving neuroimaging, genome wide association studies (GWAS), and epigenetic investigation into the relationship between neurogenetics and systems biology to unravel the role of dopamine in psychiatric illness and SUD. PMID:24636783

  13. Five Ways to Increase Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin-Goldberg, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This article describes five ways to contribute to the development of civically engaged citizens based on activities that have been widely used and described in detail over the last ten years: (1) Service-Learning Projects; (2) Extracurricular Activities; (3) Class Discussions and Debates; (4) Role Plays and Simulations; and (5) Home-School…

  14. Conceptual measurement framework for help-seeking for mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    Rickwood, Debra; Thomas, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite a high level of research, policy, and practice interest in help-seeking for mental health problems and mental disorders, there is currently no agreed and commonly used definition or conceptual measurement framework for help-seeking. Methods A systematic review of research activity in the field was undertaken to investigate how help-seeking has been conceptualized and measured. Common elements were used to develop a proposed conceptual measurement framework. Results The database search revealed a very high level of research activity and confirmed that there is no commonly applied definition of help-seeking and no psychometrically sound measures that are routinely used. The most common element in the help-seeking research was a focus on formal help-seeking sources, rather than informal sources, although studies did not assess a consistent set of professional sources; rather, each study addressed an idiosyncratic range of sources of professional health and community care. Similarly, the studies considered help-seeking for a range of mental health problems and no consistent terminology was applied. The most common mental health problem investigated was depression, followed by use of generic terms, such as mental health problem, psychological distress, or emotional problem. Major gaps in the consistent measurement of help-seeking were identified. Conclusion It is evident that an agreed definition that supports the comparable measurement of help-seeking is lacking. Therefore, a conceptual measurement framework is proposed to fill this gap. The framework maintains that the essential elements for measurement are: the part of the help-seeking process to be investigated and respective time frame, the source and type of assistance, and the type of mental health concern. It is argued that adopting this framework will facilitate progress in the field by providing much needed conceptual consistency. Results will then be able to be compared across studies and

  15. Toward a Culturally Responsive Model of Mental Health Literacy: Facilitating Help-Seeking Among East Asian Immigrants to North America.

    PubMed

    Na, Sumin; Ryder, Andrew G; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2016-09-01

    Studies have consistently found that East Asian immigrants in North America are less likely to use mental health services even when they experience levels of distress comparable to Euro-Americans. Although cultural factors that may prevent East Asian immigrants from seeking mental health care have been identified, few studies have explored ways to foster appropriate help-seeking and use of mental health services. Recent work on mental health literacy provides a potential framework for strategies to increase appropriate help-seeking and use of services. This paper reviews the literature on help-seeking for mental health problems among East Asian immigrants living in Western countries to critically assess the relevance of the mental health literacy approach as a framework for interventions to improve appropriate use of services. Modifications needed to develop a culturally responsive framework for mental health literacy are identified.

  16. Toward a Culturally Responsive Model of Mental Health Literacy: Facilitating Help-Seeking Among East Asian Immigrants to North America.

    PubMed

    Na, Sumin; Ryder, Andrew G; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2016-09-01

    Studies have consistently found that East Asian immigrants in North America are less likely to use mental health services even when they experience levels of distress comparable to Euro-Americans. Although cultural factors that may prevent East Asian immigrants from seeking mental health care have been identified, few studies have explored ways to foster appropriate help-seeking and use of mental health services. Recent work on mental health literacy provides a potential framework for strategies to increase appropriate help-seeking and use of services. This paper reviews the literature on help-seeking for mental health problems among East Asian immigrants living in Western countries to critically assess the relevance of the mental health literacy approach as a framework for interventions to improve appropriate use of services. Modifications needed to develop a culturally responsive framework for mental health literacy are identified. PMID:27596560

  17. Different Types of Sensation Seeking: A Person-Oriented Approach in Sensation-Seeking Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Hitchcock, David B.; Hittner, James B.; Vargha, Andras; Urban, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on sensation seeking (SS) was dominated by a variable-oriented approach indicating that SS level has a linear relation with a host of problem behaviors. Our aim was to provide a person-oriented methodology--a probabilistic clustering--that enables examination of both inter- and intra-individual differences in not only the level,…

  18. Seeking Safety and Empathy: Adolescent Health Seeking Behavior during Pregnancy and Early Motherhood in Central Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atuyambe, Lynn; Mirembe, Florence; Annika, Johansson; Kirumira, Edward K.; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore adolescent health seeking behavior during pregnancy and early motherhood in order to contribute to health policy formulation and improved access to health care. This will in long-term have an impact on the reduction of morbidity and mortality among adolescent mothers and their newborns. Methods: This was a qualitative study…

  19. The Willingness of Military Members to Seek Help: The Role of Social Involvement and Social Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Gary L; Jensen, Todd M; Martin, James A; Mancini, Jay A

    2016-03-01

    Anchored in the social organization theory of action and change, we use data from a large sample of active-duty Air Force members to examine the direct and indirect influence of social involvement and social responsibility on willingness to seek help in times of need via trust in formal systems and informal supports. Group comparisons are conducted between junior male, junior female, senior male, and senior female service members. The key mediational path in the model for all groups is the connection between social involvement and willingness to seek help via trust in formal systems. These results can inform both unit- and community-level interventions intended to increase the likelihood that active-duty AF members will seek help in times of need.

  20. A radical way to burn

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, S.

    1996-08-01

    By manipulating chamber geometries as well as engine cycle pressures and timing, engineers are exploiting a long-obscure technology known as activated radical combustion. Piston-driven internal combustion engines generally come in two varieties: compression-ignited diesels and spark-ignited gasoline power plants. There, is however, a third way to initiate burning of the fuel-air mixture. The technique--variously called radical ignition (RI), activated radical (AR) combustion, Toyota-Soken combustion, and active thermo-atmosphere combustion--is not exactly new, but only recently have engineers begun to exploit the process in practical power plants. These new units include a lightweight two-stroke racing-motorcycle engine, truck diesels with reduced soot output, and lean-burn spark-ignited car engines. This long-obscure combustion process is based on a range of specialized chemical kinetic and physical acoustic techniques developed over decades. Engineers manipulate fundamental combustion parameter such as chamber geometries, valving and porting configurations, and engine cycle pressures and timing to foster the formation of certain highly reactive chemical species that lower the fuel-air mixture`s flash point so that even modest compression make sit self-ignite. These chemical initiators are then retained into the next cycle to start combustion, allowing the engineer to run stably with no spark.

  1. 75 FR 883 - Agency Information Collection Activity Seeking OMB Approval

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  15. Extremum seeking with bounded update rates

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinker, Alexander; Krstić, Miroslav

    2013-11-16

    In this work, we present a form of extremum seeking (ES) in which the unknown function being minimized enters the system’s dynamics as the argument of a cosine or sine term, thereby guaranteeing known bounds on update rates and control efforts. We present general n-dimensional optimization and stabilization results as well as 2D vehicle control, with bounded velocity and control efforts. For application to autonomous vehicles, tracking a source in a GPS denied environment with unknown orientation, this ES approach allows for smooth heading angle actuation, with constant velocity, and in application to a unicycle-type vehicle results in control ability as if the vehicle is fully actuated. Our stability analysis is made possible by the classic results of Kurzweil, Jarnik, Sussmann, and Liu, regarding systems with highly oscillatory terms. In our stability analysis, we combine the averaging results with a semi-global practical stability result under small parametric perturbations developed by Moreau and Aeyels.

  16. Seeking one's heading through eye movements.

    PubMed

    Cutting, J E; Alliprandini, P M; Wang, R F

    2000-09-01

    A study of eye movements during simulated travel toward a grove of four stationary trees revealed that observers looked most at pairs of trees that converged or decelerated apart. Such pairs specify that one's direction of travel, called heading, is to the outside of the near member of the pair. Observers looked at these trees more than those that accelerated apart; such pairs do not offer trustworthy heading information. Observers also looked at gaps between trees less often when they converged or diverged apart, and heading can never be between such pairs. Heading responses were in accord with eye movements. In general, if observers responded accurately, they had looked at trees that converged or decelerated apart; if they were inaccurate, they had not. Results support the notion that observers seek out their heading through eye movements, saccading to and fixating on the most informative locations in the field of view.

  17. Why Breast Cancer Patients Seek Traditional Healers

    PubMed Central

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Merriam, Sharan; Suhami, Norhasmilia

    2012-01-01

    Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or “bomoh” at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1) recommendation from family and friends, (2) sanction from family, (3) perceived benefit and compatibility, (4) healer credibility, and (5) reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities. PMID:22295249

  18. Bounded extremum seeking with discontinuous dithers

    DOE PAGES

    Scheinker, Alexander; Scheinker, David

    2016-03-21

    The analysis of discontinuous extremum seeking (ES) controllers, e.g. those applicable to digital systems, has historically been more complicated than that of continuous controllers. We establish a simple and general extension of a recently developed bounded form of ES to a general class of oscillatory functions, including functions discontinuous with respect to time, such as triangle or square waves with dead time. We establish our main results by combining a novel idea for oscillatory control with an extension of functional analytic techniques originally utilized by Kurzweil, Jarnik, Sussmann, and Liu in the late 80s and early 90s and recently studiedmore » by Durr et al. Lastly, we demonstrate the value of the result with an application to inverter switching control.« less

  19. Prefrontal neurons encode context-based response execution and inhibition in reward seeking and extinction.

    PubMed

    Moorman, David E; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2015-07-28

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) guides execution and inhibition of behavior based on contextual demands. In rodents, the dorsal/prelimbic (PL) medial PFC (mPFC) is frequently considered essential for execution of goal-directed behavior ("go") whereas ventral/infralimbic (IL) mPFC is thought to control behavioral suppression ("stop"). This dichotomy is commonly seen for fear-related behaviors, and for some behaviors related to cocaine seeking. Overall, however, data for reward-directed behaviors are ambiguous, and few recordings of PL/IL activity have been performed to demonstrate single-neuron correlates. We recorded neuronal activity in PL and IL during discriminative stimulus driven sucrose seeking followed by multiple days of extinction of the reward-predicting stimulus. Contrary to a generalized PL-go/IL-stop hypothesis, we found cue-evoked activity in PL and IL during reward seeking and extinction. Upon analyzing this activity based on resultant behavior (lever press or withhold), we found that neurons in both areas encoded contextually appropriate behavioral initiation (during reward seeking) and withholding (during extinction), where context was dictated by response-outcome contingencies. Our results demonstrate that PL and IL signal contextual information for regulation of behavior, irrespective of whether that involves initiation or suppression of behavioral responses, rather than topographically encoding go vs. stop behaviors. The use of context to optimize behavior likely plays an important role in maximizing utility-promoting exertion of activity when behaviors are rewarded and conservation of energy when not. PMID:26170333

  20. Popular epidemiology and toxic waste contamination: lay and professional ways of knowing

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P. )

    1992-09-01

    Building on a detailed study of the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster, this paper examines lay and professional ways of knowing about environmental health risks. Of particular interest are differences between lay and professional groups' definitions of data quality, methods of analysis, traditionally accepted levels of measurement and statistical significance, and relations between scientific method and public policy. This paper conceptualizes the hazard-detection and solution-seeking activities of Love Canal, Woburn, and other communities as popular epidemiology: the process by which lay persons gather data and direct and marshal the knowledge and resources of experts in order to understand the epidemiology of disease, treat existing and prevent future disease, and remove the responsible environmental contaminants. Based on different needs, goals, and methods, laypeople and professionals have conflicting perspectives on how to investigate and interpret environmental health data.

  1. Popular epidemiology and toxic waste contamination: lay and professional ways of knowing.

    PubMed

    Brown, P

    1992-09-01

    Building on a detailed study of the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster, this paper examines lay and professional ways of knowing about environmental health risks. Of particular interest are differences between lay and professional groups' definitions of data quality, methods of analysis, traditionally accepted levels of measurement and statistical significance, and relations between scientific method and public policy. This paper conceptualizes the hazard-detection and solution-seeking activities of Love Canal, Woburn, and other communities as popular epidemiology: the process by which lay persons gather data and direct and marshal the knowledge and resources of experts in order to understand the epidemiology of disease, treat existing and prevent future disease, and remove the responsible environmental contaminants. Based on different needs, goals, and methods, laypeople and professionals have conflicting perspectives on how to investigate and interpret environmental health data. PMID:1401851

  2. Interconnectedness and Contingencies: A Study of Context in Collaborative Information Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Patricia Ruma

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative information seeking (CIS) is an important aspect of work in organizational settings. Researchers are developing a more detailed understanding of CIS activities and the tools to support them; however, most studies of CIS focus on how people find and retrieve information collaboratively, while overlooking the important question of how…

  3. Stepparents' Affinity-Seeking and Affinity-Maintaining Strategies with Stepchildren.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence; Coleman, Marilyn; Fine, Mark; Martin, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    Examines the strategies that stepparents use to develop and maintain affinity with stepchildren and the effects that these strategies have on the development of stepparent-stepchildren relationships. Thirty-one affinity-seeking strategies are identified. Results show that dyadic activities worked best, but it is important that stepchildren…

  4. Arylamino methylene bisphosphonate derivatives as bone seeking matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tauro, Marilena; Laghezza, Antonio; Loiodice, Fulvio; Agamennone, Mariangela; Campestre, Cristina; Tortorella, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    The complexity of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (MMPIs) design derives from the difficulty in carefully addressing their inhibitory activity towards the MMP isoforms involved in many pathological conditions. In particular, specific metalloproteinases, such as MMP-2 and MMP-9, are key regulators of the 'vicious cycle' occurring between tumor metastases growth and bone remodeling. In an attempt to devise new approaches to selective inhibitor derivatives, we describe novel bisphosphonate bone seeking MMP inhibitors (BP-MMPIs), capable to be selectively targeted and to overcome undesired side effects of broad spectrum MMPIs. In vitro activity (IC50 values) for each inhibitor was determined against MMP-2, -8, -9 and -14, because of their relevant role in skeletal development and renewal. The results show that BP-MMPIs reached IC50 values of enzymatic inhibition in the low micromolar range. Computational studies, used to rationalize some trends in the observed inhibitory profiles, suggest a possible differential binding mode in MMP-2 that explains the selective inhibition of this isoform. In addition, survival assay was conducted on J774 cell line, a well known model system used to evaluate the structure-activity relationship of BPs for inhibiting bone resorption. The resulting data, confirming the specific activity of BP-MMPIs, and their additional proved propensity to bind hydroxyapatite powder in vitro, suggest a potential use of BP-MMPIs in skeletal malignancies.

  5. A Role for Hypocretin/Orexin Receptor-1 in Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Nicotine-Seeking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Plaza-Zabala, Ainhoa; Flores, África; Martín-García, Elena; Saravia, Rocío; Maldonado, Rafael; Berrendero, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Hypocretin/orexin signaling is critically involved in relapse to drug-seeking behaviors. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the hypocretin system in the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior induced by nicotine-associated cues. Pretreatment with the hypocretin receptor-1 antagonist SB334867, but not with the hypocretin receptor-2 antagonist TCSOX229, attenuated cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking, which was associated with an activation of hypocretin neurons of the lateral and perifornical hypothalamic areas. In addition, relapse to nicotine-seeking increased the phosphorylation levels of GluR2-Ser880, NR1-Ser890, and p38 MAPK in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), but not in the prefrontal cortex. Notably, phosphorylation levels of NR1-Ser890 and p38 MAPK, but not GluR2-Ser880, were dependent on hypocretin receptor-1 activation. The intra-accumbens infusion of the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor NPC-15437 reduced nicotine-seeking behavior elicited by drug-paired cues consistent with the PKC-dependent phosphorylations of GluR2-Ser880 and NR1-Ser890. SB334867 failed to modify cue-induced reinstatement of food-seeking, which did not produce any biochemical changes in the NAc. These data identify hypocretin receptor-1 and PKC signaling as potential targets for the treatment of relapse to nicotine-seeking induced by nicotine-associated cues. PMID:23518606

  6. Cocaine seeking by rats is a goal-directed action.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, M C; Lafond, M V; Everitt, B J; Dickinson, A

    2001-04-01

    In two experiments rats were trained to self-administer intravenous cocaine on chained schedules using different responses in the initial (drug-seeking) and terminal (drug-taking) links. In both between- (Experiment 1) and within-subject designs (Experiment 2), the drug-taking response was then either extinguished or reinforced in the absence of the opportunity to perform the seeking response. In a subsequent extinction test with the seeking manipulanda alone, the rate of drug seeking was reduced after the prior extinction of the associated taking response. An additional group trained with a sucrose reinforcer showed a comparable devaluation effect. These findings demonstrate that seeking responses for cocaine and food rewards are mediated by a representation of the contingency between seeking responses and the opportunity to take the reward.

  7. Sensation Seeking Predicting Growth in Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Byck, Gayle R.; Swann, Greg; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13-18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599

  8. Food variety-seeking in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Addessi, Elsa

    2008-01-28

    Variety-seeking is a central issue to consumer behaviour research and a phenomenon of crucial relevance, both for human and animal nutrition. Variety-seeking increases the probability of nutrient adequacy in omnivores, and in humans it may also contribute to obesity epidemic by diversifying food selection and leading to excessive food intake. Although variety-seeking has been extensively investigated in humans, little is known about most of the factors shaping variety-seeking in other species. Capuchin monkeys, an omnivorous species like humans, were tested to investigate long-term food monotony and variety-seeking. Similarly to humans, capuchins sought variety both when repeatedly presented with a food snack (Experiment 1) and when offered a varied versus a monotonous test meal (Experiment 2). These findings, by allowing a better appreciation of the biological basis of variety-seeking, provide an evolutionary framework to understand how this phenomenon may become maladaptive in developed countries.

  9. American Indians' response to physical pain: functional limitations and help-seeking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cross, Suzanne L; Day, Angelique G

    2015-01-01

    Seventy-five American Indians, ages 25 to 84, representing 14 tribal nations, participated in this study. The historical, cultural, and behavioral responses to physical pain were examined. Data were collected over a 7-month period with a survey instrument that included the Universal Pain Scale, activities of daily living, causes of pain, cultural beliefs, and self-help-seeking behaviors. Also, recommendations for Western biomedical health care professionals are offered to improve services for the American Indian population. Findings demonstrate that culture plays a crucial role in wellness and significantly affects help-seeking behaviors, treatment regimens, responses to pain, and pain management. PMID:26151500

  10. Seeking instructional specificity: An example from analogical instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Eric; Wieman, Carl E.

    2015-12-01

    Broad instructional methods like "interactive engagement" have been shown to be effective, but such general characterization provides little guidance on the details of how to structure instructional materials. In this study, we seek instructional specificity by comparing two ways of using an analogy to learn a target physical principle: (i) applying the analogy to the target physical domain on a case-by-case basis and (ii) using the analogy to create a general rule in the target physical domain. In the discussion sections of a large, introductory physics course (N =2 3 1 ), students who sought a general rule were better able to discover and apply a correct physics principle than students who analyzed the examples case by case. The difference persisted at a reduced level after subsequent direct instruction. We argue that students who performed case-by-case analyses were more likely to focus on idiosyncratic problem-specific features rather than the deep structural features. This study provides an example of investigations into how the specific structure of instructional materials can be consequential for what is learned.

  11. Behavioral History of Withdrawal Influences Regulation of Cocaine Seeking by Glutamate Re-Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Luyi; Andersen, Haley; Arreola, Adrian C.; Turner, Jill R.; Ortinski, Pavel I.

    2016-01-01

    Withdrawal from cocaine regulates expression of distinct glutamate re-uptake transporters in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). In this study, we examined the cumulative effect of glutamate re-uptake by multiple excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) on drug-seeking at two different stages of withdrawal from self-administered cocaine. Rats were trained on fixed ratio 1 (FR1), progressing to FR5 schedule of reinforcement. After one day of withdrawal, microinfusion of a broad non-transportable EAAT antagonist, DL-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate (DL-TBOA), into the NAc shell dose-dependently attenuated self-administration of cocaine. Sucrose self-administration was not affected by DL-TBOA, indicating an effect specific to reinforcing properties of cocaine. The attenuating effect on cocaine seeking was not due to suppression of locomotor response, as DL-TBOA was found to transiently increase spontaneous locomotor activity. Previous studies have established a role for EAAT2-mediated re-uptake on reinstatement of cocaine seeking following extended withdrawal and extinction training. We found that blockade of NAc shell EAATs did not affect cocaine-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking. These results indicate that behavioral history of withdrawal influences the effect of re-uptake mediated glutamate clearance on cocaine seeking. Dynamic regulation of glutamate availability by re-uptake mechanisms may impact other glutamate signaling pathways to account for such differences. PMID:27685834

  12. Comparing the information seeking strategies of residents, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants in critical care settings

    PubMed Central

    Kannampallil, Thomas G; Jones, Laura K; Patel, Vimla L; Buchman, Timothy G; Franklin, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Objective Critical care environments are information-intensive environments where effective decisions are predicated on successfully finding and using the ‘right information at the right time’. We characterize the differences in processes and strategies of information seeking between residents, nurse practitioners (NPs), and physician assistants (PAs). Method We conducted an exploratory study in the cardiothoracic intensive care units of two large academic hospitals within the same healthcare system. Clinicians (residents (n=5), NPs (n=5), and PAs (n=5)) were shadowed as they gathered information on patients in preparation for clinical rounds. Information seeking activities on 96 patients were collected over a period of 3 months (NRes=37, NNP=24, NPA=35 patients). The sources of information and time spent gathering the information at each source were recorded. Exploratory data analysis using probabilistic sequential approaches was used to analyze the data. Results Residents predominantly used a patient-based information seeking strategy in which all relevant information was aggregated for one patient at a time. In contrast, NPs and PAs primarily utilized a source-based information seeking strategy in which similar (or equivalent) information was aggregated for multiple patients at a time (eg, X-rays for all patients). Conclusions The differences in the information seeking strategies are potentially a result of the differences in clinical training, strategies of managing cognitive load, and the nature of the use of available health IT tools. Further research is needed to investigate the effects of these differences on clinical and process outcomes. PMID:24619926

  13. The Roles of Dopamine and Related Compounds in Reward-Seeking Behavior Across Animal Phyla

    PubMed Central

    Barron, Andrew B.; Søvik, Eirik; Cornish, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Motile animals actively seek out and gather resources they find rewarding, and this is an extremely powerful organizer and motivator of animal behavior. Mammalian studies have revealed interconnected neurobiological systems for reward learning, reward assessment, reinforcement and reward-seeking; all involving the biogenic amine dopamine. The neurobiology of reward-seeking behavioral systems is less well understood in invertebrates, but in many diverse invertebrate groups, reward learning and responses to food rewards also involve dopamine. The obvious exceptions are the arthropods in which the chemically related biogenic amine octopamine has a greater effect on reward learning and reinforcement than dopamine. Here we review the functions of these biogenic amines in behavioral responses to rewards in different animal groups, and discuss these findings in an evolutionary context. PMID:21048897

  14. An In-Depth Analysis of How Elders Seek and Disseminate Health Information

    PubMed Central

    Altizer, Kathryn P.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Quandt, Sara A.; Bell, Ronny A; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    This study documents older adults’ sources of health information, describes the purposes for health information seeking, and delineates gender and ethnic variation in health information seeking. Sixty-two African American and white adults age 65 and older completed qualitative interviews describing their use of complementary therapies. Interviews identified how individuals obtained and shared health information. Friends, not family, were the dominant source of health information. Participants ranged from active seekers to passive consumers of health information. Information seeking was common for benign symptoms. More women than men discuss health information with others. Friends are the primary source of health information for rural older adults. There is substantial passivity in the pursuit of health information. Identifying health information sources of rural older adults can support the dissemination of information to those who share it with others. PMID:24188253

  15. Academic help-seeking behavior among student pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Payakachat, Nalin; Gubbins, Paul O; Ragland, Denise; Norman, Sarah E; Flowers, Schwanda K; Stowe, Cindy D; DeHart, Renee M; Pace, Anne; Hastings, Jan K

    2013-02-12

    Objectives. To identify factors associated with academic help-seeking behavior among student pharmacists at a public university.Methods. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted to explore in depth perceptions of facilitators of and barriers to the help-seeking behavior and academic achievement of student pharmacists who had received a D or F grade in any year. A 4-part survey instrument was developed and administered to all student pharmacists and included sections for (1) attitudes and academic help-seeking behavior, (2) health status, (3) demographics, and (4) open comments. A structural equation modeling approach was used to assess relationships among domains of interest.Results. Three student focus groups noted that helpfulness of faculty members and school administrators were 2 prominent facilitators of help-seeking behavior and academic achievement. Diminished quality of life caused by stress and depression was the primary barrier to help-seeking and achievement. Three hundred four (68.6%) student pharmacists completed the survey instrument. Academic help-seeking behavior was influenced mostly by perceived academic competence and perceived faculty helpfulness. In contrast, ambivalence and perception of help-seeking as threatening were 2 factors that were negatively associated with academic help-seeking behavior.Conclusions. Academic help-seeking behavior was positively related to greater perceived academic competence and positive relationships among student pharmacists and faculty members. PMID:23459559

  16. Health seeking behavior among pregnant women in rural Haiti.

    PubMed

    White, Kari; Small, Maria; Frederic, Rikerdy; Joseph, Gabriel; Bateau, Reginald; Kershaw, Trace

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to further knowledge of health care seeking behavior among pregnant women in rural Haiti. Eighty-two pregnant women were interviewed to assess care seeking behaviors during pregnancy, satisfaction with services, reliance on social networks, and management of pregnancy-related illness. Twenty-five percent reported not seeking care in the formal health sector for a pregnancy-related illness; 32% delayed seeking care. Women relied primarily on their husbands and mothers for health care advice during pregnancy and times of illness, and coped with illness by lying down. Strategies for improving awareness and health care access are discussed. PMID:17060181

  17. Academic Help-Seeking Behavior Among Student Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Gubbins, Paul O.; Ragland, Denise; Norman, Sarah E.; Flowers, Schwanda K.; Stowe, Cindy D.; DeHart, Renee M.; Pace, Anne; Hastings, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To identify factors associated with academic help-seeking behavior among student pharmacists at a public university. Methods. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted to explore in depth perceptions of facilitators of and barriers to the help-seeking behavior and academic achievement of student pharmacists who had received a D or F grade in any year. A 4-part survey instrument was developed and administered to all student pharmacists and included sections for (1) attitudes and academic help-seeking behavior, (2) health status, (3) demographics, and (4) open comments. A structural equation modeling approach was used to assess relationships among domains of interest. Results. Three student focus groups noted that helpfulness of faculty members and school administrators were 2 prominent facilitators of help-seeking behavior and academic achievement. Diminished quality of life caused by stress and depression was the primary barrier to help-seeking and achievement. Three hundred four (68.6%) student pharmacists completed the survey instrument. Academic help-seeking behavior was influenced mostly by perceived academic competence and perceived faculty helpfulness. In contrast, ambivalence and perception of help-seeking as threatening were 2 factors that were negatively associated with academic help-seeking behavior. Conclusions. Academic help-seeking behavior was positively related to greater perceived academic competence and positive relationships among student pharmacists and faculty members. PMID:23459559

  18. Women's rights, domestic violence, and recourse seeking in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Bates, Lisa M; Islam, Farzana

    2008-03-01

    This article seeks to deepen understanding of the reasons that abused women in a resource-poor rural setting seek recourse so seldom and with so little success. Data from in-depth interviews and group discussions are used to explore the range of responses to domestic violence and to examine barriers to recourse seeking. Findings illustrate how the combination of poverty and gender inequality, inequities in the legal framework, and patriarchal attitudes and corruption in both formal and informal institutions at the local level discourage abused women from seeking recourse and decrease the likelihood of a favorable outcome when they do.

  19. Residential mobility breeds familiarity-seeking.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Miao, Felicity F; Koo, Minkyung; Kisling, Jason; Ratliff, Kate A

    2012-01-01

    Why are American landscapes (e.g., housing developments, shopping malls) so uniform, despite the well-known American penchant for independence and uniqueness? We propose that this paradox can be explained by American mobility: Residential mobility fosters familiarity-seeking and familiarity-liking, while allowing individuals to pursue their personal goals and desires. We reason that people are drawn to familiar objects (e.g., familiar, national chain stores) when they move. We conducted 5 studies to test this idea at the levels of society, individuals, and situations. We found that (a) national chain stores do better in residentially mobile places than in residentially stable places (controlling for other economic and demographic factors; Study 1); (b) individuals who have moved a lot prefer familiar, national chain stores to unfamiliar stores (Studies 2a and 2b); and (c) a residential mobility mindset enhances the mere exposure and familiarity-liking effect (Studies 4 and 5). In Study 5, we demonstrated that the link between mobility and familiarity-liking was mediated by anxiety evoked by mobility. PMID:21843015

  20. Extremum seeking with bounded update rates

    DOE PAGES

    Scheinker, Alexander; Krstić, Miroslav

    2013-11-16

    In this work, we present a form of extremum seeking (ES) in which the unknown function being minimized enters the system’s dynamics as the argument of a cosine or sine term, thereby guaranteeing known bounds on update rates and control efforts. We present general n-dimensional optimization and stabilization results as well as 2D vehicle control, with bounded velocity and control efforts. For application to autonomous vehicles, tracking a source in a GPS denied environment with unknown orientation, this ES approach allows for smooth heading angle actuation, with constant velocity, and in application to a unicycle-type vehicle results in control abilitymore » as if the vehicle is fully actuated. Our stability analysis is made possible by the classic results of Kurzweil, Jarnik, Sussmann, and Liu, regarding systems with highly oscillatory terms. In our stability analysis, we combine the averaging results with a semi-global practical stability result under small parametric perturbations developed by Moreau and Aeyels.« less

  1. Looking for reward in all the wrong places: dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms indirectly affect aggression through sensation-seeking.

    PubMed

    Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan; Derefinko, Karen J; Estus, Steven; Lynam, Donald R; Peters, Jessica R; Jiang, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with genotypes that code for reduced dopaminergic brain activity often exhibit a predisposition toward aggression. However, it remains largely unknown how dopaminergic genotypes may increase aggression. Lower-functioning dopamine systems motivate individuals to seek reward from external sources such as illicit drugs and other risky experiences. Based on emerging evidence that aggression is a rewarding experience, we predicted that the effect of lower-functioning dopaminergic functioning on aggression would be mediated by tendencies to seek the environment for rewards. Caucasian female and male undergraduates (N = 277) were genotyped for five polymorphisms of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene; they reported their previous history of aggression and their dispositional reward-seeking. Lower-functioning DRD2 profiles were associated with greater sensation-seeking, which then predicted greater aggression. Our findings suggest that lower-functioning dopaminergic activity puts individuals at risk for violence because it motivates them to experience aggression's hedonically rewarding qualities.

  2. What would encourage help-seeking for memory problems among UK-based South Asians? A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Mukadam, Naaheed; Waugh, Amy; Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Objectives People from Minority Ethnic groups tend to present late to dementia services, often in crisis. Culture-specific barriers to help-seeking seem to underlie this. We sought to determine these barriers to timely help-seeking for dementia among people from South Asian backgrounds and what the features of an intervention to overcome them would be. Study design Qualitative study to delineate barriers to and facilitators of help-seeking for South Asian adults with dementia through focus groups and individual interviews. Setting Community settings in and around Greater London. Participants To achieve a maximum variation sample, we purposively recruited 53 English or Bengali speaking South Asian adults without a known diagnosis of dementia through community centres and snowballing. Results Participants ranged in age from 18 to 83 years, were mostly female and were 60% Bangladeshi. We recruited people from different religions and occupational backgrounds and included those with experience of caring for someone with dementia as well as those without this experience. Participants identified four main barriers to timely diagnosis: barriers to help-seeking for memory problems; the threshold for seeking help for memory problems; ways to overcome barriers to help-seeking; what features an educational resource should have. Conclusions We have identified the features of an intervention with the potential to improve timely dementia diagnosis in South Asians. The next steps are to devise and test such an intervention. PMID:26362662

  3. Associations of self-rated health and socioeconomic status with information seeking and avoiding behavior among post- treatment cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how self-rated health and socioeconomic status are associated with behaviour of cancer survivors regarding desire for information. For this association, we compared survivors who did not seek information about cancer with those who did. We examined how sociodemographic, socioeconomic, cancer- related, and health information factors are associated with self-rated health (SRH) by health information seeking/ avoiding behavior in a survey of 502 post-treatment cancer patients. In the information seeking group, all four factors exhibited significant relationships with SRH. SRH values were significantly high for women (p<0.05), non-Hispanic White (p<0.05), and educated (p<0.01) participants, and for those who had high self-efficacy to use health information by themselves (p<0.01). Furthermore, in the information avoiding group, not only were there no significant relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and SRH, but there were negative associations between their attitude/capacity and the SRH. In terms of communication equity, the promotion of information seeking behavior can be an effective way to reduce health disparities that are caused by social inequalities. Information avoiding behavior, however, does not exhibit a negative contribution toward the relationship between SRH and SES. Information seeking behavior was positively associated with SRH, but avoiding behavior was not negatively associated. We thus need to eliminate communication inequalities using health intervention to support information seeking behavior, while simultaneously providing support for avoiders.

  4. Dopamine Invigorates Reward Seeking by Promoting Cue-Evoked Excitation in the Nucleus Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    du Hoffmann, Johann

    2014-01-01

    Approach to reward is a fundamental adaptive behavior, disruption of which is a core symptom of addiction and depression. Nucleus accumbens (NAc) dopamine is required for reward-predictive cues to activate vigorous reward seeking, but the underlying neural mechanism is unknown. Reward-predictive cues elicit both dopamine release in the NAc and excitations and inhibitions in NAc neurons. However, a direct link has not been established between dopamine receptor activation, NAc cue-evoked neuronal activity, and reward-seeking behavior. Here, we use a novel microelectrode array that enables simultaneous recording of neuronal firing and local dopamine receptor antagonist injection. We demonstrate that, in the NAc of rats performing a discriminative stimulus task for sucrose reward, blockade of either D1 or D2 receptors selectively attenuates excitation, but not inhibition, evoked by reward-predictive cues. Furthermore, we establish that this dopamine-dependent signal is necessary for reward-seeking behavior. These results demonstrate a neural mechanism by which NAc dopamine invigorates environmentally cued reward-seeking behavior. PMID:25339748

  5. Ways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnucan, Donna; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes an elementary art program that teaches children to use clay, a course in which middle-grade students made pottery using old plaster greenware molds, and an art class in which middle-grade students made Indian jewelry. (RM)

  6. Modeling the Milky Way: Spreadsheet Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmer, John C.

    1990-01-01

    Described is the generation of a scale model of the solar system and the milky way galaxy using a computer spreadsheet program. A sample spreadsheet including cell formulas is provided. Suggestions for using this activity as a teaching technique are included. (CW)

  7. Operant sensation seeking in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Christopher M; Winder, Danny G

    2010-11-10

    Operant methods are powerful behavioral tools for the study of motivated behavior. These 'self-administration' methods have been used extensively in drug addiction research due to their high construct validity. Operant studies provide researchers a tool for preclinical investigation of several aspects of the addiction process. For example, mechanisms of acute reinforcement (both drug and non-drug) can be tested using pharmacological or genetic tools to determine the ability of a molecular target to influence self-administration behavior. Additionally, drug or food seeking behaviors can be studied in the absence of the primary reinforcer, and the ability of pharmacological compounds to disrupt this process is a preclinical model for discovery of molecular targets and compounds that may be useful for the treatment of addiction. One problem with performing intravenous drug self-administration studies in the mouse is the technical difficulty of maintaining catheter patency. Attrition rates in these experiments are high and can reach 40% or higher. Another general problem with drug self-administration is discerning which pharmacologically-induced effects of the reinforcer produce specific behaviors. For example, measurement of the reinforcing and neurological effects of psychostimulants can be confounded by their psychomotor effects. Operant methods using food reinforcement can avoid these pitfalls, although their utility in studying drug addiction is limited by the fact that some manipulations that alter drug self-administration have a minimal impact on food self-administration. For example, mesolimbic dopamine lesion or knockout of the D1 dopamine receptor reduce cocaine self-administration without having a significant impact on food self-administration. Sensory stimuli have been described for their ability to support operant responding as primary reinforcers (i.e. not conditioned reinforcers). Auditory and visual stimuli are self-administered by several species

  8. Mid-way and post-intervention effects on potential determinants of physical activity and sedentary behavior, results of the HEIA study - a multi-component school-based randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is limited knowledge as to whether obesity prevention interventions are able to produce change in the determinants hypothesized to precede change in energy balance-related behaviors in young people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multi-component intervention on a wide range of theoretically informed determinants of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). Moderation effects of gender, weight status and parental education level and whether the perceived intervention dose received influenced the effects were also explored. Methods The HEIA study was a 20-month school-based, randomized controlled trial to promote healthy weight development. In total, 1418 11-year-olds participated at baseline and post-intervention assessment. Enjoyment, self-efficacy, perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends related to PA, perceived parental regulation of TV-viewing and computer/game-use and perceived social inclusion at schools were examined by covariance analyses to assess overall effects and moderation by gender, weight status and parental education, mid-way and post-intervention. Covariance analyses were also used to examine the role of intervention dose received on change in the determinants. Results At mid-way enjoyment (p = .03), perceived social support from teachers (p = .003) and self-efficacy (p = .05) were higher in the intervention group. Weight status moderated the effect on self-efficacy, with a positive effect observed among the normal weight only. At post-intervention results were sustained for social support from teachers (p = .001), while a negative effect was found for self-efficacy (p = .02). Weight status moderated the effect on enjoyment, with reduced enjoyment observed among the overweight. Moderation effects for parental education level were detected for perceived social support from parents and teachers. Finally, positive effects on several determinants were observed

  9. The SEEKING mind: primal neuro-affective substrates for appetitive incentive states and their pathological dynamics in addictions and depression.

    PubMed

    Alcaro, Antonio; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    Appetitive motivation and incentive states are essential functions sustained by a common emotional brain process, the SEEKING disposition, which drives explorative and approach behaviors, sustains goal-directed activity, promotes anticipatory cognitions, and evokes feelings of positive excitement which control reward-learning. All such functions are orchestrated by the same "archetypical" neural processes, activated in ancient subcortical areas and transported to the forebrain by the mesolimbic dopamine (ML-DA) system. In mammals, the neurophysiology of the SEEKING urge is expressed by DA-promoted high-frequency oscillations, in the form of transient and synchronized gamma waves (>30Hz) emerging in limbic forebrain and diffusing throughout basal ganglia-thalamocortical (BG-T-C) circuits. These patterns may be considered basic "SEEKING neurodynamic impulses" which represent the primary-process exploratory disposition getting integrated with information relative to the external and the internal environment. Abnormal manifestation of SEEKING and its neural substrates are evident in clinical depression and addiction. Specifically, depression is characterized by reduced recruitment of SEEKING, while addictions reflect re-organizations of the SEEKING disposition around ultra-specific appetitive memories and compulsive activities. PMID:21396397

  10. The SEEKING mind: primal neuro-affective substrates for appetitive incentive states and their pathological dynamics in addictions and depression.

    PubMed

    Alcaro, Antonio; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    Appetitive motivation and incentive states are essential functions sustained by a common emotional brain process, the SEEKING disposition, which drives explorative and approach behaviors, sustains goal-directed activity, promotes anticipatory cognitions, and evokes feelings of positive excitement which control reward-learning. All such functions are orchestrated by the same "archetypical" neural processes, activated in ancient subcortical areas and transported to the forebrain by the mesolimbic dopamine (ML-DA) system. In mammals, the neurophysiology of the SEEKING urge is expressed by DA-promoted high-frequency oscillations, in the form of transient and synchronized gamma waves (>30Hz) emerging in limbic forebrain and diffusing throughout basal ganglia-thalamocortical (BG-T-C) circuits. These patterns may be considered basic "SEEKING neurodynamic impulses" which represent the primary-process exploratory disposition getting integrated with information relative to the external and the internal environment. Abnormal manifestation of SEEKING and its neural substrates are evident in clinical depression and addiction. Specifically, depression is characterized by reduced recruitment of SEEKING, while addictions reflect re-organizations of the SEEKING disposition around ultra-specific appetitive memories and compulsive activities.

  11. Leading the Way: Celebrating 25 Years in 2005, Philadelphia-Based Program Seeks Innovative Ways to Expand Outreach Effort for Talented Minority Students in Business and Other Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the Leadership Education and Development (LEAD) program at University of Pennsylvania. It specifically discusses the experience of Charles Crockett, one of its earliest alumni. Crockett says the Leadership Education and Development program helped him to broaden the scope of his educational and career goals by convincing him…

  12. A Systematic Literature Review of the Information-Seeking Behavior of Dentists in Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Isham, Amy; Bettiol, Silvana; Hoang, Ha; Crocombe, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the information-seeking behavior of dentists may inform ways to increase the dentist uptake of evidence-based research for clinical decision making and the practice of evidence-based dentistry, but no systematic review of dentist information-seeking behavior has been conducted. This review aimed to synthesize the best available evidence on where and how dentists seek information. A literature search of Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and reference lists of English language studies from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries of dentists' information-seeking behavior published between 2002 and 2014 was conducted. Selected articles were assessed using mixed methods analysis, and the data extracted were thematically synthesized. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, and four main themes were identified: dentists' difficulty translating evidence-based resources into clinical practice; dentists' preference for face-to-face meetings, collegial discussion, and print materials over evidence-based resources; dentists' perceptions of the validity of evidence-based resources and the role of specialist and experienced dentists as information sources for general and less experienced dentists; and differences between early and late adopters of research evidence. Dentists in these studies tended to adopt new materials/techniques after discussion with a colleague, a dental specialist, or a respected dental expert. These dentists also reported lacking time, experience, skills, and confidence to find and use evidence-based resources. Many of the dentists studied were cautious about making decisions based on documentary sources like literature reviews and preferred to seek advice from an experienced or specialist colleague or to participate in face-to-face meetings. PMID:27139208

  13. Treatment seeking behaviour in southern Chinese elders with chronic orofacial pain: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic orofacial pain (OFP) is common in general adult populations worldwide. High levels of psychological distress and impaired coping abilities are common among Western people with chronic OFP but limited information was found in southern Chinese people. This study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences of community dwelling elderly people with chronic OFP symptoms and their treatment seeking behaviour in Hong Kong. Methods An exploratory qualitative interview study was conducted. Elderly people experiencing chronic OFP symptoms were invited to take part in an individual semi-structured interview. A total of 25 semi-structured interviews were performed for 25 participants. Results Pertinent issues relating to the treatment seeking behaviour emerged from the interviews, many of which were inter-related and overlapping. They were organized into three major themes: (i) Impact of chronic OFP on daily life; (ii) Personal knowledge and feeling of chronic OFP; (iii) Management of chronic OFP. The participants were found to have the intention to seek professional treatment, but there were barriers which discouraged them continuing to seek professional treatment. They also received complementary treatment for chronic OFP, such as acupuncture, massage and “chi kung”. Moreover, a wide range self-management techniques were also mentioned. On the other hand, those who did not seek professional treatment for the chronic OFP claimed that they had accepted or adapted to the pain as part of their lives. Conclusions This qualitative study observed that elderly people affected by chronic OFP symptoms in Hong Kong sought many different ways to manage their pain including traditional and complementary approaches. The role of the dentist in dealing with chronic OFP is unclear. Multiple barriers exist to accessing care for chronic OFP. The findings may be used to inform future chronic OFP management strategies in Hong Kong. PMID:24460663

  14. A Systematic Literature Review of the Information-Seeking Behavior of Dentists in Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Isham, Amy; Bettiol, Silvana; Hoang, Ha; Crocombe, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the information-seeking behavior of dentists may inform ways to increase the dentist uptake of evidence-based research for clinical decision making and the practice of evidence-based dentistry, but no systematic review of dentist information-seeking behavior has been conducted. This review aimed to synthesize the best available evidence on where and how dentists seek information. A literature search of Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and reference lists of English language studies from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries of dentists' information-seeking behavior published between 2002 and 2014 was conducted. Selected articles were assessed using mixed methods analysis, and the data extracted were thematically synthesized. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, and four main themes were identified: dentists' difficulty translating evidence-based resources into clinical practice; dentists' preference for face-to-face meetings, collegial discussion, and print materials over evidence-based resources; dentists' perceptions of the validity of evidence-based resources and the role of specialist and experienced dentists as information sources for general and less experienced dentists; and differences between early and late adopters of research evidence. Dentists in these studies tended to adopt new materials/techniques after discussion with a colleague, a dental specialist, or a respected dental expert. These dentists also reported lacking time, experience, skills, and confidence to find and use evidence-based resources. Many of the dentists studied were cautious about making decisions based on documentary sources like literature reviews and preferred to seek advice from an experienced or specialist colleague or to participate in face-to-face meetings.

  15. Information Seeking From Media and Family/Friends Increases the Likelihood of Engaging in Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    RAMÍREZ, A. SUSANA; FRERES, DEREK; MARTINEZ, LOURDES S.; LEWIS, NEHAMA; BOURGOIN, ANGEL; KELLY, BRIDGET J.; LEE, CHUL-JOO

    2014-01-01

    The amount of cancer-related information available to the general population continues to grow, yet its effects are unclear. This study extends previous cross-sectional research establishing that cancer information seeking across a variety of sources is extensive and positively associated with engaging in health-related behaviors. We studied how active information seeking about cancer prevention influenced three healthy lifestyle behaviors using a two-round nationally representative sample of adults ages 40–70 (n=1795), using propensity scoring to control for potential confounders including baseline behavior. The adjusted odds of dieting at follow-up were 1.51 [95% CI: 1.05 to 2.19] times higher for those who reported baseline seeking from media and interpersonal sources relative to non-seekers. Baseline seekers ate 0.59 [95% CI: 0.28, 0.91] more fruits/vegetable servings per day and exercised 0.36 [95% CI: 0.12 to 0.60] more days per week at one-year follow-up compared to non-seekers. The effects of seeking from media and friends/family on eating fruits/vegetables and exercising were independent of seeking from physicians. We offer several explanations for why information seeking predicts healthy lifestyle behaviors: information obtained motivates these behaviors; information sought teaches specific techniques; the act of information seeking may reinforce a psychological commitment to dieting, eating fruits/vegetables, and exercising. PMID:23472825

  16. Social Comparison Information and Judgments about Depression and Seeking Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Used a role playing technique to examine the influence of social comparison on help seeking attitudes in 80 students. Results indicated that subjects who received serious social comparison information reported the highest depression scores and were more willing to seek counseling help. (JAC)

  17. Investigating the News Seeking Behavior of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qayyum, M. Asim; Williamson, Kirsty; Liu, Ying-Hsang; Hider, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the news-seeking and browsing behaviours of young adults, partly in the context of everyday life information seeking (ELIS), in order to explore their perceptions of and attitudes towards print and online news media. The study is significant because traditional print newspapers face a steady decline in their readership with…

  18. Information Seeking Research Needs Extension towards Tasks and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Järvelin, Kalervo; Ingwersen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the research into information seeking and its directions at a general level. We approach this topic by analysis and argumentation based on past research in the domain. We begin by presenting a general model of information seeking and retrieval which is used to derive nine broad dimensions that are needed to analyze information…

  19. Exploring University Students' Online Information Seeking about Prescription Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhalaf, Ahmad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    This study explored university students' information seeking behaviors related to prescription medication (PM) information. Specifically, it examined the different sources students use for PM information, their use and perceptions of online sources, the types of PM information they seek, their concerns about, and methods they apply to verify the…

  20. 19 CFR 171.3 - Oral presentations seeking relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oral presentations seeking relief. 171.3 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FINES, PENALTIES, AND FORFEITURES Application for Relief § 171.3 Oral... make an oral presentation seeking relief in accordance with this paragraph. (b) Other...

  1. 19 CFR 171.3 - Oral presentations seeking relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral presentations seeking relief. 171.3 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FINES, PENALTIES, AND FORFEITURES Application for Relief § 171.3 Oral... make an oral presentation seeking relief in accordance with this paragraph. (b) Other...

  2. 19 CFR 171.3 - Oral presentations seeking relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oral presentations seeking relief. 171.3 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FINES, PENALTIES, AND FORFEITURES Application for Relief § 171.3 Oral... make an oral presentation seeking relief in accordance with this paragraph. (b) Other...

  3. 19 CFR 171.3 - Oral presentations seeking relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oral presentations seeking relief. 171.3 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FINES, PENALTIES, AND FORFEITURES Application for Relief § 171.3 Oral... make an oral presentation seeking relief in accordance with this paragraph. (b) Other...

  4. 19 CFR 171.3 - Oral presentations seeking relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oral presentations seeking relief. 171.3 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FINES, PENALTIES, AND FORFEITURES Application for Relief § 171.3 Oral... make an oral presentation seeking relief in accordance with this paragraph. (b) Other...

  5. Social Context, Sensation Seeking, and Teen-age Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Dennis L; And Others

    1994-01-01

    An anonymous questionnaire examined alcohol use, the social context of drinking, and sensation seeking among rural seventh through 12th graders. The sensation-seeking trait proved of moderate importance in distinguishing among different alcohol abuse practices. Social context measures were effective in distinguishing among levels on each indicant…

  6. Measuring Feedback-Seeking Modes: An Alternative to Composite Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Rita K.

    An alternative to the use of traditional composite scales in creating scales from survey items was developed, using feedback seeking as an example. It is proposed that much more information can be obtained through Rasch techniques about feedback-seeking behaviors related to teaching. Data are from the New Faculty Project involving tenure-track…

  7. Seeking Information for School Purposes on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Holly; Hepburn, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Reports findings of a study in four Nova Scotia public schools of twelfth grade students' information seeking strategies when using the Internet as an information source. Discusses student's knowledge of World Wide Web search engines; how students acquired Internet information seeking knowledge; and how students perceive their ability to locate…

  8. Insights into Information-Seeking and Communicating Behaviour of Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocholla, Dennis N.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the information-seeking behavior of academics in South Africa, presenting a survey conducted at the University of Zululand. Presents results in 9 tables in terms of: rank and position; information resources used; how knowledge of existence of information sources is gained; generation of professional ideas; why academics seek information;…

  9. Elaborating the Conceptual Space of Information-Seeking Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The article contributes to conceptual studies of information behaviour research by examining the conceptualisations of information seeking and related terms such as information search and browsing. Method: The study builds on Bates' integrated model of information seeking and searching, originally presented in 2002. The model was…

  10. Social Goals and Willingness to Seek Help for School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yablon, Yaacov B.

    2012-01-01

    The relation between students' social goals and their willingness to seek help for school violence was examined. Four hundred and sixty-two students from sixth, eighth, and tenth grades responded to vignettes used to assess willingness to seek help from teachers and friends for dealing with relational and physical violence. Intimacy goals enhanced…

  11. The Information Seeking and Use Behaviors of Retired Investors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Lisa G.

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the information seeking and use behaviors of a group of US retired or near-retirement investors from everyday life information seeking and serious leisure perspectives. Although primarily qualitative, it also collects and analyzes quantitative data to describe retired investors' information preferences and use.…

  12. Social Support Seeking and Early Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…

  13. Adolescents' Willingness to Seek Psychological Help: Promoting and Preventing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Jeanie K.; Fiorenza, Erika; Sofronoff, Kate

    2004-01-01

    Although a relatively high percentage of Australian adolescents experience mental health problems, many disturbed adolescents do not receive the help they require, and only a small proportion of adolescents seek professional psychological help. The present study examined adolescents' willingness to seek help and investigated factors that promote…

  14. Help-Seeking Attitudes among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Dominicus W.; Gilbert, Stefanie; Romero, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, African American students display a low-rate of seeking mental health treatment. Issues such as mistrust of White therapists, attitudes toward mental health problems, and African American spirituality affect their help-seeking behavior. The present study examined a sample of 134 African American students at a Historically Black…

  15. Help-Seeking Behaviors of Accounting Principles I Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncada, Susan M.; Sanders, Joseph C.

    This study examined the help-seeking propensities of college students enrolled in a "Principles of Financial Accounting I" course. A total of 364 students responded to a questionnaire on various aspects of help-seeking behavior. It was found that the most frequently used source of help was friends or classmates, followed by the instructor and the…

  16. The Information-Seeking Habits of Engineering Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Debra; Robbins, Sarah; Kulp, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Many studies of information-seeking habits of engineers focus on understanding the similarities and differences between scientists and engineers. This study explores the information-seeking behavior of academic engineering faculty from twenty public research universities. This investigation includes an examination of how frequently engineer- ing…

  17. The Interaction of Sensation Seeking and Anxiety in Abseiling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunyan, Peter; Boniface, Maggie

    1995-01-01

    Fifteen college students having no prior experience with abseiling completed a simple 80-foot abseil after indoor instruction. Students' sensation-seeking scores were weakly and negatively related to somatic anxiety immediately prior to the abseil. Enjoyment of the abseil had a weak positive relationship to sensation seeking and a weak negative…

  18. Barriers to Chinese College Students Seeking Psychological Help from Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Haiping

    2013-01-01

    Chinese students were found less likely to seek professional help for psychological problems compared to their western counterparts. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the barriers to Chinese college students seeking psychological help from professionals. Quantitative data on Asian values, social supports, self-stigma,…

  19. Suicidal Behavior and Help Seeking among Diverse College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownson, Chris; Becker, Martin Swanbrow; Shadick, Richard; Jaggars, Shanna S.; Nitkin-Kaner, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal and help-seeking behaviors of students of color remain a significant problem on college campuses. Self-reported suicidal experiences and help-seeking behavior of diverse students are examined on the basis of results from a national survey of college student mental health. The results suggest significant differences in the expression of…

  20. Iowa seeks to end electric fuel surcharge

    SciTech Connect

    Ponczak, G.

    1985-09-02

    Iowa is abolishing the fuel cost adjustment credits for investor-owned electric utilities because of illegal utility charges that added non-fuel costs into the credit. Abolishing the energy adjustment credit (EAC) will force utilities to file a rate case in order to pass changes in fuel costs to their customers. Investor-owned and municipal utilities have filed opposing testimony for the September hearing. Opponents claim that there will have to be changes made in the way costs are recovered from cogenerated power purchases and that it will be more difficult to make annual fuel procurements.

  1. The Role of Social Novelty in Risk Seeking and Exploratory Behavior: Implications for Addictions.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Simon; Gao, Jennifer; Hallett, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Novelty preference or sensation seeking is associated with disorders of addiction and predicts rodent compulsive drug use and adolescent binge drinking in humans. Novelty has also been shown to influence choice in the context of uncertainty and reward processing. Here we introduce a novel or familiar neutral face stimuli and investigate its influence on risk-taking choices in healthy volunteers. We focus on behavioural outcomes and imaging correlates to the prime that might predict risk seeking. We hypothesized that subjects would be more risk seeking following a novel relative to familiar stimulus. We adapted a risk-taking task involving acceptance or rejection of a 50:50 choice of gain or loss that was preceded by a familiar (pre-test familiarization) or novel face prime. Neutral expression faces of males and females were used as primes. Twenty-four subjects were first tested behaviourally and then 18 scanned using a different variant of the same task under functional MRI. We show enhanced risk taking to both gain and loss anticipation following novel relative to familiar images and particularly for the low gain condition. Greater risk taking behaviour and self-reported exploratory behaviours was predicted by greater right ventral putaminal activity to novel versus familiar contexts. Social novelty appears to have a contextually enhancing effect on augmenting risky choices possibly mediated via ventral putaminal dopaminergic activity. Our findings link the observation that novelty preference and sensation seeking are important traits predicting the initiation and maintenance of risky behaviours, including substance and behavioural addictions.

  2. Emotional responses during social information seeking on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Wise, Kevin; Alhabash, Saleem; Park, Hyojung

    2010-10-01

    Based on existing research on social networking and information seeking, it was proposed that Facebook.com use could be conceptualized as serving two primary goals: passive social browsing (i.e., newsfeeds) and extractive social searching (i.e., friends' profiles). This study explored whether these categories adequately reflect Facebook use and whether they moderate physiological indicators of emotion. Thirty-six participants navigated Facebook.com while their on-screen activity and physiological responses associated with motivation and emotion were recorded. Results showed that the majority of screens encountered during Facebook use could be categorized as devoted to social browsing or social searching. Participants spent more time on social browsing than they spent on social searching. Skin-conductance data indicated that sympathetic activation diminished during the course of both social browsing and social searching. Facial EMG data indicated that participants experienced more pleasantness during the course of social searching than they experienced during social browsing. These results are discussed in terms of existing social-networking research and an evaluative space model of emotion. PMID:20950180

  3. Interactions between VTA orexin and glutamate in cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mahler, Stephen V.; Smith, Rachel J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Glutamate and orexin/hypocretin systems are involved in Pavlovian cue-triggered drug seeking. Objectives Here, we asked whether orexin and glutamate interact within ventral tegmental area (VTA) to promote reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking in a rat self-administration paradigm. Methods/results We first found that bilateral VTA micro-injections of the orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) antagonist SB-334867 (SB) or a cocktail of the AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists CNQX/AP-5 reduced reinstatement of cocaine seeking elicited by cues. In contrast, neither of these microinjections nor systemic SB reduced cocaine-primed reinstatement. Additionally, unilateral VTA OX1R blockade combined with contralateral VTA glutamate blockade attenuated cue-induced reinstatement, indicating that VTA orexin and glutamate are simultaneously necessary for cue-induced reinstatement. We further probed the receptor specificity of glutamate actions in VTA, finding that CNQX, but not AP-5, dose-dependently attenuated cue-induced reinstatement, indicating that AMPA but not NMDA receptor transmission is required for this type of cocaine seeking. Given the necessary roles of both OX1 and AMPA receptors in VTA for cue-induced cocaine seeking, we hypothesized that these signaling pathways interact during this behavior. We found that PEPA, a positive allosteric modulator of AMPA receptors, completely reversed the SB-induced attenuation of reinstatement behavior. Intra-VTA PEPA alone did not alter cue-induced reinstatement, indicating that potentiating AMPA activity with this drug specifically compensates for OX1R blockade, rather than simply inducing or enhancing reinstatement itself. Conclusions These findings show that cue-induced, but not cocaine-primed, reinstatement of cocaine seeking is dependent upon orexin and AMPA receptor interactions in VTA. PMID:22411428

  4. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis regulates ethanol-seeking behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Pina, Melanie M; Young, Emily A; Ryabinin, Andrey E; Cunningham, Christopher L

    2015-12-01

    Drug-associated stimuli are considered important factors in relapse to drug use. In the absence of drug, these cues can trigger drug craving and drive subsequent drug seeking. One structure that has been implicated in this process is the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a chief component of the extended amygdala. Previous studies have established a role for the BNST in cue-induced cocaine seeking. However, it is unclear if the BNST underlies cue-induced seeking of other abused drugs such as ethanol. In the present set of experiments, BNST involvement in ethanol-seeking behavior was assessed in male DBA/2J mice using the conditioned place preference procedure (CPP). The BNST was inhibited during CPP expression using electrolytic lesions (Experiment 1), co-infusion of GABAA and GABAB receptor agonists muscimol and baclofen (M+B; Experiment 2), and activation of inhibitory designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (hM4Di-DREADD) with clozapine-N-oxide (CNO; Experiment 3). The magnitude of ethanol CPP was reduced significantly by each of these techniques. Notably, infusion of M+B (Exp. 2) abolished CPP altogether. Follow-up studies to Exp. 3 showed that ethanol cue-induced c-Fos immunoreactivity in the BNST was reduced by hM4Di activation (Experiment 4) and in the absence of hM4Di, CNO did not affect ethanol CPP (Experiment 5). Combined, these findings demonstrate that the BNST is involved in the modulation of cue-induced ethanol-seeking behavior.

  5. Help-Seeking and Non-Help-Seeking Students' Perceptions of Own and Peers' Mental Health Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharkin, Bruce S.; Plageman, Paula M.; Coulter, Lisa P.

    2005-01-01

    Help-seeking (HS) students and non-help-seeking (NHS) students were compared on their perceptions of (a) their own level of mental health functioning and (b) the average level of mental health functioning of their (NHS or HS) peers. Results showed that NHS students' perceptions of HS students' self-ratings were similar to HS students' self-ratings…

  6. Novelty-seeking and avoidant coping strategies are associated with academic stress in Korean medical students.

    PubMed

    An, Hoyoung; Chung, Seockhoon; Park, Jangho; Kim, Seong-Yoon; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, Ki-Soo

    2012-12-30

    High levels of stress and depression in medical students is raising concern. In this study, we sought to identify coping strategies and other factors influencing academic stress in medical students. We enrolled 157 students from the University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Korea, in November, 2010. We used the Medical Stress Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory, Hamilton Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Coping Response Inventory to assess psychological parameters. We used Pearson's correlation and linear regression analyses to analyze the data. Novelty-seeking, self-directedness, cooperativeness, coping strategy, and depression scale scores all correlated significantly with stress level. Linear regression analysis indicated that students who are novelty-seeking, likely to use avoidant coping strategies, and unlikely to use active-cognitive and active-behavioral strategies tend to have higher stress levels. Reduction of stress in medical students may be achieved through evaluation of coping strategies and personality features and use of interventions to promote active coping strategies.

  7. Finding Ways to Lift Barriers to Care for Chronic Pain Patients: Outcomes of Using Internet-Based Self-Management Activities to Reduce Pain and Improve Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Rod, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chronic pain is prevalent, disabling, costly, and undertreated. There is clearly a need to improve patient understanding of ways to manage their pain. Internet-based programs are continually being developed to facilitate mental health improvement, providing tailored content for patients to manage their pain, anxiety, and depression. Objective. To evaluate the impact of Internet-based patient self-management education and activities on patients' pain, anxiety, and quality of life in patients who could not access multidisciplinary pain management. Design. Observational study. Subjects. Two hundred (200) patients (61% females, 39% males, between 18 and 75 years old) from one community pain clinic in Toronto, Canada (Toronto Poly Clinic), participated. Patients had moderate to severe pain, depression, and anxiety. These patients committed to study from a group of 515 patients with chronic noncancer pain of different origins who were stable on their levels of pain, anxiety, and depression for 12 consecutive months before start of study and could not afford noninsured treatment modalities like physiotherapy, psychology, nutrition, or exercise therapy consultation. Methods. Patients were encouraged to visit two Internet sites (a blog and Twitter postings) for educational postings written by the author about exercise, nutrition, mindfulness meditation, disease management methods, evidence-based supplements, daily relaxation exercises, and overall self-management methods 15 minutes per day for six months. Patients were also encouraged to share their ideas and comments on a blog. Activity logs were kept by patients and reviewed by physician at follow-up visits. Compliance was encouraged via weekly email reminders and phone calls during the observation period. Results. Modest improvements were noted in pain, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Of the patients with moderate or severe pain before treatment, 45% reported mild levels of pain after treatment

  8. Finding Ways to Lift Barriers to Care for Chronic Pain Patients: Outcomes of Using Internet-Based Self-Management Activities to Reduce Pain and Improve Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Rod, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chronic pain is prevalent, disabling, costly, and undertreated. There is clearly a need to improve patient understanding of ways to manage their pain. Internet-based programs are continually being developed to facilitate mental health improvement, providing tailored content for patients to manage their pain, anxiety, and depression. Objective. To evaluate the impact of Internet-based patient self-management education and activities on patients' pain, anxiety, and quality of life in patients who could not access multidisciplinary pain management. Design. Observational study. Subjects. Two hundred (200) patients (61% females, 39% males, between 18 and 75 years old) from one community pain clinic in Toronto, Canada (Toronto Poly Clinic), participated. Patients had moderate to severe pain, depression, and anxiety. These patients committed to study from a group of 515 patients with chronic noncancer pain of different origins who were stable on their levels of pain, anxiety, and depression for 12 consecutive months before start of study and could not afford noninsured treatment modalities like physiotherapy, psychology, nutrition, or exercise therapy consultation. Methods. Patients were encouraged to visit two Internet sites (a blog and Twitter postings) for educational postings written by the author about exercise, nutrition, mindfulness meditation, disease management methods, evidence-based supplements, daily relaxation exercises, and overall self-management methods 15 minutes per day for six months. Patients were also encouraged to share their ideas and comments on a blog. Activity logs were kept by patients and reviewed by physician at follow-up visits. Compliance was encouraged via weekly email reminders and phone calls during the observation period. Results. Modest improvements were noted in pain, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Of the patients with moderate or severe pain before treatment, 45% reported mild levels of pain after treatment

  9. Finding Ways to Lift Barriers to Care for Chronic Pain Patients: Outcomes of Using Internet-Based Self-Management Activities to Reduce Pain and Improve Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Rod, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chronic pain is prevalent, disabling, costly, and undertreated. There is clearly a need to improve patient understanding of ways to manage their pain. Internet-based programs are continually being developed to facilitate mental health improvement, providing tailored content for patients to manage their pain, anxiety, and depression. Objective. To evaluate the impact of Internet-based patient self-management education and activities on patients' pain, anxiety, and quality of life in patients who could not access multidisciplinary pain management. Design. Observational study. Subjects. Two hundred (200) patients (61% females, 39% males, between 18 and 75 years old) from one community pain clinic in Toronto, Canada (Toronto Poly Clinic), participated. Patients had moderate to severe pain, depression, and anxiety. These patients committed to study from a group of 515 patients with chronic noncancer pain of different origins who were stable on their levels of pain, anxiety, and depression for 12 consecutive months before start of study and could not afford noninsured treatment modalities like physiotherapy, psychology, nutrition, or exercise therapy consultation. Methods. Patients were encouraged to visit two Internet sites (a blog and Twitter postings) for educational postings written by the author about exercise, nutrition, mindfulness meditation, disease management methods, evidence-based supplements, daily relaxation exercises, and overall self-management methods 15 minutes per day for six months. Patients were also encouraged to share their ideas and comments on a blog. Activity logs were kept by patients and reviewed by physician at follow-up visits. Compliance was encouraged via weekly email reminders and phone calls during the observation period. Results. Modest improvements were noted in pain, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Of the patients with moderate or severe pain before treatment, 45% reported mild levels of pain after treatment

  10. One-way radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Rodríguez, Pedro; Ilan, Boaz; Kim, Arnold D.

    2016-06-01

    We introduce the one-way radiative transfer equation (RTE) for modeling the transmission of a light beam incident normally on a slab composed of a uniform forward-peaked scattering medium. Unlike the RTE, which is formulated as a boundary value problem, the one-way RTE is formulated as an initial value problem. Consequently, the one-way RTE is much easier to solve. We discuss the relation of the one-way RTE to the Fokker-Planck, small-angle, and Fermi pencil beam approximations. Then, we validate the one-way RTE through systematic comparisons with RTE simulations for both the Henyey-Greenstein and screened Rutherford scattering phase functions over a broad range of albedo, anisotropy factor, optical thickness, and refractive index values. We find that the one-way RTE gives very good approximations for a broad range of optical property values for thin to moderately thick media that have moderately to sharply forward-peaked scattering. Specifically, we show that the error made by the one-way RTE decreases monotonically as the anisotropic factor increases and as the albedo increases. On the other hand, the error increases monotonically as the optical thickness increases and the refractive index mismatch at the boundary increases.

  11. [Cerebral oedema: new therapeutic ways].

    PubMed

    Quintard, H; Ichai, C

    2014-06-01

    Cerebral oedema (CO) after brain injury can occur from different ways. The vasogenic and cytotoxic oedema are usually described but osmotic and hydrostatic CO, respectively secondary to plasmatic hypotonia or increase in blood pressure, can also be encountered. Addition of these several mechanisms can worsen injuries. Consequences are major, leading quickly to death secondary to intracerebral hypertension and later to neuropsychic sequelae. So therapeutic care to control this phenomenon is essential and osmotherapy is actually the only way. A better understanding of physiopathological disorders, particularly energetic ways (lactate), aquaporine function, inflammation lead to new therapeutic hopes. The promising experimental results need now to be confirmed by clinical data.

  12. New ways of insulin delivery.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, L

    2010-02-01

    , especially on clinical studies. However, it is fascinating to see that the imagination about improvements in existing ways to deliver insulin (e.g. insulin pens) and also about novel ways to improve insulin absorption (e.g. local heating of the injection site) is still there. At the same time the above-mentioned considerations (coming more from the viewpoint of pharmaceutical companies and more market oriented) appear not to be the focus of many scientists in pharmacological research institutes. Otherwise it is difficult to understand why every year a number of new oral insulin formulations are published in pharmacological journals, reporting impressive data from animal studies (mainly performed on rats), but only a very limited number of these are transferred to the clinical development process. It is well known that most drugs fail during the clinical development process and the resources of pharmaceutical companies that are willing to invest in, for example, oral insulin are very limited. Small companies tend to make a lot of smoke out of a little fire to gain access to these resources. Unfortunately, the limited financial resources also hamper the design and performance of pre-clinical experiments and clinical studies. The consequence is that many of the study results presented are inconclusive (to phrase it carefully). One good study that proves that a given approach works - or shows convincingly that it does not work - would be much better than a number of small studies. Sometimes one has the impression that this is done on purpose to show some activity and keep the company alive. Without a more stringent approach there is a high risk that many of the current developments will never make it into an available clinical product. These comments are not intended to be destructive but to strengthen a thorough scientific approach and to induce a more realistic view of the prospects: most probably an oral insulin pill will not be on the market next year! Nevertheless, this is

  13. New ways of insulin delivery.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, L

    2010-02-01

    , especially on clinical studies. However, it is fascinating to see that the imagination about improvements in existing ways to deliver insulin (e.g. insulin pens) and also about novel ways to improve insulin absorption (e.g. local heating of the injection site) is still there. At the same time the above-mentioned considerations (coming more from the viewpoint of pharmaceutical companies and more market oriented) appear not to be the focus of many scientists in pharmacological research institutes. Otherwise it is difficult to understand why every year a number of new oral insulin formulations are published in pharmacological journals, reporting impressive data from animal studies (mainly performed on rats), but only a very limited number of these are transferred to the clinical development process. It is well known that most drugs fail during the clinical development process and the resources of pharmaceutical companies that are willing to invest in, for example, oral insulin are very limited. Small companies tend to make a lot of smoke out of a little fire to gain access to these resources. Unfortunately, the limited financial resources also hamper the design and performance of pre-clinical experiments and clinical studies. The consequence is that many of the study results presented are inconclusive (to phrase it carefully). One good study that proves that a given approach works - or shows convincingly that it does not work - would be much better than a number of small studies. Sometimes one has the impression that this is done on purpose to show some activity and keep the company alive. Without a more stringent approach there is a high risk that many of the current developments will never make it into an available clinical product. These comments are not intended to be destructive but to strengthen a thorough scientific approach and to induce a more realistic view of the prospects: most probably an oral insulin pill will not be on the market next year! Nevertheless, this is

  14. SST and the Milky Way, an Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope whizzes in front of a brilliant, infrared view of the Milky Way galaxy's plane in this artistic depiction.

    The mission marks the last of NASA's Great Observatories, a program that includes the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory and the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory.

    In addition to studying many of the coldest, oldest and most dust-enshrouded objects and processes in the universe, the mission will also be an important part of NASA's Origins Program, which seeks to answer the questions: Where did we come from? Are we alone?

  15. Seeking a way to promote the use of constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Zurita, F; Belmont, M A; De Anda, J; White, J R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the domestic wastewater treatment efficiency as well as the survivability of commercially valuable ornamental plants in subsurface flow wetlands (SSFW) for domestic wastewater (DWW) treatment in laboratory and pilot wetland studies. The laboratory scale study included five different species (Zantedeschia aethiopica, Strelitzia reginae, Anthurium andreanum, Canna hybrids and Hemmerocallis dumortieri) that were evaluated in horizontal flow subsurface treatment cells. All the plants survived during the 6-month experimental period demonstrating high wetland nutrient treatment efficiency. In order to validate and expand these preliminary results, a pilot-scale wetland study was carried out in SSFWs under two different flow regimes (horizontal and vertical flow). Four ornamental species were tested during a 1-year period: Zantedeschia aethiopica, Strelitzia reginae, Anthurium andreanum and Agapanthus africanus. The removal efficiencies were significantly higher in the vertical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) for all pollutants, except for nitrate (NO(3)-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total suspended solids (TSS). These results show that it is feasible to use select non-wetland plants with high market value in SSFWs without reducing the efficiency of the wastewater treatment system, although future work should continue in order to apply this technology in a large scale. The added value of floriculture in treatment wetlands can help to promote the use of constructed wetlands (CW) for domestic wastewater treatment in developing countries where economical resources are scarce and water pollution with DWW is common. PMID:21330710

  16. A Thousand Writers Writing: Seeking Change through the Radical Practice of Writing as a Way of Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagelski, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    In this frankly utopian essay, Robert Yagelski's theme is the transformative power of writing as an act in and of itself. He makes us reevaluate our motivation and point for teaching writing in schools and asks us to consider an agenda that will quite frankly scare teachers as he explains why we need an ontology of writing. (Contains 6 notes.)

  17. "BE"ing a Certain Way: Seeking "Body Image" in Canadian Health and Physical Education Curriculum Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Lorayne; Thomson, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Body image is an individual's emotional response to one's appearance including size and shape; this response may not be helpful in the pursuit of overall health and well-being. This policy analysis examines the treatment of body image in Canadian Health and Physical Education (HPE) curriculum policies using a body image analysis framework…

  18. Milky Way's Head On Collision

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the collision between our Milky Way galaxy and the Andromeda galaxy. Hubble Space Telescope observations indicate that the two galaxies, pulled together by their mutual gravi...

  19. Predicting attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help among Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Freitas-Murrell, Brittany; Swift, Joshua K

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to examine the role of current/previous treatment experience, stigma (social and self), and cultural identification (Caucasian and Alaska Native [AN]) in predicting attitudes toward psychological help seeking for ANs. Results indicated that these variables together explained roughly 56% of variance in attitudes. In particular, while self-stigma and identification with the Caucasian culture predicted a unique amount of variance in help-seeking attitudes, treatment use and identification with AN culture did not. The results of this study indicate that efforts to address the experience of self-stigma may prove most useful to improving help-seeking attitudes in ANs. PMID:26425864

  20. Changing the Way We Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coote, Anna

    2010-01-01

    A 21-hour working week is a long way from today's standard of 40 hours or more, but not so far-fetched when people consider the infinitely varied ways in which they actually spend their time. On average, people of working age spend 19.6 hours a week in paid employment and 20.4 hours in unpaid housework and childcare. These averages mask huge…

  1. Cell Phone Internet Access, Online Sexual Solicitation, Partner Seeking, and Sexual Risk Behavior among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W.; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be “out,” and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors. PMID:25344027

  2. Cell phone internet access, online sexual solicitation, partner seeking, and sexual risk behavior among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be "out," and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors.

  3. Help-Seeking Behavior and Health Care Navigation by Bhutanese Refugees.

    PubMed

    Yun, Katherine; Paul, Papia; Subedi, Parangkush; Kuikel, Leela; Nguyen, Giang T; Barg, Frances K

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to document barriers to care, help-seeking behaviors, and the impact of a community-based patient navigation intervention on patient activation levels among Bhutanese refugees in the U.S. Data sources comprised 35 intake and 34 post-intervention interviews with program participants, 14 intake and 14 post-intervention interviews with patient navigators, and 164 case notes. Textual data were analyzed using the constant comparison method. Patient activation level was assessed at both time points. Participants had limited English proficiency (97 %), limited literacy (69 %), and the lowest level of patient activation (69 %). Participants routinely experienced complex insurance access, coverage, and payment problems and had limited healthcare-related life skills. Help-seeking began within social networks, with high reliance on bilingual, literate family members perceived to have experience with "the system." Help-seeking was not stigmatized and was instead consistent with societal norms valuing mutual assistance. Participants preferred helpers to act as proxies and required repeated social modeling by peers to gain confidence applying healthcare-related life skills. Following the intervention, only one-third reported the lowest level of patient activation (35 %) and one-third were highly activated (32 %). Bhutanese refugees overcome healthcare access barriers by seeking help from a network of support that begins within the community. Community health workers serving as patient navigators are readily sought out, and this approach is concordant with cultural expectations for mutual assistance. Community health workers serving immigrant groups should model healthcare-related life skills in addition to providing direct assistance. PMID:26659398

  4. Prefrontal neurons encode context-based response execution and inhibition in reward seeking and extinction

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, David E.; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) guides execution and inhibition of behavior based on contextual demands. In rodents, the dorsal/prelimbic (PL) medial PFC (mPFC) is frequently considered essential for execution of goal-directed behavior (“go”) whereas ventral/infralimbic (IL) mPFC is thought to control behavioral suppression (“stop”). This dichotomy is commonly seen for fear-related behaviors, and for some behaviors related to cocaine seeking. Overall, however, data for reward-directed behaviors are ambiguous, and few recordings of PL/IL activity have been performed to demonstrate single-neuron correlates. We recorded neuronal activity in PL and IL during discriminative stimulus driven sucrose seeking followed by multiple days of extinction of the reward-predicting stimulus. Contrary to a generalized PL-go/IL-stop hypothesis, we found cue-evoked activity in PL and IL during reward seeking and extinction. Upon analyzing this activity based on resultant behavior (lever press or withhold), we found that neurons in both areas encoded contextually appropriate behavioral initiation (during reward seeking) and withholding (during extinction), where context was dictated by response–outcome contingencies. Our results demonstrate that PL and IL signal contextual information for regulation of behavior, irrespective of whether that involves initiation or suppression of behavioral responses, rather than topographically encoding go vs. stop behaviors. The use of context to optimize behavior likely plays an important role in maximizing utility-promoting exertion of activity when behaviors are rewarded and conservation of energy when not. PMID:26170333

  5. Ways to Improve Schools and Education Project. Final Report (December 1, 1984 - November 30, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Alvy L.; Williams, David L., Jr.

    The Ways to Improve Schools and Education (WISE) Project seeks to enhance school productivity by more effective use of community resources to meet school needs. Models and guidelines have been developed to promote collaboration among schools, businesses/chambers of commerce, other community organizations, state education agencies, and higher…

  6. Negotiated pleasures in health-seeking lifestyles of participants of a health promoting intervention.

    PubMed

    Jallinoja, Piia; Pajari, Pia; Absetz, Pilvikki

    2010-03-01

    Using focus group discussion data the present article examines argumentation around pleasure from food and physical activity among participants of a health promoting intervention. The article analyses the conflicts produced by pleasure-seeking and health enhancement, and the pursuits to solve these conflicts. Due to the discrepancy between the pleasure-seeking and health enhancement, pleasure was constructed not simply as a spontaneous experience but often as a planned and disciplined event. In respect of food, it was considered as appropriate to negotiate with different sources of pleasure and discipline one's inclination to simply follow one's taste. However, the tastiness of food was seen to have a value of its own and the need for pleasurable tastes was often experienced as beyond the individual's control. We term food related pleasures 'negotiated pleasures' stressing the diverse strategies used by individuals while negotiating between food related pleasures and their overall health-seeking lifestyle. In respect of physical activity, life resembled more a mosaic where passivity was occasionally interrupted with disciplined physical activity that seldom produced pleasure. The scarcity of pleasures from physical activity as well as from healthy foods is a challenge for health promoters. Instead of building more self-controlling and self-denying individuals, it could be fruitful to focus health promoters' attention to the enhancement of the experiences of pleasure. No matter how self-disciplined individuals are, if the dilemma of pleasure and health is not disentangled, lifestyle change will not last long.

  7. The roles of support seeking and race/ethnicity in posttraumatic growth among breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Erin E.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Bernstein, Leslie; McTiernan, Anne; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic growth (PTG) after cancer can minimize the emotional impact of disease and treatment; however, the facilitators of PTG, including support-seeking, are unclear. We examined the role of support-seeking on PTG among 604 breast cancer survivors ages 40–64 from the Health Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) Study. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine predictors of support-seeking (participation in support groups and confiding in healthcare providers) as well as the the relationship between support-seeking and PTG. Support program participation was moderate (61.1%) compared to the high rates of confiding in health professionals (88.6%), and African Americans (AA) were less likely to report participating than Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) (Odds Ratio: 0.14 (0.08, 0.23)). The mean (SD) PTG score was 48.8 (27.4) (range 0–105). Support program participation (β=10.4) and confiding in healthcare providers (β=12.9) were associated (p<0.001) with higher PTG. In analyses stratified by race/ethnicity, PTG was significantly higher in both NHW and AA support program participants (p<0.01), but not significantly higher in Hispanics/Latinas. Confiding in a healthcare provider was only associated with PTG for NHWs (p= 0.02). Support program experiences and patient-provider encounters should be examined to determine which attributes facilitate PTG in diverse populations. PMID:23844921

  8. Subtypes of French pathological gamblers: comparison of sensation seeking, alexithymia and depression scores.

    PubMed

    Bonnaire, Céline; Bungener, Catherine; Varescon, Isabelle

    2009-12-01

    Recent data suggest the importance of identifying subtypes of pathological gamblers. This research studies sensation seeking, alexithymia and depression among a general population of French gamblers who play different types of game. Those games include games available in cafés (two cafés located in Paris suburb) like lottery, scratch-cards, etc., horse betting at the racetrack (five racetracks closest to Paris), slot machines and traditional games (roulette and card games) at the casino of Enghien-les-Bains (casino nearest to Paris). Sensation seeking was measured with the SSS form V, alexithymia with the TAS-20, and depression with the BDI-13. Pathological racetrack gamblers (42 males; mean age 29.1 years), who play active games involving skills, have the highest sensation seeking scores and are the most prone to alexithymia. Pathological gamblers playing the slot machines (12 males; 15 females; mean age 35.7 years) and games available in cafés (57 males; mean age 32.6 years), thus playing passive games that involve chance only, have low sensation seeking scores. Slot machines gamblers display alexithymia and have the highest depression scores. Pathological gamblers playing traditional games (15 males; mean age 37.8 years), games that involve strategy, do not perform well on any of these scales. These findings are consistent with the idea that clinically distinct subgroups of pathological gamblers can be identified. People displaying typical features could be attracted by specific games.

  9. Assessing Fear Following Retrieval + Extinction Through Suppression of Baseline Reward Seeking vs. Freezing.

    PubMed

    Shumake, Jason; Monfils, Marie H

    2015-01-01

    Freezing has become the predominant measure used in rodent studies of conditioned fear, but conditioned suppression of reward-seeking behavior may provide a measure that is more relevant to human anxiety disorders; that is, a measure of how fear interferes with the enjoyment of pleasurable activities. Previous work has found that an isolated presentation of a fear conditioned stimulus (CS) prior to extinction training (retrieval + extinction) results in a more robust and longer-lasting reduction in fear. The objective of this study was to assess whether the retrieval + extinction effect is evident using conditioned suppression of reward seeking, operationalized as a reduction in baseline licking (without prior water deprivation) for a 10% sucrose solution. We found that, compared to freezing, conditioned suppression of reward seeking was much more sensitive to fear conditioning and far less responsive to extinction training. As in previous work, we found that retrieval + extinction reduced post-extinction fear reinstatement when measured as freezing, but it did not reduce fear reinstatement when measured as conditioned suppression. This suggests that there is still residual fear following retrieval + extinction, or that this procedure only modifies memory traces in neural circuits relevant to the expression of freezing, but not to the suppression of reward seeking.

  10. Cocaine Seeking and Taking: Role of Hippocampal Dopamine D1-like Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiaohu; Wells, Audrey M.; Fuchs, Rita A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-documented involvement of dopamine D1-like receptor stimulation in cocaine-induced goal-directed behaviors, little is known about the specific contribution of D1-like receptor populations in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) to drug context-induced cocaine-seeking or drug-reinforced instrumental behaviors. To investigate this question, rats were trained to lever press for un-signaled cocaine infusions in a distinct context followed by extinction training in a different context. Cocaine-seeking behavior (non-reinforced lever responding) was then assessed in the previously cocaine-paired and extinction contexts. SCH23390-induced D1-like receptor antagonism in the DH, but not the overlying trunk region of the somatosensory cortex, dose-dependently inhibited drug context-induced cocaine-seeking behavior, without altering cocaine-reinforced instrumental responding, cocaine intake, food-reinforced instrumental responding, or general motor activity, relative to vehicle treatment. These findings suggest that D1-like receptor stimulation in the DH is critical for the incentive motivational effects and/or memory of cocaine-paired contextual stimuli that contribute to drug-seeking behavior. PMID:24655895

  11. Weekly Pattern for Online Information Seeking on HIV - A Multi-Language Study.

    PubMed

    Gabarron, Elia; Lau, Annie Y S; Wynn, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that there are weekly patterns of information-seeking activities on sexual health topics in some selected languages. However, it is not known if this weekly pattern is found across the ten most commonly-used languages on the Internet, and whether international public events might have an impact on these information-seeking patterns. The objective of this study is to examine sexual health information-seeking patterns for searches performed in several languages, and also to analyze the potential impact of public events on these information-seeking rates. We extracted the number of hits on the HIV article on Wikipedia for the ten most used languages on the Internet for all of the year 2015. The results confirm the existence of a weekly pattern for the searches performed in English, Spanish, Portuguese, Japanese, Russian, French, and German. But the weekly pattern was not found for searches in Mandarin Chinese, Arabic, and Malay. The number of HIV queries increased significantly during two public events, the World AIDS Day, and the announcement regarding the HIV-positive condition of the celebrity actor Charlie Sheen. The existence of higher peaks in searching rates at the beginning of the week for some languages, and the increase in queries related to public events could represent valuable opportunities for public campaigns promoting sexual health. PMID:27577492

  12. Cocaine seeking and taking: role of hippocampal dopamine D1-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaohu; Wells, Audrey M; Fuchs, Rita A

    2014-09-01

    Despite the well-documented involvement of dopamine D1-like receptor stimulation in cocaine-induced goal-directed behaviours, little is known about the specific contribution of D1-like receptor populations in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) to drug context-induced cocaine-seeking or drug-reinforced instrumental behaviours. To investigate this question, rats were trained to lever press for un-signalled cocaine infusions in a distinct context followed by extinction training in a different context. Cocaine-seeking behaviour (non-reinforced lever responding) was then assessed in the previously cocaine-paired and extinction contexts. SCH23390-induced D1-like receptor antagonism in the DH, but not the overlying trunk region of the somatosensory cortex, dose-dependently inhibited drug context-induced cocaine-seeking behaviour, without altering cocaine-reinforced instrumental responding, cocaine intake, food-reinforced instrumental responding, or general motor activity, relative to vehicle treatment. These findings suggest that D1-like receptor stimulation in the DH is critical for the incentive motivational effects and/or memory of cocaine-paired contextual stimuli that contribute to drug-seeking behaviour.

  13. D4 RECEPTOR DEFICIENCY IN MICE HAS LIMITED EFFECTS ON IMPULSIVITY AND NOVELTY SEEKING

    PubMed Central

    Helms, C. M.; Gubner, N. R.; Wilhelm, C. J.; Mitchell, S. H.; Grandy, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    Alleles of the human dopamine D4 receptor (D4R) gene (DRD4.7) have repeatedly been found to correlate with novelty seeking, substance abuse, pathological gambling, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). If these various psychopathologies are a result of attenuated D4R-mediated signaling, mice lacking D4Rs (D4KO) should be more impulsive than wild-type (WT) mice and exhibit more novelty seeking. However, in our study, D4KO and WT mice showed similar levels of impulsivity as measured by delay discounting performance and response inhibition on a Go/No-go test, suggesting that D4R-mediated signaling may not affect impulsivity. D4KO mice were more active than WT mice in the first 5 min of a novel open field test, suggesting greater novelty seeking but for both genotypes, with the more impulsive D4KO mice habituated less readily in the novel open field. These data suggest that the absence of D4Rs is not sufficient to cause psychopathologies associated with heightened impulsivity and novelty seeking. PMID:18456309

  14. Information-seeking in cancer survivors: application of the Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking to HINTS 2007 data.

    PubMed

    Hartoonian, Narineh; Ormseth, Sarah R; Hanson, Eric R; Bantum, Erin O; Owen, Jason E

    2014-01-01

    Despite health care providers' best efforts, many cancer survivors have unmet informational and support needs. As a result, cancer survivors often have to meet these needs themselves, and how they approach this process is poorly understood. The authors aimed to validate and extend the Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking to examine information-seeking behaviors across a variety of channels of information delivery and to explore the impact of health-related factors on levels of information seeking. The data of 459 cancer survivors were drawn from the National Cancer Institute's 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the associations among health-related factors, information-carrier factors, and information-seeking behavior. Results confirmed direct effects of direct experience, salience, and information-carrier characteristics on information-carrier utility. However, the direct impact of demographics and beliefs on information-carrier utility was not confirmed, nor were the effects of information-carrier factors on information-seeking behavior. Contrary to expectations, salience had direct effect on information-seeking behavior and on information-carrier characteristics. These results show that understanding antecedents of information seeking will inform the development and implementation of systems of care that will help providers better meet cancer survivors' needs. PMID:24742287

  15. The neuropharmacology of relapse to food seeking: methodology, main findings, and comparison with relapse to drug seeking

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Sunila G.; Adams-Deutsch, Tristan; Epstein, David H.; Shaham, Yavin

    2009-01-01

    Relapse to old, unhealthy eating habits is a major problem in human dietary treatments. The mechanisms underlying this relapse are unknown. Surprisingly, until recently this clinical problem has not been systematically studied in animal models. Here, we review results from recent studies in which a reinstatement model (commonly used to study relapse to abused drugs) was employed to characterize the effect of pharmacological agents on relapse to food seeking induced by either food priming (non-contingent exposure to small amounts of food), cues previously associated with food, or injections of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine. We also address methodological issues related to the use of the reinstatement model to study relapse to food seeking, similarities and differences in mechanisms underlying reinstatement of food seeking versus drug seeking, and the degree to which the reinstatement procedure provides a suitable model for studying relapse in humans. We conclude by discussing implications for medication development and future research. We offer three tentative conclusions: The neuronal mechanisms of food-priming- and cue-induced reinstatement are likely different from those of reinstatement induced by the pharmacological stressor yohimbine.The neuronal mechanisms of reinstatement of food seeking are possibly different from those of ongoing food-reinforced operant responding.The neuronal mechanisms underlying reinstatement of food seeking overlap to some degree with those of reinstatement of drug seeking. PMID:19497349

  16. Experience-Seeking Characteristics of Methadone Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Paul M.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Methadone clients scored higher than controls on measures reflecting boredom, desire for change and attraction to physically thrilling activities. Correlations of these measures with length of most recent dependency before treatment, time on program, and time since initial dependency suggest peculiarities of methadone clients antedated involvement…

  17. Gay men seeking surrogacy to achieve parenthood.

    PubMed

    Norton, Wendy; Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2013-09-01

    Assisted reproduction technologies have developed at an extraordinary rate in recent years. This, combined with the changing landscape of legal, technical and social possibilities, enables gay men to consider their options for fatherhood as new opportunities emerge for them to create families. Media coverage of gay celebrities embracing surrogacy as a way of having a family and high-profile legal cases have raised awareness of surrogacy across the world. However, gay fatherhood achieved through assisted reproduction is a highly under-researched area, both in the UK and internationally. The research that currently exists on gay fatherhood is largely related to gay men who become parents through processes such as adoption and fostering and children conceived through previous heterosexual relationships. Much of this evidence has centred on parenting experiences, the outcomes for children or the legal perspectives. This paper outlines the different types of surrogacy and the legal issues facing gay men who choose this route to parenthood, summarizes the limited research on gay men and surrogacy and discusses gaps in the current knowledge base.

  18. Iraq's nuclear hide-and-seek

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D. ); Hibbs, M.

    1991-09-01

    The revelation that Iraq had spent as much as $8 billion on its calutron program implies that Iraq sought to develop a large and renewable weapons material stockpile. While the calutron revelations are alarming, a nuclear weapons program requires more than equipment to produce fissile materials. Iraq lacked the hands-on experience required to nudge its fledgling gas centrifuge program out of the laboratory and into the large-scale production phase. No information to date suggests that Iraq would have escaped serious difficulties as it moved from a calutron pilot stage to large-scale production of highly enriched uranium. The revelations have raised hard questions about the quality of reconnaissance information on Iraq's nuclear effort. But the heat fingerprints left by a large calutron production plant would become visible only after the facility was producing enriched uranium. Tracking down and eliminating Iraq's nuclear weapons capabilities under the terms of Resolution 687, and a continued embargo to halt imports of relevant technologies and equipment, will be the most effective way to prevent Iraq's nuclear program from resurfacing.

  19. Gay men seeking surrogacy to achieve parenthood.

    PubMed

    Norton, Wendy; Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2013-09-01

    Assisted reproduction technologies have developed at an extraordinary rate in recent years. This, combined with the changing landscape of legal, technical and social possibilities, enables gay men to consider their options for fatherhood as new opportunities emerge for them to create families. Media coverage of gay celebrities embracing surrogacy as a way of having a family and high-profile legal cases have raised awareness of surrogacy across the world. However, gay fatherhood achieved through assisted reproduction is a highly under-researched area, both in the UK and internationally. The research that currently exists on gay fatherhood is largely related to gay men who become parents through processes such as adoption and fostering and children conceived through previous heterosexual relationships. Much of this evidence has centred on parenting experiences, the outcomes for children or the legal perspectives. This paper outlines the different types of surrogacy and the legal issues facing gay men who choose this route to parenthood, summarizes the limited research on gay men and surrogacy and discusses gaps in the current knowledge base. PMID:23664815

  20. Seeking Drug Abuse Treatment: Know What to Ask

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse Treatment: Know What To Ask » Introduction Seeking Drug Abuse Treatment: Know What To Ask Email Facebook Twitter Introduction The goal of drug abuse treatment is to stop drug use and allow ...

  1. Elder Abuse and Help-Seeking Behavior in Elderly Chinese.

    PubMed

    Yan, Elsie

    2015-09-01

    Elder abuse is a prevalent phenomenon resulting in physical, emotional, and social costs to individuals, families, and society. Timely and effective intervention is crucial because victims are often involved in relationships where re-victimization is common. Most elder abuse victims, however, are reluctant to seek help from outside their families. The aim of the present study is to explore factors associated with help-seeking behaviors among mistreated elders in Hong Kong. In-depth interviews were conducted with 40 elder abuse survivors. Although almost all of the participants could provide some examples of elder abuse, most denied that their own experience was abusive. Personal and professional social networks were important determinants of help seeking. Social isolation, cultural barriers, self-blame, and lack of knowledge were major barriers to help seeking.

  2. Stereotype Threat and Feedback Seeking in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Loriann; Deitch, Elizabeth A.; Brief, Arthur P.; Block, Caryn J.

    2003-01-01

    Among 166 African American managers, those who were the only minority-group member in their workgroup perceived more stereotype threat. Stereotype threat was related to indirect feedback seeking and discounting of supervisors' performance feedback. (Contains 41 references.) (SK)

  3. ["Epinephrine-addiction" and risk-seeking behaviour in athletes: what realities?].

    PubMed

    Rougemont-Buecking, Ansgar; Rougemont, Estelle; Toth, Richard; Simon, Olivier; Besson, Jacques

    2007-06-13

    This article resumes the psychobiologic mechanisms involved in risk-seeking behaviour. The question is discussed whether some forms of high risk sports meet the diagnostic criteria of dependency. The intensive activation of the adrenocorticotropic pathway may yield to addiction: according to the model of emotion-focussed coping of stress, unpleasant emotion is "overwritten" by intense stress and hence better tolerated emotionally, leading to an addictive repetition of risk-seeking behaviour. In addition, pharmacologic mimicry seems possible as the perception of effects of catecholamines may imitate some of the effects of stimulating drugs. Finally, the current concept of risk and harm reduction is transferred to sports. This would mean to apply appropriate preventive interventions for a large variety of possibly dangerous activities.

  4. Neural coding in a single sensory neuron controlling opposite seeking behaviours in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kuhara, Atsushi; Ohnishi, Noriyuki; Shimowada, Tomoyasu; Mori, Ikue

    2011-01-01

    Unveiling the neural codes for intricate behaviours is a major challenge in neuroscience. The neural circuit for the temperature-seeking behaviour of Caenorhabditis elegans is an ideal system to dissect how neurons encode sensory information for the execution of behavioural output. Here we show that the temperature-sensing neuron AFD transmits both stimulatory and inhibitory neural signals to a single interneuron AIY. In this circuit, a calcium concentration threshold in AFD acts as a switch for opposing neural signals that direct the opposite behaviours. Remote control of AFD activity, using a light-driven ion pump and channel, reveals that diverse reduction levels of AFD activity can generate warm- or cold-seeking behaviour. Calcium imaging shows that AFD uses either stimulatory or inhibitory neuronal signalling onto AIY, depending on the calcium concentration threshold in AFD. Thus, dual neural regulation in opposite directions is directly coupled to behavioural inversion in the simple neural circuit. PMID:21673676

  5. Help-Seeking in People with Exceptional Experiences: Results from a General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Landolt, Karin; Wittwer, Amrei; Wyss, Thomas; Unterassner, Lui; Fach, Wolfgang; Krummenacher, Peter; Brugger, Peter; Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Schubiger, Pius August; Folkers, Gerd; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exceptional experiences (EE) are experiences that deviate from ordinary experiences, for example precognition, supernatural appearances, or déjà vues. In spite of the high frequency of EE in the general population, little is known about their effect on mental health and about the way people cope with EE. This study aimed to assess the quality and quantity of EE in persons from the Swiss general population, to identify the predictors of their help-seeking, and to determine how many of them approach the mental health system. Methods: An on-line survey was used to evaluate a quota sample of 1580 persons representing the Swiss general population with respect to gender, age, and level of education. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to integrate help-seeking, self-reported mental disorder, and other variables in a statistical model designed to identify predictors of help-seeking in persons with EE. Results: Almost all participants (91%) experienced at least one EE. Generally, help-seeking was more frequent when the EE were of negative valence. Help-seeking because of EE was less frequent in persons without a self-reported mental disorder (8.6%) than in persons with a disorder (35.1%) (OR = 5.7). Even when frequency and attributes of EE were controlled for, people without a disorder sought four times less often help because of EE than expected. Persons with a self-reported diagnosis of mental disorder preferred seeing a mental health professional. Multinomial regression revealed a preference for healers in women with less education, who described themselves as believing and also having had more impressive EE. Conclusion: Persons with EE who do not indicate a mental disorder less often sought help because of EE than persons who indicated a mental disorder. We attribute this imbalance to a high inhibition threshold to seek professional help. Moreover, especially less educated women did not approach the mental health care system as often as other

  6. Role of Corticotropin Releasing Factor 1 Signaling in Cocaine Seeking during Early Extinction in Female and Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cason, Angie M.; Kohtz, Amy; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Locus coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE) and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) neurons are involved in stress responses, including stress’s ability to drive drug relapse. Previous animal studies indicate that female rats exhibit greater drug seeking than male rats during initial drug abstinence. Moreover, females are more sensitive to the effect of stress to drive drug seeking than males. Finally, LC-NE neurons are more sensitive to CRF in females compared to males. We hypothesized that increased drug seeking in females on extinction day one (ED1) is due to increased response to the stress of early withdrawal and is dependent upon the increased response of LC in females to CRF. We predicted that LC-NE neurons would exhibit Fos activation on ED1, and that blocking CRF1 signaling would decrease drug seeking on ED1 measured by responding on an active lever previously associated with cocaine self- administration. After chronic cocaine self-administration, female and male rats underwent a test for initial extinction responding by measuring lever pressing in the absence of cocaine. Prior to this Extinction Day 1 (ED1) session, rats were injected with vehicle or the selective CRF1 antagonist (CP) to measure effects of CRF antagonism on drug seeking during early abstinence. ED1 increased corticosterone in female rats, in proportion to lever responding in male and female, indicating that ED1 was stressful. Pretreatment with CP decreased cocaine seeking on ED1 more effectively in female compared to male rats. This increase in responding was associated with an increase in activation of LC NE neurons. Together, these findings indicate that stress, and signaling at CRF receptors in LC, may be involved in the increased drug seeking during initial abstinence. PMID:27362504

  7. Role of Corticotropin Releasing Factor 1 Signaling in Cocaine Seeking during Early Extinction in Female and Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Cason, Angie M; Kohtz, Amy; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Locus coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE) and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) neurons are involved in stress responses, including stress's ability to drive drug relapse. Previous animal studies indicate that female rats exhibit greater drug seeking than male rats during initial drug abstinence. Moreover, females are more sensitive to the effect of stress to drive drug seeking than males. Finally, LC-NE neurons are more sensitive to CRF in females compared to males. We hypothesized that increased drug seeking in females on extinction day one (ED1) is due to increased response to the stress of early withdrawal and is dependent upon the increased response of LC in females to CRF. We predicted that LC-NE neurons would exhibit Fos activation on ED1, and that blocking CRF1 signaling would decrease drug seeking on ED1 measured by responding on an active lever previously associated with cocaine self- administration. After chronic cocaine self-administration, female and male rats underwent a test for initial extinction responding by measuring lever pressing in the absence of cocaine. Prior to this Extinction Day 1 (ED1) session, rats were injected with vehicle or the selective CRF1 antagonist (CP) to measure effects of CRF antagonism on drug seeking during early abstinence. ED1 increased corticosterone in female rats, in proportion to lever responding in male and female, indicating that ED1 was stressful. Pretreatment with CP decreased cocaine seeking on ED1 more effectively in female compared to male rats. This increase in responding was associated with an increase in activation of LC NE neurons. Together, these findings indicate that stress, and signaling at CRF receptors in LC, may be involved in the increased drug seeking during initial abstinence. PMID:27362504

  8. Who Seeks Help Online for Self-Injury?

    PubMed

    Frost, Mareka; Casey, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify differences between young people who seek help online for self-injury and those who self-injure but do not seek help online, in order to improve online services for young people at high risk of suicide. Young people reporting a history of self-injury (N = 679) were identified as part of larger study (N = 1,463) exploring help-seeking. One third of young people with a history of self-injury reported online help-seeking for self-injury. Online help-seekers were significantly more distressed, suicidal, and had a greater degree of self-injury compared to those who did not seek help online. The Internet provides an important form of support to the most at risk young people in this population, and may be a proximal step to face-to-face help-seeking. Further research is required to investigate the forms of support currently accessed by young people online, and their effectiveness.

  9. Mangroves and Seawalls. "Increased Pressure for Land Fill Will Cause More and More Stress to Natural Areas." Grades 7 and 8. A Three Lesson Unit. Student Learning Activity Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, James

    This module is an activity/discussion-centered unit focusing on the importance of shoreline surface area. The module is part of a series designed to be used by teachers, students, and community members to help them utilize community resources in developing and teaching environmental concepts and responsibility, and in seeking ways to solve…

  10. Designing babies: morally permissible ways to modify the human genome.

    PubMed

    Agar, Nicholas

    1995-01-01

    My focus in this paper is the question of the moral acceptability of attempts to modify the human genome. Much of the debate in this area has revolved around the distinction between supposedly therapeutic modification on the one hand, and eugenic modification on the other. In the first part of the paper I reject some recent arguments against genetic engineering. In the second part I seek to distinguish between permissible and impermissible forms of intervention in such a way that does not appeal to the therapeutic/eugenic distinction. If I am right much of what we would intuitively call eugenic intervention will be morally acceptable. Central to my argument is an asymmetry in the way genetic engineers can influence a person's capacities on the one hand and life-goals on the other. Forms of genetic intervention that have a high probability of producing a mismatch of life-goals and capacities will be ruled out.

  11. Double Dissociation of the Dorsomedial and Dorsolateral Striatal Control Over the Acquisition and Performance of Cocaine Seeking

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Jennifer E; Belin, David; Everitt, Barry J

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the involvement of dopamine-dependent mechanisms in the anterior dorsolateral (aDLS) and posterior dorsomedial (pDMS) striatum during the early- and late-stage performance of cocaine-seeking behavior. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine under continuous reinforcement (fixed-ratio 1, FR1) with a 20-s light conditioned stimulus (CS) presented contingently upon each infusion. After a week, rats were challenged by a change in contingency to seek cocaine during a 15-min period uninfluenced by cocaine during which each response was reinforced by a 1-s CS presentation. Dopamine transmission blockade by intracranial infusions of α-flupenthixol only in the pDMS, but not in the aDLS, dose dependently reduced performance of cue-controlled cocaine seeking at the early stage of self-administration. One cohort of rats was then trained with increasing response requirements until completing 15 sessions under a second-order schedule [FI15(FR10:S)] so that cocaine-seeking performance became well established. At this stage, intra-aDLS, but not pDMS, α-flupenthixol infusions dose dependently reduced active lever presses. The second cohort of rats continued to self-administer cocaine under the FR1 schedule such that their drug intake was matched to the late-stage performance group. α-Flupenthixol in the pDMS, but not in the aDLS, again prevented the performance of cocaine seeking. These results show that dopamine transmission in the pDMS is required for initial performance of goal-directed cocaine seeking, and that its role is ultimately subverted and devolves instead to the aDLS only following training with high rates of cocaine-seeking behavior, supporting the theory of dynamic shifts in the striatal control over cocaine seeking between goal-directed and habitual performance. PMID:22739470

  12. Double dissociation of the dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatal control over the acquisition and performance of cocaine seeking.

    PubMed

    Murray, Jennifer E; Belin, David; Everitt, Barry J

    2012-10-01

    The present study investigated the involvement of dopamine-dependent mechanisms in the anterior dorsolateral (aDLS) and posterior dorsomedial (pDMS) striatum during the early- and late-stage performance of cocaine-seeking behavior. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine under continuous reinforcement (fixed-ratio 1, FR1) with a 20-s light conditioned stimulus (CS) presented contingently upon each infusion. After a week, rats were challenged by a change in contingency to seek cocaine during a 15-min period uninfluenced by cocaine during which each response was reinforced by a 1-s CS presentation. Dopamine transmission blockade by intracranial infusions of α-flupenthixol only in the pDMS, but not in the aDLS, dose dependently reduced performance of cue-controlled cocaine seeking at the early stage of self-administration. One cohort of rats was then trained with increasing response requirements until completing 15 sessions under a second-order schedule [FI15(FR10:S)] so that cocaine-seeking performance became well established. At this stage, intra-aDLS, but not pDMS, α-flupenthixol infusions dose dependently reduced active lever presses. The second cohort of rats continued to self-administer cocaine under the FR1 schedule such that their drug intake was matched to the late-stage performance group. α-Flupenthixol in the pDMS, but not in the aDLS, again prevented the performance of cocaine seeking. These results show that dopamine transmission in the pDMS is required for initial performance of goal-directed cocaine seeking, and that its role is ultimately subverted and devolves instead to the aDLS only following training with high rates of cocaine-seeking behavior, supporting the theory of dynamic shifts in the striatal control over cocaine seeking between goal-directed and habitual performance.

  13. Double dissociation of the dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatal control over the acquisition and performance of cocaine seeking.

    PubMed

    Murray, Jennifer E; Belin, David; Everitt, Barry J

    2012-10-01

    The present study investigated the involvement of dopamine-dependent mechanisms in the anterior dorsolateral (aDLS) and posterior dorsomedial (pDMS) striatum during the early- and late-stage performance of cocaine-seeking behavior. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine under continuous reinforcement (fixed-ratio 1, FR1) with a 20-s light conditioned stimulus (CS) presented contingently upon each infusion. After a week, rats were challenged by a change in contingency to seek cocaine during a 15-min period uninfluenced by cocaine during which each response was reinforced by a 1-s CS presentation. Dopamine transmission blockade by intracranial infusions of α-flupenthixol only in the pDMS, but not in the aDLS, dose dependently reduced performance of cue-controlled cocaine seeking at the early stage of self-administration. One cohort of rats was then trained with increasing response requirements until completing 15 sessions under a second-order schedule [FI15(FR10:S)] so that cocaine-seeking performance became well established. At this stage, intra-aDLS, but not pDMS, α-flupenthixol infusions dose dependently reduced active lever presses. The second cohort of rats continued to self-administer cocaine under the FR1 schedule such that their drug intake was matched to the late-stage performance group. α-Flupenthixol in the pDMS, but not in the aDLS, again prevented the performance of cocaine seeking. These results show that dopamine transmission in the pDMS is required for initial performance of goal-directed cocaine seeking, and that its role is ultimately subverted and devolves instead to the aDLS only following training with high rates of cocaine-seeking behavior, supporting the theory of dynamic shifts in the striatal control over cocaine seeking between goal-directed and habitual performance. PMID:22739470

  14. Understanding why women seek abortions in the US

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The current political climate with regards to abortion in the US, along with the economic recession may be affecting women’s reasons for seeking abortion, warranting a new investigation into the reasons why women seek abortion. Methods Data for this study were drawn from baseline quantitative and qualitative data from the Turnaway Study, an ongoing, five-year, longitudinal study evaluating the health and socioeconomic consequences of receiving or being denied an abortion in the US. While the study has followed women for over two full years, it relies on the baseline data which were collected from 2008 through the end of 2010. The sample included 954 women from 30 abortion facilities across the US who responded to two open ended questions regarding the reasons why they wanted to terminate their pregnancy approximately one week after seeking an abortion. Results Women’s reasons for seeking an abortion fell into 11 broad themes. The predominant themes identified as reasons for seeking abortion included financial reasons (40%), timing (36%), partner related reasons (31%), and the need to focus on other children (29%). Most women reported multiple reasons for seeking an abortion crossing over several themes (64%). Using mixed effects multivariate logistic regression analyses, we identified the social and demographic predictors of the predominant themes women gave for seeking an abortion. Conclusions Study findings demonstrate that the reasons women seek abortion are complex and interrelated, similar to those found in previous studies. While some women stated only one factor that contributed to their desire to terminate their pregnancies, others pointed to a myriad of factors that, cumulatively, resulted in their seeking abortion. As indicated by the differences we observed among women’s reasons by individual characteristics, women seek abortion for reasons related to their circumstances, including their socioeconomic status, age, health, parity and

  15. The Wiki Way of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Alison; Houghton, Luke

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the argument that the use of wikis in a learning environment involves a different way of thinking, learning and knowing than perhaps many practitioners are familiar with. In particular, wikis foster collaborative, egalitarian learning that is designed to foster group interaction instead of just individual performance. Moreover,…

  16. The Errors of Our Ways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Errors don't exist in our data, but they serve a vital function. Reality is complicated, but our models need to be simple in order to be manageable. We assume that attributes are invariant over some conditions of observation, and once we do that we need some way of accounting for the variability in observed scores over these conditions of…

  17. When Directors Lose Their Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2011-01-01

    Directors of early childhood programs are an amazing lot! There's so much dedication, such hard work and creative problem solving. But then that inevitable undertow of deadlines, crises, and illness begins to suck directors down. With crisis management becoming a way of life, they don't even recognize their vital signs slipping away. The author…

  18. Try Another Way. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Marc

    Intended for use in training conferences, the manual describes the philosophy and procedures of Try Another Way, an approach for teaching moderately, severely and profoundly mentally retarded persons and developmentally disabled persons difficult to train. An alternative definition of retardation is proposed which stresses level of functioning…

  19. Finding a Safe Way Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Steven M.; Derby, Joel

    1996-01-01

    Building designers, owners, and managers are morally responsible for providing persons with disabilities with a safe way out of multistory buildings. Although codes, standards, and elevator features may make the job more complicated, all of the difficulties can be overcome. Four figures illustrate elevator egress. (MLF)

  20. 6 Ways to Create Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2013-01-01

    With so many disruptive forces at work in higher education, colleges and universities are faced with the imperative to change not just technologies and processes, but behaviors and mindsets. In part one of a two-part series, change-management experts share six ways to foster large-scale transformations on campus. "Campus Technology"…