Science.gov

Sample records for actively sensitized rats

  1. Increased BOLD Activation to Predator Stressor in Subiculum and Midbrain of Amphetamine-Sensitized Maternal Rats

    PubMed Central

    Febo, Marcelo; Pira, Ashley S.

    2011-01-01

    Amphetamine, which is known to cause sensitization, potentiates the hormonal and neurobiological signatures of stress and may also increase sensitivity to stress-inducing stimuli in limbic areas. Trimethylthiazoline (5 μL TMT) is a chemical constituent of fox feces that evokes innate fear and activates the neuronal and hormonal signatures of stress in rats. We used blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) MRI to test whether amphetamine sensitization (1 mg/kg, i.p. X 3 days) in female rats has a lasting effect on the neural response to a stress-evoking stimulus, the scent of a predator, during the postpartum period. The subiculum and dopamine-enriched midbrain VTA/SN of amphetamine-sensitized, but not control mothers showed a greater BOLD signal response to predator odor than a control putrid scent. The greater responsiveness of these two brain regions following stimulant sensitization might impact neural processing in response to stressors in the maternal brain. PMID:21134359

  2. Increased BOLD activation to predator stressor in subiculum and midbrain of amphetamine-sensitized maternal rats.

    PubMed

    Febo, Marcelo; Pira, Ashley S

    2011-03-25

    Amphetamine, which is known to cause sensitization, potentiates the hormonal and neurobiological signatures of stress and may also increase sensitivity to stress-inducing stimuli in limbic areas. Trimethylthiazoline (5μL TMT) is a chemical constituent of fox feces that evokes innate fear and activates the neuronal and hormonal signatures of stress in rats. We used blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) MRI to test whether amphetamine sensitization (1mg/kg, i.p. ×3days) in female rats has a lasting effect on the neural response to a stress-evoking stimulus, the scent of a predator, during the postpartum period. The subiculum and dopamine-enriched midbrain VTA/SN of amphetamine-sensitized but not control mothers showed a greater BOLD signal response to predator odor than a control putrid scent. The greater responsiveness of these two brain regions following stimulant sensitization might impact neural processing in response to stressors in the maternal brain. PMID:21134359

  3. Mechanism of airway hyperresponsiveness to adenosine induced by allergen challenge in actively sensitized Brown Norway rats

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, J P; Tigani, B; Williams, I; Mazzoni, L; Fozard, J R

    2001-01-01

    We have explored the role of allergen sensitization and challenge in defining the response of the airways of the Brown Norway (BN) rat to adenosine. In naïve animals or in rats sensitized to ovalbumin (OA) adenosine induced only weak bronchoconstrictor responses. Challenge of sensitized animals with OA induced a marked airway hyperresponsiveness to adenosine which was not seen with methacholine or bradykinin. The augmented bronchoconstrictor response to adenosine was not affected by acute bivagotomy or atropine nor mimicked by an i.v. injection of capsaicin. It was, however, blocked selectively by disodium cromoglycate methysergide or ketanserin and reduced in animals treated sub-chronically with compound 48/80. The augmented response to adenosine was associated with increases in the plasma concentrations of both histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), which were attenuated by pretreatment with disodium cromoglycate, and degranulation of mast cells in the lung. Parenchymal strips from lungs removed from sensitized rats challenged with OA gave augmented bronchoconstrictor responses to adenosine relative to strips from sensitized animals challenged with saline. Responses were inhibited by methysergide and disodium cromoglycate. These data demonstrate a marked augmentation of the bronchoconstrictor response to adenosine in actively sensitized BN rats challenged with OA. The augmented response is primarily a consequence of mast cell activation, leading to the release of 5-HT, which in turn induces bronchoconstriction. Our data further suggest the involvement of a discrete lung-based population of mast cells containing and releasing mainly 5-HT and brought into play by prior exposure to allergen. PMID:11264245

  4. Sensitive assay of GTP cyclohydrolase I activity in rat and human tissues using radioimmunoassay of neopterin

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, M.; Horikoshi, T.; Masada, M.; Akino, M.; Sugimoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nagatsu, T.

    1986-04-01

    A highly sensitive and simple assay for the activity of GTP cyclohydrolase I (EC 3.5.4.16) was established using a newly developed radioimmunoassay. D-erythro-7,8-Dihydroneopterin triphosphate formed from GTP by GTP cyclohydrolase I was oxidized by iodine and dephosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase to D-erythro-neopterin, and quantified by a radioimmunoassay for D-erythro-neopterin. This method was highly sensitive and required only 0.2 mg of rat liver tissues for the measurement of the activity. It was reproducible and can be applied for the simultaneous assay of many samples. The activity of GTP cyclohydrolase I was measured in several rat tissues. For example, the enzyme activity in rat striatum (n = 5) was 13.7 +/- 1.5 pmol/mg protein per hour (mean +/- SE), and agreed well with those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The activity in the autopsy human brains (caudate nucleus) was measured by this new method for the first time. The activity in the caudate nucleus from parkinsonian patients (n = 6) was 0.82 +/- 0.56 pmol/mg protein per hour which was significantly lower than the control value, 4.22 +/- 0.43 pmol/mg protein per hour (n = 10).

  5. Greater Glucocorticoid Receptor Activation in Hippocampus of Aged Rats Sensitizes Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Ruth M.; Thompson, Vanessa M.; Kitt, Meagan M.; Amat, Jose; Hale, Matthew W.; Frank, Matthew G.; Crysdale, Nicole Y.; Stamper, Christopher E.; Hennessey, Patrick A.; Watkins, Linda R.; Spencer, Robert L.; Lowry, Christopher A.; Maier, Steven F.

    2014-01-01

    Healthy aging individuals are more likely to suffer profound memory impairments following an immune challenge than are younger adults. These challenges produce a brain inflammatory response that is exaggerated with age. Sensitized microglia found in the normal aging brain are responsible for this amplified response, which in turn interferes with processes involved in memory formation. Here, we examine factors that may lead aging to sensitize microglia. Aged rats exhibited higher CORT levels in the hippocampus, but not in plasma, throughout the daytime (diurnal inactive phase). These elevated hippocampal CORT levels were associated with increased hippocampal 11β-HSD1 protein expression, the enzyme that catalyzes glucocorticoid formation, and greater hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation. Intracisternal administration of mifepristone, a GR antagonist, effectively reduced immune-activated proinflammatory responses, specifically from hippocampal microglia, and prevented E. coli-induced memory impairments in aged rats. Voluntary exercise as a therapeutic intervention significantly reduced total hippocampal GR expression. These data strongly suggest that increased GR activation in the aged hippocampus plays a critical role in sensitizing microglia. PMID:25559333

  6. Mucosal inherent activity patterns in the rat: evidence from voltage-sensitive dyes.

    PubMed

    Youngentob, S L; Kent, P F; Sheehe, P R; Schwob, J E; Tzoumaka, E

    1995-01-01

    1. Fluorescence changes in the dye di-4-ANEPPS were monitored on the rat's nasal septum and medial surface of the turbinates in response to odorant stimuli. For each mucosal surface a 6.0 x 6.0-mm area was sampled at 100 contiguous sites with a 10 x 10 photodiode array. The odorants were propyl acetate, 2-propanol, citral, L-carvone and ethylacetoacetate, each presented at a low and high concentration. 2. Like previous work using optical recording techniques and potential-sensitive dyes on the amphibian epithelium, the fluorescence signals elicited by odorant stimuli in the rat preparation were nearly identical in shape, time course, and response characteristics as the electroolfactogram (EOG). As with the EOG, a response could only be recorded in the presence of odorant stimuli (that is, no response was detected when nonodorized, humidified air was presented as the stimulus); the amplitude depended on odorant concentration, and the response was abolished both by ether and Triton X-100. 3. Although the entire expanse of each sampled tissue (i.e., septum and medial surface of the turbinates) responded to stimulation with each odorant, each stimulus induced a distinct spatial pattern of activity that was independent of odorant concentration and consistent from animal to animal. Furthermore, the spatial activity patterns recorded for the septum were mirror images of those recorded from the medial surface of the turbinates. 4. Formal statistical analysis of the loci of maximal activity or "hot spot" indicated highly significant effects of the odorants for both the septum and medial surface of the turbinates. 5. The results of these studies give further support to the hypothesis that odorant quality is encoded by differential spatial activity patterns in the olfactory epithelium that are characteristic of different odorants. PMID:7714580

  7. TOLERANCE AND SENSITIZATION TO WEEKLY NICOTINE EXPOSURES ON THE MOTOR ACTIVITY OF RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Motor activity was examined in adult female Long-Evans rats in a photocell device during daily (M-F) 30-min sessions. Following adaptation to the testing routine the rats were divided into six groups of eight that were designated to receive either nothing (non-injected control),...

  8. Activation of Central Angiotensin Type 2 Receptors by Compound 21 Improves Arterial Baroreflex Sensitivity in Rats With Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Juan; Zucker, Irving H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND In a previous study we demonstrated that central administration of compound 21 (C21), a nonpeptide AT2R agonist, inhibited sympathetic tone in normal rats. In this study, we hypothesized that C21 exerts a similar effect in rats with coronary ligation–induced heart failure (HF). METHODS C21 was intracerebroventricularly infused for 7 days by osmotic mini pump. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded by radiotelemetry in the conscious state to measure spontaneous arterial baroreflex sensitivity. Urine was collected for measurement of norepinephrine excretion. On the last day of C21 treatment, renal sympathetic nerve activity, BP, and HR were directly recorded under anesthesia, and the induced arterial baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated. Protein expressions of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) in the subfornical organ, paraventricular nucleus, rostral ventrolateral medulla, and nucleus tractus solitarius were determined by Western blot analysis. RESULTS C21-treated HF rats displayed significantly less norepinephrine excretion (2,385.6±121.1 vs. 3,677.3±147.6ng/24 hours; P < 0.05) and lower renal sympathetic nerve activity (50.2±1.9% of max vs. 70.9±8.2% of max; P < 0.05) than vehicle-treated HF rats. C21-treated rats also exhibited improved spontaneous arterial baroreflex sensitivity and induced arterial baroreflex sensitivity. Bolus intracerebroventricular injection of angiotensin II–evoked pressor and sympatho-excitatory responses were attenuated in the C21-treated HF rats, which displayed upregulated nNOS and downregulated AT1R expression in the subfornical organ, paraventricular nucleus, and rostral ventrolateral medulla. CONCLUSIONS Activation of central angiotensin II type 2 receptor AT2R by C21 suppresses sympathetic outflow in rats with HF by improving baroreflex sensitivity and may provide important benefit in the HF syndrome. PMID:24687998

  9. Suppression by cetirizine of pleurisy triggered by antigen in actively sensitized rats.

    PubMed

    Pasquale, C P; e Silva, P M; Lima, M C; Diaz, B L; Rihoux, J P; Vargaftig, B B; Cordeiro, R S; Martins, M A

    1992-11-13

    The efficacy of cetirizine in comparison with meclizine, another piperazine H1 receptor antagonist, in rat pleurisy caused by allergen or autacoid was investigated. Sensitization was achieved by subcutaneous injection of a mixture of ovalbumin and aluminium hydroxide. Fourteen days later, the animals were challenged with an intrathoracic injection of ovalbumin (12 micrograms/cavity), which caused drastic mast cell degranulation, followed by pleural oedema and leucocyte influx. Cetirizine and meclizine (2.5-30 mg/kg i.p.), 1 h before challenge, inhibited the exudatory response evoked by antigen, under conditions where neutrophil and eosinophil accumulation was affected only by the former. When administered intrathoracically 22 h after allergen, i.e. using a curative approach, cetirizine (15 micrograms/cavity) drastically reduced the pleural eosinophilia noted 24 h post-challenge, indicating that this drug can reverse an already established eosinophilia. Cetirizine (15 mg/kg i.p.) also restored, to about 39% (P < 0.001), the number of uninjured mast cells recovered from the pleural cavity following allergen stimulation. In normal rats, cetirizine (5-15 micrograms/cavity) completely inhibited the pleural exudation elicited by histamine and only partially the exudation caused by 5-hydroxytryptamine or bradykinin, but was quite inactive against platelet-activating factor. We conclude that the pleural exudation triggered by allergen, vasoactive amines or bradykinin is clearly sensitive to cetirizine. In addition, the ability of the drug to interfere with pleural neutrophil or eosinophil mobilization and mast cell degranulation seems not to be associated with its ability to block the histamine H1 receptor. PMID:1362160

  10. Central orexin sensitivity, physical activity, and obesity in diet-induced obese and diet-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Novak, Colleen M; Kotz, Catherine M; Levine, James A

    2006-02-01

    Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT), the most variable component of energy expenditure, can account for differential capacities for human weight gain. Also highly variable, spontaneous physical activity (SPA) may similarly affect weight balance in animals. In the following study, we utilized the rat model of obesity, the diet-induced obese (DIO) rat, as well as the diet-resistant (DR) rat strain, to investigate how access to a high-fat diet alters SPA and the associated energy expenditure (i.e., NEAT). DIO and DR rats showed no differences in the amount of SPA before access to the high-fat diet. After 29 days on a high-fat diet, the DIO rats showed significant decreases in SPA, whereas the DR rats did not. Next, we wanted to determine whether the DIO and DR rats showed differential sensitivity to microinjections of orexin into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Unilateral guide cannulae were implanted, aimed at the PVN. Orexin A (0, 0.125, 0.25, and 1.0 nmol in 500 nl) was microinjected through the guide cannula into the PVN, then SPA and energy expenditure were measured for 2 h. Using the response to vehicle as a baseline, the DR rats showed significantly greater increase in NEAT compared with the DIO rats. These data indicate that diet-induced obesity is associated with decreases in SPA and a lack of increase in NEAT. A putative mechanism for changes in NEAT that accompany obesity is a decreased sensitivity to the NEAT-activating effects of neuropeptides such as orexin. PMID:16188908

  11. Contractions Activate Hormone-Sensitive Lipase in Rat Muscle by Protein Kinase C and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Donsmark, Morten; Langfort, Jozef; Holm, Cecilia; Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Intramuscular triacylglycerol is an important energy store and is also related to insulin resistance. The mobilization of fatty acids from this pool is probably regulated by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which has recently been shown to exist in muscle and to be activated by both adrenaline and contractions. Adrenaline acts via cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The signalling mediating the effect of contractions is unknown and was explored in this study. Incubated soleus muscles from 70 g male rats were electrically stimulated to perform repeated tetanic contractions for 5 min. The contraction-induced activation of HSL was abolished by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide I and calphostin C and reduced 50 % by the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126, which also completely blocked extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2 phosphorylation. None of the inhibitors reduced adrenaline-induced HSL activation in soleus muscle. Both phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), which activates PKC and, in turn, ERK, and caffeine, which increases intracellular Ca2+ without eliciting contraction, increased HSL activity. Activated ERK increased HSL activity in supernatant from basal but not from electrically stimulated muscle. In conclusion, in muscle, PKC can stimulate HSL through ERK. Contractions and adrenaline enhance muscle HSL activity by different signalling mechanisms. The effect of contractions is mediated by PKC, at least partly via the ERK pathway. PMID:12794177

  12. Cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization in rats correlates with nucleus accumbens activity on manganese-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Perrine, Shane A; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Desai, Kirtan; Kohler, Robert J; Eapen, Ajay T; Lisieski, Michael J; Angoa-Perez, Mariana; Kuhn, Donald M; Bosse, Kelly E; Conti, Alana C; Bissig, David; Berkowitz, Bruce A

    2015-11-01

    A long-standing goal of substance abuse research has been to link drug-induced behavioral outcomes with the activity of specific brain regions to understand the neurobiology of addiction behaviors and to search for drug-able targets. Here, we tested the hypothesis that cocaine produces locomotor (behavioral) sensitization that correlates with increased calcium channel-mediated neuroactivity in brain regions linked with drug addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAC), anterior striatum (AST) and hippocampus, as measured using manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). Rats were treated with cocaine for 5 days, followed by a 2-day drug-free period. The following day, locomotor sensitization was quantified as a metric of cocaine-induced neuroplasticity in the presence of manganese. Immediately following behavioral testing, rats were examined for changes in calcium channel-mediated neuronal activity in the NAC, AST, hippocampus and temporalis muscle, which was associated with behavioral sensitization using MEMRI. Cocaine significantly increased locomotor activity and produced behavioral sensitization compared with saline treatment of control rats. A significant increase in MEMRI signal intensity was determined in the NAC, but not AST or hippocampus, of cocaine-treated rats compared with saline-treated control rats. Cocaine did not increase signal intensity in the temporalis muscle. Notably, in support of our hypothesis, behavior was significantly and positively correlated with MEMRI signal intensity in the NAC. As neuronal uptake of manganese is regulated by calcium channels, these results indicate that MEMRI is a powerful research tool to study neuronal activity in freely behaving animals and to guide new calcium channel-based therapies for the treatment of cocaine abuse and dependence. PMID:26411897

  13. SENSITIZATION AND TOLERANCE WITH EPISODIC (WEEKLY) NICOTINE ON MOTOR ACTIVITY IN RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    These studies grew out of an unexpected finding from investigations of the neurobehavioral toxicity of PCBs. This paper shows that episodic, or recurring intermittent acute exposures to nicotine produce dramatic and long-lasting changes in the motor activity of laboratory rats. ...

  14. TRPA1 mediates amplified sympathetic responsiveness to activation of metabolically sensitive muscle afferents in rats with femoral artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jihong; Lu, Jian; Li, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic responses to activation of mechanically and metabolically sensitive muscle afferent nerves during static contraction are augmented in rats with femoral artery occlusion. Moreover, metabolically sensitive transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) has been reported to contribute to sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and arterial blood pressure (BP) responses evoked by static muscle contraction. Thus, in the present study, we examined the mechanisms by which afferent nerves' TRPA1 plays a role in regulating amplified sympathetic responsiveness due to a restriction of blood flow directed to the hindlimb muscles. Our data show that 24–72 h of femoral artery occlusion (1) upregulates the protein levels of TRPA1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) tissues; (2) selectively increases expression of TRPA1 in DRG neurons supplying metabolically sensitive afferent nerves of C-fiber (group IV); and (3) enhances renal SNA and BP responses to AITC (a TRPA1 agonist) injected into the hindlimb muscles. In addition, our data demonstrate that blocking TRPA1 attenuates SNA and BP responses during muscle contraction to a greater degree in ligated rats than those responses in control rats. In contrast, blocking TRPA1 fails to attenuate SNA and BP responses during passive tendon stretch in both groups. Overall, results of this study indicate that alternations in muscle afferent nerves' TRPA1 likely contribute to enhanced sympathetically mediated autonomic responses via the metabolic component of the muscle reflex under circumstances of chronic muscle ischemia. PMID:26441669

  15. Capsaicin-evoked brain activation and central sensitization in anaesthetised rats: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Moylan Governo, Ricardo Jose; Morris, Peter Gordon; Prior, Malcolm John William; Marsden, Charles Alexander; Chapman, Victoria

    2006-12-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) haemodynamic responses was used to study the effects of the noxious substance capsaicin on whole brain activation in isofluorane anaesthetised rats. Rats (n=8) received intradermal injection of capsaicin (30 microg/5 microl), or topical cream (0.1%) capsaicin and BOLD responses were acquired for up to 120 min. Effects of capsaicin versus placebo cream treatment on the BOLD response to a 15 g mechanical stimulus applied adjacent to the site of cream application were also studied. Both injection and cream application of capsaicin activated brain areas involved in pain processing, including the thalamus and periaqueductal grey (PAG) (p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). Capsaicin also produced increases in BOLD signal intensity in other regions that contribute to pain processing, such as the parabrachial nucleus and superior colliculus. Mechanical stimulation in capsaicin-treated rats, but not placebo-treated rats, induced a significant decrease in BOLD signal intensity in the PAG (p<0.001). These data demonstrate that the noxious substance capsaicin produces brain activation in the midbrain regions and reveals the importance of the PAG in central sensitization. PMID:16843597

  16. Cocaine Sensitization Increases Kyphosis and Modulates Neural Activity in Adult Nulliparous Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nephew, Benjamin C.; Caffrey, Martha K.; Felix-Ortiz, Ada C.; Febo, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    Although data from both animals and humans suggests that adult cocaine use can have long term effects on behavior, it is unknown if prior cocaine use affects future maternal behavior in nulliparous females. In the current study, cocaine or saline was administered to adult female rats for 10 days, the animals were withdrawn from cocaine for 7 days, and the females were then exposed to donor pups to induce the expression of maternal behavior. Nulliparous females sensitized to cocaine were more likely to retrieve pups, spent more time caring for the pups, and were more likely to express full maternal behavior on day 8 of pup exposure. The fMRI data revealed significant effects of pup exposure in the hippocampal CA1 region, and effects of cocaine in the anterior thalamus and periaqueductal gray. Prior adult cocaine use may have lasting effects on offspring care, and this effect is not dependent on pup mediated effects or the endocrine changes of gestation and lactation. The present findings provide support for the hypothesis that maternal motivation to exhibit maternal behavior is enhanced by prior cocaine sensitization, possibly due to cross sensitization between cocaine and the natural reward of maternal behavior. PMID:24371520

  17. AGN-2979, an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase activation, does not affect serotonin synthesis in Flinders Sensitive Line rats, a rat model of depression, but produces a significant effect in Flinders Resistant Line rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanemaru, Kazuya; Nishi, Kyoko; Diksic, Mirko

    2009-01-01

    The neurotransmitter, serotonin, is involved in several brain functions, including both normal, physiological functions, and pathophysiological functions. Alterations in any of the normal parameters of serotonergic neurotransmission can produce several different psychiatric disorders, including major depression. In many instances, brain neurochemical variables are not able to be studied properly in humans, thus making the use of good animal models extremely valuable. One of these animal models is the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) of rats, which has face, predictive and constructive validities in relation to human depression. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) activation inhibitor, AGN-2979, on the FSL rats (rats with depression-like behaviour), and compare it to the effect on the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) of rats used as the control rats. The effect was evaluated by measuring changes in regional serotonin synthesis in the vehicle treated rats (FSL-VEH and FRL-VEH) relative to those measured in the AGN-2979 treated rats (FSL-AGN and FRL-AGN). Regional serotonin synthesis was measured autoradiographically in more than thirty brain regions. The measurements were performed using α-[14C]methyl-L-tryptophan as the tracer. The results indicate that AGN-2979 did not produce a significant reduction of TPH activity in the AGN-2979 group relative to the vehicle group (a reduction would have been observed if there had been an activation of TPH by the experimental set up) in the FSL rats. On the other hand, there was a highly significant reduction of synthesis in the FRL rats treated by AGN-2979, relative to the vehicle group. Together, the results demonstrate that in the FSL rats, AGN-2979 does not affect serotonin synthesis. This suggests that there was no activation of TPH in the FSL rats during the experimental procedure, but such activation did occur in the FRL rats. Because of this finding, it could be

  18. The cardioprotective effect of naringenin against ischemia-reperfusion injury through activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channel in rat.

    PubMed

    Meng, Li-Min; Ma, Hui-Jie; Guo, Hui; Kong, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Naringenin (Nari) has antioxidative and anti-atherosclerosis effects, and activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) can offer cardiac protection. We hypothesized that Nari protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury through activation of KATP. Isolated hearts from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats experienced a 30-min global ischemia followed by 60-min reperfusion (120 min for the infarct size determination). The hearts were treated with Nari (NARI); Nari plus glibenclamide (GLI), a non-specific ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker (NARI+GLI); and Nari plus 5-hydroxy decanoic acid (5-HD), a mitochondrial membrane ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker (NARI+5-HD). The left ventricular pressure, lactate dehydrogenates (LDH) in coronary effluent, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in myocardium, and myocardial infarct area were measured. Nari above 2.5 μmol/L improved the recovery of left ventricular function, decreased LDH in coronary effluent, and reduced myocardial infarct area. The SOD activity was increased and MDA was decreased in Nari-treated myocardium. The cardioprotective effect of Nari was canceled by GLI and 5-HD. In conclusion, Nari has a cardioprotective effect against I-R injury, which may be carried out through activating ATP-sensitive potassium channels in both cell and mitochondrial membrane, and enhancing myocardial antioxidant capacity. PMID:27408985

  19. Effects of stevioside on glucose transport activity in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Lailerd, Narissara; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon; Sloniger, Julie A; Toskulkao, Chaivat; Henriksen, Erik J

    2004-01-01

    Stevioside (SVS), a natural sweetener extracted from Stevia rebaudiana, has been used as an antihyperglycemic agent. However, little is known regarding its potential action on skeletal muscle, the major site of glucose disposal. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of SVS treatment on skeletal muscle glucose transport activity in both insulin-sensitive lean (Fa/-) and insulin-resistant obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats. SVS was administered (500 mg/kg body weight by gavage) 2 hours before an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Whereas the glucose incremental area under the curve (IAUC(glucose)) was not affected by SVS in lean Zucker rats, the insulin incremental area under the curve (IAUC(insulin)) and the glucose-insulin index (product of glucose and insulin IAUCs and inversely related to whole-body insulin sensitivity) were decreased (P<.05) by 42% and 45%, respectively. Interestingly, in the obese Zucker rat, SVS also reduced the IAUC(insulin) by 44%, and significantly decreased the IAUC(glucose) (30%) and the glucose-insulin index (57%). Muscle glucose transport was assessed following in vitro SVS treatment. In lean Zucker rats, basal glucose transport in type I soleus and type IIb epitrochlearis muscles was not altered by 0.01 to 0.1 mmol/L SVS. In contrast, 0.1 mmol/L SVS enhanced insulin-stimulated (2 mU/mL) glucose transport in both epitrochlearis (15%) and soleus (48%). At 0.5 mmol/L or higher, the SVS effect was reversed. Similarly, basal glucose transport in soleus and epitrochlearis muscles in obese Zucker rats was not changed by lower doses of SVS (0.01 to 0.1 mmol/L). However, these lower doses of SVS significantly increased insulin-stimulated glucose transport in both obese epitrochlearis and soleus (15% to 20%). In conclusion, acute oral SVS increased whole-body insulin sensitivity, and low concentrations of SVS (0.01 to 0.1 mmol/L) modestly improved in vitro insulin action on skeletal muscle glucose transport in both lean

  20. Norepinephrine-evoked salt-sensitive hypertension requires impaired renal sodium chloride cotransporter activity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kathryn R; Kuwabara, Jill T; Shim, Joon W; Wainford, Richard D

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have implicated a role of norepinephrine (NE) in the activation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) to drive the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. However, the interaction between NE and increased salt intake on blood pressure remains to be fully elucidated. This study examined the impact of a continuous NE infusion on sodium homeostasis and blood pressure in conscious Sprague-Dawley rats challenged with a normal (NS; 0.6% NaCl) or high-salt (HS; 8% NaCl) diet for 14 days. Naïve and saline-infused Sprague-Dawley rats remained normotensive when placed on HS and exhibited dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide. NE infusion resulted in the development of hypertension, which was exacerbated by HS, demonstrating the development of the salt sensitivity of blood pressure [MAP (mmHg) NE+NS: 151 ± 3 vs. NE+HS: 172 ± 4; P < 0.05]. In these salt-sensitive animals, increased NE prevented dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide, suggesting impaired NCC activity contributes to the development of salt sensitivity [peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide (μeq/min) Naïve+NS: 9.4 ± 0.2 vs. Naïve+HS: 7 ± 0.1; P < 0.05; NE+NS: 11.1 ± 1.1; NE+HS: 10.8 ± 0.4). NE infusion did not alter NCC expression in animals maintained on NS; however, dietary sodium-evoked suppression of NCC expression was prevented in animals challenged with NE. Chronic NCC antagonism abolished the salt-sensitive component of NE-mediated hypertension, while chronic ANG II type 1 receptor antagonism significantly attenuated NE-evoked hypertension without restoring NCC function. These data demonstrate that increased levels of NE prevent dietary sodium-evoked suppression of the NCC, via an ANG II-independent mechanism, to stimulate the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:26608659

  1. Reconstitution of purified, active and malonyl-CoA-sensitive rat liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase I: relationship between membrane environment and malonyl-CoA sensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    McGarry, J D; Brown, N F

    2000-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) catalyses the initial step of fatty acid import into the mitochondrial matrix, the site of beta-oxidation, and its inhibition by malonyl-CoA is a primary control point for this process. The enzyme exists in at least two isoforms, denoted L-CPT I (liver type) and M-CPT I (skeletal-muscle type), which differ in their kinetic characteristics and tissue distributions. A property apparently unique to L-CPT I is that its sensitivity to malonyl-CoA decreases in vivo with fasting or experimentally induced diabetes. The mechanism of this important regulatory effect is unknown and has aroused much interest. CPT I is an integral outer-membrane protein and displays little activity after removal from the membrane by detergents, precluding direct purification of active protein by conventional means. Here we describe the expression of a 6 x His-tagged rat L-CPT I in Pichia pastoris and purification of the detergent-solubilized enzyme in milligram quantities. Reconstitution of the purified product into a liposomal environment yielded a 200--400-fold increase in enzymic activity and restored malonyl-CoA sensitivity. This is the first time that a CPT I protein has been available for study in a form that is both pure and active. Comparison of the kinetic properties of the reconstituted material with those of L-CPT I as it exists in mitochondria prepared from yeast over-expressing the enzyme and in livers from fed or fasted rats permitted novel insight into several aspects of the enzyme's behaviour. The malonyl-CoA response of the liposomal enzyme was found to be greater when the reconstitution procedure was carried out at 22 degrees C compared with 4 degrees C (IC(50) approximately 11 microM versus 30 microM, respectively). When the sensitivities of L-CPT I in each of the different environments were compared, they were found to decrease in the following order: fed liver>fasted liver approximately liposomes prepared at 22 degrees C

  2. Activation of mGluR2/3 following stress hormone exposure restores sensitivity to alcohol in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Anel A.; Randall, Patrick A.; Frisbee, Suzanne; Fisher, Kristen R.; Besheer, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol is blunted following a period of exposure to the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), an effect that is suggested to be related, in part, to glutamatergic neuroadaptations. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (subtypes 2 and 3; mGluR2/3) modulate several drug- and alcohol-related behaviors, including the interoceptive (discriminative stimulus) effects of alcohol. Therefore, we sought to determine if manipulation of mGluR2/3 would restore sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol following CORT exposure. Using a two-lever drug discrimination task, male Long-Evans rats were trained to discriminate alcohol (1 g/kg, intragastric [IG]) vs. water. First, the effect of mGluR2/3 antagonism on the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol was determined using LY341495 (0.3–3.0 mg/kg; intraperitoneal [IP]). Next, the effects of mGluR2/3 antagonism and activation were assessed in discrimination-trained animals exposed to CORT (300 μg/mL) in the home cage drinking water or water only, for 7 days. Following CORT exposure, decreased sensitivity to alcohol (1 g/kg) was observed. Pretreatment with the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 (1.0–3.0 mg/kg; IP), but not the mGluR2/3 antagonist (0.3–1.0 mg/kg; IP), restored sensitivity to alcohol. Additionally, in Water controls, mGluR2/3 antagonism and mGluR2/3 activation disrupted expression of the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol. Together, these findings suggest that blunted sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol following an episode of heightened stress hormone levels may be due to adaptations in mGluR2/3-related systems. The ability of mGluR2/3 activation to restore sensitivity to alcohol under these conditions lends further support for the importance of these receptors under stress-related conditions. PMID:26142564

  3. Activation of mGluR2/3 following stress hormone exposure restores sensitivity to alcohol in rats.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Anel A; Randall, Patrick A; Frisbee, Suzanne; Fisher, Kristen R; Besheer, Joyce

    2015-09-01

    Sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol is blunted following a period of exposure to the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), an effect that is suggested to be related, in part, to glutamatergic neuroadaptations. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (subtypes 2 and 3; mGluR2/3) modulate several drug- and alcohol-related behaviors, including the interoceptive (discriminative stimulus) effects of alcohol. Therefore, we sought to determine if manipulation of mGluR2/3 would restore sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol following CORT exposure. Using a two-lever drug discrimination task, male Long-Evans rats were trained to discriminate alcohol (1 g/kg, intragastric [IG]) vs. water. First, the effect of mGluR2/3 antagonism on the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol was determined using LY341495 (0.3-3.0 mg/kg; intraperitoneal [IP]). Next, the effects of mGluR2/3 antagonism and activation were assessed in discrimination-trained animals exposed to CORT (300 μg/mL) in the home cage drinking water or water only, for 7 days. Following CORT exposure, decreased sensitivity to alcohol (1 g/kg) was observed. Pretreatment with the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 (1.0-3.0 mg/kg; IP), but not the mGluR2/3 antagonist (0.3-1.0 mg/kg; IP), restored sensitivity to alcohol. Additionally, in water controls, mGluR2/3 antagonism and mGluR2/3 activation disrupted expression of the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol. Together, these findings suggest that blunted sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol following an episode of heightened stress hormone levels may be due to adaptations in mGluR2/3-related systems. The ability of mGluR2/3 activation to restore sensitivity to alcohol under these conditions lends further support for the importance of these receptors under stress-related conditions. PMID:26142564

  4. Effects of intravenous metamizole on ongoing and evoked activity of dura-sensitive thalamic neurons in rats.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Alexey Y; Lyubashina, Olga A; Sivachenko, Ivan B; Panteleev, Sergey S

    2014-05-15

    Migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) are the most common forms of primary headaches. A general key mechanism underlying development of both the diseases is the trigeminal system activation associated with the ascending nociceptive transmission via the trigemino-thalamo-cortical pathway. The ventroposteromedial (VPM) nucleus is a key thalamic structure, receiving afferent inflow from the craniofacial region; it holds the third-order neurons responsible for conveying sensory information from the extra- and intracranial nociceptors to the cortex. The VPM is currently seen as a therapeutic target for various antimigraine medications, which is shown to reduce the VPM neuronal excitability. A non-opioid analgesic metamizole is widely used in some countries for acute treatment of migraine or TTH. However, the precise mechanisms underlying anticephalgic action of metamizole remain unclear. The objective of our study performed in the rat model of trigemino-durovascular nociception was to evaluate the effects of intravenously administered metamizole on ongoing and evoked firing of the dura-sensitive VPM neurons. The experiments were carried out on rats under urethane-chloralose anesthesia. Cumulative administration of metamizole (thrice-repeated intravenous infusion of 150 mg/kg performed 30 min apart) in 56% of cases produced a suppression of both the ongoing activity of the thalamic VPM neurons and their responses to dural electrical stimulation. Although the inhibitory effect was prevailing, a number of VPM neurons were indifferent to the administration of metamizole. These data suggest that one of the main components of neural mechanism underlying anticephalgic action of metamizole is suppression of the thalamo-cortical nociceptive transmission associated with trigemino-vascular activation. PMID:24650732

  5. Rats are sensitive to ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Fast, Cynthia D; Blaisdell, Aaron P

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated response decisions made under conditions of incomplete information in rats. In Experiment 1, rats were trained on either a positive patterning (PP; A-, B-, AB+) or a negative patterning (NP; A+, B+, AB-) instrumental lever-press discrimination. Subjects that had learned an NP discrimination responded less to Cue A when Cue B was covered at test. The cover did not, however, affect test responses to Cue A in the PP condition. In Experiment 2, rats received concurrent training on both PP and NP discriminations. After concurrent training, responses to Cue A were different with B covered versus uncovered for both NP and PP discriminations. We discuss possible accounts for why exposure to a nonlinearly soluble discrimination (NP) may have affected sensitivity to cue ambiguity produced by the cover. These results have interesting implications for representational processes engaged in problem solving. PMID:21968926

  6. High estrogen and chronic haloperidol lead to greater amphetamine-induced BOLD activation in awake, amphetamine-sensitized female rats.

    PubMed

    Madularu, Dan; Kulkarni, Praveen; Yee, Jason R; Kenkel, William M; Shams, Waqqas M; Ferris, Craig F; Brake, Wayne G

    2016-06-01

    The ovarian hormone estrogen has been implicated in schizophrenia symptomatology. Low levels of estrogen are associated with an increase in symptom severity, while exogenous estrogen increases the efficacy of antipsychotic medication, pointing at a possible interaction between estrogen and the dopaminergic system. The aim of this study is to further investigate this interaction in an animal model of some aspects of schizophrenia using awake functional magnetic resonance imaging. Animals receiving 17β-estradiol and haloperidol were scanned and BOLD activity was assessed in response to amphetamine. High 17β-estradiol replacement and chronic haloperidol treatment showed increased BOLD activity in regions of interest and neural networks associated with schizophrenia (hippocampal formations, habenula, amygdala, hypothalamus etc.), compared with low, or no 17β-estradiol. These data show that chronic haloperidol treatment has a sensitizing effect, possibly on the dopaminergic system, and this effect is dependent on hormonal status, with high 17β-estradiol showing the greatest BOLD increase. Furthermore, these experiments further support the use of imaging techniques in studying schizophrenia, as modeled in the rat, but can be extended to addiction and other disorders. PMID:27154458

  7. A sensitive and relevant model for evaluating anti-inflammatory activity-papaya latex-induced rat paw inflammation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, O P; Sharma, N; Chand, D

    1992-08-01

    A new model employing latex of papaya as an inflammagen has been developed for testing anti-inflammatory activity. The latex (exudate) was harvested from the unripe papaya fruit, which had been dried under vacuum. The latex was then suspended in 0.05 M sodium acetate buffer. This suspension when injected in rat hind paw produced concentration-dependent inflammation. Of the 0.25% of this suspension, 0.1 ml was found ideal for evaluating anti-inflammatory activity of test drugs. This concentration produced 70%-100% inflammation lasting for about 5 hr with a maximum effect at h 3. The test drugs employed were prednisolone, aspirin, indomethacin, phenylbutazone, ibuprofen, piroxicam, chloroquine, levamisole, and a mixture of boswellic acids. For comparison, these drugs were also tested against carrageenan-induced inflammation. All the test drugs--steroidal, aspirin, and non-aspirin-like--showed anti-inflammatory activity against latex-induced inflammation. The activity of chloroquine, levamisole, and boswellic acids was significantly more against latex as compared with that of the carrageenan model. The inflammation caused by latex may be attributed to both its hydrolytic enzymes--papain and chymopapain--and glutathione, the activator of these enzymes. These enzymes seem to act like lysosomal enzymes that are released in inflammatory disease processes which mediate inflammation by stimulating the synthesis of prostaglandins. The papaya latex-induced inflammation model appears to be a sensitive, broad-based, and relevant one likely to prove useful for discovering new and effective drugs against inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:1392054

  8. Chronic Activation of Heme Free Guanylate Cyclase Leads to Renal Protection in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Linda S; Kretschmer, Axel; Lawrenz, Bettina; Hocher, Berthold; Stasch, Johannes-Peter

    2015-01-01

    The nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/cyclic guanosine monophasphate (cGMP)-signalling pathway is impaired under oxidative stress conditions due to oxidation and subsequent loss of the prosthetic sGC heme group as observed in particular in chronic renal failure. Thus, the pool of heme free sGC is increased under pathological conditions. sGC activators such as cinaciguat selectively activate the heme free form of sGC and target the disease associated enzyme. In this study, a therapeutic effect of long-term activation of heme free sGC by the sGC activator cinaciguat was investigated in an experimental model of salt-sensitive hypertension, a condition that is associated with increased oxidative stress, heme loss from sGC and development of chronic renal failure. For that purpose Dahl/ss rats, which develop severe hypertension upon high salt intake, were fed a high salt diet (8% NaCl) containing either placebo or cinaciguat for 21 weeks. Cinaciguat markedly improved survival and ameliorated the salt-induced increase in blood pressure upon treatment with cinaciguat compared to placebo. Renal function was significantly improved in the cinaciguat group compared to the placebo group as indicated by a significantly improved glomerular filtration rate and reduced urinary protein excretion. This was due to anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of the cinaciguat treatment. Taken together, this is the first study showing that long-term activation of heme free sGC leads to renal protection in an experimental model of hypertension and chronic kidney disease. These results underline the promising potential of cinaciguat to treat renal diseases by targeting the disease associated heme free form of sGC. PMID:26717150

  9. Chronic Activation of Heme Free Guanylate Cyclase Leads to Renal Protection in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Linda S.; Kretschmer, Axel; Lawrenz, Bettina; Hocher, Berthold; Stasch, Johannes-Peter

    2015-01-01

    The nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/cyclic guanosine monophasphate (cGMP)-signalling pathway is impaired under oxidative stress conditions due to oxidation and subsequent loss of the prosthetic sGC heme group as observed in particular in chronic renal failure. Thus, the pool of heme free sGC is increased under pathological conditions. sGC activators such as cinaciguat selectively activate the heme free form of sGC and target the disease associated enzyme. In this study, a therapeutic effect of long-term activation of heme free sGC by the sGC activator cinaciguat was investigated in an experimental model of salt-sensitive hypertension, a condition that is associated with increased oxidative stress, heme loss from sGC and development of chronic renal failure. For that purpose Dahl/ss rats, which develop severe hypertension upon high salt intake, were fed a high salt diet (8% NaCl) containing either placebo or cinaciguat for 21 weeks. Cinaciguat markedly improved survival and ameliorated the salt-induced increase in blood pressure upon treatment with cinaciguat compared to placebo. Renal function was significantly improved in the cinaciguat group compared to the placebo group as indicated by a significantly improved glomerular filtration rate and reduced urinary protein excretion. This was due to anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of the cinaciguat treatment. Taken together, this is the first study showing that long-term activation of heme free sGC leads to renal protection in an experimental model of hypertension and chronic kidney disease. These results underline the promising potential of cinaciguat to treat renal diseases by targeting the disease associated heme free form of sGC. PMID:26717150

  10. Association of exercise training and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activator improves baroreflex sensitivity of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, P.R.; Moreira, M.C.S.; Marques, S.M.; Pinto, I.S.J.; Macedo, L.M.; Silva, C.C.; Freiria-Oliveira, A.H.; Rebelo, A.C.S.; Reis, A.A.S.; Rosa, D.A.; Ferreira-Neto, M.L.; Castro, C.H.; Pedrino, G.R.

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to determine cardiovascular effects of aerobic training associated with diminazene aceturate (DIZE), an activator of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Male SHRs (280–350 g) were either subjected to exercise training or not (sedentary group). The trained group was subjected to 8 weeks of aerobic training on a treadmill (five times a week, lasting 60 min at an intensity of 50–60% of maximum aerobic speed). In the last 15 days of the experimental protocol, these groups were redistributed into four groups: i) sedentary SHRs with daily treatment of 1 mg/kg DIZE (S+D1); ii) trained SHRs with daily treatment of 1 mg/kg DIZE (T+D1); iii) sedentary SHRs with daily treatment of vehicle (S+V); and iv) trained SHRs with daily treatment of vehicle (T+V). After treatment, SHRs were anesthetized and subjected to artery and femoral vein cannulation prior to the implantation of ECG electrode. After 24 h, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded; the baroreflex sensitivity and the effect of double autonomic blockade (DAB) were evaluated in non-anesthetized SHRs. DIZE treatment improved baroreflex sensitivity in the T+D1 group as compared with the T+V and S+D1 groups. The intrinsic heart rate (IHR) and MAP were reduced in T+D1 group as compared with T+V and S+D1 groups. Hence, we conclude that the association of exercise training with DIZE treatment improved baroreflex function and cardiovascular regulation. PMID:27533767

  11. Association of exercise training and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activator improves baroreflex sensitivity of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Lopes, P R; Moreira, M C S; Marques, S M; Pinto, I S J; Macedo, L M; Silva, C C; Freiria-Oliveira, A H; Rebelo, A C S; Reis, A A S; Rosa, D A; Ferreira-Neto, M L; Castro, C H; Pedrino, G R

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to determine cardiovascular effects of aerobic training associated with diminazene aceturate (DIZE), an activator of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Male SHRs (280-350 g) were either subjected to exercise training or not (sedentary group). The trained group was subjected to 8 weeks of aerobic training on a treadmill (five times a week, lasting 60 min at an intensity of 50-60% of maximum aerobic speed). In the last 15 days of the experimental protocol, these groups were redistributed into four groups: i) sedentary SHRs with daily treatment of 1 mg/kg DIZE (S+D1); ii) trained SHRs with daily treatment of 1 mg/kg DIZE (T+D1); iii) sedentary SHRs with daily treatment of vehicle (S+V); and iv) trained SHRs with daily treatment of vehicle (T+V). After treatment, SHRs were anesthetized and subjected to artery and femoral vein cannulation prior to the implantation of ECG electrode. After 24 h, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded; the baroreflex sensitivity and the effect of double autonomic blockade (DAB) were evaluated in non-anesthetized SHRs. DIZE treatment improved baroreflex sensitivity in the T+D1 group as compared with the T+V and S+D1 groups. The intrinsic heart rate (IHR) and MAP were reduced in T+D1 group as compared with T+V and S+D1 groups. Hence, we conclude that the association of exercise training with DIZE treatment improved baroreflex function and cardiovascular regulation. PMID:27533767

  12. Visualization of the spread of electrical activity in rat hippocampal slices by voltage-sensitive optical probes

    PubMed Central

    Grinvald, A.; Manker, A.; Segal, M.

    1982-01-01

    1. Voltage-sensitive membrane-bound dyes and a matrix of 100 photodetectors were used to detect the spread of evoked electrical activity at the CA1 region of rat hippocampus slices. A display processor was designed in order to visualize the spread of electrical activity in slow motion. 2. The stimulation of the Schaffer collateral-commissural path in the stratum radiatum evoked short latency (2-4 msec) fast optical signals, followed by longer latency (4-15 msec) slow signals which decayed within 20-50 msec. Multiple fast signals were frequently detected at the stratum pyramidale; they propagated toward the stratum oriens with an approximate conduction velocity of 0.1 m/sec. 3. The fast signals were unaltered in a low Ca2+ high Mg2+ medium but were blocked by tetrodotoxin. These signals probably represent action potentials in the Schaffer collateral axons. Their conduction velocity was about 0.2 m/sec and their refractory period about 3-4 msec. 4. The slow signals were absent in a low Ca2+ medium and probably represent excitatory post-synaptic potentials (e.p.s.p.s) generated in the apical dendrites of the pyramidal cells. They were generated in the stratum radiatum, where the presynaptic signals were seen, and spread into somata and basal dendrites (the stratum pyramidale and oriens, respectively). 5. The timing of the signals with fast rise-time, which were detected at the statum pyramidale, approximately coincided with the timing of the extracellularly recorded field potentials. These multiple discharges probably represent action potentials of the pyramidal cells. They spread back into the apical dendrites but with significant attenuation of the amplitudes of the high frequency components of the pyramidal action potentials. 6. Hyperpolarizing potentials could be detected when strong stimuli were applied to the stratum radiatum or alveus. The net hyperpolarizations were detected only in the stratum pyramidale and the border region between the stratum pyramidale

  13. Activity dependence and functional role of the apamin-sensitive K+ current in rat supraoptic neurones in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, K; Bourque, C W

    1996-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings were obtained from seventy-two magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) in superfused explants of rat hypothalamus. The current underlying the after-hyperpolarization (IAHP) following spike-evoked trains of action potentials was characterized using the hybrid-clamp technique. The activity-dependent requirements for the genesis of the AHP were determined. The functional role of the conductance was investigated using saturating concentrations (50-300 nM) of apamin, a selective blocker of the AHP in MNCs. 2. IAHP was reversibly abolished by the removal of extracellular Ca2+. The amplitude of IAHP varied linearly as a function of voltage and reversed at -100 +/- 3 mV in 3 mM external K+. Changes in the concentration of extracellular K+ resulted in shifts of the reversal potential consistent with Nernst equation predictions for a K+-selective conductance. 3. Action potentials triggered by brief depolarizing pulses elicited an AHP during trains evoked at frequencies > 1 Hz. Onset of the AHP progressed exponentially, reaching a maximum after the first fifteen to twenty impulses. The steady-state amplitude of the AHP increased logarithmically between 1 and 20 Hz. 4. Switching to voltage clamp during periods of continuous cell activity (firing rate > 4 Hz) confirmed the presence of an apamin-sensitive Ca2(+)-dependent K+ current. 5. Application of apamin produced a threefold increase in the mean firing rate of spontaneously active cells, but was without effect when applied to silent cells (firing rate < 0.5 Hz). 6. Apamin did not affect the ability of MNCs to fire in a phasic manner but caused a dramatic increase in the mean intraburst firing rate. Moreover, inhibition of IAHP by apamin strongly attenuated spike accommodation normally seen at the onset of phasic bursts. 7. While apamin did not enhance the amplitude of depolarizing after-potentials following single spikes, post-train plateau potentials and associated after-discharges were

  14. The expression of methiopropamine-induced locomotor sensitization requires dopamine D2, but not D1, receptor activation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung Shin; Cai, Wen Ting; Lee, Young Hun; Park, Kyung Tae; Lee, Yong Sup; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2016-09-15

    Methiopropamine (MPA) is a structural analog to methamphetamine and is categorized as a novel psychoactive substance that needs to be controlled. However, no study has been performed to determine whether MPA actually develops an addiction-like behavior similar to those arising from other psychomotor stimulants. Thus, we attempted to determine whether MPA produces locomotor sensitization in a manner similar to amphetamine. In the first experiment, rats were pre-exposed to either saline or one of three different doses of MPA (0.2, 1.0, or 5.0mg/kg, IP) with a total of four injections, respectively. After a 2-week withdrawal period, when they were challenged with the same dose of MPA, only the group that was pre-exposed to high dose of MPA (5.0mg/kg) showed sensitized locomotor activity. In the second experiment, all rats were pre-exposed to MPA (5.0mg/kg) only. Interestingly, the expression of MPA-induced locomotor sensitization was inhibited by a pre-injection of a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, eticlopride (0.05mg/kg, IP), though not by a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.01mg/kg, IP). These results suggest that repeated injection of MPA in the rat provokes certain neuronal changes involving specific, likely D2, dopamine receptor-mediated pathways that contribute to the expression of MPA-induced locomotor sensitization. PMID:27265782

  15. Involvement of capsaicin-sensitive afferent nerves in the proteinase-activated receptor 2-mediated vasodilatation in the rat dura mater.

    PubMed

    Dux, M; Rosta, J; Sántha, P; Jancsó, G

    2009-07-01

    Neurogenic inflammation of the dura mater encephali has been suggested to contribute to the mechanisms of meningeal nociception and blood flow regulation. Recent findings demonstrated that the rat dura mater is innervated by trigeminal capsaicin-sensitive peptidergic nociceptive afferent nerves which mediate meningeal vascular responses through activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor. The present work explored the functional significance of the capsaicin-sensitive subpopulation of dural afferent nerves via their contribution to the meningeal vascular responses evoked through activation of the proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2). The vascular responses of the dura mater were studied by laser Doppler flowmetry in a rat open cranial window preparation. Topical applications of trypsin, a PAR-2-activator, or Ser-Leu-Ile-Gly-Arg-Leu-amide (SLIGRL-NH(2)), a selective PAR-2 agonist peptide, resulted in dose-dependent increases in meningeal blood flow. The SLIGRL-NH(2)-induced vasodilatation was significantly reduced following capsaicin-sensitive afferent nerve defunctionalization by prior systemic capsaicin treatment and by pretreatment of the dura mater with the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist CGRP(8-37). Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) an unspecific inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) production, but not 1-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl) imidazole (TRIM), a neuronal NO synthase inhibitor, also inhibited the vasodilator response to SLIGRL-NH(2). The vasodilator responses elicited by very low concentrations of capsaicin (10 nM) were significantly enhanced by prior application of SLIGRL-NH(2). The present findings demonstrate that activation of the PAR-2 localized on capsaicin-sensitive trigeminal nociceptive afferent nerves induces vasodilatation in the dural vascular bed by mechanisms involving NO and CGRP release. The results indicate that the PAR-2-mediated activation and

  16. Methods for voltage-sensitive dye imaging of rat cortical activity with high signal-to-noise ratio

    PubMed Central

    Lippert, Michael; Takagaki, Kentaroh; Xu, Weifeng; Huang, Xiaoying; Wu, Jian-Young

    2010-01-01

    We describe methods to achieve high sensitivity in voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging from rat barrel and visual cortices in vivo with the use of a blue dye RH1691 and a high dynamic range imaging device (photodiode array). With an improved staining protocol and an off-line procedure to remove pulsation artifact, the sensitivity of VSD recording is comparable to that of local field potential recording from the same location. With this sensitivity, one can record from ~500 individual detectors, each covering an area of cortical tissue 160 μm in diameter (total imaging field ~4 mm in diameter) and a temporal resolution of 1,600 frames/s, without multiple-trial averaging. We can record 80 to 100 trials of intermittent 10 s trials from each imaging field before the VSD signal reduces to one half of its initial amplitude due to bleaching and wash-out. Taken together, the methods described in this report provide a useful tool for visualizing evoked and spontaneous waves from rodent cortex. PMID:17493915

  17. Virogenic BrdU and BrdU-sensitive DNA sequences are disproportionately concentrated in the template-active chromatin of rat embryo cells

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Stephen A.

    1979-01-01

    In order to characterize the molecular mechanism responsible for the BrdU-mediated activation of endogenous retrovirus from normal rat embryo cells, the previously reported selective distribution of bromouracil in DNA was correlated with the corresponding organization of the nucleo-protein complex in regard to nucleosome structure and template - active and -inactive chromatin. Following micrococcal nuclease digestion of chromatin labeled with either [3H]thymidine or [3H]BrdU, the amount and specific activities of the respective nucleosomal DNA were indistinguishable. Comparable findings were obtained following direct examination of the nuclease-sensitive, “spacer” DNA. However, when each chromatin type was fractionated into template-active and -inactive components, it was evident that [3H]bromouracil was nonrandomly more concentrated in the template-active portion in comparison to the random distribution of [3H]thymine moieties. Furthermore, it was apparent that the template-active chromatin fraction was substantially enriched in the nucleotide sequences of rat DNA known to be sensitive to the virogenic action of BrdU. PMID:424312

  18. Inflammatory Role of ROS-Sensitive AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in the Hypersensitivity of Lung Vagal C Fibers Induced by Intermittent Hypoxia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chang-Huan; Shen, Yan-Jhih; Lai, Ching Jung; Kou, Yu Ru

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), manifested by airway exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH), is associated with excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in airways, airway inflammation, and hyperreactive airway diseases. The cause-effect relationship for these events remains unclear. We investigated the inflammatory role of ROS-sensitive AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in IH-induced airway hypersensitivity mediated by lung vagal C fibers (LVCFs) in rats. Conscious rats were exposed to room air (RA) or IH with or without treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, an antioxidant), Compound C (an AMPK inhibitor), ibuprofen (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor), or their vehicles. Immediately after exposure (24 h), we found that intravenous capsaicin, phenylbiguanide, or α,β-methylene-ATP evoked augmented LVCF-mediated apneic responses and LVCF afferent responses in rats subjected to IH exposure in comparison with those in RA rats. The potentiating effect of IH on LVCF responses decreased at 6 h after and vanished at 12 h after the termination of IH exposure. The potentiating effect of IH on LVCF-mediated apneic and LVCF afferent responses was significantly attenuated by treatment with NAC, compound C, or ibuprofen, but not by their vehicles. Further biochemical analysis revealed that rats exposed to IH displayed increased lung levels of lipid peroxidation (an index of oxidative stress), AMPK phosphorylation (an index of AMPK activation), and prostaglandin E2 (a cyclooxygenase metabolite), compared with those exposed to RA. IH-induced increase in lipid peroxidation was considerably suppressed by treatment with NAC but not by compound C or ibuprofen. IH-induced increase in AMPK phosphorylation was totally abolished by NAC or compound C but not by ibuprofen. IH-induced increase in prostaglandin E2 was considerably prevented by any of these three inhibitor treatments. The vehicles of these inhibitors exerted no significant effect on the three IH-induced responses. These

  19. Chronic fluoxetine treatment increases NO bioavailability and calcium-sensitive potassium channels activation in rat mesenteric resistance arteries.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Camila A; Ferreira, Nathanne S; Mestriner, Fabiola L; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Evora, Paulo R B; Resstel, Leonardo B M; Carneiro, Fernando S; Tostes, Rita C

    2015-10-15

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), has effects beyond its antidepressant properties, altering, e.g., mechanisms involved in blood pressure and vasomotor tone control. Although many studies have addressed the acute impact of fluoxetine on the cardiovascular system, there is a paucity of information on the chronic vascular effects of this SSRI. We tested the hypothesis that chronic fluoxetine treatment enhances the vascular reactivity to vasodilator stimuli by increasing nitric oxide (NO) signaling and activation of potassium (K+) channels. Wistar rats were divided into two groups: (I) vehicle (water for 21 days) or (II) chronic fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/day in the drinking water for 21 days). Fluoxetine treatment increased endothelium-dependent and independent vasorelaxation (analyzed by mesenteric resistance arteries reactivity) as well as constitutive NO synthase (NOS) activity, phosphorylation of eNOS at Serine1177 and NO production, determined by western blot and fluorescence. On the other hand, fluoxetine treatment did not alter vascular expression of neuronal and inducible NOS or guanylyl cyclase (GC). Arteries from fluoxetine-treated rats exhibited increased relaxation to pinacidil. Increased acetylcholine vasorelaxation was abolished by a calcium-activated K+ channel (KCa) blocker, but not by an inhibitor of KATP channels. On the other hand, vascular responses to Bay 41-2272 and 8-bromo-cGMP were similar between the groups. In conclusion, chronic fluoxetine treatment increases endothelium-dependent and independent relaxation of mesenteric resistance arteries by mechanisms that involve increased eNOS activity, NO generation, and KCa channels activation. These effects may contribute to the cardiovascular effects associated with chronic fluoxetine treatment. PMID:26362752

  20. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Mitigates Brain Injury in a Rat Model of Infection-Sensitized Neonatal Hypoxia–Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dianer; Sun, Yu-Yo; Nemkul, Niza; Baumann, Jessica M.; Shereen, Ahmed; Dunn, R. Scott; Wills-Karp, Marsha; Lawrence, Daniel A.; Lindquist, Diana M.; Kuan, Chia-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Intrauterine infection exacerbates neonatal hypoxic–ischemic (HI) brain injury and impairs the development of cerebral cortex. Here we used low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) pre-exposure followed by unilateral cerebral HI insult in 7-day-old rats to study the pathogenic mechanisms. We found that LPS pre-exposure blocked the HI-induced proteolytic activity of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), but significantly enhanced NF-κB signaling, microglia activation, and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in newborn brains. Remarkably, these pathogenic responses were all blocked by intracerebroventricular injection of a stable-mutant form of plasminogen activator protein-1 called CPAI. Similarly, LPS pre-exposure amplified, while CPAI therapy mitigated HI-induced blood-brain-barrier damage and the brain tissue loss with a therapeutic window at 4 h after the LPS/HI insult. The CPAI also blocks microglia activation following a brain injection of LPS, which requires the contribution by tPA, but not the urinary-type plasminogen activator (uPA), as shown by experiments in tPA-null and uPA-null mice. These results implicate the nonproteolytic tPA activity in LPS/HI-induced brain damage and microglia activation. Finally, the CPAI treatment protects near-normal motor and white matter development despite neonatal LPS/HI insult. Together, because CPAI blocks both proteolytic and nonproteolytic tPA neurotoxicity, it is a promising therapeutics of neonatal HI injury either with or without infection. PMID:22556277

  1. Differential sensitivity of medium- and large-sized striatal neurons to NMDA but not kainate receptor activation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, C; Itri, J N; Flores-Hernández, J; Hurst, R S; Calvert, C R; Levine, M S

    2001-11-01

    Infrared videomicroscopy and differential interference contrast optics were used to identify medium- and large-sized neurons in striatal slices from young rats. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were obtained to compare membrane currents evoked by application of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and kainate. Inward currents and current densities induced by NMDA were significantly smaller in large- than in medium-sized striatal neurons. The negative slope conductance for NMDA currents was greater in medium- than in large-sized neurons and more depolarization was required to remove the Mg2+ blockade. In contrast, currents induced by kainate were significantly greater in large-sized neurons whilst current densities were approximately equal in both cell types. Spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents occurred frequently in medium-sized neurons but were relatively infrequent in large-sized neurons. Excitatory postsynaptic currents evoked by electrical stimulation were smaller in large- than in medium-sized neurons. A final set of experiments assessed a functional consequence of the differential sensitivity of medium- and large-sized neurons to NMDA. Cell swelling was used to examine changes in somatic area in both neuronal types after prolonged application of NMDA or kainate. NMDA produced a time-dependent increase in somatic area in medium-sized neurons whilst it produced only minimal changes in large interneurons. In contrast, application of kainate produced significant swelling in both medium- and large-sized cells. We hypothesize that reduced sensitivity to NMDA may be due to variations in receptor subunit composition and/or the relative density of receptors in the two cell types. These findings help define the conditions that put neurons at risk for excitotoxic damage in neurological disorders. PMID:11860453

  2. Effect of topical cis-urocanic acid on local lymph node activation during contact sensitization in mouse, rat and guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Lauerma, A I; Homey, B; Vohr, H W; Lee, C H; Bloom, E; Maibach, H I

    1996-05-01

    Cis-urocanic acid (cUCA) has been suggested as a mediator of impairment of contact hypersensitivity induction by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. We ascertained whether topical cUCA influences local lymph node activation during induction of contact hypersensitivity. Topical cUCA or vehicle was applied during the local lymph node assay to oxazolone. Local lymph node weight and cell number were assessed in all animals. Additionally, cell proliferation rate was studied in Hartley guinea-pigs and CBA/Ca mice, whereas activation of antigen-presenting cells was quantified in NMRI mice and Wistar rats. Topical cUCA suppressed all parameters of local lymph node activation due to oxazolone application in guinea-pigs. No effect, with the exception of a suppression of antigen-presenting cell activity, was seen in mice. No effect was seen in rats. The study shows that topical cUCA may suppress local lymph node activation during contact sensitization and suggests that differences between the effect of cUCA in different animal species may exist. PMID:8736333

  3. The Carbohydrate Sensitive Rat as a Model of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Nachiket A.; Chaumontet, Catherine; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Even, Patrick C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sensitivity to obesity is highly variable in humans, and rats fed a high fat diet (HFD) are used as a model of this inhomogeneity. Energy expenditure components (basal metabolism, thermic effect of feeding, activity) and variations in substrate partitioning are possible factors underlying the variability. Unfortunately, in rats as in humans, results have often been inconclusive and measurements usually made after obesity onset, obscuring if metabolism was a cause or consequence. Additionally, the role of high carbohydrate diet (HCD) has seldom been studied. Methodology/Findings Rats (n=24) were fed for 3 weeks on HCD and then 3 weeks on HFD. Body composition was tracked by MRI and compared to energy expenditure components measured prior to obesity. Results: 1) under HFD, as expected, by adiposity rats were variable enough to be separable into relatively fat resistant (FR) and sensitive (FS) groups, 2) under HCD, and again by adiposity, rats were also variable enough to be separable into carbohydrate resistant (CR) and sensitive (CS) groups, the normal body weight of CS rats hiding viscerally-biased fat accumulation, 3) HCD adiposity sensitivity was not related to that under HFD, and both HCD and HFD adiposity sensitivities were not related to energy expenditure components (BMR, TEF, activity cost), and 4) only carbohydrate to fat partitioning in response to an HCD test meal was related to HCD-induced adiposity. Conclusions/Significance The rat model of human obesity is based on substantial variance in adiposity gains under HFD (FR/FS model). Here, since we also found this phenomenon under HCD, where it was also linked to an identifiable metabolic difference, we should consider the existence of another model: the carbohydrate resistant (CR) or sensitive (CS) rat. This new model is potentially complementary to the FR/FS model due to relatively greater visceral fat accumulation on a low fat high carbohydrate diet. PMID:23935869

  4. Functional implications of the localization and activity of acid-sensitive channels in rat peripheral nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez de la Rosa, Diego; Zhang, Ping; Shao, Deren; White, Fletcher; Canessa, Cecilia M.

    2002-01-01

    Acid-sensitive ion channels (ASIC) are proton-gated ion channels expressed in neurons of the mammalian central and peripheral nervous systems. The functional role of these channels is still uncertain, but they have been proposed to constitute mechanoreceptors and/or nociceptors. We have raised specific antibodies for ASIC1, ASIC2, ASIC3, and ASIC4 to examine the distribution of these proteins in neurons from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and to determine their subcellular localization. Western blot analysis demonstrates that all four ASIC proteins are expressed in DRG and sciatic nerve. Immunohistochemical experiments and functional measurements of unitary currents from the ASICs with the patch–clamp technique indicate that ASIC1 localizes to the plasma membrane of small-, medium-, and large-diameter cells, whereas ASIC2 and ASIC3 are preferentially in medium to large cells. Neurons coexpressing ASIC2 and ASIC3 form predominantly heteromeric ASIC2–3 channels. Two spliced forms, ASIC2a and ASIC2b, colocalize in the same population of DRG neurons. Within cells, the ASICs are present mainly on the plasma membrane of the soma and cellular processes. Functional studies indicate that the pH sensitivity for inactivation of ASIC1 is much higher than the one for activation; hence, increases in proton concentration will inactivate the channel. These functional properties and localization in DRG have profound implications for the putative functional roles of ASICs in the nervous system. PMID:11842212

  5. Functional implications of the localization and activity of acid-sensitive channels in rat peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Alvarez de la Rosa, Diego; Zhang, Ping; Shao, Deren; White, Fletcher; Canessa, Cecilia M

    2002-02-19

    Acid-sensitive ion channels (ASIC) are proton-gated ion channels expressed in neurons of the mammalian central and peripheral nervous systems. The functional role of these channels is still uncertain, but they have been proposed to constitute mechanoreceptors and/or nociceptors. We have raised specific antibodies for ASIC1, ASIC2, ASIC3, and ASIC4 to examine the distribution of these proteins in neurons from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and to determine their subcellular localization. Western blot analysis demonstrates that all four ASIC proteins are expressed in DRG and sciatic nerve. Immunohistochemical experiments and functional measurements of unitary currents from the ASICs with the patch-clamp technique indicate that ASIC1 localizes to the plasma membrane of small-, medium-, and large-diameter cells, whereas ASIC2 and ASIC3 are preferentially in medium to large cells. Neurons coexpressing ASIC2 and ASIC3 form predominantly heteromeric ASIC2-3 channels. Two spliced forms, ASIC2a and ASIC2b, colocalize in the same population of DRG neurons. Within cells, the ASICs are present mainly on the plasma membrane of the soma and cellular processes. Functional studies indicate that the pH sensitivity for inactivation of ASIC1 is much higher than the one for activation; hence, increases in proton concentration will inactivate the channel. These functional properties and localization in DRG have profound implications for the putative functional roles of ASICs in the nervous system. PMID:11842212

  6. Protein kinase C regulates the activity of voltage-sensitive calcium channels of the rat chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wakade, A.R.; Malhotra, R.K.; Wakade, T.D.

    1986-03-05

    Phorbol dibutyrate (PB), an activator of protein kinase C was used as a tool to study the role of protein kinase C in the secretion of catecholamines (CA) from the perfused adrenal gland of rat. Secretion of CA evoked by splanchnic nerve stimulation, nicotine (N), carbamylcholine (C) and 35 mM K (K) was enhanced (about 2-fold) by 30 nM PB, but that evoked by muscarine (M) was not. In Ca-free and 1 mM EGTA Krebs solution, N and M did not evoke secretion, and PB also had no effect. If Ca concentration of the perfusion medium was maintained at 0.1 mM, N-evoked secretion was reduced over 80% but M-evoked secretion was still about 60% of the control value. Addition of PB to this medium did not modify secretion evoked by M, but N-evoked secretion was facilitated by 3-fold. Ca/sup 45/ flux data showed that N-, C-, and K-evoked secretion of CA was associated with 2- to 3-fold increase in Ca/sup 45/ uptake. However, M-evoked secretion did not cause Ca/sup 45/ uptake. These results suggest that N utilizes extracellular whereas M utilizes mostly intracellular Ca ions for the secretion of CA. PB alone did not affect Ca/sup 45/ uptake, but after stimulation with N, C and K, Ca/sup 45/ uptake was further enhanced by PB. It is concluded that protein kinase C phosphorylates membrane proteins that control opening and closing of Ca channels regulated by nicotine receptors and changes in membrane potentials.

  7. Nucleus accumbens NMDA receptor activation regulates amphetamine cross-sensitization and deltaFosB expression following sexual experience in male rats.

    PubMed

    Beloate, Lauren N; Weems, Peyton W; Casey, Graham R; Webb, Ian C; Coolen, Lique M

    2016-02-01

    Sexual experience in male rats followed by a period of abstinence causes sensitization to d-Amphetamine (Amph) reward, evidenced by an increased conditioned place preference (CPP) for low doses of Amph. Moreover, sexual experience induces neural plasticity within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), including induction of deltaFosB, which plays a key role in Amph reward cross-sensitization. The NMDA receptor subunit NR1 is also upregulated by mating, but the functional relevance of NMDA receptors in sex experience-induced effects is unknown. Here, we examined the influence of intra-NAc MK 801 infusions on sex experience-induced NAc deltaFosB and cFos expression, as well as mating- and Amph-induced CPP in adult male rats. In experiment 1, males received MK 801 or saline into the NAc during each of 4 consecutive days of mating or handling and were tested for Amph CPP and experience-induced deltaFosB 10 days later. Intra-NAc MK 801 during sexual behavior prevented experience-induced increases in Amph CPP and NAc deltaFosB expression without affecting sexual behavior. In experiment 2, the effects of intra-NAc MK 801 on mating-induced CPP were examined by intra-NAc infusion of MK 801 or saline prior to mating on conditioning days. Intra-NAc MK 801 did not affect mating-induced CPP. Next, effects of intra-NAc MK 801 on mating-induced cFos immunoreactivity were examined. MK 801 prevented mating-induced cFos expression in NAc shell and core. Together, these results provide evidence that NAc NMDA receptor activation during sexual behavior plays a key role in mating-induced cFos and deltaFosB expression and subsequent experience-induced cross-sensitization to Amph reward. PMID:26391065

  8. Exposure of brown Norway rats to diesel exhaust particles prior to ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization elicits IgE adjuvant activity but attenuates OVA-induced airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Caroline C; Yin, Xuejun J; Ma, Jane Y C; Millecchia, Lyndell; Barger, Mark W; Roberts, Jenny R; Zhang, Xing-Dong; Antonini, James M; Ma, Joseph K H

    2005-11-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) during the sensitization process has been shown to increase antigen-specific IgE production and aggravate allergic airway inflammation in human and animal models. In this study, we evaluated the effect of short-term DEP exposure on ovalbumin (OVA)-mediated responses using a post-sensitization model. Brown Norway rats were first exposed to filtered air or DEP (20.6 +/- 2.7 mg/m3) for 4 h/day for five consecutive days. One day after the final air or DEP exposure (day 1), rats were sensitized with aerosolized OVA (40.5 +/- 6.3 mg/m3), and then again on days 8 and 15, challenged with OVA on day 29, and sacrificed on days 9 or 30, 24 h after the second OVA exposure or the final OVA challenge, respectively. Control animals received aerosolized saline instead of OVA. DEP were shown to elicit an adjuvant effect on the production of antigen-specific IgE and IgG on day 30. At both time points, no significant airway inflammatory responses and lung injury were found for DEP exposure alone. However, the OVA-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, acellular lactate dehydrogenase activity and albumin content in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and numbers of T cells and their CD4+ and CD8+ subsets in lung-draining lymph nodes were markedly reduced by DEP on day 30 compared with the air-plus-OVA exposure group. The OVA-induced nitric oxide (NO) in the BAL fluid and production of NO, interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-12 by alveolar macrophages (AM) were also significantly lowered by DEP on day 30 as well as day 9. DEP or OVA alone decreased intracellular glutathione (GSH) in AM and lymphocytes on days 9 and 30. The combined DEP and OVA exposure resulted in further depletion of GSH in both cell types. These results show that short-term DEP exposure prior to sensitization had a delayed effect on enhancement of the sensitization in terms of allergen-specific IgE and IgG production, but caused an attenuation of the allergen-induced airway

  9. Ability of xeno- and phytoestrogens to modulate expression of estrogen-sensitive genes in rat uterus: estrogenicity profiles and uterotropic activity.

    PubMed

    Diel, P; Schulz, T; Smolnikar, K; Strunck, E; Vollmer, G; Michna, H

    2000-05-01

    The function of the uterus is regulated by female sex steroids and it is, therefore, used as the classical target organ to detect estrogenic action. Uterine response to estrogens involves the activation of a large pattern of estrogen-sensitive genes. This fact offers the opportunity to analyze the estrogenic activity of xeno- and phytoestrogens, and the mechanisms of their molecular action by a correlation of the uterotropic activity and their ability to modulate the expression of estrogen-sensitive genes. We have analyzed the expression of androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PR), estrogen receptor (ER), clusterin (CLU), complement C3 (C3), and GAPDH mRNA in the rat uterus following oral administration of ethinylestradiol (EE), bisphenol A (BPA), o,p'-DDT (DDT), p-tert-octylphenol (OCT) and daidzein (DAI). A significant stimulation of the uterine wet weight could be observed after administration of all the substances. The activity of all analyzed compounds to stimulate uterine weight was low in comparison to EE. DDT has the highest activity to stimulate uterine weight whereas BPA and DAI turned out to be less potent. The analysis of gene expression revealed a very specific profile of molecular action in response to the different compounds which cannot be detected by judging the uterotropic response alone. A dose dependent analysis revealed that C3 mRNA is already modulated at doses where no uterotropic response was detectable. Although DAI and BPA were very weak stimulators of uterine growth, these substances were able to alter the expression of AR, ER and C3 very strongly. Based on these investigations the analyzed compounds can be subdivided into distinct classes: First, compounds which exhibit a similar gene expression fingerprint as EE (e.g. OCT); second, compounds exhibiting a significant uterotropic activity, but inducing a pattern of gene expression different from EE (e.g. DDT); and third, compounds like BPA and especially DAI which exhibit a very

  10. Blockade of presynaptic 4-aminopyridine-sensitive potassium channels increases initial neurotransmitter release probability, reinstates synaptic transmission altered by GABAB receptor activation in rat midbrain periaqueductal gray.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangying; Liu, Zhi-Liang; Zhang, Wei-Ning; Yang, Kun

    2016-01-01

    The activation of γ-aminobutyric acid receptor subtype B (GABAB) receptors in the midbrain ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) induces both postsynaptic and presynaptic inhibition. Whereas the postsynaptic inhibition is mediated by G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K channels, the presynaptic inhibition of neurotransmitter release is primarily mediated by voltage-gated calcium channels. Using whole-cell recordings from acute rat PAG slices, we report here that the bath application of 4-aminopyridine, a voltage-gated K channel blocker, increases the initial GABA and glutamate release probability (P) and reinstates P depressed by presynaptic GABAB receptor activation at inhibitory and excitatory synapses, respectively. However, Ba, which blocks G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K channels, does not produce similar effects. Our data suggest that the blockade of presynaptic 4-aminopyridine-sensitive K channels in vlPAG facilitates neurotransmitter release and reinstates synaptic transmission that has been altered by presynaptic GABAB receptor activation. Because vlPAG is involved in the descending pain control system, the present results may have potential therapeutic applications. PMID:26575285

  11. Apamin-Sensitive Small Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels were Negatively Regulated by Captopril in Volume-Overload Heart Failure Rats.

    PubMed

    Hongyuan, Bai; Xin, Dong; Jingwen, Zhang; Li, Gao; Yajuan, Ni

    2016-08-01

    In heart failure (HF), the malignant arrhythmias occur frequently; a study demonstrated that upregulation of I KAS resulted in recurrent spontaneous ventricular fibrillation in HF. However, the regulation of SK channels was poorly understood. The activation of SK channels depended on [Ca(2+)]i and PP2A; studies suggested that angiotensin II can regulate them. So, we hypothesized that in HF, the excess of angiotensin may regulate the SK channels and result in the remodeling of SK channels. To test the hypothesis, we used volume-overload-induced HF rat model, treated with captopril, performed whole-cell patch clamp to record apamin-sensitive currents (I KAS), and I-V curve was studied. The sensitivity of I KAS to [Ca(2+)]i was also explored by setting various [Ca(2+)]i (10, 100, 500, 900, 1000, and 10,000 nM), and the steady-state Ca(2+) response of I KAS was attained and performed Hill fitting with the equation (y = 1/[1 + (EC50/x) (n) ]). Immunofluorescent staining, real-time PCR, Western blot were also carried out to furtherly investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of the regulation. Captopril significantly decreased the mean density of I KAS when [Ca(2+)]i was 500, 900, 1000, and 10000 nM. The Hill fitting showed significantly different EC50 values and the Hill coefficients and showed captopril significantly shifted rightward the steady-state Ca(2+) response of I KAS. The results of real-time PCR and Western blot demonstrated captopril decreased the mRNA and protein expression of SK3 channels. Captopril significantly downregulated the sensitivity of SK channels to [Ca(2+)]i and the SK3 channels expression in HF, and reversed the SK channels remodeling. PMID:26924798

  12. Glutamate-induced sensitization of rat masseter muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Cairns, B E; Gambarota, G; Svensson, P; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Berde, C B

    2002-01-01

    In rats, intradermal or intraarticular injection of glutamate or selective excitatory amino acid receptor agonists acting at peripheral excitatory amino acid receptors can decrease the intensity of mechanical stimulation required to evoke nocifensive behaviors, an indication of hyperalgesia. Since excitatory amino acid receptors have been found on the terminal ends of cutaneous primary afferent fibers, it has been suggested that increased tissue glutamate levels may have a direct sensitizing effect on primary afferent fibers, in particular skin nociceptors. However, less is known about the effects of glutamate on deep tissue afferent fibers. In the present study, a series of experiments were undertaken to investigate the effect of intramuscular injection of glutamate on the excitability and mechanical threshold of masseter muscle afferent fibers in anesthetized rats of both sexes. Injection of 1.0 M, but not 0.1 M glutamate evoked masseter muscle afferent activity that was significantly greater than that evoked by isotonic saline. The mechanical threshold of masseter muscle afferent fibers, which was assessed with a Von Frey hair, was reduced by approximately 50% for a period of 30 min after injection of 1.0 M glutamate, but was unaffected by injections of 0.1 M glutamate or isotonic saline. Injection of 25% dextrose, which has the same osmotic strength as 1.0 M glutamate, did not evoke significant activity in or decrease the mechanical threshold of masseter muscle afferent fibers. Magnetic resonance imaging experiments confirmed that injection of 25% dextrose and 1.0 M glutamate produced similar edema volumes in the masseter muscle tissue. Co-injection of 0.1 M kynurenate, an excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist, and 1.0 M glutamate attenuated glutamate-evoked afferent activity and prevented glutamate-induced mechanical sensitization. When male and female rats were compared, no difference in the baseline mechanical threshold or in the magnitude of glutamate

  13. Regulation of brain aromatase activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Roselli, C.E.; Ellinwood, W.E.; Resko, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution and regulation of aromatase activity in the adult rat brain with a sensitive in vitro assay that measures the amount of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O formed during the conversion of (1 beta-/sup 3/H)androstenedione to estrone. The rate of aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA) was linear with time up to 1 h, and with tissue concentrations up to 5 mgeq/200 microliters incubation mixture. The enzyme demonstrated a pH optimum of 7.4 and an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 0.04 microns. The greatest amount of aromatase activity was found in amygdala and HPOA from intact male rats. The hippocampus, midbrain tegmentum, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and anterior pituitary all contained negligible enzymatic activity. Castration produced a significant decrease in aromatase activity in the HPOA, but not in the amygdala or cerebral cortex. The HPOAs of male rats contained significantly greater aromatase activity than the HPOAs of female rats. In females, this enzyme activity did not change during the estrous cycle or after ovariectomy. Administration of testosterone to gonadectomized male and female rats significantly enhanced HPOA aromatase activities to levels approximating those found in HPOA from intact males. Therefore, the results suggest that testosterone, or one of its metabolites, is a major steroidal regulator of HPOA aromatase activity in rats.

  14. Perinatal undernutrition facilitates morphine sensitization and cross-sensitization to cocaine in adult rats: a behavioral and neurochemical study.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, E E; Valdomero, A; Orsingher, O A; Cuadra, G R

    2010-01-20

    The development of sensitization to the locomotor effects of morphine and cross-sensitization between morphine and cocaine were evaluated in adult rats submitted to a protein malnutrition schedule from the 14th day of gestation up to 30 days of age (D-rats), and compared with well-nourished animals (C-rats). Dose-response curves to morphine-induced locomotor activity (5, 7.5, 10 or 15 mg/kg, i.p., every other day for 5 days) revealed a shift to the left in D-rats compared to C-rats. This implies that D-rats showed behavioral sensitization to the lower dose of morphine used (5 mg/kg), which was ineffective in C-rats. Furthermore, when a cocaine challenge (10 mg/kg, i.p) was given 48 h after the last morphine administration, only D-rats exhibited cross-sensitization in morphine-pretreated animals (7.5 and 10 mg/kg). In order to correlate the differential response observed with the functioning of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system, extracellular dopamine (DA) levels were measured in the nucleus accumbens (core and shell) and the dorsal caudate-putamen. A challenge with cocaine in morphine pre-exposed animals produced an increase in DA release, but only in the nucleus accumbens "core" of D-rats. Similar DA levels were found in the nucleus accumbens "shell" and in the dorsal caudate-putamen of both groups. Finally, these results demonstrate that D-rats had a lower threshold for developing both a progressive behavioral sensitization to morphine and a cross-sensitization to cocaine. In accordance with these behavioral findings, a higher responsiveness of the nucleus accumbens core, expressed by increased DA levels, both basal and after cocaine challenge, was observed in D-rats. PMID:19892003

  15. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P < 0.001). Plasma parathyroid hormone concentrations of S rats were twice that of R rats. S rats fed 2% salt had higher plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P < 0.001) and did not exhibit the expected calciuric response to salt. Proteinuria of the S rats was three times that of the R rats, suggesting kidney damage in the S rats. Low plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  16. Genetic influence on brain catecholamines: high brain norepinephrine in salt-sensitive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, J; Friedman, R; Tassinari, L

    1980-01-01

    Rats genetically sensitive to salt-induced hypertension evinced higher levels of plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine than rats genetically resistant to hypertension. The hypertension-sensitive rats showed higher hypothalamic norepinephrine and lower epinephrine than resistant rats. In response to a high salt diet, brain stem norepinephrine increased in sensitive rats while resistant rats exhibited a decrease on the same diet.

  17. High and Low Activity Rats: Elevated intrinsic physical activity drives resistance to diet induced obesity in non-bred rats

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Leighton, Claudio E.; Boland, Kelsey; Billington, Charles; Kotz, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Humans and rodents show large variability in their individual sensitivity to diet-induced obesity, which has been associated with differences in intrinsic spontaneous physical activity (SPA). Evidence from genetic and out-bred rat obesity models shows that higher activity of the orexin peptides results in higher intrinsic SPA and protection against diet-induced obesity. Based on this, we hypothesized that naturally occurring variation in SPA and orexin signaling activity is sufficient to drive differences in sensitivity to diet-induced obesity. We analyzed orexin activity and sensitivity to diet-induced obesity in non-manipulated male Sprague Dawley rats selected for high and low intrinsic SPA. Our results defined a new model of differential DIO sensitivity, the high-activity and low activity-rats, and suggest that naturally occurring variations in intrinsic SPA cause differences in energy expenditure that are mediated by orexin signaling and alter DIO sensitivity. PMID:23404834

  18. Effect of Alpha-Hederin, the active constituent of Nigella sativa, on miRNA-126, IL-13 mRNA levels and inflammation of lungs in ovalbumin-sensitized male rats

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Maryam; Keyhanmanesh, Rana; Khamaneh, Amir Mahdi; Ebrahimi Saadatlou, Mohammad Ali; Saadat, Saeideh; Ebrahimi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In previous studies the therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa have been demonstrated on asthmatic animals. In the present study, the preventive effect of single dose of alpha-hederin, its active constituent, has been evaluated on lung inflammation and some inflammatory mediators in lungs of ovalbumin sensitized rat in order to elicit its mechanism. Materials and Methods: Forty rats were randomly grouped in 4 groups; control (C), sensitized (S), sensitized pretreated groups with thymoquinone (3 mg/kg i.p., S+TQ) and alpha-hederin (0.02 mg/kg i.p., S+AH). Levels of IL-13 mRNA and miRNA-126 in lung tissue and its pathological changes in each group were assessed. Results: Elevated levels of miRNA-126, IL-13 mRNA and pathological changes were observed in the sensitized group compared to the control group (p<0.001 to p<0.05). All of these factors were significantly reduced in S+TQ and S+AH groups in comparison to S group (p<0.001 to p<0.05). Although alpha-hederin decreased the levels of miRNA-126, IL-13 mRNA and pathological changes in comparison with thymoquinone, the results were statistically not significant. Conclusion: The results suggested that alpha-hederin had preventive effect on sensitized rats like thymoquinone. It may intervene in miRNA-126 expression, which consequently could interfere with IL-13 secretion pathway leading to a reduction in inflammatory responses. PMID:27247924

  19. Food restriction alters N'-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzothiazole-2,6-diamine dihydrochloride (pramipexole)-induced yawning, hypothermia, and locomotor activity in rats: evidence for sensitization of dopamine D2 receptor-mediated effects.

    PubMed

    Collins, Gregory T; Calinski, Diane M; Newman, Amy Hauck; Grundt, Peter; Woods, James H

    2008-05-01

    Food restriction enhances sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of a variety of drugs of abuse including opiates, nicotine, and psychostimulants. Food restriction has also been shown to alter a variety of behavioral and pharmacological responses to dopaminergic agonists, including an increased sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of direct- and indirect-dopamine agonists, elevated extracellular dopamine levels in responses to psychostimulants, as well as suppression of agonist-induced yawning. Behavioral and molecular studies suggest that augmented dopaminergic responses observed in food-restricted animals result from a sensitization of the dopamine D2 receptor; however, little is known about how food restriction affects dopamine D3 receptor function. The current studies were aimed at better defining the effects of food restriction on D2 and D3 receptor function by assessing the capacity of N'-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzothiazole-2,6-diamine dihydrochloride (pramipexole) to induce yawning, penile erection (PE), hypothermia, and locomotor activity in free-fed and food-restricted rats. Food restriction resulted in a suppression of pramipexole-induced yawning, a sensitized hypothermic response, and an enhanced locomotor response to pramipexole, effects that are suggestive of an enhanced D2 receptor activity; no effect on pramipexole-induced PE was observed. Antagonist studies further supported a food restriction-induced enhancement of the D2 receptor activity because the D2 antagonist 3-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-l-yl]methyl-1H-indole (L741,626) recovered pramipexole-induced yawning to free-fed levels, whereas yawning and PE were suppressed following pretreatment with the D3 antagonist N-{4-[4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-trans-but-2-enyl}-4-pyridine-2-yl-benzamide hydrochloride (PG01037). The results of the current studies suggest that food restriction sensitized rats to the D2-mediated effects of pramipexole while having no effect

  20. Nicotine Exposure during Adolescence Enhances Behavioral Sensitivity to Nicotine during Adulthood in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bracken, Amy L.; Chambers, R. Andrew; Berg, Sarah A.; Rodd, Zachary A.; McBride, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Drug use during adolescence is associated with an increased propensity for drug dependency during adulthood. Therefore, the effects of adolescent exposure to nicotine on adult behavioral responsiveness to nicotine are of particular importance. Objectives The objective of the current study was to determine if adolescent nicotine exposure would enhance behavioral sensitivity and development of sensitization to nicotine during adulthood. Materials and Methods Male Wistar rats were assigned to one of three groups that received subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of nicotine (0, 0.25, or 0.5 mg/kg) in the home cage for 12 consecutive days during adolescence, PD 31–42. Starting on PD 80, distance traveled, rearing, and stereotypy were recorded in locomotor activity chambers each day for 10 days, following s.c. injections of 0, 0.25, or 0.5 mg/kg nicotine. One week later, a final challenge session took place during which rats were injected with 0.5 mg/kg nicotine. Results Rats exposed to nicotine during adolescence displayed a greater locomotor response to a novel environment than saline-treated rats. Adolescent nicotine treatment also resulted in context-independent sensitization to the acute locomotor activating properties of nicotine, including distance traveled and stereotypy, as measured on the first day of adulthood nicotine exposure. Adolescent nicotine-treated rats displayed increased sensitivity to repeated nicotine exposures during adulthood, compared to adolescent saline-treated rats, as measured by distance traveled, rearing, and stereotypic behaviors. Finally, rats treated with nicotine only during adolescence were more sensitive to a final nicotine challenge during adulthood than rats treated with nicotine only previously during adulthood. Conclusions Overall, the results suggest that adolescent nicotine treatment predisposes adult rats to develop increased behavioral sensitivity to chronic nicotine treatment and to be more sensitive to the initial

  1. The local effect of octreotide on mechanical pain sensitivity is more sensitive in DA rats than DA.1U rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fan-Rong; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Yan

    2016-02-01

    A recent study by the authors indicated that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are associated with the differences in basal pain sensitivity and in formalin model between Dark-Agouti (DA) and novel congenic DA.1U rats, which have the same genetic background as DA rats except for the u alleles of MHC. The objective of the present study is to investigate whether there is a difference in the pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) model and local analgesic effect of octreotide (OCT) between DA and DA.1U rats. The hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and heat withdrawal latency (HWL) were observed. The C unit firings of the tibial nerve evoked by non-noxious and noxious toe movements were recorded by electrophysiological methods in normal and PIA models in DA and DA.1U rats before and after local OCT administration. The expression of somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A) was observed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrate that DA rats have a higher mechanical sensitivity than DA.1U rats after PIA. Local OCT administration significantly elevated MWT in DA rats under normal and PIA sate, but not in DA.1U rats. The electrophysiological experiments showed OCT significantly attenuated the firings of C units evoked by non-noxious and noxious stimulation in DA rats more than those in DA.1U rats both in normal and PIA states. In addition, the expression of SSTR2A in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was significantly higher in DA than in DA.1U rats. All of the findings suggest a higher local analgesic effect of OCT in DA rats than DA.1U rats, which might be associated with the MHC genes. PMID:26606866

  2. Sensitivity of rat pancreatic A and B cells to somatostatin.

    PubMed

    Schuit, F C; Derde, M P; Pipeleers, D G

    1989-03-01

    Islet A and B cells were purified from the rat pancreas and examined for their respective sensitivity to somatostatin. Both somatostatin-14 (S14) and -28 (S28) inhibited glucagon and insulin release through direct interactions with the corresponding cell types. A dose-dependent suppression of the secretory activities was paralleled by a reduction in cellular cyclic AMP formation with similar ED50 values for both actions. The somatostatin effects on pancreatic hormone release may thus be mediated via an inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. In pancreatic A cells, S14 and S28 were equally potent inhibitors with ED50 values ranging from 2 x 10(-12) to 2 x 10(-11) mol/l. Pancreatic B cells exhibited a similar sensitivity to S28 as the A cells (ED50 of 2 to 5 x 10(-11) mol/l), but not to S14 (ED50 of 2 x 10(-9) mol/l). Extrapolation of these in vitro sensitivities of islet A and B cells to the in vivo situation suggests that both cell types can respond to circulating S28 levels and that A cells are sensitive to both locally and distally released S14. Islet B cells appear insensitive to the normal peripheral S14 levels but could respond to locally released somatostatin. The marked difference in the sensitivities of islet A and B cells to S14 suggest that these cell types are equipped with different somatostatin receptors. This notion was further supported by the cell-selective actions of the synthetic S14 analogues [D-Trp8, D-Cys14]S14 and desAsn5[D-Trp8, D-Ser13]S14. PMID:2568961

  3. Diets containing soy or rice protein isolate increase insulin sensitivity and improve lipid homeostasis in weanling rats fed high fat, high cholesterol Western diets as a result of activation of PPAR and LXR-mediated pathways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study examined the effects of feeding soy protein isolate (SPI) and rice protein isolate (RPI) on insulin sensitivity and fat breakdown in weanling rats consuming high fat/high cholesterol diets. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on semi-purified diets containing the milk protein case...

  4. Enhanced activity of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) in mesenteric but not epididymal fat correlates with higher production of epinephrine in mesenteric adipocytes in rat model of cachectic rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Stofkova, Andrea; Krskova, Katarina; Vaculin, Simon; Jurcovicova, Jana

    2016-06-01

    Cachectic rheumatoid arthritis, the less frequent form of the disease, is associated with loss of fat mass and often more severe course of the disease. Its experimental model represents rat adjuvant arthritis (AA) characterized by edema, lack of appetite, sharp body weight and fat loss. As individual fat depots display functional differences, here we studied lipolytic activity and sensitivity to lipolytic stimuli of nodeless epididymal fat (eWAT) and perinodal mesenteric fat (mWAT) depots at the peak of AA. We also examined changes in catecholamine and cytokine levels involved in lipolysis in plasma and/or isolated adipocytes from both WATs to identify the contribution of local, adipocyte-based processes and/or systemic events to adiposity loss in cachectic rheumatoid arthritis. AA was induced to male Lewis rats by complete Freund's adjuvant. Groups of ad libitum-fed and pair-fed controls were used to distinguish the effects of food restriction from inflammation-induced cachexia. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and its phosphorylated form (pHSL) were analyzed by western blot. CRP and catecholamine levels in plasma or adipocyte lysates were determined using ELISA kits. Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1/CXCL1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and leptin in adipocyte lysate were analyzed by quantitative protein microarray. Plasma glycerol and FFA were measured spectrophotometrically. AA rats developed severe cachexia, with lower adiposity in mWAT compared to normal and pair-fed controls, whereas in eWAT the adiposity was similarly reduced in AA and pair-fed groups. ATGL levels in both WATs were not affected by AA or pair feeding. AA upregulated levels of HSL, pHSL and pHSL/HSL ratio in mWAT, whereas none of these parameters has changed in eWAT of AA rats or in either WATs of pair-fed rats. In AA rats plasma glycerol was elevated, whereas FFA concentration was reduced. Plasma

  5. Sensitization of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in a Male Rat Chronic Stress Model.

    PubMed

    Franco, Alier J; Chen, Chun; Scullen, Tyler; Zsombok, Andrea; Salahudeen, Ahmed A; Di, Shi; Herman, James P; Tasker, Jeffrey G

    2016-06-01

    Stress activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is regulated by rapid glucocorticoid negative feedback. Chronic unpredictable stress animal models recapitulate certain aspects of major depression in humans, which have been attributed to impaired glucocorticoid negative feedback. We tested for an attenuated HPA sensitivity to fast glucocorticoid feedback inhibition in male rats exposed to a chronic variable stress (CVS) paradigm. In vitro, parvocellular neuroendocrine cells of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus recorded in slices from CVS rats showed an increase in basal excitatory synaptic inputs and a decrease in basal inhibitory synaptic inputs compared with neurons from control rats. There was no difference between control and CVS-treated rats in the rapid glucocorticoid suppression of excitatory synaptic inputs, a fast feedback mechanism. In vivo, CVS-treated rats showed an increase in ACTH secretion at baseline and after both iv CRH and acute stress and no impairment of the corticosterone suppression of the ACTH response, compared with controls. In an in vitro pituitary preparation, an increase in basal ACTH release, a small increase in CRH-induced ACTH release, and no decrement in the glucocorticoid suppression of ACTH release were seen in pituitaries from CVS rats. Thus, CVS does not suppress rapid glucocorticoid negative feedback at the hypothalamus or pituitary, but increases the synaptic excitability of paraventricular nucleus CRH neurons and the CRH sensitivity of the pituitary. Therefore, increased HPA activity in chronically stressed male rats is due to sensitization of the HPA axis, rather than to desensitization to rapid glucocorticoid feedback. PMID:27054552

  6. Suplatast tosilate alleviates nasal symptoms through the suppression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells-mediated IL-9 gene expression in toluene-2,4-diisocyanate-sensitized rats.

    PubMed

    Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Orimoto, Naoki; Kadota, Takuya; Kominami, Takahiro; Das, Asish K; Sawada, Akiho; Tamada, Misaki; Miyagi, Kohei; Adachi, Tsubasa; Matsumoto, Mayumi; Kosaka, Tomoya; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Noriaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    Histamine H1 receptor (H1R) gene is upregulated in patients with pollinosis; its expression level is highly correlated with the nasal symptom severity. Antihistamines are widely used as allergy treatments because they inhibit histamine signaling by blocking H1R or suppressing H1R signaling as inverse agonists. However, long-term treatment with antihistamines does not completely resolve toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI)-induced nasal symptoms, although it can decrease H1R gene expression to the basal level, suggesting additional signaling is responsible for the pathogenesis of the allergic symptoms. Here, we show that treatment with suplatast tosilate in combination with antihistamines markedly alleviates nasal symptoms in TDI-sensitized rats. Suplatast suppressed TDI-induced upregulation of IL-9 gene expression. Suplatast also suppressed ionomycin/phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced upregulation of IL-2 gene expression in Jurkat cells, in which calcineurin (CN)/nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) signaling is known to be involved. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that suplatast inhibited binding of NFAT to DNA. Furthermore, suplatast suppressed ionomycin-induced IL-9 mRNA upregulation in RBL-2H3 cells, in which CN/NFAT signaling is also involved. These data suggest that suplatast suppressed NFAT-mediated IL-9 gene expression in TDI-sensitized rats and this might be the underlying mechanism of the therapeutic effects of combined therapy of suplatast with antihistamine. PMID:26874672

  7. Type 2 diabetic rats are sensitive to thioacetamide hepatotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Sawant, Sharmilee P.; Dnyanmote, Ankur V.; Warbritton, Alan; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M. . E-mail: mehendale@ulm.edu

    2006-03-15

    Previously, we reported high hepatotoxic sensitivity of type 2 diabetic (DB) rats to three dissimilar hepatotoxicants. Additional work revealed that a normally nonlethal dose of CCl{sub 4} was lethal in DB rats due to inhibited compensatory tissue repair. The present study was conducted to investigate the importance of compensatory tissue repair in determining the final outcome of hepatotoxicity in diabetes, using another structurally and mechanistically dissimilar hepatotoxicant, thioacetamide (TA), to initiate liver injury. A normally nonlethal dose of TA (300 mg/kg, ip), caused 100% mortality in DB rats. Time course studies (0 to 96 h) showed that in the non-DB rats, liver injury initiated by TA as assessed by plasma alanine or aspartate aminotransferase and hepatic necrosis progressed up to 48 h and regressed to normal at 96 h resulting in 100% survival. In the DB rats, liver injury rapidly progressed resulting in progressively deteriorating liver due to rapidly expanding injury, hepatic failure, and 100% mortality between 24 and 48 h post-TA treatment. Covalent binding of {sup 14}C-TA-derived radiolabel to liver tissue did not differ from that observed in the non-DB rats, indicating similar bioactivation-based initiation of hepatotoxicity. S-phase DNA synthesis measured by [{sup 3}H]-thymidine incorporation, and advancement of cells through the cell division cycle measured by PCNA immunohistochemistry, were substantially inhibited in the DB rats compared to the non-DB rats challenged with TA. Thus, inhibited cell division and compromised tissue repair in the DB rats resulted in progressive expansion of liver injury culminating in mortality. In conclusion, it appears that similar to type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes also increases sensitivity to dissimilar hepatotoxicants due to inhibited compensatory tissue repair, suggesting that sensitivity to hepatotoxicity in diabetes occurs in the absence as well as presence of insulin.

  8. Fish oil supplementation for two generations increases insulin sensitivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Hirabara, Sandro M; Folador, Alessandra; Fiamoncini, Jarlei; Lambertucci, Rafael H; Rodrigues, Carlos F; Rocha, Marlene S; Aikawa, Julia; Yamazaki, Ricardo K; Martins, Amanda R; Rodrigues, Alice C; Carpinelli, Angelo R; Pithon-Curi, Tania C; Fernandes, Luiz C; Gorjão, Renata; Curi, Rui

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the effect of fish oil supplementation for two consecutive generations on insulin sensitivity in rats. After the nursing period (21 days), female rats from the same prole were divided into two groups: (a) control group and (b) fish oil group. Female rats were supplemented with water (control) or fish oil at 1 g/kg body weight as a single bolus for 3 months. After this period, female rats were mated with male Wistar rats fed on a balanced chow diet (not supplemented). Female rats continued to receive supplementation throughout gestation and lactation periods. The same treatment was performed for the next two generations (G1 and G2). At 75 days of age, male offspring from G1 and G2 generations from both groups were used in the experiments. G1 rats did not present any difference with control rats. However, G2 rats presented reduction in glycemia and lipidemia and improvement in in vivo insulin sensitivity (model assessment of insulin resistance, insulin tolerance test) as well as in vitro insulin sensitivity in soleus muscle (glucose uptake and metabolism). This effect was associated with increased insulin-stimulated p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation and lower n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio, but not with activation of proteins from insulin signaling (IR, IRS-1 and Akt). Global DNA methylation was decreased in liver but not in soleus muscle. These results suggest that long-term fish oil supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in association with increased insulin-stimulated p38 activation and decreased n-6:n-3 ratio in skeletal muscle and decreased global DNA methylation in liver. PMID:23246156

  9. Single prolonged stress effects on sensitization to cocaine and cocaine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Eagle, Andrew L; Singh, Robby; Kohler, Robert J; Friedman, Amy L; Liebowitz, Chelsea P; Galloway, Matthew P; Enman, Nicole M; Jutkiewicz, Emily M; Perrine, Shane A

    2015-05-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often comorbid with substance use disorders (SUD). Single prolonged stress (SPS) is a well-validated rat model of PTSD that provides a framework to investigate drug-induced behaviors as a preclinical model of the comorbidity. We hypothesized that cocaine sensitization and self-administration would be increased following exposure to SPS. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to SPS or control treatment. After SPS, cocaine (0, 10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered for 5 consecutive days and locomotor activity was measured. Another cohort was assessed for cocaine self-administration (0.1 or 0.32 mg/kg/i.v.) after SPS. Rats were tested for acquisition, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement behaviors. Control animals showed a dose-dependent increase in cocaine-induced locomotor activity after acute cocaine whereas SPS rats did not. Using a sub-threshold sensitization paradigm, control rats did not exhibit enhanced locomotor activity at Day 5 and therefore did not develop behavioral sensitization, as expected. However, compared to control rats on Day 5 the locomotor response to 20mg/kg repeated cocaine was greatly enhanced in SPS-treated rats, which exhibited enhanced cocaine locomotor sensitization. The effect of SPS on locomotor activity was unique in that SPS did not modify cocaine self-administration behaviors under a simple schedule of reinforcement. These data show that SPS differentially affects cocaine-mediated behaviors causing no effect to cocaine self-administration, under a simple schedule of reinforcement, but significantly augmenting cocaine locomotor sensitization. These results suggest that SPS shares common neurocircuitry with stimulant-induced plasticity, but dissociable from that underlying psychostimulant-induced reinforcement. PMID:25712697

  10. Chronic exposure to MDMA (Ecstasy) elicits behavioral sensitization in rats but fails to induce cross-sensitization to other psychostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Gunjan M; Yang, Pamela B; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum

    2006-01-01

    Background The recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) among adolescents and young adults has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. While evidence suggests that the long-term consequences of MDMA use include neurodegeneration to serotonergic and, possibly, dopaminergic pathways, little is known about susceptibility, such as behavioral sensitization, to MDMA. Methods The objectives of this study were to examine the dose-response characteristics of acute and chronic MDMA administration in rats and to determine whether MDMA elicits behavioral sensitization and whether it cross-sensitizes with amphetamine and methylphenidate. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three MDMA dosage groups (2.5 mg/kg, 5.0 mg/kg, and 10.0 mg/kg) and a saline control group (N = 9/group). All three MDMA groups were treated for six consecutive days, followed by a 5-day washout, and subsequently re-challenged with their respective doses of MDMA (day 13). Rats were then given an additional 25-day washout period, and re-challenged (day 38) with similar MDMA doses as before followed by either 0.6 mg/kg amphetamine or 2.5 mg/kg methylphenidate on the next day (day 39). Open-field locomotor activity was recorded using a computerized automated activity monitoring system. Results Acute injection of 2.5 mg/kg MDMA showed no significant difference in locomotor activity from rats given saline (control group), while animals receiving acute 5.0 mg/kg or 10.0 mg/kg MDMA showed significant increases in locomotor activity. Rats treated chronically with 5.0 mg/kg and 10.0 mg/kg MDMA doses exhibited an augmented response, i.e., behavioral sensitization, on experimental day 13 in at least one locomotor index. On experimental day 38, all three MDMA groups demonstrated sensitization to MDMA in at least one locomotor index. Amphetamine and methylphenidate administration to MDMA-sensitized animals did not elicit any significant change in locomotor activity

  11. Sequelae of prenatal serotonin depletion and stress on pain sensitivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Butkevich, I P; Mikhailenko, V A; Leont'eva, M N

    2005-11-01

    The effects of interrupted synthesis of serotonin (5-HT) and immobilization stress applied to pregnant Wistar rats on behavioral measures of pain sensitivity in the formalin test were studied in their offspring at age 90 days. Prenatal 5-HT depletion decreased pain sensitivity in one third of rats and produced no significant change in the remainder. However, the latter showed a clear tendency to an increase in the interphase interval in females and a decrease in males. Prenatal stress increased pain sensitivity in 50% of rats with prenatal 5-HT deficiency and decreased pain sensitivity in the remainder. Increases in pain sensitivity were also seen in control rats (with prenatal injections of physiological saline), though to a significantly lesser extent than in animals with prenatal 5-HT depletion. The latter showed gender differences in the effects of prenatal stress on pain sensitivity. The present data provide evidence that prenatal 5-HT depletion has long-term effects on the functional activity of the nociceptive system and the important role of 5-HT in mediating the effects of prenatal stress on pain sensitivity in the formalin test. PMID:16270174

  12. Adoptive transfer of allergic airway responses with sensitized lymphocytes in BN rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, A; Rossi, P; Renzi, P M; Xu, L J; Guttmann, R D; Martin, J G

    1995-07-01

    To evaluate the role of lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of allergic bronchoconstriction, we investigated whether allergic airway responses are adoptively transferred by antigen-primed lymphocytes in Brown Norway (BN) rats. Animals were actively sensitized to ovalbumin (OA) or sham sensitized, and 14 d later mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated from intrathoracic lymph nodes, passed through a nylon wool column, and transferred to naive syngeneic rats. Recipients were challenged with aerosolized OA or bovine serum albumin (BSA) (5% wt/vol) and analyzed for changes in lung resistance (RL), airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine (MCh), and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells. Recipients of MNCs from sensitized rats responded to OA inhalation and exhibited sustained increases in RL throughout the 8-h observation period, but without usual early airway responses. Recipients of sham-sensitized MNCs or BSA-challenged recipients failed to respond to antigen challenge. At 32 h after OA exposure, airway responsiveness to MCh was increased in four of seven rats that had received sensitized MNCs (p = 0.035). BAL eosinophils increased at 32 h in the recipients of both sensitized and sham-sensitized MNCs. However, eosinophil numbers in BAL were inversely correlated with airway responsiveness in the recipients of sensitized MNCs (r = -0.788, p = 0.036). OA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) was undetectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in recipient rats following adoptive transfer. In conclusion, allergic late airway responses (LAR) and cholinergic airway hyperresponsiveness, but not antigen-specific IgE and early responses, were adoptively transferred by antigen-primed lymphocytes in BN rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7599864

  13. Effect of High Fructose and High Fat Diets on Pulmonary Sensitivity, Motor Activity, and Body Composition of Brown Norway Rats Exposed to Ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diet-induced obesity has been suggested to lead to increased susceptibility to air pollutants such as ozone (03); however, there is little experimental evidence. Thirty day old male and female Brown Norway rats were fed a normal, high-fructose or high-fat diet for 12 weeks and th...

  14. Generation of a New Model Rat: Nrf2 Knockout Rats Are Sensitive to Aflatoxin B1 Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Keiko; Takaku, Misaki; Egner, Patricia A; Morita, Masanobu; Kaneko, Takehito; Mashimo, Tomoji; Kensler, Thomas W; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2016-07-01

    THE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR NRF2: (NF-E2-related-factor 2) REGULATES A BATTERY OF ANTIOXIDATIVE STRESS-RESPONSE GENES AND DETOXICATION GENES, AND NRF2 KNOCKOUT LINES OF MICE HAVE BEEN CONTRIBUTING CRITICALLY TO THE CLARIFICATION OF ROLES THAT NRF2 PLAYS FOR CELL PROTECTION HOWEVER, THERE ARE APPARENT LIMITATIONS IN USE OF THE MOUSE MODELS FOR INSTANCE, RATS EXHIBIT MORE SUITABLE FEATURES FOR TOXICOLOGICAL OR PHYSIOLOGICAL EXAMINATIONS THAN MICE IN THIS STUDY, WE GENERATED 2 LINES OF NRF2 KNOCKOUT RATS BY USING A GENOME EDITING TECHNOLOGY; 1 LINE HARBORS A 7-BP DELETION Δ7 AND THE OTHER LINE HARBORS A 1-BP INSERTION +1 IN THE NRF2 GENE IN THE LIVERS OF RATS HOMOZYGOUSLY DELETING THE NRF2 GENE, AN ACTIVATOR OF NRF2 SIGNALING, CDDO-IM, COULD NOT INDUCE EXPRESSION OF REPRESENTATIVE NRF2 TARGET GENES TO EXAMINE ALTERED TOXICOLOGICAL RESPONSE, WE TREATED THE NRF2 KNOCKOUT RATS WITH AFLATOXIN B1 AFB1, A CARCINOGENIC MYCOTOXIN THAT ELICITS GENE MUTATIONS THROUGH BINDING OF ITS METABOLITES TO DNA AND FOR WHICH THE RAT HAS BEEN PROPOSED AS A REASONABLE SURROGATE FOR HUMAN TOXICITY INDEED, IN THE NRF2 KNOCKOUT RAT LIVERS THE ENZYMES OF THE AFB1 DETOXICATION PATHWAY WERE SIGNIFICANTLY DOWNREGULATED SINGLE DOSE ADMINISTRATION OF AFB1 INCREASED HEPATOTOXICITY AND BINDING OF AFB1-N7-GUANINE TO HEPATIC DNA IN NRF2 KNOCKOUT RATS COMPARED WITH WILD-TYPE NRF2 KNOCKOUT RATS REPEATEDLY TREATED WITH AFB1 WERE PRONE TO LETHALITY AND CDDO-IM WAS NO LONGER PROTECTIVE THESE RESULTS DEMONSTRATE THAT NRF2 KNOCKOUT RATS ARE QUITE SENSITIVE TO AFB1 TOXICITIES AND THIS RAT GENOTYPE EMERGES AS A NEW MODEL ANIMAL IN TOXICOLOGY. PMID:27071940

  15. Analgesic and thermic effects, and cerebrospinal fluid and plasma pharmacokinetics, of intracerebroventricularly administered morphine in normal and sensitized rats.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, H N; Villar, V M; Cortijo, J; Morcillo, E J

    1998-02-01

    The relationship between asthma and opioids has barely been investigated. This study examines whether active sensitization of rats changes the analgesic and thermic effects of intracerebroventricular morphine or the pharmacokinetics of the drug. Morphine (5, 10 and 20 microg) was given intracerebroventricularly to sensitized (active immunization to ovalbumin and Al(OH)3 then airway challenge with ovalbumin after 12 days) and normal (i.e. non-sensitized) male Sprague-Dawley rats. The tail-flick latencies and changes in colon temperature were determined before morphine injection and at 30 min intervals for a period of 300 min afterwards. Results were expressed as the area under the time-response curve. The analgesic and hyperthermic response to morphine for sensitized rats was less than that obtained for normal rats. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples were collected periodically for a period of 240 min and morphine levels were determined by a highly sensitive radioimmunoassay. The pharmacokinetic parameters half-life, terminal elimination rate constant and the mean residence time were determined in both cerebrospinal fluid and plasma by non-compartmental analysis. The area under the cerebrospinal fluid concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity was higher for sensitized rats than for normal rats for all three doses of morphine but these differences did not correspond with similar changes in pharmacological responses. In conclusion, the attenuated analgesic and thermic responses to intracerebroventricular morphine in the sensitized rats might be a result of pharmacodynamic alterations rather than to pharmacokinetic changes. PMID:9530988

  16. Sensitization to the motor stimulant effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and cross-sensitization to methamphetamine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Sara B.; Nemirovsky, Natali E.; Olive, M. Foster

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in abuse of the synthetic cathinone 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), often in combination with other illicit stimulants. Purpose We sought to determine if repeated exposure to MDPV would produce sensitization to the motor stimulant effects of the drug, and whether cross-sensitization would develop with the stimulant effects of methamphetamine (METH). Study design Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered MDPV (1 or 5 mg/kg) or saline once daily for 5 days at 24 hour intervals, or were administered MDPV (1 mg/kg) or saline once daily for 5 days at 48 hour intervals. For cross-sensitization experiments, rats were administered METH (1 mg/kg) or MDPV (1 or 5 mg/kg) once daily for 5 days at 48 hour intervals, and following a 5 day incubation period, were given an acute challenge injection of either MDPV (0.5 mg/kg) or METH (0.5 mg/kg), respectively. Results Rats repeatedly administered MDPV (1 mg/kg) every 48 hours, but not every 24 hours, demonstrated increased motor activity when given either a subsequent challenge of MDPV (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) or METH (0.5 mg/kg), indicating the development of behavioral sensitization and cross-sensitization, respectively. Moreover, rats repeatedly administered METH (1 mg/kg) every 48 hours did not exhibit cross-sensitization to the motor stimulating effects of a subsequent challenge with MDPV (0.5 mg/kg). Conclusion These results suggest that specific patterns of MDPV administration may lead to lasting changes in behavioral responses to subsequent METH exposure. PMID:27284493

  17. Neuropathic pain in aged rats: behavioral responses and astrocytic activation.

    PubMed

    Stuesse, S L; Crisp, T; McBurney, D L; Schechter, J B; Lovell, J A; Cruce, W L

    2001-03-01

    We used the Bennett and Xie (1988) model of chronic neuropathic pain to study the effect of age on thermal and tactile sensitivity and on astrocytic activation in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord after nerve injury. Fischer 344 FBNF1 hybrid rats in three age groups, 4-6, 14-16, and 24-26 months, were studied. Rats were either unligated (day 0, control) or the left sciatic nerve was loosely ligated to cause a chronic constriction injury (CCI). CCI causes a neuropathic pain condition characterized by tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Rats were behaviorally assessed for tactile and thermal sensitivity of their ligated and unligated hind paws up to 35 days postligation. Rats were sacrificed before or at various days postligation, and activated astrocytes were identified at the L4-L5 levels of their spinal cords by use of an antibody to glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP). The number of GFAP-ir astrocytes in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in the control, uninjured condition decreased with age (P < or = 0.001) but increased after CCI in all three age groups. After CCI, astrocytic activation in the cord was less robust in aged rats than in younger ones (P < or = 0.01). Not all the CCI rats displayed hyperalgesia to touch and to heat. Rats with an increased sensitivity to heat had increased levels of GFAP-ir in their cords; however, rats with decreased thermal sensitivity also displayed increased GFAP-ir. Thus the presence of activated astrocytes was not correlated with a single behavioral manifestation of neuropathic pain. PMID:11315551

  18. Beneficial impact of crocetin, a carotenoid from saffron, on insulin sensitivity in fructose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Xi, Liang; Qian, Zhiyu; Xu, Guanglin; Zheng, Shuguo; Sun, Sai; Wen, Na; Sheng, Liang; Shi, Yun; Zhang, Yabing

    2007-01-01

    Crocetin, a unique carotenoid with potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities, is a major ingredient of saffron which is used as an important spice and food colorant in various parts of the world. In the present study, the effect of crocetin on insulin resistance and its related abnormalities induced by high-fructose diet were investigated in male Wistar rats. Compared to the control rats fed on normal laboratory diet, fructose-fed rats developed a series of pathological changes including insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Although having no evident effect on the body weight, fructose feeding caused a marked increase in the weight of epididymal white adipose tissue. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the expression of both protein and mRNA of adiponectin (an insulin-sensitizing adipocytokine) was observed, whereas those of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and leptin were enhanced in epididymal white adipose tissue in fructose-fed rats. These disorders were effectively normalized in crocetin-treated rats. Crocetin was also demonstrated here to alleviate free fatty acid (FFA)-induced insulin insensitivity and dysregulated mRNA expression of adiponectin, TNF-alpha and leptin in primary cultured rat adipocytes. These findings suggest the possibility of crocetin treatment as a preventive strategy of insulin resistance and related diseases. The favorable impact on adiponectin, TNF-alpha and leptin expression in white adipose tissue may be involved in the improvement of insulin sensitivity observed in crocetin-treated rats. PMID:16713230

  19. Ethanol sensitivity in rats: effect of prenatal stress.

    PubMed

    DeTurck, K H; Pohorecky, L A

    1987-01-01

    The present study examined whether sensitivity to ethanol could be altered by prenatal stress exposure. Pregnant female rats were handled during the third week of gestation and the offspring were tested for ethanol sensitivity as adults. Compared to control offspring, the following characteristic responses to acute ethanol were significantly attenuated in prenatally stress-exposed rats: the decreases in body temperature, motor coordination and startle amplitude, and the increases in circulating corticosterone and free fatty acids. Ethanol-induced impairment of swim performance, in contrast, was potentiated in these animals. Since no differences were found in blood or breath ethanol levels, the rate of ethanol metabolism was probably not affected by prenatal stress. Rather, the altered responses appear to result from long-term changes in central nervous system sensitivity to ethanol. PMID:3659158

  20. Differential sensitivity to LPS-induced myocardial dysfunction in the isolated Brown Norway and Dahl S rat hearts: roles of mitochondrial function, NFκB activation and TNF-α production

    PubMed Central

    An, Jianzhong; Du, Jianhai; Wei, Na; Guan, Tongju; Camara, Amadou K.S.; Shi, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Recently we reported that BN rats were more resistant to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced myocardial dysfunction than SS rats. This differential sensitivity was exemplified by reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines and diminished NFκB pathway activation. To further clarify the mechanisms of different susceptibility of these two strains to endotoxin, this study was designed to examine the alterations of cardiac and mitochondrial bioenergetics, proinflammatory cytokines, and signaling pathways after hearts were isolated and exposed to LPS ex vivo. Isolated BN and SS hearts were perfused with LPS (4 μg/ml) for 30 min in the Langendorff preparation. LPS depressed cardiac function as evident by reduced left ventricular developed pressure as well as decreased peak rate of contraction and relaxation in SS hearts, but not in BN heart. These findings are consistent with our previous in vivo data. Under complex I substrates a higher O2 consumption and H2O2 production were observed in mitochondria from SS hearts than that from BN hearts. LPS significantly increased H2O2 levels in both SS and BN heart mitochondria; however the increase in O2 consumption and H2O2 production in BN heart mitochondria was much lower than that in SS heart mitochondria. Additionally LPS significantly decreased complex I activity in SS hearts but not in BN hearts. Furthermore, LPS induced higher levels of TNF-α and increased phosphorylation of IκB and p65 more in SS hearts than BN hearts. Our results clearly demonstrate that less mitochondrial dysfunction combined with a reduced production of TNF-α and diminished activation of NFκB are involved in the mechanisms by which isolated BN hearts were more resistant to LPS-induced myocardial dysfunction. PMID:22089203

  1. Central Administration of Galanin Receptor 1 Agonist Boosted Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose Cells of Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenwen; Fang, Penghua; He, Biao; Guo, Lili; Runesson, Johan; Langel, Ülo; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies testified the beneficial effect of central galanin on insulin sensitivity of type 2 diabetic rats. The aim of the study was further to investigate whether central M617, a galanin receptor 1 agonist, can benefit insulin sensitivity. The effects of intracerebroventricular administration of M617 on insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling were evaluated in adipose tissues of type 2 diabetic rats. The results showed that central injection of M617 significantly increased plasma adiponectin contents, glucose infusion rates in hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp tests, GLUT4 mRNA expression levels, GLUT4 contents in plasma membranes, and total cell membranes of the adipose cells but reduced the plasma C-reactive protein concentration in nondiabetic and diabetic rats. The ratios of GLUT4 contents were higher in plasma membranes to total cell membranes in both nondiabetic and diabetic M617 groups than each control. In addition, the central administration of M617 enhanced the ratios of pAkt/Akt and pAS160/AS160, but not phosphorylative cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB)/CREB in the adipose cells of nondiabetic and diabetic rats. These results suggest that excitation of central galanin receptor 1 facilitates insulin sensitivity via activation of the Akt/AS160 signaling pathway in the fat cells of type 2 diabetic rats. PMID:27127795

  2. Different sensitivity of PPARalpha gene expression to nutritional changes in liver of suckling and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Panadero, Maribel; Herrera, Emilio; Bocos, Carlos

    2005-01-14

    The amount of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) protein was markedly augmented in the liver of suckling rats compared to adult rats. This different PPARalpha abundance was used to study the sensitivity to nutritional changes in the expression and activity of this receptor. Thus, 10-day-old and adult rats were orally given either glucose, Intralipid or a combination of both diets, and liver mRNA levels of PPARalpha and the PPAR related genes, acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and plasma metabolites were measured. In neonates, the expression of PPARalpha and ACO was seen to increase when the level of FFA in plasma was also high, unless an elevated level of insulin was also present. However, this fatty acid-induced effect was not detected in adult rats. On the contrary, the hepatic expression of PEPCK was modulated by the nutritional changes similarly in both neonates and adult rats. Thus, it may be concluded that the expression of the PPARalpha gene in adult rats seems to be less sensitive to nutritional changes than in neonates. PMID:15607334

  3. Effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on pulmonary sensitivity, motor activity, and body composition of brown Norway rats exposed to ozone.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Phillips, P M; Johnstone, A F M; Beasley, T E; Ledbetter, A D; Schladweiler, M C; Snow, S J; Kodavanti, U P

    2016-04-01

    Diet-induced obesity has been suggested to lead to increased susceptibility to air pollutants such as ozone (O3); however, there is little experimental evidence. Thirty day old male and female Brown Norway rats were fed a normal, high-fructose or high-fat diet for 12 weeks and then exposed to O3 (acute - air or 0.8 ppm O3 for 5 h, or subacute - air or 0.8 ppm O3 for 5 h/d 1 d/week for 4 weeks). Body composition was measured non-invasively using NMR. Ventilatory parameters and exploratory behavior were measured after the third week of subacute exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood chemistry data were collected 18 h after acute O3 and 18 h after the fourth week of subacute O3. The diets led to increased body fat in male but not female rats. O3-induced changes in ventilatory function were either unaffected or improved with the fructose and fat diets. O3-induced reduction in exploratory behavior was attenuated with fructose and fat diets in males and partially in females. O3 led to a significant decrease in body fat of males fed control diet but not the fructose or fat diet. O3 led to significant increases in BALF eosinophils, increase in albumin, and reductions in macrophages. Female rats appeared to be more affected than males to O3 regardless of diet. Overall, treatment with high-fructose and high-fat diets attenuated some O3 induced effects on pulmonary function, behavior, and metabolism. Exacerbation of toxicity was observed less frequently. PMID:27092583

  4. Cocaine sensitization models an anhedonia-like condition in rats.

    PubMed

    Scheggi, Simona; Marchese, Giovanna; Grappi, Silvia; Secci, Maria Elena; De Montis, Maria Graziella; Gambarana, Carla

    2011-04-01

    Anhedonia is a core symptom of depression that also characterizes substance abuse-related mood disorders, in particular those secondary to stimulant abuse. This study investigated the long-lasting condition of cocaine sensitization as an inducing condition for anhedonia in rats. Cortical-mesolimbic dopamine plays a central role in assessing the incentive value of a stimulus and an increased dopamine output in these areas after a novel palatable meal seems to correlate with the ability to acquire an instrumental behaviour aimed at earning it again. This dopaminergic response is associated with consistent modifications in the phosphorylation pattern of some cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) substrates and it is mediated by dopamine D1 receptor stimulation. Thus, since behavioural cocaine sensitization is characterized by tonically increased levels of phospho-Thr75 DARPP-32 that is a potent PKA inhibitor, we hypothesized that cocaine-sensitized rats might reveal deficits in palatable food responding. Indeed, non-food-deprived cocaine-sensitized rats showed no interest in palatable food, no dopaminergic response after a palatable meal in terms of increased dopamine output and DARPP-32 phosphorylation changes, and no ability to acquire a palatable food-sustained instrumental behaviour. Repeated administration of an established antidepressant compound, imipramine, corrected these deficits and reinstated the dopaminergic response in the cortico-mesolimbic areas to control values. Thus, the behavioural modifications observed in cocaine-sensitized rats satisfy some requirements for an experimental model of anhedonia since they are induced by repeated cocaine administration (aetiological validity), they mimic an anhedonia-like symptom (construct validity), and are reversed by the administration of imipramine (predictive validity). PMID:20519061

  5. Environmental enrichment attenuates nicotine behavioral sensitization in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kristen R; Elliott, Brenda M; Berger, Sarah Shafer; Grunberg, Neil E

    2014-08-01

    Environmental enrichment decreases nicotine reactivity in male rats, but these effects have not been examined in females. This research was conducted to examine the effects of enrichment on nicotine behavioral sensitization (i.e., nicotine reactivity) in male and female rats. One hundred forty-four Sprague-Dawley rats (72 male, 72 female) were raised in isolation, social enrichment (groups of three rats [SE]), or combined physical enrichment and social enrichment (groups of three rats with novel toys [PESE]) housing conditions. As adults, they received daily subcutaneous injections of saline or nicotine (0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/kg) for 12 days; locomotor activity was measured on drug days 1, 5, 9, and 12. Before drug administration, PESE and SE decreased activity in males; only PESE decreased activity in females, F(2, 120) = 6.51, p < .01. In the drug phase, nicotine behavioral sensitization occurred, F(8.46, 341.04) = 20.71, p < .001, and was greater in females than males, F(8.340, 319.715) = 2.072, p < .05. Enrichment decreased nicotine behavioral sensitization in both sexes, F(16.91, 341.04) = 2.48, p < .01. In conclusion, nicotine behavioral sensitization occurred in male and female rats and was attenuated by environmental enrichment. This research has implications for treatment and prevention strategies in humans. Programs that incorporate aspects of social and environmental stimulation may have enhanced effectiveness in preventing and reducing cigarette smoking and may have implications for relapse prevention. PMID:24956172

  6. Acute mechanical sensitization of peripheral nociceptors by aldosterone through non-genomic activation of membrane bound mineralocorticoid receptors in naive rats.

    PubMed

    Shaqura, Mohammed; Li, Xiongjuan; Al-Madol, Mohammed A; Tafelski, Sascha; Beyer-Koczorek, Antje; Mousa, Shaaban A; Schäfer, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Recently, there is increasing interest in the role of peripheral mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) to modulate pain, but their localization in neurons and glia of the periphery and their distinct involvement in pain control remains elusive. In naive Wistar rats our double immunofluorescence confocal microscopy of the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, sciatic nerve and innervated skin revealed that MR predominantly colocalized with calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP)- and trkA-immunoreactive (IR) nociceptive neurons and only marginally with myelinated trkB-IR mechanoreceptive and trkC-IR proprioreceptive neurons underscoring a pivotal role for MR in the modulation of pain. MR could not be detected in Schwann cells, satellite cells, and astrocytes and only scarcely in spinal microglia cells excluding a relevant functional role of glia-derived MR at least in naïve rats. Intrathecal (i.t.) and intraplantar (i.pl.) application of increasing doses of the MR selective agonist aldosterone acutely increased nociceptive behavior which was reversible by a MR selective antagonist and most likely due to non-genomic effects. This was further substantiated by the first identification of membrane bound MR specific binding sites in sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord. Therefore, a crucial role of MR on nociceptive neurons but not on glia cells and their impact on nociceptive behavior most likely due to immediate non-genomic effects has to be considered under normal but more so under pathological conditions in future studies. PMID:27016023

  7. Sensitization of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel by isoflurane or sevoflurane does not result in extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation in rat spinal dorsal horn neurons.

    PubMed

    White, J P M; Cibelli, M; Fidalgo, A R; Paule, C C; Anderson, P J; Jenes, A; Rice, A S C; Nagy, I

    2010-03-17

    Clinically relevant concentrations of isoflurane or sevoflurane sensitize transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 to several of its activators, including capsaicin. It has, moreover, been suggested these volatile general anaesthetics may augment nociceptive signalling arising from surgical procedures and thereby contribute to post-operative pain. To investigate this suggestion, we have studied intraplantar capsaicin injection-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in spinal dorsal horn neurons (which is a recognized marker of spinal nociceptive processing) in rat during isoflurane or sevoflurane anaesthesia after 60 min under anaesthesia. Control animals were anaesthetized with pentobarbital (which of itself does not activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in spinal dorsal horn neurons). Unilateral intraplantar capsaicin injection in control animals evoked extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation in a group of neurons in lamina I and lamina II of the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn in a somatotopically appropriate area. In contrast, both anaesthetic gases (given for 60 min and without subsequent capsaicin injection) induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation in a different group of mainly lamina I neurons bilaterally. The total number of spinal dorsal horn neurons labelled on the ipliateral side following capsaicin injection into the isoflurane-, or sevoflurane-, anaesthetized animals was significantly less than that produced by capsaicin alone. Further, capsaicin injection into isoflurane-, or sevoflurane-, anaesthetized animals reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation induced by the gases alone on both sides. These findings do not support the suggestion that isoflurane-, or sevoflurane-, induced sensitization of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 by capsaicin, or other agonist, is translated into induction of spinal nociceptive processing and

  8. Ontogeny of methamphetamine-induced and cocaine-induced one-trial behavioral sensitization in preweanling and adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Kozanian, Olga O; Gutierrez, Arnold; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; McDougall, Sanders A

    2012-08-01

    The ontogenetic profile of psychostimulant-induced one-trial behavioral sensitization has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to systematically assess the ontogeny of methamphetamine-induced and cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization across the preweanling and adolescent periods. To this end, rats were injected with methamphetamine, cocaine, or saline in either an activity chamber or home cage during the preweanling [postnatal day (PD) 12, PD 16, or PD 20], preadolescent (PD 24), or adolescent (PD 34) periods. One day later, rats were challenged with the same psychostimulant and locomotion was measured in an activity chamber. The results showed that methamphetamine produced one-trial locomotor sensitization on PD 13 and PD 17; whereas, cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization was only evident on PD 21. The sensitized responding of preweanling rats was not influenced by environmental context. Interestingly, preadolescent and adolescent rats did not exhibit locomotor sensitization. The latter result is generally consistent with past studies showing that rats from the middle and late adolescent periods do not exhibit cocaine-induced one-trial behavioral sensitization. The present results show that methamphetamine, as well as cocaine, can produce one-trial context-independent behavioral sensitization during early ontogeny, but sensitized responding is only apparent within a narrow developmental window. PMID:22732208

  9. Alcohol-preferring (P) rats are more sensitive than Wistar rats to the reinforcing effects of cocaine self-administered directly into the nucleus accumbens shell.

    PubMed

    Katner, Simon N; Oster, Scott M; Ding, Zheng-Ming; Deehan, Gerald A; Toalston, Jamie E; Hauser, Sheketha R; McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A

    2011-10-01

    Wistar rats will self-administer cocaine directly into the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), but not into the nucleus accumbens core. In human and animal literature, there is a genetic association between alcoholism and cocaine dependency. The current experiment examined whether selective breeding for high alcohol preference is also associated with greater sensitivity of the AcbSh to the reinforcing properties of cocaine. P and Wistar rats were given cocaine (0, 100, 200, 400, or 800 pmol/100 nl) to self-infuse into the AcbSh. Rats were given cocaine for the first 4 sessions (acquisition), artificial CSF for sessions 5 and 6 (extinction), and cocaine again in session 7 (reinstatement). During acquisition, P rats self-infused 200-800 pmol cocaine (59 infusions/session), whereas Wistar rats only reliably self-infused 800 pmol cocaine (38 infusions/session). Furthermore, P rats received a greater number of cocaine infusions in the 200, 400 and 800 pmol cocaine groups compared to respective Wistar groups during acquisition. Both P and Wistar rats reduced responding on the active lever when aCSF was substituted for cocaine, and reinstated responding in session 7 when cocaine was restored. However, P rats had significantly greater infusions during session 7 compared to session 4 at all concentrations of cocaine tested, whereas Wistar rats only displayed greater infusions during session 7 compared to session 4 at the 400 and 800 pmol cocaine concentrations. The present results suggest that, compared to Wistar rats, the AcbSh of P rats was more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of cocaine. The reinstatement data suggest that the AcbSh of P rats may have become sensitized to the reinforcing effects of cocaine. Overall, the findings from this study support a genetic association between high alcohol preference and greater sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of cocaine. PMID:21723879

  10. Inhibition of MMP-9 attenuates hypertensive cerebrovascular dysfunction in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    PubMed

    Kalani, Anuradha; Pushpakumar, Sathnur B; Vacek, Jonathan C; Tyagi, Suresh C; Tyagi, Neetu

    2016-02-01

    Hypertensive cerebropathy is a pathological condition associated with cerebral edema and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. However, the molecular pathways leading to this condition remains obscure. We hypothesize that MMP-9 inhibition can help reducing blood pressure and endothelial disruption associated with hypertensive cerebropathy. Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl/SS) and Lewis rats were fed with high-salt diet for 6 weeks and then treated without and with GM6001 (MMP inhibitor). Treatment of GM6001 (1.2 mg/kg body weight) was administered through intraperitoneal injections on alternate days for 4 weeks. GM6001 non-administered groups were given vehicle (0.9% NaCl in water) treatment as control. Blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff method. The brain tissues were analyzed for oxidative/nitrosative stress, vascular MMP-9 expression, and tight junction proteins (TJPs). GM6001 treatment significantly reduced mean blood pressure in Dahl/SS rats which was significantly higher in vehicle-treated Dahl/SS rats. MMP-9 expression and activity was also considerably reduced in GM6001-treated Dahl/SS rats, which was otherwise notably increased in vehicle-treated Dahl/SS rats. Similarly MMP-9 expression in cerebral vessels of GM6001-treated Dahl/SS rats was also alleviated, as devised by immunohistochemistry analysis. Oxidative/nitrosative stress was significantly higher in vehicle-treated Dahl/SS rats as determined by biochemical estimations of malondialdehyde, nitrite, reactive oxygen species, and glutathione levels. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis further confirmed considerable alterations of TJPs in hypertensive rats. Interestingly, GM6001 treatment significantly ameliorated oxidative/nitrosative stress and TJPs, which suggest restoration of vascular integrity in Dahl/SS rats. These findings determined that pharmacological inhibition of MMP-9 in hypertensive Dahl-SS rats attenuate high blood pressure and hypertension-associated cerebrovascular pathology. PMID

  11. Endogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor active neurosteroids and the sedative/hypnotic action of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB): a study in GHB-S (sensitive) and GHB-R (resistant) rat lines.

    PubMed

    Barbaccia, Maria Luisa; Carai, Mauro A M; Colombo, Giancarlo; Lobina, Carla; Purdy, Robert H; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2005-07-01

    In the rat brain, gamma-hydroxybutyric-acid (GHB) increases the concentrations of 3alpha-hydroxy,5alpha-pregnan-20-one (allopregnanolone, 3alpha,5alpha-THP) and 3alpha,21-dihydroxy,5alpha-pregnan-20-one (allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone/3alpha,5alphaTHDOC), two neurosteroids acting as positive allosteric modulators of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptors. This study was aimed at assessing whether neurosteroids play a role in GHB-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR). Basal and GHB-stimulated brain concentrations of endogenous 3alpha,5alpha-THP and 3alpha,5alpha-THDOC were analyzed in two rat lines, GHB-sensitive (GHB-S) and GHB-resistant (GHB-R), selectively bred for opposite sensitivity to GHB-induced sedation/hypnosis. Basal neurosteroid concentrations were similar in brain cortex of the two rat lines. However, in male GHB-S rats, administration of GHB (1000 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min) increased brain cortical concentrations of 3alpha,5alpha-THP and 3alpha,5alpha-THDOC 7- and 2.5-fold, respectively, whilst male GHB-R animals displayed only a 4- and 2-fold increase, respectively. In GHB-S rats this increase lasted up to 90 min and declined 180 min following GHB administration, a time course that matches LORR onset and duration. In contrast, in GHB-R rats, which failed to show GHB-induced LORR, brain cortical 3alpha,5alpha-THP and 3alpha,5alpha-THDOC had returned to control values within 90 min. At onset of LORR, a similar increase in brain cortical levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP and 3alpha,5alpha-THDOC (2-3-fold) was observed in GHB-S female rats and in the few female GHB-R rats that lost the righting reflex after GHB administration, but not in female GHB-R rats failing to show LORR. Sub-hypnotic doses (7.5 and 12.5 mg/kg, i.p.) of pregnanolone, administered 10 min before GHB, dose-dependently facilitated the expression of GHB-induced LORR in GHB-R male rats. These results suggest that the GHB-induced increases of brain 3alpha,5alpha-THP and 3alpha,5alpha

  12. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor-mediated uptake of sup 45 Ca sup 2+ by cultured rat Sertoli cells does not require activation of cholera toxin- or pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding proteins or adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, P.; Reichert, L.E. Jr. )

    1990-08-01

    We have previously reported that FSH stimulates flux of 45Ca2+ into cultured Sertoli cells from immature rats via voltage-sensitive and voltage-independent calcium channels. In the present study, we show that this effect of FSH does not require cholera toxin (CT)- or pertussis toxin (PT)-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding (G) protein or activation of adenylate cyclase (AC). Significant stimulation of 45Ca2+ influx was observed within 1 min, and maximal response (3.2-fold over basal levels) was achieved within 2 min after exposure to FSH. FSH-stimulated elevations in cellular cAMP paralleled increases in 45Ca2+ uptake, suggesting a possible coupling of AC activation to 45Ca2+ influx. (Bu)2cAMP, however, was not able to enhance 45Ca2+ uptake over basal levels at a final concentration of 1000 microM, although a concentration-related increase in androstenedione conversion to estradiol was evident. Exposure of Sertoli cells to CT (10 ng/ml) consistently stimulated basal levels of androstenedione conversion to estradiol but had no effect on basal levels of 45Ca2+ uptake. Similarly, CT had no effect on FSH-induced 45Ca2+ uptake, but potentiated FSH-stimulated estradiol synthesis. PT (10 ng/ml) augmented basal and FSH-stimulated estradiol secretion without affecting 45Ca2+ influx. The adenosine analog N6-phenylisopropyladenosine, which binds to Gi-coupled adenosine receptors on Sertoli cells, inhibited FSH-stimulated androgen conversion to estradiol in a dose-related (1-1000 nM) manner, but FSH-stimulated 45Ca2+ influx remained unchanged. Our results show that in contrast to FSH-stimulated estradiol synthesis, the flux of 45Ca2+ into Sertoli cells in response to FSH is not mediated either directly or indirectly by CT- or PT-sensitive G protein, nor does it require activation of AC. Our data further suggest that the FSH receptor itself may function as a calcium channel.

  13. Uranium dynamics and developmental sensitivity in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Homma-Takeda, Shino; Kokubo, Toshiaki; Terada, Yasuko; Suzuki, Kyoko; Ueno, Shunji; Hayao, Tatsuo; Inoue, Tatsuya; Kitahara, Keisuke; Blyth, Benjamin J; Nishimura, Mayumi; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2013-07-01

    Renal toxicity is the principal health concern after uranium exposure. Children are particularly vulnerable to uranium exposure; with contact with depleted uranium in war zones or groundwater contamination the most likely exposure scenarios. To investigate renal sensitivity to uranium exposure during development, we examined uranium distribution and uranium-induced apoptosis in the kidneys of neonate (7-day-old), prepubertal (25-day-old) and adult (70-day-old) male Wistar rats. Mean renal uranium concentrations increased with both age-at-exposure and exposure level after subcutaneous administration of uranium acetate (UA) (0.1-2 mg kg(-1) body weight). Although less of the injected uranium was deposited in the kidneys of the two younger rat groups, the proportion of the peak uranium content remaining in the kidneys after 2 weeks declined with age-at-exposure, suggesting reduced clearance in younger animals. In situ high-energy synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis revealed site-specific accumulation of uranium in the S3 segment of the proximal tubules, distributed in the inner cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla. Apoptosis and cell loss in the proximal tubules increased with age-at-exposure to 0.5 mg kg(-1) UA. Surprisingly, prepubertal rats were uniquely sensitive to uranium-induced lethality from the higher exposure levels. Observations of increased apoptosis in generating/re-generating tubules particularly in prepubertal rats could help to explain their high mortality rate. Together, our findings suggest that age-at-exposure and exposure level are important parameters for uranium toxicity; uranium tends to persist in developing kidneys after low-level exposures, although renal toxicity is more pronounced in adults. PMID:23619997

  14. Differential sensitivity of rat voltage-sensitive sodium channel isoforms to pyrazoline-type insecticides

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, Kristopher S.; Soderlund, David M. . E-mail: dms6@cornell.edu

    2006-07-15

    Pyrazoline-type insecticides are potent inhibitors of insect and mammalian voltage-sensitive sodium channels. In mammals, there are nine sodium channel {alpha} subunit isoforms that have unique distributions and pharmacological properties, but no published data exist that compare the relative sensitivity of these different mammalian sodium channel isoforms to inhibition by pyrazoline-type insecticides. This study employed the Xenopus oocyte expression system to examine the relative sensitivity of rat Na{sub v}1.2a, Na{sub v}1.4, Na{sub v}1.5, and Na{sub v}1.8 sodium channel {alpha} subunit isoforms to the pyrazoline-type insecticides indoxacarb, DCJW, and RH 3421. Additionally, we assessed the effect of coexpression with the rat {beta}1 auxiliary subunit on the sensitivity of the Na{sub v}1.2a and Na{sub v}1.4 isoforms to these compounds. The relative sensitivity of the four sodium channel {alpha} subunits differed for each of the three compounds we examined. With DCJW, the order of sensitivity was Na{sub v}1.4 > Na{sub v}1.2a > Na{sub v}1.5 > Na{sub v}1.8. In contrast, the relative sensitivity of these isoforms to indoxacarb differed from that to DCJW: the Na{sub v}1.8 isoform was most sensitive, the Na{sub v}1.4 isoform was completely insensitive, and the sensitivities of the Na{sub v}1.5 and Na{sub v}1.2a isoforms were intermediate between these two extremes. Moreover, the pattern of sensitivity to RH 3421 among these four isoforms was different from that for either indoxacarb or DCJW: the Na{sub v}1.4 isoform was most sensitive to RH 3421, whereas the sensitivities of the remaining three isoforms were substantially less than that of the Na{sub v}1.4 isoform and were approximately equivalent. The only statistically significant effect of coexpression of either the Na{sub v}1.2a or Na{sub v}1.4 isoforms with the {beta}1 subunit was the modest reduction in the sensitivity of the Na{sub v}1.2a isoform to RH 3421. These results demonstrate that mammalian sodium

  15. Hepatic drug metabolizing profile of Flinders Sensitive Line rat model of depression.

    PubMed

    Kotsovolou, Olga; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Lang, Matti A; Marselos, Marios; Overstreet, David H; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zoi; Johanson, Inger; Fotopoulos, Andrew; Konstandi, Maria

    2010-08-16

    The Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rat model of depression exhibits some behavioral, neurochemical, and pharmacological features that have been reported in depressed patients and has been very effective in screening antidepressants. Major factor that determines the effectiveness and toxicity of a drug is the drug metabolizing capacity of the liver. Therefore, in order to discriminate possible differentiation in the hepatic drug metabolism between FSL rats and Sprague-Dawley (SD) controls, their hepatic metabolic profile was investigated in this study. The data showed decreased glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and lower expression of certain major CYP enzymes, including the CYP2B1, CYP2C11 and CYP2D1 in FSL rats compared to SD controls. In contrast, p-nitrophenol hydroxylase (PNP), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) and 16alpha-testosterone hydroxylase activities were higher in FSL rats. Interestingly, the wide spread environmental pollutant benzo(alpha)pyrene (B(alpha)P) induced CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1/2 and ALDH3c at a lesser extend in FSL than in SD rats, whereas the antidepressant mirtazapine (MIRT) up-regulated CYP1A1/2, CYP2C11, CYP2D1, CYP2E1 and CYP3A1/2, mainly, in FSL rats. The drug also further increased ALDH3c whereas suppressed GSH content in B(alpha)P-exposed FSL rats. In conclusion, several key enzymes of the hepatic biotransformation machinery are differentially expressed in FSL than in SD rats, a condition that may influence the outcome of drug therapy. The MIRT-induced up-regulation of several drug-metabolizing enzymes indicates the critical role of antidepressant treatment that should be always taken into account in the designing of treatment and interpretation of insufficient pharmacotherapy or drug toxicity. PMID:20595028

  16. Does prenatal methamphetamine exposure induce cross-sensitization to cocaine and morphine in adult male rats?

    PubMed

    Slamberová, R; Yamamotová, A; Pometlová, M; Schutová, B; Hrubá, L; Nohejlová-Deykun, K; Nová, E; Macúchová, E

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the cross-sensitization induced by prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure to challenge dose of cocaine or morphine. Rat mothers received a daily injection of MA (5 mg/kg) or saline throughout the gestation period. Adult male offspring (prenatally MA- or saline-exposed) were divided to groups with challenge doses of saline (1 ml/kg), cocaine (5 mg/kg) or morphine (5 mg/kg). Behavior in unknown environment was examined in Laboras, nociception in Plantar test, and active drug-seeking behavior in conditioned place preference (CPP). Our data demonstrate that cocaine increased the exploratory activity in Laboras test in prenatally saline-exposed, but decreased it in prenatally MA-exposed rats. An analgesic effect of cocaine was demonstrated only by the tail withdrawal and it was independent of the prenatal drug exposure. CPP test showed that prenatal MA exposure induced rather tolerance than sensitization to cocaine. In contrast to cocaine effects, morphine decreased rearing activity in both, prenatally MA-exposed and saline-exposed rats, and locomotion only in prenatally MA-exposed rats in the Laboras. In the Plantar test, the results demonstrated that morphine had an analgesic effect in prenatally saline-exposed rats but this effect was suppressed in prenatally MA-exposed rats. In the CPP test morphine induced drug-seeking behavior, which however was not affected by prenatal drug exposure. Thus, our data demonstrate that there is a cross-effect between prenatal MA exposure and the challenge dose of other drug in adulthood, however drug-seeking behavior is not increased by prenatal MA exposure as we expected. PMID:22980560

  17. Chronic stress sensitizes rats to pancreatitis induced by cerulein: Role of TNF-α

    PubMed Central

    Binker, Marcelo G; Binker-Cosen, Andres A; Richards, Daniel; Gaisano, Herbert Y; de Cosen, Rodica H; Cosen-Binker, Laura I

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate chronic stress as a susceptibility factor for developing pancreatitis, as well as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as a putative sensitizer. METHODS: Rat pancreatic acini were used to analyze the influence of TNF-α on submaximal (50 pmol/L) cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulation. Chronic restraint (4 h every day for 21 d) was used to evaluate the effects of submaximal (0.2 μg/kg per hour) cerulein stimulation on chronically stressed rats. RESULTS: In vitro exposure of pancreatic acini to TNF-α disorganized the actin cytoskeleton. This was further increased by TNF-α/CCK treatment, which additionally reduced amylase secretion, and increased trypsin and nuclear factor-κB activities in a protein-kinase-C δ and ε-dependent manner. TNF-α/CCK also enhanced caspases’ activity and lactate dehydrogenase release, induced ATP loss, and augmented the ADP/ATP ratio. In vivo, rats under chronic restraint exhibited elevated serum and pancreatic TNF-α levels. Serum, pancreatic, and lung inflammatory parameters, as well as caspases’activity in pancreatic and lung tissue, were substantially enhanced in stressed/cerulein-treated rats, which also experienced tissues’ ATP loss and greater ADP/ATP ratios. Histological examination revealed that stressed/cerulein-treated animals developed abundant pancreatic and lung edema, hemorrhage and leukocyte infiltrate, and pancreatic necrosis. Pancreatitis severity was greatly decreased by treating animals with an anti-TNF-α-antibody, which diminished all inflammatory parameters, histopathological scores, and apoptotic/necrotic markers in stressed/cerulein-treated rats. CONCLUSION: In rats, chronic stress increases susceptibility for developing pancreatitis, which involves TNF-α sensitization of pancreatic acinar cells to undergo injury by physiological cerulein stimulation. PMID:21105189

  18. Developmental Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls Reduces Amphetamine Behavioral Sensitization in Long-Evans Rats

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Emily; Monaikul, Supida; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Chi, Lai Har; Schantz, Susan L.; Sable, Helen J. K.

    2013-01-01

    PCBs have long been known to affect dopamine (DA) function in the brain. The current study used an amphetamine behavioral sensitization paradigm in rats developmentally exposed to PCBs. Long-Evans rats were given perinatal exposure to 0, 3, or 6 mg/kg/day PCBs and behavioral sensitization to d-amphetamine (AMPH) was assessed in one adult male and female/litter. Non-exposed (control) males showed increasing locomotor activity to repeated injections of 0.5 mg/kg AMPH, typical of behavioral sensitization. PCB-exposed males showed greater activation to the initial acute AMPH injection, but sensitization occurred later and was blunted relative to controls. Sensitization in control females took longer to develop than in the males, but no exposure-related differences were observed. Analysis of whole brain and serum AMPH content following a final IP injection of 0.5 mg/kg revealed no differences among the exposure groups. Overall, these results indicated developmental PCB-exposure can alter the motor-stimulating effects of repeated AMPH injections. Males developmentally exposed to PCBs appeared to be pre-sensitized to AMPH, but quickly showed behavioral tolerance to the same drug dose. Results also revealed the behavioral effect was not due to exposure-induced alterations in AMPH metabolism following PCB exposure. PMID:23623962

  19. Decreased phosphofructokinase activity in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Bauer, B A; Younathan, E S

    1984-01-01

    The activities of phosphofructokinase, aldolase and pyruvate kinase were diminished in extracts from skeletal muscle of streptozotocin diabetic rats, whereas the activities of glucose phosphate isomerase and phosphoglucomutase were not changed. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin restored the activity of phosphofructokinase to normal. A kinetic study of the partially purified enzyme from normal and diabetic rats showed identical Michaelis constants for ATP and equal sensitivity to inhibition by excess of this substrate. Extracts of quick frozen muscle from diabetic rats had higher levels of citrate (an inhibitor of phosphofructokinase) and lower levels of D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and D-glucose-1,6-bisphosphate (activators of this enzyme). The levels of D-fructose-6-phosphate, D-glucose-6-phosphate, ATP, ADP and AMP were the same for the two groups. Our data suggest that the in vivo decrease of phosphofructokinase activity in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats is due to a decrease in the level of the enzymatically active protein as well as to an unfavorable change in the level of several of its allosteric modulators. PMID:6237837

  20. Central Sensitization and MAPKs are Involved in Occlusal Interference-Induced Facial Pain in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ye; Li, Kai; Fu, Kai-Yuan; Xie, Qiu-Fei; Chiang, Chen-Yu; Sessle, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    We previously developed a rat dental occlusal interference model of facial pain that was produced by bonding a crown onto the right maxillary first molar and was reflected in sustained facial hypersensitivity that was suggestive of the involvement of central sensitization mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential central mechanisms involved in the occlusal interference-induced facial hypersensitivity. A combination of behavioral, immunohistochemical, Western blot and electrophysiological recording procedures was used in 98 male adult Sprague-Dawley rats that either received the occlusal interference or were sham-operated or naive rats. Immunohistochemically labeled astrocytes and microglia in trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) showed morphological changes indicative of astrocyte and microglial activation after the occlusal interference. Prolonged upregulation of p38 MAPK and ERK was also documented in Vc after placement of the occlusal interference, and was expressed in both neurons and glial cells at time points when rats showed peak mechanical facial hypersensitivity. The i.t. administration of the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 to the medulla significantly inhibited the occlusal interference-induced hypersensitivity, and the ERK inhibitor PD98059 produced an even stronger effect. Central sensitization of functionally identified Vc nociceptive neurons following placement of the occlusal interference was also documented by extracellular electrophysiological recordings, and i.t. administration of PD98059 could reverse the neuronal central sensitization. These novel findings suggest that central mechanisms including central sensitization of trigeminal nociceptive neurons and non-neuronal processes involving MAPKs play significant roles in the production of occlusal interference-induced facial pain. Perspective Central mechanisms including trigeminal nociceptive neuronal sensitization, non-neuronal processes involving glial activation and

  1. Postnatal manganese exposure does not alter dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity in adult and adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Sanders A; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; Kaplan, Graham J; Abdulla, Zuhair I; Lee, Ryan J; Crawford, Cynthia A

    2013-04-15

    Administering manganese chloride (Mn) to rats on postnatal day (PD) 1-21 causes long-term reductions in dopamine transporter levels in the dorsal striatum, as well as a persistent increase in D1 and D2 receptor concentrations. Whether dopamine autoreceptors change in number or sensitivity is uncertain, although D2S receptors, which may be presynaptic in origin, are elevated in Mn-exposed rats. The purpose of this study was to determine if early Mn exposure causes long-term changes in dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity that persist into adolescence and adulthood. To this end, male rats were exposed to Mn on PD 1-21 and autoreceptor functioning was tested 7 or 70 days later by measuring (a) dopamine synthesis (i.e., DOPA accumulation) in the dorsal striatum after quinpirole or haloperidol treatment and (b) behavioral responsiveness after low-dose apomorphine treatment. Results showed that low doses (i.e., "autoreceptor" doses) of apomorphine (0.06 and 0.12 mg/kg) decreased the locomotor activity of adolescent and adult rats, while higher doses increased locomotion. The dopamine synthesis experiment also produced classic autoreceptor effects, because quinpirole decreased dorsal striatal DOPA accumulation; whereas, haloperidol increased DOPA levels in control rats, but not in rats given the nerve impulse inhibitor γ-butyrolactone. Importantly, early Mn exposure did not alter autoreceptor sensitivity when assessed in early adolescence or adulthood. The lack of Mn-induced effects was evident in both the dopamine synthesis and behavioral experiments. When considered together with past studies, it is clear that early Mn exposure alters the functioning of various dopaminergic presynaptic mechanisms, while dopamine autoreceptors remain unimpaired. PMID:23458069

  2. Postnatal manganese exposure does not alter dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity in adult and adolescent male rats

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Sanders A.; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; Kaplan, Graham J.; Abdulla, Zuhair I.; Lee, Ryan J.; Crawford, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    Administering manganese chloride (Mn) to rats on postnatal day (PD) 1–21 causes long-term reductions in dopamine transporter levels in the dorsal striatum, as well as persistent increases in D1 and D2 receptor concentrations. Whether dopamine autoreceptors change in number or sensitivity is uncertain, although D2S receptors, which may be presynaptic in origin, are elevated in Mn-exposed rats. The purpose of this study was to determine if early Mn exposure causes long-term changes in dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity that persist into adolescence and adulthood. To this end, male rats were exposed to Mn on PD 1–21 and autoreceptor functioning was tested 7 or 70 days later by measuring (a) dopamine synthesis (i.e., DOPA accumulation) in the dorsal striatum after quinpirole or haloperidol treatment and (b) behavioral responsiveness after low-dose apomorphine treatment. Results showed that low doses (i.e., “autoreceptor” doses) of apomorphine (0.06 and 0.12 mg/kg) decreased the locomotor activity of adolescent and adult rats, while higher doses increased locomotion. The dopamine synthesis experiment also produced classic autoreceptor effects, because quinpirole decreased dorsal striatal DOPA accumulation; whereas, haloperidol increased DOPA levels in control rats, but not in rats given the nerve impulse inhibitor γ-butyrolactone. Importantly, early Mn exposure did not alter autoreceptor sensitivity when assessed in early adolescence or adulthood. The lack of Mn-induced effects was evident in both the dopamine synthesis and behavioral experiments. When considered together with past studies, it is clear that early Mn exposure alters the functioning of various dopaminergic presynaptic mechanisms, while dopamine autoreceptors remain unimpaired. PMID:23458069

  3. Active Polymer Microfiber with Controlled Polarization Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hongyan; Wang, Ruxue; Liu, Yingying; Cheng, Junjie; Zou, Gang; Zhang, Qijin; Zhang, Douguo; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai; Badugu, Ramachandram; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    Controlled Polarization Sensitivity of an active polymer microfiber has been proposed and realized with the electrospun method. The fluorescence intensity guiding through this active polymer microfiber shows high sensitivity to the polarization state of the excitation light. What is more, the fluorescence out-coupled from tip of the microfiber can be of designed polarization state. Principle of these phenomena lies on the ordered and controlled orientation of the polydiacetylene (PDA) main chains inside polymer microfiber. PMID:27099828

  4. Atrial natriuretic factor-like activity in rat posterior pituitary

    SciTech Connect

    Gutkowska, J.; Debinski, W.; Racz, K.; Thibault, G.; Garcia, R.; Kuchel, O.; Genest, J.; Cantin, M.

    1986-03-05

    The presence of a biologically active peptide: Atrial Natriuretic Factor (ANF) has been demonstrated in rat and human circulation and ANF is considered now as a new hormone. ANF may be involved in body fluid regulation. A very sensitive radioimmunoassay for rat ANF allowed the authors to search for immunoreactive ANF (IR-ANF) in rat posterior pituitary. Serial dilutions of homogenates of rat posterior pituitary showed a good parallelism with a reference curve in a radioimmunoassay system. The IR-ANF was extracted from rat posterior pituitary homogenates by activated Vycor glass beads. The lyophilized extract was purified by HPLC on C/sub 18/ ..mu.. Bondapak column. The HPLC yielded two IR-ANF peaks. Both isolated ANF-like material showed biological activity. The IR-ANF eluted with 33% acetonitrile, inhibited ACTH-stimulated aldosterone secretion with a similar potency as synthetic (Arg 101 - Tyr 126) ANF (0.7 x 10/sup -10/M). A much less potent ANF-like material was found in the second peak eluted with 36% acetonitrile. They conclude that ANF-like material is present in rat posterior pituitary and this suggest a possible role in ANF on AVP secretion directly in situ.

  5. Studies on sensitivity of zebrafish as a model organism for Parkinson's disease: Comparison with rat model

    PubMed Central

    Makhija, Dinesh T.; Jagtap, Aarti G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the utility of zebra fish as an animal model for Parkinson's disease (PD) in comparison with rat model. Materials and Methods: MTT assay was performed on rat and zebrafish brain synaptosomal fractions using rotenone as a neurotoxic agent. Quercetin and resveratrol were used as standards to compare anti-apoptotic activity in both organisms. Catalepsy was induced in zebrafish by exposing them to haloperidol (9 μM) solution. Drug-treated groups were exposed to bromocriptine and pramipexole, 30 min prior to haloperidol exposure at the dose of 2, 5, and 10 μg/mL. Swimming speed, time spent in the bottom of the tank, and complete cataleptic time were evaluated to assess behavioral changes. In rats, catalepsy was induced using haloperidol (1.25 mg/kg i.p.). Drug-treated groups received bromocriptine (2.5 mg/kg.) and pramipexole (1 mg/kg) orally. Bar test, block test, and locomotor activity were carried out to assess behavioral changes. Results: Resveratrol and quercetin showed comparable inhibition of apoptosis in rats and zebrafish. In anti-cataleptic study, bromocriptine and pramipexole-treated groups showed significant difference (P < 0.05) in behavioral parameters as compared to haloperidol control group in both the experimental organisms. Results obtained from fish model were in correlation with rat model. Conclusion: Findings of the present study revealed that zebrafish model is highly sensitive and can be used for basic screening of drugs against PD. PMID:24554909

  6. Effect of confinement in small space flight size cages on insulin sensitivity of exercise-trained rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondon, C. E.; Dolkas, C. B.; Reaven, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of confinement in small cages (simulating the size to be used in future space Shuttle missions) on insulin sensitivity was studied in rats having an increased insulin sensitivity due to exercise training prior to confinement. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were given to both control and exercise-trained rats before and after placement in the small cages for 7 days. The insulin resistance was assessed by the product of the area of the insulin and glucose curves of the OGTT (IG index). Results show that the values obtained before confinement were one-half as high in exercise-trained rats as those in control rats, reflecting an increased sensitivity to insulin with exercise training. After 7 days confinement, the IG index was found to be not significantly different from initial values for both control and exercise-trained rats. These findings suggest that increased insulin sensitivity in exercise-trained rats persists 7 days after cessation of running activity. The data also indicate that exercise training, before flight, may be beneficial in minimizing the loss of insulin sensitivity expected with decreased use of gravity dependent muscles during exposure to hypogravity in space flight.

  7. Decline of taste sensitivity in protein deficient adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ohara, I; Tabuchi, R; Kimura, M; Itokawa, Y

    1995-05-01

    The influence of dietary protein levels on taste sensitivity was studied in adult rats. Low protein diets of 0.0, 2.5, or 5.0% purified egg protein (PEP) were fed to animals for 28 days. Two bottle choice preference tests between aqueous solutions of either 2, 9, 17, or 86 mM sodium chloride and deionized water were conducted in an ascending order on days 14, 16, 18, and 20. Urine samples were collected for zinc and creatinine analysis. Blood samples were also collected for measuring serum zinc and creatinine concentrations. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to observe rats' tongue epithelia. Protein free diet group showed significantly lower taste sensitivity and renal reabsorption rate than other protein containing diet groups, while serum zinc and creatinine concentrations, and creatinine clearance were not affected by dietary protein level. Degeneration of filiform papillae and imperforation of taste pore of fungiform papillae were observed in protein free diet group. This experiment implies at least 2.5% dietary protein is required to manifest normal taste function in the adult. PMID:7610145

  8. Natural ozone scavenger prevents asthma in sensitized rats.

    PubMed

    Keinan, Ehud; Alt, Aaron; Amir, Gail; Bentur, Lea; Bibi, Haim; Shoseyov, David

    2005-01-17

    The assumption that ozone is not only a strong oxidant, but also an important inflammatory mediator, is heavily supported by the ample literature on the pulmonary toxicity and biological effects of environmental ozone and by the recent discovery that antibodies, human neutrophils, and inflammatory lesions catalyze the formation of ozone in vivo. We hypothesized that the pulmonary inflammation in asthma involves a vicious circle of ozone production and recruitment of white blood cells, which produce more ozone. Accordingly, we predicted that electron-rich olefins, which are known ozone scavengers, could be used for prophylactic treatment of asthma. In particular, volatile, unsaturated monoterpenes, could saturate the pulmonary membranes and thereby equip the airways with local chemical protection against either exogenous or endogenous ozone. Here we present experimental evidence using a sensitized rat model to support this hypothesis. Examination of the pulmonary function of sensitized rats that inhaled either limonene (unsaturated, ozone scavenger) or eucalyptol (saturated, inert to ozone) showed that limonene inhalation significantly prevents bronchial obstruction while eucalyptol inhalation does not cause any effect. The anti-inflammatory effect of limonene was also evident from pathological parameters, such as diminished peribronchiolar and perivascular inflammatory infiltrates. PMID:15598576

  9. NAADP-sensitive Ca2+ stores in permeabilized rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Bychkova, S V; Chorna, T I

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a nucleotide that is potent to release calcium from intracellular stores in different cell types. NAADP was shown to target specific type of intracellular store namely endolysosomal system or acidic store. Despite intense studies, its effect on endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) still remains to be elucidated. The main aim of our work was to investigate NAADP-sensitive store in permeabilized rat hepatocytes monitoring the level of Ca2+ inside intracellular organelles using chlorotetracycline (CTC). We have shown that NAADP triggered changes of stored Ca2+ in rat hepatocytes are dependent on concentration of EGTA-Ca2+-buffer in cell incubation medium, i.e. the higher is the EGTA concentration in incubation medium the smaller or absent is the effect of NAADP. Besides, the effect of NAADP was more pronounced upon cells pretreatment with the inhibitory concentration of ryanodine (100 μM). This might suggest that the effect of NAADP is dependent on ER luminal calcium. We have also found that NAADP-evoked Ca2+ release in permeabilized hepatocytes is sensitive to nigericin, bafilomycin A and thapsigargin. Additionally, NAADP triggered changes in stored Ca2+ were completely abolished by NED-19 as antagonist of NAADP. PMID:25816589

  10. Behavioral and color variations between rat lines developed for differential alcohol sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J D; Viitamaa, T; Hyytiä, P

    1987-01-01

    The AT and ANT rat lines, outbred for differential sensitivity to ethanol-induced motor impairment, also show a difference in their sober behavior. It is not manifested in an escapable-shock test or an amphetamine-stress test, but is shown as significantly more activity by the alcohol-insensitive ATs in a low-stress (33 degrees C) modification of the forced-swimming test. The correlation between alcohol sensitivity and swimming-test activity is, however, not significant in unselected Long Evans rats. Differences in coat color have also developed in the AT and ANT lines; it was possible to estimate whether these changes are independent of ethanol sensitivity with computer simulations. They showed, for example, that the probability of the observed loss of the agouti color in the ATs being by chance is about 0.53 and the probability is nearly 0.50 for there being a spurious line difference, i.e., unrelated to ethanol sensitivity, in which only line had lost the agouti allele. More generally, these and other simulations showed that permanently maintaining selected lines is not the optimal method for finding genetically-based factors related to ethanol sensitivity or other characteristics for which lines have been developed. Nor is either revitalization or replicate lines optimal. The best method apparently would be perpetual restarting of lines. PMID:3426714

  11. Circadian variation in sensitivity of suprachiasmatic and lateral geniculate neurones to 5-hydroxytryptamine in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, R

    1986-01-01

    Extracellular single-unit recordings were obtained from neurones in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (s.c.n.) of the rat (a putative circadian pace-maker), the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (v.l.g.n.) and the hippocampus. These areas receive a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) innervation from the raphe nuclei. Recording of neuronal activity in the s.c.n., v.l.g.n. and the hippocampus revealed a diurnal variation in the response to the ionophoresis of 5-HT. This variation was manifest as a 2-3-fold increase in post-synaptic sensitivity to 5-HT during the subjective dark (active) phase of the circadian cycle. In contrast there was no apparent circadian variation in the sensitivity of s.c.n., v.l.g.n. or hippocampal neurones to ionophoresed gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Neuronal activity recorded in the s.c.n., v.l.g.n. and hippocampus also exhibited a circadian variation in the recovery from 5-HT-induced suppression of firing. This may reflect reuptake processes as recovery can be prolonged by ionophoresis of uptake blockers (imipramine or fluoxetine). Rats (n = 15) expressing circadian arrhythmicity in their rest-activity behaviour induced by long-term continuous illumination (150-200 lx) showed no apparent circadian variation in 5-HT sensitivity. This loss was accompanied by either the development of a 5-6-fold subsensitivity to ionophoresed 5-HT (eleven out of fifteen rats) or a 2-3-fold supersensitivity to ionophoresed 5-HT (four out of fifteen rats). A similar loss of circadian variation and the development of a subsensitivity to ionophoresed 5-HT was also found in three rats sustaining complete electrolytic lesions of the s.c.n. These changes were not found in rats (n = 4) with partial s.c.n. lesions. These results implicate the s.c.n., or fibres passing through it, in the circadian modulation of 5-HT sensitivity in neurones both intrinsic to the s.c.n. circadian pace-maker itself and in the hippocampus and lateral geniculate nucleus (regions remote from the s

  12. Effects of inactivated Bordetella pertussis on phosphodiesterase in the lung of ovalbumin sensitized and challenged rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Juan; Song, Shun-De; Chen, Jun-Chun; Wang, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Ya-Li; Xie, Qiang-Min; Chen, Ji-Qiang; Li, Zi-Gang; Tang, Hui-Fang

    2014-01-01

    This paper indicated that inactivated Bordetella pertussis (iBp) can enhance the lung airway hyperreactivity of the rats sensitized and challenged with OVA. The mechanisms were involved in the upregulation of cAMP-PDE activity and PDE4A, PDE4D, and PDE3 gene expression in the lungs. But only PDE4 activity was different between the OVA and OVA+iBp groups, and PDE4D expression was significantly increased in iBp rats alone. So, our data suggested that cosensitization with OVA and iBp affects lung airway reactivity by modulating the lung cAMP-PDE activity and PDE4D gene expression. PMID:25120928

  13. Differential Sympathetic Vasomotor Activation Induced by Liver Cirrhosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bergamaschi, Cássia T.; Campos, Ruy R.

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that there is a topographical sympathetic activation in rats submitted to experimental cirrhosis. Baseline renal (rSNA) and splanchnic (sSNA) sympathetic nerve activities were evaluated in anesthetized rats. In addition, we evaluated main arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS). Cirrhotic Wistar rats were obtained by bile duct ligation (BDL). MAP and HR were measured in conscious rats, and cardiac BRS was assessed by changes in blood pressure induced by increasing doses of phenylephrine or sodium nitroprusside. The BRS and baseline for the control of sSNA and rSNA were also evaluated in urethane-anesthetized rats. Cirrhotic rats had increased baseline sSNA (BDL, 102 vs control, 58 spikes/s; p<0.05), but no baseline changes in the rSNA compared to controls. These data were accompanied by increased splanchnic BRS (p<0.05) and decreased cardiac (p<0.05) and renal BRS (p<0.05). Furthermore, BDL rats had reduced basal MAP (BDL, 93 vs control, 101 mmHg; p<0.05) accompanied by increased HR (BDL, 378 vs control, 356; p<0.05). Our data have shown topographical sympathetic activation in rats submitted to experimental cirrhosis. The BDL group had increased baseline sSNA, independent of dysfunction in the BRS and no changes in baseline rSNA. However, an impairment of rSNA and HR control by arterial baroreceptor was noted. We suggest that arterial baroreceptor impairment of rSNA and HR is an early marker of cardiovascular dysfunction related to liver cirrhosis and probably a major mechanism leading to sympathoexcitation in decompensated phase. PMID:27055088

  14. Comparative Sensitivity Analysis of Muscle Activation Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rockenfeller, Robert; Günther, Michael; Schmitt, Syn; Götz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We mathematically compared two models of mammalian striated muscle activation dynamics proposed by Hatze and Zajac. Both models are representative for a broad variety of biomechanical models formulated as ordinary differential equations (ODEs). These models incorporate parameters that directly represent known physiological properties. Other parameters have been introduced to reproduce empirical observations. We used sensitivity analysis to investigate the influence of model parameters on the ODE solutions. In addition, we expanded an existing approach to treating initial conditions as parameters and to calculating second-order sensitivities. Furthermore, we used a global sensitivity analysis approach to include finite ranges of parameter values. Hence, a theoretician striving for model reduction could use the method for identifying particularly low sensitivities to detect superfluous parameters. An experimenter could use it for identifying particularly high sensitivities to improve parameter estimation. Hatze's nonlinear model incorporates some parameters to which activation dynamics is clearly more sensitive than to any parameter in Zajac's linear model. Other than Zajac's model, Hatze's model can, however, reproduce measured shifts in optimal muscle length with varied muscle activity. Accordingly we extracted a specific parameter set for Hatze's model that combines best with a particular muscle force-length relation. PMID:26417379

  15. Comparative Sensitivity Analysis of Muscle Activation Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rockenfeller, Robert; Günther, Michael; Schmitt, Syn; Götz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We mathematically compared two models of mammalian striated muscle activation dynamics proposed by Hatze and Zajac. Both models are representative for a broad variety of biomechanical models formulated as ordinary differential equations (ODEs). These models incorporate parameters that directly represent known physiological properties. Other parameters have been introduced to reproduce empirical observations. We used sensitivity analysis to investigate the influence of model parameters on the ODE solutions. In addition, we expanded an existing approach to treating initial conditions as parameters and to calculating second-order sensitivities. Furthermore, we used a global sensitivity analysis approach to include finite ranges of parameter values. Hence, a theoretician striving for model reduction could use the method for identifying particularly low sensitivities to detect superfluous parameters. An experimenter could use it for identifying particularly high sensitivities to improve parameter estimation. Hatze's nonlinear model incorporates some parameters to which activation dynamics is clearly more sensitive than to any parameter in Zajac's linear model. Other than Zajac's model, Hatze's model can, however, reproduce measured shifts in optimal muscle length with varied muscle activity. Accordingly we extracted a specific parameter set for Hatze's model that combines best with a particular muscle force-length relation. PMID:26417379

  16. Different transfer of nociceptive sensitivity from rats with postnatal hippocampal lesions to control rats.

    PubMed

    Yamamotová, Anna; Franek, Miloslav; Vaculín, Simon; St'astný, Frantisek; Bubeníková-Valesová, Vera; Rokyta, Richard

    2007-07-01

    Hippocampal lesions in newborn rats alter the development of mechanisms involved in the processing of nociception. The hippocampal lesion was induced by the bilateral infusion, into the lateral cerebral ventricles, of 0.25 microL of saline containing either 0.25 micromol quinolinic acid (QUIN) and/or 0.25 micromol N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate (NAAG) on postnatal day 12. The same amount of sterile saline was injected into the sham-operated animals (group SHAM). It was expected that the QUIN- and NAAG-lesioned rats would exhibit some differences in thermal pain perception; however, we wanted to know if the control rats would exhibit, at least in part, similar changes in pain perception as their chemically lesioned siblings with which they were housed. Young adult NAAG-injured rats exhibited increased withdrawal latencies in the tail-flick and plantar tests, whereas young adult QUIN-injured animals exhibited only marginally decreased latencies. Nociceptive responses in the SHAM rats paralleled the littermates that had been neonatally treated with QUIN or NAAG, i.e. the responses in the SHAM(QUIN) group decreased, whereas the responses in the SHAM(NAAG) group increased. No significant changes in nociception were observed in intact animals, regardless of which group they were housed with. Our results show that social factors, which were originally demonstrated only for the pain behavior, may also influence basal nociceptive sensitivity in rats. We concluded that the "sham operation" may have had a long-term, nonspecific impact on nociceptive behavior by inducing behavioral mimicry of other animals. PMID:17623020

  17. Thermoregulatory effects of chlorpyrifos in the rat: long-term changes in cholinergic and noradrenergic sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J

    1994-01-01

    Subcutaneous injection of a sublethal dose of chlorpyrifos (CHLP), an organophosphate (OP) pesticide, causes long-term inhibition in cholinesterase activity (ChE) of brain, blood, and other tissues. Such prolonged inhibition in ChE should lead to marked behavioral and autonomic thermoregulatory patterns, especially in terms of altered noradrenergic and cholinergic sensitivity. To evaluate the behavioral and autonomic effects of long-term ChE inhibition, Long-Evans rats were implanted with radiotelemetry transmitters that continuously monitored core temperature (Tc), heart rate (HR), and motor activity (MA). These parameters were monitored for 7 days following a single injection of peanut oil (vehicle control) or 280 mg/kg CHLP. CHLP led to a significant reduction in Tc during the first night after treatment but had no other effects on Tc. CHLP also resulted in a significant elevation in HR which lasted for approximately 72 h. Motor activity was unaffected by CHLP. Cholinergic and noradrenergic drug sensitivity was assessed between 7 and 25 days after CHLP. CHLP-treated rats were more sensitive to norepinephrine as based on a greater hyperthermic response. MA of CHLP-treated rats was more sensitive to scopolamine. On the other hand, the hypothermic effects of oxotremorine (0.4 mg/kg) were nearly abolished by CHLP treatment, indicating tolerance to cholinergic stimulation. The tachycardic effects of methyscopolamine were also greater in the CHLP group. Overall, the acute effects of CHLP are unusual compared to other OP's in that there is no hypothermic response, an attenuated nocturnal elevation in Tc and a prolonged elevation in HR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7514260

  18. ALKYTIN INHIBITION OF ATPASE ACTIVITIES IN TISSUE HOMOGENATES AND SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS FROM NEONATAL AND ADULT RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of triethyltin (TET) on ATPase activities in brain and liver homogenates and subcellular fractions were compared in neonatal and adult rats. n 5 day old rats, relative sensitivities to TET inhibition were: brain and liver mitochondrial ATPase >> rain Na+/K+ ATPase > b...

  19. Peripheral chemoreceptor inputs to retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) CO2-sensitive neurons in rats

    PubMed Central

    Takakura, Ana Carolina Thomaz; Moreira, Thiago Santos; Colombari, Eduardo; West, Gavin H; Stornetta, Ruth L; Guyenet, Patrice G

    2006-01-01

    The rat retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) contains pH-sensitive neurons that are putative central chemoreceptors. Here, we examined whether these neurons respond to peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation and whether the input is direct from the solitary tract nucleus (NTS) or indirect via the respiratory network. A dense neuronal projection from commissural NTS (commNTS) to RTN was revealed using the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA). Within RTN, 51% of BDA-labelled axonal varicosities contained detectable levels of vesicular glutamate transporter-2 (VGLUT2) but only 5% contained glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD67). Awake rats were exposed to hypoxia (n = 6) or normoxia (n = 5) 1 week after injection of the retrograde tracer cholera toxin B (CTB) into RTN. Hypoxia-activated neurons were identified by the presence of Fos-immunoreactive nuclei. CommNTS neurons immunoreactive for both Fos and CTB were found only in hypoxia-treated rats. VGLUT2 mRNA was detected in 92 ± 13% of these neurons whereas only 12 ± 9% contained GAD67 mRNA. In urethane–chloralose-anaesthetized rats, bilateral inhibition of the RTN with muscimol eliminated the phrenic nerve discharge (PND) at rest, during hyperoxic hypercapnia (10% CO2), and during peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation (hypoxia and/or i.v. sodium cyanide, NaCN). RTN CO2-activated neurons were recorded extracellularly in anaesthetized intact or vagotomized rats. These neurons were strongly activated by hypoxia (10–15% O2; 30 s) or by NaCN. Hypoxia and NaCN were ineffective in rats with carotid chemoreceptor denervation. Bilateral injection of muscimol into the ventral respiratory column 1.5 mm caudal to RTN eliminated PND and the respiratory modulation of RTN neurons. Muscimol did not change the threshold and sensitivity of RTN neurons to hyperoxic hypercapnia nor their activation by peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation. In conclusion, RTN neurons respond to brain PCO2 presumably via their intrinsic

  20. Amphetamine sensitization is accompanied by an increase in prelimbic cortex activity.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Rivera, M I; Casanova, J P; Gatica, R I; Quirk, G J; Fuentealba, J A

    2015-03-12

    Drug addiction is associated with dysfunction in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). However, the modifications of neuronal activity in mPFC underlying the reinforcing properties of addictive drugs are still unclear. Here we carried out single-unit recording experiments to study the neuronal activity in the prelimbic (PL) cortex of anesthetized rats, after expression of locomotor sensitization to amphetamine. In control rats, an acute injection of amphetamine induced mainly an inhibitory effect on firing rate (FR) and this response was negatively correlated with the basal FR. Sensitized rats showed a higher proportion of excited neurons and the response to amphetamine was independent of basal FR. Moreover, in control rats, acute amphetamine decreased burst rate, whereas in sensitized rats acute amphetamine increased burst rate. These findings indicate that amphetamine sensitization renders mPFC neurons hyperexcitable. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that early withdrawal is associated with an increase in the activity of the mPFC, which could strengthen the PL-Nucleus Accumbens connection, thus facilitating amphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization. PMID:25542419

  1. Angiotensin AT2 receptor agonist prevents salt-sensitive hypertension in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Quaisar; Patel, Sanket; Hussain, Tahir

    2015-06-15

    High-sodium intake is a risk factor for the pathogenesis of hypertension, especially in obesity. The present study is designed to investigate whether angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) activation with selective agonist C21 prevents high-sodium diet (HSD)-induced hypertension in obese animals. Male obese rats were treated with AT2R agonist C21 (1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), oral) while maintained on either normal-sodium diet (NSD; 0.4%) or HSD (4%) for 2 wk. Radiotelemetric recording showed a time-dependent increase in systolic blood pressure in HSD-fed obese rats, being maximal increase (∼27 mmHg) at day 12 of the HSD regimen. C21 treatment completely prevented the increase in blood pressure of HSD-fed rats. Compared with NSD controls, HSD-fed obese rats had greater natriuresis/diuresis and urinary levels of nitrates, and these parameters were further increased by C21 treatment. Also, C21 treatment improved glomerular filtration rate in HSD-fed rats. HSD-fed rats expressed higher level of cortical ANG II, which was reduced to 50% by C21 treatment. HSD feeding and/or C21 treatment had no effects on cortical renin activity and the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and chymase, which are ANG II-producing enzymes. However, ANG(1-7) concentration and ACE2 activity in the renal cortex were reduced by HSD feeding, and C21 treatment rescued both the parameters. Also, C21 treatment reduced the cortical expression of AT1R in HSD-fed rats, but had no effect of AT2R expression. We conclude that chronic treatment with the AT2R agonist C21 prevents salt-sensitive hypertension in obese rats, and a reduction in the renal ANG II/AT1R and enhanced ACE2/ANG(1-7) levels may play a potential role in this phenomenon. PMID:25855512

  2. Opiates and cerebral functional activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Trusk, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral activity was measured using the free-fatty acid (1-/sup 14/C) octanoate as a fast functional tracer in conscious, unrestrained rats 5 minutes after intravenous injection of heroin, cocaine or saline vehicle. Regional changes of octanoate labeling density in the autoradiograms relative to saline-injected animals were used to determine the functional activity effects of each drug. Heroin and cocaine each produced a distinctive pattern of activity increases and suppression throughout the rat brain. Similar regional changes induced by both drugs were found in limbic brain regions implicated in drug reinforcement. Labeled octanoate autoradiography was used to measure the cerebral functional response to a tone that had previously been paired to heroin injections. Rats were trained in groups of three consisting of one heroin self-administration animal, and two animals receiving yoked infusion of heroin or saline. A tone was paired with each infusion during training. Behavioral experiments in similarly trained rats demonstrated that these training conditions impart secondary reinforcing properties to the tone in animals previously self-administering heroin, while the tone remains behaviorally neutral in yoked-infusion rats. Cerebral functional activity was measured during presentation of the tone without drug infusion. Octanoate labeling density changed in fifteen brain areas in response to the tone previously paired to heroin without response contingency. Labeling density was significantly modified in sixteen regions as a result of previously pairing the tone to response-contingent heroin infusions.

  3. Regular exercise improves cardiac contractile activation by modulating MHC isoforms and SERCA activity in orchidectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Vutthasathien, Pavarana; Wattanapermpool, Jonggonnee

    2015-10-01

    Data from the trial known as Testosterone in Older Men with Mobility Limitations (TOM) has indicated an association between testosterone administration and a greater risk for adverse cardiovascular events. We therefore propose that regular exercise is a cardioprotective alternative that prevents detrimental changes in contractile activation when a deficiency in male sex hormones exists. Ten-week-old orchidectomized (ORX) rats were subjected to a 9-wk treadmill running program at moderate intensity starting 1 wk after surgery. Although exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy was observed both in rats that underwent ORX and sham surgery, regular exercise enhanced cardiac myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity and myosin light-chain 2 phosphorylation only in rats that underwent a sham operation. Although the rats that had sham surgery and and given exercise exhibited no change in maximum developed tension, regular running prevented the suppression of maximum active tension in the hearts of ORX rats. Regular exercise also prevented a shift in myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms toward β-MHC, a reduction in sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) activity, and an increase in SERCA sensitivity in the hearts of ORX rats. Neither SERCA content nor its modulating component, phospholamban (PLB), was altered by exercise in either sham-operated or ORX rats. However, decreases in the phosphorylated Thr(17) form of PLB and the phosphorylated Thr(287) form of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II in the hearts of ORX rats were abolished after regular exercise. These results thus support the use of regular running as a cardioprotective alternative to testosterone replacement in hypogonadal conditions. PMID:26272317

  4. High fat diet-fed obese rats are highly sensitive to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2008-09-15

    Often, chemotherapy by doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is limited due to life threatening cardiotoxicity in patients during and posttherapy. Recently, we have shown that moderate diet restriction remarkably protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. This cardioprotection is accompanied by decreased cardiac oxidative stress and triglycerides and increased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and upregulated JAK/STAT3 pathway. In the current study, we investigated whether a physiological intervention by feeding 40% high fat diet (HFD), which induces obesity in male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g), sensitizes to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. A LD{sub 10} dose (8 mg doxorubicin/kg, ip) administered on day 43 of the HFD feeding regimen led to higher cardiotoxicity, cardiac dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, and 80% mortality in the obese (OB) rats in the absence of any significant renal or hepatic toxicity. Doxorubicin toxicokinetics studies revealed no change in accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the normal diet-fed (ND) and OB hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that OB rats are sensitized due to: (1) higher oxyradical stress leading to upregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) downregulation of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-{alpha}, (3) decreased plasma adiponectin levels, (4) decreased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation (666.9 {+-} 14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ND versus 400.2 {+-} 11.8 nmol/min/g heart in OB), (5) decreased mitochondrial AMP-{alpha}2 protein kinase, and (6) 86% drop in cardiac ATP levels accompanied by decreased ATP/ADP ratio after doxorubicin administration. Decreased cardiac erythropoietin and increased SOCS3 further downregulated the cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. In conclusion, HFD-induced obese rats are highly sensitized to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by substantially downregulating cardiac mitochondrial ATP generation, increasing oxidative stress and downregulating

  5. Aging: ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb+ uptake rate and responsiveness to digoxin in rat left atrial muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.H.; Seifen, E.

    1989-01-01

    Previous work in anesthetized rats has demonstrated that the sensitivity to cardiotoxic actions of cardiotonic steroids is increased in senescence, and studies in crude homogenates and partially purified membrane preparations have suggested that this altered responsiveness is related to an aging-associated reduction in the sarcolemmal content of Na,K-adenosine triphosphatase. This decrease in Na,K-adenosine triphosphatase could enhance the sensitivity to digitalis-like compounds by reducing the reserve capacity of the Na+-pump and thus the extent of digitalis-induced pump inhibition required before the onset of toxicity. Current experiments examined dose-dependent actions of digoxin in atrial muscle isolated from 3-, 12- and 24- to 25-month-old rats and determined if alterations in responsiveness correlated with changes in ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake rate, an estimate of Na+-pump activity. Atrial preparations from aged rats were more sensitive to the cardiotoxic actions of digoxin; however, the inotropic efficacy before the onset of toxicity was not affected by age. Both 1) the maximum attainable ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake rate and 2) the difference between maximum uptake rate and that monitored in preparations stimulated at 4.0 Hz decreased progressively with age. These results indicate that atrial muscle from aged rats is more sensitive to direct toxic effects of digoxin and suggest that this lower tolerance is mediated, at least in part, by a reduction in Na+-pump reserve capacity.

  6. Mechanism of coumarin action: sensitivity of vitamin K metabolizing enzymes of normal and warfarin-resistant rat liver.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, E F; Suttie, J W

    1982-05-11

    The in vitro effects of two coumarin anticoagulants, warfarin and difenacoum, on rat liver microsomal vitamin K dependent carboxylase, vitamin K epoxidase, vitamin K epoxide reductase, and cytosolic vitamin K reductase (DT-diaphorase) from the livers of normal and a warfarin-resistant strain of rats have been determined. Millimolar concentrations of both coumarins are required to inhibit the carboxylase and epoxidase activities in both strains of rats. Sensitivity of DT-diaphorase to coumarin inhibition differs when a soluble or liposomal-associated substrate is used, but the diaphorases isolated from both strains of rats have comparable sensitivity. The anticoagulant difenacoum is an effective rodenticide in the warfarin-resistant strain of rats, and the only enzyme studied from warfarin-resistant rat liver that demonstrated a significant differential inhibition by the two coumarins used was the vitamin K epoxide reductase. This enzyme also showed the greatest sensitivity to coumarin inhibition among the enzymes studied. These results support the hypothesis that the physiologically important site of action of coumarin anticoagulants is the vitamin K epoxide reductase. PMID:6807339

  7. A sensitive and reliable test instrument to assess swimming in rats with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Åkesson, Elisabet; Holmberg, Lena; Sundström, Erik

    2015-09-15

    For clinical translation of experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) research, evaluation of animal SCI models should include several sensorimotor functions. Validated and reliable assessment tools should be applicable to a wide range of injury severity. The BBB scale is the most widely used test instrument, but similar to most others it is used to assess open field ambulation. We have developed an assessment tool for swimming in rats with SCI, with high discriminative power and sensitivity to functional recovery after mild and severe injuries, without need for advanced test equipment. We studied various parameters of swimming in four groups of rats with thoracic SCI of different severity and a control group, for 8 weeks after surgery. Six parameters were combined in a multiple item scale, the Karolinska Institutet Swim Assessment Tool (KSAT). KSAT scores for all SCI groups showed consistent functional improvement after injury, and significant differences between the five experimental groups. The internal consistency, the inter-rater and the test-retest reliability were very high. The KSAT score was highly correlated to the cross-section area of white matter spared at the injury epicenter. Importantly, even after 8 weeks of recovery the KSAT score reliably discriminated normal animals from those inflicted by the mildest injury, and also displayed the recovery of the most severely injured rats. We conclude that this swim scale is an efficient and reliable tool to assess motor activity during swimming, and an important addition to the methods available for evaluating rat models of SCI. PMID:25986406

  8. Hysteresis and the length dependence of calcium sensitivity in chemically skinned rat cardiac muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, S M; Lamont, C; Miller, D J

    1988-01-01

    1. The relationship between pCa (-log10[Ca2+]) and steady-state isometric tension has been investigated in saponin- or Triton-treated (chemically 'skinned') cardiac muscle of rat. 2. Hysteresis exists in the relationship such that the muscle is less sensitive to Ca2+ during increasing activation (as [Ca2+] is stepped upward) than during reducing activation (as [Ca2+] is stepped downward). 3. The extent of the hysteresis is insensitive to interventions that increase overall calcium sensitivity by chemical means, such as caffeine, carnosine or increased pH. 4. The extent of the hysteresis is sensitive to sarcomere length. The phenomenon is virtually absent above sarcomere lengths of about 2.2-2.3 microns but becomes progressively greater at shorter sarcomere lengths. 5. The effect of sarcomere length on calcium sensitivity is restricted to the upward-going (increasing activation) part of the pCa-tension loop below 2.2 microns. The downward-going (decreasing activation) part of the hysteretic relationship is virtually unaffected by sarcomere length up to 2.2 microns. 6. Significant alterations in sarcomere length do not occur during tension development in the experiments described here: the phenomenon is not attributable to experimental artifacts of this kind. 7. Hysteresis develops sufficiently rapidly to be consistent with a physiological relevance during the normal heart beat. 8. The effects of sarcomere length show that the phenomenon is not due to force per se since, for example, greater peak force produces less hysteresis as sarcomere length is increased towards 2.2 microns. 9. Tonicity increase (by high-molecular-weight dextran), which shrinks the myofilament lattice, increases calcium sensitivity but reduces the effect of sarcomere length on calcium sensitivity. 10. The results suggest that lattice shrinkage is the mechanism which accounts for hysteresis in, and the sarcomere length dependence of, calcium sensitivity in cardiac muscle. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 11

  9. Increased cerebrovascular sensitivity to endothelin-1 in a rat model of obstructive sleep apnea: a role for endothelin receptor B.

    PubMed

    Durgan, David J; Crossland, Randy F; Lloyd, Eric E; Phillips, Sharon C; Bryan, Robert M

    2015-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with cerebrovascular diseases. However, little is known regarding the effects of OSA on the cerebrovascular wall. We tested the hypothesis that OSA augments endothelin-1 (ET-1) constrictions of cerebral arteries. Repeated apneas (30 or 60 per hour) were produced in rats during the sleep cycle (8 hours) by remotely inflating a balloon implanted in the trachea. Four weeks of apneas produced a 23-fold increase in ET-1 sensitivity in isolated and pressurized posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs) compared with PCAs from sham-operated rats (EC50=10(-9.2) mol/L versus 10(-10.6) mol/L; P<0.001). This increased sensitivity was abolished by the ET-B receptor antagonist, BQ-788. Constrictions to the ET-B receptor agonist, IRL-1620, were greater in PCAs from rats after 2 or 4 weeks of apneas compared with that from sham-operated rats (P=0.013). Increased IRL-1620 constrictions in PCAs from OSA rats were normalized with the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) blocker, SKF96365, or the Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, Y27632. These data show that OSA increases the sensitivity of PCAs to ET-1 through enhanced ET-B activity, and enhanced activity of TRPCs and ROCK. We conclude that enhanced ET-1 signaling is part of a pathologic mechanism associated with adverse cerebrovascular outcomes of OSA. PMID:25425077

  10. Endogenous pacemaker activity of rat tumour somatotrophs

    PubMed Central

    Kwiecien, Renata; Robert, Christophe; Cannon, Robert; Vigues, Stephan; Arnoux, Annie; Kordon, Claude; Hammond, Constance

    1998-01-01

    Cells derived from a rat pituitary tumour (GC cell line) that continuously release growth hormone behave as endogenous pacemakers. In simultaneous patch clamp recordings and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) imaging, they displayed rhythmic action potentials (44.7 ± 2.7 mV, 178 ± 40 ms, 0.30 ± 0.04 Hz) and concomitant [Ca2+]i transients (374 ± 57 nM, 1.0 ± 0.2 s, 0.27 ± 0.03 Hz). Action potentials and [Ca2+]i transients were reversibly blocked by removal of external Ca2+, addition of nifedipine (1 μM) or Ni2+ (40 μM), but were insensitive to TTX (1 μM). An L-type Ca2+ current activated at -33.6 ± 0.4 mV (holding potential (Vh), −40 mV), peaked at -1.8 ± 1.3 mV, was reduced by nifedipine and enhanced by S-(+)-SDZ 202 791. A T/R-type Ca2+ current activated at -41.7 ± 2.7 mV (Vh, -80 or -60 mV), peaked at -9.2 ± 3.0 mV, was reduced by low concentrations of Ni2+ (40 μM) or Cd2+ (10 μM) and was toxin resistant. Parallel experiments revealed the expression of the class E calcium channel α1-subunit mRNA. The K+ channel blockers TEA (25 mM) and charybdotoxin (10–100 nM) enhanced spike amplitude and/or duration. Apamin (100 nM) also strongly reduced the after-spike hyperpolarization. The outward K+ tail current evoked by a depolarizing step that mimicked an action potential reversed at −69.8 ± 0.3 mV, presented two components, lasted 2–3 s and was totally blocked by Cd2+ (400 μM). The slow pacemaker depolarization (3.5 ± 0.4 s) that separated consecutive spikes corresponded to a 2- to 3-fold increase in membrane resistance, was strongly Na+ sensitive but TTX insensitive. Computer simulations showed that pacemaker activity can be reproduced by a minimum of six currents: an L-type Ca2+ current underlies the rising phase of action potentials that are repolarized by a delayed rectifier and Ca2+-activated K+ currents. In between spikes, the decay of Ca2+-activated K+ currents and a persistent inward cationic current depolarize the membrane

  11. [Mutagenic Activity of Four Aminoazo Compounds with Different Carcinogenicity for Rat Liver in the Ames Test].

    PubMed

    Frolova, T S; Sinitsyna, O I; Kaledin, V I

    2015-01-01

    In this paper in the bacterial Ames test we compared the mutagenicity of four aminoazo compounds, previously studied by other researchers and used for activation of rat liver enzymes, with the carcinogenicity in the rat liver. It was found that in the Ames test they have mutagenic activity, however, this activity does not correlate quantitatively with rat sensitivity to their hepatocarcinogenic action. Thus, the most active carcinogen 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene causes mutations almost 2.5 times less than weakly carcinogenic ortho-aminoazotoluene, and exactly the same number of mutations as non-carcinogenic N,N-diethyl-4-aminoazobenzene. PMID:26591610

  12. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits antigen-stimulated increases in vasoconstriction and glycogenolysis in perfused livers derived from sensitized rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, K.L.; Bates, J.N.; Fisher, R.A. )

    1991-03-11

    Recent studies in the authors laboratory demonstrated that infusion of antigen into perfused livers from sensitized rats produces increases in hepatic portal pressure, increases in hepatic glucose output and decreases in hepatic oxygen consumption. In the present study, effects of NO on these hepatic responses to antigen challenge were investigated. Infusion of NO into perfused livers from sensitized rats attenuated ovalbumin induced increases in hepatic portal pressure and glucose output approximately 85% and 90%, respectively, and abolished ovalbumin-induced decreases in hepatic oxygen consumption. The duration of ovalbumin-stimulated increases in hepatic portal pressure was reduced nearly 90% by NO. Similarly, infusion of NO into perfused livers from sensitized rats inhibited increases in hepatic portal pressure and glucose output in response to platelet-activating factor (PAF) nearly 80 and 90%, respectively. In contrast, NO inhibited completely hepatic vasoconstriction in response to phenylephrine without altering glycogenolytic responses to this {alpha}-adrenergic agonist. These results provide evidence for regulatory effects of NO on hemodynamic and glycogenolytic responses to antigen in perfused livers from sensitized rats. These observations support previous findings which suggest that hepatic responses to sensitizing antigen may be mediated by PAF or other autacoid mediators which stimulate glycogenolysis in liver by indirect mechanisms involving hepatic vasoconstriction.

  13. Interleukin-6 Modulates Colonic Transepithelial Ion Transport in the Stress-Sensitive Wistar Kyoto Rat

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Dervla; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Immunological challenge stimulates secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6, resulting in variety of biological responses. In the gastrointestinal tract, IL-6 modulates the excitability of submucosal neurons and stimulates secretion into the colonic lumen. When considered in the context of the functional bowel disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where plasma levels of IL-6 are elevated, this may reflect an important molecular mechanism contributing to symptom flares, particularly in the diarrhea-predominant phenotype. In these studies, colonic ion transport, an indicator of absorption and secretion, was assessed in the stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat model of IBS. Mucosa-submucosal colonic preparations from WKY and control Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were mounted in Ussing chambers and the basal short circuit current (ISC) was electrophysiologically recorded and compared between the strains. Exposure to IL-6 (1 nM) stimulated a secretory current of greater amplitude in WKY as compared to SD samples. Furthermore, the observed IL-6-mediated potentiation of secretory currents evoked by veratridine and capsaicin in SD rats was blunted in WKY rats. Exposure to IL-6 also stimulated an increase in transepithelial resistance in both SD and WKY colonic tissue. These studies demonstrate that the neuroexcitatory effects of IL-6 on submucosal plexi have functional consequences with alterations in both colonic secretory activity and permeability. The IL-6-induced increase in colonic secretory activity appears to neurally mediated. Thus, local increases in IL-6 levels and subsequent activation of enteric neurons may underlie alterations in absorpto-secretory function in the WKY model of IBS. PMID:23162465

  14. Effects of environmental enrichment on ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the rat prefrontal cortex following nicotine-induced sensitization or nicotine self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Adrian M.; Sun, Wei-Lun; Midde, Narasimha M.; Harrod, Steven B.; Zhu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Rats raised in an enriched condition (EC) exhibit alterations in the neurobiological and behavioral response to nicotine compared to rats reared in an impoverished condition (IC) or a standard condition (SC). The current study determined whether environmental enrichment differentially regulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in rats following nicotine sensitization or nicotine self-administration. Under the saline control condition, EC rats displayed diminished baseline activity, and greater sensitization to repeated administration of nicotine compared to IC and SC rats. After repeated saline injections, the basal levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) were higher in EC compared to IC and SC rats, which was negatively correlated with their respective baseline activities. Repeated nicotine (0.35 mg/kg) injections induced pERK1/2 to similar levels in SC and IC rats; however, the induction of pERK1/2 in EC rats by nicotine was not significantly different from saline controls, owing to their high baseline. In the self-administration paradigm, EC rats self-administered less nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) relative to IC or SC rats on a fixed ratio-1 schedule of reinforcement. Accordingly, no differences in pERK1/2 were found between EC and IC rats self-administering saline, whereas nicotine self-administration resulted in an increase in pERK1/2 in IC rats but not in EC rats. Furthermore, the levels of pERK1/2 in EC and IC rats were positively correlated with their respective total number of nicotine infusions. Thus, these findings suggest that environmental enrichment alters the basal and nicotine-mediated pERK1/2, which may contribute to enrichment-induced behavioral alterations in response to nicotine. PMID:25328101

  15. Mechanisms involved in carbachol-induced Ca2+ sensitization of contractile elements in rat proximal and distal colon

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Tadayoshi; Kushida, Masahiko; Hirayama, Nobue; Kitayama, Muneyoshi; Fujita, Akikazu; Hata, Fumiaki

    2004-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in Ca2+ sensitization of contractile elements induced by the activation of muscarinic receptors in membrane-permeabilized preparations of the rat proximal and distal colon were studied. In α-toxin-permeabilized preparations from the rat proximal and distal colon, Ca2+ induced a rapid phasic and subsequent tonic component. After Ca2+-induced contraction reached a plateau, guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP) and carbachol (CCh) in the presence of GTP further contracted preparations of both the proximal and distal colon (Ca2+ sensitization). Y-27632, a rho-kinase inhibitor, inhibited GTP plus CCh-induced Ca2+ sensitization more significantly in the proximal colon than in the distal colon. Y-27632 at 10 μM had no effect on Ca2+-induced contraction or slightly inhibited phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate-induced Ca2+ sensitization in either proximal or distal colon. Chelerythrine, a protein kinase C inhibitor, inhibited GTP plus CCh-induced Ca2+ sensitization in the distal colon, but not in the proximal colon. The component of Ca2+ sensitization that persisted after the chelerythrine treatment was completely inhibited by Y-27632. In β-escin-permeabilized preparations of the proximal colon, C3 exoenzyme completely inhibited GTP plus CCh-induced Ca2+ sensitization, but PKC(19–31) did not. In the distal colon, C3 exoenzyme abolished GTP-induced Ca2+ sensitization. It inhibited CCh-induced sensitization by 50 % and the remaining component was inhibited by PKC(19–31). These results suggest that both protein kinase C and rho pathways in parallel mediate the Ca2+ sensitization coupled to activation of muscarinic receptors in the rat distal colon, whereas the rho pathway alone mediates this action in the proximal colon. PMID:15159278

  16. Isolation of insulin-sensitive phosphatidylinositol-glycan from rat adipocytes. Its impaired breakdown in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat.

    PubMed Central

    Macaulay, S L; Larkins, R G

    1990-01-01

    In this study an insulin-sensitive glycophospholipid from rat adipocytes was isolated and partially characterized. A material that activated pyruvate dehydrogenase was extracted from rat adipocyte membrane supernatants. Its release was stimulated by insulin and phosphatidylinositol-specific-phospholipase C and its activity was destroyed by nitrous acid deamination. These findings suggested that insulin might stimulate breakdown of a glycophospholipid containing inositol and glucosamine, as previously reported for some other cell types [Low & Saltiel (1988) Science 239, 268-275]. A lipid that incorporated [3H]glucosamine, [3H]galactose, [3H]inositol, and [3H]myristate and whose turnover was stimulated by insulin was subsequently isolated from intact adipocytes by sequential t.l.c. using an acidic solvent system followed by a basic solvent system. The effects of insulin on turnover of the lipid in these cells were transient, with maximal effects at 1 min, and there was a typical concentration-response curve to insulin (0.07 nM-7 nM), with effects being detected over the physiological range of insulin concentrations. In contrast with studies in other cells, there was appreciable turnover of the sugar labels. The majority of the [3H]glucosamine and [3H]galactose labels were cycled through to triacylglycerol in the adipocyte. However, of that recovered in the glycophospholipid band, a major proportion (less than 40%) was recovered as the native label. Digestion of the purified molecule with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C generated a material that activated both pyruvate dehydrogenase and low-Km cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. Impairment in insulin-stimulated breakdown of the molecule in adipocytes of streptozotocin-diabetic rats was found, consistent with the impaired insulin activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase and glucose utilization seen in this model. These findings suggest that insulin stimulates breakdown of this glycophospholipid by stimulating an

  17. A new pH-sensitive rectifying potassium channel in mitochondria from the embryonic rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kajma, Anna; Szewczyk, Adam

    2012-10-01

    Patch-clamp single-channel studies on mitochondria isolated from embryonic rat hippocampus revealed the presence of two different potassium ion channels: a large-conductance (288±4pS) calcium-activated potassium channel and second potassium channel with outwardly rectifying activity under symmetric conditions (150/150mM KCl). At positive voltages, this channel displayed a conductance of 67.84pS and a strong voltage dependence at holding potentials from -80mV to +80mV. The open probability was higher at positive than at negative voltages. Patch-clamp studies at the mitoplast-attached mode showed that the channel was not sensitive to activators and inhibitors of mitochondrial potassium channels but was regulated by pH. Moreover, we demonstrated that the channel activity was not affected by the application of lidocaine, an inhibitor of two-pore domain potassium channels, or by tertiapin, an inhibitor of inwardly rectifying potassium channels. In summary, based on the single-channel recordings, we characterised for the first time mitochondrial pH-sensitive ion channel that is selective for cations, permeable to potassium ions, displays voltage sensitivity and does not correspond to any previously described potassium ion channels in the inner mitochondrial membrane. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012). PMID:22406520

  18. Evidence of the Importance of Nox4 in Production of Hypertension in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Allen W; Yang, Chun; Zheleznova, Nadezhda N; Staruschenko, Alexander; Kurth, Theresa; Rein, Lisa; Kumar, Vikash; Sadovnikov, Katherine; Dayton, Alex; Hoffman, Matthew; Ryan, Robert P; Skelton, Meredith M; Salehpour, Fahimeh; Ranji, Mahsa; Geurts, Aron

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the consequences of knocking out NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 4 (Nox4) on the development of hypertension and kidney injury in the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat. Zinc finger nuclease injection of single-cell SS embryos was used to create an 8 base-pair frame-shift deletion of Nox4, resulting in a loss of the ≈68 kDa band in Western blot analysis of renal cortical tissue of the knock out of Nox4 in the SS rat (SS(Nox4-/-)) rats. SS(Nox4-/-) rats exhibited a significant reduction of salt-induced hypertension compared with SS rats after 21 days of 4.0% NaCl diet (134±5 versus 151±3 mm Hg in SS) and a significant reduction of albuminuria, tubular casts, and glomerular injury. Optical fluorescence 3-dimensional cryoimaging revealed significantly higher redox ratios (NADH/FAD [reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/flavin adenine dinucleotide]) in the kidneys of SS(Nox4-/-) rats even when fed the 0.4% NaCl diet, indicating greater levels of mitochondrial electron transport chain metabolic activity and reduced oxidative stress compared with SS rats. Before the development of hypertension, RNA expression levels of Nox subunits Nox2, p67(phox), and p22(phox) were found to be significantly lower (P<0.05) in SS(Nox4-/-) compared with SS rats in the renal cortex. Thus, the mutation of Nox4 seems to modify transcription of several genes in ways that contribute to the protective effects observed in the SS(Nox4-/-) rats. We conclude that the reduced renal injury and attenuated blood pressure response to high salt in the SS(Nox4-/-) rat could be the result of multiple pathways, including gene transcription, mitochondrial energetics, oxidative stress, and protein matrix production impacted by the knock out of Nox4. PMID:26644237

  19. Radiochemical detection of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase: distribution of the indomethacin sensitive enzyme in rat tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Ivins, J.; Penning, T.

    1986-05-01

    Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase catalyzes the NADP/sup +/ dependent oxidation of trans-dihydrodiols of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) which are potent proximate carcinogens. The authors have developed a highly sensitive radiochemical assay for this enzyme in which the oxidation of trans-1,2-dihydroxy-3,5-cyclohexadiene, a model substrate for trans-dihydrodiol proximate carcinogens, is coupled to O-methylation catalyzed by catechol O-methyl transferase. Using S-adenosyl-(/sup 3/H-methyl)-methionine as methyl donor at a specific activity of 0.1 nCi/pmol and extracting the product, /sup 3/H-o-methoxyphenol, the assay provides a 5000 fold increase in sensitivity over the existing spectrophotometric method. The radiochemical assay was validated by comparing the K/sub m/ and V/sub max/ values for rat liver cytosol with those derived spectrophotometrically. In both instances there was close agreement between values (K/sub m/ = 0.77 +/- 0.11 mM and V/sub max/ = 2.14 +/- 0.13 nmoles/min/mg protein determined radiochemically; K/sub m/ = 0.96 +/- 0.10 mM and V/sub max/ = 6.31 +/- 0.50 nmoles/min/mg protein determined spectrophotometrically). Using the radiochemical method, dihydrodiol dehydrogenase activity was detected in the following rat tissues: liver > lung > heart > small intestine > testis > seminal vesicle > bladder > prostate > spleen. Specific activities ranged between 0.944 and 0.016 nmoles/min/mg protein. In liver, lung, and testis, which are sites of PAH metabolism, the dehydrogenase is sensitive to inhibition by low ..mu..M concentrations of indomethacin, suggesting that this drug can prevent the detoxification of proximate carcinogens by this route.

  20. Decreased in vivo α2 adrenoceptor binding in the Flinders Sensitive Line rat model of depression.

    PubMed

    Landau, Anne M; Phan, Jenny-Ann; Iversen, Peter; Lillethorup, Thea P; Simonsen, Mette; Wegener, Gregers; Jakobsen, Steen; Doudet, Doris J

    2015-04-01

    Depression is a debilitating heterogeneous disorder and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Alterations in monoaminergic neurotransmission, including noradrenergic, have been implicated in the etiology of depression. Although depression is difficult to model in animals, the availability of animal models with face, predictive and construct validity permits more in-depth investigations resulting in a greater understanding of the disease. We investigated the role of noradrenaline (NA) and α2 adrenoceptors in vivo in a genetic model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rat. We determined baseline differences in NA receptor volume of distribution to α2 adrenoceptors in FSL, in comparison with two routinely used controls, Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and the carbon-11 labeled radioligand yohimbine. We demonstrate a 42-47% reduction in the binding of the tracer in the cortex, striatum, cerebellum, thalamus and pons of FSL rats compared to the two control groups. Our results suggest that the behavioral deficits expressed in the FSL depression model are associated with functional over-activity of the NA system. PMID:25576372

  1. Marker-assisted dissection of genetic influences on motor and neuroendocrine sensitization to cocaine in rats.

    PubMed

    Vendruscolo, L F; Vendruscolo, J C M; Terenina, E; Ramos, A; Takahashi, R N; Mormède, P

    2009-04-01

    This study investigated genetic influences on behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to cocaine sensitization. We used male and female rats of the inbred strains Lewis (LEW) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), which display genetic differences in stress-related responses. The influence of two quantitative trait loci (QTL; Ofil1 and Ofil2 on chromosomes 4 and 7), which modulate stress reactivity in rats, on the effects of cocaine was also investigated through the use of recombinant lines (derived from a LEW x SHR intercross) selected by their genotype at Ofil1 and Ofil2. Animals were given repeated cocaine or saline injections and tested for locomotion (induction of sensitization). Two weeks later, all animals were challenged with cocaine, and locomotion and corticosterone levels were measured (expression of sensitization). Results indicated that male SHR rats showed more behavioral sensitization than LEW rats, whereas no strain differences in sensitization were seen among females. When challenged with cocaine, LEW and SHR rats of both sexes pretreated with cocaine showed behavioral sensitization compared with saline pretreated animals; however, only LEW rats displayed an increase in the corticosterone levels. Ofil1 was found to influence the induction of sensitization in males and Ofil2 modulated the locomotor effect of cocaine in females. This study provides evidence of a genotype-dependent relationship between the induction and expression of cocaine sensitization, and between the behavioral and neuroendocrine responses induced by cocaine. Moreover, the Ofil1 and Ofil2 loci may contain one or more genes that control the behavioral effects of cocaine in rats. PMID:19077120

  2. Amphetamine locomotor sensitization is accompanied with an enhanced high K⁺-stimulated Dopamine release in the rat medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Casanova, José Patricio; Velis, Gabriela Paz; Fuentealba, José Antonio

    2013-01-15

    In the present work, we assessed dopamine extracellular levels in the medial Prefrontal Cortex of rats repeatedly treated with amphetamine during early abstinence. Rats were injected once daily with amphetamine for five consecutive days. A sensitized locomotor response was observed in 55% of animals treated. After two days of abstinence, an amphetamine challenge dose was given to all rats and locomotor activity was measured to assess expression of sensitization. A persistence of heightened locomotor response to amphetamine was observed in rats that developed sensitization. Twenty four hours after amphetamine challenge, microdialysis experiments were carried out to evaluate basal and stimulated dopamine extracellular levels in the medial Prefrontal Cortex. Rats that developed and expressed amphetamine locomotor sensitization showed a significantly greater high potassium-stimulated dopamine release compared to Non-sensitized and Saline rats. These results show that the increased dopamine releasability in the medial Prefrontal Cortex occurs soon after development of amphetamine locomotor sensitization, and might be underlying the early expression of sensitization. PMID:23047059

  3. Photoreactivating enzyme activity in the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhead, A.D.; Achey, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    There has been considerable speculation about the occurrence of photoreactivating enzyme in different organisms and about its biologic purpose. We have developed a simple, sensitive assay for estimating pyrimidine dimers in DNA which is useful in making a rapid survey for the presence of the enzyme. Using this method, we have found photoreactivating enzyme activity in the tissues of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta. This parasite spends the majority of its life span in the bodies of its definitive or intermediate hosts, but a period is spent externally. We suggest that photoreactivating enzyme may be important in perserving the integrity of embryonic DNA during this free-living stage.

  4. Photoreactivating enzyme activity in the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhead, A.D.; Achey, P.M.

    1981-06-01

    There has been considerable speculation about the occurrence of photoreactivating enzyme in different organisms and about its biological purpose. We have developed a simple, sensitive assay for estimating pyrimidine dimers in DNA which is useful in making a rapid survey for the presence of the enzyme. Using this method, we have found photoreactivating enzyme activity in the tissues of the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta. This parasite spends the majority of its life span in the bodies of its definitive or intermediate hosts, but a period is spent externally. We suggest that photoreactivating enzyme may be important in preserving the integrity of embryonic DNA during this free-living stage.

  5. Increased sensitivity to transient global ischemia in aging rat brain.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Puchowicz, Michelle A; LaManna, Joseph C

    2007-01-01

    Transient global brain ischemia induced by cardiac arrest and resuscitation (CAR) results in reperfusion injury associated with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is known to produce delayed selective neuronal cell loss and impairment of brainstem function, leading to post-resuscitation mortality. Levels of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) modified protein adducts, a marker of oxidative stress, was found to be elevated after CAR in rat brain. In this study we investigated the effects of an antioxidant, alpha-phenyl-tert-butyl-nitrone (PBN) on the recovery following CAR in the aged rat brain. Male Fischer 344 rats (6, 12 and 24-month old) underwent 7-minute cardiac arrest before resuscitation. Brainstem function was assessed by hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and HNE-adducts were measured by western blot analysis. Our data showed that in the 24-month old rats, overall survival rate, hippocampal CAl neuronal counts and HVR were significantly reduced compared to the younger rats. With PBN treatment, the recovery was improved in the aged rat brain, which was consistent with reduced HNE adducts in brain following CAR. Our data suggest that aged rats are more vulnerable to oxidative stress insult and treatment with PBN improves the outcome following reperfusion injury. The mechanism of action is most likely through the scavenging of reactive oxygen species resulting in reduced lipid peroxidation. PMID:17727265

  6. Developmental regulation of aromatase activity in the rat hypothalamus

    SciTech Connect

    Lephart, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    The brain of all mammalian species studied thus far contain an enzymatic activity (aromatase) that catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens. The activity is highest during prenatal development and contributes to the establishment of sex differences which determine adult gonadotropin secretion patterns and reproductive behavior. The studies presented in this dissertation represent a systematic effort to elucidate the mechanism(s) that control the initiation of and contribute to maintaining rat hypothalamic aromatase activity during pre- and postnatal development. Aromatase enzyme activity was measured by the {sup 3}H{sub 2}O release assay or by traditional estrogen product isolation. Brain aromatase mRNA was detected by hybridization to a cDNA encoding rat aromatase cytochrome P-450. In both males and females the time of puberty was associated with a decline in hypothalamic aromatase activity. This decline may represent a factor underlying the peri-pubertal decrease in the sensitivity to gonadal steroid feedback that accompanies completion of puberty. The results also indicate that androgens regulate brain aromatase levels during both the prepubertal and peri-pubertal stages of sexual development and that this regulation is transiently lost in young adults. Utilizing a hypothalamic organotypic culture system, aromatase activity in vitro was maintained for as long as two days. The results of studies of a variety of hormonal and metabolic regulators suggest that prenatal aromatase activity is regulated by factor(s) that function independently from the classical cyclic AMP and protein kinase C trans-membrane signaling pathways.

  7. Effects of cocaine on locomotor activity and schedule-controlled behaviors of inbred rat strains.

    PubMed

    Witkin, J M; Goldberg, S R

    1990-10-01

    Effects of cocaine on several behaviors considered to be reflective of psychomotor stimulation were compared in F344/CR1BR and NBR/NIH inbred rat strains. Effects of cocaine on locomotor activity were compared with effects on either bar-press or nose-poke responses maintained under a multiple fixed-interval 3-min, timeout 1-min schedule of food presentation. In locomotor activity experiments, NBR rats were twice as active as F344 rats under baseline conditions and displayed dose-dependent increases in locomotion (5-20 mg/kg). Maximal increases in locomotor activity of F344 rats were only 200% compared to 1000% in NBR rats. In contrast to locomotor activity, no strain differences in the effects of cocaine were observed under the schedules of food delivery. Bar-pressing under the fixed-interval schedule was increased to a maximum of 150% of control in both rat strains. Nose-poke responding under the fixed-interval schedule was not significantly increased, but timeout rates were increased in both strains. These results suggest that NBR and F344 rats do not differ in general sensitivity to stimulant effects of cocaine but exhibit marked differences in responsivity to cocaine that are dependent upon the behavior studied. Further delineation of the behavioral specificity of strain differences in sensitivity to cocaine should help to identify neurobiological substrates underlying unique biologically determined responses to cocaine. PMID:2080195

  8. Different phosphorylated forms of an insulin-sensitive glycosylphosphatidylinositol from rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Merida, I; Corrales, F J; Clemente, R; Ruiz-Albusac, J M; Villalba, M; Mato, J M

    1988-08-15

    Labeling with [3H]galactose was employed to isolate a glycosylphosphatidylinositol from rat hepatocytes which might be involved in the action of insulin. The polar head group of this glycosylphosphatidylinositol was generated by phosphodiesterase hydrolysis with a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus. By Dowex AG1 x 8 chromatography the polar head group could be separated into three radioactive peaks eluting at 100 mM (peak I), 200 mM (peak II) and 500 mM (peak III) ammonium formate, respectively. Peak III was the most active as an inhibitor of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Treatment of peak III with alkaline phosphatase markedly reduced its activity on cAMP-dependent protein kinase. When peaks I, II or III were treated with alkaline phosphatase and analyzed again by Dowex AG1 x 8 chromatography, the radioactivity eluted with the aqueous fraction. The above results indicate that the polar head group of the insulin-sensitive glycosylphosphatidylinositol from rat hepatocytes exists in three different phosphorylated forms and that the biological activity of this molecule depends on its phosphorylation state. PMID:3042467

  9. Kinetics of antigen-sensitive cells in the lymphoid organs of rats during allotransplantation reaction.

    PubMed

    Koníková, E; Klobusická, M

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of antigen-sensitive cells in the peripheral blood, spleens, regional lymph nodes, and thymuses of rats was investigated at different time intervals after immunization with allogeneic lymph node cells or after immunization with allogeneic skin or tumour grafts. The lytic effect of the immunizing antigen in vitro was estimated by the percentage of surviving cells after 24 h incubation with the specific antigen prepared from the lymph nodes of graft donors. The percentage of active lymphocytes in individual lymphoid organs of rats immunized with allogenic lymphocyte suspensions was determined by the nucleolar test. Regional lymph node enlargement was evaluated by determining lymph node relative weights and enlargement indices. An immunologically specific enlargement of the regional lymph nodes, increased numbers of ASC and increased percentage of active lymphocytes were seen as early as 24 h after immunization with allogeneic lymph node cells. At this time, the number of ASC in the peripheral blood was reduced and the percentage of active lymphocytes was low. After immunization with allogeneic skin and tumour grafts, ASC were detected first in the peripheral blood, then in the regional lymph nodes as late as 8 days after immunization, and after 10 days in the spleens. PMID:7016602

  10. Estimation of restraint stress in rats using salivary amylase activity.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Tetsuya; Takimura, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Masaki; Ichinose, Mitsuyuki

    2012-09-01

    The rat is an ideal model animal for studying physical and psychological stresses. Recent human studies have shown that salivary amylase activity is a useful biomarker of stress in our social life. To estimate the usefulness of amylase activity as a biomarker of stress in rats, we analyzed changes in physiological parameters including amylase activity and anatomical variables, which were induced by a mild restraint of paws (10 min, 3 times/week, 9 weeks). The quantities of food and water intake and excretion amount of the stress rats were smaller than those of the control rats during the experimental period (5-13 weeks). The body weight of the stress rats decreased compared with that of the control rats. Moreover, the enlargement of the adrenal gland was confirmed in the stress rats, indicating that the mild restraint caused a chronic stress response. The amylase activities of the stress rats were significantly greater than those of the control rats at 5 weeks of age. However, the amylase activity of the stress rats decreased compared with that of the control rats after 6 weeks of age. These results indicate that amylase activity is increased by acute stress and reduced by chronic stress, which is caused by repeated restraint stress. In conclusion, amylase activity is a useful biomarker of acute and chronic stresses in rats. PMID:22753135

  11. Voltage-Sensitive Dye Imaging of Neocortical Activity.

    PubMed

    Grinvald, Amiram; Omer, David B; Sharon, Dahlia; Vanzetta, Ivo; Hildesheim, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Neural computations underlying sensory perception, cognition, and motor control are performed by populations of neurons at different anatomical and temporal scales. Few techniques are currently available for exploring the dynamics of local and large range populations. Voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI), based on organic voltage probes, reveals neural population activity in areas ranging from a few tens of micrometers to a couple of centimeters, or two areas up to ~10 cm apart. VSDI provides a submillisecond temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of ~50 µm. The dye signal emphasizes subthreshold synaptic potentials. VSDI has been applied in the mouse, rat, gerbil, ferret, tree shrew, cat, and monkey cortices to explore the lateral spread of retinotopic or somatotopic activation; the dynamic spatiotemporal pattern resulting from sensory activation, including the somatosensory, olfactory, auditory, and visual modalities; and motor preparation and the properties of spontaneously occurring population activity. In this introduction, we focus on VSDI in vivo and review results obtained mostly in the visual system in our laboratory. PMID:26729915

  12. Responses to cholinergic agonists of rats selectively bred for differential sensitivity to ethanol.

    PubMed

    de Fiebre, C M; Romm, E; Collins, J T; Draski, L J; Deitrich, R A; Collins, A C

    1991-03-01

    Alcoholics are almost invariably heavy users of tobacco. Both alcoholism and smoking appear to be influenced by genetic factors but it is not known whether the same or different genes regulate the abuse of ethanol and nicotine. Recent studies have demonstrated that the long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mouse lines, which were selectively bred for differences in ethanol-induced anesthesia ("sleep-time"), also differ in several effects of nicotine and the muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine. In order to determine whether or not these differences are due to chance, the relative sensitivities of rat lines which were selectively bred for differences in ethanol-induced sleep-time were determined. The high alcohol sensitivity (HAS) rat line was more sensitive to the locomotor and body temperature depressant effects of nicotine than was the low alcohol sensitivity (LAS) rat line. The control line (CAS) was intermediate in sensitivity. The rat lines did not differ in sensitivity to oxotremorine's hypothermia-producing effects. The numbers and affinities of two classes of brain nicotinic receptors were measured in eight brain regions. No differences among the rat lines were detected. These results suggest that ethanol elicits some of its depressant actions via an effect on brain nicotinic systems, but the differences in sensitivity to ethanol and nicotine are probably not due to differences in the number of brain nicotinic receptors. Perhaps this interaction explains the high correlation between alcoholism and smoking in humans. PMID:2058804

  13. Zataria multiflora increases insulin sensitivity and PPARγ gene expression in high fructose fed insulin resistant rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Abbas; Gholamhoseinian, Ahmad; Fallah, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): In insulin resistance, the insulin action in liver, muscles and adipocytes decreases and result in hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hyperinsulinemia. In this study we evaluate the effect of Zataria multiflora extract on insulin sensitivity in high fructose fed insulin resistant rats, since this extract was shown antihyperglycemic effect in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental rats were fed with high fructose diet for 6 weeks and then were treated with Z. multiflora extract or a pioglitazone solution for 2 weeks. Blood and tissue samples were collected for analysis at the end of two weeks. Blood glucose, serum level of triglyceride and cholesterol were measured by auto analyzer. Insulin and adiponectin levels were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Plasma free fatty acids profile was studied by gas chromatography. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR.γ) and Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT.4) gene expressions were assessed by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting. Results: Animals were treated by Z. multiflora extract showed insulin (43±11pmol/l), adiponectin (5.3±0.5 μg/ml), glucose (144±9.8 mg/dl), and triglyceride (120±10 mg/dl) levels significantly improved as compare with the control group [insulin (137±34 pmol/l), adiponectin (3.9±0.15 μg/ml), glucose (187±15mg/dl), and triglycerides (217±18 mg/dl)]. PPARγ protein level, also significantly increased in Zataria multiflora treated group. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the beneficial effects of Zataria multiflora extract on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fructose diet through at least three mechanisms including direct insulin like effect, increasing in adiponectin and of PPARγ protein expression. PMID:24904719

  14. Renal Tumor Necrosis Factor α Contributes to Hypertension in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Baorui; Cheng, Yuan; Usa, Kristie; Liu, Yong; Baker, Maria Angeles; Mattson, David L.; He, Yongcheng; Wang, Niansong; Liang, Mingyu

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) is a major proinflammatory cytokine and its level is elevated in hypertensive states. Inflammation occurs in the kidneys during the development of hypertension. We hypothesized that TNFα specifically in the kidney contributes to the development of hypertension and renal injury in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats, a widely used model of human salt-sensitive hypertension and renal injury. SS rats were chronically instrumented for renal interstitial infusion and blood pressure measurement in conscious, freely moving state. Gene expression was measured using real-time PCR and renal injury assessed with histological analysis. The abundance of TNFα in the renal medulla of SS rats, but not the salt-insensitive congenic SS.13BN26 rats, was significantly increased when rats had been fed a high-salt diet for 7 days (n = 6 or 9, p < 0.01). The abundance of TNFα receptors in the renal medulla was significantly higher in SS rats than SS.13BN26 rats. Renal interstitial administration of Etanercept, an inhibitor of TNFα, significantly attenuated the development of hypertension in SS rats on a high-salt diet (n = 7–8, p < 0.05). Glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis were also significantly ameliorated. These findings indicate intrarenal TNFα contributes to the development of hypertension and renal injury in SS rats. PMID:26916681

  15. Renal Tumor Necrosis Factor α Contributes to Hypertension in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Baorui; Cheng, Yuan; Usa, Kristie; Liu, Yong; Baker, Maria Angeles; Mattson, David L; He, Yongcheng; Wang, Niansong; Liang, Mingyu

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) is a major proinflammatory cytokine and its level is elevated in hypertensive states. Inflammation occurs in the kidneys during the development of hypertension. We hypothesized that TNFα specifically in the kidney contributes to the development of hypertension and renal injury in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats, a widely used model of human salt-sensitive hypertension and renal injury. SS rats were chronically instrumented for renal interstitial infusion and blood pressure measurement in conscious, freely moving state. Gene expression was measured using real-time PCR and renal injury assessed with histological analysis. The abundance of TNFα in the renal medulla of SS rats, but not the salt-insensitive congenic SS.13(BN26) rats, was significantly increased when rats had been fed a high-salt diet for 7 days (n = 6 or 9, p < 0.01). The abundance of TNFα receptors in the renal medulla was significantly higher in SS rats than SS.13(BN26) rats. Renal interstitial administration of Etanercept, an inhibitor of TNFα, significantly attenuated the development of hypertension in SS rats on a high-salt diet (n = 7-8, p < 0.05). Glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis were also significantly ameliorated. These findings indicate intrarenal TNFα contributes to the development of hypertension and renal injury in SS rats. PMID:26916681

  16. Improvements in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors and insulin sensitivity with trenbolone in normogonadic rats.

    PubMed

    Donner, Daniel G; Beck, Belinda R; Bulmer, Andrew C; Lam, Alfred K; Du Toit, Eugene F

    2015-02-01

    Trenbolone (TREN) is used for anabolic growth-promotion in over 20 million cattle annually and continues to be misused for aesthetic purposes in humans. The current study investigated TREN's effects on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors; and its tissue-selective effects on the cardiovascular system, liver and prostate. Male rats (n=12) were implanted with osmotic infusion pumps delivering either cyclodextrin vehicle (CTRL) or 2mg/kg/day TREN for 6 weeks. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry assessment of body composition; organ wet weights and serum lipid profiles; and insulin sensitivity were assessed. Cardiac ultrasound examinations were performed before in vivo studies assessed myocardial susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Circulating sex hormones and liver enzyme activities; and prostate and liver histology were examined. In 6 weeks, fat mass increased by 34±7% in CTRLs (p<0.01). Fat mass decreased by 37±6% and lean mass increased by 11±4% with TREN (p<0.05). Serum triglycerides, HDL and LDL were reduced by 62%, 57% and 78% (p<0.05) respectively in TREN rats. Histological examination of the prostates from TREN-treated rats indicated benign hyperplasia associated with an increased prostate mass (149% compared to CTRLs, p<0.01). No evidence of adverse cardiac or hepatic effects was observed. In conclusion, improvements in body composition, lipid profile and insulin sensitivity (key risk factors for cardiometabolic disease) were achieved with six-week TREN treatment without evidence of adverse cardiovascular or hepatic effects that are commonly associated with traditional anabolic steroid misuse. Sex hormone suppression and benign prostate hyperplasia were confirmed as adverse effects of the treatment. PMID:25554582

  17. Highly H+-sensitive neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Ribas-Salgueiro, J L; Gaytán, S P; Crego, R; Pásaro, R; Ribas, J

    2003-01-01

    The ventral surface of the caudal ventrolateral medulla (cVLM) has been shown to generate intense respiratory responses after surface acid-base stimulation. With respect to their chemosensitive characteristics, cVLM neurons have been less studied than other rostral-most regions of the brainstem. The purpose of these experiments was to determine the bioelectric responses of cVLM neurons to acidic stimuli and to determine their chemosensitive properties. Using extracellular and microiontophoretic techniques, we recorded electrical activities from 117 neurons in an area close to the ventral surface of the cVLM in anaesthetised rats. All neurons were tested for their sensitivity to H+. The fluorescent probe BCECF was used to measure extracellular pH changes produced by the microiontophoretic injection of H+ in brainstem slices. This procedure provided an estimation of the local changes in pH produced by microiontophoretic H+ application in the anaesthetised rat. Neurons coupled to the respiratory cycle, R (n = 51), were not responsive to direct stimulation with H+. Sixty-six neurons that did respond to H+ stimulation were uncoupled from respiration, and identified as NR neurons. These neurons presented distinct ranges of H+ sensitivity. The neuronal sensitivity to H+ was mainly assessed by the slope of the stimulus-response curve, where the steeper the slope, the higher the H+ sensitivity. On this basis, NR neurons were classed as being either weakly or highly sensitive to H+. NR neurons with a high H+ sensitivity (n = 12) showed an average value of 34.17 ± 7.44 spikes s−1 (100 nC)−1 (mean ± s.d.) for maximal slope and an EC50 of 126.76 ± 33 nC. Suprathreshold H+ stimulation of highly sensitive NR neurons elicited bursting pattern responses coupled to the respiratory cycle. The bursting responses, which were synchronised with the inspiratory phase and the early expiratory phase of the respiratory cycle, lasted for several seconds before returning to the steady

  18. Centrophenoxine activates acetylcholinesterase activity in hippocampus of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, D; Singh, R

    1995-05-01

    Age-related changes in the acetylcholinesterase activity were measured in the hippocampus, brain stem and cerebellum of rats (aged 4, 8, 16 and 24 months). The age-dependent decrease in the enzyme activity first appeared in the hippocampus; the brain stem was affected later while the cerebellum remained unaffected. Centrophenoxine, usually considered as an ageing reversal drug and also regarded as a neuroenergeticum in human therapy, increased the acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus of aged rats, the activity was also elevated in the brain stem but no in the cerebellum. The acetylcholinesterase-stimulating influence of the drug is likely to be implicated in the pharmacological reversal of the age related decline of the cholinergic system. This effect of the drug may also mediate its effects on cognitive and neuronal synaptic functions. PMID:7558197

  19. Analysis of rat cytosolic 9-cis-retinol dehydrogenase activity and enzymatic characterization of rat ADHII.

    PubMed

    Popescu, G; Napoli, J L

    2000-01-01

    We report the characterization of two enzymes that catalyze NAD(+)-dependent 9-cis-retinol dehydrogenase activity in rat liver cystol. Alcohol dehydrogenase class I (ADHI) contributes > 80% of the NA D+-dependent 9-cis-retinol dehydrogenase activity recovered, whereas alcohol dehydrogenase class II (ADHII), not identified previously at the protein level, nor characterized enzymatically in rat, accounts for approximately 2% of the activity. Rat ADHII exhibits properties different from those described for human ADHII. Moreover, rat ADHII-catalyzed rates of ethanol dehydrogenation are markedly lower than octanol or retinoid dehydrogenation rates. Neither ethanol nor 4-methylpyrazole inhibits the 9-cis-retinol dehydrogenase activity of rat ADHII. We propose that ADHII represents the previously observed additional retinoid oxidation activity of rat liver cytosol which occurred in the presence of either ethanol or 4-methylpyrazole. We also show that human and rat ADHII differ considerably in enzymatic properties. PMID:10606766

  20. Cocoa Diet Prevents Antibody Synthesis and Modifies Lymph Node Composition and Functionality in a Rat Oral Sensitization Model

    PubMed Central

    Camps-Bossacoma, Mariona; Abril-Gil, Mar; Saldaña-Ruiz, Sandra; Franch, Àngels; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Castell, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa powder, a rich source of polyphenols, has shown immunomodulatory properties in both the intestinal and systemic immune compartments of rats. The aim of the current study was to establish the effect of a cocoa diet in a rat oral sensitization model and also to gain insight into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) activities induced by this diet. To achieve this, three-week-old Lewis rats were fed either a standard diet or a diet with 10% cocoa and were orally sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and with cholera toxin as a mucosal adjuvant. Specific antibodies were quantified, and lymphocyte composition, gene expression, and cytokine release were established in MLN. The development of anti-OVA antibodies was almost totally prevented in cocoa-fed rats. In addition, this diet increased the proportion of TCRγδ+ and CD103+CD8+ cells and decreased the proportion of CD62L+CD4+ and CD62L+CD8+ cells in MLN, whereas it upregulated the gene expression of OX40L, CD11c, and IL-1β and downregulated the gene expression of IL-17α. In conclusion, the cocoa diet induced tolerance in an oral sensitization model accompanied by changes in MLN that could contribute to this effect, suggesting its potential implication in the prevention of food allergies. PMID:27120615

  1. Cocoa Diet Prevents Antibody Synthesis and Modifies Lymph Node Composition and Functionality in a Rat Oral Sensitization Model.

    PubMed

    Camps-Bossacoma, Mariona; Abril-Gil, Mar; Saldaña-Ruiz, Sandra; Franch, Àngels; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castell, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa powder, a rich source of polyphenols, has shown immunomodulatory properties in both the intestinal and systemic immune compartments of rats. The aim of the current study was to establish the effect of a cocoa diet in a rat oral sensitization model and also to gain insight into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) activities induced by this diet. To achieve this, three-week-old Lewis rats were fed either a standard diet or a diet with 10% cocoa and were orally sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and with cholera toxin as a mucosal adjuvant. Specific antibodies were quantified, and lymphocyte composition, gene expression, and cytokine release were established in MLN. The development of anti-OVA antibodies was almost totally prevented in cocoa-fed rats. In addition, this diet increased the proportion of TCRγδ+ and CD103+CD8+ cells and decreased the proportion of CD62L+CD4+ and CD62L+CD8+ cells in MLN, whereas it upregulated the gene expression of OX40L, CD11c, and IL-1β and downregulated the gene expression of IL-17α. In conclusion, the cocoa diet induced tolerance in an oral sensitization model accompanied by changes in MLN that could contribute to this effect, suggesting its potential implication in the prevention of food allergies. PMID:27120615

  2. Targeting Interleukin-1 beta to Suppress Sympathoexcitation in Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jie; Zhao, Xiu-Fang; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Yi, Qiu-Yue; Shi, Xiao-Lian; Tan, Hong; Fan, Xiao-Yan; Gao, Hong-Li; Yue, Li-Ying; Feng, Zhi-Peng; Kang, Yu-Ming

    2016-07-01

    Findings from our laboratory indicate that expressions of some proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6 and oxidative stress responses are increased in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and contribute to the progression of salt-sensitive hypertension. In this study, we determined whether interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) activation within the PVN contributes to sympathoexcitation during development of salt-dependent hypertension. Eight-week-old male Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rats received a high-salt diet (HS, 8 % NaCl) or a normal-salt diet (NS, 0.3 % NaCl) for 6 weeks, and all rats were treated with bilateral PVN injection of gevokizumab (IL-1β inhibitor, 1 μL of 10 μg) or vehicle once a week. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and plasma norepinephrine (NE) were significantly increased in high-salt-fed rats. In addition, rats with high-salt diet had higher levels of NOX-2, NOX-4 [subunits of NAD (P) H oxidase], IL-1β, NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3), Fra-LI (an indicator of chronic neuronal activation) and lower levels of IL-10 in the PVN than normal-diet rats. Bilateral PVN injection of gevokizumab decreased MAP, HR and NE, attenuated the levels of oxidative stress and restored the balance of cytokines. These findings suggest that IL-1β activation in the PVN plays a role in salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:26304161

  3. Rat hormone sensitive lipase inhibition by cyclipostins and their analogs.

    PubMed

    Vasilieva, Elena; Dutta, Supratik; Malla, Raj K; Martin, Benjamin P; Spilling, Christopher D; Dupureur, Cynthia M

    2015-03-01

    Cyclipostins are bicyclic lipophilic phosphate natural products. We report here that synthesized individual diastereomers of cyclipostins P and R have nanomolar IC50s toward hormone sensitive lipase (HSL). The less potent diastereomers of these compounds have 10-fold weaker IC50s. The monocyclic phosphate analog of cyclipostin P is nearly as potent as the bicyclic natural product. Bicyclic phosphonate analogs of both cyclipostins exhibit IC50s similar to those of the weaker diastereomer phosphates (about 400nM). The monocyclic phosphonate analog of cyclipostin P has similar potency. A series of monocyclic phosphonate analogs in which a hydrophobic tail extends from the lactone side of the ring are considerably poorer inhibitors, with IC50s around 50μM. Finally cyclophostin, a related natural product inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) that lacks the hydrocarbon tail of cyclipostins, is not active against HSL. These results indicate a critical SAR for these compounds, the hydrophobic tail. The smaller lactone ring is not critical to activity, a similarity shared with cyclophostin and AChE. The HSL kinetics of inhibition for the cyclipostin P trans diastereomer were examined in detail. The reaction is irreversible with a KI of 40nM and a rate constant for inactivation of 0.2min(-1). These results are similar to those observed for cyclophostin and AChE. PMID:25678014

  4. Rat Hormone Sensitive Lipase Inhibition by Cyclipostins and Their Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Vasilieva, Elena; Dutta, Supratik; Malla, Raj K.; Martin, Benjamin P.; Spilling, Christopher D.; Dupureur, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclipostins are bicyclic lipophilic phosphate natural products. We report here that synthesized individual diastereomers of cyclipostins P and R have nanomolar IC50s toward hormone sensitive lipase (HSL). The less potent diastereomers of these compounds have 10-fold weaker IC50s. The monocyclic phosphate analog of cyclipostin P is nearly as potent as the bicyclic natural product. Bicyclic phosphonate analogs of both cyclipostins exhibit IC50s similar to those of the weaker diastereomer phosphates (about 400 nM). The monocyclic phosphonate analog of cyclipostin P has similar potency. A series of monocyclic phosphonate analogs in which a hydrophobic tail extends from the lactone side of the ring are considerably poorer inhibitors, with IC50s around 50 μM. Finally cyclophostin, a related natural product inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) that lacks the hydrocarbon tail of cyclipostins, is not active against HSL. These results indicate a critical SAR for these compounds, the hydrophobic tail. The smaller lactone ring is not critical to activity, a similarity shared with cyclophostin and AChE. The HSL kinetics of inhibition for the cyclipostin P trans diastereomer were examined in detail. The reaction is irreversible with a KI of 40 nM and a rate constant for inactivation of 0.2 min−1. These results are similar to those observed for cyclophostin and AChE. PMID:25678014

  5. MDMA (ecstasy) effects in pubescent rats: Males are more sensitive than females.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Julie; Lazarus, Christine; Jeltsch, Hélène; Ben Hamida, Sami; Riegert, Céline; Kelche, Christian; Jones, Byron C; Cassel, Jean-Christophe

    2005-07-01

    In Experiment 1, we assessed the effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on locomotor activity in pubescent male and female Long-Evans rats. Thirty-nine day old rats were injected ip with 10 mg/kg of MDMA (ambient temperature 25 degrees C) three times at 2 h intervals. Initially, females showed greater locomotor activation by the drug than males, however after the second injection, males showed greater hyperlocomotion. After the third injection, 3 of 10 females and all of the males died. In the surviving females, we observed serotonin depletion in cortex and hippocampus, but catecholaminergic markers were unaltered. In Experiment 2, male and female rats were repeatedly injected with saline or 2, 5 or 10 mg/kg MDMA and body temperature was measured (ambient temperature 21.5 degrees C). After the third injection of 10 mg/kg MDMA, the MDMA-induced hyperthermia was greater in males than in females (about +0.8 degrees C); at the lower dose, no difference was observed. Probably because of the lower ambient temperature, only 1 female and 2 males succumbed to the MDMA treatment, and MDMA induced less serotonin depletion than in the first experiment, with no difference between females and males. Thus, pubescent males appear to be more sensitive than females to locomotor and hyperpyretic effects of MDMA. This sex-dependent effect, which is at variance with previously reported dimorphisms in psychostimulant effects, is discussed in terms of possible differences in dopamine D1 and D2 receptors at pubescence, or other factors related to drug metabolism. PMID:15951008

  6. Adolescent alcohol exposure decreased sensitivity to nicotine in adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Boutros, Nathalie; Semenova, Svetlana; Markou, Athina

    2016-07-01

    Many adolescents engage in heavy alcohol use. Limited research in humans indicates that adolescent alcohol use predicts adult tobacco use. The present study investigated whether adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure alters nicotine sensitivity in adulthood. Adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day 28-53) were exposed to AIE exposure that consisted of 5 g/kg of 25 percent ethanol three times per day in a 2 days on/2 days off regimen. Control rats received water with the same exposure regimen. In adulthood, separate groups of rats were tested for nicotine intravenous self-administration (IVSA), drug discrimination and conditioned taste aversion (CTA). The dose-response function for nicotine IVSA under a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement was similar in AIE-exposed and control rats. However, AIE-exposed rats self-administered less nicotine at the lowest dose, suggesting that low-dose nicotine was less reinforcing in AIE-exposed, compared with control rats. AIE-exposed rats self-administered less nicotine under a progressive-ratio schedule, suggesting decreased motivation for nicotine after AIE exposure. The discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine were diminished in AIE-exposed rats compared with control rats. No group differences in nicotine CTA were observed, suggesting that AIE exposure had no effect on the aversive properties of nicotine. Altogether, these results demonstrate that AIE exposure decreases sensitivity to the reinforcing, motivational and discriminative properties of nicotine while leaving the aversive properties of nicotine unaltered in adult rats. These findings suggest that drinking during adolescence may result in decreased sensitivity to nicotine in adult humans, which may in turn contribute to the higher rates of tobacco smoking. PMID:25950618

  7. Amphetamine sensitization and cross-sensitization with acute restraint stress: impact of prenatal alcohol exposure in male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Uban, Kristina A.; Comeau, Wendy L.; Bodnar, Tamara; Yu, Wayne K.; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) are at increased risk for substance use disorders (SUD). In typically developing individuals, susceptibility to SUD is associated with alterations in dopamine and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) systems, and their interactions. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) alters dopamine and HPA systems, yet effects of PAE on dopamine-HPA interactions are unknown. Amphetamine-stress cross-sensitization paradigms were utilized to investigate sensitivity of dopamine and stress (HPA) systems, and their interactions following PAE. Methods Adult Sprague-Dawley offspring from PAE, pair-fed, and ad libitum-fed control groups were assigned to amphetamine-(1–2mg/kg) or saline-treated conditions, with injections every other day for 15 days. 14 days later, all animals received an amphetamine challenge (1mg/kg) and 5 days later, hormones were measured under basal or acute stress conditions. Amphetamine sensitization (augmented locomotion, days 1–29) and cross-sensitization with acute restraint stress (increased stress hormones, day 34) were assessed. Results PAE rats exhibited a lower threshold for amphetamine sensitization compared to controls, suggesting enhanced sensitivity of dopaminergic systems to stimulant-induced changes. Cross-sensitization between amphetamine (dopamine) and stress (HPA hormone) systems was evident in PAE, but not in control rats. PAE males exhibited increased dopamine receptor expression (mPFC) compared to controls. Conclusions PAE alters induction and expression of sensitization/cross-sensitization, as reflected in locomotor, neural, and endocrine changes, in a manner consistent with increased sensitivity of dopamine and stress systems. These results provide insight into possible mechanisms that could underlie increased prevalence of SUD, as well as the impact of widely prescribed stimulant medications among adolescents with FASD. PMID:25420606

  8. Long-term exercise increases the DNA binding activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in rat adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Petridou, Anatoli; Tsalouhidou, Sofia; Tsalis, George; Schulz, Thorsten; Michna, Horst; Mougios, Vassilis

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks of voluntary wheel running on the gene expression, at the protein level, of 2 enzymes involved in lipogenesis (fatty acid synthase [FAS] and diacylglycerol acyl transferase 1), 2 proteins involved in lipolysis (hormone-sensitive lipase [HSL] and perilipin), and 3 transcription factors mediating the induction of genes involved in lipid metabolism (the alpha, gamma, and delta members of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, or PPAR, family) in rat liver, gastrocnemius muscle, epididymal fat, and subcutaneous fat. Proteins were measured through Western blot analysis in the tissues of 11 trained and 14 untrained rats. The trained rats had lower FAS in the liver; higher FAS, HSL, and perilipin in epididymal fat; and higher HSL in subcutaneous fat. In addition, the trained rats had higher total protein concentrations in both fat depots. No significant differences in the liver, muscle, or adipose tissue PPAR contents were found between groups. However, the DNA binding activity of PPARgamma, measured through an enzyme immunoassay-based method, was higher in both fat depots of the trained rats. Our findings suggest that long-term wheel running had significant effects on the concentrations of proteins playing key roles in lipogenesis and lipolysis in rat liver and adipose tissue. These effects may be due to PPAR activation rather than induction, rendering the transcriptional regulation of target genes more economical and flexible. The activation of PPARgamma with exercise may mediate its beneficial effect on insulin sensitivity. PMID:17618946

  9. Cyclophosphamide-Induced Bladder Inflammation Sensitizes and Enhances P2X Receptor Function in Rat Bladder Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Khoa; Lamb, Kenneth; Cohen, Michael; Bielefeldt, Klaus; Gebhart, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    We studied sensitization of retrogradely labeled bladder sensory neurons and plasticity of P2X receptor function in a model of cystitis using patch-clamp techniques. Saline (control) or cyclophosphamide (CYP) was given intraperitoneally to rats on days 0, 2, and 4. On day 5, lumbosacral (LS, L6–S2) or thoracolumbar (TL, T12–L2) dorsal root ganglia were removed and dissociated. Bladders from CYP-treated rats showed partial loss of the urothelium and greater myeloperoxidase activity compared with controls. Bladder neurons from CYP-treated rats were increased in size (based on whole cell capacitance) compared with controls and exhibited lower activation threshold, increased action potential width, and greater number of action potentials in response to current injection or application of purinergic agonists. Most control LS bladder neurons (>85%) responded to ATP or α,β-metATP with a slowly desensitizing current; these agonists affected only half of TL neurons, producing predominantly fast/mixed desensitizing currents. CYP treatment increased the fraction of TL bladder neurons sensitive to purinergic agonists (>80%) and significantly increased current density in both LS and TL bladder neurons compared with control. Importantly, LS and TL neurons from CYP-treated rats showed a selective increase in the functional expression of heteromeric P2X2/3 and homomeric P2X3 receptors, respectively. Although desensitizing kinetics were slower in LS neurons from CYP-treated compared with control rats, recovery kinetics were similar. The present results demonstrate that bladder inflammation sensitizes and increases P2X receptor expression and/or function for both pelvic and lumbar splanchnic pathways, which contribute, in part, to the hypersensitivity associated with cystitis. PMID:17959738

  10. Low dose ethanol consumption improves insulin sensitivity in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While chronic consumption of high doses of ethanol is well known to have adverse health consequences, intake of low doses have been reported to improve several markers of health outcomes. Published results from our laboratory using total enteral nutrition (TEN) in rats, in which ethanol-containing d...

  11. Analysis of The Sensitivity and Reproducibility Of The Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) Scale in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Barros Filho, Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa; Molina, Alessandra Eira Iague Sleiman

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the sensitivity and reproducibility of the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan functional scale in the assessment of the locomotor capacity of rats after spinal cord injury. METHODS Thirty male Wistar rats underwent laminectomy and mild, moderate or severe spinal cord contusions using the New York University Weight Drop Impactor. The mice were followed for 28 days, after which time each rat was placed in an 80x80x30 cm3 clear box lined with a blue non-slippery material and stimulated to move. Their movement was video-recorded by three digital cameras operating simultaneously. Identical copies of the edited videos were given to six independent evaluators who were blinded with regards to the degree of injury severity. Each evaluator made a determination of the locomotor capacity of the rats using the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan functional scale. RESULTS We determined the sensitivity of the method to differences among the evaluators as well as between the results achieved on the left and right hind paws of rats subjected to either mild, moderate or severe injuries by comparing the functional outcomes and reproducibility using non-parametric correlation tests. CONCLUSIONS The Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan scale showed high reproducibility and satisfactory sensitivity for identifying mild injuries; satisfactory reproducibility and non-satisfactory sensitivity for moderate injuries; and reduced reproducibility and non-satisfactory sensitivity for severe injuries. PMID:18305873

  12. Drinking-induced bradyarrhythmias and cerebral injury in Dahl salt-sensitive rats with sinoaortic denervation.

    PubMed

    Abe, Chikara; Morita, Hironobu

    2013-11-01

    We have demonstrated that a drinking-induced pressor response was larger if the baroreflex did not operate, and the mean arterial pressure reached 163 mmHg in conscious rats with sinoaortic denervation (SAD). Thus we hypothesized that a drinking behavior became a cardiovascular risk factor if a basal arterial pressure was high. To clarify this, we analyzed the occurrence of arrhythmias and the accumulation of microglia in Dahl salt-sensitive rats (Dahl S) with SAD. We maintained Dahl S and Dahl salt-resistant rats (Dahl R) with a high-sodium diet for 5 weeks. After SAD surgery, we measured arterial pressure and electrocardiogram during water-drinking behavior in all rats. Furthermore, we measured tumor necrosis factor-α concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and microglial accumulations around the third and fourth ventricles in rats with programmed drinking at a rapid or slow rate for 7 days. Incidences of drinking-induced bradyarrhythmias and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were significantly larger in Dahl S than Dahl R rats. Both bradyarrhythmias and PVCs were completely abolished by atropine administration. Accumulations of microglia around the third ventricle and increases in TNF-α in the CSF were observed in rats that drank water at a rapid rate; these were not seen in rats that drank water slowly. In conclusion, both cardiovascular events and cerebral injury may be increased by drinking in Dahl S rats with SAD. These risks are reduced by modifying drinking behavior such as slowing the drinking rate. PMID:24072408

  13. A NOVEL AMILORIDE SENSITIVE H+ TRANSPORT PATHWAY MEDIATES ENHANCED SUPEROXIDE PRODUCTION IN THICK ASCENDING LIMB OF SALT-SENSITIVE RATS, NOT Na+/H+ EXCHANGE

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Paul M.; Lu, Limin; Liang, Mingyu; Cowley, Allen W.

    2009-01-01

    It has previously been reported that H+ efflux via Na+/H+ exchange stimulates NAD(P)H oxidase dependent O2 − production in medullary thick ascending limb. We have recently demonstrated that N-methyl-amiloride sensitive O2 − production is enhanced in thick ascending limb of salt-sensitive SS rats suggesting that H+ efflux through Na+/H+ exchangers may promote renal oxidative stress and the development of hypertension in these animals. In the current study we demonstrate, using selective and potent inhibitors, that inhibition of Na+/H+ exchange does not mediate the ability of N-methyl-amiloride to inhibit thick ascending limb O2 − production. To determine the mechanism of action of N-methyl-amiloride, we examined H+ efflux and O2 − production in SS and SS.13BN thick ascending limb of pre-hypertensive, 0.4% NaCl fed rats. Tissue strips containing medullary thick ascending limb were isolated from male SS and salt-resistant consomic SS.13BN rats, loaded with either DHE or BCECF, and imaged in a heated tissue bath. In Na+ replete media, activation of Na+/H+ exchange using an NH4Cl prepulse did not stimulate thick ascending limb O2 −production. In Na+ free media containing BaCl2 in which Na+/H+ activity was inhibited, a NH4Cl pre-pulse stimulated mTAL O2 −. This response was enhanced in mTAL of SS rats (slope ΔEth/ΔDHE=0.029±0.004) compared to SS.13BN rats (slope=0.010±0.004; p<0.04) and could be inhibited by N-methyl-amiloride (slope=0.005±0.002 & 0.006±0.002 for SS and SS.13BN, respectively). We conclude that only H+ efflux through a specific, as yet unidentified, amiloride-sensitive H+ channel promotes O2 − production in medullary thick ascending limb, and that this channel is up-regulated in SS rats. PMID:19564541

  14. Engineering vanilloid-sensitivity into the rat TRPV2 channel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Hanson, Sonya M; Jara-Oseguera, Andres; Krepkiy, Dmitriy; Bae, Chanhyung; Pearce, Larry V; Blumberg, Peter M; Newstead, Simon; Swartz, Kenton J

    2016-01-01

    The TRPV1 channel is a detector of noxious stimuli, including heat, acidosis, vanilloid compounds and lipids. The gating mechanisms of the related TRPV2 channel are poorly understood because selective high affinity ligands are not available, and the threshold for heat activation is extremely high (>50°C). Cryo-EM structures of TRPV1 and TRPV2 reveal that they adopt similar structures, and identify a putative vanilloid binding pocket near the internal side of TRPV1. Here we use biochemical and electrophysiological approaches to investigate the resiniferatoxin(RTx) binding site in TRPV1 and to explore the functional relationships between TRPV1 and TRPV2. Collectively, our results support the interaction of vanilloids with the proposed RTx binding pocket, and demonstrate an allosteric influence of a tarantula toxin on vanilloid binding. Moreover, we show that sensitivity to RTx can be engineered into TRPV2, demonstrating that the gating and permeation properties of this channel are similar to TRPV1. PMID:27177419

  15. Engineering vanilloid-sensitivity into the rat TRPV2 channel

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Hanson, Sonya M; Jara-Oseguera, Andres; Krepkiy, Dmitriy; Bae, Chanhyung; Pearce, Larry V; Blumberg, Peter M; Newstead, Simon; Swartz, Kenton J

    2016-01-01

    The TRPV1 channel is a detector of noxious stimuli, including heat, acidosis, vanilloid compounds and lipids. The gating mechanisms of the related TRPV2 channel are poorly understood because selective high affinity ligands are not available, and the threshold for heat activation is extremely high (>50°C). Cryo-EM structures of TRPV1 and TRPV2 reveal that they adopt similar structures, and identify a putative vanilloid binding pocket near the internal side of TRPV1. Here we use biochemical and electrophysiological approaches to investigate the resiniferatoxin(RTx) binding site in TRPV1 and to explore the functional relationships between TRPV1 and TRPV2. Collectively, our results support the interaction of vanilloids with the proposed RTx binding pocket, and demonstrate an allosteric influence of a tarantula toxin on vanilloid binding. Moreover, we show that sensitivity to RTx can be engineered into TRPV2, demonstrating that the gating and permeation properties of this channel are similar to TRPV1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16409.001 PMID:27177419

  16. Bilirubin UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity of wistar rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Foliot, A; Christoforov, B; Petite, J P; Etienne, J P; Housset, E; Dubois, M

    1975-08-01

    Wistar rat kidneys have been shown to possess a bilirubin glucuronyltransferase (BGT) activity capable of conjugating about 3/5 of the total pool of unconjugated bilirubin within 48 h of being grafted to Gunn rat hosts. Bilirubin conjugated by the kidney is taken up by the liver and excreted in the bile. Except when the bile duct is ligated, no conjugated bilirubin appears in the plasma or urine. Renal BGT activity is about 1/20th of the hepatic activity on a weight basis in Wistar rats. The Gunn rat's hyperbilirubinemia probably causes an induction of the renal enzyme since its activity doubles in 48 h. PMID:808968

  17. Chronic biliary obstruction induces pulmonary intravascular phagocytosis and endotoxin sensitivity in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S W; Ohara, N

    1994-01-01

    Endotoxin sensitivity varies among animal species and appears to correlate with the presence of pulmonary intravascular macrophage (PIM). In rats, which lack PIM, we investigated the hypothesis that chronic cholestatic liver injury leads to induction of PIM and endotoxin sensitivity. Rats were randomized to either common bile duct ligation (BDL) or sham-surgery and studied at 1 wk (acute cholestasis), 2 wk (cholestasis, early cirrhosis), and 4 wk (cholestasis, established cirrhosis) after surgery. Intravascularly injected fluorescent latex microspheres (1 micron diameter) were taken up by large phagocytic cells in lung parenchyma of BDL rats (at 2 and 4 wk), while no uptake was observed in lungs from control rats. Electronmicroscopy revealed accumulation of large, mononuclear, macrophage-like cells containing ingested latex particles within the pulmonary capillaries. Pulmonary intravascular phagocytosis, as reflected in lung uptake of 99mTc microaggregated albumin (Microlite, mean particle diameter = 1 micron), averaged 0.7 +/- 0.1% (mean +/- SEM) of total injected dose in 13 control rats and progressively increased with time after BDL (1 wk, 1.7 +/- 0.2%; 2 wk, 10.0 +/- 3.0%; 4 wk 35.1 +/- 5.9%). Rats with biliary cirrhosis were markedly sensitive to the lethal effects of low dose endotoxin and demonstrated marked lung edema at the time of death. Furthermore, the lung uptake of intravascular 125I-lipopolysaccharide was increased five-fold in cirrhotic rats. We conclude that chronic biliary obstruction leads to the induction of pulmonary intravascular phagocytes and enhances endotoxin sensitivity in rats. Pulmonary intravascular phagocytosis in patients with advanced cirrhosis may account for their increased susceptibility to sepsis-induced adult respiratory distress syndrome. Images PMID:7962547

  18. Dosimetry considerations in the enhanced sensitivity of male Wistar rats to chronic ethylene glycol-induced nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, R.A. Wilson, D.M.; Hard, G.C.; Stebbins, K.E.; Bartels, M.J.; Soelberg, J.J.; Dryzga, M.D.; Gingell, R.; McMartin, K.E.; Snellings, W.M.

    2008-04-15

    less sensitive strain), a significant difference was observed in oxalate clearances between young rats (i.e. Wistar clearance < F344) but not in age-matched old rats. Regardless, the ratios of oxalate:inulin clearances in these two strains of rats, including those exposed to ethylene glycol, were all < 1, suggesting that a fraction of the filtered oxalate is reabsorbed. Other species, including humans, typically have clearance ratios > 1 and are more effective at clearing oxalic acid by both glomerular filtration and active secretion. Thus, the lower renal clearance and kidney accumulation of oxalates in male Wistar rats enhances their sensitivity, which will be a factor in human risk assessments. The benchmark dose values (BMD05, BMDL05) were 170 mg/kg/day and 150 mg/kg/day for nephropathy, and 170 mg/kg/day and 160 mg/kg/day for birefringent crystals, using incidence times severity data in each case. The NOAEL of 150 mg/kg/day is the same as that reported after 16-week exposure and appears to be a threshold dose below which no renal toxicity occurs, regardless of exposure duration.

  19. Ultrasonic Activation of Thermally Sensitive Liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylonopouloua, Eleonora; Arvanitisa, Costas D.; Bazan-Peregrinoa, Miriam; Arora, Manish; Coussios, Constantin C.

    2010-03-01

    Cancerous cells are known to be more vulnerable to mild hyperthermia than healthy cells, which can survive temperatures above 43° C for brief periods of time. Currently in phase III clinical trials for liver cancer, ThermoDox® (Celsion Corporation) is a drug delivery system containing doxorubicin, a common anti-cancer agent, encapsulated within a thermally sensitive liposome designed to release its contents above 39.5° C. Activation of such an agent with the use of HIFU, which can generate localized heating non-invasively, would combine the benefits of targeted chemotherapy and hyperthermia while minimizing undesirable systemic side-effects. To that end, the resolution and reliability with which HIFU-induced hyperthermia can achieve Thermodox® release was investigated using a novel agar-based gel embedding liposomes at clinically relevant concentrations (0.02 mg/ml). The gel was exposed to 1.15 MHz HIFU (Sonic Concepts H102) using a range of clinically relevant pressure amplitudes (0-6 MPa peak rarefactional), duty cycles (10-100%) and exposure durations to identify optimal insonation conditions for complete doxorubicin release. The corresponding temperature profiles were mapped with 0.5 mm spatial resolution using an embedded needle thermocouple; drug release was quantified using fluorimetry. Complete release over the HIFU focal area was obtained for 6-s continuous wave exposure at 5.2 MPa peak rarefactional pressure, i.e. under exposure conditions for which the temperature exceeded 43° C throughout the focal volume. For a given HIFU energy input, both the final temperature reached and the rate of heating were found to affect release significantly. However, ThermoDox® release was achieved only due to thermal effects of HIFU, and not by other ultrasound effects, such as cavitation without heating, showing robustness of HIFU-induced hyperthermia as a release mechanism.

  20. Behavioral expression of cocaine sensitization in rats is accompanied by a distinct pattern of modifications in the PKA/DARPP-32 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Scheggi, Simona; Raone, Anna; De Montis, Maria Graziella; Tagliamonte, Alessandro; Gambarana, Carla

    2007-11-01

    Repeated cocaine administration induces behavioral sensitization and modifications in the phosphorylation pattern of dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of Mr 32,000 (DARPP-32), characterized by a tonic increase in the Thr75 phosphorylated form, and a decrease in the Thr34 phosphorylated form. This study further investigated the correlations between cocaine sensitization and modifications in the DARPP-32 phosphorylation pattern, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity, and mGluR5 tone in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Behavioral sensitization and modifications in these neurochemical markers followed a similar temporal pattern. Moreover, in sensitized rats acute cocaine administration modified phosphorylation levels of Thr75- and Thr34-DARPP-32, GluR1, and NR1 subunits in the nucleus accumbens only at a dose double the efficacious dose in control rats. These results suggest that the high levels of phospho-Thr75 DARPP-32 maintain PKA in a prevalent inhibited state. Furthermore, in sensitized rats the acute administration of 6-methyl-2-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine, a mGluR5 antagonist, reinstated the phosphorylation levels of Thr75- and Thr34-DARPP-32, GluR1, and NR1 to control values, and a subsequent cocaine challenge did not elicit a sensitized response. These data suggest that a tonic increase in mGluR5 transmission in cocaine-sensitized rats sustains both the increase in phospho-Thr75 DARPP-32 levels and the expression of behavioral sensitization. PMID:17680995

  1. Improved Leptin Sensitivity as a Potential Candidate Responsible for the Spontaneous Food Restriction of the Lou/C Rat

    PubMed Central

    Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Poher, Anne-Laure; Caillon, Aurélie; Somm, Emmanuel; Vallet, Philippe; Charnay, Yves; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    The Lou/C rat, an inbred strain of Wistar origin, was described as a model of resistance to age- and diet-induced obesity. Although such a resistance involves many metabolic parameters described in our previous studies, Lou/C rats also exhibit a spontaneous food restriction due to decreased food consumption during the nocturnal period. We then attempted to delineate the leptin sensitivity and mechanisms implicated in this strain, using different protocols of acute central and peripheral leptin administration. A first analysis of the meal patterns revealed that Lou/C rats eat smaller meals, without any change in meal number compared to age-matched Wistar animals. Although the expression of the recognized leptin transporters (leptin receptors and megalin) measured in the choroid plexus was normal in Lou/C rats, the decreased triglyceridemia observed in these animals is compatible with an increased leptin transport across the blood brain barrier. Improved hypothalamic leptin signaling in Lou/C rats was also suggested by the higher pSTAT3/STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) ratio observed following acute peripheral leptin administration, as well as by the lower hypothalamic mRNA expression of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), known to downregulate leptin signaling. To conclude, spontaneous hypophagia of Lou/C rats appears to be related to improved leptin sensitivity. The main mechanism underlying such a phenomenon consists in improved leptin signaling through the Ob-Rb leptin receptor isoform, which seems to consequently lead to overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). PMID:24039946

  2. Effects of L/N-type calcium channel antagonist, cilnidipine on progressive renal injuries in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    PubMed

    Konda, Tomoyuki; Enomoto, Azusa; Takahara, Akira; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2006-05-01

    The sympathetic nerve activity plays an important role on the renal function through the vasoactive system and the renin-angiotensin system. Although interest in the renal protective effects of anti-sympathetic agents has been increased, there are not enough data to clarify this efficiency. Therefore, we investigated the effects of L/N-type calcium channel antagonist, cilnidipine on progressive renal injury in Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl S) rats. Male Dahl S rats (6 weeks of age) were fed a high salt (4% NaCl) diet. They were divided into groups with similar blood pressure at 12 weeks of age and they received vehicle (n=7) or cilnidipine (30 mg/kg/d as food admix, n=9) for 8 weeks. Cilnidipine treatment suppressed the increase in systolic blood pressure. Although urinary protein excretion was not influenced, cilnidipine inhibited the increase in blood urea nitrogen and decrease in creatinine clearance. Histological investigation revealed that progression of glomerular sclerosis was inhibited in cilnidipine treatment group. Of notes, cilnidipine reduced plasma norepinephrine level and plasma rennin activity compared with vehicle-treated Dahl S rats. These data indicated that cilnidipine has suppressive effects against progressive renal injury in Dahl S rats. This effect is not only explained by the L-type calcium channel blocking action that lowered blood pressure, but also partially explained by the N-type calcium channel blocking action that lead to suppression of the sympathetic nerve activity and renin-angiotensin system. PMID:16651722

  3. Activation of factor X by rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Willingham, A.K.; Matschiner, J.T.

    1986-05-01

    Synthesis and secretion of blood coagulation factor X was studied in hepatocytes prepared by perfusion of rat livers with collagenase. Hepatocytes were incubated in the presence of vitamin K and /sup 3/H-leucine for up to 4h at 37/sup 0/C. Factor X was isolated from the incubation medium by immunochemical techniques and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The recovered /sup 3/H-labeled proteins migrated, after reduction of disulfides, as two polypeptide chains with apparent molecular weights (M/sub r/) of approximately 42,000 and 22,000 representing the heavy and light chains of factor X respectively. The apparent M/sub r/ of the heavy chain was about 10,000 daltons lighter than seen with the heavy chain of factor X isolated from rat plasma and was more characteristic of the heavy chain of factor Xa. When the levels of factor X secreted by hepatocytes were determined by clotting assays, activity was present as factor Xa. Also, when purified plasma factor X was added to incubations of hepatocytes (>95% parenchymal cells) the added factor X was rapidly converted to factor Xa. Plasma membranes prepared from isolated hepatocytes or from liver homogenates contained an enzyme that converted factor X to factor Xa in a calcium dependent reaction. The physiological significance of a factor X activating enzyme on hepatocyte plasma membranes is not clear.

  4. Moderate and severe perinatal asphyxia induces differential effects on cocaine sensitization in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Galeano, Pablo; Romero, Juan Ignacio; Luque-Rojas, María Jesús; Suárez, Juan; Holubiec, Mariana Inés; Bisagno, Verónica; Santín, Luis Javier; De Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Capani, Francisco; Blanco, Eduardo

    2013-09-01

    Perinatal asphyxia (PA) increases the likelihood of suffering from dopamine-related disorders, such as ADHD and schizophrenia. Since dopaminergic transmission plays a major role in cocaine sensitization, the purpose of this study was to determine whether PA could be associated with altered behavioral sensitization to cocaine. To this end, adult rats born vaginally (CTL), by caesarean section (C+), or by C+ with 15 min (PA15, moderate PA) or 19 min (PA19, severe PA) of global anoxia were repeatedly administered with cocaine (i.p., 15 mg/kg) and then challenged with cocaine (i.p., 15 mg/kg) after a 5-day withdrawal period. In addition, c-Fos, FosB/ΔFosB, DAT, and TH expression were assessed in dorsal (CPu) and ventral (NAcc) striatum. Results indicated that PA15 rats exhibited an increased locomotor sensitization to cocaine, while PA19 rats displayed an abnormal acquisition of locomotor sensitization and did not express a sensitized response to cocaine. c-Fos expression in NAcc, but not in CPu, was associated with these alterations in cocaine sensitization. FosB/ΔFosB expression was increased in all groups and regions after repeated cocaine administration, although it reached lower expression levels in PA19 rats. In CTL, C+, and PA15, but not in PA19 rats, the expression of TH in NAcc was reduced in groups repeatedly treated with cocaine, independently of the challenge test. Furthermore, this reduction was more pronounced in PA15 rats. DAT expression remained unaltered in all groups and regions studied. These results suggest that moderate PA may increase the vulnerability to drug abuse and in particular to cocaine addiction. PMID:23447367

  5. Chaperone heat shock protein 70 in nucleus accumbens core: a novel biological target of behavioural sensitization to morphine in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Ting; Qin, Wang-Jun; Liu, Qing; Li, Yu-Ling; Liang, Hui; Chen, Feng; Lawrence, Andrew J; Zhang, Xiang-Lin; Liang, Jian-Hui

    2014-03-01

    Drug addiction is a major public health issue, yet the underlying adaptation of neural networks by drugs of abuse is not fully understood. We have previously linked chaperone heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) to drug-induced adaptations. Focusing on the NAc core and shell, the present study aims to provide further findings for our understanding of the relation between behavioural sensitization to morphine and Hsp70 at transcriptional and functional levels in rats. Firstly, we delineated the characteristics of behavioural sensitization induced by a single morphine exposure (1-10 mg/kg, s.c.). Secondly, Hsp70 protein expression in the NAc core was time- and dose-relatedly induced during the development of behavioural sensitization to a single morphine exposure in rats, and Pearson analysis indicated a positive correlation between behavioural sensitization and Hsp70 expression in NAc core. Thirdly, at the transcriptional level, intra-NAc core injection of the specific heat shock factor-I (HSF-I) inhibitor N-Formyl-3,4-methylenedioxy-benzylidine-γ-butyrolactam (KNK437) suppressed Hsp70 expression and the development of behavioural sensitization, while the HSF-I specific inducer geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) promoted both of them. Interestingly, intra-NAc shell injection of KNK437 or GGA did not affect the development of behavioural sensitization. Finally, both the functional inhibition of Hsp70 ATPase activity by methylene blue (MB), and the antagonism of Hsp70 substrate binding site (SBD) activity by pifithrin-μ (PES) impaired the development of behavioural sensitization when they were microinjected into the NAc core. Taken together, the critical involvement of chaperone Hsp70 in behavioural sensitization to morphine identifies a biological target for long-lasting adaptations with relevance to addiction. PMID:24280010

  6. ATP-sensitive K(+) channels in rat colonic epithelium.

    PubMed

    Pouokam, Ervice; Bader, Sandra; Brück, Brigitta; Schmidt, Bärbel; Diener, Martin

    2013-06-01

    ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels couple the metabolic state of a cell to its electrical activity. They consist of a hetero-octameric complex with pore-forming Kir6.x (Kir6.1, Kir6.2) and regulatory sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) subunits. Functional data indicate that KATP channels contribute to epithelial K(+) currents at colonic epithelia. However, their molecular identity and their properties are largely unknown. Therefore, changes in short-circuit current (I sc) induced by the KATP channel opener pinacidil (5 10(-4) mol l(-1)) were measured in Ussing chambers under control conditions and in the presence of different blockers of KATP channels. The channel subunits expressed by the colonic epithelium were identified by immunohistochemistry and by RT-PCR. The K(+) channel opener, when administered at the serosal side, induced an increase in I sc consistent with the induction of transepithelial Cl(-) secretion after activation of basolateral K(+) channels, whereas mucosal administration of pinacidil resulted in a negative I sc. The increase in I sc evoked by serosal pinacidil was inhibited by serosal administration of glibenclamide (5 10(-4) mol l(-1)) and gliclazide (10(-6) mol l(-1)), but was resistant even against a high concentration (10(-2) mol l(-1)) of tolbutamide. In contrast, none of these inhibitors (administered at the mucosal side) reduced significantly the negative I sc induced by mucosal pinacidil. Instead, pinacidil inhibited Cl(-) currents across apical Cl(-) channels in basolaterally depolarized epithelia indicating that the negative I sc induced by mucosal pinacidil is due to a transient inhibition of Cl(-) secretion. In mRNA prepared from isolated colonic crypts, messenger RNA for both pore-forming subunits, Kir6.1 and Kir6.2, and two regulatory subunits (SUR1 and SUR2B) was found. Expression within the colonic epithelium was confirmed for these subunits by immunohistochemistry. In consequence, KATP channels are present in the basolateral membrane

  7. Perirhinal cortex lesions in rats: Novelty detection and sensitivity to interference.

    PubMed

    Albasser, Mathieu M; Olarte-Sánchez, Cristian M; Amin, Eman; Brown, Malcolm W; Kinnavane, Lisa; Aggleton, John P

    2015-06-01

    Rats with perirhinal cortex lesions received multiple object recognition trials within a continuous session to examine whether they show false memories. Experiment 1 focused on exploration patterns during the first object recognition test postsurgery, in which each trial contained 1 novel and 1 familiar object. The perirhinal cortex lesions reduced time spent exploring novel objects, but did not affect overall time spent exploring the test objects (novel plus familiar). Replications with subsequent cohorts of rats (Experiments 2, 3, 4.1) repeated this pattern of results. When all recognition memory data were combined (Experiments 1-4), giving totals of 44 perirhinal lesion rats and 40 surgical sham controls, the perirhinal cortex lesions caused a marginal reduction in total exploration time. That decrease in time with novel objects was often compensated by increased exploration of familiar objects. Experiment 4 also assessed the impact of proactive interference on recognition memory. Evidence emerged that prior object experience could additionally impair recognition performance in rats with perirhinal cortex lesions. Experiment 5 examined exploration levels when rats were just given pairs of novel objects to explore. Despite their perirhinal cortex lesions, exploration levels were comparable with those of control rats. While the results of Experiment 4 support the notion that perirhinal lesions can increase sensitivity to proactive interference, the overall findings question whether rats lacking a perirhinal cortex typically behave as if novel objects are familiar, that is, show false recognition. Rather, the rats retain a signal of novelty but struggle to discriminate the identity of that signal. PMID:26030425

  8. Memory impairment and alterations in prefrontal cortex gamma band activity following methamphetamine sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Linsenbardt, David N.; Lapish, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Repeated methamphetamine (MA) use leads to increases in the incentive motivational properties of the drug as well as cognitive impairments. These behavioral alterations persist for some time following abstinence, and neuroadaptations in the structure and function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are particularly important for their expression. However, there is a weak understanding of the changes in neural firing and oscillatory activity in the PFC evoked by repeated drug use, thus complicating the development of novel treatment strategies for addiction. Objectives The purpose of the current study was to assess changes in cognitive and brain function following MA sensitization. Methods Sensitization was induced in rats, then temporal and recognition memory were assessed after 1 or 30 days of abstinence. Electrophysiological recordings from the medial PFC were also acquired from rats whereupon simultaneous measures of oscillatory and spiking activity were examined. Results Impaired temporal memory was observed after 1 and 30 days of abstinence. However, recognition memory was only impaired after 1 day of abstinence. An injection of MA profoundly decreased neuronal firing rate and the anesthesia-induced slow oscillation (SO) in both sensitized (SENS) and control (CTRL) rats. Strong correlations were observed between the SO and gamma band power, which was altered in SENS animals. A decrease in the number of neurons phase-locked to the gamma oscillation was also observed in SENS animals. Conclusions The changes observed in PFC function may play an integral role in the expression of the altered behavioral phenotype evoked by MA sensitization. PMID:25572530

  9. Domain-structure analysis of recombinant rat hormone-sensitive lipase.

    PubMed Central

    Osterlund, T; Danielsson, B; Degerman, E; Contreras, J A; Edgren, G; Davis, R C; Schotz, M C; Holm, C

    1996-01-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) plays a key role in lipid metabolism and overall energy homoeostasis, by controlling the release of fatty acids from stored triglycerides in adipose tissue. Lipases and esterases form a protein superfamily with a common structural fold, called the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold, and a catalytic triad of serine, aspartic or glutamic acid and histidine. Previous alignments between HSL and lipase 2 of Moraxella TA144 have been extended to cover a much larger part of the HSL sequence. From these extended alignments, possible sites for the catalytic triad and alpha/beta-hydrolase fold are suggested. Furthermore, it is proposed that HSL contains a structural domain with catalytic capacity and a regulatory module attached, as well as a structural N-terminal domain unique to this enzyme. In order to test the proposed domain structure, rat HSL was overexpressed and purified to homogeneity using a baculovirus/insect-cell expression system. The purification, resulting in > 99% purity, involved detergent solubilization followed by anion-exchange chromatography and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography. The purified recombinant enzyme was identical to rat adipose-tissue HSL with regard to specific activity, substrate specificity and ability to serve as a substrate for cAMP-dependent protein kinase. The recombinant HSL was subjected to denaturation by guanidine hydrochloride and limited proteolysis. These treatments resulted in more extensive loss of activity against phospholipid-stabilized lipid substrates than against water-soluble substrates, suggesting that the hydrolytic activity can be separated from recognition of lipid substrates. These data support the concept that HSL has at least two major domains. PMID:8912675

  10. Butyrate-induced changes in nuclease sensitivity of chromatin cannot be correlated with transcriptional activation

    SciTech Connect

    Birren, B.W.; Taplitz, S.J.; Herschman, H.R.

    1987-11-01

    The authors examined in the H4IIE rat heptoma cell line the relationship between butyrate-induced changes in the nuclease sensitivity of chromatin and changes in transcriptional activity of specific genes. The butyrate-inducible metallothionein I (MT-I) gene underwent a dramatic increase in DNase I sensitivity after 3 h of butyrate treatment. However, genes not transcribed in H4IIE cells underwent the same changes in DNase I sensitivity. Thus, butyrate-induced increases in DNase I sensitivity are not sufficient for the transcriptional activation of a gene. Butyrate treatment has also been reported to alter the sensitivity of sequence to micrococcal nuclease (MNase) in a manner reflecting their tissue-specific expression. Butyrate exposure caused increased digestion of the MT-I gene by MNase. However, butyrate-induced MNase sensitivity also occurred for genes which are neither transcribed in untreated cells nor butyrate inducible. Moreover, cadmium, a potent transcriptional activator of the MT-I gene, does not alter the sensitivity of the MT-I gene to MNase. Thus, the butyrate-induced alterations in MNase sensitivity are neither sufficient for, necessary for, nor indicative of transcriptional activation.

  11. Pre-existing differences in motivation for food and sensitivity to cocaine-induced locomotion in obesity-prone rats.

    PubMed

    Vollbrecht, Peter J; Nobile, Cameron W; Chadderdon, Aaron M; Jutkiewicz, Emily M; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is a significant problem in the United States, with roughly one third of adults having a body mass index (BMI) over thirty. Recent evidence from human studies suggests that pre-existing differences in the function of mesolimbic circuits that mediate motivational processes may promote obesity and hamper weight loss. However, few preclinical studies have examined pre-existing neurobehavioral differences related to the function of mesolimbic systems in models of individual susceptibility to obesity. Here, we used selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats to examine 1) the effect of a novel "junk-food" diet on the development of obesity and metabolic dysfunction, 2) over-consumption of "junk-food" in a free access procedure, 3) motivation for food using instrumental procedures, and 4) cocaine-induced locomotor activity as an index of general mesolimbic function. As expected, eating a sugary, fatty, "junk-food" diet exacerbated weight gain and increased fasted insulin levels only in obesity-prone rats. In addition, obesity-prone rats continued to over-consume junk-food during discrete access testing, even when this same food was freely available in the home cage. Furthermore, when asked to press a lever to obtain food in an instrumental task, rates of responding were enhanced in obesity-prone versus obesity-resistant rats. Finally, obesity-prone rats showed a stronger locomotor response to 15 mg/kg cocaine compared to obesity-resistant rats prior to any diet manipulation. This enhanced sensitivity to this dose of cocaine is indicative of basal differences in the function of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-prone rats. We speculate that pre-existing differences in motivational systems may contribute to over-consumption and enhanced motivation in susceptible individuals. PMID:26423787

  12. Increased Sensitivity to Binge Alcohol-Induced Gut Leakiness and Inflammatory Liver Disease in HIV Transgenic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Atrayee; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Jang, Sehwan; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of alcohol-mediated advanced liver injury in HIV-infected individuals are poorly understood. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of binge alcohol on the inflammatory liver disease in HIV transgenic rats as a model for simulating human conditions. Female wild-type (WT) or HIV transgenic rats were treated with three consecutive doses of binge ethanol (EtOH) (3.5 g/kg/dose oral gavages at 12-h intervals) or dextrose (Control). Blood and liver tissues were collected at 1 or 6-h following the last dose of ethanol or dextrose for the measurements of serum endotoxin and liver pathology, respectively. Compared to the WT, the HIV rats showed increased sensitivity to alcohol-mediated gut leakiness, hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as evidenced with the significantly elevated levels of serum endotoxin, hepatic triglycerides, histological fat accumulation and F4/80 staining. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that hepatic levels of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), leptin and the downstream target monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly up-regulated in the HIV-EtOH rats, compared to all other groups. Subsequent experiments with primary cultured cells showed that both hepatocytes and hepatic Kupffer cells were the sources of the elevated MCP-1 in HIV-EtOH rats. Further, TLR4 and MCP-1 were found to be upregulated by leptin. Collectively, these results show that HIV rats, similar to HIV-infected people being treated with the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), are more susceptible to binge alcohol-induced gut leakiness and inflammatory liver disease than the corresponding WT, possibly due to additive or synergistic interaction between binge alcohol exposure and HIV infection. Based on these results, HIV transgenic rats can be used as a surrogate model to study the molecular mechanisms of many disease states caused by heavy alcohol intake in HIV-infected people on HAART. PMID:26484872

  13. Traumatic Brain Injury Causes a Tacrolimus-Sensitive Increase in Non-Convulsive Seizures in a Rat Model of Post-Traumatic Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, John N.; Gandhi, Anandh; Singh, Baljinderjit; Churn, Severn B.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a significant but potentially preventable complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Previous research in animal models of acquired epilepsy has implicated the calcium-sensitive phosphatase, calcineurin. In addition, our lab recently found that calcineurin activity in the rat hippocampus increases acutely after lateral TBI. Here we use a calcineurin inhibitor test whether an acute increase in calcineurin activity is necessary for the development of late post-traumatic seizures. Adult rats were administered the calcineurin inhibitor Tacrolimus (5mg/kg; i.p.) 1 hour after lateral fluid percussion TBI and then monitored by video-electrocorticography (video-ECoG) for spontaneous seizure activity 5 weeks or 33 weeks later. At 5 weeks post-TBI, we observed epileptiform activity on the video-ECoG of brain injured rats but no seizures. By 33 weeks post-TBI though, nearly all injured rats exhibited spontaneous seizures, including convulsive seizures which were infrequent but lasted minutes (18% of injured rats), and non-convulsive seizures which were frequent but lasted tens of seconds (94% of injured rats). We also identified non-convulsive seizures in a smaller subset of control and sham TBI rats (56%), reminiscent of idiopathic seizures described in other rats strains. Non-convulsive seizures in the brain injured rats, however, were four-times more frequent and two-times longer lasting than in their uninjured littermates. Interestingly, rats administered Tacrolimus acutely after TBI showed significantly fewer non-convulsive seizures than untreated rats, but a similar degree of cortical atrophy. The data thus indicate that administration of Tacrolimus acutely after TBI suppressed non-convulsive seizures months later. PMID:25580467

  14. Sensitivity of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus to the locomotor-activating effects of neuromedin U in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Colleen M.; Zhang, Minzhi; Levine, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a decrease in energy expenditure relative to energy intake. The decrease in physical activity associated with obesity in several species, including humans, contributes to decreased energy expenditure. Several hormones and neuropeptides that affect appetite also modulate physical activity, including neuromedin U (NMU), a peptide found in the gut and brain. We have demonstrated that NMU microinjected into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in rats increases the energy expenditure associated with physical activity, called non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). Here we examined whether obesity in rats is related to decreased sensitivity of the PVN to the locomotor-activating effect of NMU. Diet-induced obese (DIO) rats and lean, diet-resistant (DR) rats were given PVN microinjections of increasing doses of NMU both before and after one month on a high-fat diet. We found that NMU increases physical activity, energy expenditure, and NEAT in a dose-dependent manner in both DR and DIO rats, both before and after one month on the high-fat diet. Before high-fat feeding, the obesity-prone and lean rats showed similar levels of physical activity after intra-PVN microinjections of NMU. After one month of the high-fat diet, however, the obesity-resistant rats showed significantly more NMU-induced physical activity compared to the obese DIO rats. Taken together with previous studies, these results suggest that obesity may represent a state associated with decreased central sensitivity to neuropeptides such as NMU that increase physical activity and therefore energy expenditure. PMID:17706946

  15. Carbon dioxide sensitivity during hypoglycaemia-induced, elevated metabolism in the anaesthetized rat.

    PubMed

    Bin-Jaliah, I; Maskell, P D; Kumar, P

    2005-03-15

    We have utilized an anaesthetized rat model of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia to test the hypothesis that peripheral chemoreceptor gain is augmented during hypermetabolism. Insulin infusion at 0.4 U kg (-1)min(-1) decreased blood glucose concentration significantly to 3.37 +/- 0.12 mmol l(-1). Whole-body metabolism and basal ventilation were elevated without increase in P(a,CO(2)) (altered non-significantly from the control level, to 37.3 +/- 2.6 mmHg). Chemoreceptor gain, measured either as spontaneous ventilatory airflow sensitivity to P(a,CO(2)) during rebreathing, or by phrenic minute activity responses to altered P(a,CO(2)) induced by varying the level of artificial ventilation, was doubled during the period of hypermetabolism. This stimulatory effect was primarily upon the mean inspiratory flow rate, or phrenic ramp component of breathing and was reduced by 75% following bilateral carotid sinus nerve section. In vitro recordings of single carotid body chemoafferents showed that reducing superfusate glucose concentration from 10 mM to 2 mM reduced CO(2) chemosensitivity significantly from 0.007 +/- 0.002 Hz mmHg(-1) to 0.001 +/- 0.002 Hz mmHg(-1). Taken together, these data suggest that the hyperpnoea observed during hypermetabolism might be mediated by an increase in the CO(2) sensitivity of the carotid body, and this effect is not due to the insulin-induced fall in blood glucose concentration. PMID:15661819

  16. Reduction in renal blood flow following administration of norepinephrine and phenylephrine in septic rats treated with Kir6.1 ATP-sensitive and KCa1.1 calcium-activated K+ channel blockers.

    PubMed

    da Rosa Maggi Sant'Helena, Bruna; Guarido, Karla L; de Souza, Priscila; Crestani, Sandra; da Silva-Santos, J Eduardo

    2015-10-15

    We evaluated the effects of K+ channel blockers in the vascular reactivity of in vitro perfused kidneys, as well as on the influence of vasoactive agents in the renal blood flow of rats subjected to the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis. Both norepinephrine and phenylephrine had the ability to increase the vascular perfusion pressure reduced in kidneys of rats subjected to CLP at 18 h and 36 h before the experiments. The non-selective K+ channel blocker tetraethylammonium, but not the Kir6.1 blocker glibenclamide, normalized the effects of phenylephrine in kidneys from the CLP 18 h group. Systemic administration of tetraethylammonium, glibenclamide, or the KCa1.1 blocker iberiotoxin, did not change the renal blood flow in control or septic rats. Norepinephrine or phenylephrine also had no influence on the renal blood flow of septic animals, but its injection in rats from the CLP 18 h group previously treated with either glibenclamide or iberiotoxin resulted in an exacerbated reduction in the renal blood flow. These results suggest an abnormal functionality of K+ channels in the renal vascular bed in sepsis, and that the blockage of different subtypes of K+ channels may be deleterious for blood perfusion in kidneys, mainly when associated with vasoactive drugs. PMID:26277325

  17. Trait "pessimism" is associated with increased sensitivity to negative feedback in rats.

    PubMed

    Rygula, Rafal; Popik, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Several cognitive theories of depression have proposed that cognitive judgment bias determines individual vulnerability to this disorder. Indeed, we have recently demonstrated a relationship between pessimistic judgment bias and vulnerability of rats to the stress-induced anhedonia, and a negative correlation between the level of pessimism and motivation. To further characterize the effects of trait pessimism on cognitive processes associated with depression, in the present study we compared the sensitivity of rats displaying optimistic and pessimistic traits to positive and negative feedback. The animals were initially trained and tested in the rat version of the probabilistic reversal-learning (PRL) task, which allowed for the assessment of feedback sensitivity in individual animals. Subsequently, the rats were re-trained and tested in a series of ambiguous-cue interpretation (ACI) tests, which allowed for the classification of animals displaying "optimistic" and "pessimistic" traits. The "pessimistic" rats were significantly more sensitive to negative feedback than their "optimistic" conspecifics, as indicated by an increased proportion of lose-shift behaviors. The results of our study demonstrate the interrelation and co-existence of two cognitive biases that may predict vulnerability to depressive disorder. PMID:26902303

  18. Baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability in conscious rats with myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Krüger, C; Kalenka, A; Haunstetter, A; Schweizer, M; Maier, C; Rühle, U; Ehmke, H; Kübler, W; Haass, M

    1997-11-01

    The baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and the heart rate variability (HRV) were studied in conscious rats after myocardial infarction (MI; induced by coronary artery ligation) and after sham operation (SH). BRS was determined by linear regression of R-R interval vs. arterial pressure changes induced by nitroprusside or methoxamine (intravenous bolus). HRV was calculated from 3-min electrocardiogram recordings. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and plasma atrial natriuretic peptide were increased after MI; plasma norepinephrine and basal heart rate (HR) remained unchanged. At 3 and 28 days after MI, BRS was reduced as indicated by decreased reflex bradycardia (RB) (MI, 0.66 +/- 0.13 and 0.78 +/- 0.07 ms/mmHg; SH, 1.27 +/- 0.16 and 1.48 +/- 0.14 ms/mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05 MI vs. SH). At 56 days after MI, BRS was normalized. RB was unaffected by atropine 3 and 28 days after MI but reduced in all other groups. The increase of basal HR by atropine 3 and 28 days after MI was less than in all other groups. HRV (SD of mean N-N interval, coefficient of variance, low- and high-frequency power; studied at 28 and 56 days) was similar in all groups. It is concluded that BRS is transiently depressed in rats with left ventricular dysfunction after MI probably due to a reduced reflex vagal activity. Even though basal HR and HRV are unchanged after MI, a temporary attenuation of tonic vagal activity is unmasked after autonomic blockade. PMID:9374759

  19. The α1 adrenoceptors in ventrolateral orbital cortex contribute to the expression of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization in rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lai; Zhu, Yuan-Mei; Zhang, Yu-Xiang; Liang, Feng; Li, Teng; Gao, Hong-Yu; Huo, Fu-Quan; Yan, Chun-Xia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of microinjection of benoxathian, selective α1 adrenoceptor antagonist, into the ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO) on morphine-induced behavioral sensitization and its underlying molecular mechanism in rats. A single morphine treatment protocol was used in establishing the behavioral sensitization model. The effect of bilateral intra-VLO benoxathian injection on locomotor activity was examined and the protein expression levels of α1 adrenoceptors and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the VLO were detected after locomotor test. The results showed that a single injection of morphine could induce behavioral sensitization by a low challenge dosage of morphine after a 7-days drug free period. Benoxathian significantly suppressed the expression but not the development of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. Morphine treatment significantly elicited ERK phosphorylation and downregulated the expression level of α1 adrenoceptors in the VLO. In addition, intra-VLO benoxathian injection enhanced the expression levels of α1 adrenoceptors and phosphorylated ERK. These results suggest that α1 adrenoceptors in the VLO are involved in regulating the expression of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. The effect of decreased locomotor activity by blocking α1 adrenoceptors might be associated with activation of ERK in the VLO. PMID:26520466

  20. Intracerebroventricular injection of adiponectin regulates locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Yumiko; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Ueta, Tomoyo; Taniguchi, Yasuko; Futami, Akari; Sato, Fukiko; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Tsutsumi, Rie; Harada, Nagakatsu; Nakaya, Yutaka; Sakaue, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing exercise motivation is the best way to prevent obesity and diabetes. In this study, we examined whether adiponectin affects locomotion activity in Wister and Spontaneously-Running Tokushima-Shikoku (SPORTS) rats using two types of behavioral assays: home cage and wheel running activity. SPORTS rats were established from an original line from Wister strain that had shown high level of wheel running activity in our laboratory. Injection of adiponectin into the lateral ventricle of Wister rats and SPORTS rats decreased home cage activity, but no change was observed in the food intake and oxygen consumption. This result indicates the possibility that adiponectin can reduce non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity via the central nervous system. In contrast, injection of adiponectin did not change wheel running activity in SPORTS rats. We produced hypothalamus-destructed model rat using monosodium glutamate (MSG) to elucidate the regulation site of adiponectin. Injection of adiponectin into MSG-treated SPORTS rats did not change amount of home cage activity and food intake, suggesting that adiponectin action on home cage activity was in the hypothalamic area. These results suggest that adiponectin regulates locomotion activity through mediobasal hypothalamus. PMID:26399348

  1. PHARMACOKINETIC DIFFERENCES MAY EXPLAIN THE AGE-RELATED SENSITIVITY OF DELTAMETHRIN, A PYRETHROID INSECTICIDE, IN RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to examine the age-related sensitivity to the pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin [(S)- -cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (1R,3R)-3-(2,2-dibromomovinyl)2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate], in Long Evans, hooded, male rats. Deltamethrin has been shown to be more ...

  2. Inhibition of PDE5 Restores Depressed Baroreflex Sensitivity in Renovascular Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, Clênia de Oliveira; Alves, Rafael R.; de Oliveira, Alessandro L.; Cruz, Josiane de Campos; de França-Silva, Maria do Socorro; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; Balarini, Camille de Moura

    2016-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis is frequently associated with resistant hypertension, which is defined as failure to normalize blood pressure (BP) even when combined drugs are used. Inhibition of PDE5 by sildenafil has been shown to increase endothelial function and decrease blood pressure in experimental models. However, no available study evaluated the baroreflex sensitivity nor autonomic balance in renovascular hypertensive rats treated with sildenafil. In a translational medicine perspective, our hypothesis is that sildenafil could improve autonomic imbalance and baroreflex sensitivity, contributing to lower blood pressure. Renovascular hypertensive 2-kidney-1-clip (2K1C) and sham rats were treated with sildenafil (45 mg/Kg/day) during 7 days. At the end of treatment, BP and heart rate (HR) were recorded in conscious rats after a 24-h-recovery period. Spontaneous and drug-induced baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic tone were evaluated; in addition, lipid peroxidation was measured in plasma samples. Treatment was efficient in increasing both spontaneous and induced baroreflex sensitivity in treated hypertensive animals. Inhibition of PDE5 was also capable of ameliorating autonomic imbalance in 2K1C rats and decreasing systemic oxidative stress. Taken together, these beneficial effects resulted in significant reductions in BP without affecting HR. We suggest that sildenafil could be considered as a promising alternative to treat resistant hypertension. PMID:26858657

  3. ACE inhibition reduces infarction in normotensive but not hypertensive rats: correlation with cortical ACE activity

    PubMed Central

    Porritt, Michelle J; Chen, Michelle; Rewell, Sarah S J; Dean, Rachael G; Burrell, Louise M; Howells, David W

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition can reduce stroke risk by up to 43% in humans and reduce the associated disability, and hence understanding the mechanism of improvement is important. In animals and humans, these effects may be independent of the blood pressure-lowering effects of ACE inhibition. Normotensive (Wistar–Kyoto (WKY)) and hypertensive (spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR)) animals were treated with the ACE inhibitors ramipril or lisinopril for 7 or 42 days before 2 hours of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Blood pressure, serum ACE, and blood glucose levels were measured and stroke infarct volume was recorded 24 hours after stroke. Despite greater reductions in blood pressure, infarct size was not improved by ACE inhibition in hypertensive animals. Short-term ACE inhibition produced only a modest reduction in blood pressure, but WKY rats showed marked reductions in infarct volume. Long-term ACE inhibition had additional reductions in blood pressure; however, infarct volumes in WKY rats did not improve further but worsened. WKY rats differed from SHR in having marked cortical ACE activity that was highly sensitive to ACE inhibition. The beneficial effects of ACE inhibition on infarct volume in normotensive rats do not correlate with changes in blood pressure. However, WKY rats have ACE inhibitor-sensitive cortical ACE activity that is lacking in the SHR. PMID:20407464

  4. Comparative sensitivity of human and rat neural cultures to chemical-induced inhibition of neurite outgrowth

    SciTech Connect

    Harrill, Joshua A.; Freudenrich, Theresa M.; Robinette, Brian L.; Mundy, William R.

    2011-11-15

    There is a need for rapid, efficient and cost-effective alternatives to traditional in vivo developmental neurotoxicity testing. In vitro cell culture models can recapitulate many of the key cellular processes of nervous system development, including neurite outgrowth, and may be used as screening tools to identify potential developmental neurotoxicants. The present study compared primary rat cortical cultures and human embryonic stem cell-derived neural cultures in terms of: 1) reproducibility of high content image analysis based neurite outgrowth measurements, 2) dynamic range of neurite outgrowth measurements and 3) sensitivity to chemicals which have been shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth. There was a large increase in neurite outgrowth between 2 and 24 h in both rat and human cultures. Image analysis data collected across multiple cultures demonstrated that neurite outgrowth measurements in rat cortical cultures were more reproducible and had higher dynamic range as compared to human neural cultures. Human neural cultures were more sensitive than rat cortical cultures to chemicals previously shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth. Parallel analysis of morphological (neurite count, neurite length) and cytotoxicity (neurons per field) measurements were used to detect selective effects on neurite outgrowth. All chemicals which inhibited neurite outgrowth in rat cortical cultures did so at concentrations which did not concurrently affect the number of neurons per field, indicating selective effects on neurite outgrowth. In contrast, more than half the chemicals which inhibited neurite outgrowth in human neural cultures did so at concentrations which concurrently decreased the number of neurons per field, indicating that effects on neurite outgrowth were secondary to cytotoxicity. Overall, these data demonstrate that the culture models performed differently in terms of reproducibility, dynamic range and sensitivity to neurite outgrowth inhibitors. While human neural

  5. Ambient temperature influences core body temperature response in rat lines bred for differences in sensitivity to 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Andrea C; Seiden, Lewis S

    2003-04-01

    Agonist-induced decrease in core body temperature has commonly been used as a measure of serotonin1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor sensitivity in mood disorder. The thermoregulatory basis for 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist-induced temperature responses in humans and rats remains unclear. Therefore, the influence of ambient temperature on 5-HT(1A) receptor-mediated decreases in core body temperature were measured in rat lines bred for high (HDS) or low (LDS) sensitivity to the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT). HDS and LDS rats were injected with either saline, 0.25 or 0.50 mg/kg 8-OH-DPAT at ambient temperatures of 10.5, 24, 30, or 37.5 degrees C, and core temperature was measured by radiotelemetry. For both lines, the thermic response to acute 8-OH-DPAT was greatest at 10.5 degrees C and decreased in magnitude as ambient temperature increased to 30 degrees C, consistent with hypothermia. HDS rats displayed a greater hypothermic response than LDS rats at 10.5, 24, and 30 degrees C. At 37.5 degrees C, LDS rats showed a lethal elevation of temperature in response to 0.50 mg/kg 8-OH-DPAT. All thermic responses to 8-OH-DPAT, including the lethality, were effectively blocked by pretreatment with the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY100635, suggesting line differences in thermoregulatory circuits that are influenced by 5-HT(1A) receptor activation. Following repeated injection of 8-OH-DPAT, the magnitude of the hypothermic response decreased in both lines at 10.5 degrees C, but increased in HDS rats treated with 0.50 mg/kg 8-OH-DPAT at 30 and 37.5 degrees C. This pattern was reversed in HDS rats following 8-OH-DPAT challenge at 24 degrees C, suggesting that a compensatory thermoregulatory response accounts for changes in the hypothermic response to chronic 8-OH-DPAT. PMID:12649391

  6. Effects of salt intake and potassium supplementation on renalase expression in the kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wen-Ling; Wang, Jing; Mu, Jian-Jun; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Wang, Yang; Wang, Dan; Ren, Ke-Yu; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Xiao, Hong-Yu

    2016-02-01

    Renalase is currently the only known amine oxidase in the blood that can metabolize catecholamines and regulate sympathetic activity. High salt intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), possibly through the modulation of renalase expression and secretion, whereas potassium can reverse the high salt-mediated increase in blood pressure. However, whether potassium could also modulate BP through renalase is unclear. In this study, we aim to investigate how salt intake and potassium supplementation affect the level of renalase in rats. Eighteen salt-sensitive (SS) and 18 SS-13BN rats were divided into six groups, receiving normal salt (0.3% NaCl), high salt (8% NaCl) and high salt/potassium (8% NaCl and 8% KCl) dietary intervention for four weeks. At the end of experiments, blood and kidneys were collected for analysis. mRNA level of renalase was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and protein level was determined by Western blot. We found that mRNA and protein levels of renalase in the kidneys of SS and SS-13BN rats were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) after high salt intervention, whereas dopamine in plasma was increased (P < 0.05) compared with rats received normal salt, suggesting that salt may induce salt-sensitive hypertension through inhibition of renalase expression. We also found increased mRNA level and protein level of renalase, decreased catecholamine levels in plasma, and decreased BP in SS rats treated with high salt/potassium, compared with that of the high salt SS group. Taken together, the salt-induced increase and potassium-induced decrease in BP could be mediated through renalase. More studies are needed to confirm our findings and understand the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26553126

  7. Changes in brain volume in response to estradiol levels, amphetamine sensitization and haloperidol treatment in awake female rats.

    PubMed

    Madularu, Dan; Kulkarni, Praveen; Ferris, Craig F; Brake, Wayne G

    2015-08-27

    Estrogen has been shown to further ameliorate symptoms when administered in conjunction with antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia. We have previously shown that chronic haloperidol (HAL) treatment reduces amphetamine (AMPH)-induced locomotor activity in AMPH-sensitized rats, but only when paired with high levels of the estrogen, 17-β estradiol. In addition, we reported estradiol-dependent responses to AMPH in AMPH-sensitized rats as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. It is thus clear that estradiol and antipsychotics both affect the rat brain, however the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. The aim of the current study was to assess this interaction by investigating the effects of estradiol, AMPH and HAL on brain volume changes in awake female rats. Repeated exposure to AMPH resulted in an overall reduction in brain volume, regardless of hormonal status (i.e. no, low or high estradiol). Similarly, chronic HAL treatment further reduced brain volume compared to acute treatment. Hormonal status affected hippocampal volume with rats receiving low estradiol replacement showing larger volume; this difference was no longer significant after repeated exposure to AMPH. Finally, we found changes in volume in response to AMPH throughout hippocampal components (i.e. CA1-CA3 and dentate) as well as components of the mesocortical system. In conclusion, brain volume seems to be influenced by hormonal status, as well as exposure to AMPH and haloperidol treatment. These findings implicate areas where estradiol, amphetamine and antipsychotics may be producing volumetric changes in the brain, pointing the way to where future studies should focus. PMID:26032742

  8. Intestinal disaccharidase activity following pancreatic duct occlusion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hauer-Jensen, M; Christensen, K; Wilson, H D; Schedl, H P

    1987-01-01

    The influence of pancreatic secretions on growth and brush-border enzyme activity, throughout the entire small intestine, was examined in the rat. Pancreatic secretions were excluded from the gut lumen by stapling the pancreatic ducts, without interruption of bile flow. The entire small intestine was studied as four segments; the duodenum and three distal segments of equal length. Weight of intestine and mucosa, and mucosal sucrase, isomaltase, lactase, and alkaline phosphatase activity were measured 10-15 days following pancreatic duct occlusion, or sham-operation. The duodenum of pancreatic duct-occluded animals exhibited significant hypertrophy. In general, specific and total disaccharidase activities were greater in duct-occluded animals than in controls throughout the intestine. The increase was more pronounced in distal than in proximal segments. The sucrase/isomaltase ratio was significantly greater in pancreatic duct-occluded animals than in controls in the two distal segments. Alkaline phosphatase activity was not affected by pancreatic duct occlusion. The greater relative increase of disaccharidase activities and sucrase/isomaltase activity ratios in the distal segments of duct-occluded animals, indicates a more important regulatory role of pancreatic enzymes in the distal small intestine. It is concluded that regulation of intestinal brush-border enzyme activity by pancreatic secretion is selective for enzyme and site as follows: disaccharidases, but not alkaline phosphatase, are regulated; the sucrase subunit of the sucrase/isomaltase complex is most sensitive to regulation, while lactase is least sensitive; and the regulatory effect on disaccharidases is greater in distal than in proximal intestine. PMID:3114740

  9. Effect of prenatal methadone on reinstated behavioral sensitization induced by methamphetamine in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chih-Shung; Lee, Yih-Jing; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Fan, Lir-Wan; Ho, Ing-Kang; Tien, Lu-Tai

    2014-01-01

    It has been known that methadone maintenance treatment is the standard treatment of choice for pregnant opiate addicts. However, there are few data on newborn outcomes especially in the cross talk with other addictive agents. The present study was to investigate the effect of prenatal exposure to methadone on methamphetamine (METH)-induced behavioral sensitization as an indicator of drug addiction in later life. Pregnant rats received saline or methadone (7 mg/kg, s.c.) twice daily from E3 to E20. To induce behavioral sensitization, offspring (5 weeks old) were treated with METH (1mg/kg, i.p.) or saline once daily for 5 consecutive days. Ninety-six hours (day 9) after the 5th treatment with METH or saline, animals received a single dose of METH (1mg/kg, i.p.) or saline to induce the reinstated behavioral sensitization. Prenatal methadone treatment enhanced the level of development of locomotor behavioral sensitization to METH administration in adolescent rats. Prenatal methadone treatment also enhanced the reinstated locomotor behavioral sensitization in adolescent rats after the administration had ceased for 96 h. These results indicate that prenatal methadone exposure produces a persistent lesion in the dopaminergic system, as indicated by enhanced METH-induced locomotor behavioral sensitization (before drug abstinence) and reinstated locomotor behavioral sensitization (after short term drug abstinence) in adolescent rats. These findings show that prenatal methadone exposure may enhance susceptibility to the development of drug addiction in later life. This could provide a reference for drug usage such as methamphetamine in their offspring of pregnant woman who are treating with methadone. PMID:24157336

  10. Mephedrone ('bath salt') elicits conditioned place preference and dopamine-sensitive motor activation.

    PubMed

    Lisek, Renata; Xu, Wei; Yuvasheva, Ekaterina; Chiu, Yi-Ting; Reitz, Allen B; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan; Rawls, Scott M

    2012-11-01

    Abuse of a dangerous street drug called mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) has become commonplace in the United States. Mephedrone is hypothesized to possess abuse liability, share pharmacological properties with psychostimulants, and display toxicity that has been linked to fatalities and non-fatal overdoses. Knowledge about the pharmacology of mephedrone has been obtained primarily from surveys of drug abusers and emergency room visits rather than experimental studies. The present study used motor activity and conditioned place preference (CPP) assays to investigate behavioral effects of mephedrone. Acute mephedrone (3, 5, 10, 30 mg/kg, ip) administration increased ambulatory activity in rats. Mephedrone (5 mg/kg, ip)-induced ambulation was inhibited by pretreatment with a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) (0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg, ip) and enhanced by pretreatment with a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist (sulpiride) (2 mg/kg, ip). Rats injected for 5 days with low dose mephedrone (0.5 mg/kg, ip) and then challenged with mephedrone (0.5 mg/kg, ip) following 10 days of abstinence displayed sensitization of ambulatory activity. In CPP experiments, mephedrone (30 mg/kg, ip) conditioning elicited a preference shift in both rats and mice. The CPP and dopamine-sensitive motor activation produced by mephedrone is suggestive of abuse liability and indicates commonalities between the neuropharmacological profiles of mephedrone and established drugs of abuse. PMID:22652295

  11. Behavioral sensitization to apomorphine in adult rats exposed to cocaine during the preweaning period: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Busidan, Y; Dow-Edwards, D L

    1999-07-01

    Sixty-day-old rats treated with cocaine (50 mg/kg SC) during postnatal days (PND) 11-20 received daily injections of apomorphine (2.0 mg/kg SC) for 10 consecutive days to examine the development of sensitization to a direct dopamine agonist. Behavior was monitored on days 1, 5, and 10, using a photobeam system, and on day 10 using the videotape assessments as well. Locomotor sensitization to apomorphine developed in the preweaning vehicle-treated males only. Neither the cocaine-treated males nor any females exhibited locomotor sensitization to repeated apomorphine injections at 2 mg/kg. There were no other treatment-related effects except for grooming, which showed an interaction between treatment and gender. Overall, every behavior analyzed showed significant apomorphine effects, except rearing. Margin time (wall hugging), grooming, and quiet were significantly decreased by apomorphine, while locomotion and the duration of sniffing were increased. In summary, these data indicate that with respect to locomotor activity, the development of sensitization to apomorphine at 2.0 mg/kg is prevented by preweaning cocaine administration in males. These data further suggest that developmental cocaine exposure produces long-term alterations in DA D1 receptor-mediated responses in male rats. PMID:10418783

  12. Chronic exercise decreases sensitivity to mu opioids in female rats: correlation with exercise output.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark A; Lyle, Megan A

    2006-09-01

    Aerobic exercise stimulates the release of endogenous opioid peptides and increases nociceptive (i.e., pain) threshold in a naloxone-reversible manner. During chronic exercise, sensitivity to the antinociceptive effects of morphine and other mu opioids decreases, leading some investigators to propose that exercise may lead to the development of cross-tolerance to exogenously administered opioid agonists. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of chronic exercise on sensitivity to mu opioids, and to determine if changes in opioid sensitivity during chronic exercise are correlated with exercise output. Eight female rats were obtained at weaning and housed in standard laboratory cages that did not permit any exercise beyond normal cage ambulation. Following 6 weeks under these conditions, opioids possessing a range of relative efficacies at the mu receptor (morphine, levorphanol, buprenorphine, butorphanol) were examined in a warm-water, tail-withdrawal procedure. Under sedentary conditions, all opioids produced dose-dependent increases in tail-withdrawal latencies, and high levels of antinociception were observed for all drugs. Following these tests, rats were reassigned to exercise conditions and transferred to cages equipped with running wheels. Under these conditions, rats ran an average of 7154 rev/day (7869 m/day), with a range across rats from 4501 to 10,164 rev/day (4951-11,180 m/day). Sensitivity to all four opioids decreased significantly during the exercise period, resulting in 2- to 5-fold decreases in the potency of morphine, levorphanol and buprenorphine, and decreases in the effectiveness of buprenorphine and butorphanol. When rats were returned to sedentary conditions, sensitivity to all four opioids increased significantly and returned to that observed prior to the exercise period. For all drugs, there was a positive correlation between exercise output and changes in opioid sensitivity between sedentary and exercise conditions

  13. Spontaneous Changes in Taste Sensitivity of Single Units Recorded over Consecutive Days in the Brainstem of the Awake Rat

    PubMed Central

    Sammons, Joshua D.; Weiss, Michael S.; Escanilla, Olga D.; Fooden, Andrew F.; Victor, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    A neuron’s sensitivity profile is fundamental to functional classification of cell types, and underlies theories of sensory coding. Here we show that gustatory neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and parabrachial nucleus of the pons (PbN) of awake rats spontaneously change their tuning properties across days. Rats were surgically implanted with a chronic microwire assembly into the NTS or PbN. Following recovery, water-deprived rats had free access to a lick spout that delivered taste stimuli while cellular activity was recorded. In 12 rats for the NTS and 8 rats for the PbN, single units could be isolated at the same electrode on consecutive days (NTS, 14 units for 2–5 consecutive days, median = 2 days; PbN, 23 units for 2–7 days, median = 2.5 days). Waveforms were highly similar (waveform template correlation > 0.99) across days in 13 units in NTS and 13 units in PbN. This degree of similarity was rare (0.3% of pairs in NTS, 1.5% of pairs in PbN) when the waveforms were from presumed-different neurons (units recorded on nonconsecutive days with at least one intervening day in which there were no spikes, or from different wires or rats). Analyses of multi-day recordings that met this criterion for “same unit” showed that responses to taste stimuli appeared, disappeared, or shifted in magnitude across days, resulting in changes in tuning. These data imply, generally, that frameworks for cell classification and, specifically, that theories of taste coding, need to consider plasticity of response profiles. PMID:27479490

  14. Spontaneous Changes in Taste Sensitivity of Single Units Recorded over Consecutive Days in the Brainstem of the Awake Rat.

    PubMed

    Sammons, Joshua D; Weiss, Michael S; Escanilla, Olga D; Fooden, Andrew F; Victor, Jonathan D; Di Lorenzo, Patricia M

    2016-01-01

    A neuron's sensitivity profile is fundamental to functional classification of cell types, and underlies theories of sensory coding. Here we show that gustatory neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and parabrachial nucleus of the pons (PbN) of awake rats spontaneously change their tuning properties across days. Rats were surgically implanted with a chronic microwire assembly into the NTS or PbN. Following recovery, water-deprived rats had free access to a lick spout that delivered taste stimuli while cellular activity was recorded. In 12 rats for the NTS and 8 rats for the PbN, single units could be isolated at the same electrode on consecutive days (NTS, 14 units for 2-5 consecutive days, median = 2 days; PbN, 23 units for 2-7 days, median = 2.5 days). Waveforms were highly similar (waveform template correlation > 0.99) across days in 13 units in NTS and 13 units in PbN. This degree of similarity was rare (0.3% of pairs in NTS, 1.5% of pairs in PbN) when the waveforms were from presumed-different neurons (units recorded on nonconsecutive days with at least one intervening day in which there were no spikes, or from different wires or rats). Analyses of multi-day recordings that met this criterion for "same unit" showed that responses to taste stimuli appeared, disappeared, or shifted in magnitude across days, resulting in changes in tuning. These data imply, generally, that frameworks for cell classification and, specifically, that theories of taste coding, need to consider plasticity of response profiles. PMID:27479490

  15. Nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization in an adult rat model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Watterson, Elizabeth; Spitzer, Alexander; Watterson, Lucas R; Brackney, Ryan J; Zavala, Arturo R; Olive, M Foster; Sanabria, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with increased risk of tobacco dependence. Nicotine, the main psychoactive component of tobacco, appears to be implicated in ADHD-related tobacco dependence. However, the behavioral responsiveness to nicotine of the prevalent animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), is currently underinvestigated. The present study examined the activational effects of acute and chronic nicotine on the behavior of adult male SHRs, relative to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) controls. Experiment 1 verified baseline strain differences in open-field locomotor activity. Experiment 2 tested for baseline strain differences in rotational behavior using a Rotorat apparatus. Adult SHR and WKY rats were then exposed to a 7-day regimen of 0.6mg/kg/d s.c. nicotine, or saline, prior to each assessment. A separate group of SHRs underwent similar training, but was pre-treated with mecamylamine, a cholinergic antagonist. Nicotine sensitization, context conditioning, and mecamylamine effects were then tested. Baseline strain differences were observed in open-field performance and in the number of full rotations in the Rotorat apparatus, but not in the number of 90° rotations or direction changes. In these latter measures, SHRs displayed weaker nicotine-induced rotational suppression than WKYs. Both strains expressed nicotine-induced sensitization of rotational activity, but evidence for strain differences in sensitization was ambiguous; context conditioning was not observed. Mecamylamine reversed the effects of nicotine on SHR performance. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a reduced aversion to nicotine (expressed in rats as robust locomotion) may facilitate smoking among adults with ADHD. PMID:27363925

  16. Palmitate stimulates glucose transport in rat adipocytes by a mechanism involving translocation of the insulin sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, R. W.; Ladenson, J. H.; Henriksen, E. J.; Holloszy, J. O.; McDonald, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    In rat adipocytes, palmitate: a) increases basal 2-deoxyglucose transport 129 +/- 27% (p less than 0.02), b) decreases the insulin sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4) in low density microsomes and increases GLUT4 in plasma membranes and c) increases the activity of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. Palmitate-stimulated glucose transport is not additive with the effect of insulin and is not inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine and sphingosine. In rat muscle, palmitate: a) does not affect basal glucose transport in either the soleus or epitrochlearis and b) inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose transport by 28% (p less than 0.005) in soleus but not in epitrochlearis muscle. These studies demonstrate a potentially important differential role for fatty acids in the regulation of glucose transport in different insulin target tissues.

  17. Rosmarinic acid ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity in diabetic rats, potentially by modulating the expression of PEPCK and GLUT4

    PubMed Central

    Runtuwene, Joshua; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Asakawa, Akihiro; Amitani, Haruka; Amitani, Marie; Morinaga, Akinori; Takimoto, Yoshiyuki; Kairupan, Bernabas Harold Ralph; Inui, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Background Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural substance that may be useful for treating diabetes mellitus. The present study investigated the effects of RA on glucose homeostasis and insulin regulation in rats with streptozocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes or high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes. Methods Glucose homeostasis was determined using oral glucose tolerance tests and postprandial glucose tests, and insulin activity was evaluated using insulin tolerance tests and the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance. Additionally, the protein expression levels of PEPCK and GLUT4 were determined using Western blot analysis. Results RA administration exerted a marked hypoglycemic effect on STZ-induced diabetic rats and enhanced glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed diabetic rats. These effects of RA were dose-dependent. Meanwhile, RA administration reversed the STZ- and HFD-induced increase in PEPCK expression in the liver and the STZ- and HFD-induced decrease in GLUT4 expression in skeletal muscle. Conclusion RA reduces hyperglycemia and ameliorates insulin sensitivity by decreasing PEPCK expression and increasing GLUT4 expression. PMID:27462144

  18. Social stress, autonomic neural activation, and cardiac activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Sgoifo, A; Koolhaas, J; De Boer, S; Musso, E; Stilli, D; Buwalda, B; Meerlo, P

    1999-11-01

    Animal models of social stress represent a useful experimental tool to investigate the relationship between psychological stress, autonomic neural activity and cardiovascular disease. This paper summarizes the results obtained in a series of experiments performed on rats and aimed at verifying whether social challenges produce specific modifications in the autonomic neural control of heart rate and whether these changes can be detrimental for cardiac electrical stability. Short-term electrocardiographic recordings were performed via radiotelemetry and the autonomic input to the heart evaluated by means of time-domain heart rate variability measures. Compared to other stress contexts, a social defeat experience produces a strong shift of autonomic balance toward sympathetic dominance, poorly antagonized by vagal rebound, and associated with the occurrence of cardiac tachyarrhythmias. These effects were particularly severe when a wild-type strain of rats was studied. The data also suggest that the cardiac autonomic responses produced by different types of social contexts (dominant-subordinate interaction, dominant-dominant confrontation, social defeat) are related to different degrees of emotional activation, which in turn are likely modulated by the social rank of the experimental animal and the opponent, the prior experience with the stressor, and the level of controllability over the stimulus. PMID:10580306

  19. Role of opioid receptors in neurogenic dural vasodilation and sensitization of trigeminal neurones in anaesthetized rats

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, D J; Shepheard, S L; Cook, D A; Hargreaves, R J; Hill, R G; Cumberbatch, M J

    2001-01-01

    Migraine headache is thought to be caused by a distension of meningeal blood vessels, the activation of trigeminal sensory neurones and the the development of a central sensitization within the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC). It has been proposed that clinically effective 5-HT1B/1D agonists act peripherally to inhibit the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and neurogenic dural vasodilation, and to attenuate nociceptive neurotransmission within the TNC. Since opioids are also effective anti-migraine agents the present studies investigated the role of opioids within the trigemino-vascular system in anaesthetised rats. Electrical stimulation of the dura mater evoked neurogenic dural vasodilation which was significantly inhibited by morphine (1 mg kg−1) the selective μ-opioid agonist DAGO (10 μg kg−1) and the mixed agonist/antagonist butorphanol (1 mg kg−1) but not by the κ- and δ-opioid agonists (±) U50488H (100 μg kg−1) and DPDPE (1 mg kg−1). Morphine had no effect on CGRP-evoked dural vasodilation. In electrophysiological studies morphine (1 – 10 mg kg−1) significantly attenuated brainstem neuronal activity in response to electrical stimulation of the dura by 65% at 10 mg kg−1. Morphine (3 mg kg−1) also inhibited the TNC neuronal sensitization following CGRP-evoked dilation. The present studies have demonstrated that opioids block the nociceptive neurotransmission within the trigeminal nucleus caudalis and in addition inhibit neurogenic dural vasodilation via an action on μ-opioid receptors located on trigeminal sensory fibres innervating dural blood vessels. These peripheral and central actions are similar to those of the ‘triptan' 5-HT1B/1D agonists and could account for the anti-migraine actions of opioids. PMID:11454653

  20. Modulation of olfactory sensitivity and glucose-sensing by the feeding state in obese Zucker rats

    PubMed Central

    Aimé, Pascaline; Palouzier-Paulignan, Brigitte; Salem, Rita; Al Koborssy, Dolly; Garcia, Samuel; Duchamp, Claude; Romestaing, Caroline; Julliard, A. Karyn

    2014-01-01

    The Zucker fa/fa rat has been widely used as an animal model to study obesity, since it recapitulates most of its behavioral and metabolic dysfunctions, such as hyperphagia, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Although it is well established that olfaction is under nutritional and hormonal influences, little is known about the impact of metabolic dysfunctions on olfactory performances and glucose-sensing in the olfactory system of the obese Zucker rat. In the present study, using a behavioral paradigm based on a conditioned olfactory aversion, we have shown that both obese and lean Zucker rats have a better olfactory sensitivity when they are fasted than when they are satiated. Interestingly, the obese Zucker rats displayed a higher olfactory sensitivity than their lean controls. By investigating the molecular mechanisms involved in glucose-sensing in the olfactory system, we demonstrated that sodium-coupled glucose transporters 1 (SGLT1) and insulin dependent glucose transporters 4 (GLUT4) are both expressed in the olfactory bulb (OB). By comparing the expression of GLUT4 and SGLT1 in OB of obese and lean Zucker rats, we found that only SGLT1 is regulated in genotype-dependent manner. Next, we used glucose oxidase biosensors to simultaneously measure in vivo the extracellular fluid glucose concentrations ([Gluc]ECF) in the OB and the cortex. Under metabolic steady state, we have determined that the OB contained twice the amount of glucose found in the cortex. In both regions, the [Gluc]ECF was 2 fold higher in obese rats compared to their lean controls. Under induced dynamic glycemia conditions, insulin injection produced a greater decrease of [Gluc]ECF in the OB than in the cortex. Glucose injection did not affect OB [Gluc]ECF in Zucker fa/fa rats. In conclusion, these results emphasize the importance of glucose for the OB network function and provide strong arguments towards establishing the OB glucose-sensing as a key factor for sensory olfactory processing

  1. Ageing delays emergence from general anaesthesia in rats by increasing anaesthetic sensitivity in the brain†

    PubMed Central

    Chemali, J. J.; Kenny, J. D.; Olutola, O.; Taylor, N. E.; Kimchi, E. Y.; Purdon, P. L.; Brown, E. N.; Solt, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about ageing-related changes in the brain that affect emergence from general anaesthesia. We used young adult and aged Fischer 344 rats to test the hypothesis that ageing delays emergence from general anaesthesia by increasing anaesthetic sensitivity in the brain. Methods Time to emergence was determined for isoflurane (1.5 vol% for 45 min) and propofol (8 mg kg−1 i.v.). The dose of isoflurane required to maintain loss of righting (LOR) was established in young adult and aged rats. The efficacy of methylphenidate to reverse LOR from general anaesthesia was tested. Separate young adult and aged rats with implanted electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes were used to test whether ageing increases sensitivity to anaesthetic-induced burst suppression. Results Mean time to emergence from isoflurane anaesthesia was 47 s [95% CI 33, 60; young adult) compared with 243 s (95% CI 185, 308; aged). For propofol, mean time to emergence was 13.1 min (95% CI 11.9, 14.0; young adult) compared with 23.1 min (95% CI 18.8, 27.9; aged). These differences were statistically significant. When methylphenidate was administered after propofol, the mean time to emergence decreased to 6.6 min (95% CI 5.9, 7.1; young adult) and 10.2 min (95% CI 7.9, 12.3; aged). These reductions were statistically significant. Methylphenidate restored righting in all rats during continuous isoflurane anaesthesia. Aged rats had lower EEG power and were more sensitive to anaesthetic-induced burst suppression. Conclusions Ageing delays emergence from general anaesthesia. This is due, at least in part, to increased anaesthetic sensitivity in the brain. Further studies are warranted to establish the underlying causes. PMID:26174302

  2. Chronic ethanol consumption alters effects of ethanol in vitro on brain membrane structure of high alcohol sensitivity and low alcohol sensitivity rats.

    PubMed

    Avdulov, N A; Chochina, S V; Draski, L J; Deitrich, R A; Wood, W G

    1995-08-01

    In this study, we examined if differences in initial membrane sensitivity to ethanol were associated with development of membrane tolerance to ethanol. High Alcohol Sensitivity (HAS) and Low Alcohol Sensitivity (LAS) rats were administered a 15% ethanol solution in water as the sole source of fluid for 30 days. The amount of ethanol consumed per day did not significantly differ between the HAS and LAS rats. Development of membrane tolerance to in vitro effects of ethanol has been previously reported for bulk membrane fluidity and protein-lipid interaction. Our data expands the understanding of "membrane tolerance" phenomenon to protein distribution and bilayer interdigitation. We also introduce genotype-dependent and genotype-independent properties of the membrane tolerance to ethanol. ethanol treatment produced genotype-dependent and genotype-independent membrane tolerance to ethanol. The in vitro effects of ethanol on synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) protein distribution and lipid bilayer interdigitation were abolished or decreased in the SPM of chronic ethanol-treated HAS rats, as compared with the SPM of HAS control rats (genotype-dependent tolerance). Protein distribution and bilayer interdigitation were not affected by ethanol in vitro in either chronic ethanol-treated or control LAS rats. Genotype-independent tolerance to ethanol in vitro was observed for SPM annular and bulk bilayer fluidity in chronic ethanol-treated HAS and LAS rats. It is concluded that initial sensitivity to ethanol contributes to the development of membrane tolerance to ethanol in HAS and LAS rats. PMID:7485835

  3. Renal medullary microRNAs in Dahl salt-sensitive rats: miR-29b regulates several collagens and related genes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Taylor, Norman E; Lu, Limin; Usa, Kristie; Cowley, Allen W; Ferreri, Nicholas R; Yeo, Nan Cher; Liang, Mingyu

    2010-04-01

    MicroRNAs are endogenous repressors of gene expression. We examined microRNAs in the renal medulla of Dahl salt-sensitive rats and consomic SS-13(BN) rats. Salt-induced hypertension and renal injury in Dahl salt-sensitive rats, particularly medullary interstitial fibrosis, have been shown previously to be substantially attenuated in SS-13(BN) rats. Of 377 microRNAs examined, 5 were found to be differentially expressed between Dahl salt-sensitive rats and consomic SS-13(BN) rats receiving a high-salt diet. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that high-salt diets induced substantial upregulation of miR-29b in the renal medulla of SS-13(BN) rats but not in SS rats. miR-29b was predicted to regulate 20 collagen genes, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2), integrin beta1 (Itgb1), and other genes related to the extracellular matrix. Expression of 9 collagen genes and Mmp2 was upregulated by a high-salt diet in the renal medulla of SS rats, but not in SS-13(BN) rats, an expression pattern opposite to miR-29b. Knockdown of miR-29b in the kidneys of SS-13(BN) rats resulted in upregulation of several collagen genes. miR-29b reduced expression levels of several collagen genes and Itgb1 in cultured rat renal medullary epithelial cells. Moreover, miR-29b suppressed the activity of luciferase when the reporter gene was linked to a 3'-untranslated segment of collagen genes Col1a1, Col3a1, Col4a1, Col5a1, Col5a2, Col5a3, Col7a1, Col8a1, Mmp2, or Itgb1 but not Col12a1. The result demonstrated broad effects of miR-29b on a large number of collagens and genes related to the extracellular matrix and suggested involvement of miR-29b in the protection from renal medullary injury in SS-13(BN) rats. PMID:20194304

  4. Cadmium effect on microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activity in rat livers with respect to differences in age and sex

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, M.

    1982-04-01

    The effect of cadmium on the hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme system was investigated. Cadmium chloride caused the conversion of cytochrome P-450 to P-420 in rat liver microsomes. The destruction of cytochrome P-450 by cadmium caused the reduction of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activity and prolonged the pentobarbital sleeping time. There is a sex-related difference in the ability of cadmium to inhibit the hepatic drug metabolism in rats: male rats are more sensitive to cadmium than females. The effective period when cadmium prolonged their sleep depended upon the age of rats; older rats were more sensitive to cadmium than younger ones. The maximum increase of sleeping time depended upon the dose level of cadium, and the rate constant of the equations seems to depend upon the age of the animals.

  5. Zinc deficiency decreases the activity of calmodulin regulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases in vivo in selected rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Law, J S; McBride, S A; Graham, S; Nelson, N R; Slotnick, B M; Henkin, R I

    1988-08-01

    The effect of zinc deficiency on calmodulin function was investigated by assessing the in vivo activity of two calmodulin regulated enzymes, adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (c-AMP) and guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (c-GMP) phosphodiesterase (PDE) in several rat tissues. Enzymatic activities in brain, heart, and testis of rats fed a zinc deficient diet were compared with activities in these tissues from pair fed, zinc supplemented rats. In testis, a tissue in which zinc concentration decreased with zinc deficient diet, enzyme activities were significantly decreased over those in rats who were pair fed zinc supplemented diets. In brain and heart, tissues in which zinc concentrations did not change with either diet, enzymatic activities between the groups were not different. These results indicate that zinc deficiency influences the activity of calmodulin-regulated phosphodiesterases in vivo supporting the hypothesis that zinc plays a role in calmodulin function in vivo in zinc sensitive tissues. PMID:2484550

  6. Establishment and characterization of a simian virus 40-transformed temperature-sensitive rat luteal cell line.

    PubMed

    Sugino, N; Zilberstein, M; Srivastava, R K; Telleria, C M; Nelson, S E; Risk, M; Chou, J Y; Gibori, G

    1998-04-01

    Janus kinase (JAK2) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat5b), and, when transfected with the PRL receptor, they responded to PRL with a marked inhibition in 20alpha-HSD mRNA expression. In addition, estradiol enhanced ER-beta expression in a dose-dependent manner whereas cAMP stimulation caused a marked and rapid increase in the expression of the orphan receptor nur 77. In summary, a temperature-sensitive cell line was successfully established from the large luteal cells of rat corpora lutea. These cells express key genes encoding enzymes and receptors inherent to this defined luteal cell population and respond to stimulation by PRL, estradiol, and cAMP. PMID:9528980

  7. Effects of acute and chronic uremia on active cation transport in rat myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Druml, W.; Kelly, R.A.; England, B.K.; O'Hara, D.S.; Mitch, W.E. )

    1990-12-01

    As abnormalities of active cation transport could contribute to the genesis of uremic cardiomyopathy, we investigated myocardial sodium pump function in rats with acute renal failure (ARF) and with a model of experimental chronic renal failure (CRF) that has metabolic similarities to advanced chronic uremia in humans. CRF rats were hypertensive and had left ventricular hypertrophy (33% higher heart:body weight ratio; P less than 0.01) at four weeks compared to pair-fed sham-operated rats. Importantly, both ouabain- and furosemide-sensitive 86Rb uptake rates were unchanged in left ventricular myocardial slices from CRF, and the intracellular sodium concentration was not different from that of control rats even though skeletal muscle sodium was increased, as we found previously. Insulin-stimulated, ouabain-sensitive 86Rb influx was also preserved. There also were no abnormalities in myocardium cation transport in rats with ARF. However, (3H)ouabain binding was decreased 45% in CRF rats (P less than 0.01); it was unchanged in acute uremia. Decreased ouabain binding in chronic uremia was due entirely to fewer low affinity (3H)ouabain binding sites (the binding affinity for ouabain was unaffected). We conclude that in chronic, (but not acute) renal failure, sodium pump number is reduced in myocardium but intracellular sodium is unchanged and active cation flux rates are maintained. These results emphasize that in rats with chronic uremia, intracellular sodium homeostasis is preserved in myocardium, despite the presence of marked abnormalities of active cation transport in skeletal muscle that are characteristic of chronic uremia.

  8. A simple, rapid, and sensitive system for the evaluation of anti-viral drugs in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaoguang; Qian, Hua; Miyamoto, Fusako; Kawaji, Kumi; Hattori, Toshio; Watanabe, Kentaro; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka; and others

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We established a novel, simple and rapid in vivo system for evaluation of anti-HIV-1 drugs with rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system may be applicable for other antiviral drugs, and/or useful for initial screening in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this system, TRI-1144 displayed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity in vivo. -- Abstract: The lack of small animal models for the evaluation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) agents hampers drug development. Here, we describe the establishment of a simple and rapid evaluation system in a rat model without animal infection facilities. After intraperitoneal administration of test drugs to rats, antiviral activity in the sera was examined by the MAGI assay. Recently developed inhibitors for HIV-1 entry, two CXCR4 antagonists, TF14016 and FC131, and four fusion inhibitors, T-20, T-20EK, SC29EK, and TRI-1144, were evaluated using HIV-1{sub IIIB} and HIV-1{sub BaL} as representative CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. CXCR4 antagonists were shown to only possess anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} activity, whereas fusion inhibitors showed both anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} and anti-HIV-1{sub BaL} activities in rat sera. These results indicate that test drugs were successfully processed into the rat sera and could be detected by the MAGI assay. In this system, TRI-1144 showed the most potent and sustained antiviral activity. Sera from animals not administered drugs showed substantial anti-HIV-1 activity, indicating that relatively high dose or activity of the test drugs might be needed. In conclusion, the novel rat system established here, 'phenotypic drug evaluation', may be applicable for the evaluation of various antiviral drugs in vivo.

  9. Impaired antipneumococcal activity of bronchoalveolar lining material of neonatal rats.

    PubMed Central

    Coonrod, J D; Jarrells, M C

    1989-01-01

    Pulmonary clearance of inhaled pneumococci is markedly impaired in neonatal rats compared with that in adult rats. To determine whether this impairment is due to a deficiency of extracellular bactericidal factors, the antipneumococcal activity of free fatty acids (FFA) in lung surfactant and the levels of lysozyme and transferrin in lavage fluids were quantified. Surfactant from adult rats averaged 68 U of antipneumococcal activity per g (dry weight) of lung, compared with less than 0.25 U for rats less than 1 week old (P less than 0.001). The kinds of FFA in surfactant of neonatal and adult rats were essentially identical, and the antipneumococcal activity of highly purified FFA from surfactant of neonatal and adult rats was also the same. However, the quantity of FFA in surfactant varied significantly with age, and rats less than 3 weeks old had much lower levels of surfactant FFA than did adults (P less than 0.001). In addition, lavage fluids from neonatal rats inhibited the antipneumococcal activity of surfactant FFA more than lavage fluids from adults did (P less than 0.02). This inhibitory activity did not appear to be due to protein binding. Lavage fluids from neonates showed an age-related deficiency of lysozyme (P less than 0.001), but lysozyme appeared to play no role in pneumococcal killing by the surfactant fraction of lavage fluids in vitro. Transferrin levels in lavage fluids were similar for neonates and adults. It was concluded that lung surfactant from neonatal rats was deficient in antipneumococcal activity, due mostly to low levels of FFA and to a lesser degree to increased levels of inhibitor(s) in lavage fluids. PMID:2912894

  10. The response of Dahl salt-sensitive and salt-resistant female rats to a space flight model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Cleek, Tammy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2003-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism in the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat, a model of salt-induced hypertension, differs from that in the Dahl salt-resistant (R) rat. We have tested the hypothesis that differences in vitamin D metabolism would render the Dahl S rat more susceptible than the Dahl R rat to the effects of a space flight model. Dahl female rats were tail suspended (hind limb unloaded) for 28 days, while fed a low salt (3 g/kg sodium chloride) diet. Plasma 25-OHD concentrations of S rats were significantly lower than that of R rats. Plasma 1,25-(OH)2D concentration was 50% lower in unloaded than in loaded S rats, but was unaffected in unloaded R rats. The left soleus muscle weight and breaking strength of the left femur (torsion test) were 50% and 25% lower in unloaded than in loaded S and R rats. The mineral content of the left femur, however, was significantly lower (by 11%) only in unloaded S rats. We conclude that female S rats are more vulnerable than female R rats to decreases in plasma 1,25-(OH)2D concentration and femur mineral content during hind limb unloading, but equally vulnerable to muscle atrophy and reduced breaking strength of the femur.

  11. 5. cap alpha. -reductase activity in rat adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Zyirek, M.; Flood, C.; Longcope, C.

    1987-11-01

    We measured the 5 ..cap alpha..-reductase activity in isolated cell preparations of rat adipose tissue using the formation of (/sup 3/H) dihydrotestosterone from (/sup 3/H) testosterone as an endpoint. Stromal cells were prepared from the epididymal fat pad, perinephric fat, and subcutaneous fat of male rats and from perinephric fat of female rats. Adipocytes were prepared from the epididymal fat pad and perinephric fat of male rats. Stromal cells from the epididymal fat pad and perinephric fat contained greater 5..cap alpha..-reductase activity than did the adipocytes from these depots. Stromal cells from the epididymal fat pad contained greater activity than those from perinephric and subcutaneous depots. Perinephric stromal cells from female rats were slightly more active than those from male rats. Estradiol (10/sup -8/ M), when added to the medium, caused a 90% decrease in 5..cap alpha..-reductase activity. Aromatase activity was minimal, several orders of magnitude less than 5..cap alpha..-reductase activity in each tissue studied.

  12. Glucose-independent renoprotective mechanisms of the tissue dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, saxagliptin, in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Uchii, Masako; Kimoto, Naoya; Sakai, Mariko; Kitayama, Tetsuya; Kunori, Shunji

    2016-07-15

    Although previous studies have shown an important role of renal dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibition in ameliorating kidney injury in hypertensive rats, the renal distribution of DPP-4 and mechanisms of renoprotective action of DPP-4 inhibition remain unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of the DPP-4 inhibitor saxagliptin on DPP-4 activity in renal cells (using in situ DPP-4 staining) and on renal gene expression related to inflammation and fibrosis in the renal injury in hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl-S) rats. Male rats fed a high-salt (8% NaCl) diet received vehicle (water) or saxagliptin (12.7mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. Blood pressure (BP), serum glucose and 24-h urinary albumin and sodium excretions were measured, and renal histopathology was performed. High salt-diet increased BP and urinary albumin excretion, consequently resulting in glomerular sclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Although saxagliptin did not affect BP and blood glucose levels, it significantly ameliorated urinary albumin excretion. In situ staining showed DPP-4 activity in glomerular and tubular cells. Saxagliptin significantly suppressed DPP-4 activity in renal tissue extracts and in glomerular and tubular cells. Saxagliptin also significantly attenuated the increase in inflammation and fibrosis-related gene expressions in the kidney. Our results demonstrate that saxagliptin inhibited the development of renal injury independent of its glucose-lowering effect. Glomerular and tubular DPP-4 inhibition by saxagliptin was associated with improvements in albuminuria and the suppression of inflammation and fibrosis-related genes. Thus, local glomerular and tubular DPP-4 inhibition by saxagliptin may play an important role in its renoprotective effects in Dahl-S rats. PMID:27063445

  13. Enhanced skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in year-old rats adapted to hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondon, C. E.; Dolkas, C. B.; Oyama, J.

    1981-01-01

    Rats induced into a hypermetabolic state by exposure to chronic (7 mo) centrifugation at 4.15 g exhibited increased glucose uptake at lower plasma insulin levels than weight-matched control animals following oral glucose administration. In order to determine the insulin sensitivity of specific tissues, the effect of exogenous insulin on glucose uptake by isolated perfused livers and hindlim skeletal muscle from rats adapted to chronic centrifugation for one year was compared with perfused tissue from 2.5 mo-old noncentrifuged control animals of equal body weight. Metabolic glucose clearance by skeletal muscle from hypergravic rats did not prove significantly greater than control muscle when perfused in the absence of insulin (10.6 vs 8.1 microliters/min-g-muscle), but was twice as fast (23.0 vs 9.5) at perfusate insulin levels of 35 micro-U/ml. Conversely, glucose uptake by hypergravic livers was significantly decreased (P is less than 0.001) compared with control livers (10.3 vs 27.8) at perfusate insulin levels of 40 micro-U/ml. Results suggest that skeletal muscle rather than liver is primarily responsible for the enhanced sensitivity to insulin and the increased energy expenditure observed in rats subjected to hypergravity.

  14. Distinct sulfonation activities in resveratrol-sensitive and resveratrol-insensitive human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zheng; Li, Hong; Shu, Xiao-Hong; Shi, Hui; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Kong, Qing-You; Wu, Mo-Li; Liu, Jia

    2012-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells show different responses to resveratrol, for unknown reasons. Our data from human medulloblastoma cells and primary cultures of rat brain cells revealed an inverse correlation of sulfonation activity with resveratrol sensitivities, providing a clue to the underlying mechanisms of the variable sensitivities of GBM cells to resveratrol. In this study, we found that U251 cells were sensitive and LN229 cells were insensitive to resveratrol. Thus, these two cell lines were taken as comparable models for elucidating the influence of sulfonation activities on resveratrol sensitivity. HPLC showed identical resveratrol metabolic patterns in both cell lines. LC/MS and high-resolution mass MS analyses further demonstrated that resveratrol monosulfate generated by sulfotransferases (SULTs) was the major metabolite of human GBM cells. The levels of brain-associated SULT (SULT1A1, SULT1C2, and SULT4A1) expression in U251 cells were lower than those in LN229 cells, suggesting the inverse relationship of SULT-mediated sulfonation activity with high intracellular resveratrol bioavailability and resveratrol sensitivity of human GBM cells. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed reductions in expression of the three brain-associated SULTs in 72.8%, 47.5% and 66.3% of astrocytomas, respectively. Therefore, the levels of brain-associated SULTs and sulfonation activity mediated by them could be important parameters for evaluating the potential response of human GBM cells to resveratrol, and may have value in the personalized treatment of GBMs with resveratrol. PMID:22540632

  15. Targeted disruption of cocaine-activated accumbens neurons prevents context-specific sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Koya, Eisuke; Golden, Sam A.; Harvey, Brandon K.; Guez, Danielle H.; Berkow, Alexander; Simmons, Danielle E.; Bossert, Jennifer M.; Nair, Sunila G.; Uejima, Jamie L.; Marin, Marcelo T.; Mitchell, Timothy; Farquhar, David; Ghosh, Sukhen; Mattson, Brandi J.; Hope, Bruce T.

    2009-01-01

    Learned associations between effects of abused drugs and the drug administration environment play important roles in drug addiction. Histochemical and electrophysiological studies suggest that these associations are encoded in sparsely distributed nucleus accumbens neurons that are selectively activated by drugs and drug-associated cues. Although correlations between accumbens neuronal activity and responsivity to drugs and drug cues have been observed, no technique exists for selectively manipulating these activated neurons and establishing their causal role in behavioral effects of drugs and drug cues. Here we describe a novel method, termed ‘Daun02-inactivation method’, that selectively inactivates a minority of neurons activated by cocaine in an environment repeatedly paired with cocaine to demonstrate a causal role for these activated neurons in context-specific cocaine-induced psychomotor sensitization in rats. This method provides a new tool to study causal roles of selectively activated neurons in behavioral effects of drugs and drug cues and in other learned behaviors. PMID:19620976

  16. Repeated restraint stress alters sensitivity to the social consequences of ethanol in adolescent and adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.; Spear, Linda P.

    2010-01-01

    Human adolescents consume alcohol largely to enhance social interactions. Adolescent, but not adult rats likewise exhibit ethanol-induced social facilitation under low-stress circumstances. Since the relationship between stress and ethanol sensitivity across ontogeny still has yet to be well explored, the present study sought to characterize possible age-associated differences in the influence of stressor exposure on ethanol-induced changes in social behavior in adolescent [postnatal days (P) 30–36] and adult (P65-71) male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were repeatedly restrained (90 min/day) for 5 days, followed by examination of ethanol-induced (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1.0 g/kg) alterations in social behaviors on the last day. Results revealed typical age-related differences in sensitivity to ethanol among controls, with adolescents being uniquely sensitive to low-dose ethanol stimulation of social investigation and play fighting, but less sensitive than adults to the social suppression emerging at higher doses. At both ages, stressor exposure decreased sensitivity to social inhibitory effects of ethanol, while augmenting expression of ethanol’s social facilitatory effects. Ethanol also attenuated the stress-related suppression of social motivation at both ages. These results suggest that repeated stressor exposure diminishes age-related differences in the social consequences of ethanol, with stress enhancing ethanol-induced social facilitation across age. PMID:20478326

  17. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    SciTech Connect

    Tonk, Elisa C.M.; Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R.; Loveren, Henk van; Piersma, Aldert H.

    2012-04-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  18. Plasma 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration of Dahl salt-sensitive rats decreases during high salt intake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Tewolde, Teclemicael K.; Forte, Camille; Wang, Min; Bayorh, Mohamed A.; Emmett, Nerimiah L.; White, Jolanda; Griffin, Keri

    2002-01-01

    Dahl salt-sensitive rats, but not salt-resistant rats, develop hypertension in response to high salt intake. We have previously shown an inverse relationship between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration and blood pressure of Dahl salt-sensitive rats during high salt intake. In this study, we report on the relationship between high salt intake and plasma 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25-(OH)(2)D) concentration of Dahl salt-sensitive and salt-resistant rats. Rats were fed a high salt diet (8%) and sacrificed at day 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentrations of salt-sensitive rats were reduced to 50% of that at baseline at day 2-when blood pressure and plasma 25-OHD concentration were unchanged, but 25-OHD content in the kidney was 81% of that at baseline. Plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentration was reduced further to 10% of that at baseline from day 7 to 14 of high salt intake, a reduction that was prevented in rats switched to a low salt (0.3%) diet at day 7. Exogenous 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (24,25-(OH)(2)D(3)), administered at a level that increased plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentration to five times normal, did not attenuate the salt-induced hypertension of salt-sensitive rats. Plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentration of salt-resistant rats was gradually reduced to 50% of that at baseline at day 14 and returned to baseline value at day 28 of high salt intake. We conclude that the decrease in plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentration in salt-sensitive rats during high salt intake is caused by decreased 25-OHD content in the kidney and also by another unidentified mechanism.

  19. Pharmacological characterization of tachykinin septide-sensitive binding sites in the rat submaxillary gland.

    PubMed

    Beaujouan, J C; Saffroy, M; Torrens, Y; Sagan, S; Glowinski, J

    1999-11-01

    Binding studies have shown that [125I]NKA is a selective ligand of tachykinin septide-sensitive binding sites from membranes of the rat submaxillary gland. Indeed, this ligand bound with high affinity to a single population of sites. In addition, competition studies indicated that natural tachykinins and tachykinin-related compounds had a similar affinity for these sites than for those labeled with [3H]ALIE-124, a selective ligand of septide-sensitive binding sites. Moreover, selective tachykinin NK2, or NK3 agonists or antagonists exhibited weak or no affinity for [125I]NKA binding sites. As indicated by Ki values of several compounds, the pharmacological characteristics of the septide-sensitive binding sites (labeled with [125I]NKA) largely differ from those of classic NK1 binding sites, as determined on crude synaptosomes from the rat brain using [125I]Bolton-Hunter substance P (SP) as ligand. Indeed, several tachykinins including neurokinin A (NKA), neuropeptide K (NPK), neuropeptide gamma (NKgamma), and neurokinin B, as well as some SP and NKA analogues or C-terminal fragments such as septide, ALIE-124, SP(6-11), NKA(4-10), which have a weak affinity for classic tachykinin NK1 binding sites exhibited a high affinity for the septide-sensitive binding sites. In contrast, SP, classic selective NK1 agonists, and antagonists had a high affinity for both types of binding sites. The presence of a large population of tachykinin septide-sensitive binding sites in the rat submaxillary gland may thus explain why NPK and NPgamma induce salivary secretion and may potentiate the SP-evoked response in spite of the absence of tachykinin NK2 receptors in this tissue. PMID:10612450

  20. Stimulation of rat liver beta-galactosidase activity by ions.

    PubMed Central

    Baccino, F M; Zuretti, M F; Pernigotti, L

    1975-01-01

    1. The p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactosidase asctivity in rat liver homogenates of lysosome-rich fractions was shown to be markedly affected by the ionic composition of the medium. A stimulation of the reaction rate at pH 5 was produced by most of the salts tested, which contained anions such as acetate, SO4(2-) and Cl-, and cations such as Na+, K= and Mg2+. The most pronounced effect was observed with MgCl2. Only potassium glutamate was inhibitory. 2. Five peaks of beta-galactosidase activity obtained by DEAE-cellulose chromatography were equally sensitive to changes in the ionic composition of the medium. In the presence of added NaC1, the whole rate-pH curve was displaced towards higher pH values, the optimum being shifted from 2.0-2.5 to 3.5. The stimulation at pH 5.0 appeared to be mainly due to changes in Vmax., whereas the apparent Km was slightly modified. 3. Unlike the total, the free beta-galactosidase activity remained unchanged or even declined when KC1 was added to the reaction medium. PMID:3174

  1. Rat intestinal trehalase. Studies of the active site.

    PubMed

    Chen, C C; Guo, W J; Isselbacher, K J

    1987-11-01

    Rat intestinal trehalase was solubilized, purified and reconstituted into proteoliposomes. With octyl glucoside as the solubilizing detergent, the purified protein appeared as a single band on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with an apparent molecular mass of 67 kDa. Kinetic studies indicated that the active site of this enzyme can be functionally divided into two adjacent regions, namely a binding site (with pKa 4.8) and a catalytic site (with pKa 7.2). Other findings suggested that the catalytic site contains a functional thiol group, which is sensitive to inhibition by N-ethylmaleimide, Hg2+ and iodoacetate. Substrate protection and iodoacetate labelling of the thiol group demonstrated that only a protein of 67 kDa was labelled. Furthermore, sucrose and phlorizin protected the thiol group, but Tris-like inhibitors did not. Structure-inhibition analysis of Tris-like inhibitors, the pH effect of Tris inhibition and Tris protection of 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodi-imide inactivation permitted characterization and location of a separate site containing a carboxy group for Tris binding, which may also be the binding region. On the basis of these findings, a possible structure for the active site of trehalase is proposed. PMID:3426558

  2. Influence of decavanadate on rat synaptic plasma membrane ATPases activity.

    PubMed

    Krstić, Danijela; Colović, Mirjana; Bosnjaković-Pavlović, Nada; Spasojević-De Bire, Anne; Vasić, Vesna

    2009-09-01

    The in vitro influence of decameric vanadate species on Na+/K+-ATPase, plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA)-calcium pump and ecto-ATPase activity, using rat synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) as model system was investigated, whereas the commercial porcine cerebral cortex Na+/K+-ATPase served as a reference. The thermal behaviour of the synthesized decavanadate (V10) has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, while the type of polyvanadate anion was identified using the IR spectroscopy. The concentration-dependent responses to V10 of all enzymes were obtained. The half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the enzyme activity was achieved at (4.74 +/- 1.15) x 10(-7) mol/l for SPM Na+/K+-ATPase, (1.30 +/- 0.10) x 10(-6) mol/l for commercial Na+/K+-ATPase and (3.13 +/- 1.70) x 10(-8) mol/l for Ca2+-ATPase, while ecto-ATPase is significantly less sensitive toward V10 (IC50 = (1.05 +/- 0.10) x 10(-4) mol/l) than investigated P-type ATPases. Kinetic analysis showed that V10 inhibited Na+/K+-ATPase by reducing the maximum enzymatic velocity and apparent affinity for ATP (increasing K(m) value), implying a mixed mode of interaction between V10 and P-type ATPases. PMID:20037196

  3. Mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic proteins, but not myosin heavy chain, are sensitive to leucine supplementation in old rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Guillet, Christelle; Zangarelli, Aude; Mishellany, Anne; Rousset, Paulette; Sornet, Claire; Dardevet, Dominique; Boirie, Yves

    2004-05-01

    Leucine has a major anabolic impact on muscle protein synthesis in young as in old animals. However, myosin heavy chain (MHC), sarcoplasmic and mitochondrial proteins may differently respond to anabolic factors, especially during aging. To test this hypothesis, fractional synthesis rates (FSR) of the three muscle protein fractions were measured using a flooding dose of [1-(13)C] phenylalanine, in gastrocnemius muscle of adult (8 months) and old (22 months) rats, either in postabsorptive state (PA), or 90-120 min after ingestion of a alanine-supplemented meal (PP+A) or a leucine-supplemented meal (PP+L). In adult and old rats, in comparison with PA, leucine stimulated mitochondrial (adult: 0.260+/-0.011 vs 0.238+/-0.012%h(-1); old: 0.289+/-0.010 vs 0.250+/-0.010%h(-1); PP+L vs PA, P<0.05) and sarcoplasmic (adult: 0.182+/-0.011 vs 0.143+/-0.006%h(-1); old: 0.195+/-0.010 vs 0.149+/-0.008%h(-1); PP+L vs PA, P<0.05) protein FSR, but not MHC synthesis in old rats (0.101+/-0.009 vs 0.137+/-0.018%h(-1); PP+L vs PA, P=NS). In conclusion, synthesis of specific muscle protein is activated by leucine supplementation, but MHC may be less sensitive to anabolic factors with aging. PMID:15130669

  4. Sensitivity of locally recurrent rat mammary tumour cell lines to syngeneic polymorphonuclear cell, macrophage and natural killer cell cytolysis.

    PubMed

    Aeed, P A; Welch, D R

    1988-12-01

    Using a recently developed model for studying the biology of locally recurrent (LR) mammary tumours in the 13762NF rat mammary adenocarcinoma system, we examined the sensitivity to polymorphonuclear cell, macrophage and natural killer cell cytolysis. The parental MTF7(T20) cell line; the 'primary' tumours which arose following subcutaneous inoculation into the mammary fat pad, sc1 and sc3; and the local recurrences (following surgical excision) LR1 and LR1a from sc1, and LR3 from sc3 were all cells generally resistant to specific PMN cytolysis. LPS-activated macrophages caused 25.1%, 38.7% and 58.8% specific cytolysis in MTF7, sc1 and LR1 cells, respectively at E:T of 20:1 and 72 h co-incubation. LR1a, sc3 and LR3 lysis ranged from 0-4.4% under the same conditions. Non-activated macrophages did not lyse any of the cell lines. Locally recurrent and 'primary' tumour cell lines were also not lysed by naive NK cells (range 0.5-4.0% cytolysis). NK cells activated with bropirimine, a potent immunomodulator currently being studied in clinical trials, and/or interleukin-2 were mildly more effective at killing LR cells. Our results show that locally recurrent tumours exhibit heterogeneous sensitivities and are different from 'primary' tumour cells in sensitivities to immune cell killing, but they are not necessarily more or less sensitive. Results with bropirimine-activated or IL-2-activated NK cells emphasize that nonspecific activation is insufficient to eliminate all tumour subpopulations. PMID:3224080

  5. Dihydrolipoic acid activates oligomycin-sensitive thiol groups and increases ATP synthesis in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, G; Mainka, L; Krüger, E

    1991-08-01

    Investigations with dihydrolipoic acid in rat heart mitochondria and mitoplasts reveal an activation of ATP-synthase up to 45%, whereas ATPase activities decrease by 36%. In parallel with an increase in ATP synthesis oligomycin-sensitive mitochondrial -SH groups are activated at 2-4 nmol dihydrolipoic acid/mg protein. ATPase activation by the uncouplers carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone and oleate is diminished by dihydrolipoic acid, and ATP synthesis depressed by oleate is partially restored. No such efficiency of dihydrolipoic acid is seen with palmitate-induced ATPase activation or decrease of ATP synthesis. This indicates different interference of oleate and palmitate with mitochondria. In addition to its known coenzymatic properties dihydrolipoic acid may act as a substitute for coenzyme A, thereby diminishing the uncoupling efficiency of oleate. Furthermore, dihydrolipoic acid is a very potent antioxidant, shifting the -SH-S-S- equilibrium in mitochondria to the reduced state and improving the energetic state of cells. PMID:1832845

  6. Context Modulates the Expression of Conditioned Motor Sensitization, Cellular Activation, and Synaptophysin Immunoreactivity

    PubMed Central

    Rademacher, David J.; Celeste Napier, T.; Meredith, Gloria E.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that amphetamine- (AMPH) induced conditioned motor sensitization is accompanied by cellular activation (measured by Fos immunoreactivity) and synaptophysin immunoreactivity in reward-related brain areas. Forty-eight rats were tested for conditioned motor sensitization using a conditioning paradigm that was performed in a three-chambered apparatus. Rats underwent two drug pairings with 1.0 mg/kg AMPH in one outer chamber and, on alternate days, were paired with saline in the other. On the fifth day, relative to the first AMPH treatment, AMPH administration increased motor activity in the AMPH-paired context but not in the saline-paired context. Relative to the first saline treatment, saline on the fifth day produced a conditioned increase in motor activity when given in the chamber previously paired with AMPH, and saline given in the saline-paired context produced a conditioned decrease in motor activity. AMPH administered in the AMPH-paired context increased the density of both Fos and synaptophysin immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis (CA)1, CA3, basolateral amygdala, and dorsolateral striatum. This pairing between context and drug increased Fos but not synaptophysin immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens core and shell. Saline administered in the AMPH-paired context increased the density of Fos immunoreactivity in the basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens core. These data indicate that the basolateral amygdala-nucleus accumbens core pathway is necessary for the context-elicited conditioned motor responses, while the hippocampus encodes the spatial context. PMID:17970739

  7. Hyperphosphataemia sensitizes renally impaired rats to the profibrotic effects of gadodiamide

    PubMed Central

    Fretellier, N; Idée, JM; Bruneval, P; Guerret, S; Daubiné, F; Jestin, G; Factor, C; Poveda, N; Dencausse, A; Massicot, F; Laprévote, O; Mandet, C; Bouzian, N; Port, M; Corot, C

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hyperphosphataemia is common in patients with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). NSF has been linked to administration of gadolinium (Gd) chelates (GCs) and elevated serum phosphate levels accelerate the release of Gd from linear, non-ionic GCs but not macrocyclic GCs. Hence, we determined whether hyperphosphataemia is a cofactor or risk factor for NSF by investigating the role of hyperphosphataemia in renally impaired rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Firstly, the clinical, pathological and bioanalytical consequences of hyperphosphataemia were investigated in subtotal nephrectomized (SNx) Wistar rats following i.v. administration of the non-ionic, linear GC gadodiamide (5 × 2.5 mmol·kg−1·day−1). Secondly, the effects of several GCs were compared in these high-phosphate diet fed rats. Total Gd concentration in skin, femur and plasma was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and free Gd3+ in plasma by liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. Relaxometry was used to measure dissociated Gd in skin and bone. KEY RESULTS Four out of seven SNx rats fed a high-phosphate diet administered gadodiamide developed macroscopic and microscopic (fibrotic and inflammatory) skin lesions, whereas no skin lesions were observed in SNx rats treated with saline, the other GCs and free ligands or in the normal diet, gadodiamide-treated group. Unlike the other molecules, gadodiamide gradually increased the r1 relaxivity value, consistent with its in vivo dissociation and release of soluble Gd. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Hyperphosphataemia sensitizes renally impaired rats to the profibrotic effects of gadodiamide. Unlike the other GCs investigated, gadodiamide gradually dissociates in vivo. Our data confirm that hyperphosphataemia is a risk factor for NSF. PMID:21740412

  8. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor improves brain insulin sensitivity, but fails to prevent cognitive impairment in orchiectomy obese rats.

    PubMed

    Pintana, Hiranya; Pongkan, Wanpitak; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2015-08-01

    It is unclear whether the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor can counteract brain insulin resistance, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive decline in testosterone-deprived obese rats. We hypothesized that DPP4 inhibitor vildagliptin improves cognitive function in testosterone-deprived obese rats by restoring brain insulin sensitivity, brain mitochondrial function and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Thirty male Wistar rats received either a sham-operated (S, n=6) or bilateral orchiectomy (ORX, n=24). ORX rats were divided into two groups and fed with either a normal diet (ND (NDO)) or a high-fat diet (HFO) for 12 weeks. Then, ORX rats in each dietary group were divided into two subgroups (n=6/subgroup) to receive either a vehicle or vildagliptin (3 mg/kg per day, p.o.) for 4 weeks. After treatment, cognitive function, metabolic parameters, brain insulin sensitivity, hippocampal synaptic plasticity and brain mitochondrial function were determined in each rat. We found that HFO rats exhibited peripheral and brain insulin resistance, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive decline. NDO rats did not develop peripheral and brain insulin resistance. However, impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive decline occurred. Vildagliptin significantly improved peripheral insulin sensitivity, restored brain insulin sensitivity and decreased brain mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in HFO rats. However, vildagliptin did not restore hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function in both NDO and HFO rats. These findings suggest that vildagliptin could not counteract the impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive decline in testosterone-deprived subjects, despite its effects on improved peripheral and brain insulin sensitivity as well as brain mitochondrial function. PMID:26016746

  9. The effects of physical activity on impulsive choice: Influence of sensitivity to reinforcement amount and delay.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Justin C; Feinstein, Max A; Lacy, Ryan T; Smith, Mark A

    2016-05-01

    Impulsive choice is a diagnostic feature and/or complicating factor for several psychological disorders and may be examined in the laboratory using delay-discounting procedures. Recent investigators have proposed using quantitative measures of analysis to examine the behavioral processes contributing to impulsive choice. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of physical activity (i.e., wheel running) on impulsive choice in a single-response, discrete-trial procedure using two quantitative methods of analysis. To this end, rats were assigned to physical activity or sedentary groups and trained to respond in a delay-discounting procedure. In this procedure, one lever always produced one food pellet immediately, whereas a second lever produced three food pellets after a 0, 10, 20, 40, or 80-s delay. Estimates of sensitivity to reinforcement amount and sensitivity to reinforcement delay were determined using (1) a simple linear analysis and (2) an analysis of logarithmically transformed response ratios. Both analyses revealed that physical activity decreased sensitivity to reinforcement amount and sensitivity to reinforcement delay. These findings indicate that (1) physical activity has significant but functionally opposing effects on the behavioral processes that contribute to impulsive choice and (2) both quantitative methods of analysis are appropriate for use in single-response, discrete-trial procedures. PMID:26964905

  10. Administration of antidepressants, diazepam and psychomotor stimulants further confirms the utility of Flinders Sensitive Line rats as an animal model of depression.

    PubMed

    Overstreet, D H; Pucilowski, O; Rezvani, A H; Janowsky, D S

    1995-09-01

    Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats have been proposed as an animal model of depression because they resemble depressed humans in that they have elevated REM sleep, reduced activity, and increased immobility and anhedonia after exposure to stressors. The present paper reviews experiments on the drug treatment of FSL and control Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats related to their utility as an animal model of depression, and presents new information. FSL rats exhibited exaggerated immobility in the forced swim test which is counteracted by the tricyclic antidepressants imipramine and desipramine and the serotonin reuptake blocker sertraline; the low immobility exhibited by the FRL rats is generally unaffected by these compounds. In contrast to these "therapeutic" effects of well recognized antidepressants, lithium and bright light treatment did not alter the exaggerated immobility of FSL rats. Novel data indicated that neither FSL nor FRL rats exhibited alterations in swim test immobility following chronic administration of the psychomotor stimulant amphetamine (2 mg/kg) and the anticholinergic scopolamine (2 mg/kg), which typically reduce immobility after acute administration. However, it was found that the calcium channel blockers verapamil (5 and 15 mg/kg) and nicardipine (10 mg/kg) did reduce the exaggerated immobility in FSL rats following chronic administration, suggesting that these compounds need to be evaluated further in humans. Previous studies have indicated no differences between FSL and FRL rats evaluated in the elevated plus maze, either at baseline or after the administration of diazepam, suggesting that the FSL rat may not differ from controls in anxiety-related behavior. Another recently published study showed that the FSL rat also did not differ from normal Sprague-Dawley rats in startle tests, indicating that the FSL rats do not exhibit behaviors shown in animal models of schizophrenia. These findings confirm the utility of FSL rats as an animal

  11. Social isolation-induced increase in the sensitivity of rats to the steroidogenic effect of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Serra, Mariangela; Pisu, M Giuseppina; Floris, Ivan; Cara, Valeria; Purdy, Robert H; Biggio, Giovanni

    2003-04-01

    Social isolation of rats for 30 days immediately after weaning results in marked decreases in the cerebrocortical and plasma concentrations of pregnenolone, progesterone, 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG), and 3alpha,5alpha-tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (3alpha,5alpha-TH DOC), as well as a moderate increase in the plasma concentration of corticosterone. This mildly stressful condition has now been shown to increase the sensitivity of rats to the effect of acute ethanol administration on the cerebrocortical and plasma concentrations of neuroactive steroids. The percentage increases in the brain and plasma concentrations of pregnenolone, progesterone, 3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG, and 3alpha,5alpha-TH DOC, apparent 20 min after a single intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (1 g/kg), were thus markedly greater in isolated rats than in group-housed animals. A subcutaneous injection of isoniazid (300 mg/kg) also induced greater percentage increases in the concentrations of these steroids in isolated rats than in group-housed animals. These results suggest that mild chronic stress, such as that induced by social isolation, enhances the steroidogenic effect of ethanol, a drug abused by humans under stress or affected by neuropsychiatric disorders. Social isolation also induced hyper-responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as was apparent after reduction of GABA-mediated inhibitory tone by isoniazid administration. PMID:12641747

  12. Hippocampal morphology in a rat model of depression: the effects of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Sierakowiak, Adam; Mattsson, Anna; Gómez-Galán, Marta; Feminía, Teresa; Graae, Lisette; Aski, Sahar Nikkhou; Damberg, Peter; Lindskog, Mia; Brené, Stefan; Åberg, Elin

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating in vivo and ex vivo evidences show that humans suffering from depression have decreased hippocampal volume and altered spine density. Moreover, physical activity has an antidepressant effect in humans and in animal models, but to what extent physical activity can affect hippocampal volume and spine numbers in a model for depression is not known. In this study we analyzed whether physical activity affects hippocampal volume and spine density by analyzing a rodent genetic model of depression, Flinders Sensitive Line Rats (FSL), with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and ex vivo Golgi staining. We found that physical activity in the form of voluntary wheel running during 5 weeks increased hippocampal volume. Moreover, runners also had larger numbers of thin spines in the dentate gyrus. Our findings support that voluntary wheel running, which is antidepressive in FSL rats, is associated with increased hippocampal volume and spine numbers. PMID:25674191

  13. Cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells are resistant to methylamine toxicity: no correlation to semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langford, S. D.; Trent, M. B.; Boor, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    Methylamine (MA), a component of serum and a metabolite of nicotine and certain insecticides and herbicides, is metabolized by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO). MA is toxic to cultured human umbilical vein and calf pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Endothelial cells, which do not exhibit endogenous SSAO activity, are exposed to SSAO circulating in serum. In contrast, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) do exhibit innate SSAO activity both in vivo and in vitro. This property, together with the critical localization of VSMC within the arterial wall, led us to investigate the potential toxicity of MA to VSMC. Cultured rat VSMC were treated with MA (10-5 to 1 M). In some cultures, SSAO was selectively inhibited with semicarbazide or MDL-72145 [(E)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-fluoroallylamine]. Cytotoxicity was measured via MTT, vital dye exclusion, and clonogenic assays. MA proved to be toxic to VSMC only at relatively high concentrations (LC(50) of 0.1 M). The inhibition of SSAO with semicarbazide or MDL-72145 did not increase MA toxicity, suggesting that the production of formaldehyde via tissue-bound, SSAO-mediated MA metabolism does not play a role in the minimal toxicity observed in isolated rat VSMC. The omission of fetal calf serum (FCS), which contains high SSAO activity, from media similarly showed little effect on cytotoxicity. We conclude that VSMC--in contrast to previous results in endothelial cells--are relatively resistant to MA toxicity, and SSAO does not play a role in VSMC injury by MA.

  14. Noopept reduces the postischemic functional and metabolic disorders in the brain of rats with different sensitivity to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Zarubina, I V; Shabanov, P D

    2009-03-01

    Chronic cerebral ischemia was induced by ligation of both common carotid arteries in Wistar rats, divided by sensitivity to hypoxia into highly sensitive and low-sensitive. Noopept (peptide preparation), injected (0.5 mg/kg) during 7 days after occlusion of the carotid arteries, reduced the neurological disorders in rats with high and low sensitivity to hypoxia and improved their survival during the postischemic period. Noopept normalized behavior disordered by cerebral ischemia (according to the open field and elevated plus maze tests), prevented accumulation of LPO products and inhibition of antioxidant systems in the brain of rats with high and low sensitivity to hypoxia. Hence, noopept exhibited a neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia. PMID:19529857

  15. Effects of gaboxadol on the expression of cocaine sensitization in rats.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Nora Siegal; Popp, Susanna; Vialou, Vincent; Astafurov, Konstantin; Nestler, Eric J; Dow-Edwards, Diana

    2016-04-01

    Behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants is associated with changes in dopamine (DA), glutamate, and GABA within the mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal DA systems. Because GABAA receptors are highly expressed within these systems, we examined the role of these receptors containing a δ subunit in cocaine behavioral sensitization. Experiment 1 examined the effects of Gaboxadol (GBX, also known as THIP [4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-isoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol]), a selective δ-GABAA receptor agonist, on the locomotor responses to acute cocaine. GBX at 1.25 mg/kg produced locomotor depression in female rats alone. We then examined the effects of GBX on the expression of cocaine-induced locomotion and stereotypy in female and male rats treated with 5 days of cocaine (15 mg/kg) followed by cocaine challenge 7 days later. We administered systemic (Experiment 2) or intranucleus accumbens (intra-NAC; Experiment 3) injections of GBX (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg subcutaneously, or 1 μmol/L or 1 mM intra-NAC, respectively) prior to cocaine challenge (10 mg/kg). In our experiments females were robustly sensitized to cocaine at low dose whereas males did not show such sensitization-limiting comparisons between the 2 sexes. Sensitized females showed a biphasic response to low (1.25 mg/kg and 1 μmol/L) and high (10 mg/kg and 1 mM) dose GBX whereas nonsensitized males showed this pattern only following intra-NAC injection. Immunohistochemical analysis of the NAC revealed that females have more δ-containing GABAA receptors than do males and that following chronic cocaine injections this difference persisted (Experiment 4). Together, our results support the notion of the key role of extrasynaptic GABAA δ-subunit containing receptors in cocaine sensitization. PMID:26901591

  16. Individual differences in initial morphine sensitivity as a predictor for the development of opiate addiction in rats.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Kevin S; Park, Thomas Y; Lee, Bong Hyo; Ursano, Robert J; Choi, Kwang H

    2016-10-15

    Individuals report a wide range of analgesia to similar doses of opiates, and not all opiate users become addicted. This suggests that there may be certain predispositions that influence one to develop opiate addiction. We investigated the relationship between the individual differences in initial morphine sensitivity and the subsequent development of opiate addiction-like behavior using a hot plate test and an intravenous morphine self-administration (MSA) paradigm in rats. Using a median split of initial morphine antinociception, animals were defined as low antinociception (LA) and high antinociception (HA) groups. Thus, the LA group represents the animals that were less sensitive to initial morphine antinociception as compared to those of the HA group. The animals were allowed to self-administer either saline or morphine (0.5mg/kg/infusion, 4hr/day) 5days per week for 3 weeks. Spontaneous locomotor activity was measured on self-administration days 10 and 15. Individual differences in initial morphine sensitivity were not correlated with the amount of morphine self-administered by the animals on day 1. In the second-week of MSA, the LA group exhibited increased morphine intake and locomotor hyperactivity as compared to those of the HA group. Therefore, certain animals that are less sensitive to initial morphine antinociception may be susceptible to developing opiate addiction. The current findings may have clinical implications for future research on the biological mechanisms of opiate addiction and preclinical medication development. PMID:27457135

  17. Pulmonary sensitivity to ozone exposure in sedentary versus chronically trained, female rats.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher J; Phillips, Pamela M; Beasley, Tracey E; Ledbetter, A; Aydin, Cenk; Snow, Samantha J; Kodavanti, Urmila P; Johnstone, Andrew F

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that a sedentary lifestyle may contribute to increased susceptibility for some environmental toxicants. We developed an animal model of active versus sedentary life style by providing female Sprague-Dawley rats with continuous access to running wheels. Sedentary rats were housed in standard cages without wheels. After training for 12 wks, rats were exposed to 0, 0.25, 0.5 or 1.0 ppm ozone [O3 for 5 h/d, 1 d/wk, for 6 wk (N = 10 per group)]. Body composition (%fat, lean and fluid) was monitored noninvasively over the course of the study. Ventilatory parameters [tidal volume, minute ventilation, frequency and enhanced pause (Penh)] were assessed using whole-body plethysmography prior to O3 and 24 h after the 5th O3 exposure. Trained rats lost ∼2% body fat after 12 wk of access to running wheels. Peak wheel activity was reduced by 40% after exposure to 1.0 ppm O3. After the 5th O3 exposure, body weight and %fat were reduced in sedentary but not trained rats. Penh was significantly elevated in sedentary but not trained rats the day after exposure to 1.0 ppm O3. However, lung lavage cell counts and biomarkers of pulmonary inflammation measured 1 day after the final exposure were inconsistently affected by training. Wheel running led to marked physiological responses along with some indication of improved pulmonary recovery from O3 exposure. However, wheel running with O3 exposure may also be a detriment for some pulmonary endpoints. Overall, a sedentary lifestyle may increase susceptibility to O3, but additional studies are needed. PMID:27160658

  18. Polyphenol-Rich Extract of Syzygium cumini Leaf Dually Improves Peripheral Insulin Sensitivity and Pancreatic Islet Function in Monosodium L-Glutamate-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Jonas R; França, Lucas M; Chagas, Vinicyus T; Gaspar, Renato S; Dos Santos, Kayque A; Gonçalves, Luciana M; Sloboda, Deborah M; Holloway, Alison C; Dutra, Richard P; Carneiro, Everardo M; Cappelli, Ana Paula G; Paes, Antonio Marcus de A

    2016-01-01

    Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae) has been traditionally used to treat a number of illnesses. Ethnopharmacological studies have particularly addressed antidiabetic and metabolic-related effects of extracts prepared from its different parts, especially seed, and pulp-fruit, however. there is a lack of studies on phytochemical profile and biological properties of its leaf. As there is considerable interest in bioactive compounds to treat metabolic syndrome and its clustered risk factors, we sought to characterize the metabolic effects of hydroethanolic extract of S. cumini leaf (HESc) on lean and monosodium L-glutamate (MSG)-induced obese rats. HPLC-MS/MS characterization of the HESc polyphenolic profile, at 254 nm, identified 15 compounds pertaining to hydrolysable tannin and flavanol subclasses. At 60 days of age, both groups were randomly assigned to receive HESc (500 mg/kg) or vehicle for 30 days. At the end of treatment, obese+HESc exhibited significantly lower body weight gain, body mass index, and white adipose tissue mass, compared to obese rats receiving vehicle. Obese rats treated with HESc showed a twofold increase in lipolytic activity in the periepididymal fat pad, as well as, brought triglyceride levels in serum, liver and skeletal muscle back to levels close those found in lean animals. Furthermore, HESc also improved hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in obese+HESc rats, which resulted in partial reversal of glucose intolerance, as compared to obese rats. HESc had no effect in lean rats. Assessment of ex vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion showed HESc potentiated pancreatic function in islets isolated from both lean and obese rats treated with HESc. In addition, HESc (10-1000 μg/mL) increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion from both isolated rat islets and INS-1E β-cells. These data demonstrate that S. cumini leaf improved peripheral insulin sensitivity via stimulating/modulating β-cell insulin release, which was associated

  19. Polyphenol-Rich Extract of Syzygium cumini Leaf Dually Improves Peripheral Insulin Sensitivity and Pancreatic Islet Function in Monosodium L-Glutamate-Induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sanches, Jonas R.; França, Lucas M.; Chagas, Vinicyus T.; Gaspar, Renato S.; dos Santos, Kayque A.; Gonçalves, Luciana M.; Sloboda, Deborah M.; Holloway, Alison C.; Dutra, Richard P.; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Cappelli, Ana Paula G.; Paes, Antonio Marcus de A.

    2016-01-01

    Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae) has been traditionally used to treat a number of illnesses. Ethnopharmacological studies have particularly addressed antidiabetic and metabolic-related effects of extracts prepared from its different parts, especially seed, and pulp-fruit, however. there is a lack of studies on phytochemical profile and biological properties of its leaf. As there is considerable interest in bioactive compounds to treat metabolic syndrome and its clustered risk factors, we sought to characterize the metabolic effects of hydroethanolic extract of S. cumini leaf (HESc) on lean and monosodium L-glutamate (MSG)-induced obese rats. HPLC-MS/MS characterization of the HESc polyphenolic profile, at 254 nm, identified 15 compounds pertaining to hydrolysable tannin and flavanol subclasses. At 60 days of age, both groups were randomly assigned to receive HESc (500 mg/kg) or vehicle for 30 days. At the end of treatment, obese+HESc exhibited significantly lower body weight gain, body mass index, and white adipose tissue mass, compared to obese rats receiving vehicle. Obese rats treated with HESc showed a twofold increase in lipolytic activity in the periepididymal fat pad, as well as, brought triglyceride levels in serum, liver and skeletal muscle back to levels close those found in lean animals. Furthermore, HESc also improved hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in obese+HESc rats, which resulted in partial reversal of glucose intolerance, as compared to obese rats. HESc had no effect in lean rats. Assessment of ex vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion showed HESc potentiated pancreatic function in islets isolated from both lean and obese rats treated with HESc. In addition, HESc (10–1000 μg/mL) increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion from both isolated rat islets and INS-1E β-cells. These data demonstrate that S. cumini leaf improved peripheral insulin sensitivity via stimulating/modulating β-cell insulin release, which was associated

  20. The role of exogenous testosterone in cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and plasmalemmal or vesicular dopamine uptake in castrated rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Osterhaus, Gregory; McKerchar, Todd; Fowler, Stephen C

    2003-11-20

    The possible interaction between testosterone and cocaine on behavioral and neurochemical alterations was investigated. In castrated (CAST) rats, chronic administration of testosterone propionate (TP, 2 mg/kg, s.c.) delayed and reduced chronic cocaine-induced (24 mg/kg, i.p.) focused stereotypy sensitization measured by a force-plate actometer, while the absence of TP was associated with robust behavioral sensitization to cocaine. TP itself did not produce focused stereotypy. Postmortem assays revealed that TP administration to CAST rats partially, but significantly, restored the cocaine-induced reduction of striatal plasmalemmal dopamine (DA) uptake compared to CAST rats without TP. In contrast, TP treatment did not significantly differ from the oil treatment of CAST rats in cocaine-associated enhancement of vesicular DA uptake. Thus, testosterone may modulate cocaine-induced alteration of homeostasis between extracellular and cytosolic DA pools, which may play a role in behavioral sensitization. PMID:14623131

  1. Human and Rat Nav1.3 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels Differ in Inactivation Properties and Sensitivity to the Pyrethroid Insecticide Tefluthrin

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jianguo; Soderlund, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are important sites for the neurotoxic actions of pyrethroid insecticides in mammals. The pore-forming α subunits of mammalian sodium channels are encoded by a family of 9 genes, designated Nav1.1 - Nav1.9. Native sodium channels in the adult central nervous system (CNS) are heterotrimeric complexes of one of these 9 α subunits and two auxiliary (β) subunits. Here we compare the functional properties and pyrethroid sensitivity of the rat and human Nav1.3 isoforms, which are abundantly expressed in the developing CNS. Coexpression of the rat Nav1.3 and human Nav1.3 α subunits in combination with their conspecific β1 and β2 subunits in Xenopus laevis oocytes gave channels with markedly different inactivation properties and sensitivities to the pyrethroid insecticide tefluthrin. Rat Nav1.3 channels inactivated more slowly than human Nav1.3 channels during a depolarizing pulse. The rat and human channels also differed in their voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation. Exposure of rat and human Nav1.3 channels to 100 μM tefluthrin in the resting state produced populations of channels that activated, inactivated and deactivated more slowly than unmodified channels. For both rat and human channels, application of trains of depolarizing prepulses enhanced the extent of tefluthrin modification approximately twofold; this result implies that tefluthrin may bind to both the resting and open states of the channel. Modification of rat Nav1.3 channels by 100 μM tefluthrin was four-fold greater than that measured in parallel assays with human Nav1.3 channels. Human Nav1.3 channels were also less sensitive to tefluthrin than rat Nav1.2 channels, which are considered to be relatively insensitive to pyrethroids. These data provide the first direct comparison of the functional and pharmacological properties of orthologous rat and human sodium channels and demonstrate that orthologous channels with a high degree of amino acid sequence

  2. LH and testosterone production are more sensitive to the suppressive effects of food deprivation in prenatally undernourished male rats.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Kuwahara, Akira; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Irahara, Minoru

    2015-06-01

    Although prenatal undernutrition affects the development of metabolic, physiological, and reproductive functions, it remains unclear whether it also affects physiological responses to undernutrition in adulthood. Therefore, in this study we examined whether prenatal undernutrition alters the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis to fasting in adult male rats. The offspring of ad libitum fed dams (control) and ∼50% food-restricted (during the late gestational period) dams (IUGR) were sub-divided into ad libitum fed (fed) and 48 h food deprivation (FD) groups at 10 weeks of age. In each group, the serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and leptin and the hypothalamic mRNA expression levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) regulatory factors were measured. The serum LH and testosterone levels of the IUGR-fed rats were significantly or tend to be higher than those of the control-fed rats, respectively. The serum LH levels of the IUGR-FD rats were lower than those of the IUGR-fed rats. Similarly, the serum testosterone levels of the IUGR-FD rats tended to be lower than those of the IUGR-fed rats. On the other hand, the serum LH and testosterone levels of the control-fed and control-FD rats did not differ. The serum leptin levels of the IUGR fed rats were higher than those of the control-fed rats. The serum leptin levels of the control-FD and IUGR-FD rats were lower than those of the control-fed and IUGR-fed rats, respectively. The hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA levels of the IUGR-FD rats were higher than those of the IUGR-fed rats. Similarly, hypothalamic NPY mRNA levels of control-FD rats were higher than those of the control-fed rats. The hypothalamic kisspeptin, kisspeptin receptor, RFamide-related peptide, GPR147, and OBRb mRNA levels of control fed rats did not differ between control-fed and IUGR-fed rats. Their mRNA levels of the fed and FD rats did not differ in the control or IUGR groups. These results

  3. Effects of Environmental Enrichment on Sensitivity to Mu, Kappa, and Mixed-Action Opioids in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark A.; Cole, Kathryn T.; Gergans, Samantha R.; Iordanou, Jordan C.; Lyle, Megan A.; Schmidt, Karl T.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies report that environmental enrichment enhances sensitivity to opioid receptor agonists in male rats. Very few studies have examined the effects of enrichment in female rats, and thus it is not clear whether females are similarly sensitive to these effects. Consequently, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of environmental enrichment on sensitivity to representative mu, kappa, and mixed-action opioids in female rats. Following a protocol established in males, females were obtained at weaning and randomly assigned to two groups immediately upon arrival: isolated rats were housed individually with no visual or tactile contact with other rats; enriched rats were housed in groups of four in large cages and given various novel objects on a regular basis. After 6 weeks under these conditions, the antinociceptive effects of mu (morphine, levorphanol), kappa (spiradoline, U69,593), and mixed-action (buprenorphine, butorphanol) opioids were examined in a warm-water, tail-withdrawal procedure. All the opioids examined produced dose-dependent increases in antinociception; however, no differences in opioid sensitivity were observed between the two groups. To determine whether these findings were consistent across behavioral endpoints, the antidiuretic effects of representative mu opioids, and the diuretic effects of representative kappa opioids, were examined in female rats reared under isolated or enriched conditions for 10 weeks. Similar to that seen in the antinociceptive experiment, no significant differences in opioid sensitivity were observed between groups. These data indicate that environmental enrichment does not alter sensitivity to the effects of opioid receptor agonists in female rats, and suggest that females may respond differently to environmental enrichment than males. PMID:18456292

  4. Effects of environmental enrichment on sensitivity to mu, kappa, and mixed-action opioids in female rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark A; Cole, Kathryn T; Gergans, Samantha R; Iordanou, Jordan C; Lyle, Megan A; Schmidt, Karl T

    2008-07-01

    Several studies report that environmental enrichment enhances sensitivity to opioid receptor agonists in male rats. Very few studies have examined the effects of enrichment in female rats, and thus it is not clear whether females are similarly sensitive to these effects. Consequently, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of environmental enrichment on sensitivity to representative mu, kappa, and mixed-action opioids in female rats. Following a protocol established in males, females were obtained at weaning and randomly assigned to two groups immediately upon arrival: isolated rats were housed individually with no visual or tactile contact with other rats; enriched rats were housed in groups of four in large cages and given various novel objects on a regular basis. After 6 weeks under these conditions, the antinociceptive effects of mu (morphine, levorphanol), kappa (spiradoline, U69,593), and mixed-action (buprenorphine, butorphanol) opioids were examined in a warm-water, tail-withdrawal procedure. All the opioids examined produced dose-dependent increases in antinociception; however, no differences in opioid sensitivity were observed between the two groups. To determine whether these findings were consistent across behavioral endpoints, the antidiuretic effects of representative mu opioids, and the diuretic effects of representative kappa opioids, were examined in female rats reared under isolated or enriched conditions for 10 weeks. Similar to that seen in the antinociceptive experiment, no significant differences in opioid sensitivity were observed between groups. These data indicate that environmental enrichment does not alter sensitivity to the effects of opioid receptor agonists in female rats, and suggest that females may respond differently to environmental enrichment than males. PMID:18456292

  5. Altered thermoregulation via sensitization of A1 adenosine receptors in dietary-restricted rats

    PubMed Central

    Jinka, Tulasi R.; Carlson, Zachary A.; Moore, Jeanette T.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Evidence links longevity to dietary restriction (DR). A decrease in body temperature (Tb) is thought to contribute to enhanced longevity because lower Tb reduces oxidative metabolism and oxidative stress. It is as yet unclear how DR decreases Tb. Objective Here, we test the hypothesis that prolonged DR decreases Tb by sensitizing adenosine A1 receptors (A1AR) and adenosine-induced cooling. Methods and results Sprague–Dawley rats were dietary restricted using an every-other-day feeding protocol. Rats were fed every other day for 27 days and then administered the A1AR agonist, N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA; 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.). Respiratory rate (RR) and subcutaneous Tb measured using IPTT-300 transponders were monitored every day and after drug administration. DR animals displayed lower RR on day 20 and lower Tb on day 22 compared to animals fed ad libitum and displayed a larger response to CHA. In all cases, RR declined before Tb. Contrary to previous reports, a higher dose of CHA (5 mg/kg, i.p.) was lethal in both dietary groups. We next tested the hypothesis that sensitization to the effects of CHA was due to increased surface expression of A1AR within the hypothalamus. We report that the abundance of A1AR in the membrane fraction increases in hypothalamus, but not cortex of DR rats. Conclusion These results suggest that every-other-day feeding lowers Tb via sensitization of thermoregulatory effects of endogenous adenosine by increasing surface expression of A1AR. Discussion Evidence that diet can modulate purinergic signaling has implications for the treatment of stroke, brain injury, epilepsy, and aging. PMID:20186398

  6. Ibudilast attenuates expression of behavioral sensitization to cocaine in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Poland, Ryan S; Hahn, Yun K; Knapp, Pamela E; Beardsley, Patrick M; Bowers, M Scott

    2016-10-01

    There are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for cocaine use disorder, indicating a need to identify novel reagents with therapeutic potential. Ibudilast is an anti-inflammatory glial attenuator and non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor currently undergoing clinical evaluations for methamphetamine, opiate, and alcohol abuse disorders. We previously showed that twice daily (b.i.d.) ibudilast reduces the development of methamphetamine sensitization in male mice. However, nothing is known about the ability of ibudilast to modulate the expression of sensitization that occurs after drug re-exposure during abstinence, effects on cocaine-mediated behaviors, or potentially sexually dimorphic effects. Male and female rats were administered cocaine for 7 days and expression of sensitization was assessed by cocaine challenge after 21 days abstinence. On test days, 15 mg/kg i. p. cocaine was evaluated, whereas 30 mg/kg was administered on intervening days. Lower test doses avoid competition of non-motor behaviors with locomotion. In all measures where sensitization was expressed, ibudilast (7.5 and 10 mg/kg, i. p., b. i.d. for 3 days and once on test day) reversed this behavior to levels seen after acute exposure, but not below. There were some intriguing sexually dimorphic effects that were not a function of estrous cycle. Specifically, distance travelled in the center of the test arena and rearing only sensitized in male rats, and ibudilast reversed these behaviors to levels seen after acute cocaine exposure. In females, center distance travelled was reduced below acute cocaine levels by 7.5 mg/kg ibudilast. Increased distance travelled in the center versus periphery is thought to model anxiolytic-like behavior due to increased predation risk. Taken together, these data suggest that the clinical evaluation of ibudilast could be extended to cocaine use disorder. PMID:27343385

  7. NASA Desert RATS 2011 Education Pilot Project and Classroom Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, J. E.; McGlone, M.; Allen, J.; Tobola, K.; Graff, P.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of tests of hardware and operations carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona, as an analog to future exploration activities beyond low Earth orbit [1]. For the past several years, these tests have occurred in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, north of Flagstaff. For the 2011 Desert RATS season, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) at NASA headquarters provided support to develop an education pilot project that would include student activities to parallel the Desert RATS mission planning and exploration activities in the classroom, and educator training sessions. The development of the pilot project was a joint effort between the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate and the Aerospace Education Services Project (AESP), managed at Penn State University.

  8. Effects of Kefir on the Cardiac Autonomic Tones and Baroreflex Sensitivity in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Klippel, Brunella F.; Duemke, Licia B.; Leal, Marcos A.; Friques, Andreia G. F.; Dantas, Eduardo M.; Dalvi, Rodolfo F.; Gava, Agata L.; Pereira, Thiago M. C.; Andrade, Tadeu U.; Meyrelles, Silvana S.; Campagnaro, Bianca P.; Vasquez, Elisardo C.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: It has been previously shown that the probiotic kefir (a symbiotic matrix containing acid bacteria and yeasts) attenuated the hypertension and the endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In the present study, the effect of chronic administration of kefir on the cardiac autonomic control of heart rate (HR) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in SHR was evaluated. Methods: SHR were treated with kefir (0.3 mL/100 g body weight) for 60 days and compared with non-treated SHR and with normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. Cardiac autonomic vagal (VT) and sympathetic (ST) tones were estimated through the blockade of the cardiac muscarinic receptors (methylatropine) and the blockade of β1−adrenoceptor (atenolol). The BRS was evaluated by the tachycardia and bradycardia responses to vasoactive drug-induced decreases and increases in arterial blood pressure (BP), respectively. Additionally, spontaneous BRS was estimated by autoregressive spectral analysis. Results: Kefir-treated SHR exhibited significant attenuation of basal BP, HR, and cardiac hypertrophy compared to non-treated SHR (12, 13, and 21%, respectively). Cardiac VT and ST were significantly altered in the SHR (~40 and ~90 bpm) compared with Wistar rats (~120 and ~30 bpm) and were partially recovered in SHR-kefir (~90 and ~25 bpm). SHR exhibited an impaired bradycardic BRS (~50%) compared with Wistar rats, which was reduced to ~40% in the kefir-treated SHR and abolished by methylatropine in all groups. SHR also exhibited a significant impairment of the tachycardic BRS (~23%) compared with Wistar rats and this difference was reduced to 8% in the SHR-kefir. Under the action of atenolol the residual reflex tachycardia was smaller in SHR than in Wistar rats and kefir attenuated this abnormality. Spectral analysis revealed increased low frequency components of BP (~3.5-fold) and pulse interval (~2-fold) compared with Wistar rats and these differences were reduced by kefir-treatment to ~1

  9. Adrenergic stimulation sensitizes TRPV1 through upregulation of cystathionine β-synthetase in a rat model of visceral hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liyan; Zhao, Liting; Qu, Ruobing; Zhu, Hong-Yan; Wang, Yongmeng; Jiang, Xinghong; Xu, Guang-Yin

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pain in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is poorly understood and treatment remains difficult. The present study was designed to investigate roles of adrenergic signaling and the endogenous hydrogen sulfide producing enzyme cystathionine β-synthetase (CBS) in a previously validated rat model of IBS induced by neonatal colonic inflammation (NCI). Here we showed that NCI-induced visceral hypersensitivity (VH) was significantly attenuated by β2 subunit inhibitor but not by β1 or β3 or α subunit inhibitor. NCI markedly elevated plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentration without alteration in expression of β2 subunit receptors in dorsal root ganglion (DRGs) innervating the colon. In addition, NCI markedly enhanced TRPV1 and CBS expression in the colon DRGs. CBS inhibitor AOAA reversed the upregulation of TRPV1 in NCI rats. In vitro experiments showed that incubation of DRG cells with NE markedly enhanced expression of TRPV1, which was reversed by application of AOAA. Incubation of DRG cells with the H2S donor NaHS greatly enhanced TRPV1 expression. Collectively, these data suggest that activation of adrenergic signaling by NCI sensitizes TRPV1 channel activity, which is likely mediated by upregulation of CBS expression in peripheral sensory neurons, thus contributing to chronic visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:26527188

  10. A highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method for concurrent determination of sildenafil and rosiglitazone in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Jahidur; Ahsan, Fakhrul

    2016-09-10

    Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are currently treated with more than one drug. Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor, and rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) activator, is one of those combinations that could be used in PAH. To monitor the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil in the presence of rosiglitazone, we have developed and validated a sensitive, specific and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method. We have used this validated method to study the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil and rosiglitazone after intravenous administration of sildenafil alone or a combination of sildenafil plus rosiglitazone to adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Sildenafil and rosiglitazone were extracted from plasma by protein precipitation with methanol. With an octadeuterated sildenafil as the internal standard, the drugs were separated via gradient elution using a C18 column and formic acid in methanol or in water as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 0.25mL/min. Both sildenafil and rosiglitazone samples in rat plasma produced linear response, when the concentration ranged between 5 and 1000ng/mL (r(2)>0.99). The pharmacokinetics study suggests that intravenous co-administration rosiglitazone plus sildenafil increases the plasma concentration of sildenafil and extends the drug's elimination half-life. PMID:27392173

  11. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Mniszewski, Susan M.; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Hyman, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule’s regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity’s regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimization problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. We use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations. PMID:25580080

  12. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Mniszewski, Susan M.; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Hyman, James M.

    2013-12-10

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule’s regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity’s regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimization problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. Here we use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Finally, though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations.

  13. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Mniszewski, Susan M.; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Hyman, James M.

    2013-12-10

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule’s regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity’s regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimizationmore » problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. Here we use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Finally, though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations.« less

  14. Activation of rat complement by soluble and insoluble rat IgA immune complexes.

    PubMed

    Rits, M; Hiemstra, P S; Bazin, H; Van Es, L A; Vaerman, J P; Daha, M R

    1988-12-01

    The ability of rat monoclonal IgA, specific for 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNA), to activate the complement (C) system of the rat was investigated using aggregated IgA or IgA immune complexes (IC). IgA was coated onto a solid phase, and tested for its capacity to bind C3 upon incubation at 37 degrees C in normal rat serum (NRS) in the presence of Mg-EGTA. Binding of C3 was observed dependent on the dose of dimeric (d-), polymeric (p-) and secretory IgA tested. In contrast, little C3 fixation was observed in this system with monomeric (m-) rat IgA or with mouse m- and d-IgA (MOPC315). Soluble and insoluble rat IgA IC were prepared using dinitrophenylated rat serum albumin (DNP8RSA) as antigen (Ag), and assessed for C activation. It was shown that insoluble IC (immune precipitates; IP) containing m-, d- or pIgA of rat origin activate the alternative pathway of rat C, as demonstrated by their capacity to induce C consumption in NRS in the presence of Mg-EGTA. When p- and m-IgA IP were compared for their capacity to activate C, it was found that p-IgA activated C four times as efficiently as m-IgA IP (at 2 mg/ml). Soluble rat IgA IC were prepared in an excess of DNP8RSA, fractionated by gel filtration on Sepharose 6B, and analyzed for C activation and antibody (Ab)/Ag ratio. In contrast to m-IgA IP, soluble m-IgA did not activate C. On the other hand soluble d-IgA IC activated C dependent on their concentration and size: at a concentration of 0.1 mg/ml high-molecular weight d-IgA IC with a high Ab/Ag ratio were four times as efficient as low-molecular weight IC with a low Ab/Ag ratio, and twice as efficient as IP prepared at equivalence. To demonstrate the induction by IgA of the assembly of the terminal membrane attack complex, trinitrophenyl (TNP)-conjugated rat red blood cells (TNP-RRBC) coated with d- or p-IgA were shown to be lysed in NRS in the presence of Mg-EGTA. No lysis of m-IgA-coated TNP-RRBC was observed. The results in this study demonstrate that both soluble and

  15. Endurance training in Wistar rats decreases receptor sensitivity to a serotonin agonist.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, D; Browning, J

    2000-11-01

    There is mounting evidence that increased brain serotonin during exercise is associated with the onset of CNS-mediated fatigue. Serotonin receptor sensitivity is likely to be an important determinant of this fatigue. Alterations in brain serotonin receptor sensitivity were examined in Wistar rats throughout 6 weeks of endurance training, running on a treadmill four times a week with two exercise tests per week to exhaustion. Receptor sensitivity was determined indirectly as the reduction in exercise time in response to a dose of a serotonin (1A) agonist, m-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP). The two groups of controls were used to examine (i) the effect of the injection per se on exercise performance and (ii) changes in serotonin receptor sensitivity associated with maturation. In the test group, undrugged exercise performance significantly improved by 47% after 6 weeks of training (4518 +/- 729 to 6640 +/- 903 s, P=0.01). Drugged exercise performance also increased significantly from week 1 to week 6 (306 +/- 69-712 +/- 192 s, P = 0.04). Control group results indicated that the dose of m-CPP alone caused fatigue during exercise tests and that maturation was not responsible for any decrease in receptor sensitivity. Improved resistance to the fatiguing effects of the serotonin agonist suggests desensitization of central serotonin receptors, probably the 5-HT1A receptors. Endurance training appears to stimulate an adaptive response to the fatiguing effects of increased brain serotonin, which may enhance endurance exercise performance. PMID:11167306

  16. Absence of initiating activity by quercetin in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Kato, K; Mori, H; Tanaka, T; Fujii, M; Kawai, T; Nishikawa, A; Takahashi, M; Hirono, I

    1985-08-01

    Initiating activity of quercetin was tested in rats which were treated with partial hepatectomy and given a liver cancer promoter, phenobarbital. A few intestinal neoplasms were seen but without significant difference in incidence from those in the quercetin-untreated group. Moreover, neither neoplastic nor preneoplastic liver changes were detected in quercetin-treated groups. With hepatocyte primary culture/DNA repair test, quercetin did not produce genotoxicity. The results show that quercetin has no initiating or genotoxic activities in the rat liver. PMID:4029060

  17. Neuronal modulation of calcium channel activity in cultured rat astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Corvalan, V.; Cole, R.; De Vellis, J.; Hagiwara, Susumu )

    1990-06-01

    The patch-clamp technique was used to study whether cocultivation of neurons and astrocytes modulates the expression of calcium channel activity in astrocytes. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from rat brain astrocytes cocultured with rat embryonic neurons revealed two types of voltage-dependent inward currents carried by Ca{sup 2+} and blocked by either Cd{sup 2+} or Co{sup 2+} that otherwise were not detected in purified astrocytes. This expression of calcium channel activity in astrocytes was neuron dependent and was not observed when astrocytes were cocultured with purified oligodendrocytes.

  18. Cell death sensitization of leukemia cells by opioid receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Claudia; Roscher, Mareike; Hormann, Inis; Fichtner, Iduna; Alt, Andreas; Hilger, Ralf A.; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Miltner, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) regulates a number of cellular processes and modulates cell death induction. cAMP levels are altered upon stimulation of specific G-protein-coupled receptors inhibiting or activating adenylyl cyclases. Opioid receptor stimulation can activate inhibitory Gi-proteins which in turn block adenylyl cyclase activity reducing cAMP. Opioids such as D,L-methadone induce cell death in leukemia cells. However, the mechanism how opioids trigger apoptosis and activate caspases in leukemia cells is not understood. In this study, we demonstrate that downregulation of cAMP induced by opioid receptor activation using the opioid D,L-methadone kills and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Enhancing cAMP levels by blocking opioid-receptor signaling strongly reduced D,L-methadone-induced apoptosis, caspase activation and doxorubicin-sensitivity. Induction of cell death in leukemia cells by activation of opioid receptors using the opioid D,L-methadone depends on critical levels of opioid receptor expression on the cell surface. Doxorubicin increased opioid receptor expression in leukemia cells. In addition, the opioid D,L-methadone increased doxorubicin uptake and decreased doxorubicin efflux in leukemia cells, suggesting that the opioid D,L-methadone as well as doxorubicin mutually increase their cytotoxic potential. Furthermore, we found that opioid receptor activation using D,L-methadone alone or in addition to doxorubicin inhibits tumor growth significantly in vivo. These results demonstrate that opioid receptor activation via triggering the downregulation of cAMP induces apoptosis, activates caspases and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Hence, opioid receptor activation seems to be a promising strategy to improve anticancer therapies. PMID:23633472

  19. Spirulina versicolor improves insulin sensitivity and attenuates hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress in fructose-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Hozayen, Walaa G.; Mahmoud, Ayman M.; Soliman, Hanan A.; Mostafa, Sanura R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The current study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic and insulin sensitizing effects of the cyanobacterium Spirulina versicolor extract in fructose-fed rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were fed 30% fructose solution in drinking water for 4 weeks. Animals exhibited hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were selected for further investigations. Diabetic and control rats were orally supplemented with 50 mg/kg body weight S. versicolor extract for 4 weeks. Results: At the end of 8 weeks, fructose-fed rats showed a significant increase in serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, cardiovascular risk indices and insulin resistance. Treatment of the fructose-fed rats with S. versicolor extract improved this metabolic profile. Fructose feeding produced a significant increase in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and a decrease in adiponectin levels. In addition, fructose-fed rats exhibited a significant increase in liver, kidney and heart lipid peroxidation levels, and declined antioxidant defenses. Supplementation of the fructose-fed rats with S. versicolor extract reversed these alterations. Conclusion: S. versicolor attenuates hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation, and is thus effective in improving insulin sensitivity in fructose-fed rats. PMID:27069726

  20. Chronic exposure to a gambling-like schedule of reward predictive stimuli can promote sensitization to amphetamine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zack, Martin; Featherstone, Robert E.; Mathewson, Sarah; Fletcher, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Addiction is considered to be a brain disease caused by chronic exposure to drugs. Sensitization of brain dopamine (DA) systems partly mediates this effect. Pathological gambling (PG) is considered to be a behavioral addiction. Therefore, PG may be caused by chronic exposure to gambling. Identifying a gambling-induced sensitization of DA systems would support this possibility. Gambling rewards evoke DA release. One episode of slot machine play shifts the DA response from reward delivery to onset of cues (spinning reels) for reward, in line with temporal difference learning principles. Thus, conditioned stimuli (CS) play a key role in DA responses to gambling. In primates, DA response to a CS is strongest when reward probability is 50%. Under this schedule the CS elicits an expectancy of reward but provides no information about whether it will occur on a given trial. During gambling, a 50% schedule should elicit maximal DA release. This closely matches reward frequency (46%) on a commercial slot machine. DA release can contribute to sensitization, especially for amphetamine. Chronic exposure to a CS that predicts reward 50% of the time could mimic this effect. We tested this hypothesis in three studies with rats. Animals received 15 × 45-min exposures to a CS that predicted reward with a probability of 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100%. The CS was a light; the reward was a 10% sucrose solution. After training, rats received a sensitizing regimen of five separate doses (1 mg/kg) of d-amphetamine. Lastly they received a 0.5 or 1 mg/kg amphetamine challenge prior to a 90-min locomotor activity test. In all three studies the 50% group displayed greater activity than the other groups in response to both challenge doses. Effect sizes were modest but consistent, as reflected by a significant group × rank association (ϕ = 0.986, p = 0.025). Chronic exposure to a gambling-like schedule of reward predictive stimuli can promote sensitization to amphetamine much like exposure to

  1. Differential sensitivity to anticholinesterase insecticides in the juvenile rat: effects on thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Mack, Cina M; Gordon, Christopher J

    2007-03-01

    Organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CB) insecticides inhibit cholinesterase (ChE) activity and induce acute hypothermia in adult rats. Studies showed that juveniles are generally more susceptible to neurotoxic insult than adults. However, little is known concerning the effects of OP and CB pesticides on thermoregulation in developing animals. Thus, alterations in core body temperature (Tc) in juvenile animals exposed to an OP and CB insecticide were investigated. Male rat pups were anesthetized on postnatal day (PND) 15 with metofane and a radio transmitter (Data Sciences) was implanted in the abdominal cavity to monitor Tc and motor activity (MA). Two days were allowed for recovery. The PND 17 pups were then dosed by oral gavage with the OP chlorpyrifos (CHP) (1, 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg) or the CB carbaryl (CAR) (10, 20, 80, 120, or 160 mg/kg) or the corn oil vehicle. Pups were returned to their dams and littermates immediately after dosing and monitored for the next several days. CHP doses of 10 and 15 mg/kg resulted in 1.0 degrees C and 2.4 degrees C reductions in Tc, respectively. Tc recovered to control levels by approximately 16 h after dosing. There was significant mortality in rats dosed with 15 mg/kg CHP (6 of 11). CAR doses of 10 to 80 mg/kg had little effect on Tc. The highest dose of CAR (160 mg/kg) resulted in a 1.3 degrees C reduction in Tc that recovered in 9 h. In contrast, past studies found that adult male rats become hypothermic at CHP doses of >25 mg/kg, whereas a CAR dose of 50 mg/kg is effective at inducing hypothermia. Overall, it appears that during the development from preweanling to adult rat, there is a progressive attenuation in CHP-induced hypothermia. Conversely, CAR-induced hypothermia increases as a function of development. PMID:17454568

  2. Low dose of methyltestosterone in ovariectomised rats improves baroreflex sensitivity without geno- and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Terra, Denise G; de Lima, Ewelyne M; do Nascimento, Andrews M; Brasil, Girlandia A; Filete, Placielle F; Kalil, Ieda C; Lenz, Dominik; Endringer, Denise C; Bissoli, Nazaré S; de Andrade, Tadeu U

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the isolated use of a low dose of methyltestosterone (MT) on cardiovascular reflexes and hormonal levels and its geno- and cytotoxic safety in ovariectomized rats. Female Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 6), respectively: SHAM (received vehicle methylcellulose 0.5%), SHAM + MT (received MT 0.05 mg/kg), OVX (received vehicle), and OVX + MT (received MT). Twenty-one days after ovariectomy, treatment was given orally daily for 28 days. The Bezold-Jarisch reflex (BJR) was analyzed by measuring the bradycardic and hypotensive responses elicited by phenylbiguanide (PBG) administration. The baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was evaluated by phenylephrine and sodium nitroprussite. Myocyte hypertrophy was determined by morphometric analysis of H&E stained slides. Biochemical data were analyzed, as well as micronucleus assay. MT improved BRS and increased testosterone values, but did not change estradiol in the OVX group. MT did not promote changes in mean arterial pressure, heart rate, BJR, serum concentrations of troponin I, weight and histopathology of the heart. MT was able to restore the BRS in OVX rats. The geno- and cytotoxic safety of the MT was demonstrated by the absence of an increase in the micronucleus (PCEMN) or change in the ratio between normochromatic erythrocytes and polychromatic erythrocytes (NCE/PCE). PMID:27148800

  3. Effect of alcohol and kolanut interaction on brain sodium pump activity in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Obochi, G O; Abara, A E; Malu, S P; Obi-Abang, M; Edu, F E; Eteng, M U; Umoh, I B

    2007-01-01

    Effect of alcohol-kolanut interaction on sodium pump activity in wistar albino rats was studied. Thirty wistar albino rats were divided into six groups of five (5) rats per group and used for the study. The control group (1) received via oral route a placebo (4 ml of distilled water). Groups 2 to 6 were treated for a period of 21 days, with (10% v/v) of alcohol (group 2), 50mg/kg body weight of kolanut (group 3), 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine (group 4), 4 ml of 10% v/v of alcohol and 50 mg/kg body weight kolanut (group 5), 4 ml of 10% v/v of alcohol and 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine in 4.0 ml of the vehicle via gastric intubation respectively. A day after the final exposure, the brain of each rat was harvested and processed to examine several biochemical parameters, i.e., total ATpase, ouabain-insensitive ATpase, ouabain sensitive ATpase (Na(+)-K(+)ATPase), non-enzymatic breakdown of ATP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) released. The results showed that the essential enzyme of the brain responsible for neuronal function, Na(+)-K(+)ATPase, was inhibited by alcohol-kolanut co-administration relative to control, resulting in a decrease in Na(+)-K(+)ATPase activity, ATP production, ion transport and action potential, leading to loss of neuronal activities. PMID:18379627

  4. Jerusalem artichoke and chungkookjang additively improve insulin secretion and sensitivity in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hye Jeong; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Min Jung; Kang, Suna; Kim, Da Sol; Park, Sunmin

    2012-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus Linne, HTL) and chungkookjang (CKJ; fermented soybeans) both modulate energy and glucose metabolism. However, the mechanism and their additive effects are unknown. We investigated whether the consumption of HTL and CKJ altered insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion capacity and β-cell survival in type 2 diabetic animals. Rats were divided into partially pancreatectomized (Px) diabetic rats, and sham operated non-diabetic control rats and all fed high fat diets. Diabetic rats were sub-divided into an untreated diabetic control group and those fed 5% HTL, 5% CKJ or 5% HTL+5% CKJ for 8 weeks. HTL+CKJ treatment reduced visceral fat without modulating energy intake compared to the diabetic-control. Glucose tolerance was improved in an ascending order of diabetic-control, CKJ, HTL, HTL+CKJ, and normal-control, but by different mechanisms. CKJ and CKJ+HTL, but not HTL, increased first and second phase insulin secretion in comparison to the diabetic-control at hyperglycemic clamp. However, glucose infusion rates (mg/kg bw/min) were increased by and CKJ+HTL (13.5), but not HTL (9.4) or CKJ (9.5) alone, and HTL and CKJ+ HTL decreased hepatic glucose compared to diabetic-control during the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic study and were associated with decreased triglyceride accumulation and increased glycogen storage. The improved hepatic insulin sensitivity by HTL and CKJ+HTL was explained by potentiated insulin signaling (tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 2→phosphorylation of Akt) and phosphorylation of AMPK→phosphorykation of acetyl Co carboxlase in comparison to diabetic-control and decreased PEPCK expression. Absolute β-cell mass was increased by CKJ (23.4mg) and CKJ+HTL (26.3 mg) by increasing proliferation compared to the diabetic-control (21.26 mg). Although HTL lowered β-cell apoptosis, it did not increase β-cell mass (20.8 mg). In conclusions, HTL and CKJ enhanced glucose tolerance in different

  5. Jerusalem artichoke and chungkookjang additively improve insulin secretion and sensitivity in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus Linne, HTL) and chungkookjang (CKJ; fermented soybeans) both modulate energy and glucose metabolism. However, the mechanism and their additive effects are unknown. We investigated whether the consumption of HTL and CKJ altered insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion capacity and β-cell survival in type 2 diabetic animals. Rats were divided into partially pancreatectomized (Px) diabetic rats, and sham operated non-diabetic control rats and all fed high fat diets. Diabetic rats were sub-divided into an untreated diabetic control group and those fed 5% HTL, 5% CKJ or 5% HTL+5% CKJ for 8 weeks. HTL+CKJ treatment reduced visceral fat without modulating energy intake compared to the diabetic-control. Glucose tolerance was improved in an ascending order of diabetic-control, CKJ, HTL, HTL+CKJ, and normal-control, but by different mechanisms. CKJ and CKJ+HTL, but not HTL, increased first and second phase insulin secretion in comparison to the diabetic-control at hyperglycemic clamp. However, glucose infusion rates (mg/kg bw/min) were increased by and CKJ+HTL (13.5), but not HTL (9.4) or CKJ (9.5) alone, and HTL and CKJ+ HTL decreased hepatic glucose compared to diabetic-control during the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic study and were associated with decreased triglyceride accumulation and increased glycogen storage. The improved hepatic insulin sensitivity by HTL and CKJ+HTL was explained by potentiated insulin signaling (tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 2→phosphorylation of Akt) and phosphorylation of AMPK→phosphorykation of acetyl Co carboxlase in comparison to diabetic-control and decreased PEPCK expression. Absolute β-cell mass was increased by CKJ (23.4mg) and CKJ+HTL (26.3 mg) by increasing proliferation compared to the diabetic-control (21.26 mg). Although HTL lowered β-cell apoptosis, it did not increase β-cell mass (20.8 mg). In conclusions, HTL and CKJ enhanced glucose tolerance in different

  6. Reward sensitivity for a palatable food reward peaks during pubertal developmental in rats.

    PubMed

    Friemel, Chris M; Spanagel, Rainer; Schneider, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    Puberty is a critical period for the initiation of drug use and abuse. Because early drug use onset often accounts for a more severe progression of addiction, it is of importance to understand the underlying mechanisms and neurodevelopmental changes during puberty that are contributing to enhanced reward processing in teenagers. The present study investigated the progression of reward sensitivity toward a natural food reward over the whole course of adolescence in male rats (postnatal days 30-90) by monitoring consummatory, motivational behavior and neurobiological correlates of reward. Using a limited-free intake paradigm, consumption of sweetened condensed milk (SCM) was measured repeatedly in adolescent and adult rats. Additionally, early- and mid-pubertal animals were tested in Progressive Ratio responding for SCM and c-fos protein expression in reward-associated brain structures was examined after odor conditioning for SCM. We found a transient increase in SCM consumption and motivational incentive for SCM during puberty. This increased reward sensitivity was most pronounced around mid-puberty. The behavioral findings are paralleled by enhanced c-fos staining in reward-related structures revealing an intensified neuronal response after reward-cue presentation, distinctive for pubertal animals. Taken together, these data indicate an increase in reward sensitivity during adolescence accompanied by enhanced responsiveness of reward-associated brain structures to incentive stimuli, and it seems that both is strongly pronounced around mid-puberty. Therefore, higher reward sensitivity during pubertal maturation might contribute to the enhanced vulnerability of teenagers for the initiation of experimental drug use. PMID:20700386

  7. Effects of Sodium Butyrate on Methamphetamine-Sensitized Locomotor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Harkness, John H.; Hitzemann, Robert J.; Edmunds, Stephanie; Phillips, Tamara J.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroadaptations associated with behavioral sensitization induced by repeated exposure to methamphetamine (MA) appear to be involved in compulsive drug pursuit and use. Increased histone acetylation, an epigenetic effect resulting in altered gene expression, may promote sensitized responses to psychostimulants. The role of histone acetylation in the expression and acquisition of MA-induced locomotor sensitization was examined by measuring the effect of histone deacetylase inhibition by sodium butyrate (NaB). For the effect on expression, vehicle or NaB (630 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was administered 30 min prior to MA challenge in mice treated repeatedly with MA (10 days of 2 mg/kg MA) or saline (10 days), and then locomotor response to MA challenge was measured. NaB treatment increased the locomotor response to MA in both acutely MA treated and sensitized animals. For acquisition, NaB was administered 30 min prior to each MA exposure (10 days of 1 or 2 mg/kg), but not prior to the MA challenge test. Treatment with NaB during the sensitization acquisition period significantly increased locomotor activation by MA in sensitized mice only. NaB alone did not significantly alter locomotor activity. Acute NaB or MA, but not the combination, appeared to increase striatal acetylation at histone H4. Repeated treatment with MA, but not NaB or MA plus NaB, increased striatal acetylation at histone H3. Although increased histone acetylation may alter the expression of genes involved in acute locomotor response to MA and in the acquisition of MA-induced sensitization, results for acetylation at H3 and H4 showed little correspondence with behavior. PMID:23137698

  8. Uterotrophic activity of bisphenol A in the immature rat.

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, J; Tinwell, H

    1998-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is active in immature AP rat uterotrophic assays when evaluated using either the oral or the subcutaneous (sc) injection routes of exposure (three daily administrations of 400-800 mg/kg BPA). Premature vaginal opening was seen for 8 of 14 animals exposed to 600 and 800 mg/kg BPA by sc injection. Vaginal opening was not produced by BPA in the gavage studies. These results are consistent with those of Dodds and Lawson [Nature 137:96 (1936)] who found that BPA induces persistent vaginal cornification in ovariectomized rats exposed to three twice-daily injections of 85 mg/kg BPA (total daily dose 170 mg/kg), but they conflict with the reported inactivity of BPA in the immature mouse uterotrophic assay. The uterotrophic activity of diethylstilbestrol in the rat is also established (0.04 mg/kg/day for three days). PMID:9799186

  9. Tetrodotoxin-sensitive calcium-conducting channels in the rat hippocampal CA1 region.

    PubMed Central

    Akaike, N; Takahashi, K

    1992-01-01

    1. Tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive Ca2+ conducting channels which produce a transient inward current were investigated in pyramidal neurones freshly dissociated from the dorsal part of rat hippocampal CA1 region by the use of the suction-pipette technique, which allows for intracellular perfusion under a single-electrode voltage clamp. 2. In all cells superfused with Na(+)- and K(+)-free external solution containing 10 mM-Ca2+ and 10(-5) M-La3+, a transient inward Ca2+ current was evoked by a step depolarization to potentials more positive than about -50 mV from a holding potential (VH) of -100 mV. This current was inhibited by either removing the extracellular Ca2+ or adding TTX (termed as 'TTX-ICa'). 3. Activation and inactivation processes of the TTX-ICa were highly potential dependent at 20-22 degrees C, and the latter was fitted by a double exponential function. The time to peak of the current decreased from 5.0 to 2.3 ms at a test potential change from -50 to 0 mV. The time constants of the current decay decreased from 2.8 to 2.2 ms for fast component (tau if) and from 16.0 to 8.2 ms for slow component (tau is) at a potential change from -35 to -10 mV. 4. The TTX-ICa was activated at threshold potential of about -55 mV and reached full activation at -30 mV. The steady-state inactivation of TTX-ICa could be fitted by a Boltzmann equation with a slope factor of 6.0 mV and a half-inactivation voltage of -72.5 mV. 5. Biphasic recovery (reactivation) from the complete inactivation of TTX-ICa was observed. The time constant of the major component (78.8 to 91.6% of total) of the reactivation was 13.1 ms, and that of the minor one was 120 to 240 ms. Therefore, TTX-ICa remained fairly constant at a train of stimulation up to 3 Hz. However, the inhibition of current amplitude occurred as the repetitive stimulation increased more than 10 Hz, and considerable tonic inhibition occurred with increasing stimulation frequency. 6. When the peak amplitudes in the individual

  10. Simple steatosis sensitizes cholestatic rats to liver injury and dysregulates bile salt synthesis and transport

    PubMed Central

    Lionarons, Daniël A.; Heger, Michal; van Golen, Rowan F.; Alles, Lindy K.; van der Mark, Vincent A.; Kloek, Jaap J.; de Waart, Dirk R.; Marsman, Hendrik A.; Rusch, Henny; Verheij, Joanne; Beuers, Ulrich; Paulusma, Coen C.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disorder. It is uncertain if simple steatosis, the initial and prevailing form of NAFLD, sensitizes the liver to cholestasis. Here, we compared the effects of obstructive cholestasis in rats with a normal liver versus rats with simple steatosis induced by a methionine/choline-deficient diet. We found that plasma liver enzymes were higher and hepatic neutrophil influx, inflammation, and fibrosis were more pronounced in animals with combined steatosis and cholestasis compared to cholestasis alone. Circulating bile salt levels were markedly increased and hepatic bile salt composition shifted from hydrophilic tauro-β-muricholate to hydrophobic taurocholate. This shift was cytotoxic for HepG2 hepatoma cells. Gene expression analysis revealed induction of the rate-limiting enzyme in bile salt synthesis, cytochrome P450 7a1 (CYP7A1), and modulation of the hepatic bile salt transport system. In conclusion, simple steatosis sensitizes the liver to cholestatic injury, inflammation, and fibrosis in part due to a cytotoxic shift in bile salt composition. Plasma bile salt levels were elevated, linked to dysregulation of bile salt synthesis and enhanced trafficking of bile salts from the liver to the systemic circulation. PMID:27535001

  11. Pappa2 is linked to salt-sensitive hypertension in Dahl S rats.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Allen W; Yang, Chun; Kumar, Vikash; Lazar, Jozef; Jacob, Howard; Geurts, Aron M; Liu, Pengyuan; Dayton, Alex; Kurth, Theresa; Liang, Mingyu

    2016-01-01

    A 1.37 Mbp region of chromosome 13 previously identified by exclusion mapping was consistently associated with a reduction of salt-induced hypertension in the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat. This region contained five genes that were introgressed from the salt-insensitive Brown Norway (BN) rat. The goal of the present study was to further narrow that region to identify the gene(s) most likely to protect from salt-induced hypertension. The studies yielded a subcongenic SS rat strain containing a 0.71 Mbp insert from BN (26-P strain) in which salt-induced hypertension was reduced by 24 mmHg. The region contained two protein-coding genes (Astn1 and Pappa2) and a microRNA (miR-488). Pappa2 mRNA in the renal cortex of the protected 26-P was 6- to 10-fold greater than in SS fed a 0.4% NaCl diet but was reduced to levels observed in SS when fed 8.0% NaCl diet for 7 days. Compared with brain nuclei (NTS, RVLM, CVLM) and the adrenal gland, Pappa2 in the renal cortex was the only gene found to be differentially expressed between SS and 26-P and that responded to changes of salt diet. Immunohistochemistry studies found Pappa2 localized in the cytosol of the epithelial cells of the cortical thick ascending limbs. In more distal segments of the renal tubules, it was observed within tubular lumens and most notably bound to the apical membranes of the intercalated cells of collecting ducts. We conclude that we have identified a variant form of Pappa2 that can protect against salt-induced hypertension in the Dahl S rat. PMID:26534937

  12. Effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (PA-MSHA) pretreatment on septic rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hechen; Wang, Shiqiang; Shen, Lei; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Feng; Cao, Tongwa

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (PA-MSHA) injection on the survival rate of rats post cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subcutaneously injected with 0.125 ml, 0.25 ml or 0.5 ml PA-MSHA for 8 days or 16 days before CLP. The survival rate and physiological appearance of rats in each group were monitored daily post CLP. The expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and cytokines related to inflammation was evaluated. We found that the 0.5 ml-8d (0.5 ml PA-MSHA injected for 8 days) group had the highest 7-day survival rate (91.7%), which was significantly improved compared with the CLP-only group (33.3%). Furthermore, our results showed that PA-MSHA effectively increased serum pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) at the early stage (8 days) but increased anti-inflammatory mediators (IL-4 and IL-10) at the late stage (16 days). PA-MSHA significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression of TLR4 at 8 and 16 days. After PA-MSHA pretreatment, CLP had no marked effect on the levels of most inflammatory factors. To explore potential protective mechanisms of PA-MSHA against CLP, we examined the effect of PA-MSHA on murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells and found that PA-MSHA induced endotoxin tolerance. In conclusion, this study suggested that precisely controlling the dosage and time of PA-MSHA administration can effectively increase the rat survival rate post CLP, which may be mediated through regulating inflammatory mediators and inducing endotoxin tolerance. PMID:24055021

  13. Regulation of early and delayed radiation responses in rat small intestine by capsaicin-sensitive nerves

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Junru; Zheng Huaien; Kulkarni, Ashwini; Ou Xuemei; Hauer-Jensen, Martin . E-mail: mhjensen@life.uams.edu

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: Mast cells protect against the early manifestations of intestinal radiation toxicity, but promote chronic intestinal wall fibrosis. Intestinal sensory nerves are closely associated with mast cells, both anatomically and functionally, and serve an important role in the regulation of mucosal homeostasis. This study examined the effect of sensory nerve ablation on the intestinal radiation response in an established rat model. Methods and Materials: Rats underwent sensory nerve ablation with capsaicin or sham ablation. Two weeks later, a localized segment of ileum was X-irradiated or sham irradiated. Structural, cellular, and molecular changes were examined 2 weeks (early injury) and 26 weeks (chronic injury) after irradiation. The mast cell dependence of the effect of sensory nerve ablation on intestinal radiation injury was assessed using c-kit mutant (Ws/Ws) mast cell-deficient rats. Results: Capsaicin treatment caused a baseline reduction in mucosal mast cell density, crypt cell proliferation, and expression of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, two neuropeptides released by sensory neurons. Sensory nerve ablation strikingly exacerbated early intestinal radiation toxicity (loss of mucosal surface area, inflammation, intestinal wall thickening), but attenuated the development of chronic intestinal radiation fibrosis (collagen I accumulation and transforming growth factor {beta} immunoreactivity). In mast cell-deficient rats, capsaicin treatment exacerbated postradiation epithelial injury (loss of mucosal surface area), but none of the other aspects of radiation injury were affected by capsaicin treatment. Conclusions: Ablation of capsaicin-sensitive enteric neurons exacerbates early intestinal radiation toxicity, but attenuates development of chronic fibroproliferative changes. The effect of capsaicin treatment on the intestinal radiation response is partly mast cell dependent.

  14. Influence of housing variables on the development of stress-sensitive behaviors in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sakhai, Samuel A; Preslik, John; Francis, Darlene D

    2013-08-15

    Diverse environments early in mammalian life can have profound influences on the physiology and behavior of developing offspring. Environmental factors can influence offspring development directly or through perturbations in parental care. In the current study, we wished to determine if the influence of a single environmental variable, type of bedding material used in laboratory cages, is capable of altering physiological and behavioral outcomes in offspring. Female rats were housed in cages containing wood pulp or corncob bedding and allowed to mature. These rats, while housed on assigned bedding material, were bred and allowed to give birth. At weaning, male offspring were housed on one of the two bedding conditions and tested later in adulthood on stress-sensitive behavioral measures. Postmortem analysis of glucocorticoid receptor expression and CRH mRNA levels were also measured. Maternal care directed at the pups reared in the two different bedding conditions was also recorded. Rats reared from birth on corncob bedding exhibited decreased anxiety-like behavior, as adults, in both open field and light-dark box tasks compared to wood pulp reared animals. Animals that received similar overall levels of maternal care, regardless of bedding condition, also differed in anxiety-like behaviors as adults, indicating that the bedding condition is capable of altering phenotype independent of maternal care. Despite observed behavioral differences in adult offspring reared in different bedding conditions, no changes in glucocorticoid receptor expression at the level of the hippocampus, frontal cortex, or corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus were observed between groups. These results highlight the importance of early life housing variables in programming stress-sensitive behaviors in adult offspring. PMID:23948671

  15. NMR-based metabonomic in hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex of methamphetamine-sensitized rats.

    PubMed

    Bu, Qian; Lv, Lei; Yan, Guangyan; Deng, Pengchi; Wang, Yanli; Zhou, Jiaqing; Yang, Yanzhu; Li, Yan; Cen, Xiaobo

    2013-05-01

    (1)H NMR spectroscopy was applied to investigate the changes of cerebral metabolites in brain hippocampus, nucleus accumbens (NAC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the rats subjected to subcutaneous twice-daily injections of 2.5mg/kg methamphetamine (MAP) for 7 days. The results indicated that MAP exposure induced significant behavioral sensitization and altered cerebral metabolites in rats. The neurotransmitters glutamate, glutamine and GABA significantly decreased in hippocampus, NAC and PFC. Specifically, increased succinic acid semialdehyde, a metabolism product of GABA, was observed in hippocampus. Additionally, decreased serotonin was observed in both NAC and PFC, whereas decreased dopamine was only observed in NAC after repeated MAP treatment. Glutathione obviously decreased in above brain regions, whereas acetylcysteine declined in hippocampus and NAC, and taurine declined in NAC and PFC. Homocysteic acid was elevated in hippocampus and NAC by repeated MAP administration. Membrane ingredients like phosphocholine elevated in response to MAP administration in NAC and PFC. N-Acetyl-aspartate, a marker of neuronal viability, decreased in the three regions; however, myo-inositol, a glial cell marker, increased in hippocampus and PFC. Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate products, such as α-ketoglutarate, succinate, citrate and the methionine significantly decreased in above three brain regions after MAP administration; however, ADP decreased in hippocampus. These results indicate that repeated MAP treatment causes neurotransmitters disturbance, imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidants, and gliosis in hippocampus, NAC and PFC. Profound metabolic changes detected across brain regions provide the first evidence of metabonomic changes in MAP-induced sensitized rats. PMID:23462569

  16. Physically Active Rats Lose More Weight during Calorie Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Smyers, Mark E.; Bachir, Kailey Z.; Britton, Steven L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Novak, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Daily physical activity shows substantial inter-individual variation, and low physical activity is associated with obesity and weight gain. Elevated physical activity is also associated with high intrinsic aerobic capacity, which confers considerable metabolic health benefits. Rats artificially selected for high intrinsic aerobic capacity (high-capacity runners, HCR) are more physically active than their low-capacity counterparts (low-capacity runners, LCR). To test the hypothesis that physical activity counters metabolic thriftiness, we measured physical activity and weight loss during three weeks of 50% calorie restriction (CR) in the HCR and LCR rat lines. At baseline, HCR ate more and were more active than LCR; this was seen in male rats, where LCR are considerably heavier than HCR, as well as in a set of female rats where body weight did not differ between the lines, demonstrating that this effect is consistent across sex and not secondary to body weight. We show for the first time that HCR lose more weight than LCR relative to baseline. Physical activity levels declined throughout CR, and this was more pronounced in HCR than in LCR, yet some aspects of activity remained elevated in HCR relative to LCR even during CR. This is consistent with the idea that low physical activity contributes to metabolic thriftiness during food restriction, allowing LCR to defend body mass, particularly lean mass. This has implications for physical activity during diet-induced weight loss, the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in weight loss during a diet, and the potential evolutionary opposition between metabolic thriftiness and aerobic capacity. PMID:25449411

  17. Physically active rats lose more weight during calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Smyers, Mark E; Bachir, Kailey Z; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Novak, Colleen M

    2015-02-01

    Daily physical activity shows substantial inter-individual variation, and low physical activity is associated with obesity and weight gain. Elevated physical activity is also associated with high intrinsic aerobic capacity, which confers considerable metabolic health benefits. Rats artificially selected for high intrinsic aerobic capacity (high-capacity runners, HCR) are more physically active than their low-capacity counterparts (low-capacity runners, LCR). To test the hypothesis that physical activity counters metabolic thriftiness, we measured physical activity and weight loss during three weeks of 50% calorie restriction (CR) in the HCR and LCR rat lines. At baseline, HCR ate more and were more active than LCR; this was seen in male rats, where LCR are considerably heavier than HCR, as well as in a set of female rats where body weight did not differ between the lines, demonstrating that this effect is consistent across sex and not secondary to body weight. We show for the first time that HCR lose more weight than LCR relative to baseline. Physical activity levels declined throughout CR, and this was more pronounced in HCR than in LCR, yet some aspects of activity remained elevated in HCR relative to LCR even during CR. This is consistent with the idea that low physical activity contributes to metabolic thriftiness during food restriction, allowing LCR to defend body mass, particularly lean mass. This has implications for physical activity during diet-induced weight loss, the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in weight loss during a diet, and the potential evolutionary opposition between metabolic thriftiness and aerobic capacity. PMID:25449411

  18. Voltage-sensitive dye imaging of primary motor cortex activity produced by ventral tegmental area stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kunori, Nobuo; Kajiwara, Riichi; Takashima, Ichiro

    2014-06-25

    The primary motor cortex (M1) receives dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) through the mesocortical dopamine pathway. However, few studies have focused on changes in M1 neuronal activity caused by VTA activation. To address this issue, we used voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSD) to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of M1 activity induced by single-pulse stimulation of VTA in anesthetized rats. VSD imaging showed that brief electrical stimulation of unilateral VTA elicited a short-latency excitatory-inhibitory sequence of neuronal activity not only in the ipsilateral but also in the contralateral M1. The contralateral M1 response was not affected by pharmacological blockade of ipsilateral M1 activity, but it was completely abolished by corpus callosum transection. Although the VTA-evoked neuronal activity extended throughout the entire M1, we found the most prominent activity in the forelimb area of M1. The 6-OHDA-lesioned VTA failed to evoke M1 activity. Furthermore, both excitatory and inhibitory intact VTA-induced activity was entirely extinguished by blocking glutamate receptors in the target M1. When intracortical microstimulation of M1 was paired with VTA stimulation, the evoked forelimb muscle activity was facilitated or inhibited, depending on the interval between the two stimuli. These findings suggest that VTA neurons directly modulate the excitability of M1 neurons via fast glutamate signaling and, consequently, may control the last cortical stage of motor command processing. PMID:24966388

  19. Dahl SS rats demonstrate enhanced aortic perivascular adipose tissue-mediated buffering of vasoconstriction through activation of NOS in the endothelium.

    PubMed

    Spradley, Frank T; Ho, Dao H; Pollock, Jennifer S

    2016-02-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) mediates buffering of vasoconstriction through activation of endothelium-derived factors. We hypothesized that the PVAT of Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl SS) rats has reduced ability to buffer vasoconstriction. Vascular reactivity experiments were performed on aortic rings with PVAT intact (+PVAT) or removed (-PVAT), and endothelium intact (+ENDO) or removed (-ENDO) from Dahl SS rats and control SS.13(BN) rats (Dahl SS rats that have had chromosome 13 completely replaced with that of the Brown Norway rat, rendering this strain insensitive to high-salt or high-fat diet-induced hypertension). Endothelial dysfunction, assessed by ACh-mediated vasorelaxation, was confirmed in aortic rings of Dahl SS rats. The +PVAT+ENDO aortic rings had indistinguishable phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction between genotypes. In both strains, removal of PVAT significantly enhanced vasoconstriction. Dahl SS rat -PVAT+ENDO aortic rings displayed exaggerated vasoconstriction to phenylephrine vs. SS.13(BN) rats, indicating that PVAT-mediated buffering of vasoconstriction was greater in Dahl SS rats. Removal of both the ENDO and PVAT restored vasoconstriction in both strains. The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), produced a similar effect as that seen with -ENDO. These data indicate that the function of the PVAT to activate endothelium-derived NOS is enhanced in Dahl SS compared with SS.13(BN) rats and, most likely, occurs through a pathway that is distinct from ACh-mediated activation of NOS. PVAT weight and total PVAT leptin levels were greater in Dahl SS rats. Leptin induced a significantly decreased vasoconstriction in -PVAT+ENDO aortic rings from Dahl SS rats, but not SS.13(BN) rats. In contrast to our initial hypothesis, PVAT in Dahl SS rats buffers vasoconstriction by activating endothelial NOS via mechanisms that may include the involvement of leptin. Thus, the PVAT serves a vasoprotective role in

  20. Elevation of naloxone-sensitive /sup 3/H-dihydromorphine binding in hippocampal formation of genetically epilepsy-prone rats

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, D.D.; Mills, S.A.; Jobe, P.C.; Reigel, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    /sup 3/H-Dihydromorphine (DHM) binding sites were measured in the brain of non-epileptic control and GEPR rats using in vitro autoradiographic techniques. The number of naloxone-sensitive /sup 3/H-DHM binding sites was increased 38-57% in the pyramidal cell layer of ventral hippocampal CA/sub 3/ and CA/sub 1/ of GEPR-3 and GEPR-9 rats compared to non-epileptic controls. No significant differences in /sup 3/H-DHM binding were observed in dorsal hippocampal formation, lateral entorhinal cortex, lateral geniculate or cerebellum. The results suggest that an increase in the number of opioid receptors in ventral hippocampus of GEPR rats may be one factor contributing to the enhanced sensitivity of GEPR-9 rats to the proconvulsant effects of morphine.

  1. Stretch-activated channels in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells from normoxic and chronically hypoxic rats.

    PubMed

    Ducret, Thomas; El Arrouchi, Jalila; Courtois, Arnaud; Quignard, Jean-François; Marthan, Roger; Savineau, Jean-Pierre

    2010-11-01

    Stretch-activated channels (SACs) act as membrane mechanotransducers since they convert physical forces into biological signals and hence into a cell response. Pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) are continuously exposed to mechanical stimulations e.g., compression and stretch, that are enhanced under conditions of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Using the patch-clamp technique (cell-attached configuration) in PASMCs, we showed that applying graded negative pressures (from 0 to -60 mmHg) to the back end of the patch pipette increases occurrence and activity of SACs. The current-voltage relationship (from -80 to +40 mV) was almost linear with a reversal potential of 1 mV and a slope conductance of 34 pS. SACs were inhibited in the presence of GsMTx-4, a specific SACs blocker. Using microspectrofluorimetry (indo-1), we found that hypotonic-induced cell swelling increases intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). This [Ca(2+)](i) increase was markedly inhibited in the absence of external Ca(2+) or in the presence of the following blockers of SACs: gadolinium, streptomycin, and GsMTx-4. Interestingly, in chronically hypoxic rats, an animal model of PAH, SACs were more active and hypotonic-induced calcium response in PASMCs was significantly higher (nearly a two-fold increase). Moreover, unlike in normoxic rats, intrapulmonary artery rings from hypoxic rats mounted in a Mulvany myograph, exhibited a myogenic tone sensitive to SAC blockers. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that SACs in rat PASMCs can be activated by membrane stretch as well as hypotonic stimulation and are responsible for [Ca(2+)](i) increase. The link between SACs activation-induced calcium response and myogenic tone in chronically hypoxic rats suggests that SACs are an important element for the increased pulmonary vascular tone in PAH and that they may represent a molecular target for PAH treatment. PMID:21035852

  2. Intermittent electrical stimulation of the right cervical vagus nerve in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats: effects on blood pressure, arrhythmias, and ventricular electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Annoni, Elizabeth M; Xie, Xueyi; Lee, Steven W; Libbus, Imad; KenKnight, Bruce H; Osborn, John W; Tolkacheva, Elena G

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is the single greatest risk factor for potentially fatal cardiovascular diseases. One cause of HTN is inappropriately increased sympathetic nervous system activity, suggesting that restoring the autonomic nervous balance may be an effective means of HTN treatment. Here, we studied the potential of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) to treat chronic HTN and cardiac arrhythmias through stimulation of the right cervical vagus nerve in hypertensive rats. Dahl salt-sensitive rats (n = 12) were given a high salt diet to induce HTN. After 6 weeks, rats were randomized into two groups: HTN-Sham and HTN-VNS, in which VNS was provided to HTN-VNS group for 4 weeks. In vivo blood pressure and electrocardiogram activities were monitored continuously by an implantable telemetry system. After 10 weeks, rats were euthanized and their hearts were extracted for ex vivo electrophysiological studies using high-resolution optical mapping. Six weeks of high salt diet significantly increased both mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure, demonstrating successful induction of HTN in all rats. After 4 weeks of VNS treatment, the increase in MAP and the number of arrhythmia episodes in HTN-VNS rats was significantly attenuated when compared to those observed in HTN-Sham rats. VNS treatment also induced changes in electrophysiological properties of the heart, such as reduction in action potential duration (APD) during rapid drive pacing, slope of APD restitution, spatial dispersion of APD, and increase in conduction velocity of impulse propagation. Overall, these results provide further evidence for the therapeutic efficacy of VNS in HTN and HTN-related heart diseases. PMID:26265746

  3. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Inhibition Increases Pain Sensitivity through Activation of Both β2 and β3 Adrenergic Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Nackley-Neely, Andrea Gail; Tan, Kai Soo; Fecho, Karamarie; Flood, Patrick; Diatchenko, Luda; Maixner, William

    2007-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme that metabolizes catecholamines, has recently been implicated in the modulation of pain. Our group demonstrated that human genetic variants of COMT are predictive for the development of Temporomandibular Joint Disorder (TMJD) and are associated with heightened experimental pain sensitivity (Diatchenko et al. 2005). Variants associated with heightened pain sensitivity produce lower COMT activity. Here we report the mechanisms underlying COMT-dependent pain sensitivity. To characterize the means whereby elevated catecholamine levels, resulting from reduced COMT activity, modulate heightened pain sensitivity, we administered a COMT inhibitor to rats and measured behavioral responsiveness to mechanical and thermal stimuli. We show that depressed COMT activity results in enhanced mechanical and thermal pain sensitivity. This phenomenon is completely blocked by the nonselective β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol or by the combined administration of selective β2- and β3-adrenergic antagonists, while administration of β1-adrenergic, α-adrenergic, or dopaminergic receptor antagonists fail to alter COMT-dependent pain sensitivity. These data provide the first direct evidence that low COMT activity leads to increased pain sensitivity via a β2/3-adrenergic mechanism. These findings are of considerable clinical importance, suggesting that pain conditions resulting from low COMT activity and/or elevated catecholamine levels can be treated with pharmacological agents that block both β2- and β3-adrenergic receptors. PMID:17084978

  4. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibition by ND-630 reduces hepatic steatosis, improves insulin sensitivity, and modulates dyslipidemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Harriman, Geraldine; Greenwood, Jeremy; Bhat, Sathesh; Huang, Xinyi; Wang, Ruiying; Paul, Debamita; Tong, Liang; Saha, Asish K.; Westlin, William F.; Kapeller, Rosana; Harwood, H. James

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous inhibition of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) isozymes ACC1 and ACC2 results in concomitant inhibition of fatty acid synthesis and stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and may favorably affect the morbidity and mortality associated with obesity, diabetes, and fatty liver disease. Using structure-based drug design, we have identified a series of potent allosteric protein–protein interaction inhibitors, exemplified by ND-630, that interact within the ACC phosphopeptide acceptor and dimerization site to prevent dimerization and inhibit the enzymatic activity of both ACC isozymes, reduce fatty acid synthesis and stimulate fatty acid oxidation in cultured cells and in animals, and exhibit favorable drug-like properties. When administered chronically to rats with diet-induced obesity, ND-630 reduces hepatic steatosis, improves insulin sensitivity, reduces weight gain without affecting food intake, and favorably affects dyslipidemia. When administered chronically to Zucker diabetic fatty rats, ND-630 reduces hepatic steatosis, improves glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and reduces hemoglobin A1c (0.9% reduction). Together, these data suggest that ACC inhibition by representatives of this series may be useful in treating a variety of metabolic disorders, including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and fatty liver disease. PMID:26976583

  5. Triacylglycerol kinetics in endotoxic rats with suppressed lipoprotein lipase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, G.J.; Corll, C.B.; Martinez, R.R.

    1987-07-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia observed in animals after bacterial endotoxin administration and some forms of sepsis can result from increased hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) output or decreased TG clearance by extrahepatic tissues. To differentiate between these two possibilities, TG and free fatty acid (FFA) kinetics were determined in control and endotoxin-injected rats 18 h after treatment. Plasma TG and FFA kinetics were assessed by a constant intravenous infusion with (9,10-/sup 3/H)palmitate-labeled very low-density lipoprotein and (1-/sup 14/C)palmitate bound to albumin, respectively. In addition, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was determined in heart, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue as well as in postheparin plasma of functionally hepatectomized, adrenalectomized, and gonadectomized rats. Plasma FFA acid concentrations were slightly increased in endotoxin-treated rats but their turnover did not differ from control. Endotoxin-treated rats had a threefold increase in plasma TG concentrations and decreased heart, skeletal muscle, and post-heparin plasma LPL activity. Plasma TG turnover was decreased, indicating that hypertriglyceridemia was not due to an increased TG output by the liver. Instead, the endotoxin-induced increase in plasma TG concentration was consequence of the 80% reduction in TG metabolic clearance rate. Thus, suppression of LPL activity in endotoxic animals impairs TG clearance resulting in hypertriglyceridemia. Furthermore, endotoxin administration reduced the delivery of TG-FFA to extrahepatic tissues because hepatic synthesis and secretion of TG from plasma FFA was decreased and LPL activity was suppressed.

  6. Spontaneous running activity in male rats - Effect of age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondon, C. E.; Dolkas, C. B.; Sims, C.; Reaven, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    Variations in the intensity and the patterns of spontaneous running activity in wheel cages were studied in male rats aged 7 weeks to one year. Daily running records were obtained for periods of 12 mo, and 24-hour recordings were made for selected runners in order to study variations in running activity during the day. The data indicate that for rats running over two miles/day, the maximum running intensity can be divided into two groups: a group of high achievers running 8 miles/day; and a group of moderate achievers running 4.8 miles/day. For both groups spontaneous activity reached a maximum after 4-5 weeks. An hourly pattern of running activity during the day was identified in rats of increasing age who averaged 9.0, 4.5, 2.6, and 1.2 miles/day, respectively. Progressive losses were observed in both the speed and the duration of spontaneous running as the rats increased in age, with the intensity of exercise falling below 2 miles/day after 7-8 months of age.

  7. MICROBIAL SUCCESSION AND INTESTINAL ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN THE DEVELOPING RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The succession of gastrointestinal flora in the developing rat was studied, concomitant with studies of intestinal enzyme activity. Aerobes and anaerobes were identified as members of 4 major bacterial groups, i.e., Lactobacilli spp., Gram positive enterococci, Gram negative rods...

  8. MIREX INDUCES ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE ACTIVITY IN FEMALE RAT LIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis, was significantly induced in female rat liver following oral administration of the pesticide, mirex. fter dual oral exposure (120 mg/kg; 21 and 4 hrs prior to sacrifice) induction of ODC activity in r...

  9. The Timing of Noise-Sensitive Activities in Residential Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative survey of time use was analyzed to provide estimates of the percentage of the population which is engaged in noise sensitive activities during each hour of the day on weekdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays. Estimates are provided of the percentage engaged in aural communication activities at home, sleeping at home, or simply at home. The day can be roughly divided into four noise sensitivity periods consisting of two relatively steady state periods, night and day and the early morning and evening transition periods. Weekends differ from weekdays in that the morning transition period is one hour later and the numbers of people engaged in aural communication during the day at home are approximately one-half to three-quarters greater. The extent and timing of noise sensitive activities was found to be similiar for all parts of the United States, for different sizes of urban areas, and for the three seasons surveyed (September through May). The timing of activity periods does not differ greatly by sex or age even though women and people over 65 are much more likely to be at home during the daytime.

  10. The timing of noise-sensitive activities in residential areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields, J. M.

    1985-07-01

    Data from a nationally representative survey of time use was analyzed to provide estimates of the percentage of the population which is engaged in noise sensitive activities during each hour of the day on weekdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays. Estimates are provided of the percentage engaged in aural communication activities at home, sleeping at home, or simply at home. The day can be roughly divided into four noise sensitivity periods consisting of two relatively steady state periods, night and day and the early morning and evening transition periods. Weekends differ from weekdays in that the morning transition period is one hour later and the numbers of people engaged in aural communication during the day at home are approximately one-half to three-quarters greater. The extent and timing of noise sensitive activities was found to be similiar for all parts of the United States, for different sizes of urban areas, and for the three seasons surveyed (September through May). The timing of activity periods does not differ greatly by sex or age even though women and people over 65 are much more likely to be at home during the daytime.

  11. L-tyrosine administration increases acetylcholinesterase activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriela K; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Vieira, Júlia S; Scaini, Giselli; Ghedim, Fernando V; Deroza, Pedro F; Zugno, Alexandra I; Pereira, Talita C B; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Maurício R; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2012-12-01

    Tyrosinemia is a rare genetic disease caused by mutations on genes that codify enzymes responsible for tyrosine metabolism. Considering that tyrosinemics patients usually present symptoms associated with central nervous system alterations that ranges from slight decreases in intelligence to severe mental retardation, we decided to investigate whether acute and chronic administration of L-tyrosine in rats would affect acetylcholinesterase mRNA expression and enzymatic activity during their development. In our acute protocol, Wistar rats (10 and 30 days old) were killed one hour after a single intraperitoneal L-tyrosine injection (500 mg/kg) or saline. Chronic administration consisted of L-tyrosine (500 mg/kg) or saline injections 12 h apart for 24 days in Wistar rats (7 days old) and rats were killed 12 h after last injection. Acetylcholinesterase activity was measured by Ellman's method and acetylcholinesterase expression was carried out by a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. We observed that acute (10 and 30 days old rats) and chronic L-tyrosine administration increased acetylcholinesterase activity in serum and all tested brain areas (hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex) when compared to control group. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in mRNA levels of acetylcholinesterase in hippocampus was observed after acute protocol (10 and 30 days old rats) and in striatum after chronic protocol. In case these alterations also occur in the brain of the patients, our results may explain, at least in part, the neurological sequelae associated with high plasma concentrations of tyrosine seen in patients affected by tyrosinemia type II. PMID:23046746

  12. Eating high fat chow increases the sensitivity of rats to quinpirole-induced discriminative stimulus effects and yawning

    PubMed Central

    Baladi, Michelle G; France, Charles P

    2010-01-01

    Discriminative stimulus effects of directly-acting dopamine receptor agonists (e.g. quinpirole) appear to be mediated by D3 receptors in free-feeding rats. Free access to high fat chow increases sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning and the current study examined whether eating high fat chow increases sensitivity to the discriminative stimulus effects of quinpirole. Five rats discriminated between 0.032 mg/kg quinpirole and vehicle while responding under a continuous reinforcement schedule of stimulus shock termination. When rats had free access to high fat chow (discrimination training was suspended), the quinpirole discrimination dose-response curve shifted leftward, possibly indicating enhanced sensitivity at D3 receptors. In the same rats, both the ascending (mediated by D3 receptors) and descending (mediated by D2 receptors) limbs of the dose- response curve for quinpirole-induced yawning shifted leftward. When rats had free access to a standard chow (discrimination training was suspended), the quinpirole discrimination and yawning dose-response curves did not change. Together with published data showing that the discriminative stimulus effects of quinpirole in free- feeding rats are mediated by D3 receptors and the insensitivity of this effect of quinpirole to food restriction (shown to increase sensitivity to D2 but not D3-mediated effects), these results suggest that the leftward shift of the discrimination dose-response curve when rats eat high fat chow is likely due to enhanced sensitivity at D3 receptors. Thus, eating high fat food enhances drug effects in a manner that might impact clinical effects of drugs or vulnerability to drug abuse. PMID:20729718

  13. Metabolic Syndrome Triggered by High-Fructose Diet Favors Choroidal Neovascularization and Impairs Retinal Light Sensitivity in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Thierry, Magalie; Pasquis, Bruno; Acar, Niyazi; Grégoire, Stéphane; Febvret, Valérie; Buteau, Bénédicte; Gambert-Nicot, Ségolène; Bron, Alain M.; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine P.; Bretillon, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration are the leading causes of blindness in Western populations. Although it is a matter of controversy, large-scale population-based studies have reported increased prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in patients with diabetes or diabetic retinopathy. We hypothesized that metabolic syndrome, one of the major risk factors for type 2 diabetes, would represent a favorable environment for the development of choroidal neovascularization, the main complication of age-related macular degeneration. The fructose-fed rat was used as a model for metabolic syndrome in which choroidal neovascularization was induced by laser photocoagulation. Male Brown Norway rats were fed for 1, 3, and 6 months with a standard equilibrated chow diet or a 60%-rich fructose diet (n = 24 per time point). The animals expectedly developed significant body adiposity (+17%), liver steatosis at 3 and 6 months, hyperleptinemia at 1 and 3 months (two-fold increase) and hyperinsulinemia at 3 and 6 months (up to two-fold increase), but remained normoglycemic and normolipemic. The fructose-fed animals exhibited partial loss of rod sensitivity to light stimulus and reduced amplitude of oscillatory potentials at 6 months. Fructose-fed rats developed significantly more choroidal neovascularization at 14 and 21 days post-laser photocoagulation after 1 and 3 months of diet compared to animals fed the control diet. These results were consistent with infiltration/activation of phagocytic cells and up-regulation of pro-angiogenic gene expression such as Vegf and Leptin in the retina. Our data therefore suggested that metabolic syndrome would exacerbate the development of choroidal neovascularization in our experimental model. PMID:25380250

  14. Activation of the Endoperoxide Ascaridole Modulates Its Sensitizing Capacity.

    PubMed

    Krutz, Nora L; Hennen, Jennifer; Korb, Corinna; Schellenberger, Mario T; Gerberick, G Frank; Blömeke, Brunhilde

    2015-10-01

    The monoterpene ascaridole, a fairly stable endoperoxide found in essential oils such as tea tree oil can provoke allergic contact dermatitis which has been evidenced under patch test conditions. However, concomitantly we observed irritative skin reactions that demand further data underlining the sensitization potential of ascaridole. Here, we studied the effects of ascaridole on dendritic cell (DC) activation and protein reactivity, 2 key steps of chemical-induced skin sensitization. Treatment of human monocyte-derived DC with ascaridole found support for full DC maturation, a capability of sensitizers but not irritants. It induced significant upregulation of the expression of the costimulatory molecules CD86, CD80, CD40, and the adhesion molecule CD54 in a time-dependent manner. Maturation was accompanied by release of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1ß, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and IL-8. Similar to other chemical skin sensitizers including hydroperoxides, we observed a certain reactivity of ascaridole toward cysteine- but not lysine-containing peptides. During recent years, evidence accumulated for a radical mechanism as trigger for protein reactivity of peroxides. Treatment of the fairly stable endoperoxide ascaridole with iron as radical inducer ("activated ascaridole") resulted in cysteine peptide reactivity exceeding by far that of ascaridole itself. Furthermore, activated ascaridole showed increased potential for induction of the Nrf2 target gene heme oxygenase 1 and upregulation of CD86 and CD54 on THP-1 cells, an established DC surrogate. These results indicate that radical formation could be involved in the steps leading to skin sensitization induced by the endoperoxide ascaridole. PMID:26185204

  15. Renal brush-border Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ exchange activity in the aging rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, J.L.; Sacktor, B.

    1987-04-01

    Amiloride-sensitive Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ exchange activity in brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from male rat proximal tubules was decreased in the senescent rat (24 mo) compared with the young adult (6 mo). There was no significant loss in Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ exchange activity in the kidneys of animals between 6 and 18 mo of age. Amiloride-insensitive /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake and the rate of pH gradient dissipation were not altered during aging. The decrease in sodium-dependent (/sup 32/P) phosphate transport preceded the decline in Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ exchange activity by at least 6 mo. Sodium-dependent D-(/sup 3/H) glucose transport was not significantly altered during aging. Thus various renal plasma membrane transport functions were affected differently in the aging rat. The decrease in Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ exchange activity during aging contrasted with the increase in exchange activity reported previously in acute ablation models of chronic renal failure.

  16. Dietary fat modulates serum paraoxonase 1 activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kudchodkar, B J; Lacko, A G; Dory, L; Fungwe, T V

    2000-10-01

    We examined the effects of dietary fats with specific fatty acid compositions, on serum paraoxonase (PON1) activity in rats. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into four dietary groups. One group received the control diet [AIN 93M with soybean oil (5 g/100 g diet)], whereas the remaining three groups received the modified control diet supplemented with (15 g/100 g diet) triolein, tripalmitin or fish oil, respectively. After 20 d, blood was obtained after overnight food deprivation and PON1 activity was determined. Serum lipids and lipid components of lipoproteins were also determined. Serum PON1 activity [micromol/(L.min)] was significantly (P: < 0.05) higher in triolein (98 +/- 6) and lower in fish oil (41 +/- 4), compared with tripalmitin-fed rats (63 +/- 11). Serum PON1 activity in tripalmitin-fed rats was comparable to that of controls (67 +/- 9). Serum PON1 activity correlated significantly with serum lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity (r = 0.77, P: < 0.001) and was transported in blood principally in association with the denser subfraction of HDL, very high density lipoprotein (VHDL; d > 1.15 kg/L). Serum PON1 activity correlated strongly with serum lipids as well as lipids of VLDL, HDL and its subfractions. Multiple linear regression analysis, however, showed a significant relationship of serum PON1 activity, principally with the phospholipids of VHDL (r = 0.47, P: < 0.002). These data suggest that the modulation of serum PON1 activity by dietary fat may be mediated via the effect of the specific fatty acids on the synthesis and secretion of VHDL, the subfraction of HDL that transports the majority of PON1 in the blood. PMID:11015468

  17. Critical role of renal dipeptidyl peptidase-4 in ameliorating kidney injury induced by saxagliptin in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Mariko; Uchii, Masako; Myojo, Kensuke; Kitayama, Tetsuya; Kunori, Shunji

    2015-08-15

    Saxagliptin, a potent dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, is currently used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus, and it has been reported to exhibit a slower rate of dissociation from DPP-4 compared with another DPP-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin. In this study, we compared the effects of saxagliptin and sitagliptin on hypertension-related renal injury and the plasma and renal DPP-4 activity levels in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive (Dahl-S) rats. The high-salt diet (8% NaCl) significantly increased the blood pressure and quantity of urinary albumin excretion and induced renal glomerular injury in the Dahl-S rats. Treatment with saxagliptin (14mg/kg/day via drinking water) for 4 weeks significantly suppressed the increase in urinary albumin excretion and tended to ameliorate glomerular injury without altering the blood glucose levels and systolic blood pressure. On the other hand, the administration of sitagliptin (140mg/kg/day via drinking water) did not affect urinary albumin excretion and glomerular injury in the Dahl-S rats. Meanwhile, the high-salt diet increased the renal DPP-4 activity but did not affect the plasma DPP-4 activity in the Dahl-S rats. Both saxagliptin and sitagliptin suppressed the plasma DPP-4 activity by 95% or more. Although the renal DPP-4 activity was also inhibited by both drugs, the inhibitory effect of saxagliptin was more potent than that of sitagliptin. These results indicate that saxagliptin has a potent renoprotective effect in the Dahl-S rats, independent of its glucose-lowering actions. The inhibition of the renal DPP-4 activity induced by saxagliptin may contribute to ameliorating renal injury in hypertension-related renal injury. PMID:25936515

  18. Gabapentin-induced mitogenic activity in rat pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Dethloff, L; Barr, B; Bestervelt, L; Bulera, S; Sigler, R; LaGattuta, M; de La Iglesia, F

    2000-05-01

    Gabapentin induces pancreatic acinar cell tumors in rats through unknown, yet apparently nongenotoxic mechanisms. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether gabapentin acts as a tumor promoter by stimulating acinar cell proliferation in rat pancreas. To this end, indices of pancreatic growth, including increased pancreatic weight, stimulation of acinar cell proliferation, and/or enhanced expression of immediate-early oncogenes were monitored in rats given gabapentin in the diet at 2 g/kg/day for up to 12 months. Rats fed raw soy flour (RSF), a known inducer of pancreatic acinar cell tumors through cholecystokinin-mediated mitogenic stimulation, were used throughout as positive controls. In addition, recent data suggests that gabapentin binds to the alpha(2)delta subunit of a voltage-gated, L-type calcium channel. Because signaling pathways for proliferative processes in pancreatic acinar cells involve intracellular calcium mobilization, the effects of gabapentin on intracellular calcium mobilization ([Ca(2+)](i)) and (3)H-thymidine incorporation were investigated in pancreatic acinar cells isolated from normal rat pancreas and in the AR42J rat pancreatic tumor cell line. As indicated by BrdU labeling indices, acinar cell proliferation increased 3-fold by Day 3 of RSF treatment and remained slightly greater than controls throughout the experiment. Pancreatic weights of RSF-fed rats were 32 to 56% greater than controls throughout the experiment. In contrast, gabapentin had no effect on pancreatic weight or acinar cell labeling index, and therefore had no apparent effect on pancreatic growth. In isolated pancreatic acinar cells, however, gabapentin induced mobilization of intracellular calcium and caused a slight increase in (3)H-thymidine incorporation. The data suggest that gabapentin may possess low level mitogenic activity, which is not easily detectable in in vivo assays. PMID:10788559

  19. Disodium Cromoglycate Reverses Colonic Visceral Hypersensitivity and Influences Colonic Ion Transport in a Stress-Sensitive Rat Strain

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Siobhan Yvonne; O’Mahony, Siobhain Mary; Grenham, Susan; Cryan, John Francis; Hyland, Niall Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The interface between psychiatry and stress-related gastrointestinal disorders (GI), such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), is well established, with anxiety and depression the most frequently occurring comorbid conditions. Moreover, stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, which display anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, exhibit GI disturbances akin to those observed in stress-related GI disorders. Additionally, there is mounting preclinical and clinical evidence implicating mast cells as significant contributors to the development of abdominal visceral pain in IBS. In this study we examined the effects of the rat connective tissue mast cell (CTMC) stabiliser, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on visceral hypersensitivity and colonic ion transport, and examined both colonic and peritoneal mast cells from stress-sensitive WKY rats. DSCG significantly decreased abdominal pain behaviors induced by colorectal distension in WKY animals independent of a reduction in colonic rat mast cell mediator release. We further demonstrated that mast cell-stimulated colonic ion transport was sensitive to inhibition by the mast cell stabiliser DSCG, an effect only observed in stress-sensitive rats. Moreover, CTMC-like mast cells were significantly increased in the colonic submucosa of WKY animals, and we observed a significant increase in the proportion of intermediate, or immature, peritoneal mast cells relative to control animals. Collectively our data further support a role for mast cells in the pathogenesis of stress-related GI disorders. PMID:24367692

  20. Disodium cromoglycate reverses colonic visceral hypersensitivity and influences colonic ion transport in a stress-sensitive rat strain.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Siobhan Yvonne; O'Mahony, Siobhain Mary; Grenham, Susan; Cryan, John Francis; Hyland, Niall Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The interface between psychiatry and stress-related gastrointestinal disorders (GI), such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), is well established, with anxiety and depression the most frequently occurring comorbid conditions. Moreover, stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, which display anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, exhibit GI disturbances akin to those observed in stress-related GI disorders. Additionally, there is mounting preclinical and clinical evidence implicating mast cells as significant contributors to the development of abdominal visceral pain in IBS. In this study we examined the effects of the rat connective tissue mast cell (CTMC) stabiliser, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on visceral hypersensitivity and colonic ion transport, and examined both colonic and peritoneal mast cells from stress-sensitive WKY rats. DSCG significantly decreased abdominal pain behaviors induced by colorectal distension in WKY animals independent of a reduction in colonic rat mast cell mediator release. We further demonstrated that mast cell-stimulated colonic ion transport was sensitive to inhibition by the mast cell stabiliser DSCG, an effect only observed in stress-sensitive rats. Moreover, CTMC-like mast cells were significantly increased in the colonic submucosa of WKY animals, and we observed a significant increase in the proportion of intermediate, or immature, peritoneal mast cells relative to control animals. Collectively our data further support a role for mast cells in the pathogenesis of stress-related GI disorders. PMID:24367692

  1. Antidiabetic activity of Terminalia pallida fruit in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kameswara Rao, B; Renuka Sudarshan, P; Rajasekhar, M D; Nagaraju, N; Appa Rao, Ch

    2003-03-01

    Different doses of ethanolic fraction of fruits of Terminalia pallida were evaluated for hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity in normal and alloxan diabetic rats. The oral administration of ethanolic extract at a dosage of 0.5 g/kg body weight exhibited a significant antihyperglycemic activity in alloxan diabetic rats, whereas in normal rats no hypoglycemic activity was observed. PMID:12576217

  2. Social defeat stress-induced sensitization and escalated cocaine self-administration: The role of ERK signaling in the rat ventral tegmental area

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Jasmine J.; Chartoff, Elena H.; Holly, Elizabeth N.; Potter, David N.; Carlezon, William A.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Intermittent social defeat stress can induce neuroadaptations that promote compulsive drug taking. Within the mesocorticolimbic circuit, repeated cocaine administration activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Objective The present experiments examine whether changes in ERK phosphorylation are necessary for the behavioral and neural adaptations that occur as a consequence of intermittent defeat stress. Materials and methods Rats were exposed to four brief intermittent defeats over the course of 10 days. Ten days after the last defeat, rats were challenged with cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline, and ERK activity was examined in mesocorticolimbic regions. To determine the role of ERK in defeat stress-induced behavioral sensitization, we bilaterally microinjected the MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitor U0126 (1 μg/side) or vehicle (20% DMSO) into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) prior to each of 4 defeats. Ten days following the last defeat, locomotor activity was assessed for the expression of behavioral cross-sensitization to cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Thereafter, rats self-administered cocaine under fixed and progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement, including a 24-h continuous access “binge” (0.3 mg/kg/infusion). Results We found that repeated defeat stress increased ERK phosphorylation in the VTA. Inhibition of VTA ERK prior to each social defeat attenuated the development of stress-induced sensitization and prevented stress-induced enhancement of cocaine self-administration during a continuous access binge. Conclusions These results suggest that enhanced activation of ERK in the VTA due to brief defeats is critical in the induction of sensitization and escalated cocaine taking. PMID:25373870

  3. Vitamin A activates rhodopsin and sensitizes it to ultraviolet light

    PubMed Central

    Miyazono, Sadaharu; Isayama, Tomoki; Delori, François C.; Makino, Clint L.

    2013-01-01

    The visual pigment, rhodopsin, consists of opsin protein with 11-cis retinal chromophore, covalently bound. Light activates rhodopsin by isomerizing the chromophore to the all-trans conformation. The activated rhodopsin sets in motion a biochemical cascade that evokes an electrical response by the photoreceptor. All-trans retinal is eventually released from the opsin and reduced to vitamin A. Rod and cone photoreceptors contain vast amounts of rhodopsin, so after exposure to bright light, the concentration of vitamin A can reach relatively high levels within their outer segments. Since a retinal analog, β-ionone, is capable of activating some types of visual pigments, we tested whether vitamin A might produce a similar effect. In single-cell recordings from isolated dark-adapted salamander green-sensitive rods, exogenously applied vitamin A decreased circulating current and flash sensitivity and accelerated flash response kinetics. These changes resembled those produced by exposure of rods to steady light. Microspectrophotometric measurements showed that vitamin A accumulated in the outer segments and binding of vitamin A to rhodopsin was confirmed in in vitro assays. In addition, vitamin A improved the sensitivity of photoreceptors to ultraviolet (UV) light. Apparently, the energy of a UV photon absorbed by vitamin A transferred by a radiationless process to the 11-cis retinal chromophore of rhodopsin, which subsequently isomerized. Therefore, our results suggest that vitamin A binds to rhodopsin at an allosteric binding site distinct from the chromophore binding pocket for 11-cis retinal to activate the rhodopsin, and that it serves as a sensitizing chromophore for UV light. PMID:22192505

  4. Centrally administered glucagon stimulates sympathetic nerve activity in rat.

    PubMed

    Krzeski, R; Czyzyk-Krzeska, M F; Trzebski, A; Millhorn, D E

    1989-12-18

    The effect of pancreatic glucagon given intravenously, intracerebroventricularly and microinjected into the nucleus of the solitary tract on sympathetic activity in the cervical trunk and adrenal nerve was examined in rat. In each case glucagon caused a relatively long-lasting substantial increase in discharge of both nerves. This finding shows that glucagon can act centrally to stimulate sympathetic activity. The most probable site for the sympathoexcitatory effect of glucagon is the nucleus of the solitary tract. PMID:2598031

  5. Riproximin’s activity depends on gene expression and sensitizes PDAC cells to TRAIL

    PubMed Central

    Adwan, Hassan; Murtaja, Ahmed; Kadhim Al-Taee, Khamael; Pervaiz, Asim; Hielscher, Thomas; Berger, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    Riproximin (Rpx) is a type II ribosome inactivating protein, which was investigated for its activity in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in a panel of 17 human and rat PDAC cell lines and in rat pancreatic cancer liver metastasis. Cytotoxicity in response to Rpx was determined by MTT assay, apoptosis by flow cytometry and qRT-PCR for apoptosis related genes, and the modulation of the transcriptome was monitored by micro array analysis. The combination effect of Rpx and TRAIL was assessed by MTT assay. Rpx showed high but varying cytotoxicity in PDAC cells. Based on overall gene expression, the sensitivity of these cells was linked to genes involved in apoptosis. Furthermore, based on the affinity of Rpx for CEA, the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) genes was significantly related to Rpx’s cytotoxicity in cells with CEACAM gene expression. Exposure of Suit2–007 cells to Rpx induced the mRNA expression of members of signaling pathways initiating from most death receptors, and down modulation of TRAIL. Apoptosis was increased as shown by FACS analysis. Combination of Rpx with TRAIL resulted in a synergistic cytotoxic effect in human Suit2–007 and rat ASML cells, as evidenced by a 6-fold lower tumor cell survival than expected from an additive combination effect. Treatment of BDX rats bearing intra-portally implanted Suit2–007 cells showed a highly significant anticancer effect and indicated an application of Rpx against pancreatic cancer metastasis to the liver. These data favor further evaluation of Rpx as anticancer agent in PDAC. PMID:24918923

  6. EVALUATIN OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE ACTIVITY OF SONCHUS ASPER L. IN RATS.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Alamgeer; Ahmad, Taseer; Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Maheen, Safirah; Ahsan, Haseeb; Naz, Huma; Asif, Hira; Younis, Waqas; Tabassum, Nazia

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of aerial parts of Sonchus asper L. in normotensive, glucose and egg feed diet induced hypertensive rats. Aqueous-methanolic extract of Sonchus asper in 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses was studied in normotensive and glucose induced hypertensive rats using the non-invasive technique. The results obtained showed that the extract has significantly (p < 0.5 - p < 0.001) decreased the blood pressure and heart rate in dose dependent manner. The dose 1000 mg/kg of the extract produced the maximum antihypertensive effect and was selected for further experiments. The extract was found to prevent the rise in blood pressure of egg and glucose fed rats as compared to control group in 21 days study. The LD50 of the plant extract was 3500 mg/kg b.w. in mice and sub-chronic toxicity study showed that there was no significant alteration in the blood chemistry of the extract treated rats. It is conceivable, therefore, that the aqueous-methanolic extract of Sonchus asper has exerted considerable antihypertensive activity in rats and has duly supported traditional medicinal use of plant in hypertension. PMID:27180435

  7. Rethinking food anticipatory activity in the activity-based anorexia rat model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hemmings; van Kuyck, Kris; Tambuyzer, Tim; Luyten, Laura; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Nuttin, Bart

    2014-01-01

    When a rat is on a limited fixed-time food schedule with full access to a running wheel (activity-based anorexia model, ABA), its activity level will increase hours prior to the feeding period. This activity, called food-anticipatory activity (FAA), is a hypothesized parallel to the hyperactivity symptom in human anorexia nervosa. To investigate in depth the characteristics of FAA, we retrospectively analyzed the level of FAA and activities during other periods in ABA rats. To our surprise, rats with the most body weight loss have the lowest level of FAA, which contradicts the previously established link between FAA and the severity of ABA symptoms. On the contrary, our study shows that postprandial activities are more directly related to weight loss. We conclude that FAA alone may not be sufficient to reflect model severity, and activities during other periods may be of potential value in studies using ABA model. PMID:24473370

  8. Testicular Development in Male Rats Is Sensitive to a Soy-Based Diet in the Neonatal Period1

    PubMed Central

    Napier, India D.; Simon, Liz; Perry, Devin; Cooke, Paul S.; Stocco, Douglas M.; Sepehr, Estatira; Doerge, Daniel R.; Kemppainen, Barbara W.; Morrison, Edward E.; Akingbemi, Benson T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Approximately 30% of infants in the United States are exposed to high doses of isoflavones resulting from soy infant formula consumption. Soybeans contain the isoflavones genistin and daidzin, which are hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract to their genistein and daidzein aglycones. Both aglycones possess hormonal activity and may interfere with male reproductive development. Testosterone, which supports male fertility, is mainly produced by testicular Leydig cells. Our previous studies indicated that perinatal exposure of male rats to isoflavones induced proliferative activity in Leydig cells and increased testosterone concentrations into adulthood. However, the relevance of the neonatal period as part of the perinatal window of isoflavone exposure remains to be established. The present study examined the effects of exposure to isoflavones on male offspring of dams maintained on a casein-based control or whole soybean diet in the neonatal period, that is, Days 2 to 21 postpartum. The results showed that the soybean diet stimulated proliferative activity in developing Leydig cells while suppressing their steroidogenic capacity in adulthood. In addition, isoflavone exposure decreased production of anti-Müllerian hormone by Sertoli cells. Similar to our previous in vitro studies of genistein action in Leydig cells, daidzein induced proliferation and interfered with signaling pathways to suppress steroidogenic activity. Overall, the data showed that the neonatal period is a sensitive window of exposure to isoflavones and support the view that both genistein and daidzein are responsible for biological effects associated with soy-based diets. PMID:24451983

  9. Cognitive differences between Sprague-Dawley rats selectively bred for sensitivity or resistance to diet induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Sunam; Agbaga, Martin-Paul; Myers, Dean A

    2016-09-15

    Epidemiological studies have shown strong correlations between high fat diets, diet-induced obesity and cognitive impairment, primarily focusing on cognitive defects after the onset of obesity. A remaining question is whether cognitive impairment precedes obesity in individuals metabolically prone to diet-induced obesity. The inbred diet-induced obesity sensitive (DIO) and resistant (DR) strains of Sprague-Dawley rats serve as models for human polygenic obesity. DIO rats become overweight on a standard rat chow and have metabolic symptoms similar to overweight humans. We hypothesized that cognitive impairment pre-exists in adult male DIO rats prior to exposure to high fat diet. Male DIO and DR rats were fed a standard rat chow diet from 4 through 20 weeks of age and subjected to the Morris water maze at 12 weeks of age. At 5 and 20 weeks of age, brains of DIO and DR males were examined for indices of inflammation, lipid peroxidation and neuroproliferation. DIO rats showed significant memory impairment on water maze and increased indices of hippocampal inflammation at 20 weeks of age compared to DR rats. At 5 weeks of age, DIO rats exhibited significantly less neural progenitor cell (NPCs) proliferation in the dentate gyrus and increased hippocampal lipid peroxidation compared to DR rats. Therefore, we conclude that DIO rats exhibit early post-weaning indices of hippocampal inflammation, lipid peroxidation and decreased NPC proliferation, as well as impaired hippocampal dependent memory by early adulthood suggesting that inherent metabolic differences predispose the DIO strain to cognitive deficit prior to exposure to high fat diet and/or obesity. PMID:27173431

  10. Chloroform induction of ornithine decarboxylase activity in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Savage, R E; Westrich, C; Guion, C; Pereira, M A

    1982-01-01

    Chloroform is a drinking water contaminant that has been demonstrated to be carcinogenic to mice and rats resulting in an increased incidence of liver and kidney tumors, respectively. The mechanism of chloroform carcinogenicity might be by tumor initiation and/or promotion. Since induction of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity has been proposed as a molecular marker for tumor promoters, we have investigated the effect of chloroform on ODC activity in rats. Chloroform induced a dose-dependent increase of hepatic ODC with an apparent threshold at 100 mg/kg body weight. Female rats were two to four times more susceptible to to chloroform. Upon daily dosing of chloroform for 7 days the liver became less susceptible, with the last dose of chloroform resulting in only 10% of the activity observed after a single dose. Nuclear RNA polymerase I activity was also induced by chloroform. Chloroform, rather than increasing the activity of renal ODC, resulted in a 35% reduction. The induction by chloroform of hepatic ODC activity might be associated with regenerative hyperplasia while the renal carcinogenicity of chloroform could not be demonstrated to be associated with ODC induction. PMID:7151757

  11. Ixodes ticks: serum species sensitivity of anticomplement activity.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, C H; Randolph, S E; Nuttall, P A

    1999-12-01

    Ixodid ticks feed for extended periods of up to 2 weeks or more. To complete engorgement, they must overcome their host's innate immune mechanisms of which the complement system is a major component. Using in vitro assays, salivary gland extracts of the ixodid ticks, Ixodes ricinus, I. hexagonus, and I. uriae, were shown to inhibit activity of the alternative pathway of complement. The ability of the different Ixodes species to inhibit complement activity varied with the animal species used as a complement serum source. Serum species sensitivity correlates to the reported host range of the tick species tested. PMID:10600446

  12. Na(+) -Activated K(+) Channels in Rat Supraoptic Neurones.

    PubMed

    Bansal, V; Fisher, T E

    2016-06-01

    The magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) of the hypothalamus secrete the neurohormones vasopressin and oxytocin. The systemic release of these hormones depends on the rate and pattern of MNC firing and it is therefore important to identify the ion channels that contribute to the electrical behaviour of MNCs. In the present study, we report evidence for the presence of Na(+) -activated K(+) (KN a ) channels in rat MNCs. KN a channels mediate outwardly rectifying K(+) currents activated by the increases in intracellular Na(+) that occur during electrical activity. Although the molecular identity of native KN a channels is unclear, their biophysical properties are consistent with those of expressed Slick (slo 2.1) and Slack (slo 2.2) proteins. Using immunocytochemistry and Western blot experiments, we found that both Slick and Slack proteins are expressed in rat MNCs. Using whole cell voltage clamp techniques on acutely isolated rat MNCs, we found that inhibiting Na(+) influx by the addition of the Na(+) channel blocker tetrodotoxin or the replacement of Na(+) in the external solution with Li(+) caused a significant decrease in sustained outward currents. Furthermore, the evoked outward current density was significantly higher in rat MNCs using patch pipettes containing 60 mm Na(+) than it was when patch pipettes containing 0 mm Na(+) were used. Our data show that functional KN a channels are expressed in rat MNCs. These channels could contribute to the activity-dependent afterhyperpolarisations that have been identified in the MNCs and thereby play a role in the regulation of their electrical behaviour. PMID:27091544

  13. [Protein fractions and their enzyme activity in the rat myocardium in a Kosmos-936 biosatellite experiment].

    PubMed

    Tigranian, R A; Nosova, E A; Kolchina, E V; Veresotskaia, N A; Kurkina, L M

    1981-01-01

    The effect of artificial gravity on protein fractions and their enzyme activity in the myocardium of rats flown on board Cosmos-936 was studied. In weightless rats the content of sarcoplasmic proteins increased at R + O and that of T fraction proteins decreased at R + 25. In centrifuged rats such changes were not seen. In centrifuged rats the enzyme activity of sarcoplasmic proteins did not alter. In weightless rats ATPase activity of myosin decreased significantly, and in centrifuged rats it remained almost unchanged. PMID:6457219

  14. Activation of protein kinase C induces mitogen-activated protein kinase dephosphorylation and pronucleus formation in rat oocytes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing; Smith, Gary D; Chen, Da-Yuan; Han, Zhi-Ming; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2002-07-01

    Mammalian oocytes are arrested at metaphase of the second meiotic division (MII) before fertilization. When oocytes are stimulated by spermatozoa, they exit MII stage and complete meiosis. It has been suggested that an immediate increase in intracellular free calcium concentration and inactivation of maturation promoting factor (MPF) are required for oocyte activation. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, and their interplay in rat oocyte activation. We found that MAP kinase became dephosphorylated in correlation with pronucleus formation after fertilization. Protein kinase C activators, phorbol 12-myriatate 13-acetate (PMA) and 1,2-dioctanoyl-rac-glycerol (diC8), triggered dephosphorylation of MAP kinase and pronucleus formation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Dephosphorylation of MAP kinase was also correlated with pronucleus formation when oocytes were treated with PKC activators. Effects of PKC activators were abolished by the PKC inhibitors, calphostin C and staurosporine, as well as a protein phosphatase blocker, okadaic acid (OA). These results suggest that PKC activation may cause rat oocyte pronucleus formation via MAP kinase dephosphorylation, which is probably mediated by OA-sensitive protein phosphatases. We also provide evidence supporting the involvement of such a process in fertilization. PMID:12080000

  15. Comparative pharmacokinetics of a proliposome formulation of Ginkgo biloba extract and Ginaton in rats by a sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bin; Xing, Gaoyang; Bi, Ye; Yan, Guodong; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Yingkun; Liu, Yan; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Xie, Jing

    2016-01-01

    As a novel oral drug delivery system, proliposome was applied to improve the solubility of active components of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE). There are currently few reports focusing on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of proliposome of GbE (GbP). A rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantification of active components of GbP and a commercial tablet product (Ginaton) in rat plasma was developed and successfully validated. The method was applied to the comparative pharmacokinetic evaluation of GbP and Ginaton in rat plasma. The results indicated that GbP has a significant effect on absorption, elimination and bioavailability of flavonoids and terpenoid lactones in comparison with Ginaton. The obtained results would be helpful for evaluating the absorption mechanism in the gastrointestinal tract in pharmacokinetic level and guiding the development of the novel oral drug delivery system. PMID:26858539

  16. Comparative pharmacokinetics of a proliposome formulation of Ginkgo biloba extract and Ginaton in rats by a sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Bin; Xing, Gaoyang; Bi, Ye; Yan, Guodong; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Yingkun; Liu, Yan; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Xie, Jing

    2015-01-01

    As a novel oral drug delivery system, proliposome was applied to improve the solubility of active components of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE). There are currently few reports focusing on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of proliposome of GbE (GbP). A rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantification of active components of GbP and a commercial tablet product (Ginaton) in rat plasma was developed and successfully validated. The method was applied to the comparative pharmacokinetic evaluation of GbP and Ginaton in rat plasma. The results indicated that GbP has a significant effect on absorption, elimination and bioavailability of flavonoids and terpenoid lactones in comparison with Ginaton. The obtained results would be helpful for evaluating the absorption mechanism in the gastrointestinal tract in pharmacokinetic level and guiding the development of the novel oral drug delivery system. PMID:26858539

  17. High dietary cholecalciferol increases plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration, but does not attenuate the hypertension of Dahl salt-sensitive rats fed a high salt diet

    PubMed Central

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Muttardy, Farah F.; Al-Mahmoud, Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat, a model for salt-induced hypertension, develops hypovitaminosis D during high salt intake, which is caused by loss of protein-bound vitamin D metabolites into urine. We tested the hypothesis that high dietary cholecalciferol (5- and 10-fold standard) would increase plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3) concentration (indicator of vitamin D status) of salt-sensitive rats during high salt intake. Salt-sensitive rats were fed 0.3% salt (low salt, LS), 3% salt (high salt, HS), 3% salt and 7.5 μg cholecalciferol/d (HS-D5), or 3% salt and 15 μg cholecalciferol/d (HS-D10) and sacrificed at week 4. Plasma 25-OHD3 concentrations of the two groups of HS-D rats were similar to that of LS rats and more than twice that of HS rats. Urinary cholecalciferol metabolite content of HS-D rats was more than seven times that of HS rats. Systolic blood pressures of the hypertensive HS and HS-D rats did not significantly differ, whereas LS rats were not hypertensive. We conclude that high dietary cholecalciferol increases plasma 25-OHD3 concentration, but does not attenuate the hypertension of salt-sensitive rats during high salt intake. Low salt intake may be necessary to both maintain optimal vitamin D status and prevent hypertension in salt-sensitive individuals. PMID:18554900

  18. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of memantine hydrochloride in rat plasma using sensitive fluorometric derivatization.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mei-Fen; Zhou, Wei; Tong, Xin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Le; Cai, Yi; Li, Yan; Duan, Geng-Li

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we investigated a simple, sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method for the determination of memantine hydrochloride in rat plasma which was based on derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl). For the first time, FMOC-Cl was introduced into derivatization of memantine hydrochloride in rat plasma. The amino groups of memantine hydrochloride and amantadine hydrochloride (internal standard) were trapped with FMOC-Cl to form memantine hydrochloride-FMOC-Cl and amantadine hydrochloride-FMOC-Cl compositions, which can be very compatible for LC-FLD. Precipitation of plasma proteins by acetonitrile was followed by vortex mixing and centrifugation. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C(18) column (DIAMONSIL 150 × 4.6 mm, id 5 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The retention times of memantine hydrochloride-FMOC-Cl and amantadine hydrochloride-FMOC-Cl compositions were 23.69 and 40.27 min, respectively. Optimal conditions for the derivatization of memantine hydrochloride were also described. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 25 ng/mL for memantine hydrochloride in plasma, the linear range was 0.025-5.0 μg/mL in plasma with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9999. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra-day and inter-day assays were 4.46-12.19 and 5.23-11.50%, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to the determination of memantine hydrochloride in rat plasma samples. PMID:21268245

  19. Role of tachykinin NK2 receptors in normal and altered rectal sensitivity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Toulouse, M; Coelho, A M; Fioramonti, J; Lecci, A; Maggi, C; Buéno, L

    2000-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by visceral hyperalgesia commonly associated with stress and inflammatory processes. We investigated the role of tachykinin NK2 receptors in the ability of trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) and stress to enhance the sensitivity of the rat rectum to distension using a selective tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist (MEN 11420). Rats were fitted with electrodes implanted in the striated muscles of the abdomen. Rectal distension (RD) was performed with a balloon inflated by steps of 0.4 ml from 0 to 1.6 ml. Five groups were submitted to RD performed 3 days before and after intrarectal instillation of TNBS. Fifteen minutes before RD, rats were treated with saline or MEN 11420 (5–100 μg kg−1 i.v.). Two other groups, submitted to 2 h restraint or sham stress sessions were randomly treated i.v. with saline or MEN 11420 (10–200 μg kg−1) prior to RD applied 20 min later. The basal response to RD was characterized by a significant increase in the number of abdominal contractions. This response occurred with a threshold volume of 0.8 ml and was dose-dependently reduced by MEN 11420 (5–100 μg kg−1 i.v.). Rectal inflammation lowered the volume of distension producing abdominal contractions to 0.4 ml (allodynia). This effect was either reduced or suppressed by MEN 11420. A similar allodynia was observed after a stress session and this effect was reduced (49%) or suppressed by MEN 11420 at 200 and 100 μg kg−1, respectively. Tachykinin NK2 receptors are involved in rectal hypersensitivity associated with inflammation and stress. PMID:10694220

  20. Interleukin-6 inhibition attenuates hypertension and associated renal damage in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    PubMed

    Hashmat, Shireen; Rudemiller, Nathan; Lund, Hayley; Abais-Battad, Justine M; Van Why, Scott; Mattson, David L

    2016-09-01

    Immune cells in the kidney are implicated in the development of hypertension and renal damage in the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat. Interestingly, interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA is 54-fold higher in T-lymphocytes isolated from the kidney compared with circulating T-lymphocytes. The present experiments assessed the role of IL-6 in the development of SS hypertension by treating rats (n = 13-14/group) with an IL-6 neutralizing antibody or normal IgG during an 11-day period of high-salt (4.0% NaCl chow) intake. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and urine albumin excretion rates (Ualb) were not different between the groups fed low salt (0.4% NaCl). Following 11 days of drug treatment and high salt, however, the rats receiving anti-IL-6 demonstrated a 47% reduction of IL-6 in the renal medulla compared with control SS. Moreover, the increase in MAP following 11 days of high-NaCl intake was significantly attenuated in SS administered anti-IL-6 compared with the control group (138 ± 3 vs. 149 ± 3 mmHg) as was the salt-induced increase in Ualb and glomerular and tubular damage. To investigate potential mechanisms of action, a flow cytometric analysis of immune cells in the kidney (n = 8-9/group) demonstrated that the total number of monocytes and macrophages was significantly lower in the treatment vs. the control group. The total number of T- and B-lymphocytes in the kidneys was not different between groups. These studies indicate that IL-6 production may participate in the development of SS hypertension and end-organ damage by mediating increased infiltration or proliferation of macrophages into the kidney. PMID:27279492

  1. Casein kinase II stimulates rat liver mitochondrial glycerophosphate acyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Onorato, Thomas M; Haldar, Dipak

    2002-09-01

    Rat liver mitochondrial glycerophosphate acyltransferase (mtGAT) possesses 14 consensus sites for casein kinase II (CKII) phosphorylation. To study the functional relevance of phosphorylation to the activity of mtGAT, we treated isolated rat liver mitochondria with CKII and found that CKII stimulated mtGAT activity approximately 2-fold. Protein phosphatase-lambda treatment reversed the stimulation of mtGAT by CKII. Labeling of both solubilized and non-solubilized mitochondria with CKII and [gamma-32P]ATP resulted in a 32P-labeled protein of 85kDa, the molecular weight of mtGAT. Our findings suggest that CKII stimulates mtGAT activity by phosphorylation of the acyltransferase. The significance of this observation with respect to hormonal control of the enzyme is discussed. PMID:12207885

  2. High-sensitivity active pixel sensor with variable threshold photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Sung-Hyun; Bae, Myunghan; Choi, Byoung-Soo; Lyu, Hong-Kun; Shin, Jang-Kyoo

    2015-05-01

    A novel high-sensitivity active pixel sensor (APS) with a variable threshold photodetector has been presented and for the first time, a simple SPICE model for the variable threshold photodetector is presented. Its SPICE model is in good agreement with measurements and is more simpler than the conventional model. The proposed APS has a gate/body-tied PMOSFET-type photodetector with an overlapping control gate that makes it possible to control the sensitivity of the proposed APS. It is a hybrid device composed of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), a lateral bipolar junction transistor (BJT) and a vertical BJT. Using sufficient overlapping control gate bias to operate the MOSFET in inversion mode, the variable threshold photodetector allows for increasing the photocurrent gain by 105 at low light intensities when the control gate bias is -3 V. Thus, the proposed APS with a variable threshold photodetector has better low-light-level sensitivity than the conventional APS operating mode, and it has a variable sensitivity which is determined by the control gate bias. The proposed sensor has been fabricated by using 0.35 μm 2-poly 4-metal standard complementary MOS (CMOS) process and its characteristics have been evaluated.

  3. Sensitivity method for integrated structure/active control law design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    The development is described of an integrated structure/active control law design methodology for aeroelastic aircraft applications. A short motivating introduction to aeroservoelasticity is given along with the need for integrated structures/controls design algorithms. Three alternative approaches to development of an integrated design method are briefly discussed with regards to complexity, coordination and tradeoff strategies, and the nature of the resulting solutions. This leads to the formulation of the proposed approach which is based on the concepts of sensitivity of optimum solutions and multi-level decompositions. The concept of sensitivity of optimum is explained in more detail and compared with traditional sensitivity concepts of classical control theory. The analytical sensitivity expressions for the solution of the linear, quadratic cost, Gaussian (LQG) control problem are summarized in terms of the linear regulator solution and the Kalman Filter solution. Numerical results for a state space aeroelastic model of the DAST ARW-II vehicle are given, showing the changes in aircraft responses to variations of a structural parameter, in this case first wing bending natural frequency.

  4. Vasodilation of retinal arterioles induced by activation of BKCa channels is attenuated in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mori, Asami; Suzuki, Sachi; Sakamoto, Kenji; Nakahara, Tsutomu; Ishii, Kunio

    2011-11-01

    The large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels modulate the retinal vascular tone, but question of whether the impairment of the channel function contributes to abnormalities of retinal circulation has not yet been completely elucidated. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of diabetes on the vasodilation induced by activation of BK(Ca) channels. Male Wistar rats were treated with streptozotocin and experiments were performed 2 weeks later. The streptozotocin-treated animals were given drinking water containing 5% d-glucose to shorten the term in the development of retinal vascular dysfunction. The retinal vascular responses were assessed by measuring diameter of retinal arterioles in the fundus images that were captured with an original fundus camera system. In non-diabetic rats, vasodilator effects of acetylcholine on retinal arterioles were significantly reduced by iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of BK(Ca) channels. However, the inhibitory effect of iberiotoxin was not observed in diabetic rats, and the responses to the BK(Ca) channel opener BMS-191011 were almost completely abolished. The retinal vasodilator response to acetylcholine, possibly an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated response, observed after treatment with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and indomethacin was markedly reduced in diabetic rats. The responses to pinacidil, an opener of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels, were unchanged. These results suggest that the retinal vasodilator response mediated through mechanisms involving activation of BK(Ca) channels is diminished at the early stage of diabetes in rats. The impairment of BK(Ca) channel function may contribute to abnormal retinal hemodynamics in diabetes and consequently play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:21871885

  5. Morphine treatment alters nucleotidase activities in rat blood serum

    PubMed Central

    Rozisky, Joanna Ripoll; Nonose, Yasmine; Laste, Gabriela; dos Santos, Vinicius Souza; de Macedo, Isabel Cristina; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci LS

    2012-01-01

    Morphine has been widely used in neonatal pain management. However, this treatment may produce adaptive changes in several physiologic systems. Our laboratory has demonstrated that morphine treatment in neonate rats alters nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity and gene expression in central nervous system structures. Considering the relationship between the opioid and purinergic systems, our aim was to verify whether treatment with morphine from postnatal days 8 (P8) through 14 (P14) at a dose of 5 µg per day alters NTPDase and 5′-nucleotidase activities in rat serum over the short, medium, and long terms. After the in vivo assay, the morphine group showed increased hydrolysis of all nucleotides at P30, and a decrease in adenosine 5′-diphosphate hydrolysis at P60. Moreover, we found that nucleotidase activities change with age; adenosine 5′-triphosphate hydrolysis activity was lower at P16, and adenosine 5′-monophosphate hydrolysis activity was higher at P60. These changes are very important because these enzymes are the main regulators of blood nucleotide levels and, consequently, nucleotide signaling. Our findings showed that in vivo morphine treatment alters nucleotide hydrolysis in rat blood serum, suggesting that purine homeostasis can be influenced by opioid treatment during the neonatal period.

  6. Antilipemic and hypocholesteremic activities of Globimetula braunii in rats.

    PubMed

    Erukainure, Ochuko L; Abovwe, Joseph A; Adefegha, Adeniyi S; Egwuche, Rabiat U; Fafunso, Michael A

    2011-11-01

    Antilipemic/hypocholestermic activities of the methanolic extracts of Globimetula braunii were studied in the tissues of normo and hypercholesteremic rats. Hypercholesteremia was induced in the rats by feeding with dietary cholesterol at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight. A significant increase (p<0.05) was observed in the body and the visceral organs relative weights in all the groups. There was a significant decrease in HDL-cholesterol and a significant increase in the levels of LDL, total cholesterol and triglycerides in hypercholesteremic rats when compared to normo rats. Administration of the methanolic extracts restored the elevated levels of serum lipids to normal. The methanolic extracts of G. braunii produced a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and lipid peroxidation of the extract treated group compared to hypercholesteremic control. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the levels of HDL-cholesterol as compared to hypercholesteremic control. The results obtained from this study are indications of the antilipemic and hypocholestermic activities of G. braunii as well as its cardio-protective potential in normo and hypercholesteremia conditions. PMID:20619620

  7. Activation of brainstem neurons by underwater diving in the rat.

    PubMed

    Panneton, W Michael; Gan, Qi; Le, Jason; Livergood, Robert S; Clerc, Philip; Juric, Rajko

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian diving response is a powerful autonomic adjustment to underwater submersion greatly affecting heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and ventilation. The bradycardia is mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system, arterial blood pressure is mediated via the sympathetic system and still other circuits mediate the respiratory changes. In the present study we investigate the cardiorespiratory responses and the brainstem neurons activated by voluntary diving of trained rats, and, compare them to control and swimming animals which did not dive. We show that the bradycardia and increase in arterial blood pressure induced by diving were significantly different than that induced by swimming. Neuronal activation was calculated after immunohistochemical processing of brainstem sections for Fos protein. Labeled neurons were counted in the caudal pressor area, the medullary dorsal horn, subnuclei of the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), the nucleus raphe pallidus (RPa), the rostroventrolateral medulla, the A5 area, the nucleus locus coeruleus, the Kölliker-Fuse area, and the external lateral and superior lateral subnuclei of the parabrachial nucleus. All these areas showed significant increases in Fos labeling when data from voluntary diving rats were compared to control rats and all but the commissural subnucleus of the NTS, A5 area, and RPa were significantly different from swimming rats. These data provide a substrate for more precise experiments to determine the role of these nuclei in the reflex circuits driving the diving response. PMID:22563319

  8. Activation of Brainstem Neurons by Underwater Diving in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Panneton, W. Michael; Gan, Qi; Le, Jason; Livergood, Robert S.; Clerc, Philip; Juric, Rajko

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian diving response is a powerful autonomic adjustment to underwater submersion greatly affecting heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and ventilation. The bradycardia is mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system, arterial blood pressure is mediated via the sympathetic system and still other circuits mediate the respiratory changes. In the present study we investigate the cardiorespiratory responses and the brainstem neurons activated by voluntary diving of trained rats, and, compare them to control and swimming animals which did not dive. We show that the bradycardia and increase in arterial blood pressure induced by diving were significantly different than that induced by swimming. Neuronal activation was calculated after immunohistochemical processing of brainstem sections for Fos protein. Labeled neurons were counted in the caudal pressor area, the medullary dorsal horn, subnuclei of the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), the nucleus raphe pallidus (RPa), the rostroventrolateral medulla, the A5 area, the nucleus locus coeruleus, the Kölliker–Fuse area, and the external lateral and superior lateral subnuclei of the parabrachial nucleus. All these areas showed significant increases in Fos labeling when data from voluntary diving rats were compared to control rats and all but the commissural subnucleus of the NTS, A5 area, and RPa were significantly different from swimming rats. These data provide a substrate for more precise experiments to determine the role of these nuclei in the reflex circuits driving the diving response. PMID:22563319

  9. Sensitivity to cadmium-induced genotoxicity in rat testicular cells is associated with minimal expression of the metallothionein gene.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, N; Hochadel, J F; Coogan, T P; Koropatnick, J; Waalkes, M P

    1995-02-01

    Cadmium is a carcinogenic metal. Although the mechanism of tumor induction is unknown, DNA/metal interactions may be involved. Metallothionein can protect against cadmium toxicity in our previous work it was shown to reduce cadmium genotoxicity in cultured cells. To extend these results, the genotoxicity of cadmium was studied in R2C cells, a rat testicular Leydig cell line. The R2C cells were very sensitive to cadmium-induced single-strand DNA damage (SSD), as measured by alkaline elution. SSD occurred in R2C cells after treatment with 25 and 50 microM CdCl2 for 2 hr. Prior work showed other cells required much higher levels of cadmium (approximately 500 microM) to induce genotoxicity. The genotoxic levels of cadmium (25-50 microM) were not cytotoxic in R2C cells as assessed by a metabolic activity (MTT) assay. Pretreatment of R2C cells with a low cadmium dose (2 microM, 24 hr) had no effect on cadmium-induced SSD, in contrast to prior work in other cells where such pretreatments reduced SSD through metallothionein gene activation. In fact, cadmium or zinc treatments resulted in little or no increase in metallothionein gene expression in R2C cells as determined by Northern blot analysis for metallothionein mRNA using cDNA or oligonucleotide probes and radioimmunoassay for metallothionein protein production. Basal metallothionein mRNA was essentially nondetectable. Induction of a cadmium-binding protein in R2C cells did occur, as determined by Cd-heme assay, but did not induce tolerance to SSD. In vivo, the Leydig cell is a target for cadmium carcinogenicity and its cadmium-binding protein is thought not to be a true metallothionein. These results indicate that R2C cells are sensitive to cadmium-induced genotoxicity and that this sensitivity is associated with minimal expression of the metallothionein gene. PMID:7871536

  10. A polymer optoelectronic interface restores light sensitivity in blind rat retinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzi, Diego; Antognazza, Maria Rosa; Maccarone, Rita; Bellani, Sebastiano; Lanzarini, Erica; Martino, Nicola; Mete, Maurizio; Pertile, Grazia; Bisti, Silvia; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Benfenati, Fabio

    2013-05-01

    Interfacing organic electronics with biological substrates offers new possibilities for biotechnology by taking advantage of the beneficial properties exhibited by organic conducting polymers. These polymers have been used for cellular interfaces in several applications, including cellular scaffolds, neural probes, biosensors and actuators for drug release. Recently, an organic photovoltaic blend has been used for neuronal stimulation via a photo-excitation process. Here, we document the use of a single-component organic film of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) to trigger neuronal firing upon illumination. Moreover, we demonstrate that this bio-organic interface restores light sensitivity in explants of rat retinas with light-induced photoreceptor degeneration. These findings suggest that all-organic devices may play an important future role in subretinal prosthetic implants.

  11. Development of a Sensitive Bioluminogenic Probe for Imaging Highly Reactive Oxygen Species in Living Rats.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Ryosuke; Takakura, Hideo; Kamiya, Mako; Kobayashi, Eiji; Komatsu, Toru; Ueno, Tasuku; Terai, Takuya; Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Nagano, Tetsuo; Urano, Yasuteru

    2015-12-01

    A sensitive bioluminogenic probe for highly reactive oxygen species (hROS), SO3 H-APL, was developed based on the concept of dual control of bioluminescence emission by means of bioluminescent enzyme-induced electron transfer (BioLeT) and modulation of cell-membrane permeability. This probe enables non-invasive visualization of physiologically relevant amounts of hROS generated deep inside the body of living rats for the first time. It is expected to serve as a practical analytical tool for investigating a wide range of biological functions of hROS in vivo. The design concept should be applicable to other in vivo bioluminogenic probes. PMID:26474404

  12. A rat toxicogenomics study with the calcium sensitizer EMD82571 reveals a pleiotropic cause of teratogenicity.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Philip G; Singh, Prafull Kumar; Kumar, Arun; Gnewuch, Carsten; Liebisch, Gerhard; Schmitz, Gerd; Borlak, Juergen

    2014-08-01

    The calcium sensitizer and PDEIII inhibitor EMD82571 caused exencephaly, micrognathia, agnathia and facial cleft in 58% of fetuses. In pursue of mechanisms and to define adverse outcome pathways pregnant Wistar rats were dosed daily with either EMD82571 (50 or 150mg/kg/day) or retinoic acid (12mg/kg/day) on gestational days 6-11 and 6-17, respectively. Hypothesis driven and whole genome microarray experiments were performed with whole embryo, maternal liver, embryonic liver and malformed bone at gestational days 12 and 20. This revealed regulation of genes critically involved in osteogenesis, odontogenesis, differentiation and development and extracellular matrix. Importantly, repression of osteocalcin and members of TGF-β/BMP signaling hampered osteo- and odontogenesis. Furthermore, EMD82571 impaired neurulation by inhibiting mid hinge point formation to cause neural tube defects. Taken collectively, a molecular rationale for the observed teratogenicity induced by EMD82571 is presented that links molecular initiating events with AOPs. PMID:24977338

  13. Abdominal surgery activates nesfatin-1 immunoreactive brain nuclei in rats.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Wang, Lixin; Taché, Yvette

    2010-02-01

    Abdominal surgery-induced postoperative gastric ileus is well established to induce Fos expression in specific brain nuclei in rats within 2-h after surgery. However, the phenotype of activated neurons has not been thoroughly characterized. Nesfatin-1 was recently discovered in the rat hypothalamus as a new anorexigenic peptide that also inhibits gastric emptying and is widely distributed in rat brain autonomic nuclei suggesting an involvement in stress responses. Therefore, we investigated whether abdominal surgery activates nesfatin-1-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the rat brain. Two hours after abdominal surgery with cecal palpation under short isoflurane anesthesia or anesthesia alone, rats were transcardially perfused and brains processed for double immunohistochemical labeling of Fos and nesfatin-1. Abdominal surgery, compared to anesthesia alone, induced Fos expression in neurons of the supraoptic nucleus (SON), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), locus coeruleus (LC), Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW), rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and ventrolateral medulla (VLM). Double Fos/nesfatin-1 labeling showed that of the activated cells, 99% were nesfatin-1-immunoreactive in the SON, 91% in the LC, 82% in the rRPa, 74% in the EW and VLM, 71% in the anterior parvicellular PVN, 47% in the lateral magnocellular PVN, 41% in the medial magnocellular PVN, 14% in the NTS and 9% in the medial parvicellular PVN. These data established nesfatin-1 immunoreactive neurons in specific nuclei of the hypothalamus and brainstem as part of the neuronal response to abdominal surgery and suggest a possible implication of nesfatin-1 in the alterations of food intake and gastric transit associated with such a stressor. PMID:19944727

  14. CNTF-Treated Astrocyte Conditioned Medium Enhances Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel Activity in Rat Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meiqun; Liu, Hongli; Xu, Huanbai; Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-08-01

    Seizure activity is linked to astrocyte activation as well as dysfunctional cortical neuron excitability produced from changes in calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel function. Ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte conditioned medium (CNTF-ACM) can be used to investigate the peripheral effects of activated astrocytes upon cortical neurons. However, CNTF-ACM's effect upon KCa channel activity in cultured cortical neurons has not yet been investigated. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were performed in rat cortical neurons to evaluate CNTF-ACM's effects upon charybdotoxin-sensitive large-conductance KCa (BK) channel currents and apamin-sensitive small-conductance KCa (SK) channel current. Biotinylation and RT-PCR were applied to assess CNTF-ACM's effects upon the protein and mRNA expression, respectively, of the SK channel subunits SK2 and SK3 and the BK channel subunits BKα1 and BKβ3. An anti-fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) monoclonal neutralizing antibody was used to assess the effects of the FGF-2 component of CNTF-ACM. CNTF-ACM significantly increased KCa channel current density, which was predominantly attributable to gains in BK channel activity (p < 0.05). CNTF-ACM produced a significant increase in BKα1 and BKβ3 expression (p < 0.05) but had no significant effect upon SK2 or SK3 expression (p > 0.05). Blocking FGF-2 produced significant reductions in KCa channel current density (p > 0.05) as well as BKα1 and BKβ3 expression in CNTF-ACM-treated neurons (p > 0.05). CNTF-ACM significantly enhances BK channel activity in rat cortical neurons and that FGF-2 is partially responsible for these effects. CNTF-induced astrocyte activation results in secretion of neuroactive factors which may affect neuronal excitability and resultant seizure activity in mammalian cortical neurons. PMID:27097551

  15. Changes in baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity in high-fat-fed rats as a predictor of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fardin, Núbia M; Oyama, Lila M; Campos, Ruy R

    2012-08-01

    There is evidence that obesity is associated with increased sympathetic activity and hypertension. However, the mechanisms responsible for these changes are not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the cardiovascular function and the baroreceptor reflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity (rSNA) in rats exposed to a high-fat diet over different periods (10 and 20 weeks) compared to control rats. Serum leptin levels were assessed for all time points. Male Wistar rats weighing 150-180 g were used. Four groups of rats were studied: control 10 weeks (Ct10), obese 10 weeks (Ob10), control 20 weeks (Ct20), and obese 20 weeks (Ob20). Blood pressure (BP) and rSNA were recorded in urethane-anesthetized rats (1.4 g/kg, intravenous).The sensitivity of rSNA responses to baroreceptor reflex was assessed by changes in BP induced by increasing doses of phenylephrine or sodium nitroprusside. Significant and progressive increases in serum leptin levels were found in the obese rats, but not in the control rats. No changes in basal BP or rSNA were found in the Ob10 and Ob20 groups; however, a significant impairment in the baroreceptor sensitivity was observed in the Ob20 group for phenylephrine (slope Ob20: -0.78 ± 0.12 vs. Ct20: -1.00 ± 0.08 potential per second (pps)/mm Hg, P < 0.05) and sodium nitroprusside (slope Ob20: -0.82 ± 0.09 vs. 1.13 ± 0.13 pps/mm Hg, P < 0.05). The results suggest that the baroreceptor dysfunction that controls the rSNA is an initial change in the obesity induced in high-fat-fed rats, which might be a predictor of sympathoexcitation and hypertension associated to obesity. PMID:22257982

  16. Variable Maternal Stress in Rats Alters Locomotor Activity, Social Behavior, and Recognition Memory in the Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Christina A.; Terry, Alvin V.

    2013-01-01

    Rats repeatedly exposed to variable prenatal stress (PNS) exhibit behavioral signs that are similar to those manifested in several neuropsychiatric disorders such as deficits in attention and inhibitory control, and impairments in memory-related task performance. The purpose of the study described here was to conduct a comprehensive battery of tests to further characterize the behavioral phenotype of PNS rats as well as to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to therapeutic interventions (i.e., to compounds previously shown to have therapeutic potential in neuropsychiatric disorders). The results of this study indicated that PNS in rats is associated with: 1) increased locomotor activity and stereotypic behaviors, 2) elevated sensitivity to the psychostimulant amphetamine, 3) increased aggressive behaviors toward both adult and juvenile rats and 4) delay-dependent deficits in recognition memory. There was no evidence that PNS rats exhibited deficits in other areas of motor function/learning, sensorimotor gating, spatial learning and memory, social withdrawal, or anhedonia. In addition, the results revealed that the second generation antipsychotic risperidone attenuated amphetamine-related increases in locomotor activity in PNS rats; however, the effect was not sustained over time. Furthermore, deficits in recognition memory in PNS rats were attenuated by the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, atomoxetine, but not by the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, GTS-21. This study supports the supposition that important phenomenological similarities exist between rats exposed to PNS and patients afflicted with neuropsychiatric disorders thus further establishing the face validity of the model for evaluating potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:23287801

  17. Apomorphine induced conditioned place preference and sensitization is greater in rats exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress.

    PubMed

    Kanwal, Sumera; Ikram, Huma; Farhan, Muhammad; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2015-11-01

    CNS stimulants are the class of the drugs that may be used to get relief from depression. Apomorphine is a D1 and D2 receptor agonist with a CNS stimulatory effect used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease is also abused. Although many drugs of abuse produce tolerance and dependence. Long term use of pshycostimulants produce reverse tolerance described as sensitization. These drugs also have a number of other beneficial effects but their therapeutic use is limited because of abuse potential. Conditioned place preference (CPP) test is used to monitor the reinforcing effect of drugs of abuse. Stress is an important factor that precipitates and potentiates addictive effects of different drugs of abuse. The present study was designed to investigate the addictive effect of apomorphine (1mg/kg) in rats previously exposed to repeated unpredictable chronic mild stress for 10 days (animal model of depression). Results from present study illustrate that unpredictable chronic mild stress potentiates the reinforcing effects of apomorphine as the number of entries and the time spent in the CPP compartment associated with drug administration is increased. Motor activity was taken as a parameter for behavioral sensitization which is induced by repeated administration of apomorphine, monitored as the number of cage crossings in light compartment of the CPP apparatus, also increased. PMID:26639488

  18. Resveratrol activates duodenal Sirt1 to reverse insulin resistance in rats through a neuronal network.

    PubMed

    Côté, Clémence D; Rasmussen, Brittany A; Duca, Frank A; Zadeh-Tahmasebi, Melika; Baur, Joseph A; Daljeet, Mira; Breen, Danna M; Filippi, Beatrice M; Lam, Tony K T

    2015-05-01

    Resveratrol improves insulin sensitivity and lowers hepatic glucose production (HGP) in rat models of obesity and diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms for these antidiabetic effects remain elusive. One process that is considered a key feature of resveratrol action is the activation of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in various tissues. However, the low bioavailability of resveratrol raises questions about whether the antidiabetic effects of oral resveratrol can act directly on these tissues. We show here that acute intraduodenal infusion of resveratrol reversed a 3 d high fat diet (HFD)-induced reduction in duodenal-mucosal Sirt1 protein levels while also enhancing insulin sensitivity and lowering HGP. Further, we found that duodenum-specific knockdown of Sirt1 expression for 14 d was sufficient to induce hepatic insulin resistance in rats fed normal chow. We also found that the glucoregulatory role of duodenally acting resveratrol required activation of Sirt1 and AMP-activated protein kinase (Ampk) in this tissue to initiate a gut-brain-liver neuronal axis that improved hypothalamic insulin sensitivity and in turn, reduced HGP. In addition to the effects of duodenally acting resveratrol in an acute 3 d HFD-fed model of insulin resistance, we also found that short-term infusion of resveratrol into the duodenum lowered HGP in two other rat models of insulin resistance--a 28 d HFD-induced model of obesity and a nicotinamide (NA)-streptozotocin (STZ)-HFD-induced model of mild type 2 diabetes. Together, these studies highlight the therapeutic relevance of targeting duodenal SIRT1 to reverse insulin resistance and improve glucose homeostasis in obesity and diabetes. PMID:25849131

  19. Sensitivity evaluation of dynamic speckle activity measurements using clustering methods

    SciTech Connect

    Etchepareborda, Pablo; Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H.

    2010-07-01

    We evaluate and compare the use of competitive neural networks, self-organizing maps, the expectation-maximization algorithm, K-means, and fuzzy C-means techniques as partitional clustering methods, when the sensitivity of the activity measurement of dynamic speckle images needs to be improved. The temporal history of the acquired intensity generated by each pixel is analyzed in a wavelet decomposition framework, and it is shown that the mean energy of its corresponding wavelet coefficients provides a suited feature space for clustering purposes. The sensitivity obtained by using the evaluated clustering techniques is also compared with the well-known methods of Konishi-Fujii, weighted generalized differences, and wavelet entropy. The performance of the partitional clustering approach is evaluated using simulated dynamic speckle patterns and also experimental data.

  20. GPER activation ameliorates aortic remodeling induced by salt-sensitive hypertension.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liu; Kashyap, Shreya; Murphy, Brennah; Hutson, Dillion D; Budish, Rebecca A; Trimmer, Emma H; Zimmerman, Margaret A; Trask, Aaron J; Miller, Kristin S; Chappell, Mark C; Lindsey, Sarah H

    2016-04-15

    The mRen2 female rat is an estrogen- and salt-sensitive model of hypertension that reflects the higher pressure and salt sensitivity associated with menopause. We previously showed that the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) mediates estrogenic effects in this model. The current study hypothesized that GPER protects against vascular injury during salt loading. Intact mRen2 female rats were fed a normal (NS; 0.5% Na(+)) or high-salt diet (HS; 4% Na(+)) for 10 wk, which significantly increased systolic blood pressure (149 ± 5 vs. 224 ± 8 mmHg;P< 0.001). Treatment with the selective GPER agonist G-1 for 2 wk did not alter salt-sensitive hypertension (216 ± 4 mmHg;P> 0.05) or ex vivo vascular responses to angiotensin II or phenylephrine (P> 0.05). However, G-1 significantly attenuated salt-induced aortic remodeling assessed by media-to-lumen ratio (NS: 0.43; HS+veh: 0.89; HS+G-1: 0.61;P< 0.05). Aortic thickening was not accompanied by changes in collagen, elastin, or medial proliferation. However, HS induced increases in medial layer glycosaminoglycans (0.07 vs. 0.42 mm(2);P< 0.001) and lipid peroxidation (0.11 vs. 0.51 mm(2);P< 0.01), both of which were reduced by G-1 (0.20 mm(2)and 0.23 mm(2); both P< 0.05). We conclude that GPER's beneficial actions in the aorta of salt-loaded mRen2 females occur independently of changes in blood pressure and vasoreactivity. GPER-induced attenuation of aortic remodeling was associated with a reduction in oxidative stress and decreased accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. Endogenous activation of GPER may protect females from salt- and pressure-induced vascular damage. PMID:26873963

  1. Xylazine Activates Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway in the Central Nervous System of Rats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xing-Xing; Yin, Bai-Shuang; Yang, Peng; Chen, Hao; Li, Xin; Su, Li-Xue; Fan, Hong-Gang; Wang, Hong-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Xylazine is a potent analgesic extensively used in veterinary and animal experimentation. Evidence exists that the analgesic effect can be inhibited using adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitors. Considering this idea, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the AMPK signaling pathway is involved in the central analgesic mechanism of xylazine in the rat. Xylazine was administrated via the intraperitoneal route. Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed and the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, thalamus and brainstem were collected for determination of liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and AMPKα mRNA expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and phosphorylated LKB1 and AMPKα levels using western blot. The results of our study showed that compared with the control group, xylazine induced significant increases in AMPK activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and cerebellum after rats received xylazine (P < 0.01). Increased AMPK activities were accompanied with increased phosphorylation levels of LKB1 in corresponding regions of rats. The protein levels of phosphorylated LKB1 and AMPKα in these regions returned or tended to return to control group levels. However, in the brainstem, phosphorylated LKB1 and AMPKα protein levels were decreased by xylazine compared with the control (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data indicates that xylazine alters the activities of LKB1 and AMPK in the central nervous system of rats, which suggests that xylazine affects the regulatory signaling pathway of the analgesic mechanism in the rat brain. PMID:27049320

  2. [Aging-related increase of sensitivity of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore to inductors in the rat heart].

    PubMed

    Sahach, V F; Vavilova, H L; Strutyns'ka, N A; Rudyk, O V

    2004-01-01

    An age-related increase in the sensitivity of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) to inductors of it's opening, Ca2+ ions and phenylarsineoxide (PAO) was studied in experiments in vitro on isolated heart mitochondria of adult and old rats. Two indices were measured spectrophotometrically (lambda = 520 nm) by a decrease in an optical density (OD), resulting from mitochondrial swelling and a release of mitochondrial unidentified substances (mitochondrial factor, MF) registered also spectrophotometrically in a range of waves lambda = 230-260 nm. Dose-dependent effect of Ca2+ (10(-7)-10(-4) mol/l) and PAO (10(-8)-10(-4) mol/l) on swelling of the mitochondria were observed in samples from both adult and old rats. Swelling of the mitochondria from the heart of old rats induced by application of the above inductors was more intensive than the respective effect in samples from adult rats. In samples from the heart of both adult and old rats Ca2+ ions within the tested concentration range (10(-7)-10(-4) mol/l) evoked the release of MF in a dose-dependent manner. Mitochondria from the heart of old rats were found to be capable of releasing some amounts of MF in the absence of the MPTP inductors PAO. When this inductor was applied in a 10(-9) to 10(-4) mol/l concentration range, isolated mitochondria from the heart of old rats released unidentified substances with the absorption peaks at two wavelength, lambda = 230 nm and lambda = 240-245 nm. The former peak was found to be Cyclosporin A-insensitive, while the latter peak could be practically completely inhibited by this antibiotic. The concentrations of tested solutions (10(-7) mol/l CaCl2 and 10(-9) mol/l PAO), at which the release of the factor from the mitochondria of the old rat heart was observed, were significantly lower than those in adult rats. Our experimental data show that mitochondria isolated from the heart tissue of old rats demonstrate significantly higher sensitivity to inductors of MPTP

  3. Neural control of glutamine synthetase activity in rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Feng, B; Konagaya, M; Konagaya, Y; Thomas, J W; Banner, C; Mill, J; Max, S R

    1990-05-01

    The mechanism of glutamine synthetase induction in rat skeletal muscle after denervation or limb immobilization was investigated. Adult male rats were subjected to midthigh section of the sciatic nerve. At 1, 2, and 5 h and 1, 2, and 7 days after denervation, rats were killed and denervated, and contralateral control soleus and plantaris muscles were excised, weighted, homogenized, and assayed for glutamine synthetase. Glutamine synthetase activity increased approximately twofold 1 h after denervation in both muscles. By 7 days postdenervation enzyme activity had increased to three times the control level in plantaris muscle and to four times the control level in soleus muscle. Increased enzyme activity after nerve section was associated with increased maximum velocity with no change in apparent Michaelis constant. Immunotitration with an antiglutamine synthetase antibody suggested that denervation caused an increase in the number of glutamine synthetase molecules in muscle. However, Northern-blot analysis revealed no increase in the steady-state level of glutamine synthetase mRNA after denervation. A mixing experiment failed to yield evidence for the presence of a soluble factor involved in regulating the activity of glutamine synthetase in denervated muscle. A combination of denervation and dexamethasone injections resulted in additive increases in glutamine synthetase. Thus the mechanism underlying increased glutamine synthetase after denervation appears to be posttranscriptional and is distinct from that of the glucocorticoid-mediated glutamine synthetase induction previously described by us. PMID:1970709

  4. Changes in phylloquinone epoxidase activity related to prothrombin synthesis and microsomal clotting activity in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Willingham, Allan K.; Matschiner, John T.

    1974-01-01

    The oxidation of phylloquinone to the 2,3-epoxide (by phylloquinone epoxidase) was studied in liver from control and warfarin-resistant rats. The reaction requires microsomal fraction, soluble protein, a heat-stable soluble factor and O2. It is not inhibited by CO or CN−. Epoxidase activity was stimulated if plasma prothrombin was lowered either by anticoagulants or the absence of vitamin K. The activity of the enzyme rapidly returned to normal values after the administration of vitamin K to hypoprothrombinaemic rats. These differences in the activity of the enzyme occur in the microsomal fraction and not the cytosol. A thrombin-generating polypeptide that accumulates in microsomal fraction of hypothrombinaemic rats correlated directly with epoxidase activity. These data support the view that enzymic interconversion of phylloquinone and its 2,3-epoxide participates in the biological activity of vitamin K. PMID:4155625

  5. The functional activity of hypothalamic signaling systems in rats with neonatal diabetes mellitus treated with metformin.

    PubMed

    Derkach, K V; Sukhov, I B; Kuznetsova, L A; Buzanakov, D M; Shpakov, A O

    2016-03-01

    The effect of the two-month metformin treatment (200 mg/kg/day) of rats with the neonatal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus on the functional activity of hypothalamic signaling systems was studied. It was shown that metformin treatment restored the sensitivity of hypothalamic adenylyl cyclase signaling system to agonists of the type 4 melanocortin receptor and the type 2 dopamine receptor but did not influence significantly the functions of the insulin signaling system. These data suggest new targets and mechanisms of metformin action in the CNS, which may mediate its restoring effect on energy homeostasis impaired in diabetic pathology. PMID:27193707

  6. An activity in rat tissues that modifies nitrotyrosine-containing proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kamisaki, Yoshinori; Wada, Kouichirou; Bian, Ka; Balabanli, Barbaros; Davis, Karen; Martin, Emil; Behbod, Fariba; Lee, Yu-Chen; Murad, Ferid

    1998-01-01

    Homogenates from rat spleen and lung could modify nitrotyrosine-containing BSA. With incubation, nitrotyrosine-containing BSA lost its epitope to a monoclonal antibody that selectively recognized nitrotyrosine-containing proteins. In the presence of protease inhibitors, the loss of the nitrotyrosine epitope occurred without protein degradation and hydrolysis. This activity was found in supernatant but not particulate fractions of spleen homogenates. The factor was heat labile, was sensitive to trypsin treatment, and was retained after passage through a membrane with a 10-kDa retention. The activity was time- and protein-concentration dependent. The activity increased about 2-fold in spleen extracts with endotoxin (bacterial lipopolysaccharide) treatment of animals, suggesting that the activity is inducible or regulatable. Other nitrotyrosine-containing proteins also served as substrates, while free nitrotyrosine and some endogenous nitrotyrosine-containing proteins in tissue extracts were poor substrates. Although the product and possible cofactors for this reaction have not yet been identified, this activity may be a “nitrotyrosine denitrase” that reverses protein nitration and, thus, decreases peroxynitrite toxicity. This activity was not observed in homogenates from rat liver or kidney, suggesting that there may also be some tissue specificity for the apparent denitrase activity. PMID:9751709

  7. Sensitization of neonatal rat lumbar motoneuron by the inflammatory pain mediator bradykinin

    PubMed Central

    Bouhadfane, Mouloud; Kaszás, Attila; Rózsa, Balázs; Harris-Warrick, Ronald M; Vinay, Laurent; Brocard, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Bradykinin (Bk) is a potent inflammatory mediator that causes hyperalgesia. The action of Bk on the sensory system is well documented but its effects on motoneurons, the final pathway of the motor system, are unknown. By a combination of patch-clamp recordings and two-photon calcium imaging, we found that Bk strongly sensitizes spinal motoneurons. Sensitization was characterized by an increased ability to generate self-sustained spiking in response to excitatory inputs. Our pharmacological study described a dual ionic mechanism to sensitize motoneurons, including inhibition of a barium-sensitive resting K+ conductance and activation of a nonselective cationic conductance primarily mediated by Na+. Examination of the upstream signaling pathways provided evidence for postsynaptic activation of B2 receptors, G protein activation of phospholipase C, InsP3 synthesis, and calmodulin activation. This study questions the influence of motoneurons in the assessment of hyperalgesia since the withdrawal motor reflex is commonly used as a surrogate pain model. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06195.001 PMID:25781633

  8. PERIPUBERTAL DI (2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE EXPOSURE INHIBITS ANDROGEN SENSITIVE TISSUE DEVELOPMENT AND DELAYS PUBERTY IN MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PERIPUBERTAL DI (2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE EXPOSURE INHIBITS ANDROGEN SENSITIVE TISSUE DEVELOPMENT AND DELAYS PUBERTY IN MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    Nigel Noriega, Jonathan Furr, Christy Lambright, Vickie Wilson, L. Earl Gray Jr.

    The plasticizer Di (2-ethylhexyl) phtha...

  9. SENSITIVITY OF RAT AND MOUSE PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES TO B(A)P ADDUCTION AND SCE FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both mice and rats were injected i.p. with doses of benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] ranging from 10 to 100 mg/kg to compare species sensitivity to SCE induction and DNA adduct formation, as well as the relationship between these endpoints. wenty-four hours after injection, blood was remov...

  10. Effect of sulfite intake on intestinal enzyme activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Vieytes, M; Martinez-Sapiña, J; Taboada Montero, C; Lamas Aneiros, M

    1994-01-01

    Sulfites are usually added to food, beverages and pharmaceuticals as preservative antioxidants, bleaching agents, and dough conditioning agents. Ingestion of foods containing sulfites can cause abdominal pain, diarrhoea, seizures and death. Sulfite can react with cellular components and can cause toxicity. Changes in mucosal disaccharidases and phosphatase alkaline after sodium metabisulfite administration were investigated in the small intestine of rats. Female Wistar rats were given a diet supplemented with 0.25 or 2.5% sodium metabisulfite for 5 weeks. Sucrase, maltase, lactase and alkaline phosphatase were assayed in intestinal homogenates and in brush border membrane fractions. The intake of only 2.5% sulfite induced an increase in the specific activities of sucrase, maltase, and alkaline phosphatase compared to control levels (P < 0.05). Lactase levels were affected in a variable manner. The origin of such altered enzyme activities is still unknown. PMID:7958644

  11. Calcium release-activated calcium current in rat mast cells.

    PubMed

    Hoth, M; Penner, R

    1993-06-01

    1. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of membrane currents and fura-2 measurements of free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) were used to study the biophysical properties of a calcium current activated by depletion of intracellular calcium stores in rat peritoneal mast cells. 2. Calcium influx through an inward calcium release-activated calcium current (ICRAC) was induced by three independent mechanisms that result in store depletion: intracellular infusion of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) or extracellular application of ionomycin (active depletion), and intracellular infusion of calcium chelators (ethylene glycol bis-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) or 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA)) to prevent reuptake of leaked-out calcium into the stores (passive depletion). 3. The activation of ICRAC induced by active store depletion has a short delay (4-14 s) following intracellular infusion of InsP3 or extracellular application of ionomycin. It has a monoexponential time course with a time constant of 20-30 s and, depending on the complementary Ca2+ buffer, a mean normalized amplitude (at 0 mV) of 0.6 pA pF-1 (with EGTA) and 1.1 pA pF-1 (with BAPTA). 4. After full activation of ICRAC by InsP3 in the presence of EGTA (10 mM), hyperpolarizing pulses to -100 mV induced an instantaneous inward current that decayed by 64% within 50 ms. This inactivation is probably mediated by [Ca2+]i, since the decrease of inward current in the presence of the fast Ca2+ buffer BAPTA (10 mM) was only 30%. 5. The amplitude of ICRAC was dependent on the extracellular Ca2+ concentration with an apparent dissociation constant (KD) of 3.3 mM. Inward currents were nonsaturating up to -200 mV. 6. The selectivity of ICRAC for Ca2+ was assessed by using fura-2 as the dominant intracellular buffer (at a concentration of 2 mM) and relating the absolute changes in the calcium-sensitive fluorescence (390 nm excitation) with the calcium current integral

  12. L5 spinal nerve axotomy induces sensitization of cutaneous L4 Aβ-nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons in the rat in vivo.

    PubMed

    Djouhri, Laiche

    2016-06-15

    Partial nerve injury often leads to peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP), a major health problem that lacks effective drug treatment. PNP is characterized by ongoing/spontaneous pain, and hypersensitivity to noxious (hyperalgesia) and innocuous (allodynia) stimuli. Preclinical studies using the L5 spinal nerve ligation/axotomy (SNL/SNA) model of PNP suggest that this type of chronic pain results partly from sensitization of ipsilateral L4C-and Aδ-fiber nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, but whether L4 β-nociceptors, which constitute a substantial group of DRG neurons, also become sensitized remains unanswered. To address this issue, intracellular recordings from somata of cutaneous Aβ-nociceptors (classified according to their dorsal root conduction velocities (>6.5m/s), and physiologically based on their responses to noxious (but not innocuous) mechanical stimuli) were made from L4-DRGs in normal (control) rats and in rats seven days after L5 SNA in vivo. Compared with control, cutaneous L4 Aβ-nociceptive DRG neurons in SNA rats (that developed mechanical hypersensitivity) exhibited sensitization indicated by: a) decreased mean mechanical threshold (from 57.8±7.1 to 10.3±1.7mN), b) decreased mean dorsal root electrical threshold (from 11.4±0.7 to 4.3±0.4V), c) increased mean response to a suprathreshold mechanical stimulus (from 18.5±1.8 to 34±3.7spikes/sec) and d) an obvious, but non-significant, increase in the incidence of ongoing/spontaneous activity (from 3% to 18%). These findings suggest that cutaneous L4 Aβ-nociceptors also become sensitized after L5 SNA, and that sensitization of this subclass of A-fiber nociceptors may contribute both directly and indirectly to nerve injury-induced PNP. PMID:27173166

  13. Hypothalamic modulation of splenic natural killer cell activity in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Katafuchi, T; Ichijo, T; Take, S; Hori, T

    1993-01-01

    1. The cytotoxic activity of splenic natural killer cells measured by a standard chromium release assay in urethane and alpha-chloralose-anaesthetized rats was significantly suppressed 20 min after bilateral ablation of the medial part of the preoptic hypothalamus (MPO). The suppression was completely blocked by prior splenic denervation. The splenic natural killer cell activity of MPO sham-lesioned rats or thalamus-lesioned rats, both having an intact splenic innervation, were not different from that of a non-treated control group. 2. Electrical stimulation of the bilateral MPO (0.1 ms, 0.1-0.3 mA, 5-100 Hz) suppressed the efferent activity of the splenic nerve in all six rats examined. The reduction of the nerve activity was accompanied by a transient fall in blood pressure. An I.V. injection of phenylephrine (3 micrograms/0.3 ml) also evoked a suppression of the nerve activity, which was accompanied by transient hypertension, suggesting that the suppressive effect of the MPO stimulation was independent of changes in blood pressure. On the other hand, a bilateral lesion of the MPO resulted in a sustained increase in the electrical activity of the splenic sympathetic nerve filaments which lasted for more than 2 h. 3. Microinjection of monosodium-L-glutamate (0.1 and 0.01 M in 0.1 microliters saline) unilaterally into the MPO evoked a transient suppression of the efferent discharge rate of the splenic nerve activity within 1 min, which was also accompanied by a decrease in blood pressure. The injection of saline (0.1 microliter) into the MPO had no effect. The microinjection of recombinant human interferon-alpha (200 and 2000 U in 0.1 microliter saline) into the MPO dose dependently increased the splenic nerve activity without any change in blood pressure. 4. In contrast, microinjection of interferon-alpha into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) had no effect on splenic nerve activity, although an injection of glutamate increased the nerve

  14. Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Toppo, Reetu; Roy, Birendra Kumar; Gora, Ravuri Halley; Baxla, Sushma Lalita; Kumar, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium-induced toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, 18 Wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, Group I rats were given cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg and Group II rats were treated with M. oleifera extract @ 500 mg/kg along with cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg (daily oral for 28 days). On 29th day, animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determined. Serum biomarkers, oxidative stress parameters, histomorphological examination were carried out with estimation of cadmium concentration in liver tissues. Results: Oral administration of cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm/kg for 28 days resulted in a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), significant (p≤0.01) increase of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increase in cadmium accumulation in liver. Treatment with M. oleifera @ 500 mg/kg significantly (p<0.01) decreased the elevated ALP, AST, ALT, LPO levels and increase in SOD levels, and as compared to cadmium chloride treated group. However, there was no significant difference in cadmium concentration in liver when compared with cadmium chloride treated group. Conclusion: The study conclude that supplementation of M. oleifera (500 mg/kg), daily oral for 28 days has shown protection against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:27047130

  15. Endothelin 1 activates and sensitizes human C-nociceptors.

    PubMed

    Namer, Barbara; Hilliges, Marita; Orstavik, Kristin; Schmidt, Roland; Weidner, Christian; Torebjörk, Erik; Handwerker, Hermann; Schmelz, Martin

    2008-07-01

    Microneurography was used to record action potentials from afferent C-fibers in cutaneous fascicles of the peroneal nerve in healthy volunteers. Afferent fibers were classified according to their mechanical responsiveness to von Frey stimulation (75g) into mechano-responsive and mechano-insensitive nociceptors. Various concentrations of Endothelin1 (ET1) and Histamine were injected into the receptive fields of C-fibers. Activation and heat sensitization were monitored. Axon reflex flare and psychophysical ratings were assessed after injection of ET1 and codeine into the forearms after pre-treatment with an H1 blocker or sodium chloride. 65% of mechanosensitive nociceptors were activated by ET1. One-third showed long lasting responses (>15min). In contrast, none of thirteen mechano-insensitive fibers were activated. Sensitization to heat was observed in 62% of mechanosensitive and in 46% of mechano-insensitive fibers. Injection of ET1 produced a widespread axon reflex flare, which was suppressed by pre-treatment with an H1 receptor blocker. In addition, pain sensations were induced more often than itching by ET1 in contrast to codeine. No wheal was observed after injection of ET1. Both itching and pain were decreased after H1 blocker treatment. In summary: (1) In humans ET1 activates mechanosensitive, but not mechano-insensitive, nociceptors. (2) Histamine released from mast cells is not responsible for all effects of ET1 on C-nociceptors. (3) ET1 could have a differential role in pain compared to other chemical algogens which activate additionally or even predominantly mechano-insensitive fibers. PMID:17884295

  16. Depotentiation of intact rat cardiac muscle unmasks an Epac-dependent increase in myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sarbjot; Kong, Cherrie H T; Cannell, Mark B; Ward, Marie-Louise

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors have been identified in many cell types as important effectors of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophospahte (cAMP) signalling that is independent of protein kinase A (PKA). In the heart, investigation of exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) has yielded conflicting results. Since cAMP is an important regulator of cardiac contractility, this study aimed to examine whether Epac activation modulates excitation-contraction coupling in ventricular preparations from rat hearts. The study used 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cpTOME), an analogue of cAMP that activates Epac, but not PKA. In isolated myocytes, cpTOME increased Ca(2+) spark frequency from about 7 to 32/100 μm(3)/s (n = 10), P = 0.05 with a reduction in the peak amplitude of the sparks. Simultaneous measurements of intracellular Ca(2+) and isometric force in multicellular trabeculae (n = 7, 1.5 mmol/L [Ca(2+)]o) revealed no effect of Epac activation on either the amplitude of Ca(2+) transients (Control 0.7 ± 0.1 vs cpTOME 0.7 ± 0.1; 340/380 fura-2 ratio, P = 0.35) or on peak stress (Control 24 ± 5 mN/mm(2) vs cpTOME 23 ± 5 mN/mm(2), P = 0.20). However, an effect of Epac in trabeculae was unmasked by lowering extracellular [Ca(2+)]o. In these depotentiated trabeculae, activation of the Epac pathway increased myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity, an effect that was blocked by addition of KN-93, a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II) inhibitor. This study suggests that Epac activation may be a useful therapeutic target to increase the strength of contraction during low inotropic states. PMID:26466753

  17. A Multivariate Logistical Model for Identifying the Compressive Sensitivity of Single Rat Tactile Receptors as Nanobiosensors

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Sam; Mason, Shelley S.; Looft, Fred J.

    2010-01-01

    Tactile sensation is a complex manifestation of mechanical stimuli applied to the skin. At the most fundamental level of the somatosensory system is the cutaneous mechanoreceptor. The objective here was to establish a framework for modeling afferent mechanoreceptor behavior as a nanoscale biosensor under dynamic compressive loads using multivariate regression techniques. A multivariate logistical model was chosen because the system contains continuous input variables and a singular binary-output variable corresponding to the nerve action potential. Subsequently, this method was used to quantify the sensitivity of ten rapidly adapting afferents from rat hairy skin due to the stimulus metrics of compressive stress, strain, their respective time derivatives, and interactions. In vitro experiments involving compressive stimulation of isolated afferents using pseudorandom and nonrepeating noise sequences were completed. An analysis of the data was performed using multivariate logistical regression producing odds ratios (ORs) as a metric associated with mechanotransduction. It was determined that cutaneous mechanoreceptors are preferentially sensitive to stress (mean ORmax = 26.10), stress rate (mean ORmax = 15.03), strain (mean ORmax = 12.01), and strain rate (mean ORmax = 7.29) typically occurring within 7.3 ms of the nerve response. As a novel approach to receptor characterization, this analytical framework was validated for the multiple-input, binary-output neural system. PMID:21197157

  18. Extracting structural features of rat sciatic nerve using polarization-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. Shahidul; Oliveira, Michael C.; Wang, Yan; Henry, Francis P.; Randolph, Mark A.; Park, B. Hyle; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2012-05-01

    We present spectral domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (SD PS-OCT) imaging of peripheral nerves. Structural and polarization-sensitive OCT imaging of uninjured rat sciatic nerves was evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. OCT and its functional extension, PS-OCT, were used to image sciatic nerve structure with clear delineation of the nerve boundaries to muscle and adipose tissues. A long-known optical effect, bands of Fontana, was also observed. Postprocessing analysis of these images provided significant quantitative information, such as epineurium thickness, estimates of extinction coefficient and birefringence of nerve and muscle tissue, frequency of bands of Fontana at different stretch levels of nerve, and change in average birefringence of nerve under stretched condition. We demonstrate that PS-OCT combined with regular-intensity OCT (compared with OCT alone) allows for a clearer determination of the inner and outer boundaries of the epineurium and distinction of nerve and muscle based on their birefringence pattern. PS-OCT measurements on normal nerves show that the technique is promising for studies on peripheral nerve injury.

  19. Chronic cathepsin inhibition by E-64 in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    PubMed

    Blass, Gregory; Levchenko, Vladislav; Ilatovskaya, Daria V; Staruschenko, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Cysteine cathepsins are lysosomal enzymes expressed in the kidneys and other tissues, and are involved in the maturation and breakdown of cellular proteins. They have been shown to be integrally involved in the progression of many cardiovascular and renal diseases. The goal of this study was to determine the involvement of cysteine cathepsins in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension and associated kidney damage. In our experiments, Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats were fed an 8% high salt NaCl diet and intravenously infused with the irreversible cysteine cathepsin inhibitor E-64 (1 mg/day) or the vehicle (control). Both the control and E-64 infused groups developed significant hypertension and kidney damage, and no difference of the mean arterial pressure and the hypertension-associated albuminuria was observed between the groups. We next tested basal calcium levels in the podocytes of both control and infused groups using confocal calcium imaging. Basal calcium did not differ between the groups, indicative of the lack of a protective or aggravating influence by the cathepsin inhibition. The efficacy of E-64 was tested in Western blotting. Our findings corresponded to the previously reported, E-64 induced increase in cathepsin B and L abundance. We conclude that the inhibition of cysteine cathepsins by E-64 does not have any effects on the blood pressure development and kidney damage, at least under the studied conditions of this model of SS hypertension. PMID:27597769

  20. Assessment of the Sensitizing Potential of Processed Peanut Proteins in Brown Norway Rats: Roasting Does Not Enhance Allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Rigby, Neil M.; Johnson, Philip E.; Adel-Patient, Karine; Bøgh, Katrine L.; Salt, Louise J.; Mills, E. N. Clare; Madsen, Charlotte B.

    2014-01-01

    Background IgE-binding of process-modified foods or proteins is the most common method for examination of how food processing affects allergenicity of food allergens. How processing affects sensitization capacity is generally studied by administration of purified food proteins or food extracts and not allergens present in their natural food matrix. Objectives The aim was to investigate if thermal processing increases sensitization potential of whole peanuts via the oral route. In parallel, the effect of heating on sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 was assessed via the intraperitoneal route. Methods Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN) rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-), heated (H-) or heat glycated (G-)Ara h 1. Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay. Results In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter but with the lowest level of RBL degranulation. However, extract from roasted peanuts was found to be a superior elicitor of RBL degranulation. Process-modified Ara h 1 had similar sensitizing capacity as NAra h 1 but specific IgE reacted more readily with process-modified Ara h 1 than with native. Conclusions Peanut products induce functional specific IgE when dosed orally to BN rats. Roasted peanuts do not have a higher sensitizing capacity than blanched peanuts. In spite of this, extract from roasted peanuts is a superior elicitor of RBL cell degranulation irrespectively of the peanut product used for sensitization. The results also suggest that new epitopes are formed or disclosed by heating Ara h 1 without glucose. PMID:24805813

  1. Identification of a novel boronic acid as a potent, selective, and orally active hormone sensitive lipase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Ogiyama, Tomoko; Yamaguchi, Mitsuhiro; Kurikawa, Nobuya; Honzumi, Shoko; Yamamoto, Yuka; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Inoue, Shinichi

    2016-08-15

    Hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) is an attractive therapeutic target of dyslipidemia. We designed and synthesized several compounds as reversible HSL inhibitors with a focus on hydrophobic interactions, which was thought to be effective upon the HSL inhibitory activity. In these efforts, we identified boronated compound 12 showing a potent HSL inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 7nM and a high selectivity against cholinesterases. Furthermore, compound 12 is the first boron containing HSL inhibitor that has shown an antilipolytic effect in rats after oral administration at 3mg/kg. PMID:27338659

  2. Contribution of oxygen-sensitive neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla to hypoxic cerebral vasodilatation in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golanov, E. V.; Reis, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    1. We sought to determine whether hypoxic stimulation of neurons of the rostral ventrolateral reticular nucleus (RVL) would elevate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in anaesthetized paralysed rats. 2. Microinjection of sodium cyanide (NaCN; 150-450 pmol) into the RVL rapidly (within 1-2 s), transiently, dose-dependently and site-specifically elevated rCBF1 measured by laser Doppler flowmetry, by 61.3 +/- 22.1% (P < 0.01), increased arterial pressure (AP; +30 +/- 8 mmHg; P < 0.01)1 and triggered a synchronized 6 Hz rhythm of EEG activity. 3. Following cervical spinal cord transection, NaCN and also dinitrophenol (DNP) significantly (P < 0.05) elevated rCBF and synchronized the EEG but did not elevate AP; the response to NaCN was attenuated by hyperoxia and deepening of anaesthesia. 4. Electrical stimulation of NaCN-sensitive sites in the RVL in spinalized rats increased rCBF measured autoradiographically with 14C iodoantipyrine (Kety method) in the mid-line thalamus (by 182.3 +/- 17.2%; P < 0.05) and cerebral cortex (by 172.6 +/- 15.6%; P < 0.05) regions, respectively, directly or indirectly innervated by RVL neurons, and in the remainder of the brain. In contrast regional cerebral glucose utilization (rCGU), measured autoradiographically with 14C-2-deoxyglucose (Sokoloff method), was increased in proportion to rCBF in the mid-line thalamus (165.6 +/- 17.8%, P < 0.05) but was unchanged in the cortex. 5. Bilateral electrolytic lesions of NaCN sensitive sites of RVL, while not altering resting rCBF or the elevation elicited by hypercarbia (arterial CO2 pressure, Pa,CO2, approximately 69 mmHg), reduced the vasodilatation elicited by normocapnic hypoxaemia (arterial O2 pressure, Pa,O2, approximately 27 mmHg) by 67% (P < 0.01) and flattened the slope of the Pa,O2-rCBF response curve. 6. We conclude that the elevation of rCBF produced in the cerebral cortex by hypoxaemia is in large measure neurogenic, mediated trans-synaptically over intrinsic neuronal pathways, and

  3. Insulin receptor binding and protein kinase activity in muscles of trained rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dohm, G.L.; Sinha, M.K.; Caro, J.F.

    1987-02-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity, and muscle is quantitatively the most important tissue of insulin action. Since the first step in insulin action is the binding to a membrane receptor, the authors postulated that exercise training would change insulin receptors in muscle and in this study they have investigated this hypothesis. Female rats initially weighing approx. 100 g were trained by treadmill running for 2 h/day, 6 days/wk for 4 wk at 25 m/min (0 grade). Insulin receptors from vastus intermedius muscles were solubilized by homogenizing in a buffer containing 1% Triton X-100 and then partially purified by passing the soluble extract over a wheat germ agglutinin column. The 4 wk training regimen resulted in a 65% increase in citrate synthase activity in red vastus lateralis muscle, indicating an adaptation to exercise ( SVI). Insulin binding by the partially purified receptor preparations was approximately doubled in muscle of trained rats at all insulin concentrations, suggesting an increase in the number of receptors. Training did not alter insulin receptor structure as evidenced by electrophoretic mobility under reducing and nonreducing conditions. Basal insulin receptor protein kinase activity was higher in trained than untrained animals and this was likely due to the greater number of receptors. However, insulin stimulation of the protein kinase activity was depressed by training. These results demonstrate that endurance training does alter receptor number and function in muscle and these changes may be important in increasing insulin sensitivity after exercise training.

  4. Low fish oil intake improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and muscle metabolism on insulin resistant MSG-obese rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is commonly associated with diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The purpose of this study was to determinate the effect of a lower dose of fish oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and muscle metabolism in obese rats. Methods Monosodium glutamate (MSG) (4 mg/g body weight) was injected in neonatal Wistar male rats. Three-month-old rats were divided in normal-weight control group (C), coconut fat-treated normal weight group (CO), fish oil-treated normal weight group (FO), obese control group (Ob), coconut fat-treated obese group (ObCO) and fish oil-treated obese group (ObFO). Obese insulin-resistant rats were supplemented with fish oil or coconut fat (1 g/kg/day) for 4 weeks. Insulin sensitivity, fasting blood biochemicals parameters, and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism were analyzed. Results Obese animals (Ob) presented higher Index Lee and 2.5 fold epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue than C. Insulin sensitivity test (Kitt) showed that fish oil supplementation was able to maintain insulin sensitivity of obese rats (ObFO) similar to C. There were no changes in glucose and HDL-cholesterol levels amongst groups. Yet, ObFO revealed lower levels of total cholesterol (TC; 30%) and triacylglycerol (TG; 33%) compared to Ob. Finally, since exposed to insulin, ObFO skeletal muscle revealed an increase of 10% in lactate production, 38% in glycogen synthesis and 39% in oxidation of glucose compared to Ob. Conclusions Low dose of fish oil supplementation (1 g/kg/day) was able to reduce TC and TG levels, in addition to improved systemic and muscle insulin sensitivity. These results lend credence to the benefits of n-3 fatty acids upon the deleterious effects of insulin resistance mechanisms. PMID:21526994

  5. Female Flinders Sensitive Line rats show estrous cycle-independent depression-like behavior and altered tryptophan metabolism.

    PubMed

    Eskelund, Amanda; Budac, David P; Sanchez, Connie; Elfving, Betina; Wegener, Gregers

    2016-08-01

    Clinical studies suggest a link between depression and dysfunctional tryptophan (TRP) metabolism. Even though depression is twice as prevalent in women as men, the impact of the estrous cycle on TRP metabolism is not well-understood. Here we investigated 13 kynurenine and serotonin metabolites in female Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, a genetic rat model of depression. FSL rats and controls (Flinders Resistant Line rats), 12-20weeks old, were subject to the forced swim test (FST), a commonly used measure of depression-like behavior. Open field was used to evaluate locomotor ability and agoraphobia. Subsequently, plasma and hemispheres were collected and analyzed for their content of TRP metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Vaginal saline lavages were obtained daily for ⩾2 cycles. To estimate the effects of sex and FST we included plasma from unhandled, naïve male FSL and FRL rats. Female FSL rats showed a depression-like phenotype with increased immobility in the FST, not confounded by anxiety. In the brain, 3-hydroxykynurenine was increased whereas anthranilate and 5-hydroxytryptophan were decreased. In plasma, anthranilate and quinolinate levels were lower in FSL rats compared to the control line, independent of sex and FST. The estrous cycle neither impacted behavior nor TRP metabolite levels in the FSL rat. In conclusion, the female FSL rat is an interesting preclinical model of depression with altered TRP metabolism, independent of the estrous cycle. The status of the pathway in brain was not reflected in the plasma, which may indicate that an inherent local, cerebral regulation of TRP metabolism occurs. PMID:27210075

  6. Tyrosinase-like activity and estradiol binding in rat uterine nuclear extracts.

    PubMed

    Garai, J; Clark, J H

    1992-05-01

    Nuclear extracts from the uteri of estradiol-implanted rats contain a tyrosinase-like enzyme that has three activities: monophenolase or cresolase, diphenolase or catecholase, and estrogen binding. When [3H]estradiol was used as a substrate, 3H2O was released from the A ring in the presence of copper and ascorbic acid. The optimal concentrations of these cofactors for the cresolase activity were established. The cresolase activity was lost on attempts at further purification. Estradiol binding was observed in conjunction with the enzymatic activity and was dependent on the presence of ascorbic acid and copper. The most potent inhibitors of 3H2O release from [3H]estradiol were those with a dihydroxyphenol moiety. The reaction was also sensitive to sulfhydryl reagents. These features of the enzyme are distinctive from other oxidases capable of attacking the aromatic ring of estrogens. PMID:1488787

  7. Physical activity and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Plaisance, Eric P; Grandjean, Peter W

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains one of the leading causes of death and disability in developed countries around the world despite the documented success of lifestyle and pharmacological interventions. This illustrates the multifactorial nature of atherosclerosis and the use of novel inflammatory markers as an adjunct to risk factor reduction strategies. As evidence continues to accumulate that inflammation is involved in all stages of the development and progression of atherosclerosis, markers of inflammation such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) may provide additional information regarding the biological status of the atherosclerotic lesion. Recent investigations suggest that physical activity reduces CRP levels. Higher levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are consistently associated with 6-35% lower CRP levels. Longitudinal training studies that have demonstrated reductions in CRP concentrations range from 16% to 41%, an effect that may be independent of baseline levels of CRP, body composition or weight loss. The average change in CRP associated with physical activity appears to be at least as good, if not better, than currently prescribed pharmacological interventions in similar populations. The primary purpose of this review will be to present evidence from both cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations that physical activity lowers CRP levels in a dose-response manner. Finally, this review will examine factors such as body composition, sex, blood sample timing, diet and smoking, which may influence the CRP response to physical activity. PMID:16646631

  8. Mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channels mediate the antioxidative influence of diosgenin on myocardial reperfusion injury in rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Badalzadeh, Reza; Yavari, Raana; Chalabiani, Dorna

    2015-07-01

    The contribution of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury has been supported by many studies. The effect of diosgenin on oxidative stress induced by I/R injury was evaluated in this study. Rat hearts were subjected to 30 minutes of global ischemia followed by 90 minutes of reperfusion. 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) was used before administration of diosgenin and before ischemia. The activities of myocardial creatine kinase (CK), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were measured. Administration of diosgenin before ischemia significantly lowered CK and MDA levels as compared with control group (p < 0.05) and increased GPX (p < 0.05) and SOD (p < 0.01) activities in comparison with control group. Pre-administration of 5-HD significantly attenuated the protective effects of diosgenin. In conclusion, opening of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) channels and attenuating of oxidative stress can be suggested as underlying mechanisms for cardioprotective effect of diosgenin in I/R injury. PMID:26001291

  9. Sensitivity of actively damped structures to imperfections and modeling errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, Raphael T.; Kapania, Rakesh K.

    1989-01-01

    The sensitivity of actively damped response of structures with respect to errors in the structural modeling is studied. Two ways of representing errors are considered. The first approach assumes errors in the form of spatial variations (or imperfections) in the assumed mass and stiffness properties of the structures. The second approach assumes errors due to such factors as unknown joint stiffnesses, discretization errors, and nonlinearities. These errors are represented here as discrepancies between experimental and analytical mode shapes and frequencies. The actively damped system considered here is a direct-rate feedback regulator based on a number of colocated velocity sensors and force actuators. The response of the controlled structure is characterized by the eigenvalues of the closed-loop system. The effects of the modeling errors are thus presented as the sensitivity of the eigenvalues of the closed-loop system. Results are presented for two examples: (1) a three-span simply supported beam controlled by three sensors and actuators, and (2) a laboratory structure consisting of a cruciform beam supported by cables.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia aegyptiaca extract in rats

    PubMed Central

    Abo-dola, Marium A.; Lutfi, Mohamed F.

    2016-01-01

    Background There were no studies on the anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia aegyptiaca, though it is commonly used by Sudanese herbalists in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Objectives To determine phytochemical constituents of Euphorbia aegyptiaca To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia aegyptiaca in rats. Methodology Plant material was extracted by ethanol and phytochemical screening was done according to standard methods. The thickness of Albino rats’ paws were measured before injection of 0.1 ml of 1% formalin in the sub planter region and then, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 24 hours after oral dose of ethanolic extract of Euphorbia aegyptiaca at a rate of 400mg/kg, 800mg/kg, indomethacin (5mg/kg) and normal saline (5ml/kg). Edema inhibition percentage (EI%) and mean paw thickness (MPT) were measured in the different groups and compared using appropriate statistical methods. Results The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, cumarins, flavonoids, tannins, sterols, triterpenes, and absence of alkaloids, anthraquinones glycosides and cyanogenic glycosides. The mean of EI% of rats treated with indomethacin at a dose of 5 mg/kg over different time intervals (64.0%) was significantly lower compared to those treated with Euphorbia aegyptiaca at a dose of 800 mg/kg (75.0%, P< 0.001), but higher compared to rats treated at higher dose of 400 mg/kg (57.4%, P< 0.001). In contrast, MPT of rats treated with indomethacin at a dose of 5 mg/kg (6.5±1.1 mm) was significantly higher compared to those treated with Euphorbia aegyptiaca at a dose of 800 mg/kg (6.1±.7 mm, P< 0.001) as well as 400 mg/kg (5.9±.5, P< 0.001). Conclusion Euphorbia aegyptiaca ethanolic extract has a sustained dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27004059

  11. Effect of CD8+ T-cell depletion on bronchial hyper-responsiveness and inflammation in sensitized and allergen-exposed Brown-Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, T J; MacAry, P A; Kemeny, D M; Chung, K F

    1999-03-01

    We examined the role of CD8+ T cells in a Brown-Norway rat model of asthma, using a monoclonal antibody to deplete CD8+ T cells. Ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized animals were given anti-CD8 antibody (0.5 mg/rat) intravenously 1 week prior to exposure to 1% OA aerosol and were studied 18-24 hr after aerosol exposure. Following administration of anti-CD8 antibody, CD8+ cells were reduced to <1% of total lymphocytes in whole blood and in spleen. In sensitized animals, OA exposure induced bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR), accumulation of eosinophils, lymphocytes and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and also an increase in tissue eosinophils and CD2+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in airways. Anti-CD8 antibody caused a further increase in allergen-induced BHR (P<0.03, compared with sham-treated animals), together with a significant increase in eosinophil number in BAL fluid (P<0.05). While CD2+ and CD4+ T cells in airways were not affected by anti-CD8 treatment, the level of CD8+ T cells was significantly reduced in sensitized, saline-exposed animals (P<0.04, compared with sham-treated rats), and sensitized and OA-challenged rats (P<0.002, compared with sham-treated rats). Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, an increase of T helper (Th)2 cytokine [interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5], and also of Th1 cytokine [interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-2], mRNA in the lung of sensitized and OA-exposed animals was found; after CD8+ T-cell depletion, Th1 cytokine expression was significantly reduced (P<0.02), while Th2 cytokine expression was unchanged. CD8+ T cells have a protective role in allergen-induced BHR and eosinophilic inflammation, probably through activation of the Th1 cytokine response. PMID:10233723

  12. Effect of age on the sensitivity of the rat thyroid gland to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Matsuu-Matsuyama, Mutsumi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Okaichi, Kumio; Kurashige, Tomomi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Miura, Shiro; Nakashima, Masahiro

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation during childhood is a well-known risk factor for thyroid cancer. Our study evaluated the effect of age on the radiosensitivity of rat thyroid glands. Four-week-old (4W), 7 -week-old (7W), and 8-month-old (8M) male Wistar rats were exposed to 8 Gy of whole-body X-ray irradiation. Thyroids were removed 3-72 h after irradiation, and non-irradiated thyroids served as controls. Ki67-positivity and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) focus formation (a DNA damage response) were evaluated via immunohistochemistry. Amounts of proteins involved in DNA damage response (p53, p53 phosphorylated at serine 15, p21), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3), and autophagy (LC3, p62) were determined via western blotting. mRNA levels of 84 key autophagy-related genes were quantified using polymerase chain reaction arrays. Ki67-positive cells in 4W (with high proliferative activity) and 7W thyroids significantly decreased in number post-irradiation. The number of 53BP1 foci and amount of p53 phosphorylated at serine 15 increased 3 h after irradiation, regardless of age. No increase in apoptosis or in the levels of p53, p21 or cleaved caspase-3 was detected for any ages. Levels of LC3-II and p62 increased in irradiated 4W but not 8M thyroids, whereas expression of several autophagy-related genes was higher in 4W than 8M irradiated thyroids. Irradiation increased the expression of genes encoding pro-apoptotic proteins in both 4W and 8M thyroids. In summary, no apoptosis or p53 accumulation was noted, despite the expression of some pro-apoptotic genes in immature and adult thyroids. Irradiation induced autophagy in immature, but not in adult, rat thyroids. PMID:25691451

  13. Effect of age on the sensitivity of the rat thyroid gland to ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Matsuu-Matsuyama, Mutsumi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Okaichi, Kumio; Kurashige, Tomomi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Miura, Shiro; Nakashima, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation during childhood is a well-known risk factor for thyroid cancer. Our study evaluated the effect of age on the radiosensitivity of rat thyroid glands. Four-week-old (4W), 7 -week-old (7W), and 8-month-old (8M) male Wistar rats were exposed to 8 Gy of whole-body X-ray irradiation. Thyroids were removed 3–72 h after irradiation, and non-irradiated thyroids served as controls. Ki67-positivity and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) focus formation (a DNA damage response) were evaluated via immunohistochemistry. Amounts of proteins involved in DNA damage response (p53, p53 phosphorylated at serine 15, p21), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3), and autophagy (LC3, p62) were determined via western blotting. mRNA levels of 84 key autophagy-related genes were quantified using polymerase chain reaction arrays. Ki67-positive cells in 4W (with high proliferative activity) and 7W thyroids significantly decreased in number post-irradiation. The number of 53BP1 foci and amount of p53 phosphorylated at serine 15 increased 3 h after irradiation, regardless of age. No increase in apoptosis or in the levels of p53, p21 or cleaved caspase-3 was detected for any ages. Levels of LC3-II and p62 increased in irradiated 4W but not 8M thyroids, whereas expression of several autophagy-related genes was higher in 4W than 8M irradiated thyroids. Irradiation increased the expression of genes encoding pro-apoptotic proteins in both 4W and 8M thyroids. In summary, no apoptosis or p53 accumulation was noted, despite the expression of some pro-apoptotic genes in immature and adult thyroids. Irradiation induced autophagy in immature, but not in adult, rat thyroids. PMID:25691451

  14. A defect in the inflammation-primed macrophage-activation cascade in osteopetrotic rats.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Lindsay, D D; Naraparaju, V R; Ireland, R A; Popoff, S N

    1994-05-15

    Macrophages were activated by administration of lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-Pc) or dodecylglycerol (DDG) to wild-type rats but not in osteopetrotic (op) mutant rats. In vitro treatment of wild-type rat peritoneal cells with lyso-Pc or DDG efficiently activated macrophages whereas treatment of op mutant rat peritoneal cells with lyso-Pc or DDG did not activate macrophages. The inflammation-primed macrophage activation cascade in rats requires participation of B lymphocytes and vitamin D binding protein (DBP). Lyso-Pc-inducible beta-galactosidase of wild-type rat B lymphocytes can convert DBP to the macrophage-activating factor (MAF), whereas B lymphocytes of the op mutant rats were shown to be deficient in lyso-Pc-inducible beta-galactosidase. DBP is conserved among mammalian species. Treatment of human DBP (Gc1 protein) with commercial glycosidases yields an extremely high titrated MAF as assayed on mouse and rat macrophages. Because the enzymatically generated MAF (GcMAF) bypasses the role of lymphocytes in macrophage activation, the op mutant rat macrophages were efficiently activated by administration of a small quantity (100 pg/rat) of GcMAF. Likewise, in vitro treatment of op rat peritoneal cells with as little as 40 pg GcMAF/ml activated macrophages. PMID:8176226

  15. Coconut oil supplementation and physical exercise improves baroreflex sensitivity and oxidative stress in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Alves, Naiane F B; Porpino, Suênia K P; Monteiro, Matheus M O; Gomes, Enéas R M; Braga, Valdir A

    2015-04-01

    The hypothesis that oral supplementation with virgin coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) and exercise training would improve impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and reduce oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was tested. Adult male SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were divided into 5 groups: WKY + saline (n = 8); SHR + saline (n = 8); SHR + coconut oil (2 mL·day(-1), n = 8); SHR + trained (n = 8); and SHR + trained + coconut oil (n = 8). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was recorded and BRS was tested using phenylephrine (8 μg/kg, intravenous) and sodium nitroprusside (25 μg·kg(-1), intravenous). Oxidative stress was measured using dihydroethidium in heart and aorta. SHR + saline, SHR + coconut oil, and SHR + trained group showed higher MAP compared with WKY + saline (175 ± 6, 148 ± 6, 147 ± 7 vs. 113 ± 2 mm Hg; p < 0.05). SHR + coconut oil, SHR + trained group, and SHR + trained + coconut oil groups presented lower MAP compared with SHR + saline group (148 ± 6, 147 ± 7, 134 ± 8 vs. 175 ± 6 mm Hg; p < 0.05). Coconut oil combined with exercise training improved BRS in SHR compared with SHR + saline group (-2.47 ± 0.3 vs. -1.39 ± 0.09 beats·min(-1)·mm Hg(-1); p < 0.05). SHR + saline group showed higher superoxide levels when compared with WKY + saline (774 ± 31 vs. 634 ± 19 arbitrary units (AU), respectively; p < 0.05). SHR + trained + coconut oil group presented reduced oxidative stress compared with SHR + saline in heart (622 ± 16 vs. 774 ± 31 AU, p < 0.05). In aorta, coconut oil reduced oxidative stress in SHR compared with SHR + saline group (454 ± 33 vs. 689 ± 29 AU, p < 0.05). Oral supplementation with coconut oil combined with exercise training improved impaired BRS and reduced oxidative stress in SHR. PMID:25659569

  16. Maternal Environmental Contribution to Adult Sensitivity and Resistance to Obesity in Long Evans Rats

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Mariana; Shbiro, Liat; Moran, Timothy H.; Weller, Aron

    2010-01-01

    Background The OLETF rat is an animal model of early onset hyperphagia induced obesity, presenting multiple pre-obese characteristics during the suckling period. In the present study, we used a cross-fostering strategy to assess whether interactions with obese dams in the postnatal environment contributed to the development of obesity. Methodology On postnatal Day (PND)-1 OLETF and control LETO pups were cross-fostered to same or opposite strain dams. An independent ingestion test was performed on PND11 and a nursing test on PND18. Rats were sacrificed at weaning or on PND90, and plasma leptin, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were assayed. Fat pads were collected and weighed and adipocyte size and number were estimated. Body weight and intake, as well as the estrous cycle of the female offspring were monitored. Principal Findings During the suckling period, the pups' phenotype was almost completely determined by the strain of the mother. However, pups independently ingested food according to their genotype, regardless of their actual phenotype. At adulthood, cross fostered males of both strains and LETO females were affected in regard of their adiposity levels in the direction of the foster dam. On the other hand, OLETF females showed almost no alterations in adiposity but were affected by the strain of the dams in parameters related to the metabolic syndrome. Thus, OLETF females showed reduced liver adiposity and circulating levels of ALT, while LETO females presented a disrupted estrous cycle and increased cholesterol and triglycerides in the long term. Conclusions The present study provides further support for the early postnatal environment playing a sex-divergent role in programming later life phenotype. In addition, it plays a more central role in determining the functioning of mechanisms involved in energy balance that may provide protection from or sensitivity to later life obesity and pathologies related to the

  17. Finite element modelling of squirrel, guinea pig and rat skulls: using geometric morphometrics to assess sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Cox, P G; Fagan, M J; Rayfield, E J; Jeffery, N

    2011-01-01

    Rodents are defined by a uniquely specialized dentition and a highly complex arrangement of jaw-closing muscles. Finite element analysis (FEA) is an ideal technique to investigate the biomechanical implications of these specializations, but it is essential to understand fully the degree of influence of the different input parameters of the FE model to have confidence in the model's predictions. This study evaluates the sensitivity of FE models of rodent crania to elastic properties of the materials, loading direction, and the location and orientation of the models’ constraints. Three FE models were constructed of squirrel, guinea pig and rat skulls. Each was loaded to simulate biting on the incisors, and the first and the third molars, with the angle of the incisal bite varied over a range of 45°. The Young's moduli of the bone and teeth components were varied between limits defined by findings from our own and previously published tests of material properties. Geometric morphometrics (GMM) was used to analyse the resulting skull deformations. Bone stiffness was found to have the strongest influence on the results in all three rodents, followed by bite position, and then bite angle and muscle orientation. Tooth material properties were shown to have little effect on the deformation of the skull. The effect of bite position varied between species, with the mesiodistal position of the biting tooth being most important in squirrels and guinea pigs, whereas bilateral vs. unilateral biting had the greatest influence in rats. A GMM analysis of isolated incisor deformations showed that, for all rodents, bite angle is the most important parameter, followed by elastic properties of the tooth. The results here elucidate which input parameters are most important when defining the FE models, but also provide interesting glimpses of the biomechanical differences between the three skulls, which will be fully explored in future publications. PMID:21974720

  18. Nitric oxide decreases intestinal haemorrhagic lesions in rat anaphylaxis independently of mast cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, J. Carvalho; Moreno, A.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the intestinal lesions of passive anaphylaxis, since this experimental model resembles necrotizing enterocolitis. Sprague-Dawley rats were sensitized with IgE anti-dinitrophenol monoclonal antibody. Extravasation of protein-rich plasma and haemorrhagia were measured in the small intestine. Plasma histamine was measured to assess mast cell activation. The effect of exogenous NO on the lesions was assessed by using two structurally unrelated NO-donors: sodium nitroprusside and S-nitroso-Nacetyl-penicillamine (SNAP). An increased basal production of NO was observed in cells taken after anaphylaxis, associated with a reduced response to platelet-activating factor, interleukin 1beta, and IgE/DNP-bovine serum albumin complexes. The response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) was enhanced 24 h after challenge, but at earlier times was not significantly different from that observed in controls. Treatment with either sodium nitroprusside or SNAP produced a significant reduction of the haemorrhagic lesions, which are a hallmark of rat anaphylaxis. The extravasation of protein-rich plasma was not influenced by NO-donors. The increase of plasma histamine elicited by the anaphylactic challenge was not influenced by SNAP treatment. NO-donors protect intestinal haemorrhagic lesions of rat anaphylaxis by a mechanism apparently independent of mast cell histamine release. PMID:18472830

  19. Diuretic and natriuretic activity of two mistletoe species in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Namita; Patil, C. R.; Chaudhari, K. B.; Wagh, J. P.; Surana, S. J.; Jadhav, R. B.

    2010-01-01

    In different cultural groups, the hemiparasitic plants of the families Loranthaceae and Viscaceae (mistletoes) are frequently used in the treatment of hypertension and/or as diuretic agents. However, it remains unclear as to what commonality makes them diuretic agents or a remedy for hypertension. In this article, the diuretic activity of methanol extracts of Viscum articulatum (VA) Burm. f. and Helicanthus elastica (HE) (Ders.) Dans. in rats is reported. The extracts were administered orally at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg to rats that had been fasted and deprived of water for 18 hours. Investigations were carried out for diuretic, saluretic and natriuretic effects. The polyphenolic and triterpenoid contents were determined quantitatively using chemical assays and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, respectively. The extracts of VA and HE demonstrated significant and dose-dependent diuretic activity in rats. It was found that while VA mimics the furosemide pattern, HE demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in diuresis, along with an increase in potassium-sparing effects. Phytochemical analysis revealed that polyphenolics and triterpenoids, such as oleanolic acid and lupeol, are the major phytochemicals involved. It was also found that in different combinations, these phytochemicals differed in the way they influenced the electrolyte excretion. A higher content of polyphenolics in association with lower triterpenoid content was found to favor potassium-sparing effects. PMID:21808540

  20. Antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity of Kumbhajatu in hypercholesterolemic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Rumi; Kadam, Parag P.; Kadam, Vilasrao J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the efficacy of Kumbhajatu in reducing the cholesterol levels and as an antioxidant in hypercholesterolemic rats. Materials and Methods: Hypercholesterolemia was induced in normal rats by including 2% w/w cholesterol, 1% w/w sodium cholate and 2.5% w/w coconut oil in the normal diet. Powdered form of Kumbhajatu was administered as feed supplement at 250 and 500 mg/kg dose levels to the hypercholesterolemic rats. Plasma lipid profile, hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase activity, reduced glutathione and extent of lipid peroxidation in the form of malondialdehyde were estimated using standard methods. Results: Feed supplementation with 250 and 500 mg/kg of Kumbhajatu resulted in a significant decline in plasma lipid profiles. The feed supplementation increased the concentration of catalase, SOD, glutathione and HDL-c significantly in both the experimental groups (250 and 500 mg/kg). On the other hand, the concentration of malondialdehyde, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c and VLDL in these groups (250 and 500 mg/kg) were decreased significantly. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that addition of Kumbhajatu powder at 250 and 500 mg/kg level as a feed supplement reduces the plasma lipid levels and also decreases lipid peroxidation. PMID:21170207

  1. GR-127935-sensitive mechanism mediating hypotension in anesthetized rats: are 5-HT5B receptors involved?

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Maldonado, Carolina; López-Sánchez, Pedro; Anguiano-Robledo, Liliana; Leopoldo, Marcello; Lacivita, Enza; Terrón, José A

    2015-04-01

    The 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist, GR-127935, inhibits hypotensive responses produced by the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT7 receptor agonist, and 5-HT5A/5B receptor ligand, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), in rats. This work further characterized the above mechanism using more selective 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptor antagonists. Also, expression of 5-HT5A and 5-HT5B receptor mRNAs in blood vessels was searched by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Decreases in diastolic blood pressure induced by 5-CT (0.001-10 μg/kg, intravenously) were analyzed in anesthetized rats that had received intravenous vehicle (1 mL/kg), SB-224289 (5-HT1B antagonist; 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg), BRL15572 (5-HT1D antagonist; 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg), SB-224289 + BRL15572 (0.3 mg/kg, each), or SB-224289 + BRL15572 (0.3 mg/kg, each) + GR-127935 (1 mg/kg). Because only the latter treatment inhibited 5-CT-induced hypotension, suggestive of a mechanism unrelated to 5-HT1B/1D receptors, the effects of antagonists/ligands at 5-HT5A (SB-699551, 1 mg/kg), 5-HT6 (SB-399885, 1 mg/kg), and 5-HT1B/1D/5A/5B/7 receptors (ergotamine, 0.1 mg/kg) on 5-CT-induced hypotension were tested. Interestingly, only ergotamine blocked 5-CT-induced responses; this effect closely paralleled that of SB-224289 + BRL-15572 + GR-127935. Neither did ergotamine nor GR-127935 inhibit hypotensive responses induced by the 5-HT7 receptor agonist, LP-44. Faint but clear bands corresponding to 5-HT5A and 5-HT5B receptor mRNAs in aorta and mesenteric arteries were detected. Results suggest that the GR-127935-sensitive mechanism mediating hypotension in rats is unrelated to 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT5A, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors. This mechanism, however, resembles putative 5-HT5B receptors. PMID:25502305

  2. Sleeve Gastrectomy Induces Loss of Weight and Fat Mass in Obese Rats, but Does Not Affect Leptin Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Stefater, Margaret A; Pérez-Tilve, Diego; Chambers, Adam P; Wilson-Pérez, Hilary E; Sandoval, Darleen A; Berger, José; Toure, Mouhamadoul; Tschöep, Matthias; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Surgical intervention produces sustainable weight loss and metabolic improvement in obese individuals. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) produces dramatic, sustained weight loss; we investigated whether these changes result from improved sensitivity to leptin. Methods VSG was performed in Long-Evans rats with diet-induced obesity. Naïve or sham-operated rats, fed either ad libitum or pair-fed with the VSG group, were used as controls. Following surgery, body weights and food intake were monitored. We investigated energy expenditure, meal patterns, leptin sensitivity, and expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)/agouti-related peptide (AgRP)/neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus of the rats. Results We observed sustained losses in weight and body fat in male and female rats after VSG. Weight loss persisted after the disappearance of a transient, post-surgical food intake reduction. Resting energy expenditure was similar between control and VSG rats. VSG rats maintained their reduced body weights. However, they responded to a chronic food restriction challenge by overeating, which resulted in pre-restriction, rather than pre-VSG, body weights. Consistent with lower adiposity, VSG decreased plasma leptin levels. Although VSG slightly improved leptin’s anorectic action, the response was comparable to that observed in controls matched for adiposity by caloric restriction. Changes in hypothalamic neuropeptide expression were consistent with the lower body weight and lower leptin levels but cannot account for the sustained weight loss. Conclusions VSG causes sustained reduction in body weight, which results from loss of fat mass. The maintenance of weight loss observed did not result from changes in sensitivity to leptin. PMID:20226189

  3. Acid phosphatase and protease activities in immobilized rat skeletal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzmann, F. A.; Troup, J. P.; Fitts, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of hind-limb immobilization on selected Iysosomal enzyme activities was studied in rat hing-limb muscles composed primarily of type 1. 2A, or 2B fibers. Following immobilization, acid protease and acid phosphatase both exhibited signifcant increases in their activity per unit weight in all three fiber types. Acid phosphatase activity increased at day 14 of immobilization in the three muscles and returned to control levels by day 21. Acid protease activity also changed biphasically, displaying a higher and earlier rise than acid phosphatase. The pattern of change in acid protease, but not acid phosphatase, closely parallels observed muscle wasting. The present data therefore demonstrate enhanced proteolytic capacity of all three fiber types early during muscular atrophy. In addition, the data suggest a dependence of basal hydrolytic and proteolytic activities and their adaptive response to immobilization on muscle fiber composition.

  4. Effect of caffeine on cocaine locomotor stimulant activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Misra, A L; Vadlamani, N L; Pontani, R B

    1986-03-01

    The effect of caffeine on the locomotor stimulant activity induced by intravenous cocaine in rats was investigated. Low doses of caffeine (20 mg/kg IP) potentiated the locomotor activity induced by 1, 2.5 mg/kg intravenous doses of cocaine and higher doses of caffeine (50, 100 mg/kg IP) had no significant effect. The locomotor stimulant effect of 20 mg/kg IP dose of caffeine per se in vehicle was significantly higher and that with 100 mg/kg dose significantly lower than that of the vehicle control. Thus caffeine produced dose-dependent effects on cocaine-induced locomotor stimulant activity, with low dose potentiating and higher doses having no significant effect on such activity. Pharmacokinetic or dispositional factors did not appear to play a role in potentiation of cocaine locomotor stimulant activity by caffeine. PMID:3703910

  5. Mephedrone interactions with cocaine: prior exposure to ‘bath salt’ constituent enhances cocaine-induced locomotor activation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, Ryan A.; Tallarida, Christopher S.; Reitz, Allen B.; Rawls, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent use of mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) (MEPH) and established drugs of abuse is now commonplace, but knowledge about interactions between these drugs is sparse. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that prior MEPH exposure enhances the locomotor-stimulant effects of cocaine and methamphetamine (METH). For cocaine experiments, rats pretreated with saline, cocaine (15 mg/kg), or MEPH (15 mg/kg) for 5 days were injected with cocaine after 10 days of drug absence. For METH experiments, rats pretreated with saline, METH (2 mg/kg), or MEPH (15 mg/kg) were injected with METH after 10 days of drug absence. Cocaine challenge produced greater locomotor activity following pretreatment with cocaine or MEPH than following pretreatment with saline. METH challenge produced greater locomotor activity following METH pretreatment than following saline pretreatment; however, locomotor activity in rats pretreated with MEPH or saline and then challenged with METH was not significantly different. The locomotor response to MEPH (15 mg/kg) was not significantly affected by pretreatment with cocaine (15 mg/kg) or METH (0.5, 2 mg/kg). The present demonstration that cocaine-induced locomotor activation is enhanced by prior MEPH exposure suggests that MEPH cross-sensitizes to cocaine and increases cocaine efficacy. Interestingly, MEPH cross-sensitization was not bi-directional and did not extend to METH, suggesting the phenomenon is sensitive to specific psychostimulants. PMID:24126218

  6. Mephedrone interactions with cocaine: prior exposure to the 'bath salt' constituent enhances cocaine-induced locomotor activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Ryan A; Tallarida, Christopher S; Reitz, Allen B; Rawls, Scott M

    2013-12-01

    Concurrent use of mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone; MEPH) and established drugs of abuse is now commonplace, but knowledge about interactions between these drugs is sparse. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that prior MEPH exposure enhances the locomotor-stimulant effects of cocaine and methamphetamine (METH). For cocaine experiments, rats pretreated with saline, cocaine (15 mg/kg), or MEPH (15 mg/kg) for 5 days were injected with cocaine after 10 days of drug absence. For METH experiments, rats pretreated with saline, METH (2 mg/kg), or MEPH (15 mg/kg) were injected with METH after 10 days of drug absence. Cocaine challenge produced greater locomotor activity after pretreatment with cocaine or MEPH than after pretreatment with saline. METH challenge produced greater locomotor activity after METH pretreatment than after saline pretreatment; however, locomotor activity in rats pretreated with MEPH or saline and then challenged with METH was not significantly different. The locomotor response to MEPH (15 mg/kg) was not significantly affected by pretreatment with cocaine (15 mg/kg) or METH (0.5, 2 mg/kg). The present demonstration that cocaine-induced locomotor activation is enhanced by prior MEPH exposure suggests that MEPH cross-sensitizes to cocaine and increases cocaine efficacy. Interestingly, MEPH cross-sensitization was not bidirectional and did not extend to METH, suggesting that the phenomenon is sensitive to specific psychostimulants. PMID:24126218

  7. Ontogeny of the O2-sensitive pathway in medulla oblongata of postnatal rat.

    PubMed

    White, L D; Lawson, E E; Millhorn, D E

    1994-10-01

    Fos protein, the product of the immediate early gene c-fos, has been used as a metabolic marker to map the O2 chemosensory pathway activated by hypoxia in the adult rat (Erickson and Millhorn, Brain Res. 567: 11-24, 1991). The current study provides evidence that the O2 chemoreceptor pathway develops during the first postnatal month. Rats at postnatal ages (P) 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days were exposed for 3 h to 21% (control) or 10% (hypoxia) O2. Pups were transcardially fixed, brain stems were frozen, sectioned, then reacted with Fos primary antibody, a secondary antibody, avidin-biotin peroxidase, then Ni-DAB as chromogen. Cells showing Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI) under control and hypoxic conditions were counted in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and the ventrolateral medulla (VLM). In both areas there was initially a low basal level of Fos-LI, a peak at P10 and a decline to P28. At all ages there was a significant increase in the number of Fos-LI cells in pups exposed to hypoxia. The high basal level of Fos expression at P10 and the high induced level at P14 may correlate with periods of terminal differentiation and maximum synaptogenesis, respectively. PMID:7817045

  8. Strain differences in sensitivity of rats to Mycoplasma arthritidis ISR 1 infection are under multiple gene control.

    PubMed Central

    Binder, A; Gärtner, K; Hedrich, H J; Hermanns, W; Kirchhoff, H; Wonigeit, K

    1990-01-01

    At least 5 female rats from each of 24 inbred (ACI, AS, BDIX, BH, BN, BS, BUF, DA, LE, LEW, MWF, OM, SPRD-Cu3, W-Krypt, and WKY), RT1 congenic [BH.1L(LEW), LEW.1A(AVN), LEW.1C(WIST), LEW.1LV3(BH), LEW.1K(SHR), and LEW.1N(BN)], and F1 hybrid [(LEW x BN)F1, (LEW.1W x LEW.1A)F1, and (LEW x LEW.1W)F1] strains, representing eight independent major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes (a, b, c, dv1, k, l, n, and u) and five related RT1 haplotypes (av1, lv1, lv3, uv2, and uv3), were inoculated intravenously with Mycoplasma arthritidis, and the severity of the polyarthritis that developed was determined by estimating arthritis scores and weight reductions. The 24 inbred, congenic, and F1 hybrid rat strains differed considerably in their sensitivity to infection with M. arthritidis and in the severity of the polyarthritis that they developed. Statistical evaluation showed that in the acute phase (days 1 to 42 after infection) as well as in the chronic phase (days 39 to 121 after infection) of the disease, the means of the arthritis scores for the strains form a continuous variation without significant interruptions, with the very sensitive LEW rats, the RT1 congenic rats on LEW background, the F1 hybrids with LEW, and the MWF, BS, BH, and DA rats on one end and the resistant WKY, BUF, W-Krypt, LE, and OM rats on the other end. A continuous variation was also observed for the means of the growth rates. There were, however, no significant differences between the sensitive and the resistant rat strains in the antibody titers determined by complement fixation test and enzyme immunoassay. Heritabilities of arthritis scores were calculated for all strains (h2 = 0.39 to 0.62), for the RT1 congenic strains (h2 = 0.04 to 0.14), and for several strains with identical MHC genes (h2 = 0.61 to 0.93). The results show that non-MHC genes are probably responsible for the sensitivity of rats to infection with M. arthritidis. PMID:2111282

  9. Cost-sensitive Bayesian control policy in human active sensing

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Sheeraz; Huang, He; Yu, Angela J.

    2014-01-01

    An important but poorly understood aspect of sensory processing is the role of active sensing, the use of self-motion such as eye or head movements to focus sensing resources on the most rewarding or informative aspects of the sensory environment. Here, we present behavioral data from a visual search experiment, as well as a Bayesian model of within-trial dynamics of sensory processing and eye movements. Within this Bayes-optimal inference and control framework, which we call C-DAC (Context-Dependent Active Controller), various types of behavioral costs, such as temporal delay, response error, and sensor repositioning cost, are explicitly minimized. This contrasts with previously proposed algorithms that optimize abstract statistical objectives such as anticipated information gain (Infomax) (Butko and Movellan, 2010) and expected posterior maximum (greedy MAP) (Najemnik and Geisler, 2005). We find that C-DAC captures human visual search dynamics better than previous models, in particular a certain form of “confirmation bias” apparent in the way human subjects utilize prior knowledge about the spatial distribution of the search target to improve search speed and accuracy. We also examine several computationally efficient approximations to C-DAC that may present biologically more plausible accounts of the neural computations underlying active sensing, as well as practical tools for solving active sensing problems in engineering applications. To summarize, this paper makes the following key contributions: human visual search behavioral data, a context-sensitive Bayesian active sensing model, a comparative study between different models of human active sensing, and a family of efficient approximations to the optimal model. PMID:25520640

  10. Cost-sensitive Bayesian control policy in human active sensing.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sheeraz; Huang, He; Yu, Angela J

    2014-01-01

    An important but poorly understood aspect of sensory processing is the role of active sensing, the use of self-motion such as eye or head movements to focus sensing resources on the most rewarding or informative aspects of the sensory environment. Here, we present behavioral data from a visual search experiment, as well as a Bayesian model of within-trial dynamics of sensory processing and eye movements. Within this Bayes-optimal inference and control framework, which we call C-DAC (Context-Dependent Active Controller), various types of behavioral costs, such as temporal delay, response error, and sensor repositioning cost, are explicitly minimized. This contrasts with previously proposed algorithms that optimize abstract statistical objectives such as anticipated information gain (Infomax) (Butko and Movellan, 2010) and expected posterior maximum (greedy MAP) (Najemnik and Geisler, 2005). We find that C-DAC captures human visual search dynamics better than previous models, in particular a certain form of "confirmation bias" apparent in the way human subjects utilize prior knowledge about the spatial distribution of the search target to improve search speed and accuracy. We also examine several computationally efficient approximations to C-DAC that may present biologically more plausible accounts of the neural computations underlying active sensing, as well as practical tools for solving active sensing problems in engineering applications. To summarize, this paper makes the following key contributions: human visual search behavioral data, a context-sensitive Bayesian active sensing model, a comparative study between different models of human active sensing, and a family of efficient approximations to the optimal model. PMID:25520640

  11. Investigation of Antiulcer and Antioxidant Activity of Moclobemide in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Abdulmecit; Alp, Hamit H.; Suleyman, Halis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Even though there are many drugs for the treatment of gastric ulcers, these drugs sometimes cannot succeed. Since the 1950s, antidepressant drugs have been used for several non-psychiatric indications. Many antidepressant drugs have been shown experimentally to produce antiulcer activity in various ulcer models. Moclobemide is an antidepressant drug which inhibits monoamine oxidase-A (MAO) enzyme selectively. When it is compared to the classic antidepressants drugs, moclobemide is the first choice in depression treatment because of its effectiveness and less side effects. This study aimed to investigate the antiulcer effects of moclobemide and to determine its relationship with antioxidant mechanisms in rat gastric tissue. Materials and Methods: The antiulcer activities of 10, 20, 40, 80, 150 mg/kg moclobemide and 20 mg/kg famotidine have been investigated on indomethacin-induced ulcers in rats, and the results have been compared with that of the control group. Results: Moclobemide decreased the indomethacin-induced ulcers significantly at all doses used. While used doses of moclobemide increased the glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, it decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in stomach tissue when compared to the control group. Conclusion: It is determined that an antidepressant drug, moclobemide is a potent anti-ulcer agent. Inhibition of toxic oxidant radicals and activation of antioxidant mechanisms play a role in its anti-ulcer effect mechanisms. PMID:25745343

  12. AMPA receptor upregulation in the nucleus accumbens shell of cocaine-sensitized rats depends upon S-nitrosylation of stargazin

    PubMed Central

    Milovanovic, Mike; Park, Diana J.; West, Anthony R.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Wolf, Marina E.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral sensitization to cocaine is associated with increased AMPA receptor (AMPAR) surface expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). This upregulation is withdrawal-dependent, as it is not detected on withdrawal day (WD) 1, but is observed on WD7–21. Its underlying mechanisms have not been clearly established. Nitric oxide (NO) regulates AMPAR trafficking in the brain by S-nitrosylation of the AMPAR auxiliary subunit, stargazin, leading to increased AMPAR surface expression. Our goal was to determine if stargazin S-nitrosylation contributes to AMPAR upregulation during sensitization. First, we measured stargazin S-nitrosylation in NAc core and shell subregions on WD14 after 8 daily injections of saline or 15mg/kg cocaine. Stargazin S-nitrosylation was markedly increased in NAc shell but not core. To determine if this is associated with AMPAR upregulation, rats received 8 cocaine or saline injections followed by twice-daily treatments with vehicle or the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (50mg/kg) on WD1–6, the time when AMPAR upregulation is developing in cocaine-exposed rats. Cocaine/vehicle rats showed elevated stargazin and GluA1 surface expression on WD7 compared to saline/vehicle rats; the GluA1 increase was more robust in core, while stargazin increased more robustly in shell. These effects of cocaine were attenuated in shell but not core when cocaine injections were followed by L-NAME treatment on WD1–6. Together, these results indicate that elevated S-nitrosylation of stargazin contributes to AMPAR upregulation during sensitization selectively in the NAc shell. It is possible that AMPAR upregulation in core involves a different TARP, γ4, which also upregulates in the NAc of sensitized rats. PMID:24035918

  13. Synaptic membrane responses to acute and chronic alcohol intoxication in high alcohol sensitive (HAS) and low alcohol sensitive (LAS) selectively bred rats.

    PubMed

    Beaugé, F; Kerfriden, G; Ménez, J F; Aufrère, G; Le Bourhis, B

    1994-11-01

    HAS (high alcohol sensitive) and LAS (low alcohol sensitive) lines of rats have been selectively bred based on their differences in ethanol-induced sleep time. In the present study, the two lines were compared to examine another central effect of acute alcohol intoxication: namely, hypothermia. As the disturbances in membrane microorganization have been associated with the nervous system's sensitivity and tolerance to ethanol, the synaptic plasma membrane fluidity and acute sensitivity to ethanol were also evaluated by fluorescence polarization of DPH probes in the HAS and LAS rats. The two lines did not differ in the magnitude of their hypothermic response after acute injection of ethanol (3 g/kg body wt, i.p.). Although membranes in the HAS line were slightly more rigid than in the LAS line, the level of membrane disordering after acute ethanol addition was identical for the two lines in the region examined with the DPH probe. Following the chronic intoxication of the rats, the two lines developed tolerance to the hypnotic and hypothermic effects of ethanol. In the same way, a membrane resistance (i.e. tolerance) to the disordering effect of acute ethanol addition developed in the region probed with DPH. In general, the LAS line showed a more pronounced level of tolerance than the HAS line at both the functional and membrane level. These results suggest that different measures used to assess the depressant action of ethanol, such as sleep time, hypothermia or membrane disordering, may not be related and could indicate different genetic origins.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7695793

  14. Integration of neural networks activated by amphetamine in females with different estrogen levels: a functional imaging study in awake rats.

    PubMed

    Madularu, Dan; Yee, Jason R; Kenkel, William M; Moore, Kelsey A; Kulkarni, Praveen; Shams, Waqqas M; Ferris, Craig F; Brake, Wayne G

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that schizophrenia symptomatology in women is dependent upon estrogen levels. Estrogen has beneficial properties when administered in conjunction with antipsychotics, and estrogen also alters, in rats, dopamine neurotransmission, which is a common target of all antipsychotic medications, suggesting a possible interaction between the two. The aim of the current study was to investigate this possible interaction using functional magnetic resonance imaging in awake, female rats. Amphetamine-sensitized, ovariectomized rats receiving no, chronic low, or phasic high levels of estradiol replacement were used, and changes in blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal were recorded over time in response to an acute amphetamine injection. Increasing levels of estradiol enhanced BOLD activation in pathways previously known to be implicated in schizophrenia symptomatology, such as the mesocorticolimbic, habenular and olfactory pathways, as well as more widespread areas. We propose here the first comprehensive "amphetamine activation map" integrating brain regions where amphetamine-related BOLD activity is influenced by estrogen levels in sensitized female rats. PMID:25827963

  15. Swimming Activity Prevents the Unloading Induced Loss of Bone Mass, Architecture, and Strength in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Falcai, Maurício J.; Leoni, Graziela Bianchi; de Sousa Neto, Manoel Damião; Volpon, Jose B.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether swimming activity associated with a three-week period of hypoactivity could prevent the deleterious effects of disuse on the tibias of tail-suspended rats. Forty Wistar rats were divided into five groups: (HS) permanently hindlimb suspension rats; (HS + Swim) rats submitted to unloading interrupted by swimming exercise; (HS + WB) hindlimb suspension rats with interruption for regular weight bearing for the same length of time as the HS+Swim rats; (Control) control rats that were allowed regular cage activities; and (Control + Swim) control rats that underwent swimming exercise. At the end of the experiment, bone mineral density, bone strength, and trabecular quantification were analyzed. The hindlimb-suspended rats exhibited bone quality loss (significant decrease in BMD, bone strength, and deterioration of trabecular and cortical bone architecture; decrease in BV/TV, TbN, TbTh, ConnD, CtV, and CtTh; and increase in TbSp) when compared to control rats. In contrast, trained rats showed a significant increase of 43% in bone mass, 29% in bone strength, 58% in trabecular thickness, 85% in bone volume, 27% in trabeculae number, and 30% in cortical volume, when compared to the hindlimb-suspended rats. We conclude that swimming activity not only ameliorates but also fully prevents the deleterious effects on bone quality in osteopenic rats. PMID:26090414

  16. Intra-ventral tegmental area HIV-1 Tat1–86 attenuates nicotine-mediated locomotor sensitization and alters mesocorticolimbic ERK and CREB signaling in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun; Midde, Narasimha M.; Gomez, Adrian M.; Sun, Wei-Lun; Harrod, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking prevalence in the HIV-positive individuals is profoundly higher than that in the HIV-negative individuals. We have demonstrated that HIV-1 transgenic rats exhibit attenuated nicotine-mediated locomotor activity, altered cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signaling in the mesocorticolimbic regions. This study investigated the role of HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein in the alterations of nicotine-mediated behavior and the signaling pathway observed in the HIV-1 transgenic rats. Rats received bilateral microinjection of recombinant Tat1–86 (25 μg/side) or vehicle directed at ventral tegmental area (VTA) followed by locomotor testing in response to 13 daily intravenous injections of nicotine (0.05 mg/kg, freebase, once/day) or saline. Further, we examined the phosphorylated levels of CREB (pCREB) and ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and VTA. Tat diminished baseline activity in saline control rats, and attenuated nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization. Following repeated saline injection, the basal levels of pERK1 in the NAc and VTA and pERK2 in VTA were lower in the vehicle control group, relative to the Tat group. After repeated nicotine injection, pERK1 in NAc and VTA and pERK2 in VTA were increased in the vehicle group, but not in the Tat group. Moreover, repeated nicotine injections decreased pCREB in the PFC and VTA in the Tat group but not in the vehicle group. Thus, these findings indicate that the direct injection of Tat at the VTA may mediate CREB and ERK activity in response to nicotine-induced locomotor activity. PMID:26150803

  17. Activity of "nonspecific pancreatic carboxylesterase" in rat serum in experimentally induced acute pancreatitis (preliminary results).

    PubMed

    Kálmán, A; Kálmán, Z; Velösy, G; Vargha, G; Vargha, G; Papp, M

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain more information on the serum level of "nonspecific pancreatic carboxylesterase" (PCE) in experimentally induced acute pancreatitis in rats. The effects of caerulein stimulation, hepatic duct ligation, bile-pancreatic duct ligation or the effect of retrograde injection of saline, 5% taurocholate and sunflower oil were investigated. The activity of PCE and amylase was measured in the serum, pancreatic tissue, pancreatic juice and ascitic fluid. The changes in PCE activity were greater (both in directions to increase or decrease) than that of amylase, produced by different experimental procedures. The results confirm the thesis that the serum activity of PCE is a more sensitive diagnostic method than that of amylase to detect the inflammatory process in the pancreas or the effect of obstruction of the pancreatic duct. PMID:2480696

  18. A Sensitive and Versatile Fluorescent Activity Assay for ABHD12.

    PubMed

    Savinainen, Juha R; Navia-Paldanius, Dina; Laitinen, Jarmo T

    2016-01-01

    Despite great progress in identifying and deorphanizing members of the human metabolic serine hydrolase (mSH) family, the fundamental role of numerous enzymes in this large protein class has remained unclear. One recently found mSH is α/β-hydrolase domain containing 12 (ABHD12) enzyme, whose natural substrate in vivo appears to be the lysophospholipid lysophosphatidylserine (LPS). In vitro, ABHD12 together with monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and ABHD6 hydrolyzes also monoacylglycerols (MAGs) such as the primary endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). Traditional approaches for determining 2-AG hydrolase activity are rather laborious, and often utilize unnatural substrates. Here, we describe a sensitive fluorescent assay of ABHD12 activity in a 96-well-plate format that allows simultaneous testing of inhibitor activities of up to 40 compounds in a single assay. The method utilizes lysates of HEK293 cells transiently overexpressing human ABHD12 as the enzymatic source, and kinetically monitors glycerol liberated in the hydrolysis of 1(3)-AG, the preferred MAG substrate of this enzyme. Glycerol output is coupled to an enzymatic cascade generating the fluorescent end-product resorufin. This methodology has helped to identify the first class of inhibitors showing selectivity for ABHD12 over the other mSHs. PMID:27245904

  19. Sensitivity of inhibition of rat liver mitochondrial outer-membrane carnitine palmitoyltransferase by malonyl-CoA to chemical- and temperature-induced changes in membrane fluidity.

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziej, M P; Zammit, V A

    1990-01-01

    We have tested the possibility that alterations in the fluidity of the outer membrane of rat liver mitochondria could result in changes in the sensitivity of overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I) to malonyl-CoA [Zammit (1986) Biochem. Soc. Trans. 14. 676-679]. The sensitivity of CPT I to malonyl-CoA inhibition was measured by using highly purified mitochondrial outer membranes prepared from fed or 48 h-starved rats in the presence and absence of agents that increase membrane fluidity by perturbing membrane lipid order [benzyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol (3-methylbutan-l-ol) and 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl-8-(cis-2-n-octylpropyl)octanoate (A2C)]. All these agents resulted in marked decreases in the ability of malonyl-CoA to inhibit CPT I. This effect was accompanied by a modest increase in the absolute activity of CPT I in the absence of malonyl-CoA when the short-chain alcohols were used, but not when A2C was used, suggesting that the effect of increased membrane fluidity to decrease the malonyl-CoA sensitivity of CPT I may occur independently from other actions that may affect more directly the active site of the enzyme. In confirmation of the potential importance of fluidity changes, we showed that a marked increase in sensitivity of CPT I to malonyl-CoA could be produced when assays were performed at lower temperatures than those normally employed. These observations are discussed in the context of the slowness of the changes in CPT I sensitivity to malonyl-CoA inhibition that are induced by physiological perturbations. PMID:2268270

  20. The effect of exercise training combined with PPARγ agonist on skeletal muscle glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in induced diabetic obese Zucker rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Exercise training with PPARγ agonist is expected to increase glucose uptake and improve insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle of patients with diabetes. However, its mechanisms to effect glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle are unclear. [Methods] The mechanism of action was determined by co-treatment with PPARγ agonist- rosiglitazone and exercise training in streptozotocin induced-diabetic obese Zucker rats. Exercise training was carried out for 6 weeks (swimming, 1 h/day, 5 times/week, 5% weight/g, 32±1℃) with rosiglitazone treatment (3mg/kg/day, 6weeks). [Results] Glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity was decreased in diabetic than normal animals. Exercise training and rosiglitazone treatment respectively increased the expression of PPAR(peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor)-α, -β/δ, -γ, PGC-1α(PPAR-γ coactivator-1α), adiponectin, GLUT-4(glucose transportor-4) and p-AMPK-α2(phospho-AMP activated protein kinase-α2) in EDL and SOL of diabetic, as compared to normal animals. Interestingly, training combined with rosiglitazone significantly increased glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity, which resulted in high expression of all molecules in diabetic than all other groups. [Conclusion] These results indicated that exercise training combined with rosiglitazone might mediate regulation of glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. Therefore, exercise training combined with rosiglitazone may be recommended as complementary therapies for diabetes. PMID:27508153