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Sample records for actively sensitized rats

  1. Basal and Activated Calcium Sensitization Mediated by RhoA/Rho Kinase Pathway in Rats with Genetic and Salt Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bencze, Michal; Vaněčková, Ivana; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Calcium sensitization mediated by RhoA/Rho kinase pathway can be evaluated either in the absence (basal calcium sensitization) or in the presence of endogenous vasoconstrictor systems (activated calcium sensitization). Our aim was to compare basal and activated calcium sensitization in three forms of experimental hypertension with increased sympathetic tone and enhanced calcium entry—spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), heterozygous Ren-2 transgenic rats (TGR), and salt hypertensive Dahl rats. Activated calcium sensitization was determined as blood pressure reduction induced by acute administration of Rho kinase inhibitor fasudil in conscious rats with intact sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Basal calcium sensitization was studied as fasudil-dependent difference in blood pressure response to calcium channel opener BAY K8644 in rats subjected to RAS and SNS blockade. Calcium sensitization was also estimated from reduced development of isolated artery contraction by Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632. Activated calcium sensitization was enhanced in all three hypertensive models (due to the hyperactivity of vasoconstrictor systems). In contrast, basal calcium sensitization was reduced in SHR and TGR relative to their controls, whereas it was augmented in salt-sensitive Dahl rats relative to their salt-resistant controls. Similar differences in calcium sensitization were seen in femoral arteries of SHR and Dahl rats. PMID:28197417

  2. Basal and Activated Calcium Sensitization Mediated by RhoA/Rho Kinase Pathway in Rats with Genetic and Salt Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Behuliak, Michal; Bencze, Michal; Vaněčková, Ivana; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Calcium sensitization mediated by RhoA/Rho kinase pathway can be evaluated either in the absence (basal calcium sensitization) or in the presence of endogenous vasoconstrictor systems (activated calcium sensitization). Our aim was to compare basal and activated calcium sensitization in three forms of experimental hypertension with increased sympathetic tone and enhanced calcium entry-spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), heterozygous Ren-2 transgenic rats (TGR), and salt hypertensive Dahl rats. Activated calcium sensitization was determined as blood pressure reduction induced by acute administration of Rho kinase inhibitor fasudil in conscious rats with intact sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Basal calcium sensitization was studied as fasudil-dependent difference in blood pressure response to calcium channel opener BAY K8644 in rats subjected to RAS and SNS blockade. Calcium sensitization was also estimated from reduced development of isolated artery contraction by Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632. Activated calcium sensitization was enhanced in all three hypertensive models (due to the hyperactivity of vasoconstrictor systems). In contrast, basal calcium sensitization was reduced in SHR and TGR relative to their controls, whereas it was augmented in salt-sensitive Dahl rats relative to their salt-resistant controls. Similar differences in calcium sensitization were seen in femoral arteries of SHR and Dahl rats.

  3. Increased calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity by morphine-sensitization in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kadivar, Mehdi; Farahmandfar, Maryam; Ranjbar, Faezeh Esmaeli; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-07-01

    Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse, such as morphine, elicits a progressive enhancement of drug-induced behavioral responses, a phenomenon termed behavioral sensitization. These changes in behavior may reflect long-lasting changes in some of the important molecules involved in memory processing such as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). In the present study, we investigated the effect of morphine sensitization on mRNA expression of α and β isoforms and activity of CaMKII in the hippocampus of male rats. Animals were treated for 3 days with saline or morphine (20mg/kg) and following a washout period of 5 days, a challenge dose of morphine (5mg/kg) were administered. The results indicate that morphine administration in pre-treated animals produces behavioral sensitization, as determined by significant increase in locomotion and oral stereotypy behavior. In addition, repeated morphine treatment increased mRNA expression of both α and β isoforms of CaMKII in the hippocampus. The present study also showed that induction of morphine sensitization significantly increased both Ca2+/calmodulin-independent and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent activities of CaMK II in the rat hippocampus. However, acute administration of morphine (5mg/kg) did not alter either α and β CaMKII mRNA expression or CaMKII activity in the hippocampus. The stimulation effects of morphine sensitization on mRNA expression and activity of CaMKII were completely abolished by administration of naloxone, 30min prior to s.c. injections of morphine (20mg/kg/day×3 days). Our data demonstrated that induction of morphine sensitization could effectively modulate the activity and the mRNA expression of CaMKII in the hippocampus and this effect of morphine was exerted by the activation of opioid receptors.

  4. Ethanol Increases Mechanical Pain Sensitivity in Rats via Activation of GABAA Receptors in Medial Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Geng, Kai-Wen; He, Ting; Wang, Rui-Rui; Li, Chun-Li; Luo, Wen-Jun; Wu, Fang-Fang; Wang, Yan; Li, Zhen; Lu, Yun-Fei; Guan, Su-Min; Chen, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Ethanol is widely known for its ability to cause dramatic changes in emotion, social cognition, and behavior following systemic administration in humans. Human neuroimaging studies suggest that alcohol dependence and chronic pain may share common mechanisms through amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) interactions. However, whether acute administration of ethanol in the mPFC can modulate pain perception is unknown. Here we showed that bilateral microinjections of ethanol into the prelimbic and infralimbic areas of the mPFC lowered the bilateral mechanical pain threshold for 48 h without influencing thermal pain sensitivity in adult rats. However, bilateral microinjections of artificial cerebrospinal fluid into the mPFC or bilateral microinjections of ethanol into the dorsolateral PFC (also termed as motor cortex area 1 in Paxinos and Watson's atlas of The Rat Brain. Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, 2005) failed to do so, suggesting regional selectivity of the effects of ethanol. Moreover, bilateral microinjections of ethanol did not change the expression of either pro-apoptotic (caspase-3 and Bax) or anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) proteins, suggesting that the dose was safe and validating the method used in the current study. To determine whether γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors are involved in mediating the ethanol effects, muscimol, a selective GABAA receptor agonist, or bicuculline, a selective GABAA receptor antagonist, was administered alone or co-administered with ethanol through the same route into the bilateral mPFC. The results showed that muscimol mimicked the effects of ethanol while bicuculline completely reversed the effects of ethanol and muscimol. In conclusion, ethanol increases mechanical pain sensitivity through activation of GABAA receptors in the mPFC of rats.

  5. Increased WDR spontaneous activity and receptive field size in rats following a neuropathic or inflammatory injury: implications for mechanical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Chu, Katharine L; Faltynek, Connie R; Jarvis, Michael F; McGaraughty, Steve

    2004-11-30

    Spontaneous activity and receptive field size for spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons were measured and related to the mechanical allodynia in both neuropathic (L5-L6 ligation, 14 days post-injury) and complete Freund's adjuvant-inflamed rats (CFA, 2 days post-injury). The size of the WDR receptive field located on the hindpaw expanded significantly (p<0.01) following both modes of injury, with no difference between CFA and neuropathic animals. Likewise, the spontaneous firing of WDR neurons was significantly elevated following both the CFA (4.4+/-0.6 spikes/s, p<0.01) and neuropathic (3.2+/-0.3 spikes/s, p<0.05) injuries compared to naive (2.1+/-0.2 spikes/s) and sham-neuropathic (1.9+/-0.3 spikes/s) rats. Furthermore, the spontaneous WDR activity recorded from CFA rats was also significantly greater (p<0.05) than neuropathic rats. Mechanical allodynia, as measured by application of a von Frey hair stimulus, was observed from both CFA and neuropathic rats, however, the degree of sensitivity was significantly greater (p<0.01) for the CFA animals. These data suggest that the differences in mechanical sensitivity between CFA and neuropathic rats may be related to their respective changes in WDR spontaneous activity, but not to the changes in receptive field size, and is further demonstration of the importance of spontaneous WDR activity in determining mechanical sensitivity following injury.

  6. Peripheral Sensitization Increases Opioid Receptor Expression and Activation by Crotalphine in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zambelli, Vanessa Olzon; Fernandes, Ana Carolina de Oliveira; Gutierrez, Vanessa Pacciari; Ferreira, Julio Cesar Batista; Parada, Carlos Amilcar; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Cury, Yara

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation enhances the peripheral analgesic efficacy of opioid drugs, but the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon have not been fully elucidated. Crotalphine (CRP), a peptide that was first isolated from South American rattlesnake C.d. terrificus venom, induces a potent and long-lasting anti-nociceptive effect that is mediated by the activation of peripheral opioid receptors. Because the high efficacy of CRP is only observed in the presence of inflammation, we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the CRP anti-nociceptive effect induced by inflammation. Using real-time RT-PCR, western blot analysis and ELISA assays, we demonstrate that the intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increases the mRNA and protein levels of the µ- and κ-opioid receptors in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and paw tissue of rats within 3 h of the injection. Using conformation state-sensitive antibodies that recognize activated opioid receptors, we show that PGE2, alone does not increase the activation of these opioid receptors but that in the presence of PGE2, the activation of specific opioid receptors by CRP and selective µ- and κ-opioid receptor agonists (positive controls) increases. Furthermore, PGE2 down-regulated the expression and activation of the δ-opioid receptor. CRP increased the level of activated mitogen-activated protein kinases in cultured DRG neurons, and this increase was dependent on the activation of protein kinase Cζ. This CRP effect was much more prominent when the cells were pretreated with PGE2. These results indicate that the expression and activation of peripheral opioid receptors by opioid-like drugs can be up- or down-regulated in the presence of an acute injury and that acute tissue injury enhances the efficacy of peripheral opioids. PMID:24594607

  7. TOLERANCE AND SENSITIZATION TO WEEKLY NICOTINE EXPOSURES ON THE MOTOR ACTIVITY OF RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Motor activity was examined in adult female Long-Evans rats in a photocell device during daily (M-F) 30-min sessions. Following adaptation to the testing routine the rats were divided into six groups of eight that were designated to receive either nothing (non-injected control),...

  8. Activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels by epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in rat cardiac ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tong; Hoshi, Toshinori; Weintraub, Neal L; Spector, Arthur A; Lee, Hon-Chi

    2001-01-01

    We examined the effects of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which are cytochrome P450 metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA), on the activities of the ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels of rat cardiac myocytes, using the inside-out patch-clamp technique. In the presence of 100 μm cytoplasmic ATP, the KATP channel open probability (Po) was increased by 240 ± 60% with 0.1 μm 11,12-EET and by 400 ± 54% with 5 μm 11,12-EET (n = 5 –10, P < 0.05 vs. control), whereas neither 5 μm AA nor 5 μm 11,12-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (DHET), which is the epoxide hydrolysis product of 11,12-EET, had any effect on Po. The half-maximal activating concentration (EC50) was 18.9 ± 2.6 nm for 11,12-EET (n = 5) and 19.1 ± 4.8 nm for 8,9-EET (n = 5), P = n.s. vs. 11,12-EET). Furthermore, 11,12-EET failed to alter the inhibition of KATP channels by glyburide. Application of 11,12-EET markedly decreased the channel sensitivity to cytoplasmic ATP. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of ATP (IC50) was increased from 21.2 ± 2.0 μm at baseline to 240 ± 60 μm with 0.1 μm 11,12-EET (n = 5, P < 0.05 vs. control) and to 780 ± 30 μm with 5 μm 11,12-EET (n = 11, P < 0.05vs. control). Increasing the ATP concentration increased the number of kinetically distinguishable closed states, promoting prolonged closure durations. 11,12-EET antagonized the effects of ATP on the kinetics of the KATP channels in a dose and voltage-dependent manner. 11,12-EET (1 μm) reduced the apparent association rate constant of ATP to the channel by 135-fold. Application of 5 μm 11,12-EET resulted in hyperpolarization of the resting membrane potential in isolated cardiac myocytes, which could be blocked by glyburide. These results suggest that EETs are potent activators of the cardiac KATP channels, modulating channel behaviour by reducing the channel sensitivity to ATP. Thus, EETs could be important endogenous regulators of cardiac electrical excitability. PMID:11744757

  9. Imaging of sialidase activity in rat brain sections by a highly sensitive fluorescent histochemical method.

    PubMed

    Minami, Akira; Shimizu, Hirotaka; Meguro, Yuko; Shibata, Naoki; Kanazawa, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    Sialidase (EC 3.2.1.18) removes sialic acid from sialoglycoconjugates. Since sialidase extracellularly applied to the rat hippocampus influences many neural functions, including synaptic plasticity and innervations of glutamatergic neurons, endogenous sialidase activities on the extracellular membrane surface could also affect neural functions. However, the distribution of sialidase activity in the brain remains unknown. To visualize extracellular sialidase activity on the membrane surface in the rat brain, acute brain slices were incubated with 5-bromo-4-chloroindol-3-yl-α-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid (X-Neu5Ac) and Fast Red Violet LB (FRV LB) at pH 7.3. After 1h, myelin-abundant regions showed intense fluorescence in the rat brain. Although the hippocampus showed weak fluorescence in the brain, mossy fiber terminals in the hippocampus showed relatively intense fluorescence. These fluorescence intensities were attenuated with a sialidase-specific inhibitor, 2,3-dehydro-2-deoxy-N-acetylneuraminic acid (DANA, 1mM). Additionally, the fluorescence intensities caused by X-Neu5Ac and FRV LB were correlated with the sialidase activity measured with 4-methylumbelliferyl-α-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid (4MU-Neu5Ac), a classical substrate for quantitative measurement of sialidase activity, in each brain region. Therefore, staining with X-Neu5Ac and FRV LB is specific for sialidase and useful for quantitative analysis of sialidase activities. The results suggest that white matter of the rat brain has intense sialidase activity.

  10. Cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization in rats correlates with nucleus accumbens activity on manganese-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Perrine, Shane A; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Desai, Kirtan; Kohler, Robert J; Eapen, Ajay T; Lisieski, Michael J; Angoa-Perez, Mariana; Kuhn, Donald M; Bosse, Kelly E; Conti, Alana C; Bissig, David; Berkowitz, Bruce A

    2015-11-01

    A long-standing goal of substance abuse research has been to link drug-induced behavioral outcomes with the activity of specific brain regions to understand the neurobiology of addiction behaviors and to search for drug-able targets. Here, we tested the hypothesis that cocaine produces locomotor (behavioral) sensitization that correlates with increased calcium channel-mediated neuroactivity in brain regions linked with drug addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAC), anterior striatum (AST) and hippocampus, as measured using manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). Rats were treated with cocaine for 5 days, followed by a 2-day drug-free period. The following day, locomotor sensitization was quantified as a metric of cocaine-induced neuroplasticity in the presence of manganese. Immediately following behavioral testing, rats were examined for changes in calcium channel-mediated neuronal activity in the NAC, AST, hippocampus and temporalis muscle, which was associated with behavioral sensitization using MEMRI. Cocaine significantly increased locomotor activity and produced behavioral sensitization compared with saline treatment of control rats. A significant increase in MEMRI signal intensity was determined in the NAC, but not AST or hippocampus, of cocaine-treated rats compared with saline-treated control rats. Cocaine did not increase signal intensity in the temporalis muscle. Notably, in support of our hypothesis, behavior was significantly and positively correlated with MEMRI signal intensity in the NAC. As neuronal uptake of manganese is regulated by calcium channels, these results indicate that MEMRI is a powerful research tool to study neuronal activity in freely behaving animals and to guide new calcium channel-based therapies for the treatment of cocaine abuse and dependence.

  11. SENSITIZATION AND TOLERANCE WITH EPISODIC (WEEKLY) NICOTINE ON MOTOR ACTIVITY IN RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    These studies grew out of an unexpected finding from investigations of the neurobehavioral toxicity of PCBs. This paper shows that episodic, or recurring intermittent acute exposures to nicotine produce dramatic and long-lasting changes in the motor activity of laboratory rats. ...

  12. Further studies on the control of ACh sensitivity by muscle activity in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Lomo, T; Westgaard, R H

    1975-01-01

    1. Denervated rat soleus muscles were stimulated directly through chronically implanted electrodes and the influence of different amounts and patterns of stimuli on the acetylcholine (ACh) sensitivity of the muscle was studied. The number of stimuli was varied by giving similar trains of stimuli (10 Hz for 10 sec) at different intervals (0 to 12 hr). The pattern of stimulation was varied by giving different trains of stimuli (100 Hz for 1 sec, 10 Hz for 10 sec and 1 Hz continuously) as the same average frequency of stimulation (1 Hz). 2. Stimulation usually started 5 days after the denervation when ACh hypersensitivity was fully developed. Most stimulation procedures reduced extrajunctional ACh sensitivity to normal or below normal values within 5-21 days, and these levels were maintained on prolonged stimulation. 3. The rate at which ACh hypersensitivity disappeared increased with increasing amount and frequency of stimulation. However, as few as 100 stimuli given every 5-5 hr for 3 weeks caused a tenfold reduction of sensitivity. 4. The stimulation had little or no effect on the ACh sensitivity at the end plate. Along the rest of the fibre the sensitivity was reduced at approximately the same rate except near the tendons where it appeared to fall more slowly in some fibres. 5. The stimulation restored the resting membrane potential of the denervated fibres to normal. PMID:1206569

  13. TRPA1 mediates amplified sympathetic responsiveness to activation of metabolically sensitive muscle afferents in rats with femoral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jihong; Lu, Jian; Li, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic responses to activation of mechanically and metabolically sensitive muscle afferent nerves during static contraction are augmented in rats with femoral artery occlusion. Moreover, metabolically sensitive transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) has been reported to contribute to sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and arterial blood pressure (BP) responses evoked by static muscle contraction. Thus, in the present study, we examined the mechanisms by which afferent nerves' TRPA1 plays a role in regulating amplified sympathetic responsiveness due to a restriction of blood flow directed to the hindlimb muscles. Our data show that 24-72 h of femoral artery occlusion (1) upregulates the protein levels of TRPA1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) tissues; (2) selectively increases expression of TRPA1 in DRG neurons supplying metabolically sensitive afferent nerves of C-fiber (group IV); and (3) enhances renal SNA and BP responses to AITC (a TRPA1 agonist) injected into the hindlimb muscles. In addition, our data demonstrate that blocking TRPA1 attenuates SNA and BP responses during muscle contraction to a greater degree in ligated rats than those responses in control rats. In contrast, blocking TRPA1 fails to attenuate SNA and BP responses during passive tendon stretch in both groups. Overall, results of this study indicate that alternations in muscle afferent nerves' TRPA1 likely contribute to enhanced sympathetically mediated autonomic responses via the metabolic component of the muscle reflex under circumstances of chronic muscle ischemia.

  14. TRPA1 mediates amplified sympathetic responsiveness to activation of metabolically sensitive muscle afferents in rats with femoral artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jihong; Lu, Jian; Li, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic responses to activation of mechanically and metabolically sensitive muscle afferent nerves during static contraction are augmented in rats with femoral artery occlusion. Moreover, metabolically sensitive transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) has been reported to contribute to sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and arterial blood pressure (BP) responses evoked by static muscle contraction. Thus, in the present study, we examined the mechanisms by which afferent nerves' TRPA1 plays a role in regulating amplified sympathetic responsiveness due to a restriction of blood flow directed to the hindlimb muscles. Our data show that 24–72 h of femoral artery occlusion (1) upregulates the protein levels of TRPA1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) tissues; (2) selectively increases expression of TRPA1 in DRG neurons supplying metabolically sensitive afferent nerves of C-fiber (group IV); and (3) enhances renal SNA and BP responses to AITC (a TRPA1 agonist) injected into the hindlimb muscles. In addition, our data demonstrate that blocking TRPA1 attenuates SNA and BP responses during muscle contraction to a greater degree in ligated rats than those responses in control rats. In contrast, blocking TRPA1 fails to attenuate SNA and BP responses during passive tendon stretch in both groups. Overall, results of this study indicate that alternations in muscle afferent nerves' TRPA1 likely contribute to enhanced sympathetically mediated autonomic responses via the metabolic component of the muscle reflex under circumstances of chronic muscle ischemia. PMID:26441669

  15. Chronic renin inhibition with aliskiren improves glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and skeletal muscle glucose transport activity in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Marchionne, Elizabeth M; Diamond-Stanic, Maggie K; Prasonnarong, Mujalin; Henriksen, Erik J

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated previously that overactivity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is associated with whole body and skeletal muscle insulin resistance in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats. Moreover, this obesity-associated insulin resistance is reduced by treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor (type 1) blockers. However, it is currently unknown whether specific inhibition of renin itself, the rate-limiting step in RAS functionality, improves insulin action in obesity-associated insulin resistance. Therefore, the present study assessed the effect of chronic, selective renin inhibition using aliskiren on glucose tolerance, whole body insulin sensitivity, and insulin action on the glucose transport system in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats. Obese Zucker rats were treated for 21 days with either vehicle or aliskiren (50 mg/kg body wt ip). Renin inhibition was associated with a significant lowering (10%, P < 0.05) of resting systolic blood pressure and induced reductions in fasting plasma glucose (11%) and free fatty acids (46%) and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (13%). Glucose tolerance (glucose area under the curve) and whole body insulin sensitivity (inverse of the glucose-insulin index) during an oral glucose tolerance test were improved by 15% and 16%, respectively, following chronic renin inhibition. Moreover, insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity in isolated soleus muscle of renin inhibitor-treated animals was increased by 36% and was associated with a 2.2-fold greater Akt Ser(473) phosphorylation. These data provide evidence that chronic selective inhibition of renin activity leads to improvements in glucose tolerance and whole body insulin sensitivity in the insulin-resistant obese Zucker rat. Importantly, chronic renin inhibition is associated with upregulation of insulin action on skeletal muscle glucose transport, and it may involve improved Akt signaling. These data support the

  16. Effects of stevioside on glucose transport activity in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Lailerd, Narissara; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon; Sloniger, Julie A; Toskulkao, Chaivat; Henriksen, Erik J

    2004-01-01

    Stevioside (SVS), a natural sweetener extracted from Stevia rebaudiana, has been used as an antihyperglycemic agent. However, little is known regarding its potential action on skeletal muscle, the major site of glucose disposal. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of SVS treatment on skeletal muscle glucose transport activity in both insulin-sensitive lean (Fa/-) and insulin-resistant obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats. SVS was administered (500 mg/kg body weight by gavage) 2 hours before an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Whereas the glucose incremental area under the curve (IAUC(glucose)) was not affected by SVS in lean Zucker rats, the insulin incremental area under the curve (IAUC(insulin)) and the glucose-insulin index (product of glucose and insulin IAUCs and inversely related to whole-body insulin sensitivity) were decreased (P<.05) by 42% and 45%, respectively. Interestingly, in the obese Zucker rat, SVS also reduced the IAUC(insulin) by 44%, and significantly decreased the IAUC(glucose) (30%) and the glucose-insulin index (57%). Muscle glucose transport was assessed following in vitro SVS treatment. In lean Zucker rats, basal glucose transport in type I soleus and type IIb epitrochlearis muscles was not altered by 0.01 to 0.1 mmol/L SVS. In contrast, 0.1 mmol/L SVS enhanced insulin-stimulated (2 mU/mL) glucose transport in both epitrochlearis (15%) and soleus (48%). At 0.5 mmol/L or higher, the SVS effect was reversed. Similarly, basal glucose transport in soleus and epitrochlearis muscles in obese Zucker rats was not changed by lower doses of SVS (0.01 to 0.1 mmol/L). However, these lower doses of SVS significantly increased insulin-stimulated glucose transport in both obese epitrochlearis and soleus (15% to 20%). In conclusion, acute oral SVS increased whole-body insulin sensitivity, and low concentrations of SVS (0.01 to 0.1 mmol/L) modestly improved in vitro insulin action on skeletal muscle glucose transport in both lean

  17. AGN-2979, an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase activation, does not affect serotonin synthesis in Flinders Sensitive Line rats, a rat model of depression, but produces a significant effect in Flinders Resistant Line rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanemaru, Kazuya; Nishi, Kyoko; Diksic, Mirko

    2009-01-01

    The neurotransmitter, serotonin, is involved in several brain functions, including both normal, physiological functions, and pathophysiological functions. Alterations in any of the normal parameters of serotonergic neurotransmission can produce several different psychiatric disorders, including major depression. In many instances, brain neurochemical variables are not able to be studied properly in humans, thus making the use of good animal models extremely valuable. One of these animal models is the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) of rats, which has face, predictive and constructive validities in relation to human depression. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) activation inhibitor, AGN-2979, on the FSL rats (rats with depression-like behaviour), and compare it to the effect on the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) of rats used as the control rats. The effect was evaluated by measuring changes in regional serotonin synthesis in the vehicle treated rats (FSL-VEH and FRL-VEH) relative to those measured in the AGN-2979 treated rats (FSL-AGN and FRL-AGN). Regional serotonin synthesis was measured autoradiographically in more than thirty brain regions. The measurements were performed using α-[14C]methyl-L-tryptophan as the tracer. The results indicate that AGN-2979 did not produce a significant reduction of TPH activity in the AGN-2979 group relative to the vehicle group (a reduction would have been observed if there had been an activation of TPH by the experimental set up) in the FSL rats. On the other hand, there was a highly significant reduction of synthesis in the FRL rats treated by AGN-2979, relative to the vehicle group. Together, the results demonstrate that in the FSL rats, AGN-2979 does not affect serotonin synthesis. This suggests that there was no activation of TPH in the FSL rats during the experimental procedure, but such activation did occur in the FRL rats. Because of this finding, it could be

  18. Activation of PAR2 receptors sensitizes primary afferents and causes leukocyte rolling and adherence in the rat knee joint

    PubMed Central

    Russell, FA; Schuelert, N; Veldhoen, VE; Hollenberg, MD; McDougall, JJ

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose The PAR2 receptors are involved in chronic arthritis by mechanisms that are as yet unclear. Here, we examined PAR2 activation in the rat knee joint. Experimental Approach PAR2 in rat knee joint dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells at L3-L5, retrogradely labelled with Fluoro-gold (FG) were demonstrated immunohistochemically. Electrophysiological recordings from knee joint nerve fibres in urethane anaesthetized Wistar rats assessed the effects of stimulating joint PAR2 with its activating peptide, 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 (1–100 nmol·100 μL−1, via close intra-arterial injection). Fibre firing rate was recorded during joint rotations before and 15 min after administration of PAR2 activating peptide or control peptide. Leukocyte kinetics in the synovial vasculature upon PAR2 activation were followed by intravital microscopy for 60 min after perfusion of 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 or control peptide. Roles for transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) or neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptors in the PAR2 responses were assessed using the selective antagonists, SB366791 and RP67580 respectively. Key Results PAR2 were expressed in 59 ± 5% of FG-positive DRG cells; 100 nmol 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 increased joint fibre firing rate during normal and noxious rotation, maximal at 3 min (normal; 110 ± 43%, noxious; 90 ± 31%). 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 also significantly increased leukocyte rolling and adhesion over 60 min. All these effects were blocked by pre-treatment with SB366791 and RP67580 (P < 0.05 compared with 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 alone). Conclusions and Implications PAR2 receptors play an acute inflammatory role in the knee joint via TRPV1- and NK1-dependent mechanisms involving both PAR2-mediated neuronal sensitization and leukocyte trafficking. PMID:22849826

  19. Norepinephrine-evoked salt-sensitive hypertension requires impaired renal sodium chloride cotransporter activity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kathryn R; Kuwabara, Jill T; Shim, Joon W; Wainford, Richard D

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have implicated a role of norepinephrine (NE) in the activation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) to drive the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. However, the interaction between NE and increased salt intake on blood pressure remains to be fully elucidated. This study examined the impact of a continuous NE infusion on sodium homeostasis and blood pressure in conscious Sprague-Dawley rats challenged with a normal (NS; 0.6% NaCl) or high-salt (HS; 8% NaCl) diet for 14 days. Naïve and saline-infused Sprague-Dawley rats remained normotensive when placed on HS and exhibited dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide. NE infusion resulted in the development of hypertension, which was exacerbated by HS, demonstrating the development of the salt sensitivity of blood pressure [MAP (mmHg) NE+NS: 151 ± 3 vs. NE+HS: 172 ± 4; P < 0.05]. In these salt-sensitive animals, increased NE prevented dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide, suggesting impaired NCC activity contributes to the development of salt sensitivity [peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide (μeq/min) Naïve+NS: 9.4 ± 0.2 vs. Naïve+HS: 7 ± 0.1; P < 0.05; NE+NS: 11.1 ± 1.1; NE+HS: 10.8 ± 0.4). NE infusion did not alter NCC expression in animals maintained on NS; however, dietary sodium-evoked suppression of NCC expression was prevented in animals challenged with NE. Chronic NCC antagonism abolished the salt-sensitive component of NE-mediated hypertension, while chronic ANG II type 1 receptor antagonism significantly attenuated NE-evoked hypertension without restoring NCC function. These data demonstrate that increased levels of NE prevent dietary sodium-evoked suppression of the NCC, via an ANG II-independent mechanism, to stimulate the development of salt-sensitive hypertension.

  20. Nucleus Paragigantocellularis Afferents in Male and Female Rats: Organization, Gonadal Steroid Sensitivity, and Activation During Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Normandin, Joseph J.; Murphy, Anne Z.

    2010-01-01

    The central regulation of genital reflexes is poorly understood. The brainstem nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi) of rats is a well-established source of tonic inhibition of genital reflexes. However the organization, gonadal steroid sensitivity, and activity of nPGi afferents during sex have not been fully characterized in male and female rats. To delineate the anatomical and physiological organization of nPGi afferents, the retrograde tracer Fluorogold (FG) was injected into the nPGi of sexually experienced male and female rats. Animals engaged in sexual behavior one hour before sacrifice. Cells containing FG, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), androgen receptor (AR), and the immediate-early gene product Fos were identified immunocytochemically. Retrograde labeling from the nPGi was prominent in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus, posterior hypothalamus, precommissural nucleus, deep mesencephalic nucleus, and periaqueductal gray (PAG) of both sexes. Sex differences were observed in the caudal medial preoptic area (MPO), with significantly more FG+ cells observed in males and in the PAG and inferior colliculus where significantly more FG+ cells were observed in females. The majority of regions that contained FG+ cells also contained ERα or AR, indicating sensitivity to gonadal steroids. The proportions of FG+ cells that co-localized with sex-induced Fos was high in the PVN of both sexes, high in the MPO of males, but low in the PAG of both sexes despite the large number of PAG-nPGi output neurons and Fos+ cells in both sexes. The characterization of these afferents will lead to a further understanding of the neural regulation of genital reflexes. PMID:18393295

  1. Activation of mGluR2/3 following stress hormone exposure restores sensitivity to alcohol in rats.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Anel A; Randall, Patrick A; Frisbee, Suzanne; Fisher, Kristen R; Besheer, Joyce

    2015-09-01

    Sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol is blunted following a period of exposure to the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), an effect that is suggested to be related, in part, to glutamatergic neuroadaptations. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (subtypes 2 and 3; mGluR2/3) modulate several drug- and alcohol-related behaviors, including the interoceptive (discriminative stimulus) effects of alcohol. Therefore, we sought to determine if manipulation of mGluR2/3 would restore sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol following CORT exposure. Using a two-lever drug discrimination task, male Long-Evans rats were trained to discriminate alcohol (1 g/kg, intragastric [IG]) vs. water. First, the effect of mGluR2/3 antagonism on the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol was determined using LY341495 (0.3-3.0 mg/kg; intraperitoneal [IP]). Next, the effects of mGluR2/3 antagonism and activation were assessed in discrimination-trained animals exposed to CORT (300 μg/mL) in the home cage drinking water or water only, for 7 days. Following CORT exposure, decreased sensitivity to alcohol (1 g/kg) was observed. Pretreatment with the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 (1.0-3.0 mg/kg; IP), but not the mGluR2/3 antagonist (0.3-1.0 mg/kg; IP), restored sensitivity to alcohol. Additionally, in water controls, mGluR2/3 antagonism and mGluR2/3 activation disrupted expression of the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol. Together, these findings suggest that blunted sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol following an episode of heightened stress hormone levels may be due to adaptations in mGluR2/3-related systems. The ability of mGluR2/3 activation to restore sensitivity to alcohol under these conditions lends further support for the importance of these receptors under stress-related conditions.

  2. Activation of mGluR2/3 following stress hormone exposure restores sensitivity to alcohol in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Anel A.; Randall, Patrick A.; Frisbee, Suzanne; Fisher, Kristen R.; Besheer, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol is blunted following a period of exposure to the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), an effect that is suggested to be related, in part, to glutamatergic neuroadaptations. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (subtypes 2 and 3; mGluR2/3) modulate several drug- and alcohol-related behaviors, including the interoceptive (discriminative stimulus) effects of alcohol. Therefore, we sought to determine if manipulation of mGluR2/3 would restore sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol following CORT exposure. Using a two-lever drug discrimination task, male Long-Evans rats were trained to discriminate alcohol (1 g/kg, intragastric [IG]) vs. water. First, the effect of mGluR2/3 antagonism on the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol was determined using LY341495 (0.3–3.0 mg/kg; intraperitoneal [IP]). Next, the effects of mGluR2/3 antagonism and activation were assessed in discrimination-trained animals exposed to CORT (300 μg/mL) in the home cage drinking water or water only, for 7 days. Following CORT exposure, decreased sensitivity to alcohol (1 g/kg) was observed. Pretreatment with the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 (1.0–3.0 mg/kg; IP), but not the mGluR2/3 antagonist (0.3–1.0 mg/kg; IP), restored sensitivity to alcohol. Additionally, in Water controls, mGluR2/3 antagonism and mGluR2/3 activation disrupted expression of the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol. Together, these findings suggest that blunted sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol following an episode of heightened stress hormone levels may be due to adaptations in mGluR2/3-related systems. The ability of mGluR2/3 activation to restore sensitivity to alcohol under these conditions lends further support for the importance of these receptors under stress-related conditions. PMID:26142564

  3. P2X4 Activation Modulates Volume-sensitive Outwardly Rectifying Chloride Channels in Rat Hepatoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Diego; Penna, Antonello; Simon, Felipe; Eguiguren, Ana Luisa; Leiva-Salcedo, Elías; Cerda, Oscar; Sala, Francisco; Stutzin, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    Volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl− channels are critical for the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response triggered upon cell swelling. Recent evidence indicates that H2O2 plays an essential role in the activation of these channels and that H2O2 per se activates the channels under isotonic isovolumic conditions. However, a significant difference in the time course for current onset between H2O2-induced and hypotonicity-mediated VSOR Cl− activation is observed. In several cell types, cell swelling induced by hypotonic challenges triggers the release of ATP to the extracellular medium, which in turn, activates purinergic receptors and modulates cell volume regulation. In this study, we have addressed the effect of purinergic receptor activation on H2O2-induced and hypotonicity-mediated VSOR Cl− current activation. Here we show that rat hepatoma cells (HTC) exposed to a 33% hypotonic solution responded by rapidly activating VSOR Cl− current and releasing ATP to the extracellular medium. In contrast, cells exposed to 200 μm H2O2 VSOR Cl− current onset was significantly slower, and ATP release was not detected. In cells exposed to either 11% hypotonicity or 200 μm H2O2, exogenous addition of ATP in the presence of extracellular Ca2+ resulted in a decrease in the half-time for VSOR Cl− current onset. Conversely, in cells that overexpress a dominant-negative mutant of the ionotropic receptor P2X4 challenged with a 33% hypotonic solution, the half-time for VSOR Cl− current onset was significantly slowed down. Our results indicate that, at high hypotonic imbalances, swelling-induced ATP release activates the purinergic receptor P2X4, which in turn modulates the time course of VSOR Cl− current onset in a extracellular Ca2+-dependent manner. PMID:20056605

  4. [Expression of UCP3 and the sensitivity of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening to Ca2+ in old rat heart under activation of biosynthesis of coenzyme Q].

    PubMed

    Strutyns'ka, N A; Timoshchuk, S V; Vavilova, H L; Kotsiuruba, A V; Sahach, V F

    2009-01-01

    The expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), as well as the sensitivity of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening (MPTP) to Ca2+ (10(-4) mol/l) in old rat heart under activation in vivo of ubiquinone synthesis--coenzyme Q, (CoQ) via administration of the precursors (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, aminoacid methionine and modulator vitamin E) were studied. It was shown that the expression level of UCP3 decreased by 63% in old rats compared to adult rats and this was accompanied by an increased sensitivity of the MPT to calcium. Under activation of endogenous synthesis of CoQ it was observed almost complete restoration of UCP3 expression in old rat heart and a decrease in the sensitivity of the MPTP opening to Ca2+. In mitochondria from old rat hearts we noted an increased content of the superoxide (O2) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals and of the stable metabolite of active oxygen species hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as compared to those in adult animals. Following activation of endogenous synthesis of CoQ in old rat heart mitochondria it was observed a decreased content of H2O2, and the tendency for decreasing the levels of the radicals O2 and MOH. The results obtained allowed to conclude that the CoQ-dependent restoration of the UCP3 levels in old rat heart and antioxidant/cardioprotective effects of CoQ related to the MPTP opening inhibition can reduce the oxidative stress and thus prevent the manifestation of mitochondrial dysfunction in aging heart. We suggest that UCP3 is not involved in the increase of the passive H-conductance through the inner mitochondrial membrane in the aging heart, and that CoQ as a factor of respiratory chain could be an important endogenous regulator of the uncoupling proteins, in particular UCP3, in the heart.

  5. Chronic Activation of Heme Free Guanylate Cyclase Leads to Renal Protection in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Linda S.; Kretschmer, Axel; Lawrenz, Bettina; Hocher, Berthold; Stasch, Johannes-Peter

    2015-01-01

    The nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/cyclic guanosine monophasphate (cGMP)-signalling pathway is impaired under oxidative stress conditions due to oxidation and subsequent loss of the prosthetic sGC heme group as observed in particular in chronic renal failure. Thus, the pool of heme free sGC is increased under pathological conditions. sGC activators such as cinaciguat selectively activate the heme free form of sGC and target the disease associated enzyme. In this study, a therapeutic effect of long-term activation of heme free sGC by the sGC activator cinaciguat was investigated in an experimental model of salt-sensitive hypertension, a condition that is associated with increased oxidative stress, heme loss from sGC and development of chronic renal failure. For that purpose Dahl/ss rats, which develop severe hypertension upon high salt intake, were fed a high salt diet (8% NaCl) containing either placebo or cinaciguat for 21 weeks. Cinaciguat markedly improved survival and ameliorated the salt-induced increase in blood pressure upon treatment with cinaciguat compared to placebo. Renal function was significantly improved in the cinaciguat group compared to the placebo group as indicated by a significantly improved glomerular filtration rate and reduced urinary protein excretion. This was due to anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of the cinaciguat treatment. Taken together, this is the first study showing that long-term activation of heme free sGC leads to renal protection in an experimental model of hypertension and chronic kidney disease. These results underline the promising potential of cinaciguat to treat renal diseases by targeting the disease associated heme free form of sGC. PMID:26717150

  6. Hormone-sensitive lipase activity and triacylglycerol hydrolysis are decreased in rat soleus muscle by cyclopiazonic acid.

    PubMed

    Watt, Matthew J; Steinberg, Gregory R; Heigenhauser, G J F; Spriet, Lawrence L; Dyck, David J

    2003-08-01

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is a sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor that increases intracellular calcium. The role of CPA in regulating the oxidation and esterification of palmitate, the hydrolysis of intramuscular lipids, and the activation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) was examined in isolated rat soleus muscles at rest. CPA (40 micro M) was added to the incubation medium to levels that resulted in subcontraction increases in muscle tension, and lipid metabolism was monitored using the previously described pulse-chase procedure. CPA did not alter the cellular energy state, as reflected by similar muscle contents of ATP, phosphocreatine, free AMP, and free ADP. CPA increased total palmitate uptake into soleus muscle (11%, P < 0.05) and was without effect on palmitate oxidation. This resulted in greater esterification of exogenous palmitate into the triacylglycerol (18%, P < 0.05) and phospholipid (89%, P < 0.05) pools. CPA decreased (P < 0.05) intramuscular lipid hydrolysis, and this occurred as a result of reduced HSL activity (20%, P < 0.05). Incubation of muscles with 3 mM caffeine, which is also known to increase Ca2+ without affecting the cellular energy state, reduced HSL activity (24%, P < 0.05). KN-93, a calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CaMKII), blocked the effects of CPA and caffeine, and HSL activity returned to preincubation values. The results of the present study demonstrate that CPA simultaneously decreases intramuscular triacylglycerol (IMTG) hydrolysis and promotes lipid storage in isolated, intact soleus muscle. The decreased IMTG hydrolysis is likely mediated by reduced HSL activity, possibly via the CaMKII pathway. These responses are not consistent with the increased hydrolysis and decreased esterification observed in contracting muscle when substrate availability and the hormonal milieu are tightly controlled. It is possible that more powerful signals or a higher [Ca2+] may override the lipid-storage effect of the CPA

  7. Effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on pulmonary sensitivity, motor activity, and body composition of brown Norway rats exposed to ozone

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    pulmonary parameters, BALF biomarkers, body composition, motor activity data collected from rats exposed to ozone after high fructose or high fat diets.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Gordon , C., P. Phillips , A. Johnstone , T. Beasley , A. Ledbetter , M. Schladweiler , S. Snow, and U. Kodavanti. Effect of High Fructose and High Fat Diets on Pulmonary Sensitivity, Motor Activity, and Body Composition of Brown Norway Rats Exposed to Ozone. INHALATION TOXICOLOGY. Taylor & Francis, Inc., Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28(5): 203-15, (2016).

  8. Investigation of the antiallergic activity of olopatadine on rhinitis induced by intranasal instillation of antigen in sensitized rats using thermography

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The main symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) are sneezing, rhinorrhea and nasal obstruction. It was reported that the nasal skin temperature after intranasal administration of histamine or grass pollen rose. In patients with AR, the levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have increased in nasal fluids and mucosa. Objective The present study were to determine the temperature changes of the nose in rat allergic rhinitis model, and if olopatadine, an antiallergic agent with histamine H1 receptor antagonistic action, proved to be effective, were studied the productions of NGF and VEGF in nasal lavage fluids (NALF). In the present study, we used ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized rats as an animal model of nasal allergy and examined the effects of olopatadine on the skin temperature of the nose area, and the productions of NGF and VEGF in NALF. Methods The temperature changes of the nose area were carried out with thermo tracer in rat passively sensitized with OVA antiserum. The numbers of sneezing episodes were counted and, NGF and VEGF levels in NALF were examined using the specific ELISA. Results In OVA-sensitized rats, the number of sneezing episodes increase and the nasal skin temperature rise were provoked after OVA challenge. The levels of NGF and VEGF in NALF also were increased. Olopatadine reduced the increased frequency of sneezing and the nasal skin temperature rise. It also inhibited the increased NGF and VEGF productions in NALF. Conclusion The nasal skin temperature after OVA challenge rose even in OVA-sensitized rats. These results suggest that the suppression of the increased NGF and VEGF levels might partially be involved in the improvement of allergy-like behavior (sneezing and nasal skin temperature rise) by the treatment of olopatadine. PMID:22053310

  9. Effect of ageing on the passive and active tension and pharmacodynamic characteristics of rat coronary arteries: age-dependent increase in sensitivity to 5-HT and K+.

    PubMed

    Sheykhzade, Majid; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Boonen, Harrie C M; Outzen, Emilie M; Nyborg, Niels C Berg

    2012-01-01

    The influence of ageing on the passive and active tension and pharmacodynamic characteristics of intramural coronary arteries from 3-month-old and 2-year-old male Wistar rats was investigated using an isometric myograph. The passive vessel wall tension measured in Ca(2+)-free physiological salt solution at L(0) was significantly greater in arteries from old rats (1.46 ± 0.10 Nm(-1), n = 7) than in young rats (1.13 ± 0.13 Nm(-1), n = 6). However, the maximal active tension at L(0) was similar. The spontaneous myogenic tone was increased by age and the vasorelaxation induced by extracellular K(+) was significantly higher in coronary arteries of old rats. The sensitivity (pD(2)) to 5-HT was significantly higher in arteries from old (6.43 ± 0.11, n = 22) than from young rats (6.16 ± 0.08, n = 29). Ketanserin induced a concentration-dependent rightward shift of the 5-HT concentration-response curve in arteries from both young and old rats. The slopes of the regression lines of the Schild plots were not significantly different from unity and the estimated pK(B) values for ketanserin were similar. In conclusion, ageing is associated with changes in passive mechanical characteristics as well as changes in pharmacological properties in rat coronary small arteries.

  10. Association of exercise training and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activator improves baroreflex sensitivity of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, P.R.; Moreira, M.C.S.; Marques, S.M.; Pinto, I.S.J.; Macedo, L.M.; Silva, C.C.; Freiria-Oliveira, A.H.; Rebelo, A.C.S.; Reis, A.A.S.; Rosa, D.A.; Ferreira-Neto, M.L.; Castro, C.H.; Pedrino, G.R.

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to determine cardiovascular effects of aerobic training associated with diminazene aceturate (DIZE), an activator of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Male SHRs (280–350 g) were either subjected to exercise training or not (sedentary group). The trained group was subjected to 8 weeks of aerobic training on a treadmill (five times a week, lasting 60 min at an intensity of 50–60% of maximum aerobic speed). In the last 15 days of the experimental protocol, these groups were redistributed into four groups: i) sedentary SHRs with daily treatment of 1 mg/kg DIZE (S+D1); ii) trained SHRs with daily treatment of 1 mg/kg DIZE (T+D1); iii) sedentary SHRs with daily treatment of vehicle (S+V); and iv) trained SHRs with daily treatment of vehicle (T+V). After treatment, SHRs were anesthetized and subjected to artery and femoral vein cannulation prior to the implantation of ECG electrode. After 24 h, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded; the baroreflex sensitivity and the effect of double autonomic blockade (DAB) were evaluated in non-anesthetized SHRs. DIZE treatment improved baroreflex sensitivity in the T+D1 group as compared with the T+V and S+D1 groups. The intrinsic heart rate (IHR) and MAP were reduced in T+D1 group as compared with T+V and S+D1 groups. Hence, we conclude that the association of exercise training with DIZE treatment improved baroreflex function and cardiovascular regulation. PMID:27533767

  11. Association of exercise training and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activator improves baroreflex sensitivity of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Lopes, P R; Moreira, M C S; Marques, S M; Pinto, I S J; Macedo, L M; Silva, C C; Freiria-Oliveira, A H; Rebelo, A C S; Reis, A A S; Rosa, D A; Ferreira-Neto, M L; Castro, C H; Pedrino, G R

    2016-08-01

    The present study sought to determine cardiovascular effects of aerobic training associated with diminazene aceturate (DIZE), an activator of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Male SHRs (280-350 g) were either subjected to exercise training or not (sedentary group). The trained group was subjected to 8 weeks of aerobic training on a treadmill (five times a week, lasting 60 min at an intensity of 50-60% of maximum aerobic speed). In the last 15 days of the experimental protocol, these groups were redistributed into four groups: i) sedentary SHRs with daily treatment of 1 mg/kg DIZE (S+D1); ii) trained SHRs with daily treatment of 1 mg/kg DIZE (T+D1); iii) sedentary SHRs with daily treatment of vehicle (S+V); and iv) trained SHRs with daily treatment of vehicle (T+V). After treatment, SHRs were anesthetized and subjected to artery and femoral vein cannulation prior to the implantation of ECG electrode. After 24 h, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded; the baroreflex sensitivity and the effect of double autonomic blockade (DAB) were evaluated in non-anesthetized SHRs. DIZE treatment improved baroreflex sensitivity in the T+D1 group as compared with the T+V and S+D1 groups. The intrinsic heart rate (IHR) and MAP were reduced in T+D1 group as compared with T+V and S+D1 groups. Hence, we conclude that the association of exercise training with DIZE treatment improved baroreflex function and cardiovascular regulation.

  12. Cholesterol side-chain cleavage in the rat adrenal cortex: isolation of a cycloheximide-sensitive activator peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, R C; Brownie, A C

    1983-01-01

    A cytosolic peptide activator (Mr approximately equal to 2,200) of cholesterol side-chain cleavage in the adrenal cortex has been isolated from normal corticotropin-treated rats and from rats implanted with the MtT/F4 corticotropin-secreting pituitary tumor. The isolation techniques were those common to peptide hormone purification, including tissue extraction into a highly acidic medium, gel filtration, and reverse-phase HPLC. The amino acid composition has been determined on acid hydrolysates. The activity of this adrenal peptide is acutely increased in hypophysectomized animals treated with corticotropin, and this increase is blocked by cycloheximide. The addition of activator peptide to adrenal mitochondrial preparations results in a rapid stimulation of pregnenolone formation that is dependent on activator concentration and a source of NADPH. In the absence of NADPH, addition of activator peptide to adrenal mitochondria increases the rate of cholesterol association with side-chain cleavage cytochrome P-450. The peptide therefore exhibits properties that are believed to characterize the hypothetical corticotropin-dependent labile activator of adrenal steroidogenesis. PMID:6300876

  13. Inflammatory Role of ROS-Sensitive AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in the Hypersensitivity of Lung Vagal C Fibers Induced by Intermittent Hypoxia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chang-Huan; Shen, Yan-Jhih; Lai, Ching Jung; Kou, Yu Ru

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), manifested by airway exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH), is associated with excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in airways, airway inflammation, and hyperreactive airway diseases. The cause-effect relationship for these events remains unclear. We investigated the inflammatory role of ROS-sensitive AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in IH-induced airway hypersensitivity mediated by lung vagal C fibers (LVCFs) in rats. Conscious rats were exposed to room air (RA) or IH with or without treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, an antioxidant), Compound C (an AMPK inhibitor), ibuprofen (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor), or their vehicles. Immediately after exposure (24 h), we found that intravenous capsaicin, phenylbiguanide, or α,β-methylene-ATP evoked augmented LVCF-mediated apneic responses and LVCF afferent responses in rats subjected to IH exposure in comparison with those in RA rats. The potentiating effect of IH on LVCF responses decreased at 6 h after and vanished at 12 h after the termination of IH exposure. The potentiating effect of IH on LVCF-mediated apneic and LVCF afferent responses was significantly attenuated by treatment with NAC, compound C, or ibuprofen, but not by their vehicles. Further biochemical analysis revealed that rats exposed to IH displayed increased lung levels of lipid peroxidation (an index of oxidative stress), AMPK phosphorylation (an index of AMPK activation), and prostaglandin E2 (a cyclooxygenase metabolite), compared with those exposed to RA. IH-induced increase in lipid peroxidation was considerably suppressed by treatment with NAC but not by compound C or ibuprofen. IH-induced increase in AMPK phosphorylation was totally abolished by NAC or compound C but not by ibuprofen. IH-induced increase in prostaglandin E2 was considerably prevented by any of these three inhibitor treatments. The vehicles of these inhibitors exerted no significant effect on the three IH-induced responses. These

  14. A Novel Sensitive Method to Measure Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Activity Unravels the Presence of This Activity in Extracellular Vesicles Released by Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Casal, Enriqueta; Palomo, Laura; Cabrera, Diana; Falcon-Perez, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    There is a clear need for drug treatments to be selected according to the characteristics of an individual patient, in order to improve efficacy and reduce the number and severity of adverse drug reactions. One of the main enzymes to take into account in pharmacogenomics is catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT), which catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to catechols and catecholamines, like the neurotransmitters dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Although, most of this enzyme is associated to intracellular vesicles, recently it has also been detected in extracellular vesicles secreted by hepatocytes and in serum circulating vesicles. COMT has implications in many neurological and psychiatric disorders like Parkinson's disease, chronic fatigue, pain response, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorders. Remarkably, genetic variations of COMT affect its activity and are associated to various human disorders from psychiatric diseases to estrogen-induced cancers. Consequently, the establishment of new methods to evaluate COMT activity is an important aspect to investigate the biology of this drug-metabolizing enzyme. Herein, we have developed a sensitive and selective method to determine COMT activity. We first optimized the activity in rat liver incubated with two different substrates; norepinephrine and dopamine. The enzymatically formed products (normetanephrine and 3-methoxytyramine, respectively) were extracted by solid-phase extraction using weak cation exchange cartridges, chromatographically separated, and detected and quantified using a mass spectrometer. The range of quantitation for both products was from 0.005 to 25 μg/mL. This methodology offers acceptable recovery for both enzymatic products (≥75%) and good accuracy and precision (≤15%). The lower limit of quantifications were 0.01 and 0.005 μM for 3-methoxytyramine and normetanephrine, respectively. Importantly, this sensitive assay was able to detect the presence of

  15. A Novel Sensitive Method to Measure Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Activity Unravels the Presence of This Activity in Extracellular Vesicles Released by Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Casal, Enriqueta; Palomo, Laura; Cabrera, Diana; Falcon-Perez, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    There is a clear need for drug treatments to be selected according to the characteristics of an individual patient, in order to improve efficacy and reduce the number and severity of adverse drug reactions. One of the main enzymes to take into account in pharmacogenomics is catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT), which catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to catechols and catecholamines, like the neurotransmitters dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Although, most of this enzyme is associated to intracellular vesicles, recently it has also been detected in extracellular vesicles secreted by hepatocytes and in serum circulating vesicles. COMT has implications in many neurological and psychiatric disorders like Parkinson's disease, chronic fatigue, pain response, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorders. Remarkably, genetic variations of COMT affect its activity and are associated to various human disorders from psychiatric diseases to estrogen-induced cancers. Consequently, the establishment of new methods to evaluate COMT activity is an important aspect to investigate the biology of this drug-metabolizing enzyme. Herein, we have developed a sensitive and selective method to determine COMT activity. We first optimized the activity in rat liver incubated with two different substrates; norepinephrine and dopamine. The enzymatically formed products (normetanephrine and 3-methoxytyramine, respectively) were extracted by solid-phase extraction using weak cation exchange cartridges, chromatographically separated, and detected and quantified using a mass spectrometer. The range of quantitation for both products was from 0.005 to 25 μg/mL. This methodology offers acceptable recovery for both enzymatic products (≥75%) and good accuracy and precision (≤15%). The lower limit of quantifications were 0.01 and 0.005 μM for 3-methoxytyramine and normetanephrine, respectively. Importantly, this sensitive assay was able to detect the presence of

  16. Role for NGF in augmented sympathetic nerve response to activation of mechanically and metabolically sensitive muscle afferents in rats with femoral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian; Xing, Jihong; Li, Jianhua

    2012-10-15

    Arterial blood pressure and heart rate responses to static contraction of the hindlimb muscles are greater in rats whose femoral arteries were previously ligated than in control rats. Also, the prior findings demonstrate that nerve growth factor (NGF) is increased in sensory neurons-dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of occluded rats. However, the role for endogenous NGF in engagement of the augmented sympathetic and pressor responses to stimulation of mechanically and/or metabolically sensitive muscle afferent nerves during static contraction after femoral artery ligation has not been specifically determined. In the present study, both afferent nerves and either of them were activated by muscle contraction, passive tendon stretch, and arterial injection of lactic acid into the hindlimb muscles. Data showed that femoral occlusion-augmented blood pressure response to contraction was significantly attenuated by a prior administration of the NGF antibody (NGF-Ab) into the hindlimb muscles. The effects of NGF neutralization were not seen when the sympathetic nerve and pressor responses were evoked by stimulation of mechanically sensitive muscle afferent nerves with tendon stretch in occluded rats. In addition, chemically sensitive muscle afferent nerves were stimulated by lactic acid injected into arterial blood supply of the hindlimb muscles after the prior NGF-Ab, demonstrating that the reflex muscle responses to lactic acid were significantly attenuated. The results of this study further showed that NGF-Ab attenuated an increase in acid-sensing ion channel subtype 3 (ASIC3) of DRG in occluded rats. Moreover, immunohistochemistry was employed to examine the number of C-fiber and A-fiber DRG neurons. The data showed that distribution of DRG neurons with different thin fiber phenotypes was not notably altered when NGF was infused into the hindlimb muscles. However, NGF increased expression of ASIC3 in DRG neurons with C-fiber but not A-fiber. Overall, these data

  17. Chronic fluoxetine treatment increases NO bioavailability and calcium-sensitive potassium channels activation in rat mesenteric resistance arteries.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Camila A; Ferreira, Nathanne S; Mestriner, Fabiola L; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Evora, Paulo R B; Resstel, Leonardo B M; Carneiro, Fernando S; Tostes, Rita C

    2015-10-15

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), has effects beyond its antidepressant properties, altering, e.g., mechanisms involved in blood pressure and vasomotor tone control. Although many studies have addressed the acute impact of fluoxetine on the cardiovascular system, there is a paucity of information on the chronic vascular effects of this SSRI. We tested the hypothesis that chronic fluoxetine treatment enhances the vascular reactivity to vasodilator stimuli by increasing nitric oxide (NO) signaling and activation of potassium (K+) channels. Wistar rats were divided into two groups: (I) vehicle (water for 21 days) or (II) chronic fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/day in the drinking water for 21 days). Fluoxetine treatment increased endothelium-dependent and independent vasorelaxation (analyzed by mesenteric resistance arteries reactivity) as well as constitutive NO synthase (NOS) activity, phosphorylation of eNOS at Serine1177 and NO production, determined by western blot and fluorescence. On the other hand, fluoxetine treatment did not alter vascular expression of neuronal and inducible NOS or guanylyl cyclase (GC). Arteries from fluoxetine-treated rats exhibited increased relaxation to pinacidil. Increased acetylcholine vasorelaxation was abolished by a calcium-activated K+ channel (KCa) blocker, but not by an inhibitor of KATP channels. On the other hand, vascular responses to Bay 41-2272 and 8-bromo-cGMP were similar between the groups. In conclusion, chronic fluoxetine treatment increases endothelium-dependent and independent relaxation of mesenteric resistance arteries by mechanisms that involve increased eNOS activity, NO generation, and KCa channels activation. These effects may contribute to the cardiovascular effects associated with chronic fluoxetine treatment.

  18. 3-[2,4-Dimethoxybenzylidene]anabaseine (DMXB) selectively activates rat alpha7 receptors and improves memory-related behaviors in a mecamylamine-sensitive manner.

    PubMed

    Meyer, E M; Tay, E T; Papke, R L; Meyers, C; Huang, G L; de Fiebre, C M

    1997-09-12

    The alpha7 nicotinic receptor agonist 3-[2,4-dimethoxybenzylidene]anabaseine (DMXB; GTS-21) was investigated for its ability to: (1) activate a variety of nicotinic receptor subtypes in Xenopus oocytes; (2) improve passive avoidance and spatial Morris water task performances in mecamylamine-sensitive manners in bilaterally nucleus basalis lesioned rats; and (3) elevate high-affinity [3H]acetylcholine (ACh) and high-affinity alpha-[125I]bungarotoxin binding in rat neocortex following 2 weeks of daily injections. DMXB (100 microM) activated alpha7 homo-oligomeric receptors, without significant activity at alpha2-, alpha3- and alpha4-containing subtypes. Mecamylamine blocked rat alpha7 receptors weakly if co-administered with agonist, but much more potently when pre-applied. Bilateral ibotenic acid lesions of the nucleus basalis interfered with passive avoidance and spatial memory-related behaviors. DMXB (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) improved passive avoidance behavior in lesioned animals in a mecamylamine-sensitive manner. DMXB (0.5 mg/kg 15 min before each session) also improved performance in the training and probe components of the Morris water task. DMXB-induced improvement in the probe component but not the training phase was mecamylamine-sensitive. [3H]ACh binding was elevated after 14 days of daily i.p. injections with 0.2 mg/kg nicotine but not after 1 mg/kg DMXB. Neither drug elevated high-affinity alpha-[125I]bungarorotoxin binding over this interval.

  19. Isolation, purification, and partial characterization of a membrane-bound Cl(-)/HCO3(-)-activated ATPase complex from rat brain with sensitivity to GABAAergic ligands.

    PubMed

    Menzikov, Sergey A

    2017-02-07

    This study describes the isolation and purification of a protein complex with [Formula: see text]-ATPase activity and sensitivity to GABAAergic ligands from rat brain plasma membranes. The ATPase complex was enriched using size-exclusion, affinity, and ion-exchange chromatography. The fractions obtained at each purification step were subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), which revealed four subunits with molecular mass ∼48, 52, 56, and 59 kDa; these were retained at all stages of the purification process. Autoradiography revealed that the ∼52 and 56 kDa subunits could bind [(3)H]muscimol. The [Formula: see text]-ATPase activity of this enriched protein complex was regulated by GABAAergic ligands but was not sensitive to blockers of the NKCC or KCC cotransporters.

  20. Exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) induces vascular relaxation by activating Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels in rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Owain Llŷr; Kamishima, Tomoko; Barrett-Jolley, Richard; Quayle, John M; Dart, Caroline

    2013-10-15

    Vasodilator-induced elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a central mechanism governing arterial relaxation but is incompletely understood due to the diversity of cAMP effectors. Here we investigate the role of the novel cAMP effector exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in mediating vasorelaxation in rat mesenteric arteries. In myography experiments, the Epac-selective cAMP analogue 8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMP-AM (5 μM, subsequently referred to as 8-pCPT-AM) elicited a 77.6 ± 7.1% relaxation of phenylephrine-contracted arteries over a 5 min period (mean ± SEM; n = 6). 8-pCPT-AM induced only a 16.7 ± 2.4% relaxation in arteries pre-contracted with high extracellular K(+) over the same time period (n = 10), suggesting that some of Epac's relaxant effect relies upon vascular cell hyperpolarization. This involves Ca(2+)-sensitive, large-conductance K(+) (BK(Ca)) channel opening as iberiotoxin (100 nM) significantly reduced the ability of 8-pCPT-AM to reverse phenylephrine-induced contraction (arteries relaxed by only 35.0 ± 8.5% over a 5 min exposure to 8-pCPT-AM, n = 5; P < 0.05). 8-pCPT-AM increased Ca(2+) spark frequency in Fluo-4-AM-loaded mesenteric myocytes from 0.045 ± 0.008 to 0.103 ± 0.022 sparks s(-1) μm(-1) (P < 0.05) and reversibly increased both the frequency (0.94 ± 0.25 to 2.30 ± 0.72 s(-1)) and amplitude (23.9 ± 3.3 to 35.8 ± 7.7 pA) of spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) recorded in isolated mesenteric myocytes (n = 7; P < 0.05). 8-pCPT-AM-activated STOCs were sensitive to iberiotoxin (100 nM) and to ryanodine (30 μM). Current clamp recordings of isolated myocytes showed a 7.9 ± 1.0 mV (n = 10) hyperpolarization in response to 8-pCPT-AM that was sensitive to iberiotoxin (n = 5). Endothelial disruption suppressed 8-pCPT-AM-mediated relaxation in phenylephrine-contracted arteries (24.8 ± 4.9% relaxation after 5 min of exposure, n = 5; P < 0.05), as did apamin and TRAM-34, blockers of Ca(2+)-sensitive, small- and

  1. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mitigates brain injury in a rat model of infection-sensitized neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dianer; Sun, Yu-Yo; Nemkul, Niza; Baumann, Jessica M; Shereen, Ahmed; Dunn, R Scott; Wills-Karp, Marsha; Lawrence, Daniel A; Lindquist, Diana M; Kuan, Chia-Yi

    2013-05-01

    Intrauterine infection exacerbates neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury and impairs the development of cerebral cortex. Here we used low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) pre-exposure followed by unilateral cerebral HI insult in 7-day-old rats to study the pathogenic mechanisms. We found that LPS pre-exposure blocked the HI-induced proteolytic activity of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), but significantly enhanced NF-κB signaling, microglia activation, and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in newborn brains. Remarkably, these pathogenic responses were all blocked by intracerebroventricular injection of a stable-mutant form of plasminogen activator protein-1 called CPAI. Similarly, LPS pre-exposure amplified, while CPAI therapy mitigated HI-induced blood-brain-barrier damage and the brain tissue loss with a therapeutic window at 4 h after the LPS/HI insult. The CPAI also blocks microglia activation following a brain injection of LPS, which requires the contribution by tPA, but not the urinary-type plasminogen activator (uPA), as shown by experiments in tPA-null and uPA-null mice. These results implicate the nonproteolytic tPA activity in LPS/HI-induced brain damage and microglia activation. Finally, the CPAI treatment protects near-normal motor and white matter development despite neonatal LPS/HI insult. Together, because CPAI blocks both proteolytic and nonproteolytic tPA neurotoxicity, it is a promising therapeutics of neonatal HI injury either with or without infection.

  2. Effect of topical cis-urocanic acid on local lymph node activation during contact sensitization in mouse, rat and guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Lauerma, A I; Homey, B; Vohr, H W; Lee, C H; Bloom, E; Maibach, H I

    1996-05-01

    Cis-urocanic acid (cUCA) has been suggested as a mediator of impairment of contact hypersensitivity induction by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. We ascertained whether topical cUCA influences local lymph node activation during induction of contact hypersensitivity. Topical cUCA or vehicle was applied during the local lymph node assay to oxazolone. Local lymph node weight and cell number were assessed in all animals. Additionally, cell proliferation rate was studied in Hartley guinea-pigs and CBA/Ca mice, whereas activation of antigen-presenting cells was quantified in NMRI mice and Wistar rats. Topical cUCA suppressed all parameters of local lymph node activation due to oxazolone application in guinea-pigs. No effect, with the exception of a suppression of antigen-presenting cell activity, was seen in mice. No effect was seen in rats. The study shows that topical cUCA may suppress local lymph node activation during contact sensitization and suggests that differences between the effect of cUCA in different animal species may exist.

  3. Activation of steroid-sensitive TRPM3 channels potentiates glutamatergic transmission at cerebellar Purkinje neurons from developing rats.

    PubMed

    Zamudio-Bulcock, Paula A; Everett, Julie; Harteneck, Christian; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2011-11-01

    The functional implications of transient receptor potential melastatin 3 (TRPM3) activation, the most recently described member of the melastatin subfamily of cation permeable TRP channels, have begun to be elucidated in recent years. The discovery of TRPM3 activation by the steroid pregnenolone sulfate (PregS) has shed new light on the physiological role of this channel. For example, TRPM3 activation enhances insulin secretion from β pancreatic cells, induces contraction of vascular smooth muscle, and is also involved in the detection of noxious heat. Although TRPM3 expression has been detected in several regions of the developing and mature brain, little is known about the roles of TRPM3 in brain physiology. In this study, we demonstrate the abundant expression of TRPM3 steroid-sensitive channels in the developing cerebellar cortex. We also show that TRPM3-like channels are expressed at glutamatergic synapses in neonatal Purkinje cells. We recently showed that PregS potentiates spontaneous glutamate release onto neonatal Purkinje cells during a period of active glutamatergic synapse formation; we now show that this effect of PregS is mediated by TRPM3-like channels. Mefenamic acid, a recently discovered TRPM3 antagonist, blocked the effect of PregS on glutamate release. The PregS effect on glutamate release was mimicked by other TRPM3 agonists (nifedipine and epipregnanolone sulfate) but not by a TRMP3-inactive steroid (progesterone). Our findings identify TRPM3 channels as novel modulators of glutamatergic transmission in the developing brain.

  4. Factors influencing the sensitivity of the rat to vasopressin

    PubMed Central

    Forsling, Mary L.; Jones, J. J.; Lee, J.

    1968-01-01

    1. Indirect evidence suggests that the concentration of arginine vasopressin in the plasma of normally hydrated man is about 1 μ-u./ml., but this is usually considered to be below the limit of sensitivity of the standard assay preparation, the water-loaded Wistar rat under ethanol anaesthesia. 2. It was found that there was a surprising variation in sensitivity to vasopressin between batches of Wistar rats, and that other varieties of rat (including those with diabetes insipidus) were no more sensitive. 3. Three modifications of the standard assay procedure produced an increase in sensitivity: (a) using Wistar rats weighing 100-150 g, rather than larger animals; (b) commencing the assay shortly after surgery, i.e. as soon as the urine flow reached 25 μl./min; (c) infusing vasopressin intravenously (0·5-3 μ-u./min). By using modification (a) with either (b) or (c) it was possible to detect as little as 0·5 μ-u. 4. With these modifications antidiuretic activity equivalent to 0·5-2·0 μ-u./ml. of arginine vasopressin was measured in nine samples of plasma from a normally hydrated subject. 5. It is suggested that the frequent reports of enhanced sensitivity may have been due to the fortuitous use of a particularly sensitive batch of rats, or to a high endogenous secretion of vasopressin due to operative trauma. PMID:5652885

  5. Taurine activates strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in neurons freshly isolated from nucleus accumbens of young rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhenglin; Krnjević, Kresimir; Wang, Fushun; Ye, Jiang Hong

    2004-01-01

    Although functional glycine receptors (GlyRs) are present in the mature nucleus accumbens (NAcc), an important area of the mesolimbic dopamine system involved in drug addiction, their role has been unclear because the NAcc contains little glycine. However, taurine, an agonist of GlyRs, is abundant throughout the brain, especially during early development. In the present study on freshly dissociated NAcc neurons from young Sprague-Dawley rats (12- to 21-day old), we found that both glycine and taurine can strongly depolarize NAcc neurons and modulate their excitability. In voltage-clamped NAcc neurons, glycine and taurine elicited chloride currents (IGly and ITau) with an EC50 of 0.12 and 1.25 mM, respectively. The reversal potential of IGly or ITau was 0 mV in conventional whole cell mode and -30 mV in gramicidin-perforated mode. At concentrations <1 mM, both glycine and taurine were very effectively antagonized by strychnine and by picrotoxin (with an IC50 of 60 nM and 36.5 microM for IGly, and 40 nM and 42.2 microM for ITau) but were insensitive to 10 microM bicuculline. The currents elicited by taurine (< or =1 mM) showed complete cross-desensitization with IGly, but none with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced currents (IGABA). However, ITau elicited by very concentrated taurine (10 mM) showed partial cross-desensitization with IGABA, and it was substantially antagonized by 10 microM bicuculline. These results indicate that taurine binds mainly to GlyRs in NAcc, but it could be a partial agonist of GABAA receptors. By activating GlyRs, taurine may play an important physiological role in the control of NAcc function, especially during development.

  6. Protein kinase C regulates the activity of voltage-sensitive calcium channels of the rat chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wakade, A.R.; Malhotra, R.K.; Wakade, T.D.

    1986-03-05

    Phorbol dibutyrate (PB), an activator of protein kinase C was used as a tool to study the role of protein kinase C in the secretion of catecholamines (CA) from the perfused adrenal gland of rat. Secretion of CA evoked by splanchnic nerve stimulation, nicotine (N), carbamylcholine (C) and 35 mM K (K) was enhanced (about 2-fold) by 30 nM PB, but that evoked by muscarine (M) was not. In Ca-free and 1 mM EGTA Krebs solution, N and M did not evoke secretion, and PB also had no effect. If Ca concentration of the perfusion medium was maintained at 0.1 mM, N-evoked secretion was reduced over 80% but M-evoked secretion was still about 60% of the control value. Addition of PB to this medium did not modify secretion evoked by M, but N-evoked secretion was facilitated by 3-fold. Ca/sup 45/ flux data showed that N-, C-, and K-evoked secretion of CA was associated with 2- to 3-fold increase in Ca/sup 45/ uptake. However, M-evoked secretion did not cause Ca/sup 45/ uptake. These results suggest that N utilizes extracellular whereas M utilizes mostly intracellular Ca ions for the secretion of CA. PB alone did not affect Ca/sup 45/ uptake, but after stimulation with N, C and K, Ca/sup 45/ uptake was further enhanced by PB. It is concluded that protein kinase C phosphorylates membrane proteins that control opening and closing of Ca channels regulated by nicotine receptors and changes in membrane potentials.

  7. Activation by intracellular GDP, metabolic inhibition and pinacidil of a glibenclamide-sensitive K-channel in smooth muscle cells of rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H; Bolton, T B

    1995-01-01

    1. Single-channel recordings were made from cell-attached and isolated patches, and whole-cell currents were recorded under voltage clamp from single smooth muscle cells obtained by enzymic digestion of a small branch of the rat mesenteric artery. 2. In single voltage-clamped cells 1 mM uridine diphosphate (UDP) or guanidine diphosphate (GDP) added to the pipette solution, or pinacidil (100 microM) a K-channel opener (KCO) applied in the bathing solution, evoked an outward current of up to 100pA which was blocked by glibenclamide (10 microM). In single cells from which recordings were made by the 'perforated patch' (nystatin pipette) technique, metabolic inhibition by 1 mM NaCN and 10 mM 2-deoxy-glucose also evoked a similar glibenclamide-sensitive current. 3. Single K-channel activity was observed in cell-attached patches only infrequently unless the metabolism of the cell was inhibited, whereupon channel activity blocked by glibenclamide was seen; pinacidil applied to the cell evoked similar glibenclamide-sensitive channel activity. If the patch was pulled off the cell to form an isolated inside-out patch, similar glibenclamide-sensitive single-channel currents were observed in the presence of UDP and/or pinacidil to those seen in cell-attached mode; channel conductance was 20 pS (60:130 K-gradient) and openings showed no voltage-dependence and noisy inward currents, typical of the nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) activated K-channel (KNDP) seen previously in rabbit portal vein. 4. Formation of an isolated inside-out patch into an ATP-free solution did not increase the probability of channel opening which declined with time even when some single-channel activity had occurred in the cell-attached mode before detachment. However, application of 1 mM UDP or GDP, but not ATP, to inside-out patches evoked single-channel activity. Application of ATP-free solution to isolated patches, previously exposed to ATP and in which channel activity had been seen, did not evoke

  8. Stress-sensitive organs and blood corticosterone after immobilization of active and passive rats immunized with glutamate-bovine serum albumin conjugate.

    PubMed

    Umryukhin, A E; Sotnikov, S V; Chekmareva, N Yu; Vetrile, L A; Zakharova, I A

    2014-12-01

    We studied stress-induced organ and hormonal responses in behaviorally active and passive rats against the background of immunization with glutamate-BSA conjugate. The relative weight of the adrenal glands after immobilization was lower in rats immunized with the conjugate in comparison with non-immunized animals. The weight of the adrenal glands in behaviorally active rats decreased in parallel with the decrease in blood corticosterone. In behaviorally active and passive rats immunized with the conjugate, ulcer formation in the stomach was slightly intensified after immobilization. It was hypothesized that immunization with glutamate-BSA conjugate suppresses activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal feedback mechanism underlying the production of glucocorticoid hormones, which is manifested in slightly increased ulceration due to attenuation of the gastroprotective action of corticosterone under stress.

  9. Spatial Reversal Learning in Chronically Sensitized Rats and in Undrugged Sensitized Rats with Dopamine D2-Like Receptor Agonist Quinpirole

    PubMed Central

    Hatalova, Hana; Radostova, Dominika; Pistikova, Adela; Vales, Karel; Stuchlik, Ales

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine plays a role in generating flexible adaptive responses in changing environments. Chronic administration of D2-like agonist quinpirole (QNP) induces behavioral sensitization and stereotypical behaviors reminiscent of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Some of these symptoms persist even after QNP discontinuation. In QNP-sensitization, perseverative behavior has often been implicated. To test the effect of QNP-sensitization on reversal learning and its association with perseveration we selected an aversively motivated hippocampus-dependent task, active place avoidance on a Carousel. Performance was measured as the number of entrances into a to-be-avoided sector (errors). We tested separately QNP-sensitized rats in QNP-drugged and QNP-undrugged state in acquisition and reversal tasks on the Carousel. In acquisition learning there were no significant differences between groups and their respective controls. In reversal, QNP-sensitized drugged rats showed a robust but transient increase in number of errors compared to controls. QNP-sensitized rats in an undrugged state were not overtly different from the control animals but displayed an altered learning manifested by more errors at the beginning compensated by quicker learning in the second session compared to control animals. Importantly, performance was not associated with perseveration in neither QNP-sensitized drugged nor QNP-sensitized undrugged animals. The present results show that chronic QNP treatment induces robust reversal learning deficit only when the substance is continuously administered, and suggest that QNP animal model of OCD is also feasible model of cognitive alterations in this disorder. PMID:24782730

  10. Perinatal undernutrition facilitates morphine sensitization and cross-sensitization to cocaine in adult rats: a behavioral and neurochemical study.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, E E; Valdomero, A; Orsingher, O A; Cuadra, G R

    2010-01-20

    The development of sensitization to the locomotor effects of morphine and cross-sensitization between morphine and cocaine were evaluated in adult rats submitted to a protein malnutrition schedule from the 14th day of gestation up to 30 days of age (D-rats), and compared with well-nourished animals (C-rats). Dose-response curves to morphine-induced locomotor activity (5, 7.5, 10 or 15 mg/kg, i.p., every other day for 5 days) revealed a shift to the left in D-rats compared to C-rats. This implies that D-rats showed behavioral sensitization to the lower dose of morphine used (5 mg/kg), which was ineffective in C-rats. Furthermore, when a cocaine challenge (10 mg/kg, i.p) was given 48 h after the last morphine administration, only D-rats exhibited cross-sensitization in morphine-pretreated animals (7.5 and 10 mg/kg). In order to correlate the differential response observed with the functioning of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system, extracellular dopamine (DA) levels were measured in the nucleus accumbens (core and shell) and the dorsal caudate-putamen. A challenge with cocaine in morphine pre-exposed animals produced an increase in DA release, but only in the nucleus accumbens "core" of D-rats. Similar DA levels were found in the nucleus accumbens "shell" and in the dorsal caudate-putamen of both groups. Finally, these results demonstrate that D-rats had a lower threshold for developing both a progressive behavioral sensitization to morphine and a cross-sensitization to cocaine. In accordance with these behavioral findings, a higher responsiveness of the nucleus accumbens core, expressed by increased DA levels, both basal and after cocaine challenge, was observed in D-rats.

  11. Reduced T cell response in carcinogen-sensitive Donryu rats compared with carcinogen-resistant DRH rats.

    PubMed

    Mise-Omata, S; Sugiura, T; Higashi, K; Yamashita, U

    1999-12-01

    Carcinogen-resistant DRH rats were developed from carcinogen-sensitive Donryu rats, which showed a high incidence of hepatic tumors when they were exposed to 3'-methyl-4-dimethyl-amino-azobenzene (3'-MeDAB4) or other aminoazo hepatocarcinogens. In order to study the mechanism of the difference of carcinogenesis, we studied the immunological competence of Donryu rats compared with that of DRH rats. Anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) antibody and KLH-specific delayed hypersensitivity (DTH) responses after immunization with KLH were reduced in Donryu rats compared with DRH rats. Proliferative responses of spleen cells to KLH and nonspecific mitogens such as conconavalin A (Con A) and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) were significantly lower in Donryu rats than in DRH rats. Upon the cross-linking of T cell receptor (TCR) complex using anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (Mab), spleen cells from Donryu rats proliferated poorly. Two other strains of rats, SD and Wistar, exhibited high responsiveness, comparable to that of DRH rats, indicating that the responsiveness of Donryu rats was impaired. The production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) upon stimulation with Con A and the responsiveness of Con A blasts to exogenous IL-2 were also attenuated in Donryu rats. In contrast to T cell responsiveness, natural killer (NK) cell activity of spleen was increased in Donryu rats. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the expression of CD4 and CD8 on T cells was decreased in Donryu rats, though the expression of other T cell markers such as CD2, CD3 and CD5 was not different. These results indicate that Donryu rats, which have been used in many years for cancer research in Japan, have impaired immunological surveillance mechanisms. This is likely to be one of the factors accounting for the high sensitivity to chemical carcinogens and the high susceptibility to transplanted tumor cells of Donryu rats.

  12. Knockdown of the gene encoding Drosophila tribbles homologue 3 (Trib3) improves insulin sensitivity through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR)-γ activation in a rat model of insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Weismann, D.; Erion, D. M.; Ignatova-Todorava, I.; Nagai, Y.; Stark, R.; Hsiao, J. J.; Flannery, C.; Birkenfeld, A. L.; May, T.; Kahn, M.; Zhang, D.; Yu, X. X.; Murray, S. F.; Bhanot, S.; Monia, B. P.; Cline, G. W.; Shulman, G. I.; Samuel, V. T.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Insulin action is purportedly modulated by Drosophila tribbles homologue 3 (TRIB3), which in vitro prevents thymoma viral proto-oncogene (AKT) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ activation. However, the physiological impact of TRIB3 action in vivo remains controversial. Methods We investigated the role of TRIB3 in rats treated with either a control or Trib3 antisense oligonucleotide (ASO). Tissue-specific insulin sensitivity was assessed in vivo using a euglycaemic–hyperinsulinaemic clamp. A separate group was treated with the PPAR-γ antagonist, bisphenol-A-diglycidyl ether (BADGE) to assess the role of PPAR-γ in mediating the response to Trib3 ASO. Results Trib3 ASO treatment specifically reduced Trib3 expression by 70 to 80% in liver and white adipose tissue. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin concentrations and basal rate of endogenous glucose production were unchanged. However, Trib3 ASO increased insulin-stimulated whole-body glucose uptake by ~50% during the euglycaemic–hyperinsulinaemic clamp. This was attributable to improved skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Despite the reduction of Trib3 expression, AKT2 activity was not increased. Trib3 ASO increased white adipose tissue mass by 70%, and expression of Ppar-γ and its key target genes, raising the possibility that Trib3 ASO improves insulin sensitivity primarily in a PPAR-γ-dependent manner. Co-treatment with BADGE blunted the expansion of white adipose tissue and abrogated the insulin-sensitising effects of Trib3 ASO. Finally, Trib3 ASO also increased plasma HDL-cholesterol, a change that persisted with BADGE co-treatment. Conclusions/interpretation These data suggest that TRIB3 inhibition improves insulin sensitivity in vivo primarily in a PPAR-γ-dependent manner and without any change in AKT2 activity. PMID:21190014

  13. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P < 0.001). Plasma parathyroid hormone concentrations of S rats were twice that of R rats. S rats fed 2% salt had higher plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P < 0.001) and did not exhibit the expected calciuric response to salt. Proteinuria of the S rats was three times that of the R rats, suggesting kidney damage in the S rats. Low plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  14. Redox-Sensitive Oxidation and Phosphorylation of PTEN Contribute to Enhanced Activation of PI3K/Akt Signaling in Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla and Neurogenic Hypertension in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kay L.H.; Wu, Chiung-Ai; Wu, Chih-Wei; Chan, Samuel H.H.; Chang, Alice Y.W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/serine/threonine protein kinase (Akt) is enhanced under hypertension. The phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a negative regulator of PI3K signaling, and its activity is redox-sensitive. In the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), which is responsible for the maintenance of blood pressure, oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in neurogenic hypertension. The present study evaluated the hypothesis that redox-sensitive inactivation of PTEN results in enhanced PI3K/Akt signaling in RVLM, leading to neurogenic hypertension. Results: Compared to age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, PTEN inactivation in the form of oxidation and phosphorylation were greater in RVLM of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). PTEN inactivation was accompanied by augmented PI3K activity and PI3K/Akt signaling, as reflected by the increase in phosphorylation of Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin. Intracisternal infusion of tempol or microinjection into the bilateral RVLM of adenovirus encoding superoxide dismutase significantly antagonized the PTEN inactivation and blunted the enhanced PI3K/Akt signaling in SHR. Gene transfer of PTEN to RVLM in SHR also abrogated the enhanced Akt activation and promoted antihypertension. Silencing PTEN expression in RVLM with small-interfering RNA, on the other hand, augmented PI3K/Akt signaling and promoted long-term pressor response in normotensive WKY rats. Innovation: The present study demonstrated for the first time that the redox-sensitive check-and-balance process between PTEN and PI3K/Akt signaling is engaged in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Conclusion: We conclude that an aberrant interplay between the redox-sensitive PTEN and PI3k/Akt signaling in RVLM underpins neural mechanism of hypertension. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 36–50. PMID:22746319

  15. Enhanced morphine- and cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in alcohol-preferring AA rats.

    PubMed

    Honkanen, A; Mikkola, J; Korpi, E R; Hyytiä, P; Seppälä, T; Ahtee, L

    1999-03-01

    Locomotor stimulation and behavioral sensitization induced by acute and repeated treatment with alcohol, cocaine or morphine were studied in the alcohol-preferring AA (Alko, Alcohol), alcohol-avoiding ANA (Alko, Non-Alcohol) rats and non-selected Wistar rats. Daily treatment with alcohol (ethanol, 0.4 or 1.0 g/kg, IP) for 6 days had no effect on locomotor activity either in the AA or ANA rats. Acute cocaine (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg, IP) produced a locomotor stimulation in the animals of all lines studied, and there was no difference in this effect between the AA and ANA rats. During a 4-day repeated cocaine treatment, the AA rats became sensitized with the 10 mg/kg dose, while the ANA rats did not show any sensitization with this dose. With the 20 mg/kg cocaine dose, in addition to locomotor stimulation, the rats of all lines studied showed stereotyped behavior, which response was enhanced during repeated treatment. Morphine-induced locomotor stimulation was larger in the AA rats than in the ANA or Wistar rats both with 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg doses and only the AA rats were sensitized during 4-day treatment with the 1 mg/kg dose. With the 3.0 mg/kg morphine dose, only the AA rats showed a weak sensitization evident only during the initial 30 min after morphine injection. As the drug-induced behavioral sensitization is an important factor in the development of drug addiction, it is possible that mechanisms underlying the enhanced susceptibility of the AA rats to morphine- and cocaine-induced sensitization contribute to the high intake of alcohol and other abused drugs by these animals.

  16. Genetic influence on brain catecholamines: high brain norepinephrine in salt-sensitive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, J; Friedman, R; Tassinari, L

    1980-01-01

    Rats genetically sensitive to salt-induced hypertension evinced higher levels of plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine than rats genetically resistant to hypertension. The hypertension-sensitive rats showed higher hypothalamic norepinephrine and lower epinephrine than resistant rats. In response to a high salt diet, brain stem norepinephrine increased in sensitive rats while resistant rats exhibited a decrease on the same diet.

  17. Long-term pioglitazone treatment augments insulin sensitivity and PKC-epsilon and PKC-theta activation in skeletal muscles in sucrose fed rats.

    PubMed

    Marková, I; Zídek, V; Musilová, A; Simáková, M; Mlejnek, P; Kazdová, L; Pravenec, M

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that thiazolidinediones (TZDs) ameliorate insulin resistance in muscle tissue by suppressing muscle lipid storage and the activity of novel protein kinase C (nPKC) isoforms. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed long-term metabolic effects of pioglitazone and the activation of nPKC-epsilon and -theta isoforms in an animal model of the metabolic syndrome, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (a congenic SHR strain with wild type Cd36 gene) fed a diet with 60 % sucrose from the age of 4 to 8 months. Compared to untreated controls, pioglitazone treatment was associated with significantly increased basal (809+/-36 vs 527+/-47 nmol glucose/g/2h, P<0.005) and insulin-stimulated glycogenesis (1321+/-62 vs 749+/-60 nmol glucose/g/2h, P<0.0001) in isolated gastrocnemius muscles despite increased concentrations of muscle triglycerides (3.83+/-0.33 vs 2.25+/-0.12 micromol/g, P<0.005). Pioglitazone-treated rats exhibited significantly increased membrane/total (cytosolic plus membrane) ratio of both PKC-epsilon and PKC-theta isoforms compared to untreated controls. These results suggest that amelioration of insulin resistance after long-term pioglitazone treatment is associated with increased activation of PKC-epsilon and -theta isoforms in spite of increased lipid concentration in skeletal muscles.

  18. Effect of Alpha-Hederin, the active constituent of Nigella sativa, on miRNA-126, IL-13 mRNA levels and inflammation of lungs in ovalbumin-sensitized male rats

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Maryam; Keyhanmanesh, Rana; Khamaneh, Amir Mahdi; Ebrahimi Saadatlou, Mohammad Ali; Saadat, Saeideh; Ebrahimi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In previous studies the therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa have been demonstrated on asthmatic animals. In the present study, the preventive effect of single dose of alpha-hederin, its active constituent, has been evaluated on lung inflammation and some inflammatory mediators in lungs of ovalbumin sensitized rat in order to elicit its mechanism. Materials and Methods: Forty rats were randomly grouped in 4 groups; control (C), sensitized (S), sensitized pretreated groups with thymoquinone (3 mg/kg i.p., S+TQ) and alpha-hederin (0.02 mg/kg i.p., S+AH). Levels of IL-13 mRNA and miRNA-126 in lung tissue and its pathological changes in each group were assessed. Results: Elevated levels of miRNA-126, IL-13 mRNA and pathological changes were observed in the sensitized group compared to the control group (p<0.001 to p<0.05). All of these factors were significantly reduced in S+TQ and S+AH groups in comparison to S group (p<0.001 to p<0.05). Although alpha-hederin decreased the levels of miRNA-126, IL-13 mRNA and pathological changes in comparison with thymoquinone, the results were statistically not significant. Conclusion: The results suggested that alpha-hederin had preventive effect on sensitized rats like thymoquinone. It may intervene in miRNA-126 expression, which consequently could interfere with IL-13 secretion pathway leading to a reduction in inflammatory responses. PMID:27247924

  19. Enhanced amiloride-sensitive superoxide production in renal medullary thick ascending limb of Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Paul M; Lu, Limin; Schreck, Carlos; Cowley, Allen W

    2008-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine whether superoxide (O(2)(-)) production is enhanced in medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL) of Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats compared with a salt-resistant consomic control strain (SS.13(BN)) and to elucidate the cellular pathways responsible for augmented O(2)(-) production. Studies were carried out in 7- to 10-wk-old male SS and SS.13(BN) rats fed either a 0.4% NaCl diet or a 4.0% NaCl diet for 3 days before tissue harvest. Tissue strips containing mTAL were isolated from the left kidney, loaded with the O(2)(-)-sensitive fluorescent dye dihydroethidium, superfused with modified Hanks' solution, and imaged at x60 magnification on a heated microscope stage. O(2)(-) production was stimulated in mTAL by incrementing superfusate NaCl concentration from 154 to 254 to 500 mM. O(2)(-) production was enhanced in mTAL of SS rats compared with SS.13(BN) rats in response to incrementing bath NaCl. Addition of N-methyl-amiloride (100 muM) or inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase reduced O(2)(-) production in SS mTAL to levels observed in SS.13(BN) rats. Both amiloride- and ouabain-sensitive pathways of O(2)(-) production were elevated following 3 days of high (4.0%) NaCl feeding in mTAL of SS and SS.13(BN) rats. We conclude that mTAL from SS rats exhibit enhanced amiloride-sensitive O(2)(-) production. The amiloride-sensitive O(2)(-) response in mTAL is independent of active Na(+) transport and appears to be mediated by NAD(P)H oxidase. Amiloride-sensitive O(2)(-) production is likely to contribute to augmented outer medullary O(2)(-) production observed in SS rats during both normal and high NaCl diets.

  20. Food restriction alters N'-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzothiazole-2,6-diamine dihydrochloride (pramipexole)-induced yawning, hypothermia, and locomotor activity in rats: evidence for sensitization of dopamine D2 receptor-mediated effects.

    PubMed

    Collins, Gregory T; Calinski, Diane M; Newman, Amy Hauck; Grundt, Peter; Woods, James H

    2008-05-01

    Food restriction enhances sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of a variety of drugs of abuse including opiates, nicotine, and psychostimulants. Food restriction has also been shown to alter a variety of behavioral and pharmacological responses to dopaminergic agonists, including an increased sensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of direct- and indirect-dopamine agonists, elevated extracellular dopamine levels in responses to psychostimulants, as well as suppression of agonist-induced yawning. Behavioral and molecular studies suggest that augmented dopaminergic responses observed in food-restricted animals result from a sensitization of the dopamine D2 receptor; however, little is known about how food restriction affects dopamine D3 receptor function. The current studies were aimed at better defining the effects of food restriction on D2 and D3 receptor function by assessing the capacity of N'-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzothiazole-2,6-diamine dihydrochloride (pramipexole) to induce yawning, penile erection (PE), hypothermia, and locomotor activity in free-fed and food-restricted rats. Food restriction resulted in a suppression of pramipexole-induced yawning, a sensitized hypothermic response, and an enhanced locomotor response to pramipexole, effects that are suggestive of an enhanced D2 receptor activity; no effect on pramipexole-induced PE was observed. Antagonist studies further supported a food restriction-induced enhancement of the D2 receptor activity because the D2 antagonist 3-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-l-yl]methyl-1H-indole (L741,626) recovered pramipexole-induced yawning to free-fed levels, whereas yawning and PE were suppressed following pretreatment with the D3 antagonist N-{4-[4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-trans-but-2-enyl}-4-pyridine-2-yl-benzamide hydrochloride (PG01037). The results of the current studies suggest that food restriction sensitized rats to the D2-mediated effects of pramipexole while having no effect

  1. Activation of presynaptic and postsynaptic ryanodine-sensitive calcium stores is required for the induction of long-term depression at GABAergic synapses in the neonatal rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Caillard, O; Ben-Ari, Y; Gaïarsa, J L

    2000-09-01

    The role of internal calcium stores in the induction of long-term depression at GABAergic synapses was investigated in the neonatal rat hippocampus. Whole-cell recordings of CA3 pyramidal neurons were performed on hippocampal slices from neonatal (2-4 d old) rats. In control conditions, tetanic stimulation (TS) evoked an NMDA-dependent long-term depression of GABA(A) receptor-mediated postsynaptic responses (LTD(GABA-A)). LTD(GABA-A) was prevented when the cells were loaded with ruthenium red, a blocker of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) stores, whereas loading the cells with heparin, a blocker of IP3-induced Ca2+ release stores, had no effect. The effects of ryanodine, another compound that interferes with CICR stores, were also investigated. Intracellular injection of ryanodine prevented the induction of LTD(GABA-A) only when the TS was preceded by depolarizing pulses that increase intracellular Ca2+ concentration. When applied in the bath, ryanodine prevented the induction of LTD(GABA-A). Altogether, these results suggest that ryanodine acts as a Ca2+-dependent blocker of CICR stores and that the induction of LTD(GABA-A) required the activation of both presynaptic and postsynaptic CICR stores.

  2. 17 beta-estradiol modifies nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase expression and down-regulates its activity in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Cabilla, Jimena P; Díaz, María del Carmen; Machiavelli, Leticia I; Poliandri, Ariel H; Quinteros, Fernanda A; Lasaga, Mercedes; Duvilanski, Beatriz H

    2006-09-01

    Previous studies showed that 17 beta-estradiol (17 beta-E2) regulates the nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway in many tissues. Evidence from our laboratory indicates that 17 beta-E2 disrupts the inhibitory effect of NO on prolactin release, decreasing sGC activity and affecting the cGMP pathway in anterior pituitary gland of adult ovariectomized and estrogenized rats. To ascertain the mechanisms by which 17 beta-E2 affects sGC activity, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of 17 beta-E2 on sGC protein and mRNA expression in anterior pituitary gland from immature female rats. In the present work, we showed that 17 beta-E2 acute treatment exerted opposite effects on the two sGC subunits, increasing alpha1 and decreasing beta1 subunit protein and mRNA expression. This action on sGC protein expression was maximal 6-9 h after 17 beta-E2 administration. 17beta-E2 also caused the same effect on mRNA expression at earlier times. Concomitantly, 17 beta-E2 dramatically decreased sGC activity 6 and 9 h after injection. These effects were specific of 17 beta-E2, because they were not observed with the administration of other steroids such as progesterone and 17 alpha-estradiol. This inhibitory action of 17beta-E2 on sGC also required the activation of estrogen receptor (ER), because treatment with the pure ER antagonist ICI 182,780 completely blocked 17 beta-E2 action. 17 beta-E2 acute treatment caused the same effects on pituitary cells in culture. These results suggest that 17 beta-E2 exerts an acute inhibitory effect on sGC in anterior pituitary gland by down-regulating sGC beta 1 subunit and sGC activity in a specific, ER-dependent manner.

  3. Diets containing soy or rice protein isolate increase insulin sensitivity and improve lipid homeostasis in weanling rats fed high fat, high cholesterol Western diets as a result of activation of PPAR and LXR-mediated pathways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study examined the effects of feeding soy protein isolate (SPI) and rice protein isolate (RPI) on insulin sensitivity and fat breakdown in weanling rats consuming high fat/high cholesterol diets. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on semi-purified diets containing the milk protein case...

  4. The local effect of octreotide on mechanical pain sensitivity is more sensitive in DA rats than DA.1U rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fan-Rong; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Yan

    2016-02-01

    A recent study by the authors indicated that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are associated with the differences in basal pain sensitivity and in formalin model between Dark-Agouti (DA) and novel congenic DA.1U rats, which have the same genetic background as DA rats except for the u alleles of MHC. The objective of the present study is to investigate whether there is a difference in the pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) model and local analgesic effect of octreotide (OCT) between DA and DA.1U rats. The hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and heat withdrawal latency (HWL) were observed. The C unit firings of the tibial nerve evoked by non-noxious and noxious toe movements were recorded by electrophysiological methods in normal and PIA models in DA and DA.1U rats before and after local OCT administration. The expression of somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A) was observed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrate that DA rats have a higher mechanical sensitivity than DA.1U rats after PIA. Local OCT administration significantly elevated MWT in DA rats under normal and PIA sate, but not in DA.1U rats. The electrophysiological experiments showed OCT significantly attenuated the firings of C units evoked by non-noxious and noxious stimulation in DA rats more than those in DA.1U rats both in normal and PIA states. In addition, the expression of SSTR2A in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was significantly higher in DA than in DA.1U rats. All of the findings suggest a higher local analgesic effect of OCT in DA rats than DA.1U rats, which might be associated with the MHC genes.

  5. Lateral hypothalamic area orexin-A influence the firing activity of gastric distension-sensitive neurons and gastric motility in rats.

    PubMed

    Hao, Heling; Luan, Xiao; Guo, Feifei; Sun, Xiangrong; Gong, Yanling; Xu, Luo

    2016-06-01

    The orexins system consists of two G-protein coupled receptors (the orexin-1 and the orexin-2 receptor) and two neuropeptides, orexin-A and orexin-B. Orexin-A is an excitatory neuropeptide that regulates arousal, wakefulness and appetite. Recent studies have shown that orexin-A may promote gastric motility. We aim to explore the effects of orexin-A on the gastric -distension (GD) sensitive neurons and gastric motility in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), and the possible regulation by the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Extracellular single unit discharges were recorded and the gastric motility was monitored by administration of orexin-A into the LHA and electrical stimulation of the PVN. There were GD neurons in the LHA, and administration of orexin-A to the LHA could increase the firing rate of both GD-excitatory (GD-E) and GD-inhibited (GD-I) neurons. The gastric motility was significantly enhanced by injection of orexin-A into the LHA with a dose dependent manner, which could be completely abolished by pre-treatment with orexin-A receptor antagonist SB334867. Electrical stimulation of the PVN could significantly increase the firing rate of GD neurons responsive to orexin-A in the LHA as well as promote gastric motility of rats. However, those effects could be partly blocked by pre-treatment with SB334867 in the LHA. It is suggested that orexin-A plays an important role in promoting gastric motility via LHA. The PVN may be involved in regulation of LHA on gastric motility.

  6. Suplatast tosilate alleviates nasal symptoms through the suppression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells-mediated IL-9 gene expression in toluene-2,4-diisocyanate-sensitized rats.

    PubMed

    Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Orimoto, Naoki; Kadota, Takuya; Kominami, Takahiro; Das, Asish K; Sawada, Akiho; Tamada, Misaki; Miyagi, Kohei; Adachi, Tsubasa; Matsumoto, Mayumi; Kosaka, Tomoya; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Noriaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    Histamine H1 receptor (H1R) gene is upregulated in patients with pollinosis; its expression level is highly correlated with the nasal symptom severity. Antihistamines are widely used as allergy treatments because they inhibit histamine signaling by blocking H1R or suppressing H1R signaling as inverse agonists. However, long-term treatment with antihistamines does not completely resolve toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI)-induced nasal symptoms, although it can decrease H1R gene expression to the basal level, suggesting additional signaling is responsible for the pathogenesis of the allergic symptoms. Here, we show that treatment with suplatast tosilate in combination with antihistamines markedly alleviates nasal symptoms in TDI-sensitized rats. Suplatast suppressed TDI-induced upregulation of IL-9 gene expression. Suplatast also suppressed ionomycin/phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced upregulation of IL-2 gene expression in Jurkat cells, in which calcineurin (CN)/nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) signaling is known to be involved. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that suplatast inhibited binding of NFAT to DNA. Furthermore, suplatast suppressed ionomycin-induced IL-9 mRNA upregulation in RBL-2H3 cells, in which CN/NFAT signaling is also involved. These data suggest that suplatast suppressed NFAT-mediated IL-9 gene expression in TDI-sensitized rats and this might be the underlying mechanism of the therapeutic effects of combined therapy of suplatast with antihistamine.

  7. Perinatal protein deprivation facilitates accumbal ERK phosphorylation in cocaine-sensitized adult rats.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, E E; Valdomero, A; Maldonado, N M; Orsingher, O A; Cuadra, G R

    2013-03-15

    In previous studies we described that perinatal protein deprivation facilitates the development and expression of behavioral sensitization to cocaine. In this research, we explored whether the increased reactivity observed in deprived (D) versus control (C) rats is also evident during drug-free withdrawal periods. Considering that activation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) is suggested to be involved in cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization, we study the effects of perinatal protein deprivation on phosphorylated ERK2 (pERK2) protein levels in the NAc (core and shell) during different drug-free withdrawal periods. To induce behavioral sensitization, C- and D-rats received a daily injection of cocaine (5-10 mg/kg, i.p.) for 7 days and locomotor activity was performed on days 1 and 7. Cocaine-sensitized animals were left drug-free and pERK2 was assessed on withdrawal days (WD) 1, 4, 7 and 21. In the NAc core, cocaine induced ERK signaling pathway activation in a dose-dependent manner, and only D-rats showed a significant increase in pERK2 protein levels with the lowest dose of cocaine (5 mg/kg). Moreover, sensitized C-rats with 10 mg/kg showed an increase in pERK2 levels from WD7 while D-rats showed this activation on WD4, which remained increased on WD7 and 21. In contrast, in the NAc shell, only sensitized D-rats with cocaine 10 mg/kg showed ERK2 activation on WD21. These results suggest that perinatal protein deprivation facilitates the molecular processes involved in neuronal plasticity occurring during withdrawal.

  8. Prenatal lead exposure enhances methamphetamine sensitization in rats.

    PubMed

    Clifford, P Shane; Hart, Nigel; Thompson, Jeff; Buckman, Sam; Wellman, Paul J; Bratton, Gerald R; Nation, Jack R

    2009-08-01

    Adult female rats were exposed to lead-free sodium acetate via gavage [0 mg (vehicle control)] or to 16 mg lead as lead acetate for 30 days prior to breeding. Following confirmation of breeding, the female animals continued to be exposed to their respective doses throughout gestation and lactation. When weaned, 16 control and 16 lead-exposed offspring were placed on regular water and food (lead-exposure was discontinued) until postnatal day (PND) 70. At this time, one-half of the control animals and one-half of the lead-treatment animals received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the vehicle (saline) for 10 successive days and the remaining animals in each exposure conditions received daily injections of 1.0 mg/kg (+)-methamphetamine (METH) for 10 days (N=8/group). Locomotion in automated chambers was monitored daily for 45 min post-injection. Subsequently, during dose-effect testing, all animals received consecutive daily i.p. injections of 0, 1.0, 2.0, and then 4.0 mg/kg METH. The results of the experiment showed that both control and lead-exposed animals exhibited heightened locomotor activity (i.e. behavioral sensitization) to the repeated administration of 1.0 mg/kg METH. More importantly, animals developmentally (perinatally) exposed to lead showed more rapid sensitization than did their control counterparts. These data indicate that early lead exposure increases sensitivity to the locomotor-stimulating effects of METH. In contrast, identically exposed lead animals exhibit diminished METH dose-effect responding when tested in an intravenous (i.v.) self-administration paradigm [Rocha A., Valles R., Bratton G.R., Nation J.R. Developmental lead exposure alters methamphetamine self-administration in the male rat: acquisition and reinstatement. Drug Alcohol Depend 2008a;95:23-29, Rocha A., Valles R., Hart N., Bratton G.R., Nation J.R. Developmental lead exposure attenuates methamphetamine dose-effect self-administration performance and progressive ratio

  9. Type 2 diabetic rats are sensitive to thioacetamide hepatotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Sawant, Sharmilee P.; Dnyanmote, Ankur V.; Warbritton, Alan; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M. . E-mail: mehendale@ulm.edu

    2006-03-15

    Previously, we reported high hepatotoxic sensitivity of type 2 diabetic (DB) rats to three dissimilar hepatotoxicants. Additional work revealed that a normally nonlethal dose of CCl{sub 4} was lethal in DB rats due to inhibited compensatory tissue repair. The present study was conducted to investigate the importance of compensatory tissue repair in determining the final outcome of hepatotoxicity in diabetes, using another structurally and mechanistically dissimilar hepatotoxicant, thioacetamide (TA), to initiate liver injury. A normally nonlethal dose of TA (300 mg/kg, ip), caused 100% mortality in DB rats. Time course studies (0 to 96 h) showed that in the non-DB rats, liver injury initiated by TA as assessed by plasma alanine or aspartate aminotransferase and hepatic necrosis progressed up to 48 h and regressed to normal at 96 h resulting in 100% survival. In the DB rats, liver injury rapidly progressed resulting in progressively deteriorating liver due to rapidly expanding injury, hepatic failure, and 100% mortality between 24 and 48 h post-TA treatment. Covalent binding of {sup 14}C-TA-derived radiolabel to liver tissue did not differ from that observed in the non-DB rats, indicating similar bioactivation-based initiation of hepatotoxicity. S-phase DNA synthesis measured by [{sup 3}H]-thymidine incorporation, and advancement of cells through the cell division cycle measured by PCNA immunohistochemistry, were substantially inhibited in the DB rats compared to the non-DB rats challenged with TA. Thus, inhibited cell division and compromised tissue repair in the DB rats resulted in progressive expansion of liver injury culminating in mortality. In conclusion, it appears that similar to type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes also increases sensitivity to dissimilar hepatotoxicants due to inhibited compensatory tissue repair, suggesting that sensitivity to hepatotoxicity in diabetes occurs in the absence as well as presence of insulin.

  10. Stress-sensitive arterial hypertension, hemodynamic changes and brain metabolites in hypertensive ISIAH rats: MRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Seryapina, A A; Shevelev, O B; Moshkin, M P; Markel, A L; Akulov, A E

    2017-03-08

    The study of early development of the arterial hypertension in association with emotional stress is of great importance for better understanding of etiolody and pathogenesis of the hypertensive disease. MRI technique was applied to evaluate the hemodynamic and brain metabolites changes in 1- and 3-Mo-old ISIAH rats (10 male rats) with stress-sensitive arterial hypertension and in control normotensive WAG rats (8 male rats). In the 3-Mo-old ISIAH rats, age-dependent increase in the blood pressure was associated with increased blood flow through the renal arteries and decreased blood flow in the lower part of abdominal aorta. The renal vascular resistance in the ISIAH rats decreased while aging, though, at both ages it remained higher than the renal vascular resistance in WAG rats. Integral metabolome portrait demonstrated that hypertension development in the ISIAH rats was associated with attenuation of excitatory and energetic activity in the prefrontal cortex, whereas in the WAG rats, the opposite age-dependent changes were observed. In contrast, in hypothalamus of 3-Mo-old ISIAH rats, an increase in energetic activity and prevalence of excitatory neurotransmitters over inhibitory was noticed. The blood flow through the main arteries showed positive correlation with glutamate and glutamine levels in hypothalamus, and negative one - with hypothalamic GABA level. The blood pressure values positively correlated with hypothalamic choline levels. Thus, the early development of the stress-sensitive hypertension in the ISIAH rats is accompanied by considerable changes both in brain metabolite ratios and in the parameters of blood flow through the main arteries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Attenuation of Cocaine Induced Locomotor Sensitization in Rats Sustaining Genetic or Pharmacologic Antagonism of Ghrelin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, P. Shane; Rodriguez, Juan; Schul, Destri; Hughes, Samuel; Kniffin, Tracey; Hart, Nigel; Eitan, Shoshana; Wellman, Paul J.; Brunel, Luc; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Systemic infusions of the orexigenic peptide ghrelin (GHR) increase dopamine levels within the nucleus accumbens and augment cocaine stimulated locomotion and conditioned place preference in rats; observations that suggest an important role for ghrelin and GHR receptors (GHR-Rs) in drug reinforcement. In the present studies, we examined the development of cocaine locomotor sensitization in rats sustaining either pharmacologic antagonism or genetic ablation of GHR-Rs. In a pharmacologic study, adult male rats were injected (i.p.) with either 0, 3 or 6 mg/kg JMV 2959 (a GHR-R1 receptor antagonist) and 20 minutes later with either vehicle or 10 mg/kg cocaine HCl on each of 7 consecutive days. Rats pretreated with JMV 2959 showed significantly attenuated cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. In a second study, adult wild type (WT) or mutant rats sustaining ENU-induced knockout of GHR-R (GHR-R (−/−)) received daily injections (i.p) of vehicle (0.9% saline) or 10.0 mg/kg cocaine HCl for 14 successive days. GHR-R null rats treated repeatedly with cocaine showed diminished development of cocaine locomotor sensitization relative to WT rats treated with cocaine. To verify the lack of GHR-R function in the GHR-R (−/−) rats, a separate feeding experiment was conducted in which WT rats, but not GHR-R (−/−) rats, were noted to eat more after a systemic injection of 15 nmol ghrelin than after vehicle. These results suggest that GHR-R activity is required for the induction of locomotor sensitization to cocaine and complement an emerging literature implicating central GHR systems in drug reward. Ghrelin (GHR) is an orexigenic gut peptide that is transported across the blood brain barrier and interacts with GHR receptors (GHR-R) located on ventral tegmental dopamine neurons. PMID:21790898

  12. Effect of High Fructose and High Fat Diets on Pulmonary Sensitivity, Motor Activity, and Body Composition of Brown Norway Rats Exposed to Ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diet-induced obesity has been suggested to lead to increased susceptibility to air pollutants such as ozone (03); however, there is little experimental evidence. Thirty day old male and female Brown Norway rats were fed a normal, high-fructose or high-fat diet for 12 weeks and th...

  13. Pharmacologic Antagonism of Ghrelin Receptors Attenuates Development of Nicotine Induced Locomotor Sensitization in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wellman, Paul J.; Clifford, P. Shane; Rodriguez, Juan; Hughes, Samuel; Eitan, Shoshana; Brunel, Luc; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Aims Ghrelin (GHR) is an orexigenic gut peptide that interacts with ghrelin receptors (GHR-Rs) to modulate brain reinforcement circuits. Systemic GHR infusions augment cocaine stimulated locomotion and conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats, whereas genetic or pharmacological ablation of GHR-Rs has been shown to attenuate the acute locomotor-enhancing effects of nicotine, cocaine, amphetamine and alcohol and to blunt the CPP induced by food, alcohol, amphetamine and cocaine in mice. The stimulant nicotine can induce CPP and like amphetamine and cocaine, repeated administration of nicotine induces locomotor sensitization in rats. A key issue is whether pharmacological antagonism of GHR-Rs would similarly attenuate nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization. Method To examine the role of GHR-Rs in the behavioral sensitizing effects of nicotine, adult male rats were injected with either 0, 3 or 6 mg/kg of the GHR-R receptor antagonist JMV 2959 (i.p.) and 20 minutes later with either vehicle or 0.4 mg/kg nicotine hydrogen tartrate (s.c.) on each of 7 consecutive days. Results Rats treated with nicotine alone showed robust locomotor sensitization, whereas rats pretreated with JMV 2959 showed significantly attenuated nicotine-induced hyperlocomotion. Conclusions These results suggest that GHR-R activity is required for the induction of locomotor sensitization to nicotine and complement an emerging literature implicating central GHR systems in drug reward/reinforcement. PMID:21903141

  14. Single prolonged stress effects on sensitization to cocaine and cocaine self-administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Eagle, Andrew L.; Singh, Robby; Kohler, Robert J.; Friedman, Amy L.; Liebowitz, Chelsea P.; Galloway, Matthew P.; Enman, Nicole M.; Jutkiewicz, Emily M.; Perrine, Shane A.

    2017-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often comorbid with substance use disorders (SUD). Single prolonged stress (SPS) is a well-validated rat model of PTSD that provides a framework to investigate drug-induced behaviors as a preclinical model of the comorbidity. We hypothesized that cocaine sensitization and self-administration would be increased following exposure to SPS. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to SPS or control treatment. After SPS, cocaine (0,10 or 20mg/kg, i.p.) was administered for 5 consecutive days and locomotor activity was measured. Another cohort was assessed for cocaine self-administration (0.1 or 0.32 mg/kg/i.v.) after SPS. Rats were tested for acquisition, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement behaviors. Control animals showed a dose-dependent increase in cocaine-induced locomotor activity after acute cocaine whereas SPS rats did not. Using a sub-threshold sensitization paradigm, control rats did not exhibit enhanced locomotor activity at Day 5 and therefore did not develop behavioral sensitization, asexpected. However, compared to control ratson Day 5 the locomotor response to 20mg/kg repeated cocaine was greatly enhanced in SPS-treated rats, which exhibited enhanced cocaine locomotor sensitization. The effect of SPS on locomotor activity was unique in that SPS did not modify cocaine self-administration behaviors under a simple schedule of reinforcement. These data show that SPS differentially affects cocaine-mediated behaviors causing no effect to cocaine self-administration, under a simple schedule of reinforcement, but significantly augmenting cocaine locomotor sensitization. These results suggest that SPS shares common neurocircuitry with stimulant-induced plasticity, but dissociable from that underlying psychostimulant-induced reinforcement. PMID:25712697

  15. Sensitization to the motor stimulant effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and cross-sensitization to methamphetamine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Sara B.; Nemirovsky, Natali E.; Olive, M. Foster

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in abuse of the synthetic cathinone 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), often in combination with other illicit stimulants. Purpose We sought to determine if repeated exposure to MDPV would produce sensitization to the motor stimulant effects of the drug, and whether cross-sensitization would develop with the stimulant effects of methamphetamine (METH). Study design Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered MDPV (1 or 5 mg/kg) or saline once daily for 5 days at 24 hour intervals, or were administered MDPV (1 mg/kg) or saline once daily for 5 days at 48 hour intervals. For cross-sensitization experiments, rats were administered METH (1 mg/kg) or MDPV (1 or 5 mg/kg) once daily for 5 days at 48 hour intervals, and following a 5 day incubation period, were given an acute challenge injection of either MDPV (0.5 mg/kg) or METH (0.5 mg/kg), respectively. Results Rats repeatedly administered MDPV (1 mg/kg) every 48 hours, but not every 24 hours, demonstrated increased motor activity when given either a subsequent challenge of MDPV (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) or METH (0.5 mg/kg), indicating the development of behavioral sensitization and cross-sensitization, respectively. Moreover, rats repeatedly administered METH (1 mg/kg) every 48 hours did not exhibit cross-sensitization to the motor stimulating effects of a subsequent challenge with MDPV (0.5 mg/kg). Conclusion These results suggest that specific patterns of MDPV administration may lead to lasting changes in behavioral responses to subsequent METH exposure. PMID:27284493

  16. Differential sensitivity to LPS-induced myocardial dysfunction in the isolated brown Norway and Dahl S rat hearts: roles of mitochondrial function, NF-κB activation, and TNF-α production.

    PubMed

    An, Jianzhong; Du, Jianhai; Wei, Na; Guan, Tongju; Camara, Amadou K S; Shi, Yang

    2012-03-01

    Recently, we reported that Brown Norway (BN) rats were more resistant to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced myocardial dysfunction than Dahl S (SS) rats. This differential sensitivity was exemplified by reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines and diminished nuclear factor-κB pathway activation. To further clarify the mechanisms of different susceptibility of these two strains to endotoxin, this study was designed to examine the alterations of cardiac and mitochondrial bioenergetics, proinflammatory cytokines, and signaling pathways after hearts were isolated and exposed to LPS ex vivo. Isolated BN and SS hearts were perfused with LPS (4 μg/mL) for 30 min in the Langendorff preparation. Lipopolysaccharide depressed cardiac function as evident by reduced left ventricular developed pressure and decreased peak rate of contraction and relaxation in SS hearts but not in BN hearts. These findings are consistent with our previous in-vivo data. Under complex I substrates, a higher oxygen consumption and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production were observed in mitochondria from SS hearts than those from BN hearts. Lipopolysaccharide significantly increased H2O2 levels in both SS and BN heart mitochondria; however, the increase in oxygen consumption and H2O2 production in BN heart mitochondria was much lower than that in SS heart mitochondria. In addition, LPS significantly decreased complex I activity in SS hearts but not in BN hearts. Furthermore, LPS induced higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and increased phosphorylation of IκκB and p65 more in SS hearts than in BN hearts. Our results clearly demonstrate that less mitochondrial dysfunction combined with a reduced production of tumor necrosis factor-α and diminished activation of nuclear factor-κB are involved in the mechanisms by which isolated BN hearts were more resistant to LPS-induced myocardial dysfunction.

  17. Effects of environmental enrichment on sensitivity to cocaine in female rats: importance of control rates of behavior

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark A.; Iordanou, Jordan C.; Cohen, Marika B.; Cole, Kathryn T.; Gergans, Samantha R.; Lyle, Megan A.; Schmidt, Karl T.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental enrichment produces functional changes in mesolimbic dopamine transmission and alters sensitivity to psychomotor stimulants. These manipulations also alter the control rate of many behaviors that are sensitive to stimulant administration, which can make comparison of drug effects between isolated and enriched subjects difficult. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of environmental enrichment on control rates of behavior and on sensitivity to cocaine in tests of locomotor activity, drug self-administration, conditioned place preference, and toxicity. In the locomotor activity test, isolated rats exhibited greater activity after the administration of cocaine, but also had higher control rates of activity. When locomotor activity was expressed as a percentage of saline control values, enriched rats exhibited a greater increase relative to their own control than isolated rats. In the drug self-administration procedure, isolated rats had higher breakpoints on a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement when responding was maintained by cocaine; however, isolated rats also had higher breakpoints in saline substitution tests and higher rates of inactive lever responding. When the self-administration data were expressed as a percentage of these control values, enriched rats exhibited a greater increase in responding relative to their own control rates than isolated rats. No differences were observed between isolated and enriched rats under control conditions in the place preference and toxicity studies. In both of these procedures, enriched rats were more sensitive than isolated rats to all the doses of cocaine tested. These data emphasize the importance of considering control rates of behavior in studies examining environmental enrichment and drug sensitivity, and suggest that environmental enrichment increases sensitivity to cocaine across a range of dependent measures whether differences in control rates of behavior are taken into

  18. Strychnine-sensitive glycine responses of neonatal rat hippocampal neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, S; Cherubini, E

    1991-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings employing current and voltage clamp techniques were used to study the effects of glycine on rat CA3 hippocampal neurones during the first 3 weeks of postnatal (P) life. 2. Glycine (0.3-1 mM) depolarized neurones from rats less than 4 days old (P4). Neurones from older neonates (P5-P7) were hyperpolarized by glycine, whereas adult neurones were unaffected. 3. Both depolarizing and hyperpolarizing responses were associated with large conductance increases; they reversed polarity at a potential which changed with the extracellular chloride concentration. The responses persisted in tetrodotoxin (1 microM) or in a solution with a much reduced calcium concentration. 4. Strychnine (1 microM) but not bicuculline (10-50 microM) antagonized the effects of glycine. The action of strychnine was apparently competitive with a dissociation constant of 350 nM. 5. In voltage clamp experiments, glycine elicited a non-desensitizing outward current at -60 mV. When a maximal concentration of glycine was applied at the same time as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the conductance increase induced by the two agonists was additive, suggesting the activation of different populations of channels. 6. Concentrations of glycine lower than 100 microM did not affect membrane potential. However, at 30-50 microM glycine increased the frequency of spontaneous GABA-mediated synaptic responses; this action was not blocked by strychnine. 7. It is concluded that during the first 2 weeks of life glycine acts at strychnine-sensitive receptors to open chloride channels. PMID:1804982

  19. Generation of a New Model Rat: Nrf2 Knockout Rats Are Sensitive to Aflatoxin B1 Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Keiko; Takaku, Misaki; Egner, Patricia A; Morita, Masanobu; Kaneko, Takehito; Mashimo, Tomoji; Kensler, Thomas W; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2016-07-01

    THE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR NRF2: (NF-E2-related-factor 2) REGULATES A BATTERY OF ANTIOXIDATIVE STRESS-RESPONSE GENES AND DETOXICATION GENES, AND NRF2 KNOCKOUT LINES OF MICE HAVE BEEN CONTRIBUTING CRITICALLY TO THE CLARIFICATION OF ROLES THAT NRF2 PLAYS FOR CELL PROTECTION HOWEVER, THERE ARE APPARENT LIMITATIONS IN USE OF THE MOUSE MODELS FOR INSTANCE, RATS EXHIBIT MORE SUITABLE FEATURES FOR TOXICOLOGICAL OR PHYSIOLOGICAL EXAMINATIONS THAN MICE IN THIS STUDY, WE GENERATED 2 LINES OF NRF2 KNOCKOUT RATS BY USING A GENOME EDITING TECHNOLOGY; 1 LINE HARBORS A 7-BP DELETION Δ7 AND THE OTHER LINE HARBORS A 1-BP INSERTION +1 IN THE NRF2 GENE IN THE LIVERS OF RATS HOMOZYGOUSLY DELETING THE NRF2 GENE, AN ACTIVATOR OF NRF2 SIGNALING, CDDO-IM, COULD NOT INDUCE EXPRESSION OF REPRESENTATIVE NRF2 TARGET GENES TO EXAMINE ALTERED TOXICOLOGICAL RESPONSE, WE TREATED THE NRF2 KNOCKOUT RATS WITH AFLATOXIN B1 AFB1, A CARCINOGENIC MYCOTOXIN THAT ELICITS GENE MUTATIONS THROUGH BINDING OF ITS METABOLITES TO DNA AND FOR WHICH THE RAT HAS BEEN PROPOSED AS A REASONABLE SURROGATE FOR HUMAN TOXICITY INDEED, IN THE NRF2 KNOCKOUT RAT LIVERS THE ENZYMES OF THE AFB1 DETOXICATION PATHWAY WERE SIGNIFICANTLY DOWNREGULATED SINGLE DOSE ADMINISTRATION OF AFB1 INCREASED HEPATOTOXICITY AND BINDING OF AFB1-N7-GUANINE TO HEPATIC DNA IN NRF2 KNOCKOUT RATS COMPARED WITH WILD-TYPE NRF2 KNOCKOUT RATS REPEATEDLY TREATED WITH AFB1 WERE PRONE TO LETHALITY AND CDDO-IM WAS NO LONGER PROTECTIVE THESE RESULTS DEMONSTRATE THAT NRF2 KNOCKOUT RATS ARE QUITE SENSITIVE TO AFB1 TOXICITIES AND THIS RAT GENOTYPE EMERGES AS A NEW MODEL ANIMAL IN TOXICOLOGY.

  20. Central Administration of Galanin Receptor 1 Agonist Boosted Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose Cells of Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenwen; Fang, Penghua; He, Biao; Guo, Lili; Runesson, Johan; Langel, Ülo; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies testified the beneficial effect of central galanin on insulin sensitivity of type 2 diabetic rats. The aim of the study was further to investigate whether central M617, a galanin receptor 1 agonist, can benefit insulin sensitivity. The effects of intracerebroventricular administration of M617 on insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling were evaluated in adipose tissues of type 2 diabetic rats. The results showed that central injection of M617 significantly increased plasma adiponectin contents, glucose infusion rates in hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp tests, GLUT4 mRNA expression levels, GLUT4 contents in plasma membranes, and total cell membranes of the adipose cells but reduced the plasma C-reactive protein concentration in nondiabetic and diabetic rats. The ratios of GLUT4 contents were higher in plasma membranes to total cell membranes in both nondiabetic and diabetic M617 groups than each control. In addition, the central administration of M617 enhanced the ratios of pAkt/Akt and pAS160/AS160, but not phosphorylative cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB)/CREB in the adipose cells of nondiabetic and diabetic rats. These results suggest that excitation of central galanin receptor 1 facilitates insulin sensitivity via activation of the Akt/AS160 signaling pathway in the fat cells of type 2 diabetic rats. PMID:27127795

  1. Effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on pulmonary sensitivity, motor activity, and body composition of brown Norway rats exposed to ozone.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Phillips, P M; Johnstone, A F M; Beasley, T E; Ledbetter, A D; Schladweiler, M C; Snow, S J; Kodavanti, U P

    2016-04-01

    Diet-induced obesity has been suggested to lead to increased susceptibility to air pollutants such as ozone (O3); however, there is little experimental evidence. Thirty day old male and female Brown Norway rats were fed a normal, high-fructose or high-fat diet for 12 weeks and then exposed to O3 (acute - air or 0.8 ppm O3 for 5 h, or subacute - air or 0.8 ppm O3 for 5 h/d 1 d/week for 4 weeks). Body composition was measured non-invasively using NMR. Ventilatory parameters and exploratory behavior were measured after the third week of subacute exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood chemistry data were collected 18 h after acute O3 and 18 h after the fourth week of subacute O3. The diets led to increased body fat in male but not female rats. O3-induced changes in ventilatory function were either unaffected or improved with the fructose and fat diets. O3-induced reduction in exploratory behavior was attenuated with fructose and fat diets in males and partially in females. O3 led to a significant decrease in body fat of males fed control diet but not the fructose or fat diet. O3 led to significant increases in BALF eosinophils, increase in albumin, and reductions in macrophages. Female rats appeared to be more affected than males to O3 regardless of diet. Overall, treatment with high-fructose and high-fat diets attenuated some O3 induced effects on pulmonary function, behavior, and metabolism. Exacerbation of toxicity was observed less frequently.

  2. Lighting conditions affect testosterone feedback sensitivity in castrated rats.

    PubMed

    Porkka-Heiskanen, T; Laakso, M L; Stenberg, D; Johansson, G; Peder, M

    1989-01-01

    It has been shown in the Syrian hamster that a short photoperiod sensitizes the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis of castrated animals to the negative feedback effect of testosterone. There is some evidence that even the reproductive system of the rat, which is generally considered not to be very sensitive to light, can respond to changes in illumination. Therefore, we found it of interest to examine whether alterations in lighting conditions produce changes of sensitivity in the negative feedback effect of testosterone in the rat. We kept intact, castrated, and castrated testosterone-treated animals either in periodic (L:D 12:12) or constant light for 7 days starting 4 weeks after castration. In all 3 testosterone-injected groups, serum luteinizing hormone (LH) was lower in constant than in periodic light. Exogenous testosterone did not decrease the castration-induced elevations of pituitary LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). On the contrary, testosterone increased the pituitary contents of LH and FSH, especially in constant light. We conclude that, in constant light, the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis of the castrated rat becomes more sensitive to the negative feedback action of testosterone.

  3. Rosiglitazone improves insulin sensitivity and baroreflex gain in rats with diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ding; McCully, Belinda H; Brooks, Virginia L

    2012-10-01

    Obesity decreases baroreflex gain (BRG); however, the mechanisms are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that impaired BRG is related to the concurrent insulin resistance, and, therefore, BRG would be improved after treatment with the insulin-sensitizing drug rosiglitazone. Male rats fed a high-fat diet diverged into obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) groups after 2 weeks. Then, OP and OR rats, as well as control (CON) rats fed a standard diet, were treated daily for 2 to 3 weeks with rosiglitazone (3 or 6 mg/kg) or its vehicle by gavage. Compared with OR and CON rats, conscious OP rats exhibited reductions in BRG (OP, 2.9 ± 0.1 bpm/mm Hg; OR, 4.0 ± 0.2 bpm/mm Hg; CON, 3.9 ± 0.2 bpm/mm Hg; P < 0.05) and insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp; OP, 6.8 ± 0.9 mg/kg · min; OR, 22.2 ± 1.2 mg/kg · min; CON, 17.7 ± 0.8 mg/kg · min; P < 0.05), which were well correlated (r(2) = 0.49; P < 0.01). In OP rats, rosiglitazone dose-dependently improved (P < 0.05) insulin sensitivity (12.8 ± 0.6 mg/kg · min at 3 mg/kg; 16.0 ± 1.5 mg/kg · min at 6 mg/kg) and BRG (3.8 ± 0.4 bpm/mm Hg at 3 mg/kg; 5.3 ± 0.7 bpm/mm Hg at 6 mg/kg). However, 6 mg/kg rosiglitazone also increased BRG in OR rats without increasing insulin sensitivity, disrupted the correlation between BRG and insulin sensitivity (r(2) = 0.08), and, in OP and OR rats, elevated BRG relative to insulin sensitivity (analysis of covariance; P < 0.05). Moreover, in OP rats, stimulation of the aortic depressor nerve, to activate central baroreflex pathways, elicited markedly reduced decreases in heart rate and arterial pressure, but these responses were not improved by rosiglitazone. In conclusion, diet-induced obesity impairs BRG via a central mechanism that is related to the concurrent insulin resistance. Rosiglitazone normalizes BRG, but not by improving brain baroreflex processing or insulin sensitivity.

  4. One-trial behavioral sensitization in preweanling rats: differential effects of cocaine, methamphetamine, methylphenidate, and D-amphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Kozanian, Olga O.; Greenfield, Venuz Y.; Horn, Leslie R.; Gutierrez, Arnold; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; Castellanos, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Preweanling rats exhibit robust one-trial cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization; however, it is uncertain whether other psychostimulants can also induce sensitization in young rats using the one-trial procedure. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether methamphetamine, methylphenidate, and D-amphetamine are capable of inducing one-trial locomotor sensitization in preweanling rats. Methods In a series of four experiments, rats were pretreated with cocaine (30 mg/kg), methamphetamine (2–12 mg/kg), methylphenidate (5–20 mg/kg), or amphetamine (5 mg/kg) before being placed in a novel activity chamber or the home cage on PD 19. Rats were then challenged with the same psychostimulant (20 mg/kg cocaine, 1–8 mg/kg methamphetamine, 2.5–7.5 mg/kg methylphenidate, or 1–2 mg/kg amphetamine) on PD 21, with distance traveled being measured for 180 min. In a separate experiment, rats were pretreated with methamphetamine on PD 16–19 and challenged with methamphetamine on PD 21. Results Only cocaine, but not various dose combinations of other psychostimulants, was able to produce one-trial behavioral sensitization in preweanling rats. Context-dependent locomotor sensitization was also evident if rats were pretreated with methamphetamine on PD 16–19 and tested on PD 21. Conclusions It is uncertain why only cocaine was able to induce one-trial locomotor sensitization in preweanling rats, but it is possible that: (a) the neural circuitry mediating sensitization differs according to psychostimulant, (b) cocaine is more readily associated with environmental contexts than other psychostimulants, or (c) affinity and pharmacokinetic factors may underlie cocaine’s ability to induce one-trial behavioral sensitization in preweanling rats. PMID:21537939

  5. The flinders sensitive line rat model of depression--25 years and still producing.

    PubMed

    Overstreet, David H; Wegener, Gregers

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 25 years have passed since the first publication suggesting the Flinders sensitive line (FSL) rat as an animal model of depression. At least 6 years of research on these rats was completed before that seminal paper, and there has been a steady stream of publications (130+) over the years. The present review will focus on several issues not previously covered in earlier reviews, summarize the several lines of ongoing investigations, and propose a novel mechanism that accounts for a number of previously unexplained observations. A key observation in the FSL rat relates to the antidepressant (AD)-like effects of known and putative antidepressants. The FSL rat typically exhibits an AD-like effect in behavioral tests for AD-like activity following chronic (14 days) treatment, although some studies have found AD-like effects after fewer days of treatment. In other observations, exaggerated swim test immobility in the FSL rat has been found to have a maternal influence, as shown by cross-fostering studies and observations of maternal behavior; the implications of this finding are still to be determined. Ongoing or recently completed studies have been performed in the laboratories of Marko Diksic of Canada, Aleksander Mathé of Sweden, Gregers Wegener of Denmark, Brian Harvey of South Africa, Paul Pilowsky and Rod Irvine of Australia, and Gal Yadid of Israel. Jennifer Loftis of Portland, Oregon, and Lynette Daws of San Antonio, Texas, have been working with the FSL rats in the United States. A puzzling feature of the FSL rat is its sensitivity to multiple chemicals, and its greater sensitivity to a variety of drugs with different mechanisms of action. It has been recently shown that each of these drugs feeds through G protein-coupled receptors to potassium-gated channels. Thus, an abnormality in the potassium channel could underlie the depressed-like behavior of the FSL rats.

  6. Active Polymer Microfiber with Controlled Polarization Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hongyan; Wang, Ruxue; Liu, Yingying; Cheng, Junjie; Zou, Gang; Zhang, Qijin; Zhang, Douguo; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai; Badugu, Ramachandram; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    Controlled Polarization Sensitivity of an active polymer microfiber has been proposed and realized with the electrospun method. The fluorescence intensity guiding through this active polymer microfiber shows high sensitivity to the polarization state of the excitation light. What is more, the fluorescence out-coupled from tip of the microfiber can be of designed polarization state. Principle of these phenomena lies on the ordered and controlled orientation of the polydiacetylene (PDA) main chains inside polymer microfiber. PMID:27099828

  7. Sound sensitivity of neurons in rat hippocampus during performance of a sound-guided task.

    PubMed

    Itskov, Pavel M; Vinnik, Ekaterina; Honey, Christian; Schnupp, Jan; Diamond, Mathew E

    2012-04-01

    To investigate how hippocampal neurons encode sound stimuli, and the conjunction of sound stimuli with the animal's position in space, we recorded from neurons in the CA1 region of hippocampus in rats while they performed a sound discrimination task. Four different sounds were used, two associated with water reward on the right side of the animal and the other two with water reward on the left side. This allowed us to separate neuronal activity related to sound identity from activity related to response direction. To test the effect of spatial context on sound coding, we trained rats to carry out the task on two identical testing platforms at different locations in the same room. Twenty-one percent of the recorded neurons exhibited sensitivity to sound identity, as quantified by the difference in firing rate for the two sounds associated with the same response direction. Sensitivity to sound identity was often observed on only one of the two testing platforms, indicating an effect of spatial context on sensory responses. Forty-three percent of the neurons were sensitive to response direction, and the probability that any one neuron was sensitive to response direction was statistically independent from its sensitivity to sound identity. There was no significant coding for sound identity when the rats heard the same sounds outside the behavioral task. These results suggest that CA1 neurons encode sound stimuli, but only when those sounds are associated with actions.

  8. Valproate prevents the induction of sensitization to methylphenidate (ritalin) in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, P; Beasley, A; Eckermann, K; Swann, A; Dafny, N

    2000-12-29

    Repetitive exposure to methylphenidate (MPD) elicits sensitization to its locomotor effects. Drugs that affect the GABA system may modify adaptations to drug exposure. Therefore, we have examined the effect of sodium valproate, which enhances GABA function, on the development of sensitization to MPD using an automated, computerized animal activity monitoring system to record each rat's motor activities for 15 consecutive days. Rats were recorded before and after saline injection (Days 1-2) to provide baseline activity. Animals were then randomly assigned to the following three groups that received: (1) 2.5 mg/kg MPD (s.c.) for six consecutive days (Days 3-8), (2) a single dose of valproate (50 mg/kg; i.p.) 1 h prior to the first (Day 3) of six daily doses of MPD (2.5 mg/kg; s.c. ), or (3) five daily doses of valproate (50 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h prior to MPD (2.5 mg/kg, s.c.) on Days 4-8. There was no drug treatment during the next 5 days (Days 9-13). All rats were then re-challenged with MPD (2.5 mg/kg, s.c.) on Day 14. Group 2 rats were also re-challenged with 50 mg/kg valproate followed by 2.5 mg/kg MPD 1 h later on Day 15. Administration of MPD alone produced a sensitized response. Multiple valproate injections prevented the induction of MPD-elicited sensitization in all four motor indices, while a single valproate injection prevented the induction of MPD-elicited sensitization in two of four motor indices studied. In conclusion, a single injection 50 mg/kg valproate given prior to any MPD treatment partially blocked the induction of MPD sensitization while repeated injections of valproate co-administered with MPD treatment completely prevented this effect.

  9. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor-mediated uptake of sup 45 Ca sup 2+ by cultured rat Sertoli cells does not require activation of cholera toxin- or pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding proteins or adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, P.; Reichert, L.E. Jr. )

    1990-08-01

    We have previously reported that FSH stimulates flux of 45Ca2+ into cultured Sertoli cells from immature rats via voltage-sensitive and voltage-independent calcium channels. In the present study, we show that this effect of FSH does not require cholera toxin (CT)- or pertussis toxin (PT)-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding (G) protein or activation of adenylate cyclase (AC). Significant stimulation of 45Ca2+ influx was observed within 1 min, and maximal response (3.2-fold over basal levels) was achieved within 2 min after exposure to FSH. FSH-stimulated elevations in cellular cAMP paralleled increases in 45Ca2+ uptake, suggesting a possible coupling of AC activation to 45Ca2+ influx. (Bu)2cAMP, however, was not able to enhance 45Ca2+ uptake over basal levels at a final concentration of 1000 microM, although a concentration-related increase in androstenedione conversion to estradiol was evident. Exposure of Sertoli cells to CT (10 ng/ml) consistently stimulated basal levels of androstenedione conversion to estradiol but had no effect on basal levels of 45Ca2+ uptake. Similarly, CT had no effect on FSH-induced 45Ca2+ uptake, but potentiated FSH-stimulated estradiol synthesis. PT (10 ng/ml) augmented basal and FSH-stimulated estradiol secretion without affecting 45Ca2+ influx. The adenosine analog N6-phenylisopropyladenosine, which binds to Gi-coupled adenosine receptors on Sertoli cells, inhibited FSH-stimulated androgen conversion to estradiol in a dose-related (1-1000 nM) manner, but FSH-stimulated 45Ca2+ influx remained unchanged. Our results show that in contrast to FSH-stimulated estradiol synthesis, the flux of 45Ca2+ into Sertoli cells in response to FSH is not mediated either directly or indirectly by CT- or PT-sensitive G protein, nor does it require activation of AC. Our data further suggest that the FSH receptor itself may function as a calcium channel.

  10. A novel insulin sensitizer (S15511) enhances insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Jessen, N; Selmer Buhl, E; Pold, R; Schmitz, O; Lund, S

    2008-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes is preceded by the presence of skeletal muscle insulin resistance, and drugs that increase insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle prevent the disease. S15511 is an original compound with demonstrated effects on insulin sensitivity in animal models of insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms behind the insulin-sensitizing effect of S15511 are unknown. The aim of our study was to explore whether S15511 improves insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscles. Insulin sensitivity was assessed in skeletal muscles from S15511-treated rats by measuring intracellular insulin-signaling activity and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in isolated muscles. In addition, GLUT4 expression and glycogen levels were assessed after treatment. S15511 treatment was associated with an increase in insulin-stimulated glucose transport in type IIb fibers, while type I fibers were unaffected. The enhanced glucose transport was mirrored by a fiber type-specific increase in GLUT4 expression, while no improvement in insulin-signaling activity was observed. S15511 is a novel insulin sensitizer that is capable of improving glucose homeostasis in nondiabetic rats. The compound enhances skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and specifically targets type IIb muscle fibers by increasing GLUT4 expression. Together these data show S15511 to be a potentially promising new drug in the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes.

  11. Behavioral sensitization to cocaine in rats: Evidence for temporal differences in dopamine D3 and D2 receptor sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Gregory T.; Truong, Yen Nhu-Thi; Levant, Beth; Chen, Jianyong; Wang, Shaomeng; Woods, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Cocaine-induced changes in D2 receptors have been implicated in the expression of sensitized behavioral responses and addiction-like behaviors, however, the influence of D3 receptors is less clear. Objectives To characterize the effects of repeated cocaine administration on the sensitivity of rats to D2- and D3-mediated behaviors, as well as the binding properties of ventral striatal D2-like and D3 receptors. Methods Pramipexole was used to assess the sensitivity of rats to D3/D2 agonist-induced yawning, hypothermia, and locomotor activity, 24h, 72h, 10d, 21d and 42d after repeated cocaine or saline administration. The locomotor effects of cocaine (42d), and the binding properties of ventral striatal D2-like and D3 receptors (24h and 42d) were also evaluated. Results Cocaine-treated rats displayed an enhanced locomotor response to cocaine, as well as a progressive and persistent leftward/upward shift of the ascending limb (72h-42d), and leftward shift of the descending limb (42d) of the pramipexole-induced yawning dose-response curve. Cocaine treatment also decreased Bmax and Kd for D2-like receptors, and increased D3 receptor binding at 42d. Cocaine treatment did not change pramipexole-induced hypothermia or locomotor activity, or yawning induced by cholinergic or serotonergic agonists. Conclusions These studies suggest that temporal differences exist in the development of cocaine-induced sensitization of D3 and D2 receptors, with enhancements of D3-mediated behavioral effects observed within 72h, and enhancements of D2-mediated behavioral effects apparent 42d after cocaine. These findings highlight the need to consider changes in D3 receptor function when thinking about the behavioral plasticity that occurs during abstinence from cocaine use. PMID:21207013

  12. The variability of baroreflex sensitivity in juvenile, spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Valenti, V E; De Abreu, L C; Colombari, E; Sato, M A; Ferreira, C

    2011-01-01

    In this study the baroreflex sensitivity of conscious, juvenile, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) was compared. The study population consisted of 19 eight-week-old male SHRs. The baroreflex sensitivity was quantified as the derivative of the variation in heart rate (HR) and the variation of mean arterial pressure (baroreflex sensitivity = ΔHR/ΔMAP). MAP was manipulated with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and phenylephrine (PHE), administered via an inserted cannula in the right femoral vein. The SHRs were divided into four groups: (1) low bradycardic baroreflex (LB) where the baroreflex gain (BG) was between 0 and -1 bpm/mmHg with PHE; (2) high bradycardic baroreflex (HB), where the BG was < -1 bpm/mmHg with PHE; (3) low tachycardic baroreflex (LT) where the BG was between 0 and 3 bpm/mmHg with SNP; (4) high tachycardic baroreflex (HT) where the BG was > 3 bpm/mmHg with SNP. We noted that 36.8% of the rats presented with an increased bradycardic reflex, while 27.8% demonstrated an attenuated tachycardic reflex. No significant alterations were noted regarding the basal MAP and HR. There were significant differences in the baroreflex sensitivity between SHRs in the same laboratory. One should be careful when interpreting studies employing the SHR as a research model.

  13. Sensitizing effects of lafutidine on CGRP-containing afferent nerves in the rat stomach

    PubMed Central

    Nishihara, Katsushi; Nozawa, Yoshihisa; Nakano, Motoko; Ajioka, Hirofusa; Matsuura, Naosuke

    2002-01-01

    Capsaicin sensitive afferent nerves play an important role in gastric mucosal defensive mechanisms. Capsaicin stimulates afferent nerves and enhances the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which seems to be the predominant neurotransmitter of spinal afferents in the rat stomach, exerting many pharmacological effects by a direct mechanism or indirectly through second messengers such as nitric oxide (NO). Lafutidine is a new type of anti-ulcer drug, possessing both an antisecretory effect, exerted via histamine H2 receptor blockade, and gastroprotective activities. Studies with certain antagonists or chemical deafferentation techniques suggest the gastroprotective actions of lafutidine to be mediated by capsaicin sensitive afferent nerves, but this is an assumption based on indirect techniques. In order to explain the direct relation of lafutidine to afferent nerves, we conducted the following studies. We determined CGRP and NO release from rat stomach and specific [3H]-resiniferatoxin (RTX) binding to gastric vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (VR1), which binds capsaicin, using EIA, a microdialysis system and a radioreceptor assay, respectively. Lafutidine enhanced both CGRP and NO release from the rat stomach induced by a submaximal dose of capsaicin, but had no effect on specific [3H]-RTX and capsaicin binding to VR1. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that lafutidine modulates the activity of capsaicin sensitive afferent nerves in the rat stomach, which may be a key mechanism involved in its gastroprotective action. PMID:11906962

  14. Differential sensitivity of rat voltage-sensitive sodium channel isoforms to pyrazoline-type insecticides

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, Kristopher S.; Soderlund, David M. . E-mail: dms6@cornell.edu

    2006-07-15

    Pyrazoline-type insecticides are potent inhibitors of insect and mammalian voltage-sensitive sodium channels. In mammals, there are nine sodium channel {alpha} subunit isoforms that have unique distributions and pharmacological properties, but no published data exist that compare the relative sensitivity of these different mammalian sodium channel isoforms to inhibition by pyrazoline-type insecticides. This study employed the Xenopus oocyte expression system to examine the relative sensitivity of rat Na{sub v}1.2a, Na{sub v}1.4, Na{sub v}1.5, and Na{sub v}1.8 sodium channel {alpha} subunit isoforms to the pyrazoline-type insecticides indoxacarb, DCJW, and RH 3421. Additionally, we assessed the effect of coexpression with the rat {beta}1 auxiliary subunit on the sensitivity of the Na{sub v}1.2a and Na{sub v}1.4 isoforms to these compounds. The relative sensitivity of the four sodium channel {alpha} subunits differed for each of the three compounds we examined. With DCJW, the order of sensitivity was Na{sub v}1.4 > Na{sub v}1.2a > Na{sub v}1.5 > Na{sub v}1.8. In contrast, the relative sensitivity of these isoforms to indoxacarb differed from that to DCJW: the Na{sub v}1.8 isoform was most sensitive, the Na{sub v}1.4 isoform was completely insensitive, and the sensitivities of the Na{sub v}1.5 and Na{sub v}1.2a isoforms were intermediate between these two extremes. Moreover, the pattern of sensitivity to RH 3421 among these four isoforms was different from that for either indoxacarb or DCJW: the Na{sub v}1.4 isoform was most sensitive to RH 3421, whereas the sensitivities of the remaining three isoforms were substantially less than that of the Na{sub v}1.4 isoform and were approximately equivalent. The only statistically significant effect of coexpression of either the Na{sub v}1.2a or Na{sub v}1.4 isoforms with the {beta}1 subunit was the modest reduction in the sensitivity of the Na{sub v}1.2a isoform to RH 3421. These results demonstrate that mammalian sodium

  15. Sensitivity of rat inferior colliculus neurons to frequency distributions

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Aravindakshan; Han, Emily X.; Bartlett, Edward L.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulus-specific adaptation refers to a neural response reduction to a repeated stimulus that does not generalize to other stimuli. However, stimulus-specific adaptation appears to be influenced by additional factors. For example, the statistical distribution of tone frequencies has recently been shown to dynamically alter stimulus-specific adaptation in human auditory cortex. The present study investigated whether statistical stimulus distributions also affect stimulus-specific adaptation at an earlier stage of the auditory hierarchy. Neural spiking activity and local field potentials were recorded from inferior colliculus neurons of rats while tones were presented in oddball sequences that formed two different statistical contexts. Each sequence consisted of a repeatedly presented tone (standard) and three rare deviants of different magnitudes (small, moderate, large spectral change). The critical manipulation was the relative probability with which large spectral changes occurred. In one context the probability was high (relative to all deviants), while it was low in the other context. We observed larger responses for deviants compared with standards, confirming previous reports of increased response adaptation for frequently presented tones. Importantly, the statistical context in which tones were presented strongly modulated stimulus-specific adaptation. Physically and probabilistically identical stimuli (moderate deviants) in the two statistical contexts elicited different response magnitudes consistent with neural gain changes and thus neural sensitivity adjustments induced by the spectral range of a stimulus distribution. The data show that already at the level of the inferior colliculus stimulus-specific adaptation is dynamically altered by the statistical context in which stimuli occur. PMID:26354316

  16. Comparative Sensitivity Analysis of Muscle Activation Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rockenfeller, Robert; Günther, Michael; Schmitt, Syn; Götz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We mathematically compared two models of mammalian striated muscle activation dynamics proposed by Hatze and Zajac. Both models are representative for a broad variety of biomechanical models formulated as ordinary differential equations (ODEs). These models incorporate parameters that directly represent known physiological properties. Other parameters have been introduced to reproduce empirical observations. We used sensitivity analysis to investigate the influence of model parameters on the ODE solutions. In addition, we expanded an existing approach to treating initial conditions as parameters and to calculating second-order sensitivities. Furthermore, we used a global sensitivity analysis approach to include finite ranges of parameter values. Hence, a theoretician striving for model reduction could use the method for identifying particularly low sensitivities to detect superfluous parameters. An experimenter could use it for identifying particularly high sensitivities to improve parameter estimation. Hatze's nonlinear model incorporates some parameters to which activation dynamics is clearly more sensitive than to any parameter in Zajac's linear model. Other than Zajac's model, Hatze's model can, however, reproduce measured shifts in optimal muscle length with varied muscle activity. Accordingly we extracted a specific parameter set for Hatze's model that combines best with a particular muscle force-length relation. PMID:26417379

  17. Protein expression profile in the striatum of rats with methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization.

    PubMed

    Iwazaki, Takeshi; McGregor, Iain S; Matsumoto, Izuru

    2007-04-01

    Repeated administration of methamphetamine (MAP) results in an increased behavioral response to the drug during subsequent exposure. This phenomenon is called behavioral sensitization. Sensitization is an enduring phenomenon, and suggests chronic alterations in neuronal plasticity. MAP-induced sensitization has been proposed and widely investigated as an animal model of MAP psychosis and schizophrenia. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying MAP-induced sensitization. 2-DE-based proteomics allows us to examine global changes in protein expression in complex biological systems and to propose hypotheses concerning the mechanisms underlying various pathological conditions. In the present study, we examined protein expression profiles in the striatum of MAP-sensitized rats using 2-DE-based proteomics. Repeated administration of MAP (4.0 mg/kg, once a day, intraperitoneal (i.p.)) for 10 days significantly augmented the locomotor response to an MAP challenge injection (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) on day 11. This enhanced activity was maintained even after a week of drug abstinence. 2-DE analysis revealed 42 protein spots were differentially regulated in the striatum of MAP-sensitized rats compared to control. Thirty-one protein spots were identified using MALDI-TOF, including synapsin II, synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25), adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1), and dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 (DRP2). These proteins can be related to underlying mechanisms of MAP-induced behavioral sensitization, indicating cytoskeletal modification, and altered synaptic function.

  18. Chronic stress sensitizes rats to pancreatitis induced by cerulein: Role of TNF-α

    PubMed Central

    Binker, Marcelo G; Binker-Cosen, Andres A; Richards, Daniel; Gaisano, Herbert Y; de Cosen, Rodica H; Cosen-Binker, Laura I

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate chronic stress as a susceptibility factor for developing pancreatitis, as well as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as a putative sensitizer. METHODS: Rat pancreatic acini were used to analyze the influence of TNF-α on submaximal (50 pmol/L) cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulation. Chronic restraint (4 h every day for 21 d) was used to evaluate the effects of submaximal (0.2 μg/kg per hour) cerulein stimulation on chronically stressed rats. RESULTS: In vitro exposure of pancreatic acini to TNF-α disorganized the actin cytoskeleton. This was further increased by TNF-α/CCK treatment, which additionally reduced amylase secretion, and increased trypsin and nuclear factor-κB activities in a protein-kinase-C δ and ε-dependent manner. TNF-α/CCK also enhanced caspases’ activity and lactate dehydrogenase release, induced ATP loss, and augmented the ADP/ATP ratio. In vivo, rats under chronic restraint exhibited elevated serum and pancreatic TNF-α levels. Serum, pancreatic, and lung inflammatory parameters, as well as caspases’activity in pancreatic and lung tissue, were substantially enhanced in stressed/cerulein-treated rats, which also experienced tissues’ ATP loss and greater ADP/ATP ratios. Histological examination revealed that stressed/cerulein-treated animals developed abundant pancreatic and lung edema, hemorrhage and leukocyte infiltrate, and pancreatic necrosis. Pancreatitis severity was greatly decreased by treating animals with an anti-TNF-α-antibody, which diminished all inflammatory parameters, histopathological scores, and apoptotic/necrotic markers in stressed/cerulein-treated rats. CONCLUSION: In rats, chronic stress increases susceptibility for developing pancreatitis, which involves TNF-α sensitization of pancreatic acinar cells to undergo injury by physiological cerulein stimulation. PMID:21105189

  19. Hepatic drug metabolizing profile of Flinders Sensitive Line rat model of depression.

    PubMed

    Kotsovolou, Olga; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Lang, Matti A; Marselos, Marios; Overstreet, David H; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zoi; Johanson, Inger; Fotopoulos, Andrew; Konstandi, Maria

    2010-08-16

    The Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rat model of depression exhibits some behavioral, neurochemical, and pharmacological features that have been reported in depressed patients and has been very effective in screening antidepressants. Major factor that determines the effectiveness and toxicity of a drug is the drug metabolizing capacity of the liver. Therefore, in order to discriminate possible differentiation in the hepatic drug metabolism between FSL rats and Sprague-Dawley (SD) controls, their hepatic metabolic profile was investigated in this study. The data showed decreased glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and lower expression of certain major CYP enzymes, including the CYP2B1, CYP2C11 and CYP2D1 in FSL rats compared to SD controls. In contrast, p-nitrophenol hydroxylase (PNP), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) and 16alpha-testosterone hydroxylase activities were higher in FSL rats. Interestingly, the wide spread environmental pollutant benzo(alpha)pyrene (B(alpha)P) induced CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1/2 and ALDH3c at a lesser extend in FSL than in SD rats, whereas the antidepressant mirtazapine (MIRT) up-regulated CYP1A1/2, CYP2C11, CYP2D1, CYP2E1 and CYP3A1/2, mainly, in FSL rats. The drug also further increased ALDH3c whereas suppressed GSH content in B(alpha)P-exposed FSL rats. In conclusion, several key enzymes of the hepatic biotransformation machinery are differentially expressed in FSL than in SD rats, a condition that may influence the outcome of drug therapy. The MIRT-induced up-regulation of several drug-metabolizing enzymes indicates the critical role of antidepressant treatment that should be always taken into account in the designing of treatment and interpretation of insufficient pharmacotherapy or drug toxicity.

  20. Effects of Age on Thermal Sensitivity in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    King, C. D.; Morgan, D.; Carter, C. S.; Vierck, C. J.

    2010-01-01

    Age-dependent changes in thermal sensitivity were evaluated with reflex- and operant-based assessment strategies in animals ranging in age from 8 to 32 months. The impact of inflammatory injury on thermal sensitivity was also determined in animals of different ages. The results showed that operant measures of escape behavior are needed to demonstrate significant changes in thermal sensitivity across the life span of female Long-Evans rats. Increased escape from both heat (44.5°C) and cold (1.5°C–15°C) was observed for older animals, with a greater relative increase in sensitivity to cold. Physical performance deficits were demonstrated with aging but were not associated with changes in escape responding. Reflex responding to cold stimulation was impaired in older animals but was also influenced by physical disabilities. Reflex responding to heat was not affected by increasing age. Inflammation induced by formalin injections in the dorsal hindpaw increased thermal sensitivity significantly more in older animals than in their younger counterparts. PMID:20185437

  1. Effects of age on thermal sensitivity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Yezierski, R P; King, C D; Morgan, D; Carter, C S; Vierck, C J

    2010-04-01

    Age-dependent changes in thermal sensitivity were evaluated with reflex- and operant-based assessment strategies in animals ranging in age from 8 to 32 months. The impact of inflammatory injury on thermal sensitivity was also determined in animals of different ages. The results showed that operant measures of escape behavior are needed to demonstrate significant changes in thermal sensitivity across the life span of female Long-Evans rats. Increased escape from both heat (44.5 degrees C) and cold (1.5 degrees C-15 degrees C) was observed for older animals, with a greater relative increase in sensitivity to cold. Physical performance deficits were demonstrated with aging but were not associated with changes in escape responding. Reflex responding to cold stimulation was impaired in older animals but was also influenced by physical disabilities. Reflex responding to heat was not affected by increasing age. Inflammation induced by formalin injections in the dorsal hindpaw increased thermal sensitivity significantly more in older animals than in their younger counterparts.

  2. Sensitization and cross-sensitization after chronic treatment with methylphenidate in adolescent Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Valvassori, Samira S; Frey, Benício N; Martins, Márcio R; Réus, Gislaine Z; Schimidtz, Filipe; Inácio, Cecília G; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João

    2007-05-01

    An increasing debate exists about the potential of early exposure to methylphenidate to increase the risk for drug abuse. In addition, little is known about the neurobiological effects of early exposure to methylphenidate. This study was designed to investigate whether chronic treatment with methylphenidate induces behavioral sensitization to subsequent methylphenidate and D-amphetamine challenge in adolescent Wistar rats. Young Wistar rats (P25) were treated with either methylphenidate (1, 2, or 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or saline for 28 days. After 14 days of washout, animals were challenged with methylphenidate 2.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally or D-amphetamine 2 mg/kg intraperitoneally (P67). Locomotor behavior was assessed using the open field test. Rats chronically treated with methylphenidate in the adolescent period showed augmented locomotor sensitization to D-amphetamine but not to methylphenidate in the adult phase. These findings suggest that early exposure do methylphenidate might increase the risk for subsequent D-amphetamine abuse. Further studies focusing on the neurobiological effects of early exposure to methylphenidate are warranted.

  3. Different locomotor sensitization responses to repeated cocaine injections are associated with differential phosphorylation of GluA1 in the dorsomedial striatum of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myonghwan; Kim, Wonju; Baik, Ja-Hyun; Yoon, Bong-June

    2013-11-15

    Behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants reflects neural adaptation, which might share a common mechanism with drug addiction. Outbred male rats show different locomotor sensitization responses to cocaine, and cocaine also produces varied addictive progress in humans. We investigated whether differences in the induction of sensitization would affect the long-term persistence of sensitized locomotor activity, and we sought to determine the molecular basis for the variability in sensitization. Male Sprague-Dawley rats that showed sensitized locomotor responses over 5 consecutive daily cocaine injections (SENS) had significantly lower initial locomotor responses to the 1st cocaine exposure than did rats that did not show locomotor sensitization (NONS). Furthermore, rats that underwent 1 month of cocaine withdrawal after 5 repeated cocaine injections also exhibited sensitized or non-sensitized locomotor responses to a challenge injection of cocaine (SENS-C or NONS-C, respectively). This variability was also related to the initial responsiveness to cocaine. We examined the level of phosphorylation of the GluA1 subunit of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropioniate receptor (AMPAR) in the dorsal striatum and found that there were significant differences between the sensitized rats and the non-sensitized rats. pGluA1-Ser831 was increased in the SENS rats during the induction of locomotor sensitization, and pGluA1-Ser845 was increased in the SENS-C rats during the expression of locomotor sensitization. These phosphorylation changes were observed in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of adult rats but not in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) of adults. Our findings suggest that differential phosphorylation of AMPAR might be an important mechanism that contributes to the development of locomotor sensitization to cocaine in adult rats.

  4. Cross-sensitization between testosterone and cocaine in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Engi, Sheila A; Cruz, Fabio C; Crestani, Carlos C; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2015-11-01

    Cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids are substances commonly co-abused. The use of anabolic steroids and cocaine has increased among adolescents. However, few studies investigated the consequences of the interaction between anabolic-androgenic steroids in animals' model of adolescence. We examined the effects of acute and repeated testosterone administration on cocaine-induced locomotor activity in adult and adolescent rats. Rats received ten once-daily subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of testosterone (10mg/kg) or vehicle. Three days after the last testosterone or vehicle injections rats received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) challenge injection of either saline or cocaine (10mg/kg). A different subset of rats was treated with a single injection of testosterone (10mg/kg) or vehicle and three days later was challenged with cocaine (10mg/kg, i.p.) or saline. Immediately after cocaine or saline injections the locomotor activity was recorded during forty minutes. Our results demonstrated that repeated testosterone induced locomotor sensitization to cocaine in adolescent but not adult rats.

  5. Transition from ethanol-induced sensitization to tolerance across early and late infancy in the rat.

    PubMed

    Castello, Stefania; D'Aloisio, Genesis; Arias, Carlos; Molina, Juan Carlos

    Drugs of abuse, as cocaine or amphetamine, induce locomotor sensitization during infancy and adulthood of the rat. This effect during the preweanling period is observed only after a short interval of time between training and testing. We recently reported short-term locomotor sensitization induced by ethanol in pups chronically exposed to the drug during the second postnatal week of life. The present series of experiments was designed to explore the persistence of the sensitization effect across the preweanling period. Pups were chronically exposed to ethanol in five consecutive days during the second or the third postnatal weeks, and their locomotor activity was evaluated in an open field 3, 8 or 15days later. Our results showed that, contrarily to what has been observed with other drugs during infancy, sensitization to ethanol persisted at least 8days in rats exposed to the drug during the second postnatal week. Surprisingly, in older pups, the same procedure induced tolerance instead sensitization. This ontogenetic model offers a potentially interesting tool for studying within the same species, how tolerance and sensitization are interrelated, and how these effects affect ethanol-mediated reinforcement and ethanol intake during ontogeny.

  6. TNF-alpha enhanced allergic sensitization to house dust mite in brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Lambert, A L; Selgrade, M K; Winsett, D W; Gilmour, M I

    2001-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that pulmonary exposure to residual oil fly ash (ROFA) resulted in enhanced sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) and augmented the development of allergic lung disease after allergen challenge. This effect was associated with increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), a macrophage- and epithelial cell-derived cytokine that promotes granulocyte migration to the lung. The present study examined whether exogenous administration of TNF-alpha enhances sensitization to HDM. One day prior to pulmonary sensitization with 10 microg HDM (5 microg each on days 1 and 3), female Brown Norway rats were instilled via the trachea with either 2.0 microg recombinant rat TNF-alpha, 2.0 microg bovine serum albumin (BSA), or 1,000 microg ROFA, and were challenged with 10 microg HDM 14 days later. Antigen-induced immediate bronchoconstriction responses, antigen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) titers, lymphocyte proliferation, (cytokines (TNF-alpha and interleukin [IL]-13), and eosinophils were elevated in rats treated with ROFA or TNF-alpha compared with BSA-treated controls after HDM challenge. Intratracheal administration of anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody during ROFA exposure did not reduce ROFA-enhanced lymphocyte proliferation or IgE titers, but had a trend for reduced pulmonary inflammation. This study demonstrates that TNF-alpha has similar adjuvant activity as ROFA, but other factors may fulfill this function when TNF-alpha activity is blocked.

  7. Effect of confinement in small space flight size cages on insulin sensitivity of exercise-trained rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondon, C. E.; Dolkas, C. B.; Reaven, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of confinement in small cages (simulating the size to be used in future space Shuttle missions) on insulin sensitivity was studied in rats having an increased insulin sensitivity due to exercise training prior to confinement. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were given to both control and exercise-trained rats before and after placement in the small cages for 7 days. The insulin resistance was assessed by the product of the area of the insulin and glucose curves of the OGTT (IG index). Results show that the values obtained before confinement were one-half as high in exercise-trained rats as those in control rats, reflecting an increased sensitivity to insulin with exercise training. After 7 days confinement, the IG index was found to be not significantly different from initial values for both control and exercise-trained rats. These findings suggest that increased insulin sensitivity in exercise-trained rats persists 7 days after cessation of running activity. The data also indicate that exercise training, before flight, may be beneficial in minimizing the loss of insulin sensitivity expected with decreased use of gravity dependent muscles during exposure to hypogravity in space flight.

  8. Trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin treatment abolishes glibenclamide sensitivity of KATP channels in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Nichols, C G; Lopatin, A N

    1993-03-01

    Cytoplasmic trypsin-treatment of voltage-sensitive potassium channels has been shown to cleave domains of the channel responsible for inactivation of the channel. Trypsin has also been reported to remove slow, irreversible inactivation, or run-down in ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. Cytoplasmic treatment of rat ventricular KATP channels with either crude, or pure trypsin (1-2 mg/ml) failed to prevent a slow run-down of channel activity. However, trypsin (porcine pancreatic type IX, or type II (Sigma Chem. Co.), or alpha-chymotrypsin (Sigma Chem. Co.) rapidly and irreversibly removed, or substantiallly decreased glibenclamide and tolbutamide-sensitivity of the channels without removing sensitivity to ATP. We conclude that glibenclamide must bind to either a separate protein, or to a separate domain on the channel in order to effect channel inhibition, and this domain is functionally disconnected from the channel by trypsin-, or alpha-chymotrypsin treatment.

  9. Ontogenetic noradrenergic lesion alters histaminergic activity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Przemyslaw; Jochem, Jerzy; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna; Josko, Jadwiga; Noras, Lukasz; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Brus, Ryszard

    2008-04-01

    To determine whether noradrenergic nerves might have a modulatory role on the sensitivity or reactivity of histaminergic receptor systems in brain, behavioral effects of the respective histamine H1, H2 and H3 antagonists S(+)chlorpheniramine, cimetidine and thioperimide in control adult rats were compared to the effects in adult rats that had been lesioned as neonates with the noradrenergic neurotoxin DSP-4. On the 1st and 3rd days after birth rat pups were treated with either saline or DSP-4 (50 mg/kg sc), then returned to their home cages with the dam. At 8 weeks when rats were tested, S(+)chlorpheniramine (10 mg/kg ip) was found to increase locomotor activity in intact and DSP-4 lesioned rats, while cimetidine (5 mg/kg, ip) and thioperimide (5 mg/kg, ip) increased activity several-fold solely in the DSP-4 group. Exploratory activity, nociceptive activity, and irritability were little altered by the histamine antagonists, although oral activity was increased by thioperimide in intact and lesioned rats, and by cimetidine or S(+)chlorpheniramine in DSP-4 rats. High performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was used to determine that DSP-4 produced a 90% reduction in frontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus, with a 90% elevation of NE in cerebellum--reflecting reactive sprouting of noradrenergic fibers consequent to lesion of noradrenergic tracts projecting to proximal brain regions. These findings indicate that perinatal noradrenergic fiber lesioning in rat brain is associated with an altered behavioral spectrum by histamine H1, H2 and H3 receptor antagonists, thereby implicating histaminergic systems as modulators of noradrenergic systems in brain.

  10. Atrial natriuretic factor-like activity in rat posterior pituitary

    SciTech Connect

    Gutkowska, J.; Debinski, W.; Racz, K.; Thibault, G.; Garcia, R.; Kuchel, O.; Genest, J.; Cantin, M.

    1986-03-05

    The presence of a biologically active peptide: Atrial Natriuretic Factor (ANF) has been demonstrated in rat and human circulation and ANF is considered now as a new hormone. ANF may be involved in body fluid regulation. A very sensitive radioimmunoassay for rat ANF allowed the authors to search for immunoreactive ANF (IR-ANF) in rat posterior pituitary. Serial dilutions of homogenates of rat posterior pituitary showed a good parallelism with a reference curve in a radioimmunoassay system. The IR-ANF was extracted from rat posterior pituitary homogenates by activated Vycor glass beads. The lyophilized extract was purified by HPLC on C/sub 18/ ..mu.. Bondapak column. The HPLC yielded two IR-ANF peaks. Both isolated ANF-like material showed biological activity. The IR-ANF eluted with 33% acetonitrile, inhibited ACTH-stimulated aldosterone secretion with a similar potency as synthetic (Arg 101 - Tyr 126) ANF (0.7 x 10/sup -10/M). A much less potent ANF-like material was found in the second peak eluted with 36% acetonitrile. They conclude that ANF-like material is present in rat posterior pituitary and this suggest a possible role in ANF on AVP secretion directly in situ.

  11. Kupffer cells of cirrhotic rat livers sensitize colon cancer cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Song, E; Chen, J; Ouyang, N; Wang, M; Exton, M S; Heemann, U

    2001-05-04

    Metastasis of colorectal carcinomas rarely occurs in cirrhotic livers. Our study investigated the influence of activated Kupffer cells from cirrhotic rat livers on hepatic colonization and FasR-mediated apoptosis of colon cancer cells. A rat colon cancer cell line, RCN-9, was used to inoculate rat livers. Treatment with conditioned media of Kupffer cells isolated from CCl(4)-induced cirrhotic rat livers (cirrhotic KCM) significantly reduced the incidence of hepatic colonization of RCN-9 cells. In vitro cytotoxicity of Kupffer cells and tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) on RCN-9 cells was evaluated using [(3)H]-release assay. RCN-9 cells were resistant to cytotoxicity mediated by cirrhotic Kupffer cells, but were sensitized to TIL-mediated killing after treatment with cirrhotic KCM. The specific killing induced by TILs was FasR-mediated, as it was inhibited by ZB4, an antagonistic anti-FasR antibody. In agreement, cirrhotic KCM increased recombinant Fas ligand-induced apoptosis of RCN-9 cells, and up-regulated FasR expression on RCN-9 cells as evaluated by RT-PCR and flow cytometry. These findings suggest that Kupffer cells in cirrhotic livers sensitize metastatic colon cancer cells to FasR-mediated apoptosis by up-regulating the receptors, which thus prepare them to be eliminated by infiltrating lymphocytes.

  12. Tolerance to ethanol-induced impairment of water escape in rats bred for ethanol sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Bass, M B; Lester, D

    1980-01-01

    Rats selectively bred for ethanol (EtOH)- induced reductions in locomotor activity ("least affected" = MA) showed a reversed order of senstivity (i.e., LA more sensitive) to EtOH-induced (1.75 g/kg, IP) impairment of swimming. Thirty days of daily EtOH intubation began the next day, starting at 3.5 g/kg for 4 days, and increasing by 0.5 g/kg after 4 days at each dose, until 6.0 and 6.5 g/kg were given for 5 days each. Subjects were retested on the swim task (1.75 g/kg, IP) following 10, 20, and 30 days of chronic EtOH, and at 10, 20, and 30 days after cessation of EtOH treatment. Rats of each line and sex showed progressively decreasing peak impairment during the chronic treatment period; impairment increased toward initial levels during the post-treatment period. LA rats were more impaired than MA rats prior to, throughout, and subsequent to the chronic treatment period; a significant positive correlation between initial impairment and impairment after 30 days of chronic EtOH was found. No line differences in rates of tolerance acquisition or loss, or in final levels of tolerance as indicated by post-treatment impairment relative to initial impairment were observed. The similarity of the dynamics of EtOH tolerance in rats selectively bred for sensitivity to its acute effects suggests independent genetic influences upon initial ethanol sensitivity as opposed to acquired ethanal tolerance.

  13. Temperature sensitivity of neurones in slices of the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed Central

    Pehl, U; Schmid, H A; Simon, E

    1997-01-01

    1. The inherent temperature sensitivity of 343 spontaneously active neurones recorded from rat spinal cord (SC) slices was investigated electrophysiologically. Recordings were made from 321 neurons from transverse and 22 neurons from longitudinal slices and their thermosensitivity was determined by relating changes in firing rate to changes in slice temperature. 2. Of the neurones from transverse slices, 53% were warm sensitive, 2% were cold sensitive and 45% were temperature insensitive. In longitudinal slices, 68% were warm sensitive and the remaining neurones were temperature insensitive. 3. When classified according to their recording sites in transverse slices, warm-sensitive neurones in laminae I and II had the same mean temperature coefficient compared with those recorded from lamina X, despite the fact that the latter had a significantly higher spontaneous activity. 4. The intrinsic temperature sensitivity of the majority of warm-sensitive neurones was confirmed by blocking their synaptic input. 5. A transient overshoot in activity, i.e. a dynamic response characteristic following rapid temperature stimuli (0.4 degree C s-1) was observed in 73% of the warm-sensitive and 59% of the temperature-insensitive neurones in laminae I and II in response to rapid warming, but only rarely (< 10%) in lamina X. 6. Temperature-sensitive SC neurones share response characteristics with temperature-sensitive neurones in the preoptic and anterior hypothalamic (PO/AH) area and with peripheral temperature receptors. Functionally, these neurones may represent the cellular basis for the temperature sensory function of the spinal cord that has been well characterized in vivo in homeothermic species. PMID:9032695

  14. [A comparative study of the taste sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide in rats differing by the threshold of nervous system excitability].

    PubMed

    Pavlova, M B

    1997-01-01

    Taste sensitivity to a bitter substance, phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) was studied in rat strains selected for the threshold of excitability of the nervous system. In the period of 17 days the drinking behaviour of the rats was estimated after giving them a series of PTC solutions with increasing concentrations and water as a control. The interstrain differences were found in the mean level of this index and its dynamics during the experimental period. Rats of the strain with high excitability showed the rhythmical changes of taste sensitivity to PTC related to the phases of moon rhythm. The obtained evidence points to relation between the sign under study and individual characteristics of the nervous system, namely, its excitability, and suggests the differences in activity of the second messenger system (Ca++, c-AMP and others) in the studied rat strains.

  15. Differential Sympathetic Vasomotor Activation Induced by Liver Cirrhosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bergamaschi, Cássia T.; Campos, Ruy R.

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that there is a topographical sympathetic activation in rats submitted to experimental cirrhosis. Baseline renal (rSNA) and splanchnic (sSNA) sympathetic nerve activities were evaluated in anesthetized rats. In addition, we evaluated main arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS). Cirrhotic Wistar rats were obtained by bile duct ligation (BDL). MAP and HR were measured in conscious rats, and cardiac BRS was assessed by changes in blood pressure induced by increasing doses of phenylephrine or sodium nitroprusside. The BRS and baseline for the control of sSNA and rSNA were also evaluated in urethane-anesthetized rats. Cirrhotic rats had increased baseline sSNA (BDL, 102 vs control, 58 spikes/s; p<0.05), but no baseline changes in the rSNA compared to controls. These data were accompanied by increased splanchnic BRS (p<0.05) and decreased cardiac (p<0.05) and renal BRS (p<0.05). Furthermore, BDL rats had reduced basal MAP (BDL, 93 vs control, 101 mmHg; p<0.05) accompanied by increased HR (BDL, 378 vs control, 356; p<0.05). Our data have shown topographical sympathetic activation in rats submitted to experimental cirrhosis. The BDL group had increased baseline sSNA, independent of dysfunction in the BRS and no changes in baseline rSNA. However, an impairment of rSNA and HR control by arterial baroreceptor was noted. We suggest that arterial baroreceptor impairment of rSNA and HR is an early marker of cardiovascular dysfunction related to liver cirrhosis and probably a major mechanism leading to sympathoexcitation in decompensated phase. PMID:27055088

  16. Chronic inositol treatment reduces depression-like immobility of Flinders Sensitive Line rats in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Einat, Haim; Belmaker, Robert H; Zangen, Avraham; Overstreet, D H; Yadid, Gal

    2002-01-01

    Inositol, a precursor of the PIP cycle that was reported to have therapeutic effects in depressive patients and to be effective in two animal models of depression, was evaluated in the forced swim test using the genetic Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats model of depression. Groups of rats were tested in a 2 x 2 design with Strain (FSL or Control) as one factor and Drug (Inositol or Placebo) as the second factor. Rats received chronic treatment (daily for 14 days) with inositol (1.2 g/kg) or placebo (1:2 glucose/mannitol solution). On day 14 rats were exposed to the forced swim test for 5 min and their behavior videotaped. Tapes were analyzed for three levels of activity: immobility, swimming, and vigorous struggle. Inositol countered the exaggerated immobility of FSL rats in the forced swim test, without affecting control animals. Data support our previous suggestion of inositol as a potential antidepressant.

  17. Developmental regulation of voltage-sensitive sodium channels in rat skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The developmental regulation of the voltage-sensitive Na/sup +/ channel in rat skeletal muscle was studied in vivo and in vitro. In triceps surae muscle developing in vivo the development of TTX-sensitive Na/sup +/ channel occurred primarily during the first three postnatal weeks as determined by the specific binding of (/sup 3/H)saxitoxin. This development proceeded in two separate phases. The first phase occurs independently of continuing motor neuron innervation and accounts for 60% of the adult density of TTX-sensitive Na/sup +/ channels. The second phase, which begins about day 11, requires innervation. Muscle cells in primary culture were found to have both TTX-sensitive and insensitive Na/sup +/ channels. The development of the TTX-sensitive channel, in vitro, paralleled the initial innervation-independent phase of development observed in vivo. The density of TTX-sensitive Na/sup +/ channels in cultured muscle cells was regulated by electrical activity and cytosolic Ca/sup + +/ levels. Pharmacological blockade of the spontaneous electrical activity present in these cells lead to a nearly 2-fold increase in the surface density of TTX-sensitive channels. The turnover time of the TTX-sensitive Na/sup +/ channel was measured by blocking the incorporation of newly synthesized channels with tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-linked protein glycosylation. The regulation of channel density by electrical activity, cytosolic Ca/sup + +/levels, and agents affecting cyclic neucleotide levels had no effect on the turnover time of the TTX-sensitive Na/sup +/ channel, indicating that these regulatory agents instead affect the synthesis of the channel.

  18. Angiotensin AT2 receptor agonist prevents salt-sensitive hypertension in obese Zucker rats

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Quaisar; Patel, Sanket

    2015-01-01

    High-sodium intake is a risk factor for the pathogenesis of hypertension, especially in obesity. The present study is designed to investigate whether angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) activation with selective agonist C21 prevents high-sodium diet (HSD)-induced hypertension in obese animals. Male obese rats were treated with AT2R agonist C21 (1 mg·kg−1·day−1, oral) while maintained on either normal-sodium diet (NSD; 0.4%) or HSD (4%) for 2 wk. Radiotelemetric recording showed a time-dependent increase in systolic blood pressure in HSD-fed obese rats, being maximal increase (∼27 mmHg) at day 12 of the HSD regimen. C21 treatment completely prevented the increase in blood pressure of HSD-fed rats. Compared with NSD controls, HSD-fed obese rats had greater natriuresis/diuresis and urinary levels of nitrates, and these parameters were further increased by C21 treatment. Also, C21 treatment improved glomerular filtration rate in HSD-fed rats. HSD-fed rats expressed higher level of cortical ANG II, which was reduced to 50% by C21 treatment. HSD feeding and/or C21 treatment had no effects on cortical renin activity and the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and chymase, which are ANG II-producing enzymes. However, ANG(1–7) concentration and ACE2 activity in the renal cortex were reduced by HSD feeding, and C21 treatment rescued both the parameters. Also, C21 treatment reduced the cortical expression of AT1R in HSD-fed rats, but had no effect of AT2R expression. We conclude that chronic treatment with the AT2R agonist C21 prevents salt-sensitive hypertension in obese rats, and a reduction in the renal ANG II/AT1R and enhanced ACE2/ANG(1–7) levels may play a potential role in this phenomenon. PMID:25855512

  19. Angiotensin AT2 receptor agonist prevents salt-sensitive hypertension in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Quaisar; Patel, Sanket; Hussain, Tahir

    2015-06-15

    High-sodium intake is a risk factor for the pathogenesis of hypertension, especially in obesity. The present study is designed to investigate whether angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) activation with selective agonist C21 prevents high-sodium diet (HSD)-induced hypertension in obese animals. Male obese rats were treated with AT2R agonist C21 (1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), oral) while maintained on either normal-sodium diet (NSD; 0.4%) or HSD (4%) for 2 wk. Radiotelemetric recording showed a time-dependent increase in systolic blood pressure in HSD-fed obese rats, being maximal increase (∼27 mmHg) at day 12 of the HSD regimen. C21 treatment completely prevented the increase in blood pressure of HSD-fed rats. Compared with NSD controls, HSD-fed obese rats had greater natriuresis/diuresis and urinary levels of nitrates, and these parameters were further increased by C21 treatment. Also, C21 treatment improved glomerular filtration rate in HSD-fed rats. HSD-fed rats expressed higher level of cortical ANG II, which was reduced to 50% by C21 treatment. HSD feeding and/or C21 treatment had no effects on cortical renin activity and the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and chymase, which are ANG II-producing enzymes. However, ANG(1-7) concentration and ACE2 activity in the renal cortex were reduced by HSD feeding, and C21 treatment rescued both the parameters. Also, C21 treatment reduced the cortical expression of AT1R in HSD-fed rats, but had no effect of AT2R expression. We conclude that chronic treatment with the AT2R agonist C21 prevents salt-sensitive hypertension in obese rats, and a reduction in the renal ANG II/AT1R and enhanced ACE2/ANG(1-7) levels may play a potential role in this phenomenon.

  20. Aging: ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb+ uptake rate and responsiveness to digoxin in rat left atrial muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.H.; Seifen, E.

    1989-01-01

    Previous work in anesthetized rats has demonstrated that the sensitivity to cardiotoxic actions of cardiotonic steroids is increased in senescence, and studies in crude homogenates and partially purified membrane preparations have suggested that this altered responsiveness is related to an aging-associated reduction in the sarcolemmal content of Na,K-adenosine triphosphatase. This decrease in Na,K-adenosine triphosphatase could enhance the sensitivity to digitalis-like compounds by reducing the reserve capacity of the Na+-pump and thus the extent of digitalis-induced pump inhibition required before the onset of toxicity. Current experiments examined dose-dependent actions of digoxin in atrial muscle isolated from 3-, 12- and 24- to 25-month-old rats and determined if alterations in responsiveness correlated with changes in ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake rate, an estimate of Na+-pump activity. Atrial preparations from aged rats were more sensitive to the cardiotoxic actions of digoxin; however, the inotropic efficacy before the onset of toxicity was not affected by age. Both 1) the maximum attainable ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake rate and 2) the difference between maximum uptake rate and that monitored in preparations stimulated at 4.0 Hz decreased progressively with age. These results indicate that atrial muscle from aged rats is more sensitive to direct toxic effects of digoxin and suggest that this lower tolerance is mediated, at least in part, by a reduction in Na+-pump reserve capacity.

  1. Activation of rat B lymphocytes by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshie, H; Taubman, M A; Ebersole, J L; Olson, C L; Smith, D J; Pappo, J

    1985-01-01

    We examined the lymphoproliferative responses of cervical lymphocytes and splenocytes of homozygous (rnu/rnu) congenitally athymic nude and normal heterozygous (rnu/+) Rowett rats to whole cells of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, a suspected periodontal disease pathogen. Previously sensitized cells from immunized only, infected only, or immunized and infected, normal rats demonstrated proliferation in response to formalinized A. actinomycetemcomitans, but cells from nude rats did not proliferate. The maximum antigenic response was observed at day 5 of culture. A. actinomycetemcomitans caused cervical lymphocytes and splenocytes from untreated naive normal and nude rats to undergo increased DNA synthesis at day 2 of culture. Highly enriched nonsensitized spleen T cells prepared on a nylon wool column did not respond to A. actinomycetemcomitans, whereas enriched nonsensitized B cells proliferated. Differences in response were probably not attributable to contributions from macrophages in the T- or B-cell populations, since macrophage percentages were approximately the same in both preparations. T-cell reconstitution of nude rats with neonatal thymus cells from rnu/+rats resulted in partial recovery of T-cell function but had no effect on the mitogenic response to A. actinomycetemcomitans. It is suggested that the antigenic responses to A. actinomycetemcomitans are dependent on T cells and that A. actinomycetemcomitans cells have mitogenic activity for B cells. The potential importance of these findings in periodontal disease is discussed. PMID:3871196

  2. High fat diet-fed obese rats are highly sensitive to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2008-09-15

    Often, chemotherapy by doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is limited due to life threatening cardiotoxicity in patients during and posttherapy. Recently, we have shown that moderate diet restriction remarkably protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. This cardioprotection is accompanied by decreased cardiac oxidative stress and triglycerides and increased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and upregulated JAK/STAT3 pathway. In the current study, we investigated whether a physiological intervention by feeding 40% high fat diet (HFD), which induces obesity in male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g), sensitizes to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. A LD{sub 10} dose (8 mg doxorubicin/kg, ip) administered on day 43 of the HFD feeding regimen led to higher cardiotoxicity, cardiac dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, and 80% mortality in the obese (OB) rats in the absence of any significant renal or hepatic toxicity. Doxorubicin toxicokinetics studies revealed no change in accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the normal diet-fed (ND) and OB hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that OB rats are sensitized due to: (1) higher oxyradical stress leading to upregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) downregulation of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-{alpha}, (3) decreased plasma adiponectin levels, (4) decreased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation (666.9 {+-} 14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ND versus 400.2 {+-} 11.8 nmol/min/g heart in OB), (5) decreased mitochondrial AMP-{alpha}2 protein kinase, and (6) 86% drop in cardiac ATP levels accompanied by decreased ATP/ADP ratio after doxorubicin administration. Decreased cardiac erythropoietin and increased SOCS3 further downregulated the cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. In conclusion, HFD-induced obese rats are highly sensitized to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by substantially downregulating cardiac mitochondrial ATP generation, increasing oxidative stress and downregulating

  3. Avoidance of physical activity is a sensitive indicator of illness.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Gregory W; Mitchell, Duncan; Harden, Lois M

    2009-03-02

    Although fever and sickness behavior are common responses to infection, it has been proposed that the sickness behaviors associated with infection, in particular lethargy and fatigue, may be more valuable clinical markers of illness and recovery in patients, than is body temperature alone. Measuring abdominal temperature, food intake and wheel running we therefore determined the dose thresholds and sensitivities of these responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive one of three LPS doses (10, 50, 250 microg/kg), or saline, subcutaneously. Administration of LPS induced a dose-dependent increase in abdominal temperature and decrease in wheel running, food intake and body mass. Regression analysis revealed that decreased running was the most-sensitive of the sickness responses to LPS administration, with a regression slope of -41%/log microg, compared to the slopes for food intake (-30%/log microg, F(1,2)=244, P=0.004) and body mass (-2.2%/log microg, F(1,5)=7491, P<0.0001). To determine the likelihood that exercise training influenced the sickness responses we measured in our dose-response study we performed a second experiment in which we investigated whether fever and anorexia induced by LPS administration would present differently depending on whether rats had been exercising or sedentary. Six weeks of wheel running had no effect on the magnitude of fever and anorexia induced by LPS administration. Avoidance of physical activity therefore appears to be a more-sensitive indicator of a host's reaction to LPS than is anorexia and fever.

  4. Sensitization to the conditioned rewarding effects of morphine modulates gene expression in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Marie-Claire, Cynthia; Courtin, Cindie; Robert, Amelie; Gidrol, Xavier; Roques, Bernard P; Noble, Florence

    2007-02-01

    Opiates addiction is characterized by its long-term persistence. In order to study the enduring changes in long-term memory in hippocampus, a pivotal region for this process, we used suppression subtractive hybridization to compare hippocampal gene expression in morphine and saline-treated rats. Animals were subjected to an extended place preference paradigm consisting of four conditioning phases. Sensitization to the reinforcing effects of the drug occurred after three conditioning phases. After 25 days of treatment rats were euthanized and the complementary DNA (cDNA) from the hippocampus of morphine-dependent and saline-treated animals were then screened for differentially expressed cDNAs. The selected 177 clones were then subjected to a microarray procedure and 20 clones were found differentially regulated. The pattern of regulated genes suggests impairments in neurotransmitter release and the activation of neuroprotective pathways.

  5. Centrally administered vasopressin cross-sensitizes rats to amphetamine and drinking hypertonic NaCl.

    PubMed

    McBride, Shawna M; Flynn, Francis W

    2007-09-01

    Prior sodium restriction cross-sensitizes rats to the psychomotor effects of amphetamines and vice versa. Repeated central injections of vasopressin (VP) induce a psychomotor sensitization similar to amphetamine sensitization and repeated sodium deficiency. Thus brain VP signaling may be a common mechanism involved in mediating these two motivational systems. In experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that rats previously sensitized to central VP would show enhanced psychomotor responses to amphetamine. Rats were administered saline, VP (50 ng), or amphetamine (1 mg/kg or 3 mg/kg) on days 1 and 2, and given saline or amphetamine on day 3. Amphetamine produced psychomotor arousal in all groups. However, amphetamine on day 3 elicited a significantly greater psychomotor response in rats that had prior injections of amphetamine or VP than in rats previously treated with saline. In experiment 2, the hypothesis that prior experience with central VP would cross-sensitize rats to drinking hypertonic sodium (NaCl) solutions was tested. Rats were administered VP (50 ng) or saline for 3 days. On the fourth day, nondeprived rats were given access to 0.3 M NaCl and water for 1 h. Control and saline-treated rats only drank 1 ml of 0.3 M NaCl, but rats previously exposed to central VP drank significantly more hypertonic saline (4 ml). These results show that prior experience with central VP cross-sensitizes rats to the psychomotor stimulant effects of amphetamine and the ingestion of concentrated NaCl solutions. This pattern of cross-sensitization links central VP signaling, amphetamine, and sodium deficiency, and therefore it may play a role in the cross-sensitization between sodium appetite and amphetamines.

  6. Hysteresis and the length dependence of calcium sensitivity in chemically skinned rat cardiac muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, S M; Lamont, C; Miller, D J

    1988-01-01

    1. The relationship between pCa (-log10[Ca2+]) and steady-state isometric tension has been investigated in saponin- or Triton-treated (chemically 'skinned') cardiac muscle of rat. 2. Hysteresis exists in the relationship such that the muscle is less sensitive to Ca2+ during increasing activation (as [Ca2+] is stepped upward) than during reducing activation (as [Ca2+] is stepped downward). 3. The extent of the hysteresis is insensitive to interventions that increase overall calcium sensitivity by chemical means, such as caffeine, carnosine or increased pH. 4. The extent of the hysteresis is sensitive to sarcomere length. The phenomenon is virtually absent above sarcomere lengths of about 2.2-2.3 microns but becomes progressively greater at shorter sarcomere lengths. 5. The effect of sarcomere length on calcium sensitivity is restricted to the upward-going (increasing activation) part of the pCa-tension loop below 2.2 microns. The downward-going (decreasing activation) part of the hysteretic relationship is virtually unaffected by sarcomere length up to 2.2 microns. 6. Significant alterations in sarcomere length do not occur during tension development in the experiments described here: the phenomenon is not attributable to experimental artifacts of this kind. 7. Hysteresis develops sufficiently rapidly to be consistent with a physiological relevance during the normal heart beat. 8. The effects of sarcomere length show that the phenomenon is not due to force per se since, for example, greater peak force produces less hysteresis as sarcomere length is increased towards 2.2 microns. 9. Tonicity increase (by high-molecular-weight dextran), which shrinks the myofilament lattice, increases calcium sensitivity but reduces the effect of sarcomere length on calcium sensitivity. 10. The results suggest that lattice shrinkage is the mechanism which accounts for hysteresis in, and the sarcomere length dependence of, calcium sensitivity in cardiac muscle. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 11

  7. Nullifying drug-induced sensitization: behavioral and electrophysiological evaluations of dopaminergic and serotonergic ligands in methamphetamine-sensitized rats.

    PubMed

    McDaid, J; Tedford, C E; Mackie, A R; Dallimore, J E; Mickiewicz, A L; Shen, F; Angle, J M; Napier, T C

    2007-01-05

    Repeated exposure to methamphetamine produces a persistent enhancement of the acute motor effects of the drug, commonly referred to as behavioral sensitization. Behavioral sensitization involves monoaminergic projections to several forebrain nuclei. We recently revealed that the ventral pallidum (VP) may also be involved. In this study, we sought to establish if treatments with antagonists or partial agonists to monoaminergic receptors could "reverse" methamphetamine-induced behavioral and VP neuronal sensitization. Behavioral sensitization was obtained in rats with five once-daily s.c. injections of 2.5mg/kg methamphetamine, an effect that persisted for at least 60 days. After the development of sensitization, 15 once-daily treatments of mirtazapine (a 5-HT(2/3), alpha(2) and H(1) antagonist), SKF38393 (D(1) partial agonist) or SCH23390 (dopamine D(1) antagonist) nullified indices of motor sensitization as assessed by measuring the motoric response to an acute methamphetamine challenge 30 days after the fifth repeated methamphetamine treatment. VP neurons recorded in vivo from methamphetamine-sensitized rats at the 30-day withdrawal time also showed a robust downward shift in the excitatory responses observed to an acute i.v. methamphetamine challenge in non-sensitized rats. This decreased excitatory effect was reversed by mirtazapine, but not by other antagonists that were tested. These data suggest a potential therapeutic benefit for mirtazapine in the treatment of methamphetamine addiction, and point to a possible role for the VP in the sensitization process to methamphetamine.

  8. A sensitive and reliable test instrument to assess swimming in rats with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Åkesson, Elisabet; Holmberg, Lena; Sundström, Erik

    2015-09-15

    For clinical translation of experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) research, evaluation of animal SCI models should include several sensorimotor functions. Validated and reliable assessment tools should be applicable to a wide range of injury severity. The BBB scale is the most widely used test instrument, but similar to most others it is used to assess open field ambulation. We have developed an assessment tool for swimming in rats with SCI, with high discriminative power and sensitivity to functional recovery after mild and severe injuries, without need for advanced test equipment. We studied various parameters of swimming in four groups of rats with thoracic SCI of different severity and a control group, for 8 weeks after surgery. Six parameters were combined in a multiple item scale, the Karolinska Institutet Swim Assessment Tool (KSAT). KSAT scores for all SCI groups showed consistent functional improvement after injury, and significant differences between the five experimental groups. The internal consistency, the inter-rater and the test-retest reliability were very high. The KSAT score was highly correlated to the cross-section area of white matter spared at the injury epicenter. Importantly, even after 8 weeks of recovery the KSAT score reliably discriminated normal animals from those inflicted by the mildest injury, and also displayed the recovery of the most severely injured rats. We conclude that this swim scale is an efficient and reliable tool to assess motor activity during swimming, and an important addition to the methods available for evaluating rat models of SCI.

  9. Central sensitization in thalamic nociceptive neurons induced by mustard oil application to rat molar tooth pulp.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Chiang, C Y; Xie, Y F; Park, S J; Lu, Y; Hu, J W; Dostrovsky, J O; Sessle, B J

    2006-10-27

    We have recently demonstrated that application of mustard oil (MO), a small-fiber excitant and inflammatory irritant, to the rat maxillary molar tooth pulp induces central sensitization that is reflected in changes in spontaneous activity, mechanoreceptive field (RF) size, mechanical activation threshold, and responses to graded mechanical stimuli applied to the neuronal RF in trigeminal brainstem subnucleus caudalis and subnucleus oralis. The aim of this study was to test whether central sensitization can be induced in nociceptive neurons of the posterior thalamus by MO application to the pulp. Single unit neuronal activity was recorded in the ventroposterior medial nucleus (VPM) or posterior nuclear group (PO) of the thalamus in anesthetized rats, and nociceptive neurons were classified as wide dynamic range (WDR) or nociceptive-specific (NS). MO application to the pulp was studied in 47 thalamic nociceptive neurons and found to excite over 50% of the 35 VPM neurons tested and to produce significant long-lasting (over 40 min) increases in spontaneous activity, cutaneous pinch RF size and responses to graded mechanical stimuli, and a decrease in threshold in the 29 NS neurons tested; a smaller but statistically significant increase in mean spontaneous firing rate and decrease in activation threshold occurred following MO in the six WDR neurons tested. Vehicle application to the pulp did not produce any significant changes in six VPM NS neurons tested. MO application to the pulp produced pronounced increases in spontaneous activity, pinch RF size, and responses to mechanical stimuli, and a decrease in threshold in three of the six PO neurons. In conclusion, application of the inflammatory irritant MO to the tooth pulp results in central sensitization of thalamic nociceptive neurons and this neuronal hyperexcitability likely contributes to the behavioral consequences of peripheral inflammation manifesting as pain referral, hyperalgesia and allodynia.

  10. Effect of Withania somnifera on insulin sensitivity in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus rats.

    PubMed

    Anwer, Tarique; Sharma, Manju; Pillai, Krishna Kolappa; Iqbal, Muzaffar

    2008-06-01

    We investigated the effect of an aqueous extract of Withania somnifera (WS) on insulin sensitivity in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) rats. NIDDM was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (100 mg/kg) to 2 days old rat pups. WS (200 and 400 mg/kg) was administered orally once a day for 5 weeks after the animals were confirmed diabetic (i.e. 75 days after streptozotocin injection). A group of citrate control rats (group I) were also maintained that has received citrate buffer on the second day of their birth. A significant increase in blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1)c) and serum insulin levels were observed in NIDDM control rats. Treatment with WS reduced the elevated levels of blood glucose, HbA(1)c and insulin in the NIDDM rats. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed in the same groups, in which we found a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in the rats treated with WS. The insulin sensitivity was assessed for both peripheral insulin resistance and hepatic insulin resistance. WS treatment significantly improved insulin sensitivity index (K(ITT)) that was significantly decreased in NIDDM control rats. There was significant rise in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-R) in NIDDM control rats whereas WS treatment significantly prevented the rise in HOMA-R in NIDDM-treated rats. Our data suggest that aqueous extract of WS normalizes hyperglycemia in NIDDM rats by improving insulin sensitivity.

  11. Fluoxetine augments ventilatory CO2 sensitivity in Brown Norway but not Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Matthew R.; Echert, Ashley E.; Puissant, Madeleine M.; Mouradian, Gary C.

    2013-01-01

    The Brown Norway (BN; BN/NHsdMcwi) rat exhibits a deficit in ventilatory CO2 sensitivity and a modest serotonin (5-HT) deficiency. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine would augment CO2 sensitivity in BN but not Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Ventilation during room air or 7 % CO2 exposure was measured before, during and after 3 weeks of daily injections of saline or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/day) in adult male BN and SD rats. Fluoxetine had minimal effects on room air breathing in BN and SD rats (p>0.05), although tidal volume (VT) was reduced in BN rats (p<0.05). There were also minimal effects of fluoxetine on CO2 sensitivity in SD rats, but fluoxetine increased minute ventilation, breathing frequency and VT during hypercapnia in BN rats (p<0.05). The augmented CO2 response was reversible upon withdrawal of fluoxetine. Brain levels of biogenic amines were largely unaffected, but 5-HIAA and the ratio of 5-HIAA/5-HT were reduced (p<0.05) consistent with selective and effective 5-HT reuptake inhibition. Thus, fluoxetine increases ventilatory CO2 sensitivity in BN but not SD rats, further suggesting altered 5-HT system function may contribute to the inherently low CO2 sensitivity in the BN rat. PMID:23454023

  12. Fluoxetine augments ventilatory CO2 sensitivity in Brown Norway but not Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Matthew R; Echert, Ashley E; Puissant, Madeleine M; Mouradian, Gary C

    2013-04-01

    The Brown Norway (BN; BN/NHsdMcwi) rat exhibits a deficit in ventilatory CO2 sensitivity and a modest serotonin (5-HT) deficiency. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine would augment CO2 sensitivity in BN but not Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Ventilation during room air or 7% CO2 exposure was measured before, during and after 3 weeks of daily injections of saline or fluoxetine (10mg/(kgday)) in adult male BN and SD rats. Fluoxetine had minimal effects on room air breathing in BN and SD rats (p>0.05), although tidal volume (VT) was reduced in BN rats (p<0.05). There were also minimal effects of fluoxetine on CO2 sensitivity in SD rats, but fluoxetine increased minute ventilation, breathing frequency and VT during hypercapnia in BN rats (p<0.05). The augmented CO2 response was reversible upon withdrawal of fluoxetine. Brain levels of biogenic amines were largely unaffected, but 5-HIAA and the ratio of 5-HIAA/5-HT were reduced (p<0.05) consistent with selective and effective 5-HT reuptake inhibition. Thus, fluoxetine increases ventilatory CO2 sensitivity in BN but not SD rats, further suggesting altered 5-HT system function may contribute to the inherently low CO2 sensitivity in the BN rat.

  13. Increased cerebrovascular sensitivity to endothelin-1 in a rat model of obstructive sleep apnea: a role for endothelin receptor B

    PubMed Central

    Durgan, David J; Crossland, Randy F; Lloyd, Eric E; Phillips, Sharon C; Bryan, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with cerebrovascular diseases. However, little is known regarding the effects of OSA on the cerebrovascular wall. We tested the hypothesis that OSA augments endothelin-1 (ET-1) constrictions of cerebral arteries. Repeated apneas (30 or 60 per hour) were produced in rats during the sleep cycle (8 hours) by remotely inflating a balloon implanted in the trachea. Four weeks of apneas produced a 23-fold increase in ET-1 sensitivity in isolated and pressurized posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs) compared with PCAs from sham-operated rats (EC50=10−9.2 mol/L versus 10−10.6 mol/L; P<0.001). This increased sensitivity was abolished by the ET-B receptor antagonist, BQ-788. Constrictions to the ET-B receptor agonist, IRL-1620, were greater in PCAs from rats after 2 or 4 weeks of apneas compared with that from sham-operated rats (P=0.013). Increased IRL-1620 constrictions in PCAs from OSA rats were normalized with the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) blocker, SKF96365, or the Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, Y27632. These data show that OSA increases the sensitivity of PCAs to ET-1 through enhanced ET-B activity, and enhanced activity of TRPCs and ROCK. We conclude that enhanced ET-1 signaling is part of a pathologic mechanism associated with adverse cerebrovascular outcomes of OSA. PMID:25425077

  14. Differential effects of hypercaloric choice diets on insulin sensitivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Diepenbroek, Charlene; Eggels, Leslie; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; Serlie, Mireille J; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2017-01-01

    We showed previously that rats on a free-choice high-fat, high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet become rapidly obese and develop glucose intolerance within a week. Interestingly, neither rats on a free-choice high-fat diet (fcHF), although equally obese and hyperphagic, nor rats on a free-choice high-sugar (fcHS) diet consuming more sugar water, develop glucose intolerance. Here, we investigate whether changes in insulin sensitivity contribute to the observed glucose intolerance and whether this is related to consumption of saturated fat and/or sugar water. Rats received either a fcHFHS, fcHF, fcHS or chow diet for one week. We performed a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with stable isotope dilution to measure endogenous glucose production (EGP; hepatic insulin sensitivity) and glucose disappearance (Rd; peripheral insulin sensitivity). Rats on all free-choice diets were hyperphagic, but only fcHFHS-fed rats showed significantly increased adiposity. EGP suppression by hyperinsulinemia in fcHF-fed and fcHFHS-fed rats was significantly decreased compared with chow-fed rats. One week fcHFHS diet also significantly decreased Rd. Neither EGP suppression nor Rd was affected in fcHS-fed rats. Our results imply that, short-term fat feeding impaired hepatic insulin sensitivity, whereas short-term consumption of both saturated fat and sugar water impaired hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity. The latter likely contributed to glucose intolerance observed previously. In contrast, overconsumption of only sugar water affected insulin sensitivity slightly, but not significantly, in spite of similar adiposity as fcHF-fed rats and higher sugar intake compared with fcHFHS-fed rats. These data imply that the palatable component consumed plays a role in the development of site-specific insulin sensitivity.

  15. Effects of GABA agonists and antagonists on temperature-sensitive neurones in the rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed Central

    Yakimova, K; Sann, H; Schmid, H A; Pierau, F K

    1996-01-01

    1. Extracellular recordings were obtained from 94 warm-sensitive, 6 cold-sensitive and 117 temperature-insensitive neurones in slices of the hypothalamic medial preoptic area of rats, to determine the effect of the GABAA agonist muscimol, the GABAA antagonist bicuculline, the GABAB agonist baclofen and the GABAB antagonist phaclofen on tonic activity and temperature sensitivity. 2. Muscimol and baclofen dose-dependently inhibited the tonic activity of 69% (36/52) and 97% (36/37) of the hypothalamic neurones, respectively, regardless of their type of thermosensitivity. In contrast, the GABAA antagonist bicuculline increased the tonic activity of the majority of neurones (58/83), while the GABAB antagonist phaclofen increased neuronal activity only in the high dose of 100 microM. 3. The temperature sensitivity of hypothalamic neurones was only changed by ligands of GABAB receptors, and this effect was restricted to warm-sensitive neurones. The temperature coefficient (TC) was significantly increased by the GABAB agonist baclofen (delta TC = 0.69 +/- 0.11 imp s-1 degree C-1, P < 0.01, n = 18). In contrast, the GABAB antagonist phaclofen (10 microM) decreased the temperature sensitivity (delta TC = -0.67 +/- 0.09 imp s-1 degree C-1, P < 0.01, n = 10) in doses which did not affect tonic activity. 4. The increase in temperature sensitivity due to the GABAB agonist baclofen was significantly enhanced by co-perfusion of the GABAA antagonist bicuculline, indicating an interaction of GABAA and GABAB receptor-mediated mechanisms with regard to neuronal thermosensitivity. 5. The results suggest that neurones in the medical preoptic area are subject to GABA-mediated tonic inhibition resulting in modulation of tonic activity and temperature sensitivity of warm-sensitive neurones possibly involved in the control of body temperature. The data support the hypothesis that the hypo- or hyperthermic action of an endogenous substance is related to its effect on the thermosensitivity

  16. Opiates and cerebral functional activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Trusk, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral activity was measured using the free-fatty acid (1-/sup 14/C) octanoate as a fast functional tracer in conscious, unrestrained rats 5 minutes after intravenous injection of heroin, cocaine or saline vehicle. Regional changes of octanoate labeling density in the autoradiograms relative to saline-injected animals were used to determine the functional activity effects of each drug. Heroin and cocaine each produced a distinctive pattern of activity increases and suppression throughout the rat brain. Similar regional changes induced by both drugs were found in limbic brain regions implicated in drug reinforcement. Labeled octanoate autoradiography was used to measure the cerebral functional response to a tone that had previously been paired to heroin injections. Rats were trained in groups of three consisting of one heroin self-administration animal, and two animals receiving yoked infusion of heroin or saline. A tone was paired with each infusion during training. Behavioral experiments in similarly trained rats demonstrated that these training conditions impart secondary reinforcing properties to the tone in animals previously self-administering heroin, while the tone remains behaviorally neutral in yoked-infusion rats. Cerebral functional activity was measured during presentation of the tone without drug infusion. Octanoate labeling density changed in fifteen brain areas in response to the tone previously paired to heroin without response contingency. Labeling density was significantly modified in sixteen regions as a result of previously pairing the tone to response-contingent heroin infusions.

  17. Role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in modulating nociception in rat model of bone cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hui; Zhang, Dengwen; Yang, Shijie; Wang, Yu; Xu, Lin; Wu, Jinjing; Ren, Jing; Yao, Wenlong; Fan, Longchang; Zhang, Chuanhan; Tian, Yuke; Pan, Hui-Lin; Wang, Xueren

    2014-03-20

    Bone cancer pain is a major clinical problem and remains difficult to treat. ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels may be involved in regulating nociceptive transmission at the spinal cord level. We determined the role of spinal KATP channels in the control of mechanical hypersensitivity in a rat model of bone cancer pain. The rat model of bone cancer pain was induced by implanting rat mammary gland carcinoma cells (Walker256) into the tibias. KATP modulators (pinacidil and glibenclamide) or the specific Kir6.2-siRNA were injected via an intrathecal catheter. The mechanical withdrawal threshold of rats was tested using von Frey filaments. The Kir6.2 mRNA and protein levels were measured by quantitative PCR and western blots, respectively. Intrathecal injection of pinacidil, a KATP channel opener, significantly increased the tactile withdrawal threshold of cancer cell-injected rats in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, intrathecal delivery of glibenclamide, a KATP channel blocker, or the specific Kir6.2-siRNA significantly reduced the tactile withdrawal threshold of cancer cell-injected rats. The mRNA and protein levels of Kir6.2 in the spinal cord of cancer cell-injected rats were significantly lower than those in control rats. Our findings suggest that the KATP channel expression level in the spinal cord is reduced in bone cancer pain. Activation of KATP channels at the spinal level reduces pain hypersensitivity associated with bone cancer pain.

  18. Effects of daily schedules of forced activity on free-running rhythms in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mistlberger, R E

    1991-01-01

    Circadian rhythms of hamsters can be phase-shifted or entrained by single or daily sessions of induced wheel running. In contrast, observations of rats under restricted-feeding schedules suggest that their free-running rhythms are not readily entrainable by a daily bout of intense activity. A formal test of this idea was made by subjecting rats to daily 2-hr or 3-hr sessions of forced treadmill activity. None of 18 rats entrained to a daily treadmill schedule when tested in constant dim light, but 1 of 16 did entrain when tested after blinding, when the period of its free-running activity rhythm was very close to the period of the treadmill schedule and when the onset of its daily active phase overlapped with the treadmill sessions. These conditions were recreated in a final group of eight rats; the rats were trained in a light-dark cycle, blinded, and subjected to a treadmill schedule with a period of 23.91 hr that was initiated at the onset of the rats' active phase on day 1. Six of these rats entrained. The mechanism for entrainment by activity schedules clearly exists in rats, but the conditions under which this occurs are highly constrained, suggesting that activity is a very weak zeitgeber in this species. It is argued that the evolution of functionally separable food- and light-entrainable oscillators in the rat demands a very low sensitivity to feedback effects of activity.

  19. Hypolipidemic and Antiobesity-Like Activity of Standardised Extract of Hypericum perforatum L. in Rats.

    PubMed

    Husain, Gulam Mohammed; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Singh, Paras Nath; Kumar, Vikas

    2011-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum is known to have diverse medicinal uses for centuries. The antidepressant activity of Hypericum perforatum is widely accepted and proved in both animal and clinical studies. Present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Hypericum perforatum in a battery of animal models for metabolic disorder. Hypericum is tested for hypolipidemic activity in normal rats, antiobesity activity in high-fat-diet induced obese rats, and fructose-fed rats. Hypericum was orally administered as suspension in 0.3% carboxymethyl cellulose at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 15 consecutive days. Hypericum significantly lowered total cholesterol and low-density cholesterol in normal rats. Hypericum significantly inhibited weight gain in high-fat-fed rats. In fructose-fed rats, Hypericum normalised the dyslipidemia induced by fructose feeding and improved the insulin sensitivity. Taken together, Hypericum could be the antidepressant therapy of choice for patients suffering from comorbid diabetes and obesity.

  20. Endogenous pacemaker activity of rat tumour somatotrophs

    PubMed Central

    Kwiecien, Renata; Robert, Christophe; Cannon, Robert; Vigues, Stephan; Arnoux, Annie; Kordon, Claude; Hammond, Constance

    1998-01-01

    Cells derived from a rat pituitary tumour (GC cell line) that continuously release growth hormone behave as endogenous pacemakers. In simultaneous patch clamp recordings and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) imaging, they displayed rhythmic action potentials (44.7 ± 2.7 mV, 178 ± 40 ms, 0.30 ± 0.04 Hz) and concomitant [Ca2+]i transients (374 ± 57 nM, 1.0 ± 0.2 s, 0.27 ± 0.03 Hz). Action potentials and [Ca2+]i transients were reversibly blocked by removal of external Ca2+, addition of nifedipine (1 μM) or Ni2+ (40 μM), but were insensitive to TTX (1 μM). An L-type Ca2+ current activated at -33.6 ± 0.4 mV (holding potential (Vh), −40 mV), peaked at -1.8 ± 1.3 mV, was reduced by nifedipine and enhanced by S-(+)-SDZ 202 791. A T/R-type Ca2+ current activated at -41.7 ± 2.7 mV (Vh, -80 or -60 mV), peaked at -9.2 ± 3.0 mV, was reduced by low concentrations of Ni2+ (40 μM) or Cd2+ (10 μM) and was toxin resistant. Parallel experiments revealed the expression of the class E calcium channel α1-subunit mRNA. The K+ channel blockers TEA (25 mM) and charybdotoxin (10–100 nM) enhanced spike amplitude and/or duration. Apamin (100 nM) also strongly reduced the after-spike hyperpolarization. The outward K+ tail current evoked by a depolarizing step that mimicked an action potential reversed at −69.8 ± 0.3 mV, presented two components, lasted 2–3 s and was totally blocked by Cd2+ (400 μM). The slow pacemaker depolarization (3.5 ± 0.4 s) that separated consecutive spikes corresponded to a 2- to 3-fold increase in membrane resistance, was strongly Na+ sensitive but TTX insensitive. Computer simulations showed that pacemaker activity can be reproduced by a minimum of six currents: an L-type Ca2+ current underlies the rising phase of action potentials that are repolarized by a delayed rectifier and Ca2+-activated K+ currents. In between spikes, the decay of Ca2+-activated K+ currents and a persistent inward cationic current depolarize the membrane

  1. A new pH-sensitive rectifying potassium channel in mitochondria from the embryonic rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kajma, Anna; Szewczyk, Adam

    2012-10-01

    Patch-clamp single-channel studies on mitochondria isolated from embryonic rat hippocampus revealed the presence of two different potassium ion channels: a large-conductance (288±4pS) calcium-activated potassium channel and second potassium channel with outwardly rectifying activity under symmetric conditions (150/150mM KCl). At positive voltages, this channel displayed a conductance of 67.84pS and a strong voltage dependence at holding potentials from -80mV to +80mV. The open probability was higher at positive than at negative voltages. Patch-clamp studies at the mitoplast-attached mode showed that the channel was not sensitive to activators and inhibitors of mitochondrial potassium channels but was regulated by pH. Moreover, we demonstrated that the channel activity was not affected by the application of lidocaine, an inhibitor of two-pore domain potassium channels, or by tertiapin, an inhibitor of inwardly rectifying potassium channels. In summary, based on the single-channel recordings, we characterised for the first time mitochondrial pH-sensitive ion channel that is selective for cations, permeable to potassium ions, displays voltage sensitivity and does not correspond to any previously described potassium ion channels in the inner mitochondrial membrane. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012).

  2. Inhibition of rat fat cell lipolysis by monoamine oxidase and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase substrates.

    PubMed

    Visentin, Virgile; Prévot, Danielle; Marti, Luc; Carpéné, Christian

    2003-04-18

    It has been demonstrated that amine oxidase substrates stimulate glucose transport in cardiomyocytes and adipocytes, promote adipogenesis in pre-adipose cell lines and lower blood glucose in diabetic rats. These insulin-like effects are dependent on amine oxidation by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase or by monoamine oxidase. The present study aimed to investigate whether amine oxidase substrates also exhibit another insulin-like property, the inhibition of lipolysis. We therefore tested the influence of tyramine and benzylamine on lipolytic activity in rat adipocytes. These amines did not modify basal lipolysis but dose-dependently counteracted the stimulation induced by lipolytic agents. The response to 10 nM isoprenaline was totally inhibited by tyramine 1 mM. The blockade produced by inhibition of amine oxidase activity or by 1 mM glutathione suggested that the generation of oxidative species, which occurs during amine oxidation, was involved in tyramine antilipolytic effect. Among the products resulting from amine oxidation, only hydrogen peroxide was antilipolytic in a manner that was potentiated by vanadate, as for tyramine or benzylamine. Antilipolytic responses to tyramine and to insulin were sensitive to wortmannin. These data suggest that inhibition of lipolysis is a novel insulin-like effect of amine oxidase substrates which is mediated by hydrogen peroxide generated during amine oxidation.

  3. Effect of ethanolic extracts of Ananas comosus L. leaves on insulin sensitivity in rats and HepG2.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weidong; Wang, Wei; Su, Hui; Xing, Dongming; Pan, Yang; Du, Lijun

    2006-08-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Ananas comosus L. leaves (AC) enriched with phenols have hypoglycemic activity in diabetic rats. Here, we investigated the effect of AC on insulin sensitivity in rats and HepG2. In high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotozin-treated diabetic Wistar rats subjected to challenge with exogenous human insulin, AC treatment at an oral dose of 0.40 g/kg could significantly improve sensitivity to exogenous insulin. After a sub-acute treatment, AC also could inhibit the development of insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotozin-treated diabetic rats following the test of loss of tolbutamide-induced blood glucose lowering action. For intravenous insulin/glucose infusion test, high-fat diet-fed and low-dose alloxan-treated Wistar rats were associated with insulin resistance, which was improved after AC or fenofibrate treatment. AC application inhibited the development of insulin resistance in HepG2 cells. The above animal models were well developed to simulate type 2 diabetes. Taken together, our results suggest that AC may improve insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes and could be developed into a new potential natural product for handling of insulin resistance in diabetic patients.

  4. Extracellular acidic sulfur-containing amino acids and gamma-glutamyl peptides in global ischemia: postischemic recovery of neuronal activity is paralleled by a tetrodotoxin-sensitive increase in cysteine sulfinate in the CA1 of the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Andiné, P; Orwar, O; Jacobson, I; Sandberg, M; Hagberg, H

    1991-07-01

    An excessive activation of the excitatory amino acid system has been proposed as one possible mediator of the ischemia-induced delayed death of CA1 pyramidal cells in the hippocampus. Using dialytrodes in the CA1 of the rat, we have investigated multiple-unit activity and extracellular changes in acidic sulfur-containing amino acids and gamma-glutamyl peptides during ischemia (20-min, four-vessel occlusion) and during 8 h of reflow. Multiple-unit activity was abolished during ischemia and for the following 1 h, but then recovered, gradually reaching preischemic levels after 8 h of reflow. Extracellular cysteate, cysteine sulfinate, and gamma-glutamyltaurine increased (1.5- to threefold) during ischemia, and extracellular glutathione and gamma-glutamylaspartate plus gamma-glutamylglutamine increased during early reflow (two- to threefold). The recovery of neuronal activity at 4-8 h was paralleled by an increase in extracellular cysteine sulfinate (2.5-fold at 8 h of reflow). Perfusion with 10 microM tetrodotoxin at 8 h of reflow abolished the multiple-unit activity and reduced extracellular cysteine sulfinate. Considering the glutamate-like properties of cysteine sulfinate, the observed postischemic increase may be involved in the development of the delayed neuronal death.

  5. Deregulation of Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity Induced by Central Lipid Infusion in Rats Is Mediated by Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Marsollier, Nicolas; Kassis, Nadim; Mezghenna, Karima; Soty, Maud; Fioramonti, Xavier; Lacombe, Amélie; Joly, Aurélie; Pillot, Bruno; Zitoun, Carine; Vilar, José; Mithieux, Gilles; Gross, René; Lajoix, Anne-Dominique; Routh, Vanessa; Magnan, Christophe; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline

    2009-01-01

    Background Deregulation of hypothalamic fatty acid sensing lead to hepatic insulin-resistance which may partly contribute to further impairment of glucose homeostasis. Methodology We investigated here whether hypothalamic nitric oxide (NO) could mediate deleterious peripheral effect of central lipid overload. Thus we infused rats for 24 hours into carotid artery towards brain, either with heparinized triglyceride emulsion (Intralipid, IL) or heparinized saline (control rats). Principal Findings Lipids infusion led to hepatic insulin-resistance partly related to a decreased parasympathetic activity in the liver assessed by an increased acetylcholinesterase activity. Hypothalamic nitric oxide synthases (NOS) activities were significantly increased in IL rats, as the catalytically active neuronal NOS (nNOS) dimers compared to controls. This was related to a decrease in expression of protein inhibitor of nNOS (PIN). Effect of IL infusion on deregulated hepatic insulin-sensitivity was reversed by carotid injection of non selective NOS inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and also by a selective inhibitor of the nNOS isoform, 7-Nitro-Indazole (7-Ni). In addition, NO donor injection (L-arginine and SNP) within carotid in control rats mimicked lipid effects onto impaired hepatic insulin sensitivity. In parallel we showed that cultured VMH neurons produce NO in response to fatty acid (oleic acid). Conclusions/Significance We conclude that cerebral fatty acid overload induces an enhancement of nNOS activity within hypothalamus which is, at least in part, responsible fatty acid increased hepatic glucose production. PMID:19680547

  6. Isolation of insulin-sensitive phosphatidylinositol-glycan from rat adipocytes. Its impaired breakdown in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat.

    PubMed Central

    Macaulay, S L; Larkins, R G

    1990-01-01

    In this study an insulin-sensitive glycophospholipid from rat adipocytes was isolated and partially characterized. A material that activated pyruvate dehydrogenase was extracted from rat adipocyte membrane supernatants. Its release was stimulated by insulin and phosphatidylinositol-specific-phospholipase C and its activity was destroyed by nitrous acid deamination. These findings suggested that insulin might stimulate breakdown of a glycophospholipid containing inositol and glucosamine, as previously reported for some other cell types [Low & Saltiel (1988) Science 239, 268-275]. A lipid that incorporated [3H]glucosamine, [3H]galactose, [3H]inositol, and [3H]myristate and whose turnover was stimulated by insulin was subsequently isolated from intact adipocytes by sequential t.l.c. using an acidic solvent system followed by a basic solvent system. The effects of insulin on turnover of the lipid in these cells were transient, with maximal effects at 1 min, and there was a typical concentration-response curve to insulin (0.07 nM-7 nM), with effects being detected over the physiological range of insulin concentrations. In contrast with studies in other cells, there was appreciable turnover of the sugar labels. The majority of the [3H]glucosamine and [3H]galactose labels were cycled through to triacylglycerol in the adipocyte. However, of that recovered in the glycophospholipid band, a major proportion (less than 40%) was recovered as the native label. Digestion of the purified molecule with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C generated a material that activated both pyruvate dehydrogenase and low-Km cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. Impairment in insulin-stimulated breakdown of the molecule in adipocytes of streptozotocin-diabetic rats was found, consistent with the impaired insulin activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase and glucose utilization seen in this model. These findings suggest that insulin stimulates breakdown of this glycophospholipid by stimulating an

  7. Impaired basal thermal homeostasis in rats lacking capsaicin-sensitive peripheral small sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hitoshi; Wang, Zuocheng; Wang, Youxue; Furuyama, Tatsuo; Kontani, Yasuhide; Sato, Yuzo; Mori, Nozomu

    2008-03-01

    We studied the effects of selective loss of capsaicin-sensitive primary sensory neurons on thermosensation and thermoregulation in rats. Neonatal capsaicin treatment in rats caused a remarkable decrease in the number of small-diameter neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) compared with their number in the control rats. Gene expression analysis for various thermo-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels indicated marked reductions in the mRNA levels of TRPV1 (70%), TRPM8 (46%) and TRPA1 (64%), but not of TRPV2, in the DRG of capsaicin-treated rats compared with those in the control rats. In addition to the heat and cold insensitivity, capsaicin-treated rats showed lower rectal core temperature, higher skin temperature and decreased sensitivity to ambient temperature alteration under normal housing at room temperature, suggesting impaired thermosensation and change in thermoregulation in the rats. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression and the thermogenic ability in brown adipose tissues were attenuated in the capsaicin-treated rats. These results indicate a critical role of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in both heat and cool sensation and hence in basal thermal homeostasis, which is balanced by heat release and production including UCP1 thermogenesis, following sensation of the ambient temperature.

  8. Effects of Pyridostigmine in Flinders Line Rats Differing in Cholinergic Sensitivity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    Within 30 min, acute pyridostigmine treatment induced elevations of seruni growth hormone levels to a greater extent in Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL...cholinergic supersensitivity of the FSL rats but also indicates that the FRL rats are very resistant as well. All groups exhibited growth hormone elevations

  9. Abnormal expression of ENaC and SGK1 mRNA induced by dietary sodium in Dahl salt-sensitively hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Aoi, Wataru; Niisato, Naomi; Sawabe, Yukinori; Miyazaki, Hiroaki; Tokuda, Shinsaku; Nishio, Kyosuke; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2007-10-01

    Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) plays a crucial role in controlling sodium reabsorption in the kidney keeping the normal blood pressure. We previously reported that the expression of ENaC mRNA in the kidney of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats was abnormally regulated by aldosterone, however it is unknown if dietary sodium affects the expression of ENaC and serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1), which plays an important role in ENaC activation, in DS rats. In the present study, we investigated whether dietary sodium abnormally affects the expression of ENaC and SGK1 mRNA in DS rats. DS and Dahl salt-resistant (DR) rats (8 weeks old) were divided into three different groups, respectively: (1) low sodium diet (0.005% NaCl), (2) normal sodium diet (0.3% NaCl), and (3) high sodium diet (8% NaCl). The high sodium diet for 4 weeks in DS rats elevated the systolic blood pressure, but did not in any other groups. The expression of alpha-ENaC mRNA in DS rats was abnormally increased by high sodium diet in contrast to DR rats, while it was normally increased by low sodium diet in DS rats similar to DR rats. The expression of beta- and gamma-ENaC mRNA in DS rats was also abnormally increased by high sodium diet unlike DR rats. The expression of SGK1 mRNA was elevated by high sodium diet in DS rats, but it was decreased in DR rats. These observations indicate that the expression of ENaC and SGK1 mRNA is abnormally regulated by dietary sodium in salt-sensitively hypertensive rats, and that this abnormal expression would be one of the factors causing salt-sensitive hypertension.

  10. Role of eicosanoids in alteration of membrane electrical properties in isolated mesenteric arteries of salt-loaded, Dahl salt-sensitive rats

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Koji; Onaka, Uran; Ohya, Yusuke; Ohmori, Susumu; Tominaga, Mitsuhiro; Abe, Isao; Takata, Yutaka; Fujishima, Masatoshi

    1997-01-01

    The role of eicosanoids in altered membrane electrical properties of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats was investigated, by use of conventional microelectrodes technique, in isolated superior mesenteric arteries of DS rats and Dahl salt-resistant (DR) rats fed either a high or low salt diet.The membrane was significantly depolarized in salt-loaded DS rats compared with the other three groups. In addition, the arteries of salt-loaded DS rats exhibited spontaneous electrical activity.Spontaneous electrical activity in salt-loaded DS rats was inhibited by the following: indomethacin, a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor; ONO-3708, a prostaglandin H2/thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist; OKY-046, a thromboxane A2 synthase inhibitor; nicardipine, a Ca2+-channel antagonist and by Ca2+-free solution. In addition, spontaneous electrical activity was enhanced by a thromboxane A2 analogue and by prostaglandin H2. Spontaneous electrical activity was unaffected by phentolamine, atropine and tetrodotoxin.Membrane potential in arteries of salt-loaded DS rats was not affected by either indomethacin or ONO-3708.Spontaneous contraction, sensitive to indomethacin, was present, and contractile sensitivity to high potassium solution was enhanced in arteries of salt-loaded DS rats.These findings suggest that eicosanoid action, together with membrane depolarization, may lead to the activation of voltage-dependent Ca2+-channels, thereby causing spontaneous electrical activity in mesenteric arteries of salt-loaded DS rats. In addition, tension data suggest that these changes in membrane properties are related to enhanced contractile activities in salt-loaded DS rats. Mechanisms of depolarization remain to be determined. PMID:9105694

  11. Hypoxia inhibits semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Repessé, Xavier; Moldes, Marthe; Muscat, Adeline; Vatier, Camille; Chetrite, Gérard; Gille, Thomas; Planes, Carole; Filip, Anna; Mercier, Nathalie; Duranteau, Jacques; Fève, Bruno

    2015-08-15

    Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), an enzyme highly expressed on adipocyte plasma membranes, converts primary amines into aldehydes, ammonium and hydrogen peroxide, and is likely involved in endothelial damage during the course of diabetes and obesity. We investigated whether in vitro, adipocyte SSAO was modulated under hypoxic conditions that is present in adipose tissue from obese or intensive care unit. Physical or pharmacological hypoxia decreased SSAO activity in murine adipocytes and human adipose tissue explants, while enzyme expression was preserved. This effect was time-, dose-dependent and reversible. This down-regulation was confirmed in vivo in subcutaneous adipose tissue from a rat model of hypoxia. Hypoxia-induced suppression in SSAO activity was independent of the HIF-1-α pathway or of oxidative stress, but was partially antagonized by medium acidification. Hypoxia-induced down-regulation of SSAO activity could represent an adaptive mechanism to lower toxic molecules production, and may thus protect from tissue injury during these harmful conditions.

  12. Insulinotropic agent ID-1101 (4-hydroxyisoleucine) activates insulin signaling in rat.

    PubMed

    Broca, Christophe; Breil, Vincent; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline; Manteghetti, Michèle; Rouault, Christine; Derouet, Michel; Rizkalla, Salwa; Pau, Bernard; Petit, Pierre; Ribes, Gérard; Ktorza, Alain; Gross, René; Reach, Gérard; Taouis, Mohammed

    2004-09-01

    ID-1101 (4-hydroxyisoleucine), an amino acid extracted from fenugreek seeds, exhibits an interesting glucose-dependent insulin-stimulating activity. The present study was undertaken to investigate a possible extrapancreatic effect of ID-1101 on insulin signaling and action besides its previously described insulinotropic action. Insulin-sensitizing effects of ID-1101 were investigated in rat in vivo by three different approaches: 1) using euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps in two different rat models of insulin resistance, i.e., Zucker fa/fa rats and rats fed a sucrose-lipid diet; 2) measuring liver and muscle phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activity after an acute injection of ID-1101 in normal and insulin-resistant diabetic rats; and 3) after chronic treatment in two rat models of insulin resistance. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp experiments revealed that ID-1101 can improve insulin resistance through an increase of peripheral glucose utilization rate in sucrose-lipid-fed rats and by decreasing hepatic glucose production in Zucker fa/fa rats. Moreover, we demonstrated that a single injection of ID-1101 activates the PI 3-kinase activity in liver and muscle from normal rats but also in muscle from diabetic rats. Finally, chronic ID-1101 treatment significantly reduced insulinemia in type 2 diabetic rats and reduced the progression of hyperinsulinemia in insulin-resistant obese Zucker fa/fa rats. These findings clearly demonstrate that ID-1101 can reduce insulin resistance through activation of the early steps of insulin signaling in peripheral tissues and in liver. In summary, ID-1101, besides its insulinotropic effect, directly improves insulin sensitivity, making it a potentially very valuable therapeutic agent for diabetes treatment.

  13. Evidence of the Importance of Nox4 in Production of Hypertension in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Allen W; Yang, Chun; Zheleznova, Nadezhda N; Staruschenko, Alexander; Kurth, Theresa; Rein, Lisa; Kumar, Vikash; Sadovnikov, Katherine; Dayton, Alex; Hoffman, Matthew; Ryan, Robert P; Skelton, Meredith M; Salehpour, Fahimeh; Ranji, Mahsa; Geurts, Aron

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the consequences of knocking out NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 4 (Nox4) on the development of hypertension and kidney injury in the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat. Zinc finger nuclease injection of single-cell SS embryos was used to create an 8 base-pair frame-shift deletion of Nox4, resulting in a loss of the ≈68 kDa band in Western blot analysis of renal cortical tissue of the knock out of Nox4 in the SS rat (SS(Nox4-/-)) rats. SS(Nox4-/-) rats exhibited a significant reduction of salt-induced hypertension compared with SS rats after 21 days of 4.0% NaCl diet (134±5 versus 151±3 mm Hg in SS) and a significant reduction of albuminuria, tubular casts, and glomerular injury. Optical fluorescence 3-dimensional cryoimaging revealed significantly higher redox ratios (NADH/FAD [reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/flavin adenine dinucleotide]) in the kidneys of SS(Nox4-/-) rats even when fed the 0.4% NaCl diet, indicating greater levels of mitochondrial electron transport chain metabolic activity and reduced oxidative stress compared with SS rats. Before the development of hypertension, RNA expression levels of Nox subunits Nox2, p67(phox), and p22(phox) were found to be significantly lower (P<0.05) in SS(Nox4-/-) compared with SS rats in the renal cortex. Thus, the mutation of Nox4 seems to modify transcription of several genes in ways that contribute to the protective effects observed in the SS(Nox4-/-) rats. We conclude that the reduced renal injury and attenuated blood pressure response to high salt in the SS(Nox4-/-) rat could be the result of multiple pathways, including gene transcription, mitochondrial energetics, oxidative stress, and protein matrix production impacted by the knock out of Nox4.

  14. Effects of Pyridostigmine in Flinders Line Rats Differing in Cholinergic Sensitivity (AIBS GWI 0055)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    hormone in rats with differing cholinergic sensitivity. It was confirmed that the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats exhibited greater growth hormone responses...suggesting that the sites mediating the growth hormone responses lie outside of the blood-brain barrier. The second aim was to determine whether...The present project had two major objectives. The first aim was to determine whether pyridostigmine would have differential effects on serum growth

  15. Time-course, dose-response, and age comparative sensitivity of N-methyl carbamates in rats.

    PubMed

    Moser, Virginia C; McDaniel, Katherine L; Phillips, Pamela M; Lowit, Anna B

    2010-03-01

    N-Methyl carbamate insecticides are reversible inhibitors of central and peripheral acetylcholinesterase (ChE). Despite their widespread use, there are few studies of neurotoxicity in young animals. To study potential age-related differences, we evaluated seven carbamates (carbaryl, carbofuran, formetanate, methiocarb, methomyl, oxamyl, and propoxur) in preweanling (17 days old or postnatal day [PND] 17) male rats. Motor activity was monitored, and ChE inhibition was measured in brain and red blood cells (RBCs) using a radiometric assay that minimized reactivation of ChE. First, we conducted time-course studies in PND17 Long-Evans male rats, using a single oral dose of each carbamate. Almost all carbamates showed maximal ChE inhibition at a 45-min time point; only methomyl showed an earlier peak effect (15 min). At 24 h, most inhibition had recovered. Next, dose-response data were collected for each carbamate, using four doses and control, with motor activity testing beginning 15 min after dosing and tissue collection at 40-45 min. RBC ChE was generally inhibited to a greater degree than brain. Motor activity was not as sensitive a measure for some of the carbamates, with some differences across carbamates in the shapes of the dose-response curves. Additional studies documented age-related differences by comparing ChE inhibition in PND11, PND17, and adult rats following administration of carbaryl or carbofuran. Only the youngest (PND11) rats were more sensitive than adults to carbaryl, but both younger ages showed more effects than adults with carbofuran. Comparisons of the other carbamates to previous studies in adult rats suggest similar age-related sensitivity. Thus, these data show the time-course and dose-response characteristics for each carbamate and document greater sensitivity of the young for carbofuran and carbaryl.

  16. Fibroblast growth factor-21 restores insulin sensitivity but induces aberrant bone microstructure in obese insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Sa-Nguanmoo, Piangkwan; Tanajak, Pongpun; Wang, Xiaojie; Liang, Guang; Li, Xiaokun; Jiang, Chao; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn

    2017-03-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 is a potent endocrine factor that improves insulin resistance and obesity-associated metabolic disorders. However, concomitant activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ by FGF-21 makes bone susceptible to osteopenia and fragility fracture. Since an increase in body weight often induced adaptive change in bone by making it resistant to fracture, it was unclear whether FGF-21 would still induce bone defects in overweight rats. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate bone microstructure and its mechanical properties in high fat diet (HF)-fed rats treated with 0.1 mg/kg/day FGF-21. Eighteen male rats were divided into two groups to receive either a normal diet or HF for 12 weeks. HF rats were then divided into two subgroups to receive either vehicle or FGF-21 for 4 weeks. The results showed that HF led to obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, as indicated by hyperinsulinemia with euglycemia. In HF rats, there was an increase in tibial yield displacement (an indicator of ability to be deformed without losing toughness, as determined by 3-point bending) without changes in tibial trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) or cortical bone parameters, e.g., cortical thickness and bone area. FGF-21 treatment strongly improved the metabolic parameters and increased insulin sensitivity in HF rats. However, FGF-21-treated HF rats showed lower yield displacement, trabecular vBMD, trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, and osteoblast surface compared with vehicle-treated HF rats. These findings suggest that, despite being a potent antagonist of insulin resistance and visceral fat accumulation, FGF-21 is associated with bone defects in HF rats.

  17. Intracerebroventricular Injection of Rats. A Sensitive Assay Method for Endogenous Pyrogen Circulating in Rats (41015)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    8217* " _.-. PRO( DI 0IN (Ii I lil S()( II I ok IrXI. RittI N I 111 IOI O(A ANt) %i-i DR INU 166, 6-Il 19 1) Intracerebroventricular Injection of...8217ohn iases. F’oPy Detrick, Frederick. Maryland 21701 OI! Abstract, Intracerebroventricular tics) injection of endogenous pyrogen (EPI into rats causes...phagocytic conserved. Intracerebroventricular (icy) cells (3). administration of small volumes of crude Its biological activity is currently de- rabbit

  18. Improvements in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors and insulin sensitivity with trenbolone in normogonadic rats.

    PubMed

    Donner, Daniel G; Beck, Belinda R; Bulmer, Andrew C; Lam, Alfred K; Du Toit, Eugene F

    2015-02-01

    Trenbolone (TREN) is used for anabolic growth-promotion in over 20 million cattle annually and continues to be misused for aesthetic purposes in humans. The current study investigated TREN's effects on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors; and its tissue-selective effects on the cardiovascular system, liver and prostate. Male rats (n=12) were implanted with osmotic infusion pumps delivering either cyclodextrin vehicle (CTRL) or 2mg/kg/day TREN for 6 weeks. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry assessment of body composition; organ wet weights and serum lipid profiles; and insulin sensitivity were assessed. Cardiac ultrasound examinations were performed before in vivo studies assessed myocardial susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Circulating sex hormones and liver enzyme activities; and prostate and liver histology were examined. In 6 weeks, fat mass increased by 34±7% in CTRLs (p<0.01). Fat mass decreased by 37±6% and lean mass increased by 11±4% with TREN (p<0.05). Serum triglycerides, HDL and LDL were reduced by 62%, 57% and 78% (p<0.05) respectively in TREN rats. Histological examination of the prostates from TREN-treated rats indicated benign hyperplasia associated with an increased prostate mass (149% compared to CTRLs, p<0.01). No evidence of adverse cardiac or hepatic effects was observed. In conclusion, improvements in body composition, lipid profile and insulin sensitivity (key risk factors for cardiometabolic disease) were achieved with six-week TREN treatment without evidence of adverse cardiovascular or hepatic effects that are commonly associated with traditional anabolic steroid misuse. Sex hormone suppression and benign prostate hyperplasia were confirmed as adverse effects of the treatment.

  19. Adolescent and adult male rats habituate to repeated isolation, but only adolescents sensitize to partner unfamiliarity.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Travis E; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2015-03-01

    We investigated whether adolescent male rats show less habituation of corticosterone release than adult male rats to acute vs repeated (16) daily one hour episodes of isolation stress, as well as the role of partner familiarity during recovery on social behavior, plasma corticosterone, and Zif268 expression in brain regions. Adolescents spent more time in social contact than did adults during the initial days of the repeated stress procedures, but both adolescents and adults that returned to an unfamiliar peer after isolation had higher social activity than rats returned to a familiar peer (p=0.002) or undisturbed control rats (p<0.001). Both ages showed evidence of habituation, with reduced corticosterone response to repeated than acute isolation (p=0.01). Adolescents, however, showed sensitized corticosterone release to repeated compared with an acute pairing with an unfamiliar peer during recovery (p=0.03), a difference not found in adults. Consistent with habituation of corticosterone release, the repeated isolation groups had lower Zif268 immunoreactive cell counts in the paraventricular nucleus (p<0.001) and in the arcuate nucleus (p=0.002) than did the acute groups, and adolescents had higher Zif268 immunoreactive cell counts in the paraventricular nucleus than did adults during the recovery period (p<0.001), irrespective of stress history and partner familiarity. Partner familiarity had only modest effects on Zif268 immunoreactivity, and experimental effects on plasma testosterone concentrations were only in adults. The results highlight social and endocrine factors that may underlie the greater vulnerability of the adolescent period of development.

  20. High Dose Astaxanthin Lowers Blood Pressure and Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Rats: Are These Effects Interdependent?

    PubMed Central

    Preuss, Harry G.; Echard, Bobby; Yamashita, Eiji; Perricone, Nicholas V.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation in Sprague-Dawley rats (SD) was designed to examine effects of astaxanthin (Asta) at different doses on elevated blood pressure (BP) and glucose-insulin perturbations produced by heavy sucrose ingestion. We also examined effects of Asta on BP during restraint stress. SD were divided into six groups each containing eight rats. All SD ate a basic diet of ground regular rat chow with sucrose added at 30% w/w. The Control group received only the basic diet containing added sucrose, while the other five groups each received the same diet with added test material: captopril, (30 mg/Kg), pioglitazone (15.0 mg/Kg), low Asta (25 mg/Kg), medium Asta (50 mg/kg) or high Asta (100 mg/Kg). Many tests were carried out to examine the mechanisms behind the effects of Asta on BP (serum ACE activity, losartan challenge, and LNAME challenge) and the glucose-insulin system (glucose tolerance, HOMA measurement, and insulin challenge). In SD, a relatively low dose of Asta decreased SBP, but produced no major changes in the glucose-insulin system simulating results from a previous study using Zucker Fatty Rats. Increasing the dose of Asta resulted in both a lowering of elevated systolic BP and enhanced insulin sensitivity determined by many different estimations. BP lowering was consistent with changes in the renin-angiotensin (RAS) and nitric oxide (NO) systems. At the examined doses of each, captopril lowered BP in SD without influencing glucose-insulin metabolism, whereas pioglitazone favorably affected glucose-insulin metabolism while showing essentially no effects on BP. Accordingly, Asta beneficially affects both sucrose-induced elevations of BP and insulin resistance at relatively high doses in SD. Also, Asta at higher doses lessens restraint stress, whereas, captopril and pioglitazone did not at the doses examined, even though they influenced the BP and glucose-insulin systems respectively. PMID:21326955

  1. Amygdala activation by corticosterone alters visceral and somatic pain in cycling female rats.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Jenny K; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2011-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is often seen in women, and symptom severity is known to vary over the menstrual cycle. In addition, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis enhances symptomology and patients with IBS have increased activation of the amygdala, a brain region known to facilitate HPA output. However, little is known about the effects of amygdala activation during different stages of the menstrual cycle. We therefore investigated the effects of amygdala activation on somatic and visceral pain perception over the rat estrous cycle. Female Wistar rats were implanted with either corticosterone (Cort) or cholesterol as a control onto the dorsal margin of the central amygdala. Visceral sensitivity was quantified by recording the visceromotor response (VMR) to colorectal distension (CRD) and somatic sensitivity was assessed via the Von Frey test. In cholesterol controls, both visceral and somatic sensitivity varied over the estrous cycle. Rats in proestrus/estrus responded to CRD with an increased VMR compared with rats in metestrus/diestrus. Somatic sensitivity followed a similar pattern with enhanced sensitivity during proestrus/estrus compared with metestrus/diestrus. Elevated amygdala Cort induced visceral hypersensitivity during metestrus/diestrus but had no effect during proestrus/estrus. In contrast, elevated amygdala Cort increased somatic sensitivity during both metestrus/diestrus and proestrus/estrous. These results suggests that amygdala activation by Cort eliminates spontaneously occurring differences in visceral and somatic pain perception, which could explain the lowered pain thresholds and higher incidence of somatic pain observed in women with IBS.

  2. Cortisone-sensitive, innate resistance to Hymenolepis nana infection in congenitally athymic nude rats.

    PubMed

    Ito, A; Kamiyama, T

    1987-06-01

    The innate resistance of the unnatural rat host to the mouse tapeworm Hymenolepis nana is cortisone sensitive but thymus independent. When congenitally athymic nude rats were orally given eggs, cysticercoids, or adult worms of H. nana, no lumenal adults were established except when they were treated with cortisone acetate during the expected lumenal development. The effect of cortisone to promote adult maturation in the rats was compared in nude and normal rats given eggs of H. nana. The fecundity of the worms (assessed by the fresh worm biomass and the number of infective eggs produced) was much higher in cortisone-treated nude rats than in cortisone-treated normal rats. When the nude rats reconstituted with thymocytes were given eggs and treated with cortisone, the fecundity of H. nana dropped to the same level as in cortisone-treated normal rats. It is strongly suggested that the unnatural rat host has thymus-independent cortisone sensitive resistance to an initial infection (which is the main component of the innate resistance and blocks the lumenal establishment of this parasite) and thymus-dependent resistance (which suppresses the established worms' fecundity and may be ascribed to acquired resistance to the ongoing infection).

  3. The effect of morphine sensitization on extracellular concentrations of GABA in dorsal hippocampus of male rats.

    PubMed

    Farahmandfar, Maryam; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza; Kadivar, Mehdi; Karimian, Seyed Morteza; Naghdi, Nasser

    2011-11-01

    Repeated, intermittent exposure to drugs of abuse, such as morphine results in response enhancements to subsequent drug treatments, a phenomenon referred to as behavioral sensitization. As persistent neuronal sensitization may contribute to the long-lasting consequences of drug abuse, characterizing the neurochemical mechanisms of sensitization is providing insights into addiction. Although it has been shown that GABAergic systems in the CA1 region of dorsal hippocampus are involved in morphine sensitization, the alteration of extracellular level of GABA in this area in morphine sensitization has not been investigated. In the present study, using the in vivo microdialysis technique, we investigated the effect of morphine sensitization on extracellular GABA concentration in CA1 region of dorsal hippocampus of freely moving rats. Sensitization was induced by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of morphine, once daily for 3 days followed by 5 days free of the opioid treatment. The results showed that extracellular GABA concentration in CA1 was decreased following acute administration of morphine in non-sensitized rats. However, morphine-induced behavioral sensitization significantly increased the extracellular GABA concentration in this area. The enhancement of GABA in morphine sensitized rats was inhibited by administration of naloxone 30 min before each of three daily doses of morphine. These results suggest an adaptation of the GABAergic neuronal transmission in dorsal hippocampus induced by morphine sensitization and it is implied that opioid receptors may play an important role in this effect.

  4. Photoreactivating enzyme activity in the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhead, A.D.; Achey, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    There has been considerable speculation about the occurrence of photoreactivating enzyme in different organisms and about its biologic purpose. We have developed a simple, sensitive assay for estimating pyrimidine dimers in DNA which is useful in making a rapid survey for the presence of the enzyme. Using this method, we have found photoreactivating enzyme activity in the tissues of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta. This parasite spends the majority of its life span in the bodies of its definitive or intermediate hosts, but a period is spent externally. We suggest that photoreactivating enzyme may be important in perserving the integrity of embryonic DNA during this free-living stage.

  5. Photoreactivating enzyme activity in the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhead, A.D.; Achey, P.M.

    1981-06-01

    There has been considerable speculation about the occurrence of photoreactivating enzyme in different organisms and about its biological purpose. We have developed a simple, sensitive assay for estimating pyrimidine dimers in DNA which is useful in making a rapid survey for the presence of the enzyme. Using this method, we have found photoreactivating enzyme activity in the tissues of the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta. This parasite spends the majority of its life span in the bodies of its definitive or intermediate hosts, but a period is spent externally. We suggest that photoreactivating enzyme may be important in preserving the integrity of embryonic DNA during this free-living stage.

  6. Vascular neuroeffector activity in the rat during pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, J.L.; Freas, W.; Muldoon, S.M.

    1986-03-01

    The activity of the vascular neuroeffector junction was examined in pregnant (PG) and non-pregnant (NPG) rats to determine if changes could account for the reported alterations in sympathetic control of the maternal circulation. Caudal and mesenteric arteries were removed from NPG and 19-21PG rats and prepared for isometric tension recording in Krebs-filled, 37/sup 0/C tissue baths. At optimal passive tension frequency-response measurements were obtained with and without cocaine (10-/sup 5/M), followed by norepinephrine (NE) and tyramine conc-response measurements. The densely innervated caudal artery developed more tension in response to NE, tyramine and transmural electrical stimulation than did the moderately innervated mesenteric artery. There were no significant differences in responses between vessels from NPG and PG rats, NE content, /sup 3/H-NE accumulation, and effects of plasma on /sup 3/H-NE accumulation of NPG and PG caudal arteries were also compared. The NE content of the NPG artery (8.61 +/- .61) was not different from that of the PG artery (9.97 +/- .71 ..mu..g/g). Also, NE accumulation was similar, and plasma inhibited /sup 3/H-NE accumulation to the same extent. These results indicate that vascular neuroeffector functions of NE release, receptor sensitivity and uptake are not modified in the rat during pregnancy. Changes in sympathetic control of the circulation previously reported, therefore, are likely to be dependent on alterations at sites other than the neuroeffector junction.

  7. The relationship between the occupation of the D-1 dopamine receptor by [3H]piflutixol and the activity of dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in rat striatal membranes.

    PubMed

    Fleminger, S

    1991-07-05

    The relationship between occupation of the D-1 dopamine receptor by [3H]piflutixol and inhibition of dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase has been studied. Experiments were performed in parallel; after the initial incubation to enable binding of [3H]piflutixol, half the tubes were assayed for [3H]piflutixol binding and the other half assayed for adenylate cyclase activity. The assay conditions for the two halves of the experiments were identical. (+/-)Sulpiride (3 x 10(-5)M) was present in all tubes to mask drug binding to the D-2 receptor. The inhibition of dopamine- (10(-3) and 10(-5)M) sensitive adenylate cyclase with increasing concentrations of [3H]piflutixol in the incubation mixture was compared to the saturation of specific [3H]piflutixol binding with those same concentrations of [3H]piflutixol. There was a linear relationship between receptor occupation by [3H]piflutixol and inhibition of dopamine sensitive adenylate cyclase. In a second experiment dopamine was present during the initial incubation with [3H]piflutixol. This resulted in a displacement of specific [3H]piflutixol binding and, as a consequence, a reduction of [3H]piflutixol's inhibition of dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase. In the absence of GTP in the initial incubation dopamine produced a greater reduction of [3H]piflutixol's inhibition of dopamine adenylate cyclase than displacement of specific [3H]piflutixol binding. In the presence of GTP in the initial incubation both displacement curves were shifted to the right, i.e. dopamine was less potent. However, under these conditions dopamine produced less inhibition of [3H]piflutixol's inhibition of dopamine adenylate cyclase than displacement of specific [3H]piflutixol binding. These results are interpreted as resulting from changes in D-1high and D-1low ratios as a result of incubation in the presence or absence of GTP.

  8. Developmental regulation of aromatase activity in the rat hypothalamus

    SciTech Connect

    Lephart, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    The brain of all mammalian species studied thus far contain an enzymatic activity (aromatase) that catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens. The activity is highest during prenatal development and contributes to the establishment of sex differences which determine adult gonadotropin secretion patterns and reproductive behavior. The studies presented in this dissertation represent a systematic effort to elucidate the mechanism(s) that control the initiation of and contribute to maintaining rat hypothalamic aromatase activity during pre- and postnatal development. Aromatase enzyme activity was measured by the {sup 3}H{sub 2}O release assay or by traditional estrogen product isolation. Brain aromatase mRNA was detected by hybridization to a cDNA encoding rat aromatase cytochrome P-450. In both males and females the time of puberty was associated with a decline in hypothalamic aromatase activity. This decline may represent a factor underlying the peri-pubertal decrease in the sensitivity to gonadal steroid feedback that accompanies completion of puberty. The results also indicate that androgens regulate brain aromatase levels during both the prepubertal and peri-pubertal stages of sexual development and that this regulation is transiently lost in young adults. Utilizing a hypothalamic organotypic culture system, aromatase activity in vitro was maintained for as long as two days. The results of studies of a variety of hormonal and metabolic regulators suggest that prenatal aromatase activity is regulated by factor(s) that function independently from the classical cyclic AMP and protein kinase C trans-membrane signaling pathways.

  9. EVIDENCE OF THE IMPORTANCE OF NOX4 IN PRODUCTION OF HYPERTENSION IN DAHL SALT-SENSITIVE RATS

    PubMed Central

    Cowley, Allen W.; Yang, Chun; Zheleznova, Nadezhda N.; Staruschenko, Alexander; Kurth, Theresa; Rein, Lisa; Kumar, Vikash; Sadovnikov, Katherine; Dayton, Alex; Hoffman, Matthew; Ryan, Robert P.; Skelton, Meredith M.; Salehpour, Fahimeh; Ranji, Mahsa; Geurts, Aron

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the consequences of knocking out NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) upon the development of hypertension and kidney injury in the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat. Zinc finger nuclease injection of single cell SS embryos was used to create an 8 base-pair frame-shift deletion of Nox4 resulting in a loss of the ~68 kD band in Western blot analysis of renal cortical tissue of the SSNox4−/− rats. SSNox4−/− rats exhibited a significant reduction of salt-induced hypertension compared to SS rats after 21 days of 4.0% NaCl diet (134±5 vs 151±3 mmHg in SS) and a significant reduction of albuminuria, tubular casts, and glomerular injury. Optical fluorescence 3D cryoimaging revealed significantly higher redox ratios (NADH/FAD) in the kidneys of SSNox4−/− rats even when fed the 0.4% NaCl diet indicating greater levels of mitochondrial electron transport chain metabolic activity and reduced oxidative stress compared to SS rats. Prior to the development of hypertension, RNA expression levels of NADPH oxidase subunits Nox2, p67phox, and p22phox were found to be significantly lower (p<0.05) in SSNox4−/− compared to SS rats in the renal cortex. Thus the mutation of Nox4 appears to modify transcription of a number of genes in ways that contribute to the protective effects observed in the SSNox4−/− rats. We conclude that the reduced renal injury and attenuated blood pressure response to high salt in the SSNox4−/− rat could be the result of multiple pathways including gene transcription, mitochondrial energetics, oxidative stress, and protein matrix production impacted by the knock out of Nox4. PMID:26644237

  10. Rat Hormone Sensitive Lipase Inhibition by Cyclipostins and Their Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Vasilieva, Elena; Dutta, Supratik; Malla, Raj K.; Martin, Benjamin P.; Spilling, Christopher D.; Dupureur, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclipostins are bicyclic lipophilic phosphate natural products. We report here that synthesized individual diastereomers of cyclipostins P and R have nanomolar IC50s toward hormone sensitive lipase (HSL). The less potent diastereomers of these compounds have 10-fold weaker IC50s. The monocyclic phosphate analog of cyclipostin P is nearly as potent as the bicyclic natural product. Bicyclic phosphonate analogs of both cyclipostins exhibit IC50s similar to those of the weaker diastereomer phosphates (about 400 nM). The monocyclic phosphonate analog of cyclipostin P has similar potency. A series of monocyclic phosphonate analogs in which a hydrophobic tail extends from the lactone side of the ring are considerably poorer inhibitors, with IC50s around 50 μM. Finally cyclophostin, a related natural product inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) that lacks the hydrocarbon tail of cyclipostins, is not active against HSL. These results indicate a critical SAR for these compounds, the hydrophobic tail. The smaller lactone ring is not critical to activity, a similarity shared with cyclophostin and AChE. The HSL kinetics of inhibition for the cyclipostin P trans diastereomer were examined in detail. The reaction is irreversible with a KI of 40 nM and a rate constant for inactivation of 0.2 min−1. These results are similar to those observed for cyclophostin and AChE. PMID:25678014

  11. Cocoa Diet Prevents Antibody Synthesis and Modifies Lymph Node Composition and Functionality in a Rat Oral Sensitization Model

    PubMed Central

    Camps-Bossacoma, Mariona; Abril-Gil, Mar; Saldaña-Ruiz, Sandra; Franch, Àngels; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Castell, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa powder, a rich source of polyphenols, has shown immunomodulatory properties in both the intestinal and systemic immune compartments of rats. The aim of the current study was to establish the effect of a cocoa diet in a rat oral sensitization model and also to gain insight into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) activities induced by this diet. To achieve this, three-week-old Lewis rats were fed either a standard diet or a diet with 10% cocoa and were orally sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and with cholera toxin as a mucosal adjuvant. Specific antibodies were quantified, and lymphocyte composition, gene expression, and cytokine release were established in MLN. The development of anti-OVA antibodies was almost totally prevented in cocoa-fed rats. In addition, this diet increased the proportion of TCRγδ+ and CD103+CD8+ cells and decreased the proportion of CD62L+CD4+ and CD62L+CD8+ cells in MLN, whereas it upregulated the gene expression of OX40L, CD11c, and IL-1β and downregulated the gene expression of IL-17α. In conclusion, the cocoa diet induced tolerance in an oral sensitization model accompanied by changes in MLN that could contribute to this effect, suggesting its potential implication in the prevention of food allergies. PMID:27120615

  12. Amphetamine sensitization and cross-sensitization with acute restraint stress: impact of prenatal alcohol exposure in male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Uban, Kristina A.; Comeau, Wendy L.; Bodnar, Tamara; Yu, Wayne K.; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) are at increased risk for substance use disorders (SUD). In typically developing individuals, susceptibility to SUD is associated with alterations in dopamine and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) systems, and their interactions. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) alters dopamine and HPA systems, yet effects of PAE on dopamine-HPA interactions are unknown. Amphetamine-stress cross-sensitization paradigms were utilized to investigate sensitivity of dopamine and stress (HPA) systems, and their interactions following PAE. Methods Adult Sprague-Dawley offspring from PAE, pair-fed, and ad libitum-fed control groups were assigned to amphetamine-(1–2mg/kg) or saline-treated conditions, with injections every other day for 15 days. 14 days later, all animals received an amphetamine challenge (1mg/kg) and 5 days later, hormones were measured under basal or acute stress conditions. Amphetamine sensitization (augmented locomotion, days 1–29) and cross-sensitization with acute restraint stress (increased stress hormones, day 34) were assessed. Results PAE rats exhibited a lower threshold for amphetamine sensitization compared to controls, suggesting enhanced sensitivity of dopaminergic systems to stimulant-induced changes. Cross-sensitization between amphetamine (dopamine) and stress (HPA hormone) systems was evident in PAE, but not in control rats. PAE males exhibited increased dopamine receptor expression (mPFC) compared to controls. Conclusions PAE alters induction and expression of sensitization/cross-sensitization, as reflected in locomotor, neural, and endocrine changes, in a manner consistent with increased sensitivity of dopamine and stress systems. These results provide insight into possible mechanisms that could underlie increased prevalence of SUD, as well as the impact of widely prescribed stimulant medications among adolescents with FASD. PMID:25420606

  13. Sensitivities of rat kidney thick ascending limbs and collecting ducts to vasopressin in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Elalouf, J M; Di Stefano, A; de Rouffignac, C

    1986-01-01

    Clearance experiments were performed to characterize the sensitivity to vasopressin of the thick ascending limbs and collecting duct system of the rat kidney. The response of the thick ascending limbs was evaluated by measuring the Mg2+ excretion rate in the urine, since the [arginine-8] vasopressin-mediated effects on Mg2+ excretion are the direct result of a stimulation of Mg2+ reabsorption in this nephron segment, and the response of the collecting ducts was evaluated by changes in urine flow. To avoid the effects of parathyroid hormone, glucagon, and calcitonin, which stimulate Mg2+ reabsorption in the thick ascending limb and distal tubule, and of calcitonin, which increases the permeability of the cortical collecting ducts to water, experiments were performed on Brattleboro D. I. rats (with hereditary diabetes insipidus, due to a lack of [Arg8]vasopressin) acutely deprived of endogenous parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and glucagon. Vasopressin infused at rates up to 5 pg/min did not reduce the Mg2+ fractional excretion rate, whereas at 5 pg/min water excretion was decreased by 50%. The half-maximal reduction of Mg2+ excretion occurred at vasopressin infusion rates 4-6 times higher than those necessary to diminish the water excretion rate to the same extent. We conclude that in vivo, two segments involved in the production of concentrated urine have different sensitivities to vasopressin and that this difference in sensitivity is very similar for the biological response in vivo and the adenylate cyclase activation in vitro. We suggest that both the magnitude and the nature of the effects of [Arg8]vasopressin on the kidney may vary according to the required antidiuretic response. PMID:3457386

  14. Synchronization analysis of voltage-sensitive dye imaging during focal seizures in the rat neocortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshita, Daisuke; Bahar, Sonya

    2011-12-01

    Seizures are often assumed to result from an excess of synchronized neural activity. However, various recent studies have suggested that this is not necessarily the case. We investigate synchronization during focal neocortical seizures induced by injection of 4-aminopyridine (4AP) in the rat neocortex in vivo. Neocortical activity is monitored by field potential recording and by the fluorescence of the voltage-sensitive dye RH-1691. After removal of artifacts, the voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) signal is analyzed using the nonlinear dynamics-based technique of stochastic phase synchronization in order to determine the degree of synchronization within the neocortex during the development and spread of each seizure event. Results show a large, statistically significant increase in synchronization during seizure activity. Synchrony is typically greater between closer pixel pairs during a seizure event; the entire seizure region is synchronized almost exactly in phase. This study represents, to our knowledge, the first application of synchronization analysis methods to mammalian VSD imaging in vivo. Our observations indicate a clear increase in synchronization in this model of focal neocortical seizures across a large area of the neocortex; a sharp increase in synchronization during seizure events was observed in all 37 seizures imaged. The results are consistent with a recent computational study which simulates the effect of 4AP in a neocortical neuron model.

  15. ATP-sensitive potassium channels mediate contraction-induced attenuation of sympathetic vasoconstriction in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Thomas, G D; Hansen, J; Victor, R G

    1997-06-01

    Sympathetic vasoconstriction is sensitive to inhibition by metabolic events in contracting rat and human skeletal muscle, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are unknown. In rats, this inhibition involves mainly alpha2-adrenergic vasoconstriction, which relies heavily on Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. We therefore hypothesized that contraction-induced inhibition of sympathetic vasoconstriction is mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, a hyperpolarizing vasodilator mechanism that could be activated by some metabolic product(s) of skeletal muscle contraction. We tested this hypothesis in anesthetized rats by measuring femoral artery blood flow responses to lumbar sympathetic nerve stimulation or intraarterial hindlimb infusion of the specific alpha2-adrenergic agonist UK 14,304 during KATP channel activation with diazoxide in resting hindlimb and during KATP channel block with glibenclamide in contracting hindlimb. The major new findings are twofold. First, like muscle contraction, pharmacologic activation of KATP channels with diazoxide in resting hindlimb dose dependently attenuated the vasoconstrictor responses to either sympathetic nerve stimulation or intraarterial UK 14,304. Second, the large contraction-induced attenuation in sympathetic vasoconstriction elicited by nerve stimulation or UK 14,304 was partially reversed when the physiologic activation of KATP channels produced by muscle contraction was prevented with glibenclamide. We conclude that contraction-induced activation of KATP channels is a major mechanism underlying metabolic inhibition of sympathetic vasoconstriction in exercising skeletal muscle.

  16. The protein phosphatases responsible for dephosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase in isolated rat adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, S L; Emmison, N; Borthwick, A C; Yeaman, S J

    1993-01-01

    The levels of the cytosolic serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PP) in rat adipocyte extracts have been determined, by using both reference substrates and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) as substrates. Adipocytes contain significant levels of both PP1 and 2A (1.6 and 2.0 m-units/ml of packed cells respectively), with lower levels of PP2C and virtually no PP2B activity. PP2A and 2C exhibit similar degrees of activity against HSL phosphorylated at site 1, together accounting for 92% of the total. In contrast, site 2 is dephosphorylated predominantly by PP2A (over 50% of total activity), whereas PP1 and PP2C contribute approx. 20% and 30% respectively to the total phosphatase activity against that site. Total phosphatase activity in the adipocyte extracts was 2-3-fold higher against site 2 than against site 1. The possible significance of these findings to the regulation of HSL activity in adipose tissue in vivo is discussed. PMID:8240253

  17. Effect of chronic caffeine consumption on changes in locomotor activity of WAG/G and Fischer-344 rats induced by nicotine, ethanol, and morphine.

    PubMed

    Sudakov, S K; Rusakova, I V; Medvedeva, O F

    2003-12-01

    We studied the effect of single treatment with nicotine, ethanol, and morphine on locomotor activity of WAG/G and Fischer-344 rats chronically drinking caffeine solution. In Fischer-344 rats receiving caffeine locomotor activity in the open-field test was much lower than in animals drinking water, while in WAG/G rats no differences in locomotor activity were found. Chronic caffeine intake increased rat sensitivity to the stimulating effect of nicotine and ethanol, but decreased their sensitivity to the depressant effect of morphine. Chronic caffeine treatment most significantly modulated the effects of nicotine, ethanol, and morphine in Fischer-344 rats.

  18. Butyrate-induced changes in nuclease sensitivity of chromatin cannot be correlated with transcriptional activation.

    PubMed Central

    Birren, B W; Taplitz, S J; Herschman, H R

    1987-01-01

    We examined in the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell line the relationship between butyrate-induced changes in the nuclease sensitivity of chromatin and changes in transcriptional activity of specific genes. The butyrate-inducible metallothionein I (MT-I) gene underwent a dramatic increase in DNase I sensitivity after 3 h of butyrate treatment. However, genes not transcribed in H4IIE cells underwent the same changes in DNase I sensitivity. Thus, butyrate-induced increases in DNase I sensitivity are not sufficient for the transcriptional activation of a gene. Butyrate treatment has also been reported to alter the sensitivity of sequences to micrococcal nuclease (MNase) in a manner reflecting their tissue-specific expression. Butyrate exposure caused increased digestion of the MT-I gene by MNase. However, butyrate-induced MNase sensitivity also occurred for genes which are neither transcribed in untreated cells nor butyrate inducible. Moreover, cadmium, a potent transcriptional activator of the MT-I gene, does not alter the sensitivity of the MT-I gene to MNase. Thus, the butyrate-induced alterations in MNase sensitivity are neither sufficient for, necessary for, nor indicative of transcriptional activation. Images PMID:3431545

  19. In vitro inhibition of blood cholinesterase activities from horse, cow, and rat by tetrachlorvinphos.

    PubMed

    Karanth, Subramanya; Pope, Carey

    2003-01-01

    The organophosphorus insecticide tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP) is commonly used as a feed-through larvicide in many livestock species, including cattle and horses. Cholinesterase (ChE) activity in blood (generally plasma or whole blood) is often employed to assess organophosphorus insecticide intoxication in animals as well as humans. In many species, including horse and man, plasma contains predominantly butyrylcholinesterase whereas red blood cells in all species express exclusively acetylcholinesterase. To evalulate the comparative interaction of TCVP with blood ChEs in different species, we compared the in vitro sensitivity of ChE activity in plasma and erythrocytes from horse, cow, and rat. Horse plasma ChE was most sensitive (IC(50), 30 minutes, 30 degrees C = 97 nM), whereas horse erythrocyte ChE activity was least sensitive (IC(50) > 1 mM). In contrast, cow plasma ChE showed lower sensitivity (IC(50) = 784 microM) to inhibition by TCVP than erythrocyte ChE (IC(50) = 216 microM). Rat plasma and erythrocyte ChE activities had relatively similar sensitivity to TCVP (IC(50) = 54 microM and 78 microM, respectively). The results suggest that plasma and erythrocyte ChE from horse, cow, and rat show marked species- and blood fraction-dependent differences in sensitivity to TCVP. Knowledge of such differences in sensitivity of blood ChE activities to TCVP may be important in the clinical interpretation of intoxication with this pesticide across species.

  20. Engineering vanilloid-sensitivity into the rat TRPV2 channel

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Hanson, Sonya M; Jara-Oseguera, Andres; Krepkiy, Dmitriy; Bae, Chanhyung; Pearce, Larry V; Blumberg, Peter M; Newstead, Simon; Swartz, Kenton J

    2016-01-01

    The TRPV1 channel is a detector of noxious stimuli, including heat, acidosis, vanilloid compounds and lipids. The gating mechanisms of the related TRPV2 channel are poorly understood because selective high affinity ligands are not available, and the threshold for heat activation is extremely high (>50°C). Cryo-EM structures of TRPV1 and TRPV2 reveal that they adopt similar structures, and identify a putative vanilloid binding pocket near the internal side of TRPV1. Here we use biochemical and electrophysiological approaches to investigate the resiniferatoxin(RTx) binding site in TRPV1 and to explore the functional relationships between TRPV1 and TRPV2. Collectively, our results support the interaction of vanilloids with the proposed RTx binding pocket, and demonstrate an allosteric influence of a tarantula toxin on vanilloid binding. Moreover, we show that sensitivity to RTx can be engineered into TRPV2, demonstrating that the gating and permeation properties of this channel are similar to TRPV1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16409.001 PMID:27177419

  1. A novel amiloride-sensitive h+ transport pathway mediates enhanced superoxide production in thick ascending limb of salt-sensitive rats, not na+/h+ exchange.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Paul M; Lu, Limin; Liang, Mingyu; Cowley, Allen W

    2009-08-01

    It has been reported previously that H(+) efflux via the Na(+)/H(+) exchange stimulates NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent superoxide (O(2)(.-)) production in medullary thick ascending limb. We have demonstrated recently that N-methyl-amiloride-sensitive O(2)(.-) production is enhanced in the thick ascending limb of Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats, suggesting that H(+) efflux through Na(+)/H(+) exchangers may promote renal oxidative stress and the development of hypertension in these animals. In the current study we demonstrate, using selective and potent inhibitors, that inhibition of Na(+)/H(+) exchange does not mediate the ability of N-methyl-amiloride to inhibit thick ascending limb O(2)(.-) production. To determine the mechanism of action of N-methyl-amiloride, we examined H(+) efflux and O(2)(.-) production in SS and SS.13(BN) thick ascending limbs of prehypertensive, 0.4% NaCl-fed rats. Tissue strips containing the medullary thick ascending limb were isolated from male SS and salt-resistant consomic SS.13(BN) rats, loaded with either dihydroethedium or 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein, acetoxymethyl ester, and imaged in a heated tissue bath. In Na(+)-replete media, activation of Na(+)/H(+) exchange using an NH(4)Cl prepulse did not stimulate thick ascending limb O(2)(.-) production. In Na(+)-free media containing BaCl(2) in which Na(+)/H(+) activity was inhibited, an NH(4)Cl prepulse stimulated O(2)(.-) production in medullary thick ascending limb renal tubular segments. This response was enhanced in medullary thick ascending limb of SS rats (slope Deltaethidium/Deltadihydroethedium=0.029+/-0.004) compared with SS.13(BN) rats (slope=0.010+/-0.004; P<0.04) and could be inhibited by N-methyl-amiloride (slope=0.005+/-0.002 and 0.006+/-0.002 for SS and SS.13(BN), respectively). We concluded that only H(+) efflux through a specific, as-yet-unidentified, amiloride-sensitive H(+) channel promotes O(2)(.-) production in the medullary thick ascending limb

  2. Impaired behavioral sensitization to cocaine in vasopressin deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Post, R M; Contel, N R; Gold, P

    1982-12-13

    Behavioral sensitization to cocaine involves progressive and long-lasting increases in hyperactivity and stereotypy in response to the same daily dose. In order to test whether vasopressin, a neuro-hormone implicated in drug tolerance and in other models of learning and memory, affected behavioral sensitization, cocaine was administered daily to animals with hereditary absence of vasopressin. Brattleboro homozygotes which lack vasopressin show deficient onset and persistence of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization compared to heterozygote, litter-mate controls. These data extend previous reports of vasopressin's role in memory and long-term coding of behavior to the model of pharmacologically-induced behavioral sensitization.

  3. Transfer of allergic airway responses with serum and lymphocytes from rats sensitized to dust mite.

    PubMed

    Lambert, A L; Winsett, D W; Costa, D L; Selgrade, M K; Gilmour, M I

    1998-06-01

    House dust mite (HDM) antigen is one of the most common allergens associated with extrinsic asthma. In a model of allergic lung disease, Brown Norway (BN) rats sensitized to HDM with alum and Bordetella pertussis adjuvants produce high levels of IgE antibody and experience bronchoconstriction, increased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to acetylcholine (ACh), and pulmonary inflammation after antigen challenge. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these asthmatic symptoms could be transferred from sensitized animals to naive recipients via humoral or cellular factors. Syngeneic recipient rats were injected (intraperitoneally with 4 x 10(7) cells (precultured overnight with either HDM or bovine serum albumin [BSA]) from lymph nodes of sensitized or control rats, respectively. Other groups received a tail-vein injection of serum from either HDM-sensitized or control rats. Antigen challenge in rats injected with sensitized cells caused increases in pulmonary inflammation and in AHR, but no changes in immediate bronchoconstriction as compared with control recipients. Antigen challenge in serum recipients resulted in immediate bronchoconstriction but had no effect on AHR or on pulmonary inflammation. These data show that immune-mediated lung inflammation and AHR are promoted by antigen-specific lymphocytes, whereas immediate allergic responses are caused by serum factors.

  4. Chronic nicotine differentially alters cocaine-induced locomotor activity in adolescent vs. adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Collins, Stephanie L; Izenwasser, Sari

    2004-03-01

    Tobacco use is prevalent in the adolescent population. It is a major concern because tobacco is highly addictive and has also been linked to illicit drug use. There is not much research, however, on the interaction between nicotine and other stimulant drugs in animal models of early adolescence. This study examined the effects of chronic nicotine alone and on cocaine-stimulated activity in male and female periadolescent rats compared to male and female adult rats. During the seven-day nicotine pretreatment period, nicotine increased locomotor activity in all groups compared to vehicle controls. Male and female adult rats and female periadolescent rats developed sensitization to the locomotor-activating effects of nicotine over the 7-day treatment period, while male periadolescent rats did not. All groups treated with nicotine, however, exhibited sensitization to nicotine-induced repetitive motion over the 7-day nicotine treatment period. On day 8, male periadolescent rats pretreated with nicotine were more markedly sensitized to the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine than male adult rats, while female rats pretreated with nicotine were not sensitized to cocaine. In contrast, male and female periadolescent rats, but not adult rats, had increased amounts of repetitive beam breaks induced by cocaine after nicotine pretreatment. Overall, it appears that cross-sensitization to cocaine is greater in periadolescent than in adult rats, and that males are more sensitized than females. Thus, it may be that nicotine use during adolescence carries a greater risk than during adulthood and that male adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the risk of cocaine abuse after nicotine use. This information should be taken into account so as to help us better understand the development of drug addiction in adolescents compared to adults.

  5. Presence of hormonally-sensitive adenylate cyclase receptors in capillary-enriched fractions from rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Baca, G M; Palmer, G C

    1978-01-01

    The 10 000 g particulate fraction from capillary-enriched fractions isolated from rat cerebral cortex was shown to possess an adenylate cyclase highly sensitive to activation by sodium fluoride, norepinephrine, epinephrine, isoproterenol and dopamine. To a lesser extent histamine and three dopamine agonists, namely M-7 (5,6-dihydroxy-2-dimethylamino tetralin), ET-495 (methane sulfonate of pyribedil), and S-584 (metabolite of pyribedil) stimulated the enzyme preparation. The action of norepinephrine was blocked by propanolol while phenotolamine and haloperidol were relatively ineffective except at highest concentrations. Phentolamine and propanolol at only highest concentrations (10(-4) M) antagonized the action of dopamine. Haloperidol was seen to be a potent inhibitor of either dopamine- or dopamine agonist-sensitive adenylate cyclase. No effects on the enzyme were observed with methoxamine, octopamine or serotonin. These preliminary data suggest the presence of a mixed population of receptors for adenylate cyclase in rat brain capillaries.

  6. Solcoseryl stimulates behavioural activity of rats.

    PubMed

    Braszko, J J; Winnicka, M M; Wiśniewski, K

    1996-01-01

    The influence of Solcoseryl (S), a protein-free extract of calves' blood given intraperitoneally (i.p.) on the behavioural measures of activity of the central nervous system of male Wistar rats was examined. The drug (1.0 ml/kg i.p.) given 60 min before testing the animals in electromagnetic motimeter significantly enhanced overall and vertical motility of rats. S at the doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 ml/kg did not significantly influence the activity of rats in "open field". 1.0 ml/kg of S given 15, 45 and 60 min before thiopental (30 mg/kg i.p.) did not change the onset and time of sleep following the latter drug, except for the significant shortening of the time of sleep of animals injected with S 15 min before thiopental. S at the dose of 1.0 ml/kg did not change stereotypies produced by apomorphine (2.0 mg/kg i.p.) and amphetamine (6.5 mg/kg i.p.) but decreased intensity of haloperidol (1.0 mg/kg i.p.) catalepsy.

  7. Important genetic checkpoints for insulin resistance in salt-sensitive (S) Dahl rats

    PubMed Central

    Shehata, Marlene F

    2008-01-01

    Despite the marked advances in research on insulin resistance (IR) in humans and animal models of insulin resistance, the mechanisms underlying high salt-induced insulin resistance remain unclear. Insulin resistance is a multifactorial disease with both genetic and environmental factors (such as high salt) involved in its pathogenesis. High salt triggers insulin resistance in genetically susceptible patients and animal models of insulin resistance. One of the mechanisms by which high salt might precipitate insulin resistance is through its ability to enhance an oxidative stress-induced inflammatory response that disrupts the insulin signaling pathway. The aim of this hypothesis is to discuss two complementary approaches to find out how high salt might interact with genetic defects along the insulin signaling and inflammatory pathways to predispose to insulin resistance in a genetically susceptible model of insulin resistance. The first approach will consist of examining variations in genes involved in the insulin signaling pathway in the Dahl S rat (an animal model of insulin resistance and salt-sensitivity) and the Dahl R rat (an animal model of insulin sensitivity and salt-resistance), and the putative cellular mechanisms responsible for the development of insulin resistance. The second approach will consist of studying the over-expressed genes along the inflammatory pathway whose respective activation might be predictive of high salt-induced insulin resistance in Dahl S rats. Variations in genes encoding the insulin receptor substrates -1 and/or -2 (IRS-1, -2) and/or genes encoding the glucose transporter (GLUTs) proteins have been found in patients with insulin resistance. To better understand the combined contribution of excessive salt and genetic defects to the etiology of the disease, it is essential to investigate the following question: Question 1: Do variations in genes encoding the IRS -1 and -2 and/or genes encoding the GLUTs proteins predict high salt

  8. Substance P spinal signaling induces glial activation and nociceptive sensitization after fracture

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Wu; Guo, Tian-Zhi; Shi, Xiaoyou; Sun, Yuan; Wei, Tzuping; Clark, David J; Kingery, Wade S

    2015-01-01

    Tibia fracture in rodents induces substance P (SP)-dependent keratinocyte activation and inflammatory changes in the hindlimb, similar to those seen in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). In animal pain models spinal glial cell activation results in nociceptive sensitization. This study tested the hypothesis that limb fracture triggers afferent C-fiber SP release in the dorsal horn, resulting in chronic glia activation and central sensitization. At 4 weeks after tibia fracture and casting in rats, the cast was removed and hind paw allodynia, unweighting, warmth, and edema were measured, then the antinociceptive effects of microglia (minocycline) or astrocyte (LAA) inhibitors or an SP receptor antagonist (LY303870) were tested. Immunohistochemistry and PCR were used to evaluate microglia and astrocyte activation in the dorsal horn. Similar experiments were performed in intact rats after brief sciatic nerve electric stimulation at C-fiber intensity. Microglia and astrocytes were chronically activated at 4 weeks after fracture and contributed to the maintenance of hind paw allodynia and unweighting. Furthermore, LY303870 treatment initiated at 4 weeks after fracture partially reversed both spinal glial activation and nociceptive sensitization. Similarly, persistent spinal microglial activation and hind paw nociceptive sensitization were observed at 48 hours after sciatic nerve C-fiber stimulation and this effect was inhibited by treatment with minocycline, LAA, or LY303870. These data support the hypothesis that C-fiber afferent SP signaling chronically supports spinal neuroglia activation after limb fracture and that glial activation contributes to the maintenance of central nociceptive sensitization in CRPS. Treatments inhibiting glial activation and spinal inflammation may be therapeutic for CRPS. PMID:26386297

  9. Transition from compensatory hypertrophy to dilated, failing left ventricles in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    PubMed

    Inoko, M; Kihara, Y; Morii, I; Fujiwara, H; Sasayama, S

    1994-12-01

    To establish an experimental model for studying a specific transitional stage for compensatory hypertrophy to heart failure, we studied the pathophysiology of the left ventricle (LV) in Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats fed a high-salt diet. DS rats fed an 8% NaCl diet after the age of 6 wk developed concentric LV hypertrophy at 11 wk, followed by marked LV dilatation at 15-20 wk. During the latter stage, the DS rats showed labored respiration with LV global hypokinesis. All the DS rats died within 1 wk by massive pulmonary congestion. The dissected left ventricles revealed chamber dilatation and a marked increase in mass without myocardial necrosis. In contrast, corresponding Dahl salt-resistant (DR) rats fed the same diet showed neither mortality nor any of these pathological changes. The in vivo LV end-systolic pressure-volume relationship shifted to the right with a less steep slope in the failing DS rats compared with that in age-matched DR rats. Isometric contractions of LV papillary muscles isolated from these DS rats showed reduced tension development in the failing stage, but normal tension development in the hypertrophied stage. In conclusion, the DS rat fed a high-salt diet is a useful model showing rapidly developing congestive heart failure, in which the transition from compensatory hypertrophy to decompensatory dilatation of LV is easily and consistently manifested.

  10. EEG activity during estral cycle in the rat.

    PubMed

    Corsi-Cabrera, M; Juárez, J; Ponce-de-León, M; Ramos, J; Velázquez, P N

    1992-10-01

    EEG activity was recorded from right and left parietal cortex in adult female rats daily during 6 days. Immediately after EEG recording vaginal smears were taken and were microscopically analyzed to determine the estral stage. Absolute and relative powers and interhemispheric correlation of EEG activity were calculated and compared between estral stages. Interhemispheric correlation was significantly lower during diestrous as compared to proestrous and estrous. Absolute and relative powers did not show significant differences between estral stages. Absolute powers of alpha1, alpha2, beta1 and beta2 bands were significantly higher at the right parietal cortex. Comparisons of the same EEG records with estral stages randomly grouped showed no significant differences for any of the EEG parameters. EEG activity is a sensitive tool to study functional changes related to the estral cycle.

  11. [Involvement of protein kinase C in enhancement of vascular calcium sensitivity by blocking mesenteric lymph return in hemorrhagic shock rats].

    PubMed

    Niu, Chun-Yu; Zhao, Zi-Gang; Wei, Yan-Ling; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Zhang, Jing

    2012-04-25

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether protein kinase C (PKC) was involved in the effect of mesenteric lymph duct ligation or mesenteric lymph drainage on vascular calcium sensitivity in hemorrhagic shock rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into Sham, Shock (hemorrhagic shock), Shock+Ligation (mesenteric lymph duct ligation plus shock) and Shock+Drainage (mesenteric lymph drainage plus shock) groups. After being in shock (hypotension 40 mmHg) for 3 h, the tissue of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was taken out for detecting the PKC expression and phospho-PKC (p-PKC) activity, and the vascular rings of SMA were prepared and used to measure the response to gradient calcium concentration for assaying the calcium sensitivity, the parameters of which including tension, maximum tension (E(max)) and negative logarithm of EC(50), called the pD(2). Other vascular rings from Shock+Ligation and Shock+Drainage groups were incubated with PKC regulator PMA or Staurosporine before the measurement of calcium sensitivity. The results showed that, PKC expression, p-PKC activity and calcium sensitivity of SMA in Shock group was significantly lower than that of Sham group, whereas the above-mentioned indexes were significantly elevated in Shock+Ligation and Shock+Drainage groups compared with those in Shock group. PKC agonist PMA enhanced the contractile activity of vascular rings to gradient calcium ions, and increased E(max) of SMA in Shock+Ligation and Shock+Drainage groups. On the contrary, PKC inhibitor Staurosporine significantly decreased the response to gradient calcium ions and E(max) of SMA in Shock+Ligation and Shock+Drainage groups. These results suggest that PKC plays a role in the improvement of vascular calcium sensitivity by blockade of mesenteric lymph return in hemorrhagic shock rats.

  12. 2-bromoethylamine, a suicide inhibitor of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase, increases hydralazine hypotension in rats.

    PubMed

    Vidrio, Horacio; Medina, Martha

    2005-09-01

    Previous work has shown that inhibitors of the predominantly vascular enzyme semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) potentiate the hypotensive response to hydralazine, itself a SSAO inhibitor, in anesthetized rats. The present study was carried out to determine whether the recently described suicide SSAO inhibitor 2-bromoethylamine shares this effect. Hypotensive responses to hydralazine, 0.1 mg/kg IV, were obtained in chloralose-urethane-anesthetized rats, either unpretreated or receiving bromoethylamine at different doses and pretreatment intervals. Parallel experiments were run with semicarbazide, the prototypical hydrazine SSAO inhibitor. Both inhibitors potentiated hydralazine hypotension, bromoethylamine having a longer latency and a shorter duration of action than semicarbazide. High doses of bromoethylamine did not produce potentiation, a phenomenon attributed to SSAO inactivation by excess substrate and decreased formation by the enzyme of the inhibitor product. Experiments with combined administration of both inhibitors were also carried out. When semicarbazide was administered before bromoethylamine, potentiaton was prevented, apparently by a mechanism similar to the above; when it was given after the amine, potentiation was increased. This was attributed to enzyme inhibition by interaction with 2 different active sites. The charactertistics of hydralazine potentiation by bromoethylamine were considered compatible with the mechanism of SSAO inhibition by the amine.

  13. Pulmonary sensitivity to ozone exposure in sedentary versus chronically trained, female rats

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pulmonary effects to ozone with rats that have chronically exercised or have been continuously sedentary. Also includes body composition of both groups throughout experimentation.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Gordon , C., P. Phillips , T. Beasley , A. Ledbetter , A. Cenk, U. Kodavanti , and A. Johnstone. Pulmonary Sensitivity to Ozone Exposure in Sedentary Versus Chronically Trained, Female Rats. INHALATION TOXICOLOGY. Informa Healthcare USA, New York, NY, USA, 293-302, (2016).

  14. AGE-DEPENDENT EFFECTS OF STRESS ON ETHANOL-INDUCED MOTOR ACTIVITY IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, María Belén; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Spear, Norman E.; Spear, Linda P.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale It is important to study age-related differences that may put adolescents at risk for alcohol-related problems. Adolescents seem less sensitive to the aversive effects of ethanol than adults. Less is known of appetitive effects of ethanol and stress-modulation of these effects. Objectives To describe effects of acute social or restraint stress on ethanol-precipitated locomotor activity (LMA), in adolescent and adult rats. Effects of activation of the kappa system on ethanol-induced LMA were also evaluated. Methods Adolescent or adult rats were restrained for 90 min, exposed to social deprivation stress for 90 or 180 min or administered the kappa agonist U62,066E before being given ethanol and assessed for LMA. Results Adolescents were significantly more sensitive to the stimulating, and less sensitive to the sedative, effects of ethanol than adults. Basal locomotion was significantly increased by social deprivation stress in adult, but not in adolescent, rats. U62,066E significantly reduced basal and ethanol-induced locomotion in the adolescents. Corticosterone and progesterone levels were significantly higher in adolescents than in adults. Conclusions Adolescents exhibit greater sensitivity to ethanol-induced LMA and reduced sensitivity to ethanol-induced motor sedation than adult rats. Ethanol’s effects on motor activity were not affected by acute stress. Unlike adults, adolescents were insensitive to acute restraint and social deprivation stress, but exhibited motor depression after activation of the endogenous kappa opioid receptor system. PMID:23775530

  15. The spatial learning and memory performance in methamphetamine–sensitized and withdrawn rats

    PubMed Central

    Bigdeli, Imanollah; Asia, Masomeh Nikfarjam- Haft; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Fadaei, Atefeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): There is controversial evidence about the effect of methamphetamine (METH) on spatial memory. We tested the time- dependent effects of METH on spatial short-term (working) and long-term (reference) memory in METH –sensitized and withdrawn rats in the Morris water maze. Materials and Methods: Rats were sensitized to METH (2 mg/kg, daily/5 days, SC). Rats were trained in water maze (4 trials/day/for 5 days). Probe test was performed 24 hr after training. Two days after probe test, working memory training (2 trials/day/for 5 days) was conducted. Acquisition–retention interval was 75 min. The treatment was continued per day 30 and 120 min before the test. Two groups of METH –sensitized rats were trained in reference memory after a longer period of withdrawal (30 days). Results: Sensitized rats exhibited significantly longer escape latencies on the training, spent significantly less time in the target zone (all, P<0.05), and their working memory impaired 30 min after injection. While, METH has no effect on the spatial learning process 120 min after injection, and rats spent significantly less time in the target zone (P<0.05), as well it has no effect on working memory. Also, impairment of reference memory persisted after prolonged abstinence. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that METH impaired spatial learning and memory 30 min after injection, but spared spatial learning, either acquisition or retention of spatial working, but partially impaired retention of spatial reference memory following 120 min after injection in sensitized rats, which persisted even after prolonged abstinence. PMID:25945235

  16. Dosimetry considerations in the enhanced sensitivity of male Wistar rats to chronic ethylene glycol-induced nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, R.A. Wilson, D.M.; Hard, G.C.; Stebbins, K.E.; Bartels, M.J.; Soelberg, J.J.; Dryzga, M.D.; Gingell, R.; McMartin, K.E.; Snellings, W.M.

    2008-04-15

    less sensitive strain), a significant difference was observed in oxalate clearances between young rats (i.e. Wistar clearance < F344) but not in age-matched old rats. Regardless, the ratios of oxalate:inulin clearances in these two strains of rats, including those exposed to ethylene glycol, were all < 1, suggesting that a fraction of the filtered oxalate is reabsorbed. Other species, including humans, typically have clearance ratios > 1 and are more effective at clearing oxalic acid by both glomerular filtration and active secretion. Thus, the lower renal clearance and kidney accumulation of oxalates in male Wistar rats enhances their sensitivity, which will be a factor in human risk assessments. The benchmark dose values (BMD05, BMDL05) were 170 mg/kg/day and 150 mg/kg/day for nephropathy, and 170 mg/kg/day and 160 mg/kg/day for birefringent crystals, using incidence times severity data in each case. The NOAEL of 150 mg/kg/day is the same as that reported after 16-week exposure and appears to be a threshold dose below which no renal toxicity occurs, regardless of exposure duration.

  17. Conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization after repeated administration of cocaine or methamphetamine in rats treated with epidermal growth factor during the neonatal period.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Makoto; Malta, Romulo S; Nagano, Tadasato; Nawa, Hiroyuki

    2004-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its structurally related proteins are involved in the developmental regulation of various brain neurons, including midbrain dopaminergic neurons. We recently reported EGF and EGF-receptor abnormalities in both the brain tissues and blood of schizophrenic patients. Administration of EGF to neonatal rats transiently increases tyrosine hydroxylase expression and subsequently results in behavioral abnormalities in prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, locomotor activity, and social interaction after development. The enhanced locomotor and stereotypic responses of the neonatally EGF-treated rats are considered to be an animal model for positive schizophrenia symptoms. In the present study, we investigated psychostimulant sensitivity of neonatally EGF-treated rats. At the adult stage, EGF-treated rats were challenged with cocaine (15 mg/kg) or methamphetamine (1 mg/kg), and conditioned place preference and locomotor activity were examined. The rats that received EGF during the neonatal period had significantly higher conditioned place preference for where cocaine or methamphetamine was administered than controls. The neonatal EGF treatment enhanced behavioral response to methamphetamine and behavioral sensitization to cocaine at the adult stage. Drug-naive controls gradually increased locomotor responses to cocaine during their daily injections, whereas EGF-treated rats exhibited a larger increase in cocaine responses. These results indicate that overactivation of the EGF receptors (ErbB1) during the neonatal period influences future sensitivity to psychostimulants. Our findings indicate a potential link between EGF-receptor activation and drug addiction.

  18. [The effect of destruction of rat capsaicin-sensitive nerves on blood pressure in rats with metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, V K; Tolochko, Z S; Kostina, N E

    2013-09-01

    The effect of destruction of capsaicin-sensitive nerve (capsaicin 150 mg/kg, s/c) on blood pre- ssure was investigated in rats with metabolic syndrome induced by fructose (12.5% in drinking water for 10 weeks). The blood plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride (TG) and products of lipid perioxidation were defined in these rats. The systolic blood pressure was measured by non-invasive method using the Coda system (Coda, Kent Scientific, USA). The fructose diet caused impaired tolerance glucose, arterial hypertension, increased the contents of TG and products of lipid peroxidation. In capsaicin--pretreated rats (deafferentiation of capsaicin-sensitive nerve) the fructose intake did not evoke impairment tolerance glucose, the increase of systolic blood pressure and the plasma content of triglyceride. The increase of lipid perioxidation in fructose fed rats was not prevented by capsaicin pretreatment. The authors suggest that capsaicin-sensitive nerves contribute to the development of insulin resistance and arterial hypertension in the metabolic syndrome.

  19. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improve Heart Rate Variability and Baroreflex Sensitivity in Rats with Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    de Morais, Sharon Del Bem Velloso; da Silva, Luiz Eduardo Virgilio; Lataro, Renata Maria; Silva, Carlos Alberto Aguiar; de Oliveira, Luciano Fonseca Lemos; de Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira; Simões, Marcus Vinicius; da Silva Meirelles, Lindolfo; Fazan, Rubens

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure induced by myocardial infarct (MI) attenuates the heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity, which are important risk factors for life-threatening cardiovascular events. Therapies with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown promising results after MI. However, the effects of MSCs on hemodynamic (heart rate and arterial pressure) variability and baroreflex sensitivity in chronic heart failure (CHF) following MI have not been evaluated thus far. Male Wistar rats received MSCs or saline solution intravenously 1 week after ligation of the left coronary artery. Control (noninfarcted) rats were also evaluated. MI size was assessed using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was evaluated using radionuclide ventriculography. Four weeks after MSC injection, the animals were anesthetized and instrumented for chronic ECG recording and catheters were implanted in the femoral artery to record arterial pressure. Arterial pressure and HRVs were determined in time and frequency domain (spectral analysis) while HRV was also examined using nonlinear methods: DFA (detrended fluctuation analysis) and sample entropy. The initial MI size was the same among all infarcted rats but was reduced by MSCs. CHF rats exhibited increased myocardial interstitial collagen and sample entropy combined with the attenuation of the following cardiocirculatory parameters: DFA indices, LVEF, baroreflex sensitivity, and HRV. Nevertheless, MSCs hampered all these alterations, except the LVEF reduction. Therefore, 4 weeks after MSC therapy was applied to CHF rats, MI size and myocardial interstitial fibrosis decreased, while baroreflex sensitivity and HRV improved. PMID:26059001

  20. Individual differences in the sensitivity of cold allodynia to phentolamine in neuropathic rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Kwang; Min, Byung-Il; Kim, Ji Hoon; Hwang, Byung Gil; Yoo, Gi Yong; Park, Dong Suk; Na, Heung Sik

    2005-10-31

    In neuropathic rats sensitive to phentolamine (alpha-adrenoreceptor antagonist, 2 mg/kg, i.p.), prazosin (alpha1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly attenuated cold allodynia whereas yohimbine (alpha2-adrenoreceptor antagonist, 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) had no significant effect. In neuropathic rats insensitive to phentolamine, yohimbine significantly exacerbated cold allodynia whereas prazosin had no significant effect. These results suggest that the individual differences in the sensitivity of cold allodynia to phentolamine may be due to the difference in the alpha-adrenoreceptor subtype predominantly involved in cold allodynia.

  1. Palmitoylethanolamide prevents metabolic alterations and restores leptin sensitivity in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Mattace Raso, G; Santoro, A; Russo, R; Simeoli, R; Paciello, O; Di Carlo, C; Diano, S; Calignano, A; Meli, Rosaria

    2014-04-01

    It has been suggested a role of fatty acid ethanolamides in control of feeding behavior. Among these, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) has not been directly implicated in appetite regulation and weight gain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PEA on food intake and body weight and the interaction between PEA and hypothalamic leptin signaling in ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomy produced hyperphagia and increased weight gain, making it an useful model of mild obesity. Ovariectomized rats were treated with PEA (30 mg/kg sc) for 5 weeks. Then, blood was collected, and hypothalamus and adipose tissue were removed for histological, cellular, and molecular measurements. We showed that PEA caused a reduction of food intake, body weight, and fat mass. The mechanisms underlying PEA effects involved an improvement in hypothalamic leptin signaling, through a raise in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation. We also reported that PEA reduced AMP-activated protein kinase-α phosphorylation and modulated transcription of anorectic and orexigenic neuropeptides in the hypothalamus. Moreover, PEA increased AMP-activated protein kinase-α phosphorylation and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 transcription in adipose tissue, suggesting an increase in ATP-producing catabolic pathway. PEA also polarized adipose tissue macrophages to M2 lean phenotype, associated to a reduction of inflammatory cytokines/adipokines. To demonstrate the direct effect of PEA on leptin sensitivity without interference of adiposity loss, we obtained consistent data in PEA-treated sham-operated animals and in vitro in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. Therefore, our data provide a rationale for the therapeutic use of PEA in obese postmenopausal woman.

  2. Limitation of adipose tissue enlargement in rats chronically treated with semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase and monoamine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Carpéné, C; Abello, V; Iffiú-Soltész, Z; Mercier, N; Fève, Bruno; Valet, P

    2008-06-01

    Inhibition of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidases (SSAO) and monoamine oxidases (MAO) reduces fat deposition in obese rodents: chronic administration of the SSAO-inhibitor semicarbazide (S) in combination with pargyline (MAO-inhibitor) has been shown to reduce body weight gain in obese Zucker rats, while (E)-2-(4-fluorophenethyl)-3-fluoroallylamine, an SSAO- and MAO-B inhibitor, has been reported to limit weight gain in obese and diabetic mice. Our aim was to state whether such weight gain limitation could occur in non-obese, non-diabetic rats and to extend these observations to other amine oxidase inhibitors. Prolonged treatment of non-obese rats with a high dose of S (900 micromol kg(-1) day(-1)) reduced body weight gain and limited white adipose tissue enlargement. When chronically administered at a threefold lower dose, S also inhibited SSAO activity but not fat depot enlargement, suggesting that effects other than SSAO inhibition were involved in adipose tissue growth retardation. However, combined treatment of this lower dose of S with pargyline inhibited SSAO, MAO, energy intake, weight gain and fat deposition. Adipocytes from treated rats exhibited unchanged insulin responsiveness but impaired antilipolytic responses to amine oxidase substrates. Phenelzine clearly inhibited both MAO and SSAO when tested on adipocytes. Obese rats receiving phenelzine i.p. at 17 micromol kg(-1) day(-1) for 3 weeks, exhibited blunted MAO and SSAO activities in any tested tissue, diminished body weight gain and reduced intra-abdominal adipose tissue. Their adipocytes were less responsive to lipogenesis activation by tyramine or benzylamine. These observations suggest that SSAO inhibition is not sufficient to impair fat deposition. However, combined MAO and SSAO inhibition limits adiposity in non-obese as well as in obese rats.

  3. Role of melanin-concentrating hormone in the nucleus accumbens shell in rats behaviourally sensitized to methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Li; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Jian-feng; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Wei-li; Zhao, Li-yan; Xue, Yan-xue; Lu, Lin; Shi, Jie

    2013-09-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a neuropeptide and its receptor is extensively expressed throughout the brain. MCH has been suggested to regulate the rewarding and reinforcing effects of psychostimulants by potentiating the dopaminergic system within the midbrain. Moreover, MCH and its receptor can regulate ERK activity. The present study investigated the role of MCH in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in rats behaviourally sensitized to methamphetamine (Meth). We found that the development of Meth-induced locomotor sensitization was attenuated by MCH infused into the NAc shell but not core. Moreover, the elevation of ERK phosphorylation in the NAc shell induced by Meth was inhibited by locally infused MCH. Infusion of the MCH receptor 1 (MCHR1) antagonist SNAP 94847 into the NAc shell but not core augmented the initiation of locomotor sensitization and amplitude of elevated phosphorylated ERK levels induced by Meth. The expression of Meth-induced locomotor sensitization and ERK alterations after 1 wk withdrawal were not affected by either MCH or SNAP 94847 infused into the NAc shell or core. These results indicate that MCH in the NAc shell plays a critical role in the development but not expression of Meth-induced locomotor sensitization in rats, which might be mediated by the ERK signalling pathway. Our study suggests that MCH might be a potential target for the treatment of Meth addiction.

  4. Perirhinal Cortex Lesions in Rats: Novelty Detection and Sensitivity to Interference

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Rats with perirhinal cortex lesions received multiple object recognition trials within a continuous session to examine whether they show false memories. Experiment 1 focused on exploration patterns during the first object recognition test postsurgery, in which each trial contained 1 novel and 1 familiar object. The perirhinal cortex lesions reduced time spent exploring novel objects, but did not affect overall time spent exploring the test objects (novel plus familiar). Replications with subsequent cohorts of rats (Experiments 2, 3, 4.1) repeated this pattern of results. When all recognition memory data were combined (Experiments 1–4), giving totals of 44 perirhinal lesion rats and 40 surgical sham controls, the perirhinal cortex lesions caused a marginal reduction in total exploration time. That decrease in time with novel objects was often compensated by increased exploration of familiar objects. Experiment 4 also assessed the impact of proactive interference on recognition memory. Evidence emerged that prior object experience could additionally impair recognition performance in rats with perirhinal cortex lesions. Experiment 5 examined exploration levels when rats were just given pairs of novel objects to explore. Despite their perirhinal cortex lesions, exploration levels were comparable with those of control rats. While the results of Experiment 4 support the notion that perirhinal lesions can increase sensitivity to proactive interference, the overall findings question whether rats lacking a perirhinal cortex typically behave as if novel objects are familiar, that is, show false recognition. Rather, the rats retain a signal of novelty but struggle to discriminate the identity of that signal. PMID:26030425

  5. α-lipoic acid reduces hypertension and increases baroreflex sensitivity in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Thyago M; Guimarães, Drielle D; Mendes-Junior, Leônidas G; Braga, Valdir A

    2012-11-09

    Renovascular hypertension has robust effects on control of blood pressure, including an impairment in baroreflex mechanisms, which involves oxidative stress. Although α-lipoic acid (LA) has been described as a potent antioxidant, its effect on renovascular hypertension and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) has not been investigated. In the present study we analyzed the effects caused by chronic treatment with LA on blood pressure, heart rate and baroreflex sensitivity (sympathetic and parasympathetic components) in renovascular hypertensive rats. Male Wistar rats underwent 2-Kidney-1-Clip (2K1C) or sham surgery and were maintained untouched for four weeks to develop hypertension. Four weeks post-surgery, rats were treated with LA (60 mg/kg) or saline for 14 days orally. On the 15th day mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded. In addition, baroreflex sensitivity test using phenylephrine (8 µg/kg, i.v.) and sodium nitroprusside (25 µg/kg, i.v.) was performed. Chronic treatment with LA decreased blood pressure in hypertensive animals; however, no significant changes in baseline HR were observed. Regarding baroreflex, LA treatment increased the sensitivity of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic components. All parameters studied were not affected by treatment with LA in normotensive animals. Our data suggest that chronic treatment with LA promotes antihypertensive effect and improves baroreflex sensitivity in rats with renovascular hypertension.

  6. GABA(B) receptors: altered coupling to G-proteins in rats sensitized to amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, K; Tarazi, F I; Campbell, A; Baldessarini, R J

    2000-01-01

    Modified dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission in discrete brain regions is implicated in stimulant-induced behavioral sensitization. Release of both neurotransmitters is influenced by GABA(B) metabotropic receptors for the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Accordingly, GABA(B) receptors were examined in rats sensitized to amphetamine by measuring receptor density and coupling to G-proteins indicated as [(3)H]baclofen binding and baclofen-mediated [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding. Repeated treatment with (+)-amphetamine (5mg/kg per day, i.p., for five days) sensitized the rats to amphetamine challenge (1mg/kg) at 14 days, but not one day, later. GABA(B) receptor density was not altered at either time. Baclofen-mediated [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding, however, was selectively augmented in the prefrontal cortex and attenuated in the nucleus accumbens at 14 days, but not one day, after amphetamine treatment. Changes in GABA(B) receptor coupling to G-proteins in rats sensitized to amphetamine, but not in similarly treated but unsensitized rats, lead us to suggest that altered GABA(B) receptor functioning may contribute to the expression of amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization.

  7. Mephedrone (‘bath salt’) elicits conditioned place preference and dopamine-sensitive motor activation

    PubMed Central

    Lisek, Renata; Xu, Wei; Yuvasheva, Ekaterina; Chiu, Yi-Ting; Reitz, Allen B.; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan; Rawls, Scott M.

    2012-01-01

    Abuse of a dangerous street drug called mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) has become commonplace in the United States. Mephedrone is hypothesized to possess abuse liability, share pharmacological properties with psychostimulants, and display toxicity that has been linked to fatalities and non-fatal overdoses. Knowledge about the pharmacology of mephedrone has been obtained primarily from surveys of drug abusers and emergency room visits rather than experimental studies. The present study used motor activity and conditioned place preference (CPP) assays to investigate behavioral effects of mephedrone. Acute mephedrone (3, 5, 10, 30 mg/kg, ip) administration increased ambulatory activity in rats. Mephedrone (5 mg/kg, ip)-induced ambulation was inhibited by pretreatment with a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) (0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg, ip) and enhanced by pretreatment with a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist (sulpiride) (2 mg/kg, ip). Rats injected for 5 days with low dose mephedrone (0.5 mg/kg, ip) and then challenged with mephedrone (0.5 mg/kg, ip) following 10 days of abstinence displayed sensitization of ambulatory activity. In CPP experiments, mephedrone (30 mg/kg, ip) conditioning elicited a preference shift in both rats and mice. The CPP and dopamine-sensitive motor activation produced by mephedrone is suggestive of abuse liability and indicates commonalities between the neuropharmacological profiles of mephedrone and established drugs of abuse. PMID:22652295

  8. Adverse Social Experiences in Adolescent Rats Result in Enduring Effects on Social Competence, Pain Sensitivity and Endocannabinoid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Peggy; Bindila, Laura; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Lutz, Beat; Spanagel, Rainer; Schneider, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Social affiliation is essential for many species and gains significant importance during adolescence. Disturbances in social affiliation, in particular social rejection experiences during adolescence, affect an individual’s well-being and are involved in the emergence of psychiatric disorders. The underlying mechanisms are still unknown, partly because of a lack of valid animal models. By using a novel animal model for social peer-rejection, which compromises adolescent rats in their ability to appropriately engage in playful activities, here we report on persistent impairments in social behavior and dysregulations in the endocannabinoid (eCB) system. From postnatal day (pd) 21 to pd 50 adolescent female Wistar rats were either reared with same-strain partners (control) or within a group of Fischer 344 rats (inadequate social rearing, ISR), previously shown to serve as inadequate play partners for the Wistar strain. Adult ISR animals showed pronounced deficits in social interaction, social memory, processing of socially transmitted information, and decreased pain sensitivity. Molecular analysis revealed increased CB1 receptor (CB1R) protein levels and CP55, 940 stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding activity specifically in the amygdala and thalamus in previously peer-rejected rats. Along with these changes, increased levels of the eCB anandamide (AEA) and a corresponding decrease of its degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) were seen in the amygdala. Our data indicate lasting consequences in social behavior and pain sensitivity following peer-rejection in adolescent female rats. These behavioral impairments are accompanied by persistent alterations in CB1R signaling. Finally, we provide a novel translational approach to characterize neurobiological processes underlying social peer-rejection in adolescence. PMID:27812328

  9. Identifying physiological origins of baroreflex dysfunction in salt-sensitive hypertension in the Dahl SS rat

    PubMed Central

    Bugenhagen, Scott M.; Cowley, Allen W.

    2010-01-01

    Salt-sensitive hypertension is known to be associated with dysfunction of the baroreflex control system in the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat. However, neither the physiological mechanisms nor the genomic regions underlying the baroreflex dysfunction seen in this rat model are definitively known. Here, we have adopted a mathematical modeling approach to investigate the physiological and genetic origins of baroreflex dysfunction in the Dahl SS rat. We have developed a computational model of the overall baroreflex heart rate control system based on known physiological mechanisms to analyze telemetry-based blood pressure and heart rate data from two genetic strains of rat, the SS and consomic SS.13BN, on low- and high-salt diets. With this approach, physiological parameters are estimated, unmeasured physiological variables related to the baroreflex control system are predicted, and differences in these quantities between the two strains of rat on low- and high-salt diets are detected. Specific findings include: a significant selective impairment in sympathetic gain with high-salt diet in SS rats and a protection from this impairment in SS.13BN rats, elevated sympathetic and parasympathetic offsets with high-salt diet in both strains, and an elevated sympathetic tone with high-salt diet in SS but not SS.13BN rats. In conclusion, we have associated several important physiological parameters of the baroreflex control system with chromosome 13 and have begun to identify possible physiological mechanisms underlying baroreflex impairment and hypertension in the Dahl SS rat that may be further explored in future experimental and modeling-based investigation. PMID:20354102

  10. Reduction in renal blood flow following administration of norepinephrine and phenylephrine in septic rats treated with Kir6.1 ATP-sensitive and KCa1.1 calcium-activated K+ channel blockers.

    PubMed

    da Rosa Maggi Sant'Helena, Bruna; Guarido, Karla L; de Souza, Priscila; Crestani, Sandra; da Silva-Santos, J Eduardo

    2015-10-15

    We evaluated the effects of K+ channel blockers in the vascular reactivity of in vitro perfused kidneys, as well as on the influence of vasoactive agents in the renal blood flow of rats subjected to the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis. Both norepinephrine and phenylephrine had the ability to increase the vascular perfusion pressure reduced in kidneys of rats subjected to CLP at 18 h and 36 h before the experiments. The non-selective K+ channel blocker tetraethylammonium, but not the Kir6.1 blocker glibenclamide, normalized the effects of phenylephrine in kidneys from the CLP 18 h group. Systemic administration of tetraethylammonium, glibenclamide, or the KCa1.1 blocker iberiotoxin, did not change the renal blood flow in control or septic rats. Norepinephrine or phenylephrine also had no influence on the renal blood flow of septic animals, but its injection in rats from the CLP 18 h group previously treated with either glibenclamide or iberiotoxin resulted in an exacerbated reduction in the renal blood flow. These results suggest an abnormal functionality of K+ channels in the renal vascular bed in sepsis, and that the blockage of different subtypes of K+ channels may be deleterious for blood perfusion in kidneys, mainly when associated with vasoactive drugs.

  11. Pre-existing differences in motivation for food and sensitivity to cocaine-induced locomotion in obesity-prone rats

    PubMed Central

    Vollbrecht, Peter J.; Nobile, Cameron W.; Chadderdon, Aaron M.; Jutkiewicz, Emily M.; Ferrario, Carrie R.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a significant problem in the United States, with roughly one third of adults having a body mass index (BMI) over thirty. Recent evidence from human studies suggests that pre-existing differences in the function of mesolimbic circuits that mediate motivational processes may promote obesity and hamper weight loss. However, few preclinical studies have examined pre-existing neurobehavioral differences related to the function of mesolimbic systems in models of individual susceptibility to obesity. Here, we used selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats to examine 1) the effect of a novel “junk-food” diet on the development of obesity and metabolic dysfunction, 2) over-consumption of “junk-food” in a free access procedure, 3) motivation for food using instrumental procedures, and 4) cocaine-induced locomotor activity as an index of general mesolimbic function. As expected, eating a sugary, fatty, “junk-food” diet exacerbated weight gain and increased fasted insulin levels only in obesity-prone rats. In addition, obesity-prone rats continued to over-consume junk-food during discrete access testing, even when this same food was freely available in the home cage. Furthermore, when asked to press a lever to obtain food in an instrumental task, rates of responding were enhanced in obesity-prone versus obesity-resistant rats. Finally, obesity-prone rats showed a stronger locomotor response to 15 mg/kg cocaine compared to obesity-resistant rats prior to any diet manipulation. This enhanced sensitivity to this dose of cocaine is indicative of basal differences in the function of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-prone rats. We speculate that pre-existing differences in motivational systems may contribute to over-consumption and enhanced motivation in susceptible individuals. PMID:26423787

  12. Increased Sensitivity to Binge Alcohol-Induced Gut Leakiness and Inflammatory Liver Disease in HIV Transgenic Rats.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Atrayee; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A; Jang, Sehwan; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of alcohol-mediated advanced liver injury in HIV-infected individuals are poorly understood. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of binge alcohol on the inflammatory liver disease in HIV transgenic rats as a model for simulating human conditions. Female wild-type (WT) or HIV transgenic rats were treated with three consecutive doses of binge ethanol (EtOH) (3.5 g/kg/dose oral gavages at 12-h intervals) or dextrose (Control). Blood and liver tissues were collected at 1 or 6-h following the last dose of ethanol or dextrose for the measurements of serum endotoxin and liver pathology, respectively. Compared to the WT, the HIV rats showed increased sensitivity to alcohol-mediated gut leakiness, hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as evidenced with the significantly elevated levels of serum endotoxin, hepatic triglycerides, histological fat accumulation and F4/80 staining. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that hepatic levels of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), leptin and the downstream target monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly up-regulated in the HIV-EtOH rats, compared to all other groups. Subsequent experiments with primary cultured cells showed that both hepatocytes and hepatic Kupffer cells were the sources of the elevated MCP-1 in HIV-EtOH rats. Further, TLR4 and MCP-1 were found to be upregulated by leptin. Collectively, these results show that HIV rats, similar to HIV-infected people being treated with the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), are more susceptible to binge alcohol-induced gut leakiness and inflammatory liver disease than the corresponding WT, possibly due to additive or synergistic interaction between binge alcohol exposure and HIV infection. Based on these results, HIV transgenic rats can be used as a surrogate model to study the molecular mechanisms of many disease states caused by heavy alcohol intake in HIV-infected people on HAART.

  13. Pre-existing differences in motivation for food and sensitivity to cocaine-induced locomotion in obesity-prone rats.

    PubMed

    Vollbrecht, Peter J; Nobile, Cameron W; Chadderdon, Aaron M; Jutkiewicz, Emily M; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is a significant problem in the United States, with roughly one third of adults having a body mass index (BMI) over thirty. Recent evidence from human studies suggests that pre-existing differences in the function of mesolimbic circuits that mediate motivational processes may promote obesity and hamper weight loss. However, few preclinical studies have examined pre-existing neurobehavioral differences related to the function of mesolimbic systems in models of individual susceptibility to obesity. Here, we used selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats to examine 1) the effect of a novel "junk-food" diet on the development of obesity and metabolic dysfunction, 2) over-consumption of "junk-food" in a free access procedure, 3) motivation for food using instrumental procedures, and 4) cocaine-induced locomotor activity as an index of general mesolimbic function. As expected, eating a sugary, fatty, "junk-food" diet exacerbated weight gain and increased fasted insulin levels only in obesity-prone rats. In addition, obesity-prone rats continued to over-consume junk-food during discrete access testing, even when this same food was freely available in the home cage. Furthermore, when asked to press a lever to obtain food in an instrumental task, rates of responding were enhanced in obesity-prone versus obesity-resistant rats. Finally, obesity-prone rats showed a stronger locomotor response to 15 mg/kg cocaine compared to obesity-resistant rats prior to any diet manipulation. This enhanced sensitivity to this dose of cocaine is indicative of basal differences in the function of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-prone rats. We speculate that pre-existing differences in motivational systems may contribute to over-consumption and enhanced motivation in susceptible individuals.

  14. Effects of PPARγ Agonist Pioglitazone on Redox-Sensitive Cellular Signaling in Young Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dovinová, Ima; Barancik, Miroslav; Zorad, Stefan; Gajdosechová, Lucia; Gresová, Linda; Cacanyiova, Sona; Kristek, Frantisek; Balis, Peter; Chan, Julie Y. H.

    2013-01-01

    PPARγ receptor plays an important role in oxidative stress response. Its agonists can influence vascular contractility in experimental hypertension. Our study was focused on the effects of a PPARγ agonist pioglitazone (PIO) on blood pressure regulation, vasoactivity of vessels, and redox-sensitive signaling at the central (brainstem, BS) and peripheral (left ventricle, LV) levels in young prehypertensive rats. 5-week-old SHR were treated either with PIO (10 mg/kg/day, 2 weeks) or with saline using gastric gavage. Administration of PIO significantly slowed down blood pressure increase and improved lipid profile and aortic relaxation after insulin stimulation. A significant increase in PPARγ expression was found only in BS, not in LV. PIO treatment did not influence NOS changes, but had tissue-dependent effect on SOD regulation and increased SOD activity, observed in LV. The treatment with PIO differentially affected also the levels of other intracellular signaling components: Akt kinase increased in the the BS, while β-catenin level was down-regulated in the BS and up-regulated in the LV. We found that the lowering of blood pressure in young SHR can be connected with insulin sensitivity of vessels and that β-catenin and SOD levels are important agents mediating PIO effects in the BS and LV. PMID:24454335

  15. The α1 adrenoceptors in ventrolateral orbital cortex contribute to the expression of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization in rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lai; Zhu, Yuan-Mei; Zhang, Yu-Xiang; Liang, Feng; Li, Teng; Gao, Hong-Yu; Huo, Fu-Quan; Yan, Chun-Xia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of microinjection of benoxathian, selective α1 adrenoceptor antagonist, into the ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO) on morphine-induced behavioral sensitization and its underlying molecular mechanism in rats. A single morphine treatment protocol was used in establishing the behavioral sensitization model. The effect of bilateral intra-VLO benoxathian injection on locomotor activity was examined and the protein expression levels of α1 adrenoceptors and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the VLO were detected after locomotor test. The results showed that a single injection of morphine could induce behavioral sensitization by a low challenge dosage of morphine after a 7-days drug free period. Benoxathian significantly suppressed the expression but not the development of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. Morphine treatment significantly elicited ERK phosphorylation and downregulated the expression level of α1 adrenoceptors in the VLO. In addition, intra-VLO benoxathian injection enhanced the expression levels of α1 adrenoceptors and phosphorylated ERK. These results suggest that α1 adrenoceptors in the VLO are involved in regulating the expression of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. The effect of decreased locomotor activity by blocking α1 adrenoceptors might be associated with activation of ERK in the VLO.

  16. [Somatic pain sensitivity under indometacin induced gastric and small intestinal injury in rats].

    PubMed

    Iarushkina, N I; Bagaeva, T R; Filaretova, L P

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to study the effect of indometacin (IM) induced gastrointestinal injury on somatic pain sensitivity in awake rats. IM was administered at the ulcerogenic dose (35 mg/kg, s. c.) to fasted (24 h) and fed rats. Somatic pain sensitivity was evaluated using a tail flick test. Latency time was measured under conditions of the formation of gastric erosion (1 - 4 h after IM injection) as well as small intestinal injury (24, 48 and 72 h after IM injection). IM administration caused the gastric erosion formation only in fasted rats (4 h after the administration) and the small intestinal injury in both fasted and fed rats (24, 48, 72 h after the administration). Indomethacin-caused gastric and small intestinal injury resulted in an increase in tail flick latency. We did not observe any changes in tail flick latency in IM-treated rats without significant gastrointestinal injury. The gastrointestinal injury was accompanied by signs of chronic stress: long-lasting increase in corticosterone blood level, adrenal hypertrophy, thymus involution, and loss of body weight. Thus, the IM-induced gastrointestinal injury formation resulted in somatic pain inhibition in awake rats.

  17. Activation of factor X by rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Willingham, A.K.; Matschiner, J.T.

    1986-05-01

    Synthesis and secretion of blood coagulation factor X was studied in hepatocytes prepared by perfusion of rat livers with collagenase. Hepatocytes were incubated in the presence of vitamin K and /sup 3/H-leucine for up to 4h at 37/sup 0/C. Factor X was isolated from the incubation medium by immunochemical techniques and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The recovered /sup 3/H-labeled proteins migrated, after reduction of disulfides, as two polypeptide chains with apparent molecular weights (M/sub r/) of approximately 42,000 and 22,000 representing the heavy and light chains of factor X respectively. The apparent M/sub r/ of the heavy chain was about 10,000 daltons lighter than seen with the heavy chain of factor X isolated from rat plasma and was more characteristic of the heavy chain of factor Xa. When the levels of factor X secreted by hepatocytes were determined by clotting assays, activity was present as factor Xa. Also, when purified plasma factor X was added to incubations of hepatocytes (>95% parenchymal cells) the added factor X was rapidly converted to factor Xa. Plasma membranes prepared from isolated hepatocytes or from liver homogenates contained an enzyme that converted factor X to factor Xa in a calcium dependent reaction. The physiological significance of a factor X activating enzyme on hepatocyte plasma membranes is not clear.

  18. Effects of p67phox on the mitochondrial oxidative state in the kidney of Dahl salt-sensitive rats: optical fluorescence 3-D cryoimaging.

    PubMed

    Salehpour, F; Ghanian, Z; Yang, C; Zheleznova, N N; Kurth, T; Dash, R K; Cowley, A W; Ranji, M

    2015-08-15

    The goal of the present study was to quantify and correlate the contribution of the cytosolic p67(phox) subunit of NADPH oxidase 2 to mitochondrial oxidative stress in the kidneys of the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) hypertensive rat. Whole kidney redox states were uniquely assessed using a custom-designed optical fluorescence three-dimensional cryoimager to acquire multichannel signals of the intrinsic fluorophores NADH and FAD. SS rats were compared with SS rats in which the cytosolic subunit p67(phox) was rendered functionally inactive by zinc finger nuclease mutation of the gene (SS(p67phox)-null rats). Kidneys of SS rats fed a 0.4% NaCl diet exhibited significantly (P = 0.023) lower tissue redox ratio (NADH/FAD; 1.42 ± 0.06, n = 5) than SS(p67phox)-null rats (1.64 ± 0.07, n = 5), indicating reduced levels of mitochondrial electron transport chain metabolic activity and enhanced oxidative stress in SS rats. When fed a 4.0% salt diet for 21 days, both strains exhibited significantly lower tissue redox ratios (P < 0.001; SS rats: 1.03 ± 0.05, n = 9, vs. SS(p67phox)-null rats: 1.46 ± 0.04, n = 7) than when fed a 0.4% salt, but the ratio was still significantly higher in SS(p67phox) rats at the same salt level as SS rats. These results are consistent with results from previous studies that found elevated medullary interstitial fluid concentrations of superoxide and H2O2 in the medulla of SS rats. We conclude that the p67(phox) subunit of NADPH oxidase 2 plays an important role in the excess production of ROS from mitochondria in the renal medulla of the SS rat.

  19. Obesity in MENX Rats Is Accompanied by High Circulating Levels of Ghrelin and Improved Insulin Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Tobias; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Müller, Timo D; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Pellegata, Natalia S

    2016-02-01

    Ghrelin, the natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a), is mainly secreted from the stomach and regulates food intake and energy homeostasis. p27 regulates cell cycle progression in many cell types. Here, we report that rats affected by the multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome MENX, caused by a p27 mutation, develop pancreatic islet hyperplasia containing elevated numbers of ghrelin-producing ε-cells. The metabolic phenotype of MENX-affected rats featured high endogenous acylated and unacylated plasma ghrelin levels. Supporting increased ghrelin action, MENX rats show increased food intake, enhanced body fat mass, and elevated plasma levels of triglycerides and cholesterol. Ghrelin effect on food intake was confirmed by treating MENX rats with a GHS-R1a antagonist. At 7.5 months, MENX-affected rats show decreased mRNA levels of hypothalamic GHS-R1a, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related protein (AgRP), suggesting that prolonged hyperghrelinemia may lead to decreased ghrelin efficacy. In line with ghrelin's proposed role in glucose metabolism, we find decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in MENX rats, while insulin sensitivity is improved. In summary, we provide a novel nontransgenic rat model with high endogenous ghrelin plasma levels and, interestingly, improved glucose tolerance. This model might aid in identifying new therapeutic approaches for obesity and obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes.

  20. Comparative sensitivity of human and rat neural cultures to chemical-induced inhibition of neurite outgrowth

    SciTech Connect

    Harrill, Joshua A.; Freudenrich, Theresa M.; Robinette, Brian L.; Mundy, William R.

    2011-11-15

    There is a need for rapid, efficient and cost-effective alternatives to traditional in vivo developmental neurotoxicity testing. In vitro cell culture models can recapitulate many of the key cellular processes of nervous system development, including neurite outgrowth, and may be used as screening tools to identify potential developmental neurotoxicants. The present study compared primary rat cortical cultures and human embryonic stem cell-derived neural cultures in terms of: 1) reproducibility of high content image analysis based neurite outgrowth measurements, 2) dynamic range of neurite outgrowth measurements and 3) sensitivity to chemicals which have been shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth. There was a large increase in neurite outgrowth between 2 and 24 h in both rat and human cultures. Image analysis data collected across multiple cultures demonstrated that neurite outgrowth measurements in rat cortical cultures were more reproducible and had higher dynamic range as compared to human neural cultures. Human neural cultures were more sensitive than rat cortical cultures to chemicals previously shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth. Parallel analysis of morphological (neurite count, neurite length) and cytotoxicity (neurons per field) measurements were used to detect selective effects on neurite outgrowth. All chemicals which inhibited neurite outgrowth in rat cortical cultures did so at concentrations which did not concurrently affect the number of neurons per field, indicating selective effects on neurite outgrowth. In contrast, more than half the chemicals which inhibited neurite outgrowth in human neural cultures did so at concentrations which concurrently decreased the number of neurons per field, indicating that effects on neurite outgrowth were secondary to cytotoxicity. Overall, these data demonstrate that the culture models performed differently in terms of reproducibility, dynamic range and sensitivity to neurite outgrowth inhibitors. While human neural

  1. Altered activities of transcription factors and their related gene expression in cardiac tissues of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Y; Kashiwagi, A; Taki, H; Shinozaki, K; Maeno, Y; Kojima, H; Maegawa, H; Haneda, M; Hidaka, H; Yasuda, H; Horiike, K; Kikkawa, R

    1998-08-01

    Gene regulation in the cardiovascular tissues of diabetic subjects has been reported to be altered. To examine abnormal activities in transcription factors as a possible cause of this altered gene regulation, we studied the activity of two redox-sensitive transcription factors--nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activating protein-1 (AP-1)--and the change in the mRNA content of heme oxygenase-1, which is regulated by these transcription factors in the cardiac tissues of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Increased activity of NF-kappaB and AP-1 but not nuclear transcription-activating factor, as determined by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, was found in the hearts of 4-week diabetic rats. Glycemic control by a subcutaneous injection of insulin prevented these diabetes-induced changes in transcription factor activity. In accordance with these changes, the mRNA content of heme oxygenase-1 was increased fourfold in 4-week diabetic rats and threefold in 24-week diabetic rats as compared with control rats (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Insulin treatment also consistently prevented changes in the mRNA content of heme oxygenase-1. The oral administration of an antioxidant, probucol, to these diabetic rats partially prevented the elevation of the activity of both NF-kappaB and AP-1, and normalized the mRNA content of heme oxygenase-1 without producing any change in the plasma glucose concentration. These results suggest that elevated oxidative stress is involved in the activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1 in the cardiac tissues of diabetic rats, and that these abnormal activities of transcription factors could be associated with the altered gene regulation observed in the cardiovascular tissues of diabetic rats.

  2. Effect of prenatal methadone on reinstated behavioral sensitization induced by methamphetamine in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chih-Shung; Lee, Yih-Jing; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Fan, Lir-Wan; Ho, Ing-Kang; Tien, Lu-Tai

    2014-01-01

    It has been known that methadone maintenance treatment is the standard treatment of choice for pregnant opiate addicts. However, there are few data on newborn outcomes especially in the cross talk with other addictive agents. The present study was to investigate the effect of prenatal exposure to methadone on methamphetamine (METH)-induced behavioral sensitization as an indicator of drug addiction in later life. Pregnant rats received saline or methadone (7 mg/kg, s.c.) twice daily from E3 to E20. To induce behavioral sensitization, offspring (5 weeks old) were treated with METH (1mg/kg, i.p.) or saline once daily for 5 consecutive days. Ninety-six hours (day 9) after the 5th treatment with METH or saline, animals received a single dose of METH (1mg/kg, i.p.) or saline to induce the reinstated behavioral sensitization. Prenatal methadone treatment enhanced the level of development of locomotor behavioral sensitization to METH administration in adolescent rats. Prenatal methadone treatment also enhanced the reinstated locomotor behavioral sensitization in adolescent rats after the administration had ceased for 96 h. These results indicate that prenatal methadone exposure produces a persistent lesion in the dopaminergic system, as indicated by enhanced METH-induced locomotor behavioral sensitization (before drug abstinence) and reinstated locomotor behavioral sensitization (after short term drug abstinence) in adolescent rats. These findings show that prenatal methadone exposure may enhance susceptibility to the development of drug addiction in later life. This could provide a reference for drug usage such as methamphetamine in their offspring of pregnant woman who are treating with methadone.

  3. Nebivolol Attenuates Redox-Sensitive Glomerular and Tubular Mediated Proteinuria in Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Javad; Hayden, Melvin R.; Sowers, James R.; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Tilmon, Roger D.; Manrique, Camila; Lastra, Guido; DeMarco, Vincent G.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance-related proteinuria is associated with oxidative stress and impaired tissue bioavailable nitric oxide. Recent data suggest that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-mediated oxidative injury to the proximal tubule, like that seen in the glomerulus, contributes to proteinuria in insulin-resistant states. The vasodilator β-blocker nebivolol reduces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity, increases bioavailable nitric oxide, and improves insulin sensitivity. To test the hypothesis that a treatment strategy that reduces oxidative stress and attenuates obesity-associated increases in glomerular and proximal tubule derived protein, we treated young Zucker obese (ZO) and age-matched Zucker lean male rats with nebivolol (10 mg · kg−1 · d−1) for 21 d. Compared with Zucker lean, ZO controls exhibited increased proteinuria and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, reductions in systemic insulin sensitivity in association with increased renal renin, (pro)renin receptor, angiotensin II type 1 receptor, and mineralocorticoid receptor immunostaining, oxidative stress, and glomerular tubular structural abnormalities that were substantially improved with in vivo nebivolol treatment. Nebivolol treatment also led to improvements in glomerular podocyte foot-process effacement and improvement in podocyte-specific proteins (nephrin and synaptopodin) as well as proximal tubule-specific proteins (megalin and lysosomal-associated membrane protein-2) and proximal tubule ultrastructural remodeling in the ZO kidney. Our findings support the notion that obesity and insulin resistance lead to increased glomerulotubular oxidative stress and resultant glomerular and tubular sources of excess urine protein. Furthermore, the results of this study suggest the beneficial effect of nebivolol on proteinuria was derived from improvements in weight and insulin sensitivity and reductions in renal oxidative stress in a state of obesity and

  4. Vestibular Activation Habituates the Vasovagal Response in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Bernard; Martinelli, Giorgio P.; Xiang, Yongqing; Raphan, Theodore; Yakushin, Sergei B.

    2017-01-01

    Vasovagal syncope is a significant medical problem without effective therapy, postulated to be related to a collapse of baroreflex function. While some studies have shown that repeated static tilts can block vasovagal syncope, this was not found in other studies. Using anesthetized, male Long–Evans rats that were highly susceptible to generation of vasovagal responses, we found that repeated activation of the vestibulosympathetic reflex (VSR) with ±2 and ±3 mA, 0.025 Hz sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (sGVS) caused incremental changes in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) that blocked further generation of vasovagal responses. Initially, BP and HR fell ≈20–50 mmHg and ≈20–50 beats/min (bpm) into a vasovagal response when stimulated with Sgv\\S in susceptible rats. As the rats were continually stimulated, HR initially rose to counteract the fall in BP; then the increase in HR became more substantial and long lasting, effectively opposing the fall in BP. Finally, the vestibular stimuli simply caused an increase in BP, the normal sequence following activation of the VSR. Concurrently, habituation caused disappearance of the low-frequency (0.025 and 0.05 Hz) oscillations in BP and HR that must be present when vasovagal responses are induced. Habituation also produced significant increases in baroreflex sensitivity (p < 0.001). Thus, repeated low-frequency activation of the VSR resulted in a reduction and loss of susceptibility to development of vasovagal responses in rats that were previously highly susceptible. We posit that reactivation of the baroreflex, which is depressed by anesthesia and the disappearance of low-frequency oscillations in BP and HR are likely to be critically involved in producing resistance to the development of vasovagal responses. SGVS has been widely used to activate muscle sympathetic nerve activity in humans and is safe and well tolerated. Potentially, it could be used to produce similar habituation of

  5. Studies on responsiveness of hepatoma cells to catecholamines. IV. Lack of adrenergic activation of phosphorylase in rat ascites hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Yanaoka, T; Sanae, F; Wakusawa, S; Koshiura, R

    1986-10-01

    Glycogen phosphorylase a activity in 7 rat ascites hepatoma cell lines treated with adrenergic agents, phenylephrine, epinephrine and isoproterenol, was investigated as compared with that in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Basal phosphorylase activities in hepatoma cells except AH7974 cells were lower than that in hepatocytes. Phosphorylase in hepatoma cells was not activated by any of the agents, while the enzyme activity in hepatocytes was clearly increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Phosphorylase in hepatocytes was sensitive to glucagon, but it was found to be insensitive to glucagon in all hepatoma cells. The present results suggest that rat ascites hepatoma cells may escape the glycogenolytic regulation by catecholamines and glucagon.

  6. Ovalbumin-induced neurogenic inflammation in the bladder of sensitized rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahluwalia, Amrita; Giuliani, Sandro; Scotland, Ramona; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

    1998-01-01

    We have developed and characterized a model of immediate hypersensitivity/inflammation of the urinary bladder in vivo induced by local application of ovalbumin (OA) in OA- sensitive female rats. Two parameters of the inflammatory response were assessed following OA challenge: plasma protein extravasation (PPE) and changes in smooth muscle reactivity. The former was estimated by measurement of Evans blue extravasation at 0.5, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h time point following in vivo challenge. Changes in reactivity were determined by measurement of isotonic tension responses of urinary bladder strips following OA challenge in vitro.Acute in vivo intravesical OA challenge (10 mg in 0.3 ml saline) in actively sensitized female Wistar rats caused a time-dependent PPE in the urinary bladder which was biphasic with peak responses at 2–4 and 24 h.The PPE response to acute OA challenge, above base-line, at 2 h was abolished by systemic capsaicin pretreatment (50 mg kg−1, s.c., 4 days before use) (P<0.05) whilst the response at 24 h was unaffected. The 2 h time point was then used for further studies.Degranulation of mast cells, achieved by pretreatment with compound 48/80 (5 mg kg−1, s.c. for 3 consecutive days), completely abolished the PPE response to OA challenge at the 2 h time point.The tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist, SR 140333 (0.1 μmol kg−1, i.v.), abolished the 2 h PPE response whilst the tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist MEN 11420 (0.1 μmol kg−1, i.v.) appeared to reduce the response by approximately 50% but this did not reach significance. The bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist, Hoe 140 (0.1 μmol kg−1, i.v.), similarly to SR 140333, blocked the 2 h PPE response to OA, whereas the selective B1 receptor antagonist B 9858 (0.1 μmol kg−1, i.v.) had no significant effect. Inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) achieved by pretreatment with the COX inhibitor dexketoprofen (5.3 μmol kg−1, i.v.) also blocked the

  7. Intracerebroventricular injection of ghrelin decreases wheel running activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Yumiko; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Mawatari, Kazuaki; Toda, Satomi; Taniguchi, Yasuko; Futami, Akari; Sato, Fukiko; Kuroda, Masashi; Sebe, Mayu; Tsutsumi, Rie; Harada, Nagakatsu; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Gotoh, Koro; Ueno, Masaki; Nakaya, Yutaka; Sakaue, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in elucidating the molecular mechanisms by which voluntary exercise is regulated. In this study, we examined how the central nervous system regulates exercise. We used SPORTS rats, which were established in our laboratory as a highly voluntary murine exercise model. SPORTS rats showed lower levels of serum ghrelin compared with those of the parental line of Wistar rats. Intracerebroventricular and intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin decreased wheel-running activity in SPORTS rats. In addition, daily injection of the ghrelin inhibitor JMV3002 into the lateral ventricles of Wistar rats increased wheel-running activity. Co-administration of obestatin inhibited ghrelin-induced increases in food intake but did not inhibit ghrelin-induced suppression of voluntary exercise in rats. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of SPORTS rats was not difference that in control rats. We created an arcuate nucleus destruction model by administering monosodium glutamate (MSG) to neonatal SPORTS rats. Injection of ghrelin into MSG-treated rats decreased voluntary exercise but did not increase food intake, suggesting that wheel-running activity is not controlled by the arcuate nucleus neurons that regulate feeding. These results provide new insights into the mechanism by which ghrelin regulates voluntary activity independent of arcuate nucleus neurons.

  8. Effects of salt intake and potassium supplementation on renalase expression in the kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wen-Ling; Wang, Jing; Mu, Jian-Jun; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Wang, Yang; Wang, Dan; Ren, Ke-Yu; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Xiao, Hong-Yu

    2016-02-01

    Renalase is currently the only known amine oxidase in the blood that can metabolize catecholamines and regulate sympathetic activity. High salt intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), possibly through the modulation of renalase expression and secretion, whereas potassium can reverse the high salt-mediated increase in blood pressure. However, whether potassium could also modulate BP through renalase is unclear. In this study, we aim to investigate how salt intake and potassium supplementation affect the level of renalase in rats. Eighteen salt-sensitive (SS) and 18 SS-13BN rats were divided into six groups, receiving normal salt (0.3% NaCl), high salt (8% NaCl) and high salt/potassium (8% NaCl and 8% KCl) dietary intervention for four weeks. At the end of experiments, blood and kidneys were collected for analysis. mRNA level of renalase was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and protein level was determined by Western blot. We found that mRNA and protein levels of renalase in the kidneys of SS and SS-13BN rats were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) after high salt intervention, whereas dopamine in plasma was increased (P < 0.05) compared with rats received normal salt, suggesting that salt may induce salt-sensitive hypertension through inhibition of renalase expression. We also found increased mRNA level and protein level of renalase, decreased catecholamine levels in plasma, and decreased BP in SS rats treated with high salt/potassium, compared with that of the high salt SS group. Taken together, the salt-induced increase and potassium-induced decrease in BP could be mediated through renalase. More studies are needed to confirm our findings and understand the underlying mechanisms.

  9. Hypoglycemic and insulin-sensitizing effects of berberine in high-fat diet- and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanwen; Campbell, Tony; Perry, Benjamin; Beaurepaire, Cécile; Qin, Ling

    2011-02-01

    Hypoglycemic effects of berberine (BBR) have been reported in several studies in cell and animal models. However, the mechanisms of action are not fully understood. The present study was therefore aimed at determining the effect and underlying mechanisms of action of BBR on diabetes in a high-fat diet- and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. Ninety male Sprague-Dawley rats, 150 to 170 g, were housed individually in cages. Two groups (n = 12 each) were fed the AIN-93G diet (normal control) and the same diet modified to contain 33% fat and 2% cholesterol (high-fat control), respectively. The third group (n = 66) was fed the high-fat diet and injected intraperitoneally 2 weeks later with 35 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin in citrate buffer (pH 4.5). The rats in both control groups were injected with the vehicle. After 12 days, rats with semifasting (5 hours) blood glucose levels between 14 and 25 mmol/L were divided into 4 groups (n = 12 each) and treated with 0 (diabetic control), 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg/d of BBR for 6 weeks while continuing on the high-fat diet. Hypoglycemic effects of BBR were consistently demonstrated by semifasting and fasting blood glucose levels, and insulin-sensitizing effects were seen during oral glucose tolerance testing. Berberine also reduced food intake while having no effect on body weight in diabetic rats. No effect of BBR was observed on plasma levels of insulin, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), or inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and C-reactive protein). Berberine did not affect the state of oxidative stress as assessed by the activity of superoxide dismutase and the concentrations of malondialdehyde and reduced and oxidized glutathione in the liver. These findings demonstrated the hypoglycemic and insulin-sensitizing capabilities of BBR, with the underlying mechanisms awaiting further investigation.

  10. THE ROLE OF LYMPHOCYTES IN THE SENSITIZATION OF RATS TO RENAL HOMOGRAFTS

    PubMed Central

    Strober, S.; Gowans, J. L.

    1965-01-01

    In order to study the role of blood-borne small lymphocytes in the sensitization of rats to renal homografts 2 techniques for the perfusion of isolated rat kidneys were employed: (a) the in vitro perfusion of kidneys with thoracic duct cells suspended in either an artificial medium or in blood; the perfusates were then injected into rats syngeneic with the lymphocyte donors; (b) the in vivo perfusion of kidneys with blood issuing from the femoral artery and returning to the femoral vein of living rats. The degree of sensitization conferred on the recipients by the perfusates was assessed by applying a skin homograft from the kidney donor and scoring the epithelial necrosis at 6 days. The in vitro experiments indicated that parental strain thoracic duct cells, which had passed through an F1 hybrid kidney could confer upon a parental rat sensitivity to an F1 skin graft. Several perfusions with radioactively labelled lymphocytes showed that the injected cells migrated to the lymph nodes and spleen of the recipients Labelled large pyroninophilic cells were occasionally seen in the spleen and lymph nodes of recipients, and it was suggested that these had arisen from the injected cells. Although the in vitro perfusions with blood indicated that renal homografts might sensitize their hosts within 1 hour, the in vivo perfusions suggested that about 5 to 12 hours were required. The more rapid sensitization in vitro was possibly due to the more frequent opportunity for contact between lymphocytes and kidney vascular endothelium which was afforded by the conditions in vitro. PMID:14316949

  11. Taurine-induced modulation of voltage-sensitive Na+ channels in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shan-Shan; Yu, Kuai; Gu, Yan; Ruan, Di-Yun

    2005-08-15

    The physiological role of taurine, an abundant free amino acid in the neural system, is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate its effect on TTX-sensitive (TTX-S) and TTX-resistant (TTX-R) Na+ currents in enzymatically dissociated neurons from rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) with conventional whole-cell recording manner under voltage-clamp conditions. A TTX-S Na+ current was recorded preferentially from large DRG neurons and a TTX-R Na+ current preferentially from small ones. For TTX-S Na+ channel, taurine of the concentration > or = 10 mM shifted the activation curve in the depolarizing direction and the inactivation curve in the hyperpolarizing direction. There was no change in the activation curve for TTX-R Na+ channel and the inactivation curve was shifted in the hyperpolarizing direction slightly in the presence of taurine > or = 20 mM. When the recovery kinetics was examined, the presence of taurine resulted in a slower recovery from inactivation of TTX-S currents and no change of TTX-R ones. All the effects of taurine were weakly concentration-dependent and partly recovered quite slowly after washout. Our data indicate that taurine alters the properties of Na+ currents in intact DRG neurons. These may contribute to the understanding of taurine as a natural neuroprotectant and the potential of taurine as a useful medicine for the treatment of sensory neuropathies.

  12. Oral supplementation with the rutin improves cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity and vascular reactivity in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Mendes-Junior, Leônidas das Graças; Monteiro, Matheus Morais de Oliveira; Carvalho, Alynne Dos Santos; de Queiroz, Thyago Moreira; Braga, Valdir de Andrade

    2013-11-01

    The hypothesis that oral supplementation with the flavonoid rutin improves baroreflex sensitivity and vascular reactivity in hypertensive (2-kidney-1-clip (2K1C)) rats was tested. Sixty-four rats were divided in 4 groups: sham + saline; sham + rutin; 2K1C + saline, and 2K1C + rutin. Six weeks after 2K1C surgery, the animals were treated with saline or rutin (40 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) by gavage for 7 days. Baroreflex sensitivity test using phenylephrine (8 μg·kg(-1), iv) and sodium nitroprusside (25 μg·kg(-1), iv), vascular reactivity, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay were performed. Baroreflex sensitivity in hypertensive rats was impaired and compared with sham (-2.77 ± 0.15 vs. -1.53 ± 0.27 beats·min(-1)·mm Hg(-1); n = 8; p < 0.05). Oral supplementation with rutin restored baroreflex sensitivity in 2K1C rats (-2.40 ± 0.24 vs. -2.77 ± 0.15 beats·min(-1)·mm Hg(-1); n = 8; p > 0.05). Besides, hypertensive rats have greater contraction to phenylephrine (129.49% ± 4.46% vs. 99.50% ± 11.36%; n = 8; p < 0.05), which was restored by rutin (99.10% ± 1.77% vs. 99.50% ± 11.36%; n = 8; p > 0.05). Furthermore, vasorelaxation to acetylcholine was diminished in hypertensive rats (96.42% ± 2.80% vs. 119.35% ± 5.60%; n = 8; p < 0.05), which was also restored by rutin (117.55% ± 6.94% vs. 119.35% ± 5.60%; n = 8; p > 0.05). Finally, oxidative stress was greater in hypertensive rats (1.54 ± 0.12 vs. 0.53 ± 0.12 nmol MDA·mL(-1); n = 8; p < 0.05) and rutin supplementation significantly decreased oxidative stress in those animals (0.70 ± 0.13 vs. 1.54 ± 0.12 nmol MDA·mL(-1); n = 8; p < 0.05). We concluded that oral supplementation with rutin restores impaired baroreflex sensitivity and vascular reactivity in hypertensive rats by decreasing oxidative stress.

  13. Exposure to a high-fat diet decreases sensitivity to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced motor effects in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Jenny L.; Jones, Amanda R.; Wright, M. Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Arachidonic acid, a fatty acid component of neuronal cell membranes, forms the backbone of endogenous ligands of the endocannabinoid system. The lipid nature of this system may make it particularly susceptible to changes in fat content of the diet, which may, in turn, affect endocannabinoid tone and subsequent changes in receptor expression or activity. The latter would also be expected to affect responses to exogenous cannabinoids. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of a high-fat diet on sensitivity to the pharmacological effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC). Male and female Long-Evans rats were fed either a diet of standard rodent chow or chow enhanced with corn oil. Subsequently, they were repeatedly assessed for Δ9-THC-induced hypomobility, catalepsy and hypothermia. Female rats that received the high fat diet beginning in adolescence or in adulthood became significantly less sensitive to the effects of Δ9-THC on motor behavior, but not its hypothermic effects, with faster development of decreased sensitivity in female rats that began the high-fat diet as adults. In contrast, diet-induced differences either did not occur, or were less pronounced, in male rats of both ages. After acute injection, brain and blood levels of Δ9-THC and its two primary metabolites were similar regardless of diet. Combined with the fact that diet differentially affected only some of the measures, these results suggest that pharmacokinetic differences cannot fully account for the effects of the high-fat diet on response to Δ9-THC. Further, these results suggest that dietary fat content may represent an important consideration in predicting the effects of marijuana in females. PMID:20850461

  14. Hypolipidemic activity of Anethum graveolens in rats.

    PubMed

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Abbasi, Naser

    2008-03-01

    The aerial parts of Anethum graveolens (dillweed) are used in Iran as a hypolipidemic agent. The scientific basis for its use has yet to be established. In this study the hypolipidemic activity of dill powder and its essential oil (its most important fraction) were evaluated in male Wistar rats (180 +/- 20 g) fed a high cholesterol diet. Anethum graveolens essential oil (AGEO) was prepared by hydrodistillation and analysed using GC/MS. AGEO had a yield of 2% and GC/MS analysis showed that alpha-phellandrene (32%), limonene (28%) and carvone (28%) were its major components. Daily oral administration of AGEO to rats at doses of 45, 90 and 180 mg/kg for 2 weeks significantly and in a dose-dependent manner reduced total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). AGEO also increased significantly high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Anethum graveolens powder when added to the diet of animals showed similar effects on serum lipids. It is concluded that Anethum graveolens has significant lipid lowering effects and is a promising cardioprotective agent.

  15. Effects of morphine on thermal sensitivity in adult and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Drake; Mitzelfelt, Jeremiah D; Koerper, Lorraine M; Carter, Christy S

    2012-06-01

    There are contradictory data regarding older individuals' sensitivity to pain stimulation and opioid administration. Adult (12-16 months; n = 10) and aged (27-31 months; n = 7) male F344xBN rats were tested in a thermal sensitivity procedure where the animal chooses to remain in one of two compartments with floors maintained at various temperatures ranging from hot (45°C) through neutral (30°C) to cold (15°C). Effects of morphine were determined for three temperature comparisons (ie, hot/neutral, cold/neutral, and hot/cold). Aged rats were more sensitive to cold stimulation during baseline. Morphine produced antinociception during hot thermal stimulation, but had no effect on cold stimulation. The antinociceptive (and locomotor-altering) effects of morphine were attenuated in aged rats. These data demonstrate age-related differences in baseline thermal sensitivity and responsiveness to opioids. Based on behavioral and physiological requirements of this procedure, it is suggested that thermal sensitivity may provide a relevant animal model for the assessment of pain and antinociception.

  16. Characterization of the development of renal injury in Type-1 diabetic Dahl salt-sensitive rats

    PubMed Central

    Slaughter, Tiffani N.; Paige, Adrienne; Spires, Denisha; Kojima, Naoki; Kyle, Patrick B.; Garrett, Michael R.; Roman, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the progression of renal injury in Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) treated with streptozotocin (STZ). The rats received an injection of STZ (50 mg/kg ip) and an insulin pellet (2 U/day sc) to maintain the blood glucose levels between 400 and 600 mg/dl. Twelve weeks later, arterial pressure (143 ± 6 vs. 107 ± 8 mmHg) and proteinuria (557 ± 85 vs. 81 ± 6 mg/day) were significantly elevated in STZ-SS rats compared with the values observed in STZ-SD rats, respectively. The kidneys from STZ-SS rats exhibited thickening of glomerular basement membrane, mesangial expansion, severe glomerulosclerosis, renal interstitial fibrosis, and occasional glomerular nodule formation. In additional studies, treatment with a therapeutic dose of insulin (4 U/day sc) attenuated the development of proteinuria (212 ± 32 mg/day) and renal injury independent of changes in arterial pressure in STZ-SS rats. Since STZ-SS rats developed severe renal injury, we characterized the time course of changes in renal hemodynamics during the progression of renal injury. Nine weeks after diabetes onset, there was a 42% increase in glomerular filtration rate in STZ-SS rats vs. time-control SS rats with reduced renal blood flow. These results indicate that SS rats treated with STZ develop hyperfiltration and progressive proteinuria and display renal histological lesions characteristic of those seen in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Overall, this model may be useful to study signaling pathways and mechanisms that play a role in the progression of diabetes-induced renal disease and the development of new therapies to slow the progression of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23926133

  17. Cell-type specific expression of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zawar, C; Plant, T D; Schirra, C; Konnerth, A; Neumcke, B

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP channels) was investigated in four cell types in hippocampal slices prepared from 10- to 13-day-old rats: CA1 pyramidal cells, interneurones of stratum radiatum in CA1, complex glial cells of the same area and granule cells of the dentate gyrus. The neuronal cell types were identified visually and characterized by the shapes and patterns of their action potentials and by neurobiotin labelling.The patch-clamp technique was used to study the sensitivity of whole-cell currents to diazoxide (0·3 mm), a KATP channel opener, and to tolbutamide (0·5 mm) or glibenclamide (20 μm), two KATP channel inhibitors. The fraction of cells in which whole-cell currents were activated by diazoxide and inhibited by tolbutamide was 26% of pyramidal cells, 89% of interneurones, 100% of glial cells and 89% of granule cells. The reversal potential of the diazoxide-induced current was at the K+ equilibrium potential and a similar current activated spontaneously when cells were dialysed with an ATP-free pipette solution.Using the single-cell RT-PCR method, the presence of mRNA encoding KATP channel subunits (Kir6.1, Kir6.2, SUR1 and SUR2) was examined in CA1 pyramidal cells and interneurones. Subunit mRNA combinations that can result in functional KATP channels (Kir6.1 together with SUR1, Kir6.2 together with SUR1 or SUR2) were detected in only 17% of the pyramidal cells. On the other hand, KATP channelsmay be formed in 75%of the interneurones, mainly by the combination of Kir6.2 with SUR1 (58% of all interneurones).The results of these combined analyses indicate that functional KATP channels are present in principal neurones, interneurones and glial cells of the rat hippocampus, but at highly different densities in the four cell types studied. PMID:9852317

  18. Palmitate stimulates glucose transport in rat adipocytes by a mechanism involving translocation of the insulin sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, R. W.; Ladenson, J. H.; Henriksen, E. J.; Holloszy, J. O.; McDonald, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    In rat adipocytes, palmitate: a) increases basal 2-deoxyglucose transport 129 +/- 27% (p less than 0.02), b) decreases the insulin sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4) in low density microsomes and increases GLUT4 in plasma membranes and c) increases the activity of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. Palmitate-stimulated glucose transport is not additive with the effect of insulin and is not inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine and sphingosine. In rat muscle, palmitate: a) does not affect basal glucose transport in either the soleus or epitrochlearis and b) inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose transport by 28% (p less than 0.005) in soleus but not in epitrochlearis muscle. These studies demonstrate a potentially important differential role for fatty acids in the regulation of glucose transport in different insulin target tissues.

  19. Purinergic Effects on Na,K-ATPase Activity Differ in Rat and Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Juel, Carsten; Nordsborg, Nikolai B.; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background P2Y receptor activation may link the effect of purines to increased maximal in vitro activity of the Na,K-ATPase in rat muscle. The hypothesis that a similar mechanism is present in human skeletal muscle was investigated with membranes from rat and human skeletal muscle. Results Membranes purified from rat and human muscles were used in the Na,K-ATPase assay. Incubation with ADP, the stable ADP analogue MeS-ADP and UDP increased the Na+ dependent Na,K-ATPase activity in rat muscle membranes, whereas similar treatments of human muscle membranes lowered the Na,K-ATPase activity. UTP incubation resulted in unchanged Na,K-ATPase activity in humans, but pre-incubation with the antagonist suramin resulted in inhibition with UTP, suggesting that P2Y receptors are involved. The Na,K-ATPase in membranes from both rat and human could be stimulated by protein kinase A and C activation. Thus, protein kinase A and C activation can increase Na,K-ATPase activity in human muscle but not via P2Y receptor stimulation. Conclusion The inhibitory effects of most purines (with the exception of UTP) in human muscle membranes are probably due to mass law inhibition of ATP hydrolysis. This inhibition could be blurred in rat due to receptor mediated activation of the Na,K-ATPase. The different effects could be related to a high density of ADP sensitive P2Y1 and P2Y13 receptors in rat, whereas the UTP sensitive P2Y11 could be more abundant in human. Alternatively, rat could possesses a mechanism for protein-protein interaction between P2Y receptors and the Na,K-ATPase, and this mechanism could be absent in human skeletal muscle (perhaps with the exception of the UTP sensitive P2Y11 receptor). Perspective Rat muscle is not a reliable model for purinergic effects on Na,K-ATPase in human skeletal muscle. PMID:24614174

  20. Tetrodotoxin-sensitive and -insensitive relaxations in the rat oesophageal tunica muscularis mucosae.

    PubMed Central

    Akbarali, H I; Bieger, D; Triggle, C R

    1986-01-01

    1. Relaxation responses were produced by vagal and field stimulation, respectively, of the whole oesophagus preparation from the rat and of the isolated tunica muscularis mucosae (t.m.m.) preparation from the rat. These relaxation responses persisted in the presence of antagonists of histamine, serotonin, noradrenaline and acetylcholine. 2. Unlike vagally evoked relaxation, that evoked by low-frequency field stimulation, i.e. field-stimulated relaxation (f.s.r.) was generally resistant to tetrodotoxin (TTX). 3. Both types of relaxations exhibited remarkable temperature sensitivity and were abolished by lowering the bath temperature from 37 to 28 degrees C. 4. TTX-resistant relaxations were also produced by scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus) venom, the calcium ionophore, A23187 (calimycin) and by increasing the extracellular potassium by 2 mM. The failure of these agents to inhibit f.s.r. is inconsistent with a releasing and/or depleting action on any endogenous mediator. 5. Relaxations produced by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) could be blocked by alpha-chymotrypsin which, however, failed to abolish f.s.r., suggesting that VIP is not the mediator of f.s.r. 6. F.s.r. was completely blocked by the calcium channel antagonists, verapamil (10(-6) M), nifedipine (10(-7) M), and by magnesium (20 mM). 7. Our results indicate that TTX-insensitive relaxations in the isolated t.m.m. are dependent upon extracellular calcium, are due to activation of potential-operated calcium channels and are not mediated by VIP. PMID:3114474

  1. Susceptibility of natural killer cell activity of old rats to stress.

    PubMed Central

    Ghoneum, M; Gill, G; Assanah, P; Stevens, W

    1987-01-01

    We determined an in vivo response of NK cells in young and old rats towards the suppressive effect of stress. Stress was developed by isolating rats in separate cages, but control littermates were kept together. Animals were subjected to stress for 7 days, and alterations of NK cell activities were examined in the spleen, peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM). The results showed that old rats subjected to stress had a remarkable decrease in splenic and PB-NK activity compared to old control rats, concomitant with a highly increased level of NK cell activity in BM. Suppression of the lytic activity in the spleen of stressed old rats was correlated with a decrease in the percentage of conjugate formation between splenic NK cells and target tumour cells. In contrast, stressed young rats demonstrated relatively unchanged activity of NK cells examined in different tissues compared to age-matched controls. We concluded that old animals are more sensitive to the suppressive effect of stress compared to young ones, and the mechanism of this suppression is probably due to the migration of large granular lymphocytes (LGL) from spleen and PB to other sites such as BM. PMID:3570358

  2. Spontaneous Changes in Taste Sensitivity of Single Units Recorded over Consecutive Days in the Brainstem of the Awake Rat

    PubMed Central

    Sammons, Joshua D.; Weiss, Michael S.; Escanilla, Olga D.; Fooden, Andrew F.; Victor, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    A neuron’s sensitivity profile is fundamental to functional classification of cell types, and underlies theories of sensory coding. Here we show that gustatory neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and parabrachial nucleus of the pons (PbN) of awake rats spontaneously change their tuning properties across days. Rats were surgically implanted with a chronic microwire assembly into the NTS or PbN. Following recovery, water-deprived rats had free access to a lick spout that delivered taste stimuli while cellular activity was recorded. In 12 rats for the NTS and 8 rats for the PbN, single units could be isolated at the same electrode on consecutive days (NTS, 14 units for 2–5 consecutive days, median = 2 days; PbN, 23 units for 2–7 days, median = 2.5 days). Waveforms were highly similar (waveform template correlation > 0.99) across days in 13 units in NTS and 13 units in PbN. This degree of similarity was rare (0.3% of pairs in NTS, 1.5% of pairs in PbN) when the waveforms were from presumed-different neurons (units recorded on nonconsecutive days with at least one intervening day in which there were no spikes, or from different wires or rats). Analyses of multi-day recordings that met this criterion for “same unit” showed that responses to taste stimuli appeared, disappeared, or shifted in magnitude across days, resulting in changes in tuning. These data imply, generally, that frameworks for cell classification and, specifically, that theories of taste coding, need to consider plasticity of response profiles. PMID:27479490

  3. Spontaneous Changes in Taste Sensitivity of Single Units Recorded over Consecutive Days in the Brainstem of the Awake Rat.

    PubMed

    Sammons, Joshua D; Weiss, Michael S; Escanilla, Olga D; Fooden, Andrew F; Victor, Jonathan D; Di Lorenzo, Patricia M

    2016-01-01

    A neuron's sensitivity profile is fundamental to functional classification of cell types, and underlies theories of sensory coding. Here we show that gustatory neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and parabrachial nucleus of the pons (PbN) of awake rats spontaneously change their tuning properties across days. Rats were surgically implanted with a chronic microwire assembly into the NTS or PbN. Following recovery, water-deprived rats had free access to a lick spout that delivered taste stimuli while cellular activity was recorded. In 12 rats for the NTS and 8 rats for the PbN, single units could be isolated at the same electrode on consecutive days (NTS, 14 units for 2-5 consecutive days, median = 2 days; PbN, 23 units for 2-7 days, median = 2.5 days). Waveforms were highly similar (waveform template correlation > 0.99) across days in 13 units in NTS and 13 units in PbN. This degree of similarity was rare (0.3% of pairs in NTS, 1.5% of pairs in PbN) when the waveforms were from presumed-different neurons (units recorded on nonconsecutive days with at least one intervening day in which there were no spikes, or from different wires or rats). Analyses of multi-day recordings that met this criterion for "same unit" showed that responses to taste stimuli appeared, disappeared, or shifted in magnitude across days, resulting in changes in tuning. These data imply, generally, that frameworks for cell classification and, specifically, that theories of taste coding, need to consider plasticity of response profiles.

  4. Ornithine decarboxylase activity as a marker of androgen and antiandrogen action in the rat epididymis.

    PubMed

    de las Heras, M A; Suescun, M O; Calandra, R S

    1988-05-01

    After castration, there was a marked decrease in serum androgen concentration at 6 h, and a dramatic inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) at 12 h. Administration of testosterone propionate to castrated rats at a dose of 0.05 mg/animal restored ODC activity to the normal value. However, no change was observed when intact rats were treated with testosterone even at a 40-fold higher dose, indicating that endogenous androgens present in intact rats are far in excess for maintenance of maximal levels of activity. Administration of the antiandrogen flutamide to intact rats caused a moderate decrease in epididymal weight, whereas this effect was more pronounced in castrated, androgen-treated rats. In the latter, the effect of flutamide was significant at the lowest dose used (0.5 mg/day). ODC activity was significantly decreased by flutamide treatment of intact rats, but even at the highest dose used (10 mg/day) only a 39% inhibition was observed. In flutamide-treated rats, LH concentrations were markedly increased, as were serum and epididymal androgens. In androgen-treated castrated rats, flutamide caused epididymal ODC to fall to undetectable values. These results show that: (1) androgens are essential for the maintenance of ODC activity in the epididymis; (2) epididymal ODC activity is maximally stimulated by endogenous androgens, at least in the pubertal rat; (3) the apparent potency of flutamide is substantially lowered by an increase in epididymal androgens. We suggest that ODC is a sensitive marker of the action of androgens and antiandrogens in the epididymis.

  5. GABAergic mRNA expression is upregulated in the prefrontal cortex of rats sensitized to methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Wearne, Travis A; Parker, Lindsay M; Franklin, Jane L; Goodchild, Ann K; Cornish, Jennifer L

    2016-01-15

    Inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated neurotransmission plays an important role in the regulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), with increasing evidence suggesting that dysfunctional GABAergic processing of the PFC may underlie certain deficits reported across psychotic disorders. Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant that induces chronic psychosis in a subset of users, with repeat administration producing a progressively increased vulnerability to psychotic relapse following subsequent drug administration (sensitization). The aim here was to investigate changes to GABAergic mRNA expression in the PFC of rats sensitized to METH using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12) underwent repeated methamphetamine (intraperitoneal (i.p.) or saline injections for 7 days. Following 14 days of withdrawal, rats were challenged with acute methamphetamine (1mg/kg i.p.) and RNA was isolated from the PFC to compare the relative mRNA expression of a range of GABA enzymes, transporters and receptors subunits. METH challenge resulted in a significant sensitized behavioral (locomotor) response in METH pre-treated animals compared with saline pre-treated controls. The mRNAs of transporters (GAT1 and GAT3), ionotropic GABAA receptor subunits (α3 and β1), together with the metabotropic GABAB1 receptor, were upregulated in the PFC of sensitized rats compared with saline controls. These findings indicate that GABAergic mRNA expression is significantly altered at the pre and postsynaptic level following sensitization to METH, with sensitization resulting in the transcriptional upregulation of several inhibitory genes. These changes likely have significant consequences on GABA-mediated neurotransmission in the PFC and may underlie certain symptoms conserved across psychotic disorders, such as executive dysfunction.

  6. Rosmarinic acid ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity in diabetic rats, potentially by modulating the expression of PEPCK and GLUT4

    PubMed Central

    Runtuwene, Joshua; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Asakawa, Akihiro; Amitani, Haruka; Amitani, Marie; Morinaga, Akinori; Takimoto, Yoshiyuki; Kairupan, Bernabas Harold Ralph; Inui, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Background Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural substance that may be useful for treating diabetes mellitus. The present study investigated the effects of RA on glucose homeostasis and insulin regulation in rats with streptozocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes or high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes. Methods Glucose homeostasis was determined using oral glucose tolerance tests and postprandial glucose tests, and insulin activity was evaluated using insulin tolerance tests and the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance. Additionally, the protein expression levels of PEPCK and GLUT4 were determined using Western blot analysis. Results RA administration exerted a marked hypoglycemic effect on STZ-induced diabetic rats and enhanced glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed diabetic rats. These effects of RA were dose-dependent. Meanwhile, RA administration reversed the STZ- and HFD-induced increase in PEPCK expression in the liver and the STZ- and HFD-induced decrease in GLUT4 expression in skeletal muscle. Conclusion RA reduces hyperglycemia and ameliorates insulin sensitivity by decreasing PEPCK expression and increasing GLUT4 expression. PMID:27462144

  7. BK channels in rat and human pulmonary smooth muscle cells are BKα-β1 functional complexes lacking the oxygen-sensitive stress axis regulated exon insert

    PubMed Central

    Detweiler, Neil D.; Song, Li; McClenahan, Samantha J.; Versluis, Rachel J.; Kharade, Sujay V.; Kurten, Richard C.; Rhee, Sung W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A loss of K+ efflux in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) contributes to abnormal vasoconstriction and PASMC proliferation during pulmonary hypertension (PH). Activation of high-conductance Ca2+-activated (BK) channels represents a therapeutic strategy to restore K+ efflux to the affected PASMCs. However, the properties of BK channels in PASMCs—including sensitivity to BK channel openers (BKCOs)—are poorly defined. The goal of this study was to compare the properties of BK channels between PASMCs of normoxic (N) and chronic hypoxic (CH) rats and then explore key findings in human PASMCs. Polymerase chain reaction results revealed that 94.3% of transcripts encoding BKα pore proteins in PASMCs from N rats represent splice variants lacking the stress axis regulated exon insert, which confers oxygen sensitivity. Subsequent patch-clamp recordings from inside-out (I-O) patches confirmed a dense population of BK channels insensitive to hypoxia. The BK channels were highly activated by intracellular Ca2+ and the BKCO lithocholate; these responses require BKα-β1 subunit coupling. PASMCs of CH rats with established PH exhibited a profound overabundance of the dominant oxygen-insensitive BKα variant. Importantly, human BK (hBK) channels in PASMCs from human donor lungs also represented the oxygen-insensitive BKα variant activated by BKCOs. The hBK channels showed significantly enhanced Ca2+ sensitivity compared with rat BK channels. We conclude that rat BK and hBK channels in PASMCs are oxygen-insensitive BKα-β1 complexes highly sensitive to Ca2+ and the BKCO lithocholate. BK channels are overexpressed in PASMCs of a rat model of PH and may provide an abundant target for BKCOs designed to restore K+ efflux. PMID:28090300

  8. Capsaicin-induced activation of fine afferent fibres from rat skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Seno, N; Dray, A

    1993-07-01

    A preparation of the hindpaw-skin together with the saphenous nerve from the adult rat was maintained in vitro. This was used to characterize the properties of sensory receptors with slowly conducting nerve fibres (C- and A delta) and to evaluate the effects of capsaicin and the capsaicin antagonist, capsazepine. Mechano-heat sensitive C-fibres were the most sensitive to capsaicin (threshold < 0.3 microM) applied to the receptive field. Other types of C-fibres were less sensitive (mechano-cold sensitive fibres threshold 1 microM) or insensitive (high- and low-threshold mechano-sensitive fibres). Mechano-heat and mechano-cold sensitive A delta-receptors were also activated by capsaicin but high- and low-threshold mechano-sensitive A delta-fibres were insensitive to capsaicin (maximum concentration 3 microM). The capsaicin-induced activation of mechano-heat sensitive C-fibres was concentration dependent with an EC50 = 350 nM. Responses to capsaicin, administered at submaximal concentrations were highly reproducible when administrations were separated by 30 min. Administrations at greater frequency reduced responsiveness to capsaicin. This was accompanied by a slowing of conduction velocity or production of a conduction blockade which was reversible after a few minutes. The activation of mechano-heat sensitive C-fibres by capsaicin could be prevented by capsazepine, indicating the involvement of specific capsaicin receptor-sites. These data show that fine afferents in the rat hindpaw-skin retain receptive properties when maintained in vitro. These fibres exhibit differential sensitivity to capsaicin; mechano-heat sensitive C-fibres being the most sensitive. The activation of this class of fibre was mediated via a specific capsaicin-receptor.

  9. The bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) is activated by alterations of its membrane environment.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Axel; Lenzig, Pia; Oslender-Bujotzek, Adrienne; Kusch, Jana; Lucas, Susana Dias; Gründer, Stefan; Wiemuth, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) is a member of the DEG/ENaC family of ion channels. Channels of this family are characterized by a common structure, their physiological functions and modes of activation, however, are diverse. Rat BASIC is expressed in brain, liver and intestinal tract and activated by bile acids. The physiological function of BASIC and its mechanism of bile acid activation remain a puzzle. Here we addressed the question whether amphiphilic bile acids activate BASIC by directly binding to the channel or indirectly by altering the properties of the surrounding membrane. We show that membrane-active substances other than bile acids also affect the activity of BASIC and that activation by bile acids and other membrane-active substances is non-additive, suggesting that BASIC is sensitive for changes in its membrane environment. Furthermore based on results from chimeras between BASIC and ASIC1a, we show that the extracellular and the transmembrane domains are important for membrane sensitivity.

  10. A high-salt diet enhances leukocyte adhesion in association with kidney injury in young dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hidenori; Nakagawa, Suguru; Wu, Yaqiong; Kawabata, Yukari; Numabe, Atsushi; Yanagi, Yasuo; Tamaki, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Yoshio; Araie, Makoto

    2017-03-16

    Salt-sensitive hypertension is associated with severe organ damage. Generating oxygen radicals is an integral component of salt-induced kidney damage, and activated leukocytes are important in oxygen radical biosynthesis. We hypothesized that a high-salt diet causes the upregulation of immune-related mechanisms, thereby contributing to the susceptibility of Dahl salt-sensitive rats to hypertensive kidney damage. For verifying the hypothesis, we investigated leukocytes adhering to retinal vessels when Dahl salt-sensitive rats were challenged with a high-salt (8% NaCl) diet using acridine orange fluoroscopy and a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. The high-salt diet increased leukocyte adhesion after 3 days and was associated with a significant increase in mRNA biosynthesis of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) -related molecules in the kidney. Losartan treatment did not affect increased leukocyte adhesion during the early, pre-hypertensive phase of high salt loading; however, losartan attenuated the adhesion of leukocytes during the hypertensive stage. Moreover, the inhibition of leukocyte adhesion in the pre-hypertensive stage by anti-CD18 antibodies decreased tethering of leukocytes and was associated with the attenuation of functional and morphological kidney damage without affecting blood pressure elevation. In conclusion, a high-salt challenge rapidly increased leukocyte adhesion through the over-expression of ICAM-1. Increased leukocyte adhesion in the pre-hypertensive stage is responsible for subsequent kidney damage in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Immune system involvement may be a key component that initiates kidney damage in a genetic model of salt-induced hypertension.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 16 March 2017; doi:10.1038/hr.2017.31.

  11. Insulin modulation of ATP-sensitive K+ channel of rat skeletal muscle is impaired in the hypokalaemic state.

    PubMed

    Tricarico, D; Capriulo, R; Conte Camerino, D

    1999-01-01

    In the present work, we examined the effects of in vivo administration of insulin to rats made hypokalaemic by feeding a K+-free diet. The i.p. injection of insulin in the hypokalaemic rats provoked muscle paralysis within 3-5 h. Consistent with this observation, the skeletal muscle fibres of the paralysed rats were depolarized. In contrast, in the normokalaemic animals, insulin neither provoked paralysis nor produced significant fibre hyperpolarization. In the hypokalaemic rats, insulin almost completely abolished the sarcolemma adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K+ currents without altering the sensitivity of the channels to ATP or glibenclamide. In contrast, in the normokalaemic rats, insulin enhanced ATP-sensitive K+ currents that became also resistant to ATP and glibenclamide. Our experiments indicate that the modulation of the sarcolemma ATP-sensitive K+ channels by insulin is impaired in the hypokalaemic state. This phenomenon appears to be related to the fibre depolarization and paralysis observed in the same animals.

  12. Antidotal effectiveness of activated charcoal in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Curd-Sneed, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relative adsorption of radiolabeled /sup 14/C-sodium pentobarbital by three types of activated charcoal. Factors affection adsorption of the drug by SuperChar, United States Pharmacopeia (USP), and Darco G-60 activated charcoals with surface areas of 2800-3500 m2/g, 1000 m/sup 2//g, and 650 m/sup 2//g, respectively, were studied both in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro experiments, the drug was dissolved in water of 70% sorbitol (w/v), and the maximum binding capacity and dissociation constants for each of the charcoals were calculated. Rank order of maximum binding capacity was directly proportional to charcoal surface area in both water and sorbitol, while the dissociation constants for the charcoals in water were not different. For in vivo experiments, absorption of orally administered sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg) was studied in rats with and without activated charcoal administration. The results of this research suggest that: (1) SuperChar given in water possesses the greatest antidotal efficacy, (2) sorbitol induced catharsis does not reduce oral absorption of sodium pentobarbital, and (3) sorbitol enhances the antidotal efficacy of USP charcoal.

  13. Meal-induced enhancement in insulin sensitivity is not triggered by hyperinsulinemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Peitl, Barna; Döbrönte, Róbert; Németh, József; Pankucsi, Csaba; Sári, Réka; Varga, Angelika; Szilvássy, Zoltán

    2009-03-01

    Several reports confirmed the phenomenon of postprandial increase in whole-body insulin sensitivity. Although the initial step of this process is unknown, the pivotal role of postprandial hyperinsulinemia has strongly been suggested. The aim of the present study was to determine whether hyperinsulinemia per se induces insulin sensitization in healthy male Wistar rats. Rapid insulin sensitivity test (RIST) were performed in fasted, anesthetized rats before and during stable hyperinsulinemia achieved by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamping (HEGC) with insulin infused either through the jugular vein (systemic HEGC) or into the portal circulation (portal HEGC) at a rate of 3 mU/(kg min). Insulin sensitivity expressed by the rapid insulin sensitivity (RIST) index (in milligrams per kilogram) was characterized by the total amount of glucose needed to maintain prestudy blood glucose level succeeding an intravenous bolus infusion of 50 mU/kg insulin over 5 minutes. In fasted animals, the RIST index was 37.4 +/- 3.1 mg/kg. When hyperinsulinemia mimicking the postprandial state was achieved by systemic HEGC, the RIST index (39.7 +/- 10.6 mg/kg) showed no significant changes as compared with the pre-HEGC values. Hyperinsulinemia achieved by portal insulin infusion also failed to modify the RIST index (35.7 +/- 4.3 mg/kg). The results demonstrate that acute hyperinsulinemia, no matter how induced, does not yield any sensitization to the hypoglycemic effect of insulin.

  14. Effects of swimming activity on the copulatory behavior of sexually active male rats.

    PubMed

    Allouh, M Z

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has long been associated with better sexual function. This study investigated the effects of moderate swimming exercise on the copulatory behavior of sexually potent male rats. Two sets of sexually potent male rats -highly active and moderately active- were identified depending on baseline sexual activity. Each of the two sets of rats was further randomly divided into two groups (swimming and sedentary). There were 16 rats in each of the four study groups (highly active swimming, highly active sedentary, moderately active swimming and moderately active sedentary). The copulatory behavior parameters and serum testosterone levels were measured and compared between the rats of the swimming and sedentary groups following a month long training period in which rats were made to swim for 1 h every alternate day. Swimming significantly improved the sexual performance of highly active rats, as indicated by increased intromission frequency and intromission ratio, compared with the sedentary controls. Swimming improved both sexual desire and performance, as indicated by reduced mount latency and increased intromission ratio, respectively, in swimming moderately active rats compared with the sedentary moderately active controls. Therefore, swimming activity improves the copulatory behavior of both highly active and moderately active male rats.

  15. Moderate hypoxia influences excitability and blocks dendrotoxin sensitive K+ currents in rat primary sensory neurones

    PubMed Central

    Gruss, Marco; Ettorre, Giovanni; Stehr, Annette Jana; Henrich, Michael; Hempelmann, Gunter; Scholz, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Hypoxia alters neuronal function and can lead to neuronal injury or death especially in the central nervous system. But little is known about the effects of hypoxia in neurones of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which survive longer hypoxic periods. Additionally, people have experienced unpleasant sensations during ischemia which are dedicated to changes in conduction properties or changes in excitability in the PNS. However, the underlying ionic conductances in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones have not been investigated in detail. Therefore we investigated the influence of moderate hypoxia (27.0 ± 1.5 mmHg) on action potentials, excitability and ionic conductances of small neurones in a slice preparation of DRGs of young rats. The neurones responded within a few minutes non-uniformly to moderate hypoxia: changes of excitability could be assigned to decreased outward currents in most of the neurones (77%) whereas a smaller group (23%) displayed increased outward currents in Ringer solution. We were able to attribute most of the reduction in outward-current to a voltage-gated K+ current which activated at potentials positive to -50 mV and was sensitive to 50 nM α-dendrotoxin (DTX). Other toxins that inhibit subtypes of voltage gated K+ channels, such as margatoxin (MgTX), dendrotoxin-K (DTX-K), r-tityustoxin Kα (TsTX-K) and r-agitoxin (AgTX-2) failed to prevent the hypoxia induced reduction. Therefore we could not assign the hypoxia sensitive K+ current to one homomeric KV channel type in sensory neurones. Functionally this K+ current blockade might underlie the increased action potential (AP) duration in these neurones. Altogether these results, might explain the functional impairment of peripheral neurones under moderate hypoxia. PMID:16579848

  16. Lymphocyte phenotypes in wild-caught rats suggest potential mechanisms underlying increased immune sensitivity in post-industrial environments

    PubMed Central

    Trama, Ashley M; Holzknecht, Zoie E; Thomas, Anitra D; Su, Kuei-Ying; Lee, Sean M; Foltz, Emily E; Perkins, Sarah E; Lin, Shu S; Parker, William

    2012-01-01

    The immune systems of wild rats and of laboratory rats can been utilized as models of the human immune system in pre-industrial and post-industrial societies, respectively. In this study, lymphocyte phenotypes in wild rats were broadly characterized, and the results were compared to those obtained by us and by others using cells derived from various strains of laboratory rats. Although not expected, the production of regulatory T cells was not apparently different in wild rats compared to laboratory rats. On the other hand, differences in expression of markers involved in complement regulation, adhesion, signaling and maturation suggest increased complement regulation and decreased sensitivity in wild-caught rats compared to laboratory rats, and point toward complex differences between the maturation of T cells. The results potentially lend insight into the pathogenesis of post-industrial epidemics of allergy and autoimmune disease. PMID:22327212

  17. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone on insulin sensitivity in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima-fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Tatsuo; Miura, Atsushi; Kajita, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Masami; Sugiyama, Chiyo; Matsubara, Kenji; Ikeda, Takahide; Mori, Ichiro; Morita, Hiroyuki; Uno, Yoshihiro; Mune, Tomoatsu; Kanoh, Yoshinori; Ishizawa, Masayoshi

    2007-12-01

    In order to clarify the effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on improvement of insulin resistance, we examined the effects of overexpression of wild-type protein kinase C-zeta (wt-PKCzeta)/3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (wt-PDK1) and kinase-inactive PKCzeta/PDK1 (DeltaPKCzeta/DeltaPDK1) on DHEA-induced [(3)H]2-deoxyglucose (DOG) uptake using the electroporation method in rat adipocytes. Overexpression of wt-PKCzeta and wt-PDK1 significantly increased in DHEA-induced [(3)H]2-DOG uptake. Wortmannin completely suppressed DHEA-induced [(3)H]2-DOG uptake in wt-PKCzeta- and wt-PDK1-transfected adipocytes. Overexpression of neither DeltaPKCzeta nor DeltaPDK1 increased DHEA-induced [(3)H]2-DOG uptake. Otsuka Long-Evans fatty rats (OLETF), animal models of type 2 diabetes, and Long-Evans Tokushima rats (LETO) as control, were treated with 0.4% DHEA for 2 weeks. Insulin-induced [(3)H]2-DOG uptakes, activations of PI 3-kinase and PKCzeta of adipocytes were significantly increased in DHEA-treated OLETF rats. Moreover, plasma glucose levels in OLETF rats after treatment with DHEA for 2 weeks were significantly lower than treatment without DHEA, but not in LETO rats. These results indicate that DHEA treatment may improve glucose tolerance through a PI 3-kinase-PKCzeta pathway and downregulates adiposity in OLETF rats.

  18. Altered dopamine D2-like receptor binding in rats with behavioral sensitization to quinpirole: effects of pre-treatment with Ro 41-1049a

    PubMed Central

    Culver, Kirsten E.; Szechtman, Henry; Levant, Beth

    2008-01-01

    Repeated treatment with the dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist quinpirole produces a sensitized behavioral response in rats manifested as an increase in locomotor activity. Pre-treatment with certain monoamine oxidase inhibitors, such as Ro 41-1049 [N-(2-aminomethyl)-5-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-thiazolecarboxamide HCl], changes the sensitized response from locomotion to stationary, self-directed mouthing. In this study, the effects of quinpirole sensitization, with and without pre-treatment with Ro 41-1049, were determined on dopamine D2-like receptors in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum. Long-Evans rats were pre-treated with Ro 41-1049 (1 mg/kg) 90 min prior to administration of quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg, 8 injections, every 3–4 days). Dopamine D2-like receptor binding was determined 3 days after the last injection by ex vivo radioligand assays using [3H]spiperone and [3H]quinpirole. Densities of [3H]spiperone- and [3H]quinpirole-labeled sites were both increased 32% in the nucleus accumbens of rats with demonstrated locomotor sensitization to quinpirole. In contrast, the density of dopamine D2-like receptors in quinpirole-sensitized rats pre-treated with Ro 41-1049 was not different from saline controls. These findings support the involvement of alterations in dopamine D2-like receptors in the development of locomotor sensitization to quinpirole and suggest that modification of these alterations in dopamine D2-like receptors contributes to the change from sensitized locomotion to mouthing observed when rats are pre-treated with Ro 41-1049. PMID:18644362

  19. Oxaliplatin Alters Expression of T1R2 Receptor and Sensitivity to Sweet Taste in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Akihiro; Nishida, Kentaro; Yamanaka, Yuri; Miyata, Ai; Ikukawa, Akiko; Yabu, Miharu; Miyamoto, Karin; Bansho, Saho; Nagasawa, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    As one of the adverse effects of oxaliplatin, a key agent in colon cancer chemotherapy, a taste disorder is a severe issue in a clinical situation because it decreases the quality of life of patients. However, there is little information on the mechanism underlying the oxaliplatin-induced taste disorder. Here, we examined the molecular and behavioral characteristics of the oxaliplatin-induced taste disorder in rats. Oxaliplatin (4-16 mg/kg) was administered to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats intraperitoneally for 2 d. Expression levels of mRNA and protein of taste receptors in circumvallate papillae (CP) were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Taste sensitivity was assessed by their behavioral change using a brief-access test. Morphological change of the taste buds in CP was evaluated by hematoxyline-eosin (HE) staining, and the number of taste cells in taste buds was counted by immunohistochemical analysis. Among taste receptors, the expression levels of mRNA and protein of T1R2, a sweet taste receptor subunit, were increased transiently in CP of oxaliplatin-administered rats on day 7. In a brief-access test, the lick ratio was decreased in oxaliplatin-administered rats on day 7 and the alteration was recovered to the control level on day 14. There was no detectable alteration in the morphology of taste buds, number of taste cells or plasma zinc level in oxaliplatin-administered rats. These results suggest that decreased sensitivity to sweet taste in oxaliplatin-administered rats is due, at least in part, to increased expression of T1R2, while these alterations are reversible.

  20. A simple, rapid, and sensitive system for the evaluation of anti-viral drugs in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaoguang; Qian, Hua; Miyamoto, Fusako; Kawaji, Kumi; Hattori, Toshio; Watanabe, Kentaro; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka; and others

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We established a novel, simple and rapid in vivo system for evaluation of anti-HIV-1 drugs with rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system may be applicable for other antiviral drugs, and/or useful for initial screening in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this system, TRI-1144 displayed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity in vivo. -- Abstract: The lack of small animal models for the evaluation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) agents hampers drug development. Here, we describe the establishment of a simple and rapid evaluation system in a rat model without animal infection facilities. After intraperitoneal administration of test drugs to rats, antiviral activity in the sera was examined by the MAGI assay. Recently developed inhibitors for HIV-1 entry, two CXCR4 antagonists, TF14016 and FC131, and four fusion inhibitors, T-20, T-20EK, SC29EK, and TRI-1144, were evaluated using HIV-1{sub IIIB} and HIV-1{sub BaL} as representative CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. CXCR4 antagonists were shown to only possess anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} activity, whereas fusion inhibitors showed both anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} and anti-HIV-1{sub BaL} activities in rat sera. These results indicate that test drugs were successfully processed into the rat sera and could be detected by the MAGI assay. In this system, TRI-1144 showed the most potent and sustained antiviral activity. Sera from animals not administered drugs showed substantial anti-HIV-1 activity, indicating that relatively high dose or activity of the test drugs might be needed. In conclusion, the novel rat system established here, 'phenotypic drug evaluation', may be applicable for the evaluation of various antiviral drugs in vivo.

  1. Neuroprotective mechanisms activated in non-seizing rats exposed to sarin.

    PubMed

    Te, Jerez A; Spradling-Reeves, Kimberly D; Dillman, James F; Wallqvist, Anders

    2015-08-27

    Exposure to organophosphate (OP) nerve agents, such as sarin, may lead to uncontrolled seizures and irreversible brain injury and neuropathology. In rat studies, a median lethal dose of sarin leads to approximately half of the animals developing seizures. Whereas previous studies analyzed transcriptomic effects associated with seizing sarin-exposed rats, our study focused on the cohort of sarin-exposed rats that did not develop seizures. We analyzed the genomic changes occurring in sarin-exposed, non-seizing rats and compared differentially expressed genes and pathway activation to those of seizing rats. At the earliest time point (0.25 h) and in multiple sarin-sensitive brain regions, defense response genes were commonly expressed in both groups of animals as compared to the control groups. All sarin-exposed animals activated the MAPK signaling pathway, but only the seizing rats activated the apoptotic-associated JNK and p38 MAPK signaling sub-pathway. A unique phenotype of the non-seizing rats was the altered expression levels of genes that generally suppress inflammation or apoptosis. Importantly, the early transcriptional response for inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in the thalamus showed opposite trends, with significantly down-regulated genes being up-regulated, and vice versa, between the seizing and non-seizing rats. These observations lend support to the hypothesis that regulation of anti-inflammatory genes might be part of an active and sufficient response in the non-seizing group to protect against the onset of seizures. As such, stimulating or activating these responses via pretreatment strategies could boost resilience against nerve agent exposures.

  2. Effects of prolonged abstinence from METH on the hippocampal BDNF levels, neuronal numbers and apoptosis in methamphetamine-sensitized rats.

    PubMed

    Hajheidari, Samira; Sameni, Hamid Reza; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein

    2017-04-03

    Methamphetamine (METH) use is associated with neuronal damage in various regions of brain, while effects of prolonged abstinence on METH-induced damage are not quite clear. This study evaluated serum and hippocampal BDNF levels, neuronal numbers and apoptosis in METH-sensitized and abstinent rats. Rats were sensitized to METH (2mg/kg, daily/18 days, s.c.). All rats were evaluated for neuron counting, the TUNEL test and serum and hippocampal BDNF levels after 30 days of forced abstinence from METH. The results showed that increased BDNF levels in the hippocampus and serum of METH-sensitized rats returned to control level after 30 days of abstinence. The number of neurons in the DG and CA1 of hippocampus and also, the total hippocampal perimeter and area in METH-sensitized rats were significantly lower than the saline rats. While, the number of neurons was not significantly increased in the hippocampus after prolonged abstinence from METH. Also, METH-sensitized rats showed a significant increase in TUNEL-positive cells, whereas METH-abstinent rats showed a slight but significant decrease in TUNEL-positive cells in the DG and CA3 of hippocampus. These results suggest that despite the reduction in BDNF levels, reducing the number of neurons, perimeter and area of the hippocampus were stable after abstinence. Thus, the degenerative effects of METH have been sustained even after prolonged abstinence in the hippocampus.

  3. Enhanced skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in year-old rats adapted to hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondon, C. E.; Dolkas, C. B.; Oyama, J.

    1981-01-01

    Rats induced into a hypermetabolic state by exposure to chronic (7 mo) centrifugation at 4.15 g exhibited increased glucose uptake at lower plasma insulin levels than weight-matched control animals following oral glucose administration. In order to determine the insulin sensitivity of specific tissues, the effect of exogenous insulin on glucose uptake by isolated perfused livers and hindlim skeletal muscle from rats adapted to chronic centrifugation for one year was compared with perfused tissue from 2.5 mo-old noncentrifuged control animals of equal body weight. Metabolic glucose clearance by skeletal muscle from hypergravic rats did not prove significantly greater than control muscle when perfused in the absence of insulin (10.6 vs 8.1 microliters/min-g-muscle), but was twice as fast (23.0 vs 9.5) at perfusate insulin levels of 35 micro-U/ml. Conversely, glucose uptake by hypergravic livers was significantly decreased (P is less than 0.001) compared with control livers (10.3 vs 27.8) at perfusate insulin levels of 40 micro-U/ml. Results suggest that skeletal muscle rather than liver is primarily responsible for the enhanced sensitivity to insulin and the increased energy expenditure observed in rats subjected to hypergravity.

  4. Body temperature dependency in baclofen-induced gastric acid secretion in rats relation to capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons.

    PubMed

    Kato, S; Araki, H; Kawauchi, S; Takeuchi, K

    2001-03-16

    Body temperature dependency in gastric functional responses to baclofen, a GABA(B) agonist, such as acid secretion, mucosal blood flow (GMBF) and motor activity, was examined in urethane-anesthetized rats under normal (37+/-1 degrees C) and hypothermic (31+/-1 degrees C) conditions. A rat stomach was mounted in an ex-vivo chamber, perfused with saline, and the acid secretion was measured using a pH-stat method, simultaneously with GMBF by a laser Doppler flowmeter. Gastric motility was measured using a miniature balloon as intraluminal pressure recordings. Intravenous administration of baclofen significantly increased acid secretion at the doses > 0.3 mg/kg under hypothermic conditions, yet it caused a significant stimulation only at doses > 10 mg/kg under normothermic conditions. The increases in gastric motility and GMBF were similarly induced by baclofen, irrespective of whether the animals were subjected to normothermic or hypothermic conditions. These functional responses to baclofen under hypothermic conditions were totally attenuated by either bilateral vagotomy or atropine (3 mg/kg, s.c.). Baclofen at a lower dose (1 mg/kg i.v.) significantly increased the acid secretion even under normothermic conditions when the animals were subjected to chemical deafferenation of capsaicin-sensitive neurons or pretreatment with intracisternal injection of CGRP8-37 (30 ng/rat). These results suggest that 1) gastric effects of baclofen are dependent on body temperature in stimulating acid secretion but not GMBF or motor activity, 2) the acid stimulatory action of baclofen is enhanced under hypothermic conditions, and 3) the suppression of baclofen-induced acid response under normothermic conditions may be related to capsaicin-sensitive afferent neuronal activity, probably mediated by central release

  5. Pathological impact of hyperpolarization-activated chloride current peculiar to rat pulmonary vein cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yosuke; Kawamura, Koichi; Nakamura, Yuta; Ono, Kyoichi

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary veins (PVs) are believed to be a crucial origin of atrial fibrillation. We recently reported that rat PV cardiomyocytes exhibit arrhythmogenic automaticity in response to norepinephrine. Herein, we further characterized the electrophysiological properties underlying the potential arrhythmogenicity of PV cardiomyocytes. Patch clamping studies revealed a time dependent hyperpolarization-activated inward current in rat PV cardiomyocytes, but not in left atrial (LA) myocytes. The current was Cs(+) resistant, and was not affected by removal of external Na(+) or K(+). The current was inhibited with Cd(2+), and the reversal potential was sensitive to changes in [Cl(-)] on either side of the membrane in a manner consistent with a Cl(-) selective channel. Cl(-) channel blockers attenuated the current, and slowed or completely inhibited the norepinephrine-induced automaticity. The biophysical properties of the hyperpolarization-activated Cl(-) current in rat PVs were different from those of ClC-2 currents previously reported: (i) the voltage-dependent activation of the Cl(-) current in rat PVs was shifted to negative potentials as [Cl(-)]i increased, (ii) the Cl(-) current was enhanced by extracellular acidification, and (iii) extracellular hyper-osmotic stress increased the current, whereas hypo-osmotic cell swelling suppressed the current. qPCR analysis revealed negligible ClC-2 mRNA expression in the rat PV. These findings suggest that rat PV cardiomyocytes possess a peculiar voltage-dependent Cl(-) channel, and that the channel may play a functional role in norepinephrine-induced automaticity.

  6. Cadmium effect on microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activity in rat livers with respect to differences in age and sex

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, M.

    1982-04-01

    The effect of cadmium on the hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme system was investigated. Cadmium chloride caused the conversion of cytochrome P-450 to P-420 in rat liver microsomes. The destruction of cytochrome P-450 by cadmium caused the reduction of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activity and prolonged the pentobarbital sleeping time. There is a sex-related difference in the ability of cadmium to inhibit the hepatic drug metabolism in rats: male rats are more sensitive to cadmium than females. The effective period when cadmium prolonged their sleep depended upon the age of rats; older rats were more sensitive to cadmium than younger ones. The maximum increase of sleeping time depended upon the dose level of cadium, and the rate constant of the equations seems to depend upon the age of the animals.

  7. Differential sensitivity of intranuclear and systemic oxytocin release to central noradrenergic receptor stimulation during mid- and late gestation in rats.

    PubMed

    Lipschitz, David L; Crowley, William R; Bealer, Steven L

    2004-09-01

    A number of changes occur in the oxytocin (OT) system during gestation, such as increases in hypothalamic OT mRNA, increased neural lobe and systemic OT, and morphological and electrophysiological changes in OT-containing magnocellular neurons, suggestive of altered neuronal sensitivity, which may be mediated by ovarian steroids. Because central norepinephrine (NE) and histamine (HA) are potent stimulators of OT release during parturition and lactation, the present study investigated the effects of central noradrenergic and histaminergic receptor activation on systemic (NE, HA) and intranuclear (NE) OT release in pregnant rats and in ovariectomized rats treated with ovarian steroids. Plasma OT levels in late gestation were significantly higher compared with all other groups, and neither adrenergic nor histaminergic receptor blockade decreased these elevated levels. Furthermore, the alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine, but not histamine, stimulated systemic OT release to a significantly greater extent in late gestation than in midpregnant, ovariectomized, or steroid-treated females. Although basal extracellular OT levels in the paraventricular nucleus, as measured with microdialysis, were unchanged during pregnancy or steroid treatment, noradrenergic receptor stimulation of intranuclear OT release was significantly elevated in midgestation females compared with all other groups. These studies indicate that sensitivity of intranuclear and systemic OT release to noradrenergic receptor activation differentially varies during the course of gestation.

  8. Ethanol induces locomotor activating effects in preweanling Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Carlos; Mlewski, Cecilia E.; Molina, Juan Carlos; Spear, Norman E.

    2009-01-01

    Drugs of abuse exert biphasic motor activity effects, which seem to be associated with their motivational effects. In the case of ethanol, heterogenous rat strains appear to be particularly sensitive to the sedative effects of the drug. In contrast, ethanol’s activating effects have been consistently reported in rats genetically selected for ethanol affinity. Heightened ethanol affinity and sensitivity to ethanol’s reinforcement are also observed in non-selected rats during early ontogeny. In the present study we examined psychomotor effects of ethanol (1.25 and 2.5 g/kg) in 8, 12 and 15-day-old pups. Motor activity in a novel environment was assessed 5–10 or 15–20 minutes following drug treatment. Rectal temperatures and latency to exhibit the righting reflex were recorded immediately after locomotor activity assessment. Ethanol exerted clear activating effects at 8 and 12 days of age (Experiments 1a and 1b) and to a lesser extent at 15 days. At this age ethanol enhanced locomotor activity in the first testing interval (Experiment 1b) and suppressed locomotion at 15–20 minutes (Experiment 1a). Ethanol-mediated motor impairment was more pronounced in the youngest group (PD 8) than in the older ones. Blood ethanol concentrations were equivalent in all age groups. The present study indicates that preweanling rats are sensitive to ethanol’s stimulating effects during the second postnatal week, and suggest that specific periods during early ontogeny of the rat can provide a valuable framework for the study of mechanisms underlying ethanol’s stimulation and reinforcement effects. PMID:19185206

  9. Individual variation in sleep and motor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiangdong; Yang, Linghui; Sanford, Larry D

    2007-06-04

    We examined individual differences in sleep and motor activity across 2 consecutive days in rats. EEG and motor activity were recorded via telemetry in Wistar rats (n=29) for 48h under well-habituated conditions. Rats were grouped based on sleep amounts and stability across days (short [SS, n=7], intermediate [IS, n=15] and long [LS, n=7] sleep) and comparisons were conducted to determine group differences for measures of sleep and motor activity. We found that correlations across recording days were significant for all selected sleep measures and motor activity counts. Rankings for 24h total sleep time and non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) were SSrats whereas amounts of rapid eye movement sleep did not differ among groups. Further analyses of NREM episode parameters found significant differences in mean episode length (SSactivity counts (per waking min) were greater (32-38%) in SS compared to LS rats on both recording days. The results indicate that individual differences in sleep and motor activity in Wistar rats are stable across days. Differences between SS and LS rats have parallels to those reported for short and long sleep humans.

  10. The response of Dahl salt-sensitive and salt-resistant female rats to a space flight model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Cleek, Tammy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2003-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism in the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat, a model of salt-induced hypertension, differs from that in the Dahl salt-resistant (R) rat. We have tested the hypothesis that differences in vitamin D metabolism would render the Dahl S rat more susceptible than the Dahl R rat to the effects of a space flight model. Dahl female rats were tail suspended (hind limb unloaded) for 28 days, while fed a low salt (3 g/kg sodium chloride) diet. Plasma 25-OHD concentrations of S rats were significantly lower than that of R rats. Plasma 1,25-(OH)2D concentration was 50% lower in unloaded than in loaded S rats, but was unaffected in unloaded R rats. The left soleus muscle weight and breaking strength of the left femur (torsion test) were 50% and 25% lower in unloaded than in loaded S and R rats. The mineral content of the left femur, however, was significantly lower (by 11%) only in unloaded S rats. We conclude that female S rats are more vulnerable than female R rats to decreases in plasma 1,25-(OH)2D concentration and femur mineral content during hind limb unloading, but equally vulnerable to muscle atrophy and reduced breaking strength of the femur.

  11. Enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and intrinsic excitability of NAc medium spiny neurons in adult but not adolescent rats susceptible to diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Oginsky, Max F.; Maust, Joel D.; Corthell, John T.; Ferrario, Carrie R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Basal and diet-induced differences in mesolimbic function, particularly within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), may contribute to human obesity; these differences may be more pronounced in susceptible populations. Objectives We determined whether there are differences in cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity in rats that are susceptible vs. resistant to diet-induced obesity, and basal differences in the striatal neuron function in adult and adolescent obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats. Methods Susceptible and resistant outbred rats were identified based on “junk-food” diet-induced obesity. Then, the induction and expression of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization, which is mediated by enhanced striatal function and is associated with increased motivation for rewards and reward-paired cues, were evaluated. Basal differences in mesolimbic function were examined in selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats (P70-80 and P30-40) using both cocaine induced locomotion and whole-cell patch clamping approaches in NAc core medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Results In rats that became obese after eating “junk-food”, the expression of locomotor sensitization was enhanced compared to non-obese rats, with similarly strong responses to 7.5 and 15 mg/kg cocaine. Without diet manipulation, obesity-prone rats were hyper-responsive to the acute locomotor-activating effects of cocaine, and the intrinsic excitability of NAc core MSNs was enhanced by ~60% at positive and negative potentials. These differences were present in adult, but not adolescent rats. Post-synaptic glutamatergic transmission was similar between groups. Conclusions Mesolimbic systems, particularly NAc MSNs, are hyper-responsive in obesity-prone individuals; and interactions between predisposition and experience influence neurobehavioral plasticity in ways that may promote weight gain and hamper weight loss in susceptible rats. PMID:26612617

  12. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    SciTech Connect

    Tonk, Elisa C.M.; Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R.; Loveren, Henk van; Piersma, Aldert H.

    2012-04-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  13. Gut Microbiota in a Rat Oral Sensitization Model: Effect of a Cocoa-Enriched Diet

    PubMed Central

    Camps-Bossacoma, Mariona; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Franch, Àngels

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence is emerging suggesting a relation between dietary compounds, microbiota, and the susceptibility to allergic diseases, particularly food allergy. Cocoa, a source of antioxidant polyphenols, has shown effects on gut microbiota and the ability to promote tolerance in an oral sensitization model. Taking these facts into consideration, the aim of the present study was to establish the influence of an oral sensitization model, both alone and together with a cocoa-enriched diet, on gut microbiota. Lewis rats were orally sensitized and fed with either a standard or 10% cocoa diet. Faecal microbiota was analysed through metagenomics study. Intestinal IgA concentration was also determined. Oral sensitization produced few changes in intestinal microbiota, but in those rats fed a cocoa diet significant modifications appeared. Decreased bacteria from the Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla and a higher percentage of bacteria belonging to the Tenericutes and Cyanobacteria phyla were observed. In conclusion, a cocoa diet is able to modify the microbiota bacterial pattern in orally sensitized animals. As cocoa inhibits the synthesis of specific antibodies and also intestinal IgA, those changes in microbiota pattern, particularly those of the Proteobacteria phylum, might be partially responsible for the tolerogenic effect of cocoa. PMID:28239436

  14. Characterization of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in acutely isolated adult rat basolateral amygdala neurons.

    PubMed

    McCool, B A; Botting, S K

    2000-03-24

    Large concentrations of the beta-amino acid, taurine, can be found in many forebrain areas such as the basolateral amygdala, a portion of the limbic forebrain intimately associated with the regulation of fear/anxiety-like behaviors. In addition to its cytoprotective and osmoregulatory roles, taurine may also serve as an agonist at GABA(A)- and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors. In this latter context, the present study demonstrates that application of taurine to acutely isolated neurons from the basolateral amygdala of adult rats causes significant alterations in resting membrane current, as measured by whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology. Using standard pharmacological approaches, we find that currents gated by concentrations of taurine sensitive receptors. Furthermore, these strychnine-sensitive receptors are shown to be pharmacologically and biophysically similar to 'classic' strychnine-sensitive, chloride-conducting glycine receptors expressed in brainstem and spinal cord. While amygdala glycine receptors can be distinguished from GABA(A) receptors expressed by the same neurons, these two chloride channels are functionally expressed at comparable levels. Given that a number of clinically relevant compounds are associated with the regulation of GABA(A) receptors in this brain region, the presence of both strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and their agonist, taurine, in the basolateral amygdala may suggest an important role for these receptors in the limbic forebrain of adult rats.

  15. Amphetamine-induced incentive sensitization of sign-tracking behavior in adolescent and adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Spear, Linda P

    2011-08-01

    Age-specific behavioral and neural characteristics may predispose adolescents to initiate and escalate use of alcohol and drugs. Adolescents may avidly seek novel experiences, including drugs of abuse, because of enhanced incentive motivation for drugs and natural rewards, perhaps especially when that incentive motivation is sensitized by prior drug exposure. Using a Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) procedure, sign-tracking (ST) and goal-tracking (GT) behavior was examined in amphetamine-sensitized and control adolescent and adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, with expression of elevated ST behavior used to index enhanced incentive motivation for reward-associated cues. Rats were first exposed to a sensitizing regimen of amphetamine injections (3.0 mg/kg/ml d-amphetamine per day) or given saline (0.9% wt/vol) once daily for 4 days. Expression of ST and GT was then examined over 8 days of PCA training consisting of 25 pairings of an 8-s presentation of an illuminated lever immediately followed by response-independent delivery of a banana-flavored food pellet. Results showed that adults clearly displayed more ST behavior than adolescents, reflected via both more contacts with, and shorter latencies to approach, the lever. Prior amphetamine sensitization increased ST (but not GT) behaviors regardless of age. Thus, when indexed via ST, incentive motivation was found to be greater in adults than adolescents, with a prior history of amphetamine exposure generally sensitizing incentive motivation for cues predicting a food reward regardless of age.

  16. Vasopeptidase inhibition improves insulin sensitivity and endothelial function in the JCR:LA-cp rat.

    PubMed

    Russell, James C; Kelly, Sandra E; Schäfer, Stefan

    2004-08-01

    The insulin-resistant, hyperinsulinemic, normoglycemic, and obese JCR:LA-cp rat was used to study the effects of ramipril (an ACE inhibitor) and AVE7688 (a dual inhibitor of ACE and neutral endopeptidases) on insulin sensitivity and vascular function. Both compounds reduced the surge of plasma insulin in a meal tolerance test by approximately 50%. Ramipril had no effect on acetylcholine-induced relaxation but increased the sensitivity to sodium nitroprus-side at low concentrations. AVE7688 significantly reduced the EC50 for acetylcholine to relax phenylephrine-contracted aortic rings. None of the compounds affected the baseline coronary flow and reactive hyperemia. Coronary flow response to bradykinin in AVE7688- and ramipril-treated rat hearts showed a significantly lower EC50 than in control rats. Maximum flow rate was not different between groups. In summary, both ramipril and AVE7688 had significant hypoinsulinemic and insulin-sensitizing effects. Whereas ramipril had limited vascular effects, AVE7688 had more marked beneficial vascular effects, probably of endothelial origin and possibly related to lowered insulin levels.

  17. Alteration of amiloride-sensitive salt taste nerve responses in aldosterone/NaCl-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Takashi; Fujii, Akihiko; Saito, Naoko; Kondo, Hidehiko; Ohuchi, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    Salt taste sensitivity is related to physiological condition, and declined in hypertensive patients. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying changes in salt taste sensitivity during the development of hypertension. This is largely due to lack of an appropriate animal model which shows the decline of salt taste sensitivity caused by hypertension. Previous studies have suggested that one of main causes of salt-sensitive hypertension is dysfunction of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). To examine the involvement of RAAS in modulation of salt taste sensitivity, we utilized aldosterone/NaCl-treated rats as a well-established model of salt-sensitive hypertension caused by RAAS dysfunction. Amount of sodium intake in aldosterone/NaCl-treated rats was higher than that in control rats. In addition to behavioral changes, the amiloride-sensitive salt taste nerve responses in aldosterone/NaCl-treated rats were remarkably lower by approximately 90% than those in the other groups. Moreover, αENaC mRNA expression in the epithelium of circumvallate papillae was significantly low in aldosterone/NaCl-treated rats. Thus, RAAS modulates salt taste system as is case in hypertensive patients. This report is to our knowledge the first to describe an animal model with decline of amiloride-sensitive salt taste nerve responses by RAAS dysfunction-mediated salt-sensitive hypertension.

  18. Effects of acute and chronic uremia on active cation transport in rat myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Druml, W.; Kelly, R.A.; England, B.K.; O'Hara, D.S.; Mitch, W.E. )

    1990-12-01

    As abnormalities of active cation transport could contribute to the genesis of uremic cardiomyopathy, we investigated myocardial sodium pump function in rats with acute renal failure (ARF) and with a model of experimental chronic renal failure (CRF) that has metabolic similarities to advanced chronic uremia in humans. CRF rats were hypertensive and had left ventricular hypertrophy (33% higher heart:body weight ratio; P less than 0.01) at four weeks compared to pair-fed sham-operated rats. Importantly, both ouabain- and furosemide-sensitive 86Rb uptake rates were unchanged in left ventricular myocardial slices from CRF, and the intracellular sodium concentration was not different from that of control rats even though skeletal muscle sodium was increased, as we found previously. Insulin-stimulated, ouabain-sensitive 86Rb influx was also preserved. There also were no abnormalities in myocardium cation transport in rats with ARF. However, (3H)ouabain binding was decreased 45% in CRF rats (P less than 0.01); it was unchanged in acute uremia. Decreased ouabain binding in chronic uremia was due entirely to fewer low affinity (3H)ouabain binding sites (the binding affinity for ouabain was unaffected). We conclude that in chronic, (but not acute) renal failure, sodium pump number is reduced in myocardium but intracellular sodium is unchanged and active cation flux rates are maintained. These results emphasize that in rats with chronic uremia, intracellular sodium homeostasis is preserved in myocardium, despite the presence of marked abnormalities of active cation transport in skeletal muscle that are characteristic of chronic uremia.

  19. Activation of Peripheral κ-Opioid Receptors Normalizes Caffeine Effects Modified in Nicotine-Dependent Rats during Nicotine Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Sudakov, S K; Bogdanova, N G

    2016-10-01

    The study examined the effect of peripheral (intragastric) ICI-204,448, an agonist of gastric κ-opioid receptors, on the psychostimulating and anxiolytic effects of caffeine in nicotinedependent rats at the stage of nicotine withdrawal. In these rats, the effects of caffeine (10 mg/kg) were perverted. In nicotine-dependent rats, caffeine produced an anxiolytic effect accompanied by pronounced stimulation of motor activity, in contrast to anxiogenic effect induced by caffeine in intact rats without nicotine dependence. During nicotine withdrawal, nicotine-dependent rats demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to nicotine. Intragastric administration of κ-opioid receptor agonist ICI-204,448 normalized the effect of caffeine in nicotinedependent rats. We have previously demonstrated that activation of peripheral κ-opioid receptors inhibited central κ-opioid activity and eliminated manifestations of nicotine withdrawal syndrome in nicotine-dependent rats, e.g. metabolism activation, stimulation of motor activity, and enhancement of food consumption. In its turn, inhibition of central κ-opioid structures activates the brain adenosine system, which can attenuate the caffeine-induced effects in nicotine-dependent rats.

  20. Plasma 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration of Dahl salt-sensitive rats decreases during high salt intake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Tewolde, Teclemicael K.; Forte, Camille; Wang, Min; Bayorh, Mohamed A.; Emmett, Nerimiah L.; White, Jolanda; Griffin, Keri

    2002-01-01

    Dahl salt-sensitive rats, but not salt-resistant rats, develop hypertension in response to high salt intake. We have previously shown an inverse relationship between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration and blood pressure of Dahl salt-sensitive rats during high salt intake. In this study, we report on the relationship between high salt intake and plasma 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25-(OH)(2)D) concentration of Dahl salt-sensitive and salt-resistant rats. Rats were fed a high salt diet (8%) and sacrificed at day 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentrations of salt-sensitive rats were reduced to 50% of that at baseline at day 2-when blood pressure and plasma 25-OHD concentration were unchanged, but 25-OHD content in the kidney was 81% of that at baseline. Plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentration was reduced further to 10% of that at baseline from day 7 to 14 of high salt intake, a reduction that was prevented in rats switched to a low salt (0.3%) diet at day 7. Exogenous 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (24,25-(OH)(2)D(3)), administered at a level that increased plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentration to five times normal, did not attenuate the salt-induced hypertension of salt-sensitive rats. Plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentration of salt-resistant rats was gradually reduced to 50% of that at baseline at day 14 and returned to baseline value at day 28 of high salt intake. We conclude that the decrease in plasma 24,25-(OH)(2)D concentration in salt-sensitive rats during high salt intake is caused by decreased 25-OHD content in the kidney and also by another unidentified mechanism.

  1. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Mniszewski, Susan M.; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Hyman, James M.

    2013-12-10

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule’s regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity’s regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimization problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. Here we use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Finally, though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations.

  2. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Mniszewski, Susan M.; ...

    2013-12-10

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule’s regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity’s regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimizationmore » problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. Here we use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Finally, though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations.« less

  3. Highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method for determination of galantamine in rat plasma: application to pharmacokinetic studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Suresh, P S; Mullangi, Ramesh; Sukumaran, Sathesh Kumar

    2014-12-01

    A rapid and highly sensitive assay method has been developed and validated for the estimation of galantamine (GLM) in rat plasma using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization in the positive-ion mode. The assay procedure involves a simple liquid-liquid extraction of GLM and phenacetin (internal standard, IS) from rat plasma using acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved with 0.2% formic acid:acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.60 mL/min on an Atlantis dC18 column with a total run time 2.5 min. The MS/MS ion transitions monitored were 288.10 → 213.10 for GLM and 180.10 → 110.10 for IS. Method validation was performed as per United States Food and Drug Administration guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. The lower limit of quantitation achieved was 0.12 ng/mL and linearity was observed from 0.12 to 525 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision were in the ranges of 4.73-11.7 and 5.83-8.64%, respectively. This novel method has been applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats.

  4. Drinking sucrose or saccharin enhances sensitivity of rats to quinpirole-induced yawning.

    PubMed

    Serafine, Katherine M; Bentley, Todd A; Kilborn, Dylan J; Koek, Wouter; France, Charles P

    2015-10-05

    Diet can impact sensitivity of rats to some of the behavioral effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems. The current study tested whether continuous access to sucrose is necessary to increase yawning induced by the dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole, or if intermittent access is sufficient. These studies also tested whether sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning increases in rats drinking the non-caloric sweetener saccharin. Dose-response curves (0.0032-0.32 mg/kg) for quinpirole-induced yawning were determined once weekly in rats with free access to standard chow and either continuous access to water, 10% sucrose solution, or 0.1% saccharin solution, or intermittent access to sucrose or saccharin (i.e., 2 days per week with access to water on other days). Cumulative doses of quinpirole increased then decreased yawning, resulting in an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve. Continuous or intermittent access to sucrose enhanced sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning. Continuous, but not intermittent, access to saccharin also enhanced sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning. In all groups, pretreatment with the selective D3 receptor antagonist PG01037 shifted the ascending limb of the quinpirole dose-response curve to the right, while pretreatment with the selective D2 receptor antagonist L-741,626 shifted the descending limb to the right. These results suggest that even intermittent consumption of diets containing highly palatable substances (e.g. sucrose) alters sensitivity to drugs acting on dopamine systems in a manner that could be important in vulnerability to abuse drugs.

  5. Differential behavioral sensitivity to carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation in rats.

    PubMed

    Winter, Andrew; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Naik, Devanshi; Sah, Renu

    2017-03-27

    Inhalation of carbon dioxide (CO2) is frequently employed as a biological challenge to evoke intense fear and anxiety. In individuals with panic disorder, CO2 reliably evokes panic attacks. Sensitivity to CO2 is highly heterogeneous among individuals, and although a genetic component is implicated, underlying mechanisms are not clear. Preclinical models that can simulate differential responsivity to CO2 are therefore relevant. In the current study we investigated CO2-evoked behavioral responses in four different rat strains: Sprague-Dawley (SD), Wistar (W), Long Evans (LE) and Wistar-Kyoto, (WK) rats. We also assessed tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH-2)-positive serotonergic neurons in anxiety/panic regulatory subdivisions of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), as well as dopamine β hydroxylase (DβH)-positive noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus, implicated in central CO2-chemosensitivity. Behavioral responsivity to CO2 inhalation varied between strains. CO2-evoked immobility was significantly higher in LE and WK rats as compared with W and SD cohorts. Differences were also observed in CO2-evoked rearing and grooming behaviors. Exposure to CO2 did not produce conditioned behavioral responses upon re-exposure to CO2 context in any strain. Reduced TPH-2-positive cell counts were observed specifically in the panic-regulatory dorsal raphe ventrolateral (DRVL)-ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (VLPAG) subdivision in CO2-sensitive strains. Conversely, DβH-positive cell counts within the LC were significantly higher in CO2-sensitive strains. Collectively, our data provide evidence for strain dependent, differential CO2-sensitivity and potential differences in monoaminergic systems regulating panic and anxiety. Comparative studies between CO2-vulnerable and resistant strains may facilitate the mechanistic understanding of differential CO2-sensitivity in the development of panic and anxiety disorders.

  6. Compilation of detection sensitivities in thermal-neutron activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlgren, M. A.; Wing, J.

    1967-01-01

    Detection sensitivities of the chemical elements following thermal-neutron activation have been compiled from the available experimental cross sections and nuclear properties and presented in a concise and usable form. The report also includes the equations and nuclear parameters used in the calculations.

  7. Hypofunctional TrkA Accounts for the Absence of Pain Sensitization in the African Naked Mole-Rat.

    PubMed

    Omerbašić, Damir; Smith, Ewan St J; Moroni, Mirko; Homfeld, Johanna; Eigenbrod, Ole; Bennett, Nigel C; Reznick, Jane; Faulkes, Chris G; Selbach, Matthias; Lewin, Gary R

    2016-10-11

    The naked mole-rat is a subterranean rodent lacking several pain behaviors found in humans, rats, and mice. For example, nerve growth factor (NGF), an important mediator of pain sensitization, fails to produce thermal hyperalgesia in naked mole-rats. The sensitization of capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 ion channels is necessary for NGF-induced hyperalgesia, but naked mole-rats have fully functional TRPV1 channels. We show that exposing isolated naked mole-rat nociceptors to NGF does not sensitize TRPV1. However, the naked mole-rat NGF receptor TrkA displays a reduced ability to engage signal transduction pathways that sensitize TRPV1. Between one- and three-amino-acid substitutions in the kinase domain of the naked mole-rat TrkA are sufficient to render the receptor hypofunctional, and this is associated with the absence of heat hyperalgesia. Our data suggest that evolution has selected for a TrkA variant that abolishes a robust nociceptive behavior in this species but is still compatible with species fitness.

  8. Capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons are involved in bicarbonate secretion induced by lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, in rats.

    PubMed

    Inada, I; Satoh, H

    1996-04-01

    Lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, exerts prominent antiulcer activity via both antisecretory and mucosal protective actions. Although the antisecretory action has been explained by inactivation of (H+, K+)-ATPase in parietal cells, the mode of mucosal protective action remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the effect of lansoprazole on duodenal bicarbonate secretion was studied in anesthetized rats to clarify the mode of the mucosal protective action. Lansoprazole (0.1 mM) applied topically to the duodenum significantly (P < 0.01) increased bicarbonate secretion by 0.36 +/- 0.11 microeq/15 min (21 +/- 5%) compared with the value in the vehicle control. Topical administration of capsaicin (10 mg/ml) in the duodenum and intravenous infusion of vasoactive intestinal peptide (10 micrograms/kg/hr) increased bicarbonate secretion. Five-minute perfusion of the duodenal loop with 100 mM HCl increased bicarbonate secretion. Administration of lansoprazole (0.3 and 1 mg/kg, intravenously) 60 min before luminal acidification enhanced the acid-induced bicarbonate secretion dose-dependently and significantly (P < 0.01). In the capsaicin-pretreated rats, the effects of lansoprazole on basal and acid-induced bicarbonate secretion were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased compared with that of control group. These results indicate that lansoprazole increases basal and acid-induced bicarbonate secretion in the duodenum in rats and that capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons may be involved in the mode of action for these effects.

  9. Enhanced stress-induced dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex of amphetamine-sensitized rats.

    PubMed

    Hamamura, T; Fibiger, H C

    1993-06-11

    This study examined the extent to which chronic d-amphetamine administration sensitizes animals to some behavioral and neurochemical effects of foot shock stress. Rats received daily injections of saline for 14 days or d-amphetamine (2 mg/kg 7 days and 4 mg/kg 7 days). After a 7 day drug abstinent period, extracellular dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid concentrations were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats. The behavioral responses to mild foot shock stress were enhanced in the d-amphetamine-pretreated subjects. Concomitant with this behavioral sensitization, d-amphetamine-pretreated subjects showed greater stress-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in the medial prefrontal cortex than in controls. d-Amphetamine (2 mg/kg)-induced stereotyped behavior was also enhanced in the amphetamine-pretreated animals compared to controls; however, d-amphetamine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in the medial prefrontal cortex were not enhanced in the amphetamine-pretreated group. These results suggest that the mesocortical dopaminergic system is involved in cross-sensitization between d-amphetamine and stress, but not in d-amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization.

  10. Decrease of rotenone inhibition is a sensitive parameter of complex I damage in brain non-synaptic mitochondria of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Genova, M L; Bovina, C; Marchetti, M; Pallotti, F; Tietz, C; Biagini, G; Pugnaloni, A; Viticchi, C; Gorini, A; Villa, R F; Lenaz, G

    1997-06-30

    We investigated NADH oxidation in non-synaptic and synaptic mitochondria from brain cortex of 4- and 24-month-old rats. The NADH oxidase activity was significantly lower in non-synaptic mitochondria from aged rats; we also found a significant decrease of sensitivity of NADH oxidation to the specific Complex I inhibitor, rotenone. Since the rotenone-binding site encompasses Complex I subunits encoded by mtDNA, these results are in accordance with the mitochondrial theory of aging, whereby somatic mtDNA mutations are at the basis of cellular senescence. Accordingly, a 5 kb deletion was detected only in the cortex of the aged animals.

  11. Acute superoxide scavenging restores depressed baroreflex sensitivity in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Botelho-Ono, Mayumi S; Pina, Hermano V; Sousa, Karla H F; Nunes, Fabiola C; Medeiros, Isac A; Braga, Valdir A

    2011-01-20

    In some pathological conditions such as hypertension, there is an impairment in the autonomic control of blood pressure resulting in changes in baroreflex sensitivity. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that acute superoxide scavenging would restore the reduced baroreflex sensitivity in renovascular hypertension. Male Wistar rats underwent 2-Kidney-1-Clip (2K1C) or sham surgery and were maintained untouched for six weeks to develop hypertension. After six weeks, animals from the 2K1C group were hypertensive when compared to the sham group (165±9 vs. 108±7mm Hg, P<0.05). As a proof of principle for the hypertension model adopted, animals from the 2K1C group presented increased non-clipped kidney and cardiac mass index and reduced clipped kidney mass index. Regarding baroreflex, 2K1C rats presented diminished baroreflex sensitivity when compared to the sham group (2K1C+saline: -1.61±0.15 vs. sham+saline: -2.79±0.24bpm mm Hg(-1), p<0.05). Moreover, acute administration of Vitamin C (150mg/Kg, i.v.) restored baroreflex sensitivity in 2K1C rats (2K1C+Vit C: -3.08±0.37 vs. 2K1C+saline: -1.61±0.15bpm mm Hg(-1), p<0.05). Furthermore, administration of apocynin (30μg/Kg, i.v.), a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, also improved baroreflex sensitivity in the 2K1C group (2K1C+apocynin: -2.81±0.24 vs. 2K1C+saline: -1.61±0.15bpm mm Hg(-1), p<0.05). In addition, autonomic blockade with either methylatropine or propranolol reduced the changes in heart rate to the same extent in all groups suggesting that improved baroreflex sensitivity by antioxidants were mediated by improvement in autonomic function. Taken together, these data suggest that NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species are involved in the blunted baroreflex sensitivity in renovascular hypertension and that acute scavenging of superoxide restores baroreflex sensitivity.

  12. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor improves brain insulin sensitivity, but fails to prevent cognitive impairment in orchiectomy obese rats.

    PubMed

    Pintana, Hiranya; Pongkan, Wanpitak; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2015-08-01

    It is unclear whether the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor can counteract brain insulin resistance, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive decline in testosterone-deprived obese rats. We hypothesized that DPP4 inhibitor vildagliptin improves cognitive function in testosterone-deprived obese rats by restoring brain insulin sensitivity, brain mitochondrial function and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Thirty male Wistar rats received either a sham-operated (S, n=6) or bilateral orchiectomy (ORX, n=24). ORX rats were divided into two groups and fed with either a normal diet (ND (NDO)) or a high-fat diet (HFO) for 12 weeks. Then, ORX rats in each dietary group were divided into two subgroups (n=6/subgroup) to receive either a vehicle or vildagliptin (3 mg/kg per day, p.o.) for 4 weeks. After treatment, cognitive function, metabolic parameters, brain insulin sensitivity, hippocampal synaptic plasticity and brain mitochondrial function were determined in each rat. We found that HFO rats exhibited peripheral and brain insulin resistance, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive decline. NDO rats did not develop peripheral and brain insulin resistance. However, impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive decline occurred. Vildagliptin significantly improved peripheral insulin sensitivity, restored brain insulin sensitivity and decreased brain mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in HFO rats. However, vildagliptin did not restore hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function in both NDO and HFO rats. These findings suggest that vildagliptin could not counteract the impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive decline in testosterone-deprived subjects, despite its effects on improved peripheral and brain insulin sensitivity as well as brain mitochondrial function.

  13. Increased nociceptive sensitivity and nociceptin/orphanin FQ levels in a rat model of PTSD

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical studies indicate that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently shares co-morbidity with chronic pain. Although in animals acute stress-induced antinociception is well documented, the effect of PTSD-like stress on nociceptive sensitivity is unclear. Though a few studies measured nociceptive responses at a single time point, no studies have examined changes in nociceptive sensitivity over time following exposure to PTSD-like stress. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), an endogenous ligand for the N/OFQ peptide (NOP) receptor, modulates various biological functions in the central nervous system that are affected by PTSD, including nociceptive sensitivity, stress and anxiety, learning and memory. Results The present study examined thermal and mechanical nociceptive sensitivity in male Sprague Dawley rats between 7 and 28 days after single-prolonged stress (SPS), an established animal model for PTSD. Rat paw withdrawal thresholds (PWT) to von Frey and paw withdrawal latencies (PWL) to radiant heat stimuli, respectively, dramatically decreased as early as 7 days after initiation of SPS and lasted the length of the study, 28 days. In addition, N/OFQ levels increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; on days 9, 14 and 28) and serum (day 28), while levels of circulating corticosterone (CORT) decreased 28 days after initiation of SPS. SPS exposure induced anxiety-like behavior and enhanced inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as previously reported for this model. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that SPS induces the development of persistent mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia that is accompanied by increased N/OFQ content in the CSF, and eventually, in serum. These findings suggest a link between N/OFQ and the development of hyperalgesia and allodynia in a rat model of PTSD. PMID:23082795

  14. Effect of MOG Sensitization on Somatosensory Evoked Potential in Lewis Rats

    PubMed Central

    All, Angelo H.; Walczak, Piotr; Agrawal, Gracee; Gorelik, Michael; Lee, Christopher; Thakor, Nitish V.; Bulte, Jeff W.M.; Kerr, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is commonly used as an immunogen to induce an immune response against endogenous myelin, thereby modeling multiple sclerosis in rodents. When MOG is combined with complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA), multifocal, multiphasic disease ensues; whereas when MOG is combined with incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA), clinical disease is usually absent. MOG-IFA immunized animals can be induced to have neurological disease after intraspinal injections of cytokines and ethidium bromide (EtBr). In this study, we investigated whether MOG-IFA immunized rats exhibited subclinical injury as defined by Somatosensory Evoked Potential (SEP) recordings. The titration of Anti-MOG-125 antibodies showed robust peripheral mounting of immune response against myelin in MOG-immunized rats. However the SEP measures showed no significant change over time. Upon injecting cytokine-EtBr in the spinal cord after MOG sensitization, the SEP recordings showed reduced amplitude and prolonged latency, suggestive of axonal injury and demyelination in the dorsal column, respectively. These findings were later confirmed using T2-weighted MRI and histological hematoxilin-eosin stain of the spinal cord. This report establishes that MOG-IFA immunization alone does not alter neuronal conduction in SEP-related neural-pathways and that longitudinal in-vivo SSEP recordings provide a sensitive read-out for focal myelitis (MOG-IFA & intraspinal cytokine-EtBr) in rats. PMID:19423134

  15. Effect of MOG sensitization on somatosensory evoked potential in Lewis rats

    PubMed Central

    All, Angelo H.; Walczak, Piotr; Agrawal, Gracee; Gorelik, Michael; Lee, Christopher; Thakor, Nitish V.; Bulte, Jeff W.M.; Kerr, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is commonly used as an immunogen to induce an immune response against endogenous myelin, thereby modeling multiple sclerosis in rodents. When MOG is combined with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), multifocal, multiphasic disease ensues; whereas when MOG is combined with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA), clinical disease is usually absent. MOG–IFA immunized animals can be induced to have neurological disease after intraspinal injections of cytokines and ethidium bromide (EtBr). In this study, we investigated whether MOG–IFA immunized rats exhibited subclinical injury as defined by somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) recordings. The titration of anti-MOG-125 antibodies showed robust peripheral mounting of immune response against myelin in MOG-immunized rats. However the SEP measures showed no significant change over time. Upon injecting cytokine–EtBr in the spinal cord after MOG sensitization, the SEP recordings showed reduced amplitude and prolonged latency, suggestive of axonal injury and demyelination in the dorsal column, respectively. These findings were later confirmed using T2-weighted MRI and histological hematoxylin–eosin stain of the spinal cord. This report establishes that MOG–IFA immunization alone does not alter neuronal conduction in SEP-related neural-pathways and that longitudinal in-vivo SEP recordings provide a sensitive read-out for focal myelitis (MOG–IFA and intraspinal cytokine–EtBr) in rats. PMID:20508959

  16. Cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells are resistant to methylamine toxicity: no correlation to semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langford, S. D.; Trent, M. B.; Boor, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    Methylamine (MA), a component of serum and a metabolite of nicotine and certain insecticides and herbicides, is metabolized by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO). MA is toxic to cultured human umbilical vein and calf pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Endothelial cells, which do not exhibit endogenous SSAO activity, are exposed to SSAO circulating in serum. In contrast, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) do exhibit innate SSAO activity both in vivo and in vitro. This property, together with the critical localization of VSMC within the arterial wall, led us to investigate the potential toxicity of MA to VSMC. Cultured rat VSMC were treated with MA (10-5 to 1 M). In some cultures, SSAO was selectively inhibited with semicarbazide or MDL-72145 [(E)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-fluoroallylamine]. Cytotoxicity was measured via MTT, vital dye exclusion, and clonogenic assays. MA proved to be toxic to VSMC only at relatively high concentrations (LC(50) of 0.1 M). The inhibition of SSAO with semicarbazide or MDL-72145 did not increase MA toxicity, suggesting that the production of formaldehyde via tissue-bound, SSAO-mediated MA metabolism does not play a role in the minimal toxicity observed in isolated rat VSMC. The omission of fetal calf serum (FCS), which contains high SSAO activity, from media similarly showed little effect on cytotoxicity. We conclude that VSMC--in contrast to previous results in endothelial cells--are relatively resistant to MA toxicity, and SSAO does not play a role in VSMC injury by MA.

  17. The Rho-related protein Rnd1 inhibits Ca2+ sensitization of rat smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Loirand, Gervaise; Cario-Toumaniantz, Chrystelle; Chardin, Pierre; Pacaud, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    The small GTP-binding Rho proteins are involved in the agonist-induced Ca2+ sensitization of smooth muscle. The action and the expression of Rnd1, a new member of the Rho protein family constitutively bound to GTP, has been studied in rat smooth muscle. Recombinant prenylated Rnd1 (0.01-0.1 mg ml−1) dose dependently inhibited carbachol- and GTPγS-induced Ca2+ sensitization in β-escin-permeabilized ileal smooth muscle strips but had no effect on the tension at submaximal [Ca2+] (pCa 6.3). Rnd1 inhibited GTPγS-induced tension without shifting the dose-response curves to GTPγS. pCa-tension relationships were not modified by Rnd1 and the rise in tension induced through the inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase by calyculin A was not affected by Rnd1. The Ca2+ sensitization induced by recombinant RhoA was completely abolished when RhoA and Rnd1 were applied together. Rnd1 was expressed at a low level in membrane fractions prepared from intestinal or arterial smooth muscles. The expression of Rnd1 was strongly increased in ileal and aortic smooth muscle from rats treated with progesterone or oestrogen. Progesterone-treated ileal muscle strips showed a decrease in agonist-induced Ca2+ sensitization. The present study shows that (i) Rnd1 inhibits agonist- and GTPγS-induced Ca2+ sensitization of smooth muscle by specifically interfering with a RhoA-dependent mechanism and (ii) an increase in Rnd1 expression may account, at least in part, for the steroid-induced decrease in agonist-induced Ca2+ sensitization. PMID:10200428

  18. Confirmation of mutant alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase gene and transcript in Dahl salt-sensitive/JR rats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Opazo, N; Barany, F; Hirayama, K; Herrera, V L

    1994-09-01

    As the sole renal Na,K-ATPase isozyme, the alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase accounts for all active transport of Na+ throughout the nephron. This role in renal Na+ reabsorption and the primacy of the kidney in hypertension pathogenesis make it a logical candidate gene for salt-sensitive genetic hypertension. An adenine (A)1079-->thymine (T) transversion, resulting in the substitution of glutamine276 with leucine and associated with decreased net 86Rb+ (K+) influx, was identified in Dahl salt-sensitive/JR rat kidney alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase cDNA. However, because a Taq polymerase chain reaction amplification-based reanalysis did not detect the mutant T1079 but rather only the wild-type A1079 alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase allele in Dahl salt-sensitive rat genomic DNA, we reexamined alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase sequences using Taq polymerase error-independent amplification-based analyses of genomic DNA (by polymerase allele-specific amplification and ligase chain reaction analysis) and kidney RNA (by mRNA-specific thermostable reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis). We also performed modified 3' mismatched correction analysis of genomic DNA using an exonuclease-positive thermostable DNA polymerase. All the confirmatory test results were concordant, confirming the A1079-->T transversion in the Dahl salt-sensitive alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase allele and its transcript, as well as the wild-type A1079 sequence in the Dahl salt-resistant alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase allele and its transcript. Documentation of a consistent Taq polymerase error that selectively substituted A at T1079 (sense strand) was obtained from Taq polymerase chain reaction amplification and subsequent cycle sequencing of reconfirmed known Dahl salt-sensitive/JR rat mutant T1079 alpha 1 cDNA M13 subclones. This Taq polymerase error results in the reversion of mutant sequence back to the wild-type alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase sequence. This identifies a site- and nucleotide-specific Taq polymerase misincorporation, suggesting that a structural

  19. Influence of decavanadate on rat synaptic plasma membrane ATPases activity.

    PubMed

    Krstić, Danijela; Colović, Mirjana; Bosnjaković-Pavlović, Nada; Spasojević-De Bire, Anne; Vasić, Vesna

    2009-09-01

    The in vitro influence of decameric vanadate species on Na+/K+-ATPase, plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA)-calcium pump and ecto-ATPase activity, using rat synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) as model system was investigated, whereas the commercial porcine cerebral cortex Na+/K+-ATPase served as a reference. The thermal behaviour of the synthesized decavanadate (V10) has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, while the type of polyvanadate anion was identified using the IR spectroscopy. The concentration-dependent responses to V10 of all enzymes were obtained. The half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the enzyme activity was achieved at (4.74 +/- 1.15) x 10(-7) mol/l for SPM Na+/K+-ATPase, (1.30 +/- 0.10) x 10(-6) mol/l for commercial Na+/K+-ATPase and (3.13 +/- 1.70) x 10(-8) mol/l for Ca2+-ATPase, while ecto-ATPase is significantly less sensitive toward V10 (IC50 = (1.05 +/- 0.10) x 10(-4) mol/l) than investigated P-type ATPases. Kinetic analysis showed that V10 inhibited Na+/K+-ATPase by reducing the maximum enzymatic velocity and apparent affinity for ATP (increasing K(m) value), implying a mixed mode of interaction between V10 and P-type ATPases.

  20. Elevated sup 22 Na uptake in aortae of Dahl salt-sensitive rats with high salt diet

    SciTech Connect

    Vasdev, S.; Prabhakaran, V.; Sampson, C.A. )

    1990-01-01

    We examined the effects of high salt intake on blood pressure and vascular {sup 22}Na uptake in Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. At 6 weeks of age, one group of 6 DS rats was placed on a low (0.4%) salt diet and the second group of 6 DS rats was placed on a high (8.0%) salt diet for a period of 4 weeks. Blood pressure recordings were made weekly. At 10 weeks of age, the animals were sacrificed and aortic {sup 22}Na uptake was measured. Total and amiloride sensitive (Na(+)-H+ antiport) components of {sup 22}Na uptake were measured from which was calculated the amiloride insensitive component. Na+, K(+)-pumps were inhibited for these vascular {sup 22}Na uptake experiments with ouabain to prevent Na+ efflux. DS rats on the high salt diet demonstrated significantly (P less than 0.01) higher blood pressure when compared to DS rats on a low salt diet. Similarly, DS rats on a high salt diet demonstrated significantly (P less than 0.05) higher total, amiloride sensitive and amiloride insensitive vascular {sup 22}Na uptake as compared to DS rats on low salt diet. The parallel increase in vascular {sup 22}Na uptake and blood pressure suggests a possible, key role of Na+ influx in the mechanism of salt induced hypertension of DS rats.

  1. Posterior rat eye during acute intraocular pressure elevation studied using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Fialová, Stanislava; Augustin, Marco; Fischak, Corinna; Schmetterer, Leopold; Handschuh, Stephan; Glösmann, Martin; Pircher, Michael; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Baumann, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) operating at 840 nm with axial resolution of 3.8 µm in tissue was used for investigating the posterior rat eye during an acute intraocular pressure (IOP) increase experiment. IOP was elevated in the eyes of anesthetized Sprague Dawley rats by cannulation of the anterior chamber. Three dimensional PS-OCT data sets were acquired at IOP levels between 14 mmHg and 105 mmHg. Maps of scleral birefringence, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) retardation and relative RNFL/retina reflectivity were generated in the peripapillary area and quantitatively analyzed. All investigated parameters showed a substantial correlation with IOP. In the low IOP range of 14-45 mmHg only scleral birefringence showed statistically significant correlation. The polarization changes observed in the PS-OCT imaging study presented in this work suggest that birefringence of the sclera may be a promising IOP-related parameter to investigate. PMID:28101419

  2. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of vertilmicin in rat plasma using sensitive fluorometric derivatization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Sha, Yunfei; Huang, Taomin; Yang, Bei; Duan, Geng-Li

    2005-12-15

    A sensitive and reliable high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of vertilmicin in rat plasma. Derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) followed by C(18) reversed-phase chromatography allowed the fluorimetric detection of vertilmicin. Optimal conditions for the derivatization of vertilmicin are described. The limit of quantification was 0.02 mg/L. The pharmacokinetics of vertilmicin was studied in 24 rats following intramuscular injection (i.m.) of different doses (4, 8, 16, 32 mg/kg of body weight). The pharmacokinetic parameter values were estimated by use of 3P97 program. In this study, we assessed the dose proportionality of vertilmicin after single intramuscular injection doses and obtained new information on the pharmacokinetics of the compound.

  3. Reward Sensitivity Enhances Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex Activation during Free Choice

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Catherine; Smith, David V.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2016-01-01

    Expressing one's preference via choice can be rewarding, particularly when decisions are voluntarily made as opposed to being forced. An open question is whether engaging in choices involving rewards recruits distinct neural systems as a function of sensitivity to reward. Reward sensitivity is a trait partly influenced by the mesolimbic dopamine system, which can impact an individual's neural and behavioral response to reward cues. Here, we investigated how reward sensitivity contributes to neural activity associated with free and forced choices. Participants underwent a simple decision-making task, which presented free- or forced-choice trials in the scanner. Each trial presented two cues (i.e., points or information) that led to monetary reward at the end of the task. In free-choice trials, participants were offered the opportunity to choose between different reward cues (e.g., points vs. information), whereas forced-choice trials forced individuals to choose within a given reward cue (e.g., information vs. information, or points vs. points). We found enhanced ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) activation during free choice compared to forced choice in individuals with high reward sensitivity scores. Next, using the VLPFC as a seed, we conducted a PPI analysis to identify brain regions that enhance connectivity with the VLPFC during free choice. Our PPI analyses on free vs. forced choice revealed increased VLPFC connectivity with the posterior cingulate and precentral gyrus in reward sensitive individuals. These findings suggest reward sensitivity may recruit attentional control processes during free choice potentially supporting goal-directed behavior and action selection. PMID:27917106

  4. The Timing of Noise-Sensitive Activities in Residential Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative survey of time use was analyzed to provide estimates of the percentage of the population which is engaged in noise sensitive activities during each hour of the day on weekdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays. Estimates are provided of the percentage engaged in aural communication activities at home, sleeping at home, or simply at home. The day can be roughly divided into four noise sensitivity periods consisting of two relatively steady state periods, night and day and the early morning and evening transition periods. Weekends differ from weekdays in that the morning transition period is one hour later and the numbers of people engaged in aural communication during the day at home are approximately one-half to three-quarters greater. The extent and timing of noise sensitive activities was found to be similiar for all parts of the United States, for different sizes of urban areas, and for the three seasons surveyed (September through May). The timing of activity periods does not differ greatly by sex or age even though women and people over 65 are much more likely to be at home during the daytime.

  5. [11C]PBR28 PET imaging is sensitive to neuroinflammation in the aged rat

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Matthew D; Dinelle, Katherine; Kornelsen, Rick; Lee, Nathan V; Miao, Qing; Adam, Mike; Takhar, Christine; Mak, Edwin; Schulzer, Michael; Farrer, Matthew J; Sossi, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Neuroinflammation in the aging rat brain was investigated using [11C]PBR28 microPET (positron emission tomography) imaging. Normal rats were studied alongside LRRK2 p.G2019S transgenic rats; this mutation increases the risk of Parkinson's disease in humans. Seventy [11C]PBR28 PET scans were acquired. Arterial blood sampling enabled tracer kinetic modeling and estimation of VT. In vitro autoradiography was also performed. PBR28 uptake increased with age, without differences between nontransgenic and transgenic rats. In 12 months of aging (4 to 16 months), standard uptake value (SUV) increased by 56% from 0.44 to 0.69 g/mL, whereas VT increased by 91% from 30 to 57 mL/cm3. Standard uptake value and VT were strongly correlated (r=0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.31 to 0.69, n=37). The plasma free fraction, fp, was 0.21±0.03 (mean±standard deviation, n=53). In vitro binding increased by 19% in 16 months of aging (4 to 20 months). The SUV was less variable across rats than VT; coefficients of variation were 13% (n=27) and 29% (n=12). The intraclass correlation coefficient for SUV was 0.53, but was effectively zero for VT. These data show that [11C]PBR28 brain uptake increases with age, implying increased microglial activation in the aged brain. PMID:25833342

  6. Serum dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity in rat during post-natal development.

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, F; Wooten, G F

    1976-01-01

    Rat serum dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) activity is quite high in the immediate post-natal period reaching peak activity (75 units) at 16 days of age. Activity then decreases rapidly over the following weeks to approach adult levels (10 units) by seven weeks of age. Also, specific activity of DBH in heart increased rapidly during the first 2 1/2 weeks of life attaining adult levels by 18 days of age. In contrast, heart weight and total DBH activity in whole heart increased in a coordinate fashion at a relatively constant rate throughout the first seven weeks of life. Serum levels of non-copper sensitive endogenous inhibitor (s) of DBH increased throughout the first seven weeks of life while no change in copper sensitive inhibition was observed. Also, the rapid phase of decrease in serum DBH activity corresponded to the period of the most rapid increase in body weight.

  7. Differing calcium sensitivities of human cerebral and digital arteries, human metatarsal veins, and rat aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Iwanov, V; Moulds, R F

    1991-01-01

    1. The effects of the voltage dependent calcium channel blocking agent nifedipine, and of a calcium free bathing medium, on the responses of human blood vessels obtained postmortem to various agonists have been compared with those of the rat aorta. The human vessels studied were digital arteries, basilar arteries and metatarsal veins. 2. Responses to potassium chloride (5-80 mM), noradrenaline (10(-9)-10(-4) M), 5-hydroxytryptamine (10(-8)-10(-4) M) and U46619 (10(-11)-10(-6) M), in the presence and absence of nifedipine (1, 10, and 100 nM) or in a calcium-free bathing medium, were assessed using an area-under-curve analysis. 3. In general, the order of sensitivity of the vessels to inhibition of agonist induced contractures by nifedipine was basilar arteries greater than metatarsal veins = digital arteries = rat aorta. 4. For all the vessels, the order of sensitivity for antagonism of responses to the agonists by nifedipine was potassium chloride greater than 5-hydroxytryptamine = noradrenaline greater than U46619. 5. A calcium free bath inhibited responses of digital arteries to potassium chloride more than noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine or U46619, and responses of rat aorta to a greater extent than responses of the digital arteries. 6. In the rat aorta, a calcium-free bath inhibited responses to all agonists (except KCl) to a greater degree than did nifedipine. 7. We conclude that inhibition of extracellular calcium entry through voltage dependent calcium channels affects contractile responses of different blood vessels to different extents, and, within the same blood vessel, responses to different contractile agonists to different extents. PMID:2015170

  8. Observational methods used to assess rat behavior: general activity.

    PubMed

    Paul, Carol Ann; Beltz, Barbara; Berger-Sweeney, Joanne

    2007-09-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe activity-inactivity continuum is an important parameter of behavior, and quantification of overall locomotor activity in the rat should identify it as a naturally nocturnal animal. Disruptions in nocturnal activity can be caused by damage in visual inputs to the brain or damage in the hypothalamus. Many commercial devices are available to measure activity automatically; some can be integrated with a computer to allow overnight monitoring in the absence of an observer. A less sophisticated but still accurate method of measuring activity is to create a home-made activity chamber by replacing the bottom of a box with Plexiglas or by marking lines on the bottom of a clean rat cage so that the observer can record rat activity by noting when the lines are crossed, while simultaneously recording other behaviors. Activity in rat pups can be observed as soon as they are 10 days old using smaller activity chambers. This protocol describes the construction of a home-made activity chamber and how to measure four activities: locomotion, rearing, circling, and grooming.

  9. Hippocampal Morphology in a Rat Model of Depression: The Effects of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sierakowiak, Adam; Mattsson, Anna; Gómez-Galán, Marta; Feminía, Teresa; Graae, Lisette; Aski, Sahar Nikkhou; Damberg, Peter; Lindskog, Mia; Brené, Stefan; Åberg, Elin

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating in vivo and ex vivo evidences show that humans suffering from depression have decreased hippocampal volume and altered spine density. Moreover, physical activity has an antidepressant effect in humans and in animal models, but to what extent physical activity can affect hippocampal volume and spine numbers in a model for depression is not known. In this study we analyzed whether physical activity affects hippocampal volume and spine density by analyzing a rodent genetic model of depression, Flinders Sensitive Line Rats (FSL), with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and ex vivo Golgi staining. We found that physical activity in the form of voluntary wheel running during 5 weeks increased hippocampal volume. Moreover, runners also had larger numbers of thin spines in the dentate gyrus. Our findings support that voluntary wheel running, which is antidepressive in FSL rats, is associated with increased hippocampal volume and spine numbers. PMID:25674191

  10. Polyphenol-Rich Extract of Syzygium cumini Leaf Dually Improves Peripheral Insulin Sensitivity and Pancreatic Islet Function in Monosodium L-Glutamate-Induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sanches, Jonas R.; França, Lucas M.; Chagas, Vinicyus T.; Gaspar, Renato S.; dos Santos, Kayque A.; Gonçalves, Luciana M.; Sloboda, Deborah M.; Holloway, Alison C.; Dutra, Richard P.; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Cappelli, Ana Paula G.; Paes, Antonio Marcus de A.

    2016-01-01

    Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae) has been traditionally used to treat a number of illnesses. Ethnopharmacological studies have particularly addressed antidiabetic and metabolic-related effects of extracts prepared from its different parts, especially seed, and pulp-fruit, however. there is a lack of studies on phytochemical profile and biological properties of its leaf. As there is considerable interest in bioactive compounds to treat metabolic syndrome and its clustered risk factors, we sought to characterize the metabolic effects of hydroethanolic extract of S. cumini leaf (HESc) on lean and monosodium L-glutamate (MSG)-induced obese rats. HPLC-MS/MS characterization of the HESc polyphenolic profile, at 254 nm, identified 15 compounds pertaining to hydrolysable tannin and flavanol subclasses. At 60 days of age, both groups were randomly assigned to receive HESc (500 mg/kg) or vehicle for 30 days. At the end of treatment, obese+HESc exhibited significantly lower body weight gain, body mass index, and white adipose tissue mass, compared to obese rats receiving vehicle. Obese rats treated with HESc showed a twofold increase in lipolytic activity in the periepididymal fat pad, as well as, brought triglyceride levels in serum, liver and skeletal muscle back to levels close those found in lean animals. Furthermore, HESc also improved hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in obese+HESc rats, which resulted in partial reversal of glucose intolerance, as compared to obese rats. HESc had no effect in lean rats. Assessment of ex vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion showed HESc potentiated pancreatic function in islets isolated from both lean and obese rats treated with HESc. In addition, HESc (10–1000 μg/mL) increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion from both isolated rat islets and INS-1E β-cells. These data demonstrate that S. cumini leaf improved peripheral insulin sensitivity via stimulating/modulating β-cell insulin release, which was associated

  11. Polyphenol-Rich Extract of Syzygium cumini Leaf Dually Improves Peripheral Insulin Sensitivity and Pancreatic Islet Function in Monosodium L-Glutamate-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Jonas R; França, Lucas M; Chagas, Vinicyus T; Gaspar, Renato S; Dos Santos, Kayque A; Gonçalves, Luciana M; Sloboda, Deborah M; Holloway, Alison C; Dutra, Richard P; Carneiro, Everardo M; Cappelli, Ana Paula G; Paes, Antonio Marcus de A

    2016-01-01

    Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae) has been traditionally used to treat a number of illnesses. Ethnopharmacological studies have particularly addressed antidiabetic and metabolic-related effects of extracts prepared from its different parts, especially seed, and pulp-fruit, however. there is a lack of studies on phytochemical profile and biological properties of its leaf. As there is considerable interest in bioactive compounds to treat metabolic syndrome and its clustered risk factors, we sought to characterize the metabolic effects of hydroethanolic extract of S. cumini leaf (HESc) on lean and monosodium L-glutamate (MSG)-induced obese rats. HPLC-MS/MS characterization of the HESc polyphenolic profile, at 254 nm, identified 15 compounds pertaining to hydrolysable tannin and flavanol subclasses. At 60 days of age, both groups were randomly assigned to receive HESc (500 mg/kg) or vehicle for 30 days. At the end of treatment, obese+HESc exhibited significantly lower body weight gain, body mass index, and white adipose tissue mass, compared to obese rats receiving vehicle. Obese rats treated with HESc showed a twofold increase in lipolytic activity in the periepididymal fat pad, as well as, brought triglyceride levels in serum, liver and skeletal muscle back to levels close those found in lean animals. Furthermore, HESc also improved hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in obese+HESc rats, which resulted in partial reversal of glucose intolerance, as compared to obese rats. HESc had no effect in lean rats. Assessment of ex vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion showed HESc potentiated pancreatic function in islets isolated from both lean and obese rats treated with HESc. In addition, HESc (10-1000 μg/mL) increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion from both isolated rat islets and INS-1E β-cells. These data demonstrate that S. cumini leaf improved peripheral insulin sensitivity via stimulating/modulating β-cell insulin release, which was associated

  12. Leptin-sensitive neurons in the arcuate nucleus integrate activity and temperature circadian rhythms and anticipatory responses to food restriction.

    PubMed

    Wiater, Michael F; Li, Ai-Jun; Dinh, Thu T; Jansen, Heiko T; Ritter, Sue

    2013-10-15

    Previously, we investigated the role of neuropeptide Y and leptin-sensitive networks in the mediobasal hypothalamus in sleep and feeding and found profound homeostatic and circadian deficits with an intact suprachiasmatic nucleus. We propose that the arcuate nuclei (Arc) are required for the integration of homeostatic circadian systems, including temperature and activity. We tested this hypothesis using saporin toxin conjugated to leptin (Lep-SAP) injected into Arc in rats. Lep-SAP rats became obese and hyperphagic and progressed through a dynamic phase to a static phase of growth. Circadian rhythms were examined over 49 days during the static phase. Rats were maintained on a 12:12-h light-dark (LD) schedule for 13 days and, thereafter, maintained in continuous dark (DD). After the first 13 days of DD, food was restricted to 4 h/day for 10 days. We found that the activity of Lep-SAP rats was arrhythmic in DD, but that food anticipatory activity was, nevertheless, entrainable to the restricted feeding schedule, and the entrained rhythm persisted during the subsequent 3-day fast in DD. Thus, for activity, the circuitry for the light-entrainable oscillator, but not for the food-entrainable oscillator, was disabled by the Arc lesion. In contrast, temperature remained rhythmic in DD in the Lep-SAP rats and did not entrain to restricted feeding. We conclude that the leptin-sensitive network that includes the Arc is required for entrainment of activity by photic cues and entrainment of temperature by food, but is not required for entrainment of activity by food or temperature by photic cues.

  13. Altered thermoregulation via sensitization of A1 adenosine receptors in dietary-restricted rats

    PubMed Central

    Jinka, Tulasi R.; Carlson, Zachary A.; Moore, Jeanette T.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Evidence links longevity to dietary restriction (DR). A decrease in body temperature (Tb) is thought to contribute to enhanced longevity because lower Tb reduces oxidative metabolism and oxidative stress. It is as yet unclear how DR decreases Tb. Objective Here, we test the hypothesis that prolonged DR decreases Tb by sensitizing adenosine A1 receptors (A1AR) and adenosine-induced cooling. Methods and results Sprague–Dawley rats were dietary restricted using an every-other-day feeding protocol. Rats were fed every other day for 27 days and then administered the A1AR agonist, N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA; 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.). Respiratory rate (RR) and subcutaneous Tb measured using IPTT-300 transponders were monitored every day and after drug administration. DR animals displayed lower RR on day 20 and lower Tb on day 22 compared to animals fed ad libitum and displayed a larger response to CHA. In all cases, RR declined before Tb. Contrary to previous reports, a higher dose of CHA (5 mg/kg, i.p.) was lethal in both dietary groups. We next tested the hypothesis that sensitization to the effects of CHA was due to increased surface expression of A1AR within the hypothalamus. We report that the abundance of A1AR in the membrane fraction increases in hypothalamus, but not cortex of DR rats. Conclusion These results suggest that every-other-day feeding lowers Tb via sensitization of thermoregulatory effects of endogenous adenosine by increasing surface expression of A1AR. Discussion Evidence that diet can modulate purinergic signaling has implications for the treatment of stroke, brain injury, epilepsy, and aging. PMID:20186398

  14. Breastfeeding, Brain Activation to Own Infant Cry, and Maternal Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Pilyoung; Feldman, Ruth; Mayes, Linda C.; Eicher, Virginia; Thompson, Nancy; Leckman, James F.; Swain, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Research points to the importance of breastfeeding for promoting close mother-infant contact and social-emotional development. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified brain regions related to maternal behaviors. However, little research has addressed the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between breastfeeding and maternal behavior in human mothers. We investigated the associations between breastfeeding, maternal brain response to own infant stimuli, and maternal sensitivity in the early postpartum. Methods Seventeen biological mothers of healthy infants participated in two matched groups according to feeding method – exclusive breastfeeding and exclusive formula-feeding at 2-4 weeks postpartum. fMRI scanning was conducted in the first postpartum month to examine maternal brain activation in response to her own baby's cry versus control baby-cry. Dyadic interactions between mothers and infants at 3-4 months postpartum were videotaped in the home and blindly coded for maternal sensitivity. Results In the first postpartum month, breastfeeding mothers showed greater activations in the superior frontal gyrus, insula, precuneus, striatum, and amygdala while listening to their own baby-cry as compared to formula-feeding mothers. For both breastfeeding and formula-feeding mothers, greater activations in the right superior frontal gyrus and amygdala were associated with higher maternal sensitivity at 3-4 months postpartum. Conclusions Results suggest links between breastfeeding and greater response to infant cues in brain regions implicated in maternal-infant bonding and empathy during the early postpartum. Such brain activations may facilitate greater maternal sensitivity as infants enter their social world. PMID:21501165

  15. Vitamin A activates rhodopsin and sensitizes it to ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Miyazono, Sadaharu; Isayama, Tomoki; Delori, François C; Makino, Clint L

    2011-11-01

    The visual pigment, rhodopsin, consists of opsin protein with 11-cis retinal chromophore, covalently bound. Light activates rhodopsin by isomerizing the chromophore to the all-trans conformation. The activated rhodopsin sets in motion a biochemical cascade that evokes an electrical response by the photoreceptor. All-trans retinal is eventually released from the opsin and reduced to vitamin A. Rod and cone photoreceptors contain vast amounts of rhodopsin, so after exposure to bright light, the concentration of vitamin A can reach relatively high levels within their outer segments. Since a retinal analog, β-ionone, is capable of activating some types of visual pigments, we tested whether vitamin A might produce a similar effect. In single-cell recordings from isolated dark-adapted salamander green-sensitive rods, exogenously applied vitamin A decreased circulating current and flash sensitivity and accelerated flash response kinetics. These changes resembled those produced by exposure of rods to steady light. Microspectrophotometric measurements showed that vitamin A accumulated in the outer segments and binding of vitamin A to rhodopsin was confirmed in in vitro assays. In addition, vitamin A improved the sensitivity of photoreceptors to ultraviolet (UV) light. Apparently, the energy of a UV photon absorbed by vitamin A transferred by a radiationless process to the 11-cis retinal chromophore of rhodopsin, which subsequently isomerized. Therefore, our results suggest that vitamin A binds to rhodopsin at an allosteric binding site distinct from the chromophore binding pocket for 11-cis retinal to activate the rhodopsin, and that it serves as a sensitizing chromophore for UV light.

  16. Adrenergic stimulation sensitizes TRPV1 through upregulation of cystathionine β-synthetase in a rat model of visceral hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liyan; Zhao, Liting; Qu, Ruobing; Zhu, Hong-Yan; Wang, Yongmeng; Jiang, Xinghong; Xu, Guang-Yin

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pain in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is poorly understood and treatment remains difficult. The present study was designed to investigate roles of adrenergic signaling and the endogenous hydrogen sulfide producing enzyme cystathionine β-synthetase (CBS) in a previously validated rat model of IBS induced by neonatal colonic inflammation (NCI). Here we showed that NCI-induced visceral hypersensitivity (VH) was significantly attenuated by β2 subunit inhibitor but not by β1 or β3 or α subunit inhibitor. NCI markedly elevated plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentration without alteration in expression of β2 subunit receptors in dorsal root ganglion (DRGs) innervating the colon. In addition, NCI markedly enhanced TRPV1 and CBS expression in the colon DRGs. CBS inhibitor AOAA reversed the upregulation of TRPV1 in NCI rats. In vitro experiments showed that incubation of DRG cells with NE markedly enhanced expression of TRPV1, which was reversed by application of AOAA. Incubation of DRG cells with the H2S donor NaHS greatly enhanced TRPV1 expression. Collectively, these data suggest that activation of adrenergic signaling by NCI sensitizes TRPV1 channel activity, which is likely mediated by upregulation of CBS expression in peripheral sensory neurons, thus contributing to chronic visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:26527188

  17. Lickometry: A novel and sensitive method for assessing functional deficits in rats after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Jewel; Dwyer, Dominic M; Farr, Tracy D; Harrison, David J; Dunnett, Stephen B

    2017-01-01

    The need for sensitive, easy to administer assessments of long-term functional deficits is crucial in pre-clinical stroke research. In the present study, we introduce lickometry (lick microstructure analysis) as a precise method to assess sensorimotor deficits up to 40 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Impairments in drinking efficiency compared to controls, and a compensatory increase in the number of drinking clusters were observed. This highlights the utility of this easy to administer task in assessing subtle, long-term deficits, which could be likened to oral deficits in patients. PMID:28056584

  18. Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature Patterns over a Temperature Gradient in the Highveld Mole-Rat (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae).

    PubMed

    Haupt, Meghan; Bennett, Nigel C; Oosthuizen, Maria K

    2017-01-01

    African mole-rats are strictly subterranean mammals that live in extensive burrow systems. High humidity levels in the burrows prevent mole-rats from thermoregulating using evaporative cooling. However, the relatively stable environment of the burrows promotes moderate temperatures and small daily temperature fluctuations. Mole-rats therefore display a relatively wide range of thermoregulation abilities. Some species cannot maintain their body temperatures at a constant level, whereas others employ behavioural thermoregulation. Here we test the effect of ambient temperature on locomotor activity and body temperature, and the relationship between the two parameters, in the highveld mole-rat. We exposed mole-rats to a 12L:12D and a DD light cycle at ambient temperatures of 30°C, 25°C and 20°C while locomotor activity and body temperature were measured simultaneously. In addition, we investigated the endogenous rhythms of locomotor activity and body temperature at different ambient temperatures. Mole-rats displayed nocturnal activity at all three ambient temperatures and were most active at 20°C, but least active at 30°C. Body temperature was highest at 30°C and lowest at 20°C, and the daily cycle was highly correlated with locomotor activity. We show that the mole-rats have endogenous rhythms for both locomotor activity and body temperature. However, the endogenous body temperature rhythm appears to be less robust compared to the locomotor activity rhythm. Female mole-rats appear to be more sensitive to temperature changes than males, increased heterothermy is evident at lower ambient temperatures, whilst males show smaller variation in their body temperatures with changing ambient temperatures. Mole-rats may rely more heavily on behavioural thermoregulation as it is more energy efficient in an already challenging environment.

  19. Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature Patterns over a Temperature Gradient in the Highveld Mole-Rat (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae)

    PubMed Central

    Haupt, Meghan; Bennett, Nigel C.

    2017-01-01

    African mole-rats are strictly subterranean mammals that live in extensive burrow systems. High humidity levels in the burrows prevent mole-rats from thermoregulating using evaporative cooling. However, the relatively stable environment of the burrows promotes moderate temperatures and small daily temperature fluctuations. Mole-rats therefore display a relatively wide range of thermoregulation abilities. Some species cannot maintain their body temperatures at a constant level, whereas others employ behavioural thermoregulation. Here we test the effect of ambient temperature on locomotor activity and body temperature, and the relationship between the two parameters, in the highveld mole-rat. We exposed mole-rats to a 12L:12D and a DD light cycle at ambient temperatures of 30°C, 25°C and 20°C while locomotor activity and body temperature were measured simultaneously. In addition, we investigated the endogenous rhythms of locomotor activity and body temperature at different ambient temperatures. Mole-rats displayed nocturnal activity at all three ambient temperatures and were most active at 20°C, but least active at 30°C. Body temperature was highest at 30°C and lowest at 20°C, and the daily cycle was highly correlated with locomotor activity. We show that the mole-rats have endogenous rhythms for both locomotor activity and body temperature. However, the endogenous body temperature rhythm appears to be less robust compared to the locomotor activity rhythm. Female mole-rats appear to be more sensitive to temperature changes than males, increased heterothermy is evident at lower ambient temperatures, whilst males show smaller variation in their body temperatures with changing ambient temperatures. Mole-rats may rely more heavily on behavioural thermoregulation as it is more energy efficient in an already challenging environment. PMID:28072840

  20. Differences in xenobiotic detoxifying activities between bone marrow stromal cells from mice and rats: Implications for benzene-induced hematotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Hong; Li, Yunbo; Trush, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    benzene is a human carcinogen; exposure can result in aplastic anemia and leukemia. Data from animal models are frequently used in benzene risk assessment. In rodent studies, mice are more sensitive to benzene-induced hematotoxicity than rats. Bone marrow stromal cells from mice were significantly more susceptible to the cytotoxicity induced by the benzene metabolites hydroquinone (HQ) and benzoquinone (BQ) than cells from rats. Since cellular gluthathione (GSH) and quinone reductase (QR) are known to play critical roles in modulating HQ-induced cytotoxicity, the GSH content and the QR and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in stromal cells from both species was measured. In rat cells, the GSH content and the QR specific activity were 2 and 28 times as much as those from mice, respectively. GSH and QR in both mouse and rat stromal cells were inducible by 1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T). D3T pretreatment of both mouse and rat stromal cells resulted in a marked protection against HQ-induced toxicity. Pretreatment of both mouse and rat stromal cells with GSH ethyl ester also provided a dramatic protection against HQ-induced toxicity. Conversely, dicoumarol, an inhibitor of QR, enhanced the HQ-induced toxicity in stromal cells from both mice and rats, indicating an important role for QR in modulating HQ-induced stromal toxicity. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), which depleted GSH significantly in both species, potentiated the HQ-induced toxicity in mouse but not in rat stromal cells. Surprisingly, incubation of stromal cells with BSO resulted in a significant induction of QR, especially in rats. Overall, this study demonstrates that the differences in stromal cellular GSH content and QR activity between mice and rats contribute to their respective susceptibility to HQ-induced cytotoxicity in vitro, and may be involved in the greater in vivo sensitivity of mice to benzene-induced hematotoxicity. 51 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Assessing the sensitivity of diffusion MRI to detect neuronal activity directly

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ruiliang; Stewart, Craig V.; Plenz, Dietmar; Basser, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is widely used to study brain function in the neurosciences. Unfortunately, conventional fMRI only indirectly assesses neuronal activity via hemodynamic coupling. Diffusion fMRI was proposed as a more direct and accurate fMRI method to detect neuronal activity, yet confirmative findings have proven difficult to obtain. Given that the underlying relation between tissue water diffusion changes and neuronal activity remains unclear, the rationale for using diffusion MRI to monitor neuronal activity has yet to be clearly established. Here, we studied the correlation between water diffusion and neuronal activity in vitro by simultaneous calcium fluorescence imaging and diffusion MR acquisition. We used organotypic cortical cultures from rat brains as a biological model system, in which spontaneous neuronal activity robustly emerges free of hemodynamic and other artifacts. Simultaneous fluorescent calcium images of neuronal activity are then directly correlated with diffusion MR signals now free of confounds typically encountered in vivo. Although a simultaneous increase of diffusion-weighted MR signals was observed together with the prolonged depolarization of neurons induced by pharmacological manipulations (in which cell swelling was demonstrated to play an important role), no evidence was found that diffusion MR signals directly correlate with normal spontaneous neuronal activity. These results suggest that, whereas current diffusion MR methods could monitor pathological conditions such as hyperexcitability, e.g., those seen in epilepsy, they do not appear to be sensitive or specific enough to detect or follow normal neuronal activity. PMID:26941239

  2. Assessing the sensitivity of diffusion MRI to detect neuronal activity directly.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ruiliang; Stewart, Craig V; Plenz, Dietmar; Basser, Peter J

    2016-03-22

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is widely used to study brain function in the neurosciences. Unfortunately, conventional fMRI only indirectly assesses neuronal activity via hemodynamic coupling. Diffusion fMRI was proposed as a more direct and accurate fMRI method to detect neuronal activity, yet confirmative findings have proven difficult to obtain. Given that the underlying relation between tissue water diffusion changes and neuronal activity remains unclear, the rationale for using diffusion MRI to monitor neuronal activity has yet to be clearly established. Here, we studied the correlation between water diffusion and neuronal activity in vitro by simultaneous calcium fluorescence imaging and diffusion MR acquisition. We used organotypic cortical cultures from rat brains as a biological model system, in which spontaneous neuronal activity robustly emerges free of hemodynamic and other artifacts. Simultaneous fluorescent calcium images of neuronal activity are then directly correlated with diffusion MR signals now free of confounds typically encountered in vivo. Although a simultaneous increase of diffusion-weighted MR signals was observed together with the prolonged depolarization of neurons induced by pharmacological manipulations (in which cell swelling was demonstrated to play an important role), no evidence was found that diffusion MR signals directly correlate with normal spontaneous neuronal activity. These results suggest that, whereas current diffusion MR methods could monitor pathological conditions such as hyperexcitability, e.g., those seen in epilepsy, they do not appear to be sensitive or specific enough to detect or follow normal neuronal activity.

  3. Effects of Kefir on the Cardiac Autonomic Tones and Baroreflex Sensitivity in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Klippel, Brunella F.; Duemke, Licia B.; Leal, Marcos A.; Friques, Andreia G. F.; Dantas, Eduardo M.; Dalvi, Rodolfo F.; Gava, Agata L.; Pereira, Thiago M. C.; Andrade, Tadeu U.; Meyrelles, Silvana S.; Campagnaro, Bianca P.; Vasquez, Elisardo C.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: It has been previously shown that the probiotic kefir (a symbiotic matrix containing acid bacteria and yeasts) attenuated the hypertension and the endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In the present study, the effect of chronic administration of kefir on the cardiac autonomic control of heart rate (HR) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in SHR was evaluated. Methods: SHR were treated with kefir (0.3 mL/100 g body weight) for 60 days and compared with non-treated SHR and with normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. Cardiac autonomic vagal (VT) and sympathetic (ST) tones were estimated through the blockade of the cardiac muscarinic receptors (methylatropine) and the blockade of β1−adrenoceptor (atenolol). The BRS was evaluated by the tachycardia and bradycardia responses to vasoactive drug-induced decreases and increases in arterial blood pressure (BP), respectively. Additionally, spontaneous BRS was estimated by autoregressive spectral analysis. Results: Kefir-treated SHR exhibited significant attenuation of basal BP, HR, and cardiac hypertrophy compared to non-treated SHR (12, 13, and 21%, respectively). Cardiac VT and ST were significantly altered in the SHR (~40 and ~90 bpm) compared with Wistar rats (~120 and ~30 bpm) and were partially recovered in SHR-kefir (~90 and ~25 bpm). SHR exhibited an impaired bradycardic BRS (~50%) compared with Wistar rats, which was reduced to ~40% in the kefir-treated SHR and abolished by methylatropine in all groups. SHR also exhibited a significant impairment of the tachycardic BRS (~23%) compared with Wistar rats and this difference was reduced to 8% in the SHR-kefir. Under the action of atenolol the residual reflex tachycardia was smaller in SHR than in Wistar rats and kefir attenuated this abnormality. Spectral analysis revealed increased low frequency components of BP (~3.5-fold) and pulse interval (~2-fold) compared with Wistar rats and these differences were reduced by kefir-treatment to ~1

  4. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    PubMed Central

    Touhami, Mohammed; Laroubi, Amine; Elhabazi, Khadija; Loubna, Farouk; Zrara, Ibtissam; Eljahiri, Younes; Oussama, Abdelkhalek; Grases, Félix; Chait, Abderrahman

    2007-01-01

    Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy) has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG) and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC) for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 μl solution/g body weight). Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy. Results Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice. Conclusion These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis. PMID:17919315

  5. Sensitive Detection of Proteopathic Seeding Activity with FRET Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Furman, Jennifer L; Holmes, Brandon B; Diamond, Marc I

    2015-12-08

    Increasing evidence supports transcellular propagation of toxic protein aggregates, or proteopathic seeds, as a mechanism for the initiation and progression of pathology in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and the related tauopathies. The potentially critical role of tau seeds in disease progression strongly supports the need for a sensitive assay that readily detects seeding activity in biological samples. By combining the specificity of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), the sensitivity of flow cytometry, and the stability of a monoclonal cell line, an ultra-sensitive seeding assay has been engineered and is compatible with seed detection from recombinant or biological samples, including human and mouse brain homogenates. The assay employs monoclonal HEK 293T cells that stably express the aggregation-prone repeat domain (RD) of tau harboring the disease-associated P301S mutation fused to either CFP or YFP, which produce a FRET signal upon protein aggregation. The uptake of proteopathic tau seeds (but not other proteins) into the biosensor cells stimulates aggregation of RD-CFP and RD-YFP, and flow cytometry sensitively and quantitatively monitors this aggregation-induced FRET. The assay detects femtomolar concentrations (monomer equivalent) of recombinant tau seeds, has a dynamic range spanning three orders of magnitude, and is compatible with brain homogenates from tauopathy transgenic mice and human tauopathy subjects. With slight modifications, the assay can also detect seeding activity of other proteopathic seeds, such as α-synuclein, and is also compatible with primary neuronal cultures. The ease, sensitivity, and broad applicability of FRET flow cytometry makes it useful to study a wide range of protein aggregation disorders.

  6. Anti-allodynic effect of mangiferin in neuropathic rats: Involvement of nitric oxide-cyclic GMP-ATP sensitive K(+) channels pathway and serotoninergic system.

    PubMed

    de Los Monteros-Zuñiga, Antonio Espinosa; Izquierdo, Teresa; Quiñonez-Bastidas, Geovanna Nallely; Rocha-González, Héctor Isaac; Godínez-Chaparro, Beatriz

    The neurobiology of neuropathic pain is caused by injury in the central or peripheral nervous system. Recent evidence points out that mangiferin shows anti-nociceptive effect in inflammatory pain. However, its role in inflammatory and neuropathic pain and the possible mechanisms of action are not yet established. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible anti-allodynic effect of mangiferin in rats with spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Furthermore, we sought to investigate the possible mechanisms of action that contribute to these effects. Mechanical allodynia to stimulation with the von Frey filaments was measured by the up and down method. Intrathecal administration of mangiferin prevented, in a dose-dependent fashion, SNL-induced mechanical allodynia. Mangiferin-induced anti-allodynia was prevented by the intrathecal administration of L-NAME (100μg/rat, non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), ODQ (10μg/rat, inhibitor of guanylate-cyclase) and glibenclamide (50μg/rat, channel blocker of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels). Moreover, methiothepin (30μg/rat, non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist), WAY-100635 (6μg/rat, selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist), SB-224289 (5μg/rat, selective 5-HT1B receptor antagonist), BRL-15572 (4μg/rat, selective 5-HT1D receptor antagonist) and SB-659551 (6μg/rat, selective 5-HT5A receptor antagonist), but not naloxone (50μg/rat, non-selective opioid receptor antagonist), were able to prevent mangiferin-induced anti-allodynic effect. These data suggest that the anti-allodynic effect induced by mangiferin is mediated at least in part by the serotoninergic system, involving the activation of 5-HT1A/1B/1D/5A receptors, as well as the nitric oxide-cyclic GMP-ATP-sensitive K(+) channels pathway, but not by the opioidergic system, in the SNL model of neuropathic pain in rats.

  7. Early postnatal deprivation of active sleep with desipramine or zimeldine impairs later behavioural reactivity to auditory stimuli in rats.

    PubMed

    Hilakivi, L A; Taira, T; Hilakivi, I

    1988-02-01

    To examine the functional significance of early postnatal active sleep for the development of behavioural reactivity to auditory stimuli, rat pups were daily injected i.p. from the 7th to the 18th postnatal days with 5 mg kg-1 (6.6 mmol l-1) desipramine or 25 mg kg-1 (12.2 mmol l-1) zimeldine. Sleep-wake behaviour was recorded with a static-charge-sensitive bed (SCSB) method. Both desipramine and zimeldine suppressed the percentage of active sleep relative to the total recording time throughout the treatment period. In addition, these drugs increased the percentage of quiet state and waking. At the age of 38 days the zimeldine-treated rats showed more motor activity in the open field than the controls. At the age of 39 and 78 days all rat groups behaved similarly in the open field. Startle measures and motor activation, provoked by auditory stimulation, were determined by the SCSB method when the rats were 4 months of age. Auditory stimuli, consisting of a series of ten clicks, induced a greater number of startles as well as strong movement responses in the control rats than in the desipramine- or zimeldine-treated rats. The number of small movement responses did not differ between the rat groups. These findings indicate that early postnatal active sleep and the monoaminergic systems regulating it may be important for the normal development of neuronal circuitry associated with later reactivity to auditory stimuli.

  8. n-3 Fatty acids preserve muscle mass and insulin sensitivity in a rat model of energy restriction.

    PubMed

    Galmiche, Guillaume; Huneau, Jean-François; Mathé, Véronique; Mourot, Jacques; Simon, Noémie; Le Guillou, Céline; Hermier, Dominique

    2016-10-01

    In obese subjects, the loss of fat mass during energy restriction is often accompanied by a loss of muscle mass. The hypothesis that n-3 PUFA, which modulate protein homoeostasis via effects on insulin sensitivity, could contribute to maintain muscle mass during energy restriction was tested in rats fed a high-fat diet (4 weeks) rich in 18 : 1 n-9 (oleic acid, OLE-R), 18 : 3 n-3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA-R) or n-3 long-chain (LC-R) fatty acid and then energy restricted (8 weeks). A control group (OLE-ad libitum (AL)) was maintained with AL diet throughout the study. Rats were killed 10 min after an i.v. insulin injection. All energy-restricted rats lost weight and fat mass, but only the OLE-R group showed a significant muscle loss. The Gastrocnemius muscle was enriched with ALA in the ALA-R group and with LC-PUFA in the ALA-R and LC-R groups. The proteolytic ubiquitin-proteasome system was differentially affected by energy restriction, with MAFbx and muscle ring finger-1 mRNA levels being decreased in the LC-R group (-30 and -20 %, respectively). RAC-α serine/threonine-protein kinase and insulin receptor substrate 1 phosphorylation levels increased in the LC-R group (+70 %), together with insulin receptor mRNA (+50 %). The ALA-R group showed the same overall activation pattern as the LC-R group, although to a lesser extent. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA prevent the loss of muscle mass associated with energy restriction, probably by an improvement in the insulin-signalling pathway activation, in relation to enrichment of plasma membranes in n-3 LC-PUFA.

  9. Sensitivity method for integrated structure/active control law design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    The development is described of an integrated structure/active control law design methodology for aeroelastic aircraft applications. A short motivating introduction to aeroservoelasticity is given along with the need for integrated structures/controls design algorithms. Three alternative approaches to development of an integrated design method are briefly discussed with regards to complexity, coordination and tradeoff strategies, and the nature of the resulting solutions. This leads to the formulation of the proposed approach which is based on the concepts of sensitivity of optimum solutions and multi-level decompositions. The concept of sensitivity of optimum is explained in more detail and compared with traditional sensitivity concepts of classical control theory. The analytical sensitivity expressions for the solution of the linear, quadratic cost, Gaussian (LQG) control problem are summarized in terms of the linear regulator solution and the Kalman Filter solution. Numerical results for a state space aeroelastic model of the DAST ARW-II vehicle are given, showing the changes in aircraft responses to variations of a structural parameter, in this case first wing bending natural frequency.

  10. Spirulina versicolor improves insulin sensitivity and attenuates hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress in fructose-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Hozayen, Walaa G.; Mahmoud, Ayman M.; Soliman, Hanan A.; Mostafa, Sanura R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The current study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic and insulin sensitizing effects of the cyanobacterium Spirulina versicolor extract in fructose-fed rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were fed 30% fructose solution in drinking water for 4 weeks. Animals exhibited hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were selected for further investigations. Diabetic and control rats were orally supplemented with 50 mg/kg body weight S. versicolor extract for 4 weeks. Results: At the end of 8 weeks, fructose-fed rats showed a significant increase in serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, cardiovascular risk indices and insulin resistance. Treatment of the fructose-fed rats with S. versicolor extract improved this metabolic profile. Fructose feeding produced a significant increase in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and a decrease in adiponectin levels. In addition, fructose-fed rats exhibited a significant increase in liver, kidney and heart lipid peroxidation levels, and declined antioxidant defenses. Supplementation of the fructose-fed rats with S. versicolor extract reversed these alterations. Conclusion: S. versicolor attenuates hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation, and is thus effective in improving insulin sensitivity in fructose-fed rats. PMID:27069726

  11. Obese and lean Zucker rats demonstrate differential sensitivity to rates of food reinforcement in a choice procedure.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Jessica L; Rasmussen, Erin B

    2012-12-25

    The obese Zucker rat carries two recessive fa alleles that result in the expression of an obese phenotype. Obese Zuckers have higher food intake than lean controls in free-feed studies in which rats have ready access to a large amount of one type of food. The present study examined differences in obese and lean Zucker rats using concurrent schedules of reinforcement, which more ecologically models food selection using two food choices that have limited, but generally predictable availability. Lever-pressing of ten lean (Fa/Fa or Fa/fa) and ten obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats was placed under three concurrent variable interval variable interval (conc VI VI) schedules of sucrose and carrot reinforcement, in which the programmed reinforcer ratios for 45-mg food pellets were 5:1, 1:1, and 1:5. Allocation of responses to the two food alternatives was characterized using the generalized matching equation, which allows sensitivity to reinforcer rates (a) and bias toward one alternative (log k) to be quantified. All rats showed a bias toward sucrose, though there were no differences between lean and obese Zucker rats. In addition, obese Zucker rats exhibited higher sensitivity to reinforcement rates than lean rats. This efficient pattern of responding was related to overall higher deliveries of food pellets. Effective matching for food, then, may be another behavioral pattern that contributes to an obese phenotype.

  12. Low dose of methyltestosterone in ovariectomised rats improves baroreflex sensitivity without geno- and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Terra, Denise G; de Lima, Ewelyne M; do Nascimento, Andrews M; Brasil, Girlandia A; Filete, Placielle F; Kalil, Ieda C; Lenz, Dominik; Endringer, Denise C; Bissoli, Nazaré S; de Andrade, Tadeu U

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the isolated use of a low dose of methyltestosterone (MT) on cardiovascular reflexes and hormonal levels and its geno- and cytotoxic safety in ovariectomized rats. Female Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 6), respectively: SHAM (received vehicle methylcellulose 0.5%), SHAM + MT (received MT 0.05 mg/kg), OVX (received vehicle), and OVX + MT (received MT). Twenty-one days after ovariectomy, treatment was given orally daily for 28 days. The Bezold-Jarisch reflex (BJR) was analyzed by measuring the bradycardic and hypotensive responses elicited by phenylbiguanide (PBG) administration. The baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was evaluated by phenylephrine and sodium nitroprussite. Myocyte hypertrophy was determined by morphometric analysis of H&E stained slides. Biochemical data were analyzed, as well as micronucleus assay. MT improved BRS and increased testosterone values, but did not change estradiol in the OVX group. MT did not promote changes in mean arterial pressure, heart rate, BJR, serum concentrations of troponin I, weight and histopathology of the heart. MT was able to restore the BRS in OVX rats. The geno- and cytotoxic safety of the MT was demonstrated by the absence of an increase in the micronucleus (PCEMN) or change in the ratio between normochromatic erythrocytes and polychromatic erythrocytes (NCE/PCE).

  13. Riproximin's activity depends on gene expression and sensitizes PDAC cells to TRAIL.

    PubMed

    Adwan, Hassan; Murtaja, Ahmed; Kadhim Al-Taee, Khamael; Pervaiz, Asim; Hielscher, Thomas; Berger, Martin R

    2014-09-01

    Riproximin (Rpx) is a type II ribosome inactivating protein, which was investigated for its activity in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in a panel of 17 human and rat PDAC cell lines and in rat pancreatic cancer liver metastasis. Cytotoxicity in response to Rpx was determined by MTT assay, apoptosis by flow cytometry and qRT-PCR for apoptosis related genes, and the modulation of the transcriptome was monitored by micro array analysis. The combination effect of Rpx and TRAIL was assessed by MTT assay. Rpx showed high but varying cytotoxicity in PDAC cells. Based on overall gene expression, the sensitivity of these cells was linked to genes involved in apoptosis. Furthermore, based on the affinity of Rpx for CEA, the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) genes was significantly related to Rpx's cytotoxicity in cells with CEACAM gene expression. Exposure of Suit2-007 cells to Rpx induced the mRNA expression of members of signaling pathways initiating from most death receptors, and down modulation of TRAIL. Apoptosis was increased as shown by FACS analysis. Combination of Rpx with TRAIL resulted in a synergistic cytotoxic effect in human Suit2-007 and rat ASML cells, as evidenced by a 6-fold lower tumor cell survival than expected from an additive combination effect. Treatment of BDX rats bearing intra-portally implanted Suit2-007 cells showed a highly significant anticancer effect and indicated an application of Rpx against pancreatic cancer metastasis to the liver. These data favor further evaluation of Rpx as anticancer agent in PDAC.

  14. Impulsive Action, Psychological Stress, and Behavioral Sensitization to Nicotine in a Rat Model of lmpulsivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-30

    adrenaline ) and norepinephrine from the adrenal , . 27 medulla into the bloodstream. Activation of the SNS and release of the catecholamines...phase of 1 second stimulus duration , total amount of responses on four parameters were recorded 51 in a chart: total correct, total incorrect... duration of the experiments, and their food consumption was recorded daily. All rats’ body weight was closely monitored during this time, and when

  15. Simple steatosis sensitizes cholestatic rats to liver injury and dysregulates bile salt synthesis and transport

    PubMed Central

    Lionarons, Daniël A.; Heger, Michal; van Golen, Rowan F.; Alles, Lindy K.; van der Mark, Vincent A.; Kloek, Jaap J.; de Waart, Dirk R.; Marsman, Hendrik A.; Rusch, Henny; Verheij, Joanne; Beuers, Ulrich; Paulusma, Coen C.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disorder. It is uncertain if simple steatosis, the initial and prevailing form of NAFLD, sensitizes the liver to cholestasis. Here, we compared the effects of obstructive cholestasis in rats with a normal liver versus rats with simple steatosis induced by a methionine/choline-deficient diet. We found that plasma liver enzymes were higher and hepatic neutrophil influx, inflammation, and fibrosis were more pronounced in animals with combined steatosis and cholestasis compared to cholestasis alone. Circulating bile salt levels were markedly increased and hepatic bile salt composition shifted from hydrophilic tauro-β-muricholate to hydrophobic taurocholate. This shift was cytotoxic for HepG2 hepatoma cells. Gene expression analysis revealed induction of the rate-limiting enzyme in bile salt synthesis, cytochrome P450 7a1 (CYP7A1), and modulation of the hepatic bile salt transport system. In conclusion, simple steatosis sensitizes the liver to cholestatic injury, inflammation, and fibrosis in part due to a cytotoxic shift in bile salt composition. Plasma bile salt levels were elevated, linked to dysregulation of bile salt synthesis and enhanced trafficking of bile salts from the liver to the systemic circulation. PMID:27535001

  16. Central sensitization and neuropathic features of ongoing pain in a rat model of advanced osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Havelin, Joshua; Imbert, Ian; Cormier, Jennifer; Allen, Joshua; Porreca, Frank; King, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) pain is most commonly characterized by movement-triggered joint pain. However, in advanced disease, OA pain becomes persistent, ongoing and resistant to treatment with NSAIDs. The mechanisms underlying ongoing pain in advanced OA are poorly understood. We recently showed that intra-articular (i.a.) injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) into the rat knee joint produces concentration-dependent outcomes. Thus, a low dose of i.a. MIA produces NSAID-sensitive weight asymmetry without evidence of ongoing pain while a high i.a. MIA dose produces weight asymmetry and NSAID-resistant ongoing pain. In the present studies, palpation of the ipsilateral hindlimb of rats treated 14 days previously with high, but not low, doses of i.a. MIA produced FOS expression in the spinal dorsal horn. Inactivation of descending pain facilitatory pathways by microinjection of lidocaine within the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) induced conditioned place preference (CPP) selectively in rats treated with the high dose of MIA. CPP to intra-articular lidocaine was blocked by pretreatment with duloxetine (30 mg/kg, i.p. at −30 min). These observations are consistent with the likelihood of a neuropathic component of OA that elicits ongoing, NSAID resistant pain and central sensitization that is mediated, in part, by descending modulatory mechanisms. This model provides a basis for exploration of underlying mechanisms promoting neuropathic components of OA pain and for the identification of mechanisms that may guide drug discovery for treatment of advanced OA pain without the need for joint replacement. PMID:26694132

  17. Intravital Imaging of the Kidney in a Rat Model of Salt-Sensitive Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Endres, Bradley T; Sandoval, Ruben M; Rhodes, George J; Campos-Bilderback, Silvia B; Kamocka, Malgorzata M; McDermott-Roe, Christopher; Staruschenko, Alexander; Molitoris, Bruce A; Geurts, Aron M; Palygin, Oleg

    2017-04-12

    Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide, and a major risk factor for renal failure and cardiovascular disease. The role of albuminuria, a common feature of hypertension and robust predictor of cardiorenal disorders, remains incompletely understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the mechanisms leading to albuminuria in the kidney of a rat model of hypertension, the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat. To determine the relative contributions of the glomerulus and proximal tubule (PT) to albuminuria, we applied intravital two-photon-based imaging to investigate the complex renal physiological changes that occur during salt-induced hypertension. Following a high salt diet, SS rats exhibited elevated blood pressure, increased glomerular sieving of albumin (GSCalb=0.0686), relative permeability to albumin (+∆16%) and impaired volume hemodynamics (-∆14%). Serum albumin, but not serum globulins or creatinine, concentration was decreased (-0.54g/dL), which was concomitant with increased filtration of albumin (3.7 vs 0.8 g per day normal diet). Pathologically, hypertensive animals had significant tubular damage as indicated by increased prevalence of granular casts, expansion and necrosis of PT epithelial cells (+∆2.20score/image), progressive augmentation of red blood cell velocity (+∆269µm/s) and micro vessel diameter (+∆4.3µm), and increased vascular injury (+∆0.61leakage/image). Therefore, development of salt-induced hypertension can be triggered by fast and progressive pathogenic remodeling of PT epithelia, which can be associated with changes in albumin handling. Collectively, these results indicate that both the glomerulus and the PT contribute to albuminuria and dual treatment of glomerular filtration and albumin reabsorption may represent an effective treatment of salt-sensitive hypertension.

  18. Physiological time structure of the tibialis anterior motor activity during sleep in mice, rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Silvani, Alessandro; Lo Martire, Viviana; Salvadè, Agnese; Bastianini, Stefano; Ferri, Raffaele; Berteotti, Chiara; Baracchi, Francesca; Pace, Marta; Bassetti, Claudio L; Zoccoli, Giovanna; Manconi, Mauro

    2015-12-01

    The validation of rodent models for restless legs syndrome (Willis-Ekbom disease) and periodic limb movements during sleep requires knowledge of physiological limb motor activity during sleep in rodents. This study aimed to determine the physiological time structure of tibialis anterior activity during sleep in mice and rats, and compare it with that of healthy humans. Wild-type mice (n = 9) and rats (n = 8) were instrumented with electrodes for recording the electroencephalogram and electromyogram of neck muscles and both tibialis anterior muscles. Healthy human subjects (31 ± 1 years, n = 21) underwent overnight polysomnography. An algorithm for automatic scoring of tibialis anterior electromyogram events of mice and rats during non-rapid eye movement sleep was developed and validated. Visual scoring assisted by this algorithm had inter-rater sensitivity of 92-95% and false-positive rates of 13-19% in mice and rats. The distribution of the time intervals between consecutive tibialis anterior electromyogram events during non-rapid eye movement sleep had a single peak extending up to 10 s in mice, rats and human subjects. The tibialis anterior electromyogram events separated by intervals <10 s mainly occurred in series of two-three events, their occurrence rate in humans being lower than in mice and similar to that in rats. In conclusion, this study proposes reliable rules for scoring tibialis anterior electromyogram events during non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice and rats, demonstrating that their physiological time structure is similar to that of healthy young human subjects. These results strengthen the basis for translational rodent models of periodic limb movements during sleep and restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease.

  19. Regulation of early and delayed radiation responses in rat small intestine by capsaicin-sensitive nerves

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Junru; Zheng Huaien; Kulkarni, Ashwini; Ou Xuemei; Hauer-Jensen, Martin . E-mail: mhjensen@life.uams.edu

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: Mast cells protect against the early manifestations of intestinal radiation toxicity, but promote chronic intestinal wall fibrosis. Intestinal sensory nerves are closely associated with mast cells, both anatomically and functionally, and serve an important role in the regulation of mucosal homeostasis. This study examined the effect of sensory nerve ablation on the intestinal radiation response in an established rat model. Methods and Materials: Rats underwent sensory nerve ablation with capsaicin or sham ablation. Two weeks later, a localized segment of ileum was X-irradiated or sham irradiated. Structural, cellular, and molecular changes were examined 2 weeks (early injury) and 26 weeks (chronic injury) after irradiation. The mast cell dependence of the effect of sensory nerve ablation on intestinal radiation injury was assessed using c-kit mutant (Ws/Ws) mast cell-deficient rats. Results: Capsaicin treatment caused a baseline reduction in mucosal mast cell density, crypt cell proliferation, and expression of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, two neuropeptides released by sensory neurons. Sensory nerve ablation strikingly exacerbated early intestinal radiation toxicity (loss of mucosal surface area, inflammation, intestinal wall thickening), but attenuated the development of chronic intestinal radiation fibrosis (collagen I accumulation and transforming growth factor {beta} immunoreactivity). In mast cell-deficient rats, capsaicin treatment exacerbated postradiation epithelial injury (loss of mucosal surface area), but none of the other aspects of radiation injury were affected by capsaicin treatment. Conclusions: Ablation of capsaicin-sensitive enteric neurons exacerbates early intestinal radiation toxicity, but attenuates development of chronic fibroproliferative changes. The effect of capsaicin treatment on the intestinal radiation response is partly mast cell dependent.

  20. Skeletal muscle electrical stimulation improves baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability in heart failure rats.

    PubMed

    Lazzarotto Rucatti, Ananda; Jaenisch, Rodrigo Boemo; Rossato, Douglas Dalcin; Bonetto, Jéssica Hellen Poletto; Ferreira, Janaína; Xavier, Leder Leal; Sonza, Anelise; Dal Lago, Pedro

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on the arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and cardiovascular autonomic control in rats with chronic heart failure (CHF). Male Wistar rats were designated to one of four groups: placebo sham (P-Sham, n=9), ES sham (ES-Sham, n=9), placebo CHF (P-CHF, n=9) or ES CHF (ES-CHF, n=9). The ES was adjusted at a low frequency (30 Hz), duration of 250 μs, with hold and rest time of 8s (4 weeks, 30 min/day, 5 times/week). It was applied on the gastrocnemius muscle with intensity to produce a visible muscle contraction. The rats assigned to the placebo groups performed the same procedures with the equipment turned off. The two-way ANOVA and the post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls tests (P<0.05) were used to data comparison. The BRS was higher in ES-Sham group compared to the P-Sham group and the ES-CHF group compared to the P-CHF group. ES was able to decrease heart rate sympatho-vagal modulation and peripheral sympathetic modulation in ES-CHF compared to P-CHF group. Interestingly, heart rate sympatho-vagal modulation was similar between ES-CHF and P-Sham groups. Thus, ES enhances heart rate parasympathetic modulation on heart failure (ES-CHF) compared to placebo (P-CHF), with consequent decrease of sympatho-vagal balance in the ES-CHF group compared to the P-CHF. The results show that a 4 week ES protocol in CHF rats enhances arterial BRS and cardiovascular autonomic control.

  1. Pappa2 is linked to salt-sensitive hypertension in Dahl S rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun; Kumar, Vikash; Lazar, Jozef; Jacob, Howard; Geurts, Aron M.; Liu, Pengyuan; Dayton, Alex; Kurth, Theresa; Liang, Mingyu

    2015-01-01

    A 1.37 Mbp region of chromosome 13 previously identified by exclusion mapping was consistently associated with a reduction of salt-induced hypertension in the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat. This region contained five genes that were introgressed from the salt-insensitive Brown Norway (BN) rat. The goal of the present study was to further narrow that region to identify the gene(s) most likely to protect from salt-induced hypertension. The studies yielded a subcongenic SS rat strain containing a 0.71 Mbp insert from BN (26-P strain) in which salt-induced hypertension was reduced by 24 mmHg. The region contained two protein-coding genes (Astn1 and Pappa2) and a microRNA (miR-488). Pappa2 mRNA in the renal cortex of the protected 26-P was 6- to 10-fold greater than in SS fed a 0.4% NaCl diet but was reduced to levels observed in SS when fed 8.0% NaCl diet for 7 days. Compared with brain nuclei (NTS, RVLM, CVLM) and the adrenal gland, Pappa2 in the renal cortex was the only gene found to be differentially expressed between SS and 26-P and that responded to changes of salt diet. Immunohistochemistry studies found Pappa2 localized in the cytosol of the epithelial cells of the cortical thick ascending limbs. In more distal segments of the renal tubules, it was observed within tubular lumens and most notably bound to the apical membranes of the intercalated cells of collecting ducts. We conclude that we have identified a variant form of Pappa2 that can protect against salt-induced hypertension in the Dahl S rat. PMID:26534937

  2. Pappa2 is linked to salt-sensitive hypertension in Dahl S rats.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Allen W; Yang, Chun; Kumar, Vikash; Lazar, Jozef; Jacob, Howard; Geurts, Aron M; Liu, Pengyuan; Dayton, Alex; Kurth, Theresa; Liang, Mingyu

    2016-01-01

    A 1.37 Mbp region of chromosome 13 previously identified by exclusion mapping was consistently associated with a reduction of salt-induced hypertension in the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat. This region contained five genes that were introgressed from the salt-insensitive Brown Norway (BN) rat. The goal of the present study was to further narrow that region to identify the gene(s) most likely to protect from salt-induced hypertension. The studies yielded a subcongenic SS rat strain containing a 0.71 Mbp insert from BN (26-P strain) in which salt-induced hypertension was reduced by 24 mmHg. The region contained two protein-coding genes (Astn1 and Pappa2) and a microRNA (miR-488). Pappa2 mRNA in the renal cortex of the protected 26-P was 6- to 10-fold greater than in SS fed a 0.4% NaCl diet but was reduced to levels observed in SS when fed 8.0% NaCl diet for 7 days. Compared with brain nuclei (NTS, RVLM, CVLM) and the adrenal gland, Pappa2 in the renal cortex was the only gene found to be differentially expressed between SS and 26-P and that responded to changes of salt diet. Immunohistochemistry studies found Pappa2 localized in the cytosol of the epithelial cells of the cortical thick ascending limbs. In more distal segments of the renal tubules, it was observed within tubular lumens and most notably bound to the apical membranes of the intercalated cells of collecting ducts. We conclude that we have identified a variant form of Pappa2 that can protect against salt-induced hypertension in the Dahl S rat.

  3. A sensitive geomagnetic activity index for space weather operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, D.; Xu, W. Y.; Zhao, M. X.; Chen, B.; Lu, J. Y.; Yang, G. L.

    2010-12-01

    There is an ongoing demand for real-time geomagnetic indices in space services. The traditional 3 h K index and K-derived planetary indices cannot issue alters promptly during large storms, and the 3 h interval is much larger than the time scales of ionospheric responses. To overcome these difficulties, we define a new consecutive and linear geomagnetic activity index, the range of hourly H component index (rH) with 1 min resolution, and develop a local rH index nowcast system for space weather operation, which can issue geomagnetic storm alerts quickly. We also derive Kp/Ap indices conveniently from a single station data to describe the global geomagnetic activity. Then we make a statistic comparison between rH and other definite index values during storm and find that rH is sensitive to the geomagnetic disturbance and can reflect the geomagnetic activity more delicately.

  4. NASA Desert RATS 2011 Education Pilot Project and Classroom Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, J. E.; McGlone, M.; Allen, J.; Tobola, K.; Graff, P.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of tests of hardware and operations carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona, as an analog to future exploration activities beyond low Earth orbit [1]. For the past several years, these tests have occurred in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, north of Flagstaff. For the 2011 Desert RATS season, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) at NASA headquarters provided support to develop an education pilot project that would include student activities to parallel the Desert RATS mission planning and exploration activities in the classroom, and educator training sessions. The development of the pilot project was a joint effort between the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate and the Aerospace Education Services Project (AESP), managed at Penn State University.

  5. Osteoprotegerin expression and sensitivity in otosclerosis with different histological activity.

    PubMed

    Karosi, Tamás; Csomor, Péter; Szalmás, Anita; Kónya, József; Petkó, Mihály; Sziklai, István

    2011-03-01

    Otosclerosis is a complex bone dystrophy of the human otic capsule leading to conductive and sensorineural hearing loss. Since otosclerosis may, at least in part, be considered as an autoimmune-inflammatory disease, disturbed balance of TNF-alpha and osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression has been implicated in the pathological bone remodeling. It has been supposed that active otosclerosis is characterized by decreased or missing local OPG production with invariable OPG sensitivity of the otosclerotic foci. Ankylotic stapes footplates (n = 41) removed by stapedectomy were processed to histological examination, OPG-specific RT-PCR, tissue culturing and alkaline-phosphatase (AP) activity assessment, respectively. OPG concentration of serum specimens (n = 41) was measured by ELISA. Cortical bone fragments harvested from the external ear canal were used as negative controls of otosclerosis. Among 41 ankylotic stapes footplates, 22 active and 19 inactive otosclerosis cases were histologically diagnosed. OPG expression was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in active otosclerosis compared to inactive cases. Osteoclast cultures originated from active otosclerotic foci showed a considerable susceptibility against external OPG dosage, which resulted in a significant decrease of AP activity (p < 0.001). In contrast, OPG serum levels were in the normal range (5-100 ng/ml) indicating a non-systemic bone resorption. In conclusion, secondary decreased local OPG production might play an important role in the pathogenesis of otosclerotic bone remodeling disorder. As to previous and current results, decreased OPG sensitivity of lesion-forming cells should be excluded. These observations may indicate the potential role of recombinant OPG treatment in early stages of otosclerosis.

  6. Elevation of naloxone-sensitive /sup 3/H-dihydromorphine binding in hippocampal formation of genetically epilepsy-prone rats

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, D.D.; Mills, S.A.; Jobe, P.C.; Reigel, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    /sup 3/H-Dihydromorphine (DHM) binding sites were measured in the brain of non-epileptic control and GEPR rats using in vitro autoradiographic techniques. The number of naloxone-sensitive /sup 3/H-DHM binding sites was increased 38-57% in the pyramidal cell layer of ventral hippocampal CA/sub 3/ and CA/sub 1/ of GEPR-3 and GEPR-9 rats compared to non-epileptic controls. No significant differences in /sup 3/H-DHM binding were observed in dorsal hippocampal formation, lateral entorhinal cortex, lateral geniculate or cerebellum. The results suggest that an increase in the number of opioid receptors in ventral hippocampus of GEPR rats may be one factor contributing to the enhanced sensitivity of GEPR-9 rats to the proconvulsant effects of morphine.

  7. Reduced metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in the Flinders Sensitive Line of rats, an animal model of depression: An autoradiographic study

    PubMed Central

    Kovačević, Tomislav; Skelin, Ivan; Minuzzi, Luciano; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Diksic, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a brain disorder and there is still only a partial understanding of its underlying pathophysiology. Antidepressant medications with a fast onset have not yet been developed. In addition to the monoaminergic systems, the brain glutaminergic system has been implicated in the etiology of depression. Animal studies of depression have gained importance because they permit a more invasive manipulation of the subjects than human studies. In the present study, we measured the densities of the brain regional metabotropic glutaminergic receptor 5 (mGluR5) in the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rat model of depression and two groups of control rats, the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) and Sprague Dawley (SPD), the parent strain for both the FSL and FRL rats. The FSL rats showed lower densities of mGluR5 in many brain regions compared to either the SPD and/or FRL rats. In addition, the densities in the FRL rats were larger than in the SPD rats, suggesting possible problems in using FRL rats as controls. The presented data suggest that mGluR5 is lower in animal models of depression which could be related to the cognitive and emotional dysfunctions in the FSL rat model of depression and could be relevant to a better understanding of depression in humans. PMID:22310150

  8. Intrathecal PKA-selective siRNA treatment blocks sustained morphine-mediated pain sensitization and antinociceptive tolerance in rats.

    PubMed

    Tumati, S; Roeske, W R; Largent-Milnes, T M; Vanderah, T W; Varga, E V

    2011-07-15

    Sustained morphine treatment has been shown to produce paradoxical pain sensitization (opioid-induced hyperalgesia) and also causes increase in spinal pain neurotransmitter, such as calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), concentration in experimental animals. Studies have also shown that cyclic adenosine-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) plays a major role in the regulation of presynaptic neurotransmitter (such as CGRP and substance P) synthesis and release. We have previously shown that in cultured primary sensory dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons sustained in vitro opioid agonist treatment upregulates cAMP levels (adenylyl cyclase (AC) superactivation) and augments basal and capsaicin evoked CGRP release in a PKA dependent manner. In the present study, we investigated the in vivo role of PKA in sustained morphine-mediated pain sensitization. Our data indicate that selective knock-down of spinal PKA activity by intrathecal (i.th.) pretreatment of rats with a PKA-selective small interference RNA (siRNA) mixture significantly attenuates sustained morphine-mediated augmentation of spinal CGRP immunoreactivity, thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia and antinociceptive tolerance. The present findings indicate that sustained morphine-mediated activation of spinal cAMP/PKA-dependent signaling may play an important role in opioid induced hyperalgesia.

  9. Derivation of rat embryonic stem cells and generation of protease-activated receptor-2 knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Nakata, Mitsugu; Sasada, Reiko; Ooshima, Yuki; Yano, Takashi; Shinozawa, Tadahiro; Tsukimi, Yasuhiro; Takeyama, Michiyasu; Matsumoto, Yoshio; Hashimoto, Tadatoshi

    2012-08-01

    One of the remarkable achievements in knockout (KO) rat production reported during the period 2008-2010 is the derivation of authentic embryonic stem (ES) cells from rat blastocysts using a novel culture medium containing glycogen synthase kinase 3 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitors (2i medium). Here, we report gene-targeting technology via homologous recombination in rat ES cells, demonstrating its use through production of a protease-activated receptor-2 gene (Par-2) KO rat. We began by generating germline-competent ES cells from Dark Agouti rats using 2i medium. These ES cells, which differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro, can produce chimeras with high ES cell contribution when injected into blastocysts. We then introduced a targeting vector with a neomycin-resistant gene driven by the CAG promoter to disrupt Par-2. After a 7-day drug selection, 489 neomycin-resistant colonies were obtained. Following screening by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping and quantitative PCR analysis, we confirmed three homologous recombinant clones, resulting in chimeras that transmitted the Par-2 targeted allele to offspring. Par-2 KO rats showed a loss of Par-2 messenger RNA expression in their stomach cells and a lack of PAR-2 mediated smooth muscle relaxation in the aorta as indicated by pharmacological testing. Compared with mice, rats offer many advantages in biomedical research, including a larger body size; consequently, they are widely used in scientific investigation. Thus, the establishment of a gene-targeting technology using rat ES cells will be a valuable tool in human disease model production and drug discovery.

  10. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibition by ND-630 reduces hepatic steatosis, improves insulin sensitivity, and modulates dyslipidemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Harriman, Geraldine; Greenwood, Jeremy; Bhat, Sathesh; Huang, Xinyi; Wang, Ruiying; Paul, Debamita; Tong, Liang; Saha, Asish K.; Westlin, William F.; Kapeller, Rosana; Harwood, H. James

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous inhibition of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) isozymes ACC1 and ACC2 results in concomitant inhibition of fatty acid synthesis and stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and may favorably affect the morbidity and mortality associated with obesity, diabetes, and fatty liver disease. Using structure-based drug design, we have identified a series of potent allosteric protein–protein interaction inhibitors, exemplified by ND-630, that interact within the ACC phosphopeptide acceptor and dimerization site to prevent dimerization and inhibit the enzymatic activity of both ACC isozymes, reduce fatty acid synthesis and stimulate fatty acid oxidation in cultured cells and in animals, and exhibit favorable drug-like properties. When administered chronically to rats with diet-induced obesity, ND-630 reduces hepatic steatosis, improves insulin sensitivity, reduces weight gain without affecting food intake, and favorably affects dyslipidemia. When administered chronically to Zucker diabetic fatty rats, ND-630 reduces hepatic steatosis, improves glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and reduces hemoglobin A1c (0.9% reduction). Together, these data suggest that ACC inhibition by representatives of this series may be useful in treating a variety of metabolic disorders, including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and fatty liver disease. PMID:26976583

  11. Caudate stimulation and substantia nigra activity in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Dray, A; Gonye, T J; Oakley, N R

    1976-01-01

    1. The responses of spontaneously active single neurones in the substantia nigra and overlying mesencephalic reticular formation have been analysed during the electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral caudate nucleus. Experiments were performed in rats anaesthetized with urethane or pentobarbitone. All recordings were made extracellularly with multi-barrelled glass micropipettes which were also used to test neuronal responsiveness to electrophoretically administered substances. The micropipette tip position was marked and the distribution of neurones studied has been analysed. 2. Single shock stimulation of the caudate nucleus inhibited neuronal activity in the substantia nigra (270/320 cells: mean latency 5-4 msec) and in the mesencephalic reticular formation (62/72 cells: mean latency 16-6 msec). However, these effects were often accompanied by periods of excitation. In pentobarbitone anaesthetized animals the latency and duration of these substantia nigra inhibitions was increased. 3. Compared with the zona reticulata, fewer neurones in the zona compacta of the substantia nigra responded to caudate stimulation in both urethane or pentobarbitone anaesthetized animals. 4. The activity of most cells was depressed by electrophoretically administered GABA or glycine and increased by acetylcholine or glutamate. Neurones of the mesencephalic reticular formation were less sensitive to GABA and glycine than substantia nigra neurones. Within the substantia nigra, both zona compacta and zona reticulata neurones were more sensitive to GABA than to glycine. Over-all, glutamate was a more potent excitant than acetylcholine (ACh). 5. Electrophoretic bicuculline methochloride (BMC) consistently reduced GABA but not glycine depression of substantia nigra neurones. Approximately twice as much BMC was required to reduce the endogenous inhibition of the same substantia nigra neurones and the amplitude of concomitantly evoked positive field potential as was required to abolish

  12. [The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and reproductive system activity changing of female rats with prenatal stress during aging].

    PubMed

    Shamolina, T S; Pivina, S G; Ordian, N E

    2009-09-01

    The effect of female rat daily 1-hour immobilization in the period from the 15th to the 18th gestation days on the sex steroid secretion subject to estrous cycle, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity and its sensitivity to regulatory signals based on the mechanism of negative feedback in ternale offspring during different ontogenesis stages, was studied. It has been shown that prenatal stress causes significant reproductive system activity disturbances, leading to a significant decrease in the HPA sensitivity to feedback signal in aging female rats. The obtained data indicate a modifying influence of mothers' stress on changing of female rat reproductive functions during aging together with influence on significant decrease in efficiency of HPAs' feedback path.

  13. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    MacPhail, R C; Farmer, J D; Jarema, K A

    2012-01-01

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have compared toxicant susceptibility across a broad range of life stages. Results are presented for behavioral evaluations of male Brown Norway rats obtained as adolescents (1 month), or young (4 months), middle-age (12 months) and senescent (24 months) adults. Motor activity was evaluated in photocell devices during 30-min sessions. Age-related baseline characteristics and sensitivity to toluene (0, 300, 650, or 1000mg/kg, p.o.) were determined. In Experiment 1, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats were treated with corn-oil vehicle before five weekly test sessions. Baselines of horizontal and vertical activity decreased with age, but each age-group's averages remained stable across weeks of testing. Baseline activity of older rats was more variable than that of the young adults; older rats were also more variable individually from week to week. Toluene (1000mg/kg) increased horizontal activity proportionately more in senescent rats (ca. 300% of control) than in middle-age or young-adult rats (ca.145-175% of control). Experiment 2 established toluene dose-effect functions in individual adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats; each rat received all treatments, counterbalanced across four weekly sessions. Toluene produced dose-related increases in horizontal activity that increased proportionately with age. Experiment 3 replicated the effects of toluene (1000mg/kg) in Experiment 1, showing that toluene-induced increases in horizontal activity were greatest in the oldest rats. Collectively, the results show that aging increased susceptibility to toluene and also increased variability in toluene response. Given the rapid growth of the aged population, further research is

  14. G-quadruplex DNAzymes-induced highly selective and sensitive colorimetric sensing of free heme in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruimin; Jiang, Qin; Cheng, Hanjun; Zhang, Guoqiang; Zhen, Mingming; Chen, Daiqin; Ge, Jiechao; Mao, Lanqun; Wang, Chunru; Shu, Chunying

    2014-04-21

    Direct selective determination of free heme in the cerebral system is of great significance due to the crucial roles of free heme in physiological and pathological processes. In this work, a G-quadruplex DNAzymes-induced highly sensitive and selective colorimetric sensing of free heme in rat brain is established. Initially, the conformation of an 18-base G-rich DNA sequence, PS2.M (5'-GTGGGTAGGGCGGGTTGG-3'), in the presence of K(+), changes from a random coil to a "parallel" G-quadruplex structure, which can bind free heme in the cerebral system with high affinity through π-π stacking. The resulted heme/G-quadruplex complex exhibits high peroxidase-like activity, which can be used to catalyze the oxidation of colorless ABTS(2-) to green ABTS˙(-) by H2O2. The concentration of heme can be evaluated by the naked eye and determined by UV-vis spectroscopy. The signal output showed a linear relationship for heme within the concentration range from 1 to 120 nM with a detection limit of 0.637 nM. The assay demonstrated here was highly selective and free from the interference of physiologically important species such as dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), ascorbate acid (AA), cysteine, uric acid (UA), glucose and lactate in the cerebral system. The basal dialysate level of free heme in the microdialysate from the striatum of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats was determined to be 32.8 ± 19.5 nM (n = 3). The analytic protocol possesses many advantages, including theoretical simplicity, low-cost technical and instrumental demands, and responsible detection of heme in rat brain microdialysate.

  15. Metabolic Syndrome Triggered by High-Fructose Diet Favors Choroidal Neovascularization and Impairs Retinal Light Sensitivity in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Thierry, Magalie; Pasquis, Bruno; Acar, Niyazi; Grégoire, Stéphane; Febvret, Valérie; Buteau, Bénédicte; Gambert-Nicot, Ségolène; Bron, Alain M.; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine P.; Bretillon, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration are the leading causes of blindness in Western populations. Although it is a matter of controversy, large-scale population-based studies have reported increased prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in patients with diabetes or diabetic retinopathy. We hypothesized that metabolic syndrome, one of the major risk factors for type 2 diabetes, would represent a favorable environment for the development of choroidal neovascularization, the main complication of age-related macular degeneration. The fructose-fed rat was used as a model for metabolic syndrome in which choroidal neovascularization was induced by laser photocoagulation. Male Brown Norway rats were fed for 1, 3, and 6 months with a standard equilibrated chow diet or a 60%-rich fructose diet (n = 24 per time point). The animals expectedly developed significant body adiposity (+17%), liver steatosis at 3 and 6 months, hyperleptinemia at 1 and 3 months (two-fold increase) and hyperinsulinemia at 3 and 6 months (up to two-fold increase), but remained normoglycemic and normolipemic. The fructose-fed animals exhibited partial loss of rod sensitivity to light stimulus and reduced amplitude of oscillatory potentials at 6 months. Fructose-fed rats developed significantly more choroidal neovascularization at 14 and 21 days post-laser photocoagulation after 1 and 3 months of diet compared to animals fed the control diet. These results were consistent with infiltration/activation of phagocytic cells and up-regulation of pro-angiogenic gene expression such as Vegf and Leptin in the retina. Our data therefore suggested that metabolic syndrome would exacerbate the development of choroidal neovascularization in our experimental model. PMID:25380250

  16. The influence of tomograph sensitivity on kinetic parameter estimation in positron emission tomography imaging studies of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Meikle, S R; Eberl, S; Fulton, R R; Kassiou, M; Fulham, M J

    2000-08-01

    We investigated the influence of tomograph sensitivity on reliability of parameter estimation in positron emission tomography studies of the rat brain. The kinetics of two tracers in rat striatum and cerebellum were simulated. A typical injected dose of 10 MBq and a reduced dose of 1 MBq were assumed. Kinetic parameters were estimated using a region of interest (ROI) analysis and two pixel-by-pixel analyses. Striatal binding potential was estimated as a function of effective tomograph sensitivity (S(eff)) using a simplified reference tissue model. A S(eff) value of > or =1% was required to ensure reliable parameter estimation for ROI analysis and a S(eff) of 3-6% was required for pixel-by-pixel analysis. We conclude that effective tomograph sensitivity of 3% may be an appropriate design goal for rat brain imaging.

  17. Sensitive determination of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol in rat plasma using HPLC-APCI-MS: application of pharmacokinetic study in rats.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-Can; Sun, Jian-Guo; Wang, Guang-Ji; A, Ji-Ye; Xie, Hai-Tang; Zha, Wei-Bin; Yan, Bei; Sun, Fen-Zhi; Hao, Hai-Ping; Gu, Sheng-Hua; Sheng, Long-Sheng; Shao, Feng; Shi, Jian; Zhou, Fang

    2008-12-15

    20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD), the main metabolite of protopanoxadiol type ginsenosides (e.g. Rg3 and Rh2), is a very promising anti-cancer drug candidate. To evaluate the pharmacokinetic property of PPD, we reported a reliable, sensitive and simple method utilizing liquid chromatography (HPLC)-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) to determine PPD. PPD and the internal standard, panoxadiol (PD) were extracted from plasma with acetic ether, separated on a C18 reverse column, and then analyzed by APCI-MS. Targeting fragment ion at m/z 425 for both PPD and PD was monitored in selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode. PPD can be quantitatively determined at the concentration as low as 1 ng/mL using 200 microL plasma. And the sensitive method showed excellent linearity over a range from 1 to 1000 ng/mL, high recovery, accuracy and precision at the concentrations of 2.5, 100.0 and 1000.0 ng/mL, respectively. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of PPD in rats. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and absolute bioavailability of PPD was 36.8+/-12.4%, at least ten times higher than that of Rg3 and Rh2, indicating its good absorption in gastrointestinal tract. It was further suggested that PPD be a promising anti-cancer candidate and probably responsible for the observed pharmacological activity of Rg3 and Rh2.

  18. Glutamate and capsaicin effects on trigeminal nociception I: Activation and peripheral sensitization of deep craniofacial nociceptive afferents.

    PubMed

    Lam, David K; Sessle, Barry J; Hu, James W

    2009-01-28

    We have examined the effect of the peripheral application of glutamate and capsaicin to deep craniofacial tissues in influencing the activation and peripheral sensitization of deep craniofacial nociceptive afferents. The activity of single trigeminal nociceptive afferents with receptive fields in deep craniofacial tissues were recorded extracellularly in 55 halothane-anesthetized rats. The mechanical activation threshold (MAT) of each afferent was assessed before and after injection of 0.5 M glutamate (or vehicle) and 1% capsaicin (or vehicle) into the receptive field. A total of 68 afferents that could be activated by blunt noxious mechanical stimulation of the deep craniofacial tissues (23 masseter, 5 temporalis, 40 temporomandibular joint) were studied. When injected alone, glutamate and capsaicin activated and induced peripheral sensitization reflected as MAT reduction in many afferents. Following glutamate injection, capsaicin-evoked activity was greater than that evoked by capsaicin alone, whereas following capsaicin injection, glutamate-evoked responses were similar to glutamate alone. These findings indicate that peripheral application of glutamate or capsaicin may activate or induce peripheral sensitization in a subpopulation of trigeminal nociceptive afferents innervating deep craniofacial tissues, as reflected in changes in MAT and other afferent response properties. The data further suggest that peripheral glutamate and capsaicin receptor mechanisms may interact to modulate the activation and peripheral sensitization in some deep craniofacial nociceptive afferents.

  19. Disodium cromoglycate reverses colonic visceral hypersensitivity and influences colonic ion transport in a stress-sensitive rat strain.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Siobhan Yvonne; O'Mahony, Siobhain Mary; Grenham, Susan; Cryan, John Francis; Hyland, Niall Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The interface between psychiatry and stress-related gastrointestinal disorders (GI), such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), is well established, with anxiety and depression the most frequently occurring comorbid conditions. Moreover, stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, which display anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, exhibit GI disturbances akin to those observed in stress-related GI disorders. Additionally, there is mounting preclinical and clinical evidence implicating mast cells as significant contributors to the development of abdominal visceral pain in IBS. In this study we examined the effects of the rat connective tissue mast cell (CTMC) stabiliser, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on visceral hypersensitivity and colonic ion transport, and examined both colonic and peritoneal mast cells from stress-sensitive WKY rats. DSCG significantly decreased abdominal pain behaviors induced by colorectal distension in WKY animals independent of a reduction in colonic rat mast cell mediator release. We further demonstrated that mast cell-stimulated colonic ion transport was sensitive to inhibition by the mast cell stabiliser DSCG, an effect only observed in stress-sensitive rats. Moreover, CTMC-like mast cells were significantly increased in the colonic submucosa of WKY animals, and we observed a significant increase in the proportion of intermediate, or immature, peritoneal mast cells relative to control animals. Collectively our data further support a role for mast cells in the pathogenesis of stress-related GI disorders.

  20. Diuretic activity of leaves of garcinia cambogia in rats.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Githa E; Mathew, B; Shaneeb, M M; Nyanthara, B

    2011-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to establish the diuretic activity of ethanol and aqueous extract of dried leaves of Garcinia cambogia in rats. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves were administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg and compared with furosemide (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) as the standard. The parameters measured for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine concentration electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and chloride have been evaluated . The rats treated with ethanol extract of Garcinia cambogia and aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg showed higher urine output when compared to the respective control. Both ethanol and aqueous extracts have showed a significant dose-dependent increase in the excretion of electrolytes when compared to the control group.

  1. Testicular Development in Male Rats Is Sensitive to a Soy-Based Diet in the Neonatal Period1

    PubMed Central

    Napier, India D.; Simon, Liz; Perry, Devin; Cooke, Paul S.; Stocco, Douglas M.; Sepehr, Estatira; Doerge, Daniel R.; Kemppainen, Barbara W.; Morrison, Edward E.; Akingbemi, Benson T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Approximately 30% of infants in the United States are exposed to high doses of isoflavones resulting from soy infant formula consumption. Soybeans contain the isoflavones genistin and daidzin, which are hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract to their genistein and daidzein aglycones. Both aglycones possess hormonal activity and may interfere with male reproductive development. Testosterone, which supports male fertility, is mainly produced by testicular Leydig cells. Our previous studies indicated that perinatal exposure of male rats to isoflavones induced proliferative activity in Leydig cells and increased testosterone concentrations into adulthood. However, the relevance of the neonatal period as part of the perinatal window of isoflavone exposure remains to be established. The present study examined the effects of exposure to isoflavones on male offspring of dams maintained on a casein-based control or whole soybean diet in the neonatal period, that is, Days 2 to 21 postpartum. The results showed that the soybean diet stimulated proliferative activity in developing Leydig cells while suppressing their steroidogenic capacity in adulthood. In addition, isoflavone exposure decreased production of anti-Müllerian hormone by Sertoli cells. Similar to our previous in vitro studies of genistein action in Leydig cells, daidzein induced proliferation and interfered with signaling pathways to suppress steroidogenic activity. Overall, the data showed that the neonatal period is a sensitive window of exposure to isoflavones and support the view that both genistein and daidzein are responsible for biological effects associated with soy-based diets. PMID:24451983

  2. Estradiol selectively reduces central neural activation induced by hypertonic NaCl infusion in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alexis B; Bass, Eryn E; Fan, Liming; Curtis, Kathleen S

    2012-09-10

    We recently reported that the latency to begin drinking water during slow, intravenous infusion of a concentrated NaCl solution was shorter in estradiol-treated ovariectomized rats compared to oil vehicle-treated rats, despite comparably elevated plasma osmolality. To test the hypothesis that the decreased latency to begin drinking is attributable to enhanced detection of increased plasma osmolality by osmoreceptors located in the CNS, the present study used immunocytochemical methods to label fos, a marker of neural activation. Increased plasma osmolality did not activate the subfornical organ (SFO), organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), or the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in either oil vehicle-treated rats or estradiol-treated rats. In contrast, hyperosmolality increased fos labeling in the area postrema (AP), the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in both groups; however, the increase was blunted in estradiol-treated rats. These results suggest that estradiol has selective effects on the sensitivity of a population of osmo-/Na(+)-receptors located in the AP, which, in turn, alters activity in other central areas associated with responses to increased osmolality. In conjunction with previous reports that hyperosmolality increases blood pressure and that elevated blood pressure inhibits drinking, the current findings of reduced activation in AP, PVN, and RVLM-areas involved in sympathetic nerve activity-raise the possibility that estradiol blunts HS-induced blood pressure changes. Thus, estradiol may eliminate or reduce the initial inhibition of water intake that occurs during increased osmolality, and facilitate a more rapid behavioral response, as we observed in our recent study.

  3. Assessment of sensitization potential of monoterpenes using the rat popliteal lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Karen; Delgado, Isabella F; Santos, Laísa M F; Paumgartten, Francisco J R

    2007-08-01

    The popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA) has been proposed as a screening test for detecting chemicals with potential of inducing allergic and auto-immune-like reactions in humans. In the present study, we used the rat PLNA to evaluate the immuno-sensitizing potential of 10 monoterpenes found in the essential oils of a variety of aromatic, edible and medicinal plants. The primary or direct PLNA was performed with the monoterpenes, and chlorpromazine (CPZ) and barbital were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Female, 7-8 week-old Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously (50 microL) with the test substance (0.5, 2.5 or 5mg) into the right hind footpad while the contralateral footpad was injected with the vehicle (DMSO) alone. Weight (WI) and cellularity (CI) indices for draining PLNs were determined 7 days after treatment. PLNA was positive (WI >or= 2 and CI >or= 5) for CPZ, citral, alpha-terpinene, beta-myrcene and (-)-alpha-pinene, and negative for barbital, DMSO, (-)-menthol, 1,8-cineole, (+/-) citronellal, (+)-limonene, (+/-) camphor and terpineol. A secondary PLNA, a T-cell priming test, was carried out with the four substances that had been positive in the primary assay. Six weeks after being locally primed with 5 mg/paw, rats were sc injected into the same footpad with a dose (0.5 mg/paw) of the substance that had been previously found to be insufficient to cause a positive response. WI and CI were then calculated 4 and 7 days after the second injection. CPZ was also positive in the secondary assay thereby confirming that it is a sensitizing agent. Citral, alpha-terpinene, beta-myrcene and (-)-alpha-pinene, however, were negative in the secondary assay. In summary, citral, alpha-terpinene, beta-myrcene and (-)-alpha-pinene induced a clear immuno-stimulatory response due to their irritant properties but no monoterpene proved to be a sensitizing agent in the PLNA.

  4. Activation of bitter taste receptors in pulmonary nociceptors sensitizes TRPV1 channels through the PLC and PKC signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qihai David; Joe, Deanna S; Gilbert, Carolyn A

    2017-03-01

    Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs), a G protein-coupled receptor family capable of detecting numerous bitter-tasting compounds, have recently been shown to be expressed and play diverse roles in many extraoral tissues. Here we report the functional expression of T2Rs in rat pulmonary sensory neurons. In anesthetized spontaneously breathing rats, intratracheal instillation of T2R agonist chloroquine (10 mM, 0.1 ml) significantly augmented chemoreflexes evoked by right-atrial injection of capsaicin, a specific activator for transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1), whereas intravenous infusion of chloroquine failed to significantly affect capsaicin-evoked reflexes. In patch-clamp recordings with isolated rat vagal pulmonary sensory neurons, pretreatment with chloroquine (1-1,000 µM, 90 s) concentration dependently potentiated capsaicin-induced TRPV1-mediated inward currents. Preincubating with diphenitol and denatonium (1 mM, 90 s), two other T2R activators, also enhanced capsaicin currents in these neurons but to a lesser extent. The sensitizing effect of chloroquine was effectively prevented by the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 (1 µM) or by the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine (10 µM). In summary, our study showed that activation of T2Rs augments capsaicin-evoked TRPV1 responses in rat pulmonary nociceptors through the phospholipase C and protein kinase C signaling pathway.

  5. Central neural activation following contact sensitivity peripheral immune challenge: evidence of brain–immune regulation through C fibres

    PubMed Central

    Thinschmidt, Jeffrey S; King, Michael A; Korah, Maria; Perez, Pablo D; Febo, Marcelo; Miyan, Jaleel; Grant, Maria B

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that peripheral immune challenges will produce predictable activation patterns in the rat brain consistent with sympathetic excitation. As part of examining this hypothesis, this study asked whether central activation is dependent on capsaicin-sensitive C-fibres. We induced skin contact sensitivity immune responses with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), in the presence or absence of the acute C-fibre toxin capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) to trigger immune responses with and without diminished activity of C-fibres. Innovative blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging data revealed that the skin contact sensitivity immune responses induced with DNCB were associated with localized increases in brain neuronal activity in treated rats. This response was diminished by pre-treatment with capsaicin 1 week before scans. In the same animals, we found expression of the immediate early gene c-Fos in sub-regions of the amygdala and hypothalamic sympathetic brain nuclei. Significant increases in c-Fos expression were found in the supraoptic nucleus, central amygdala and medial habenula following immune challenges. Our results support the idea that selective brain regions, some of which are associated with sympathetic function, process or modulate immune function through pathways that are partially dependent on C-fibres. Together with previous studies demonstrating the motor control pathways from brain to immune targets, these findings indicate a central neuroimmune system to monitor host status and coordinate appropriate host responses. PMID:25967648

  6. Central neural activation following contact sensitivity peripheral immune challenge: evidence of brain-immune regulation through C fibres.

    PubMed

    Thinschmidt, Jeffrey S; King, Michael A; Korah, Maria; Perez, Pablo D; Febo, Marcelo; Miyan, Jaleel; Grant, Maria B

    2015-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that peripheral immune challenges will produce predictable activation patterns in the rat brain consistent with sympathetic excitation. As part of examining this hypothesis, this study asked whether central activation is dependent on capsaicin-sensitive C-fibres. We induced skin contact sensitivity immune responses with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), in the presence or absence of the acute C-fibre toxin capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) to trigger immune responses with and without diminished activity of C-fibres. Innovative blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging data revealed that the skin contact sensitivity immune responses induced with DNCB were associated with localized increases in brain neuronal activity in treated rats. This response was diminished by pre-treatment with capsaicin 1 week before scans. In the same animals, we found expression of the immediate early gene c-Fos in sub-regions of the amygdala and hypothalamic sympathetic brain nuclei. Significant increases in c-Fos expression were found in the supraoptic nucleus, central amygdala and medial habenula following immune challenges. Our results support the idea that selective brain regions, some of which are associated with sympathetic function, process or modulate immune function through pathways that are partially dependent on C-fibres. Together with previous studies demonstrating the motor control pathways from brain to immune targets, these findings indicate a central neuroimmune system to monitor host status and coordinate appropriate host responses.

  7. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity in Wistar and August rats with low and high motor activity (a cytochemical study).

    PubMed

    Sergutina, A V; Rakhmanova, V I

    2014-08-01

    Acetylcholinesterase activity was quantitatively evaluated by cytochemical method in brain structures (layers III and V of the sensorimotor cortex, caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus CA3 field) of August and Wistar rats demonstrating high and low motor activity in the open field test. In August rats, acetylcholinesterase activity in the analyzed brain structures prevailed in animals with high motor activity in comparison with rats with low motor activity. In Wistar rats, the differences between the animals demonstrating high and low motor activity were less pronounced, but varied depending on the experimental series of studies. Comparisons of August rats with low motor activity and Wistar rats with high motor activity (maximum difference of motor function in these animals) revealed significant excess of acetylcholinesterase activity in layer III of the sensorimotor cortex in August rats and no differences in other brain structures of the examined animals.

  8. Antihyperalgesic Activity of Rhodiola rosea in a Diabetic Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Déciga-Campos, Myrna; González-Trujano, Maria Eva; Ventura-Martínez, Rosa; Montiel-Ruiz, Rosa Mariana; Ángeles-López, Guadalupe Esther; Brindis, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    Preclinical Research Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) is used for enhancing physical and mental performance. Recent studies demonstrated that R. rosea had anti-inflammatory activity in animal models, for example, carrageenan- and nystatin-induced edema in rats, possibly by inhibiting phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenases-1 and -2. In addition, R. rosea had antinociceptive activity in thermal and chemical pain tests as well as mechanical hyperalgesia. The purpose of the present study was to assess the antihyperalgesic effect of an ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) in a diabetic rat model. Rats were administered a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ; 50 mg/kg, i.p.) and hyperalgesia was evaluated four weeks later. Formalin-evoked (0.5%) flinching was increased in diabetic rats compared with nondiabetic controls Systemic (1-100 mg/kg, i.p.) and local (0.1-10 mg/paw into the dorsal surface of the right hind paw) administration of R. rosea ethanol extract dose-dependently reduced formalin-induced hyperalgesia in diabetic rats. The antihyperalgesic effect of R. rosea was compared with gabapentin. These results suggest that R. rosea ethanol extract may have potential as a treatment for diabetic hyperalgesia.

  9. Effect of diphenoxylate on CYP450 isoforms activity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Peiwu; Cai, Jinzhang; Wang, Shuanghu; Yang, Suping; Liu, Zezheng; Lin, Yingying; Wen, Congcong; Wang, Xianqin; Zhou, Yunfang; Zhang, Meiling

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of diphenoxylate on the metabolic capacity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, a cocktail method was employed to evaluate the activities of CYP2B6, CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C9. The rats were randomly divided into diphenoxylate group (Low, Medium, High) and control group. The diphenoxylate group rats were given 12, 24, 48 mg/kg (Low, Medium, High) diphenoxylate by continuous intragastric administration for 7 days. Six probe drugs bupropion, metroprolol omeprazole, phenacetin, testosterone and tolbutamide were given to rats through intragastric administration, and the plasma concentrations were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. Statistical pharmacokinetics difference for omeprazole, phenacetin and tolbutamide in rats were observed by comparing diphenoxylate group with control group. Continuous 7 days-intragastric administration of diphenoxylate induces the activities of CYP2C19, CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 of rats. Induction of drug metabolizing enzyme by diphenoxylate would reduce the efficacy of other drug. Additionally, high dosage diphenoxylate may cause hepatotoxicity. PMID:26770498

  10. [Comparison of the brain pharmacokinetics of nasal tetramethylpyrazine phosphate pH-sensitive in situ gel in normal rats and model rats].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Wei; Yan, Yi-Lin; Zhou, Li-Ling

    2012-05-01

    The study is to investigate the brain pharmacokinetics change of nasal tetramethylpyrazine phosphate (TMPP) pH-sensitive in situ gel in normal and model rats. Acute cerebral ischemia rat model was successfully established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method. Both normal and model rats were given nasal TMPP pH-sensitive in situ gel (10 mg x kg(-1)). Perfusates of brain striatum area were collected at each time point by microdialysis. The content of TMPP was determined by HPLC. The pharmacokinetics parameters were calculated by Kinetica 4.4 software at each time point of the brain drug concentration. The main pharmacokinetics parameters of TMPP were fitted with compartments 2. After nasal TMPP pH-sensitive in situ gel the values of C(max) and AUC of both components in brain showed as follows: the value of model group > that of normal group. Significant difference can be observed in the process of brain pharmacokinetics in normal and model rats after giving nasal TMPP pH-sensitive in situ gel.

  11. Antidepressant-like effects of the vasopressin V1b receptor antagonist SSR149415 in the Flinders Sensitive Line rat.

    PubMed

    Overstreet, David H; Griebel, Guy

    2005-09-01

    There is an increased interest in the potential of vasopressin receptor antagonists as antidepressants because of the involvement of vasopressin in stress-related behavioral changes. The present study sought to provide confirmatory evidence for the antidepressant-like effects of the selective vasopressin V1b receptor antagonist SSR149415, which had been previously demonstrated in a variety of animal models. The Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rat, a selectively bred animal model of depression, was chronically treated for 14 days with SSR149415 (1, 10, and 30 mg/kg), vehicle, or desipramine (5 mg/kg) as a positive control. Approximately 22-24 h after the last treatment, the rats were exposed to a single 5-min session in a cylinder containing 25 degrees C water and immobility was recorded. A control group of Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats was included as a reference group as well as one treated with 10 mg/kg SSR149415. Vehicle-treated FSL rats exhibited much more immobility than the FRL rats, and desipramine-treated FSL rats had much lower scores, as expected. Treatment with SSR149415 reduced immobility in the FSL rats at all doses, but only the higher doses reduced it such that they were no longer different from the FRL rats. In contrast, SSR149415 did not alter the lower immobility of the FRL rats. The social interaction test of anxiety was also examined in the FSL rats, at 20-22 h after the last of the 14 injections. Results showed that the 10 and 30 mg/kg doses of SSR149415 increased the time spent in social interaction in the FSL rats, suggesting anxiolytic effects. These findings confirm the antidepressant-like potential of SSR149415 and suggest that it may also have anxiolytic effects. It is likely that the strategy of testing selective vasopressin V1b receptor antagonists will be fruitful.

  12. Renal brush-border Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ exchange activity in the aging rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, J.L.; Sacktor, B.

    1987-04-01

    Amiloride-sensitive Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ exchange activity in brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from male rat proximal tubules was decreased in the senescent rat (24 mo) compared with the young adult (6 mo). There was no significant loss in Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ exchange activity in the kidneys of animals between 6 and 18 mo of age. Amiloride-insensitive /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake and the rate of pH gradient dissipation were not altered during aging. The decrease in sodium-dependent (/sup 32/P) phosphate transport preceded the decline in Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ exchange activity by at least 6 mo. Sodium-dependent D-(/sup 3/H) glucose transport was not significantly altered during aging. Thus various renal plasma membrane transport functions were affected differently in the aging rat. The decrease in Na/sup +/-H/sup +/ exchange activity during aging contrasted with the increase in exchange activity reported previously in acute ablation models of chronic renal failure.

  13. Early neonatal experience of Long-Evans rats results in long-lasting changes in reactivity to a novel environment and morphine-induced sensitization and tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kalinichev, Mikhail; Easterling, Keith W; Holtzman, Stephen G

    2002-10-01

    In Long-Evans rats, daily 3-h separation from the dam during the neonatal period results in enduring alterations in behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stressors and sensitivity to antinociceptive effects of acute and chronic morphine. We tested whether early neonatal experience alters sensitivity to effects of morphine on locomotor activity. The subjects were adult rats that had one of the following backgrounds: daily separation from the dam on postnatal days 2-14 for either 3 h (maternal separation (MS)) or 15 min (handled control (H)) or no separation from the dam (non-handled control (NH)). After two consecutive days of baseline activity measurements, subjects were tested daily after SC injections of either morphine (10 mg/kg) or saline for seven days and again on day 10. Beginning five days later, saline and 1.0-10 mg/kg of morphine were tested in all animals. On the baseline days, MS animals had higher horizontal and vertical activity than did NH controls, whereas H animals spent more time in the center of the testing chamber. In MS and H animals but not in NH controls, daily injections of morphine produced progressive increases in all locomotor activity measures, indicative of sensitization (horizontal counts, center time) and tolerance (vertical counts). MS animals with a history of morphine treatment had significantly higher horizontal and vertical activity after a saline injection than did their counterparts with a history of saline treatment, indicative of conditioning. They also exhibited greater locomotor sensitization to 1.0 mg/kg of morphine than did H and NH controls. These results provide further evidence that environmental manipulation in the form of maternal separation early in life results in enduring changes in sensitivity to effects of morphine that could reflect altered endogenous opioid systems.

  14. Spontaneous running activity in male rats - Effect of age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondon, C. E.; Dolkas, C. B.; Sims, C.; Reaven, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    Variations in the intensity and the patterns of spontaneous running activity in wheel cages were studied in male rats aged 7 weeks to one year. Daily running records were obtained for periods of 12 mo, and 24-hour recordings were made for selected runners in order to study variations in running activity during the day. The data indicate that for rats running over two miles/day, the maximum running intensity can be divided into two groups: a group of high achievers running 8 miles/day; and a group of moderate achievers running 4.8 miles/day. For both groups spontaneous activity reached a maximum after 4-5 weeks. An hourly pattern of running activity during the day was identified in rats of increasing age who averaged 9.0, 4.5, 2.6, and 1.2 miles/day, respectively. Progressive losses were observed in both the speed and the duration of spontaneous running as the rats increased in age, with the intensity of exercise falling below 2 miles/day after 7-8 months of age.

  15. Triacylglycerol kinetics in endotoxic rats with suppressed lipoprotein lipase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, G.J.; Corll, C.B.; Martinez, R.R.

    1987-07-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia observed in animals after bacterial endotoxin administration and some forms of sepsis can result from increased hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) output or decreased TG clearance by extrahepatic tissues. To differentiate between these two possibilities, TG and free fatty acid (FFA) kinetics were determined in control and endotoxin-injected rats 18 h after treatment. Plasma TG and FFA kinetics were assessed by a constant intravenous infusion with (9,10-/sup 3/H)palmitate-labeled very low-density lipoprotein and (1-/sup 14/C)palmitate bound to albumin, respectively. In addition, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was determined in heart, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue as well as in postheparin plasma of functionally hepatectomized, adrenalectomized, and gonadectomized rats. Plasma FFA acid concentrations were slightly increased in endotoxin-treated rats but their turnover did not differ from control. Endotoxin-treated rats had a threefold increase in plasma TG concentrations and decreased heart, skeletal muscle, and post-heparin plasma LPL activity. Plasma TG turnover was decreased, indicating that hypertriglyceridemia was not due to an increased TG output by the liver. Instead, the endotoxin-induced increase in plasma TG concentration was consequence of the 80% reduction in TG metabolic clearance rate. Thus, suppression of LPL activity in endotoxic animals impairs TG clearance resulting in hypertriglyceridemia. Furthermore, endotoxin administration reduced the delivery of TG-FFA to extrahepatic tissues because hepatic synthesis and secretion of TG from plasma FFA was decreased and LPL activity was suppressed.

  16. Development and characteristics of inbred strains of Dahl salt-sensitive and salt-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Rapp, J P; Dene, H

    1985-01-01

    Several inbred lines of rats were produced from noninbred stock of Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rats, and several inbred lines were also produced from noninbred stock of Dahl salt-resistant (R) rats. There were significant differences (p less than 0.001) in blood pressure response to a high salt diet among the inbred S lines produced, which indicates that the original S stock obtained from Brookhaven Laboratories is not genetically homogeneous. There were no significant differences in blood pressure among the inbred R lines produced. One inbred strain of S and one inbred strain of R with the appropriate blood pressure responses were ultimately brother-sister mated for more than 20 generations. These inbred strains were called S/JR and R/JR respectively. Fulminant hypertension and marked vascular and renal lesions developed in the S/JR after 3 to 4 weeks on a high salt (8% NaCl) diet, and all S/JR were dead within 8 weeks on the high salt diet. In contrast, R/JR survived well on a high salt diet, and hypertension or vascular and renal lesions did not develop. Hypertension and associated vascular and renal lesions developed in S/JR on a low salt diet (0.4% NaCl), but this took 3 to 4 months. These characteristics are similar to those originally reported by Dahl for his noninbred, continuously selected stocks. The R/JR were found to have mild hydronephrosis at 4 months of age, which probably is genetically determined and which may have been fixed inadvertently in the strain during inbreeding.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of memantine hydrochloride in rat plasma using sensitive fluorometric derivatization.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mei-Fen; Zhou, Wei; Tong, Xin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Le; Cai, Yi; Li, Yan; Duan, Geng-Li

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we investigated a simple, sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method for the determination of memantine hydrochloride in rat plasma which was based on derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl). For the first time, FMOC-Cl was introduced into derivatization of memantine hydrochloride in rat plasma. The amino groups of memantine hydrochloride and amantadine hydrochloride (internal standard) were trapped with FMOC-Cl to form memantine hydrochloride-FMOC-Cl and amantadine hydrochloride-FMOC-Cl compositions, which can be very compatible for LC-FLD. Precipitation of plasma proteins by acetonitrile was followed by vortex mixing and centrifugation. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C(18) column (DIAMONSIL 150 × 4.6 mm, id 5 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The retention times of memantine hydrochloride-FMOC-Cl and amantadine hydrochloride-FMOC-Cl compositions were 23.69 and 40.27 min, respectively. Optimal conditions for the derivatization of memantine hydrochloride were also described. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 25 ng/mL for memantine hydrochloride in plasma, the linear range was 0.025-5.0 μg/mL in plasma with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9999. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra-day and inter-day assays were 4.46-12.19 and 5.23-11.50%, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to the determination of memantine hydrochloride in rat plasma samples.

  18. Repeated allergen exposure of sensitized Brown-Norway rats induces airway cell DNA synthesis and remodelling.

    PubMed

    Salmon, M; Walsh, D A; Koto, H; Barnes, P J; Chung, K F

    1999-09-01

    Chronic inflammation in asthmatic airways can lead to characteristic airway smooth muscle (ASM) thickening and pathological changes within the airway wall. This study assessed the effect of repeated allergen exposure on ASM and epithelial cell deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis, cell recruitment and airway wall pathology. Brown-Norway rats were sensitized and then exposed to ovalbumin or saline aerosol every 3 days on six occasions. After the final exposure, rats were administered twice daily for 7 days with the DNA S-phase marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Using a triple immunohistochemical staining technique, BrdU incorporation into ASM and epithelium was quantified employing computer-assisted image analysis. There were >3-fold mean increases in BrdU incorporation into ASM from 1.3% of cells (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-1.6) in saline controls to 4.7% (95% CI 2.6-6.7) after allergen exposure (p<0.001), and in airway epithelium, from 1.3 (95% CI 0.6-2.0) BrdU-positive cells x mm basement membrane(-1) in saline controls to 4.9 (95% CI 3.0-6.7) after allergen exposure (p<0.001). There was increased subepithelial collagen deposition and mucus secretion along with a significant eosinophil and lymphocyte recruitment to the airways. Increased rates of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in both airway smooth muscle and epithelial cells along with changes to the airway wall pathology may precede the establishment of smooth muscle thickening and airway remodelling after repeated allergen exposure in rats. This model seems to be appropriate for studying structural changes within the airways as observed in asthma.

  19. Melatonin improves insulin sensitivity independently of weight loss in old obese rats.

    PubMed

    Zanuto, Ricardo; Siqueira-Filho, Mário A; Caperuto, Luciana C; Bacurau, Reury F P; Hirata, Emiko; Peliciari-Garcia, Rodrigo A; do Amaral, Fernanda Gaspar; Marçal, Anderson C; Ribeiro, Luciene M; Camporez, João P G; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Bordin, Silvana; Cipolla-Neto, José; Carvalho, Carla R O

    2013-09-01

    In aged rats, insulin signaling pathway (ISP) is impaired in tissues that play a pivotal role in glucose homeostasis, such as liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. Moreover, the aging process is also associated with obesity and reduction in melatonin synthesis from the pineal gland and other organs. The aim of the present work was to evaluate, in male old obese Wistar rats, the effect of melatonin supplementation in the ISP, analyzing the total protein amount and the phosphorylated status (immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting) of the insulin cascade components in the rat hypothalamus, liver, skeletal muscle, and periepididymal adipose tissue. Melatonin was administered in the drinking water for 8- and 12 wk during the night period. Food and water intake and fasting blood glucose remained unchanged. The insulin sensitivity presented a 2.1-fold increase both after 8- and 12 wk of melatonin supplementation. Animals supplemented with melatonin for 12 wk also presented a reduction in body mass. The acute insulin-induced phosphorylation of the analyzed ISP proteins increased 1.3- and 2.3-fold after 8- and 12 wk of melatonin supplementation. The total protein content of the insulin receptor (IR) and the IR substrates (IRS-1, 2) remained unchanged in all investigated tissues, except for the 2-fold increase in the total amount of IRS-1 in the periepididymal adipose tissue. Therefore, the known age-related melatonin synthesis reduction may also be involved in the development of insulin resistance and the adequate supplementation could be an important alternative for the prevention of insulin signaling impairment in aged organisms.

  20. Phosphoinositide-3-kinase and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathways mediate acute NGF sensitization of TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weiguo; Oxford, Gerry S

    2007-04-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) induces an acute sensitization of nociceptive DRG neurons, in part, through sensitization of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 via the high affinity trkA receptor. The mechanisms linking trkA and TRPV1 remain controversial with several candidate signaling pathways proposed. Utilizing adult rat and mouse DRG neurons and CHO cells co-expressing trkA and TRPV1, we have investigated the signaling events underlying acute TRPV1 sensitization by NGF combining biochemical, electrophysiological, pharmacological, mutational and genetic knockout approaches. Pharmacological interference with p42/p44 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) or phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), but not PLC abrogated sensitization of capsaicin responses. Co-expression of TRPV1 with wild-type or Y785F (PLC signal deficient) mutant human trkA reconstituted NGF sensitization. In contrast, TRPV1 co-expressed with MAPK signaling deficient Y490A or PI3K signaling deficient Y751F trkA mutants exhibited weaker sensitization. Biochemical analysis of p42/p44 and Akt phosphorylation confirmed the specificity of pharmacological agents and trkA mutants. Finally, NGF sensitization of capsaicin responses was greatly reduced in neurons from p85alpha (regulatory subunit of PI3K) null mice. These data strongly suggest that PI3K and MAPK pathways, but not the PLC pathway underlie the acute sensitization of TRPV1 by NGF.

  1. A polymer optoelectronic interface restores light sensitivity in blind rat retinas

    PubMed Central

    Ghezzi, Diego; Antognazza, Maria Rosa; Maccarone, Rita; Bellani, Sebastiano; Lanzarini, Erica; Martino, Nicola; Mete, Maurizio; Pertile, Grazia; Bisti, Silvia; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Benfenati, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Interfacing organic electronics with biological substrates offers new possibilities for biotechnology due to the beneficial properties exhibited by organic conducting polymers. These polymers have been used for cellular interfaces in several fashions, including cellular scaffolds, neural probes, biosensors and actuators for drug release. Recently, an organic photovoltaic blend has been exploited for neuronal stimulation via a photo-excitation process. Here, we document the use of a single-component organic film of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) to trigger neuronal firing upon illumination. Moreover, we demonstrate that this bio-organic interface restored light sensitivity in explants of rat retinas with light-induced photoreceptor degeneration. These findings suggest that all-organic devices may play an important future role in sub-retinal prosthetic implants. PMID:27158258

  2. Anticataleptic activity of cathinone and MDMA (Ecstasy) upon acute and subchronic administration in rat.

    PubMed

    Banjaw, Mehret Yerdaw; Mayerhofer, Andreas; Schmidt, Werner J

    2003-09-15

    It was recently demonstrated that acute administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphet-amine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") is capable of counteracting haloperidol-induced catalepsy in rats. The present study was done with another psychostimulant, S-(-)-cathinone. In these experiments, 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats, 225 +/- 25 g, were used. They were divided into three groups. All groups received 0.5 mg/kg haloperidol in normal saline (s.c.) as a first injection. Then 30 min later each group received either isotonic phosphate-buffered saline, 1 mg/kg S-(-)-cathinone, or 2.5 mg/kg (RS)-MDMA (s.c.) as a second injection. The results of descent latency on both the horizontal bar and vertical grid showed that S-(-)-cathinone or (RS)-MDMA upon acute administration induces a strong anticataleptic activity (P < 0.0001) compared to rats treated with haloperidol plus vehicle. The effect of both drugs was later masked upon subchronic administration (days 2-7, 26-29). This is probably due to sensitization of cataleptic behavior. However, when the same groups of rats were tested on day 8 in a different task, i.e., open-field, they showed a significant difference (P < 0.05). The detailed mechanism of the observed strong anticataleptic activity of S-(-)-cathinone (which is considered a potent dopamine releaser) requires further investigation.

  3. Dietary fat modulates serum paraoxonase 1 activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kudchodkar, B J; Lacko, A G; Dory, L; Fungwe, T V

    2000-10-01

    We examined the effects of dietary fats with specific fatty acid compositions, on serum paraoxonase (PON1) activity in rats. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into four dietary groups. One group received the control diet [AIN 93M with soybean oil (5 g/100 g diet)], whereas the remaining three groups received the modified control diet supplemented with (15 g/100 g diet) triolein, tripalmitin or fish oil, respectively. After 20 d, blood was obtained after overnight food deprivation and PON1 activity was determined. Serum lipids and lipid components of lipoproteins were also determined. Serum PON1 activity [micromol/(L.min)] was significantly (P: < 0.05) higher in triolein (98 +/- 6) and lower in fish oil (41 +/- 4), compared with tripalmitin-fed rats (63 +/- 11). Serum PON1 activity in tripalmitin-fed rats was comparable to that of controls (67 +/- 9). Serum PON1 activity correlated significantly with serum lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity (r = 0.77, P: < 0.001) and was transported in blood principally in association with the denser subfraction of HDL, very high density lipoprotein (VHDL; d > 1.15 kg/L). Serum PON1 activity correlated strongly with serum lipids as well as lipids of VLDL, HDL and its subfractions. Multiple linear regression analysis, however, showed a significant relationship of serum PON1 activity, principally with the phospholipids of VHDL (r = 0.47, P: < 0.002). These data suggest that the modulation of serum PON1 activity by dietary fat may be mediated via the effect of the specific fatty acids on the synthesis and secretion of VHDL, the subfraction of HDL that transports the majority of PON1 in the blood.

  4. Neonatal amygdala lesions: co-occurring impact on social/fear-related behavior and cocaine sensitization in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Chambers, R Andrews; Sajdyk, Tammy J; Conroy, Susan K; Lafuze, Joan E; Fitz, Stephanie D; Shekhar, Anantha

    2007-12-01

    Neurodevelopmental abnormalities of temporal-limbic structures may underlie both adult psychiatric syndromes and increased addiction vulnerability, leading to high frequencies of "dual diagnosis" disorders. Although the amygdala is implicated in various mental disorders and drug addiction, no studies have explored the impact of early developmental damage to the amygdala on phenotypes relating to mental illness and addictions as co-occurring processes. We tested rats with neonatal amygdala lesions (NAML) vs. SHAM-operated controls in a battery of tests--novel field activity, elevated plus maze (EPM), and social interaction (SI) at baseline and after odor and restraint stress--followed by measures of cocaine sensitization (15 mg/kg vs. saline x 5 days + challenge session 2 weeks later) and remeasurement of SI. NAMLs showed increased novelty-related locomotion, less fear responding in the EPM, and resistance to predator-odor- but not to restraint-induced suppression of SI. NAMLs also had elevated cocaine sensitization profiles, and cocaine history differentially affected subsequent SI in NAMLs compared with SHAMs. NAMLs may provide models for understanding a shared neurobiological basis for and complex interactions among psychiatric symptoms, drug exposure history, and addiction vulnerability.

  5. Chronic nicotine alters cannabinoid-mediated locomotor activity and receptor density in periadolescent but not adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Werling, Linda L.; Reed, Stephanie Collins; Wade, Dean; Izenwasser, Sari

    2009-01-01

    A significant number of youths use cigarettes, and more than half of the youths who smoke daily also use illicit drugs. The focus of these studies is on how exposure to nicotine affects subsequent responses to both nicotine and cannabinoids in adolescents compared with adults. We have shown previously that chronic treatment with nicotine produces sensitization to its locomotor-activating effects in female and adult rats but not male adolescent rats. To better understand the effects of nicotine on adolescent and adult rats, rats were injected with nicotine or saline for 7 days and, on day 8, either challenged with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) or the cannabinoid agonist CP 55,940 and tested for locomotor activity, or the brains were removed for quantitative autoradiography studies of the cannabinoid1 receptor. A separate group of rats was treated with nicotine plus the cannabinoid antagonist AM 251 and then challenged with CP 55,940. In adolescent male rats, nicotine administration led to sensitization to the locomotor-decreasing effects of both Δ9-THC and CP 55,940, but in adult male rats, the response to either drug was unchanged compared to controls. The effect of nicotine on CP 55,940-mediated locomotor activity was blocked by co-administration of AM 251 with the nicotine. Further, cannabinoid receptor density was increased in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex, ventral tegmental area, and select regions of the hippocampus in adolescent male rats pretreated with nicotine compared to vehicle-treated controls. There were no significant changes in cannabinoid receptor binding, however, in any of the brain regions examined in adult males pretreated with nicotine. The prelimbic prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus have been shown previously to be involved in stimulant reinforcement; thus it is possible that these changes contribute to the unique behavioral effects of chronic nicotine and subsequent drug administration in adolescents compared with adults. PMID

  6. Rethinking food anticipatory activity in the activity-based anorexia rat model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hemmings; van Kuyck, Kris; Tambuyzer, Tim; Luyten, Laura; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Nuttin, Bart

    2014-01-29

    When a rat is on a limited fixed-time food schedule with full access to a running wheel (activity-based anorexia model, ABA), its activity level will increase hours prior to the feeding period. This activity, called food-anticipatory activity (FAA), is a hypothesized parallel to the hyperactivity symptom in human anorexia nervosa. To investigate in depth the characteristics of FAA, we retrospectively analyzed the level of FAA and activities during other periods in ABA rats. To our surprise, rats with the most body weight loss have the lowest level of FAA, which contradicts the previously established link between FAA and the severity of ABA symptoms. On the contrary, our study shows that postprandial activities are more directly related to weight loss. We conclude that FAA alone may not be sufficient to reflect model severity, and activities during other periods may be of potential value in studies using ABA model.

  7. Electrophysiological property and chemical sensitivity of primary afferent neurons that innervate rat whisker hair follicles

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Whisker hair follicles are sensory organs that sense touch and perform tactile discrimination in animals, and they are sites where sensory impulses are initiated when whisker hairs touch an object. The sensory signals are then conveyed by whisker afferent fibers to the brain for sensory perception. Electrophysiological property and chemical sensitivity of whisker afferent fibers, important factors affecting whisker sensory processing, are largely not known. In the present study, we performed patch-clamp recordings from pre-identified whisker afferent neurons in whole-mount trigeminal ganglion preparations and characterized their electrophysiological property and sensitivity to ATP, serotonin and glutamate. Of 97 whisker afferent neurons examined, 67% of them are found to be large-sized (diameter ≥45 µm) cells and 33% of them are medium- to small-sized (diameter <45 µm) cells. Almost every large-sized whisker afferent neuron fires a single action potential but many (40%) small/medium-sized whisker afferent neurons fire multiple action potentials in response to prolonged stepwise depolarization. Other electrophysiological properties including resting membrane potential, action potential threshold, and membrane input resistance are also significantly different between large-sized and small/medium-sized whisker afferent neurons. Most large-sized and many small/medium-sized whisker afferent neurons are sensitive to ATP and/or serotonin, and ATP and/or serotonin could evoke strong inward currents in these cells. In contrast, few whisker afferent neurons are sensitive to glutamate. Our results raise a possibility that ATP and/or serotonin may be chemical messengers involving sensory signaling for different types of rat whisker afferent fibers. PMID:27927797

  8. Reduced lipolysis response to adipose afferent reflex involved in impaired activation of adrenoceptor-cAMP-PKA-hormone sensitive lipase pathway in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lei; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Ming-Xia; Ren, Xing-Sheng; Chen, Qi; Li, Yue-Hua; Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Chemical stimulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) causes adipose afferent reflex (AAR) and sympathetic activation. This study is to investigate the effects of AAR on lipolysis and the mechanisms of attenuated lipolysis response to enhanced AAR in obesity. Obesity was caused by high-fat diet for 12 weeks in rats. AAR was induced by injection of capsaicin into inguinal WAT or electrical stimulation of epididymal WAT afferent nerve. AAR caused sympathetic activation, which was enhanced in obesity rats. AAR increased cAMP levels and PKA activity, promoted hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and perilipin phosphorylation, and increased lipolysis in WAT, which were attenuated in obesity rats. PKA activity, cAMP, perilipin and β-adrenoceptor levels were reduced, while HSL was upregulated in adipocytes from obesity rats. In primary adipocytes, isoproterenol increased cAMP levels and PKA activity, promoted HSL and perilipin phosphorylation, and increased lipolysis, which were attenuated in obesity rats. The attenuated effects of isoproterenol in adipocytes from obesity rats were prevented by a cAMP analogue dbcAMP. The results indicate that reduced lipolysis response to enhanced AAR in obesity is attributed to the impaired activation of β-adrenoceptor-cAMP-PKA-HSL pathway. Increased cAMP level in adipocytes rectifies the attenuated lipolysis in obesity. PMID:27694818

  9. Sensitization of neonatal rat lumbar motoneuron by the inflammatory pain mediator bradykinin

    PubMed Central

    Bouhadfane, Mouloud; Kaszás, Attila; Rózsa, Balázs; Harris-Warrick, Ronald M; Vinay, Laurent; Brocard, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Bradykinin (Bk) is a potent inflammatory mediator that causes hyperalgesia. The action of Bk on the sensory system is well documented but its effects on motoneurons, the final pathway of the motor system, are unknown. By a combination of patch-clamp recordings and two-photon calcium imaging, we found that Bk strongly sensitizes spinal motoneurons. Sensitization was characterized by an increased ability to generate self-sustained spiking in response to excitatory inputs. Our pharmacological study described a dual ionic mechanism to sensitize motoneurons, including inhibition of a barium-sensitive resting K+ conductance and activation of a nonselective cationic conductance primarily mediated by Na+. Examination of the upstream signaling pathways provided evidence for postsynaptic activation of B2 receptors, G protein activation of phospholipase C, InsP3 synthesis, and calmodulin activation. This study questions the influence of motoneurons in the assessment of hyperalgesia since the withdrawal motor reflex is commonly used as a surrogate pain model. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06195.001 PMID:25781633

  10. Neutron activation analysis; A sensitive test for trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, T.Z. . Ward Lab.)

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses neutron activation analysis (NAA), an extremely sensitive technique for determining the elemental constituents of an unknown specimen. Currently, there are some twenty-five moderate-power TRIGA reactors scattered across the United States (fourteen of them at universities), and one of their principal uses is for NAA. NAA is procedurally simple. A small amount of the material to be tested (typically between one and one hundred milligrams) is irradiated for a period that varies from a few minutes to several hours in a neutron flux of around 10{sup 12} neutrons per square centimeter per second. A tiny fraction of the nuclei present (about 10{sup {minus}8}) is transmuted by nuclear reactions into radioactive forms. Subsequently, the nuclei decay, and the energy and intensity of the gamma rays that they emit can be measured in a gamma-ray spectrometer.

  11. Melittin selectively activates capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent fibers.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hong Kee; Kim, Jin Hyuk

    2004-08-06

    Whole bee venom (WBV)-induced pain model has been reported to be very useful for the study of pain. However, the major constituent responsible for the production of pain by WBV is not apparent. Intraplantar injection of WBV and melittin dramatically reduced mechanical threshold, and increased flinchings and paw thickness. In behavioral experiments, capsaicin pretreatment almost completely prevented WBV- and melittin-induced reduction of mechanical threshold and flinchings. Intraplantar injection of melittin increased discharge rate of dorsal horn neurons only with C fiber input from peripheral receptive field, which was completely blocked by topical application of capsaicin to sciatic nerve. These results suggest that both melittin and WBV induce nociceptive responses by selective activation of capsaicin-sensitive afferent fibers.

  12. Paclitaxel therapy potentiates cold hyperalgesia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats through enhanced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and TRPA1 sensitization.

    PubMed

    Barrière, David André; Rieusset, Jennifer; Chanteranne, Didier; Busserolles, Jérôme; Chauvin, Marie-Agnès; Chapuis, Laëtitia; Salles, Jérôme; Dubray, Claude; Morio, Béatrice

    2012-03-01

    Diabetes comorbidities include disabling peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and an increased risk of developing cancer. Antimitotic drugs, such as paclitaxel, are well known to facilitate the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy. Practitioners frequently observe the development or co-occurrence of enhanced DPN, especially cold sensitivity, in diabetic patients during chemotherapy. Preclinical studies showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cold activate transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) cation channels, which are involved in cold-evoked pain transduction signaling in DPN. Additionally, paclitaxel treatment has been associated with an accumulation of atypical mitochondria in the sensory nerves of rats. We hypothesized that paclitaxel might potentiate cold hyperalgesia by increasing mitochondrial injuries and TRPA1 activation. Thus, the kinetics of paclitaxel-induced cold hyperalgesia, mitochondrial ROS production, and TRPA1 expression were evaluated in dorsal root ganglia of normoglycemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In diabetic rats, paclitaxel significantly enhanced cold hyperalgesia in comparison to normoglycemic paclitaxel-treated control rats. These effects were prevented by N-acetyl-cysteine, a reducing agent, and by HC030031, an antagonist of TRPA1. In diabetic and control rats, paclitaxel treatment was associated with an accumulation of atypical mitochondria and a 2-fold increase in mitochondrial ROS production. Moreover, mRNA levels of glutathione peroxidase 4 and glutathione-S-reductase were significantly lower in diabetic groups treated with paclitaxel. Finally, TRPA1 gene expression was enhanced by 45% in diabetic rats. Paclitaxel potentiation of cold hyperalgesia in diabetes may result from the combination of increased mitochondrial ROS production and poor radical detoxification induced by paclitaxel treatment and diabetes-related overexpression of TRPA1.

  13. The sensitized luminescence of manganese-activated calcite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulman, J.H.; Evans, L.W.; Ginther, R.J.; Murata, K.J.

    1947-01-01

    Synthetic manganese-activated calcites are shown to be practically inert to ultraviolet excitation in the range 2000-3500A, while they are luminescent under cathode-ray excitation. The incorporation of small amounts of an auxiliary impurity along with the manganese produces the strong response to ultraviolet radiation hitherto ascribed to CaCO3:Mn itself. Three such impurities have been studied: lead, thallium, and cerium. The first two induce excitation in the neighborhood of the mercury resonance line, while the cerium introduces a response principally to longer wave ultraviolet. The strong response to 2537A excitation shown by some natural calcites is likewise found to be due to the presence of lead along with the manganese, rather than to the manganese alone. The data do not warrant ascribing the longer wave-length ultraviolet-excited luminescence of all natural calcites to the action of an auxiliary impurity. The essential identity of the cathode-ray excited luminescence spectra of CaCO 3:Mn, CaCO3: (Pb+Mn), CaCO3:(Tl+Mn), and CaCO3:(Ce+Mn) with the 2537A-excited spectra of the latter three is evidence that the luminescent center in all cases is the manganese ion or the MnO6 group. It is shown that a "cascade" mechanism for the action of the auxiliary impurities, lead, thallium, and cerium, is incorrect; and that the phenomenon must be considered as a case of sensitized luminescence. Owing to the nature of cathode-ray excitation, the manganese activator can be excited by this agent even in the absence of a second impurity. For optical excitation, however, an absorption band for the ultraviolet must be established by building into the CaCO3:Mn a second impurity or "sensitizer.".

  14. Choleretic activity of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra in rats.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, N; Herekman-Demir, T; Oztürk, Y; Bozan, B; Başer, K H

    1998-08-01

    Effects of an ethanolic extract prepared from G. lutea ssp. symphyandra roots on the bile production and liver in rats were investigated. Bile flows of rats which were treated by a single i.p. dose of CCl(4) 24 h prior to experiments were measured after the cannulation of bile duct under urethane anaesthesia. After an equilibration period of 1 h, the lyophilized extract were administered intraduodenally (500 mg/kg i.p.), while control animals received physiological saline only. To monitor the effect of multiple dose therapy, rats received the same dose of G. lutea ssp. symphyandra extract for 3 days (2 days prior to CCl(4) administration) and their bile flows were measured after the cannulation. In all groups, bile samples were collected for 3 h with 15 min intervals. After the completion of bile flow experiment, rat livers were removed and put in neutral formaldehyde solution (10%) for the histological examination. According to results obtained, multiple dose treatment of rats with the plant extract normalized the decreased bile flow due CCl(4), whereas single dose therapy was ineffective on the impaired bile flow. These data indicate that the extract prepared from Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra roots has a hepatoprotective activity.

  15. CNTF-Treated Astrocyte Conditioned Medium Enhances Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel Activity in Rat Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meiqun; Liu, Hongli; Xu, Huanbai; Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-08-01

    Seizure activity is linked to astrocyte activation as well as dysfunctional cortical neuron excitability produced from changes in calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel function. Ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte conditioned medium (CNTF-ACM) can be used to investigate the peripheral effects of activated astrocytes upon cortical neurons. However, CNTF-ACM's effect upon KCa channel activity in cultured cortical neurons has not yet been investigated. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were performed in rat cortical neurons to evaluate CNTF-ACM's effects upon charybdotoxin-sensitive large-conductance KCa (BK) channel currents and apamin-sensitive small-conductance KCa (SK) channel current. Biotinylation and RT-PCR were applied to assess CNTF-ACM's effects upon the protein and mRNA expression, respectively, of the SK channel subunits SK2 and SK3 and the BK channel subunits BKα1 and BKβ3. An anti-fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) monoclonal neutralizing antibody was used to assess the effects of the FGF-2 component of CNTF-ACM. CNTF-ACM significantly increased KCa channel current density, which was predominantly attributable to gains in BK channel activity (p < 0.05). CNTF-ACM produced a significant increase in BKα1 and BKβ3 expression (p < 0.05) but had no significant effect upon SK2 or SK3 expression (p > 0.05). Blocking FGF-2 produced significant reductions in KCa channel current density (p > 0.05) as well as BKα1 and BKβ3 expression in CNTF-ACM-treated neurons (p > 0.05). CNTF-ACM significantly enhances BK channel activity in rat cortical neurons and that FGF-2 is partially responsible for these effects. CNTF-induced astrocyte activation results in secretion of neuroactive factors which may affect neuronal excitability and resultant seizure activity in mammalian cortical neurons.

  16. Neuronal activity in rat barrel cortex underlying texture discrimination.

    PubMed

    von Heimendahl, Moritz; Itskov, Pavel M; Arabzadeh, Ehsan; Diamond, Mathew E

    2007-11-01

    Rats and mice palpate objects with their whiskers to generate tactile sensations. This form of active sensing endows the animals with the capacity for fast and accurate texture discrimination. The present work is aimed at understanding the nature of the underlying cortical signals. We recorded neuronal activity from barrel cortex while rats used their whiskers to discriminate between rough and smooth textures. On whisker contact with either texture, firing rate increased by a factor of two to ten. Average firing rate was significantly higher for rough than for smooth textures, and we therefore propose firing rate as the fundamental coding mechanism. The rat, however, cannot take an average across trials, but must make an immediate decision using the signals generated on each trial. To estimate single-trial signals, we calculated the mutual information between stimulus and firing rate in the time window leading to the rat's observed choice. Activity during the last 75 ms before choice transmitted the most informative signal; in this window, neuronal clusters carried, on average, 0.03 bits of information about the stimulus on trials in which the rat's behavioral response was correct. To understand how cortical activity guides behavior, we examined responses in incorrect trials and found that, in contrast to correct trials, neuronal firing rate was higher for smooth than for rough textures. Analysis of high-speed films suggested that the inappropriate signal on incorrect trials was due, at least in part, to nonoptimal whisker contact. In conclusion, these data suggest that barrel cortex firing rate on each trial leads directly to the animal's judgment of texture.

  17. PERIPUBERTAL DI (2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE EXPOSURE INHIBITS ANDROGEN SENSITIVE TISSUE DEVELOPMENT AND DELAYS PUBERTY IN MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PERIPUBERTAL DI (2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE EXPOSURE INHIBITS ANDROGEN SENSITIVE TISSUE DEVELOPMENT AND DELAYS PUBERTY IN MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    Nigel Noriega, Jonathan Furr, Christy Lambright, Vickie Wilson, L. Earl Gray Jr.

    The plasticizer Di (2-ethylhexyl) phtha...

  18. Glucose deprivation activates diversity of potassium channels in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Myrian; García, Esperanza; Onetti, Carlos G

    2006-05-01

    1. Glucose is one of the most important substrates for generating metabolic energy required for the maintenance of cellular functions. Glucose-mediated changes in neuronal firing pattern have been observed in the central nervous system of mammals. K(+) channels directly regulated by intracellular ATP have been postulated as a linkage between cellular energetic metabolism and excitability; the functional roles ascribed to these channels include glucose-sensing to regulate energy homeostasis and neuroprotection under energy depletion conditions. The hippocampus is highly sensitive to metabolic insults and is the brain region most sensitive to ischemic damage. Because the identity of metabolically regulated potassium channels present in hippocampal neurons is obscure, we decided to study the biophysical properties of glucose-sensitive potassium channels in hippocampal neurons. 2. The dependence of membrane potential and the sensitivity of potassium channels to glucose and ATP in rat hippocampal neurons were studied in cell-attached and excised inside-out membrane patches. 3. We found that under hypoglycemic conditions, at least three types of potassium channels were activated; their unitary conductance values were 37, 147, and 241 pS in symmetrical K(+), and they were sensitive to ATP. For K(+) channels with unitary conductance of 37 and 241, when the membrane potential was depolarized the longer closed time constant diminished and this produced an increase in the open-state probability; nevertheless, the 147-pS channels were not voltage-dependent. 4. We propose that neuronal glucose-sensitive K(+) channels in rat hippocampus include subtypes of ATP-sensitive channels with a potential role in neuroprotection during short-term or prolonged metabolic stress.

  19. Changes in Midbrain Pain Receptor Expression, Gait and Behavioral Sensitivity in a Rat Model of Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Priscilla Y; Allen, Kyle D; Shamji, Mohammed F; Jing, Liufang; Mata, Brian A; Gabr, Mostafa A; Huebner, Janet L; Kraus, Virginia B; Richardson, William J; Setton, Lori A

    2012-01-01

    Intervertebral disc herniation may contribute to inflammatory processes that associate with radicular pain and motor deficits. Molecular changes at the affected dorsal root ganglion (DRG), spinal cord, and even midbrain, have been documented in rat models of radiculopathy or nerve injury. The objective of this study was to evaluate gait and the expression of key pain receptors in the midbrain in a rodent model of radiculopathy. Radiculopathy was induced by harvesting tail nucleus pulposus (NP) and placing upon the right L5 DRG in rats (NP-treated, n=12). Tail NP was discarded in sham-operated animals (n=12). Mechanical allodynia, weight-bearing, and gait were evaluated in all animals over time. At 1 and 4 weeks after surgery, astrocyte and microglial activation was tested in DRG sections. Midbrain sections were similarly evaluated for immunoreactivity to serotonin (5HT2B), mu-opioid (µ-OR), and metabotropic glutamate (mGluR4 and 5) receptor antibodies. NP-treated animals placed less weight on the affected limb 1 week after surgery and experienced mechanical hypersensitivity over the duration of the study. Astroctye activation was observed at DRGs only at 4 weeks after surgery. Findings for pain receptors in the midbrain of NP-treated rats included an increased expression of 5HT2B at 1, but not 4 weeks; increased expression of µ-OR and mGluR5 at 1 and 4 weeks (periaqueductal gray region only); and no changes in expression of mGluR4 at any point in this study. These observations provide support for the hypothesis that the midbrain responds to DRG injury with a transient change in receptors regulating pain responses. PMID:22962568

  20. A high sensitivity MEA probe for measuring real time rat brain glucose flux.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wenjing; Song, Yilin; Shi, Wentao; Lin, Nansen; Jiang, Tingjun; Cai, Xinxia

    2014-05-15

    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) relies on a constant supply of external glucose for its undisturbed operation. This article presents an implantable Multi-Electrode Array (MEA) probe for brain glucose measurement. The MEA was implemented on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) wafer using Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) methods. There were 16 platinum recording sites on the probe and enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized on them. The glucose sensitivity of the MEA probe was as high as 489 µA mM(-1) cm(-2). 1,3-Phenylenediamine (mPD) was electropolymerized onto the Pt recording surfaces to prevent larger molecules such as ascorbic acid (AA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA) from reaching the recording sites surface. The MEA probe was implanted in the anesthetized rat striatum and responded to glucose levels which were altered by intraperitoneal injection of glucose and insulin. After the in vivo experiment, the MEA probe still kept sensitivity to glucose, these suggested that the MEA probe was reliable for glucose monitoring in brain extracellular fluid (ECF).

  1. Reference place conditioning procedure with cocaine: increased sensitivity for measuring associatively motivated choice behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Carmela M; Wilkinson, Jamie L; Bevins, Rick A

    2010-07-01

    Place conditioning is widely used to study the conditioned rewarding effects of drugs. In the standard version, one reward (cocaine) is compared with no reward (saline). A modified variant of this task, 'reference-conditioning' procedure, compares two potentially rewarding stimuli (high vs. low cocaine dose). There has been little research on the utility of this procedure. Experiment 1 used the standard protocol with saline administered before confinement to the reference compartment of a place conditioning chamber. On alternate days, saline, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, or 20 mg/kg cocaine was administered before confinement to the opposite compartment. In experiments 2 and 3, reference-compartment saline was replaced with 5 and 7.5 mg/kg cocaine, respectively. Relative to saline, 7.5-20 mg/kg cocaine had comparable conditioned rewarding effects (i.e. similar increase in time in paired compartment). When cocaine replaced saline, there was competition at doses lower than 7.5 mg/kg. Rats that received 7.5 versus 2.5 mg/kg spent similar time in each compartment, indicating competition. Competition was not seen with 5 versus 20 mg/kg; preference was for the 20 mg/kg compartment. Experiment 4 showed that the competition at 2.5 mg/kg was not due to reward sensitization. The reference-conditioning procedure has increased the sensitivity for measuring associatively motivated choice behavior.

  2. Activation of several MAP kinases upon stimulation of rat alveolar macrophages: role of the NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Torres, M; Forman, H J

    1999-06-15

    Zymosan-activated serum (ZAS), a source of C5a, stimulates the rat alveolar macrophages (AM) to release superoxide anion. Here we show that treatment of rat AM with ZAS induced a time-dependent increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins (116, 105-110, 82-78, 66-72, 62, 45, 42, and 38 kDa). This increase was sensitive to genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. ZAS stimulated the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of three members of a family of serine/threonine kinases known as the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), i.e., ERK1 and ERK2, as assessed by immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and phosphotransferase activity, and p38 MAPK, as determined by immunoblotting with phospho-specific antibodies. In addition, ZAS induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of the SHC proteins and their association with GRB2, suggesting a role for this complex in the activation of the ERK pathway. Addition of extracellular catalase during ZAS stimulation significantly reduced the tyrosine phosphorylation response and the activation of ERK1 and ERK2 and their activator MEK1/2 while it did not affect that of p38 MAPK and MKK3/MKK6. Superoxide dismutase marginally increased the response to ZAS, supporting a role for hydrogen peroxide. In contrast to the results with AM, stimulation of human neutrophils with ZAS in the presence of catalase minimally altered the activation of ERK1 and ERK2. These data show that, in ZAS-stimulated rat AM, activation of the respiratory burst and production of hydrogen peroxide via superoxide dismutation are largely responsible for the activation of the ERK pathway through an upstream target.

  3. Taiwanofungus camphoratus activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and induces hypotriglyceride in hypercholesterolemic rats.