Science.gov

Sample records for actividades para familias

  1. Hacer frente - Para la familia y los amigos

    Cancer.gov

    Si usted ayuda a su familiar o amigo durante el tratamiento del cáncer, usted es quien le cuida. Estar al cuidado de una persona con cáncer puede incluir muchas tensiones. Sugerencias para que se cuide usted cuando cuida a otros.

  2. Protegiendo a su familia de los terremotos-Los siete pasos a la seguridad para prepararse en caso de un terremoto (en espa?ol y en ingles)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Desarrollado por American Red Cross, Asian Pacific Fund, California Earthquake Authority, Governor's Office of Emergency Services, New America Media, U.S. Department of Homeland Security Federal Emergency Management Agency, and U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    Les escribimos esta carta para comunicarle un mensaje sumamente importante sobre las preparaciones de emergencia. Historicamente, hemos sufrido terremotos aqui en el Area de la Bahia de San Francisco que han causado graves privaciones para los residentes de la comunidad y da?os increibles a nuestras ciudades. Es probable que suframos un terremoto de gran magnitud en los proximos 30 a?os. Muchos de nosotros venimos de otros paises donde hemos pasado por terremotos y por eso creemos entenderlos. Sin embargo, la manera que nos preparamos para terremotos en nuestros paises de origen puede ser distinta a la que empleamos aca en los Estados Unidos. Muy pocas personas mueren a causa de los derrumbes de los edificios en el Area de la Bahia porque la mayoria de los edificios son construidos para resistir el sacudimiento de la tierra. Pero es muy probable que su familia no tenga atencion medica, alimentos o que esten separados del uno al otro por dias o semanas. Finalmente depende de usted mantener a su familia a salvo hasta que llegue asistencia, por eso les pedimos que nos unamos para aprender a cuidar a su familia antes, durante, y despues de un terremoto. El primer paso es leer este libro. Cada uno de su familia, ni?os y adultos, pueden aprender como prepararse para un terremoto. Haga participar e incluya sus ni?os; pueden ayudarle a prepararse. Aproveche las clases ofrecidas en su comunidad sobre las preparaciones de terremotos por la Cruz Roja Estadounidense (American Red Cross). Estos cursos de preparacion son gratis y disponibles en espa?ol para todos en la comunidad sin tomar en cuenta la historia de la familia, estado legal, genero o edad. Les recomendamos que tome ventaja de estas clases gratuitas. Para mas informacion consulte la ultima pagina de este libro. Recuerde que un terremoto puede ocurrir sin aviso y la unica manera de reducir el da?o de terremotos es estar preparados. !Preparese!

  3. Alianza para el Aprendizaje: Una guia de actividades educativas para familias (Alliance for Learning: A Guide of Educational Activities for Families).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Phil

    This Spanish-language publication condenses the information in the Alliance for Learning series. The publication is intended principally for families with preschool or primary grade children, although the material can be used with older children. The sections of the publication address various themes and present activities that parents can do with…

  4. Family Kindergarten = Kinder para familias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Jolinda

    The Family Kindergarten program designed and pilot tested by a bilingual kindergarten teacher at Garretson Elementary School in Corona, California, is described. Based on the premise that parents are the most important and influential educators of children, Family Kindergarten was conceived as an evening class that includes parents and children…

  5. "Escola Familia": A Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carani, George; Carani, José; Strong-Wilson, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    "Alphabetização" (literacy) of young children involves a school exclusively devoted to the early years, parental participation, and teachers specialized in early literacy. This is the basis of José Carani's proposal for an "escola familia" in the municipality of Cambé (Brazil). This "Note from the Field," based…

  6. La edad de las familias Eos, Themis y Koronis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.

    Las familias de asteroides son el producto de la disrupción colisional de objetos destruídos por impactos ocurridos en el cinturón principal. Las colisiones posteriores han modificado los tamaños y las órbitas de los miembros de estas familias, por lo que las distribuciones que vemos hoy en día pueden ser muy diferentes de aquellas producidas inmediatamente después de la fragmentación del objeto original. En esta hipótesis, puede ser difícil reconstruir la evolución colisional de la familia basándose sólo en las actuales distribuciones y puede ser necesario hacer ciertas suposiciones para obtener información sobre las condiciones iniciales. En este trabajo se deriva una estimación de la edad de las familias Eos, Themis y Koronis obtenida de una simulación de la evolución colisional de un cuerpo original teórico para cada familia usando un modelo de distribución para el cinturón propuesto por Gil-Hutton (1996).

  7. A Proposed Activity for a Meaningful Learning about the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Uma Proposta de Atividade Para a Aprendizagem Significativa sobre as Fases da Lua.) Una Actividad Propuesta Para EL Aprendizaje Significativo Acerca de Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Bruno Andrade; Langhi, Rodolfo

    2012-12-01

    ínua avaliação durante o processo, culmina com a elaboração de uma história em quadrinhos envolvendo as fases da Lua. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma proposta de atividade didática diferenciada sustentada pelos princípios teóricos da aprendizagem significativa aplicada ao ensino das fases da Lua durante as aulas de Física no ensino médio. En este trabajo se presenta uno de los contenidos de la Astronomía y el evidente fracaso en la enseñanza del tema en la escuela secundaria, a pesar del hecho que los documentos oficiales apuntan para la necesidad de trabajar contenidos de Astronomía en este nivel. Entre los conceptos alternativos en Astronomía que los alumnos secundarios llevan consigo, aún después de terminados los estudios, destacamos aquí el fenómeno de las fases de la Luna. El desarrollo de diferentes estrategias en relación con los métodos tradicionales, dirigidas al proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en este tema fue considerado en este trabajo como uno de los resultados obtenidos a la luz de los referenciales del aprendizaje significativo, tal como fueron fundamentados por Ausubel. Según la propuesta que aquí se presenta, la participación activa de los estudiantes en la ejecución de una actividad experimental y otras actividades educativas destinadas a la evaluación continua durante el proceso culminó en la elaboración de una historieta respecto de las fases de la Luna. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una propuesta de actividad de enseñanza diferenciada con el apoyo de los principios teóricos del aprendizaje significativo aplicado a la enseñanza de las fases de la luna durante las clases de física del ciclo secundario.

  8. Actividades interrelacionadas entre el nino y la familia (Interrelated Activities between the Child and the Family).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veglio, Ana M.

    1993-01-01

    Offers a rationale for parent involvement in early childhood education. Describes the benefits of mother-child gymnastics in terms of the development of motor skills and positive attitudes toward school. Highlights particular exercises and games. (AC)

  9. En sus marcas--Listos--A leer! Para las familias: Actividades de lenguaje para la primera infancia y ninez entre el nacimiento y los 5 anos. El reto: A leer, America! (Ready--Set--Read! For Families: Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for families, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth wallchart. The activity guide presents activities and ideas that families (adults who have nurturing relationships with a child--a mother, father, grandparent, other relative, or close friend) can use to…

  10. Project Familia. Final Evaluation Report, 1993-94. OER Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Educational Research.

    Project Familia was an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII project in its second year in 1993-94 in New York City. Project Familia served 77 children at 3 schools who were identified as limited English proficient, special education students in prekindergarten through fifth grade and their parents. The project provided after-school…

  11. Familias 3 - Extensions and new functionality.

    PubMed

    Kling, Daniel; Tillmar, Andreas O; Egeland, Thore

    2014-11-01

    In relationship testing the aim is to determine the most probable pedigree structure given genetic marker data for a set of persons. Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) based on DNA data from presumed relatives of the missing persons can be considered to be a collection of relationship problems. Forensic calculations in investigative mode address questions like "How many markers and reference persons are needed?" Such questions can be answered by simulations. Mutations, deviations from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (or more generally, accounting for population substructure) and silent alleles cannot be ignored when evaluating forensic evidence in case work. With the advent of new markers, so called microvariants have become more common. Previous mutation models are no longer appropriate and a new model is proposed. This paper describes methods designed to deal with DVI problems and a new simulation model to study distribution of likelihoods. There are softwares available, addressing similar problems. However, for some problems including DVI, we are not aware of freely available validated software. The Familias software has long been widely used by forensic laboratories worldwide to compute likelihoods in relationship scenarios, though previous versions have lacked desired functionality, such as the above mentioned. The extensions as well as some other novel features have been implemented in the new version, freely available at www.familias.no. The implementation and validation are briefly mentioned leaving complete details to Supplementary sections. PMID:25113576

  12. Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) del NCI coordina actividades de investigación y trabaja con socios nacionales e internacionales para comprender y enfrentar la carga que representa el cáncer a nivel mundial.

  13. Talking, Singing, Rhyming: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Hablar, cantar, recitar: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  14. Words All around Us: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Palabras y palabras a nuestro alrededor: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  15. Reading with Children: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = La lectura con los ninos: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  16. Exploring with Technology: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Exploremos con tecnologia: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides computer literacy activities for…

  17. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents of 3- to…

  18. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  19. Actividad Solar Desde EL Espacio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovira, M. G.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se describen los principales descubrimientos realizados por los arti+iciales con instrumentos dedicados a la observaci6n del Sol, durante los dos ultimos ciclos de su acti vi dad. La observaci6n el espacio ha permitido cubrir todas las zonas del espectro no observables desde tierra1 desde el ultravioleta hasta la radiaci6n gamma. Se hace referencia, en particular, a los resultados producidos por los dos grandes observatorios: el Skylab y el SMM. Este ultimo incluy6 un conjunto de instrumentos especialmente coordinados para observar en detalle las fulguraciones solares. Es un resumen para astr6nomos no especializados en la fisica solar, en el que se muestra que la gran riqueza del material observacional acumulado ha resuelto problemas preexistentes y, al mismo tiempo, ha abierto numerosos interrogantes a los que se buscar respuesta con la instrumentaci6n en desarrollo. Finalmente, se mencionan las caracteristicas de los proyectados para la pr6xima decada. : The main discoveries performed by artificial satellites instrumented for the observation of the Sun, during the last two cycles of its activity, are described. The space observations allowed of almost all the spectral regions which are not observable from the ground, from the ultraviolet to the gamma radiation. In particular, we ref er' to the two large solar space observatories: the Skylab and the SMM. The last one included a set 0+ coordinated instruments to observe in detail the solar flares. This is a summary for astronomers not dedicated to solar physics, where we show that the of observational material have solv# d many of the preexistent problems but, at the ame time, it opened many new questions to which the improved instrumentation will try to answer. , the characteristics of the satellites planned the next decade are mentioned. Key : SUN-ACTIVITY - SUN-CORONA - SUN-X-RAYS

  20. Project Familia. Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Candice

    Project Familia was an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII funded project that, in the year covered by this evaluation, served 41 special education students of limited English proficiency (LEP) from 5 schools, with the participation of 54 parents and 33 siblings. Participating students received English language enrichment and…

  1. Convivencia to Empowerment: Latino Parent Organizing at La Familia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasis, Pablo; Ordonez-Jasis, Rosario

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the emergence of La Familia Initiative, a Latino parent-organizing project at a public middle school. Motivated by their urgency to improve their children's schooling and enhance their opportunities for a better high school experience in the future, the participants organize to establish a more inclusive partnership with the…

  2. The Sagrada Familia Cathedral where Gaudi envisaged his bell music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Shigeru; Narita, Takafumi

    2001-05-01

    The Sagrada Familia Cathedral in Barcelona, Spain was constructed in 1882. According to Antoni Gaudi, who worked over its grand plan, the Cathedral was supposed to be a huge musical instrument as a whole in the event of completion. As as result, the music of bells was expected to echo through the air of Barcelona from the belfries. However, Gaudi's true intention cannot be exactly known because the materials prepared by him were destroyed by war fire. If his idea of the Sagrada Familia as an architechtural music instrument is true, an acoustical balance should be considered between the roles of the Cathedral: bell music from the belfries and quiet service in the chapel. Basic structure of the Sagrada Familia seems to be an ensemble of twin towers. Following such speculation, we made a simplified acrylic 1/25-scale model of the lower structure of a twin tower located at the left side of the Birth Gate. The higher structure of this twin tower corresponds to the pinnacle where the bells should be arranged. The lower structure (about 43 m in actual height) has five passages connecting two towers. One of two towers includes five or six tandem columns whose ends are both squeezed to about 1.5 m in diameter. These columns seem to function as a kind of muffler. The location and shape of the roof over the nave is indefinite and tentatively supposed at the top of the lower structure. Based on our scale model, acoustical characteristics of the lower twin-tower structure as a muffler and acoustical differences between the exterior field and nave field will be reported and discussed.

  3. Tiempo para un cambio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltjer, L.

    1987-06-01

    En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

  4. The sagrada familia: A daily whisper of the spirit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Arturo

    2002-11-01

    Sounds from the top of the Temple; songs of loyals going beyond the city, sounds of the rustic forms of the spaces for the soul; reality and miracle in just one voice, voice of religion for participation; mystery, mysticism, meditation, happiness, music and songs, bells and church towers, choirs and pulpits, religion and city. The religious architecture of Gaudi is involved by mystic sounds, real or imaginary sounds, whispers almost imperceptibles and sonorous surprises in the journeys destined to peace and spiritual calm. The Sagrada Familia in Barcelona is a Temple where the sonorous itineraries will exist and where the acoustic design of choirs, bells and bell towers was an essential idea of Antoni Gaudi. A living building with its voice singing with the people a song which will take in the whole city; ringing bells and bell towers crossing the sky and sending music, view and hearing of all the people to the new cathedral, a symbol to guide pilgrimages, ceremonies, songs and festivals. The Sagrada Familia and Barcelona, a union that Gaudi wanted to turn in total and where the acoustic design will be transformed in a daily murmur, highly spiritual. (To be presented in Spanish.)

  5. Actividad funcional cerebral en estado de reposo: REDES EN CONEXIÓN

    PubMed Central

    Proal, Erika; Alvarez-Segura, Mar; de la Iglesia-Vayá, Maria; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Resumen El análisis de la conectividad funcional mediante resonancia magnética funcional (RMf) puede llevarse a cabo durante la realización de una tarea, la percepción de un estímulo o en estado de reposo. Estos análisis han demostrado su fiabilidad y reproducibilidad con diferentes enfoques (matemáticos, estadísticos, físicos) para seleccionar los vóxeles activados. El estudio de la señal de baja frecuencia en la actividad cerebral a través del contraste BOLD en estado de reposo ha revelado patrones de actividad cortical sincronizados, permitiendo describir la arquitectura funcional intrínseca del cerebro humano. La comunidad científica internacional dispone de recursos compartidos que contribuirán mediante este análisis de RMf en estado de reposo a la obtención de diagnósticos y tratamientos más precisos y avanzados en el campo de las neurociencias. PMID:21365601

  6. Children's Literacy: Children's Books for Healthy Families/Libros de Ninos Para Familias Saludables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kock, Jo Anne

    2003-01-01

    A 2-year project taught reading methods and provided culturally appropriate books for Spanish-speaking and English-speaking families (year 1, 1,013 families; year 2, 1,408 families). Data from home visits and follow-up surveys (n=207) revealed that positive parent/child interaction and time spent reading to children increased and the number of…

  7. The Role of la Familia for Women of Mexican Descent Who Are Leaders in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elizondo, Sandra Gray

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to describe the role of "la familia" for women of Mexican descent as it relates to their development as leaders and their leadership in academia. Purposeful sampling was utilized to reach the goal of 18 participants who were female academic leaders of Mexican descent teaching full time in…

  8. Extended Kinship in the United States: Competing Models and the Case of La Familia Chicana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sena-Rivera, Jaime

    1979-01-01

    Extended kinship among Chicanos is explored through intensive open-ended interviews with four cases of three generations of Mexican-descent families. "La familia chicana" is posited as a modified extended or kin-integrated family extending over time and space from Mexico at the turn of the century to present day industrial America. (Author)

  9. Familia and Comunidad-Based Saberes: Learning in an Indigenous Heritage Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how children and youth learned indigenous heritage "saberes" (knowings) through intent community participation in Nocutzepo, Mexico. The "familia" (family) and "comunidad" (community)-based saberes were valuable for skills acquisition, but most important for learning indigenous forms of…

  10. An Evaluation of Mi Familia No Fuma: Family Cohesion and Impact on Secondhand Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Jon; Kelly, Michael; Garcia, Pema; Taylor, Thom

    2010-01-01

    Background: Family cohesion may be a factor to prevent exposure of Hispanics in United States to secondhand smoke. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate one permutation of Mi Familia No Fuma (MFNF) and its resulting outputs or proximal client outcomes. Methods: MFNF is an approach to secondhand smoke prevention, using family cohesion…

  11. "La Familia" as "Locus Theologicus" and Religious Education in "Lo Cotidiano" [Daily Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Latinas/os are deeply religious, and their way of expressing and experiencing God and life is often different from that of the U.S. dominant culture. With the importance of family, community, and the belief that God is actively present in daily life in a Latino context, this article explores the interplay between "la familia" as "locus…

  12. Comunicación en la atención del cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre la comunicación con el paciente de cáncer y su familia, incluso los aspectos distintivos de la comunicación con pacientes de cáncer, los factores que afectan la comunicación y el entrenamiento de las aptitudes para la comunicación.

  13. Planificar la transición a la etapa final de la vida (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre la preparación necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atención de la salud, los pacientes y sus familias para la transición a la atención del cáncer avanzado en la etapa final de la vida.

  14. Familias Unidas' Crossover Effects on Suicidal Behaviors among Hispanic Adolescents: Results from an Effectiveness Trial.

    PubMed

    Vidot, Denise C; Huang, Shi; Poma, Sofia; Estrada, Yannine; Lee, Tae Kyoung; Prado, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The long-term impact of Familias Unidas on suicidal behaviors among Hispanic 8th graders (N = 746) was examined along with parent-adolescent communication as a moderator of intervention effectiveness. At baseline, 9.2% (95% CI = 7.3%-11.6%) of adolescents reported suicide ideation and 5.7% (95% CI = 4.1%-7.7%) reported a past year suicide attempt. There were no significant intervention effects on suicidal behaviors; however, parent-adolescent communication was a moderator of suicide attempts in the past year, across the intervention (b = -.01, p = .01). Results suggest that Familias Unidas reduces suicidal behaviors among Hispanic adolescents with low levels of parent-adolescent communication despite no suicide-specific intervention content. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27094111

  15. Pongase en accion! Materiales para actividades despues de la escuela (Get into Action! Afterschool Action Kit).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, Washington, DC.

    Noting that after-school programs are a critical link to helping children become successful adults, this Spanish-language kit explains what after-school programs can and should do for young people and how to locate or start an after-school program. The kit provides a rationale for developing after-school programs, noting the number of children…

  16. Actividades Para Padres: A Parent Handbook (Activities for Parents: A Parent Handbook).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coca, Benjamin

    Thirty Mora, New Mexico parents attended a 13-session parent involvement workshop (The Mora Adventure) designed to help parents foster successful school experiences through non-school activities with their children. A parent involvement model was used as the basis of the workshop in which the parents developed more effective communication skills;…

  17. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  18. Cómo aumentar la actividad física de los niños durante el período del recreo en las escuelas

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, David

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos. Analizamos si la participación de las escuelas en el Programa de Mejoramiento del Recreo (PMR) en la primavera del año 2011 estuvo asociada a tasas más altas de actividad física intensa en los niños. Métodos. En el PMR, un coordinador dirige a los niños para que practiquen juegos adecuados para la edad a fin de aumentar su nivel de actividad física. Durante el recreo en 25 escuelas primarias públicas de la ciudad de Nueva York (15 participantes en el PMR, 10 no participantes en el PMR) los investigadores observaron algunas áreas predeterminadas (n = 1 339 observaciones) y registraron el número de niños que estaban sedentarios, caminando o muy activos. Resultados. Tras el análisis estadístico con múltiples variables se encontró que la participación en el PMR era una variable predictiva significativa (P = 0,027) de la tasa de actividad física intensa (porcentaje de niños muy activos en las áreas de observación) cuyas medias de los mínimos cuadrados fueron de 41% en las escuelas participantes en el PMR y de 27% en escuelas no participantes en el PMR. En las escuelas participantes en el PMR se siguió registrando una tasa significativamente superior incluso cuando el coordinador de juegos no estaba en el área de observación, lo que sugiere un cambio en la cultura del recreo en las escuelas que participan en este programa. Conclusiones. La tasa de actividad física intensa en las escuelas participantes en el PMR fue 14 puntos porcentuales (o 52%) superior a la tasa registrada en las escuelas no participantes en el PMR. Esta intervención de bajo costo podría ser un agregado valioso a las herramientas para combatir la obesidad infantil y podría valer la pena reproducirla en otros sitios. PMID:24899455

  19. Diseno de una Actividad de Aprendizaje Basada en la Argumentacion Dialogica en un curso Virtual de Biotecnologia y su Incidencia en el Desarrollo de Competencias Cientificas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz Benavides, Fedra Lorena

    El proposito de la investigacion fue evaluar la efectividad de una actividad de aprendizaje basado en la argumentacion dialogica en linea y su incidencia en el desarrollo de competencias cientificas. Se fundamenta en la teoria del aprendizaje socio cultural de Vigotsky (1984), los principios del diseno instruccional de la cognicion situada por Hung y Der-Thang (2001) y como estrategia se aplico la argumentacion dialogica utilizando el Modelo Argumentativo de Toulmin MAT (1984). El diseno experimental comparo dos grupos de estudiantes A y B en el curso virtual de Biotecnologia. El grupo A (experimental) desarrollo la discusion a partir de la estrategia disenada para este estudio y el grupo B (control) realizo la discusion desde las actividades tradicionales. El desarrollo de la competencia argumentativa se valoro con el instrumento de evaluacion para argumentacion dialogica en linea propuesta por Clark y Sampson (2008). La evaluacion de las competencias cientificas se realizo a partir de una postprueba. Los datos fueron analizados con pruebas estadisticas no parametricas. Los resultados de la investigacion, indicaron diferencias significativas en el nivel de la competencia argumental en el grupo experimental en comparacion al grupo control. Igualmente se demostro que existe una relacion positiva entre el nivel de desarrollo de la competencia argumentativa y el nivel de desarrollo de las competencias cientificas.

  20. Lessons learned in evaluating the Familias Fuertes program in three countries in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Orpinas, Pamela; Ambrose, Ashley; Maddaleno, Matilde; Vulanovic, Lauren; Mejia, Martha; Butrón, Betzabé; Gutierrez, Gonzalo Sosa; Soriano, Ismael

    2014-12-01

    This report describes 1) the evaluation of the Familias Fuertes primary prevention program in three countries (Bolivia, Colombia, and Ecuador) and 2) the effect of program participation on parenting practices. Familias Fuertes was implemented in Bolivia (10 groups, 96 parents), Colombia (12 groups, 173 parents), and Ecuador (five groups, 42 parents) to prevent the initiation and reduce the prevalence of health-compromising behaviors among adolescents by strengthening family relationships and enhancing parenting skills. The program consists of seven group sessions (for 6-12 families) designed for parents/caregivers and their 10-14-year-old child. Parents/caregivers answered a survey before the first session and at the completion of the program. The survey measured two important mediating constructs: "positive parenting" and "parental hostility." The Pan American Health Organization provided training for facilitators. After the program, parents/caregivers from all three countries reported significantly higher mean scores for "positive parenting" and significantly lower mean scores for "parental hostility" than at the pre-test. "Positive parenting" practices paired with low "parental hostility" are fundamental to strengthening the relationship between parents/caregivers and the children and reducing adolescents' health-compromising behaviors. More research is needed to examine the long-term impact of the program on adolescent behaviors. PMID:25711749

  1. Nuestra Familia: Primaria para Adultos. Segunda Parte. Edicion Experimental (Our Family: Primer for Adults. Part Two. Experimental Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This textbook is part of a Mexican series of instructional materials designed for Spanish speaking adults who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. It is designed to orient people with little education or developing literacy skills to a sense of responsibility toward their families.…

  2. Accessing Programs for Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers with Disabilities: A Parent's Guide = Programas para Infantes y Ninos Pre-escolares con Discapacidades: Guia para Padres de Familia. Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.

    This parent's guide (presented in both English and Spanish) is intended to help families access services for young children with special needs. It is presented in the form of questions and answers arranged in three parts. Part I presents 12 questions and answers about early intervention services for infants and toddlers (ages birth through 2…

  3. A Family Guide to Systems of Care for Children with Mental Health Needs = Guia para la familia de "Systems of Care" para la salud mental de sus hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Janice; Harris, Pam; Hawes, Janet; Shepler, Rick; Tolin, Canice; Truman, Connie

    This bilingual (English-Spanish) guide is intended to assist parents and caregivers in seeking help for children with mental health problems. As part of the system of care, parents and caregivers need to work together to help the child in need. Caregivers and counselors can help families define their strengths, determine the things they want to…

  4. Pick and Choose: A Videotape Series on Nutrition for Migrant Families (Coja y Escoja: Peliculas para Television Sobre la Nutricion para las Familias Migratorias).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    One of the major problems faced by migrant workers throughout the United States is a lack of awareness of the relationship between proper diet and an individual's general health and well being. To help solve this problem was the major objective of the series "Pick and Choose." The three 15-minute programs in the series present information related…

  5. El contexto de la familia y el vecindario en la salud de los ancianos del estudio EPESE hispano

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A.; Camacho, María E.; Eschbach, Karl; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN En este artículo se discute el papel de la familia y el vecindario en la salud de los ancianos méjico-americanos del estudio EPESE (Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly) hispano. La paradoja epidemiológica consiste en que, a pesar de estar en desventaja socioeconómica, los ancianos hispanos tienen mortalidad relativamente menor que los ancianos de raza blanca. Esto es especialmente cierto cuando el anciano vive en los vecindarios donde hay un porcentaje alto de méjico-americanos. La familia también juega un papel importante en estos ancianos al disminuir el riesgo de institucionalización o de morbilidad. Asimismo, el estrés originado en problemas económicos o al depender económicamente de la familia, habiendo inmigrado en edades tardías, puede sobrepasar la capacidad de amortiguamiento del estrés y afectar la salud del anciano méjico-americano. PMID:25190897

  6. Blending Qualitative and Computational Linguistics Methods for Fidelity Assessment: Experience with the Familias Unidas Preventive Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Carlos; Pantin, Hilda; Villamar, Juan; Prado, Guillermo; Tapia, Maria; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Cruden, Gracelyn; Brown, C Hendricks

    2014-01-01

    Careful fidelity monitoring and feedback are critical to implementing effective interventions. A wide range of procedures exist to assess fidelity; most are derived from observational assessments (Schoenwald et al, 2013). However, these fidelity measures are resource intensive for research teams in efficacy/effectiveness trials, and are often unattainable or unmanageable for the host organization to rate when the program is implemented on a large scale. We present a first step towards automated processing of linguistic patterns in fidelity monitoring of a behavioral intervention using an innovative mixed methods approach to fidelity assessment that uses rule-based, computational linguistics to overcome major resource burdens. Data come from an effectiveness trial of the Familias Unidas intervention, an evidence-based, family-centered preventive intervention found to be efficacious in reducing conduct problems, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic youth. This computational approach focuses on “joining,” which measures the quality of the working alliance of the facilitator with the family. Quantitative assessments of reliability are provided. Kappa scores between a human rater and a machine rater for the new method for measuring joining reached .83. Early findings suggest that this approach can reduce the high cost of fidelity measurement and the time delay between fidelity assessment and feedback to facilitators; it also has the potential for improving the quality of intervention fidelity ratings. PMID:24500022

  7. Preventing Internalizing Symptoms Among Hispanic Adolescents: A Synthesis Across Familias Unidas Trials

    PubMed Central

    Perrino, Tatiana; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo; Huang, Shi; Brincks, Ahnalee; Howe, George; Beardslee, William; Sandler, Irwin; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2014-01-01

    Studies document that there are efficacious interventions to prevent adolescent depression and internalizing symptoms, including several family-focused interventions. Questions remain about for whom interventions work (moderation) and by what mechanisms they work (mediation) to prevent internalizing symptoms. Unfortunately, single trials are often underpowered to address moderation and mediation, an issue addressed in this paper. This synthesis study combined individual-level, longitudinal data from 721 adolescents across 3 randomized clinical trials of Familias Unidas, a family-focused prevention intervention for Hispanic youth. Using integrative data analysis (IDA) methods applied to trials, the study examined intervention moderation and mediation effects on internalizing symptoms. Baseline internalizing symptoms were a significant moderator of the intervention's effects on internalizing symptoms, while baseline externalizing symptoms did not moderate intervention effects. Baseline parent–adolescent communication, a modifiable risk factor and hypothesized mechanism by which the intervention works, significantly moderated the intervention's effects. Specifically, the intervention was more efficacious in its impact on internalizing symptoms for youth with lower initial levels of parent–adolescent communication compared to those with higher communication levels. Moderated mediation analyses showed that parent–adolescent communication changes mediated the intervention's effects on internalizing symptoms, with stronger effects for those with poorer baseline communication. Results suggest a potential benefit of identifying youth risks prior to interventions, and targeting specific modifiable mediators that lead to reductions of internalizing problems of adolescents. Findings also highlight advantages of utilizing data from combined trials and IDA for examining intervention moderators and mediators. PMID:24390684

  8. The Efficacy of Familias Unidas on Drug and Alcohol Outcomes for Hispanic Delinquent Youth: Main Effects and Interaction Effects by Parental Stress and Social Support

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Guillermo; Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine; Rosen, Alexa; Bacio, Guadalupe A.; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Brown, C. Hendricks; Velazquez, Maria-Rosa; Villamar, Juan; Freitas, Derek; Tapia, Maria I.; McCollister, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Drug and alcohol use disproportionately affect Hispanic youth. Despite these disparities, few empirically supported preventive interventions are available to ameliorate this public health concern among Hispanic youth. This study examined the effects of Familias Unidas, relative to Community Practice, in reducing past 90-day substance use, alcohol and marijuana dependence, and having sex while under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Additionally, this study explored whether Familias Unidas’ effects varied by environmental context, namely parental stress and social support for parents. METHODS A total of 242 delinquent Hispanic youth aged 12 – 17 years and their primary caregivers were randomized to either Familias Unidas or Community Practice and assessed at three time points. RESULTS Familias Unidas was efficacious in reducing past 90-day substance use, illicit drug use, and in reducing the proportion of youth with an alcohol dependence diagnosis, relative to Community Practice. Results also showed a reduction in the proportion of youth who reported having sex while under the influence of alcohol or drugs. No differences between conditions were observed in past 90-day alcohol use or marijuana dependence. Intervention effects on illicit drug use and alcohol dependence varied by environmental context. For example, Familias Unidas was most efficacious for adolescents with parents exhibiting high stress and lower levels of social support. CONCLUSIONS Familias Unidas was efficacious in reducing some drug and alcohol related outcomes. The findings also support the concept of targeting family-based interventions, such as Familias Unidas, for adolescents with parents exhibiting high stress and low levels of social support. PMID:22776441

  9. El Universo a Sus Pies: Actividades y Recursos para Astronomia (Universe at Your Fingertips: An Astronomy Activity and Resource Notebook).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew, Ed.; Schatz, Dennis, Ed.

    The goal of this resource notebook is to provide activities selected by astronomers and classroom teachers, comprehensive resource lists and bibliographies, background material on astronomical topics, and teaching ideas from experienced astronomy educators. Activities are grouped into several major areas of study in astronomy including lunar…

  10. Cuatro Modelos para Disenar Actividades de Capacitacion de Docentes (Four Models to Design In-Service Teacher Training Activities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    In designing inservice teacher training activities, it is necessary to apply educational principles and teaching and learning techniques which are suitable for adult education programs. Four models for designing inservice teacher training programs are the Malcom Knowles Model, the Leonard Nadler Model, the Cyril O. Houle Model, and the William R.…

  11. The successful use of familial searching in six Hungarian high profile cases by applying a new module in Familias 3.

    PubMed

    Kling, Daniel; Füredi, Sándor

    2016-09-01

    Commonly DNA profiles obtained from biological samples found at crime scenes or of unknown bodies are searched against a large national or local database of reference and crime scene DNA profiles. The aim is to find a direct match, i.e. an identical profile or in the case of a mixture, at least an overlap of all alleles. Familial searching is, instead, the concept of searching for relatives of a stain donor in the database, i.e. a quest for relatives of the possible perpetrator or an unidentified body. The current paper provides the tool to perform effective searches for relatives of a target DNA profile in a large database. In addition, the algorithm accounts for mixtures which is common in crime stains. Specifically we focus on six high profile Hungarian cases where familial searching has succeeded in providing investigative leads. An implementation of the methods is included in the latest version of the software Familias, freely available at www.familias.no. PMID:27267559

  12. Experiencias en Lenguaje Para su Nino ed Edad Pre-escolar. Parte I: Actividades Para la Casa. (Language Experiences for Your Preschooler. Part I: Activities at Home.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    The purpose of this manuscript (written in Spanish) is to encourage the development of communication skills of preschool children by introducing their parents to a number of learning activities suitable for home use. It is written to be used by an instructor who is working with preschool parents. The activities, which are designed to be…

  13. Exploring the Underlying Factor Structure of the Home Literacy Environment (HLE) in the English and Spanish Versions of the Familia Inventory: A Cautionary Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Taylor, Aaron B.; McCormick, Anita S.; Villareal, Victor; Kim, Minjung; Perez, Erica; Darensbourg, Alicia; Haynes, Rebekah

    2011-01-01

    Few research-based measures of the family literacy environment are commercially available, especially in Spanish. One exception is the Familia Inventory (Taylor, 1995). The present study investigated the 10 subscales of this instrument and the factor structure they imply, using data from a low-socioeconomic (SES), largely Hispanic population.…

  14. Family Engagement in Literacy Activities: Revised Factor Structure for the Familia--An Instrument Examining Family Support for Early Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhs, Eric S.; Welch, Greg; Burt, Jennifer; Knoche, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a data-set drawn using "The Familia"--a measure originally developed to evaluate shared-reading activities. A newly developed set of conceptual supports and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were applied to a new factor structure/model. Data were drawn from 219 young children and their families (mean age = 43 months)…

  15. GENOME-WIDE SCAN FOR SERUM GHRELIN DETECTS LINKAGE ON CHROMOSOME 1P36 IN HISPANIC CHILDREN: RESULTS FROM THE VIVA LA FAMILIA STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to investigate genetic influence on serum ghrelin and its relationship with adiposity-related phenotypes in Hispanic children (n = 1030) from the Viva La Familia study (VFS). Anthropometric measurements and levels of serum ghrelin were estimated and genetic analyses conducte...

  16. A Process Evaluation of an Efficacious Family-Based Intervention to Promote Healthy Eating: The "Entre Familia: Reflejos de Salud" Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmied, Emily; Parada, Humberto; Horton, Lucy; Ibarra, Leticia; Ayala, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    "Entre Familia: Reflejos de Salud" was a successful family-based randomized controlled trial designed to improve dietary behaviors and intake among U.S. Latino families, specifically fruit and vegetable intake. The novel intervention design merged a community health worker ("promotora") model with an entertainment-education…

  17. Colorado Guidelines for Service Coordination: Early Childhood Connections for Infants, Toddlers & Families = Guia para la Coordinacion de Servicios de Colorado: Conexiones para la Ninez Temprana para los Infantes, Parvulos y las Familias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jerri; Petersen, Sandy

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act entitles each family with an eligible infant or toddler to service coordination at no cost to them. This publication sets forth guidelines and describes the vision for how service coordination will be provided to families in Colorado. The publication, in English and Spanish versions, notes that…

  18. Estudio de NIH indica que la actividad física en tiempo libre alarga la vida tanto como 4,5 años

    Cancer.gov

    La actividad física en tiempo libre está asociada con una expectativa de vida más larga, aun en un grado de actividad relativamente bajo e independientemente del peso corporal, de acuerdo con un estudio llevado a cabo por un equipo de investigadores del I

  19. Hacia Adelante: Pathways to College. A Guide for Latino Families [and] Hacia Adelante: Pathways to College. Una Guia Para Familias Latinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Rosana; McCollum, Pam; Diaz-Sanchez, Micaela; Romero, Anna Alicia; Montemayor, Aurelio

    This guide provides a family approach to college planning, with the goal of helping Latino students gain college entrance. Part 1 provides basic information about college, including information about how early parents should begin talking with their children about college, how parents can help their children plan for college, ensuring that…

  20. Perspectivas sobre las escuelas charter: Una resena para padres de familia (Perspectives on Charter Schools: A Review for Parents). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahoo, Saran

    Recently, charter schools have gained popularity with parents, students, and others as alternatives to public schools, but what are charter schools and what effects are they having? This Spanish-language Digest defines charter schools and clarifies some of the administrative and legal details surrounding such schools. The Digest also lays out some…

  1. Latino Families in the United States. A Resourcebook for Family Life Education = Las Familias Latinas en los Estados Unidos. Recursos para la Capacitacion Familiar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Sally J., Ed.

    The primary objectives of this resource book are to increase family life educators' knowledge and understanding of Latinos and to encourage advocacy by Latinos for appropriate family life programs in their communities. English and Spanish versions of the same text are included. There are six chapters. Chapter 1 outlines the book's objectives and…

  2. Los Cambios en el Programa de Estudios de la Lengua: Folleto para los Padres de Familia (The Changing Language Arts Curriculum: A Booklet for Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment Div.

    This Spanish-language version of a booklet intended for parents offers information about how reading instruction is changing and is now only one part of an integrated language arts curriculum. The booklet urges parents and educators to work together to help meet students' needs. Section titles include: Important Facts About Integrated Language…

  3. Building Your Baby's Brain: A Parent's Guide to the First Five Years = Como estimular el cerebro infantil: Una guia para padres de familia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Heroman, Cate

    Noting that all parents can help their baby's brain to grow, this guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, explores what science has learned about infant brain development and how parents and caregivers can influence cognitive development. Topics covered include: prenatal care, touching your baby, teaching about feelings and self-control,…

  4. Guia para Madres y Padres de Familia sobre Educacion Pre-Escolar a Temprana Edad (A Parents' Guide to Early Childhood Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna

    This booklet for parents explains what children learn in preschools that employ the Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood and the ways in which learning can be reinforced at home. The first sections of the booklet explain the goals and philosophy of experience-based preschools. Goals include teaching children to love reading and school and to be…

  5. La Evolucion del Curriculo de las Matematicas: Un Folleto para los Padres de Familia. (The Changing Mathematics Curriculum: A Booklet for Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This booklet, written in Spanish, provides a guide for parents to help their children become successful in school mathematics. The information is divided into four sections: (1) important facts about the mathematics curriculum and mathematics instruction; (2) expectations about participation, calculators, cooperative learning, dialogue, and…

  6. El rol de Ia colaboracion y el Modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) mediante el lente de la Teoria de Actividad (CHAT): un estudio de caso con estudiantes de 9no grado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Isabel C.

    Los modelos de eensenanza y aprendizaje constructivistas conceptualizan el aprendizaje como un proceso activo. El modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) se distingue por una serie de componentes, entre los cuales se destaca el aspecto colaborativo y cooperativo como un reto al momento de su implantacion. Son pocas las investigaciones que se concentran en este aspecto del modelo. En este estudio, se analizaron las diversas interacciones que surgen durante la implantacion de una unidad curricular sobre el tema de Geologia de Puerto Rico, la cual se diseno con el modelo ABPr cuyo enfoque es orientacion a proyectos. Particularmente, se examinaron las interacciones sociales que surgen entre los pares y entre pares y docente durante el proceso de planificacion y desarrollo de los productos finales, al igual que las interacciones entre los estudiantes y el material didactico en estas etapas del modelo. La investigacion es de tipo cualitativo e incorpora como diseno el estudio de caso. Las diversas interacciones constituyen la unidad de analisis. En el estudio participaron 19 estudiantes de 9no grado, a quienes se organizaron en 5 grupos colaborativos por temas de interes (Pangea, Placas tectonicas, Volcanes, Tsunamis y Terremotos). Las tecnicas que se utilizaron para recopilar los datos fueron: observaciones participativas, grupos focales y analisis de documentos (cuadernos reflexivos y respuestas de los estudiantes a la pregunta central del proyecto). Para el analisis de los datos se aplico la teoria de actividad (CHAT) que concentra la unidad de analisis en la actividad humana en un contexto particular. Los resultados del estudio senalan que las interacciones entre pares, entre pares y docente, asi como entre estudiantes y material didactico son fundamentales en el proceso de aprendizaje. Una mayor interaccion entre pares durante las etapas de planificar y desarrollar los productos finales de la unidad, promueve una mejor comprension de los conceptos de la

  7. Practical Astronomical Activities during Daytime. (Spanish Title: Actividades Astronómicas Prácticas Diurnas.) Atividades Astronômicas Práticas Diurnas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Eric

    2009-12-01

    relacionadas al mal tiempo. El problema de no tener suficientes actividades prácticas, la sensación de poseer conocimientos inadecuados, la necesidad de disponer de equipamiento astronómico y experiencia suelen ser demasiado intimidantes para que los profesores introduzcan la materia en sus clases. Si la Astronomía iba a ser introducida, entonces era preciso encontrar una forma de resolver estas dificultades. Nuestro grupo, trabajando con maestros y alumnos dentro de un marco constructivista, encontró que los principios de la Astronomía pueden ser descubiertos durante el día, en cuanto los alumnos están en la escuela. Trabajando de forma cooperativa los alumnos midieron y registraron observaciones de sus propias sombras causadas por los movimientos de la estrella más próxima, el Sol, y nuestro planeta Tierra. Debido a que los alumnos se involucraran tan personalmente en las actividades, estuvieron mucho más interesados en los resultados del estudio. La Astronomía pasó a ser un desafío para el maestro y sus alumnos cuando aplicaron sus experiencias diurnas a la observación nocturna desde sus casas, reportada después en clase. Estas atividades astronômicas diurnas surgiram de uma investigação feita na Nova Zelândia por um grupo de professores e astrônomos a respeito dos problemas do ensino da Astronomia. Este trabalho mostrou que a Astronomia é geralmente considerada uma disciplina difícil de ensinar, tradicionalmente baseada em livros, filmes e modelos. Os mais afortunados podem ter feito alguma visita a um observatório ou planetário, e os mais avançados podem talvez ter tentado uma sessão de observação noturna, as quais sofrem às vezes de dificuldades relacionadas ao tempo. O problema de não dispor de suficientes atividades práticas, a sensação de possuir conhecimentos inadequados, a necessidade de dispor de equipamento astronômico e experiência tem sido, em geral, demasiado intimidante para que os professores introduzam a matéria nas suas

  8. Practical Astronomical Activities during Daytime. (Spanish Title: Actividades Astronómicas Prácticas Diurnas.) Atividades Astronômicas Práticas Diurnas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Eric

    2009-12-01

    relacionadas al mal tiempo. El problema de no tener suficientes actividades prácticas, la sensación de poseer conocimientos inadecuados, la necesidad de disponer de equipamiento astronómico y experiencia suelen ser demasiado intimidantes para que los profesores introduzcan la materia en sus clases. Si la Astronomía iba a ser introducida, entonces era preciso encontrar una forma de resolver estas dificultades. Nuestro grupo, trabajando con maestros y alumnos dentro de un marco constructivista, encontró que los principios de la Astronomía pueden ser descubiertos durante el día, en cuanto los alumnos están en la escuela. Trabajando de forma cooperativa los alumnos midieron y registraron observaciones de sus propias sombras causadas por los movimientos de la estrella más próxima, el Sol, y nuestro planeta Tierra. Debido a que los alumnos se involucraran tan personalmente en las actividades, estuvieron mucho más interesados en los resultados del estudio. La Astronomía pasó a ser un desafío para el maestro y sus alumnos cuando aplicaron sus experiencias diurnas a la observación nocturna desde sus casas, reportada después en clase. Estas atividades astronômicas diurnas surgiram de uma investigação feita na Nova Zelândia por um grupo de professores e astrônomos a respeito dos problemas do ensino da Astronomia. Este trabalho mostrou que a Astronomia é geralmente considerada uma disciplina difícil de ensinar, tradicionalmente baseada em livros, filmes e modelos. Os mais afortunados podem ter feito alguma visita a um observatório ou planetário, e os mais avançados podem talvez ter tentado uma sessão de observação noturna, as quais sofrem às vezes de dificuldades relacionadas ao tempo. O problema de não dispor de suficientes atividades práticas, a sensação de possuir conhecimentos inadequados, a necessidade de dispor de equipamento astronômico e experiência tem sido, em geral, demasiado intimidante para que os professores introduzam a matéria nas suas

  9. Actividad en la superficie lunar: fenómenos lunares transitorios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roa, A. F. C.

    Los fenómenos lunares transitorios que se presentan en la superficie de la Luna son raros, poco frecuentes y de corta duración, lo que origina que exista poca información al respecto. Esto hace evidente la importancia de estudiarlos con detalle. Han sido registrados como nubes muy brillantes a base de gases residuales de la pasada actividad geológica lunar, de diferentes colores (amarillas, anaranjadas, rojas), de acuerdo con el tiempo de duración cambian su color, con tamaños de pocos kilómetros hasta de centenares de kilómetros. Por lo general, se presentan en ciertos lugares, como cráteres (Aristarco, Plato, Kepler, etc.), y en los bordes de los mares lunares (mar de la Fecundidad, zona de los montes Alpes, etc.).Variando su tiempo de exposición puede ser de unos pocos segundos hasta un poco más de una hora.

  10. Reducing Substance Use and HIV Health Disparities among Hispanic Youth in the U.S.A.: The Familias Unidas Program of Research

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Guillermo; Pantin, Hilda

    2011-01-01

    Preventing/reducing substance use and HIV among Hispanic youth is essential to eliminating the health disparities that exist between Hispanics and other segments of the population. The objective of this article is to describe a program of research involving Familias Unidas, a Hispanic-specific, parent-centered intervention, aimed at reducing substance use and HIV health disparities among Hispanic youth. This article will focus on the theoretical foundation of the intervention, the empirical research supporting the theoretical model, the intervention model itself, the findings of the program of research, and the translation of this intervention into community practice. PMID:21743790

  11. What Providers Should Know about Child Care Assistance for Families: A Targeted Effort to Reach Hispanic Families and Providers = Lo que Deben Saber los Proveedores Sobre el Programa de Ayuda de Cuidado Infantil para las Familias: Un Esfuerzo Especial para Alcanzar Familias y Proveedores Hispanos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Bureau, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Federal and State governments can help families pay for child care. The families one serves may be eligible for this assistance, and one may receive this funding for services one provides, thus becoming a "participating provider." This paper provides answers to the following questions: (1) How can parents receive child care assistance?; (2) How do…

  12. We Are Familia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almendariz, Abe Lujan; Villarreal, Micha; Rodriquez, Roy C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the family-based administrative structure of the Alicia Chacon International School, a magnet elementary school in El Paso, Texas. Students are motivated to learn within the school's family environment through involvement in cultural activities, multilingual instruction, and family participation. (PKP)

  13. Recetas para divertirse: actividades que se pueden realizar en el hogar con los ninos. (Recipes for Fun: Activities Which Can Be Done at Home with the Children.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Ann; And Others

    PAR (Parents as Resources) consists of two professors and a social worker who are dedicated to helping parents work creatively and confidently with their children during the preschool and primary years. PAR has developed concrete instructional activities and workshops to stimulate the exchange of positive and pleasing experiences between parents…

  14. Using Web-Based Activities to Promote Reading: An Exploratory Study with Teenagers (Uso de actividades en la red para promover la lectura: un estudio exploratorio con adolescentes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rátiva Velandia, Marlén; Pedreros Torres, Andrés Leonardo; Núñez Alí, Mónica

    2012-01-01

    It is considered valuable to take advantage of web activities to improve and qualify the English teaching and learning processes, especially in the promotion of reading comprehension. In this article we share the process and results of a study that focused on some activities based on web materials that were designed and used with 10th grade…

  15. Literacy Learning Parties for 3-5 Year Olds. Activity Book = Fiestas de aprendizaje de alfabetismo para ninos de 3-5 anos. Libro de actividades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Ellen R.

    Noting that family members are a child's first teachers and set the course for future success, this activity book of "literacy learning parties" presents 10 activities that can be used at home to practice the skills and ideas learned at parent literacy workshops. Presented in English and Spanish versions, the activity book discusses the importance…

  16. Welcome to the Web: An Activity Booklet for Parents and Kids = Bienvenidos a Internet: Libro de actividades para padres y ninos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schottman, Elly, Ed.

    Noting that children need help in learning to use wisely the computer and the Internet, this booklet, in English and Spanish versions, uses the characters from the public television program "Arthur" to suggest activities for parents to use with their children. The booklet begins with a read-aloud story about using computer games and the Internet…

  17. Arrecifes de Coral: Una Coleccion de Actividades en Espanol para Estudiantes de Escuela Intermedia (Coral Reefs: A Spanish Compilation of Activities for Middle School Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sharon H.; Newton, R. Amanda; Ortiz, Alida

    This activity book for middle school students on coral reefs is divided into 10 sections. Section 1 is the introduction. Section 2 describes what coral reefs are while section 3 describes how coral reefs reproduce and grow. Section 4 describes where coral reefs are found, and section 5 describes life on a coral reef. Section 6 describes the…

  18. Desarrollo curricular, conciencia ambiental y tecnologia para estudiantes de intermedia: Una investigacion en accion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Ramos, Teresita

    Se llevó a cabo una investigación en acción con los propósitos de 1) documentar las relaciones de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en las clases de ciencias de escuela intermedia como elemento de apoyo cuando se aborda el tema ambiental y sus conceptos pertinentes, a partir de las observaciones de la investigadora, así como las entrevistas y diarios reflexivos de los estudiantes de una escuela intermedia en la zona metropolitana, y luego 2) diseñar una unidad instruccional sobre el tema ambiental que integre actividades tecnologías para el curso de ciencias de la escuela intermedia según el modelo PROCIC y las observaciones que hayan iniciado los estudiantes participantes. Finalmente, se plantearon las implicaciones educativas para el currículo del Programa de Ciencias al instrumentar este modelo de unidad mediante PROCIC, e integrado la tecnología y el tema ambiental. Los hallazgos se analizaron y se categorizaron de acuerdo con las preguntas de investigación. El hallazgo principal de la investigación aborda las cuatro relaciones centrales en las que se articula la utilización de las tecnologías y sus aplicaciones en la clase de ciencias. Estas cuatro relaciones que recogen la posición de los estudiantes son: 1) Perspectiva de los estudiantes hacia la tecnología. 2) Participación de los estudiantes en los aspectos docentes. 3) Aprendizaje estudiantil sobre el ambiente, y 4) Conciencia ambiental en relación con la vida diaria. Estas relaciones ponen de manifiesto,cómo se plantea en las implicaciones, la necesidad de más investigación en acción en la sala de clases, la importancia—como tema transversal—de la conciencia ambiental mediante la tecnología al construir conocimientos significativos dentro y fuera de la escuela, asó como, valorar la investigación y la dialogicidad en la sala de clases como actividades que obligan al reexamen de la práctica didáctica en su formas curriculares de objetivos, recursos

  19. Pautas para Organizar Una Actividad de Capacitacion: Un Seminario-Taller para el Desarrollo de Personal de Direccion de Sistemas Educativos (Guidelines to Organize a Training Activity: A Workshop for Management Development of Educational Systems).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Often personnel performing managerial functions within educational systems are educators with almost no training in management. This paper presents ideas on how to organize a training activity intended to develop management knowledge and skills among educational systems officials and to implement an organizational self-study on management…

  20. Incentivos para atraer y retener personal de salud de zonas rurales del Perú: un estudio cualitativo

    PubMed Central

    Huicho, Luis; Canseco, Francisco Díez; Lema, Claudia; Miranda, J. Jaime; Lescano, Andrés G.

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo fue identificar incentivos de atracción y retención en zonas rurales y distantes de Ayacucho, Perú. Fueron realizadas entrevistas en profundidad con 80 médicos, enfermeras, obstetras y técnicos (20 por grupo) de las zonas más pobres y con 11 funcionarios. No existen políticas sistemáticas de atracción y retención de personal de salud en Ayacucho. Los principales incentivos, en orden de importancia, fueron mejoras salariales, oportunidades de formación y capacitación, estabilidad laboral y nombramiento, mejoras en infraestructura y equipos, e incremento del personal. Se mencionaron también mejoras en la vivienda y alimentación, mayor cercanía con la familia y reconocimiento por el sistema de salud. Existen coincidencias y singularidades entre los distintos grupos sobre los incentivos clave para estimular el trabajo rural, que deben considerarse al diseñar políticas públicas. Las iniciativas del Estado deben comprender procesos rigurosos de monitoreo y evaluación, para asegurar que las mismas tengan el impacto deseado. PMID:22488318

  1. A Process Evaluation of an Efficacious Family-Based Intervention to Promote Healthy Eating: The Entre Familia: Reflejos de Salud Study.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Emily; Parada, Humberto; Horton, Lucy; Ibarra, Leticia; Ayala, Guadalupe

    2015-10-01

    Entre Familia: Reflejos de Salud was a successful family-based randomized controlled trial designed to improve dietary behaviors and intake among U.S. Latino families, specifically fruit and vegetable intake. The novel intervention design merged a community health worker (promotora) model with an entertainment-education component. This process evaluation examined intervention implementation and assessed relationships between implementation factors and dietary change. Participants included 180 mothers randomized to an intervention condition. Process evaluation measures were obtained from participant interviews and promotora notes and included fidelity, dose delivered (i.e., minutes of promotora in-person contact with families, number of promotora home visits), and dose received (i.e., participant use of and satisfaction with intervention materials). Outcome variables included changes in vegetable intake and the use of behavioral strategies to increase dietary fiber and decrease dietary fat intake. Participant satisfaction was high, and fidelity was achieved; 87.5% of families received the planned number of promotora home visits. In the multivariable model, satisfaction with intervention materials predicted more frequent use of strategies to increase dietary fiber (p ≤ .01). Trends suggested that keeping families in the prescribed intervention timeline and obtaining support from other social network members through sharing of program materials may improve changes. Study findings elucidate the relationship between specific intervention processes and dietary changes. PMID:25810469

  2. Niños Sanos, Familia Sana: Mexican immigrant study protocol for a multifaceted CBPR intervention to combat childhood obesity in two rural California towns

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Overweight and obese children are likely to develop serious health problems. Among children in the U.S., Latino children are affected disproportionally by the obesity epidemic. Niños Sanos, Familia Sana (Healthy Children, Healthy Family) is a five-year, multi-faceted intervention study to decrease the rate of BMI growth in Mexican origin children in California’s Central Valley. This paper describes the methodology applied to develop and launch the study. Methods/Design Investigators use a community-based participatory research approach to develop a quasi-experimental intervention consisting of four main components including nutrition, physical activity, economic and art-community engagement. Each component’s definition, method of delivery, data collection and evaluation are described. Strategies to maintain engagement of the comparison community are reported as well. Discussion We present a study methodology for an obesity prevention intervention in communities with unique environmental conditions due to rural and isolated location, limited infrastructure capacity and limited resources. This combined with numerous cultural considerations and an unstable population with limited exposure to researcher expectations necessitates reassessment and adaptation of recruitment strategies, intervention delivery and data collection methods. Trial registration # NCT01900613. Trial registration NCT01900613. PMID:24172250

  3. Planes para atender un cáncer avanzado

    Cancer.gov

    Una planificación cuidadosa reducirá el peso que su familia enfrentará más adelante. La planificación puede incluir asuntos económicos y legales, pero puede ser también búsqueda de significado y de celebración de su vida.

  4. Separating para and ortho water.

    PubMed

    Horke, Daniel A; Chang, Yuan-Pin; Długołęcki, Karol; Küpper, Jochen

    2014-10-27

    Water exists as two nuclear-spin isomers, para and ortho, determined by the overall spin of its two hydrogen nuclei. For isolated water molecules, the conversion between these isomers is forbidden and they act as different molecular species. Yet, these species are not readily separated, and no pure para sample has been produced. Accordingly, little is known about their specific physical and chemical properties, conversion mechanisms, or interactions. The production of isolated samples of both spin isomers is demonstrated in pure beams of para and ortho water in their respective absolute ground state. These single-quantum-state samples are ideal targets for unraveling spin-conversion mechanisms, for precision spectroscopy and fundamental symmetry-breaking studies, and for spin-enhanced applications, for example laboratory astrophysics and astrochemistry or hypersensitized NMR experiments. PMID:25196938

  5. El regreso a la escuela, Sigamos adelante: Lo que significa para las familias americanas "No dejar atras a ningun nino" (Back to School, Moving Forward: What "No Child Left Behind" Means for America's Families).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of the Secretary.

    This pamphlet for parents Spanish presents the components of the "No Child Left Behind" policy of the George W. Bush administration. Prefaced with remarks by President Bush and Secretary of Education Rod Paige, the pamphlet discusses the importance of high academic standards and provides guidance for parents in interpreting test scores. The…

  6. Head Start Service Guide for Children and Families with HIV or AIDS = Guia de Servicios para Ninos con V.I.H. Positivo y con Sindrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (S.I.D.A.) y sus Familias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico Commonwealth Office of Children's Services and Community Development, Old San Juan.

    This document provides guidelines and procedures, in Spanish and English, for Head Start teachers in taking care of children with AIDS, or children who are HIV positive, and their families. The goal of the guide is to maximize participation of infected children in the Head Start program. The guide presents activities in three main stages:…

  7. America vuelve a la escuela: Participe y colabore! Informacion para familias y miembros de la comunidad (America Goes Back to School: Get Involved! Stay Involved! Information for Families and Community Members).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for Family Involvement in Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    This Spanish-language brochure provides several tips for families and for community members to help them encourage student achievement and success. The tips are grouped into three categories: (1) "Help our children read well and independently by the end of third grade"; (2) "Help our children learn to meet high math and science standards and take…

  8. Educacion, Salud y Bienestar para el Nino Preescolar y la Familia (7 de Enero--29 de Febrero de 1996). Informe Curso sobre (Education, Health and Welfare for Small Children. January 7 - February 29, 1996. Report of a Course.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Centre, Haifa (Israel).

    This Spanish-language report (with an English summary) describes a course on interagency cooperation held at the Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Center in Haifa, Israel. The course, with 30 Central and South American participants, discusses the necessity of pooling resources and sharing responsibility among institutions in various…

  9. Actividad nuclear vs. circunnuclear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R. J.; Agüero, M. P.; Mast, D.

    We are compiling a catalogue of galaxies with circumnuclear rings (CNRs) and we present here a preliminary version. We analyze the incidence and properties of the central objects in the galaxies of this catalogue, and compare them with a sample of similar galaxies without this kind of structures (in the optical range). The most important results are: (i) There would be no environmental effects in the incidence of CNRs, therefore their occurrence would be more related with intrinsic properties of the hosts; (ii) the incidence of nuclear activity of the types Seyfert (Sy) 1 or 2, would be a few times larger than the rate expected from the distribution of morphological types in the host galaxy sample; (iii) there is a large excess of Sy 2 respect to Sy 1 nuclei when compared with a sample without CNRs. This excess is in the opposite sense of what could be expected if the apparent geometry of the host galaxy had an influence in the observed Sy type: there is a selection bias in this sample towards face on galaxies, which favor the detection of the CNRs.

  10. Indicadores de actividad estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincunegui, C. C.; Mauas, P.

    There is a strong correlation between some solar activity indexes and average Earth temperature measurements. Thus, determining the range of variation of the solar constant over the years becomes very important. One way to do so, is to consider a large sample of stars with characteristics similar to those of the Sun, and analyze how the activity levels change from one star to another. With this technique one can infer activity variations that may occur over longer periods of time than the ones allowed by direct observations of the Sun. The main index used to measure stellar activity is the flux in the Ca II H and K lines, which are formed in the star's chromosphere. However, these lines are in the blue side of the spectrum, and are, therefore, not useful to study very cool stars, which are intrinsically faint and very red. In this work observations made at CASLEO are presented. Flux calibration of these lines was done in the usual way. We investigate possible correlations between the Ca II line fluxes and those of lines of longer wavelength, which may allow us to study the variability of stars cooler than the Sun.

  11. Mensaje para alumnos y padres

    NASA Video Gallery

    El astronauta de la NASA José Hernández alienta a los estudiantes a que sigan sus sueños. Hernández también habla acerca del papel que juegan los padres para ayudar a que sus hijos hagan realidad s...

  12. Echoes of the "Primiera Familia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Jon C.

    1992-01-01

    A residential school for deaf and hard-of-hearing students developed family living units for some students. Program features include student diversity as a selection factor, a teaching-parent couple in each unit, food acquired from the school kitchen but prepared and eaten in the unit, and close communication between teachers and teaching parents.…

  13. Family Pictures = Cuadros de familia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomas Garza, Carmen

    Bilingual (English and Spanish) text and illustrations describe the author-artist's experiences growing up in a traditional Hispanic community in south Texas, near the border with Mexico. The brightly colored paintings of her family and community show, in great detail, the everyday activities that remain vivid in her memory: picking oranges for…

  14. Lo que da buen resultado en casa. Resultados de la investigacion y Actividades de aprendizaje: Sentido comun y diversion para ninos y adultos (What Works at Home. Research Findings and Learning Activities: Common Sense and Fun for Adults and Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Shirley, Ed.

    As part of an effort to encourage Hispanic parents to help their children in school, this home learning guide, which can also be obtained in taped versions, provides parents with learning activities with which to engage their children. Based on research findings, the activities are divided into the following categories: curriculum of the home,…

  15. Como ayudar a su hijo a ser un buen lector: Con actividades para los ninos desde el nacimiento hasta los 6 anos (Helping Your Child Become a Reader: With Activities for Children from Infancy through Age 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Fran; Osborn, Jean

    When parents and other family members read with their children, help them with homework, talk with their teachers, and participate in school or other learning activities, they give their children a tremendous advantage. The foundation for learning to read is in place long before children enter school and begin formal reading instruction. Families…

  16. Como ayudar a su hijo a tener exito en la escuela, con actividades para ninos entre las edades de 5 a 11 anos (Helping Your Child Succeed in School, with Activities for Children Ages 5 through 11).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulu, Nancy

    At the heart of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is a promise to raise standards for all children and to help all children meet those standards. This Spanish-language booklet provides information that parents can use to help their child succeed in school. Following an introduction, the second section of the booklet, "The Basics," offers…

  17. Como ayudar a su hijo durante la edad preescolar, con actividades para los ninos desde el nacimiento hasta los 5 anos (Helping Your Preschool Child, with Activities for Children from Infancy through Age 5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    The first 5 yeas of a child's life are a time of tremendous physical, emotional, social, and cognitive growth. Noting that research shows that children are more likely to succeed in learning when their families actively support them, this Spanish-language booklet is intended for families and caregivers who want to help their preschool children…

  18. Functional Expression of Drosophila para Sodium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Warmke, Jeffrey W.; Reenan, Robert A.G.; Wang, Peiyi; Qian, Su; Arena, Joseph P.; Wang, Jixin; Wunderler, Denise; Liu, Ken; Kaczorowski, Gregory J.; Ploeg, Lex H.T. Van der; Ganetzky, Barry; Cohen, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    The Drosophila para sodium channel α subunit was expressed in Xenopus oocytes alone and in combination with tipE, a putative Drosophila sodium channel accessory subunit. Coexpression of tipE with para results in elevated levels of sodium currents and accelerated current decay. Para/TipE sodium channels have biophysical and pharmacological properties similar to those of native channels. However, the pharmacology of these channels differs from that of vertebrate sodium channels: (a) toxin II from Anemonia sulcata, which slows inactivation, binds to Para and some mammalian sodium channels with similar affinity (Kd ≅ 10 nM), but this toxin causes a 100-fold greater decrease in the rate of inactivation of Para/TipE than of mammalian channels; (b) Para sodium channels are >10-fold more sensitive to block by tetrodotoxin; and (c) modification by the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin is >100-fold more potent for Para than for rat brain type IIA sodium channels. Our results suggest that the selective toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides is due at least in part to the greater affinity of pyrethroids for insect sodium channels than for mammalian sodium channels. PMID:9236205

  19. Laparoscopic extraperitoneal para-aortic lymphadenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Iserte, Pablo Padilla; Minig, Lucas; Zorrero, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Lymph nodes are the main pathway in the spread of gynaecological malignancies, being a well-known prognostic factor. Lymph node dissection is a complex surgical procedure and requires surgical expertise to perform the procedure, thereby minimising complications. In addition, lymphadenectomy has value in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of patients with gynaecologic cancer. Therefore, a video focused on the para-aortic retroperitoneal anatomy and the surgical technique of the extraperitoneal para-aortic lymphadenectomy is presented. PMID:26435746

  20. Process for para-ethyltoluene dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.C.

    1986-06-03

    A process is described of dehydrogenating para-ethyltoluene to selectively form para-methylstyrene comprising contacting to para-ethyltoluene under dehydrogenation reaction conditions with a catalyst composition comprising: (a) from about 30% to 60% by weight of iron oxide, calculated as ferric oxide; (b) from about 13% to 48% by weight of a potassium compound, calculated as potassium oxide; and (c) from about 0% to 5% by weight of a chromium compound, calculated as chromic oxide. The improvement is described comprising dehydrogenating the para-ethyltoluene with a catalyst composition comprising, in addition to the components (a), (b) and (c), a modifying component (d) capable of rendering the para-methylstyrene-containing dehydrogenation reaction effluent especially resistant to the subsequent formation of popcorn polymers when the dehydrogenation of para-ethyltoluene is conducted over the modified catalyst, the modifying component (d) being a bismuth compound present to the extent of from about 1% to 20% by weight of the catalyst composition, calculated as bismuth trioxide.

  1. El Mundo del Nino con Trastornos del Desarrollo: Un Manual para Padres con un Directorio de Servicios que Existen para las Familias del Condado de Lake, Illinois (The World of the Child with Developmental Disorders: A Parents Manual with a Directory of Services for Families in Lake County, Illinois).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suelzle, Marijean; Keenan, Vincent

    Intended for parents of developmentally disabled children, the handbook, in Spanish, provides information on service needs and services available in Lake County, Illinois. Section I focuses on life course planning with sections of diagnosis and assessment, professionals involved with special education, education for the developmentally disabled,…

  2. For a Child, Life is a Creative Adventure: Supporting Development and Learning through Art, Music, Movement, and Dialogue. A Guide for Parents and Professionals. = Para los ninos, la vida es una aventura creativa: Como estimular el desarrollo y el aprendizaje por medio de las artes visuales, la musica, el movimiento y el dialogo. Guia para padres de familia y profesionales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elena

    Recognizing that creativity facilitates children's learning and development, the Head Start Program Performance Standards require Head Start programs to include opportunities for creative self-expression. This guide with accompanying videotape, both in English- and Spanish- language versions, encourages and assists adults to support children's…

  3. The ParaScope parallel programming environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Keith D.; Hall, Mary W.; Hood, Robert T.; Kennedy, Ken; Mckinley, Kathryn S.; Mellor-Crummey, John M.; Torczon, Linda; Warren, Scott K.

    1993-01-01

    The ParaScope parallel programming environment, developed to support scientific programming of shared-memory multiprocessors, includes a collection of tools that use global program analysis to help users develop and debug parallel programs. This paper focuses on ParaScope's compilation system, its parallel program editor, and its parallel debugging system. The compilation system extends the traditional single-procedure compiler by providing a mechanism for managing the compilation of complete programs. Thus, ParaScope can support both traditional single-procedure optimization and optimization across procedure boundaries. The ParaScope editor brings both compiler analysis and user expertise to bear on program parallelization. It assists the knowledgeable user by displaying and managing analysis and by providing a variety of interactive program transformations that are effective in exposing parallelism. The debugging system detects and reports timing-dependent errors, called data races, in execution of parallel programs. The system combines static analysis, program instrumentation, and run-time reporting to provide a mechanical system for isolating errors in parallel program executions. Finally, we describe a new project to extend ParaScope to support programming in FORTRAN D, a machine-independent parallel programming language intended for use with both distributed-memory and shared-memory parallel computers.

  4. Oxidative para-triflation of acetanilides.

    PubMed

    Pialat, Amélie; Liégault, Benoît; Taillefer, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Direct triflation of acetanilide derivatives with silver triflate has been accomplished under mild iodine(III)-mediated oxidative conditions. The reaction shows excellent regioselectivity for the para position and tolerates a range of ortho and meta substituents on the aromatic ring. This method is also compatible with the preparation of arylnonaflates in synthetically useful yields. PMID:23534500

  5. FDA aprueba la primera inmunoterapia para linfoma

    Cancer.gov

    La FDA ha aprobado nivolumab (Opdivo®) para el tratamiento de pacientes con el linfoma clásico de Hodgkin que ha recaído o empeorado después de recibir un trasplante autólogo hematopoyético seguido de brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris®)

  6. Para-hydrogen perspectives in hyperpolarized NMR.

    PubMed

    Glöggler, Stefan; Colell, Johannes; Appelt, Stephan

    2013-10-01

    The first instance of para-hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) in an NMR experiment was serendipitously observed in the 1980s while investigating a hydrogenation reaction (Seldler et al., 1983; Bowers and Weitekamp, 1986, 1987; Eisenschmid et al., 1987) [1-4]. Remarkably a theoretical investigation of the applicability of para-hydrogen as a hyperpolarization agent was being performed in the 1980's thereby quickly providing a theoretical basis for the PHIP-effect (Bowers and Weitekamp, 1986) [2]. The discovery of signal amplification by a non-hydrogenating interaction with para-hydrogen has recently extended the interest to exploit the PHIP effect, as it enables investigation of compounds without structural alteration while retaining the advantages of spectroscopy with hyperpolarized compounds [5]. In this article we will place more emphasis of the future applications of the method while only briefly discussing the efforts that have been made in the understanding of the phenomenon and the development of the method so far. PMID:23932399

  7. Etapa final de la vida (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre lo que debe ser el cuidado desde los últimos días hasta las últimas horas de vida, esto incluye los síntomas comunes, dilemas éticos que podrían surgir, y la función que desempeña el oncólogo en proveer cuidados al paciente y su familia durante este tiempo.

  8. Etapa final de la vida (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos sobre el tratamiento y la atención del paciente de cáncer desde los últimos días hasta las últimas horas de vida; esto incluye los síntomas comunes, los dilemas éticos que pueden surgir y la función que desempeña el oncólogo en proveer cuidados al paciente y su familia durante este período.

  9. En sus marcas--Listos--A leer! Para los cuidadores de ninos pequenos: Actividades de lenguaje para la primera infancia y ninez entre el nacimiento y los 5 anos. El reto: A leer, America! (Ready--Set--Read! For Caregivers: Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for caregivers, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth chart. The activity guide presents activities and ideas that caregivers (family child care providers and the teachers, staff, and volunteers in child development programs) can use to help young children…

  10. Men and Families = Hombres y Familias, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Men and Families Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter, published in both English and Spanish versions, focuses on men and their roles in families. It stems from a 3-day workshop held at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) in Mexico City. The 24 participating researchers and practitioners discussed ways to support men in fathering roles in order to enhance the…

  11. [Family Health. La Salud de la Familia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These three booklets on family and child health are part of a series of 22 booklets specifically designed to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "The Effects of Stress on Parents and Family Life" (booklet #17), covers issues such as causes and effects of stress, stress and our modern society, and coping with stress. In…

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David; Chow, Elizabeth T

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to hair dye is the most frequent route of sensitisation to para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a common contact allergen. International studies have examined the profile of PPD, but Australian-sourced information is lacking. Patients are often dissatisfied with advice to stop dyeing their hair. This study examines patients' characteristics, patch test results and outcomes of PPD allergy from a single Australian centre, through a retrospective analysis of patch test data from 2006 to 2013 at the Liverpool Hospital Dermatology Department. It reviews the science of hair dye allergy, examines alternative hair dyes and investigates strategies for hair dyeing. Of 584 patients, 11 were allergic to PPD. Our PPD allergy prevalence rate of 2% is at the lower end of international reported rates. About half these patients also react to para-toluenediamine (PTD). Affected patients experience a significant lifestyle disturbance. In all, 78% tried alternative hair dyes after the patch test diagnosis and more than half continued to dye their hair. Alternative non-PPD hair dyes are available but the marketplace can be confusing. Although some patients are able to tolerate alternative hair dyes, caution is needed as the risk of developing an allergy to other hair dye ingredients, especially PTD, is high. PMID:25302475

  13. On Lightlike Geometry of Para-Sasakian Manifolds

    PubMed Central

    Acet, Bilal Eftal; Kılıç, Erol

    2014-01-01

    We study lightlike hypersurfaces of para-Sasakian manifolds tangent to the characteristic vector field. In particular, we define invariant lightlike hypersurfaces and screen semi-invariant lightlike hypersurfaces, respectively, and give examples. Integrability conditions for the distributions on a screen semi-invariant lightlike hypersurface of para-Sasakian manifolds are investigated. We obtain a para-Sasakian structure on the leaves of an integrable distribution of a screen semi-invariant lightlike hypersurface. PMID:24892072

  14. Application of Three-Dimensional Models for the Teaching of Time Zones. (Breton Title: Aplicação de Modelos Tridimensionais Para o Ensino de Fusos Horários.) Aplicación de Modelos Tridimensionales Para la Enseñanza de Husos Horarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2012-07-01

    deben trabajar en la enseñanza media y básica, en las asignaturas de Geografía y de Ciencias. Entre ellos, el de los husos horarios que es uno de los más importantes para correlacionar la rotación de la Tierra y sus implicaciones en las actividades diarias de los ciudadanos en escala local, regional y global, y en general, cuestiones que implican problemas de las diferencias horarias. Para la enseñanza de los husos horarios en las clases de Geografía, por ejemplo, hay representaciones bidimensionales de los mapas temáticos de husos horarios mundiales, en libros y atlas didácticos. Sin embargo, los profesores se enfrentan con algunas dificultades para hacer posible que sus alumnos tengan una visión tridimensional de este fenómeno astronómico, usando los materiales didácticos disponibles en las escuelas. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar la construcción de dos propuestas de materiales de bajo costo, que hacen posible la elaboración de modelos tridimensionales para la enseñanza de los husos horarios.

  15. Dipolar induced para-hydrogen-induced polarization.

    PubMed

    Buntkowsky, Gerd; Gutmann, Torsten; Petrova, Marina V; Ivanov, Konstantin L; Bommerich, Ute; Plaumann, Markus; Bernarding, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the signal enhancement in solid-state PHIP NMR spectroscopy mediated by homonuclear dipolar interactions and single pulse or spin-echo excitation are developed and simulated numerically. It is shown that an efficient enhancement of the proton NMR signal in solid-state NMR studies of chemisorbed hydrogen on surfaces is possible. Employing typical reaction efficacy, enhancement-factors of ca. 30-40 can be expected both under ALTADENA and under PASADENA conditions. This result has important consequences for the practical application of the method, since it potentially allows the design of an in-situ flow setup, where the para-hydrogen is adsorbed and desorbed from catalyst surfaces inside the NMR magnet. PMID:25218522

  16. Cooling by Para-to-Ortho-Hydrogen Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, A.; Nast, T.

    1983-01-01

    Catalyst speeds conversion, increasing capacity of solid hydrogen cooling system. In radial-flow catalytic converter, para-hydrogen is converted to equilibrium mixture of para-hydrogen and ortho-hydrogen as it passes through porous cylinder of catalyst. Addition of catalyst increases capacity of hydrogen sublimation cooling systems for radiation detectors.

  17. Requisitos para utilizar el enlace | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan español y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la División de Investigación para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

  18. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 1st Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 1er Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  19. "Estudia para que no te pase lo que a mi": Narrativas Culturales Sobre el Valor de la Escuela en Familias Mexicanas ("Study So That What Happened to Me Doesn't Happen to You": Cultural Narratives about the Value of Schooling in Mexican Families).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Claudia Saucedo

    2003-01-01

    Narratives used by parents in Mexican working-class families to motivate their children to study are examined for the advice offered and parental attitudes about the importance of school. The integration of contemporary pressures about the value of schooling is investigated, as well as the ways in which the value of schooling is being…

  20. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your Kindergartner Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Jardin Infantil (Kindergarten) Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  1. El juego entre el nacimiento y los 7 anos: Un manual para ludotecarias. Investigacion-accion sobre la Familia y la Primera Infancia. UNESCO Sector de Educacion Monografia (Play between Birth and 7 Years: A Manual for Preschool Teachers. Action Research in Family and Early Childhood. UNESCO Education Sector Monograph).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grellet, Carolina

    The purpose of this Spanish-language manual is to help preschool teachers better understand theoretical concepts related to children's play. Following a preface that discusses UNESCO's activities related to early childhood education, the two main sections of the manual discuss children's play between 0-2 years and 2-7 years. Each section includes…

  2. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 11th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Grado 11 Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  3. Educacion, Salud y Bienestar para el Nino Preescolar y la Familia. (5 de Enero--28 de Febrero, 1997) Informe Curso sobre (Education, Health, and Well-Being of Preschool Children and the Family. January 5 - February 28, 1997. Report of a Course).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Centre, Haifa (Israel).

    This report describes a course held in Spanish at the Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Center in Haifa, Israel. The course considered various themes related to the education, health, and well-being of preschool children. Participants were 30 individuals from Central and South American countries who held decision-making positions in…

  4. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 2nd Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 2do Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  5. Building Adult Relationships: Are You Treated as an Equal in Your Family? (A Pamphlet for People with Disbilities) [and] Como Establecer Relaciones Adultas: Se Lo Trata a UD. Igual que a Los Demas Adultos en Su Familia? (Un Panfleto para las Personas con Impedimentos).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Carla

    Two booklets, in English and Spanish, are addressed to disabled adults and offer guidelines for building adult relationships within the family. Stressed are the importance of feeling good about oneself, learning to make decisions, and developing good communication skills so that family balance is maintained. Also included are lists of the types of…

  6. Construction of a Para-Ortho Hydrogen Test Cryostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essler, J.; Haberstroh, Ch.

    2010-04-01

    In a prospective hydrogen economy it is necessary to verify the para concentration of the employed hydrogen. In case of a short storage time of about a few days only it has been shown that a partial conversion into para-hydrogen gives an optimized overall efficiency. Hence, an easy and reliable method of measuring the para-hydrogen concentration is needed. In this paper, the concept and construction of a small test cryostat are described and first results are presented. The measuring principle is based on a catalytic induced adiabatic ortho-para conversion of a hydrogen gas flow starting from a known temperature. The operation of the system only requires a certain amount of liquid nitrogen as coolant. To determine the concentration of para-hydrogen it is only necessary to measure the temperature of the gas before and after the adiabatic catalyst cell. The measuring cryostat is used for further investigation of the spontaneous para-ortho conversion in the supercritical state. In addition, the design of the cryostat allows the investigation of different catalyst materials regarding the catalytic activity and possible degradation by using a known para concentration for the measurement.

  7. a New Equation of State for Solid para-HYDROGEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lecheng; Le Roy, Robert J.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    Solid para-H_2 is a popular accommodating host for impurity spectroscopy due to its unique softness and the spherical symmetry of para-H_2 in its J}=0 rotational level. To simulate the properties of impurity-doped solid para-H_2, a reliable model for the `soft' pure solid para-H_2 at different pressures is highly desirable. While a couple of experimental and theoretical studies aimed at elucidating the equation of state (EOS) of solid para-H_2 have been reported, the calculated EOS was shown to be heavily dependent on the potential energy surface (PES) between two para-H_2 that was used in the simulations. The current study also demonstrates that different choices of the parameters governing the Quantum Monte Carlo simulation could produce different EOS curves. To obtain a reliable model for pure solid para-H_2, we used a new 1-D para-H_2 PES reported by Faruk et al. that was obtained by averaging over Hinde's highly accurate 6-D H_2--H_2 PES. The EOS of pure solid para-H_2 was calculated using the PIMC algorithm with periodic boundary conditions (PBC). To precisely determine the equilibrium density of solid para-H_2, both the value of the PIMC time step (τ) and the number of particles in the PBC cell were extrapolated to convergence. The resulting EOS agreed well with experimental observations, and the hcp structured solid para-H_2 was found to be more stable than the fcc one at 4.2K, in agreement with experiment. The vibrational frequency shift of para-H_2 as a function of the density of the pure solid was also calculated, and the value of the shift at the equilibrium density is found to agree well with experiment. T. Momose, H. Honshina, M. Fushitani and H. Katsuki, Vib. Spectrosc. 34, 95(2004). M. E. Fajardo, J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 13504 (2013). I. F. Silvera, Rev. Mod. Phys. 52, 393(1980). F. Operetto and F. Pederiva, Phys. Rev. B 73, 184124(2006). T. Omiyinka and M. Boninsegni, Phys. Rev. B 88, 024112(2013). N. Faruk, M. Schmidt, H. Li, R. J. Le Roy, and P

  8. ParaDiS-FEM dislocation dynamics simulation code primer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M; Hommes, G; Aubry, S; Arsenlis, A

    2011-09-27

    The ParaDiS code is developed to study bulk systems with periodic boundary conditions. When we try to perform discrete dislocation dynamics simulations for finite systems such as thin films or cylinders, the ParaDiS code must be extended. First, dislocations need to be contained inside the finite simulation box; Second, dislocations inside the finite box experience image stresses due to the free surfaces. We have developed in-house FEM subroutines to couple with the ParaDiS code to deal with free surface related issues in the dislocation dynamics simulations. This primer explains how the coupled code was developed, the main changes from the ParaDiS code, and the functions of the new FEM subroutines.

  9. Cooling by conversion of para to ortho-hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The cooling capacity of a solid hydrogen cooling system is significantly increased by exposing vapor created during evaporation of a solid hydrogen mass to a catalyst and thereby accelerating the endothermic para-to-ortho transition of the vapor to equilibrium hydrogen. Catalyst such as nickel, copper, iron or metal hydride gels of films in a low pressure drop catalytic reactor are suitable for accelerating the endothermic para-to-ortho conversion.

  10. Para hydrogen equilibration in the atmospheres of the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrath, Barney J.

    1986-01-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of the atmospheres of the Jovian planets is strongly dependent on the extent to which local thermal equilibration of the ortho and para states of molecular hydrogen is achieved. Voyager IRIS data from Jupiter imply substantial departures of the para hydrogen fraction from equilibrium in the upper troposphere at low latitudes, but with values approaching equilibrium at higher latitudes. Data from Saturn are less sensitive to the orth-para ratio, but suggest para hydrogen fractions near the equilibrium value. Above approximately the 200 K temperature level, para hydrogen conversion can enhance the efficiency of convection, resulting in a substantial increase in overturning times on all of the outer planets. Currently available data cannot definitively establish the ortho-para ratios in the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune, but suggest values closer to local equilibrium than to the 3.1 normal ratio. Modeling of sub-millimeter wavelength measurements of these planets suggest thermal structures with frozen equilibrium lapse rates in their convective regions.

  11. A Comparative Usage-Based Approach to the Reduction of the Spanish and Portuguese Preposition "Para"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gradoville, Michael Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the frequency effect of two-word collocations involving "para" "to," "for" (e.g. "fui para," "para que") on the reduction of "para" to "pa" (in Spanish) and "pra" (in Portuguese). Collocation frequency effects demonstrate that language speakers…

  12. Tensión postraumática relacionada con el cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la tensión postraumática y síntomas relacionados en los pacientes con cáncer, sobrevivientes del cáncer y miembros de la familia. Se discuten la evaluación y tratamiento de estos síntomas.

  13. Tensión postraumática relacionada con el cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la tensión postraumática y los síntomas relacionados en los pacientes con cáncer, sobrevivientes del cáncer y miembros de la familia. Se discuten la evaluación y el tratamiento de estos síntomas.

  14. ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-06-01

    Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

  15. Una técnica para filtrar patrones de fringing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrov, P. G.

    Se presenta una nueva técnica para filtrar los patrones de fringing producidos en los CCDs tipo RCA. El método consiste en construir un mapa con los ángulos de inclinación de las franjas en cada punto de la imagen. Este mapa es ulteriormente utilizado para alinear con el patrón de interferencia una ventana estrecha, sobre la que se aplica un filtro de mediana. Este procedimiento permite eliminar la mayor parte del ruido del patrón de fringing sin destruirlo.

  16. Analyzing and Visualizing Cosmological Simulations with ParaView

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, Jonathan; Heitmann, Katrin; Ahrens, James P; Fasel, Patricia; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Habib, Salman; Pope, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    The advent of large cosmological sky surveys - ushering in the era of precision cosmology - has been accompanied by ever larger cosmological simulations. The analysis of these simulations, which currently encompass tens of billions of particles and up to a trillion particles in the near future, is often as daunting as carrying out the simulations in the first place. Therefore, the development of very efficient analysis tools combining qualitative and quantitative capabilities is a matter of some urgency. In this paper, we introduce new analysis features implemented within ParaView, a fully parallel, open-source visualization toolkit, to analyze large N-body simulations. A major aspect of ParaView is that it can live and operate on the same machines and utilize the same parallel power as the simulation codes themselves. In addition, data movement is in a serious bottleneck now and will become even more of an issue in the future; an interactive visualization and analysis tool that can handle data in situ is fast becoming essential. The new features in ParaView include particle readers and a very efficient halo finder that identifies friends-of-friends halos and determines common halo properties, including spherical overdensity properties. In combination with many other functionalities already existing within ParaView, such as histogram routines or interfaces to programming languages like Python, this enhanced version enables fast, interactive, and convenient analyses of large cosmological simulations. In addition, development paths are available for future extensions.

  17. Cabozantinib y lenvatinib para cáncer renal

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo del blog del NCI sobre la aprobación reciente de la FDA de cabozantinib (Cabometyx®) y de lenvatinib (Lenvima®) para el tratamiento de pacientes cuyo cáncer avanzado de riñón ha evolucionado después de tratamiento con terapias antiangiogénicas.

  18. Leucemia—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de la leucemia, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  19. ACUTE TOXICITY OF PARA-NONYLPHENOL TO SALTWATER ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ?para-Nonylphenol (PNP), a mixture of alkylphenols used in producing nonionic surfactants, is distributed widely in surface waters and aquatic sediments, where it can affect saltwater species. This article describes a database for acute toxicity of PNP derived for calculating a n...

  20. Tumores cerebrales—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de los tumores cerebrales, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con estos tipos de cáncer.

  1. Linfoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del linfoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  2. Fatiga (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afección caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energía, que a menudo se observa como una complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento.

  3. Delirio (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicación del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se tratan enfoques de los cuidados médicos de apoyo y los abordajes farmacológicos para el manejo del delirio.

  4. Mesotelioma maligno—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento y las causas del mesotelioma maligno, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  5. Retinoblastoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del retinoblastoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  6. Analyzing and Visualizing Cosmological Simulations with ParaView

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodring, Jonathan; Heitmann, Katrin; Ahrens, James; Fasel, Patricia; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Habib, Salman; Pope, Adrian

    2011-07-01

    The advent of large cosmological sky surveys—ushering in the era of precision cosmology—has been accompanied by ever larger cosmological simulations. The analysis of these simulations, which currently encompass tens of billions of particles and up to a trillion particles in the near future, is often as daunting as carrying out the simulations in the first place. Therefore, the development of very efficient analysis tools combining qualitative and quantitative capabilities is a matter of some urgency. In this paper, we introduce new analysis features implemented within ParaView, a fully parallel, open-source visualization toolkit, to analyze large N-body simulations. A major aspect of ParaView is that it can live and operate on the same machines and utilize the same parallel power as the simulation codes themselves. In addition, data movement is in a serious bottleneck now and will become even more of an issue in the future; an interactive visualization and analysis tool that can handle data in situ is fast becoming essential. The new features in ParaView include particle readers and a very efficient halo finder that identifies friends-of-friends halos and determines common halo properties, including spherical overdensity properties. In combination with many other functionalities already existing within ParaView, such as histogram routines or interfaces to programming languages like Python, this enhanced version enables fast, interactive, and convenient analyses of large cosmological simulations. In addition, development paths are available for future extensions.

  7. Neuroblastoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento y los exámenes de detección del neuroblastoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  8. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Cassegrain IAC80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    El proyecto de instrumentación de mayor importancia que ha tenido el Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias en los últimos afios ha sido el diseflo y construcción del te1escopio IAC8O. Este requería del esfuerzo con junto en mec´nica, óptica y electrónica, lo que facilitó la estructuración y el crecimiento de los respectivos grupos de trabajo, que posteriormente se integraron en departamentos En su origen (1977), el telescopio IAC80 fue concebido como un sistema clásico tipo Cassegrain, con una razón focal F/i 1.3 para el sistema Casse grain y una razón focal F/20 para el sistema Coudé. Posteriormente, aunque se mantuvo la filosofia de que el sistema básico fuera el F/11.3, se consideró conveniente el diseño de secundarios para razones focales F/16 y F/32, y se eliminó el de F/20. Sin embargo, dada la importancia relativa que un foco estrictamente fotográfico tiene en un telescopio moderno, diseñado básicamente para fotometría fotoeléctrica y con un campo util mínimamente de 40 minutos de arco, se decídió Ilevar a cabo el diseño de un secundario F/8 con un sistema corrector de campo, pero que estuviera formado únicamente por lentes con superficies esféricas para que asl su construcción fuera posible en España ó en México. La creciente utilización de detectores bidimensionales para fines de investigación astron6mica y la viabilidad de que en un futuro cercano éstos tengan un área sensible cada vez mayor, hicieron atractiva la idea de tener diseñado un sistema corrector de campo para el foco primario (F/3), con un campo útil mínimo de un grado, y también con la limitante de que sus componentes tuvieron sólamente supérficies esféricas. Ambos diseños de los sis-temas correctores de campo se llevaron a cabo, en gran medida, como parte de un proyecto de colaboración e intercambio en el área de diseño y evaluación de sistemas ópticos.

  9. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Vio, Fernando; Lera, Lydia; Salinas, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: mediante la técnica de consenso Delphi, conocer la opinión de un grupo de expertos en nutrición, educación y gastronomía para buscar consenso sobre metodologías educativas en alimentación saludable, alumnos de tercero a quinto año básico, sus familias y profesores.Métodos: con los resultados de encuestas y grupos focales realizados previamente a niños, padres y profesores, se elaboró un cuestionario que fue enviado a 51 expertos en nutrición, educación y gastronomía en una primera ronda. Los resultados fueron analizados y reenviados en una segunda ronda con las preguntas no consensuadas, obteniendo 38 respuestas.Resultados: hubo consenso en que se pueden cambiar hábitos en escuelas mediante talleres de cocina con chefs o monitores, educación activo-participativa y huertos escolares. Padres y profesores deben tener habilidades culinarias saludables para educar a los niños. Estos deben hacer uso racional del dinero en la escuela. Para ello es necesario cambiar la oferta del kiosko hacia alimentos saludables, o suprimirlo si no es saludable. Los profesores deben capacitarse con talleres de autocuidado y vida sana para educar en alimentación saludable a los niños en horarios de clase con material educativo, talleres de cocina con recetas y aprovechar horarios de desayuno y almuerzo para actividades educativas. Los padres deben participar en talleres para escoger alimentos saludables en lugares de venta y preparar menús saludables. Los niños deben aprender habilidades culinarias simples, preparando y degustando alimentos saludables. Conclusiones: estos resultados son fundamentales para diseñar materiales educativos en alimentación saludable que cambien los malos hábitos alimentarios actuales. PMID:27571651

  10. DESIGN NOTE: A compact catalytic converter for the production of para-hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, A. M.; Cubric, D.; King, G. C.

    2002-05-01

    The design and operation of a compact converter to produce a constant flow of para-hydrogen from normal hydrogen is described. The converter features a paramagnetic compound (nickel sulfate) that catalyses the conversion of ortho- to para-hydrogen at temperatures of 14-21 K. The converter has been tested by measuring rotationally resolved photoelectron spectra in the para-hydrogen produced. The percentage of the para-hydrogen species in the converted gas was determined to be >97%.

  11. Human Relations Activities for the Single Parent To Develop More Effective Parent/Child Relations. Bilingual Guide = Actividades sobre relaciones humanas para ayudar al padre-soltero o madre-soltera a desarrollar una relacion efectiva entre padre e hijo Guia bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Susan

    Written in English and Spanish, this bilingual guide offers 10 activities which single parents can use to improve their relationships with their children. Objectives of activities include: (1) developing children's responsibility for work tasks in the home; (2) improving sibling relationships; (3) discussing emergencies with children; (4)…

  12. Cuidado de Ninos con Necesidades Especiales en el Hogar: Manual de Estrategias y Actividades para Proveedores que Cuidan Ninos en Sus Hogares (Children with Special Needs in Family Day Care Homes: A Handbook of Approaches and Activities for Family Day Care Home Providers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Brosse, Beatrice

    Practical information and sample teaching activities for child caregivers who work with young developmentally disabled children in family day care settings are provided in this manual. Each chapter shares a typical experience a caregiver may have with a particular child. Chapter 1 focuses on getting to know a new child, initial expectations, and…

  13. E-moderating and E-tivities: The Implementation of a Workshop to Develop Online Teaching Skills in In-Service Teachers (E-moderación y e-actividades: implementación de un taller para desarrollar habilidades de enseñanza en línea de profesores en ejercicio)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineda Hoyos, Jorge Eduardo; Tamayo Cano, Luis Hernando

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the experience of implementing a teacher's professional development strategy that sought to foster e-moderator competencies among language faculty at a Colombian public university. The study aimed at finding the extent to which participants understood the concepts of e-moderation and e-tivities. We analyzed the participants'…

  14. Control del dolor: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Contiene información sobre las medicinas contra el dolor para pacientes con cáncer, los planes para controlarlo, cómo hablar con su equipo de atención médica sobre el dolor que usted siente y qué hacer para controlar los efectos físicos y emocionales del

  15. ParA resolvase catalyzes site-specific excision of DNA from the Arabidopsis genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small serine resolvase ParA from bacterial plasmids RK2 and RP4 catalyzes the recombination of two identical 133 bp recombination sites known as MRS. Previously, we reported that ParA is active in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this work, the parA recombinase gene was placed un...

  16. The Regulation of para-Nitrophenol Degradation in Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiongzhen; Tu, Hui; Luo, Xue; Zhang, Biying; Huang, Fei; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Jue; Shen, Wenjing; Wu, Jiale; Cui, Zhongli

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4 can efficiently degrade para-nitrophenol and its intermediate metabolite hydroquinone. The regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation was studied, and PNP induced a global change in the transcriptome of P. putida DLL-E4. When grown on PNP, the wild-type strain exhibited significant downregulation of 2912 genes and upregulation of 845 genes, whereas 2927 genes were downregulated and 891 genes upregulated in a pnpR-deleted strain. Genes related to two non-coding RNAs (ins1 and ins2), para-nitrophenol metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the outer membrane porin OprB, glucose dehydrogenase Gcd, and carbon catabolite repression were significantly upregulated when cells were grown on para-nitrophenol plus glucose. pnpA, pnpR, pnpC1C2DECX1X2, and pnpR1 are key genes in para-nitrophenol degradation, whereas pnpAb and pnpC1bC2bDbEbCbX1bX2b have lost the ability to degrade para-nitrophenol. Multiple components including transcriptional regulators and other unknown factors regulate para-nitrophenol degradation, and the transcriptional regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation is complex. Glucose utilization was enhanced at early stages of para-nitrophenol supplementation. However, it was inhibited after the total consumption of para-nitrophenol. The addition of glucose led to a significant enhancement in para-nitrophenol degradation and up-regulation in the expression of genes involved in para-nitrophenol degradation and carbon catabolite repression (CCR). It seemed that para-nitrophenol degradation can be regulated by CCR, and relief of CCR might contribute to enhanced para-nitrophenol degradation. In brief, the regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation seems to be controlled by multiple factors and requires further study. PMID:27191401

  17. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly. PMID:24976614

  18. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos. Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

  19. ORTHO-PARA SELECTION RULES IN THE GAS-PHASE CHEMISTRY OF INTERSTELLAR AMMONIA

    SciTech Connect

    Faure, A.; Hily-Blant, P.; Le Gal, R.; Rist, C.

    2013-06-10

    The ortho-para chemistry of ammonia in the cold interstellar medium is investigated using a gas-phase chemical network. Branching ratios for the primary reaction chain involved in the formation and destruction of ortho- and para-NH{sub 3} were derived using angular momentum rules based on the conservation of the nuclear spin. We show that the 'anomalous' ortho-to-para ratio of ammonia ({approx}0.7) observed in various interstellar regions is in fact consistent with nuclear spin selection rules in a para-enriched H{sub 2} gas. This ratio is found to be independent of temperature in the range 5-30 K. We also predict an ortho-to-para ratio of {approx}2.3 for NH{sub 2}. We conclude that a low ortho-to-para ratio of H{sub 2} naturally drives the ortho-to-para ratios of nitrogen hydrides below the statistical values.

  20. ParA resolvase catalyzes site-specific excision of DNA from the Arabidopsis genome.

    PubMed

    Thomson, James G; Yau, Yuan-Yeu; Blanvillain, Robert; Nunes, Wylla M; Chiniquy, Dawn; Thilmony, Roger; Ow, David W

    2009-04-01

    The small serine resolvase ParA from bacterial plasmids RK2 and RP4 catalyzes the recombination of two identical 133 bp recombination sites known as MRS. Previously, we reported that ParA is active in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this work, the parA recombinase gene was placed under the control of the Arabidopsis OXS3 promoter and introduced into Arabidopsis lines harboring a chromosomally integrated MRS-flanked target. The ParA recombinase excised the MRS-flanked DNA and the excision event was detected in subsequent generations in the absence of ParA, indicating germinal transmission of the excision event. The precise site-specific deletion by the ParA recombination system in planta demonstrates that the ParA recombinase can be used to remove transgenic DNA, such as selectable markers or other introduced transgenes that are no longer desired in the final product. PMID:18704739

  1. On the Formation of a Study Group to the Realization of Workshops for Teachers: Astronomy in Basic Education in Umuarama-Pr (Spanish Title: De la Formación de un Grupo de Estudios a la Realización de los Talleres Para los Profesores: la Astronomía en la Educación Básica en Umuarama-Pr ) Da Formação de um Grupo de Estudos À Realização de Oficinas Para Professores: a Astronomia na Educação Básica em Umuarama-Pr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belusso, Diane; Akira Sakai, Otávio

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we aimed to present the activities developed by the Astronomy Study Group (ASG) to contribute to the dissemination and improvement of the astronomy teaching-learning. The results of a research carried out in schools of Umuarama-PR are shown, with the intention of checking the students' knowledge and interest in relation to Astronomy. It is reported the realization of workshops for Science teachers linked to the Education Regional Nucleus. The research and the workshop execution promoted the direct contact of the study group with the community; the results were used to diagnose the state of astronomy teaching-learning, in the basic education in Umuarama-PR. En este artículo se intenta presentar las actividades desarrolladas por el Grupo de Estudios de Astronomía (GEA) y contribuir para la divulgación y mejoría de la enseñanza-aprendizaje de la Astronomía. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación realizada en las escuelas de Umuarama-PR, con la intención de determinar el grado de conocimiento y el interés de los estudiantes en relación a la astronomía. Se relata la realización de talleres de capacitación para los profesores de ciencias vinculados al Núcleo Regional del Educación. La ejecución de la investigación y de los talleres promovió el contacto directo del grupo de estudios con la comunidad; los resultados sirvieron de diagnóstico de la enseñanza aprendizaje de la astronomía en la educación básica en Umuarama-PR. Neste artigo, objetiva-se apresentar as atividades desenvolvidas pelo Grupo de Estudos de Astronomia (GEA) e contribuir para a divulgação e melhoria do ensino-aprendizagem de astronomia. São apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa realizada nas escolas de Umuarama-PR, com o intuito de averiguar o conhecimento e o interesse dos estudantes em relação à astronomia. Relata-se a realização de oficinas de capacitação para professores de ciências vinculados ao Núcleo Regional de Educação. A

  2. Forms of Appropriation of Tools for the Astronomy Education in Continuous Training of Teachers. (Spanish Title: Formas de Apropriación de Herramientas Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomía en la Formación Docente Continua.) Formas de Apropriação de Instrumentos Para o Ensino de Astronomia na Formação Continuada de Professores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques Soares, Leonardo; Sousa Nascimento, Silvania

    2012-07-01

    The main focus of this article is to present some impressions about the way some teachers appropriated of the tools from the ASTRONOMY TEACHING KIT (KITPEA). The subjects of this research were teachers that took part in the astronomy teaching specialization course offered by the Continuing Education Project (FOCO) at Math and Science Teaching Center (CECIMIG) from the School of Education of Federal University of Minas Gerais (FaE/UFMG). The data was collected with the use of a questionnaire and of an interview applied to these teachers. The analysis of the data was structured with the aid of the Activity Theory and the Mediated Action Theory. We interpret the teachers' speech using the constitutive aspects of the activity system and the concepts of appropriation and domain as an analytical device. It was possible to recognize the appropriation of the tools in 7 narratives among the 11 individuals who took part in the research. El objetivo principal de ese artículo es presentar indicaciones sobre la manera como algunos maestros se apropiaron de las herramientas del KIT PARA LA ENSEÑANZA DE LA ASTRONOMÍA (KITPEA). Los sujetos de esa investigación son docentes que participaron del curso de especialización en enseñanza de astronomía ofrecido por el Proyecto de Formación Continua (Foco) en el Centro de Enseñanza de Ciencias y Matemática (CECIMIG) de la Facultad de Educación de la Universidad Federal de Minas Gerais (FaE/UFMG). Recogimos las informaciones a través de un cuestionario y de una encuesta, aplicados a esos docentes. Estructuramos el análisis de esas informaciones con la ayuda de la Teoría de la Actividad y de la Teoría de la Acción Mediada. Interpretamos os discursos de los docentes usando como dispositivo analítico los elementos constitutivos del sistema de actividad y los conceptos apropiación y dominio. Entre los 11 sujetos que participaron de la investigación, fue posible interpretar con claridad la apropiación de las herramientas en

  3. Laparoscopic para-aortic lymph node dissection for patients with primary colorectal cancer and clinically suspected para-aortic lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sung Ho; Park, Soo Yeun; Park, Jun Seok; Kim, Hye Jin; Yang, Chun-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Treatment of patients with para-aortic lymph node metastasis from colorectal cancer is controversial. The goal of this study was to investigate the technical feasibility of laparoscopic intrarenal para-aortic lymph node dissection in patients with colorectal cancer and clinically suspected para-aortic lymph node dissection. Methods The inclusion criteria for the laparoscopic approach were patients with infrarenal para-aortic lymph node metastasis from colorectal cancer. Patients who had any other distant metastatic lesion or metachronous para-aortic lymph node metastasis were excluded from this study. Perioperative outcomes and survival outcomes were analyzed. Results Between November 2004 and October 2013, 40 patients underwent laparoscopic para-aortic lymph node dissection. The mean operating time was 192.3 ± 68.8 minutes (range, 100-400 minutes) and the mean estimated blood loss was 65.6 ± 52.6 mL (range, 20-210 mL). No patient required open conversion. The postoperative complication rate was 15.0%. Sixteen patients (40.0%) had pathologically positive lymph nodes. In patients with metastatic para-aortic lymph nodes, the 3-year overall survival rate and disease-free survival rate were 65.7% and 40.2%, respectively. Conclusion The results of our study suggest that a laparoscopic approach for patients with colorectal cancer with metastatic para-aortic lymph nodes can be a reasonable option for selected patients. PMID:26793690

  4. Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI anuncia becas de investigación para tecnologías portátiles

    Cancer.gov

    El Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI (CGH) anunció el otorgamiento de subvenciones que apoyarán el desarrollo y la validación de tecnologías portátiles y de bajo costo para mejorar la detección temprana, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento del cáncer.

  5. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA.

    PubMed

    Litewka, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos.Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

  6. Amazon Land Wars in the South of Para

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Cynthia S.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Aldrich, Stephen P.; Caldas, Marcellus M.

    2007-01-01

    The South of Para, located in the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, has become notorious for violent land struggle. Although land conflict has a long history in Brazil, and today impacts many parts of the country, violence is most severe and persistent here. The purpose of this article is to examine why. Specifically, we consider how a particular Amazonian place, the so-called South of Para has come to be known as Brazil's most dangerous badland. We begin by considering the predominant literature, which attributes land conflict to the frontier expansion process with intensified struggle emerging in the face of rising property values and demand for private property associated with capitalist development. From this discussion, we distill a concept of the frontier, based on notions of property rights evolution and locational rents. We then empirically test the persistence of place-based violence in the region, and assess the frontier movement through an analysis of transportation costs. The findings from the analyses indicate that the prevalent theorization of frontier violence in Amazonia does little to explain its persistent and pervasive nature in the South of Para. To fill this gap in understanding, we develop an explanation based the geographic conception of place, and we use contentious politics theory heuristically to elucidate the ways in which general processes interact with place specific history to engender a landscape of violence. In so doing, we focus on environmental, cognitive, and relational mechanisms (and implicated structures), and attempt to deploy them in an explanatory framework that allows direct observation of the accumulating layers of the region's tragic history. We end by placing our discussion within a political ecological context, and consider the implications of the Amazon Land War for the environment.

  7. RVA: A Plugin for ParaView 3.14

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-04

    RVA is a plugin developed for the 64-bit Windows version of the ParaView 3.14 visualization package. RVA is designed to provide support in the visualization and analysis of complex reservoirs being managed using multi-fluid EOR techniques. RVA, for Reservoir Visualization and Analysis, was developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, with contributions from the Illinois State Geological Survey, Department of Computer Science and National Center for Supercomputing Applications. RVA was designed to utilize and enhance the state-of-the-art visualization capabilities within ParaView, readily allowing joint visualization of geologic framework and reservoir fluid simulation model results. Particular emphasis was placed on enabling visualization and analysis of simulation results highlighting multiple fluid phases, multiple properties for each fluid phase (including flow lines), multiple geologic models and multiple time steps. Additional advanced functionality was provided through the development of custom code to implement data mining capabilities. The built-in functionality of ParaView provides the capacity to process and visualize data sets ranging from small models on local desktop systems to extremely large models created and stored on remote supercomputers. The RVA plugin that we developed and the associated User Manual provide improved functionality through new software tools, and instruction in the use of ParaView-RVA, targeted to petroleum engineers and geologists in industry and research. The RVA web site (http://rva.cs.illinois.edu) provides an overview of functions, and the development web site (https://github.com/shaffer1/RVA) provides ready access to the source code, compiled binaries, user manual, and a suite of demonstration data sets. Key functionality has been included to support a range of reservoirs visualization and analysis needs, including: sophisticated connectivity analysis, cross sections through simulation results between

  8. Spectroscopy of Single Dibenzoterrylene Molecules in para-Dichlorobenzene.

    PubMed

    Verhart, Nico R; Müller, Mathias; Orrit, Michel

    2016-05-18

    We study single dibenzoterrylene (DBT) molecules embedded in 1,4-dichlorobenzene (para-dichlorobenzene, pDCB) at 1.2 K. Due to the relatively low melting point of pDCB (53 °C), this host-guest system can be easily prepared from the molten phase. Narrow linewidths, stable molecular lines and high saturation count rates of single DBT molecules were observed. For this reason, we consider this host-guest system a promising candidate for the study of interactions of single molecules with other small objects such as waveguides or nanoparticles. PMID:26840901

  9. RVA: A Plugin for ParaView 3.14

    2015-09-04

    RVA is a plugin developed for the 64-bit Windows version of the ParaView 3.14 visualization package. RVA is designed to provide support in the visualization and analysis of complex reservoirs being managed using multi-fluid EOR techniques. RVA, for Reservoir Visualization and Analysis, was developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, with contributions from the Illinois State Geological Survey, Department of Computer Science and National Center for Supercomputing Applications. RVA was designed to utilize andmore » enhance the state-of-the-art visualization capabilities within ParaView, readily allowing joint visualization of geologic framework and reservoir fluid simulation model results. Particular emphasis was placed on enabling visualization and analysis of simulation results highlighting multiple fluid phases, multiple properties for each fluid phase (including flow lines), multiple geologic models and multiple time steps. Additional advanced functionality was provided through the development of custom code to implement data mining capabilities. The built-in functionality of ParaView provides the capacity to process and visualize data sets ranging from small models on local desktop systems to extremely large models created and stored on remote supercomputers. The RVA plugin that we developed and the associated User Manual provide improved functionality through new software tools, and instruction in the use of ParaView-RVA, targeted to petroleum engineers and geologists in industry and research. The RVA web site (http://rva.cs.illinois.edu) provides an overview of functions, and the development web site (https://github.com/shaffer1/RVA) provides ready access to the source code, compiled binaries, user manual, and a suite of demonstration data sets. Key functionality has been included to support a range of reservoirs visualization and analysis needs, including: sophisticated connectivity analysis, cross sections through simulation results

  10. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    ía del Aprendizaje Significativo de David Ausubel, se buscó desenvolver la propuesta a partir de un modelo didáctico que simula las Fases de la Luna, usando como base las concepciones previas de los estudiantes. Los indicios del aprendizaje fueron verificados a través de registros de memorias de la actividad. Por los resultados obtenidos creemos que la propuesta alcanzó sus objetivos, una vez que los estudiantes consiguieron identificar y transferir el fenómeno de las fases de la Luna para nuevos contextos. Así, se concluye que una metodología con enfoque en un contenido significativo para el estudiante es fundamental para la construcción y comprensión genuina de lo que está siendo aprendido.

  11. Biodegradation of Para Amino Acetanilide by Halomonas sp. TBZ3

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Nader; Sefidi Heris, Youssof; Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Vallipour, Javad; Hejazi, Mohammad Amin; Golabi, Sayyed Mahdi; Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aromatic compounds are known as a group of highly persistent environmental pollutants. Halomonas sp. TBZ3 was isolated from the highly salty Urmia Lake of Iran. In this study, characterization of a new Halomonas isolate called Halomonas sp. TBZ3 and its employment for biodegradation of para-amino acetanilide (PAA), as an aromatic environmental pollutant, is described. Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the TBZ3 isolate and to elucidate its ability as a biodegradative agent that decomposes PAA. Materials and Methods: Primarily, DNA-DNA hybridization between TBZ3, Halomonas denitrificans DSM18045T and Halomonas saccharevitans LMG 23976T was carried out. Para-amino acetanilide biodegradation was assessed using spectrophotometry and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Parameters effective on biodegradation of PAA were optimized by the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Results: The DNA-DNA hybridization experiments between isolate TBZ3, H. denitrificans and H. saccharevitans revealed relatedness levels of 57% and 65%, respectively. According to GC-MS results, TBZ3 degrades PAA to benzene, hexyl butanoate, 3-methyl-1-heptanol and hexyl hexanoate. Temperature 32.92°C, pH 6.76, and salinity 14% are the optimum conditions for biodegradation with a confidence level of 95% (at level α = 0.05). Conclusions: According to our results, Halomonas sp. TBZ3 could be considered as a biological agent for bioremediation of PAA and possibly other similar aromatic compounds. PMID:26495103

  12. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para' C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Kilgore, Matthew B.; Augustin, Megan M.; May, Gregory D.; Crow, John A.; Kutchan, Toni M.

    2016-01-01

    The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a family of amino acid derived alkaloids with many biological activities; examples include haemanthamine, haemanthidine, galanthamine, lycorine, and maritidine. Central to the biosynthesis of the majority of these alkaloids is a C-C phenol-coupling reaction that can have para-para', para-ortho', or ortho-para' regiospecificity. Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a para-para' C-C phenol coupling cytochrome P450, CYP96T1, capable of forming the products (10bR,4aS)-noroxomaritidine and (10bS,4aR)-noroxomaritidine from 4′-O-methylnorbelladine. CYP96T1 was also shown to catalyzed formation of the para-ortho' phenol coupled product, N-demethylnarwedine, as less than 1% of the total product. CYP96T1 co-expresses with the previously characterized norbelladine 4′-O-methyltransferase. The discovery of CYP96T1 is of special interest because it catalyzes the first major branch in Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis. CYP96T1 is also the first phenol-coupling enzyme characterized from a monocot. PMID:26941773

  13. La Familia: Student Workbook. Latino Family Life Education Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matiella, Ana Consuelo

    This workbook comprises eight lessons designed to enhance the self-esteem of Latino students, grades 5 through 8, through the exploration of family, family traditions and values, and the affirmation of family strengths. Each lesson begins with an illustration that reflects the content of the lesson and an introductory page. Each introductory page…

  14. Familia Faber: The Family as Maker of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulding, Elise

    1983-01-01

    Presented at the National Council on Family Relations Annual Meeting, October, 1981, Milwaukee, WI. The creative response of households to boom-town stress is examined, indicating a significant amount of household-initiated future-oriented community building takes place under stress of rapid growth. (Author/JAC)

  15. A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "Cuadros de Familia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parvis-Condon, Katia; Kleinman, Donna; Brown, Joseph; Roa, Angela

    1998-01-01

    This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). In the summer of 1996, the Center offered the Culture and Children's…

  16. La Familia: Curriculum Unit. Latino Family Life Education Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matiella, Ana Consuelo

    This teaching guide comprises eight lessons designed to enhance the self-esteem of Latino students, grades 5 through 8, through the exploration of family, family traditions and values, and the affirmation of family strengths. Student objectives include the following: (1) define family; (2) describe similarities and differences among Latino…

  17. Mi Familia (My Family). Chula Vista Readers, Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Olst, Ofelia; And Others

    This is book one in a series of beginning readers in Spanish for preschool and grade one. The program is designed to prepare children to read in Spanish by teaching the sound-symbol relationship in sequential order with simple reading selections. This book introduces the consonants "m,""p,""s,""l," and the consonant blend "pl." (Author/AM)

  18. Familia Ludens: Reinforcing the Leisure Component in Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orthner, Dennis K.

    1975-01-01

    Leisure is examined as a normal and potentially vital component in the contemporary family. Consideration is given to the interplay between work and leisure and the means by which leisure facilitates companionship and family interaction. (Author)

  19. La Familia de la Raza. (The Family of the Race.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armas, Jose

    Chicanos in this country have been in a constant state of struggle for economic and cultural survival; yet the Chicano's family has remained the most important part of his culture. Chicano values, customs, life styles, and language are still very much a part of his family. This publication discusses the Chicano's family, covering: (1) la familia…

  20. "La Influencia De La Familia": Latino Retention in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort Daniels, Tonya

    2012-01-01

    Although the Latino population is currently the largest minority ethnicity in the U.S. (U.S. Census, 2008), Latino students enroll in college and graduate in proportionately the smallest numbers (Latino, 2002). This dissertation examined the effect of Latino students' families on their decision to remain in school and finish a bachelor's…

  1. Nuestra Familia y la Salud (Our Family and Its Health).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This book is part of a Mexican series of instructional materials designed for Spanish speaking adults who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. It provides instruction on knowing about, and caring for, the health of one's family. Topics covered include community health, pregnancy,…

  2. Ortho-para mixing hyperfine interaction in the H2O+ ion and nuclear spin equilibration.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Harada, Kensuke; Oka, Takeshi

    2013-10-01

    The ortho to para conversion of water ion, H2O(+), due to the interaction between the magnetic moments of the unpaired electron and protons has been theoretically studied to calculate the spontaneous emission lifetime between the ortho- and para-levels. The electron spin-nuclear spin interaction term, Tab(SaΔIb + SbΔIa) mixes ortho (I = 1) and para (I = 0) levels to cause the "forbidden" ortho to para |ΔI| = 1 transition. The mixing term with Tab = 72.0 MHz is 4 orders of magnitude higher for H2O(+) than for its neutral counterpart H2O where the magnetic field interacting with proton spins is by molecular rotation rather than the free electron. The resultant 10(8) increase of ortho to para conversion rate possibly makes the effect of conversion in H2O(+) measurable in laboratories and possibly explains the anomalous ortho to para ratio recently reported by Herschel heterodyne instrument for the far-infrared (HIFI) observation. Results of our calculations show that the ortho ↔ para mixings involving near-degenerate ortho and para levels are high (∼10(-3)), but they tend to occur at high energy levels, ∼300 K. Because of the rapid spontaneous emission, such high levels are not populated in diffuse clouds unless the radiative temperature of the environment is very high. The low-lying 101 (para) and 111 (ortho) levels of H2O(+) are mixed by ∼10(-4) making the spontaneous emission lifetime for the para 101 → ortho 000 transition 520 years and 5200 years depending on the F value of the hyperfine structure. Thus the ortho ↔ para conversion due to the unpaired electron is not likely to seriously affect thermalization of interstellar H2O(+) unless either the radiative temperature is very high or number density of the cloud is very low. PMID:23530629

  3. ParaText : scalable text analysis and visualization.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-07-01

    Automated analysis of unstructured text documents (e.g., web pages, newswire articles, research publications, business reports) is a key capability for solving important problems in areas including decision making, risk assessment, social network analysis, intelligence analysis, scholarly research and others. However, as data sizes continue to grow in these areas, scalable processing, modeling, and semantic analysis of text collections becomes essential. In this paper, we present the ParaText text analysis engine, a distributed memory software framework for processing, modeling, and analyzing collections of unstructured text documents. Results on several document collections using hundreds of processors are presented to illustrate the exibility, extensibility, and scalability of the the entire process of text modeling from raw data ingestion to application analysis.

  4. Pneumatic protection applied to an airbag for para-gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raievski, V.; Valladas, G.

    1998-02-01

    We present a theory of pneumatic protection based on the laws of thermodynamics, elasticity and fluid mechanics. A general pneumatic protection system is made up of several communicating compartments, the differences in pressure of the compartments generating a transfer of mass and energy between them. The transfer offers interesting possibilities to improve the performance of the system. An example of this type of protection in aerial sport is the airbag for para-gliders, it is used in this paper to illustrate the theory. As the pressure in the airbag depends uniquely on its volume, the geometric model in the theory can be simplified. Experiments carried out with crash-test dummies equipped with sensors have confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  5. Spectroscopy of Defects in Epitaxially Grown Para-sexiphenyl Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadashchuk, A.; Schols, S.; Skryshevski, Yu.; Beynik, I.; Teichert, C.; Hernandez-Sosa, G.; Sitter, H.; Andreev, A.; Frank, P.; Winkler, A.

    We present a study of steady-state- and time-resolved photoluminescence of para-sexiphenyl (PSP) films on KCl grown by organic molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE). Using different OMBE growth conditions has enabled us to vary greatly the morphology of the PSP crystallites but keeping virtually untouched their chemical structure. By this comparative study we prove that the broad red-shifted emission band has a structure-related origin rather than being due to monomolecular oxidative defects. The relative intensity of the defect emission band observed in the delayed spectra was found to be drastically suppressed in the OMBE-grown films dominated by growth mounds composed of upright standing molecules as opposed to the films consisting of crystallites formed by molecules lying parallel to the substrate.

  6. Para-Hydrogen-Enhanced Gas-Phase Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Louis-S.; Kovtunov, Kirill V.; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar,M. Sabieh; Koptyug, Igor V.; Sagdeev, Renad Z.; Pines, Alexander

    2007-02-23

    Herein, we demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) inthe gas phase using para-hydrogen (p-H2)-induced polarization. A reactantmixture of H2 enriched in the paraspin state and propylene gas is flowedthrough a reactor cell containing a heterogenized catalyst, Wilkinson'scatalyst immobilized on modified silica gel. The hydrogenation product,propane gas, is transferred to the NMR magnet and is spin-polarized as aresult of the ALTADENA (adiabatic longitudinal transport and dissociationengenders net alignment) effect. A polarization enhancement factor of 300relative to thermally polarized gas was observed in 1D1H NMR spectra.Enhancement was also evident in the magnetic resonance images. This isthe first demonstration of imaging a hyperpolarized gaseous productformed in a hydrogenation reaction catalyzed by a supported catalyst.This result may lead to several important applications, includingflow-through porous materials, gas-phase reaction kinetics and adsorptionstudies, and MRI in low fields, all using catalyst-free polarizedfluids.

  7. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  8. Wave intensity analysis of para-aortic counterpulsation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pong-Jeu; Yang, Chi-Fu Jeffrey; Wu, Meng-Yu; Hung, Chun-Hao; Chan, Ming-Yao; Hsu, Tzu-Cheng

    2012-04-01

    Wave intensity analysis (WIA) was used to delineate and maximize the efficacy of a newly developed para-aortic blood pump (PABP). The intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) was employed as the comparison benchmark. Acute porcine experiments using eight pigs, randomly divided into IABP (n = 4) and PABP (n = 4) groups, were conducted to compare the characteristics of intra- and para-aortic counterpulsation. We measured pressure and velocity with probes installed in the left anterior descending coronary artery and aorta, during and without PABP assistance. Wave intensity for aortic and left coronary waves were derived from pressure and flow measurements with synchronization correction applied. To achieve maximized support efficacy, deflation timings ranging from 25 ms ahead of to 35 ms after the R-wave were tested. Similar to those associated with IABP counterpulsation, the PABP-generated backward-traveling waves predominantly drove aortic and coronary blood flows. However, in contrast with IABP counterpulsation, the nonocclusive nature of the PABP allowed systolic unloading to be delayed into early systole, which resulted in near elimination of coronary blood steal without diminution of systolic left ventricular ejection wave intensities. WIA can elucidate subtleties among different counterpulsatile support means with high sensitivity. Total accelerating wave intensity (TAWI), which was defined as the sum of the time integration of accelerated parts of the positive and negative wave intensities, was used to quantify counterpulsation efficacy. In general, the larger the TAWI gain, the better the counter-pulsatile support efficacy. However, when PABP deflation timings were delayed to after the R-wave, the TAWI was found to be inversely correlated with coronary perfusion. In this delayed deflation timing setting, greater wave cancellation occurred, which led to decreased TAWI but increased coronary perfusion attributed to blood regurgitation reduction. PMID:22227124

  9. The Clearance of Creatinine, Inulin, Para-aminohippurate and Phenosulphothalein in the Cat

    PubMed Central

    Osbaldiston, G. W.; Fuhrman, W.

    1970-01-01

    Endogenous creatinine, inulin, para-amino-hippurate and phenolsulphothalein clearances for healthy cats are presented. The values for inulin and para-aminohippurate clearances (ml/kg/min) are similar to those for the dog. Creatinine clearance was less than inulin clearance values. Pnenolsulphothalein clearance may be a better index of glomerular rather than tubular function in the cat. PMID:4246836

  10. Chiral phosphoric acid catalyzed asymmetric addition of naphthols to para-quinone methides.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yuk Fai; Wang, Zhaobin; Sun, Jianwei

    2016-06-28

    An asymmetric addition of naphthols to in situ generated para-quinone methides catalyzed by a chiral phosphoric acid is described. A range of useful triarylmethanes can be generated from stable general para-hydroxybenzyl alcohols with good efficiency and enantioselectivity. PMID:26932597

  11. Para-meatal urethral cyst with bladder calculi: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Patil, Siddangouda B; Patil, Nikhil Ashok; Kundargi, Vinay S; Biradar, Ashok N

    2015-01-01

    Para-meatal urethral cyst or median raphe cyst of the glans penis is a benign cystic lesion uncommonly encountered in prepubertal age group. Approximately, about 50 cases have been reported till date in the world literature. Herein we report a case of para-meatal urethral cyst concurrent with urinary bladder calculi. PMID:26539378

  12. The parA resolvase performs site-specific genomic excision in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have designed a site-specific excision detection system in Arabidopsis to study the in planta activity of the small serine recombinase ParA. Using a transient expression assay as well as stable transgenic plant lines, we show that the ParA recombinase is catalytically active and capable of perfo...

  13. Para-meatal urethral cyst with bladder calculi: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Siddangouda B.; Patil, Nikhil Ashok; Kundargi, Vinay S.; Biradar, Ashok N.

    2015-01-01

    Para-meatal urethral cyst or median raphe cyst of the glans penis is a benign cystic lesion uncommonly encountered in prepubertal age group. Approximately, about 50 cases have been reported till date in the world literature. Herein we report a case of para-meatal urethral cyst concurrent with urinary bladder calculi. PMID:26539378

  14. Under the skin: Biotransformation of para-aminophenol and para-phenylenediamine in reconstructed human epidermis and human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Duche, Daniel; Garrigues, Alexia; Meunier, Pierre-Alain; Toutain, Herve; Leclaire, Jacques

    2005-09-15

    We investigated the biotransformation of the oxidative arylamine (AA) hair dye ingredients [14C]-para-aminophenol (PAP) and [14C]-para-phenylenediamine (PPD) in reconstructed human epidermis and human hepatocytes. Human epidermis quantitatively transformed PAP to its N-acetylated derivative (APAP), whereas hepatocytes transformed PAP to sulfate or glucuronic acid conjugates of APAP or PAP as well as free APAP. Epidermis and hepatocytes converted PPD to N-mono- (MAPPD) and N,N'-di-acetylated (DAPPD) derivatives. At higher concentrations of PPD (250-1000 microM), epidermis or hepatocytes produced more of the MAPPD, whereas concentrations below 250 microM and lower favoured formation of the DAPPD metabolite. When compared with epidermis, human hepatocytes had a three-fold or eight-fold greater capacity for generation of MAPPD or DAPPD, respectively. No evidence of transformation of PAP or PPD to N-hydroxylated derivatives was found in epidermis or hepatocytes. Our results suggest that (i) after dermal absorption of PAP or PPD, humans are systemically exposed to acetylated derivatives; (ii) current in vitro skin absorption studies may be inadapated for determination of human systemic exposure to AAs due to reduced or absent metabolic capacity of non-viable skin; (iii) due to qualitative differences between dermal and hepatic metabolism, oral toxicity studies may be unsuited for the hazard assessment of dermal exposure to AAs; and (iv) use of induced rodent liver S9 metabolic activation systems for in vitro genotoxicity studies may produce misleading results on the hazard of human dermal exposure to AAs. In conclusion, our data support the growing evidence that AAs are transformed in human skin and suggest that current practices of safety assessment of AAs should take these findings into account. PMID:15890478

  15. Contextual Factors that Foster or Inhibit Para-Teacher Professional Development: The Case of an Indian, Non-Governmental Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Jules

    2012-01-01

    The appointment of para-professionals to overcome skill shortages and/or make efficient use of expensive resources is well established in both developing and developed countries. The present research concerns para-teachers in India. The literature on para-teachers is dominated by training for special needs settings, largely in developed societies.…

  16. Females prefer carotenoid colored males as mates in the pentamorphic livebearing fish, Poecilia parae.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Godfrey R; Breden, Felix; Allen, Teresa C

    2003-09-01

    The first results of female preference and chosen male mating success in a new model organism, the pentamorphic livebearing fish, Poecilia parae, are presented. Poecilia parae is a relative of the guppy, P. reticulata, and is assumed to have similar reproductive behavior. We tested the hypothesis that P. parae females, like female guppies, prefer carotenoid colored males as mates. Here we show that the time a female spent with males was significantly greater for carotenoid coloration in red and yellow melanzona, but time with these two morphs did not differ. The preferred red and yellow males mated significantly more often with their choosing females than did the non-preferred blue and parae males. The few blue melanzona and parae males that mated did so without performing courtship displays. Some females mated with all phenotypes including immaculata males during open group trials. Female P. parae clearly preferred males with carotenoid coloration, thereby corroborating the hypothesis. Alternative male mating tactics by blue melanzona, parae, and immaculata morphs and promiscuous mating by females also resembled features of reproductive behaviors exhibited by guppies. PMID:14504782

  17. Quantum fluctuations increase the self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen in narrow carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Gauden, Piotr A; Terzyk, Artur P; Furmaniak, Sylwester

    2011-05-28

    Quantum fluctuations significantly increase the self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen adsorbed in narrow carbon nanotubes at 30 K comparing to its classical counterpart. Rigorous Feynman's path integral calculations reveal that self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube at 30 K and pore densities below ∼29 mmol cm(-3) is one order of magnitude faster than the classical counterpart. We find that the zero-point energy and tunneling significantly smoothed out the free energy landscape of para-hydrogen molecules adsorbed in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube. This promotes a delocalization of the confined para-hydrogen at 30 K (i.e., population of unclassical paths due to quantum effects). Contrary the self-diffusive motion of classical para-hydrogen molecules in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube at 30 K is very slow. This is because classical para-hydrogen molecules undergo highly correlated movement when their collision diameter approached the carbon nanotube size (i.e., anomalous diffusion in quasi-one dimensional pores). On the basis of current results we predict that narrow single-walled carbon nanotubes are promising nanoporous molecular sieves being able to separate para-hydrogen molecules from mixtures of classical particles at cryogenic temperatures. PMID:21503294

  18. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.

    1999-05-25

    A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

  19. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

    1999-01-01

    A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

  20. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

    1998-01-01

    A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

  1. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases. These enzymes exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

  2. Para-hydrogen induced polarization in heterogeneous hydrogenationreactions

    SciTech Connect

    Koptyug, Igor V.; Kovtunov, Kirill; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar, M.Sabieh; Hilty, Christian; Han, Song-I; Pines, Alexander; Sagdeev, Renad Z.

    2007-01-31

    We demonstrate the creation and observation ofpara-hydrogen-induced polarization in heterogeneous hydrogenationreactions. Wilkinson's catalyst, RhCl(PPh3)3, supported on eithermodified silica gel or a polymer, is shown to hydrogenate styrene intoethylbenzene and to produce enhanced spin polarizations, observed throughNMR, when the reaction was performed with H2 gas enriched in the paraspinisomer. Furthermore, gaseous phase para-hydrogenation of propylene topropane with two catalysts, the Wilkinson's catalyst supported onmodified silica gel and Rh(cod)(sulfos) (cod = cycloocta-1,5-diene;sulfos) - O3S(C6H4)CH2C(CH2PPh2)3) supported on silica gel, demonstratesheterogeneous catalytic conversion resulting in large spin polarizations.These experiments serve as a direct verification of the mechanism ofheterogeneous hydrogenation reactions involving immobilized metalcomplexes and can be potentially developed into a practical tool forproducing catalyst-free fluids with highly polarized nuclear spins for abroad range of hyperpolarized NMR and MRI applications.

  3. DYNA3D/ParaDyn Regression Test Suite Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J I

    2011-01-25

    The following table constitutes an initial assessment of feature coverage across the regression test suite used for DYNA3D and ParaDyn. It documents the regression test suite at the time of production release 10.1 in September 2010. The columns of the table represent groupings of functionalities, e.g., material models. Each problem in the test suite is represented by a row in the table. All features exercised by the problem are denoted by a check mark in the corresponding column. The definition of ''feature'' has not been subdivided to its smallest unit of user input, e.g., algorithmic parameters specific to a particular type of contact surface. This represents a judgment to provide code developers and users a reasonable impression of feature coverage without expanding the width of the table by several multiples. All regression testing is run in parallel, typically with eight processors. Many are strictly regression tests acting as a check that the codes continue to produce adequately repeatable results as development unfolds, compilers change and platforms are replaced. A subset of the tests represents true verification problems that have been checked against analytical or other benchmark solutions. Users are welcomed to submit documented problems for inclusion in the test suite, especially if they are heavily exercising, and dependent upon, features that are currently underrepresented.

  4. Anise oil as para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) precursor.

    PubMed

    Waumans, Dieter; Bruneel, Noël; Tytgat, Jan

    2003-04-23

    These days, MDMA is one of the most popular drugs of abuse. Due to its illegality, MDMA and its chemical precursors are watched by governmental organizations in many countries. To avoid conflicts with legal instances, underground chemists have tried to market several new unregulated amphetamine analogues, such as 4-MTA. Para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), on the other hand, is regulated by law but its precursors are easily obtained since they are cheap and unwatched. This article presents such a case, namely the large scale synthesis of PMA using anethole, a main constituent of anise oil, as precursor. Anethole has been converted to its phenyl acetone analogue via peracid oxidation, while PMA itself has been synthesized using this ketone as precursor in the Leuckart synthesis. The synthesis of PMA using anethole as starting product has been investigated applying GC/MS and GC-HSPME/MS techniques, hereby discovering new specific (4-methoxyphenol) and already identified synthesis impurities (4-methyl-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine, N-(beta-4-methoxyphenylisopropyl)-4-methoxybenzyl methyl ketimine, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl-2-propanamine, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-methyl-N-(2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl-2-propanamine, N-(beta-4-methoxyphenylisopropyl)-4-methoxybenzaldimine). The new impurity 4-methoxyphenol is specific for the application of a peracid oxidation method where anethole is used as precursor. PMID:12742705

  5. Metabolism of para-aminophenol by rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Z; Nikelly, J G; Killmer, L; Tarloff, J B

    2000-08-01

    Autoxidation of para-aminophenol (PAP) has been proposed to account for the selective nephrotoxicity of this compound. However, other studies suggest that hepatic metabolites of PAP rather than the parent compound may be responsible for renal damage. These studies were designed to investigate PAP metabolism in isolated hepatocytes. We synthesized several proposed metabolites for analysis by HPLC/mass spectrometry and compared those results with HPLC/mass spectrometric analyses of metabolites found after incubating hepatocytes with PAP. Hepatocytes prepared from male Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated in Krebs-Henseleit buffer at 37 degrees C for 5 h with 2.3 mM PAP under an atmosphere of 5% CO2/95% O2. Aliquots were withdrawn at 0.1 h of incubation and then hourly through 5 h of incubation. Reactions were terminated by the addition of acetonitrile. Hepatocyte viability was unaltered with PAP present in the incubation medium. We found that hepatocytes converted PAP to two major metabolites (PAP-GSH conjugates and PAP-N-acetylcysteine conjugates) and several minor metabolites [PAP-O-glucuronide, acetaminophen (APAP), APAP-O-glucuronide, APAP-GSH conjugates, and 4-hydroxyformanilide]. Preincubating hepatoyctes with 1-aminobenzotriazole, an inhibitor of cytochromes P450, did not alter the pattern of PAP metabolism. In conclusion, we found that PAP was metabolized in hepatocytes predominantly to PAP-GSH conjugates and PAP-N-acetylcysteine conjugates in sufficient quantities to account for the nephrotoxicity of PAP. PMID:10901695

  6. Conformation of ionizable poly Para phenylene ethynylene in dilute solutions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Maskey, Sabina; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-11-03

    The conformation of dinonyl poly para phenylene ethynylenes (PPEs) with carboxylate side chains, equilibrated in solvents of different quality is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. PPEs are of interest because of their tunable electro-optical properties, chemical diversity, and functionality which are essential in wide range of applications. The polymer conformation determines the conjugation length and their assembly mode and affects electro-optical properties which are critical in their current and potential uses. The current study investigates the effect of carboxylate fraction on PPEs side chains on the conformation of chains in the dilute limit, in solvents of different quality. The dinonylmore » PPE chains are modeled atomistically, where the solvents are modeled both implicitly and explicitly. Dinonyl PPEs maintained a stretched out conformation up to a carboxylate fraction f of 0.7 in all solvents studied. The nonyl side chains are extended and oriented away from the PPE backbone in toluene and in implicit good solvent whereas in water and implicit poor solvent, the nonyl side chains are collapsed towards the PPE backbone. Thus, rotation around the aromatic ring is fast and no long range correlations are seen within the backbone.« less

  7. Evidence for para dechlorination of polychlorobiphenyls by methanogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, D.; Quensen, J.F.; Tiedje, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    When microorganisms eluted from upper Hudson River sediment were cultured without any substrate except polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-free Hudson River sediment, methane formation was the terminal step of the anaerobic food chain. In sediments containing Aroclor 1242, addition of eubacterium-inhibiting antibiotics, which should have directly inhibited fermentative bacteria and thereby should have indirectly inhibited methanogens, resulted in no dechlorination activity or methane production. However, when substrates for methanogenic bacteria were provided along with the antibiotics (to free the methanogens from dependence on eubacteria), concomitant methane production and dechlorination of PCBs were observed. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 was from the para positions, a pattern distinctly different from, and more limited than, the pattern observed with untreated or pasteurized inocula. Both methane production and dechlorination in cultures amended with antibiotics plus methanogenic substrates were inhibited by 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. These results suggest that the methanogenic bacteria are among the physiological groups capable of anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs, but that the dechlorination observed with methanogenic bacteria is less extensive than the dechlorination observed with more complex anaerobic consortia. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Uninfected Para-Anastomotic Aneurysms after Infrarenal Aortic Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Nano, Giovanni; Cusmai, Francesco; Ramponi, Fabio; Stegher, Silvia; Dell'Aglio, Daniela; Malacrida, Giovanni; Tealdi, Domenico G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This single-institution retrospective review examines the management of uninfected para-anastomotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (PAAA), developed after infrarenal grafting. Materials and Methods From October 1979 to November 2005, 31 PAAA were observed in our Department. Twenty-six uninfected PAAA of degenerative etiology, including 24 false and 2 true aneurysms, were candidates for intervention and retrospectively included in our database for management and outcome evaluation. Six (23%) patients were treated as emergencies. Surgery included tube graft interposition (n = 12), new reconstruction (n = 8), and graft removal with extra-anatomic bypass (n = 3). Endovascular management (n = 3) consisted of free-flow tube endografts. Results The mortality rate among the elective and emergency cases was 5% and 66.6%, respectively (p = 0.005). The morbidity rate in elective cases was 57.8%, whereas 75% in emergency cases (p = 0.99). The survival rate during the follow-up was significantly higher for elective cases than for emergency cases. Conclusion Uninfected PAAA is a late complication of aortic grafting, tends to evolve silently and is difficult to diagnose. The prevalence is underestimated and increases with time since surgery. The mortality rate is higher among patients treated as an emergency than among patients who undergo elective surgery, therefore, elective treatment and aggressive management in the case of pseudoaneurysm are the keys to obtain a good outcome. Endovascular treatment could reduce mortality. Patients who undergo infrarenal aortic grafting require life-long surveillance after surgery. PMID:19430556

  9. Para-Tyrosine Supplementation Improves Insulin- and Liraglutide- Induced Vasorelaxation in Cholesterol-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Sélley, Eszter; Kun, Szilárd; Kürthy, Mária; Kovács, Tibor; Wittmann, István; Molnár, Gergo A

    2015-01-01

    Former data of our workgroup indicated that the accumulation of oxidized amino acids (meta- and ortho-tyrosine) due to oxidative stress may play an important role in the impaired insulininduced vasoactive properties of different arterial segments. There are evidences, that incorporation of these amino acids into cellular proteins leads to certain hormonal resistances, which might be restored by supplementation with the physiologic isoform, para-tyrosine. Rats in the control group were kept on a regular diet, rats in the cholesterol-fed group received high-fat diet, while the third group of rats received high-fat diet with para-tyrosine supplementation for 16 weeks. Plasma cholesterol level was significantly higher in the cholesterol-fed group, while the level of cholesterol in the cholesterol+para-tyrosine group did not differ significantly from that of the controls. Plasma level of insulin after glucose stimulation was decreased in the cholesterol-fed group, while that in the para-tyrosine supplemented group did not differ significantly from the controls. Vascular para-, meta- and ortho-tyrosine content was measured with HPLC. Elevated vascular meta-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio of cholesterol fed rats could be avoided by para-tyrosine supplementation. Vascular response of the thoracic aorta to insulin and liraglutide was assessed by a DMT multi-myograph. Cholesterol feeding resulted in vascular insulin-and liraglutide resistance, which was restored by para-tyrosine supplementation. Incorporation of the oxidative stress induced pathological tyrosine isoforms leads to vascular-hormone-resistances. We show that the physiological amino acid para-tyrosine is capable of restoring hypercholesterolemia-induced increased meta-tyrosine content of the vascular wall, thus attenuating functional vascular damage. PMID:26202368

  10. Endovascular Treatment of a Ruptured Para-Anastomotic Aneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Sfyroeras, Giorgos S.; Lioupis, Christos Bessias, Nikolaos; Maras, Dimitris; Pomoni, Maria; Andrikopoulos, Vassilios

    2008-07-15

    We report a case of a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm treated with implantation of a bifurcated stent-graft. A 72-year-old patient, who had undergone aortobifemoral bypass for aortoiliac occlusive disease 16 years ago, presented with a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm. A bifurcated stent-graft was successfully deployed into the old bifurcated graft. This is the first report of a bifurcated stent-graft being placed through an 'end-to-side' anastomosed old aortobifemoral graft. Endovascular treatment of ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysms can be accomplished successfully, avoiding open surgery which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity.

  11. Measurement of the formaldehyde ortho to para ratio in three molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahane, C.; Lucas, R.; Frerking, M. A.; Langer, W. D.; Encrenaz, P.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of ortho and para H2CO in two types of clouds, a warm cloud (Orion A) and two cold clouds (L183 and TMC1), are presented. The ortho to para ratio in Orion deduced from the H2(C-13)O data is about three, while that for TMC1 is about one and that for L183 is 1-2. The former value is in agreement with the value calculated from chemical models of ortho and para H2CO production. The values for the cold clouds are consistent with thermal equilibrium at a temperature slightly smaller than 10 K.

  12. Management of large para-esophageal hiatal hernias.

    PubMed

    Collet, D; Luc, G; Chiche, L

    2013-12-01

    Para-esophageal hernias are relatively rare and typically occur in elderly patients. The various presenting symptoms are non-specific and often occur in combination. These include symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD) in 26 to 70% of cases, microcytic anemia in 17 to 47%, and respiratory symptoms in 9 to 59%. Respiratory symptoms are not completely resolved by surgical intervention. Acute complications such as gastric volvulus with incarceration or strangulation are rare (estimated incidence of 1.2% per patient per year) but gastric ischemia leading to perforation is the main cause of mortality. Only patients with symptomatic hernias should undergo surgery. Prophylactic repair to prevent acute incarceration should only be undertaken in patients younger than 75 in good condition; surgical indications must be discussed individually beyond this age. The laparoscopic approach is now generally accepted. Resection of the hernia sac is associated with a lower incidence of recurrence. Repair of the hiatus can be reinforced with prosthetic material (either synthetic or biologic), but the benefit of prosthetic repair has not been clearly shown. Results of prosthetic reinforcement vary in different studies; it has been variably associated with four times fewer recurrences or with no measurable difference. A Collis type gastroplasty may be useful to lengthen a foreshortened esophagus, but no objective criteria have been defined to support this approach. The anatomic recurrence rate can be as high as 60% at 12years. But most recurrences are asymptomatic and do not affect the quality of life index. It therefore seems more appropriate to evaluate functional results and quality of life measures rather than to gauge success by a strict evaluation of anatomic hernia reduction. PMID:24060742

  13. Successful Mnemonics for "por"/"para" and Affirmative Commands with Pronouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Two mnemonic devices, "4A Rule" and "PERFECT," are described to simplify the learning of two grammar points: the placement of object pronouns with respect to commands and the distinction between "por" and "para." (five references) (LB)

  14. Tumores carcinoides gastrointestinales—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor carcinoide gastrointestinal, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  15. Carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  16. Efficient ortho-para conversion of H2 on interstellar grain surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bron, Emeric; Le Petit, Franck; Le Bourlot, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Context. Fast surface conversion between ortho- and para-H2 has been observed in laboratory studies, and it has been proposed that this mechanism plays a role in the control of the ortho-para ratio in the interstellar medium. Observations of rotational lines of H2 in photo-dissociation regions (PDRs) have indeed found significantly lower ortho-para ratios than expected at equilibrium. The mechanisms controlling the balance of the ortho-para ratio in the interstellar medium thus remain incompletely understood, while this ratio can affect the thermodynamical properties of the gas (equation of state, cooling function). Aims: We aim to build an accurate model of ortho-para conversion on dust surfaces based on the most recent experimental and theoretical results, and to validate it by comparison to observations of H2 rotational lines in PDRs. Methods: We propose a statistical model of ortho-para conversion on dust grains with fluctuating dust temperatures. It is based on a master equation approach. This computation is then coupled to full PDR models and compared to PDR observations. Results: We show that the observations of rotational H2 lines indicate a high conversion efficiency on dust grains and that this high efficiency can be accounted for if taking dust temperature fluctuations into account with our statistical model of surface conversion. Simpler models that neglect the dust temperature fluctuations do not reach the high efficiency deduced from the observations. Moreover, this high efficiency induced by dust temperature fluctuations is very insensitive to the values of the model's microphysical parameters. Conclusions: Ortho-para conversion on grains is thus an efficient mechanism in most astrophysical conditions and can play a significant role in controlling the ortho-para ratio.

  17. A comparison of extraperitoneal versus transperitoneal laparoscopic para-aortic lymphadenectomy for staging of endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pakish, Janelle; Soliman, Pamela T.; Frumovitz, Michael; Westin, Shannon N.; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; dos Reis, Ricardo; Munsell, Mark F.; Ramirez, Pedro T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of our study was to compare the surgical outcomes of extraperitoneal laparoscopic, transperitoneal laparoscopic, and robotic transperitoneal para-aortic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer staging. Methods A retrospective review was performed from January 2007 to November 2012. Three groups were compared: extraperitoneal laparoscopic para-aortic lymphadenectomy and robotic hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy (“extraperitoneal group”; N=34); laparoscopic hysterectomy and transperitoneal pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy (“transperitoneal laparoscopic group”; N=108); and robotic hysterectomy and transperitoneal pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy (“transperitoneal robotic group”; N=52). Fisher’s exact test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for statistical analysis, and statistical significance was defined as P< 0.05. Results Median number of para-aortic lymph nodes obtained was higher in the extraperitoneal group than in the transperitoneal laparoscopic and robotic groups (10, 5, and 4.5 nodes, respectively; P<0.001). Among patients with BMI <35 kg/m2, the median number of para-aortic nodes harvested was higher in the extraperitoneal group than in the transperitoneal laparoscopic and robotic groups (9, 4, and 5 nodes, respectively; P<0.01). The same pattern was observed among patients with BMI ≥35 kg/m2 (10, 6, and 3 nodes, respectively) (P=0.001). There was no significant difference in median estimated blood loss between the extraperitoneal group and either the transperitoneal laparoscopic group (100 vs. 112.5 mL; P=0.06) or the transperitoneal robotic group (100 vs. 67.5 mL; P=0.23). Conclusion Extraperitoneal laparoscopic para-aortic lymphadenectomy resulted in a higher number of para-aortic lymph nodes removed than transperitoneal laparoscopic or robotic lymphadenectomy. The extraperitoneal approach should be considered for endometrial cancer staging. PMID:24361579

  18. Ortho-Para Mixing Interaction in the Vinyl Radical Detected by Millimeter-Wave Spectroscopy and Prediction of Fast Ortho-Para Conversion Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Hayashi, Masato; Ohtsuki, Mitsuhiko; Harada, Kensuke; Tanaka, Takehiko

    2010-06-01

    Ortho-para mixing interaction due to the coupling of nuclear and electron spins was detected for the first time by millimeter-wave spectroscopy of deuterated vinyl radicals, H_2CCD and D_2CCD, of which the ground states are split by the tunneling motion of the α deuteron into two components 0^+ and 0^-, whose separations have been determined to be Δ E_0 = 1186.644(16) and 771.978(18) MHz, respectively. The observed tunneling-rotation spectra are significantly perturbed by the othro-para mixing interaction expressed by < 0^± |H'|0^mprangle = (δ aF(β)/2) S \\cdot(I_β 1-I_β 2), where I_β 1 and I_β 2 are spins of the two hydrogen nuclei in the β position and S is the electron spin, which connects rotational levels in the 0^+ and 0^- states, one being an ortho level and the other a para level. The δ aF(β) constants for H_2CCD and D_2CCD have been determined to be 68.06(53) and 10.63(94) MHz, respectively, consistent each other within the isotopic mass relation. The othro and para states are mixed by about 0.097% and 0.0123% due to this interaction. The δ aF constant for H_2CCH should be similar to that for H_2CCD because of the same probability density of the unpaired electron at the β protons, but could not be determined independently in our previous study. It is because the mixing of para- and ortho-levels of about 0.00044% is much smaller than that for H_2CCD due to the large tunneling splitting of Δ E_0=16271.8429(59) MHz. The rate constant of para to ortho (I_β = 0 → 1) conversion is predicted as 1.2× 10^5 s-1 torr-1 for H_2CCD, suggesting extremely rapid mutual conversion between ortho and para nuclear spin isomers of H_2CCD, which is more than 106 times faster compared with that in closed shell molecules such as H_2CO and H_2CCH_2. K. Tanaka, M. Hayashi, M. Ohtsuki, K. Harada, T. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys., 131, 111101 (2009). K. Tanaka, M. Toshimitsu, K. Harada, T. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys., 120, 3604 (2004).

  19. para-Sulphonato-calix[n]arenes as selective activators for the passage of molecules across the Caco-2 model intestinal membrane.

    PubMed

    Roka, Eszter; Vecsernyes, Miklos; Bacskay, Ildiko; Félix, Caroline; Rhimi, Moez; Coleman, Anthony W; Perret, Florent

    2015-06-01

    The passage of Lucifer Yellow across the Caco-2 intestinal model membrane has been studied for the para-sulphonato-calix[n]arenes, the results show that para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene and para-sulphonato-calix[8]arene activate membrane passage when used simultaneously with a transport probe, Lucifer Yellow, whereas para-sulphonato-calix[6]arene has no effect. PMID:25958962

  20. Vesicular erythema multiforme-like reaction to para-phenylenediamine in a henna tattoo.

    PubMed

    Sidwell, Rachel U; Francis, Nick D; Basarab, Tamara; Morar, Nilesh

    2008-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis reaction to topical "black henna" tattoo is usually described secondary to the organic dye para-phenylenediamine, a derivative of analine. Allergic contact dermatitis reactions to para-phenylenediamine are well recognized and most commonly involve an eczematous reaction that may become generalized and an acute angio-edema. Only four previous instances have been reported of an erythema multiforme-like reaction to para-phenylenediamine and its derivatives, including only one mild reaction to a tattoo. A vesicular erythema multiforme-like reaction has not been reported. An erythema multiforme-like reaction to contact allergens is usually caused by potent allergens including plant quinolones in Compositae and sesquiterpene lactones in exotic woods, and it is also reported to topical drugs, epoxy resin, metals (particularly nickel), and various chemicals. A generalized vesicular erythema multiforme-like reaction is unusual, and rarely reported. We describe a 6-year-old boy who developed a localized, eczematous and severe generalized vesicular erythema multiforme-like contact allergy to para-phenylenediamine secondary to a henna tattoo. As henna tattoos are becoming increasingly popular, one should be aware of the possibility of such a reaction. This presentation also highlights the call to ban the use of para-phenylenediamine and its derivatives in dyes. PMID:18429780

  1. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Ritchey-Chretien UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Galan, M. J.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2 fue inaugurado hace siete años y concebido para trabajar en las razones focales: f/7.5, F/13.5, F/27 y F/98. El diseño Ritchey-Chretién corresponde a la razón focal F/7.5 y el foco primario (F/2.286) no se consideró como utilizable para fotografía directa. En el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, se diseñó y construyó un sistema corrector de campo para la razón focal F/7.5, que actualmente está en funcionamiento. Dentro de un programa de colaboración en diseflo y evaluación de sistemas ópticos, entre el Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias y el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, decidimos intentar el diseño de una correctora de campo para el foco primario del tȩlescopio UNAM212 bajo la consideración de que no son insalvables los problemas que implicaría su instalación y de que es muy posible que, en un futuro relativamente cercano, podamom tener un detector bidimenmional tipo Mepsicrón cuya área sensible haga tentadora la idea de construir la cámara directa para foco primario

  2. On the Ortho:Para Ratio of H+ 3 in Diffuse Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, Kyle N.; Indriolo, Nick; Kreckel, Holger; Tom, Brian A.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2011-03-01

    The excitation temperature T 01 derived from the relative intensities of the J = 0 (para) and J = 1 (ortho) rotational levels of H2 has been assumed to be an accurate measure of the kinetic temperature in interstellar environments. In diffuse molecular clouds, the average value of T 01 is ~70 K. However, the excitation temperature T(H+ 3) derived from the (J, K) = (1, 1) (para) and (1, 0) (ortho) rotational levels of H+ 3 has been observed to be ~30 K in the same types of environments. In this work, we present observations of H+ 3 in three additional diffuse cloud sight lines for which H2 measurements are available, showing that in four of five cases T 01 and T(H+ 3) are discrepant. We then examine the thermalization mechanisms for the ortho:para ratios of H+ 3 and H2, concluding that indeed T 01 is an accurate measure of the cloud kinetic temperature, while the ortho:para ratio of H+ 3 need not be thermal. By constructing a steady-state chemical model taking into account the nuclear spin dependence of reactions involving H+ 3, we show that the ortho:para ratio of H+ 3 in diffuse molecular clouds is likely governed by a competition between dissociative recombination with electrons and thermalization via reactive collisions with H2. Based in part on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla or Paranal Observatories under program ID 384.C-0618.

  3. The formaldehyde ortho/para ratio as a probe of dark cloud chemistry and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickens, J. E.; Irvine, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    We present measurements of the H2CO ortho/para ratio toward four star-forming cores, L723, L1228, L1527, and L43, and one quiescent core, L1498. Combining these data with earlier results by Minh et al., three quiescent cores are found to have ortho/para ratios near 3, the ratio of statistical weights expected for gas-phase formation processes. In contrast, ortho/para ratios are 1.5-2.1 in five star-forming cores, suggesting thermalization at a kinetic temperature of 10 K. We attribute modification of the ortho/para ratio in the latter cores to formation and/or equilibration of H2CO on grains with sub-sequent release back into the gas phase due to the increased energy inputs from the forming star and outflow. We see accompanying enhancements in the H2CO abundance relative to H, to support this idea. The results suggest that the formaldehyde ortho/para ratio can differentiate between quiescent cores and those in which low-mass star formation has occurred.

  4. Terahertz absorption spectrum of para and ortho water vapors at different humidities at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, X.; Altan, H.; Saint, A.; Matten, D.; Alfano, R. R.

    2006-11-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy has been used to measure the absorption of water vapor in 0.2-2.4THz range from low to high humidity at room temperature. The observed absorption lines are due to the water molecular rotations in the ground vibrational state. We find that the absorption strength of para transitions increases as humidity increases, while the absorption strength of ortho transitions increases and then decreases in intensity with increasing humidity. We explain this difference based on the nuclear spin statistics based ratio of ortho to para water monomer populations at room temperature. The preferential adsorption on the solid surfaces of para water leads to an ortho dominated vapor cloud whose monomer rotational absorption intensity decreases due to the effects of dimerization, molecular collisions, clustering, and interactions with liquid droplets at high concentrations.

  5. Production and characterization of para-hydrogen gas for matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararajan, K.; Sankaran, K.; Ramanathan, N.; Gopi, R.

    2016-08-01

    Normal hydrogen (n-H2) has 3:1 ortho/para ratio and the production of enriched para-hydrogen (p-H2) from normal hydrogen is useful for many applications including matrix isolation experiments. In this paper, we describe the design, development and fabrication of the ortho-para converter that is capable of producing enriched p-H2. The p-H2 thus produced was probed using infrared and Raman techniques. Using infrared measurement, the thickness and the purity of the p-H2 matrix were determined. The purity of p-H2 was determined to be >99%. Matrix isolation infrared spectra of trimethylphosphate (TMP) and acetylene (C2H2) were studied in p-H2 and n-H2 matrices and the results were compared with the conventional inert matrices.

  6. Electrical detection of ortho-para conversion in fullerene-encapsulated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Benno; Mamone, Salvatore; Concistrè, Maria; Alonso-Valdesueiro, Javier; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    2015-08-01

    Water exists in two spin isomers, ortho and para, that have different nuclear spin states. In bulk water, rapid proton exchange and hindered molecular rotation obscure the direct observation of two spin isomers. The supramolecular endofullerene H2O@C60 provides freely rotating, isolated water molecules even at cryogenic temperatures. Here we show that the bulk dielectric constant of this substance depends on the ortho/para ratio, and changes slowly in time after a sudden temperature jump, due to nuclear spin conversion. The attribution of the effect to ortho-para conversion is validated by comparison with nuclear magnetic resonance and quantum theory. The change in dielectric constant is consistent with an electric dipole moment of 0.51+/-0.05 Debye for an encapsulated water molecule, indicating the partial shielding of the water dipole by the encapsulating cage. The dependence of bulk dielectric constant on nuclear spin isomer composition appears to be a previously unreported physical phenomenon.

  7. Quantitative structure–activity relationship analysis of the pharmacology of para-substituted methcathinone analogues

    PubMed Central

    Bonano, J S; Banks, M L; Kolanos, R; Sakloth, F; Barnier, M L; Glennon, R A; Cozzi, N V; Partilla, J S; Baumann, M H; Negus, S S

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Methcathinone (MCAT) is a potent monoamine releaser and parent compound to emerging drugs of abuse including mephedrone (4-CH3 MCAT), the para-methyl analogue of MCAT. This study examined quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR) for MCAT and six para-substituted MCAT analogues on (a) in vitro potency to promote monoamine release via dopamine and serotonin transporters (DAT and SERT, respectively), and (b) in vivo modulation of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), a behavioural procedure used to evaluate abuse potential. Neurochemical and behavioural effects were correlated with steric (Es), electronic (σp) and lipophilic (πp) parameters of the para substituents. Experimental Approach For neurochemical studies, drug effects on monoamine release through DAT and SERT were evaluated in rat brain synaptosomes. For behavioural studies, drug effects were tested in male Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with electrodes targeting the medial forebrain bundle and trained to lever-press for electrical brain stimulation. Key Results MCAT and all six para-substituted analogues increased monoamine release via DAT and SERT and dose- and time-dependently modulated ICSS. In vitro selectivity for DAT versus SERT correlated with in vivo efficacy to produce abuse-related ICSS facilitation. In addition, the Es values of the para substituents correlated with both selectivity for DAT versus SERT and magnitude of ICSS facilitation. Conclusions and Implications Selectivity for DAT versus SERT in vitro is a key determinant of abuse-related ICSS facilitation by these MCAT analogues, and steric aspects of the para substituent of the MCAT scaffold (indicated by Es) are key determinants of this selectivity. PMID:25438806

  8. Experiments at Scale with In-Situ Visualization Using ParaView/Catalyst in RAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Kares, Robert John

    2014-10-31

    In this paper I describe some numerical experiments performed using the ParaView/Catalyst in-situ visualization infrastructure deployed in the Los Alamos RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code to produce images from a running large scale 3D ICF simulation on the Cielo supercomputer at Los Alamos. The detailed procedures for the creation of the visualizations using ParaView/Catalyst are discussed and several images sequences from the ICF simulation problem produced with the in-situ method are presented. My impressions and conclusions concerning the use of the in-situ visualization method in RAGE are discussed.

  9. Simulation Studies of the Vibrational Dynamics of para-HYDROGEN Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruk, Nabil F.; Yang, Jing; Le Roy, Robert J.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the construction and application of reduced-dimensional potential energy surfaces for use in performing simulation of para-hydrogen clusters. Simple spherical averaging and `adiabatic-hindered-rotor' averaging treatments of the angular degrees of freedom are considered and compared. The resulting one-dimensional surface is used in quantum Monte Carlo simulations of para-hydrogen clusters of varying sizes. Energetic, and structural properties are computed and compared to previously published results, and vibrational frequency shifts are predicted and compared to available experimental measurements. H. Li, P.N. Roy and R.J. Le Roy, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 104305 (2010).

  10. Le lipome para testiculaire: à propos d'un cas rare

    PubMed Central

    Lasri, Abdelouahed; Lamchahab, Hamza; Lahyani, Mounir; Karmouni, Tarik; Elkhader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Ibn Attya

    2015-01-01

    Les tumeurs para testiculaires sont des tumeurs rares et complexes qui ont une symptomatologie insidieuse et pauvre. Les formes bénignes représentent 70%. Le lipome para testiculaire étant le type le plus fréquent. L'examen clinique est peu spécifique. L'examen échographique est la pierre angulaire pour assoir le diagnostic. Le traitement chirurgical s'impose en cas de tumeur symptomatique, l'histologie étant habituellement typique permet la confirmation diagnostique. Le pronostic est bon malgré d’éventuelles récidives. PMID:26175802

  11. Quantum rotation of ortho and para-water encapsulated in a fullerene cage

    PubMed Central

    Beduz, Carlo; Carravetta, Marina; Chen, Judy Y.-C.; Concistrè, Maria; Denning, Mark; Frunzi, Michael; Horsewill, Anthony J.; Johannessen, Ole G.; Lawler, Ronald; Lei, Xuegong; Levitt, Malcolm H.; Li, Yongjun; Mamone, Salvatore; Murata, Yasujiro; Nagel, Urmas; Nishida, Tomoko; Ollivier, Jacques; Rols, Stéphane; Rõõm, Toomas; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Turro, Nicholas J.; Yang, Yifeng

    2012-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering, far-infrared spectroscopy, and cryogenic nuclear magnetic resonance are used to investigate the quantized rotation and ortho–para conversion of single water molecules trapped inside closed fullerene cages. The existence of metastable ortho-water molecules is demonstrated, and the interconversion of ortho-and para-water spin isomers is tracked in real time. Our investigation reveals that the ground state of encapsulated ortho water has a lifted degeneracy, associated with symmetry-breaking of the water environment. PMID:22837402

  12. [PDS cord fixation of sternoclavicular dislocation and para-articular clavicular fractures].

    PubMed

    Friedl, W; Fritz, T

    1994-05-01

    Sternoclavicular joint dislocation and para-articular fractures of the clavicle are rare injuries. Because severe complications of dorsal dislocations have often been seen and because functional impairment has often followed ventral dislocations, we treat most patients with such injuries operatively. Internal fixation with K-wires frequently leads to severe complications. We present our operation techniques with a resorbable 2 mm polydioxanon cord. This pack up technique can be used in both dislocations and para-articular fractures with no risk of implant dislocation. PMID:8052863

  13. In para totale...una cosa da panico...sulla lingua dei giovani in Italia (In para totale...una cosa da panico...The Language of Young People in Italy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcato, Carla

    1997-01-01

    Describes and analyzes the language of young people in Italy today. Particular focus is on the expressions using "para" (e.g., "in para totale" = to be very bored or worried) and the phrase "una cosa da panico" (something terrible or its opposite something wonderful). (CFM)

  14. EVALUATION OF PARA-DICHLOROBENZENE EMISSIONS FROM SOLID MOTH REPELLANT AS A SOURCE OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results of dynamic and static chamber tests to evaluate para-dichlorobenzene emission rates from mothcakes. he data were analyzed by a model that assumes that the para-dichlorobenzene emission from mothcakes is a temperature-sensitive sublimation process. ull-sc...

  15. EVALUATION OF PARA-DICHLOROBENZENE EMISSIONS FROM SOLID MOTH REPELLANT AS A SOURCE OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mothcakes made of para-dichlorobenzene have been widely available for the general population to be used as a moth repellant to protect garments from insect damage. Usually, a mothcake is expected to last for weeks or even months during which the para-dichlorobenzene emits slowly ...

  16. Experimental and theoretical investigation of para-aminophenol ionization in corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, H.; Salehabadi, H.

    2015-03-01

    Ionization of para-aminophenol was investigated using an ion mobility spectrometer equipped with a corona discharge as ionization source. The experimental results were confirmed with the use of theoretical method, based on density functional theory. Two peaks were observed in the ion mobility spectrum in the positive ion mode which was corresponded to the protonated isomers of para-aminophenol. It was observed that the relative intensities of the peaks depend on the sample concentration and the nature of the reactant ions. The relative energies of ions derived from protonation of para-aminophenol and its topical proton affinities were determined for different sites in the gas phase. The peak with the lower drift time was assigned to the oxygen protonated isomer and the other peak was ascribed to the nitrogen protonated isomer of para-aminophenol. The calculated dipole moment and localized charge of each isomer were used to verify the ion mobility peak separation. It was shown that combination of theoretical and experimental tools leads to reliable prediction of reactive protonation sites of chemicals in a corona discharge.

  17. Synthesis and properties of para-substituted NCN-pincer palladium and platinum complexes.

    PubMed

    Slagt, Martijn Q; Rodríguez, Gema; Grutters, Michiel M P; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M; Klopper, Wim; Jenneskens, Leonardus W; Lutz, Martin; Spek, Anthony L; van Koten, Gerard

    2004-03-19

    A variety of para-substituted NCN-pincer palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes [MX(NCN-Z)] (M=Pd(II), Pt(II); X=Cl, Br, I; NCN-Z=[2,6-(CH(2)NMe(2))(2)C(6)H(2)-4-Z](-); Z=NO(2), COOH, SO(3)H, PO(OEt)(2), PO(OH)(OEt), PO(OH)(2), CH(2)OH, SMe, NH(2)) were synthesised by routes involving substitution reactions, either prior to or, notably, after metalation of the ligand. The solubility of the pincer complexes is dominated by the nature of the para substituent Z, which renders several complexes water-soluble. The influence of the para substituent on the electronic properties of the metal centre was studied by (195)Pt NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Both the (195)Pt chemical shift and the calculated natural population charge on platinum correlate linearly with the sigma(p) Hammett substituent constants, and thus the electronic properties of predesigned pincer complexes can be predicted. The sigma(p) value for the para-PtI group itself was determined to be -1.18 in methanol and -0.72 in water/methanol (1/1). Complexes substituted with protic functional groups (CH(2)OH, COOH) exist as dimers in the solid state due to intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions. PMID:15034878

  18. Cáncer de páncreas—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de páncreas, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  19. Cáncer de vagina—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vagina, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  20. An Analysis of Interlanguage Development Over Time: Part 1, "por" and "para".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntermann, Gail

    1992-01-01

    The first part of a larger planned investigation, this study examines the use of "por" and "para" by nine Peace Corps volunteers in oral interviews at the end of training and roughly one year later, to trace their acquisition over time, in two learning contexts. (24 references) (LB)

  1. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were as substitutions for other prepositions…

  2. Preguntas para hacerle al doctor acerca del cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Serie de preguntas, organizadas por tema, que los pacientes con cáncer pueden hacer al médico o a otros miembros de su equipo de atención médica para conocer más acerca de su tipo de cáncer y lo que pueden esperar.

  3. Terapia hormonal para la menopausia y el cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa acerca de los resultados de los estudios sobre el uso de la terapia hormonal para la menopausia. Incluye información sobre el efecto de esta terapia en el cuerpo y explica los riesgos y beneficios del uso de hormonas.

  4. Resultados de estudio para cáncer de pulmón indica

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) da a conocer hoy resultados iniciales de un estudio de gran envergadura sobre métodos de detección para reducir el número de muertes por cáncer de pulmón al detectar cánceres en estadios relativamente iniciales.

  5. Factor Structure of the "Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresion en Adolescentes" (EADA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Santos, Mirella; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo; Bernal, Guillermo; Rivera-Medina, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The current concept and measures of self-efficacy for depression in adolescents do not consider developmental and cultural aspects essential to understand and assess this construct in Latino youth. We examined the factor structure of the "Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresion en Adolescentes" (EADA), a Spanish instrument designed to assess this…

  6. Sarcoma de tejido blando—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del sarcoma de tejido blando, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  7. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del cáncer, como la náusea y el vómito.

  8. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del cáncer como la náusea y el vómito.

  9. Cáncer de intestino delgado—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de intestino delgado, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  10. Interrupting Commemoration: Thinking with Art, Thinking through the Strictures of Argentina's "Espacio para la memoria"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paolantonio, Mario Di

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a few buildings within the "Espacio para la memoria" in Buenos Aires have been designated as a UNESCO Centre where, amongst other educational activities, evidentiary materials of the past repression are to be stored and displayed. Another building in the complex houses a Community Centre operated by the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo,…

  11. Cáncer colorrectal—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de colon y recto, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas.

  12. Estudios ALCHEMIST para el cáncer de pulmón en estadio inicial

    Cancer.gov

    ALCHEMIST comprende tres estudios clínicos integrados de medicina de precisión diseñados para identificar a personas con cáncer de pulmón en estadio inicial cuyos tumores tienen ciertos cambios genéticos poco comunes.

  13. Can para-aryl-dithiols cross-link two plasmonic noble nanoparticles as monolayer dithiolate spacers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Para-aryl-dithiols (PADTs, HS-(C6H4)n-SH, n = 1, 2, and 3) have been used extensively in molecular electronics, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and quantum electron tunneling between two gold or silver nanoparticles (AuNPs and AgNPs). One popular belief is that these dithiols cross-link ...

  14. Cáncer de la corteza suprarrenal—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del carcinoma de corteza suprarrenal, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  15. Tumores de hipófisis—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor de hipófisis, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados.

  16. Cáncer de útero—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer uterino, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas.

  17. Tumores extracraneales de células germinativas—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor extracraneal de células germinativas en los niños, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  18. Cáncer de ano—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de ano, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  19. Cáncer de tiroides—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de tiroides, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  20. Cáncer de pene—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de pene, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  1. Cáncer de testículo—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de testículo, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas.

  2. Cáncer de vejiga—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de vejiga, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas.

  3. Cáncer de vulva—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vulva, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  4. Cáncer de paratiroides—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de paratiroides, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  5. Cáncer de uretra—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de uretra, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  6. Antimicrobial effect of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid esters containing substituted N-phenylpiperazine moiety

    PubMed Central

    Malík, Ivan; Bukovský, Marián; Andriamainty, Fils; Gališinová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In current research, nine basic esters of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid with incorporated 4-(4-fluoro-/3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazin-1-yl fragment, 6i–6m and 8f–8i, were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Taking into account the minimum inhibitory concentration assay (MIC), as the most active against given yeast was evaluated 8i (MIC = 0.20 mg/mL), the most lipophilic structure containing para-butoxy and trifluoromethyl substituents. Investigating the efficiency of the compounds bearing only a single atom of fluorine and appropriate para-alkoxy side chain against Candida albicans, the cut-off effect was observed. From evaluated homological series, the maximum of the effectiveness was noticed for the stucture 6 k (MIC = 0.39 mg/mL), containing para-propoxy group attached to phenylcarbamoyloxy fragment, beyond which the compounds ceased to be active. On the contrary, all the tested molecules were against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (MICs > 1.00 mg/mL) practically inactive. PMID:24294237

  7. Delirio (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicación a causa del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten los enfoques de los cuidados médicos de apoyo, asi como farmacológicos para el manejo del delirio.

  8. Irradiation of para-aortic lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix or endometrium

    SciTech Connect

    Komaki, R.; Mattingly, R.F.; Hoffman, R.G.; Barber, S.W.; Satre, R.; Greenberg, M.

    1983-04-01

    Twenty-two patients with biopsy-proved para-aortic lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix (15 patients) or endometrium (7 patients) received a median dose of 5,000 rad/25 fractions. Para-aortic nodal metastases were controlled in 77% of cases. Control was significantly lower following radical retroperitoneal lymph node dissection than less extensive sampling procedures. Obstruction of the small bowel developed in 3 patients with tumor recurrence in the para-aortic region. Eight of the 10 patients who were disease-free at 2 years received >5,000 rad. Three patients were still alive without disease at 129, 63, and 60 months, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 40% for cervical cancer and 60% for endometrial cancer: in the former group, it was significantly different depending on whether the para-aortic nodes were irradiated (40%) or not (0%). The authors suggest that 5,000-5,500 rad in 5-5.5 weeks is well tolerated and can control aortic nodal metastases in cervical and possibly endometrial cancer.

  9. Antimicrobial effect of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid esters containing substituted N-phenylpiperazine moiety.

    PubMed

    Malík, Ivan; Bukovský, Marián; Andriamainty, Fils; Gališinová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In current research, nine basic esters of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid with incorporated 4-(4-fluoro-/3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazin-1-yl fragment, 6i-6m and 8f-8i, were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Taking into account the minimum inhibitory concentration assay (MIC), as the most active against given yeast was evaluated 8i (MIC = 0.20 mg/mL), the most lipophilic structure containing para-butoxy and trifluoromethyl substituents. Investigating the efficiency of the compounds bearing only a single atom of fluorine and appropriate para-alkoxy side chain against Candida albicans, the cut-off effect was observed. From evaluated homological series, the maximum of the effectiveness was noticed for the stucture 6 k (MIC = 0.39 mg/mL), containing para-propoxy group attached to phenylcarbamoyloxy fragment, beyond which the compounds ceased to be active. On the contrary, all the tested molecules were against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (MICs > 1.00 mg/mL) practically inactive. PMID:24294237

  10. Up from Apathy: Para-Professional Training for the Socially Disadvantaged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mark J.; Wright, Bobbye S.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a program of training for young men to fill a para-professional position in the growing field of social services. The program provides training in human relations, basic skills, and on-the-job techniques. Training Technology is a quarterly supplement to Educational Technology Magazine. (GR)

  11. Ortho-para conversion of endohedral water in the fullerene C60 at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugai, Anna; Nagel, U.; Rõõm, T.; Mamone, S.; Concistrè, M.; Meier, B.; Krachmalnicoff, A.; Whitby, R. J.; Levitt, M. H.; Lei, Xuegong; Li, Yongjun; Turro, N. J.

    2015-03-01

    Water displays the phenomenon of spin isomerism in which the two proton spins either couple to form a triplet (ortho water, I = 1) or a singlet nuclear spin state (para water, I = 0). Here we study the interconversion of para and ortho water. The exact mechanism of this process is still not fully understood. In order to minimize interactions between molecules we use a sample where a single H2O is trapped in the C60 molecular cage (H2O@C60)andH2O@C60iscrystallized.H2O@C60 has long-lived ortho state and ortho-para conversion kinetics is non-exponential at LHeT. We studied mixtures of H2O@C60, D2O@C60 and C60 using IR absorption, NMR and dielectric measurements. We saw the speeding up of the interconversion with the growth of H2O@C60 concentration in C60 or when D2O@C60 was added. At some temperatures the kinetics is exponential. Models are discussed in order to explain the T and concentration dependence of ortho-para interconversion kinetics. This work was supported by institutional research funding IUT23-3 of the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research.

  12. Construction of erythrinane skeleton via Pd(0)-catalyzed intramolecular dearomatization of para-aminophenols.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ren-Qi; Gu, Qing; Wu, Wen-Ting; Zhao, Zhuo-An; You, Shu-Li

    2014-11-01

    A novel Pd(0)-catalyzed intramolecular arylative dearomatization of para-aminophenol derivatives is described. In the presence of 1.25 mol % [Pd(C3H5)Cl]2 and 3.75 mol % RuPhos, the arylative dearomatization reaction proceeds smoothly for a broad range of substrates, offering an efficient synthetic route to erythrinane derivatives in excellent yields. PMID:25308898

  13. Fabrication of multipotent poly-para-xylylene particles in controlled nanoscopic dimensions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ruei-Hung; Li, Yi-Jye; Sun, Ho-Yi; Wu, Chih-Yu; Guan, Zhen-Yu; Ho, Hsin-Ying; Fang, Cheng-Yuan; Chen, Hsien-Yeh

    2016-03-01

    In this study, poly-para-xylylene-based multifunctional nanoparticles (PPX-NPs) were fabricated. Based on the solubility characteristics determined for asymmetrically substituted poly-para-xylylenes in polar solvents, well-dispersed nanocolloids with a controllable size ranging from 50 to 800nm were produced in solution by the displacement of the solvent (water). These size ranges were found to have acceptable cellular compatibility through examinations of cultured 3T3 fibroblasts and adipose-derived stem cells treated with the PPX-NPs. In addition, these nanoscale PPX-NPs exhibited versatile bioconjugation properties in that a variety of available functional groups can be adopted from their counterpart, thin-film poly-para-xylylenes, during the production of these nanoparticles. For instance, bifunctional PPX-NPs with maleimide and benzoyl moieties were produced to enable immobilization via a maleimide-thiol reaction concurrent with a photochemical reaction. A cleavable PPX-NP was also produced with a thiol-exchangeable surface property. Additionally, by performing electrohydrodynamic jetting of parallel polymer solutions of selected poly-para-xylylenes, Janus-type or multicompartment PPX-NPs were created. The PPX-NPs can potentially be used for various biomedical applications such as combined diagnostics and drug delivery, multiplexing of detection, multiple-drug loading, and the targeted delivery of biomolecules or drugs. PMID:26724467

  14. Autoguía para el telescopio 2,15 mts de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aballay, J. A.; Casagrande, A. R.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.

    Se está desarrollando un sistema de autoguía para el telescopio de 2,15 mts. El mismo se realizará aprovechando el Offset Guider. Al ocular móvil de éste se vinculará alguna cámara digital (ST4-ST7-CH250) para lograr la visión del objeto. El funcionamiento del equipo será el siguiente: primero, dadas las coordenadas del objeto a observar, se tomarán las coordenadas del telescopio para que, a través de una base de datos, se determine un campo de objetos que sirvan para la cámara de visión, luego, la PC obtendrá el offset entre la estrella de observación y la estrella seleccionada como guía, este valor será trasladado a los motores que posicionarán en forma automática el ocular. Una vez que la estrella es visualizada en la cámara (monitor de PC ) se correrá el programa que guiará el telescopio automáticamente.

  15. Fatiga (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afección caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energía, que a menudo se observa como una complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento.

  16. Cáncer de hueso—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de hueso (óseo), así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  17. Vínculos observacionais para o processo-S em estrelas gigantes de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanic, R. H. S.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; da Silva, L.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de bário são gigantes vermelhas de tipo GK que apresentam excessos atmosféricos dos elementos do processo-s. Tais excessos são esperados em estrelas na fase de pulsos térmicos do AGB (TP-AGB). As estrelas de bário são, no entanto, menos massivas e menos luminosas que as estrelas do AGB, assim, não poderiam ter se auto-enriquecido. Seu enriquecimento teria origem em uma estrela companheira, inicialmente mais massiva, que evolui pelo TP-AGB, se auto-enriquece com os elementos do processo-s e transfere material contaminado para a atmosfera da atual estrela de bário. A companheira evolui então para anã branca deixando de ser observada diretamente. As estrelas de bário são, portanto, úteis como testes observacionais para teorias de nucleossíntese pelo processo-s, convecção e perda de massa. Análises detalhadas de abundância com dados de alta qualidade para estes objetos são ainda escassas na literatura. Neste trabalho construímos modelos de atmosferas e, procedendo a uma análise diferencial, determinamos parâmetros atmosféricos e evolutivos de uma amostra de dez gigantes de bário e quatro normais. Determinamos seus padrões de abundância para Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu e Gd, concluindo que algumas estrelas classificadas na literatura como gigantes de bário são na verdade gigantes normais. Comparamos dois padrões médios de abundância, para estrelas com grandes excessos e estrelas com excessos moderados, com modelos teóricos de enriquecimento pelo processo-s. Os dois grupos de estrelas são ajustados pelos mesmos parâmetros de exposição de nêutrons. Tal resultado sugere que a ocorrência do fenômeno de bário com diferentes intensidades não se deve a diferentes exposições de nêutrons. Discutimos ainda efeitos nucleossintéticos, ligados ao processo-s, sugeridos na literatura para os elementos Cu, Mn, V e Sc.

  18. Hox and ParaHox gene expression in early body plan patterning of polyplacophoran mollusks

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Martin; Wollesen, Tim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molecular developmental studies of various bilaterians have shown that the identity of the anteroposterior body axis is controlled by Hox and ParaHox genes. Detailed Hox and ParaHox gene expression data are available for conchiferan mollusks, such as gastropods (snails and slugs) and cephalopods (squids and octopuses), whereas information on the putative conchiferan sister group, Aculifera, is still scarce (but see Fritsch et al., 2015 on Hox gene expression in the polyplacophoran Acanthochitona crinita). In contrast to gastropods and cephalopods, the Hox genes in polyplacophorans are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence similar to the condition in annelids and other bilaterians. Here, we present the expression patterns of the Hox genes Lox5, Lox4, and Lox2, together with the ParaHox gene caudal (Cdx) in the polyplacophoran A. crinita. To localize Hox and ParaHox gene transcription products, we also investigated the expression patterns of the genes FMRF and Elav, and the development of the nervous system. Similar to the other Hox genes, all three Acr‐Lox genes are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence. Transcripts of Acr‐Cdx are seemingly present in the forming hindgut at the posterior end. The expression patterns of both the central class Acr‐Lox genes and the Acr‐Cdx gene are strikingly similar to those in annelids and nemerteans. In Polyplacophora, the expression patterns of the Hox and ParaHox genes seem to be evolutionarily highly conserved, while in conchiferan mollusks these genes are co‐opted into novel functions that might have led to evolutionary novelties, at least in gastropods and cephalopods. PMID:27098677

  19. Rotational excitation of HCN by para- and ortho-H{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, Mario Hernández; Kalugina, Yulia; Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry; Lique, François

    2014-06-14

    Rotational excitation of the hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecule by collisions with para-H{sub 2}( j = 0, 2) and ortho-H{sub 2}( j = 1) is investigated at low temperatures using a quantum time independent approach. Both molecules are treated as rigid rotors. The scattering calculations are based on a highly correlated ab initio 4-dimensional (4D) potential energy surface recently published. Rotationally inelastic cross sections among the 13 first rotational levels of HCN were obtained using a pure quantum close coupling approach for total energies up to 1200 cm{sup −1}. The corresponding thermal rate coefficients were computed for temperatures ranging from 5 to 100 K. The HCN rate coefficients are strongly dependent on the rotational level of the H{sub 2} molecule. In particular, the rate coefficients for collisions with para-H{sub 2}( j = 0) are significantly lower than those for collisions with ortho-H{sub 2}( j = 1) and para-H{sub 2}( j = 2). Propensity rules in favor of even Δj transitions were found for HCN in collisions with para-H{sub 2}( j = 0) whereas propensity rules in favor of odd Δj transitions were found for HCN in collisions with H{sub 2}( j ⩾ 1). The new rate coefficients were compared with previously published HCN-para-H{sub 2}( j = 0) rate coefficients. Significant differences were found due the inclusion of the H{sub 2} rotational structure in the scattering calculations. These new rate coefficients will be crucial to improve the estimation of the HCN abundance in the interstellar medium.

  20. Hox and ParaHox gene expression in early body plan patterning of polyplacophoran mollusks.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Martin; Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Molecular developmental studies of various bilaterians have shown that the identity of the anteroposterior body axis is controlled by Hox and ParaHox genes. Detailed Hox and ParaHox gene expression data are available for conchiferan mollusks, such as gastropods (snails and slugs) and cephalopods (squids and octopuses), whereas information on the putative conchiferan sister group, Aculifera, is still scarce (but see Fritsch et al., 2015 on Hox gene expression in the polyplacophoran Acanthochitona crinita). In contrast to gastropods and cephalopods, the Hox genes in polyplacophorans are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence similar to the condition in annelids and other bilaterians. Here, we present the expression patterns of the Hox genes Lox5, Lox4, and Lox2, together with the ParaHox gene caudal (Cdx) in the polyplacophoran A. crinita. To localize Hox and ParaHox gene transcription products, we also investigated the expression patterns of the genes FMRF and Elav, and the development of the nervous system. Similar to the other Hox genes, all three Acr-Lox genes are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence. Transcripts of Acr-Cdx are seemingly present in the forming hindgut at the posterior end. The expression patterns of both the central class Acr-Lox genes and the Acr-Cdx gene are strikingly similar to those in annelids and nemerteans. In Polyplacophora, the expression patterns of the Hox and ParaHox genes seem to be evolutionarily highly conserved, while in conchiferan mollusks these genes are co-opted into novel functions that might have led to evolutionary novelties, at least in gastropods and cephalopods. PMID:27098677

  1. Ancient origins of axial patterning genes: Hox genes and ParaHox genes in the Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, J R; Martindale, M Q

    1999-01-01

    Among the bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic animals (the Bilateria), a conserved set of developmental regulatory genes are known to function in patterning the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. This set includes the well-studied Hox cluster genes, and the recently described genes of the ParaHox cluster, which is believed to be the evolutionary sister of the Hox cluster (Brooke et al. 1998). The conserved role of these axial patterning genes in animals as diverse as frogs and flies is believed to reflect an underlying homology (i.e., all bilaterians derive from a common ancestor which possessed an AP axis and the developmental mechanisms responsible for patterning the axis). However, the origin and early evolution of Hox genes and ParaHox genes remain obscure. Repeated attempts have been made to reconstruct the early evolution of Hox genes by analyzing data from the triphoblastic animals, the Bilateria (Schubert et al. 1993; Zhang and Nei 1996). A more precise dating of Hox origins has been elusive due to a lack of sufficient information from outgroup taxa such as the phylum Cnidaria (corals, hydras, jellyfishes, and sea anemones). In combination with outgroup taxa, another potential source of information about Hox origins is outgroup genes (e.g., the genes of the ParaHox cluster). In this article, we present cDNA sequences of two Hox-like genes (anthox2 and anthox6) from the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that anthox2 (= Cnox2) is homologous to the GSX class of ParaHox genes, and anthox6 is homologous to the anterior class of Hox genes. Therefore, the origin of Hox genes and ParaHox genes occurred prior to the evolutionary split between the Cnidaria and the Bilateria and predated the evolution of the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals. Our analysis also suggests that the central Hox class was invented in the bilaterian lineage, subsequent to their split from the Cnidaria. PMID:11324016

  2. Actividad cromosférica en Proxima Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincunegui, C.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    We present observations of the dM5.5e star Proxima Centauri, obtained with the REOSC spectrograph in high resolution configuration at CASLEO. The cuasi-periodic observations of this star during the last four years allow us to make a detailed study of the cromospheric activity variations. Among the spectra one is included with the largest published signal-to-noise ratio for this intrinsically faint star, obtained with an integration time of seven hours.

  3. Actividad de LOS Hoyos Coronales Solares de Baja Latitud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, S.; Mendoza, B.; Pirez-Enriquez, R.; Valdes-Galicia, J.

    1987-05-01

    Strong variations of the coronal holes of mid and low latitudes during the ascending and descending phase of the solar cycle have been observed by means of IPS records (the interplanetary scintillation of small diameter radio sources). This variations induce the propagation of disturbances in the interplanetary medium which produce the IPS and are also responsible of cosmic ray modulation. We suggest that the 11 years modulation is influenced by such a coronal hole behaviour.

  4. Actividades al Aire Libre (Outdoor Activities). OBIS/Mini-Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Hall of Science.

    The all-Spanish version of the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS)/Mini-Corps Outdoor Activities set contains twenty education and recreational activities which provide a variety of outdoor biological experiences and incorporate language skills into outdoor education. Prepared especially for use by migrant children aged 10-15 in a…

  5. La ciudad: Libro de actividades, 1 (The City: Workbook 1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Emiliano; And Others

    This workbook, designed to be used with a textbook of the same title, contains exercises, riddles, puzzles, coloring activities, and reinforcement of various word-perception skills and sentences. Included is a step-by-step procedure of phonetic analysis. The intention of the workbook is to enable students to apply their ability to get meaning from…

  6. Actividades al Aire Libre (Outdoor Activities). OBIS/Mini-Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Hall of Science.

    Prepared specifically for use in one-week outdoor summer camp programs for migrant children aged 10-15, the twenty bilingual (Spanish and English) educational and recreational activities in the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS)/Mini-Corps package have been revised to develop language skills as well as an awareness of the outdoor…

  7. Actividades de Transferencia Tecnologica en el Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, G.

    The purpose of this report is to present the technology transfer activities performed in IAR since 2001. There is a brief description of how this activity has arisen from the observational instrumental development carried out in this institute. Emphasis is given to the main contact points between technology transfer works and developments performed for the observatory. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  8. Saturn’s Tropospheric Temperatures and Para-Hydrogen Distribution from Ten Years of Cassini Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Irwin, Patrick G.; Sinclair, James; Giles, Rohini; Barstow, Joanna; Achterberg, Richard K.; Orton, Glenn S.

    2014-11-01

    Cassini/CIRS observations of Saturn’s 10-1400 cm-1 spectrum have been inverted to construct a global record of tropospheric temperature and para-hydrogen variability over the ten-year span of the Cassini mission. The data record the slow reversal of seasonal asymmetries in tropospheric conditions from northern winter (2004, Ls=293), through northern spring equinox (2009, Ls=0) to the present day (2014, Ls=60). Mid-latitude tropospheric temperatures have cooled by approximately 4-6 K in the south and warmed by 2-4 K in the north, with the seasonal contrast decreasing with depth. CIRS detected the north polar minimum 100-mbar temperatures 6-8 years after winter solstice, whereas the south polar maximum occurred 1-2 years after summer solstice, consistent with the lag times predicted by radiative equilibrium models. Warm polar cyclones and the northern hexagon persist throughout the mission, suggesting that they are permanent features of Saturn’s tropospheric circulation. The 200-mbar thermal enhancement (“knee”) that was strongest in the summer but weak or absent in winter in 2004-2006 (Fletcher et al., 2007, Icarus 189, p.457-478) has now shifted northward and is present globally in 2014, suggestive of radiative heating in Saturn’s tropospheric haze layer. Saturn’s para-H2 fraction, which serves as a tracer of both tropospheric mixing and the efficiency of re-equilibration between the ortho- and para-hydrogen states, is slowly altering: super-equilibrium conditions (para-H2 fraction exceeding equilibrium expectations and suggestive of subsiding airmasses) that dominated the southern summer hemisphere are now weakening, whereas the sub-equilibrium conditions (suggestive of uplift) of the northern winter are being replaced by equilibrium or super-equilibrium conditions in spring. The thermal ‘knee’ and the para-H2 distribution are tracking both the increased spring illumination and the increasing tropospheric haze opacity of the springtime hemisphere

  9. Anatomic Distribution of Fluorodeoxyglucose-Avid Para-aortic Lymph Nodes in Patients With Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Takiar, Vinita; Fontanilla, Hiral P.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Jhingran, Anuja; Kelly, Patrick; Iyer, Revathy B.; Levenback, Charles F.; Zhang, Yongbin; Dong, Lei; Klopp, Ann

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Conformal treatment of para-aortic lymph nodes (PAN) in cervical cancer allows dose escalation and reduces normal tissue toxicity. Currently, data documenting the precise location of involved PAN are lacking. We define the spatial distribution of this high-risk nodal volume by analyzing fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid lymph nodes (LNs) on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We identified 72 PANs on pretreatment PET/CT of 30 patients with newly diagnosed stage IB-IVA cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation. LNs were classified as left-lateral para-aortic (LPA), aortocaval (AC), or right paracaval (RPC). Distances from the LN center to the closest vessel and adjacent vertebral body were calculated. Using deformable image registration, nodes were mapped to a template computed tomogram to provide a visual impression of nodal frequencies and anatomic distribution. Results: We identified 72 PET-positive para-aortic lymph nodes (37 LPA, 32 AC, 3 RPC). All RPC lymph nodes were in the inferior third of the para-aortic region. The mean distance from aorta for all lymph nodes was 8.3 mm (range, 3-17 mm), and from the inferior vena cava was 5.6 mm (range, 2-10 mm). Of the 72 lymph nodes, 60% were in the inferior third, 36% were in the middle third, and 4% were in the upper third of the para-aortic region. In all, 29 of 30 patients also had FDG-avid pelvic lymph nodes. Conclusions: A total of 96% of PET positive nodes were adjacent to the aorta; PET positive nodes to the right of the IVC were rare and were all located distally, within 3 cm of the aortic bifurcation. Our findings suggest that circumferential margins around the vessels do not accurately define the nodal region at risk. Instead, the anatomical extent of the nodal basin should be contoured on each axial image to provide optimal coverage of the para-aortic nodal compartment.

  10. Astronomia para/com crianças carentes em Limeira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Oliveira, V. C.

    2003-08-01

    Em 2001, o Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) iniciou um projeto pelo qual o Observatório do Morro Azul empreendeu uma parceria com o Centro de Promoção Social Municipal (CEPROSOM), instituição mantida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira para atender crianças e adolescentes carentes. O CEPROSOM contava com dois projetos: Projeto Centro de Convivência Infantil (CCI) e Programa Criança e Adolescente (PCA), que atendiam crianças e adolescentes em Centros Comunitários de diversas áreas da cidade. Esses projetos têm como prioridades estabelecer atividades prazerosas para as crianças no sentido de retirá-las das ruas. Assim sendo, as crianças passaram a ter mais um tipo de atividade - as visitas ao observatório. Este painel descreve as várias fases do projeto, que envolveu: reuniões de planejamento, curso de Astronomia para as orientadoras dos CCIs e PCAs, atividades relacionadas a visitas das crianças ao Observatório, proposta de construção de gnômons e relógios de Sol nos diversos Centros Comunitários de Limeira e divulgação do projeto na imprensa. O painel inclui discussões sobre a aprendizagem de crianças carentes, relatos que mostram a postura das orientadoras sobre a pertinência do ensino de Astronomia, relatos do monitor que fez o atendimento no Observatório e o que o número de crianças atendidas representou para as atividades da instituição desde o início de suas atividades e, em particular, em 2001. Os resultados são baseados na análise de relatos das orientadoras e do monitor do Observatório, registros de visitas e matérias da imprensa local. Conclui com uma avaliação do que tal projeto representou para as Instituições participantes. Para o Observatório, em particular, foi feita uma análise com relação às outras modalidades de atendimentos que envolvem alunos de escolas e público em geral. Também é abordada a questão do compromisso social do Observatório na educação do

  11. Differential regulation of ParaHox genes by retinoic acid in the invertebrate chordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae).

    PubMed

    Osborne, Peter W; Benoit, Gérard; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael; Ferrier, David E K

    2009-03-01

    The ParaHox cluster is the evolutionary sister to the Hox cluster. Like the Hox cluster, the ParaHox cluster displays spatial and temporal regulation of the component genes along the anterior/posterior axis in a manner that correlates with the gene positions within the cluster (a feature called collinearity). The ParaHox cluster is however a simpler system to study because it is composed of only three genes. We provide a detailed analysis of the amphioxus ParaHox cluster and, for the first time in a single species, examine the regulation of the cluster in response to a single developmental signalling molecule, retinoic acid (RA). Embryos treated with either RA or RA antagonist display altered ParaHox gene expression: AmphiGsx expression shifts in the neural tube, and the endodermal boundary between AmphiXlox and AmphiCdx shifts its anterior/posterior position. We identified several putative retinoic acid response elements and in vitro assays suggest some may participate in RA regulation of the ParaHox genes. By comparison to vertebrate ParaHox gene regulation we explore the evolutionary implications. This work highlights how insights into the regulation and evolution of more complex vertebrate arrangements can be obtained through studies of a simpler, unduplicated amphioxus gene cluster. PMID:19103191

  12. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation.

    PubMed

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara

    2016-04-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  13. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces. To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  14. Aplicación del Teorema de Nekhorochev para tiempos de estabilidad en Mecánica Celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Núñez, J.; Brunini, A.

    En Mecánica Celeste, uno de los problemas centrales consiste en la determinación de los tiempos de estabilidad. El teorema de Nekhorochev proporciona un método para dicho estudio, para un sistema determinado por un hamiltoniano descripto en las variables acción-ángulo. El trabajo consiste en la acotación tanto del potencial perturbador y de la matriz hessiana del hamiltoniano integrable para determinar luego el tiempo de estabilidad de dicho sistema, donde por estabilidad se entiende la separación en norma infinito en el espacio de las acciones.

  15. Una propuesta para el desarrollo de un arreglo de síntesis de apertura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.

    Los estudios llevados a cabo en la transición del hidrógeno neutro a λ~21-cm han contribuído a incrementar nuestro conocimiento acerca de las propiedades globales del medio interestelar, sea este galáctico o extragaláctico. Avances en este campo han sido provocados, a menudo, por la puesta en servicio de radiotelescopios que poseen una mayor resolución angular. Aquí se presenta una propuesta para desarrollar un nuevo instrumento, un interferómetro, que permitirá abrir nuevas líneas de investigación. Este instrumento combinará la técnica de síntesis de apertura con la de espectroscopía de correlación digital, para alcanzar una resolución angular de 1' y un campo de visión de ~1o.7.

  16. Charge-transfer-directed radical substitution enables para-selective C-H functionalization.

    PubMed

    Boursalian, Gregory B; Ham, Won Seok; Mazzotti, Anthony R; Ritter, Tobias

    2016-08-01

    Efficient C-H functionalization requires selectivity for specific C-H bonds. Progress has been made for directed aromatic substitution reactions to achieve ortho and meta selectivity, but a general strategy for para-selective C-H functionalization has remained elusive. Herein we introduce a previously unappreciated concept that enables nearly complete para selectivity. We propose that radicals with high electron affinity elicit arene-to-radical charge transfer in the transition state of radical addition, which is the factor primarily responsible for high positional selectivity. We demonstrate with a simple theoretical tool that the selectivity is predictable and show the utility of the concept through a direct synthesis of aryl piperazines. Our results contradict the notion, widely held by organic chemists, that radical aromatic substitution reactions are inherently unselective. The concept of radical substitution directed by charge transfer could serve as the basis for the development of new, highly selective C-H functionalization reactions. PMID:27442288

  17. Molecular Characterization of Neurally Expressing Genes in the Para Sodium Channel Gene Cluster of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hong, C. S.; Ganetzky, B.

    1996-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms regulating expression of para, which encodes the major class of sodium channels in the Drosophila nervous system, we have tried to locate upstream cis-acting regulatory elements by mapping the transcriptional start site and analyzing the region immediately upstream of para in region 14D of the polytene chromosomes. From these studies, we have discovered that the region contains a cluster of neurally expressing genes. Here we report the molecular characterization of the genomic organization of the 14D region and the genes within this region, which are: calnexin (Cnx), actin related protein 14D (Arp14D), calcineurin A 14D (CnnA14D), and chromosome associated protein (Cap). The tight clustering of these genes, their neuronal expression patterns, and their potential functions related to expression, modulation, or regulation of sodium channels raise the possibility that these genes represent a functionally related group sharing some coordinate regulatory mechanism. PMID:8849894

  18. Control of Photoluminescence of Carbon Nanodots via Surface Functionalization using Para-substituted Anilines

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Woosung; Do, Sungan; Kim, Ji-Hee; Seok Jeong, Mun; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanodots (C-dots) are a kind of fluorescent carbon nanomaterials, composed of polyaromatic carbon domains surrounded by amorphous carbon frames, and have attracted a great deal of attention because of their interesting properties. There are still, however, challenges ahead such as blue-biased photoluminescence, spectral broadness, undefined energy gaps and etc. In this report, we chemically modify the surface of C-dots with a series of para-substituted anilines to control their photoluminescence. Our surface functionalization endows our C-dots with new energy levels, exhibiting long-wavelength (up to 650 nm) photoluminescence of very narrow spectral widths. The roles of para-substituted anilines and their substituents in developing such energy levels are thoroughly studied by using transient absorption spectroscopy. We finally demonstrate light-emitting devices exploiting our C-dots as a phosphor, converting UV light to a variety of colors with internal quantum yields of ca. 20%. PMID:26218869

  19. Sludge reduction by uncoupling metabolism: SBR tests with para-nitrophenol and a commercial uncoupler.

    PubMed

    Zuriaga-Agustí, E; Mendoza-Roca, J A; Bes-Piá, A; Alonso-Molina, J L; Amorós-Muñoz, I

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays cost reduction is a very important issue in wastewater treatment plants. One way, is to minimize the sludge production. Microorganisms break down the organic matter into inorganic compounds through catabolism. Uncoupling metabolism is a method which promote catabolism reactions instead of anabolism ones, where adenosine triphosphate synthesis is inhibited. In this work, the influence of the addition of para-nitrophenol and a commercial reagent to a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) on sludge production and process performance has been analyzed. Three laboratory SBRs were operated in parallel to compare the effect of the addition of both reagents with a control reactor. SBRs were fed with synthetic wastewater and were operated with the same conditions. Results showed that sludge production was slightly reduced for the tested para-nitrophenol concentrations (20 and 25 mg/L) and for a LODOred dose of 1 mL/day. Biological process performance was not influenced and high COD removals were achieved. PMID:27505165

  20. ROTATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY OF THE CO-PARA-H{sub 2} MOLECULAR COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Potapov, A. V.; Surin, L. A.; Giesen, T. F.; Schlemmer, S.; Panfilov, V. A.; Dumesh, B. S.; Raston, P. L.; Jaeger, W.

    2009-10-01

    The rotational spectrum of the CO-para-H{sub 2} van der Waals complex, produced using a molecular jet expansion, was observed with two different techniques: OROTRON intracavity millimeter-wave spectroscopy and pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Thirteen transitions in the frequency range from 80 to 130 GHz and two transitions in the 14 GHz region were measured and assigned, allowing for a precise determination of the corresponding energy level positions of CO-para-H{sub 2}. The data obtained enable further radio astronomical searches for this molecular complex and provide a sensitive test of the currently best available intermolecular potential energy surface for the CO-H{sub 2} system.

  1. Development of an integrated remote monitoring technique and its application to para-stressing bridge system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho; Motoshita, Minoru; Casas, Joan R.

    2013-12-01

    Bridge monitoring system via information technology is capable of providing more accurate knowledge of bridge performance characteristics than traditional strategies. This paper describes not only an integrated Internet monitoring system that consists of a stand-alone monitoring system (SMS) and a Web-based Internet monitoring system (IMS) for bridge maintenance but also its application to para-stressing bridge system as an intelligent structure. IMS, as a Web-based system, is capable of addressing the remote monitoring by introducing measuring information derived from SMS into the system through Internet or intranet connected by either PHS or LAN. Moreover, the key functions of IMS such as data management system, condition assessment, and decision making with the proposed system are also introduced in this paper. Another goal of this study is to establish the framework of a para-stressing bridge system which is an intelligent bridge by integrating the bridge monitoring information into the system to control the bridge performance automatically.

  2. Regioselective Enzymatic β-Carboxylation of para-Hydroxy- styrene Derivatives Catalyzed by Phenolic Acid Decarboxylases

    PubMed Central

    Wuensch, Christiane; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Steinkellner, Georg; Gross, Johannes; Fuchs, Michael; Hromic, Altijana; Lyskowski, Andrzej; Fauland, Kerstin; Gruber, Karl; Glueck, Silvia M; Faber, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    We report on a ‘green’ method for the utilization of carbon dioxide as C1 unit for the regioselective synthesis of (E)-cinnamic acids via regioselective enzymatic carboxylation of para-hydroxystyrenes. Phenolic acid decarboxylases from bacterial sources catalyzed the β-carboxylation of para-hydroxystyrene derivatives with excellent regio- and (E/Z)-stereoselectivity by exclusively acting at the β-carbon atom of the C=C side chain to furnish the corresponding (E)-cinnamic acid derivatives in up to 40% conversion at the expense of bicarbonate as carbon dioxide source. Studies on the substrate scope of this strategy are presented and a catalytic mechanism is proposed based on molecular modelling studies supported by mutagenesis of amino acid residues in the active site. PMID:26190963

  3. Charge-transfer-directed radical substitution enables para-selective C–H functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boursalian, Gregory B.; Ham, Won Seok; Mazzotti, Anthony R.; Ritter, Tobias

    2016-08-01

    Efficient C–H functionalization requires selectivity for specific C–H bonds. Progress has been made for directed aromatic substitution reactions to achieve ortho and meta selectivity, but a general strategy for para-selective C–H functionalization has remained elusive. Herein we introduce a previously unappreciated concept that enables nearly complete para selectivity. We propose that radicals with high electron affinity elicit arene-to-radical charge transfer in the transition state of radical addition, which is the factor primarily responsible for high positional selectivity. We demonstrate with a simple theoretical tool that the selectivity is predictable and show the utility of the concept through a direct synthesis of aryl piperazines. Our results contradict the notion, widely held by organic chemists, that radical aromatic substitution reactions are inherently unselective. The concept of radical substitution directed by charge transfer could serve as the basis for the development of new, highly selective C–H functionalization reactions.

  4. Repeated Topical Application of para-Phenylenediamine Induces Renal Histopathological Changes in Rats.

    PubMed

    Bharali, Manuj Kr; Basumatary, Rajeev; Rahman, Taibur; Dutta, Karabi

    2012-05-01

    Hemolytic anemia and rhabdomyolysis have been often reported to be an adverse effect of drug- and chemical-induced toxicity both in experimental and real-life scenario. para-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is a derivative of para-nitroaniline and has been found as an ingredient of almost all hair dye formulations in varying concentrations from 2% to 4% w/v. Earlier studies have reported that the accidental oral ingestion of PPD in humans can lead to acute renal failure because of rhabdomyolysis. In the present investigation, we have tested the chronic topical application of PPD and its effect on the renal histology of Sprague-Dawley rats. The experiment provides clear evidence that topically applied PPD induces hemolytic anemia as evident from the decrease in the total RBC count, packed cell volume, and hemoglobin content apart from rhabdomyolysis which subsequently causes acute renal failure in rats. PMID:22778510

  5. Modelizacion, control e implementacion de un procesador energetico paralelo para aplicacion en sistemas multisalida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreres Sabater, Agustin

    Cualquier sistema electronico que incluya un procesado o tratamiento de la senal, y ademas, algun tipo de actuador mecanico generalmente necesita, como minimo, dos tensiones diferentes de alimentacion. Excluyendo los sistemas de alimentacion distribuida, la solucion tecnica mas utilizada para proporcionar dos o mas tensiones consiste en las fuentes de alimentacion multisalida. En una fuente de alimentacion multisalida los diferentes circuitos que conforman cada salida comparten un mismo transformador de potencia optimizando coste, masa, y volumen. Las ventajas obtenidas con este procedimiento tienen en su contra el efecto que sobre cada salida individual provocan las demas en su conjunto debido, principalmente, a los efectos de los elementos parasitos de los componentes. Un cambio de carga en una de las salidas produce un transitorio que es visto por todas las demas como un efecto de impedancia cruzada, y al final del transitorio, la tension de cada salida es diferente respecto a la que tenian antes del transitorio. Este ultimo resultado se conoce como regulacion cruzada. La disminucion de los efectos de la regulacion cruzada ha sido objeto de estudio durante los ultimos anos. El objetivo ha sido el desarrollo de distintas estrategias que permiten, desde disminuir los efectos de la regulacion cruzada hasta los niveles deseables, a eliminarla completamente. El resultado final suele suponer una penalizacion sobre el diseno del sistema directamente proporcional al grado de regulacion a conseguir en las distintas salidas. Entre las soluciones propuestas para eliminar la regulacion cruzada las tecnicas de post-regulacion se han consolidado como la opcion mas aceptada ya que, pueden aplicarse a cualquier convertidor y no suponen ninguna complejidad adicional a la hora de plantear el diseno. En esta Tesis Doctoral se abordara el estudio de la tecnica conocida como postregulacion mediante transformador controlado, que si bien se ha empleado en convertidores resonantes, su

  6. Polar Effects Control the Gas-phase Reactivity of Charged para-Benzyne Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Wittrig, Ashley M.; Archibold, Enada F.; Sheng, Huaming; Nash, John J.; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2014-01-01

    The gas-phase reactivity of charged para-benzynes is entirely unexplored as they and/or their precursors tend to undergo ring-opening upon their generation. We report here a gas-phase reactivity study of two such benzynes, the 2,5-didehydropyridinium and 5,8-didehydroisoquinolinium cations, generated in a modified dual-linear quadrupole ion trap (DLQIT) mass spectrometer. Both biradicals were found to form diagnostic products with organic molecules, indicating the presence of two radical sites. As opposed to earlier predictions that the singlet-triplet (S-T) splitting controls the radical reactivity of such species, the 2,5-didehydropyridinium cation reacts much faster in spite of its larger S-T splitting. Calculated vertical electron affinities of the radical sites of the para-benzynes, a parameter related to the polarity of the transition states of their reactions, appears to be the most important reactivity controlling factor. PMID:25838787

  7. Iodine(III)-Mediated para-Selective Direct Imidation of Anilides.

    PubMed

    Pialat, Amélie; Bergès, Julien; Sabourin, Axel; Vinck, Robin; Liégault, Benoît; Taillefer, Marc

    2015-07-01

    The direct, nucleophilic imidation of acetanilide derivatives has been performed under mild, iodine(III)-mediated or -catalyzed conditions, employing lithium triflimide as the nitrogen source. The reaction exhibits exclusive regioselectivity for the para position and shows a good tolerance for varied functional groups at both the ortho or meta positions. Preliminary mechanistic data suggest that the LiNTf2 reagent plays a key role in the reactivity. PMID:26095155

  8. Synthesis of icariin from kaempferol through regioselective methylation and para-Claisen-Cope rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Mei, Qinggang; Wang, Chun; Zhao, Zhigang; Yuan, Weicheng; Zhang, Guolin

    2015-01-01

    The hemisynthesis of the naturally occurring bioactive flavonoid glycoside icariin (1) has been accomplished in eleven steps with 7% overall yield from kaempferol. The 4'-OH methylation of kaempferol, the 8-prenylation of 3-O-methoxymethyl-4'-O-methyl-5-O-prenyl-7-O-benzylkaempferol (8) via para-Claisen-Cope rearrangement catalyzed by Eu(fod)3 in the presence of NaHCO3, and the glycosylation of icaritin (3) are the key steps. PMID:26425179

  9. Conformerism, enantiomorphism and double catemer motifs in para-substituted nostoclide analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Róbson Ricardo; Barbosa, Luiz Claudio Almeida; Valero Antolinez, Isabel; de Souza Corrêa, Rodrigo; Martins, Felipe Terra; Doriguetto, Antônio Carlos

    2016-02-01

    We have here elucidated the crystal structures of five nostoclide analogues. A common feature in all compounds is a substituent at the para-position of the benzylidene group. Compounds with either bromine (3) or hydroxyl (4) as para-substituent crystallizes with Z' = 2 as result of conformerism. It was also observed that Z' > 1 in the compound with a para-dimethylamino substituent (1). However, its four crystallographically independent molecules are conformationally similar. They are not related by crystallographic symmetry due to the offset packing of their C-H … Odbnd C nonclassical hydrogen bonded double chains. This compound (1) has also crystallized in a chiral space group (P21) despite the lack of a stereocenter. Such enantiomorphism phenomenon is related to the presence of only one of the two mirror benzyl conformations with phenyl ring at the equatorial position opposite the lactone oxygen atom. The molecular mean plane of nostoclide analogues has been featured by high level of planarity, except in the brominated compound where two twisted conformations occurred due to rotations on the single bond axis into benzylidene group. The benzyl conformation has been the greatest difference between the two crystallographically independent molecules of the para-hydroxylated compound (4). The crystal packing of the compounds is marked by double catemer motif assembled through C-H … Odbnd C non-classical hydrogen bonds, although C-H … π interactions do play an important role in stabilizing the crystal packing of some compounds of the series.

  10. Highly regioselective para-methylthiolation/bridging methylenation of arylamines promoted by NH4I.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yinfeng; Cong, Tiantian; Liu, Ping; Sun, Peipei

    2015-10-14

    Aryl methyl thioethers and methylene-bridged arylamines were synthesized via highly regioselective para-methylthiolation/bridging methylenation of arylamines using DMSO as the methylthio or methylene source in the presence of NH4I under metal-free conditions. For the substrates with both electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents, the reaction proceeded smoothly and gave moderate to good yields. PMID:26337143

  11. Stimulated rotational Raman scattering in CO2-pumped para-H2

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsten, J.L.; Wenzel, R.G.

    1983-09-01

    Stimulated rotational Raman scattering in a 300 K multipass cell filled with para-H2 with a single-mode CO2 pump laser was studied using a single-mode OPO as a probe laser at the Stokes frequency for the So(0) transition. Amplification and pump depletion are examined as a function of incident pump energy. For an incident CO2 pump laser energy of 1.5 J, a photon conversion efficiency of 47 percent is observed.

  12. ParaDiS on Blue Gene/L: stepping up to the challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Hommes, G; Arsenlis, A; Bulatov, V; Cai, W; Cook, R; Hiratani, M; Oppestrup, T; Rhee, M; Tang, M

    2006-06-09

    This paper reports on the efforts to enable fully scalable simulations of Dislocation Line Dynamics (DLD) for direct calculations of strength of crystalline materials. DLD simulations are challenging and do not lend themselves naturally to parallel computing. Through a combinations of novel physical approaches, mathematical algorithms and computational science developments, a new DLD code ParaDiS is shown to take meaningful advantage of BG/L and, by doing so, to enable discovery class science by computation.

  13. Cáncer de cuello uterino—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de cuello uterino, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados.

  14. Cáncer de pulmón—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de pulmón, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas

  15. ParaDiS on BlueGene/L: scalable line dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bulatov, V; Cai, W; Fier, J; Hiratani, M; Pierce, T; Tang, M; Rhee, M; Yates, R K; Arsenlis, A

    2004-04-29

    We describe an innovative highly parallel application program, ParaDiS, which computes the plastic strength of materials by tracing the evolution of dislocation lines over time. We discuss the issues of scaling the code to tens of thousands of processors, and present early scaling results of the code run on a prototype of the BlueGene/L supercomputer being developed by IBM in partnership with the US DOE's ASC program.

  16. Stable self-trapping and ring formation in polydiacetylene para-toluene sulfonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Ewan M.; Lawrence, Brian L.; Torruellas, William; Stegeman, George

    1995-12-01

    Numerical simulations of two-dimensional beam propagation in polydiacetylene para-toluene sulfonate measured values for n2>0 and n3<0 , where Delta n=n2I+n 3I2 , predict stable self-trapping and a new phenomenon in which a spatial ring evolves from a Gaussian input beam. We interpret the numerical results theoretically, using the variational model of nonlinear Gaussian beam propagation.

  17. Towards physical interpretation of substituent effects: the case of meta- and para-substituted anilines.

    PubMed

    Szatylowicz, Halina; Siodla, Tomasz; Stasyuk, Olga A; Krygowski, Tadeusz M

    2016-04-28

    Quantum chemical modeling was used to investigate the electron-donating properties of the amino group in a series of meta- and para-X-substituted anilines (X = NMe2, NH2, OH, OMe, CH3, H, F, Cl, CF3, CN, CHO, COMe, CONH2, COOH, NO2, and NO). Different methods (HF, B3LYP, and M06-2X) and basis sets (6-31+G(d,p), 6-311++G(d,p), and aug-cc-pVDZ) were applied and compared with the MP2 approach. The B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method was chosen as the most appropriate one. The substituent properties were described by σ, cSAR(X) and SESE descriptors; the amino group was characterized by structural (dCN, dNH and ΣNH2) and electronic [δ(N) and cSAR(NH2)] parameters; whereas the transmitting moiety was characterized by aromaticity indices HOMA and NICS, as well as by QTAIM characteristics at the ring critical point. All the used parameters were found to be mutually interrelated with much better correlations for the para-derivatives than the meta-derivatives. It was numerically confirmed that sensitivity of the amino group to the substituent effect was greater by over three times when the substituent was located in the para-position. In the case of the meta-derivatives, variability of characteristics for both the reaction center and the substituent was small. The reverse substituent effect was clearly shown by comparison of the cSAR(X) characteristics for monosubstituted benzenes, and meta- and para-substituted anilines. PMID:26725941

  18. Parallel Visualization and Analysis with ParaView on a Cray XT4

    SciTech Connect

    Patchett, John; Ahrens, James; Ahern, Sean; Pugmire, Dave

    2009-01-01

    Scienti c data sets produced by modern supercomputers like ORNL s Cray XT 4, Jaguar, can be extremely large, making visualization and analysis more di cult as moving large resultant data to dedicated analysis systems can be pro- hibitively expensive. We share our continuing work of integrating a parallel visu- alization system, ParaView, on ORNL s Jaguar system and our e orts to enable extreme scale interactive data visualization and analysis. We will discuss porting challenges and present performance numbers.

  19. Atlas de aves: Un metodo para documentar distribucion y seguir poblaciones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    Los Atlas de Aves son proyectos nacionales o regionalies para trazar en mapas la distribucion en reproduccion de cada especie de ave. Ese procedimiento se esta usando en Europa, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Norteamerica, y partes de Africa. El tama?o de los cuadrados varia de medio grado de latitud y Iongitud hasta 5 x 5 km. El trabajo de campo de cada proyecto exige aproxlmadamente cinco a?os, pero los aficionados pueden llevar a cabo la mayor parte del trabajo. Es posible almacenar los resultados en un computador personal. Hay muchos beneficios: (I) se presenta la distribucion corriente de las aves de la nacion, del estado, o de la Iocalidad; (2) se desarrolla nueva informacion especialmente sobre especies raras o en peligro; (3) se descubren areas que tienen una avlfauna sobresaliente o habitats raros y ayuda a su proteccion, (4) se documentan cambios de dlstribucion; (5) se pueden usar para documentar cambios de poblacion, especialmente en los tropicos donde otros metodos son mas dificiles de usar porque hay muchas especies y no hay muchos observadores calificados en la identificacion de sonidos de las aves; (6) son proyectos buenos de investigacion para estudiantes graduados; (7) los turistas y los jefes de excursiones de historia natural pueden contribuir con muchas informaciones

  20. Consistent assignment of the vibrations of symmetric and asymmetric para-disubstituted benzene molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrejeva, Anna; Gardner, Adrian M.; Tuttle, William D.; Wright, Timothy G.

    2016-03-01

    We give a description of the phenyl-ring-localized vibrational modes of the ground states of the para-disubstituted benzene molecules including both symmetric and asymmetric cases. In line with others, we quickly conclude that the use of Wilson mode labels is misleading and ambiguous; we conclude the same regarding the related ones of Varsányi. Instead we label the modes consistently based upon the Mulliken (Herzberg) method for the modes of para-difluorobenzene (pDFB). Since we wish the labelling scheme to cover both symmetrically- and asymmetrically-substituted molecules, we apply the Mulliken labelling under C2v symmetry. By studying the variation of the vibrational wavenumbers with mass of the substituent, we are able to identify the corresponding modes across a wide range of molecules and hence provide consistent assignments. Particularly interesting are pairs of vibrations that evolve from in- and out-of-phase motions in pDFB to more localized modes in asymmetric molecules. We consider the para isomers of the following: the symmetric dihalobenzenes, xylene, hydroquinone, the asymmetric dihalobenzenes, halotoluenes, halophenols and cresol.

  1. The ortho:para-H_2 ratio in C- and J-type shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilgenbus, D.; Cabrit, S.; Pineau des Forêts, G.; Flower, D. R.

    2000-04-01

    We have computed extensive grids of models of both C- and J-type planar shock waves, propagating in dark, cold molecular clouds, in order to study systematically the behaviour of the ortho:para-H_2 ratio. Careful attention was paid to both macroscopic (dynamical) and microscopic (chemical reactions and collisional population transfer in H_2) aspects. We relate the predictions of the models to observational determinations of the ortho:para-H_2 ratio using both pure rotational lines and rovibrational lines. As an illustration, we consider ISO and ground-based H_2 observations of HH 54. Neither planar C-type nor planar J-type shocks appear able to account fully for these observations. Given the additional constraints provided by the observed ortho:para H_2 ratios, a C-type bowshock, or a C-type precursor followed by a J-type shock, remain as plausible models. Tables~2a-f and 4a-f are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  2. Theoretical study of the design of a catalyst for para to ortho hydrogen conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffman, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The theory of Petzinger and Scalapino (1973) was thoroughly reviewed, and all of the basic equations for paramagnetic para to ortho hydrogen catalysis re-derived. There are only a few minor phase errors and errors of omission in the description of the theory. Three models (described by Petzinger and Scalapino) for the rate of para to ortho H2 catalysis were worked out, and uniform agreement obtained to within a constant factor of 2 pi. The analytical methods developed in the course of this study were then extended to two new models, which more adequately describe the process of surface catalysis including transfer of hydrogen molecules onto and off of the surface. All five equations for the para to ortho catalytic rate of conversion are described. The two new equations describe the catalytic rate for these models: H2 on the surface is a 2-D gas with lifetime tau; and H2 on the surface is a 2-D liquid undergoing Brownian motion (diffusion) with surface lifetime tau.

  3. The ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, Kyle N.; Indriolo, Nick; Kreckel, Holger; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-22

    The discovery of H{sub 3}{sup +} in the diffuse interstellar medium has dramatically changed our view of the cosmic-ray ionization rate in diffuse molecular clouds. However, another surprise has been that the ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in these clouds is inconsistent with the temperature derived from the excitation of H{sub 2}, the dominant species in these clouds. In an effort to understand this discrepancy, we have embarked on an experimental program to measure the nuclear spin dependence of the dissociative electron recombination rate of H{sub 3}{sup +} using the CRYRING and TSR ion storage rings. We have also performed the first measurements of the reaction H{sub 3}{sup +}+H{sub 2}→H{sub 2}+H{sub 3}{sup +} below room temperature. This reaction is likely the most common bimolecular reaction in the universe, and plays an important role in interconverting ortho- and para-H{sub 3}{sup +}. Finally, we have constructed a steady-state chemical model for diffuse clouds, which takes into account the spin-dependence of the formation of H{sub 3}{sup +}, its electron recombination, and its reaction with H{sub 2}. We find that the ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in diffuse clouds is likely governed by a competition between dissociative recombination and thermalization by reactive collisions.

  4. ParaGard gets mixed reviews at one-year anniversary.

    PubMed

    1989-07-01

    IUDs fill a need for reliable convenient contraceptives in multiparous, monogamous women who have no history of ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, or sexually transmitted disease, and who are primarily interested in birth spacing or who have completed their family and do not opt for sterilization. The only IUDs currently available in the US are Progestasert, a progestin-releasing device that must be replaced after 1 year, and ParaGard, a copper-bearing device manufactured by GynoPharma, that can be left in place for up to 4 years. IUD use has declined in the US because of adverse publicity and lawsuits. Both IUDs have problems with insertion. There is an incidence of 1.8 cervical lacerations for every 100 insertions, and the ParaGard inserter is likely to drop to the floor if the clinician fails to use the thumb ring, which is designed to keep it from doing so. ParaGard is accompanied by a 5-page consent form to protect the manufacturer, which deters many women. Prophylactic administration of antibiotics before insertion is recommended, and some clinicians recommend ibuprofen to prevent inflammation. Both IUDs cost about $80. PMID:12282179

  5. Quantum chemical and experimental study of 1,2,4-trihydroxy-para-menthane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottmannová, Lenka; Lukeš, Vladimír; Ilčin, Michal; Fodran, Peter; Herich, Peter; Kožíšek, Jozef; Liptaj, Tibor; Klein, Erik

    2013-10-01

    The conformational analysis of the para-menthane (PM) and 1,2,4-trihydroxy-para-menthane (TPM) is performed using the quantum chemical density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio Møller-Plesset perturbation theory up to the second order (MP2). In TPM, three hydroxyl groups generate eight stereoisomers comparing to the four para-menthane stereoisomers. From the thermodynamics point of view, the most preferred conformations show the chair-shaped configuration of the cyclohexane ring. The obtained energy barriers for the isopropyl group rotation in the chair-shaped stereoisomers are between 35 and 45 kJ mol-1. The crystal structure as well as the solvated TPM stereoisomer isolated from the Tea tree oil, Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel, were investigated experimentally. Isolated stereoisomer corresponds to the most energetically preferred conformation and the calculated structural data agree very well with the results from the X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. Finally, the influence of the conformation and the presence of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds on the homolytic Osbnd H bond dissociation enthalpies and proton affinities were also discussed with respect to the simple alcohols (methanol, iso-propanol, iso-pentanol, tert-butanol, cyclohexanol) and phenol.

  6. El diseño final del espectrógrafo de banco (EBASIM) para CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, J.; Levato, H.

    Utilizando el código de óptica ACCOS V se ha finalizado el diseño del espectrógrafo de banco para CASLEO. En una comunicación anterior habíamos indicado que utilizaríamos un colimador de 150 mm de diámetro con un radio de curvatura de 1540 mm. Para el espejo cámara, que tiene un diámetro de 200 mm, el radio de curvatura es de 1200 mm, ambos radios con una tolerancia no mayor a los 3 mm. En la presente, se informa sobre los detalles finales del cálculo del espectrógrafo que incluye el cómputo para 5 longitudes de onda diferentes y alrededor de 100 rayos. En todos los casos el 75 % de energía está dentro de un diámetro de 13 micrones. El diseño ha sido probado entre 3500 Å hasta 9000 Å con resultados satisfactorios.

  7. Base de linhas moleculares para síntese espectral estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, A.; Sanzovo, G.

    2003-08-01

    A análise das abundâncias quí micas fotosféricas em estrelas do tipo solar ou tardia, através do cálculo teórico de seus espectros, emprega a espectroscopia de alta resolução e necessita de uma base representativa de linhas atômicas e moleculares com suas respectivas constantes bem determinadas. Nesse trabalho, utilizamos como ponto de partida as extensas listas de linhas espectrais de sistemas eletrônicos de algumas moléculas diatômicas compiladas por Kurucz para a construção de uma base de linhas moleculares para a sí ntese espectral estelar. Revisamos as determinações dos fatores rotacionais de Honl-London das forças de oscilador das linhas moleculares, para cada banda vibracional de alguns sistemas eletrônicos, seguindo a regra usual de normalização. Usamos as forças de oscilador eletrônicas da literatura. Os fatores vibracionais de Franck-Condon de cada banda foram especialmente recalculados empregando-se novas constantes moleculares. Reproduzimos, com êxito, as absorções espectrais de determinadas bandas eletrônicas-vibracionais das espécies moleculares C12C12, C12N14 e Mg24H em espectros de estrelas de referência como o Sol e Arcturus.

  8. Effects of para-substituents of styrene derivatives on their chemical reactivity on platinum nanoparticle surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peiguang; Chen, Limei; Deming, Christopher P; Lu, Jia-En; Bonny, Lewis W; Chen, Shaowei

    2016-06-01

    Stable platinum nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the self-assembly of para-substituted styrene derivatives onto the platinum surfaces as a result of platinum-catalyzed dehydrogenation and transformation of the vinyl groups to the acetylene ones, forming platinum-vinylidene/-acetylide interfacial bonds. Transmission electron microscopic measurements showed that the nanoparticles were well dispersed without apparent aggregation, suggesting sufficient protection of the nanoparticles by the organic capping ligands, and the average core diameter was estimated to be 2.0 ± 0.3 nm, 1.3 ± 0.2 nm, and 1.1 ± 0.2 nm for the nanoparticles capped with 4-tert-butylstyrene, 4-methoxystyrene, and 4-(trifluoromethyl)styrene, respectively, as a result of the decreasing rate of dehydrogenation with the increasing Taft (polar) constant of the para-substituents. Importantly, the resulting nanoparticles exhibited unique photoluminescence, where an increase of the Hammett constant of the para-substituents corresponded to a blue-shift of the photoluminescence emission, suggesting an enlargement of the HOMO-LUMO band gap of the nanoparticle-bound acetylene moieties. Furthermore, the resulting nanoparticles exhibited apparent electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction in acidic media, with the best performance among the series of samples observed with the 4-tert-butylstyrene-capped nanoparticles due to an optimal combination of the nanoparticle core size and ligand effects on the bonding interactions between platinum and oxygen species. PMID:27242019

  9. The "drinking-buddy" scale as a measure of para-social behavior.

    PubMed

    Powell, Larry; Richmond, Virginia P; Cantrell-Williams, Glenda

    2012-06-01

    Para-social behavior is a form of quasi-interpersonal behavior that results when audience members develop bonds with media personalities that can resemble interpersonal social interaction, but is not usually applied to political communication. This study tested whether the "Drinking-Buddy" Scale, a simple question frequently used in political communication, could be interpreted as a single-item measure of para-social behavior with respect to political candidates in terms of image judgments related to interpersonal attraction and perceived similarity to self. The participants were college students who had voted in the 2008 election. They rated the candidates, Obama or McCain, as drinking buddies and then rated the candidates' perceived similarity to themselves in attitude and background, and also the social and task attraction to the candidate. If the drinking-buddy rating serves as a proxy measure for para-social behavior, then it was expected that participants' ratings for all four kinds of similarity to and attraction toward a candidate would be higher for the candidate they chose as a drinking buddy. The directional hypotheses were supported for interpersonal attraction, but not for perceived similarity. These results indicate that the drinking-buddy scale predicts ratings of interpersonal attraction, while voters may view perceived similarity as an important but not essential factor in their candidate preference. PMID:22897105

  10. Single crystalline nature of para-sexiphenyl crystallites grown on KCl(100).

    PubMed

    Haber, T; Oehzelt, M; Resel, R; Andreev, A; Thierry, A; Sitter, H; Smilgies, D M; Schaffer, B; Grogger, W; Resel, R

    2006-03-01

    This work focuses on studies of the single crystal nature of para-sexiphenyl structures grown on freshly cleaved KCl(100) surfaces. Two different kinds of morphologies, namely terrace like structures and needle like structures, are found by atomic force microscopy as well as by electron microscopy. Regardless of the morphology the individual crystallites show highly regular shapes. The crystalline alignment and the degree of order of the crystallites on the surface are determined by X-ray diffraction. Several epitaxial alignments of para-sexiphenyl on KCl(100) are observed and all of them are perfectly aligned on the surface. The rocking curve widths of the organic crystallites do not exceed 800" which is approximately only the four fold of the substrates' ones. The single crystalline nature of para-sexiphenyl crystallites is proven by transmission electron microscopy, diffraction patterns, dark field imaging and high resolution techniques. Single crystalline terraced mounds reach diameters of several microns and heights of 50 nm. Single crystal needles show heights and breadths of more than 100 nm and lengths of several microns. PMID:16573123

  11. Neoplasias mieloproliferativas y síndromes mielodisplásicos—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de las neoplasias mieloproliferativas, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  12. Melhoramentos no código Wilson-Devinney para binárias eclipsantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, L. A.; Vaz, L. P. R.

    2003-08-01

    A análise de curvas de luz e velocidades radiais de sistemas binários eclipsantes pode ser feita por meio de vários modelos. Um desses é o Modelo Wilson-Devinney (WD). Ao longo dos anos, esse modelo sofreu várias alterações em seus códigos principais, com a finalidade de torná-lo mais consistente tanto fíisica como numericamente. O Modelo WD tem sido melhorado de várias maneiras em seus dois códigos: um para a predição das curvas de luz teórica e de velocidade radiais e outra para as soluções destas curvas. Teoricamente, na física do modelo, nós introduzimos a possibilidade de levar em conta os efeitos do movimento apsidal. Numericamente, nós introduzimos a possibilidade de usar o Método SIMPLEX no procedimento da solução, como uma alternativa para o já implementado Método de Mínimos Quadrados (Least Squares Method). Estas modificações, juntamente com outras já introduzidas pelo nosso grupo anteriormente, tornam o código mais eficiente na solução das curvas de luz e de velocidade radiais de binárias eclipsantes. Como o modelo tem sido usado para analisar sistemas com componentes pré-sequência principal (TY CrA, Casey et al. 1998, Vaz et al. 1998), SM 790, Stassun et al. 2003), este melhoramento beneficiará estes casos também. Apresentamos os resultados obtidos com a modificação do código WD por meio do uso de dados da estrela GL Carinae, comprovando, (1) que os parâmetros orbitais calculados por nós são coerentes com os obtidos anteriormente na literatura (Giménez & Clausen, 1986) e com os obtidos por Faria (1987), e (2) que a implementação do Método SIMPLEX torna o código mais lento mas completamente consistente internamente e evita os problemas gerados pelo uso do Método de Mínimos Quadrados, tais como imprecisão no cálculo das derivadas parciais e convergência para mínimos locais.

  13. Quantum Monte Carlo Simulation of Vibrational Frequency Shifts of CO in Solid para-HYDROGEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lecheng; Le Roy, Robert; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Stimulated by Fajardo's remarkable study of the rovibrational spectra of CO isotopologues trapped in solid para-hydrogen, we have performed quantum Monte Carlo simulations to predict his observed vibrational frequency shifts and inertial rotational constants using 2-body potentials based on the best available models for the pH_2-pH_2 and CO-pH_2, potential energy functions. We started by fitting an analytic `Morse/Long-Range' (MLR) function to the 1D ``adiabaic hindered rotor" version of Hinde's 5D pH_2-pH_2 potential developed by Faruk et al. We then modified it to take account of many-body effects by scaling it until it yielded the correct equilibrium lattice parameters for the fcc and hcp structures of pure solid para-hydrogen. A CO molecule was then placed at different interstitial or substitution sites in large equilibrated fcc or hcp para-hydrogen lattices, and the structural and dynamical behaviors of the micro-solvation environment around CO were simulated with a PIMC algorithm using a 2D effective pH_2-CO potential based on the 5D H_2--CO potential energy surface recently reported by Li et al., with a lattice sum of values of the 2D CO vibrational difference potential being use to predict the vibrational frequency shift. The effective rotational constants Beff for CO in different solid para-hydrogen structures were also calculated and compared with the experimental observations and with predicted Beff values for CO in large-sized para-hydrogen--CO clusters. M. E. Fajardo, J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 13504 (2013). R. Hinde, J. Chem. Phys., 128, 154308 (2008). H. Li, X-L. Zhang, R.J. Le Roy, and P.-N. Roy, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 164315 (2013). R.J. Le Roy, C.C. Haugen, J. Tao and Hui Li, Mol. Phys., 109, 435 (2011) N. Faruk, R.J. Le Roy, and P.-N. Roy, J. Chem. Phys. (submitted December 2013). Y. Mizumoto and Y. Ohtsuki, Chem. Phys. Lett. 501, 304 (2011).

  14. Implementação de um algoritmo para a limpeza de mapas da RCFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, C. L.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2003-08-01

    A Radiação Cósmica de Fundo em Microondas (RCFM), descoberta por Penzias e Wilson em 1965, é uma das ferramentas mais poderosas para o estudo da cosmologia. Com a descoberta de flutuações de temperatura na RCFM, da ordem de uma parte em 105, pelo COBE (1992), uma nova era teve início. Nos últimos onze anos, diversos instrumentos fizeram novas medidas de alta precisão, refinando os resultados apresentados pelo COBE, culminando com os resultados recentes do satélite WMAP. A análise de dados da RCFM, especialmente no caso de experimentos com pequena cobertura do céu, apresenta uma série de dificuldades devido a emissões de contaminantes externos, tais como a emissão da Galáxia e de fontes pontuais, e de ruídos intrínsecos tanto ao sistema de detecção quanto à estratégia de observação do céu. Uma das soluções típicas para a filtragem de dados brutos de um experimento para medir flutuações de temperatura é aplicar um gabarito (template) e um filtro passa alta ao produzir mapas simplificados (sem considerar matrizes de correlação ou covariância). No caso de experimentos que utilizam detectores HEMT, essa combinação de filtros remove, satisfatoriamente, ruídos do tipo 1/f gerados pela instabilidade no ganho do detector acoplado ao movimento do instrumento, definido pela estratégia de observação. Entretanto, o sinal resultante medido, tanto em simulações quanto em séries temporais reais, sugere que parte do sinal cosmológico pode estar sendo removido junto com o ruído dos detectores. Este trabalho descreve as etapas para a produção de um mapa típico (simulado) e os testes preliminares de um algoritmo para remover ruídos do tipo 1/f introduzidos pela estratégia de observação sem prejudicar a qualidade do sinal cosmológico presente no mapa.

  15. ParaDyn Implementation in the US Navy's DYSMAS Simulation System: FY08 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferencz, R M; DeGroot, A J; Lin, J I; Zywicz, E; Durrenberger, J K; Sherwood, R J; Corey, I R

    2008-07-29

    The goal of this project is to increase the computational efficiency and capacity of the Navy's DYSMAS simulation system for full ship shock response to underwater explosion. Specifically, this project initiates migration to a parallel processing capability for the structural portion of the overall fluid-structure interaction model. The capstone objective for the first phase is to demonstrate operation of the DYSMAS simulation engine with a production model on a Naval Surface Warfare Center (IHD) parallel platform using the ParaDyn code for parallel processing of the structural dynamics. This year saw a successful launch to integrate ParaDyn, the high-parallel structural dynamics code from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), into the DYSMAS system for simulating the response of ship structures to underwater explosion (UNDEX). The current LLNL version of DYNA3D, representing ten years of general development beyond the source branch used to initiate DYNA-N customization for DYSMAS, was first connected to the GEMINI flow code through DYSMAS Standard Coupler Interface (SCI). This permitted an early 'sanity check' by Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division (NSWC-IHD) personnel that equivalent results were generated for their standard UNDEX test problems, thus ensuring the Verification & Validation pedigree they have developed remains intact. The ParaDyn code was then joined to the SCI in a manner requiring no changes to GEMINI. Three NSWC-IHD engineers were twice hosted at LLNL to become familiar with LLNL computer systems, the execution of the prototype software system, and to begin assessment of its accuracy and performance. Scaling data for the flow solver GEMINI was attained up to a one billion cell, 1000 processor run. The NSWC-IHD engineers were granted privileges to continue their evaluations through remote connections to LLNL's Open Computing Facility. Finally, the prototype changes were integrated into the mainline ParaDyn source

  16. El uso de la neuromodulación para el tratamiento del temblor

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Damián; Ajler, Pablo; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El temblor puede ser un desorden incapacitante y el tratamiento de primera línea para estos pacientes es farmacológico. Sin embargo, este tratamiento puede llevar a una reducción satisfactoria del temblor en sólo el 50% de los pacientes con temblor esencial. La talamotomía era el tratamiento de elección para el temblor refractario al tratamiento médico hasta que comenzó a utilizarse la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) del núcleo ventral intermedio (Vim) del tálamo. En la actualidad, raramente se realiza la talamotomía. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de las indicaciones, resultados, parámetros de programación y técnica quirúrgica de la ECP del Vim para el tratamiento del temblor. Resultados: Aunque los resultados clínicos son similares usando la talamotomía o la ECP del Vim, la primera causa más efectos adversos que la última. Además, la ECP puede ser usada bilateralmente, mientras que la talamotomía tiene un alto riesgo de causar disartria cuando se realiza de ambos lados. La ECP del Vim logró una adecuada mejoría del temblor en varias series de pacientes con temblor causado por temblor esencial, enfermedad de Parkinson o esclerosis múltiple. Además del Vim, hay otros blancos que están siendo usados por varios autores, tales como la zona incerta y las radiaciones prelemniscales. Conclusión: La ECP del Vim es un tratamiento útil para el temblor incapacitante refractario al tratamiento médico. Es esencial realizar una precisa selección de pacientes, así como utilizar una técnica quirúrgica correcta. Aún se desconoce el mejor blanco estereotáctico para el temblor, aunque el Vim es el más usado. PMID:25165613

  17. Charge-transfer complexation and photoreduction of viologen derivatives bearing the para-substituted benzophenone group in dimethyl sulfoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Chiho; Nambu, Yoko; Endo, Takeshi

    1992-08-20

    New viologen derivatives having the various para-substituted benzophenone groups connected with a -(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}-linkage were effectively photoreduced by dimethyl sulfoxide by the intramolecular charge transfer complex formation between the viologen and benzophenone groups through effective stacking. The photoreduction was enhanced by the introduction of electron-donating para-substituents on the benzophenone units which were favorable for the intramolecular charge transfer complexation. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Conformational isomerism in the solid-state structures of tetracaine and tamoxifen with para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danylyuk, Oksana; Monachino, Melany; Lazar, Adina N.; Suwinska, Kinga; Coleman, Anthony W.

    2010-02-01

    The solid-state complexes between para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene and the drugs tamoxifen and tetracaine show an unusual 4:1 guest-host stoichiometry with formation of hydrophobic layer of drug molecules held between bilayers of para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene. In both structures each of the four independent drug molecules adopts different conformation due to the different mode of interaction with the anionic host, the neighbouring drug cations and water molecules.

  19. Identification and Characterization of Catabolic para-Nitrophenol 4-Monooxygenase and para-Benzoquinone Reductase from Pseudomonas sp. Strain WBC-3▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Hong; Xiao, Yi; Zhang, Xian-En; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3 utilizes para-nitrophenol (PNP) as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. In order to identify the genes involved in this utilization, we cloned and sequenced a 12.7-kb fragment containing a conserved region of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase genes. Of the products of the 13 open reading frames deduced from this fragment, PnpA shares 24% identity to the large component of a 3-hydroxyphenylacetate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida U and PnpB is 58% identical to an NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli. Both PnpA and PnpB were purified to homogeneity as His-tagged proteins, and they were considered to be a monomer and a dimer, respectively, as determined by gel filtration. PnpA is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent single-component PNP 4-monooxygenase that converts PNP to para-benzoquinone in the presence of NADPH. PnpB is a flavin mononucleotide-and NADPH-dependent p-benzoquinone reductase that catalyzes the reduction of p-benzoquinone to hydroquinone. PnpB could enhance PnpA activity, and genetic analyses indicated that both pnpA and pnpB play essential roles in PNP mineralization in strain WBC-3. Furthermore, the pnpCDEF gene cluster next to pnpAB shares significant similarities with and has the same organization as a gene cluster responsible for hydroquinone degradation (hapCDEF) in Pseudomonas fluorescens ACB (M. J. Moonen, N. M. Kamerbeek, A. H. Westphal, S. A. Boeren, D. B. Janssen, M. W. Fraaije, and W. J. van Berkel, J. Bacteriol. 190:5190-5198, 2008), suggesting that the genes involved in PNP degradation are physically linked. PMID:19218392

  20. If Your Child Learns in Two Languages: A Parent's Guide for Improving Educational Opportunities for Children Acquiring English as a Second Language = Si su nino aprende en dos idiomes: Una guia para que las familias sepan como mejorar las oportunidades educativas de los ninos que adquieren el ingles como segunda lengua = Neu lon Ban Hoc Bang Hai Thu Tieng: Chi-nam cua phu-huynh de cai tien co hoi hoc van cua con em dang hoc Anh van nhu sinh ngu thu hai.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelasko, Nancy; Antunez, Beth

    This guide, in English, Spanish, and Vietnamese, aims to inform parents of students who have learned or are learning English as a Second Language about appropriate approaches for educating children so that they can work with schools to ensure a high quality education for their children. The emphasis is on explaining the laws, schools, and research…

  1. Effects of para-substituents of styrene derivatives on their chemical reactivity on platinum nanoparticle surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Peiguang; Chen, Limei; Deming, Christopher P.; Lu, Jia-En; Bonny, Lewis W.; Chen, Shaowei

    2016-06-01

    Stable platinum nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the self-assembly of para-substituted styrene derivatives onto the platinum surfaces as a result of platinum-catalyzed dehydrogenation and transformation of the vinyl groups to the acetylene ones, forming platinum-vinylidene/-acetylide interfacial bonds. Transmission electron microscopic measurements showed that the nanoparticles were well dispersed without apparent aggregation, suggesting sufficient protection of the nanoparticles by the organic capping ligands, and the average core diameter was estimated to be 2.0 +/- 0.3 nm, 1.3 +/- 0.2 nm, and 1.1 +/- 0.2 nm for the nanoparticles capped with 4-tert-butylstyrene, 4-methoxystyrene, and 4-(trifluoromethyl)styrene, respectively, as a result of the decreasing rate of dehydrogenation with the increasing Taft (polar) constant of the para-substituents. Importantly, the resulting nanoparticles exhibited unique photoluminescence, where an increase of the Hammett constant of the para-substituents corresponded to a blue-shift of the photoluminescence emission, suggesting an enlargement of the HOMO-LUMO band gap of the nanoparticle-bound acetylene moieties. Furthermore, the resulting nanoparticles exhibited apparent electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction in acidic media, with the best performance among the series of samples observed with the 4-tert-butylstyrene-capped nanoparticles due to an optimal combination of the nanoparticle core size and ligand effects on the bonding interactions between platinum and oxygen species.Stable platinum nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the self-assembly of para-substituted styrene derivatives onto the platinum surfaces as a result of platinum-catalyzed dehydrogenation and transformation of the vinyl groups to the acetylene ones, forming platinum-vinylidene/-acetylide interfacial bonds. Transmission electron microscopic measurements showed that the nanoparticles were well dispersed without apparent

  2. Madres para la Salud: Design of a Theory-based Intervention for Postpartum Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Colleen; Records, Kathie; Ainsworth, Barbara; Belyea, Michael; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean; Vega-López, Sonia; Nagle-Williams, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight gain in young women suggests that childbearing may be an important contributor to the development of obesity in women. Depressive symptoms can interfere with resumption of normal activity levels following childbirth or with the initiation of or adherence to physical activity programs essential for losing pregnancy weight. Depression symptoms may function directly to promote weight gain through a physiologic mechanism. Obesity and its related insulin resistance may contribute to depressed mood physiologically. Although physical activity has well-established beneficial effects on weight management and depression, women tend to under participate in physical activity during childbearing years. Further, the mechanisms underpinning the interplay of overweight, obesity, physical activity, depression, and inflammatory processes are not clearly explained. Objectives This report describes the theoretical rationale, design considerations, and cultural relevance for “Madres para la Salud” [Mothers for Health]. Design and Methods Madres para la Salud is a 12 month prospective, randomized controlled trial exploring the effectiveness of a culturally specific intervention using “bouts” of physical activity to effect changes in body fat, systemic and fat tissue inflammation, and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary postpartum Latinas. Summary The significance and innovation of Madres para la Salud includes use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, specification and cultural relevance of a social support intervention, use of a Promotora model to incorporate cultural approaches, use of objective measures of physical activity in post partum Latinas women, and the examination of biomarkers indicative of cardiovascular risk related to physical activity behaviors in postpartum Latinas. PMID:21238614

  3. Supported transition metal catalysts for para- to ortho-hydrogen conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Christopher J.; Wang, Wei; Eyman, Darrell P.

    1994-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop and improve on existing catalysts for the conversion of ortho- to para-hydrogen. Starting with a commercially available Air Products nickel silicate, which had a beta value of 20, we were trying to synthesize catalysts that would be an improvement to AP. This was accomplished by preparing silicates with various metals as well as different preparation methods. We also prepared supported ruthenium catalysts by various techniques using several metal precursors to improve present technology. What was also found was that the activation conditions prior to catalytic testing was highly important for both the silicates and the supported ruthenium catalysts. While not the initial focus of the research, we made some interesting observations into the adsorption of H2 on ruthenium. This helped us to get a better understanding of how ortho- to para-H2 conversion takes place, and what features in a catalyst are important to optimize activity. Reactor design was the final area in which some interesting conclusions were drawn. As discussed earlier, the reactor catalyst bed must be constructed using straight 1/8 feet OD stainless steel tubing. It was determined that the use of 1/4 feet OD tubing caused two problems. First, the radius from the center of the bed to the wall was too great for thermal equilibrium. Since the reaction of ortho- to para-H2 is exothermic, the catalyst bed center was warmer than the edges. Second, the catalyst bed was too shallow using a 1/4 feet tube. This caused reactant blow-by which was thought to decrease the measured activity when the flow rate was increased. The 1/8 feet tube corrected both of these concerns.

  4. Molecular basis for H blood group deficiency in Bombay (Oh) and para-Bombay individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, R J; Ernst, L K; Larsen, R D; Bryant, J G; Robinson, J S; Lowe, J B

    1994-01-01

    The penultimate step in the biosynthesis of the human ABO blood group oligosaccharide antigens is catalyzed by alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase(s) (GDP-L-fucose: beta-D-galactoside 2-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.69), whose expression is determined by the H and Secretor (SE) blood group loci (also known as FUT1 and FUT2, respectively). These enzymes construct Fuc alpha 1-->2Gal beta-linkages, known as H determinants, which are essential precursors to the A and B antigens. Erythrocytes from individuals with the rare Bombay and para-Bombay blood group phenotypes are deficient in H determinants, and thus A and B determinants, as a consequence of apparent homozygosity for null alleles at the H locus. We report a molecular analysis of a human alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene, thought to correspond to the H blood group locus, in a Bombay pedigree and a para-Bombay pedigree. We find inactivating point mutations in the coding regions of both alleles of this gene in each H-deficient individual. These results define the molecular basis for H blood group antigen deficiency in Bombay and para-Bombay phenotypes, provide compelling evidence that this gene represents the human H blood group locus, and strongly support a hypothesis that the H and SE loci represent distinct alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase genes. Candidate sequences for the human SE locus are identified by low-stringency Southern blot hybridization analyses, using a probe derived from the H alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene. Images PMID:7912436

  5. Improvement of DNA minicircle production by optimization of the secondary structure of the 5'-UTR of ParA resolvase.

    PubMed

    Šimčíková, Michaela; Alves, Cláudia P A; Brito, Liliana; Prather, Kristala L J; Prazeres, Duarte M F; Monteiro, Gabriel A

    2016-08-01

    The use of minicircles in gene therapy applications is dependent on the availability of high-producer cell systems. In order to improve the performance of minicircle production in Escherichia coli by ParA resolvase-mediated in vivo recombination, we focus on the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) of parA messenger RNA (mRNA). The arabinose-inducible PBAD/araC promoter controls ParA expression and strains with improved arabinose uptake are used. The 27-nucleotide-long 5'-UTR of parA mRNA was optimized using a predictive thermodynamic model. An analysis of original and optimized mRNA subsequences predicted a decrease of 8.6-14.9 kcal/mol in the change in Gibbs free energy upon assembly of the 30S ribosome complex with the mRNA subsequences, indicating a more stable mRNA-rRNA complex and enabling a higher (48-817-fold) translation initiation rate. No effect of the 5'-UTR was detected when ParA was expressed from a low-copy number plasmid (∼14 copies/cell), with full recombination obtained within 2 h. However, when the parA gene was inserted in the bacterial chromosome, a faster and more effective recombination was obtained with the optimized 5'-UTR. Interestingly, the amount of this transcript was 2.6-3-fold higher when compared with the transcript generated from the original sequence, highlighting that 5'-UTR affects the level of the transcript. A Western blot analysis confirmed that E. coli synthesized higher amounts of ParA with the new 5'-UTR (∼1.8 ± 0.7-fold). Overall, these results show that the improvements made in the 5'-UTR can lead to a more efficient translation and hence to faster and more efficient minicircle generation. PMID:27147534

  6. Where does the electron go? The nature of ortho/para and meta group directing in electrophilic aromatic substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shubin

    2014-11-21

    Electrophilic aromatic substitution as one of the most fundamental chemical processes is affected by atoms or groups already attached to the aromatic ring. The groups that promote substitution at the ortho/para or meta positions are, respectively, called ortho/para and meta directing groups, which are often characterized by their capability to donate electrons to or withdraw electrons from the ring. Though resonance and inductive effects have been employed in textbooks to explain this phenomenon, no satisfactory quantitative interpretation is available in the literature. Here, based on the theoretical framework we recently established in density functional reactivity theory (DFRT), where electrophilicity and nucleophilicity are simultaneously quantified by the Hirshfeld charge, the nature of ortho/para and meta group directing is systematically investigated for a total of 85 systems. We find that regioselectivity of electrophilic attacks is determined by the Hirshfeld charge distribution on the aromatic ring. Ortho/para directing groups have most negative charges on the ortho/para positions, while meta directing groups often possess the largest negative charge on the meta position. Our results do not support that ortho/para directing groups are electron donors and meta directing groups are electron acceptors. Most neutral species we studied here are electron withdrawal in nature. Anionic systems are always electron donors. There are also electron donors serving as meta directing groups. We predicted ortho/para and meta group directing behaviors for a list of groups whose regioselectivity is previously unknown. In addition, strong linear correlations between the Hirshfeld charge and the highest occupied molecular orbital have been observed, providing the first link between the frontier molecular orbital theory and DFRT.

  7. A centroid molecular dynamics study of liquid para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium.

    PubMed

    Hone, Tyler D; Voth, Gregory A

    2004-10-01

    Centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) is applied to the study of collective and single-particle dynamics in liquid para-hydrogen at two state points and liquid ortho-deuterium at one state point. The CMD results are compared with the results of classical molecular dynamics, quantum mode coupling theory, a maximum entropy analytic continuation approach, pair-product forward- backward semiclassical dynamics, and available experimental results. The self-diffusion constants are in excellent agreement with the experimental measurements for all systems studied. Furthermore, it is shown that the method is able to adequately describe both the single-particle and collective dynamics of quantum liquids. PMID:15446940

  8. Various Spectrum of MRI Findings in Articular and Para-articular Tuberculosis: Pictorial Assay.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Hiten; Chiripal, Priyanka

    2015-12-01

    Tuberculosis continues to be a health-related issue in India. Musculoskeletal tuberculosis is noted to occur dramatically as isolates, primarily accounting for large numbers of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis since early diagnosis is always a priority; with good prognosis, it is a curable disease. Delayed treatment is associated with severe morbidity. Musculoskeletal tuberculosis accounts for a large number of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. In this article, we describe various articular and para-articular MRI spectrum findings that are seen in patients with tuberculosis. MRI is the perfect modality to study the extent of involvement and its related complications. PMID:26730089

  9. Unprecedented new nonadecyl para-hydroperoxycinnamate isolated from Erythrina excelsa and its cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Kwamou, Guy M N; Sandjo, Louis P; Kuete, Victor; Wandja, Anaelle A K; Tankeo, Simplice B; Efferth, Thomas; Nkengfack, Augustin E

    2015-01-01

    A new unprecedented cinnamate derivative (1) was obtained from Erythrina excelsa (Leguminosae) and identified as nonadecyl para-hydroperoxycinnamate. This compound was isolated together with three known compounds, namely lupeol (2), mixture of sitosterol and stigmasterol (3), and isoneorautenol (4). Their structures were established on the basis of NMR and mass spectroscopic data in conjunction with those reported in the literature. Compound 1 was evaluated for its capability of inhibiting cancer cell lines and growth of a panel of microbial strains. It turned out that 1 is moderately to significantly cytotoxic against six cancer cell lines and shows weak to no antimicrobial activity. PMID:25220189

  10. Stimulated rotational Raman scattering in CO/sub 2/ - pumped para - H/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsten, J.L.; Wenzel, R.

    1983-09-01

    Stimulated rotational Raman scattering in a 300 K multipass cell filled with para-H/sub 2/ with a single-mode CO/sub 2/ pump laser was studied using a single-mode OPO as a probe laser at the Stokes frequency for the S/sub 0/ (0) transition. Amplification and pump depletion are examined as a function of incident pump energy. For an incident CO/sub 2/ pump laser energy of 1.5 J, a photon conversion efficiency of 47 percent is observed.

  11. ortho-, meta-, and para-dihydroindenofluorene derivatives as host materials for phosphorescent OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Romain, Maxime; Thiery, Sébastien; Shirinskaya, Anna; Declairieux, Céline; Tondelier, Denis; Geffroy, Bernard; Jeannin, Olivier; Rault-Berthelot, Joëlle; Métivier, Rémi; Poriel, Cyril

    2015-01-19

    This work reports the first structure-properties relationship study of ortho [2,1-c]-, meta [1,2-a]-, and para [1,2-b]dihydroindenofluorenes, highlighting the influence of bridge rigidification on the electronic properties. This study has made it possible to devise an extended π-conjugated molecule with both a high triplet state energy level and excellent thermal and morphological stability. As a proof of concept, dihydroindenofluorenes were used as the host in sky-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) with high performance. PMID:25469476

  12. Three-dimensional treatment planning for para-aortic node irradiation in patients with cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Munzenrider, J.E.; Doppke, K.P.; Brown, A.P.; Burman, C.; Cheng, E.; Chu, J.; Chui, C.; Drzymala, R.E.; Goitein, M.; Manolis, J.M. )

    1991-05-15

    Three-dimensional treatment planning has been used by four cooperating centers to prepare and analyze multiple treatment plans on two cervix cancer patients. One patient had biopsy-proven and CT-demonstrable metastasis to the para-aortic nodes, while the other was at high risk for metastatic involvement of para-aortic nodes. Volume dose distributions were analyzed, and an attempt was made to define the role of 3-D treatment planning to the para-aortic region, where moderate to high doses (50-66 Gy) are required to sterilize microscopic and gross metastasis. Plans were prepared using the 3-D capabilities for tailoring fields to the target volumes, but using standard field arrangements (3-D standard), and with full utilization of the 3-D capabilities (3-D unconstrained). In some but not all 3-D unconstrained plans, higher doses were delivered to the large nodal volume and to the volume containing gross nodal disease than in plans analyzed but not prepared with full 3-D capability (3-D standard). The small bowel was the major dose limiting organ. Its tolerance would have been exceeded in all plans which prescribed 66 Gy to the gross nodal mass, although some reduction in small bowel near-maximum dose was achieved in the 3-D unconstrained plans. All plans were able to limit doses to other normal organs to tolerance levels or less, with significant reductions seen in doses to spinal cord, kidneys, and large bowel in the 3-D unconstrained plans, as compared to the 3-D standard plans. A high probability of small bowel injury was detected in one of four 3-D standard plans prescribed to receive 50 Gy to the large para-aortic nodal volume; the small bowel dose was reduced to an acceptable level in the corresponding 3-D unconstrained plan. An optimum beam energy for treating this site was not identified, with plans using 4, 6, 10, 15, 18, and 25 MV photons all being equally acceptable. (Abstract Truncated)

  13. Taxonomía de asteroides y cometas basada en los espectros de Lyapunov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, G.; Motta, V.; Froeschlé, C.

    Estudiaremos dos familias de objetos que sufren encuentros cercanos con planetas, a saber: la familia de cometas de Júpiter (JF) y los asteroides cercanos a la Tierra (NEAs). El movimiento de estos objetos es caótico en una escala de tiempo corta. Más aún, debido a los cambios erráticos en los elementos orbitales, la comparación de los valores actuales da poca información acerca de la posible vinculación dinámica entre los objetos de una misma familia. Calculamos una estimación finita de los Exponentes Característicos de Lyapunov (LCE), los llamamos Indicadores Característicos de Lyapunov (LCI) para ambas familias y analizamos las características del espacio de fase donde tiene lugar el movimiento de estos objetos. Integrando en un período suficientemente largo (e.g. 20000 años), encontramos que el LCI alcanza un valor cuasi-constante. La mayoría de los miembros de ambas familias muestran una concentración de los tiempos de Lyapunov (inverso del LCI) de alrededor de 50-100 años (Tancredi, 1995, Astron & Astrop., 299, 288). La concentración de los tiempos de Lyapunov es mayor para la familia de Júpiter que para los NEAs. Entre estos últimos, la menor dispersión se da para aquellos que cruzan la órbita de la Tierra. Se demostró que el espectro de los `indicadores locales' (Froeschlé et. al., 1990, Cel. Mec. 56, 307) o ``números de estiramiento'' (Voglis and Contopoulos, 1994, J. Phys. A 26, 4899) (relacionados con el LCI) son invariantes y nos dan una información más completa sobre el comportamiento caótico. Mediante la comparación de espectros discutimos la similitud entre los objetos de una misma familia y analizamos las diferentes posibles rutas al caos. Los espectros se clasifican mediante la comparación de los momentos de las distribuciones de los `números de estiramiento'. Aplicamos un método de agrupamiento jerárquico (Zappala et. al., 1990, Astron. J. 100, 2030) para identificar ``familias'' de espectros (grupos de espectros

  14. Instrumentation for Astronomy Teaching: Projecting the Sun Image. (Spanish Title: Instrumentación Para la Enseñanza de Astronomía: Proyectando la Imagen del Sol.) Instrumentação Para O Ensino de Astronomia: Projetando a Imagem do Sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catelli, Francisco; Giovan, Odilon; Balen, Osvaldo; Siqueira da Silva, Fernando

    2009-07-01

    In this work we describe a simple optical device to project the Sun image which is useful for solar eclipses observing and for sunspots' size estimating.

    Se describe un dispositivo óptico simple para proyectar la imagen del Sol, lo cual es apropiado para las observaciones de eclipses solares y para estimar las dimensiones de las manchas solares.

    É descrito um dispositivo ótico simples para projetar a imagem do Sol, adequado para observações de eclipses solares e à estimativa do tamanho das manchas solares.

  15. ParaHox gene expression in larval and postlarval development of the polychaete Nereis virens (Annelida, Lophotrochozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Kulakova, Milana A; Cook, Charles E; Andreeva, Tatiana F

    2008-01-01

    Background Transcription factors that encode ANTP-class homeobox genes play crucial roles in determining the body plan organization and specification of different organs and tissues in bilaterian animals. The three-gene ParaHox family descends from an ancestral gene cluster that existed before the evolution of the Bilateria. All three ParaHox genes are reported from deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans, but not to date from any ecdysozoan taxa, and there is evidence that the ParaHox genes, like the related Hox genes, were ancestrally a single chromosomal cluster. However, unlike the Hox genes, there is as yet no strong evidence that the ParaHox genes are expressed in spatial and temporal order during embryogenesis. Results We isolated fragments of the three Nereis virens ParaHox genes, then used these as probes for whole-mount in situ hybridization in larval and postlarval worms. In Nereis virens the ParaHox genes participate in antero-posterior patterning of ectodermal and endodermal regions of the digestive tract and are expressed in some cells in the segment ganglia. The expression of these genes occurs in larval development in accordance with the position of these cells along the main body axis and in postlarval development in accordance with the position of cells in ganglia along the antero-posterior axis of each segment. In none of these tissues does expression of the three ParaHox genes follow the rule of temporal collinearity. Conclusion In Nereis virens the ParaHox genes are expressed during antero-posterior patterning of the digestive system (ectodermal foregut and hindgut, and endodermal midgut) of Nereis virens. These genes are also expressed during axial specification of ventral neuroectodermal cell domains, where the expression domains of each gene are re-iterated in each neuromere except for the first parapodial segment. These expression domains are probably predetermined and may be directed on the antero-posterior axis by the Hox genes, whose

  16. Um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, G. B.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Há uma enorme carência de materiais didático-pedagógicos em astronomia para professores do ensino médio, sobretudo materiais que explorem também aspectos humanísticos. A origem do Universo é um bom exemplo desta constatação central. Embora tal origem teve explicações culturais diversas, os professores não têm informações sobre isso e muito menos material que trabalhe diferentes visões de mundo e treinamento que os capacite a abordá-las devidamente. Conseqüentemente o ensino de astronomia costuma ser tecnicista e dissociado do aspecto humano que alimenta o grande interesse e curiosidade que esses temas despertam. Aqui apresentamos propostas visando contribuir para reverter esse quadro e trabalhamos distintas visões de Universo: espontâneas, autóctones e científicas. Desenvolvemos práticas, materiais instrucionais e textos para viabilizar a adoção de um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio, no qual as culturas humanística e científica sejam integradas de uma maneira contextualizada e eficaz para aquele ensino. Estas propostas foram aplicadas em um curso de treinamento para professores da rede pública de diferentes disciplinas. A receptividade dos professores à abordagem proposta e os resultados alcançados foram muito estimulantes. Destes, destacamos: produção de roteiros de atividades; desenvolvimento de práticas didático-pedagógicas específicas (e.g., encenação de mitos; dança primordial guarani; "criação" de constelações e interpretações pluriculturais; etc.); e sugestões concretas para a efetiva realização de um ensino interdisciplinar contextualizado, onde questões cosmogônicas servem de mote para iniciar tal ensino. Discutimos estes resultados e como o enfoque adotado pode instrumentalizar os professores para leituras de mundo que incluem naturalmente aspectos culturais, sociais e históricos associados aos temas estudados. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  17. Ordered expression pattern of Hox and ParaHox genes along the alimentary canal in the ascidian juvenile.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Satoshi; Satou, Kunihiro; Orito, Wataru; Ogasawara, Michio

    2016-07-01

    The Hox and ParaHox genes of bilateria share a similar expression pattern along the body axis and are known to be associated with anterior-posterior patterning. In vertebrates, the Hox genes are also expressed in presomitic mesoderm and gut endoderm and the ParaHox genes show a restricted expression pattern in the gut-related derivatives. Regional expression patterns in the embryonic central nervous system of the basal chordates amphioxus and ascidian have been reported; however, little is known about their endodermal expression in the alimentary canal. We focus on the Hox and ParaHox genes in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis and investigate the gene expression patterns in the juvenile, which shows morphological regionality in the alimentary canal. Gene expression analyses by using whole-mount in situ hybridization reveal that all Hox genes have a regional expression pattern along the alimentary canal. Expression of Hox1 to Hox4 is restricted to the posterior region of pharyngeal derivatives. Hox5 to Hox13 show an ordered expression pattern correlated with each Hox gene number along the postpharyngeal digestive tract. This expression pattern along the anterior-posterior axis has also been observed in Ciona ParaHox genes. Our observations suggest that ascidian Hox and ParaHox clusters are dispersed; however, the ordered expression patterns along the alimentary canal appear to be conserved among chordates. PMID:26837224

  18. Determination of the ortho to para ratio of H2Cl+ and H2O+ from submillimeter observations.

    PubMed

    Gerin, Maryvonne; de Luca, Massimo; Lis, Dariusz C; Kramer, Carsten; Navarro, Santiago; Neufeld, David; Indriolo, Nick; Godard, Benjamin; Le Petit, Franck; Peng, Ruisheng; Phillips, Thomas G; Roueff, Evelyne

    2013-10-01

    The opening of the submillimeter sky with the Herschel Space Observatory has led to the detection of new interstellar molecular ions, H2O(+), H2Cl(+), and HCl(+), which are important intermediates in the synthesis of water vapor and hydrogen chloride. In this paper, we report new observations of H2O(+) and H2Cl(+) performed with both Herschel and ground-based telescopes, to determine the abundances of their ortho and para forms separately and derive the ortho-to-para ratio. At the achieved signal-to-noise ratio, the observations are consistent with an ortho-to-para ratios of 3 for both H2O(+) and H2Cl(+), in all velocity components detected along the lines-of-sight to the massive star-forming regions W31C and W49N. We discuss the mechanisms that contribute to establishing the observed ortho-to-para ratio and point to the need for a better understanding of chemical reactions, which are important for establishing the H2O(+) and H2Cl(+) ortho-to-para ratios. PMID:23869910

  19. In-Situ Visualization Experiments with ParaView Cinema in RAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Kares, Robert John

    2015-10-15

    A previous paper described some numerical experiments performed using the ParaView/Catalyst in-situ visualization infrastructure deployed in the Los Alamos RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code to produce images from a running large scale 3D ICF simulation. One challenge of the in-situ approach apparent in these experiments was the difficulty of choosing parameters likes isosurface values for the visualizations to be produced from the running simulation without the benefit of prior knowledge of the simulation results and the resultant cost of recomputing in-situ generated images when parameters are chosen suboptimally. A proposed method of addressing this difficulty is to simply render multiple images at runtime with a range of possible parameter values to produce a large database of images and to provide the user with a tool for managing the resulting database of imagery. Recently, ParaView/Catalyst has been extended to include such a capability via the so-called Cinema framework. Here I describe some initial experiments with the first delivery of Cinema and make some recommendations for future extensions of Cinema’s capabilities.

  20. Semantics-based distributed I/O with the ParaMEDIC framework.

    SciTech Connect

    Balaji, P.; Feng, W.; Lin, H.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Virginia Tech; North Carolina State Univ.

    2008-01-01

    Many large-scale applications simultaneously rely on multiple resources for efficient execution. For example, such applications may require both large compute and storage resources; however, very few supercomputing centers can provide large quantities of both. Thus, data generated at the compute site oftentimes has to be moved to a remote storage site for either storage or visualization and analysis. Clearly, this is not an efficient model, especially when the two sites are distributed over a wide-area network. Thus, we present a framework called 'ParaMEDIC: Parallel Metadata Environment for Distributed I/O and Computing' which uses application-specific semantic information to convert the generated data to orders-of-magnitude smaller metadata at the compute site, transfer the metadata to the storage site, and re-process the metadata at the storage site to regenerate the output. Specifically, ParaMEDIC trades a small amount of additional computation (in the form of data post-processing) for a potentially significant reduction in data that needs to be transferred in distributed environments.

  1. Ortho-to-para ratio in interstellar water on the sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N).

    PubMed

    Lis, Dariusz C; Bergin, Edwin A; Schilke, Peter; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2013-10-01

    The determination of the water ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) is of great interest for studies of the formation and thermal history of water ices in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disk environments. We present new Herschel observations of the fundamental rotational transitions of ortho- and para-water on the sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N), which allow improved estimates of the measurement uncertainties due to instrumental effects and assumptions about the excitation of water molecules. These new measurements, suggesting a spin temperature of 24-32 K, confirm the earlier findings of an OPR below the high-temperature value on the nearby sightline toward Sagittarius B2(M). The exact implications of the low OPR in the galactic center molecular gas remain unclear and will greatly benefit from future laboratory measurements involving water freeze-out and evaporation processes under low-temperature conditions, similar to those present in the galactic interstellar medium. Given the specific conditions in the central region of the Milky Way, akin to those encountered in active Galactic nuclei, gas-phase processes under the influence of strong X-ray and cosmic ray ionization also have to be carefully considered. We summarize some of the latest laboratory measurements and their implications here. PMID:23656468

  2. Rotational relaxation of CS by collision with ortho- and para-H{sub 2} molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry Halvick, Philippe; Dubernet, Marie-Lise

    2013-11-28

    Quantum mechanical investigation of the rotationally inelastic collisions of CS with ortho- and para-H{sub 2} molecules is reported. The new global four-dimensional potential energy surface presented in our recent work is used. Close coupling scattering calculations are performed in the rigid rotor approximation for ortho- and para-H{sub 2} colliding with CS in the j = 0–15 rotational levels and for collision energies ranging from 10{sup −2} to 10{sup 3} cm{sup −1}. The cross sections and rate coefficients for selected rotational transitions of CS are compared with the ones previously reported for the collision of CS with He. The largest discrepancies are observed at low collision energy, below 1 cm{sup −1}. Above 10 cm{sup −1}, the approximation using the square root of the relative mass of the colliders to calculate the cross sections between a molecule and H{sub 2} from the data available with {sup 4}He is found to be a good qualitative approximation. The rate coefficients calculated with the electron gas model for the He-CS system show more discrepancy with our accurate results. However, scaling up these rates by a factor of 2 gives a qualitative agreement.

  3. Infrapatellar Fat Pad Para-Articular Osteochondroma: A Ten-Year Follow-up and Review

    PubMed Central

    Bombaci, Hasan; Bilgin, Emre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Para-articular masses are not clear enough in terms of their etiology and nomenclature. Although surgical removal of the mass is the preferred treatment, long term follow-up after surgical treatment has not been reported yet. The current study presents a patient with the osteo-cartilaginous mass of infrapatellar region, diagnosed after a trauma. This case has the longest follow-up period in the literature. Case Presentation: A 52-year-old female patient referred after falling down on her right knee. Lateral radiographs of the knee revealed a mass in the infrapatellar area. The case was treated surgically by total excision of the mass. The mass was extra-capsular with lobular and irregular shape. After mass removal the clinical course was uneventful and at the 10-year follow-up, no signs of recurrence were evident clinically or radiologically. Conclusions: Tumor-like lesions within the infrapatellar fat pad should remind the para-articular osteochondroma. Although its etiology has not yet been elicited, operative removal of the mass is the preferred treatment of choice and also curative in long-term follow-up. PMID:26566510

  4. A non-equilibrium ortho-to-para ratio of water in the Orion PDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Bergin, E. A.; Plume, R.

    2014-12-01

    Context. The ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of H2O is thought to be sensitive to the temperature of water formation. The OPR of H2O is thus useful for studying the formation mechanism of water. Aims: We investigate the OPR of water in the Orion PDR (photon-dominated region), at the Orion Bar and Orion S positions, using data from Herschel/HIFI. Methods: We detect the ground-state lines of ortho- and para-H218O in the Orion Bar and Orion S and estimate the column densities using local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE methods. Results: Based on our calculations, the OPR in the Orion Bar is 0.1-0.5, which is unexpectedly low given the gas temperature of ~85 K, and also lower than the values measured for other interstellar clouds and protoplanetary disks. Toward Orion S, our OPR estimate is below 2. Conclusions: This low OPR at 2 positions in the Orion PDR is inconsistent with gas phase formation and with thermal evaporation from dust grains, but it may be explained by photodesorption. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. O-Methylation of Chlorinated para-Hydroquinones by Rhodococcus chlorophenolicus

    PubMed Central

    Häggblom, Max M.; Apajalahti, Juha H. A.; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja S.

    1988-01-01

    Rhodococcus chlorophenolicus PCP-I, a degrader of polychlorinated phenols, guaiacols (2-methoxyphenols), and syringols (2,6-dimethoxyphenols), was shown to O-methylate the degradation intermediate, a chlorinated para-hydroquinone, into 4-methoxyphenol. O-methylation was constitutively expressed, whereas the degradation of chlorophenols and chlorohydroquinones was inducible in R. chlorophenolicus. The O-methylating reaction required two hydroxyl groups in positions para to each other. R. chlorophenolicus selectively methylated the hydroxyl group flanked by two chlorine substituents. Tetrachlorohydroquinone, trichlorohydroquinone, and 2,6-dichlorohydroquinone were methylated into tetrachloro-4-methoxyphenol, 2,3,5-trichloro-4-methoxyphenol, and 3,5-dichloro-4-methoxyphenol, respectively. Chlorohydroquinones with only one chlorine adjacent to a hydroxyl group were methylated only in trace amounts, and no metabolite was formed from hydroquinone. The degradation intermediates formed in hydroxylation of tetrachloroguaiacol and trichlorosyringol by R. chlorophenolicus were O-methylated into two isomeric trichlorodimethoxyphenols and two isomeric dichlorotrimethoxyphenols, respectively. R. chlorophenolicus also degraded the polychlorinated methylation products (tetrachlorinated and trichlorinated 4-methoxyphenols), but not mono- and dichlorinated 4-methoxyphenols. PMID:16347691

  6. Comparing the Well-Being of Para and Olympic Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Macdougall, Hannah; O'Halloran, Paul; Shields, Nora; Sherry, Emma

    2015-07-01

    This systematic review included 12 studies that compared the well-being of Para and Olympic sport athletes. Meta-analyses revealed that Para athletes, compared with Olympic sport athletes, had lower levels of self-acceptance, indicated by athletic identity, d = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.77, 0.16], and body-image perceptions, d = 0.33, 95% CI [0.59, 0.07], and differed from Olympic sport athletes in terms of their motivation, indicated by a greater mastery-oriented climate, d = 0.74, 95% CI [0.46, 1.03]. Given an inability to pool the remaining data for meta-analysis, individual standardized mean differences were calculated for other dimensions of psychological and subjective well-being. The results have implications for professionals and coaches aiming to facilitate the well-being needs of athletes under their care. Future research would benefit from incorporating established models of well-being based on theoretical rationale combined with rigorous study designs. PMID:26113553

  7. Resonances in the reaction ortho- and para- D2 + H at temperatures below 10 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simbotin, I.; Côté, R.

    2016-05-01

    In a previous study we reported cross sections for the reaction H2 + D in the temperature regime 10-6 < T < 10 K, and found pronounced shape resonances, especially in the p and d partial waves. We found that the resonant structures were sensitive to the initial rovibrational state of H2; in particular, we showed that the effect of the nuclear-spin symmetry was very important, since ortho- and para- H2 gave significantly different results. We now investigate the reaction D2 + H for vibrationally excited ortho- and para- D2, and compare and contrast these results with those for H2 + D. We remark that this benchmark system is a prototypical example of reactions with a strong barrier, which have very small cross sections in the cold and ultracold regimes. However, shape resonances can enhance the reaction cross sections by orders of magnitude for temperatures around and below T = 1 K. Moreover, resonant features would provide stringent tests for quantum chemistry calculations of potential energy surfaces. Partial support from the US Army Research Office (Grant No. W911NF-13-1-0213).

  8. Effects of acoustic feedback training in elite-standard Para-Rowing.

    PubMed

    Schaffert, Nina; Mattes, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and feedback devices have been regularly used in technique training in high-performance sports. Biomechanical analysis is mainly visually based and so can exclude athletes with visual impairments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of auditory feedback on mean boat speed during on-water training of visually impaired athletes. The German National Para-Rowing team (six athletes, mean ± s, age 34.8 ± 10.6 years, body mass 76.5 ± 13.5 kg, stature 179.3 ± 8.6 cm) participated in the study. Kinematics included boat acceleration and distance travelled, collected with Sofirow at two intensities of training. The boat acceleration-time traces were converted online into acoustic feedback and presented via speakers during rowing (sections with and without alternately). Repeated-measures within-participant factorial ANOVA showed greater boat speed with acoustic feedback than baseline (0.08 ± 0.01 m·s(-1)). The time structure of rowing cycles was improved (extended time of positive acceleration). Questioning of athletes showed acoustic feedback to be a supportive training aid as it provided important functional information about the boat motion independent of vision. It gave access for visually impaired athletes to biomechanical analysis via auditory information. The concept for adaptive athletes has been successfully integrated into the preparation for the Para-Rowing World Championships and Paralympics. PMID:25105858

  9. Genetic evidence that the degradation of para-cresol by Geobacter metallireducens is catalyzed by the periplasmic para-cresol methylhydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Holmes, Dawn E; Zhang, Tian

    2015-10-01

    Two pathways for para-cresol (p-cresol) degradation by anaerobic bacteria have been elucidated; one involves fumarate addition at the methyl group of p-cresol by a hydroxylbenzylsuccinate synthase protein while the other utilizes a methylhydroxylase protein (PCMH) to catalyze hydroxylation of the methyl group of p-cresol. In Geobacter metallireducens, in vitro enzymatic assays showed that p-cresol is degraded via the methylhydroxylation pathway. However, prior to this study these results had not been confirmed by genetic analyses. In this work, the gene coding for benzylsuccinate-CoA dehydrogenase (bbsG), an enzyme required for toluene degradation by G. metallireducens that is homologous to the p-hydroxybenzylsuccinyl-CoA dehydrogenase involved in p-cresol degradation by Desulfobacula toluolica Tol2 via fumarate addition, and the gene encoding the alpha prime subunit of PCMH (pcmI), were deleted to investigate the possibility of co-existing p-cresol degradation pathways in G. metallireducens. The absence of a functional PcmI protein completely inhibited p-cresol degradation, while deletion of the bbsG gene had little impact. These results further support the observation that G. metallireducens utilizes a PCMH-initiated pathway for p-cresol degradation. PMID:26316547

  10. Computational studies of the regioselectivities of COMT-catalyzed meta-/para-O methylations of luteolin and quercetin.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; Chen, Zhong-Jian; Jiang, Hui-Di; Chen, Jian-Zhong

    2014-01-16

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, EC 2.1.1.6) plays a central role in the inactivation of neurotransmitters sharing a catecholic motif by transferring a methyl group from AdoMet. Methylation of the meta-hydroxyl is much more common than that of the para-hydroxyl in many COMT substrates, such as dopamine and norepinephrine. Our experimental data showed that quercetin preferred meta-methylation but luteolin favored a para-methylation. To elucidate the mechanism for different preferences of methylations of quercetin and luteolin, we performed a theoretical investigation on the different regioseletivities of COMT-catalyzed methylations for quercetin and luteolin by a combined approach of MD simulations, ab initio calculations, and QM/MM computations. The ab initio calculation results showed that both quercetin and luteolin have more negative charge distributions on the meta-O atom than the para-O atom, which indicated that meta-O preferred SN2 reaction for their methylation. Our QM/MM computations also confirmed that these two flavonoids have lower reaction energetic barriers for COMT-catalyzed meta-O-methylation than para-O-methylation. On the other hand, our binding free energy computation results indicated that quercetin has a more stable binding mode for meta-O-methylation than para-O-methylation but luteolin has a more stable binding mode for para-O-methylation than meta-O-methylation. We gave a comprehensive explanation considering both thermodynamics and reaction kinetics aspects and discussed the protein-inhibitor interactions as well as the O-methylation mechanism in our present work. PMID:24354565

  11. Evolution of Antp-class genes and differential expression of Hydra Hox/paraHox genes in anterior patterning

    PubMed Central

    Gauchat, Dominique; Mazet, Françoise; Berney, Cédric; Schummer, Michèl; Kreger, Sylvia; Pawlowski, Jan; Galliot, Brigitte

    2000-01-01

    The conservation of developmental functions exerted by Antp-class homeoproteins in protostomes and deuterostomes suggested that homologs with related functions are present in diploblastic animals. Our phylogenetic analyses showed that Antp-class homeodomains belong either to non-Hox or to Hox/paraHox families. Among the 13 non-Hox families, 9 have diploblastic homologs, Msx, Emx, Barx, Evx, Tlx, NK-2, and Prh/Hex, Not, and Dlx, reported here. Among the Hox/paraHox, poriferan sequences were not found, and the cnidarian sequences formed at least five distinct cnox families. Two are significantly related to the paraHox Gsx (cnox-2) and the mox (cnox-5) sequences, whereas three display some relatedness to the Hox paralog groups 1 (cnox-1), 9/10 (cnox-3) and the paraHox cdx (cnox-4). Intermediate Hox/paraHox genes (PG 3 to 8 and lox) did not have clear cnidarian counterparts. In Hydra, cnox-1, cnox-2, and cnox-3 were not found chromosomally linked within a 150-kb range and displayed specific expression patterns in the adult head. During regeneration, cnox-1 was expressed as an early gene whatever the polarity, whereas cnox-2 was up-regulated later during head but not foot regeneration. Finally, cnox-3 expression was reestablished in the adult head once it was fully formed. These results suggest that the Hydra genes related to anterior Hox/paraHox genes are involved at different stages of apical differentiation. However, the positional information defining the oral/aboral axis in Hydra cannot be correlated strictly to that characterizing the anterior–posterior axis in vertebrates or arthropods. PMID:10781050

  12. Uma grade de perfis teóricos para estrelas massivas em transição

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, C. M. P.; Machado, M. A.

    2003-08-01

    Na XXVIII Reunião Anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (2002) apresentamos uma grade de perfis calculados de acordo com os pontos da trajetória evolutiva de metalicidade solar, Z = 0.02 e taxa de perda de massa () padrão, para estrelas com massa inicial de 25, 40, 60, 85 e 120 massas solares. Estes perfis foram calculados com o auxílio de um código numérico adequado para descrever os ventos de objetos massivos, supondo simetria esférica, estacionaridade e homogeneidade. No presente trabalho, apresentamos a complementação da grade com os perfis teóricos relativos às trajetórias de Z = 0.02 com taxa de perda de massa dobrada em relação a padrão (2´), e de metalicidade Z = 0.008. Para cada ponto das três trajetórias obtemos os perfis teóricos de Ha, Hb, Hg e Hd, e como esperado eles se apresentam em pura emissão, pura absorção ou em P-Cygni. Para valores de taxa de perda de massa muito baixos (~10-7) não há formação de linhas, o que é visto nos primeiros pontos em todas as trajetórias. Em geral, para um mesmo ponto a componente de emissão diminui e a absorção aumenta de Ha para Hd. É verificado que as trajetórias com Z = 0.02 e padrão possuem menos circuitos (loops) do que as com metalicidade Z = 0.02 e 2´ padrão, e seus perfis são, em geral, menos intensos. Em relação a trajetória de Z = 0.008, verifica-se menos circuitos e maior variação em luminosidade, e seus perfis mostram-se em, algumas trajetórias, mais intensos. Verificamos também que, pontos distintos em uma mesma trajetória, apresentam perfis diferentes para valores similares de luminosidade e temperatura efetiva. Sendo assim, uma grade de perfis teóricos parece ser útil para fornecer uma informação preliminar sobre o estágio evolutivo de uma estrela massiva.

  13. Evaluation of para-dichlorobenzene emissions from solid moth repellant as a source of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.C.S.; Krebs, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports results of dynamic and static chamber tests to evaluate para-dichlorobenzene emission rates from mothcakes. The data were analyzed by a model that assumes that the emission rate is controlled by gas-phase mass transfer. Results indicate that the para-dichlorobenzene emission from mothcakes is a temperature-sensitive sublimation process. Full-scale house tests were also conducted to measure mass transfer coefficients based on the model developed. The values of the mass transfer coefficient obtained are very comparable to those estimated by theoretical heat transfer studies.

  14. Practical in-situ determination of ortho-para hydrogen ratios via fiber-optic based Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, Liese -Marie; Knudson, James N.; Mocko, Michal; Renneke, Richard M.

    2015-12-17

    An experiment was designed and developed to prototype a fiber-optic-based laser system, which measures the ratio of ortho-hydrogen to para-hydrogen in an operating neutron moderator system at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) spallation neutron source. Preliminary measurements resulted in an ortho to para ratio of 3.06:1, which is within acceptable agreement with the previously published ratio. As a result, the successful demonstration of Raman Spectroscopy for this measurement is expected to lead to a practical method that can be applied for similar in-situ measurements at operating neutron spallation sources.

  15. Experimental verification of equilibrium para-hydrogen levels in hydrogen moderators irradiated by spallation neutrons at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshigawara, M.; Harada, M.; Tatsumoto, H.; Aso, T.; Ohtsu, K.; Takada, H.; Futakawa, M.; Ikeda, Y.

    2016-02-01

    By sampling gaseous hydrogen from a circulating liquid hydrogen loop for Laser Raman spectroscopy, we measured the para-/ortho-hydrogen fractions in liquid hydrogen under neutron irradiation for the first time to identify whether irradiated hydrogen has an elevated ortho-hydrogen fraction. This measurement indicates that para-hydrogen equilibrium persists at 300 kW proton power in the presence of an iron(III) oxide hydroxide [Fe(OH)3] catalyst. The measurements will be repeated as the power at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) increases to the MW level.

  16. Practical in-situ determination of ortho-para hydrogen ratios via fiber-optic based Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Liese-Marie; Knudson, James N.; Mocko, Michal; Renneke, Richard M.

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was designed and developed to prototype a fiber-optic-based laser system, which measures the ratio of ortho-hydrogen to para-hydrogen in an operating neutron moderator system at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) spallation neutron source. Preliminary measurements resulted in an ortho to para ratio of 3.06:1, which is within acceptable agreement with the previously published ratio. The successful demonstration of Raman Spectroscopy for this measurement is expected to lead to a practical method that can be applied for similar in-situ measurements at operating neutron spallation sources.

  17. Metabolism of Doubly para-Substituted Hydroxychlorobiphenyls by Bacterial Biphenyl Dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Thi Thanh My; Sondossi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we examined the profile of metabolites produced from the doubly para-substituted biphenyl analogs 4,4′-dihydroxybiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl, 3-hydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl, and 3,3′-dihydroxy-4,4′-chlorobiphenyl by biphenyl-induced Pandoraea pnomenusa B356 and by its biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO). 4-Hydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl was hydroxylated principally through a 2,3-dioxygenation of the hydroxylated ring to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,4-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl and 3,4-dihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl after the removal of water. The former was further oxidized by the biphenyl dioxygenase to produce ultimately 3,4,5-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl, a dead-end metabolite. 3-Hydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl was oxygenated on both rings. Hydroxylation of the nonhydroxylated ring generated 2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl with concomitant dechlorination, and 2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl was ultimately metabolized to 2-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate, but hydroxylation of the hydroxylated ring generated dead-end metabolites. 3,3′-Dihydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl was principally metabolized through a 2,3-dioxygenation to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl, which was ultimately converted to 3-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate. Similar metabolites were produced when the biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was used to catalyze the reactions, except that for the three substrates used, the BPDO of LB400 was less efficient than that of B356, and unlike that of B356, it was unable to further oxidize the initial reaction products. Together the data show that BPDO oxidation of doubly para-substituted hydroxychlorobiphenyls may generate nonnegligible amounts of dead-end metabolites. Therefore, biphenyl dioxygenase could produce metabolites other than those expected, corresponding to dihydrodihydroxy metabolites from initial doubly para-substituted substrates. This finding shows that a clear

  18. Metabolism of Doubly para-Substituted Hydroxychlorobiphenyls by Bacterial Biphenyl Dioxygenases.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thi Thanh My; Sondossi, Mohammad; Sylvestre, Michel

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we examined the profile of metabolites produced from the doubly para-substituted biphenyl analogs 4,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-4'-chlorobiphenyl, 3-hydroxy-4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl, and 3,3'-dihydroxy-4,4'-chlorobiphenyl by biphenyl-induced Pandoraea pnomenusa B356 and by its biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO). 4-Hydroxy-4'-chlorobiphenyl was hydroxylated principally through a 2,3-dioxygenation of the hydroxylated ring to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,4-trihydroxy-4'-chlorobiphenyl and 3,4-dihydroxy-4'-chlorobiphenyl after the removal of water. The former was further oxidized by the biphenyl dioxygenase to produce ultimately 3,4,5-trihydroxy-4'-chlorobiphenyl, a dead-end metabolite. 3-Hydroxy-4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl was oxygenated on both rings. Hydroxylation of the nonhydroxylated ring generated 2,3,3'-trihydroxy-4'-chlorobiphenyl with concomitant dechlorination, and 2,3,3'-trihydroxy-4'-chlorobiphenyl was ultimately metabolized to 2-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate, but hydroxylation of the hydroxylated ring generated dead-end metabolites. 3,3'-Dihydroxy-4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl was principally metabolized through a 2,3-dioxygenation to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,3'-trihydroxy-4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl, which was ultimately converted to 3-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate. Similar metabolites were produced when the biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was used to catalyze the reactions, except that for the three substrates used, the BPDO of LB400 was less efficient than that of B356, and unlike that of B356, it was unable to further oxidize the initial reaction products. Together the data show that BPDO oxidation of doubly para-substituted hydroxychlorobiphenyls may generate nonnegligible amounts of dead-end metabolites. Therefore, biphenyl dioxygenase could produce metabolites other than those expected, corresponding to dihydrodihydroxy metabolites from initial doubly para-substituted substrates. This finding shows that a clear picture of the fate of polychlorinated

  19. ORTHO-TO-PARA ABUNDANCE RATIO OF WATER ION IN COMET C/2001 Q4 (NEAT): IMPLICATION FOR ORTHO-TO-PARA ABUNDANCE RATIO OF WATER

    SciTech Connect

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, Hideyo; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Boice, Daniel C.; Martinez, Susan E.

    2012-04-20

    The ortho-to-para abundance ratio (OPR) of cometary molecules is considered to be one of the primordial characteristics of cometary ices, and contains information concerning their formation. Water is the most abundant species in cometary ices, and OPRs of water in comets have been determined from infrared spectroscopic observations of H{sub 2}O rovibrational transitions so far. In this paper, we present a new method to derive OPR of water in comets from the high-dispersion spectrum of the rovibronic emission of H{sub 2}O{sup +} in the optical wavelength region. The rovibronic emission lines of H{sub 2}O{sup +} are sometimes contaminated by other molecular emission lines but they are not affected seriously by telluric absorption compared with near-infrared observations. Since H{sub 2}O{sup +} ions are mainly produced from H{sub 2}O by photoionization in the coma, the OPR of H{sub 2}O{sup +} is considered to be equal to that of water based on the nuclear spin conservation through the reaction. We have developed a fluorescence excitation model of H{sub 2}O{sup +} and applied it to the spectrum of comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT). The derived OPR of water is 2.54{sup +0.32}{sub -0.25}, which corresponds to a nuclear spin temperature (T{sub spin}) of 30{sup +10}{sub -4} K. This is consistent with the previous value determined in the near-infrared for the same comet (OPR = 2.6 {+-} 0.3, T{sub spin} = 31{sup +11}{sub -5} K).

  20. Statistical ortho-to-para ratio of water desorbed from ice at 10 kelvin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hama, Tetsuya; Kouchi, Akira; Watanabe, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The anomalously low ortho-to-para ratios (OPRs) exhibited by gaseous water in space have been used to determine the formation temperature (<50 kelvin) of ice on cold interstellar dust. This approach assumes that the OPR of water desorbed from ice is related to the ice formation temperature on the dust. However, we report that water desorbed from ice at 10 kelvin shows a statistical high-temperature OPR of 3, even when the ice is produced in situ by hydrogenation of O2, a known formation process of interstellar water. This invalidates the assumed relation between OPR and temperature. The necessary reinterpretation of the low OPRs will help elucidate the chemical history of interstellar water from molecular clouds and processes in the early solar system, including comet formation.

  1. Parallel Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (ParaGrandMC) Simulation Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamakov, Vesselin I.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Parallel Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (ParaGrandMC) simulation code. This is a highly scalable parallel FORTRAN code for simulating the thermodynamic evolution of metal alloy systems at the atomic level, and predicting the thermodynamic state, phase diagram, chemical composition and mechanical properties. The code is designed to simulate multi-component alloy systems, predict solid-state phase transformations such as austenite-martensite transformations, precipitate formation, recrystallization, capillary effects at interfaces, surface absorption, etc., which can aid the design of novel metallic alloys. While the software is mainly tailored for modeling metal alloys, it can also be used for other types of solid-state systems, and to some degree for liquid or gaseous systems, including multiphase systems forming solid-liquid-gas interfaces.

  2. Searching for Auxetics with DYNA3D and ParaDyn

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, W G; Hoover, C G

    2004-09-11

    We sought to simulate auxetic behavior by carrying out dynamic analyses of mesoscopic model structures. We began by generating nearly periodic cellular structures. Four-node 'Shell' elements and eight-node 'Brick' elements are the basic building blocks for each cell. The shells and bricks obey standard elastic-plastic continuum mechanics. The dynamical response of the structures was next determined for a three-stage loading process: (1) homogeneous compression; (2) viscous relaxation; (3) uniaxial compression. The simulations were carried out with both serial and parallel computer codes--DYNA3D and ParaDyn--which describe the deformation of the shells and bricks with a robust contact algorithm. We summarize the results found here.

  3. Theoretical and Experimental Studies on the Nonlinear Optical Chromophore para Bromoacetanilide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jothy, V. Bena; Vijayakumar, T.; Jayakumar, V. S.; Udayalekshmi, K.; Ramamurthy, K.; Joe, I. Hubert

    2008-11-01

    Vibrational spectral analysis of the hydrogen bonded non-linear optical (NLO) material para Bromo Acetanilide (PBA) is carried out using NIR FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. Ab initio molecular orbital computations have been performed at HF/6-31G(d) level to derive equilibrium geometry, vibrational wavenumbers, intensities and first hyperpolarizability. The lowering of the imino stretching wavenumbers suggests the existence of strong intermolecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding substantiated by the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Blue shifting CH stretching wavenumbers, simultaneous activation of carbonyl stretching mode and the strong activation of low wavenumber H-bond stretching vibrations shows the presence of intramolecular charge transfer in the molecule.

  4. Surface treatment of para-aramid fiber by argon dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ruxi; Yu, Junrong; Hu, Chengcheng; Chen, Lei; Zhu, Jing; Hu, Zuming

    2012-10-01

    This paper is focused on influence of argon dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma on the adhesive performance and wettability of para-aramid fibers and three parameters including treated power, exposure time and argon flux were detected. The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) was greatly increased by 28% with 300 W, 60 s, 2 L min-1 argon flux plasma treatment. The content of oxygen atom and oxygen-containing polar functional groups were enhanced after the argon plasma treated, so as the surface roughness, which contributed to the improvement of surface wettability and the decrease of contact angle with water. However, long-time exposure, exorbitant power or overlarge argon flux could partly destroy the prior effects of the treatment and damage the mechanical properties of fibers to some degree.

  5. Food for Life / Comida para la Vida: creating a food festival to raise diabetes awareness.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Kristie; Walker, Willie; Vance, Thomas; Kaskel, Phyllis; Arniella, Guedy; Horowitz, Carol

    2009-01-01

    African and Latino Americans have higher rates of diabetes and its complications than White Americans. Identifying people with undiagnosed diabetes and helping them obtain care can help to prevent complications and mortality. To kick off a screening initiative, our community-academic partnership created the "Food for Life Festival," or "Festival Comida para la Vida." This article will describe the community's perspective on the Festival, which was designed to screen residents, and demonstrate that eating healthy can be fun, tasty, and affordable in a community-centered, culturally consonant setting. More than 1,000 residents attended the event; 382 adults were screened for diabetes, and 181 scored as high risk. Fifteen restaurants distributed free samples of healthy versions of their popular dishes. Community residents, restaurateurs, and clinicians commented that the event transformed many of their preconceived ideas about healthy foods and patient care. PMID:20097997

  6. Analysis of the thermal reaction products of para polyphenylene by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of the volatiles and sublimate produced when para-polyphenylene is pyrolyzed to constant weight under vacuum in the temperature range from 380 to 1000 C indicates that the polymer undergoes thermal degradation in two stages. The first stage involved dehydrohalogenation, which is essentially a curing reaction that produces crosslinking between polyphenylene chains resulting from the loss of chlorine from the polymer in the form of hydrogen chloride. The second stage of the thermal degradation is dehydrogenation because hydrogen is the major volatile species. Increasing amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene and 9, 10 benzphenanthrene) in the sublimate, concomitant with increasing C/H ratios of the polymeric residue with pyrolysis temperature, is consistent with the buildup of polynuclear structures in the polymer matrix.

  7. Study and manufacture of a para-/ortho-hydrogen catalytic converter for a space cryostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baston, A. H.; Bradshaw, T. W.; Butler, G.; Clark, N. S.; Chadwick, A. T.; Harris, D. H. C.; Leach, F.; Norris, J. O. W.; Price, D.

    1986-01-01

    The design and optimization of a para-/ortho-hydrogen converter to increase the efficiency and lifetime of the hydrogen cryogenic system of the ISO project are described. Catalyst technology and associated heat transfer technology is evaluated. Four catalyst systems were characterized. Their catalytic activity under the orbital conditions anticipated for the three radiation shields of ISO are reported. Results from experiments on in situ deactivation and reactivation are given, indicating that this is a key parameter. Iron oxide gel is the most promising catalyst system. A full scale prototype converter was designed to ESTEC specifications, and three converters were manufactured and tested. Performance, except for two small details, meets or exceeds specification. Plans for the development and testing of flight unit converters are proposed.

  8. Beard dermatitis due to para-phenylenediamine use in Arabic men.

    PubMed

    Hsu, T S; Davis, M D; el-Azhary, R; Corbett, J F; Gibson, L E

    2001-05-01

    The most common active ingredient in hair coloring is para-phenylenediamine (PPDA), which can produce contact dermatitis, particularly in persons who dye their scalp hair and in hairdressers. We have identified another group of patients also at risk, namely men from Arab countries, who commonly grow beards and dye them. We searched the computerized patient database at the Mayo Clinic for patients with beard dermatitis associated with dye use. Eight Arabic men presented to the Mayo Clinic between 1994 and 1999 with beard dermatitis and a positive patch test to PPDA. The lesions were described as pruritic, erythematous, papular eruptions that developed in the jaw area after each application of beard dye. The symptoms subsided after the patients discontinued use of the PPDA-containing dye and received treatment with topical corticosteroids. Allergic contact dermatitis in the beard area due to PPDA occurs in Arabic men as a result of their propensity to dye their beards. PMID:11312440

  9. Perspectivas Futuras para o Observatório do Pico dos Dias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, Albert

    2004-02-01

    Com o Observatório Gemini plenamente operacional e o telescópio SOAR iniciando suas operações em breve, a astronomia observacional brasileira encontra-se no auge de uma transformação profunda que terá um impacto grave no Observatório do Pico dos Dias - OPD. Refletimos aqui sobre a natureza desse impacto e estratégias para manter a competitividade do OPD. Não queremos apresentar receitas prontas, mas idéias que poderão servir como base de discussão sobre o uso inteligente dos telescópios do OPD como parte do conjunto de instrumentos disponíveis à comunidade astronômica brasileira.

  10. Applicability of the ParaDNA(®) Screening System to Seminal Samples.

    PubMed

    Tribble, Nicholas D; Miller, Jamie A D; Dawnay, Nick; Duxbury, Nicola J

    2015-05-01

    Seminal fluid represents a common biological material recovered from sexual assault crime scenes. Such samples can be prescreened using different techniques to determine cell type and relative amount before submitting for full STR profiling. The ParaDNA(®) Screening System is a novel forensic test which identifies the presence of DNA through amplification and detection of two common STR loci (D16S539 and TH01) and the Amelogenin marker. The detection of the Y allele in samples could provide a useful tool in the triage and submission of sexual assault samples by enforcement authorities. Male template material was detected on a range of common sexual assault evidence items including cotton pillow cases, condoms, swab heads and glass surfaces and shows a detection limit of 1 in 1000 dilution of neat semen. These data indicate this technology has the potential to be a useful tool for the detection of male donor DNA in sexual assault casework. PMID:25739746

  11. Transient effects and pump depletion in stimulated Raman scattering. [Para-hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsten, J.L.; Wenzel, R.G.; Druehl, K.

    1983-01-01

    Stimulated rotational Raman scattering in a 300-K multipass cell filled with para-H/sub 2/ with a single-mode CO/sub 2/-pumped laser is studied using a frequency-narrowed optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a probe laser at the Stokes frequency for the S/sub 0/(O) transition. Amplification and pump depletion are examined as a function of incident pump energy. The pump depletion shows clear evidence of transient behavior. A theoretical treatment of transient stimulated Raman scattering, including effects of both pump depletion and medium saturation is presented. In a first approximation, diffraction effects are neglected, and only plane-wave interactions are considered. The theoretical results are compared to the experimental pulse shapes.

  12. A Very Rare Cause of a Relapsing Para-Oesophageal Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Wespi, Simon Peter; Frei, Remus; Sulz, Michael Christian

    2016-01-01

    Oesophageal involvement in Crohn's disease (CD) is uncommon and most often accompanied by involvement of more distal parts. Its presentation is mostly non-specific, and therefore a diagnosis, especially in isolated oesophageal disease, is difficult. We present the case of a 42-year-old male patient who was referred to our gastroenterology department because of a para-oesophageal abscess. Under antibiotic treatment the abscess healed, but despite great diagnostic efforts, its aetiology remained unclear. Three years later the patient was hospitalized again because of an abscess at the same site. Endoscopy showed disseminated ulcerations of the lower oesophagus, raising suspicion of CD. After excluding other possible causes, we made the diagnosis of isolated CD of the oesophagus. We review the available literature on this topic and discuss the clinical presentation, symptoms, endoscopic findings, and histology as well as treatment of oesophageal CD. PMID:27403115

  13. Proyecto para la medición sistemática de seeing en CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Lajus, E.; Forte, J. C.

    La calidad del seeing astronómico es ciertamente uno de los parámetros mas importantes que caracterizan el sitio de un observatorio. Por tanto se desea determinar si el alto valor de seeing observado con el telescopio de 2.15 m se debe a efectos internos y/o del entorno a la cupula o si se debe simplemente al seeing propio del lugar. El actual mecanismo de refrigeración del espejo primario del 2.15, parece haber mejorado notablemente la calidad del seeing. Sin embargo se hace necesario saber hasta que punto el valor del seeing puede ser mejorado. La primera etapa del proyecto consistió en la puesta a punto del telescopio emplazado para este propósito y la adquisición de las primeras medidas tentativas de seeing.

  14. Ortho/para ratio of H2O+ toward Sagittarius B2(M) revisited.

    PubMed

    Schilke, Peter; Lis, Dariusz C; Bergin, Edwin A; Higgins, Ronan; Comito, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    The HIFI instrument aboard the Herschel satellite has allowed the observation and characterization of light hydrides, the building blocks of interstellar chemistry. In this article, we revisit the ortho/para ratio for H2O(+) toward the Sgr B2(M) cloud core. The line of sight toward this star forming region passes through several spiral arms and the gas in the Bar potential in the inner Galaxy. In contrast to earlier findings, which used fewer lines to constrain the ratio, we find a ratio of 3, which is uniformly consistent with high-temperature formation of the species. In view of the reactivity of this ion, this matches the expectations. PMID:23713712

  15. Conformational study of a single molecule of poly para phenylene ethynylenes in dilute solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskey, Sabina; Pierce, Flint; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2011-06-01

    The conformation of single molecules of dialkyl poly para phenylene ethynylenes (PPEs), electro-active polymers, is studied in solutions using molecular dynamics simulations. The conformation of conjugated polymers affects their electro-optical properties and therefore is critical to their current and potential uses, though only limited theoretical knowledge is available regarding the factors that control their configuration. The present study investigates the affects of molecular parameters including molecular weight of the polymer and chemical structure of the side chains of PPEs in different solvents on the conformation of the polymers. The PPEs are modeled atomistically where the solvents are modeled both implicitly and explicitly. The study finds that PPEs assume extended configuration which is affected by the length of the polymer backbone and the nature and length of substituting side chains. While the polymer remains extended, local dynamics is retained and no long range correlations are observed within the backbone. The results are compared with scattering experiments.

  16. Single strand dna breaks in human lymphocytes exposed to para-phenylenediamine and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Chye, Soi Mei; Hseu, You Cheng; Liang, Shih-Hsiung; Chen, Chin-Hui; Chen, Ssu Ching

    2008-01-01

    Para-Phenylenediamine (PPD), the main aromatic amines used in the hair dye formation, and its four derivatives (2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine, 4-chloro-o-phenylenediamine, 2-nitro-p-phenylenediamine, and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine) were examined for their potential to produce single strand DNA breaks in human lymphocytes using the alkaline comet assay. Results revealed that all the tested chemicals within the range of doses from 100 microM to 500 microM showed the genotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner after the incubation of lymphocytes with these chemicals for 2 h. In this study, we first reported that PPD and its four derivatives can elicit the type of single strand breaks in human lymphocytes. PMID:18058049

  17. Properties of single crystal para-terphenyl as medium for high resolution TOF detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gerone, M.; Biasotti, M.; Ceriale, V.; Corsini, D.; Gatti, F.; Orlando, A.; Pizzigoni, G.

    2016-07-01

    In the last years organic scintillators have been largely investigated in order to achieve high light yield together with good time response. Pure organic compound with high quality crystalline structure can achieve both this goals. Among a large type of organic compound, para-terphenyl (C18H14) have proven to have practical applications as detector medium for particle physics. In this work, the characterization of different sizes high quality mono-crystal p-terphenyl samples is presented. The optical and scintillation properties (emission spectrum, light yield, attenuation length, and decay time) are investigated. Coupling a Silicon PhotoMultiplier-based readout system to the crystal, a small prototype for a high resolution TOF detector was built; the preliminary results, obtained on a 20×30×3 mm3 sample, with dual-side read-out (Hamamatsu S10931-050P SiPMs) and irradiated with 90Sr source, show a time resolution of 35 ps.

  18. Coordination nano-space as stage of hydrogen ortho–para conversion

    PubMed Central

    Kosone, Takashi; Hori, Akihiro; Nishibori, Eiji; Kubota, Yoshiki; Mishima, Akio; Ohba, Masaaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kato, Kenichi; Kim, Jungeun; Real, José Antonio; Kitagawa, Susumu; Takata, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    The ability to design and control properties of nano-sized space in porous coordination polymers (PCPs) would provide us with an ideal stage for fascinating physical and chemical phenomena. We found an interconversion of nuclear-spin isomers for hydrogen molecule H2 adsorbed in a Hofmann-type PCP, {Fe(pz)[Pd(CN)4]} (pz=pyrazine), by the temperature dependence of Raman spectra. The ortho (o)–para (p) conversion process of H2 is forbidden for an isolated molecule. The charge density study using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction reveals the electric field generated in coordination nano-space. The present results corroborate similar findings observed on different systems and confirm that o–p conversion can occur on non-magnetic solids and that electric field can induce the catalytic hydrogen o–p conversion. PMID:26587262

  19. Cholecystocutaneous fistula: an unusual complication of a para-umbilical hernia repair

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Steven; Sharma, Mitesh; Holtham, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This case describes a 94-year-old woman who presented 2 years postsutured para-umbilical hernia repair with a painful black lump protruding through her scar with blood stained discharge. This was initially thought to be either ischaemic bowel secondary to strangulated incisional hernia or a large organised haematoma. An urgent CT scan was performed following which the patient passed two large calculi and bile-stained fluid spontaneously through the wound, making the diagnosis somewhat clearer. The scan revealed an incisional hernia containing the gallbladder and two large calculi at the skin surface and an incidental large caecal cancer with surrounding lymphadenopathy. Frail health and the incidental finding of a colon cancer rendered invasive surgical management inappropriate. Therefore, she was managed conservatively with antibiotics. A catheter was inserted into the fistula tract to allow free drainage and alleviate pressure-related symptoms. The patient was discharged following a multidisciplinary team discussion. PMID:24862413

  20. Development of a para-orthohydrogen catalytic converter for a solid hydrogen cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nast, T. C.; Hsu, I. C.

    1984-01-01

    Design features of a tested catalytic converter for altering vented cryogenic parahydrogen used as a coolant on spacecraft into a para-ortho equilibrium for channeling to other cooling functions are described. The hydrogen is expected to be stored in either liquid or solid form. A high surface area Ni-on-Si catalyst was selected for tests at an operating pressure of 2 torr at a ratio of 1000 gr catalyst for a gr/sec hydrogen flow. Cylindrical and radial flow geometries were tried and measurements centered on the converter efficiencies at different operating temperatures when the converter was placed in the vent line of the H2 cooler. Efficiencies ranging from 10-100 percent were obtained for varying flow rates. Further testing is necessary to characterize the converter performance under a wider range of operating temperatures and environments.

  1. El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W., II; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

  2. Surface Temperature Dependence of Hydrogen Ortho-Para Conversion on Amorphous Solid Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueta, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Naoki; Hama, Tetsuya; Kouchi, Akira

    2016-06-01

    The surface temperature dependence of the ortho-to-para conversion of H2 on amorphous solid water is first reported. A combination of photostimulated desorption and resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization techniques allowed us to sensitively probe the conversion on the surface of amorphous solid water at temperatures of 9.2-16 K. Within a narrow temperature window of 8 K, the conversion time steeply varied from ˜4.1 ×103 to ˜6.4 ×102 s . The observed temperature dependence is discussed in the context of previously suggested models and the energy dissipation process. The two-phonon process most likely dominates the conversion rate at low temperatures.

  3. Surface Temperature Dependence of Hydrogen Ortho-Para Conversion on Amorphous Solid Water.

    PubMed

    Ueta, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Naoki; Hama, Tetsuya; Kouchi, Akira

    2016-06-24

    The surface temperature dependence of the ortho-to-para conversion of H_{2} on amorphous solid water is first reported. A combination of photostimulated desorption and resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization techniques allowed us to sensitively probe the conversion on the surface of amorphous solid water at temperatures of 9.2-16 K. Within a narrow temperature window of 8 K, the conversion time steeply varied from ∼4.1×10^{3} to ∼6.4×10^{2}  s. The observed temperature dependence is discussed in the context of previously suggested models and the energy dissipation process. The two-phonon process most likely dominates the conversion rate at low temperatures. PMID:27391719

  4. ACT-asthma control y tratamiento para niños: a progress report.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M A; de la Sota, A; Rachelefsky, G; Lewis, C E; Quinones, H; Richards, W

    1987-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial is in progress to evaluate an asthma educational program for Latino children and their parents. The intervention, "ACT-Asma Control y Tratamiento Para Niños," was adapted from ACT for Kids, an asthma self-management program for English-speaking families. Results of a pilot study indicated that socioeconomic status was a critical variable to be considered in the design of such programs. Latino children and parents encounter significant barriers to access and continuity of medical care. Therefore, the intervention was redesigned to include "linkages" using a nurse to reduce barriers and to coordinate care. The lesson plans emphasize concrete, experimental learning experiences, with repetition of key points in each session. PMID:3654235

  5. Coordination nano-space as stage of hydrogen ortho-para conversion.

    PubMed

    Kosone, Takashi; Hori, Akihiro; Nishibori, Eiji; Kubota, Yoshiki; Mishima, Akio; Ohba, Masaaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kato, Kenichi; Kim, Jungeun; Real, José Antonio; Kitagawa, Susumu; Takata, Masaki

    2015-07-01

    The ability to design and control properties of nano-sized space in porous coordination polymers (PCPs) would provide us with an ideal stage for fascinating physical and chemical phenomena. We found an interconversion of nuclear-spin isomers for hydrogen molecule H2 adsorbed in a Hofmann-type PCP, {Fe(pz)[Pd(CN)4]} (pz=pyrazine), by the temperature dependence of Raman spectra. The ortho (o)-para (p) conversion process of H2 is forbidden for an isolated molecule. The charge density study using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction reveals the electric field generated in coordination nano-space. The present results corroborate similar findings observed on different systems and confirm that o-p conversion can occur on non-magnetic solids and that electric field can induce the catalytic hydrogen o-p conversion. PMID:26587262

  6. Food for Life/Comida para la Vida: Creating a Food Festival to Raise Diabetes Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Kristie; Walker, Willie; Vance, Thomas; Kaskel, Phyllis; Arniella, Guedy; Horowitz, Carol

    2012-01-01

    African and Latino Americans have higher rates of diabetes and its complications than White Americans. Identifying people with undiagnosed diabetes and helping them obtain care can help to prevent complications and mortality. To kick off a screening initiative, our community-academic partnership created the “Food for Life Festival,” or “Festival Comida para la Vida.” This article will describe the community’s perspective on the Festival, which was designed to screen residents, and demonstrate that eating healthy can be fun, tasty, and affordable in a community-centered, culturally consonant setting. More than 1,000 residents attended the event; 382 adults were screened for diabetes, and 181 scored as high risk. Fifteen restaurants distributed free samples of healthy versions of their popular dishes. Community residents, restaurateurs, and clinicians commented that the event transformed many of their preconceived ideas about healthy foods and patient care. PMID:20097997

  7. A method to obtain a well-defined fraction of respirable para-aramid fibers.

    PubMed

    Schins, R P; Gaudichet, A; Jaurand, M C

    1993-10-01

    We developed a preparation method to obtain respirable-sized fractions of para-aramid fibers. The procedure, based on floatability, consists of stirring and subsequent settling of p-aramid pulp in distilled water. Two distinct phases are obtained, with small fibers in the upper part of the suspension, which represents about 33% of the total volume. Optimal results were obtained when 2.0 g pulp was stirred for 15 hr in 800 ml distilled water containing 0.125% ethanol and settled for 5 hr. The mass yield ranged between 0.4 and 0.6%, more than 90% of the particles had an aspect ratio > or = 3:1. The mean fiber length was about 6 microns, and the mean fiber diameter was about 0.4 microns as determined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The number of fibers obtained was 4 x 10(6) fibers/micrograms under our standard conditions. PMID:8119251

  8. Constraining the ortho-to-para ratio of H2 with anomalous H_2CO absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troscompt, N.; Faure, A.; Maret, S.; Ceccarelli, C.; Hily-Blant, P.; Wiesenfeld, L.

    2009-11-01

    Context: The ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of molecular hydrogen is a fundamental parameter in understanding the physics and chemistry of molecular clouds. In dark and cold regions, however, H2 is not directly observable and the OPR of H2 in these sources has so far remained elusive. Aims: We show that the 6 cm absorption line of ortho-formaldehyde (H2CO) can be employed to constrain both the density and the OPR of H2 in dark clouds. Methods: Green Bank Telescope (GBT) observations of ortho-H2CO toward the molecular cloud Barnard 68 (B68) are reported. Non-LTE radiative transfer calculations combined with the well-constrained structure of B68 are then employed to derive the physical conditions in the absorption region. Results: We provide the first firm confirmation of the Townes & Cheung mechanism: propensity rules for the collisions of H2CO with H2 molecules are responsible for the sub-2.7 K cooling of the 6 cm doublet. Non-LTE calculations show that in the absorption region of B68, the kinetic temperature is ˜ 10 K, the ortho-H2CO column density amounts to ˜ 2.2× 1013 cm-2, the H2 density is in the range 1.4{-}2.4× 10 4 cm-3, and the OPR of H2 is close to zero. Our observations thus provide fresh evidence that H2 is mostly in its para form in the cold gas, as expected from theoretical considerations. Our results also suggest that formaldehyde absorption originates in the edge of B68, at visual extinctions A_V⪉ 0.5 mag. This work has been inspired by our colleague and friend Pierre Valiron, who passed away in August 2008. This paper is dedicated to his memory.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of para-aortic lymphadenectomy before chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Yun; Kim, Younhee; Lee, Tae-Jin; Jeon, Yong Woo; Kim, Kidong; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Jae-Weon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of nodal staging surgery before chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced cervical cancer in the era of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Methods A modified Markov model was constructed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of para-aortic staging surgery before definite CRT when no uptake is recorded in the para-aortic lymph nodes (PALN) on PET/CT. Survival and complication rates were estimated based on the published literature. Cost data were obtained from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Strategies were compared using an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Sensitivity analyses were performed, including estimates for the performance of PET/CT, postoperative complication rate, and varying survival rates according to the radiation field. Results We compared two strategies: strategy 1, pelvic CRT for all patients; and strategy 2, nodal staging surgery followed by extended-field CRT when PALN metastasis was found and pelvic CRT otherwise. The ICER for strategy 2 compared to strategy 1 was $19,505 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Under deterministic sensitivity analyses, the model was relatively sensitive to survival reduction in patients who undergo pelvic CRT alone despite having occult PALN metastasis. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrated the robustness of the case results, with a 91% probability of cost-effectiveness at the willingness-to-pay thresholds of $60,000/QALY. Conclusion Nodal staging surgery before definite CRT may be cost-effective when PET/CT imaging shows no evidence of PALN metastasis. Prospective trials are warranted to transfer these results to guidelines. PMID:25925292

  10. The analysis of para-cresol production and tolerance in Clostridium difficile 027 and 012 strains

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile is the major cause of antibiotic associated diarrhoea and in recent years its increased prevalence has been linked to the emergence of hypervirulent clones such as the PCR-ribotype 027. Characteristically, C. difficile infection (CDI) occurs after treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, which disrupt the normal gut microflora and allow C. difficile to flourish. One of the relatively unique features of C. difficile is its ability to ferment tyrosine to para-cresol via the intermediate para-hydroxyphenylacetate (p-HPA). P-cresol is a phenolic compound with bacteriostatic properties which C. difficile can tolerate and may provide the organism with a competitive advantage over other gut microflora, enabling it to proliferate and cause CDI. It has been proposed that the hpdBCA operon, rarely found in other gut microflora, encodes the enzymes responsible for the conversion of p-HPA to p-cresol. Results We show that the PCR-ribotype 027 strain R20291 quantitatively produced more p-cresol in-vitro and was significantly more tolerant to p-cresol than the sequenced strain 630 (PCR-ribotype 012). Tyrosine conversion to p-HPA was only observed under certain conditions. We constructed gene inactivation mutants in the hpdBCA operon in strains R20291 and 630Δerm which curtails their ability to produce p-cresol, confirming the role of these genes in p-cresol production. The mutants were equally able to tolerate p-cresol compared to the respective parent strains, suggesting that tolerance to p-cresol is not linked to its production. Conclusions C. difficile converts tyrosine to p-cresol, utilising the hpdBCA operon in C. difficile strains 630 and R20291. The hypervirulent strain R20291 exhibits increased production of and tolerance to p-cresol, which may be a contributory factor to the virulence of this strain and other hypervirulent PCR-ribotype 027 strains. PMID:21527013

  11. Self-assembled catalytic DNA nanostructures for synthesis of para-directed polyaniline.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Gang; Zhan, Pengfei; Ding, Baoquan

    2013-02-26

    Templated synthesis has been considered as an efficient approach to produce polyaniline (PANI) nanostructures. The features of DNA molecules enable a DNA template to be an intriguing template for fabrication of emeraldine PANI. In this work, we assembled HRP-mimicking DNAzyme with different artificial DNA nanostructures, aiming to manipulate the molecular structures and morphologies of PANI nanostructures through the controlled DNA self-assembly. UV-vis absorption spectra were used to investigate the molecular structures of PANI and monitor kinetic growth of PANI. It was found that PANI was well-doped at neutral pH and the redox behaviors of the resultant PANI were dependent on the charge density of the template, which was controlled by the template configurations. CD spectra indicated that the PANI threaded tightly around the helical DNA backbone, resulting in the right handedness of PANI. These reveal the formation of the emeraldine form of PANI that was doped by the DNA. The morphologies of the resultant PANI were studied by AFM and SEM. It was concluded from the imaging and spectroscopic kinetic results that PANI grew preferably from the DNAzyme sites and then expanded over the template to form 1D PANI nanostructures. The strategy of the DNAzyme-DNA template assembly brings several advantages in the synthesis of para-coupling PANI, including the region-selective growth of PANI, facilitating the formation of a para-coupling structure and facile regulation. We believe this study contributes significantly to the fabrication of doped PANI nanopatterns with controlled complexity, and the development of DNA nanotechnology. PMID:23272944

  12. On Ensino de Astronomia: Desafios para Implantação

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. Z.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    Em 2002 o ensino de Astronomia foi proposto como um dos temas estruturadores pelos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e sugerido como facilitador para que o aluno compreendesse a Física como construção humana e parte do seu mundo vivencial, mas raramente seus conceitos foram ensinados. A presente pesquisa discute dois aspectos relacionados à abordagem de Astronomia. O primeiro aspecto é se ela está sendo abordada pelos professores do Ensino Médio e o segundo, aborda a maneira como ela está sendo ensinada. Optou-se pela aplicação de um questionário a partir do 2° semestre de 2006 e durante o ano de 2007 com professores que ministram a disciplina de Física, os quais trabalham em escolas estaduais em Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeirão Pires e Mauá no estado São Paulo. Dos 66,2% dos professores que responderam ao questionário nos municípios de Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeirão Pires e Mauá, 57,4% não aplicaram nenhum tópico de astronomia, 70,2% não utilizaram laboratório, 89,4% não utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 83,0% nunca fizeram visitas com alunos a museus e planetários e 38,3% não indicaram qualquer tipo de livro ou revista referente à astronomia aos seus alunos. Mesmo considerando a Astronomia um conteúdo potencialmente significativo, esta não fez parte dos planejamentos escolares. Portanto são necessárias propostas que visem estratégias para a educação continuada dos professores como, por exemplo, cursos específicos sobre o ensino em Astronomia.

  13. Controlling electronic product branching at conical intersections in the UV photolysis of para-substituted thiophenols.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Thomas A A; King, Graeme A; Tew, David P; Dixon, Richard N; Ashfold, Michael N R

    2012-12-27

    H (Rydberg) atom photofragment translation spectroscopy and high-level ab initio electronic structure calculations are used to explore the photodissociation dynamics of three para-substituted thiophenols (p-YPhSH; Y = CH(3), F, and MeO). UV excitation in the wavelength range 305 > λ(phot) > 240 nm results in S-H bond fission and formation of p-YPhS radicals in their ground (X̃(2)B(1)) and first excited (Ã(2)B(2)) electronic states; the X̃/Ã state product branching ratio, Γ, varies with para-Y substituent and excitation wavelength. Excitation at λ(phot) < 265 nm results in direct population of the dissociative 1(1)πσ* potential energy surface (PES). Γ falls across the series p-CH(3)PhSH > p-FPhSH > p-MeOPhSH. Branching is ultimately determined at the conical intersection (CI) formed by the 1(1)πσ* and ground (S(0)) PESs at extended R(S-H) bond length but is sensitively dependent on the orientation of the S-H bond (relative to the ring plane) in the S(0) molecules prior to photoexcitation. Excitation at λ(phot) > 265 nm populates quasi-bound levels of the respective 1(1)ππ* states, which predissociate rapidly by tunneling under the lower diabats of the 1(1)ππ*/1(1)πσ* CI at short R(S-H). Less extreme X̃/Ã product branching ratios are measured, implicating intramolecular vibrational redistribution within the photoexcited 1(1)ππ* molecules prior to their sampling the region of the 1(1)πσ*/S(0) CI. PMID:23110379

  14. Prevalence of oral trauma in Para-Pan American Games athletes.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Rafaela Amarante; Modesto, Adriana; Evans, Patricia Louise Scabell; Almeida, Anne Louise Scabell; da Silva, Juliana de Jesus Rodrigues; Guedes, Aurelino Machado Lima; Guedes, Fábio Ribeiro; Ranalli, Dennis N; Tinoco, Eduardo Muniz Barretto

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional epidemiological survey was to assess the prevalence of oral trauma in athletes representing 25 countries competing at the most recent Para-Pan American Games (III PARAPAN) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study was approved by the appropriate institutional review board. The examiners participated in standardization and calibration training sessions before the field phase began. Invitations were sent to >1200 participating athletes competing in eight sports and to the Medical Committee of the Para-Pan American Sports Organization before and during the III PARAPAN. A convenience sample of 120 athletes was recruited. After signing an informed consent, all athletes answered a questionnaire. Data were collected at the clinical examination and recorded in a specific trauma form. The mean age of the athletes was 32.5 years. Males comprised 79.2% of the sample; females 20.8%. The prevalence of oral trauma among the athletes was 47.5% (N = 57). However, only 15 athletes reported that these traumatic injuries were sports-related. The sport with the highest prevalence of oral trauma was judo (75%); the least was volleyball with no reported traumatic injuries. The most common traumatic injury was enamel fracture (27.4%). The teeth most affected were the maxillary permanent central incisors (N = 19), followed by the maxillary premolars (N = 8). On the basis of the results of this study of oral trauma among athletes examined at the III PARAPAN, a recommendation for enhanced educational efforts and the use of properly fitted mouthguards to prevent traumatic injuries among high-performance athletes with disabilities seems warranted. PMID:22882839

  15. Uso de exámenes de detección como oportunidad para ayudar a fumadores a dejar el tabaco

    Cancer.gov

    El NCI ha publicado un anuncio de financiamiento para ayudar a estimular la investigación sobre métodos óptimos para dejar de fumar cigarrillos que se entreguen junto con los exámenes de detección.

  16. Enfermedad trofoblástica de la gestación—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de la enfermedad trofoblástica de la gestación, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  17. Pruebas sin beneficio comprobado se usan aún para viiglar cáncer de ovario

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo del blog Temas y Relatos del NCI sobre un estudio que indica que los medicos clínicos siguen usando análisis de CA-125 y exploraciones con TC para vigilar de rutina las recurrencias aunque no se ha comprobado el beneficio de estas pruebas.

  18. ParaStream: A parallel streaming Delaunay triangulation algorithm for LiDAR points on multicore architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huayi; Guan, Xuefeng; Gong, Jianya

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a robust parallel Delaunay triangulation algorithm called ParaStream for processing billions of points from nonoverlapped block LiDAR files. The algorithm targets ubiquitous multicore architectures. ParaStream integrates streaming computation with a traditional divide-and-conquer scheme, in which additional erase steps are implemented to reduce the runtime memory footprint. Furthermore, a kd-tree-based dynamic schedule strategy is also proposed to distribute triangulation and merging work onto the processor cores for improved load balance. ParaStream exploits most of the computing power of multicore platforms through parallel computing, demonstrating qualities of high data throughput as well as a low memory footprint. Experiments on a 2-Way-Quad-Core Intel Xeon platform show that ParaStream can triangulate approximately one billion LiDAR points (16.4 GB) in about 16 min with only 600 MB physical memory. The total speedup (including I/O time) is about 6.62 with 8 concurrent threads.

  19. Factor Analysis of the Spanish Version of the WAIS: The Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Francisco C., Jr.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The standardization of the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA) and the original Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) were subjected to principal components analysis to examine their comparability for 616 EIWA subjects and 800 WAIS subjects. Similarity of factor structures of both scales is supported. (SLD)

  20. The Role Of Women In Popular Education In Bolivia: A Case Study Of The "Oficina Juridica Para La Mujer"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollins, Judith M.; Hansman, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how the Education Office of the "Oficina Juridica Para la Mujer" [Women's Legal Office] , a community-based popular education organization in Cochabamba, Bolivia, works with women to address personal, legal, and policy issues through local leadership training and popular education methodology. We investigate the marginalization…

  1. PLASMA CLEARANCE OF VITELLOGENIN IN SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS AFTER CESSATION OF EXPOSURE TO 17BETA-ESTRADIOL AND PARA-NONYLPHENOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two experiments were performed to determine the rate of vitellogenin plasma accumulation and clearance in male sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) during and after exposure to either 17b-estradiol (E2) or para-nonylphenol (p-NP). Adult fish were continuously exposed to aqu...

  2. A Conceptual Model for Supporting Para-Teacher Learning in an Indian Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Jules

    2010-01-01

    Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are being recognized globally for their influential role in realizing the UN Millennium Development Goal of education for all in developing countries. NGOs mostly employ untrained para-educators for grassroots activities. The professional development of these teachers is critical for NGO effectiveness, yet…

  3. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

  4. Cáncer de piel (incluye el melanoma)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de piel, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas.

  5. Cáncer de vesícula biliar—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vesícula biliar, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  6. Violencia de Pareja en Mujeres Hispanas: Implicaciones para la Investigación y la Práctica

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Becerra, Maria Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Las investigaciones sobre la violencia entre parejas sugieren que las mujeres hispanas están siendo afectadas desproporcionadamente por la ocurrencia y consecuencias de este problema de salud pública. El objetivo del presente artículo es dar a conocer el estado del arte en relación a la epidemiologia, consecuencias y factores de riesgo para VP entre mujeres Hispanas, discutiendo las implicaciones para la investigación y la práctica. Investigaciones han demostrado una fuerte asociación del status socioeconómico, abuso de droga y el alcohol, la salud mental, aculturación, inmigración, comportamientos sexuales riesgosos e historia de abuso con la violencia entre parejas. Sin embargo, más estudios se deben llevar a cabo para identificar otros factores de riesgos y de protección a poblaciones hispanas no clínicas. Mientras que el conocimiento sobre la etiología de la VP entre mujeres Hispanas se expanda, enfermeras y otros profesionales de la salud deben desarrollar, implementar y evaluar estrategias culturalmente adecuadas para la prevención primaria y secundaria de la violencia entre pareja. PMID:26166938

  7. Cáncer de hígado y de conducto biliar—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del NCI para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de hígado y de conducto biliar, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas.

  8. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Squamous Cell Anal Cancer With Para-aortic Nodal Involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, Joseph C.; Das, Prajnan; Eng, Cathy; Reish, Andrew G.; Beddar, A. Sam; Delclos, Marc E.; Krishnan, Sunil; Crane, Christopher H.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the rates of toxicity, locoregional control, distant control, and survival in anal cancer patients with para-aortic nodal involvement, treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy at a single institution. Methods and Materials: Between 2001 and 2007, 6 patients with squamous cell anal cancer and para-aortic nodal involvement were treated with IMRT and concurrent infusional 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. The primary tumor was treated with a median dose of 57.5 Gy (range, 54-60 Gy), involved para-aortic, pelvic, and inguinal lymph nodes were treated with a median dose of 55 Gy (range, 50.5-55 Gy), and noninvolved nodal regions were treated with a median dose of 45 Gy (range, 43.5-45 Gy). Results: After a median follow-up of 25 months, none of the patients had a recurrence at the primary tumor, pelvic/inguinal nodes, or para-aortic nodes, whereas 2 patients developed distant metastases to the liver. Four of the 6 patients are alive. The 3-year actuarial locoregional control, distant control, and overall survival rates were 100%, 56%, and 63%, respectively. Four of the 6 patients developed Grade 3 acute gastrointestinal toxicity during chemoradiation. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy could potentially serve as definitive therapy in anal cancer patients with para-aortic nodal involvement. Adjuvant chemotherapy may be indicated in these patients, as demonstrated by the distant failure rates. These patients need to be followed carefully because of the potential for treatment-related toxicities.

  9. Long-term results of para-aortic irradiation for patients with stage I seminoma of the testis

    SciTech Connect

    Niazi, Tamim M.; Souhami, Luis . E-mail: luis.souhami@muhc.mcgill.ca; Sultanem, Khalil; Duclos, Marie; Shenouda, George; Freeman, Carolyn

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: Adjuvant postoperative para-aortic lymph nodal irradiation is an acceptable alternative to para-aortic and ipsilateral pelvic irradiation postorchiectomy for patients with Stage I seminoma of the testis. In this article, we report the long-term results of our prospective evaluation of para-aortic irradiation only for such patients. Methods and materials: Between March 1991 and September 2000, 71 patients with Stage I seminoma were treated with adjuvant irradiation to the para-aortic region only after radical inguinal orchiectomy. Radiotherapy was delivered using parallel-opposed fields extending from T11 to L5. A total dose of 25 Gy in 15 fractions was prescribed to midpoint. Follow-up was performed every 3 months for the first year, every 4 months for the second and third years, every 6 months for the fourth and fifth years, and annually thereafter. Chest X-ray, tumor markers, and computed tomography scan of the pelvis were performed routinely as part of the follow-up investigation. Results: At a median follow-up of 75 months, 68 of 71 patients are alive and free of relapse. Only 1 patient (1.4%) experienced failure in the ipsilateral inguinal nodal region. Two patients (2.8%) died of unrelated causes. The actuarial 10-year relapse free survival is 98.5% and the actuarial 10-year overall survival is 92%. No late toxicity has been encountered. Conclusion: Patients with Stage I seminoma of the testis may be safely treated with para-aortic radiotherapy only. Risk of pelvic failure is very low and treatment toxicity minimal.

  10. The Ortho-to-Para Ratio and the Chemical Properties of C3 H2 in Dark Cloud Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Kawaguchi, Kentarou; Mikami, Hitomi; Saito, Masao

    2001-04-01

    We have observed cyclic C3H2 (JKaKc = 212-101, 202 - 111, 312 - 303) lines at the 3 mm wavelength region toward the starless TMC-1C cloud and the protostellar core of L 1527 with the 45 m telescope at Nobeyama Radio Observatory. In both clouds, the 212-101 and 202 - 111 lines are strongly detected, while the 312 - 303 line is only detected toward the center of the protostellar core L 1527. From our statistical equilibrium analyses of the ortho-C3H2(212-101) and the para-C3H2(202-111)lines, the ortho-to-para ratios of C3H2 are determined to be 2.4 +/- 0.1 and 2.5 +/- 0.5 in TMC-1C and L 1527, respectively. These values are lower than the statistical value of 3, although the error of the ratio in L 1527 is large. Since thermal equilibrium with a dust temperature of 10 K still gives a ratio of 3 in c-C3H2, this result should suggest the lower ortho-to-para ratio of the precursor molecule, c-C3H+3, which is thought to be mainly produced by C3H++H2. Thus, we conclude that the lower ortho-to-para ratio of c-C3H2 is due to a lower ortho-to-para ratio of H2 than the statistical value.

  11. PFI-ZEKE (Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy) para el estudio de iones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaño, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Basterretxea, A. Longarte. F.; Sánchez Rayo, M. N.; Martínez, R.

    Entre las áreas hacia donde ha evolucionado la Química en los últimos años están los estudios de sistemas con especies reactivas de alta energía y los dominados por fuerzas intermoleculares débiles, con energías de unas pocas kcal/mol. En efecto, el estudio de las propiedades de los iones, comenzando por su relación con la molécula neutra de la que procede, la energía de ionización, los estados vibracionales y rotacionales, energías de enlace de Van der Waals entre el ión y una amplia variedad de otras moléculas, sus confórmeros o isómeros y sus reacciones o semi-reacciones químicas están en la raíz de la necesidad de la espectroscopía conocida como PFI-ZEKE, Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy. Entre las aplicaciones que requieren estos conocimientos se encuentran la generación de plasmas para la fabricación de semiconductores, memorias magnéticas, etc, así como los sistemas astrofísicos, la ionosfera terrestre, etc. La espectroscopía ZEKE es una evolución de las de fluorescencia inducida por láser, LIF, ionización multifotónica acrecentada por resonancia, REMPI, con uno y dos colores y acoplada a un sistema de tiempo de vuelo, REMPI-TOF-MS, y las espectroscopías de doble resonancia IR-UV y UV-UV. Sus espectros y la ayuda de cálculos ab inicio permite determinar las energías de enlace de complejos de van der Waals en estados fundamental y excitados, identificar confórmeros e isómeros, obtener energías de ionización experimentales aproximadas (100 cm-1) y otras variables de interés. Al igual que con LIF, REMPI y dobles resonancias, es posible utilizar muestras gaseosas, pero los espectros están muy saturados de bandas y su interpretación es difícil o imposible. Se evitan estas dificultades estudiando las moléculas o complejos en expansiones supersónicas, donde la T de los grados de libertad solo alcanzan unos pocos K. Para realizar experimentos de ZEKE hay que utilizar una propiedad recientemente

  12. Implementing Ready To Learn Outreach: Lessons from 20 Public Television Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Cheri; Uhl, Stacey; Boller, Kimberly

    Ready to Learn is an outreach initiative designed to increase the potential of PBS children's television programs to teach children cognitive and social skills. The program funds workshops for parents and teachers, materials supplementing children's television programs, children's book distribution, and "PBS Families" and "PBS para la Familia"…

  13. A remarkably stable TipE gene cluster: evolution of insect Para sodium channel auxiliary subunits

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background First identified in fruit flies with temperature-sensitive paralysis phenotypes, the Drosophila melanogaster TipE locus encodes four voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channel auxiliary subunits. This cluster of TipE-like genes on chromosome 3L, and a fifth family member on chromosome 3R, are important for the optional expression and functionality of the Para NaV channel but appear quite distinct from auxiliary subunits in vertebrates. Here, we exploited available arthropod genomic resources to trace the origin of TipE-like genes by mapping their evolutionary histories and examining their genomic architectures. Results We identified a remarkably conserved synteny block of TipE-like orthologues with well-maintained local gene arrangements from 21 insect species. Homologues in the water flea, Daphnia pulex, suggest an ancestral pancrustacean repertoire of four TipE-like genes; a subsequent gene duplication may have generated functional redundancy allowing gene losses in the silk moth and mosquitoes. Intronic nesting of the insect TipE gene cluster probably occurred following the divergence from crustaceans, but in the flour beetle and silk moth genomes the clusters apparently escaped from nesting. Across Pancrustacea, TipE gene family members have experienced intronic nesting, escape from nesting, retrotransposition, translocation, and gene loss events while generally maintaining their local gene neighbourhoods. D. melanogaster TipE-like genes exhibit coordinated spatial and temporal regulation of expression distinct from their host gene but well-correlated with their regulatory target, the Para NaV channel, suggesting that functional constraints may preserve the TipE gene cluster. We identified homology between TipE-like NaV channel regulators and vertebrate Slo-beta auxiliary subunits of big-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels, which suggests that ion channel regulatory partners have evolved distinct lineage-specific characteristics

  14. Cosmoeducação: uma proposta para o ensino de astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, L. A. L.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Entende-se por cosmoeducação o desenvolvimento vivencial da unidade homem-cosmo. Este conceito é norteado pela psicologia transpessoal, que estuda o ser humano em sua totalidade, onde suas relações ecológicas e cósmicas são de grande importância. Constata-se uma necessidade latente no ser humano moderno em resgatar uma relação holística com o Universo. Neste trabalho exploramos meios de cultivar a consciência de que o ser humano constitui parte integrante do cosmo e se relaciona com este com o objetivo de promover em si uma percepção ambiental mais ampla. Nossa hipótese de trabalho inicial foi que o ensino de conteúdos básicos em astronomia realizado através de uma abordagem holística, que incorpore práticas vivenciais correlacionadas àqueles conteúdos, pode despertar no indivíduo sua identidade cósmica. O método que utilizamos é o fenomenológico e o universo desta pesquisa é um grupo de estudantes da disciplina de Astronomia (Curso de Licenciatura em Geografia/UFRN), onde realizamos observação participante, entrevistas, depoimentos e as práticas vivenciais mencionadas. Neste caso estamos desenvolvendo e adaptando exercícios de algumas técnicas terapêuticas de psicologia transpessoal, que um de nós (LALM) tem aplicado no contexto clínico, para trabalhar aspectos cognitivos envolvidos naquele processo de conscientização cósmica. Resultados parciais claramente referendam a hipótese inicial. Um resultado a destacar é fruto de uma dinâmica de representação corporal interiorizada do eclipse lunar, envolvendo um pequeno grupo daqueles estudantes, na qual conteúdos míticos afloraram de maneira espontânea e contundente para todos, sugerindo ressonância, ou pelo menos isomorfismo, entre o macro e o microcosmo. Este e outros resultados são discutidos em detalhe neste trabalho. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP).

  15. Community Preferences for the Allocation &Donation of Organs - The PAraDOx Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Transplantation is the treatment of choice for people with severe organ failure. However, demand substantially exceeds supply of suitable organs; consequently many people wait months, or years to receive an organ. Reasons for the chronic shortage of deceased organ donations are unclear; there appears to be no lack of 'in principle' public support for organ donation. Methods/Design The PAraDOx Study examines community preferences for organ donation policy in Australia. The aims are to 1) determine which factors influence decisions by individuals to offer their organs for donation and 2) determine the criteria by which the community deems the allocation of donor organs to be fair and equitable. Qualitative and quantitative methods will be used to assess community preferences for organ donation and allocation. Focus group participants from the general community, aged between 18-80, will be purposively sampled to ensure a variety of cultural backgrounds and views on organ donation. Each focus group will include a ranking exercise using a modified nominal group technique. Focus groups of organ recipients, their families, and individuals on a transplant waiting list will also be conducted. Using the qualitative work, a discrete choice study will be designed to quantitatively assess community preferences. Discrete choice methods are based on the premise that goods and services can be described in terms of a number of separate attributes. Respondents are presented with a series of choices where levels of attributes are varied, and a mathematical function is estimated to describe numerically the value respondents attach to different options. Two community surveys will be conducted in approximately 1000 respondents each to assess community preferences for organ donation and allocation. A mixed logit model will be used; model results will be expressed as parameter estimates (β) and the odds of choosing one option over an alternative. Trade-offs between attributes

  16. PREVENCION DE VIH PARA MUJERES HISPANAS DE 50 AÑOS Y MÁS

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, N.; Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L.; Kaelber, L.; Peragallo, N.; Yaya, Alexandra O.

    2012-01-01

    Introducción Las mujeres Hispanas de 50 años y más (MHC) son una minoría en Estados Unidos que está a elevado riesgo de adquirir VIH y son el grupo menos estudiado en lo que respecta a salud, características sociales y de comportamiento sexual. Objetivo Investigar los factores que incrementan el riesgo de VIH en las MHC con el propósito de desarrollar o adaptar una intervención apropiada para la “edad y la cultura "de este grupo de mujeres. Metodología Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal con una muestra de 50 MHC, sexualmente activas y que residían en Miami, Florida, Estados Unidos. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado administrado por entrevistadores entrenados y bilingües (inglés/español). Las participantes fueron reclutadas en diferentes lugares en el Sur de Florida. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó estadística descriptiva, tanto medidas de tendencia central como medidas de dispersión. Resultados La edad promedio de las MHC fue de 55,7 ± 6 años (rango 50–76 años). Todas las MHC estaban en la menopausia. Prevención del VIH Las MHC reportaron niveles medios de conocimientos sobre VIH y comunicación con la pareja. En la muestra se reportó la presencia de síntomas depresivos, violencia en la pareja, actitudes negativas hacia las personas viviendo con VIH y baja percepción de riesgo de adquirir VIH. Las MHC mencionaron necesidades de aprendizaje en tópicos relacionados con prevención de VIH y cambios de la edad. Conclusión Las MHC están a riesgo de adquirir VIH y tienen necesidades especiales en términos de educación sobre prevención de VIH. PMID:25242862

  17. Positive Pacing Strategies Are Utilized by Elite Male and Female Para-cyclists in Short Time Trials in the Velodrome

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Rachel L.

    2016-01-01

    In para-cycling, competitors are classed based on functional impairment resulting in cyclists with neurological and locomotor impairments competing against each other. In Paralympic competition, classes are combined by using a factoring adjustment to race times to produce the overall medallists. Pacing in short-duration track cycling events is proposed to utilize an “all-out” strategy in able-bodied competition. However, pacing in para-cycling may vary depending on the level of impairment. Analysis of the pacing strategies employed by different classification groups may offer scope for optimal performance; therefore, this study investigated the pacing strategy adopted during the 1-km time trial (TT) and 500-m TT in elite C1 to C3 para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists. Total times and intermediate split times (125-m intervals; measured to 0.001 s) were obtained from the C1-C3 men's 1-km TT (n = 28) and women's 500-m TT (n = 9) from the 2012 Paralympic Games and the men's 1-km TT (n = 19) and women's 500-m TT (n = 12) from the 2013 UCI World Track Championships from publically available video. Split times were expressed as actual time, factored time (for the para-cyclists) and as a percentage of total time. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate differences in split times between the different classifications and the able-bodied cyclists in the men's 1-km TT and between the para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists in the women's 500-m TT. The importance of position at the first split was investigated with Kendall's Tau-b correlation. The first 125-m split time was the slowest for all cyclists, representing the acceleration phase from a standing start. C2 cyclists were slowest at this 125-m split, probably due to a combination of remaining seated in this acceleration phase and a high proportion of cyclists in this group being trans-femoral amputees. Not all cyclists used aero-bars, preferring to use drop, flat or bullhorn handlebars. Split times

  18. Usina de ciências: um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Orrico, A. C. P.; Pereira, M. G.

    2003-08-01

    Entendemos que o Ensino de Astronomia é especialmente apropriado para motivar os alunos e aprofundar conteúdos em diversas áreas do conhecimento, pois envolve temas ligados à Física, Matemática, Química, Computação, Tratamento de Imagens e Instrumentação de Alta Precisão, além daqueles pertinentes as áreas de Geografia, História e Antropologia. Contudo, apesar do caráter interdisciplinar que esta ciência possui, a realidade atual é que a maioria dos professores em sala de aula não foram devidamente capacitados, durante o período de formação acadêmica, para ministrar conteúdos de Astronomia nos atuais Ensinos Fundamental e Médio. Neste trabalho, discutiremos de maneira ampla, num primeiro momento, a realidade do atual ensino de ciências praticado no Estado da Bahia, apontando por dependência administrativa, o crescimento e a redução do número de escolas, da taxa de analfabetismo por faixa etária, da escolarização, do atendimento, da aprovação, reprovação e abandono, de equipamentos e laboratórios e o grau de formação dos nossos atuais professores em pleno exercício de atividade docente. Num segundo momento, discutiremos o papel do Observatório Astronômico Antares/UEFS dentro desse contexto, ou seja, suas ações implementadas ao longo dos últimos anos e em particular, o recente projeto de extensão Ensino e Difusão de Astronomia, financiado pela Fundação Vitae, que procura traduzir no lúdico, no brincar de ciências, um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas. Neste, o papel do professor multiplicador associado ao laboratório de kits didáticos, de fácil construção e manipulação (alguns dos quais serão mostrados), perfazem os principais veículos para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos, atitudes, habilidades e valores que preparam os nossos alunos para a carreira técnico-científica e para sua participação crítica e criativa na Sociedade.

  19. Positive Pacing Strategies Are Utilized by Elite Male and Female Para-cyclists in Short Time Trials in the Velodrome.

    PubMed

    Wright, Rachel L

    2015-01-01

    In para-cycling, competitors are classed based on functional impairment resulting in cyclists with neurological and locomotor impairments competing against each other. In Paralympic competition, classes are combined by using a factoring adjustment to race times to produce the overall medallists. Pacing in short-duration track cycling events is proposed to utilize an "all-out" strategy in able-bodied competition. However, pacing in para-cycling may vary depending on the level of impairment. Analysis of the pacing strategies employed by different classification groups may offer scope for optimal performance; therefore, this study investigated the pacing strategy adopted during the 1-km time trial (TT) and 500-m TT in elite C1 to C3 para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists. Total times and intermediate split times (125-m intervals; measured to 0.001 s) were obtained from the C1-C3 men's 1-km TT (n = 28) and women's 500-m TT (n = 9) from the 2012 Paralympic Games and the men's 1-km TT (n = 19) and women's 500-m TT (n = 12) from the 2013 UCI World Track Championships from publically available video. Split times were expressed as actual time, factored time (for the para-cyclists) and as a percentage of total time. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate differences in split times between the different classifications and the able-bodied cyclists in the men's 1-km TT and between the para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists in the women's 500-m TT. The importance of position at the first split was investigated with Kendall's Tau-b correlation. The first 125-m split time was the slowest for all cyclists, representing the acceleration phase from a standing start. C2 cyclists were slowest at this 125-m split, probably due to a combination of remaining seated in this acceleration phase and a high proportion of cyclists in this group being trans-femoral amputees. Not all cyclists used aero-bars, preferring to use drop, flat or bullhorn handlebars. Split times

  20. Familia Adelante: A Multi-Risk Prevention Intervention for Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Richard; Goldbach, Jeremy; Santos, Susana M.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive approach for providing behavioral health services to youth is becoming increasingly emphasized. Latino youth are at increased risk for substance abuse, mental health concerns, unsafe sexual practices and HIV, and these outcomes have been empirically connected to individual, family and community-based stress. Despite this knowledge,…

  1. "Entre Familia": Immigrant Parents' Strategies for Involvement in Children's Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poza, Luis; Brooks, Maneka Deanna; Valdés, Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    Teachers and administrators in schools with large, working-class Latino populations often complain of parents' indifference or lack of involvement in children's schooling because of their low visibility at school events and relatively little face-to-face communication with teachers and school administration. In a series of…

  2. Pages from Life: Families Write Together = Paginas de la Vida: Familias Escriben Juntas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukes, Marguerite, Ed.; Rawson, Katherine, Ed.

    On Saturdays, neighbors in the Mount Pleasant area of the District of Columbia come together to participate in the family involvement component of The Books Project, a teacher education program that trains teachers to implement writing workshops in language diverse classrooms. The Family Involvement Project expands The Books Project to include…

  3. El Impacto del Trastorno del Espectro Autista en la Familia: Mi Hijo Despues de la Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez Carrion, Milagros

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to know the perception of families who have a child diagnosed with autism and identify the strategies and process use to care of these children. We selected five Puerto Rican families who were head of household and had an autism child and through their voices and experiences we were able to conduct the…

  4. "La Familia": The Important Ingredient for Latina/o College Student Engagement and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matos, Jennifer M. D.

    2015-01-01

    This article utilizes Yosso's (2005) community cultural framework and the six forms of cultural capital (aspirational, familial, linguistic, navigational, resistant, social) as corrective reframes of the cultural deficit model. Although the prevailing literature on Latina/o parents and families portray this population as being unmotivated and…

  5. Autismo: Lo Que Miembros de Familia Necesitan Saber (Autism: What the Family Members Need to Know).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft School, Haddonfield, NJ.

    In Spanish, the booklet addresses basic information for families with children who have autism. Facts about the syndrome are listed, followed by signs and symptoms, a summary of programmatic requirements, answers to questions frequently asked by families, suggestions to help parents cope, concerns facing adolescents and adults with autism, and…

  6. Effects of a Promotor-Based Intervention to Promote Physical Activity: Familias Sanas y Activas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. This within-participants, single time-series study tested a train-the-trainer, promotor-based physical activity (PA) intervention to improve fitness and health indicators. Methods. Thirty unpaid promotores were trained to promote PA through free exercise classes. Measurements of 337 female community participants at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months assessed changes in health indicators, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index (defined as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters), aerobic fitness, and hamstring flexibility, as well as self-reported health indicators (PA, depression) and psychosocial factors (barriers, self-efficacy, and social support—all specific to PA). Results. Mixed effects models showed intervention participation improved systolic blood pressure (P ≤ .001), waist circumference (P ≤ .001), fitness (P ≤ .001), and hamstring flexibility (P ≤ .001). We also noted improvements in use of community resources (P ≤ .05), depressed mood and anhedonia (P ≤ .01), perceived barriers to be physically active (P ≤ .05), and community support for PA (P ≤ .001). Self-efficacy decreased (P ≤ .05), and participation dose (i.e., exposure), as measured by attendance at exercise classes, was not associated with observed changes. Conclusions. Promotores can promote PA in their community and achieve meaningful changes in the residents' health. PMID:22021294

  7. METABOLIC AND BEHAVIORAL PREDICTORS OF WEIGHT GAIN IN HISPANIC CHILDREN: THE VIVA LA FAMILIA STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the high prevalence of overweight among Hispanic children in the United States, definitive predictors of weight gain have not been identified in this population. The study objective was to test sociodemographic, metabolic, and behavioral predictors of 1-y weight gains in a large cohort of Hi...

  8. Predictors of weight gain in Hispanic children - The VIVA LA FAMILIA study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Childhood obesity arises from a dysregulation of energy balance; however, the relative role of diet and physical activity in the etiology of excessive weight gain is poorly understood. Methods: The specific aims of this study were to measure 1-year changes in weight, height, and body com...

  9. Adapting a Common Photographic Camera to Take Pictures of the Sky. (Spanish Title: Adaptando Una Camara Fotografica Comun Para Obtener Fotografias del Cielo.) Adaptando Uma Câmera Fotográfica Manual Simples Para Fotografar o Céu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; Pereira, Ricardo Francisco

    2007-12-01

    In this paper will be introduced a method of astrophotography using a non-reflex photographic camera (a low-cost method). It will be revised some photographic processes commonly used nowadays for comparison with the aims of this paper. En este trabajo será introducido un método de astrofotografia que utiliza una cámara fotográfica non-reflex (un método de bajo costo). Serán revisados algunos procesos fotográficos comúnmente utilizados actualmente para comparación con los objetivos de este trabajo. O presente artigo procura introduzir um método de astrofotografia utilizando uma câmera fotográfica não reflex, de baixo custo. É feita uma revisão do processo fotográfico comumente empregado para fins de comparação com os objetivos pretendidos no presente trabalho.

  10. Para-toluenesulfonamide induces tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell death through disturbing lysosomal stability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Liang, Chenyuan; Zhang, Zhuoyuan; Pan, Jian; Xia, Hui; Zhong, Nanshan; Li, Longjiang

    2015-11-01

    Para-toluenesulfonamide (PTS) has been implicated with anticancer effects against a variety of tumors. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of PTS on tongue squamous cell carcinoma (Tca-8113) and explored the lysosomal and mitochondrial changes after PTS treatment in vitro. High-performance liquid chromatography showed that PTS selectively accumulated in Tca-8113 cells with a relatively low concentration in normal fibroblasts. Next, the effects of PTS on cell viability, invasion, and cell death were determined. PTS significantly inhibited Tca-8113 cells' viability and invasive ability with increased cancer cell death. Flow cytometric analysis and the lactate dehydrogenase release assay showed that PTS induced cancer cell death by activating apoptosis and necrosis simultaneously. Morphological changes, such as cellular shrinkage, nuclear condensation as well as formation of apoptotic body and secondary lysosomes, were observed, indicating that PTS might induce cell death through disturbing lysosomal stability. Lysosomal integrity assay and western blot showed that PTS increased lysosomal membrane permeabilization associated with activation of lysosomal cathepsin B. Finally, PTS was shown to inhibit ATP biosynthesis and induce the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. Therefore, our findings provide a novel insight into the use of PTS in cancer therapy. PMID:26302210

  11. Para-dichlorobenzene toxicity – a review of potential neurotoxic manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Divyanshu; Sharma, Vibhash D.; Pass, Steven E.; Sawhney, Anshudha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Para-dichlorobenzene (PDCB) is an active ingredient of mothballs, deodorizers and fumigants. Due to the easy availability of this chemical, there is a considerable risk for accidental or intentional toxic exposure. Recently, multiple cases of PDCB toxicity due to mothball ingestion were reported. PDCB toxicity can affect multiple organ systems including liver, kidneys, skin, lung and the central nervous system (CNS). CNS toxicity often results in leukoencephalopathy and heterogeneous neurological manifestations. Objectives: The objective of this study was to illustrate the clinical presentation, imaging findings, diagnosis and management of PDCB toxicity. Methods: We carried out a literature review of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of PDCB. Conclusions: PDCB and other aromatic hydrocarbons are capable of CNS tissue damage and in promoting functional neurological decline. While very little is currently known about prevalence of PDCB addiction, it cannot be ruled out that its illicit use among young people is under-recognized. The number of cases of PDCB toxicity might also rise due to the increasing industrial and domestic use of this chemical. PMID:24790648

  12. Para-Phenylenediamine Induces Apoptotic Death of Melanoma Cells and Reduces Melanoma Tumour Growth in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Debajit; Bhar, Kaushik; Mallick, Sanjaya K; Das, Subhadip; Chatterjee, Nabanita; Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi; Das Saha, Krishna; Siddhanta, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer, usually resistant to standard chemotherapeutics. Despite a huge number of clinical trials, any success to find a chemotherapeutic agent that can effectively destroy melanoma is yet to be achieved. Para-phenylenediamine (p-PD) in the hair dyes is reported to purely serve as an external dyeing agent. Very little is known about whether p-PD has any effect on the melanin producing cells. We have demonstrated p-PD mediated apoptotic death of both human and mouse melanoma cells in vitro. Mouse melanoma tumour growth was also arrested by the apoptotic activity of intraperitoneal administration of p-PD with almost no side effects. This apoptosis is shown to occur primarily via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and caspase 8 activation. p-PD mediated apoptosis was also confirmed by the increase in sub-G0/G1 cell number. Thus, our experimental observation suggests that p-PD can be a potential less expensive candidate to be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent for melanoma. PMID:27293892

  13. Long-Range Ruthenium-Amine Electronic Communication through the para-Oligophenylene Wire

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jun-Jian; Zhong, Yu-Wu

    2015-01-01

    The studies of long-range electronic communication are hampered by solubility and potential-splitting issues. A “hybridized redox-asymmetry” method using a combination of organic and inorganic redox species is proposed and exemplified to overcome these two issues. Complexes 1(PF6)–6(PF6) (from short to long in length) with the organic redox-active amine and inorganic cyclometalated ruthenium termini bridged by the para-oligophenylene wire have been prepared. Complex 6 has the longest Ru-amine geometrical distance of 27.85 Å. Complexes 3(PF6) and 4(PF6) show lamellar crystal packing on the basis of a head-to-tail anti-parallelly aligned dimeric structure. Two redox waves are observed for all complexes in the potential region between +0.2 and +0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl. The electrochemical potential splitting is 410, 220, 143, 112, 107, and 105 mV for 1(PF6) through 6(PF6), respectively. Ruthenium (+2) to aminium (N•+) charge transfer transitions have been identified for the odd-electron compounds 12+–62+ by spectroelectrochemical measurements. The electronic communication between amine and ruthenium decreases exponentially with a decay slope of −0.137 Å−1. DFT calculations have been performed to complement these experimental results. PMID:26344929

  14. Ab initio study of vibrational anharmonic coupling effects in oligo(para-phenylenes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimel, G.; Somitsch, D.; Knoll, P.; Zojer, E.

    2002-06-01

    In this work, we clarify the nature of a previously not precisely identified Fermi dyad in the frequency range around 1600 cm-1 in oligo( para-phenylenes). To this end, we deploy a novel method to calculate third order anharmonic coupling effects in molecules. This Fermi dyad is shown to yield important information on the structural properties of the investigated materials. The nature of all vibrations contributing to this quantum mechanical resonance phenomenon is explained on the basis of a detailed normal coordinate analysis. The anharmonic coupling is then closely investigated by applying our theoretical model. In particular, we discuss the intensity redistribution among the two components of the Fermi doublet as well as their energetic separation. Subsequently, we establish a relation between these features and the structural conformation of the molecules. We show, how oligomer length and planarity of these systems can be determined from experimental Raman spectra by extracting the positions and relative intensities of the two components of the Fermi doublet. Furthermore, this Fermi resonance is shown to be sensitive to chemical modification on the molecules such as deuteration or substitution. Finally, we extend our model to electronically excited states in this class of molecules, as well as to charged species.

  15. Foco Nasmyth para el telescopio 2,15mts. de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, A. R.

    En principio, este proyecto intenta lograr el mayor aprovechamiento posible del instrumental que se dispone, buscando la manera de optimizar y hacer más eficiente el servicio que brinda el CASLEO a la comunidad astronómica. El mismo consiste en utilizar dispositivos ya existentes en el telescopio, y darle una utilidad. Tal es el caso del camino óptico destinado al foco Coude. Si tenemos en cuenta que disponemos de un tercer espejo Coude, con todos sus mecanismos automatizados, (actualmente sin uso), una distancia apropiada del plano focal, el espacio y el lugar físico necesario para instalar un periférico, es posible la habilitación de un foco Nasmyth en el telescopio 2,15mts. El hecho de contar con este nuevo foco, redundará en importantes beneficios. En primer lugar, posibilitará la observación, casi simultánea, con dos instrumentos. Otro aspecto a tener en cuenta, es que disminuirá el frecuente cambio del instrumental periférico, motivo este que degrada su ideal puesta a punto. Por último, también de interés, es de destacar su escaso costo de ejecución.

  16. Health promotion programs related to the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic games

    PubMed Central

    Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Kremastinou, Jeni; Chelvatzoglou, Fotini C; Minogiannis, Panagiotis S; Falagas, Matthew E

    2006-01-01

    Background The Olympic Games constitute a first-class opportunity to promote athleticism and health messages. Little is known, however on the impact of Olympic Games on the development of health-promotion programs for the general population. Our objective was to identify and describe the population-based health-promotion programs implemented in relation to the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic Games. Methods A cross-sectional survey of all stakeholders of the Games, including the Athens 2004 Organizing Committee, all ministries of the Greek government, the National School of Public Health, all municipalities hosting Olympic events and all official private sponsors of the Games, was conducted after the conclusion of the Games. Results A total of 44 agencies were surveyed, 40 responded (91%), and ten (10) health-promotion programs were identified. Two programs were implemented by the Athens 2004 Organizing Committee, 2 from the Greek ministries, 2 from the National School of Public Health, 1 from municipalities, and 3 from official private sponsors of the Games. The total cost of the programs was estimated at 943,000 Euros; a relatively small fraction (0.08%) of the overall cost of the Games. Conclusion Greece has made a small, however, significant step forward, on health promotion, in the context of the Olympic Games. The International Olympic Committee and the future hosting countries, including China, are encouraged to elaborate on this idea and offer the world a promising future for public health. PMID:16504120

  17. ParaText : scalable solutions for processing and searching very large document collections : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect

    Crossno, Patricia Joyce; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-09-01

    This report is a summary of the accomplishments of the 'Scalable Solutions for Processing and Searching Very Large Document Collections' LDRD, which ran from FY08 through FY10. Our goal was to investigate scalable text analysis; specifically, methods for information retrieval and visualization that could scale to extremely large document collections. Towards that end, we designed, implemented, and demonstrated a scalable framework for text analysis - ParaText - as a major project deliverable. Further, we demonstrated the benefits of using visual analysis in text analysis algorithm development, improved performance of heterogeneous ensemble models in data classification problems, and the advantages of information theoretic methods in user analysis and interpretation in cross language information retrieval. The project involved 5 members of the technical staff and 3 summer interns (including one who worked two summers). It resulted in a total of 14 publications, 3 new software libraries (2 open source and 1 internal to Sandia), several new end-user software applications, and over 20 presentations. Several follow-on projects have already begun or will start in FY11, with additional projects currently in proposal.

  18. Development and Validation of the Escala de Actitudes Emprendedoras para Estudiantes (EAEE).

    PubMed

    Oliver, Amparo; Galiana, Laura

    2015-01-01

    During the last few years, entrepreneurship has gained an important role in many economic and social policies, with the consequent growth of entrepreneurial research in many social areas. However, in the Spanish psychometric context, there is not an updated scale including recent contributions to entrepreneurship attitudes literature. The aim of this study is to present and validate a new scale named Escala de Actitudes Emprendedoras para Estudiantes-EAEE, (Entrepreneurial Attitudes Scale for Students, EASS), in two samples of high school and university Spanish students. Data comes from a cross-sectional survey of 524 high school and undergraduate students, from Valencia (Spain). Two confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were estimated, together with reliability and validity evidence of the scale. Results offered evidence of the adequate psychometric properties of the EASS. The CFAs showed overall and analytical adequate fit indexes (χ 2 (120) = 163.19 (p < .01), GFI = .906, CFI = .959, SRMR = .044, RMSEA = .040 [CI .022-.054]); reliability indices of the entrepreneurial attitudes were appropriate for most of the entrepreneurial attitudes (α were between .63 and .87 for the different dimensions); and external evidence relating entrepreneurial dimensions to personality traits was similar to in previous studies. The scale could be a useful instrument both for previous diagnosis and effectiveness assessment of programs on entrepreneurship promotion. PMID:26055696

  19. Analysis of passive motion of para- and retropharyngeal structures during swallowing using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chitose, Shun-ichi; Haraguchi, Masahiro; Nagata, Shuji; Katayama, Reiji; Sato, Kiminori; Fukahori, Mioko; Sueyoshi, Shintaro; Kurita, Takashi; Abe, Toshi; Nakashima, Tadashi

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze passive motion of the para- and retropharyngeal space (PRS) during swallowing using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We conducted a preliminary study involving 30 healthy volunteers who underwent dynamic MRI. Consecutive MRI axial images were obtained by examining the plane parallel to the hard palate at the level of the anterior inferior corner of C2. Anterior displacement of the posterior pharyngeal wall (PPW) was measured as a motion index of pharyngeal contraction. The displacement and internal angle of the bilateral external and internal carotid arteries (ECA and ICA) and the bilateral centroids of the PRS area, as well as the increase in PRS area, were calculated at rest and at maximum pharyngeal contraction. In most participants, the bilateral ECA, ICA, and centroids were anterointernally displaced by pharyngeal contraction. The normalized ECA displacement (r = 0.64, r (2) = 0.41), normalized ICA displacement (r = 0.60, r (2) = 0.37), and normalized centroid displacement (r = 0.43, r (2) = 0.19) were more than moderately positively correlated with the normalized PPW displacement. The normalized PRS area increase (r = 0.35, r (2) = 0.12) was weakly positively correlated with the normalized PPW displacement. These results revealed that PRS area increased as the ECA and ICA were drawn anterointernally via its passive motion by pharyngeal contraction. PMID:24859486

  20. Polycrystalline para-terphenyl scintillator adopted in a β- detecting probe for radio-guided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Bellini, F.; Bocci, V.; Collamati, F.; De Lucia, E.; Faccini, R.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Morganti, S.; Paramatti, R.; Patera, V.; Pinci, D.; Recchia, L.; Russomando, A.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Senzacqua, M.; Voena, C.

    2015-06-01

    A radio-guided surgery technique exploiting β- emitters is under development. It aims at a higher target-to-background activity ratio implying both a smaller radiopharmaceutical activity and the possibility of extending the technique to cases with a large uptake of surrounding healthy organs. Such technique requires a dedicated intraoperative probe detecting β- radiation. A first prototype has been developed relying on the low density and high light yield of the diphenylbutadiene doped para-therphenyl organic scintillator. The scintillation light produced in a cylindrical crystal, 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height, is guided to a photo-multiplier tube by optical fibres. The custom readout electronics is designed to optimize its usage in terms of feedback to the surgeon, portability and remote monitoring of the signal. Tests show that with a radiotracer activity comparable to those administered for diagnostic purposes the developed probe can detect a 0.1 ml cancerous residual of meningioma in a few seconds.

  1. Crystal structures of supramolecular assemblies based on a para-dicyclohexanocucurbit[6]uil with metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xiao; Chen, Wen-Jian; Zhang, Yun-Qian; Zhu, Qian-Jiang; Xue, Sai-Feng; Tao, Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Five crystals based on para-dicyclohexanocucurbit[6]uil (DCyHQ[6]) were synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffractions. They are {Dioxane@DCyHQ[6]}·18H 2O ( 1), {[Cu(HO)6]2DCyHQ[6]}·2SO42-·10HO ( 2), {[Zn(HO)6]2DCyHQ[6]}·2SO42-·10HO ( 3), {[Sr(HO)5]2DCyHQ[6]}·5Cl·(HO)+·8HO ( 4), {[Na(HO)4]2DCyHQ[6]}·4Br·2(HO)+·14HO ( 5). The compound 1 which is a dioxane @DCyHQ[6] inclusion host-guest complex; the other three crystal structures of the compounds 2, 3 and 4 show supramolecular assemblies comprising of DCyHQ[6] and metal ions or their aqueous complexes through hydrogen bonding; while the crystal structure of the compound 5 shows a one-dimensional supramolecular polymer through direct coordination of sodium cations to the portal carbonyl oxygen atoms of the DCyHQ[6].

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Folate Metabolism and the Mechanistic Basis for para-Aminosalicylic Acid Susceptibility and Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Minato, Yusuke; Thiede, Joshua M.; Kordus, Shannon Lynn; McKlveen, Edward J.; Turman, Breanna J.

    2015-01-01

    para-Aminosalicylic acid (PAS) entered clinical use in 1946 as the second exclusive drug for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). While PAS was initially a first-line TB drug, the introduction of more potent antitubercular agents relegated PAS to the second-line tier of agents used for the treatment of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Despite the long history of PAS usage, an understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms governing the susceptibility and resistance of M. tuberculosis to this drug has lagged behind that of most other TB drugs. Herein, we discuss previous studies that demonstrate PAS-mediated disruption of iron acquisition, as well as recent genetic, biochemical, and metabolomic studies that have revealed that PAS is a prodrug that ultimately corrupts one-carbon metabolism through inhibition of the formation of reduced folate species. We also discuss findings from laboratory and clinical isolates that link alterations in folate metabolism to PAS resistance. These advancements in our understanding of the basis of the susceptibility and resistance of M. tuberculosis to PAS will enable the development of novel strategies to revitalize this and other antimicrobial agents for use in the global effort to eradicate TB. PMID:26033719

  3. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Agraz, Jose Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-15

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10 000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 ({sup 13}C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (B{sub o}), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of {sup 13}C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging.

  4. Porous poly(para-phenylene) scaffolds for load-bearing orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    DiRienzo, Amy L; Yakacki, Christopher M; Frensemeier, Mareike; Schneider, Andreas S; Safranski, David L; Hoyt, Anthony J; Frick, Carl P

    2014-02-01

    The focus of this study was to fabricate and investigate the mechanical behavior of porous poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) for potential use as a load-bearing orthopedic biomaterial. PPPs are known to have exceptional mechanical properties due to their aromatic backbone; however, the manufacturing and properties of PPP porous structures have not been previously investigated. Tailored porous structures with either small (150-250µm) or large (420-500µm) pore sizes were manufactured using a powder-sintering/salt-leaching technique. Porosities were systematically varied using 50 to 90vol%. Micro-computed tomography (µCT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to verify an open-cell structure and investigate pore morphology of the scaffolds. Uniaxial mechanical behavior of solid and porous PPP samples was characterized through tensile and compressive testing. Both modulus and strength decreased with increasing porosity and matched well with foam theory. Porous scaffolds showed a significant decrease in strain-to-failure (<4%) under tensile loading and experienced linear elasticity, plastic deformation, and densification under compressive loading. Over the size ranges tested, pore size did not significantly influence the mechanical behavior of the scaffolds on a consistent basis. These results are discussed in regards to use of porous PPP for orthopedic applications and a prototype porous interbody fusion cage is presented. PMID:24374261

  5. Theoretical study of para-nitro-aniline adsorption on the Au(111) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cui; Monti, Susanna; Li, Xin; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Ågren, Hans; Carravetta, Vincenzo

    2016-07-01

    The electronic structure, bonding properties and dynamics of para-nitro-aniline (PNA) adsorbed on the Au(111) surface for a sub-monolayer coverge have been investigated by density-functional theory (DFT) static calculations and quantum molecular dynamics simulations. Four main adsorption geometries have been identified by DFT energy optimization with the gradient corrected PBE functional and accounting for the role of the van del Waals (vdW) interaction. Quantum dynamics calculations starting from the four different structures have been performed at room temperature to estimate the relative stability of the adsorbates and the presence of barriers for their interconversion. Quantum simulations suggest that the most stable adsorption geometry at room temperature is that of PNA with a slightly distorted molecular plane almost parallel to the Au(111) surface. In a second less populated configuration the PNA molecule interacts with the substrate by its NO2 group while the molecular plane is orthogonal to the surface. The N 1s electron photoemission spectrum has been simulated for the identified adsorbate geometries and a measurable variation of the absolute and relative chemical shift for the two nitrogen atoms in comparison with the known values for PNA in gas phase is predicted.

  6. Performance of three different anodes in electrochemical degradation of 4-para-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Murugaesan, Pramila; Aravind, Priyadharshini; Muniyandi, Neelavannan Guruswamy; Kandasamy, Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, removal of pollutants from wastewater by electrochemical oxidation has become an attractive method. The present investigation deals with the degradation of 4-para-nitrophenol (4-PNP) by electrochemical oxidation using three different anodes, namely TiO2-RuO2-IrO2/Ti (titanium substrate insoluble anode - TSIA)), IrO2-PbO2/Ti and graphite. Electrochemical oxidation of 4-PNP was carried out employing sodium chloride as the supporting electrolyte, at pH 7 with a current density of 15 mA/cm(2). The degradation of 4-PNP by electro-oxidation was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography. The performance efficiency and current efficiency of the three anodic materials in this study were evaluated by chemical oxygen demand (COD). Comparisons of energy consumption for the three anodes employed were also calculated. Among electrodes investigated, the IrO2-PbO2/Ti electrode resulted in 98% of COD removal in 30 min comparatively at a less energy consumption of 1 × 10(-2) kWh m(-3), depicting its higher performance efficiency in 4-PNP degradation. PMID:25885262

  7. Origin of the low-energy emission band in epitaxially grown para-sexiphenyl nanocrystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadashchuk, A.; Schols, S.; Heremans, P.; Skryshevski, Yu.; Piryatinski, Yu.; Beinik, I.; Teichert, C.; Hernandez-Sosa, G.; Sitter, H.; Andreev, A.; Frank, P.; Winkler, A.

    2009-02-01

    A comparative study of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence of para-sexiphenyl (PSP) films grown by organic molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE) and hot wall epitaxy (HWE) under comparable conditions is presented. Using different template substrates [mica(001) and KCl(001) surfaces] as well as different OMBE growth conditions has enabled us to vary greatly the morphology of the PSP crystallites while keeping their chemical structure virtually untouched. We prove that the broad redshifted emission band has a structure-related origin rather than being due to monomolecular oxidative defects. We conclude that the growth conditions and type of template substrate impacts substantially on the film morphology (measured by atomic force microscopy) and emission properties of the PSP films. The relative intensity of the defect emission band observed in the delayed spectra was found to correlate with the structural quality of PSP crystallites. In particular, the defect emission has been found to be drastically suppressed when (i) a KCl template substrate was used instead of mica in HWE-grown films, and (ii) in the OMBE-grown films dominated by growth mounds composed of upright standing molecules as opposed to the films consisting of crystallites formed by molecules lying parallel to the substrate.

  8. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-01

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10 000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 (13C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (Bo), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of 13C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging.

  9. The Protonation Site of para-Dimethylaminobenzoic Acid Using Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Yunfeng; Weng, Guofeng; Shen, Shanshan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2015-04-01

    The protonation site of para-dimethylaminobenzoic acid ( p-DMABA) was investigated using atmospheric pressure ionization methods (ESI and APCI) coupled with collision-induced dissociation (CID), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and computational chemistry. Theoretical calculations and NMR experiments indicate that the dimethyl amino group is the preferred site of protonation both in the gas phase and aqueous solution. Protonation of p-DMABA occurs at the nitrogen atom by ESI independent of the solvents and other operation conditions under typical thermodynamic control. However, APCI produces a mixture of the nitrogen- and carbonyl oxygen-protonated p-DMABA when aprotic organic solvents (acetonitrile, acetone, and tetrahydrofuran) are used, exhibiting evident kinetic characteristics of protonation. But using protic organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol) in APCI still leads to the formation of thermodynamically stable N-protonated p-DMABA. These structural assignments were based on the different CID behavior of the N- and O-protonated p-DMABA. The losses of methyl radical and water are the diagnostic fragmentations of the N- and O-protonated p-DMABA, respectively. In addition, the N-protonated p-DMABA is more stable than the O-protonated p-DMABA in CID revealed by energy resolved experiments and theoretical calculations.

  10. Conformational Analysis of R-(+)-3-METHYLCYCLOPENTANONE by IR Spectroscopy in Para-Hydrogen Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Basheer, Watheq; Toh, Shin Yi; Miyazaki, Jun; Momose, Takamasa

    2014-06-01

    Para-hydrogen (pH_2) soft quantum crystal is an ideal isolation matrix due to its impressive intrinsic properties, i.e. its significant lattice constant, large zero-point vibration as well as its ability to repair itself of crystal defects. To investigate molecular conformation of a chiral ketone, IR spectra of R-(+)-3-methylcyclopentanone (R3MCP), hosted in pH_2 crystal, were recorded as a function of sample concentration and host pH_2 crystal temperature over the low deposition range {3.5-6.0K}. IR spectra of R3MCP in pH_2 crystal will be presented and compared against corresponding spectra in Ar matrix as well as IR spectra of the neat crystalline R3MCP at low deposition temperatures. Furthermore, density functional theory calculations of simulated IR spectra for the optimized geometries of R3MCP, equatorial-methyl and axial-methyl conformers are compared against experimental spectra for the purpose of investigating molecular conformation. Upon comparison between theoretical and experimental IR spectra, vibrational modes arising from equatorial and axial conformers have been successfully assigned and related to the individual conformer's structure.

  11. Long-Range Ruthenium-Amine Electronic Communication through the para-Oligophenylene Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun-Jian; Zhong, Yu-Wu

    2015-09-01

    The studies of long-range electronic communication are hampered by solubility and potential-splitting issues. A “hybridized redox-asymmetry” method using a combination of organic and inorganic redox species is proposed and exemplified to overcome these two issues. Complexes 1(PF6)-6(PF6) (from short to long in length) with the organic redox-active amine and inorganic cyclometalated ruthenium termini bridged by the para-oligophenylene wire have been prepared. Complex 6 has the longest Ru-amine geometrical distance of 27.85 Å. Complexes 3(PF6) and 4(PF6) show lamellar crystal packing on the basis of a head-to-tail anti-parallelly aligned dimeric structure. Two redox waves are observed for all complexes in the potential region between +0.2 and +0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl. The electrochemical potential splitting is 410, 220, 143, 112, 107, and 105 mV for 1(PF6) through 6(PF6), respectively. Ruthenium (+2) to aminium (N•+) charge transfer transitions have been identified for the odd-electron compounds 12+-62+ by spectroelectrochemical measurements. The electronic communication between amine and ruthenium decreases exponentially with a decay slope of -0.137 Å-1. DFT calculations have been performed to complement these experimental results.

  12. Long-Range Ruthenium-Amine Electronic Communication through the para-Oligophenylene Wire.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun-Jian; Zhong, Yu-Wu

    2015-01-01

    The studies of long-range electronic communication are hampered by solubility and potential-splitting issues. A "hybridized redox-asymmetry" method using a combination of organic and inorganic redox species is proposed and exemplified to overcome these two issues. Complexes 1(PF6)-6(PF6) (from short to long in length) with the organic redox-active amine and inorganic cyclometalated ruthenium termini bridged by the para-oligophenylene wire have been prepared. Complex 6 has the longest Ru-amine geometrical distance of 27.85 Å. Complexes 3(PF6) and 4(PF6) show lamellar crystal packing on the basis of a head-to-tail anti-parallelly aligned dimeric structure. Two redox waves are observed for all complexes in the potential region between +0.2 and +0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl. The electrochemical potential splitting is 410, 220, 143, 112, 107, and 105 mV for 1(PF6) through 6(PF6), respectively. Ruthenium (+2) to aminium (N(•+)) charge transfer transitions have been identified for the odd-electron compounds 1(2+)-6(2+) by spectroelectrochemical measurements. The electronic communication between amine and ruthenium decreases exponentially with a decay slope of -0.137 Å(-1). DFT calculations have been performed to complement these experimental results. PMID:26344929

  13. High performance hybrid supercapacitors by using para-Benzoquinone ionic liquid redox electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navalpotro, Paula; Palma, Jesús; Anderson, Marc; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2016-02-01

    A solution of 0.4M para-Benzoquinone (p-BQ) in the ionic liquid N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (PYR14TFSI) was used as a redox electrolyte in hybrid supercapacitors. Two carbons with very different textural properties, Pica carbon and Vulcan carbon, were used as electrode material. Electrochemical performance of these energy storage systems was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (CD). Unlike SCs with pure IL electrolyte, new battery-like features appeared in the CV curves and CD profiles. This electrochemical performance, associated with the faradaic contribution of the redox electrolyte, results in a significant improvement of the electrochemical performance of the hybrid system. For Vulcan carbon with low specific surface area (SBET = 240 m2 g-1), specific capacitance (Cs) and specific real energy (Ereal) values as high as 70 Fg-1 and 10.3 WhKg-1 were obtained at 5 mAcm-2 with hybrid SC operating at 3 V. This represents an increment of 300% in Cs and Ereal with respect to the SC based on pure PYR14TFSI. For high surface area carbon such as Pica (SBET = 2410 m2g-1), the addition of the redox quinone molecule resulted in a moderate enhancement reaching values of 156 Fg-1 and 30 WhKg-1 under the same experimental conditions (36% and 10% increment, respectively).

  14. Uso de Sustancias en Mujeres con Desventaja Social: Riesgo para el Contagio de VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L; Bernales, M.; Miner, S.; Irarrázabal, L.; Molina, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes La caracterización epidemiológica en Chile apunta a feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización de la epidemia del VIH, lo que implica un mayor riesgo para las mujeres en desventaja social. Si a esto se suma la utilización de sustancias, la vulnerabilidad de este grupo frente al VIH/SIDA aumenta. Objetivo Describir el uso de sustancias en mujeres con desventaja social e identificar factores de riesgo de contagio de VIH, asociados a este consumo. Material y Método 52 mujeres fueron entrevistadas como parte del proyecto “Testeando una intervención en prevención de VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas” GRANT # RO1 TW 006977. Se describen variables sociodemográficas y de consumo de sustancias a través de estadísticas descriptivas y se analiza la relación entre variables a través de pruebas de correlación. Resultados Los resultados indican un perfil sociodemográfico que sitúa a las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad frente al contagio de VIH/SIDA, con alto índice de uso de sustancias que acentúa el riesgo. Conclusiones Los hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de considerar intervenciones que se enfoquen en la prevención de VIH en mujeres, abordando los riesgos asociados al consumo de sustancias. PMID:21197380

  15. Para-cresyl sulfate acutely impairs vascular reactivity and induces vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Gross, Priscilla; Massy, Ziad A; Henaut, Lucie; Boudot, Cédric; Cagnard, Joanna; March, Cécilia; Kamel, Saïd; Drueke, Tilman B; Six, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by vascular remodeling and the retention of uremic toxins, several of which are independently associated with the high cardiovascular mortality rate in CKD patients. Whether the association between these uremic toxins and cardiovascular mortality is due to induction of vascular dysfunction and resulting vascular remodeling remains to be determined. This study evaluates the effects of para-cresyl sulfate (PCS), a newly identified uremic toxin, on vascular function and remodeling. PCS acutely induced oxidative stress in both endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, with a maximal effect at 0.15 mM, corresponding to the mean "uremic" concentration found in dialysis patients. PCS significantly increased within 30 min phenylephrine-induced contraction of mouse thoracic aorta, through direct activation of rho-kinase, independently of oxidative stress induction, as demonstrated by the capacity of rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 to abolish this effect. After exposure of the aorta to PCS for 48 h, we observed inward eutrophic remodeling, a hallmark of uremic vasculopathy characterized by a reduction of the area of both lumen and media, with unchanged media/lumen ratio. In conclusion, elevated PCS concentrations such as those observed in CKD patients, by promoting both vascular dysfunction and vascular remodeling, may contribute to the development of hypertension and to cardiovascular mortality in CKD. PMID:25899466

  16. Conformation of ionizable poly Para phenylene ethynylene in dilute solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Maskey, Sabina; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-11-03

    The conformation of dinonyl poly para phenylene ethynylenes (PPEs) with carboxylate side chains, equilibrated in solvents of different quality is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. PPEs are of interest because of their tunable electro-optical properties, chemical diversity, and functionality which are essential in wide range of applications. The polymer conformation determines the conjugation length and their assembly mode and affects electro-optical properties which are critical in their current and potential uses. The current study investigates the effect of carboxylate fraction on PPEs side chains on the conformation of chains in the dilute limit, in solvents of different quality. The dinonyl PPE chains are modeled atomistically, where the solvents are modeled both implicitly and explicitly. Dinonyl PPEs maintained a stretched out conformation up to a carboxylate fraction f of 0.7 in all solvents studied. The nonyl side chains are extended and oriented away from the PPE backbone in toluene and in implicit good solvent whereas in water and implicit poor solvent, the nonyl side chains are collapsed towards the PPE backbone. Thus, rotation around the aromatic ring is fast and no long range correlations are seen within the backbone.

  17. Testicular toxicity of para-phenylenediamine after subchronic topical application in rat.

    PubMed

    Bharali, Manuj Kr; Dutta, Karabi

    2012-01-01

    Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is a most widely used chemical in almost all hair dye formulations. The present experiment was conducted in order to assess the reproductive toxicity of PPD in male rats. After sub-chronic topical application of different doses (0, 1, 2 and 3 mg/kg/day) of PPD, the male albino rats exhibited significant decrease in the total sperm count (p<0.05, 0.01) with consistent decrease in the testicular weight (p<0.05), increase in the germ cell apoptosis indicated by cellular morphology as well as loss of germinal layer, sloughing of testicular cellular layers. Elevation of lipid peroxidation product in the testicular tissue indicated the potential oxidative stress that may be crucial in the induction of the apoptosis and further tissue injury in the PPD-treated rats. The study was designed to examine the testicular effect of 1% to 3% PPD which mimic the actual dosage available in most of the hair dying formulation. The possibilities of impaired testicular function after sub-chronic topical exposure to PPD on male rats have demonstrated. PMID:22149045

  18. Hematopathology in Sprague-Dawley rats following sub-chronic topical application of para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Bharali, Manuj Kr; Dutta, Karabi

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the hematological profile of male SD rats treated topically with aqueous solution of para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a component of almost all hair dye formulations. The rats were painted with different concentration of PPD (0, 1, 2 and 3 mg Kg(-1) Day(-1)) for 90 days and then sacrificed. The hematological profile indicated severe anemia characterized by significant (p < 0.05, 0.001) reduction of total RBC count (59%), packed cell volume (PCV, 50%) and haemoglobin level (70%) in the peripheral blood of PPD treated animals when compared to control group. The leucocytes profile exhibited an overall elevation of around twofold as compared to the control group with significant lymphocytosis (44.4%) and a higher percentage of blast cells (8.5%) as well as smudge (10.3%) and hairy cells (6.2%) in the peripheral blood of treated animals. Histopathological examination of spleen from treated rat's exhibit red pulp congestion, expansion of the germinal centre, hyperplasia of the membrane capsule and extensive accumulation of hemosidderin pigments in the red pulp of the spleen. Overall this study indicated an abnormal pathophysiological condition indicating adverse effect of PPD in the treated animal groups. The risk assessment of hair dye formulation needs to be reviewed in view of widespread usage of paraphenylenediamine in almost all hair dye formulation. PMID:22886424

  19. From clusters to fibers: Parameters for discontinuous para-hexaphenylene thin film growth

    SciTech Connect

    Kankate, Laxman; Balzer, Frank; Niehus, Horst; Rubahn, Horst-Guenter

    2008-02-28

    All relevant steps of discontinuous thin film growth of para-hexaphenylene on muscovite mica (0 0 1) from wetting layer over small and large clusters to nanofibers are observed and investigated in detail by a combined polarized fluorescence and atomic force microscopy study. From a variation of film thickness and surface temperature, we determine effective activation energies for cluster growth of 0.17 eV, for nanofiber length growth of 0.46 eV, for width growth of 0.19 eV, and for height growth of 0.07 eV. The corresponding exponential prefactors for the nanofiber growth are 1x10{sup 9}, 6x10{sup 4}, and 3x10{sup 2} nm. Polarized fluorescence studies reveal that nanofibers grow along the grooves of the mica surface and that they do not change direction if they cross an even number of mica surface steps, while they change direction by 120 deg. for an odd number of steps. These results are taken as an input for a model of the unidirectional growth process on mica. Absolute parameters allowing one to grow nanofibers of predetermined morphology via organic molecular beam epitaxy are also given.

  20. Origin of the low-energy emission band in epitaxially grown para-sexiphenyl nanocrystallites

    SciTech Connect

    Kadashchuk, A.; Schols, S.; Heremans, P.; Skryshevski, Yu.; Piryatinski, Yu.; Beinik, I.; Teichert, C.; Hernandez-Sosa, G.; Sitter, H.; Andreev, A.; Frank, P.; Winkler, A.

    2009-02-28

    A comparative study of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence of para-sexiphenyl (PSP) films grown by organic molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE) and hot wall epitaxy (HWE) under comparable conditions is presented. Using different template substrates [mica(001) and KCl(001) surfaces] as well as different OMBE growth conditions has enabled us to vary greatly the morphology of the PSP crystallites while keeping their chemical structure virtually untouched. We prove that the broad redshifted emission band has a structure-related origin rather than being due to monomolecular oxidative defects. We conclude that the growth conditions and type of template substrate impacts substantially on the film morphology (measured by atomic force microscopy) and emission properties of the PSP films. The relative intensity of the defect emission band observed in the delayed spectra was found to correlate with the structural quality of PSP crystallites. In particular, the defect emission has been found to be drastically suppressed when (i) a KCl template substrate was used instead of mica in HWE-grown films, and (ii) in the OMBE-grown films dominated by growth mounds composed of upright standing molecules as opposed to the films consisting of crystallites formed by molecules lying parallel to the substrate.

  1. Robotic Transperitoneal Infrarenal Para-Aortic Lymphadenectomy With Double Docking: Technique, Learning Curve, and Perioperative Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Jordi; Barahona, Marc; Pla, Maria Jesus; Rovira, Jordi; Garcia-Tejedor, Amparo; Gil-Ibanez, Blanca; Gaspar, Hugo Manuel; Sabria, Enric; Bartolomé, Carlos; Marti, Lola

    2016-01-01

    Para-aortic lymphadenectomy (PAL) is a challenging procedure performed by minimally invasive surgery in very few centers, owing to its intrinsic technical complexity. We describe and assess the feasibility and learning curve of robotic double-docking transperitoneal infrarenal PAL combined with oncological pelvic surgery. Fifty patients who underwent this procedure using the Da Vinci S surgical system between March 2010 and May 2013 were included. The mean operating time for PAL surgery was 76 minutes (range, 32-150 minutes), and the mean number of lymph nodes per patient was 11.8 (range, 1-44). There were no conversions to laparotomy or laparoscopy. The mean length of hospital stay was 2 days (range, 1-25 days). Statistically significant decreases were noted for mean table rotation time (17 ± 6.8 minutes vs 13 ± 3.6 minutes; p = .02) and mean PAL operating time (85.4 ± 25.8 minutes vs 69.8 ± 24.6 minutes; p = .04) when comparing the first 20 patients and the last 30 patients. The number of nodes was similar in the first 20 patients and last 30 patients. The double-docking transperitoneal infrarenal PAL technique combined with oncological pelvic surgery is feasible, with minimal morbidity and a short learning curve. PMID:26898894

  2. Clinical and experimental aspects of allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    McFadden, John P; Yeo, Lyndsey; White, Jonathan L

    2011-01-01

    The allergenicity of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is related to oxidative processes on and in the skin. Patients with stronger reactions to PPD are significantly more likely to have a clear history of reacting to normal consumer hair dye. Those with stronger reactions are much less likely to be still dyeing their hair. Individuals allergic to PPD have a significant frequency of simultaneous sensitivity to chemically related clothing dyes. A 24-hour test application of hair dye, which has been proposed as a self-screen, does not reliably predict all individuals allergic to PPD. Duration studies have proven that exposures of 5 to 30 minutes, the period used for hair dyeing, are sufficient to elicit reactions. A significant rise in the frequency of PPD allergy was observed over 7 years among our patch test population. Active sensitization from standard PPD patch testing is not common. Immunologic findings relating to PPD can correctly predict that if hair dyes are commonly used there will be a significant prevalence of allergy to PPD among the normal adult population and that some clinical reactions will be severe. To protect the public from allergy to chemicals in consumer products, immunologic and epidemiologic data should both be used by regulatory authorities. PMID:21496741

  3. Selective para hydroxylation of phenol and aniline by singlet molecular oxygen.

    PubMed

    Briviba, K; Devasagayam, T P; Sies, H; Steenken, S

    1993-01-01

    Phenol reacts with singlet oxygen (1O2) generated in aqueous solution (H2O or D2O) by (a) the exposure of methylene blue to light or (b) the thermal dissociation of the endoperoxide of 3,3'-(1,4-naphthylidene)dipropionate to lead selectively to hydroquinone as the primary product. The other isomers of phenol hydroxylation, catechol and resorcinol, were not observed. In agreement with the involvement of 1O2 as the reactive species in the hydroxylation, in D2O the yield of hydroquinone is 7 times that in H2O, and the 1O2 quenchers azide and the thiols, glutathione and dithiothreitol, suppress the production of hydroquinone. In contrast, the hydroxyl radical scavengers, tert-butyl alcohol, propanol, or sodium formate, are without effect. In a follow-up reaction, hydroquinone is converted into benzoquinone. Reaction of 1O2 with aniline leads to the selective formation of 4-hydroxyaniline as the initial product. This is further converted to hydroquinone with formation of ammonia (deamination), and then to benzoquinone. On the basis of these results, the selective para hydroxylation of phenol or aniline may be used as an indicator for the involvement of singlet oxygen as compared to .OH radical- or cytochrome P450-mediated reactions. PMID:8374055

  4. Hyperfine excitation of CN by para- and ortho-H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalugina, Yulia; Lique, François

    2015-01-01

    Among the interstellar molecules, the CN radical is of particular interest since it is a good probe of cold dark molecular clouds, and especially prestellar cores. Modelling of CN emission spectra from these dense molecular clouds requires the calculation of rate coefficients for excitation by collisions with the most abundant species. We calculate fine- and hyperfine-structure-resolved excitation rate coefficients of CN(X2Σ+) by para- and ortho-H2. The calculations are based on a new potential energy surface obtained recently from highly correlated ab initio calculations. State-to-state rate coefficients between fine and hyperfine levels of CN were calculated for low temperatures ranging from 5 to 100 K. The new results are compared to available CN rate coefficients. Significant differences are found between the different sets of rate coefficients. This comparison shows that the new CN-H2 rate coefficients have to be used for observations interpretations. We expect that their use will help significantly to have a new insight into the physical conditions of prestellar cores.

  5. Geochemical and isotopic constraints on the tectonic setting of Serra dos Carajas belt, eastern Para, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olszewski, W. J., Jr.; Gibbs, A. K.; Wirth, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    The lower part of the Serra dos Carajas belt is the metavolcanic and metasedimentary Grao para Group (GPG). The GPG is thought to unconformably overlie the older (but undated) Xingu Complex, composed of medium and high-grade gneisses and amphibolite and greenstone belts. The geochemical data indicate that the GPG has many features in common with ancient and modern volcanic suites erupted through continental crust. The mafic rocks clearly differ from those of most Archean greenstone belts, and modern MORB, IAB, and hot-spot basalts. The geological, geochemical, and isotopic data are all consistent with deposition on continental crust, presumably in a marine basin formed by crustal extension. The isotopic data also suggest the existence of depleted mantle as a source for the parent magmas of the GPG. The overall results suggest a tectonic environment, igneous sources, and petrogenesis similar to many modern continental extensional basins, in contrast to most Archean greenstone belts. The Hammersley basin in Australia and the circum-Superior belts in Canada may be suitable Archean and Proterozoic analogues, respectively.

  6. Epidemiology of snakebite accidents in the municipalities of the state of Paraíba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Renner de Souza; Targino, Isabely Tamarys Gomes; Lopes, Ysabel Arianne Cordeiro Ferreira; Barros, Rafaella Moreno; Vieira, Alecxandro Alves

    2013-05-01

    Accidents involving venomous animals represent an important, albeit neglected, public health issue worldwide. A descriptive study was made of snakebite cases attended and recorded between 2007 and 2010 in the health units of the municipalities of Cariri, State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Data was collected from the Injury Notification Information System data banks of the Health Ministry and a total of 351 records of snakebite victims were reviewed. Victims were predominantly male farm workers over 50. The highest incidence of snakebites occurred in rural areas, between April and June of 2007 and 2010. Snakes of the genus Bothrops were responsible for most cases, and victims were mostly bitten on the feet. The majority of the victims received medical assistance within 1 to 3 hours after being bitten. The most common clinical manifestations were pain, edema and ecchymosis, which were mainly classified as mild or moderate. Two deaths were reported. It was concluded that there is a significant impact of seasonality in snakebites, the prevalence of attacks caused by Bothrops, affecting the lower limbs of adult male farmers in rural areas. The findings of this study may contribute to identify the conditions that increase the risk of snake attacks in the northeastern region. PMID:23670475

  7. Epidemiology of bee stings in Campina Grande, Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study aims to investigate the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of bee sting cases recorded between 2007 and 2012 in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba state, Brazil. Data were collected from the database of the Injury Notification Information System of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Results A total of 459 bee sting cases were retrospectively analyzed. The average annual incidence was 19 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Cases were distributed in all months of the year, with higher prevalence in September and February. Most victims were men aged between 20 and 29 years. The highest incidence of cases was recorded in urban areas. Victims were stung mainly on the head and torso and received medical assistance predominantly 1 to 3 hours after being stung. The most frequent clinical manifestations were pain, edema and itching. Most cases were classified as mild, and three deaths were reported. Conclusions The high incidence of envenomations provoked by bees in Campina Grande suggests that it may be an important risk area for accidents. Since several medical records lacked information, clinical-epidemiological profile of bee sting cases in the studied region could not be accurately determined. The current study provides relevant data for the development of strategies to promote control and prevention of bee stings in this area. Further training for health professionals seems to be necessary to improve their skills in recording clinical-epidemiological information as well as in treating bee sting victims. PMID:24694193

  8. RNA editing of the Drosophila para Na(+) channel transcript. Evolutionary conservation and developmental regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, C J; Palladino, M J; Ganetzky, B; Reenan, R A

    2000-01-01

    Post-transcriptional editing of pre-mRNAs through the action of dsRNA adenosine deaminases results in the modification of particular adenosine (A) residues to inosine (I), which can alter the coding potential of the modified transcripts. We describe here three sites in the para transcript, which encodes the major voltage-activated Na(+) channel polypeptide in Drosophila, where RNA editing occurs. The occurrence of RNA editing at the three sites was found to be developmentally regulated. Editing at two of these sites was also conserved across species between the D. melanogaster and D. virilis. In each case, a highly conserved region was found in the intron downstream of the editing site and this region was shown to be complementary to the region of the exonic editing site. Thus, editing at these sites would appear to involve a mechanism whereby the edited exon forms a base-paired secondary structure with the distant conserved noncoding sequences located in adjacent downstream introns, similar to the mechanism shown for A-to-I RNA editing of mammalian glutamate receptor subunits (GluRs). For the third site, neither RNA editing nor the predicted RNA secondary structures were evolutionarily conserved. Transcripts from transgenic Drosophila expressing a minimal editing site construct for this site were shown to faithfully undergo RNA editing. These results demonstrate that Na(+) channel diversity in Drosophila is increased by RNA editing via a mechanism analogous to that described for transcripts encoding mammalian GluRs. PMID:10880477

  9. Role of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer: Current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Bogani, Giorgio; Dowdy, Sean C.; Cliby, William A.; Ghezzi, Fabio; Rossetti, Diego; Mariani, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to summarize the current evidence on the role of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer. In 1988, the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology recommended surgical staging for endometrial cancer patients. However, 25 years later, the role of lymph node dissection remains controversial. Although the findings of two large independent randomized trials suggested that pelvic lymphadenectomy provides only adjunctive morbidity with no clear influence on survival outcomes, the studies have many pitfalls that limit interpretation of the results. Theoretically, lymphadenectomy may help identify patients with metastatic dissemination, who may benefit from adjuvant therapy, thus reducing radiation-related morbidity. Also, lymphadenectomy may eradicate metastatic disease. Because lymphatic spread is relatively uncommon, our main effort should be directed at identifying patients who may potentially benefit from lymph node dissection, thus reducing the rate of unnecessary treatment and associated morbidity. This review will discuss the role of lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer, focusing on patient selection, extension of the surgical procedure, postoperative outcomes, quality of life and costs. The need for new surgical studies and efficacious systemic drugs is recommended. PMID:24472047

  10. Critical point of a para-ferrimagnetic phase transition of the ANNNI model in a field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sznajd, J.

    2012-10-01

    The finite field para-ferrimagnetic phase transition in the axial next-nearest-neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model is studied by using the linear perturbation real space renormalization group transformation. The method is examined in systems of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic Ising chains coupled by ferromagnetic interactions in the longitudinal field. As one would expect, the external field in the first case destroys the continuous phase transition and in the second shifts the critical point toward a lower temperature according to the square law. For the ferromagnetic chains coupled by the competing interchain nearest-neighbor J1 < 0 and next-nearest-neighbor J2 < 0 interactions, the external field changes the character of the phase transition from continuous to discontinuous. However, it has been found that for the ratio J2/J1 around 0.5 there is a critical value of the field for which an isolated critical point exists. The temperature dependences of the specific heat for several values of J2/J1 and the external field are presented.

  11. A method to obtain a well-defined fraction of respirable para-aramid fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Schins, R P; Gaudichet, A; Jaurand, M C

    1993-01-01

    We developed a preparation method to obtain respirable-sized fractions of para-aramid fibers. The procedure, based on floatability, consists of stirring and subsequent settling of p-aramid pulp in distilled water. Two distinct phases are obtained, with small fibers in the upper part of the suspension, which represents about 33% of the total volume. Optimal results were obtained when 2.0 g pulp was stirred for 15 hr in 800 ml distilled water containing 0.125% ethanol and settled for 5 hr. The mass yield ranged between 0.4 and 0.6%, more than 90% of the particles had an aspect ratio > or = 3:1. The mean fiber length was about 6 microns, and the mean fiber diameter was about 0.4 microns as determined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The number of fibers obtained was 4 x 10(6) fibers/micrograms under our standard conditions. Images p414-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8119251

  12. Selective plasmon-driven catalysis for para-nitroaniline in aqueous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Lin; Wang, Peijie; Li, Yuanzuo; Sun, Mengtao

    2016-02-01

    The plasmon-driven oxidation of amine (-NH2) groups and the reduction of nitro (-NO2) groups on a nanostructured metal surface in an aqueous environment have been reported experimentally and theoretically. The question of which process occurs first in the aqueous environment is an interesting question in the field of plasmon-related photochemistry. Para-nitroaniline (PNA), with both nitro (-NO2) and amine (-NH2) groups, is the best candidate for studying the priority of the plasmon-driven oxidation and the reduction reactions in an aqueous environment. Using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy, our experimental results and theoretical simulations reveal that PNA is selectively catalyzed to 4,4‧-diaminoazobenzene (DAAB) through the plasmon-assisted dimerization of the nitro (-NO2) group into an azo group in an aqueous environment. This indicates that the plasmon-driven reduction of the nitro (-NO2) group clearly occurs before the oxidation of the amine (-NH2) group in an aqueous environment. The plasmon-driven reduction of PNA to DAAB is a selective surface catalytic reduced reaction in aqueous environment.

  13. Para-Phenylenediamine Induces Apoptotic Death of Melanoma Cells and Reduces Melanoma Tumour Growth in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmick, Debajit; Bhar, Kaushik; Mallick, Sanjaya K.; Das, Subhadip; Chatterjee, Nabanita; Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi; Das Saha, Krishna; Siddhanta, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer, usually resistant to standard chemotherapeutics. Despite a huge number of clinical trials, any success to find a chemotherapeutic agent that can effectively destroy melanoma is yet to be achieved. Para-phenylenediamine (p-PD) in the hair dyes is reported to purely serve as an external dyeing agent. Very little is known about whether p-PD has any effect on the melanin producing cells. We have demonstrated p-PD mediated apoptotic death of both human and mouse melanoma cells in vitro. Mouse melanoma tumour growth was also arrested by the apoptotic activity of intraperitoneal administration of p-PD with almost no side effects. This apoptosis is shown to occur primarily via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and caspase 8 activation. p-PD mediated apoptosis was also confirmed by the increase in sub-G0/G1 cell number. Thus, our experimental observation suggests that p-PD can be a potential less expensive candidate to be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent for melanoma. PMID:27293892

  14. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of para-substituted benzoic acids chemisorbed to aluminum oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kreil, Justin; Ellingsworth, Edward; Szulczewski, Greg

    2013-11-15

    A series of para-substituted, halogenated (F, Cl, Br, and I) benzoic acid monolayers were prepared on the native oxide of aluminum surfaces by solution self-assembly and spin-coating techniques. The monolayers were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angles. Several general trends are apparent. First, the polarity of the solvent is critical to monolayer formation. Protic polar solvents produced low coverage monolayers; in contrast, nonpolar solvents produced higher coverage monolayers. Second, solution deposition yields a higher surface coverage than spin coating. Third, the thickness of the monolayers determined from XPS suggests the plane of the aromatic ring is perpendicular to the surface with the carboxylate functional group most likely binding in a bidentate chelating geometry. Fourth, the saturation coverage (∼2.7 × 10{sup 14} molecules cm{sup −2}) is independent of the para-substituent.

  15. Breaking the Barrier to Slow Water Exchange Rates for Optimal Magnetic Resonance Detection of paraCEST Agents.

    PubMed

    Fernando, W Shirangi; Martins, André F; Zhao, Piyu; Wu, Yunkou; Kiefer, Garry E; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Sherry, A Dean

    2016-03-21

    EuDOTA-tetraamide complexes as paraCEST agents offer an attractive platform for designing biological sensors and responsive agents. The early versions of these agents showed low sensitivity at temperature and power levels suitable for in vivo applications partly due to non-optimal water exchange rates. Here we report two new EuDOTA derivatives having glutamyl-phosphonate side arms that display the slowest water exchange rates of any other paraCEST agent reported so far. The advantages of such systems are demonstrated experimentally both in vitro and in vivo and DFT calculations were performed to help understand the physical-chemical reasons for this interesting behavior. PMID:26937683

  16. The total neutron cross-section of an ortho-para mixture of gaseous hydrogen at 75K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, G.; Celli, M.; Rhodes, N.; Soper, A. K.; Zoppi, M.

    2004-07-01

    From the data of a transmission experiment we have extracted the total neutron cross-section of a sample of gaseous hydrogen (T=75.03K, p=84.8bar, n=8.42nm-3) with a thermodynamic equilibrium ortho-para content (48% ortho, 52% para). The experiment was carried out on the PEARL instrument operating at the ISIS pulsed neutron source. After an accurate data reduction, the neutron spectra have been analyzed in the framework of the Modified Young and Koppel (MYK) theory, which is a successful extension to interacting fluids of the original Young and Koppel model valid for a dilute gas of hydrogen molecules. The total cross-section calculated with MYK theory, whose unique unknown parameter-the mean kinetic energy of the molecular centre of mass-was obtained through an independent path integral Monte Carlo simulation, shows a satisfactory agreement with the experimental results.

  17. Significado de los cambios en el cuello uterino: Guía para la salud de la mujer

    Cancer.gov

    Explica qué es la infección por el VPH; los exámenes de detección del cáncer de cuello uterino, entre ellos la prueba de Pap, la prueba del VPH y la prueba conjunta de Pap y del VPH; las pautas para los exámenes de detección; los posibles resultados de la

  18. Vanadium-catalyzed oxidative Strecker reaction: α-C–H cyanation of para-methoxyphenyl (PMP)-protected primary amines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chen; Xia, Ji-Bao; Chen, Chuo

    2013-01-01

    We describe an oxidative Strecker reaction that allows for direct cyanation of para-methoxyphenyl (PMP)-protected primary amines. A vanadium(V) complex was used as the catalyst and TBHP as the oxidant. The cyanation occurs at the α-C position bearing either an alkyl or an aromatic group. This method provides a direct access to α-aminonitrile from amines with one-carbon extension. PMID:24415804

  19. Luminescent properties of europium(III) and terbium(III) complexes with para- and ortho-ethoxybenzoic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panyushkin, V. T.; Mutuzova, M. Kh.; Shamsutdinova, M. Kh.

    2016-02-01

    The luminescent properties of europium(III) and terbium(III) complexes with para- and ortho-ethoxybenzoic acids are studied. The excitation energies of the triplet states of ligands are determined, a hypothesis is made about the efficient luminescence of europium(III) and terbium(III) complexes, the geometry of the coordination polyhedron of a europium complex is established, and the luminescence quantum yields of the complexes in solution are determined.

  20. The vitamin-like dietary supplement para-aminobenzoic acid enhances the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, Sandhya; MacDonald, Shannon; Roth, Jennifer; Caunt, Maresa; Akalu, Abebe; Morais, Danielle; Buckley, Michael T.; Liebes, Leonard; Formenti, Silvia C.; Brooks, Peter C. . E-mail: peter.brooks@med.nyu.edu

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) alters the sensitivity of tumor cells to ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: Cellular proliferation was assessed by WST-1 assays. The effects of PABA and radiation on tumor growth were examined with chick embryo and murine models. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to quantify p21{sup CIP1} and CDC25A levels. Results: Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (by 50%) the growth inhibitory activity of radiation on B16F10 cells, whereas it had no effect on melanocytes. Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (50-80%) the antitumor activity of radiation on B16F10 and 4T1 tumors in vivo. The combination of PABA and radiation therapy increased tumor apoptosis. Treatment of tumor cells with PABA increased expression of CDC25A and decreased levels of p21{sup CIP1}. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that PABA might represent a compound capable of enhancing the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation by a mechanism involving altered expression of proteins known to regulate cell cycle arrest.