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Sample records for activin iib receptor

  1. ACTIVIN IIB RECEPTOR BLOCKADE ATTENUATES DYSTROPHIC PATHOLOGY IN A MOUSE MODEL OF DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY

    PubMed Central

    Morine, Kevin J.; Bish, Lawrence T.; Selsby, Joshua T.; Gazzara, Jeffery A.; Pendrak, Klara; Sleeper, Meg M.; Barton, Elisabeth R.; Lee, Se-Jin; Sweeney, H. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Modulation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling to promote muscle growth holds tremendous promise for the muscular dystrophies and other disorders involving the loss of functional muscle mass. Previous studies have focused on the TGF-β family member myostatin and demonstrated that inhibition of myostatin leads to muscle growth in normal and dystrophic mice. We describe a unique method of systemic inhibition of activin IIB receptor signaling via adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene transfer of a soluble form of the extracellular domain of the activin IIB receptor to the liver. Treatment of mdx mice with activin IIB receptor blockade led to increased skeletal muscle mass, increased force production in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and reduced serum creatine kinase. No effect on heart mass or function was observed. Our results indicate that activin IIB receptor blockade represents a novel and effective therapeutic strategy for the muscular dystrophies. PMID:20730876

  2. Inhibition of Activin Receptor Type IIB Increases Strength and Lifespan in Myotubularin-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, Michael W.; Read, Benjamin P.; Edelstein, Rachel; Yang, Nicole; Pierson, Christopher R.; Stein, Matthew J.; Wermer-Colan, Ariana; Buj-Bello, Anna; Lachey, Jennifer L.; Seehra, Jasbir S.; Beggs, Alan H.

    2011-01-01

    X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a congenital disorder caused by deficiency of the lipid phosphatase, myotubularin. Patients with XLMTM often have severe perinatal weakness that requires mechanical ventilation to prevent death from respiratory failure. Muscle biopsy specimens from patients with XLMTM exhibit small myofibers with central nuclei and central aggregations of organelles in many cells. It was postulated that therapeutically increasing muscle fiber size would cause symptomatic improvement in myotubularin deficiency. Recent studies have elucidated an important role for the activin-receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) in regulation of muscle growth and have demonstrated that ActRIIB inhibition results in significant muscle hypertrophy. To evaluate whether promoting muscle hypertrophy can attenuate symptoms resulting from myotubularin deficiency, the effect of ActRIIB-mFC treatment was determined in myotubularin-deficient (Mtm1δ4) mice. Compared with wild-type mice, untreated Mtm1δ4 mice have decreased body weight, skeletal muscle hypotrophy, and reduced survival. Treatment of Mtm1δ4 mice with ActRIIB-mFC produced a 17% extension of lifespan, with transient increases in weight, forelimb grip strength, and myofiber size. Pathologic analysis of Mtm1δ4 mice during treatment revealed that ActRIIB-mFC produced marked hypertrophy restricted to type 2b myofibers, which suggests that oxidative fibers in Mtm1δ4 animals are incapable of a hypertrophic response in this setting. These results support ActRIIB-mFC as an effective treatment for the weakness observed in myotubularin deficiency. PMID:21281811

  3. Inhibition of activin receptor type IIB increases strength and lifespan in myotubularin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Michael W; Read, Benjamin P; Edelstein, Rachel; Yang, Nicole; Pierson, Christopher R; Stein, Matthew J; Wermer-Colan, Ariana; Buj-Bello, Anna; Lachey, Jennifer L; Seehra, Jasbir S; Beggs, Alan H

    2011-02-01

    X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a congenital disorder caused by deficiency of the lipid phosphatase, myotubularin. Patients with XLMTM often have severe perinatal weakness that requires mechanical ventilation to prevent death from respiratory failure. Muscle biopsy specimens from patients with XLMTM exhibit small myofibers with central nuclei and central aggregations of organelles in many cells. It was postulated that therapeutically increasing muscle fiber size would cause symptomatic improvement in myotubularin deficiency. Recent studies have elucidated an important role for the activin-receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) in regulation of muscle growth and have demonstrated that ActRIIB inhibition results in significant muscle hypertrophy. To evaluate whether promoting muscle hypertrophy can attenuate symptoms resulting from myotubularin deficiency, the effect of ActRIIB-mFC treatment was determined in myotubularin-deficient (Mtm1δ4) mice. Compared with wild-type mice, untreated Mtm1δ4 mice have decreased body weight, skeletal muscle hypotrophy, and reduced survival. Treatment of Mtm1δ4 mice with ActRIIB-mFC produced a 17% extension of lifespan, with transient increases in weight, forelimb grip strength, and myofiber size. Pathologic analysis of Mtm1δ4 mice during treatment revealed that ActRIIB-mFC produced marked hypertrophy restricted to type 2b myofibers, which suggests that oxidative fibers in Mtm1δ4 animals are incapable of a hypertrophic response in this setting. These results support ActRIIB-mFC as an effective treatment for the weakness observed in myotubularin deficiency. PMID:21281811

  4. A Soluble Activin Receptor Type IIB Does Not Improve Blood Glucose in Streptozotocin-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Guo, Tingqing; Portas, Jennifer; McPherron, Alexandra C.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), or insulin dependent DM, is accompanied by decreased muscle mass. The growth factor myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of muscle growth, and a loss of MSTN signaling has been shown to increase muscle mass and prevent the development of obesity, insulin resistance and lipodystrophic diabetes in mice. The effects of MSTN inhibition in a T1DM model on muscle mass and blood glucose are unknown. We asked whether MSTN inhibition would increase muscle mass and decrease hyperglycemia in mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to destroy pancreatic beta cells. After diabetes developed, mice were treated with a soluble MSTN/activin receptor fused to Fc (ACVR2B:Fc). ACVR2B:Fc increased body weight and muscle mass compared to vehicle treated mice. Unexpectedly, ACVR2B:Fc reproducibly exacerbated hyperglycemia within approximately one week of administration. ACVR2B:Fc treatment also elevated serum levels of the glucocorticoid corticosterone. These results suggest that although MSTN/activin inhibitors increased muscle mass, they may be counterproductive in improving health in patients with T1DM. PMID:25561902

  5. Blockade of the activin receptor IIb activates functional brown adipogenesis and thermogenesis by inducing mitochondrial oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Brigitte; Murray, Ben; Gutzwiller, Sabine; Marcaletti, Stefan; Marcellin, David; Bergling, Sebastian; Brachat, Sophie; Persohn, Elke; Pierrel, Eliane; Bombard, Florian; Hatakeyama, Shinji; Trendelenburg, Anne-Ulrike; Morvan, Frederic; Richardson, Brian; Glass, David J; Lach-Trifilieff, Estelle; Feige, Jerome N

    2012-07-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a key tissue for energy expenditure via fat and glucose oxidation for thermogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that the myostatin/activin receptor IIB (ActRIIB) pathway, which serves as an important negative regulator of muscle growth, is also a negative regulator of brown adipocyte differentiation. In parallel to the anticipated hypertrophy of skeletal muscle, the pharmacological inhibition of ActRIIB in mice, using a neutralizing antibody, increases the amount of BAT without directly affecting white adipose tissue. Mechanistically, inhibition of ActRIIB inhibits Smad3 signaling and activates the expression of myoglobin and PGC-1 coregulators in brown adipocytes. Consequently, ActRIIB blockade in brown adipose tissue enhances mitochondrial function and uncoupled respiration, translating into beneficial functional consequences, including enhanced cold tolerance and increased energy expenditure. Importantly, ActRIIB inhibition enhanced energy expenditure only at ambient temperature or in the cold and not at thermoneutrality, where nonshivering thermogenesis is minimal, strongly suggesting that brown fat activation plays a prominent role in the metabolic actions of ActRIIB inhibition.

  6. A Soluble Activin Receptor IIB Fails to Prevent Muscle Atrophy in a Mouse Model of Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Graham, Zachary A; Collier, Lauren; Peng, Yuanzhen; Saéz, Juan C; Bauman, William A; Qin, Weiping; Cardozo, Christopher P

    2016-06-15

    Myostatin (MST) is a potent regulator of muscle growth and size. Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in marked atrophy of muscle below the level of injury. Currently, there is no effective pharmaceutical treatment available to prevent sublesional muscle atrophy post-SCI. To determine whether inhibition of MST with a soluble activin IIB receptor (RAP-031) prevents sublesional SCI-induced muscle atrophy, mice were randomly assigned to the following groups: Sham-SCI; SCI+Vehicle group (SCI-VEH); and SCI+RAP-031 (SCI-RAP-031). SCI was induced by complete transection at thoracic level 10. Animals were euthanized at 56 days post-surgery. RAP-031 reduced, but did not prevent, body weight loss post-SCI. RAP-031 increased total lean tissue mass compared to SCI-VEH (14.8%). RAP-031 increased forelimb muscle mass post-SCI by 38% and 19% for biceps and triceps, respectively (p < 0.001). There were no differences in hindlimb muscle weights between the RAP-031 and SCI-VEH groups. In the gastrocnemius, messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was elevated for interleukin (IL)-6 (8-fold), IL-1β (3-fold), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (8-fold) in the SCI-VEH, compared to the Sham group. Muscle RING finger protein 1 mRNA was 2-fold greater in the RAP-031 group, compared to Sham-SCI. RAP-031 did not influence cytokine expression. Bone mineral density of the distal femur and proximal tibia were decreased post-SCI (-26% and -28%, respectively) and were not altered by RAP-031. In conclusion, MST inhibition increased supralesional muscle mass, but did not prevent sublesional muscle or bone loss, or the inflammation in paralyzed muscle.

  7. The role of myostatin and activin receptor IIB in the regulation of unloading-induced myofiber type-specific skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Lyle W; Knoblauch, Mark; Clarke, Mark S F

    2015-09-15

    Chronic unloading induces decrements in muscle size and strength. This adaptation is governed by a number of molecular factors including myostatin, a potent negative regulator of muscle mass. Myostatin must first be secreted into the circulation and then bind to the membrane-bound activin receptor IIB (actRIIB) to exert its atrophic action. Therefore, we hypothesized that myofiber type-specific atrophy observed after hindlimb suspension (HLS) would be related to myofiber type-specific expression of myostatin and/or actRIIB. Wistar rats underwent HLS for 10 days, after which the tibialis anterior was harvested for frozen cross sectioning. Simultaneous multichannel immunofluorescent staining combined with differential interference contrast imaging was employed to analyze myofiber type-specific expression of myostatin and actRIIB and myofiber type cross-sectional area (CSA) across fiber types, myonuclei, and satellite cells. Hindlimb suspension (HLS) induced significant myofiber type-specific atrophy in myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIx (P < 0.05) and MHC IIb myofibers (P < 0.05). Myostatin staining associated with myonuclei was less in HLS rats compared with controls, while satellite cell staining for myostatin remained unchanged. In contrast, the total number myonuclei and satellite cells per myofiber was reduced in HLS compared with ambulatory control rats (P < 0.01). Sarcoplasmic actRIIB staining differed between myofiber types (I < IIa < IIx < IIb) independent of loading conditions. Myofiber types exhibiting the greatest cytoplasmic staining of actRIIB corresponded to those exhibiting the greatest degree of atrophy following HLS. Our data suggest that differential expression of actRIIB may be responsible for myostatin-induced myofiber type-selective atrophy observed during chronic unloading. PMID:26205544

  8. Activation of signalling by the activin receptor complex.

    PubMed Central

    Attisano, L; Wrana, J L; Montalvo, E; Massagué, J

    1996-01-01

    Activin exerts its effects by simultaneously binding to two types of p rotein serine/threonine kinase receptors, each type existing in various isoforms. Using the ActR-IB and ActR-IIB receptor isoforms, we have investigated the mechanism of activin receptor activation. ActR-IIB are phosphoproteins with demonstrable affinity for each other. However, activin addition strongly promotes an interaction between these two proteins. Activin binds directly to ActR-IIB, and this complex associates with ActR-IB, which does not bind ligand on its own. In the resulting complex, ActR-IB becomes hyperphosphorylated, and this requires the kinase activity of ActR-IIB. Mutation of conserved serines and threonines in the GS domain, a region just upstream of the kinase domain in ActR-IB, abrogates both phosphorylation and signal propagation, suggesting that this domain contains phosphorylation sites required for signalling. ActR-IB activation can be mimicked by mutation of Thr-206 to aspartic acid, which yields a construct, ActR-IB(T206D), that signals in the absence of ligand. Furthermore, the signalling activity of this mutant construct is undisturbed by overexpression of a dominant negative kinase-defective ActR-IIB construct, indicating that ActR-IB(T206D) can signal independently of ActR-IIB. The evidence suggests that ActR-IIB acts as a primary activin receptor and ActR-IB acts as a downstream transducer of activin signals. PMID:8622651

  9. Development of Novel Activin-Targeted Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Justin L; Walton, Kelly L; Al-Musawi, Sara L; Kelly, Emily K; Qian, Hongwei; La, Mylinh; Lu, Louis; Lovrecz, George; Ziemann, Mark; Lazarus, Ross; El-Osta, Assam; Gregorevic, Paul; Harrison, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    Soluble activin type II receptors (ActRIIA/ActRIIB), via binding to diverse TGF-β proteins, can increase muscle and bone mass, correct anemia or protect against diet-induced obesity. While exciting, these multiple actions of soluble ActRIIA/IIB limit their therapeutic potential and highlight the need for new reagents that target specific ActRIIA/IIB ligands. Here, we modified the activin A and activin B prodomains, regions required for mature growth factor synthesis, to generate specific activin antagonists. Initially, the prodomains were fused to the Fc region of mouse IgG2A antibody and, subsequently, “fastener” residues (Lys45, Tyr96, His97, and Ala98; activin A numbering) that confer latency to other TGF-β proteins were incorporated. For the activin A prodomain, these modifications generated a reagent that potently (IC50 5 nmol/l) and specifically inhibited activin A signaling in vitro, and activin A-induced muscle wasting in vivo. Interestingly, the modified activin B prodomain inhibited both activin A and B signaling in vitro (IC50 ~2 nmol/l) and in vivo, suggesting it could serve as a general activin antagonist. Importantly, unlike soluble ActRIIA/IIB, the modified prodomains did not inhibit myostatin or GDF-11 activity. To underscore the therapeutic utility of specifically antagonising activin signaling, we demonstrate that the modified activin prodomains promote significant increases in muscle mass. PMID:25399825

  10. Activation of activin type IB receptor signals in pancreatic β cells leads to defective insulin secretion through the attenuation of ATP-sensitive K+ channel activity.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Masatoshi; Morinaga, Hidetaka; Zhu, Hai-Lei; Wang, Lixiang; Hasuzawa, Nao; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Teramoto, Noriyoshi

    2014-07-18

    In studies of gene-ablated mice, activin signaling through activin type IIB receptors (ActRIIB) and Smad2 has been shown to regulate not only pancreatic β cell mass but also insulin secretion. However, it still remains unclear whether gain of function of activin signaling is involved in the modulation of pancreatic β cell mass and insulin secretion. To identify distinct roles of activin signaling in pancreatic β cells, the Cre-loxP system was used to activate signaling through activin type IB receptor (ActRIB) in pancreatic β cells. The resultant mice (pancreatic β cell-specific ActRIB transgenic (Tg) mice; ActRIBCAβTg) exhibited a defect in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and a progressive impairment of glucose tolerance. Patch-clamp techniques revealed that the activity of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (KATP channels) was decreased in mutant β cells. These results indicate that an appropriate level of activin signaling may be required for GSIS in pancreatic β cells, and that activin signaling involves modulation of KATP channel activity.

  11. An Activin Receptor IA/Activin-Like Kinase-2 (R206H) Mutation in Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Esparza, Rafael; Pacheco-Tovar, Deyanira; Bollain-Y-Goytia, Juan José; Torres Del Muro, Felipe; Ramírez-Sandoval, Roxana; Pacheco-Tovar, María Guadalupe; Castañeda-Ureña, María; Avalos-Díaz, Esperanza

    2013-01-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is an exceptionally rare genetic disease that is characterised by congenital malformations of the great toes and progressive heterotopic ossification (HO) in specific anatomical areas. This disease is caused by a mutation in activin receptor IA/activin-like kinase-2 (ACVR1/ALK2). A Mexican family with one member affected by FOP was studied. The patient is a 19-year-old female who first presented with symptoms of FOP at 8 years old; she developed spontaneous and painful swelling of the right scapular area accompanied by functional limitation of movement. Mutation analysis was performed in which genomic DNA as PCR amplified using primers flanking exons 4 and 6, and PCR products were digested with Cac8I and HphI restriction enzymes. The most informative results were obtained with the exon 4 flanking primers and the Cac8I restriction enzyme, which generated a 253 bp product that carries the ACVR1 617G>A mutation, which causes an amino acid substitution of histidine for arginine at position 206 of the glycine-serine (GS) domain, and its mutation results in the dysregulation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling that causes FOP. PMID:23653868

  12. ACVR1B (ALK4, activin receptor type 1B) gene mutations in pancreatic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Su, Gloria H.; Bansal, Ravi; Murphy, Kathleen M.; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Yeo, Charles J.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Kern, Scott E.

    2001-01-01

    DPC4 is known to mediate signals initiated by type β transforming growth factor (TGFβ) as well as by other TGFβ superfamily ligands such as activin and BMP (bone morphogenic proteins), but mutational surveys of such non-TGFβ receptors have been negative to date. Here we describe the gene structure and novel somatic mutations of the activin type I receptor, ACVR1B, in pancreatic cancer. ACVR1B has not been described previously as a mutated tumor-suppressor gene. PMID:11248065

  13. Activin-receptor signaling regulates cocaine-primed behavioral and morphological plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Gancarz, Amy M.; Wang, Zi-Jun; Schroeder, Gabrielle L.; Damez-Werno, Diane; Braunscheidel, Kevin; Mueller, Lauren E.; Humby, Monica S.; Caccamise, Aaron; Martin, Jennifer A.; Dietz, Karen C.; Neve, Rachael L.; Dietz, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is a life-long relapsing disorder that results from long-term adaptations within the brain. We find that Activin-receptor signaling, including the transcription factor Smad3, is upregulated in the rat nucleus accumbens shell following withdrawal from cocaine. Direct genetic and pharmacological manipulations of this pathway bidirectionally alter cocaine seeking, while governing morphological plasticity in nucleus accumbens neurons. These findings reveal that Activin/Smad3 signaling is induced following withdrawal from cocaine, and such regulation may be a key molecular mechanism underlying behavioral and cellular plasticity in the brain following cocaine self-administration. PMID:26030849

  14. Activins and activin antagonists in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Deli, Alev; Kreidl, Emanuel; Santifaller, Stefan; Trotter, Barbara; Seir, Katja; Berger, Walter; Schulte-Hermann, Rolf; Rodgarkia-Dara, Chantal; Grusch, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In many parts of the world hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the leading causes of cancer-related mortality but the underlying molecular pathology is still insufficiently understood. There is increasing evidence that activins, which are members of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily of growth and differentiation factors, could play important roles in liver carcinogenesis. Activins are disulphide-linked homo- or heterodimers formed from four different β subunits termed βA, βB, βC, and βE, respectively. Activin A, the dimer of two βA subunits, is critically involved in the regulation of cell growth, apoptosis, and tissue architecture in the liver, while the hepatic function of other activins is largely unexplored so far. Negative regulators of activin signals include antagonists in the extracellular space like the binding proteins follistatin and FLRG, and at the cell membrane antagonistic co-receptors like Cripto or BAMBI. Additionally, in the intracellular space inhibitory Smads can modulate and control activin activity. Accumulating data suggest that deregulation of activin signals contributes to pathologic conditions such as chronic inflammation, fibrosis and development of cancer. The current article reviews the alterations in components of the activin signaling pathway that have been observed in HCC and discusses their potential significance for liver tumorigenesis. PMID:18350601

  15. Activin C Antagonizes Activin A in Vitro and Overexpression Leads to Pathologies in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Elspeth; Jetly, Niti; O'Bryan, Moira K.; Meachem, Sarah; Srinivasan, Deepa; Behuria, Supreeti; Sanchez-Partida, L. Gabriel; Woodruff, Teresa; Hedwards, Shelley; Wang, Hong; McDougall, Helen; Casey, Victoria; Niranjan, Birunthi; Patella, Shane; Risbridger, Gail

    2009-01-01

    Activin A is a potent growth and differentiation factor whose synthesis and bioactivity are tightly regulated. Both follistatin binding and inhibin subunit heterodimerization block access to the activin receptor and/or receptor activation. We postulated that the activin-βC subunit provides another mechanism regulating activin bioactivity. To test our hypothesis, we examined the biological effects of activin C and produced mice that overexpress activin-βC. Activin C reduced activin A bioactivity in vitro; in LNCaP cells, activin C abrogated both activin A-induced Smad signaling and growth inhibition, and in LβT2 cells, activin C antagonized activin A-mediated activity of an follicle-stimulating hormone-β promoter. Transgenic mice that overexpress activin-βC exhibited disease in testis, liver, and prostate. Male infertility was caused by both reduced sperm production and impaired sperm motility. The livers of the transgenic mice were enlarged because of an imbalance between hepatocyte proliferation and apoptosis. Transgenic prostates showed evidence of hypertrophy and epithelial cell hyperplasia. Additionally, there was decreased evidence of nuclear Smad-2 localization in the testis, liver, and prostate, indicating that overexpression of activin-βC antagonized Smad signaling in vivo. Underlying the significance of these findings, human testis, liver, and prostate cancers expressed increased activin-βC immunoreactivity. This study provides evidence that activin-βC is an antagonist of activin A and supplies an impetus to examine its role in development and disease. PMID:19095948

  16. RAP-011, an activin receptor ligand trap, increases hemoglobin concentration in hepcidin transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Jacqueline M; Barkataki, Sangjucta; Berger, Alan E; Cheadle, Chris; Xue, Qian-Li; Sung, Victoria; Roy, Cindy N

    2015-01-01

    Over expression of hepcidin antimicrobial peptide is a common feature of iron-restricted anemia in humans. We investigated the erythroid response to either erythropoietin or RAP-011, a "murinized" ortholog of sotatercept, in C57BL/6 mice and in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide 1 over expressing mice. Sotatercept, a soluble, activin receptor type IIA ligand trap, is currently being evaluated for the treatment of anemias associated with chronic renal disease, myelodysplastic syndrome, β-thalassemia, and Diamond Blackfan anemia and acts by inhibiting signaling downstream of activin and other Transforming Growth Factor-β superfamily members. We found that erythropoietin and RAP-011 increased hemoglobin concentration in C57BL/6 mice and in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide 1 over expressing mice. While erythropoietin treatment depleted splenic iron stores in C57BL/6 mice, RAP-011 treatment did not deplete splenic iron stores in mice of either genotype. Bone marrow erythroid progenitors from erythropoietin-treated mice exhibited iron-restricted erythropoiesis, as indicated by increased median fluorescence intensity of transferrin receptor immunostaining by flow cytometry. In contrast, RAP-011-treated mice did not exhibit the same degree of iron-restricted erythropoiesis. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that RAP-011 can improve hemoglobin concentration in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide 1 transgenic mice. Our data support the hypothesis that RAP-011 has unique biologic effects which prevent or circumvent depletion of mouse splenic iron stores. RAP-011 may, therefore, be an appropriate therapeutic for trials in human anemias characterized by increased expression of hepcidin antimicrobial peptide and iron-restricted erythropoiesis.

  17. ACVR1R206H receptor mutation causes fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva by imparting responsiveness to activin A.

    PubMed

    Hatsell, Sarah J; Idone, Vincent; Wolken, Dana M Alessi; Huang, Lily; Kim, Hyon J; Wang, Lili; Wen, Xialing; Nannuru, Kalyan C; Jimenez, Johanna; Xie, Liqin; Das, Nanditha; Makhoul, Genevieve; Chernomorsky, Rostislav; D'Ambrosio, David; Corpina, Richard A; Schoenherr, Christopher J; Feeley, Kieran; Yu, Paul B; Yancopoulos, George D; Murphy, Andrew J; Economides, Aris N

    2015-09-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by episodically exuberant heterotopic ossification (HO), whereby skeletal muscle is abnormally converted into misplaced, but histologically normal bone. This HO leads to progressive immobility with catastrophic consequences, including death by asphyxiation. FOP results from mutations in the intracellular domain of the type I BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) receptor ACVR1; the most common mutation alters arginine 206 to histidine (ACVR1(R206H)) and has been thought to drive inappropriate bone formation as a result of receptor hyperactivity. We unexpectedly found that this mutation rendered ACVR1 responsive to the activin family of ligands, which generally antagonize BMP signaling through ACVR1 but cannot normally induce bone formation. To test the implications of this finding in vivo, we engineered mice to carry the Acvr1(R206H) mutation. Because mice that constitutively express Acvr1[R206H] die perinatally, we generated a genetically humanized conditional-on knock-in model for this mutation. When Acvr1[R206H] expression was induced, mice developed HO resembling that of FOP; HO could also be triggered by activin A administration in this mouse model of FOP but not in wild-type controls. Finally, HO was blocked by broad-acting BMP blockers, as well as by a fully human antibody specific to activin A. Our results suggest that ACVR1(R206H) causes FOP by gaining responsiveness to the normally antagonistic ligand activin A, demonstrating that this ligand is necessary and sufficient for driving HO in a genetically accurate model of FOP; hence, our human antibody to activin A represents a potential therapeutic approach for FOP.

  18. Regulation of FSHbeta and GnRH receptor gene expression in activin receptor II knockout male mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, T Rajendra; Agno, Julio; Janovick, Jo Ann; Conn, P Michael; Matzuk, Martin M

    2003-12-30

    To examine in vivo, the local effects of inhibins and activins within the anterior pituitary, independent of their endocrine effects exerted from the gonad, in mediating FSH homeostasis, we used castrated knockout mice lacking either inhibin alpha or activin receptor II (ACVR2) alone or in combination. Compared to castrated wild-type (WT) mice, FSHbeta mRNA levels in the pituitaries of Acvr2 null mice were significantly downregulated in the absence of gonadal feedback. FSHbeta mRNA levels were not significantly higher in the pituitaries of castrated inhibin alpha null mice compared to those in Acvr2 null mice and remained the same in the pituitaries of castrated double mutant mice lacking both inhibin and ACVR2. In contrast to FSHbeta mRNA expression changes, pituitary FSH content was significantly reduced in Acvr2 null mice whereas it was only slightly upregulated in inhibin alpha null mice. Combined absence of both ACVR2 signaling and inhibins caused a decrease in FSH content compared to that in the absence of inhibins alone. These changes in pituitary content were in parallel to those in serum FSH levels in these three groups of castrated mice, suggesting that the unopposed actions of locally produced inhibins are dominant over those effects mediated by ACVR2 signaling to regulate FSH biosynthesis and secretion. Thus, our in vivo results demonstrate that within the pituitary, locally produced activins and inhibins exert their actions at distinct phases of FSH homeostasis. In an independent set of experiments, we tested whether in vivo signaling via ACVR2 is necessary for hypothalamic GnRH biosynthesis and for GnRH receptor expression. Our results demonstrate that in contrast to previous in vitro studies, signaling through ACVR2 is neither required for hypothalamic synthesis of GnRH peptide nor for expression of GnRH receptors in the anterior pituitary. We conclude that within the hypothalamic-pituitary short loop, ACVR2 signaling is critical only for FSH

  19. Targeting tumour vasculature by inhibiting activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)1 function.

    PubMed

    de Vinuesa, Amaya García; Bocci, Matteo; Pietras, Kristian; Ten Dijke, Peter

    2016-08-15

    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancer and is now a validated therapeutic target in the clinical setting. Despite the initial success, anti-angiogenic compounds impinging on the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway display limited survival benefits in patients and resistance often develops due to activation of alternative pathways. Thus, finding and validating new targets is highly warranted. Activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)1 is a transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) type I receptor predominantly expressed in actively proliferating endothelial cells (ECs). ALK1 has been shown to play a pivotal role in regulating angiogenesis by binding to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)9 and 10. Two main pharmacological inhibitors, an ALK1-Fc fusion protein (Dalantercept/ACE-041) and a fully human antibody against the extracellular domain of ALK1 (PF-03446962) are currently under clinical development. Herein, we briefly recapitulate the role of ALK1 in blood vessel formation and the current status of the preclinical and clinical studies on inhibition of ALK1 signalling as an anti-angiogenic strategy. Future directions in terms of new combination regimens will also be presented. PMID:27528762

  20. Uterine activin receptor-like kinase 5 is crucial for blastocyst implantation and placental development.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jia; Monsivais, Diana; You, Ran; Zhong, Hua; Pangas, Stephanie A; Matzuk, Martin M

    2015-09-01

    Members of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily are key regulators in most developmental and physiological processes. However, the in vivo roles of TGF-β signaling in female reproduction remain uncertain. Activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5) is the major type 1 receptor for the TGF-β subfamily. Absence of ALK5 leads to early embryonic lethality because of severe defects in vascular development. In this study, we conditionally ablated uterine ALK5 using progesterone receptor-cre mice to define the physiological roles of ALK5 in female reproduction. Despite normal ovarian functions and artificial decidualization in conditional knockout (cKO) mice, absence of uterine ALK5 resulted in substantially reduced female reproduction due to abnormalities observed at different stages of pregnancy, including implantation defects, disorganization of trophoblast cells, fewer uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, and impairment of spiral artery remodeling. In our microarray analysis, genes encoding proteins involved in cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions and NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity were down-regulated in cKO decidua compared with control decidua. Flow cytometry confirmed a 10-fold decrease in uNK cells in cKO versus control decidua. According to these data, we hypothesize that TGF-β acts on decidual cells via ALK5 to induce expression of other growth factors and cytokines, which are key regulators in luminal epithelium proliferation, trophoblast development, and uNK maturation during pregnancy. Our findings not only generate a mouse model to study TGF-β signaling in female reproduction but also shed light on the pathogenesis of many pregnancy complications in human, such as recurrent spontaneous abortion, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. PMID:26305969

  1. Specific activin receptor-like kinase 3 inhibitors enhance liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tsugawa, Daisuke; Oya, Yuki; Masuzaki, Ryota; Ray, Kevin; Engers, Darren W; Dib, Martin; Do, Nhue; Kuramitsu, Kaori; Ho, Karen; Frist, Audrey; Yu, Paul B; Bloch, Kenneth D; Lindsley, Craig W; Hopkins, Corey R; Hong, Charles C; Karp, Seth J

    2014-12-01

    Pharmacologic agents to enhance liver regeneration after injury would have wide therapeutic application. Based on previous work suggesting inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling stimulates liver regeneration, we tested known and novel BMP inhibitors for their ability to accelerate regeneration in a partial hepatectomy (PH) model. Compounds were produced based on the 3,6-disubstituted pyrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidine core of the BMP antagonist dorsomorphin and evaluated for their ability to inhibit BMP signaling and enhance liver regeneration. Antagonists of the BMP receptor activin receptor-like kinase 3 (ALK3), including LDN-193189 (LDN; 4-[6-[4-(1-piperazinyl)phenyl]pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl]-quinoline), DMH2 (4-(2-(4-(3-(quinolin-4-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-6-yl)phenoxy)ethyl)morpholine; VU0364849), and the novel compound VU0465350 (7-(4-isopropoxyphenyl)-3-(1H-pyrazol-4-yl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine; VU5350), blocked SMAD phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo, and enhanced liver regeneration after PH. In contrast, an antagonist of the BMP receptor ALK2, VU0469381 (5-(6-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl)quinolone; 1LWY), did not affect liver regeneration. LDN did not affect liver synthetic or metabolic function. Mechanistically, LDN increased serum interleukin-6 levels and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation in the liver, and modulated other factors known to be important for liver regeneration, including suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 and p53. These findings suggest that inhibition of ALK3 may be part of a therapeutic strategy for treating human liver disease.

  2. Specific activin receptor-like kinase 3 inhibitors enhance liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tsugawa, Daisuke; Oya, Yuki; Masuzaki, Ryota; Ray, Kevin; Engers, Darren W; Dib, Martin; Do, Nhue; Kuramitsu, Kaori; Ho, Karen; Frist, Audrey; Yu, Paul B; Bloch, Kenneth D; Lindsley, Craig W; Hopkins, Corey R; Hong, Charles C; Karp, Seth J

    2014-12-01

    Pharmacologic agents to enhance liver regeneration after injury would have wide therapeutic application. Based on previous work suggesting inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling stimulates liver regeneration, we tested known and novel BMP inhibitors for their ability to accelerate regeneration in a partial hepatectomy (PH) model. Compounds were produced based on the 3,6-disubstituted pyrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidine core of the BMP antagonist dorsomorphin and evaluated for their ability to inhibit BMP signaling and enhance liver regeneration. Antagonists of the BMP receptor activin receptor-like kinase 3 (ALK3), including LDN-193189 (LDN; 4-[6-[4-(1-piperazinyl)phenyl]pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl]-quinoline), DMH2 (4-(2-(4-(3-(quinolin-4-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-6-yl)phenoxy)ethyl)morpholine; VU0364849), and the novel compound VU0465350 (7-(4-isopropoxyphenyl)-3-(1H-pyrazol-4-yl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine; VU5350), blocked SMAD phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo, and enhanced liver regeneration after PH. In contrast, an antagonist of the BMP receptor ALK2, VU0469381 (5-(6-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl)quinolone; 1LWY), did not affect liver regeneration. LDN did not affect liver synthetic or metabolic function. Mechanistically, LDN increased serum interleukin-6 levels and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation in the liver, and modulated other factors known to be important for liver regeneration, including suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 and p53. These findings suggest that inhibition of ALK3 may be part of a therapeutic strategy for treating human liver disease. PMID:25271257

  3. Pegylated Interferon-α Modulates Liver Concentrations of Activin-A and Its Related Proteins in Normal Wistar Rat

    PubMed Central

    Refaat, Bassem; El-Shemi, Adel Galal; Ashshi, Ahmed Mohamed; Mahamid, Elaf Wael; Al-Qadi, Noha Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To measure the expression of activin βA-subunit, activin IIA and IIB receptors, Smad4, Smad7, and follistatin in the liver and the liver and serum concentrations of mature activin-A and follistatin in normal rat following treatment with pegylated interferon-α (Peg-INF-α) and ribavirin (RBV). Materials and Methods. 40 male Wistar rats were divided equally into 4 groups: “control,” “Peg-only” receiving 4 injections of Peg-INF-α (6 µg/rat/week), “RBV-only” receiving ribavirin (4 mg/rat/day) orally, and “Peg & RBV” group receiving both drugs. The expression of candidate molecules in liver was measured by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR. The concentrations of mature proteins in serum and liver homogenate samples were measured using ELISA. Results. Peg-INF-α  ± RBV altered the expression of all candidate molecules in the liver at the gene and protein levels (P < 0.05) and decreased activin-A and increased follistatin in serum and liver homogenates compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). There were also significant correlations between serum and liver activin-A and follistatin. Conclusion. Peg-INF-α modulates the hepatic production of activin-A and follistatin, which can be detected in serum. Further studies are needed to explore the role of Peg-INF-α on the production of activins and follistatin by the liver and immune cells. PMID:26236109

  4. An activin receptor IIA ligand trap promotes erythropoiesis resulting in a rapid induction of red blood cells and haemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Carrancio, Soraya; Markovics, Jennifer; Wong, Piu; Leisten, Jim; Castiglioni, Paola; Groza, Matthew C; Raymon, Heather K; Heise, Carla; Daniel, Tom; Chopra, Rajesh; Sung, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Sotatercept (ACE-011), a recombinant human fusion protein containing the extracellular domain of the human Activin receptor IIA, binds to and inhibits activin and other members of the transforming growth factor -β (TGF-β) superfamily. Administration of sotatercept led to a rapid and sustained increase in red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb) in healthy volunteers (phase I clinical trials), but the mechanism is not fully understood. Mice treated with RAP-011 (murine ortholog of ACE-011) respond with a rapid (within 24 h) increase in haematocrit, Hb, and RBC count. These effects are accompanied by an equally rapid stimulation of late-stage erythroid precursors in the bone marrow (BM). RAP-011 also induces a significant increase in erythroid burst-forming units and erythropoietin, which could contribute to additional, sustained effects on RBC production. Further in vitro co-culture studies demonstrate that BM accessory cells are required for RAP-011 effects. To better understand which TGF-β family ligand(s) mediate RAP-011 effects, we evaluated the impact of several of these ligands on erythroid differentiation. Our data suggest that RAP-011 may act to rescue growth differentiation factor 11/Activin A-induced inhibition of late-stage erythropoiesis. These data define the mechanism of action of a novel agent that regulates RBC differentiation and provide the rationale to develop sotatercept for the treatment of anaemia and ineffective erythropoiesis. PMID:24635723

  5. Activin type IB receptor signaling in prostate cancer cells promotes lymph node metastasis in a xenograft model

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Kimitaka; Wang, Lixiang; Goto, Yutaka; Mukasa, Chizu; Ashida, Kenji; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ActRIB signaling induces Snail and S100A4 expressions in prostate cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prostate cancer cell lines expressing an active form of ActRIB were established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ActRIB signaling promotes EMT and lymph node metastasis in xenograft model. -- Abstract: Activin, a member of the transforming growth factor-{beta} family, has been known to be a growth and differentiating factor. Despite its pluripotent effects, the roles of activin signaling in prostate cancer pathogenesis are still unclear. In this study, we established several cell lines that express a constitutive active form of activin type IB receptor (ActRIBCA) in human prostate cancer cells, ALVA41 (ALVA-ActRIBCA). There was no apparent change in the proliferation of ALVA-ActRIBCA cells in vitro; however, their migratory ability was significantly enhanced. In a xenograft model, histological analysis revealed that the expression of Snail, a cell-adhesion-suppressing transcription factor, was dramatically increased in ALVA-ActRIBCA tumors, indicating epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Finally, mice bearing ALVA-ActRIBCA cells developed multiple lymph node metastases. In this study, we demonstrated that ActRIBCA signaling can promote cell migration in prostate cancer cells via a network of signaling molecules that work together to trigger the process of EMT, and thereby aid in the aggressiveness and progression of prostate cancers.

  6. Mutant activin-like kinase 2 in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva are activated via T203 by BMP type II receptors.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Mai; Ohte, Satoshi; Osawa, Kenji; Miyamoto, Arei; Tsukamoto, Sho; Mizuta, Takato; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Suda, Naoto; Katagiri, Takenobu

    2015-01-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a genetic disorder characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification in soft tissues, such as the skeletal muscles. FOP has been shown to be caused by gain-of-function mutations in activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)-2, which is a type I receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). In the present study, we examined the molecular mechanisms that underlie the activation of intracellular signaling by mutant ALK2. Mutant ALK2 from FOP patients enhanced the activation of intracellular signaling by type II BMP receptors, such as BMPR-II and activin receptor, type II B, whereas that from heart disease patients did not. This enhancement was dependent on the kinase activity of the type II receptors. Substitution mutations at all nine serine and threonine residues in the ALK2 glycine- and serine-rich domain simultaneously inhibited this enhancement by the type II receptors. Of the nine serine and threonine residues in ALK2, T203 was found to be critical for the enhancement by type II receptors. The T203 residue was conserved in all of the BMP type I receptors, and these residues were essential for intracellular signal transduction in response to ligand stimulation. The phosphorylation levels of the mutant ALK2 related to FOP were higher than those of wild-type ALK2 and were further increased by the presence of type II receptors. The phosphorylation levels of ALK2 were greatly reduced in mutants carrying a mutation at T203, even in the presence of type II receptors. These findings suggest that the mutant ALK2 related to FOP is enhanced by BMP type II receptors via the T203-regulated phosphorylation of ALK2.

  7. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor Inhibitors During Primary Angioplasty for Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Gruberg; Lansky; Dangas; Stone

    1999-12-01

    Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors are the final common pathway leading to platelet aggregation and coronary thrombosis during acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Therefore, they are ideal candidates for pharmacologic intervention. The recent development of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists has led to several studies that have shown the benefits and efficacy of these agents in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes and in the setting of percutaneous intervention. To date, six published trials have examined the safety and efficacy of intravenous abciximab, a mouse/human chimeric version of the 7E3 antibody, as an adjunct to primary mechanical reperfusion in patients with AMI. In this article, we review these trials, as well as new studies currently underway that will provide further information on the long-term benefits of combining these pharmacologic agents and stenting in the treatment of AMI.

  8. Affinity modulation of the alpha IIb beta 3 integrin (platelet GPIIb-IIIa) is an intrinsic property of the receptor.

    PubMed Central

    O'Toole, T E; Loftus, J C; Du, X P; Glass, A A; Ruggeri, Z M; Shattil, S J; Plow, E F; Ginsberg, M H

    1990-01-01

    To analyze the basis of affinity modulation of integrin function, we studied cloned stable Chinese hamster ovary cell lines expressing recombinant integrins of the beta 3 family (alpha IIb beta 3 and alpha v beta 3). Antigenic and peptide recognition specificities of the recombinant receptors resembled those of the native receptors found in platelets or endothelial cells. The alpha IIb beta 3-expressing cell line (A5) bound RGD peptides and immobilized fibrinogen (Fg) but not soluble fibrinogen or the activation-specific monoclonal anti-alpha IIb beta 3 (PAC1), indicating that it was in the affinity state found on resting platelets. Several platelet agonists failed to alter the affinity state of ("activate") recombinant alpha IIb beta 3. The binding of soluble Fg and PAC1, however, was stimulated in both platelets and A5 cells by addition of IgG papain-digestion products (Fab) fragments of certain beta 3-specific monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies stimulated PAC1 binding to platelets fixed under conditions rendering them unresponsive to other agonists. Addition of these antibodies to detergent-solubilized alpha IIb beta 3 also stimulated specific Fg binding. These data demonstrate that certain anti-beta 3 antibodies activate alpha IIb beta 3 by acting directly on the receptor, possibly by altering its conformation. Furthermore, they indicate that the activation state of alpha IIb beta 3 is a property of the receptor itself rather than of the surrounding cell membrane microenvironment. Images PMID:2100193

  9. Antisense-oligonucleotide mediated exon skipping in activin-receptor-like kinase 2: inhibiting the receptor that is overactive in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.

    PubMed

    Shi, Songting; Cai, Jie; de Gorter, David J J; Sanchez-Duffhues, Gonzalo; Kemaladewi, Dwi U; Hoogaars, Willem M H; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; 't Hoen, Peter A C; ten Dijke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare heritable disease characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification of connective tissues, for which there is presently no definite treatment. A recurrent activating mutation (c.617G→A; R206H) of activin receptor-like kinase 2 (ACVR1/ALK2), a BMP type I receptor, has been shown as the main cause of FOP. This mutation constitutively activates the BMP signaling pathway and initiates the formation of heterotopic bone. In this study, we have designed antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) to knockdown mouse ALK2 expression by means of exon skipping. The ALK2 AON could induce exon skipping in cells, which was accompanied by decreased ALK2 mRNA levels and impaired BMP signaling. In addition, the ALK2 AON potentiated muscle differentiation and repressed BMP6-induced osteoblast differentiation. Our results therefore provide a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of FOP disease by reducing the excessive ALK2 activity in FOP patients.

  10. Thermoreversible gel for delivery of activin receptor-like kinase 5 inhibitor SB-505124 for glaucoma filtration surgery.

    PubMed

    Sutariya, Vijaykumar; Miladore, Nicholas; Geldenhuys, Werner; Bhatia, Deepak; Wehrung, Daniel; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate a thermoreversible gel using Pluronic F-127 to deliver an activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK-5) inhibitor SB-505124 in glaucoma filtration surgery (GFS). The gel was characterized for in vitro drug release and viscosity studies. Cytotoxicity of Pluronic F-127 was examined by MTT assay using cultured rabbit subconjunctival fibroblasts. In addition, Pluronic F-127 gel (18% w/v) containing 5 mg of SB-505124 was applied at the surgical site in an in vivo rabbit GFS model. In the in vitro viscosity study, the gel showed a change in viscosity (from 1000 cps to 45,000 cps) from low temperature (10°C) to body temperature (37°C). The in vitro drug release study demonstrated 100% drug release within 12 h. The gel did not show cytotoxicity to the cultured rabbit subconjunctival cells by MTT assay. In the in vivo rabbit GFS model, the drug was successfully delivered by injection and no severe post-surgical complications were observed. A thermoreversible gel system with SB-505124 was successfully prepared and delivered for the rabbit GFS model, and it may provide a novel delivery system in GFS.

  11. Heterozygous disruption of activin receptor-like kinase 1 is associated with increased arterial pressure in mice

    PubMed Central

    González-Núñez, María; Riolobos, Adela S.; Castellano, Orlando; Fuentes-Calvo, Isabel; de los Ángeles Sevilla, María; Oujo, Bárbara; Pericacho, Miguel; Cruz-Gonzalez, Ignacio; Pérez-Barriocanal, Fernando; ten Dijke, Peter; López-Novoa, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK-1) is a type I cell-surface receptor for the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family of proteins. Hypertension is related to TGF-β1, because increased TGF-β1 expression is correlated with an elevation in arterial pressure (AP) and TGF-β expression is upregulated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of ALK-1 in regulation of AP using Alk1 haploinsufficient mice (Alk1+/−). We observed that systolic and diastolic AP were significantly higher in Alk1+/− than in Alk1+/+ mice, and all functional and structural cardiac parameters (echocardiography and electrocardiography) were similar in both groups. Alk1+/− mice showed alterations in the circadian rhythm of AP, with higher AP than Alk1+/+ mice during most of the light period. Higher AP in Alk1+/− mice is not a result of a reduction in the NO-dependent vasodilator response or of overactivation of the peripheral renin-angiotensin system. However, intracerebroventricular administration of losartan had a hypotensive effect in Alk1+/− and not in Alk1+/+ mice. Alk1+/− mice showed a greater hypotensive response to the β-adrenergic antagonist atenolol and higher concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma than Alk1+/+ mice. The number of brain cholinergic neurons in the anterior basal forebrain was reduced in Alk1+/− mice. Thus, we concluded that the ALK-1 receptor is involved in the control of AP, and the high AP of Alk1+/− mice is explained mainly by the sympathetic overactivation shown by these animals, which is probably related to the decreased number of cholinergic neurons. PMID:26398936

  12. Activin signaling as an emerging target for therapeutic interventions

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchida, Kunihiro; Nakatani, Masashi; Hitachi, Keisuke; Uezumi, Akiyoshi; Sunada, Yoshihide; Ageta, Hiroshi; Inokuchi, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    After the initial discovery of activins as important regulators of reproduction, novel and diverse roles have been unraveled for them. Activins are expressed in various tissues and have a broad range of activities including the regulation of gonadal function, hormonal homeostasis, growth and differentiation of musculoskeletal tissues, regulation of growth and metastasis of cancer cells, proliferation and differentiation of embryonic stem cells, and even higher brain functions. Activins signal through a combination of type I and II transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors. Activin receptors are shared by multiple transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) ligands such as myostatin, growth and differentiation factor-11 and nodal. Thus, although the activity of each ligand is distinct, they are also redundant, both physiologically and pathologically in vivo. Activin receptors activated by ligands phosphorylate the receptor-regulated Smads for TGF-β, Smad2 and 3. The Smad proteins then undergo multimerization with the co-mediator Smad4, and translocate into the nucleus to regulate the transcription of target genes in cooperation with nuclear cofactors. Signaling through receptors and Smads is controlled by multiple mechanisms including phosphorylation and other posttranslational modifications such as sumoylation, which affect potein localization, stability and transcriptional activity. Non-Smad signaling also plays an important role in activin signaling. Extracellularly, follistatin and related proteins bind to activins and related TGF-β ligands, and control the signaling and availability of ligands. The functions of activins through activin receptors are pleiotrophic, cell type-specific and contextual, and they are involved in the etiology and pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. Accordingly, activin signaling may be a target for therapeutic interventions. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on activin signaling and discuss the potential roles of

  13. A myostatin and activin decoy receptor enhances bone formation in mice.

    PubMed

    Bialek, P; Parkington, J; Li, X; Gavin, D; Wallace, C; Zhang, J; Root, A; Yan, G; Warner, L; Seeherman, H J; Yaworsky, P J

    2014-03-01

    Myostatin is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein/transforming growth factor-β (BMP/TGFβ) super-family of secreted differentiation factors. Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle mass as shown by increased muscle mass in myostatin deficient mice. Interestingly, these mice also exhibit increased bone mass suggesting that myostatin may also play a role in regulating bone mass. To investigate the role of myostatin in bone, young adult mice were administered with either a myostatin neutralizing antibody (Mstn-mAb), a soluble myostatin decoy receptor (ActRIIB-Fc) or vehicle. While both myostatin inhibitors increased muscle mass, only ActRIIB-Fc increased bone mass. Bone volume fraction (BV/TV), as determined by microCT, was increased by 132% and 27% in the distal femur and lumbar vertebrae, respectively. Histological evaluation demonstrated that increased BV/TV in both locations was attributed to increased trabecular thickness, trabecular number and bone formation rate. Increased BV/TV resulted in enhanced vertebral maximum compressive force compared to untreated animals. The fact that ActRIIB-Fc, but not Mstn-mAb, increased bone volume suggested that this soluble decoy receptor may be binding a ligand other than myostatin, that plays a role in regulating bone mass. This was confirmed by the significant increase in BV/TV in myostatin deficient mice treated with ActRIIB-Fc. Of the other known ActRIIB-Fc ligands, BMP3 has been identified as a negative regulator of bone mass. However, BMP3 deficient mice treated with ActRIIB-Fc showed similar increases in BV/TV as wild type (WT) littermates treated with ActRIIB-Fc. This result suggests that BMP3 neutralization is not the mechanism responsible for increased bone mass. The results of this study demonstrate that ActRIIB-Fc increases both muscle and bone mass in mice. Therefore, a therapeutic that has this dual activity represents a potential approach for the treatment of frailty. PMID:24333131

  14. Virtual High-Throughput Screening To Identify Novel Activin Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jie; Mishra, Rama K.; Schiltz, Gary E.; Makanji, Yogeshwar; Scheidt, Karl A.; Mazar, Andrew P.; Woodruff, Teresa K.

    2015-01-01

    Activin belongs to the TGFβ superfamily, which is associated with several disease conditions, including cancer-related cachexia, preterm labor with delivery, and osteoporosis. Targeting activin and its related signaling pathways holds promise as a therapeutic approach to these diseases. A small-molecule ligand-binding groove was identified in the interface between the two activin βA subunits and was used for a virtual high-throughput in silico screening of the ZINC database to identify hits. Thirty-nine compounds without significant toxicity were tested in two well-established activin assays: FSHβ transcription and HepG2 cell apoptosis. This screening workflow resulted in two lead compounds: NUCC-474 and NUCC-555. These potential activin antagonists were then shown to inhibit activin A-mediated cell proliferation in ex vivo ovary cultures. In vivo testing showed that our most potent compound (NUCC-555) caused a dose-dependent decrease in FSH levels in ovariectomized mice. The Blitz competition binding assay confirmed target binding of NUCC-555 to the activin A:ActRII that disrupts the activin A:ActRII complex’s binding with ALK4-ECD-Fc in a dose-dependent manner. The NUCC-555 also specifically binds to activin A compared with other TGFβ superfamily member myostatin (GDF8). These data demonstrate a new in silico-based strategy for identifying small-molecule activin antagonists. Our approach is the first to identify a first-in-class small-molecule antagonist of activin binding to ALK4, which opens a completely new approach to inhibiting the activity of TGFβ receptor superfamily members. in addition, the lead compound can serve as a starting point for lead optimization toward the goal of a compound that may be effective in activin-mediated diseases. PMID:26098096

  15. Platelet GP IIb-IIIa Receptor Antagonists in Primary Angioplasty: Back to the Future.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Giuseppe; Savonitto, Stefano; van't Hof, Arnoud W J; Suryapranata, Harry

    2015-07-01

    Coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction still represent the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. Therefore, great efforts have been made in the last decades to improve reperfusion strategies and adjunctive antithrombotic therapies. In fact, despite optimal epicardial recanalisation, a large proportion of patients still experience impaired reperfusion and in-stent thrombosis. The adjunctive use of glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa inhibitors may certainly contribute in the reduction of such complications, especially when administered in the early phase of infarction. In fact, in this phase a larger platelet composition of the thrombus and the presence of a larger amount of viable myocardium, as compared to a delayed phase, may increase the benefits from this therapy and counterbalance the potential higher risk of bleeding. A large body of evidence has been accumulated on the benefits from GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors in terms of prevention of stent thrombosis, and benefits in mortality, especially among high-risk patients and as upstream strategy. Therefore, based on current available data, GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors can be recommended as early as possible (upstream strategy) among high-risk patients, such as those with advanced Killip class or anterior myocardial infarction (MI), and those presenting within the first three hours. Even though it is not universally accepted, in our opinion this strategy should be implemented in a pre-hospital setting (in ambulance) or at first hospital admission (Emergency Room or Coronary Care Unit, irrespective of whether they are in the spoke or hub hospitals). Peri-procedural intracoronary administration of GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors has not provided additional benefits as compared to intravenous administration and therefore cannot be recommended. Even though the vast majority of trials have been conducted with abciximab, several meta-analyses comparing small molecules (mainly high-dose tirofiban rather than eptifibatide

  16. Activin A balance regulates epithelial invasiveness and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Le Bras, Grégoire F.; Loomans, Holli A.; Taylor, Chase; Revetta, Frank; Andl, Claudia D.

    2015-01-01

    Activin A is a member of the TGFβ superfamily. Activin A and TGFβ have multiple common downstream targets and have been described to merge in their intracellular signaling cascades and function. We have previously demonstrated that coordinated loss of E-cadherin and TGFβ receptor II results in epithelial cell invasion. When grown in three-dimensional organotypic reconstruct cultures, esophageal keratinocytes expressing dominant-negative mutants of E-cadherin and TGFβ receptor II showed activated Smad2 in the absence of functional TGFβ receptor II. However, we could show increased levels of Activin A secretion, and Activin A was able to induce Smad2 phosphorylation. Growth factor secretion can activate autocrine and paracrine signaling, which affects crosstalk between the epithelial compartment and the surrounding microenvironment. We show that treatment with the Act A antagonist Follistatin or with a neutralizing Activin A antibody can increase cell invasion in organotypic cultures in a fibroblast- and MMP-dependent manner. Similarly, suppression of Activin A with shRNA increases cell invasion and tumorigenesis in vivo. Therefore, we conclude that maintaining a delicate balance of Activin A expression is critical for homeostasis in the esophageal microenvironment. PMID:25068654

  17. Ligand trap for the activin type IIA receptor protects against vascular disease and renal fibrosis in mice with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Agapova, Olga A; Fang, Yifu; Sugatani, Toshifumi; Seifert, Michael E; Hruska, Keith A

    2016-06-01

    The causes of cardiovascular mortality associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are partly attributed to the CKD-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The causes of the early CKD-MBD are not well known. Our discovery of Wnt (portmanteau of wingless and int) inhibitors, especially Dickkopf 1, produced during renal repair as participating in the pathogenesis of the vascular and skeletal components of the CKD-MBD implied that additional pathogenic factors are critical. In the search for such factors, we studied the effects of activin receptor type IIA (ActRIIA) signaling by using a ligand trap for the receptor, RAP-011 (a soluble extracellular domain of ActRIIA fused to a murine IgG-Fc fragment). In a mouse model of CKD that stimulated atherosclerotic calcification, RAP-011 significantly increased aortic ActRIIA signaling assessed by the levels of phosphorylated Smad2/3. Furthermore, RAP-011 treatment significantly reversed CKD-induced vascular smooth muscle dedifferentiation as assessed by smooth muscle 22α levels, osteoblastic transition, and neointimal plaque calcification. In the diseased kidneys, RAP-011 significantly stimulated αklotho levels and it inhibited ActRIIA signaling and decreased renal fibrosis and proteinuria. RAP-011 treatment significantly decreased both renal and circulating Dickkopf 1 levels, showing that Wnt activation was downstream of ActRIIA. Thus, ActRIIA signaling in CKD contributes to the CKD-MBD and renal fibrosis. ActRIIA signaling may be a potential therapeutic target in CKD. PMID:27165838

  18. FOXL2-induced follistatin attenuates activin A-stimulated cell proliferation in human granulosa cell tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jung-Chien; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Qiu, Xin; Fang, Lanlan; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Activin A stimulates cell proliferation in KGN human granulosa cell tumor-derived cell line. •Cyclin D2 mediates activin A-induced KGN cell proliferation. •FOXL2 induces follistatin expression in KGN cells. •FOXL2-induced follistatin attenuates activin A-stimulated KGN cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Human granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are rare, and their etiology remains largely unknown. Recently, the FOXL2 402C > G (C134W) mutation was found to be specifically expressed in human adult-type GCTs; however, its function in the development of human GCTs is not fully understood. Activins are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, which has been shown to stimulate normal granulosa cell proliferation; however, little is known regarding the function of activins in human GCTs. In this study, we examined the effect of activin A on cell proliferation in the human GCT-derived cell line KGN. We show that activin A treatment stimulates KGN cell proliferation. Treatment with the activin type I receptor inhibitor SB431542 blocks activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. In addition, our results show that cyclin D2 is induced by treatment with activin A and is involved in activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. Moreover, the activation of Smad signaling is required for activin A-induced cyclin D2 expression. Finally, we show that the overexpression of the wild-type FOXL2 but not the C134W mutant FOXL2 induced follistatin production. Treatment with exogenous follistatin blocks activin A-stimulated cell proliferation, and the overexpression of wild-type FOXL2 attenuates activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. These results suggest that FOXL2 may act as a tumor suppressor in human adult-type GCTs by inducing follistatin expression, which subsequently inhibits activin-stimulated cell proliferation.

  19. Seasonal changes in immunoreactivity of activin signaling component proteins in wild ground squirrel testes.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xia; Zhang, Haolin; Zhang, Mengyuan; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Xiao; Song, Moshi; Zhou, Jiao; Xu, Meiyu; Weng, Qiang; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The seasonal spermatogenesis and localization of inhibin/activin subunits (alpha, betaA, betaB) in the testes of wild ground squirrel has been previously described; however, the expression pattern of activin receptors and cytoplasmic signaling SMADs has not been detected in any seasonal breeders. The objective of this study was to investigate the abundance and cellular localization of activin signaling components in testes of the wild ground squirrel during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. The immunolocalizations of ActRIIB (activin type II receptor B) and activin-related SMADs (phospho-SMAD2/3, SMAD4 and SMAD7) were observed by immunohistochemistry. Total proteins were extracted from testicular tissues in the breeding and nonbreeding seasons and were used for Western blotting analysis for ActRIIB and SMADs. Immunoreactivities of activin signaling components were greater in the testes of the breeding season, and then decreased to a relatively low level in the nonbreeding season. ActRIIB and related SMADs were widely spread in the active testes, while spermatogonia were the predominant cellular sites of activin signal transduction during arrested spermatogenesis. The dynamic regulation of activin type II receptor and SMADs indicated that the activin signal pathway played an important paracrine role in seasonal spermatogenesis of the wild ground squirrel. Furthermore, the distinct localizations and immunoreactivity of ActRIIB and SMADs might suggest different functions of activin in seasonal spermatogenesis.

  20. Transgenic models to study the roles of inhibins and activins in reproduction, oncogenesis, and development.

    PubMed

    Matzuk, M M; Kumar, T R; Shou, W; Coerver, K A; Lau, A L; Behringer, R R; Finegold, M J

    1996-01-01

    With the advent of gene targeting in pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells, it is now possible to modify the mammalian genome to generate mutant strains of mice with precise genetic mutations. The major goal of my laboratory is to generate transgenic mice to use as physiologic models to study mammalian reproduction and development. The initial focus of our research has been to generate mice deficient in inhibins, activins, activin binding proteins (i.e., follistatin), and activin receptors (i.e., activin receptor type II) to understand their interactions and roles in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and mammalian development. Inhibins and activins, dimeric members of the TGF-beta superfamily, were discovered due to their role in pituitary follicle stimulating hormone homeostasis. However, these proteins have later been shown to have diverse endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine functions. Activins have been shown to mediate their signals through type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors. The high interspecies conservation of activins, inhibins, and activin receptors and the universal presence of activins in mammals, birds, amphibians, and fish suggest an evolutionarily conserved role of these proteins in animal development. Our initial studies have demonstrated a tumor suppressor role of inhibin in the gonads and adrenals and have also suggested a role of activins in cancer cachexia-like syndrome. To further study the gonadal tumor development and the cancer cachexia-like syndrome in these mice, we have begun to generate mice with multiple genetic alterations (e.g., mice deficient in both inhibin and Mullerian inhibiting substance). We have also generated mice deficient in other components of this complex system (e.g., activin beta A, activin receptor type II, follistatin). Analysis of these transgenic mutant models has aided our overall understanding of the critical roles these proteins play in the development of the reproductive system, in the

  1. Activin Signaling in the Pathogenesis and Therapy of Neuropsychiatric Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Link, Andrea S.; Zheng, Fang; Alzheimer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Activins are members of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) family and serve as multifunctional regulatory proteins in many tissues and organs. In the brain, activin A, which is formed by two disulfide-linked βA subunits, is recognized as the predominant player in activin signaling. Over the last years, considerable progress has been made in elucidating novel and unexpected functions of activin in the normal and diseased brain and in deciphering the underlying molecular mechanisms. Initially identified as a neurotrophic and protective factor during development and in several forms of acute injury, the scope of effects of activin A in the adult central nervous system (CNS) has been considerably broadened by now. Here, we will highlight recent findings that bear significance for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of various neuropsychiatric diseases and might hold promise for novel therapeutic strategies. While the basal level of activin A in the adult brain is low, significant short-term up-regulation occurs in response to increased neuronal activity. In fact, brief exposure to an enriched environment (EE) is already sufficient to considerably strengthen activin signaling. Enhancement of this pathway tunes the performance of glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses in a fashion that impacts on cognitive functions and affective behavior, counteracts death-inducing signals through extrasynaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs), and stimulates adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. We will discuss how impaired activin signaling is involved in anxiety disorders, depression, drug dependence, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, and how reinforcement of activin signaling might be exploited for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27242425

  2. Enhanced GABAergic network and receptor function in pediatric cortical dysplasia Type IIB compared with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Carlos; André, Véronique M; Hauptman, Jason S; Yamazaki, Irene; Huynh, My N; Chang, Julia W; Chen, Jane Y; Fisher, Robin S; Vinters, Harry V; Levine, Michael S; Mathern, Gary W

    2012-01-01

    Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) and cortical dysplasia Type IIB (CDIIB) share histopathologic features that suggest similar epileptogenic mechanisms. This study compared the morphological and electrophysiological properties of cortical cells in tissue from pediatric TSC (n=20) and CDIIB (n=20) patients using whole-cell patch clamp recordings and biocytin staining. Cell types were normal-appearing and dysmorphic-cytomegalic pyramidal neurons, interneurons, and giant/balloon cells, including intermediate neuronal-glial cells. In the cortical mantle, giant/balloon cells occurred more frequently in TSC than in CDIIB cases, whereas cytomegalic pyramidal neurons were found more frequently in CDIIB. Cell morphology and membrane properties were similar in TSC and CDIIB cases. Except for giant/balloon and intermediate cells, all neuronal cell types fired action potentials and displayed spontaneous postsynaptic currents. However, the frequency of spontaneous glutamatergic postsynaptic currents in normal pyramidal neurons and interneurons was significantly lower in CDIIB compared with TSC cases and the GABAergic activity was higher in all neuronal cell types in CDIIB. Further, acutely dissociated pyramidal neurons displayed higher sensitivity to exogenous application of GABA in CDIIB compared with TSC cases. These results indicate that, in spite of similar histopathologic features and basic cell membrane properties, TSC and CDIIB display differences in the topography of abnormal cells, excitatory and inhibitory synaptic network properties, and GABA(A) receptor sensitivity. These differences support the notion that the mechanisms of epileptogenesis could differ in patients with TSC and CDIIB. Consequently, pharmacologic therapies should take these findings into consideration. PMID:21889982

  3. Ligation of Fc gamma receptor IIB inhibits antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kuan Rong; Zhang, Summer Li-Xin; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Chan, Ying Kai; Chow, Angelia; Lim, Angeline Pei Chiew; Vasudevan, Subhash G; Hanson, Brendon J; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2011-07-26

    The interaction of antibodies, dengue virus (DENV), and monocytes can result in either immunity or enhanced virus infection. These opposing outcomes of dengue antibodies have hampered dengue vaccine development. Recent studies have shown that antibodies neutralize DENV by either preventing virus attachment to cellular receptors or inhibiting viral fusion intracellularly. However, whether the antibody blocks attachment or fusion, the resulting immune complexes are expected to be phagocytosed by Fc gamma receptor (FcγR)-bearing cells and cleared from circulation. This suggests that only antibodies that are able to block fusion intracellularly would be able to neutralize DENV upon FcγR-mediated uptake by monocytes whereas other antibodies would have resulted in enhancement of DENV replication. Using convalescent sera from dengue patients, we observed that neutralization of the homologous serotypes occurred despite FcγR-mediated uptake. However, FcγR-mediated uptake appeared to be inhibited when neutralized heterologous DENV serotypes were used instead. We demonstrate that this inhibition occurred through the formation of viral aggregates by antibodies in a concentration-dependent manner. Aggregation of viruses enabled antibodies to cross-link the inhibitory FcγRIIB, which is expressed at low levels but which inhibits FcγR-mediated phagocytosis and hence prevents antibody-dependent enhancement of DENV infection in monocytes. PMID:21746897

  4. Modulation of excitatory amino acid receptors by group IIB metal cations in cultured mouse hippocampal neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, M L; Vyklicky, L; Westbrook, G L

    1989-01-01

    voltage dependent, such that the Kd for magnesium increased e-fold per 17.6 mV depolarization. 5. The potency of zinc as an NMDA antagonist did not vary with the concentration of NMDA, and was not greatly influenced by a 1000-fold variation in the concentration of the NMDA-modulator glycine. This suggests that zinc acts as a non-competitive antagonist, and does not directly interfere with the binding of NMDA to the agonist recognition site nor with the binding of glycine to an allosteric site on the NMDA receptor complex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2561788

  5. Activin A regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone synthesis and release in vitro.

    PubMed

    MacConell, L A; Lawson, M A; Mellon, P L; Roberts, V J

    1999-10-01

    Activin is essential for the regulation of normal mammalian reproductive function at both the pituitary and gonadal levels. However, its central actions in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis remain largely unexplored. The present study aims to determine whether activin could regulate the reproductive axis at the level of the hypothalamus, through control of the GnRH neuroendocrine system. Using the GnRH-secreting GT1-7 neuronal cell line as a model system, we demonstrate expression of mRNAs encoding activin receptor types I, IB, and II. We examined the effects of activin A on GnRH protein secretion and mRNA levels in GT1-7 cells. Treatment with rh-activin A regulated both GnRH protein secretion and GnRH mRNA expression in the GT1-7 cells in a time-dependent fashion. Using transient transfection assays, we explored a potential transcriptional basis for these changes. Activin A increased reporter gene activity driven by minimal GnRH enhancer and promoter elements, suggesting that activin may regulate GnRH gene expression at the level of transcription. Lastly, activin A treatment of male rat hypothalami, in vitro, increased GnRH protein secretion. Collectively, molecular and physiological evidence support the presence of an activin system which might act at a hypothalamic site to regulate mammalian reproduction via activation of GnRH synthesis and release.

  6. Activin Decoy Receptor ActRIIB:Fc Lowers FSH and Therapeutically Restores Oocyte Yield, Prevents Oocyte Chromosome Misalignments and Spindle Aberrations, and Increases Fertility in Midlife Female SAMP8 Mice.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Lori R; Mackenzie, Amelia C L; Lee, Se-Jin; Chaffin, Charles L; Merchenthaler, István

    2016-03-01

    Women of advanced maternal age (AMA) (age ≥ 35) have increased rates of infertility, miscarriages, and trisomic pregnancies. Collectively these conditions are called "egg infertility." A root cause of egg infertility is increased rates of oocyte aneuploidy with age. AMA women often have elevated endogenous FSH. Female senescence-accelerated mouse-prone-8 (SAMP8) has increased rates of oocyte spindle aberrations, diminished fertility, and rising endogenous FSH with age. We hypothesize that elevated FSH during the oocyte's FSH-responsive growth period is a cause of abnormalities in the meiotic spindle. We report that eggs from SAMP8 mice treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) for the period of oocyte growth have increased chromosome and spindle misalignments. Activin is a molecule that raises FSH, and ActRIIB:Fc is an activin decoy receptor that binds and sequesters activin. We report that ActRIIB:Fc treatment of midlife SAMP8 mice for the duration of oocyte growth lowers FSH, prevents egg chromosome and spindle misalignments, and increases litter sizes. AMA patients can also have poor responsiveness to FSH stimulation. We report that although eCG lowers yields of viable oocytes, ActRIIB:Fc increases yields of viable oocytes. ActRIIB:Fc and eCG cotreatment markedly reduces yields of viable oocytes. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that elevated FSH contributes to egg aneuploidy, declining fertility, and poor ovarian response and that ActRIIB:Fc can prevent egg aneuploidy, increase fertility, and improve ovarian response. Future studies will continue to examine whether ActRIIB:Fc works via FSH and/or other pathways and whether ActRIIB:Fc can prevent aneuploidy, increase fertility, and improve stimulation responsiveness in AMA women. PMID:26713784

  7. Activin Decoy Receptor ActRIIB:Fc Lowers FSH and Therapeutically Restores Oocyte Yield, Prevents Oocyte Chromosome Misalignments and Spindle Aberrations, and Increases Fertility in Midlife Female SAMP8 Mice.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Lori R; Mackenzie, Amelia C L; Lee, Se-Jin; Chaffin, Charles L; Merchenthaler, István

    2016-03-01

    Women of advanced maternal age (AMA) (age ≥ 35) have increased rates of infertility, miscarriages, and trisomic pregnancies. Collectively these conditions are called "egg infertility." A root cause of egg infertility is increased rates of oocyte aneuploidy with age. AMA women often have elevated endogenous FSH. Female senescence-accelerated mouse-prone-8 (SAMP8) has increased rates of oocyte spindle aberrations, diminished fertility, and rising endogenous FSH with age. We hypothesize that elevated FSH during the oocyte's FSH-responsive growth period is a cause of abnormalities in the meiotic spindle. We report that eggs from SAMP8 mice treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) for the period of oocyte growth have increased chromosome and spindle misalignments. Activin is a molecule that raises FSH, and ActRIIB:Fc is an activin decoy receptor that binds and sequesters activin. We report that ActRIIB:Fc treatment of midlife SAMP8 mice for the duration of oocyte growth lowers FSH, prevents egg chromosome and spindle misalignments, and increases litter sizes. AMA patients can also have poor responsiveness to FSH stimulation. We report that although eCG lowers yields of viable oocytes, ActRIIB:Fc increases yields of viable oocytes. ActRIIB:Fc and eCG cotreatment markedly reduces yields of viable oocytes. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that elevated FSH contributes to egg aneuploidy, declining fertility, and poor ovarian response and that ActRIIB:Fc can prevent egg aneuploidy, increase fertility, and improve ovarian response. Future studies will continue to examine whether ActRIIB:Fc works via FSH and/or other pathways and whether ActRIIB:Fc can prevent aneuploidy, increase fertility, and improve stimulation responsiveness in AMA women.

  8. Platelet receptor glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition with eptifibatide in a patient with thrombocytopenia after treatment with abciximab.

    PubMed

    Coto, H

    2000-10-01

    Clinical experience suggests that patients treated with the glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitor abciximab (ReoPro , Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana) may be at increased risk of thrombocytopenia. This case report details the successful use of the GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor eptifibatide (Integrilin , COR Therapeutics, South San Francisco, California) in a patient who developed acute thrombocytopenia (platelet count: 67,000/mm3) approximately 10 hours after initiation of abciximab therapy. Five hours after abciximab was discontinued, platelet count returned to normal (191,000/mm3) and eptifibatide was started because of persistent electrocardiographic evidence of ischemia. The patient underwent diagnostic catheterization during eptifibatide therapy, which was administered for approximately three days. Four days after the initial course of therapy with eptifibatide was discontinued, percutaneous revascularization with adjunct eptifibatide was performed. During both courses of eptifibatide therapy, platelet counts remained in the normal range (> 100,000/mm3) and no adverse ischemic or bleeding events occurred.

  9. Activin Receptor-Like Kinase Receptors ALK5 and ALK1 Are Both Required for TGFβ-Induced Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Kroon, Laurie M. G.; Narcisi, Roberto; Blaney Davidson, Esmeralda N.; Cleary, Mairéad A.; van Beuningen, Henk M.; Koevoet, Wendy J. L. M.; van Osch, Gerjo J. V. M.; van der Kraan, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are promising for cartilage regeneration because BMSCs can differentiate into cartilage tissue-producing chondrocytes. Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ) is crucial for inducing chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs and is known to signal via Activin receptor-Like Kinase (ALK) receptors ALK5 and ALK1. Since the specific role of these two TGFβ receptors in chondrogenesis is unknown, we investigated whether ALK5 and ALK1 are expressed in BMSCs and whether both receptors are required for chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Materials & Methods ALK5 and ALK1 gene expression in human BMSCs was determined with RT-qPCR. To induce chondrogenesis, human BMSCs were pellet-cultured in serum-free chondrogenic medium containing TGFβ1. Chondrogenesis was evaluated by aggrecan and collagen type IIα1 RT-qPCR analysis, and histological stainings of proteoglycans and collagen type II. To overexpress constitutively active (ca) receptors, BMSCs were transduced either with caALK5 or caALK1. Expression of ALK5 and ALK1 was downregulated by transducing BMSCs with shRNA against ALK5 or ALK1. Results ALK5 and ALK1 were expressed in in vitro-expanded as well as in pellet-cultured BMSCs from five donors, but mRNA levels of both TGFβ receptors did not clearly associate with chondrogenic induction. TGFβ increased ALK5 and decreased ALK1 gene expression in chondrogenically differentiating BMSC pellets. Neither caALK5 nor caALK1 overexpression induced cartilage matrix formation as efficient as that induced by TGFβ. Moreover, short hairpin-mediated downregulation of either ALK5 or ALK1 resulted in a strong inhibition of TGFβ-induced chondrogenesis. Conclusion ALK5 as well as ALK1 are required for TGFβ-induced chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and TGFβ not only directly induces chondrogenesis, but also modulates ALK5 and ALK1 receptor signaling in BMSCs. These results imply that optimizing cartilage formation by

  10. Identification of a point mutation in type IIB von Willebrand disease illustrating the regulation of von Willebrand factor affinity for the platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib-IX receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, J.; Dent, J.A.; Azuma, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Mitsuhiko; Kyrle, P.A.; Yoshioka, Akira; Ruggeri, Z.M. )

    1991-04-01

    von Willebrand factor (vWF) supports platelet adhesion on thrombogenic surfaces by binding to platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib in the GP Ib-IX receptor complex. This interaction is physiologically regulated so that it does not occur between circulating vWF and platelets but, rather, only at a site of vascular injury. The abnormal vWF found in type IIB von Willebrand disease, however, has a characteristically increased affinity for GP Ib and binds to circulating platelets. The authors have analyzed the molecular basis of this abnormality by sequence analysis of a type IIB vWF cDNA and have identified a single amino acid change, Trp{sup 550} to Cys{sup 550}, located in the GP IB-binding domain of the molecule comprising residues 449-728. Bacterial expression of recombinant fragments corresponding to this vWF domain yielded molecules that, whether containing a normal Trp{sup 550} or a mutant Cys{sup 550} residue, bound directly to GP Ib in the absence of modulators and with similar affinity. These results identify a region of vWF that, although not thought to be directly involved in binding to GP Ib, may modulate the interaction through conformational changes.

  11. Cellular distribution of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and B (VEGFB) and VEGF receptors 1 and 2 in focal cortical dysplasia type IIB

    PubMed Central

    Boer, Karin; Troost, Dirk; Spliet, Wim G. M.; van Rijen, Peter C.; Gorter, Jan A.

    2008-01-01

    Members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family are key signaling proteins in the induction and regulation of angiogenesis, both during development and in pathological conditions. However, signaling mediated through VEGF family proteins and their receptors has recently been shown to have direct effects on neurons and glial cells. In the present study, we immunocytochemically investigated the expression and cellular distribution of VEGFA, VEGFB, and their associated receptors (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2) in focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type IIB from patients with medically intractable epilepsy. Histologically normal temporal cortex and perilesional regions displayed neuronal immunoreactivity (IR) for VEGFA, VEGFB, and VEGF receptors (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2), mainly in pyramidal neurons. Weak IR was observed in blood vessels and there was no notable glial IR within the grey and white matter. In all FCD specimens, VEGFA, VEGFB, and both VEGF receptors were highly expressed in dysplastic neurons. IR in astroglial and balloon cells was observed for VEGFA and its receptors. VEGFR-1 displayed strong endothelial staining in FCD. Double-labeling also showed expression of VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFR-1 in cells of the microglia/macrophage lineage. The neuronal expression of both VEGFA and VEGFB, together with their specific receptors in FCD, suggests autocrine/paracrine effects on dysplastic neurons. These autocrine/paracrine effects could play a role in the development of FCD, preventing the death of abnormal neuronal cells. In addition, the expression of VEGFA and its receptors in glial cells within the dysplastic cortex indicates that VEGF-mediated signaling could contribute to astroglial activation and associated inflammatory reactions. PMID:18317782

  12. Mutual effects of melatonin and activin on induction of aldosterone production by human adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Hara, Takayuki; Otsuka, Fumio; Tsukamoto-Yamauchi, Naoko; Inagaki, Kenichi; Hosoya, Takeshi; Nakamura, Eri; Terasaka, Tomohiro; Komatsubara, Motoshi; Makino, Hirofumi

    2015-08-01

    Melatonin has been reported to suppress adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secretion in the anterior pituitary and cortisol production in the adrenal by different mechanisms. However, the effect of melatonin on aldosterone production has remained unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of melatonin in the regulation of aldosterone production using human adrenocortical H295R cells by focusing on the activin system expressed in the adrenal. Melatonin receptor MT1 mRNA and protein were expressed in H295R cells and the expression levels of MT1 were increased by activin treatment. Activin increased ACTH-induced, but not angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced, aldosterone production. Melatonin alone did not affect basal synthesis of either aldosterone or cortisol. However, melatonin effectively enhanced aldosterone production induced by co-treatment with ACTH and activin, although melatonin had no effect on aldosterone production induced by Ang II in combination with activin. These changes in steroidogenesis became apparent when the steroid production was evaluated by the ratio of aldosterone/cortisol. Melatonin also enhanced dibutyryl-AMP-induced aldosterone/cortisol levels in the presence of activin, suggesting a functional link to the cAMP-PKA pathway for induction of aldosterone production by melatonin and activin. In accordance with the data for steroids, ACTH-induced, but not Ang II-induced, cAMP synthesis was also amplified by co-treatment with melatonin and activin. Furthermore, the ratio of ACTH-induced mRNA level of CYP11B2 compared with that of CYP17 was amplified in the condition of treatment with both melatonin and activin. In addition, melatonin increased expression of the activin type-I receptor ALK-4 but suppressed expression of inhibitory Smads6/7, leading to the enhancement of Smad2 phosphorylation. Collectively, the results showed that melatonin facilitated aldosterone production induced by ACTH and activin via the cAMP-PKA pathway. The results also

  13. The Biology Of Activin: Recent Advances In Structure, Regulation And Function

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yin; Schneyer, Alan L.

    2009-01-01

    Activin was discovered in the 1980’s as a gonadal protein that stimulated FSH release from pituitary gonadotropes and was thought of as a reproductive hormone. In the ensuing decades many additional activities of activin were described and it was found to be produced in a wide variety of cell types at nearly all stages of development. Its signaling and actions are regulated intracellularly as well as by extracellular antagonists. Over the past 5 years a number of important advances have been made that clarify our understanding of the structural basis for signaling and regulation, as well as the biological roles of activin in stem cells, embryonic development, and in adults. These include the crystallization of activin in complex with the activin type II receptor ActRIIB, or with the binding proteins follistatin and follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3), and identification of the activin roles in gonadal sex development, follicle development and luteolysis, in β-cell proliferation and function in the islet, in stem cell self-renewal and differentiation into different cell types, and in immune cells. These advances are reviewed to provide perspective for future studies. PMID:19273500

  14. Activin A, B and AB decrease progesterone production by down-regulating StAR in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Huang, He-Feng; Shi, Feng-Tao; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-09-01

    Activins are homo- or heterodimers of inhibin β subunits that play important roles in the reproductive system. Our previous work has shown that activins A (βAβA), B (βBβB) and AB (βAβB) induce aromatase/estradiol, but suppress StAR/progesterone production in human granulosa-lutein cells. However, the underlying molecular determinants of these effects have not been examined. In this continuing study, we used immortalized human granulosa cells (SVOG) to investigate the effects of activins in regulating StAR/progesterone and the potential mechanisms of action. In SVOG cells, activins A, B and AB produced comparable down-regulation of StAR expression and progesterone production. In addition, all three activin isoforms induced equivalent phosphorylation of both SMAD2 and SMAD3. Importantly, the activin-induced down-regulation of StAR, increase in SMAD2/3 phosphorylation, and decrease in progesterone were abolished by the TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor SB431542. Interestingly, the small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of ALK4 but not ALK5 reversed the activin-induced suppression of StAR. Furthermore, the knockdown of SMAD4 or SMAD2 but not SMAD3 abolished the inhibitory effects of all three activin isoforms on StAR expression. These results provide evidence that activins A, B and AB down-regulate StAR expression and decrease progesterone production in human granulosa cells, likely via an ALK4-mediated SMAD2/SMAD4-dependent pathway. Our findings provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory effects of activins on human granulosa cell steroidogenesis.

  15. P7170: A Novel Molecule with Unique Profile of mTORC1/C2 and Activin Receptor-like Kinase 1 Inhibition Leading to Antitumor and Antiangiogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Jalota-Badhwar, Archana; Bhatia, Dimple R; Boreddy, Srinivas; Joshi, Asavari; Venkatraman, Magesh; Desai, Nikesh; Chaudhari, Sarika; Bose, Julie; Kolla, Lakshmi S; Deore, Vijaykumar; Yewalkar, Nilambari; Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Rajiv; Damre, Anagha; More, Avinash; Sharma, Somesh; Agarwal, Veena R

    2015-05-01

    The mTOR pathway is often upregulated in cancer and thus intensively pursued as a target to design novel anticancer therapies. Approved and emerging drugs targeting the mTOR pathway have positively affected the clinical landscape. Recently, activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1), belonging to the TGFβ receptor family, has been reported as an emerging target for antiangiogenic cancer therapy. Here, we describe a novel orally efficacious compound, P7170, that inhibits mTORC1/mTORC2/ALK1 activity with a potent cell growth inhibition. In cell-based assays, P7170 strongly inhibited (IC50 < 10 nmol/L) the phosphorylation of p70S6K (T389) and pAKT (S473). In many cancer cell lines, such as prostate, ovarian, colon, and renal, P7170 treatment resulted in marked cell growth inhibition. Furthermore, it induced G1-S cell-cycle arrest and autophagy. In vitro HUVEC tube formation, in vivo Matrigel plug, and rat aorta ring assays demonstrated that P7170 exhibited significant antiangiogenic activity. In addition, ALK1 knockdown studies in HUVEC confirmed that the antiangiogenic activity of P7170 was primarily due to ALK1 inhibition. Strong inhibition of ALK1 in addition to mTORC1/mTORC2 differentiates P7170 in its mechanism of action in comparison with existing inhibitors. In vivo mouse xenograft studies revealed P7170 to exhibit a significant dose-dependent tumor growth inhibition in a broad range of human tumor types when administered orally at 10 to 20 mg/kg doses. The distinctive pharmacological profile with favorable pharmacokinetic parameters and in vivo efficacy makes P7170 an attractive candidate for clinical development. It is currently being tested in phase I clinical studies.

  16. GP IIb/IIIa Blockade During Peripheral Artery Interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Tepe, Gunnar Wiskirchen, Jakub; Pereira, Philippe; Claussen, Claus D.; Miller, Stephen; Duda, Stephan H.

    2008-01-15

    The activation of the platelet GP IIb/IIIa receptor is the final and common pathway in platelet aggregation. By blocking this receptor, platelet aggregation can be inhibited independently of the stimulus prompted the targeting of this receptor. Several years ago, three drugs have been approved for coronary artery indications. Since that time, there is increasing evidence that GP IIb/IIIa receptor blockade might have also an important role in peripheral arterial intervention. This article summarizes the action and differences of GP Ilb/IIIa receptor inhibitors and its possible indication in peripheral arteries.

  17. Overexpression of activin-A and -B in malignant mesothelioma – Attenuated Smad3 signaling responses and ERK activation promote cell migration and invasive growth

    SciTech Connect

    Tamminen, Jenni A.; Yin, Miao; Rönty, Mikko; Sutinen, Eva; Pasternack, Arja; Ritvos, Olli; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Koli, Katri

    2015-03-01

    Activin-A and activin-B, members of the TGF-β superfamily, are regulators of reproductive functions, inflammation and wound healing. These dimeric molecules regulate various cellular activities such as proliferation, migration and suvival. Malignant mesothelioma is an asbestos exposure related tumor affecting mainly pleura and it usually has a dismal prognosis. Here, we demonstrate that both activin-A and -B are abundantly expressed in mesothelioma tumor tissue as well as in cultured primary and established mesothelioma cells. Migratory and invasive mesothelioma cells were also found to have attenuated activation of the Smad2/3 pathway in response to activins. Migration and invasive growth of the cells in three-dimentional matrix was prevented by inhibition of activin activity using a soluble activin receptor 2B (sActR2B-Fc). This was associated with decreased ERK activity. Furthermore, migration and invasive growth was significantly inhibited by blocking ERK phosphorylation. Mesothelioma tumors are locally invasive and our results clearly suggest that acivins have a tumor-promoting function in mesothelioma through increasing expression and switching from canonical Smad3 pathway to non-canonical ERK pathway signaling. Blocking activin activity offers a new therapeutic approach for inhibition of mesothelioma invasive growth. - Highlights: • Activin-A and activin-B are highly expressed in mesothelioma. • Mesothelioma cell migration and invasive growth can be blocked with sActR2B. • Activin induced Smad3 activity is attenuated in invasive mesothelioma cells. • Activins induce ERK activity in mesothelioma cells.

  18. The immunoregulatory and fibrotic roles of activin A in allergic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, C L; Rolland, J M; O'Hehir, R E

    2015-01-01

    Activin A, a member of the TGF-β superfamily of cytokines, was originally identified as an inducer of follicle stimulating hormone release, but has since been ascribed roles in normal physiological processes, as an immunoregulatory cytokine and as a driver of fibrosis. In the last 10–15 years, it has also become abundantly clear that activin A plays an important role in the regulation of asthmatic inflammation and airway remodelling. This review provides a brief introduction to the activin A/TGF-β superfamily, focussing on the regulation of receptors and signalling pathways. We examine the contradictory evidence for generalized pro- vs. anti-inflammatory effects of activin A in inflammation, before appraising its role in asthmatic inflammation and airway remodelling specifically by evaluating data from both murine models and clinical studies. We identify key issues to be addressed, paving the way for safe exploitation of modulation of activin A function for treatment of allergic asthma and other inflammatory lung diseases. PMID:25962695

  19. αIIbβ3: structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Coller, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary During the past decade, advanced techniques in structural biology have provided atomic level information on the platelet integrin αIIbβ3 activation mechanism that results in it adopting a high-affinity ligand-binding conformation(s). This review focuses on advances in imaging intact αIIbβ3 in a lipid bilayer in the absence of detergent and new structural insights into the changes in the ligand-binding pocket with receptor activation and ligand binding. It concludes with descriptions of novel therapeutic αIIbβ3 antagonists being developed based on an advanced knowledge of the receptor’s structure. PMID:26149019

  20. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A) Mediates Activin A-Induced Human Trophoblast Endothelial-Like Tube Formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhu, Hua; Klausen, Christian; Peng, Bo; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-11-01

    Remodeling of maternal spiral arteries during pregnancy requires a subpopulation of extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVTs) to differentiate into endovascular EVTs. Activin A, which is abundantly expressed at the maternal-fetal interface, has been shown to promote trophoblast invasion, but its role in endovascular differentiation remains unknown. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is well recognized as a key regulator in trophoblast endovascular differentiation. Whether and how activin A might regulate VEGF-A production in human trophoblasts and its relationship to endovascular differentiation have yet to be determined. In the present study, we found that activin A increased VEGF-A production in primary and immortalized (HTR8/SVneo) human EVT cells. In addition, activin A enhanced HTR8/SVneo endothelial-like tube formation, and these effects were attenuated by pretreatment with small interfering RNA targeting VEGF-A or the VEGF receptor 1/2 inhibitor SU4312. Pretreatment with the activin/TGF-β type 1 receptor (ALK4/5/7) inhibitor SB431542 abolished the stimulatory effects of activin A on phosphorylated mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD)-2/3 phosphorylation, VEGF-A production, and endothelial-like tube formation. Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated down-regulation of SMAD2, SMAD3, or common SMAD4 abolished the effects of activin A on VEGF-A production and endothelial-like tube formation. In conclusion, activin A may promote human trophoblast cell endothelial-like tube formation by up-regulating VEGF-A production in an SMAD2/3-SMAD4-dependent manner. These findings provide insight into the cellular and molecular events regulated by activin A during human implantation. PMID:26327470

  1. BAFF and APRIL from Activin A-Treated Dendritic Cells Upregulate the Antitumor Efficacy of Dendritic Cells In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Shurin, Michael R; Ma, Yang; Keskinov, Anton A; Zhao, Ruijing; Lokshin, Anna; Agassandian, Marianna; Shurin, Galina V

    2016-09-01

    The members of the TGFβ superfamily play a key role in regulating developmental and homeostasis programs by controlling differentiation, proliferation, polarization, and survival of different cell types. Although the role of TGFβ1 in inflammation and immunity is well evident, the contribution of other TGFβ family cytokines in the modulation of the antitumor immune response remains less documented. Here we show that activin A triggers SMAD2 and ERK1/2 pathways in dendritic cells (DC) expressing type I and II activin receptors, and upregulates production of the TNFα family cytokines BAFF (TALL-1, TNFSF13B) and APRIL (TALL-2, TNFSF13A), which is blocked by SMAD2 and ERK1/2 inhibitors, respectively. BAFF and APRIL derived from activin A-treated DCs upregulate proliferation and survival of T cells expressing the corresponding receptors, BAFF-R and TACI. In vivo, activin A-stimulated DCs demonstrate a significantly increased ability to induce tumor-specific CTLs and inhibit the growth of melanoma and lung carcinoma, which relies on DC-derived BAFF and APRIL, as knockdown of the BAFF and APRIL gene expression in activin A-treated DCs blocks augmentation of their antitumor potential. Although systemic administration of activin A, BAFF, or APRIL for the therapeutic purposes is not likely due to the pluripotent effects on malignant and nonmalignant cells, our data open a novel opportunity for improving the efficacy of DC vaccines. In fact, a significant augmentation of the antitumor activity of DC pretreated with activin A and the proven role of DC-derived BAFF and APRIL in the induction of antitumor immunity in vivo support this direction. Cancer Res; 76(17); 4959-69. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27364554

  2. Activin A-induced increase in LOX activity in human granulosa-lutein cells is mediated by CTGF.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Liu, Yingtao; Klausen, Christian; Xu, Congjian; Leung, Peter C K

    2016-10-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is the key enzyme involved in the crosslinking of collagen and elastin that is essential for the formation of extracellular matrix (ECM). LOX-mediated ECM remodeling plays a critical role in follicle development, oocyte maturation and corpus luteum formation. To date, the regulation of LOX in human ovary has never been elucidated. Activin A and its functional receptors are highly expressed in ovarian follicles from an early developmental stage. They locally regulate follicle progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of activin A on the expression of LOX and its extracellular enzyme activity in primary and immortalized human granulosa-lutein cells obtained from patients undergoing an in vitro fertilization procedure. We demonstrated that activin A significantly upregulated the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and LOX via an activin/TGF-β type I receptor mediated-signaling pathway. Using a target depletion small interfering RNA knockdown approach, we further confirmed that the upregulation of CTGF expression resulted in an activin-A-induced increases in LOX expression and activity. These findings may provide insight into the mechanisms by which intrafollicular growth factors regulate the expression of LOX for ECM formation and tissue remodeling in the human ovary. PMID:27530347

  3. Isolation and characterization of Xenopus follistatin and activins.

    PubMed

    Fukui, A; Nakamura, T; Sugino, K; Takio, K; Uchiyama, H; Asashima, M; Sugino, H

    1993-09-01

    Xenopus follistatin and activins were purified from a Xenopus laevis cell line (XTC-F1) by four purification steps consisting of consecutive affinity chromatography on dextran sulfate-Sepharose and Sulfate Cellulofine, fast protein liquid chromatography gel permeation, and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Our results thus obtained indicated that almost equimolar amounts of activins A, AB, and B were found to be present as a complex with follistatin (activin-binding protein) in the conditioned medium of XTC-F1 cells. Reverse-phase HPLC of the complex gave Xenopus follistatin and activins A, AB, and B. The purified Xenopus follistatin showed four major bands in a molecular mass range from 34 to 39 kDa by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under nonreducing conditions. The ability of each form of the protein to specifically bind activin was determined by activin-binding assay and ligand blotting analysis. Each protein was found to have the same NH2-terminus and its sequence was very homologous to that of mammalian follistatin. Several criteria including immunoblotting analysis and various functional assays revealed the existence of three isoforms of activins A, AB, and B in Xenopus, as in mammals. Xenopus activins significantly induced both ventral and dorsal mesoderm in explants of Xenopus blastula cells that would otherwise form epidermis. In a dose-dependent manner of each isoform of activin, the induced explants were able to differentiate into blood-like cells, coelomic epithelium, mesenchyme, muscle, and notochord. The induction patterns of three Xenopus activins were essentially the same. The mesoderm induction by the purified Xenopus activins was shown to be inhibited stoichiometrically by the purified Xenopus follistatin. These results indicate that Xenopus XTC-F1 cells secrete several molecular forms of follistatin/activin-binding protein and three isoforms of activins AB and B in addition to activin A.

  4. The prolyl hydroxylase PHD3 identifies proinflammatory macrophages and its expression is regulated by activin A.

    PubMed

    Escribese, María M; Sierra-Filardi, Elena; Nieto, Concha; Samaniego, Rafael; Sánchez-Torres, Carmen; Matsuyama, Takami; Calderon-Gómez, Elisabeth; Vega, Miguel A; Salas, Azucena; Sánchez-Mateos, Paloma; Corbí, Angel L

    2012-08-15

    Modulation of macrophage polarization underlies the onset and resolution of inflammatory processes, with polarization-specific molecules being actively sought as potential diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Based on their cytokine profile upon exposure to pathogenic stimuli, human monocyte-derived macrophages generated in the presence of GM-CSF or M-CSF are considered as proinflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages, respectively. We report in this study that the prolyl hydroxylase PHD3-encoding EGLN3 gene is specifically expressed by in vitro-generated proinflammatory M1(GM-CSF) human macrophages at the mRNA and protein level. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the expression of PHD3 in CD163(+) lung macrophages under basal homeostatic conditions, whereas PHD3(+) macrophages were abundantly found in tissues undergoing inflammatory responses (e.g., Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis) and in tumors. In the case of melanoma, PHD3 expression marked a subset of tumor-associated macrophages that exhibit a weak (e.g., CD163) or absent (e.g., FOLR2) expression of typical M2-polarization markers. EGLN3 gene expression in proinflammatory M1(GM-CSF) macrophages was found to be activin A dependent and could be prevented in the presence of an anti-activin A-blocking Ab or inhibitors of activin receptor-like kinase receptors. Moreover, EGLN3 gene expression was upregulated in response to hypoxia only in M2(M-CSF) macrophages, and the hypoxia-mediated upregulation of EGLN3 expression was significantly impaired by activin A neutralization. These results indicate that EGLN3 gene expression in macrophages is dependent on activin A both under basal and hypoxic conditions and that the expression of the EGLN3-encoded PHD3 prolyl hydroxylase identifies proinflammatory macrophages in vivo and in vitro. PMID:22778395

  5. Graded Nodal/Activin Signaling Titrates Conversion of Quantitative Phospho-Smad2 Levels into Qualitative Embryonic Stem Cell Fate Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Orlov, Yuriy Lvovich; Yit, Le Yau; Yang, Henry; Ang, Lay Teng; Poellinger, Lorenz; Lim, Bing

    2011-01-01

    Nodal and Activin are morphogens of the TGFbeta superfamily of signaling molecules that direct differential cell fate decisions in a dose- and distance-dependent manner. During early embryonic development the Nodal/Activin pathway is responsible for the specification of mesoderm, endoderm, node, and mesendoderm. In contradiction to this drive towards cellular differentiation, the pathway also plays important roles in the maintenance of self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic and epiblast stem cells. The molecular basis behind stem cell interpretation of Nodal/Activin signaling gradients and the undertaking of disparate cell fate decisions remains poorly understood. Here, we show that any perturbation of endogenous signaling levels in mouse embryonic stem cells leads to their exit from self-renewal towards divergent differentiation programs. Increasing Nodal signals above basal levels by direct stimulation with Activin promotes differentiation towards the mesendodermal lineages while repression of signaling with the specific Nodal/Activin receptor inhibitor SB431542 induces trophectodermal differentiation. To address how quantitative Nodal/Activin signals are translated qualitatively into distinct cell fates decisions, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation of phospho-Smad2, the primary downstream transcriptional factor of the Nodal/Activin pathway, followed by massively parallel sequencing, and show that phospho-Smad2 binds to and regulates distinct subsets of target genes in a dose-dependent manner. Crucially, Nodal/Activin signaling directly controls the Oct4 master regulator of pluripotency by graded phospho-Smad2 binding in the promoter region. Hence stem cells interpret and carry out differential Nodal/Activin signaling instructions via a corresponding gradient of Smad2 phosphorylation that selectively titrates self-renewal against alternative differentiation programs by direct regulation of distinct target gene subsets and Oct4 expression. PMID

  6. Identification and expression of Smads associated with TGF-beta/activin/nodal signaling pathways in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynuchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Smad proteins are essential components of the TGF-beta/activin/nodal family signaling pathway. We report the identification and characterization of transcripts representing 3 receptor Smads (Smad2a, Smad2b, Smad3), 2 common Smads (Smad4a, Smad4b) and one inhibitory Smad (Smad7). Phylogenetic an...

  7. Proteolytic degradation of the RGD-binding and non-RGD-binding conformers of human platelet integrin glycoprotein IIb/IIIa: clues for identification of regions involved in the receptor's activation.

    PubMed Central

    Calvete, J J; Mann, K; Schäfer, W; Fernandez-Lafuente, R; Guisán, J M

    1994-01-01

    The human integrin glycoprotein (GP)IIb/IIIa plays a central role in haemostasis as an inducible receptor for fibrinogen and other RGD-containing adhesive proteins at the platelet plasma membrane. Expression of the fibrinogen receptor on platelet activation involves conformational changes in the quaternary structure of GPIIb/IIIa. Little is known, however, about the nature of this conformational transition. Given that isolated GPIIb/IIIa contains a mixture of RGD-binding and non-RGD-binding heterodimers, we used limited proteolysis as a tool for investigating the structural differences between the two conformers. Comparison of their fragmentation patterns shows that, whereas in the non-RGD-binding form of GPIIb/IIIa the N-terminal half of the heavy chain of GPIIb (GPIIbH) and the central region of GPIIIa are cleaved by endoproteinase Arg-C, these domains associate tightly with one another in the RGD-binding GPIIb/IIIa and are thus protected from proteolysis. In addition, the C-terminal half of GPIIb becomes more susceptible to degradation in the non-RGD-binding GPIIb/IIIa conformer. Our interpretation, in the context of available structural and functional data, is that a major relative reorientation of the GPIIbH and GPIIIa extracellular domains takes place along the subunit interface during the conformational transition of the platelet integrin. Images Figure 1 PMID:8129707

  8. Activin A accelerates the progression of fetal oocytes throughout meiosis and early oogenesis in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Liang, Gui-Jin; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Wang, Jun-Jie; Sun, Yuan-Chao; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Cheng, Shun-Feng; Li, Lan; De Felici, Massimo; Shen, Wei

    2015-10-15

    Activins can exert several roles in ovary development. However, little is known about their involvement in early mammalian oogenesis. In this study, we reported that activin receptors (including ActRIA, ActRIB, ActRIIA, and ActRIIB) are expressed throughout the development of the mouse ovaries from 12.5 days postcoitum (dpc) to 21 days postparturition (dpp). Moreover, we found that in vitro, the addition of activin A (ActA) to the culture medium of 12.5 dpc ovarian tissues accelerated the progression of oocytes throughout meiotic prophase I stages. This result was reproduced in vivo following administration of ActA to pregnant mice. The in vitro effect of ActA was associated with increased expression of premeiotic and meiotic genes (including Dazl, Spo11, Stra8, Scp3, and Rec8) in the ovarian tissues. Mechanistically, ActA-dependent SMAD3 signaling modulated the expression of members of the retinoic acid (RA) system, including the RA degradation CYP26B1 enzyme and the RA receptors. Finally, ActA promoted the survival and growth of fetal and early postnatal oocytes and primordial follicle assembly both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, the present study identifies new roles of ActA in early oogenesis and suggested that ActA and RA might cooperate in promoting meiosis in female germ cells.

  9. Management of type IIb dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidenori; Ishibashi, Shun; Bujo, Hideaki; Hayashi, Toshio; Yokoyama, Shinji; Oikawa, Shinichi; Kobayashi, Junji; Shirai, Kohji; Ota, Takao; Yamashita, Shizuya; Gotoda, Takanari; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Sone, Hirohito; Eto, Masaaki; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamada, Nobuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Although the Japan Atherosclerosis Society guideline for the diagnosis and prevention of atherosclerosis cardiovascular diseases for the Japanese population provides targets for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol to prevent cardiovascular disease in patients with dyslipidemia, there is no guideline specifically targeting the treatment of type IIb dyslipidemia, which is one of the most common types of dyslipidemia, along with type IIa and type IV dyslipidemia. Type IIb dyslipidemia is important because it sometimes accompanies atherogenic lipid profiles, such as small, dense LDL, remnants, low HDL cholesterolemia. It is also associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and chronic kidney disease (CKD), and most patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) show this phenotype; therefore, it is assumed that patients with type IIb dyslipidemia have a high risk for cardiovascular disease. Thus, the management of type IIb dyslipidemia is very important for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, so we have attempted to provide a guideline for the management of type IIb dyslipidemia.

  10. The role of activin in mammary gland development and oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, Karen A; Schneyer, Alan L; Hagen, Mary J; Jerry, D Joseph

    2011-06-01

    TGFβ contributes to mammary gland development and has paradoxical roles in breast cancer because it has both tumor suppressor and tumor promoter activity. Another member of the TGFβ superfamily, activin, also has roles in the developing mammary gland, but these functions, and the role of activin in breast cancer, are not well characterized. TGFβ and activin share the same intracellular signaling pathways, but divergence in their signaling pathways are suggested. The purpose of this review is to compare the spatial and temporal expression of TGFβ and activin during mammary gland development, with consideration given to their functions during each developmental period. We also review the contributions of TGFβ and activin to breast cancer resistance and susceptibility. Finally, we consider the systemic contributions of activin in regulating obesity and diabetes; and the impact this regulation has on breast cancer. Elevated levels of activin in serum during pregnancy and its influence on pregnancy associated breast cancer are also considered. We conclude that evidence demonstrates that activin has tumor suppressing potential, without definitive indication of tumor promoting activity in the mammary gland, making it a good target for development of therapeutics.

  11. An activin A/BMP2 chimera, AB204, displays bone-healing properties superior to those of BMP2.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Byung-Hak; Esquivies, Luis; Ahn, Chihoon; Gray, Peter C; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Kwiatkowski, Witek; Choe, Senyon

    2014-09-01

    Recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP2) has been used clinically to treat bone fractures in human patients. However, the high doses of rhBMP2 required for a therapeutic response can cause undesirable side effects. Here, we demonstrate that a novel Activin A/BMP2 (AB2) chimera, AB204, promotes osteogenesis and bone healing much more potently and effectively than rhBMP2. Remarkably, 1 month of AB204 treatment completely heals tibial and calvarial defects of critical size in mice at a concentration 10-fold lower than a dose of rhBMP2 that only partially heals the defect. We determine the structure of AB204 to 2.3 Å that reveals a distinct BMP2-like fold in which the Activin A sequence segments confer insensitivity to the BMP2 antagonist Noggin and an affinity for the Activin/BMP type II receptor ActRII that is 100-fold greater than that of BMP2. The structure also led to our identification of a single Activin A-derived amino acid residue, which, when mutated to the corresponding BMP2 residue, resulted in a significant increase in the affinity of AB204 for its type I receptor BMPRIa and a further enhancement in AB204's osteogenic potency. Together, these findings demonstrate that rationally designed AB2 chimeras can provide BMP2 substitutes with enhanced potency for treating non-union bone fractures.

  12. Localization of the cross-linking sites of RGD and KQAGDV peptides to the isolated fibrinogen receptor, the human platelet integrin glycoprotein IIb/IIIa. Influence of peptide length.

    PubMed

    Calvete, J J; Schäfer, W; Mann, K; Henschen, A; González-Rodríguez, J

    1992-06-15

    The non-covalent and Ca(2+)-dependent heterodimer GPIIb/IIIa, formed by platelet glycoproteins IIb (GPIIb) and IIIa (GPIIIa), also known as the integrin alpha IIb beta 3, is the inducible receptor for fibrinogen and other adhesive proteins on the surface of activated platelets. A fraction of the isolated GPIIb/IIIa in solution binds RGD or KQAGDV inhibitory peptides and, upon peptide removal, apparently acquires the capacity to bind fibrinogen ('activated' GPIIb/IIIa) [Du, X., Plow, E. F., Frelinger, A. L., III, O'Toole, T. E., Loftus, J. C. & Ginsberg, M. H. (1991) Cell 65, 409-416]. Photoaffinity labelling was used here to study the ligand binding site(s) of GPIIb/IIIa in solution, for which the peptides CKRKRKRKRRGDV (alpha 1), CGRGDF (alpha 2), CYHHLGGAKQAGDV (gamma 1) and CGAKQAGDV (gamma 2) were synthesized with a photoactivable cross-linker group and a fluorescent reporter group attached to the N-terminal cysteine residue. Contrary to the situation in activated platelets, both GPIIb and GPIIIa were equally labelled by the four peptides and the cross-linking sites were localized by protein chemical analyses of the fluorescently labelled tryptic peptides of both subunits. Thus, the localization of the cross-linking sites in GPIIb varies considerably with the peptide length and is very different from that localization observed in activated platelets: alpha 2 and gamma 2 were found cross-linked to the N-terminal of both the heavy (GPIIbH 42-73) and the light (GPIIbL2 30-75) chains of GPIIb; while the longer peptides alpha 1 and gamma 1 were cross-linked to the C-terminal of GPIIbH within the 696-724 and 752-768 peptide stretches, respectively. On the other hand, the cross-linking sites of the four inhibitory peptides in GPIIIa were found mainly within the proteolysis susceptible region, between the N-terminal (GPIIIa 1-52) and the core (GPIIb 423-622) highly disulphide-bonded domains, observing that the longer the peptide the closer the cross-linking site is to

  13. Uric acid: a modulator of prostate cells and activin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sangkop, Febbie; Singh, Geeta; Rodrigues, Ely; Gold, Elspeth; Bahn, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) or urate is associated with inflammation and gout. Recent evidence has linked urate to cancers, but little is known about urate effects in prostate cancer. Activins are inflammatory cytokines and negative growth regulators in the prostate. A hallmark of prostate cancer progression is activin insensitivity; however, mechanisms underlying this are unclear. We propose that elevated SUA is associated with prostate cancer counteracting the growth inhibitory effects of activins. The expression of activins A and B, urate transporter GLUT9 and tissue urate levels were examined in human prostate disease. Intracellular and secreted urate and GLUT9 expression were assessed in human prostate cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the effects of urate and probenecid, a known urate transport inhibitor, were determined in combination with activin A. Activin A expression was increased in low-grade prostate cancer, whereas activin B expression was reduced in high-grade prostate cancer. Intracellular urate levels decreased in all prostate pathologies, while GLUT9 expression decreased in benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis and high-grade prostate cancer. Activin responsive LNCaP cells had higher intracellular and lower secreted urate levels than activin-insensitive PC3 cells. GLUT9 expression in prostate cancer cells was progressively lower than in prostate epithelial cells. Elevated extracellular urate was growth promoting in vitro, which was abolished by the gout medication probenecid, and it antagonized the growth inhibitory effects of activins. This study shows for the first time that a change in plasma or intracellular urate levels, possibly involving GLUT9 and a urate efflux transporter, has an impact on prostate cancer cell growth, and that lowering SUA levels in prostate cancer is likely to be therapeutically beneficial. PMID:26910779

  14. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of bone morphogenetic proteins and activins in the skin: potential benefits for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Moura, J; da Silva, L; Cruz, M T; Carvalho, E

    2013-09-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and activins are phylogenetically conserved proteins, belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, that signal through the phosphorylation of receptor-regulated Smad proteins, activating different cell responses. They are involved in various steps of skin morphogenesis and wound repair, as can be evidenced by the fact that their expression is increased in skin injuries. BMPs play not only a role in bone regeneration but are also involved in cartilage, tendon-like tissue and epithelial regeneration, maintain vascular integrity, capillary sprouting, proliferation/migration of endothelial cells and angiogenesis, promote neuron and dendrite formation, alter neuropeptide levels and are involved in immune response modulation, at least in animal models. On the other hand, activins are involved in wound repair through the regulation of skin and immune cell migration and differentiation, re-epithelialization and granulation tissue formation, and also promote the expression of collagens by fibroblasts and modulate scar formation. This review aims at enunciating the effects of BMPs and activins in the skin, namely in skin development, as well as in crucial phases of skin wound healing, such as inflammation, angiogenesis and repair, and will focus on the effects of these proteins on skin cells and their signaling pathways, exploring the potential therapeutic approach of the application of BMP-2, BMP-6 and activin A in chronic wounds, particularly diabetic foot ulcerations.

  15. Binding of a fibrinogen mimetic stabilizes integrin αIIbβ3's open conformation

    PubMed Central

    Hantgan, Roy R.; Rocco, Mattia; Nagaswami, Chandrasekaran; Weisel, John W.

    2001-01-01

    The platelet integrin αIIbβ3 is representative of a class of heterodimeric receptors that upon activation bind extracellular macromolecular ligands and form signaling clusters. This study examined how occupancy of αIIbβ3's fibrinogen binding site affected the receptor's solution structure and stability. Eptifibatide, an integrin antagonist developed to treat cardiovascular disease, served as a high-affinity, monovalent model ligand with fibrinogen-like selectivity for αIIbβ3. Eptifibatide binding promptly and reversibly perturbed the conformation of the αIIbβ3 complex. Ligand-specific decreases in its diffusion and sedimentation coefficient were observed at near-stoichiometric eptifibatide concentrations, in contrast to the receptor-perturbing effects of RGD ligands that we previously observed only at a 70-fold molar excess. Eptifibatide promoted αIIbβ3 dimerization 10-fold more effectively than less selective RGD ligands, as determined by sedimentation equilibrium. Eptifibatide-bound integrin receptors displayed an ectodomain separation and enhanced assembly of dimers and larger oligomers linked through their stalk regions, as seen by transmission electron microscopy. Ligation with eptifibatide protected αIIbβ3 from SDS-induced subunit dissociation, an effect on electrophoretic mobility not seen with RGD ligands. Despite its distinct cleft, the open conformer resisted guanidine unfolding as effectively as the ligand-free integrin. Thus, we provide the first demonstration that binding a monovalent ligand to αIIbβ3's extracellular fibrinogen-recognition site stabilizes the receptor's open conformation and enhances self-association through its distant transmembrane and/or cytoplasmic domains. By showing how eptifibatide and RGD peptides, ligands with distinct binding sites, each affects αIIbβ3's conformation, our findings provide new mechanistic insights into ligand-linked integrin activation, clustering and signaling. PMID:11468358

  16. Activin A is essential for neurogenesis following neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Abdipranoto-Cowley, Andrea; Park, Jin Sung; Croucher, David; Daniel, James; Henshall, Susan; Galbraith, Sally; Mervin, Kyle; Vissel, Bryce

    2009-06-01

    It has long been proposed that excitotoxicity contributes to nerve cell death in neurodegenerative diseases. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, is expressed by neurons following excitotoxicity. We show for the first time that this activin A expression is essential for neurogenesis to proceed following neurodegeneration. We found that intraventricular infusion of activin A increased the number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 layers of the normal adult hippocampus and also, following lipopolysaccharide administration, had a potent inhibitory effect on gliosis in vivo and on microglial proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Consistent with the role of activin A in regulating central nervous system inflammation and neurogenesis, intraventricular infusion of follistatin, an activin A antagonist, profoundly impaired neurogenesis and increased the number of microglia and reactive astrocytes following onset of kainic acid-induced neurodegeneration. These results show that inhibiting endogenous activin A is permissive for a potent underlying inflammatory response to neurodegeneration. We demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory actions of activin A account for its neurogenic effects following neurodegeneration because co-administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reversed follistatin's inhibitory effects on neurogenesis in vivo. Our work indicates that activin A, perhaps working in conjunction with other transforming growth factor-beta superfamily molecules, is essential for neurogenesis in the adult central nervous system following excitotoxic neurodegeneration and suggests that neurons can regulate regeneration by suppressing the inflammatory response, a finding with implications for understanding and treating acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19489097

  17. Triciribine Phosphate, Paclitaxel, Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-13

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  18. Activins and inhibins: Novel regulators of thymocyte development

    SciTech Connect

    Licona-Limon, Paula; Aleman-Muench, German; Macias-Silva, Marina; Garcia-Zepeda, Eduardo A.; Fortoul, Teresa I.; Soldevila, Gloria

    2009-04-03

    Activins and inhibins are members of the transforming growth factor-{beta} superfamily that act on different cell types and regulate a broad range of cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, we provide the first evidence that activins and inhibins regulate specific checkpoints during thymocyte development. We demonstrate that both activin A and inhibin A promote the DN3-DN4 transition in vitro, although they differentially control the transition to the DP stage. Whereas activin A induces the accumulation of a CD8{sup +}CD24{sup hi}TCR{beta}{sup lo} intermediate subpopulation, inhibin A promotes the differentiation of DN4 to DP. In addition, both activin A and inhibin A appear to promote CD8{sup +}SP differentiation. Moreover, inhibin {alpha} null mice have delayed in vitro T cell development, showing both a decrease in the DN-DP transition and reduced thymocyte numbers, further supporting a role for inhibins in the control of developmental signals taking place during T cell differentiation in vivo.

  19. Activins and Inhibins: novel regulators of thymocyte development

    PubMed Central

    Licona-Limón, Paula; Alemán-Muench, German; Chimal-Monroy, Jesus; Macías-Silva, Marina; García-Zepeda, Eduardo A.; Matzuk, Martin M.; Fortoul, Teresa I.; Soldevila, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Activins and inhibins are members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily that act on different cell types and regulate a broad range of cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, we provide the first evidence that activins and inhibins regulate specific checkpoints during thymocyte development. We demonstrate that both activin A and inhibin A promote the DN3-DN4 transition in vitro, although they differentially control the transition to the DP stage. Whereas activin A induces the accumulation of a CD8+CD24hiTCRβlo intermediate subpopulation, inhibin A promotes the differentiation of DN4 to DP. In addition, both activin A and inhibin A appear to promote CD8+SP differentiation Moreover, Inhibin α null mice have delayed in vitro T cell development, showing both a decrease in the DN-DP transition and reduced thymocyte numbers, further supporting a role for inhibins in the control of developmental signals taking place during T cell differentiation in vivo. PMID:19338778

  20. Activin signaling balances proliferation and differentiation of ovarian niche precursors and enables adjustment of niche numbers.

    PubMed

    Lengil, Tamar; Gancz, Dana; Gilboa, Lilach

    2015-03-01

    How the numbers of niches and resident stem cells within a particular organ are determined during development and how they may be modulated or corrected is a question with significant medical implications. In the larval ovary of Drosophila melanogaster, somatic precursors for niches, and germ cells that will become germline stem cells, co-develop. Somatic precursors proliferate during the first 3 days of larval development. By mid-third instar, adult terminal filament (TF) (part of the germline stem cell niche) cells first appear, and differentiation terminates 24 h later when 16-20 TFs fully form. The developmental sequence responsible for TF cell determination and final TF numbers is only partially understood. We show that TF formation proceeds through several, hitherto uncharacterized stages, which include an early exit from the cell cycle to form TF precursors and two steps of cell shape change to form the mature TF cells. The Activin receptor Baboon (Babo) is required for somatic precursor cell proliferation and therefore determines the pool of TF precursors available for TF differentiation. During the final differentiation stage, Babo facilitates TF and germ cell differentiation, and promotes the accumulation of Broad-Z1, which is also a target of the steroid hormone ecdysone. Epistasis analysis shows that Activin controls cell proliferation in an ecdysone-independent manner and TF differentiation by affecting ecdysone targets. We propose that this mode of function allows Activin to balance proliferation and differentiation, and to equilibrate niche numbers. These results suggest a novel model for how niche numbers are corrected during development.

  1. Inhibins and activins in human ovulation, conception and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, G M; Muttukrishna, S; Ledger, W L

    1998-01-01

    The activins and inhibins are glycoproteins that belong to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily and, as such, have diverse effects at many stages during growth and development. Originally identified by their effects on follicle stimulating hormone in males and females, the recent development of specific and sensitive assays for this group of polypeptides has permitted the elucidation of their role in 'fine-tuning' the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. This review article focuses on the roles of inhibin and activin in female reproductive physiology with reference to possible future clinical applications in the investigation of infertility and abnormal pregnancy.

  2. A drug delivery hydrogel system based on activin B for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Darabi, Mohammadali; Gu, Jingjing; Shi, Junbin; Xue, Jinhua; Huang, Lu; Liu, Yutong; Zhang, Lei; Liu, N; Zhong, Wen; Zhang, Lin; Xing, Malcolm; Zhang, Lu

    2016-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Activins are members of the superfamily of transforming growth factors and have many potential neuroprotective effects. Herein, at the first place, we verified activin B's neuroprotective role in a PD model, and revealed that activin B's fast release has limited function in the PD therapy. To this end, we developed a multi-functional crosslinker based thermosensitive injectable hydrogels to deliver activin B, and stereotactically injected the activin B-loaded hydrogel into the striatum of a mouse model of PD. The histological evaluation showed that activin B can be detected even 5 weeks post-surgery in PD mice implanted with activin B-loaded hydrogels, and activin B-loaded hydrogels can significantly increase the density of tyrosine hydroxylase positive (TH(+)) nerve fibers and reduce inflammatory responses. The behavioral evaluation demonstrated that activin B-loaded hydrogels significantly improved the performance of the mice in the PD model. Meanwhile, we found that hydrogels can slightly induce the activation of microglia cells and astrocytes, while cannot induce apoptosis in the striatum. Overall, our data demonstrated that the developed activin B-loaded hydrogels provide sustained release of activin B for over 5 weeks and contribute to substantial cellular protection and behavioral improvement, suggesting their potential as a therapeutic strategy for PD.

  3. Intertwining of Activin A and TGFβ Signaling: Dual Roles in Cancer Progression and Cancer Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Loomans, Holli A.; Andl, Claudia D.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a significant amount of research has examined the controversial role of activin A in cancer. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily, is best characterized for its function during embryogenesis in mesoderm cell fate differentiation and reproduction. During embryogenesis, TGFβ superfamily ligands, TGFβ, bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and activins, act as potent morphogens. Similar to TGFβs and BMPs, activin A is a protein that is highly systemically expressed during early embryogenesis; however, post-natal expression is overall reduced and remains under strict spatiotemporal regulation. Of importance, normal post-natal expression of activin A has been implicated in the migration and invasive properties of various immune cell types, as well as endometrial cells. Aberrant activin A signaling during development results in significant morphological defects and premature mortality. Interestingly, activin A has been found to have both oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles in cancer. Investigations into the role of activin A in prostate and breast cancer has demonstrated tumor suppressive effects, while in lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, it has been consistently shown that activin A expression is correlated with increased proliferation, invasion and poor patient prognosis. Activin A signaling is highly context-dependent, which is demonstrated in studies of epithelial cell tumors and the microenvironment. This review discusses normal activin A signaling in comparison to TGFβ and highlights how its dysregulation contributes to cancer progression and cell invasion. PMID:25560921

  4. XSmad2 directly activates the activin-inducible, dorsal mesoderm gene XFKH1 in Xenopus embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Howell, M; Hill, C S

    1997-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta family members play a central role in mesoderm induction during early embryogenesis in Xenopus. Although a number of target genes induced as an immediate-early response to activin-like members of the family have been described, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. Our systematic analysis of the activin induction of the target gene XFKH1 reveals two regions that mediate activin-responsive transcription: one, in the first intron, is targeted directly by the activin-signalling pathway; the other, in the 5' flanking sequences, responds to activin indirectly, possibly being required for maintenance of gene expression. We demonstrate that a 107 bp region of the XFKH1 first intron acts as an enhancer and confers activin inducibility onto a minimal uninducible promoter in the absence of new protein synthesis. It bears little sequence similarity to other activin responsive sequences. We further demonstrate that overexpression of a constitutively active derivative of Xenopus Smad2 (XSmad2), which has been implicated as a component of the activin signalling pathway, is sufficient for direct activation of transcription via this enhancer. Moreover, we show that XSmad2 acts indirectly on the proximal promoter element induced by activin via an indirect mechanism. These results establish the XFKH1 intron enhancer as a direct nuclear target of the activin signalling pathway in Xenopus embryos, and provide strong new evidence that XSmad2 is a transducer of activin signals. PMID:9405370

  5. Neuropoietic cytokines and activin A differentially regulate the phenotype of cultured sympathetic neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Fann, M J; Patterson, P H

    1994-01-01

    A number of cytokines sharing limited sequence homology have been grouped as a family because of partially overlapping biological activities, receptor subunit promiscuity, and the prediction of a shared secondary structure. Since several of these cytokines regulate gene expression and cell number in the nervous and hematopoietic systems, this specific group is termed the neuropoietic cytokine family. Using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-based assay system for monitoring the expression of multiple phenotypic markers in cultured sympathetic neurons, we present further evidence that, in addition to cholinergic differentiation factor/leukemia inhibitory factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor, oncostatin M, growth promoting activity, interleukin 6, and interleukin 11 belong in this family. In addition, one member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, activin A, shares a selective overlap with the neuropoietic family in the spectrum of neuropeptides that it induces in sympathetic neurons. The particular neuropeptides induced by activin A, however, demonstrate that the activity of this cytokine is distinct from that of the neuropoietic family. Twenty-six other cytokines and growth factors were without detectable activity in this assay. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7904069

  6. Structure and activation of pro-activin A

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuelu; Fischer, Gerhard; Hyvönen, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Activins are growth factors with multiple roles in the development and homeostasis. Like all TGF-β family of growth factors, activins are synthesized as large precursors from which mature dimeric growth factors are released proteolytically. Here we have studied the activation of activin A and determined crystal structures of the unprocessed precursor and of the cleaved pro-mature complex. Replacing the natural furin cleavage site with a HRV 3C protease site, we show how the protein gains its bioactivity after proteolysis and is as active as the isolated mature domain. The complex remains associated in conditions used for biochemical analysis with a dissociation constant of 5 nM, but the pro-domain can be actively displaced from the complex by follistatin. Our high-resolution structures of pro-activin A share features seen in the pro-TGF-β1 and pro-BMP-9 structures, but reveal a new oligomeric arrangement, with a domain-swapped, cross-armed conformation for the protomers in the dimeric protein. PMID:27373274

  7. Structure and activation of pro-activin A.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuelu; Fischer, Gerhard; Hyvönen, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Activins are growth factors with multiple roles in the development and homeostasis. Like all TGF-β family of growth factors, activins are synthesized as large precursors from which mature dimeric growth factors are released proteolytically. Here we have studied the activation of activin A and determined crystal structures of the unprocessed precursor and of the cleaved pro-mature complex. Replacing the natural furin cleavage site with a HRV 3C protease site, we show how the protein gains its bioactivity after proteolysis and is as active as the isolated mature domain. The complex remains associated in conditions used for biochemical analysis with a dissociation constant of 5 nM, but the pro-domain can be actively displaced from the complex by follistatin. Our high-resolution structures of pro-activin A share features seen in the pro-TGF-β1 and pro-BMP-9 structures, but reveal a new oligomeric arrangement, with a domain-swapped, cross-armed conformation for the protomers in the dimeric protein. PMID:27373274

  8. Covariant action for type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Ashoke

    2016-07-01

    Taking clues from the recent construction of the covariant action for type II and heterotic string field theories, we construct a manifestly Lorentz covariant action for type IIB supergravity, and discuss its gauge fixing maintaining manifest Lorentz invariance. The action contains a (non-gravitating) free 4-form field besides the usual fields of type IIB supergravity. This free field, being completely decoupled from the interacting sector, has no physical consequence.

  9. Stimulation of activin A expression in rat aortic smooth muscle cells by thrombin and angiotensin II correlates with neointimal formation in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Pawlowski, J E; Taylor, D S; Valentine, M; Hail, M E; Ferrer, P; Kowala, M C; Molloy, C J

    1997-01-01

    Vasoactive GTP-binding protein-coupled receptor agonists (e.g., angiotensin II [AII] and alpha-thrombin) stimulate the production of mitogenic factors from vascular smooth muscle cells. In experiments to identify mitogens secreted from AII- or alpha-thrombin-stimulated rat aortic smooth muscle (RASM) cells, neutralizing antibodies directed against several growth factors (e.g., PDGF and basic fibroblast growth factor [basic FGF]) failed to inhibit the mitogenic activity of conditioned media samples derived from the cells. In this report, we found that polyclonal neutralizing antibodies directed against purified human placental basic FGF reduced the mitogenic activity of AII-stimulated RASM cell-conditioned media and in immunoblot experiments identified a 26-kD protein (14 kD under reducing conditions) that was distinct from basic FGF. After purification from RASM cell-conditioned medium, amino acid sequence analysis identified the protein as activin A, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily. Increased activin A expression was observed after treatment of the RASM cells with AII, alpha-thrombin, and the protein kinase C agonist PMA. In contrast, PDGF-BB or serum caused only a minor induction of this protein. Although activin A alone only weakly stimulated RASM cell DNA synthesis, it demonstrated a potent comitogenic effect in combination with either EGF or heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor in the RASM cells, increasing DNA synthesis by up to fourfold. Furthermore, in a rat carotid injury model, activin A mRNA was upregulated within 6 h after injury followed by increases in immunoreactive protein detected in the expanding neointima 7 and 14 d later. Taken together, these results indicate that activin A is a vascular smooth muscle cell-derived factor induced by vasoactive agonists that may, either alone or in combination with other vascular derived growth factors, have a role in neointimal formation after arterial injury. PMID:9239411

  10. Activin A and follistatin during the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy in ewes.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Anne R; McNatty, Kenneth P; Hurst, Peter R; Spencer, Thomas E; Bazer, Fuller W; Reader, Karen L; Johnstone, Peter D; Davis, George H; Juengel, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    The activin pathway has been postulated to be involved in regulation of multiple reproductive processes important for survival of the conceptus. These processes include luteinisation of the follicular cells and thus function of the corpus luteum, early embryo development and uterine function including implantation of the conceptus. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine whether the concentrations of activin A and follistatin (FST), an activin-binding protein, differed between ewes with a lifetime history of enhanced or reduced embryonic survival (ES). The mRNAs encoding FST and activin A (inhibin beta A subunit; INHBA) were present in the uterus and abundant in the uterine luminal or glandular epithelia by day 18 of gestation. A peak of activin A was observed in the systemic circulation around the time of oestrus, and activin A concentrations were elevated in animals with reduced ES during the oestrous cycle and early gestation. Concentrations of activin A in uterine fluid were approximately twofold greater on day 16 of gestation in ewes with reduced ES compared to those with enhanced ES. No consistent differences in FST were observed between these groups. Treatment of luteinising ovine granulosa cells with activin A in vitro suppressed progesterone secretion providing evidence of a potential pathway whereby increased concentrations of activin A may decrease ES. PMID:26733604

  11. Novel ovarian regulatory peptides: inhibin, activin, and follistatin.

    PubMed

    Ling, N; DePaolo, L V; Bicsak, T A; Shimasaki, S

    1990-09-01

    Based on the extensive amount of research on inhibin and related polypeptides accomplished during the past 5 years, the inhibin concept put forth more than 50 years ago has not only become well established but also more complex than originally imagined. The closed-loop feedback mechanism of ovarian inhibin and pituitary FSH has been joined by possible "inhibin-like" actions of follistatin and FSH-stimulatory effects of activin. In addition, in vitro experiments suggest possible autocrine and paracrine functions for the gonadal polypeptide hormones. Figure 3 shows a simplistic diagram summarizing our current understanding of inhibin/activin and follistatin action along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Hopefully, research in the coming years will allow us to remove the many question marks still remaining but will undoubtedly add others.

  12. Atypical Activin A and IL-10 Production Impairs Human CD16+ Monocyte Differentiation into Anti-Inflammatory Macrophages.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, Érika; Domínguez-Soto, Ángeles; Nieto, Concha; Flores-Sevilla, José Luis; Pacheco-Blanco, Mariana; Campos-Peña, Victoria; Meraz-Ríos, Marco A; Vega, Miguel A; Corbí, Ángel L; Sánchez-Torres, Carmen

    2016-02-01

    Human CD14(++)CD16(-) and CD14(+/lo)CD16(+) monocyte subsets comprise 85 and 15% of blood monocytes, respectively, and are thought to represent distinct stages in the monocyte differentiation pathway. However, the differentiation fates of both monocyte subsets along the macrophage (Mϕ) lineage have not yet been elucidated. We have now evaluated the potential of CD14(++) CD16(-) and CD16(+) monocytes to differentiate and to be primed toward pro- or anti-inflammatory Mϕs upon culture with GM-CSF or M-CSF, respectively (subsequently referred to as GM14, M14, GM16, or M16). Whereas GM16 and GM14 were phenotypic and functionally analogous, M16 displayed a more proinflammatory profile than did M14. Transcriptomic analyses evidenced that genes associated with M-CSF-driven Mϕ differentiation (including FOLR2, IL10, IGF1, and SERPINB2) are underrepresented in M16 with respect to M14. The preferential proinflammatory skewing of M16 relative to M14 was found to be mediated by the secretion of activin A and the low levels of IL-10 produced by M16. In fact, activin A receptor blockade during the M-CSF-driven differentiation of CD16(+) monocytes, or addition of IL-10-containing M14-conditioned medium, significantly enhanced their expression of anti-inflammatory-associated molecules while impairing their acquisition of proinflammatory-related markers. Thus, we propose that M-CSF drives CD14(++)CD16- monocyte differentiation into bona fide anti-inflammatory Mϕs in a self-autonomous manner, whereas M-CSF-treated CD16(+) monocytes generate Mϕs with a skewed proinflammatory profile by virtue of their high activin A expression unless additional anti-inflammatory stimuli such as IL-10 are provided. PMID:26729812

  13. Evidence for direct coupling of primary agonist-receptor interaction to the exposure of functional IIb-IIIa complexes in human blood platelets. Results from studies with the antiplatelet compound ajoene.

    PubMed

    Apitz-Castro, R; Jain, M K; Bartoli, F; Ledezma, E; Ruiz, M C; Salas, R

    1991-09-24

    Ajoene, (E,Z)-4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1,6,11-triene 9-oxide, is a potent antiplatelet compound isolated from alcoholic extracts of garlic. In vitro, ajoene reversibly inhibits platelet aggregation as well as the release reaction induced by all known agonists. In this paper we show that ajoene has a unique locus of action, that is not shared by any other known antiplatelet compound. For example, ajoene inhibits agonist-induced exposure of fibrinogen receptors, as well as intracellular responses such as activation of protein kinase C and the increase in cytoplasmic free calcium induced by receptor-dependent agonists (collagen, ADP, PAF, low-dose thrombin). On the other hand, with agonists that can by-pass (at least partially) the receptor-transductor-effector sequence, such as high-dose thrombin, PMA, NaF, only the exposure of fibrinogen receptors is blocked by ajoene. Binding of fibrinogen to chymotrypsin-treated platelets is only slightly inhibited by ajoene. The results reported here also show that: (a) ajoene does not act as a calcium chelator, does not impair the initial agonist-receptor interaction and does not influence the basal levels of intracellular inhibitors of platelet activation such as cyclic GMP; (b) the locus of action of ajoene is a yet unknown molecular step that links, in the case of physiological agonists, specific agonist-receptor complexes to the sequence of the signal transduction system on the plasma membrane of platelets. In the case of non-physiological, receptor-independent agonists (PMA, NaF), we can only speculate on the hypothesis that they somehow mimic the effect of the agonist-receptor complexes on the signal transduction system; and (c) the exposure of fibrinogen receptors is not a direct consequence of other intracellular processes. These observations clearly show, for the first time, that the exposure of fibrinogen receptors is a membrane event proximally and obligatorily coupled to the occupancy of other membrane receptors by their

  14. αIIbβ3 variants defined by next-generation sequencing: Predicting variants likely to cause Glanzmann thrombasthenia

    PubMed Central

    Buitrago, Lorena; Rendon, Augusto; Liang, Yupu; Simeoni, Ilenia; Negri, Ana; Filizola, Marta; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Coller, Barry S.; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Ballmaier, Matthias; Bariana, Tadbir; Bellissimo, Daniel; Bertoli, Marta; Bray, Paul; Bury, Loredana; Carrell, Robin; Cattaneo, Marco; Collins, Peter; French, Deborah; Favier, Remi; Freson, Kathleen; Furie, Bruce; Germeshausen, Manuela; Ghevaert, Cedric; Gomez, Keith; Goodeve, Anne; Gresele, Paolo; Guerrero, Jose; Hampshire, Dan J.; Hadinnapola, Charaka; Heemskerk, Johan; Henskens, Yvonne; Hill, Marian; Hogg, Nancy; Johnsen, Jill; Kahr, Walter; Kerr, Ron; Kunishima, Shinji; Laffan, Michael; Natwani, Amit; Neerman-Arbez, Marguerite; Nurden, Paquita; Nurden, Alan; Ormiston, Mark; Othman, Maha; Ouwehand, Willem; Perry, David; Vilk, Shoshana Ravel; Reitsma, Pieter; Rondina, Matthew; Simeoni, Ilenia; Smethurst, Peter; Stephens, Jonathan; Stevenson, William; Szkotak, Artur; Turro, Ernest; Van Geet, Christel; Vries, Minka; Ward, June; Waye, John; Westbury, Sarah; Whiteheart, Sidney; Wilcox, David; Zhang, Bi

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing is transforming our understanding of human genetic variation but assessing the functional impact of novel variants presents challenges. We analyzed missense variants in the integrin αIIbβ3 receptor subunit genes ITGA2B and ITGB3 identified by whole-exome or -genome sequencing in the ThromboGenomics project, comprising ∼32,000 alleles from 16,108 individuals. We analyzed the results in comparison with 111 missense variants in these genes previously reported as being associated with Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT), 20 associated with alloimmune thrombocytopenia, and 5 associated with aniso/macrothrombocytopenia. We identified 114 novel missense variants in ITGA2B (affecting ∼11% of the amino acids) and 68 novel missense variants in ITGB3 (affecting ∼9% of the amino acids). Of the variants, 96% had minor allele frequencies (MAF) < 0.1%, indicating their rarity. Based on sequence conservation, MAF, and location on a complete model of αIIbβ3, we selected three novel variants that affect amino acids previously associated with GT for expression in HEK293 cells. αIIb P176H and β3 C547G severely reduced αIIbβ3 expression, whereas αIIb P943A partially reduced αIIbβ3 expression and had no effect on fibrinogen binding. We used receiver operating characteristic curves of combined annotation-dependent depletion, Polyphen 2-HDIV, and sorting intolerant from tolerant to estimate the percentage of novel variants likely to be deleterious. At optimal cut-off values, which had 69–98% sensitivity in detecting GT mutations, between 27% and 71% of the novel αIIb or β3 missense variants were predicted to be deleterious. Our data have implications for understanding the evolutionary pressure on αIIbβ3 and highlight the challenges in predicting the clinical significance of novel missense variants. PMID:25827233

  15. IIB soliton spectra with all fluxes activated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evslin, Jarah

    2003-05-01

    Building upon an earlier proposal for the classification of fluxes, a sequence is proposed which generalizes the AHSS by computing type IIB string theory's group of conserved RR and also NS charges, which is conjectured to be a K-theory of dual pairs. As a test of this proposal, the formalism of Maldacena, Moore and Seiberg ( arxiv:hep-th/0108100) is applied to classify D-branes, NS5-branes, F-strings and their dielectric counterparts in IIB compactified on a 3-sphere with both NS and RR background fluxes. The soliton spectra on the 3-sphere are then compared with the output of the sequence, as is the baryon spectrum in Witten's non- spinc example, AdS 5× RP5. The group of conserved charges is seen to change during Brown-Teitelboim-like phase transitions which change the effective cosmological constant.

  16. Tiling of R7 Axons in the Drosophila Visual System is Mediated Both by Transduction of an Activin Signal to the Nucleus and by Mutual Repulsion

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Chun-Yuan; Herman, Tory; Yonekura, Shinichi; Gao, Shuying; Wang, Jian; Serpe, Mihaela; O’Connor, Michael B.; Zipursky, S. Lawrence; Lee, Chi-Hon

    2009-01-01

    Summary The organization of neuronal wiring into layers and columns is a common feature of both vertebrate and invertebrate brains. In the Drosophila visual system, each R7 photoreceptor axon projects within a single column to a specific layer of the optic lobe. We refer to the restriction of terminals to single columns as tiling. In a genetic screen based on an R7-dependent behavior, we identified the Activin receptor Baboon and the nuclear import adaptor Importin-α3 as being required to prevent R7 axon terminals from overlapping with the terminals of R7s in neighboring columns. This tiling function requires the Baboon ligand, dActivin, the transcription factor, dSmad2, and retrograde transport from the growth cone to the R7 nucleus. We propose that dActivin is an autocrine signal that restricts R7 growth cone motility, and we demonstrate that it acts in parallel with a paracrine signal that mediates repulsion between R7 terminals. PMID:18054857

  17. ADAP interactions with talin and kindlin promote platelet integrin αIIbβ3 activation and stable fibrinogen binding

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jian; Kahner, Bryan; Ye, Feng; Ginsberg, Mark H.; Shattil, Sanford J.

    2014-01-01

    ADAP is a hematopoietic-restricted adapter protein that promotes integrin activation and is a carrier for other adapter proteins, Src kinase–associated phosphoprotein 1 (SKAP1) and SKAP2. In T lymphocytes, SKAP1 is the ADAP-associated molecule that activates integrins through direct linkages with Rap1 effectors (regulator of cell adhesion and polarization enriched in lymphoid tissues; Rap1-interacting adapter molecule). ADAP also promotes integrin αIIbβ3 activation in platelets, which lack SKAP1, suggesting an ADAP integrin–regulatory pathway different from those in lymphocytes. Here we characterized a novel association between ADAP and 2 essential integrin-β cytoplasmic tail-binding proteins involved in αIIbβ3 activation, talin and kindlin-3. Glutathione S-transferase pull-downs identified distinct regions in ADAP necessary for association with kindlin or talin. ADAP was physically proximal to talin and kindlin-3 in human platelets, as assessed biochemically, and by immunofluorescence microscopy and proximity ligation. Relative to wild-type mouse platelets, ADAP-deficient platelets exhibited reduced co-localization of talin with αIIbβ3, and reduced irreversible fibrinogen binding in response to a protease activated receptor 4 (PAR4) thrombin receptor agonist. When ADAP was heterologously expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells co-expressing αIIbβ3, talin, PAR1, and kindlin-3, it associated with an αIIbβ3/talin complex and enabled kindlin-3 to promote agonist-dependent ligand binding to αIIbβ3. Thus, ADAP uniquely promotes activation of and irreversible fibrinogen binding to platelet αIIbβ3 through interactions with talin and kindlin-3. PMID:24523237

  18. The biological function of type I receptors of bone morphogenetic protein in bone

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuxian; Svoboda, Kathy K H; Feng, Jian Q; Jiang, Xinquan

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have multiple roles in skeletal development, homeostasis and regeneration. BMPs signal via type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors (BMPRI and BMPRII). In recent decades, genetic studies in humans and mice have demonstrated that perturbations in BMP signaling via BMPRI resulted in various diseases in bone, cartilage, and muscles. In this review, we focus on all three types of BMPRI, which consist of activin-like kinase 2 (ALK2, also called type IA activin receptor), activin-like kinase 3 (ALK3, also called BMPRIA), and activin-like kinase 6 (ALK6, also called BMPRIB). The research areas covered include the current progress regarding the roles of these receptors during myogenesis, chondrogenesis, and osteogenesis. Understanding the physiological and pathological functions of these receptors at the cellular and molecular levels will advance drug development and tissue regeneration for treating musculoskeletal diseases and bone defects in the future. PMID:27088043

  19. Activin A Predicts Left Ventricular Remodeling and Mortality in Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jeng-Feng; Hsu, Shun-Yi; Teng, Ming-Sheng; Wu, Semon; Hsieh, Chien-An; Jang, Shih-Jung; Liu, Chih-Jen; Huang, Hsuan-Li; Ko, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background Activin A levels increase in a variety of heart diseases including ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this study is to investigate whether the level of activin A can be beneficial in predicting left ventricular remodeling, heart failure, and death in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods We enrolled 278 patients with STEMI who had their activin A levels measured on day 2 of hospitalization. Echocardiographic studies were performed at baseline and were repeated 6 months later. Thereafter, the clinical events of these patients were followed for a maximum of 3 years, including all-cause death and readmission for heart failure. Results During hospitalization, higher activin A level was associated with higher triglyceride level, lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and lower left ventricular end diastolic ventricular volume index (LVEDVI) in multivariable linear regression model. During follow-up, patients with activin A levels > 129 pg/ml had significantly lower LVEF, and higher LVEDVI at 6 months. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that activin A level > 129 pg/ml was a predictor of all-cause death (p = 0.022), but not a predictor of heart failure (p = 0.767). Conclusions Activin A level > 129 pg/ml predicts worse left ventricular remodeling and all-cause death in STEMI. PMID:27471355

  20. Constitutively active FOXO1 diminishes activin induction of Fshb transcription in immortalized gonadotropes.

    PubMed

    Park, Chung Hyun; Skarra, Danalea V; Rivera, Alissa J; Arriola, David J; Thackray, Varykina G

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate whether the FOXO1 transcription factor modulates activin signaling in pituitary gonadotropes. Our studies show that overexpression of constitutively active FOXO1 decreases activin induction of murine Fshb gene expression in immortalized LβT2 cells. We demonstrate that FOXO1 suppression of activin induction maps to the -304/-95 region of the Fshb promoter containing multiple activin response elements and that the suppression requires the FOXO1 DNA-binding domain (DBD). FOXO1 binds weakly to the -125/-91 region of the Fshb promoter in a gel-shift assay. Since this region of the promoter contains a composite SMAD/FOXL2 binding element necessary for activin induction of Fshb transcription, it is possible that FOXO1 DNA binding interferes with SMAD and/or FOXL2 function. In addition, our studies demonstrate that FOXO1 directly interacts with SMAD3/4 but not SMAD2 in a FOXO1 DBD-dependent manner. Moreover, we show that SMAD3/4 induction of Fshb-luc and activin induction of a multimerized SMAD-binding element-luc are suppressed by FOXO1 in a DBD-dependent manner. These results suggest that FOXO1 binding to the proximal Fshb promoter as well as FOXO1 interaction with SMAD3/4 proteins may result in decreased activin induction of Fshb in gonadotropes.

  1. Upregulation of activin A gene by butyrate in human colon cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sonoyama, Kei; Pholnukulkit, Pimara; Toyoda, Masahiko; Rutatip, Suriya; Kasai, Takanori

    2003-06-01

    Activin A has been reported to play a role in the progression of colorectal cancer. Because dietary fiber protects against colorectal cancer, we hypothesized that butyrate, a fermentation product of dietary fiber, may affect the expression of activin A in colon cancer cells. Semiquantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the activin A gene was upregulated by sodium butyrate in the human colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. However, the activin A gene did not respond to sodium butyrate in the human normal colonic cell line FHC, rat normal intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) line IEC-6, and the explant of rat colon. Flow cytometry and agarose gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA revealed that cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were induced by sodium butyrate but not exogenous activin A in HT-29 cells, indicating that activin A could not act as an autocrine factor in colon cancer cells. By assuming that activin A promotes colorectal cancer spread as a paracrine factor, our findings suggest that butyrate could act as a tumor promoter in some circumstances.

  2. Effects of Activin A on the phenotypic properties of human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Sugii, Hideki; Maeda, Hidefumi; Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Naohide; Wada, Naohisa; Koori, Katsuaki; Hasegawa, Daigaku; Hamano, Sayuri; Yuda, Asuka; Monnouchi, Satoshi; Akamine, Akifumi

    2014-09-01

    Periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue plays an important role in tooth preservation by structurally maintaining the connection between the tooth root and the bone. The mechanisms involved in the healing and regeneration of damaged PDL tissue, caused by bacterial infection, caries and trauma, have been explored. Accumulating evidence suggests that Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and a dimer of inhibinβa, contributes to tissue healing through cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation of various target cells. In bone, Activin A has been shown to exert an inhibitory effect on osteoblast maturation and mineralization. However, there have been no reports examining the expression and function of Activin A in human PDL cells (HPDLCs). Thus, we aimed to investigate the biological effects of Activin A on HPDLCs. Activin A was observed to be localized in HPDLCs and rat PDL tissue. When PDL tissue was surgically damaged, Activin A and IL-1β expression increased and the two proteins were shown to be co-localized around the lesion. HPDLCs treated with IL-1β or TNF-α also up-regulated the expression of the gene encoding inhibinβa. Activin A promoted chemotaxis, migration and proliferation of HPDLCs, and caused an increase in fibroblastic differentiation of these cells while down-regulating their osteoblastic differentiation. These osteoblastic inhibitory effects of Activin A, however, were only noted during the early phase of HPDLC osteoblastic differentiation, with later exposures having no effect on differentiation. Collectively, our results suggest that Activin A could be used as a therapeutic agent for healing and regenerating PDL tissue in response to disease, trauma or surgical reconstruction. PMID:24928494

  3. Effects of Activin A on the phenotypic properties of human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Sugii, Hideki; Maeda, Hidefumi; Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Naohide; Wada, Naohisa; Koori, Katsuaki; Hasegawa, Daigaku; Hamano, Sayuri; Yuda, Asuka; Monnouchi, Satoshi; Akamine, Akifumi

    2014-09-01

    Periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue plays an important role in tooth preservation by structurally maintaining the connection between the tooth root and the bone. The mechanisms involved in the healing and regeneration of damaged PDL tissue, caused by bacterial infection, caries and trauma, have been explored. Accumulating evidence suggests that Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and a dimer of inhibinβa, contributes to tissue healing through cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation of various target cells. In bone, Activin A has been shown to exert an inhibitory effect on osteoblast maturation and mineralization. However, there have been no reports examining the expression and function of Activin A in human PDL cells (HPDLCs). Thus, we aimed to investigate the biological effects of Activin A on HPDLCs. Activin A was observed to be localized in HPDLCs and rat PDL tissue. When PDL tissue was surgically damaged, Activin A and IL-1β expression increased and the two proteins were shown to be co-localized around the lesion. HPDLCs treated with IL-1β or TNF-α also up-regulated the expression of the gene encoding inhibinβa. Activin A promoted chemotaxis, migration and proliferation of HPDLCs, and caused an increase in fibroblastic differentiation of these cells while down-regulating their osteoblastic differentiation. These osteoblastic inhibitory effects of Activin A, however, were only noted during the early phase of HPDLC osteoblastic differentiation, with later exposures having no effect on differentiation. Collectively, our results suggest that Activin A could be used as a therapeutic agent for healing and regenerating PDL tissue in response to disease, trauma or surgical reconstruction.

  4. The potential role of activin and follistatin in lung transplant dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Snell, James N; Westall, Glen P; Snell, Gregory I

    2015-01-01

    Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β super-family, is a key regulator of multiple biological pathways including the physiological processes of organ development and homeostasis; as well as the pathological processes of inflammation, remodelling and fibrosis. Dysregulation of activin A and its naturally occurring antagonist follistatin, contribute to the development of disease in multiple organ systems. In this review, we summarize the regulation of activin A, its dysregulated expression in a number of respiratory diseases and postulate its potential role in contributing to allograft dysfunction following lung transplantation.

  5. Abnormal concentration of maternal serum activin-A in gestational diseases.

    PubMed

    Petraglia, F; De Vita, D; Gallinelli, A; Aguzzoli, L; Genazzani, A R; Romero, R; Woodruff, T K

    1995-02-01

    Serum plasma activin-A is measurable in the maternal circulation of healthy pregnant women, increases in specimens collected during the third trimester of gestation, and is highest at parturition. Hormone abnormalities are known to be associated with preterm labor or diabetes in pregnancy. Therefore, in the present study serum activin-A levels in normal controls were compared to those in pregnant women with preterm labor or gestational diabetes. In some cases, values were obtained before and after insulin therapy. In other controls and patients with preterm labor, the activin-A concentration in cord serum was also studied. A newly developed two-site immunotest was used to determine activin-A levels. Subjects included normal controls (n = 7), who were sampled throughout gestation every 5 weeks; pregnant women at term (38-40 weeks) not in labor (n = 22); pregnant women at term in spontaneous labor (< 3.0 cm dilated; n = 42); women in preterm labor (25-35 weeks; n = 38); and women with gestational diabetes (20-39 weeks; n = 9). In control women, serum activin-A levels increased from 4.8 +/- 5.5 micrograms/L (mean +/- SD) at 20 weeks to 25.4 +/- 27.8 micrograms/L at 40 weeks (P < 0.01), and values correlated with gestational age. Pregnant women in preterm labor had serum activin-A concentrations (89.04 +/- 173.31 micrograms/L) higher than those in normal controls (P < 0.01), and no significant correlation to gestational age was found in this group of pregnant women. Healthy women in labor showed serum activin-A concentrations higher than those in women at term but not in labor (P < 0.01). Diabetic patients had serum activin-A concentrations (52.39 +/- 23.32 micrograms/L) significantly higher than those in normal controls. In these patients, maternal serum activin-A concentrations significantly decreased to the range in healthy controls at the same gestational age after insulin therapy (9.48 +/- 3.82 micrograms/L). The present study shows that preterm labor is

  6. Change in the Gastro-Intestinal Tract by Overexpressed Activin Beta A

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Nyeu; Kim, Young Il; Cho, Chunghee; Mayo, Kelly E.; Cho, Byung-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Originally, activins were identified as stimulators of FSH release in reproduction. Other activities, including secondary axis formation in development, have since been revealed. Here, we investigated the influence of activin βA on the body, including the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract. Initially, the activin βA protein was detected in the serum proportional to the amount of pCMV-rAct plasmid injected. The induced level of activin βA in muscle was higher in female than male mice. Subsequent results revealed that stomach and intestine were severely damaged in pCMV-rAct-injected mice. At the cellular level, loss of parietal cells was observed, resulting in increased pH within the stomach. This phenomenon was more severe in male than female mice. Consistent with damage of the stomach and intestine, activin βA often led to necrosis in the tip of the tail or foot, and loss of body weight was observed in pCMV-rAct-injected male but not female mice. Finally, in pCMV-rAct-injected mice, circulating activin βA led to death at supraphysiological doses, and this was dependent on the strain of mice used. Taken together, these results indicate that activin βA has an important role outside of reproduction and development, specifically in digestion. These data also indicate that activin βA must be controlled within a narrow range because of latent lethal activity. In addition, our approach can be used effectively for functional analysis of secreted proteins. PMID:26608361

  7. Activin A is associated with asthma in underweight and overweight patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L L; Liu, C T

    2015-01-01

    There are limited data regarding the effects of activin A on underweight, normal weight, and overweight patients with asthma. We determined serum levels of activin A in asthmatic patients in relation to body mass index. The study protocol included questionnaires, measurement of exhaled nitric oxide, blood sampling for inflammatory biomarkers, and high-resolution computed tomography of the lungs to identify bronchial wall thickening. Serum and sputum activin A levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 94 asthmatic patients. Mean serum levels of activin A were significantly (P = 0.001) higher in underweight (1781 ± 327.3 pg/mL) than in normal weight and overweight asthmatic patients, regardless of gender. After stratification by gender, significantly higher mean values of activin A were observed in females compared to males in the normal and underweight groups (P = 0.003 and P = 0.0002, respectively). Significant differences between groups were found in airway wall area (%) (P < 0.0001). We also observed a much higher percentage of sputum lymphocytes in the underweight group compared to the other groups (P < 0.0001). Correlations between bronchial wall thickness and activin A were found in the underweight (r = 0.67, P = 0.48) and normal weight groups (r = 0.51, P = 0.042). Correlations between fractional of exhaled nitric oxide, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, delayed treatment years, and activin A in different groups were also observed. Increased serum level of activin A indicates its role in the pathogenesis of asthma, particularly in underweight and overweight patients.

  8. Fibrinogen-binding properties of the human platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex: a study using crossed-radioimmunoelectrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Gogstad, G.O.; Brosstad, F.; Krutnes, M.B.; Hagen, I.; Solum, N.O.

    1982-09-01

    Fibrinogen-binding platelet proteins have been examined by crossed-immunoelectrophoresis of solubilized, washed platelets followed by the incubation of the immunoplates with /sup 125/I-fibrinogen and exposure to x-ray films. Incubation with 0.1 mg/ml of /sup 125/I-fibrinogen revealed the binding of fibrinogen to the immunoprecipitates representing the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex, factor XIIIa chain, a granule membrane protein termed G4, fibrinogen, and albumin. Only the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa precipitate and the fibrinogen precipitate showed significant binding when the concentration of /sup 125/I-fibrinogen was lowered to 0.01 mg/ml. Thi indicates that the binding of fibrinogen is specific. The binding of /sup 125/I-fibrinogen to the precipitates representing the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex, the factor XIIIa chain, and G4, but not to the albumin precipitate, was significantly lowered in the presence of EDTA. This effect of EDTA increased with increasing pH, with no binding at pH 8.7. The results indicate that the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex, but not the separate glycoproteins IIb and IIIa, can act as Ca/sup 2 +/ or Mg/sup 2 +/-dependent fibrinogen receptor, under proper physiologic conditions.

  9. Activin-Like Kinase 2 Functions in Peri-implantation Uterine Signaling in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Clementi, Caterina; Tripurani, Swamy K.; Large, Michael J.; Edson, Mark A.; Creighton, Chad J.; Hawkins, Shannon M.; Kovanci, Ertug; Kaartinen, Vesa; Lydon, John P.; Pangas, Stephanie A.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2013-01-01

    Implantation of a blastocyst in the uterus is a multistep process tightly controlled by an intricate regulatory network of interconnected ovarian, uterine, and embryonic factors. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) ligands and receptors are expressed in the uterus of pregnant mice, and BMP2 has been shown to be a key regulator of implantation. In this study, we investigated the roles of the BMP type 1 receptor, activin-like kinase 2 (ALK2), during mouse pregnancy by producing mice carrying a conditional ablation of Alk2 in the uterus (Alk2 cKO mice). In the absence of ALK2, embryos demonstrate delayed invasion into the uterine epithelium and stroma, and upon implantation, stromal cells fail to undergo uterine decidualization, resulting in sterility. Mechanistically, microarray analysis revealed that CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (Cebpb) expression is suppressed during decidualization in Alk2 cKO females. These findings and the similar phenotypes of Cebpb cKO and Alk2 cKO mice lead to the hypothesis that BMPs act upstream of CEBPB in the stroma to regulate decidualization. To test this hypothesis, we knocked down ALK2 in human uterine stromal cells (hESC) and discovered that ablation of ALK2 alters hESC decidualization and suppresses CEBPB mRNA and protein levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis of decidualizing hESC confirmed that BMP signaling proteins, SMAD1/5, directly regulate expression of CEBPB by binding a distinct regulatory sequence in the 3′ UTR of this gene; CEBPB, in turn, regulates the expression of progesterone receptor (PGR). Our work clarifies the conserved mechanisms through which BMPs regulate peri-implantation in rodents and primates and, for the first time, uncovers a linear pathway of BMP signaling through ALK2 to regulate CEBPB and, subsequently, PGR during decidualization. PMID:24244176

  10. Activin a signaling regulates cell invasion and proliferation in esophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Le Bras, Gregoire F.; Koumangoye, Rainelli B.; Romero-Morales, Alejandra I.; Quast, Laura L.; Zaika, Alexander I.; El-Rifai, Wael; Andl, Thomas; Andl, Claudia D.

    2015-01-01

    TGFβ signaling has been implicated in the metaplasia from squamous epithelia to Barrett's esophagus and, ultimately, esophageal adenocarcinoma. The role of the family member Activin A in Barrett's tumorigenesis is less well established. As tumorigenesis is influenced by factors in the tumor microenvironment, such as fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix, we aimed to determine if epithelial cell-derived Activin affects initiation and progression differently than Activin signaling stimulation from a mimicked stromal source. Using Barrett's esophagus cells, CPB, and the esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines OE33 and FLO-1, we showed that Activin reduces colony formation only in CPB cells. Epithelial cell overexpression of Activin increased cell migration and invasion in Boyden chamber assays in CPB and FLO-1 cells, which exhibited mesenchymal features such as the expression of the CD44 standard form, vimentin, and MT1-MMP. When grown in organotypic reconstructs, OE33 cells expressed E-cadherin and Keratin 8. As mesenchymal characteristics have been associated with the acquisition of stem cell-like features, we analyzed the expression and localization of SOX9, showing nuclear localization of SOX9 in esophageal CPB and FLO-1 cells. In conclusion, we show a role for autocrine Activin signaling in the regulation of colony formation, cell migration and invasion in Barrett's tumorigenesis. PMID:26447543

  11. Immunohistochemical localization of inhibin/activin subunits in the wild ground squirrel (Citellus dauricus Brandt) ovary.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xia; Weng, Jiaju; Zhang, Haolin; Li, Xiaonan; Zhang, Mengyuan; Xu, Meiyu; Weng, Qiang; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The intraovarian function of gonadally produced inhibin and activin has been extensively studied in experimental models for decades, yet their presence and function have been rarely reported in wild rodents. With our seasonal breeding model, the wild ground squirrel, we aimed to investigate the possible roles of these peptides in the seasonal folliculogenesis. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting have been used to detect the cellular localization and expression patterns of inhibin/activin subunits (α, β(A) and β(B)). In the breeding season ovary, all three subunits were present in granulosa cells, theca cells of antral follicles and interstitial cells, with the strongest immunostaining in granulosa cells. Following ovulation, the corpora lutea become a major site of inhibin/activin synthesis. In the nonbreeding season ovary, inhibin/activin α and β(A) subunits were weakly immunopositive in granulosa cells of early stage follicles, while β(B) subunit was undetectable. The expression level of inhibin/activin subunit proteins were generally higher in the ovaries of the breeding season, and then decreased to a relatively low level during the nonbreeding season. The dynamic expression of inhibin/activin subunits indicated that they might play important paracrine and/or autocrine roles during the seasonal folliculogenesis of the wild ground squirrel.

  12. Activin B promotes initiation and development of hair follicles in mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qin; Zhang, Min; Kong, Yanan; Chen, Shixuan; Chen, Yinghua; Wang, Xueer; Zhang, Lei; Lang, Weiya; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Activin B has been reported to promote the regeneration of hair follicles during wound healing. However, its role in the development and life cycle of hair follicles has not been elucidated. In our study, the effect of activin B on mouse hair follicles of cultured and neonatal mouse skin was investigated. In these models, PBS or activin B (5, 10 or 50 ng/ml) was applied, and hair follicle development was monitored. Hair follicle initiation and development was examined using hematoxylin and eosin staining, alkaline phosphatase activity staining, Oil Red O+ staining, and the detection of TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling cell apoptosis. Activin B was found to efficiently induce the initiation of hair follicles in the skin of both cultured and neonatal mice and to promote the development of hair follicles in neonatal mouse skin. Moreover, activin-B-treated hair follicles were observed to enter the anagen stage from the telogen stage and to remain in the anagen stage. These results demonstrate that activin B promotes the initiation and development of hair follicles in mice.

  13. Roles of Mac-1 and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa integrins in leukocyte-platelet aggregate formation: stabilization by Mac-1 and inhibition by GpIIb/IIIa blockers.

    PubMed

    Patko, Zsofia; Csaszar, Albert; Acsady, Gyorgy; Peter, Karlheinz; Schwarz, Meike

    2012-01-01

    Circulating platelet-leukocyte hetero-aggregates play an important role in acute cardiovascular events and hypersensitivity reactions. The association involves the receptor families of selectins and integrin. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of CD11b/CD18 integrin (Mac-1) in hetero-aggregate formation and search for a counter-receptor on platelets ready to interact with Mac-1. As a model of leukocytes, Mac-1 presenting Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were used to evaluate the role of Mac-1 in hetero-aggregate formation. The amount of CHO cell-bound active and inactive platelets was measured by flow cytometry, while the counter-receptors on platelets were identified via using blocking antibodies. We observed significant platelet adhesion on Mac-1-bearing cells when platelet-rich plasma or activated platelets were present. Inactive platelets did not adhere to Mac-1-bearing cells. Addition of fibrinogen, a ligand of Mac-1 significantly increased platelet binding. CD40L was demonstrated to act similarly on Mac-1. Inhibition of platelet GpIIb/IIIa completely abolished CHO cell-platelet aggregation. In our study, we have shown for the first time that Mac-1 mediates the formation of hetero-aggregates without selectin tethering when Mac-1 ligands such as fibrinogen or CD40L are present and blockers of platelet GpIIb/IIIa are able to diminish this interaction.

  14. The Ig-ITIM superfamily member PECAM-1 regulates the "outside-in" signaling properties of integrin alpha(IIb)beta3 in platelets.

    PubMed

    Wee, Janet L; Jackson, Denise E

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies have implicated the immunoglobulin (Ig)-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) superfamily member platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) in the regulation of integrin function. While PECAM-1 has been demonstrated to play a role as an inhibitory coreceptor of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-associated Fcgamma receptor IIa (FcgammaRIIa) and glycoprotein VI (GPVI)/FcR gamma-chain signaling pathways in platelets, its physiologic role in integrin alpha(IIb)beta3-mediated platelet function is unclear. In this study, we investigate the functional importance of PECAM-1 in murine platelets. Using PECAM-1-deficient mice, we show that the platelets have impaired "outside-in" integrin alpha(IIb)beta3 signaling with impaired platelet spreading on fibrinogen, failure to retract fibrin clots in vitro, and reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase p125 (125FAK) following integrin alpha(IIb)beta3-mediated platelet aggregation. This functional integrin alpha(IIb)beta3 defect could not be attributed to altered expression of integrin alpha(IIb)beta3. PECAM-1-/- platelets displayed normal platelet alpha granule secretion, normal platelet aggregation to protease-activated receptor-4 (PAR-4), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and calcium ionophore, and static platelet adhesion. In addition, PECAM-1-/- platelets displayed normal "inside-out" integrin alpha(IIb)beta3 signaling properties as demonstrated by normal agonist-induced binding of soluble fluoroscein isothiocyanate (FITC)-fibrinogen, JON/A antibody binding, and increases in cytosolic-free calcium and inositol (1,4,5)P3 triphosphate (IP3) levels. This study provides direct evidence that PECAM-1 is essential for normal integrin alpha(IIb)beta3-mediated platelet function and that disruption of PECAM-1 induced a moderate "outsidein" integrin alpha(IIb)beta3 signaling defect. PMID:16081692

  15. The CDF Run IIb Silicon Detector

    SciTech Connect

    M. Aoki; N. Bacchetta; S. Behari et al.

    2004-02-25

    Fermilab plans to deliver 5-15 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity to the CDF and D0 experiments. The current inner silicon detectors at CDF (SVXIIa and L00) will not tolerate the radiation dose associated with high luminosity running and will need to be replaced. A new readout chip (SVX4) has been designed in radiation-hard 0.25 {micro}m CMOS technology. Single sided sensors are arranged in a compact structure, called a stave, with integrated readout and cooling systems. This paper describes the general design of the Run IIb system, testing results of prototype electrical components (staves), and prototype silicon sensor performance before and after irradiation.

  16. Serum activin A and B, and follistatin in critically ill patients with influenza A(H1N1) infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Activin A and its binding protein follistatin (FS) are increased in inflammatory disorders and sepsis. Overexpression of activin A in the lung causes similar histopathological changes as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS and severe respiratory failure are complications of influenza A(H1N1) infection. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), which in experimental studies increases after activin A release, is known to be related to the severity of H1N1 infection. Our aim was to evaluate the levels of activin A, activin B, FS, IL-6 and IL-10 and their association with the severity of respiratory failure in critically ill H1N1 patients. Methods A substudy of a prospective, observational cohort of H1N1 patients in Finnish intensive care units (ICU). Clinical information was recorded during ICU treatment, and serum activin A, activin B, FS, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured at admission to ICU and on days 2 and 7. Results Blood samples from 29 patients were analysed. At the time of admission to intensive care unit, elevated serum levels above the normal range for respective age group and sex were observed in 44% for activin A, 57% for activin B, and 39% for FS. In 13 of the 29 patients, serial samples at all time points were available and in these the highest activin A, activin B and FS were above the normal range in 85%, 100% and 46% of the patients, respectively. No difference in baseline or highest activin A or activin B was found in patients with or without acute lung injury (ALI) or ARDS (P > 0.05 for all). Peak levels of IL-6 were significantly elevated in ALI/ARDS patients. Peak activin A and activin A/FS were associated with ventilatory support free-days, severity of acute illness and length of ICU stay (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusions Higher than normal values of these proteins were common in patients with H1N1 infection but we found no association with the severity of their respiratory failure. PMID:24885241

  17. Activin Modulates the Transcriptional Response of LβT2 Cells to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone and Alters Cellular Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Bailey, Janice S.; Coss, Djurdjica; Lin, Bo; Tsutsumi, Rie; Lawson, Mark A.; Mellon, Pamela L.; Webster, Nicholas J. G.

    2009-01-01

    Both GnRH and activin are crucial for the correct function of pituitary gonadotrope cells. GnRH regulates LH and FSH synthesis and secretion and gonadotrope proliferation, whereas activin is essential for expression of FSH. Little is known, however, about the interplay of signaling downstream of these two hormones. In this study, we undertook expression profiling to determine how activin pre-treatment alters the transcriptional response of LβT2 gonadotrope cells to GnRH stimulation. Activin treatment alone altered the transcriptional profile of 303 genes including inducing that of the 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase B1 gene that converts estrone to 17β-estradiol, altering the sensitivity of the cells to estrone. Furthermore, activin had a dramatic effect on the response of LβT2 cells to GnRH. Hierarchical clustering of 2453 GnRH-responsive genes identified groups of genes the response of which to GnRH was either enhanced or blunted after activin treatment. Mapping of these genes to gene ontology classifications or signaling pathways highlighted significant differences in the classes of altered genes. In the presence of activin, GnRH regulates genes in pathways controlling cell energetics, cytoskeletal rearrangements, organelle organization, and mitosis in the absence of activin, but genes controlling protein processing, cell differentiation, and secretion. Therefore, we demonstrated that activin enhanced GnRH induction of p38MAPK activity, caused GnRH-dependent phosphorylation of p53, and reduced the ability of GnRH to cause G1 arrest. Thus, although activin alone changes a modest number of transcripts, activin pretreatment dramatically alters the response to GnRH from an antiproliferative response to a more differentiated, synthetic response appropriate for a secretory cell. PMID:16772531

  18. [Platelet aggregation upon acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel treatment and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa content in patients with acute coronary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Khaspekova, S G; Ziuriaev, I T; Iakushkin, V V; Golubeva, N V; Ruda, M Ia; Mazurov, A V

    2011-01-01

    Interaction between aggregating activity of platelets and glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa (fibrinogen receptor) content on their surface was investigated in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Eighty nine ACS patients were included into the study - 69 with and 20 without elevation of ST segment. Blood was collected within the first hour of admission to the clinic (1 day), and then at 3-5 and 8-12 days. All patients received standard antiaggregant therapy - acetylsalicylic acid - ASA (thromboxane A2 synthesis inhibitor) and clopidogrel (ADP receptor antagonist). Platelet aggregation was analyzed at the first time point when patients had already taken ASA but not clopidogrel, and then (3-5 and 8- 12 days) upon combined therapy with both preparations. Aggregation was induced by 5 and 20 uM ADP and measured by turbidimetric method. In comparison with the initial level (1 day, ASA) at days 3-5, i.e. after development of clopidogrel effect, platelet aggregation was decreased by 54 and 40% upon its stimulation with 5 and 20 uM ADP, and was not further changed at days 8-12. GP IIb/IIIa content on platelet surface was determined by binding of 125I-labelled monoclonal antibody CRC64. GP IIb/IIIa number varied from 31100 to 73000 per platelet with the mean level of 48500 +/- 8400 (mean +/- standard deviation). No differences were detected between mean GP IIb/IIIa number at 1, 3-5 and 8-12 days after ACS onset. Upon repeat GP IIb/IIIa measurement coefficient of variation was 6.1% demonstrating the stability of this parameter in each patient. Positive correlation between platelet aggregation and GP IIb/IIIa content was detected at the first day - correlation coefficients (r) 0.425 and 0.470 for 5 and 20 uM ADP (n=57, p<0.001). However positive association between these parameters was not revealed at 3-5 and 8-12 days, when patients received not only ASA but clopidogrel as well (r from -0.054 to -0.237, p>0.05). These results indicates that variations of GP IIb/IIIa content

  19. Activin Signaling Targeted by Insulin/dFOXO Regulates Aging and Muscle Proteostasis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hua; Kang, Ping; Hernandez, Ana Maria; Tatar, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Reduced insulin/IGF signaling increases lifespan in many animals. To understand how insulin/IGF mediates lifespan in Drosophila, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing analysis with the insulin/IGF regulated transcription factor dFOXO in long-lived insulin/IGF signaling genotypes. Dawdle, an Activin ligand, is bound and repressed by dFOXO when reduced insulin/IGF extends lifespan. Reduced Activin signaling improves performance and protein homeostasis in muscles of aged flies. Activin signaling through the Smad binding element inhibits the transcription of Autophagy-specific gene 8a (Atg8a) within muscle, a factor controlling the rate of autophagy. Expression of Atg8a within muscle is sufficient to increase lifespan. These data reveal how insulin signaling can regulate aging through control of Activin signaling that in turn controls autophagy, representing a potentially conserved molecular basis for longevity assurance. While reduced Activin within muscle autonomously retards functional aging of this tissue, these effects in muscle also reduce secretion of insulin-like peptides at a distance from the brain. Reduced insulin secretion from the brain may subsequently reinforce longevity assurance through decreased systemic insulin/IGF signaling. PMID:24244197

  20. Xenopus axis formation: induction of goosecoid by injected Xwnt-8 and activin mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Steinbeisser, H; De Robertis, E M; Ku, M; Kessler, D S; Melton, D A

    1993-06-01

    In this study, we compare the effects of three mRNAs-goosecoid, activin and Xwnt-8- that are able to induce partial or complete secondary axes when injected into Xenopus embryos. Xwnt-8 injection produces complete secondary axes including head structures whereas activin and goosecoid injection produce partial secondary axes at high frequency that lack head structures anterior to the auditory vesicle and often lack notochord. Xwnt-8 can activate goosecoid only in the deep marginal zone, i.e., in the region in which this organizer-specific homeobox gene is normally expressed on the dorsal side. Activin B mRNA, however, can turn on goosecoid in all regions of the embryo. We also tested the capacity of these gene products to restore axis formation in embryos in which the cortical rotation was blocked by UV irradiation. Whereas Xwnt-8 gives complete rescue of anterior structures, both goosecoid and activin give partial rescue. Rescued axes including hindbrain structures up to level of the auditory vesicle can be obtained at high frequency even in the absence of notochord structures. The possible functions of Wnt-like and activin-like signals and of the goosecoid homeobox gene, and their order of action in the formation of Spemann's organizer are discussed. PMID:7900991

  1. Activin-like factor from a Xenopus laevis cell line responsible for mesoderm induction.

    PubMed

    van den Eijnden-Van Raaij, A J; van Zoelent, E J; van Nimmen, K; Koster, C H; Snoek, G T; Durston, A J; Huylebroeck, D

    1990-06-21

    Induction of mesoderm during early amphibian embryogenesis can be mimicked in vitro by adding growth factors, including heparin-binding and type-beta transforming growth factors (TGF-beta), to isolated ectoderm explants from Xenopus laevis embryos. Although the mesoderm-inducing factor (MIF) from X. laevis XTC cells (XTC-MIF) has properties similar to TGF-beta, this factor is still unidentified. Recently, we obtained a number of homogeneous cell lines from the heterogeneous XTC population, which differ in their MIF production. Only one, XTC-GTX-11, produced MIF, although it was similar to the rest of the clones in its production of known growth factors, including TGF-beta activity. This observation, together with the identification of activin A as a potent MIF led us to study the parallel activities of MIF and activin. Here we report an analysis of activin-like activity from XTC cells and some of the XTC clones, including XTC-GTX-11. There is a clear consistent correlation between MIF activity and presence of activin activity, indicating that XTC-MIF is the Xenopus homologue of mammalian activin.

  2. Activins and inhibins in mammalian testis development: new models, new insights.

    PubMed

    Barakat, B; Itman, C; Mendis, S H; Loveland, K L

    2012-08-15

    The discovery of activin and inhibins as modulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis has set the foundation for understanding their central importance to many facets of development and disease. This review contains an overview of the processes and cell types that are central to testis development and spermatogenesis and then provides an update focussed on information gathered over the past five years to address new concepts about how these proteins function to control testis development in fetal and juvenile life. Current knowledge about the interactive nature of the transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) superfamily signalling network is applied to recent findings about activins and inhibins in the testis. Information about the regulated synthesis of signalling components and signalling regulators in the testis is integrated with new concepts that demonstrate their functional significance. The importance of activin bioactivity levels or dosage in controlling balanced growth of spermatogonial cells and their niche at different stages of testis development is highlighted.

  3. Activin/Nodal signalling before implantation: setting the stage for embryo patterning

    PubMed Central

    Papanayotou, Costis; Collignon, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Activins and Nodal are members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family of growth factors. Their Smad2/3-dependent signalling pathway is well known for its implication in the patterning of the embryo after implantation. Although this pathway is active early on at preimplantation stages, embryonic phenotypes for loss-of-function mutations of prominent components of the pathway are not detected before implantation. It is only fairly recently that an understanding of the role of the Activin/Nodal signalling pathway at these stages has started to emerge, notably from studies detailing how it controls the expression of target genes in embryonic stem cells. We review here what is currently known of the TGF-β-related ligands that determine the activity of Activin/Nodal signalling at preimplantation stages, and recent advances in the elucidation of the Smad2/3-dependent mechanisms underlying developmental progression. PMID:25349448

  4. Activin/Nodal signalling before implantation: setting the stage for embryo patterning.

    PubMed

    Papanayotou, Costis; Collignon, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    Activins and Nodal are members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family of growth factors. Their Smad2/3-dependent signalling pathway is well known for its implication in the patterning of the embryo after implantation. Although this pathway is active early on at preimplantation stages, embryonic phenotypes for loss-of-function mutations of prominent components of the pathway are not detected before implantation. It is only fairly recently that an understanding of the role of the Activin/Nodal signalling pathway at these stages has started to emerge, notably from studies detailing how it controls the expression of target genes in embryonic stem cells. We review here what is currently known of the TGF-β-related ligands that determine the activity of Activin/Nodal signalling at preimplantation stages, and recent advances in the elucidation of the Smad2/3-dependent mechanisms underlying developmental progression.

  5. Low miR-143/miR-145 Cluster Levels Induce Activin A Overexpression in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, Which Contributes to Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Bufalino, Andreia; Cervigne, Nilva K.; de Oliveira, Carine Ervolino; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Rodrigues, Priscila Campioni; Macedo, Carolina Carneiro Soares; Sobral, Lays Martin; Miguel, Marcia Costa; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Lambert, Daniel W.; Salo, Tuula A.; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Graner, Edgard; Coletta, Ricardo D.

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated expression of activin A is reported in several tumors, but its biological functions in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are unknown. Here, we investigate whether activin A can play a causal role in OSCCs. Activin A expression was assessed by qPCR and immunohistochemistry in OSCC tissues. Low activin A-expressing cells were treated with recombinant activin A and assessed for apoptosis, proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Those phenotypes were also evaluated in high activin A-expressing cells treated with follistatin (an activin A antagonist) or stably expressing shRNA targeting activin A. Transfections of microRNA mimics were performed to determine whether the overexpression of activin A is regulated by miR-143/miR-145 cluster. Activin A was overexpressed in OSCCs in comparison with normal oral mucosa, and high activin A levels were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, tumor differentiation and poor survival. High activin A levels promoted multiple properties associated with malignant transformation, including decreased apoptosis and increased proliferation, migration, invasion and EMT. Both miR-143 and miR-145 were markedly downregulated in OSCC cell lines and in clinical specimens, and inversely correlated to activin A levels. Forced expression of miR-143 and miR-145 in OSCC cells significantly decreased the expression of activin A. Overexpression of activin A in OSCCs, which is controlled by downregulation of miR-143/miR-145 cluster, regulates apoptosis, proliferation and invasiveness, and it is clinically correlated with lymph node metastasis and poor survival. PMID:26317418

  6. N-DSK gamma-chain binds to immunoprecipitated GP IIb-IIIa

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsen, L.I.; Hessel, B.; Brosstad, F.; Gogstad, G.; Solum, N.O.

    1987-08-01

    The CNBr-split N-terminal disulphide knot of the fibrinogen molecule (N-DSK) binds to ADP-stimulated gel-filtered platelets and immunoprecipitated fibrinogen receptor. To investigate which part of the N-DSK molecule that is involved in this binding, the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex (the fibrinogen receptor) was immunoprecipitated in crossed immunoelectrophoresis of Triton X-100 extracts of platelets against rabbit antibodies to whole platelet proteins. The immunoelectrophoresis plates were incubated with solubilized, carboxymethylated /sup 125/I-labelled A alpha -, B beta - or gamma-chains of N-DSK, and investigated for binding by autoradiography. The N-DSK gamma-chain, but not the A alpha - or B beta -chains demonstrated binding to the GP IIb-IIIa complex. These results show that the fibrinogen molecule contains a third sequence of amino acids, in addition to the two previously reported ones that can be involved in binding of fibrinogen to the fibrinogen receptor on the platelets.

  7. Platelet Inhibitors in Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors, Clopidogrel, or Both?

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Matthew A; Donovan, Jennifer L; Gandhi, Pritesh J; Volturo, Gregory A

    2006-01-01

    The role of glycoprotein (Gp) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists remains controversial and these agents are infrequently utilized during non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) despite American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines. Despite recommendations, the NRMI-4 (National Registry of Myocardial Infarction 4) and CRUSADE (Can rapid risk stratification of unstable angina patients suppress adverse outcomes with early implementation of the ACC/AHA guidelines?) registries observed that only 25%–32% of eligible patients received early Gp IIb/IIIa therapy, despite a 6.3% absolute mortality reduction in NRMI-4 and a 2% absolute mortality reduction in CRUSADE. A pooled analysis of Gp IIb/IIIa data from these registries suggest a major reduction in mortality (Odds Ratio = 0.43, 95% Confidence Index 0.25–0.74, p = 0.002) with early Gp IIb/IIIa therapy, yet clinicians fail to utilize this option in NSTE-ACS. The evidence-based approach to NSTE-ACS involves aspirin, clopidogrel, low-molecular weight heparins, or unfractionated heparin in concert with Gp IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists, however, newer percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-based trials challenge current recommendations. Novel strategies emerging in NSTE-ACS include omitting Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitors altogether or using Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitors with higher doses of clopidogrel in selected patients. The ISAR-REACT (Intracoronary stenting and antithrombotic regimen–Rapid early action for coronary treatment) and ISAR-SWEET (ISAR–Is abciximab a superior way to eliminate elevated thrombotic risk in diabetics) trials question the value of abciximab when 600 mg of clopidogrel concurrently administered during PCI. The CLEAR-PLATELETS (Clopidogrel loading with eptifibatide to arrest the reactivity of platelets) and PEACE (Platelet activity extinction in non-Q-wave MI with ASA, clopidogrel, and eptifibatide) trials suggest more durable platelet inhibition when Gp IIb

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of serum activin A in detection of ectopic pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Roghaei, Mohammad Ali; Sabet, Fahimeh; Mohamadi, Keivan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ectopic pregnancy (EP) still remains a main cause of maternal mortalities. This study is designed to evaluate the accuracy of serum Activin A in detection of ectopic pregnancy. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted from 2009 to 2010 at two main referral university hospitals, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Two hundred subjects who were under 10 week's pregnancy with clinical presentations of abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding were enrolled. After sampling serum Activin A, patients underwent ultrasonography, titer of B-HCG and surgery (if indicated) and were divided into two groups: EP (n = 100) and intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) (n = 100). The mean of Activin A was compared between groups and by ROC curve, the optimal cut off with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were determined. Results: The mean age of women with IUP was 25.4 ± 4.3 years (15-40 years) compared with 25.9 ± 4.1 years in women in EP group (P = 0.448). Statistical difference was not found between EP versus IUP groups in gestational age (6.32 ± 1.03 vs. 6.85 ± 1.82 weeks, P = 0.124). The mean of serum Activin A in EP group was 0.264 ± 0.0703 ng/ml versus 0.949 ± 0.5283 ng/ml in IUP group (P < 0.05). According to ROC curve (area under the curve = 0.981, P < 0.05, confidence interval: 0.961-1.000), the optimal cut off was estimated as 0.504 ng/ml with sensitivity of 97% and specificity of 93.5%. Conclusion: This study indicated that the mean of serum Activin A is lower in EP compared with IUP. The serum Activin A has a fair accuracy in detecting EP. PMID:23267401

  9. TYPE IIb SUPERNOVAE WITH COMPACT AND EXTENDED PROGENITORS

    SciTech Connect

    Chevalier, Roger A.; Soderberg, Alicia M.

    2010-03-01

    The classic example of a Type IIb supernova is SN 1993J, which had a cool extended progenitor surrounded by a dense wind. There is evidence for another category of Type IIb supernova that has a more compact progenitor with a lower density, probably fast, wind. Distinguishing features of the compact category are weak optical emission from the shock heated envelope at early times, nonexistent or very weak H emission in the late nebular phase, rapidly evolving radio emission, rapid expansion of the radio shell, and expected nonthermal as opposed to thermal X-ray emission. Type IIb supernovae that have one or more of these features include SNe 1996cb, 2001ig, 2003bg, 2008ax, and 2008bo. All of these with sufficient radio data (the last four) show evidence for presupernova wind variability. We estimate a progenitor envelope radius {approx}1 x 10{sup 11} cm for SN 2008ax, a value consistent with a compact Wolf-Rayet progenitor. Supernovae in the SN 1993J extended category include SN 2001gd and probably the Cas A supernova. We suggest that the compact Type IIb events be designated Type cIIb and the extended ones Type eIIb. The H envelope mass dividing these categories is {approx}0.1 M {sub sun}.

  10. Regulation of the activin-inhibin-follistatin system by bone morphogenetic proteins in the zebrafish ovary.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheuk Wun; Ge, Wei

    2013-09-01

    In the zebrafish, the dynamic expression of the activin-inhibin-follistatin system during folliculogenesis and its exclusive localization (except follistatin) in follicle cells suggests that the system plays important roles in follicle development and that its expression is subject to tight controls, probably by external factors including those derived from the oocyte. We have previously identified zebrafish bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) as oocyte factors that may act on follicle cells; however, the targets of BMPs in the follicle cells remain unknown. Considering their spatiotemporal expression in the follicle, we hypothesized that members of the activin-inhibin-follistatin system in follicle cells could be potential target genes of BMPs. In the present study, we developed a novel coculture system to co-incubate zebrafish bone morphogenetic protein 2b or 4 (zfBMP2b/4)-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with zebrafish follicle cells. During incubation, the zfBMPs secreted from the CHO cells would act directly on the follicle cells in a paracrine manner. Our results showed that all activin beta subunits (inhbaa, inhbab, and inhbb) were down-regulated by both zfBMP2b and zfBMP4, while follistatin (fst, an activin-binding protein) and inhibin alpha (inha, an activin antagonist) were significantly up-regulated. The specificity of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) actions was confirmed by short interfering RNA knockdown of zfBMP4 expression in the CHO cells. The robust response of inha to zfBMPs, together with our previous observation that inha expression surged at the full-grown stage prior to oocyte maturation, led us to hypothesize that the full-grown oocyte may signal upper levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis its readiness to mature by releasing BMPs, which in turn stimulate inhibin production. As an ovarian hormone and activin antagonist, inhibin may suppress the action of activin in the pituitary to reduce follicle-stimulating hormone

  11. Ramipril attenuates left ventricular remodeling by regulating the expression of activin A-follistatin in a rat model of heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qun; Liu, Haiyan; Liu, Miao; Yang, Chunyan; Yang, Jie; Liu, Zhonghui; Yang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that overexpression of ACT A can lead to ventricular remodeling in rat models of heart failure. Furthermore, recently work studying demonstrated that stimulation of activin An expression in rat aortic smooth muscle (RASM) cells by angiotensin II (Ang II). Ramipril is a recently developed angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. To investigate the effects of Ramipril on expression of ACT A-FS, we established the rat model of heart failure after myocardial infarction (MI), and divided into either a sham operation (SO), MI, or MI-Ramipril group. We found that Ramipril significantly attenuates collagen-I and III deposition (col-I and III). Notably, we determined that expression of ACT A and II activin receptor (ActRII) were significantly down-regulated in the non-infarcted area of the left ventricle in the Ramipril group, whereas the mRNA and protein levels of FS were markedly up-regulated. Our data suggested that Ramipril benefited left ventricular remodeling by reducing fibrosis and collagen accumulation in the left ventricle of rats after myocardial infarction. This observation was also associated with down-regulation of ACT A expression. This study elucidated a new protective mechanism of Ramipril and suggests a novel strategy for treatment of post-infarct remodeling and subsequent heart failure. PMID:27642098

  12. Ramipril attenuates left ventricular remodeling by regulating the expression of activin A-follistatin in a rat model of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qun; Liu, Haiyan; Liu, Miao; Yang, Chunyan; Yang, Jie; Liu, Zhonghui; Yang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that overexpression of ACT A can lead to ventricular remodeling in rat models of heart failure. Furthermore, recently work studying demonstrated that stimulation of activin An expression in rat aortic smooth muscle (RASM) cells by angiotensin II (Ang II). Ramipril is a recently developed angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. To investigate the effects of Ramipril on expression of ACT A-FS, we established the rat model of heart failure after myocardial infarction (MI), and divided into either a sham operation (SO), MI, or MI-Ramipril group. We found that Ramipril significantly attenuates collagen-I and III deposition (col-I and III). Notably, we determined that expression of ACT A and II activin receptor (ActRII) were significantly down-regulated in the non-infarcted area of the left ventricle in the Ramipril group, whereas the mRNA and protein levels of FS were markedly up-regulated. Our data suggested that Ramipril benefited left ventricular remodeling by reducing fibrosis and collagen accumulation in the left ventricle of rats after myocardial infarction. This observation was also associated with down-regulation of ACT A expression. This study elucidated a new protective mechanism of Ramipril and suggests a novel strategy for treatment of post-infarct remodeling and subsequent heart failure. PMID:27642098

  13. [Molecular cloning of the DNA sequence of activin beta A subunit gene mature peptides from panda and related species and its application in the research of phylogeny and taxonomy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Ya-Jun; Wang, Xi-Zhong; He, Guang-Xin; Chen, Hong-Wei; Fei, Li-Song

    2002-09-01

    Activin, which is included in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) superfamily of proteins and receptors, is known to have broad-ranging effects in the creatures. The mature peptide of beta A subunit of this gene, one of the most highly conserved sequence, can elevate the basal secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the pituitary and FSH is pivotal to organism's reproduction. Reproduction block is one of the main reasons which cause giant panda to extinct. The sequence of Activin beta A subunit gene mature peptides has been successfully amplified from giant panda, red panda and malayan sun bear's genomic DNA by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a pair of degenerate primers. The PCR products were cloned into the vector pBlueScript+ of Esherichia coli. Sequence analysis of Activin beta A subunit gene mature peptides shows that the length of this gene segment is the same (359 bp) and there is no intron in all three species. The sequence encodes a peptide of 119 amino acid residues. The homology comparison demonstrates 93.9% DNA homology and 99% homology in amino acid among these three species. Both GenBank blast search result and restriction enzyme map reveal that the sequences of Activin beta A subunit gene mature peptides of different species are highly conserved during the evolution process. Phylogeny analysis is performed with PHYLIP software package. A consistent phylogeny tree has been drawn with three different methods. The software analysis outcome accords with the academic view that giant panda has a closer relationship to the malayan sun bear than the red panda. Giant panda should be grouped into the bear family (Uersidae) with the malayan sun bear. As to the red panda, it would be better that this animal be grouped into the unique family (red panda family) because of great difference between the red panda and the bears (Uersidae).

  14. Activin B promotes BMSC-mediated cutaneous wound healing by regulating cell migration via the JNK-ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Sun, Li; Wang, Xueer; Chen, Shixuan; Kong, Yanan; Liu, Nuyun; Chen, Yinghua; Jia, Qin; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are able to differentiate into various types of skin cells and participate in skin regeneration and repair. Activin signaling can regulate wound healing and reepithelialization. The present study assessed the impact of activin B on BMSC-mediated cutaneous wound healing in rats and explored the possible mechanism involved. We found that CFSE-labeled BMSCs participated in wound healing in vivo, and compared to administration with PBS, activin B, or BMSCs, activin B plus BMSCs significantly promoted wound healing and hair follicle regeneration. Activin B induced actin stress fiber formation and cell migration in BMSCs in vitro. Activation of JNK and ERK, but not p38, was required for activin B-induced actin stress fiber formation and BMSC migration. These results show that activin B may promote BMSC-mediated wound healing by inducing actin stress fiber formation and BMSC migration via the ERK and JNK signal pathways. Combined administration of BMSCs and cytokines may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the management of skin wounds.

  15. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulates activin A production to fine-tune osteoblast-induced mineralization.

    PubMed

    Woeckel, V J; van der Eerden, B C J; Schreuders-Koedam, M; Eijken, M; Van Leeuwen, J P T M

    2013-11-01

    In healthy bones, mineralization has to be tightly controlled to avoid pathological phenotypes. In this study, we investigated interactions between 1α,25(OH)2 D3 (1,25D3) and activin A in the regulation of osteoblast induced mineralization. In human osteoblast cultures, we demonstrated that besides stimulation of mineralization, 1,25D3 also induced activin A, a strong inhibitor of mineralization. Simultaneously, follistatin (FST), the natural antagonist of activin A, was down-regulated by1,25D3. This resulted in an increase in activin A activity during 1,25D3 treatment. We also showed that in 1,25D3-treated osteoblasts, mineralization can be further increased when activin A activity was abrogated by adding exogenous FST. This observation implies that, besides stimulation of mineralization, 1,25D3 also controls activin A-mediated inhibition of mineralization. Besides activin A, 1,25D3 also induces osteocalcin (BGLAP), another inhibitor of mineralization. Warfarin, which has been shown to inactivate osteocalcin, increased 1,25D3-induced mineralization. Interaction between these two systems became evident from the synergistic increase in BGLAP expression upon blocking activin activity in 1,25D3-treated cultures. In conclusion, we demonstrate that 1,25D3 stimulation of mineralization by human osteoblasts is suppressed by concomitant induction of inhibitors of mineralization. Mineralization induction by 1,25D3 may actually be controlled via interplay with activin A and osteocalcin. Finally, this complex regulation of mineralization substantiates the significance of tight control of mineralization to prevent excessive mineralization and consequently reduction in bone quality and strength.

  16. Gauge fluxes in F-theory and type IIB orientifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Sven; Mayrhofer, Christoph; Weigand, Timo

    2012-08-01

    We provide a detailed correspondence between G 4 gauge fluxes in F-theory compactifications with SU( n) and SU( n) × U(1) gauge symmetry and their Type IIB orientifold limit. Based on the resolution of the relevant F-theory Tate models, we classify the factorisable G 4-fluxes and match them with the set of universal D5-tadpole free U(1)-fluxes in Type IIB. Where available, the global version of the universal spectral cover flux corresponds to Type IIB gauge flux associated with a massive diagonal U(1). In U(1)-restricted Tate models extra massless abelian fluxes exist which are associated with specific linear combinations of Type IIB fluxes. Key to a quantitative match between F-theory and Type IIB is a proper treatment of the conifold singularity encountered in the Sen limit of generic F-theory models. We also shed further light on the brane recombination process relating generic and U(1)-restricted Tate models.

  17. Serological analysis and characterization of calf thymus ribonuclease H IIb.

    PubMed

    Vonwirth, H; Frank, P; Büsen, W

    1989-09-15

    Ribonuclease H IIb, which seems to play a physiological role during transcription, was purified from calf thymus tissue. A polyclonal antibody, raised against the most purified ribonuclease H IIb fraction, recognizes in crude extracts almost exclusively a 52-kDa protein band. By immunoaffinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation experiments, we are able to deplete enzyme extracts from the crossreacting 52-kDa protein band and from ribonuclease H IIb activity. Enzyme activity is eluted from the immunoaffinity matrix in association with a 52-kDa protein under denaturing conditions. Immunoaffinity chromatography enables us also to calculate a purification factor of around 20,000 from the crude extract. The native molecular mass for the enzyme of around 45 kDa, as determined by gel filtration, suggests that calf thymus ribonuclease H IIb is most probably monomeric. The enzyme possesses an isoelectric point of 7.0. It requires Mg2+ ions for activity, is inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide, and exhibits a pH optimum of 9.0-9.5. The enzyme releases oligoribonucleotides with 3'-OH and 5'-phosphate ends, probably in an exonucleolytical manner. The third largest subunit of yeast RNA polymerase A (I) displays ribonuclease H activity [Huet et al. (1976) Nature 261, 431-433]. We discuss our findings in the light of a possible association of ribonuclease H IIb and RNA polymerase A (I) in higher eukaryotes.

  18. Serum Activin A and Follistatin Levels in Gestational Diabetes and the Association of the Activin A-Follistatin System with Anthropometric Parameters in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Näf, Silvia; Escote, Xavier; Ballesteros, Mónica; Yañez, Rosa Elena; Simón-Muela, Inmaculada; Gil, Pilar; Albaiges, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Context The Activin A-Follistatin system has emerged as an important regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism with possible repercussions on fetal growth. Objective To analyze circulating activin A, follistatin and follistatin-like-3 (FSTL3) levels and their relationship with glucose metabolism in pregnant women and their influence on fetal growth and neonatal adiposity. Design and methods A prospective cohort was studied comprising 207 pregnant women, 129 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 78 with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and their offspring. Activin A, follistatin and FSTL3 levels were measured in maternal serum collected in the early third trimester of pregnancy. Serial fetal ultrasounds were performed during the third trimester to evaluate fetal growth. Neonatal anthropometry was measured to assess neonatal adiposity. Results Serum follistatin levels were significantly lower in GDM than in NGT pregnant women (8.21±2.32 ng/mL vs 9.22±3.41, P = 0.012) whereas serum FSTL3 and activin A levels were comparable between the two groups. Serum follistatin concentrations were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR and positively with ultrasound growth parameters such as fractional thigh volume estimation in the middle of the third trimester and percent fat mass at birth. Also, in the stepwise multiple linear regression analysis serum follistatin levels were negatively associated with HOMA-IR (β = −0.199, P = 0.008) and the diagnosis of gestational diabetes (β = −0.138, P = 0.049). Likewise, fractional thigh volume estimation in the middle of third trimester and percent fat mass at birth were positively determined by serum follistatin levels (β = 0.214, P = 0.005 and β = 0.231, P = 0.002, respectively). Conclusions Circulating follistatin levels are reduced in GDM compared with NGT pregnant women and they are positively associated with fetal growth and neonatal adiposity. These data suggest a role of the Activin

  19. FGF9, activin and TGFβ promote testicular characteristics in an XX gonad organ culture model.

    PubMed

    Gustin, Sonja E; Stringer, Jessica M; Hogg, Kirsten; Sinclair, Andrew H; Western, Patrick S

    2016-11-01

    Testis development is dependent on the key sex-determining factors SRY and SOX9, which activate the essential ligand FGF9. Although FGF9 plays a central role in testis development, it is unable to induce testis formation on its own. However, other growth factors, including activins and TGFβs, also present testis during testis formation. In this study, we investigated the potential of FGF9 combined with activin and TGFβ to induce testis development in cultured XX gonads. Our data demonstrated differing individual and combined abilities of FGF9, activin and TGFβ to promote supporting cell proliferation, Sertoli cell development and male germ line differentiation in cultured XX gonads. FGF9 promoted proliferation of supporting cells in XX foetal gonads at rates similar to those observed in vivo during testis cord formation in XY gonads but was insufficient to initiate testis development. However, when FGF9, activin and TGFβ were combined, aspects of testicular development were induced, including the expression of Sox9, morphological reorganisation of the gonad and deposition of laminin around germ cells. Enhancing β-catenin activity diminished the testis-promoting activities of the combined growth factors. The male promoting activity of FGF9 and the combined growth factors directly or indirectly extended to the germ line, in which a mixed phenotype was observed. FGF9 and the combined growth factors promoted male germ line development, including mitotic arrest, but expression of pluripotency genes was maintained, rather than being repressed. Together, our data provide evidence that combined signalling by FGF9, activin and TGFβ can induce testicular characteristics in XX gonads.

  20. FGF9, activin and TGFβ promote testicular characteristics in an XX gonad organ culture model.

    PubMed

    Gustin, Sonja E; Stringer, Jessica M; Hogg, Kirsten; Sinclair, Andrew H; Western, Patrick S

    2016-11-01

    Testis development is dependent on the key sex-determining factors SRY and SOX9, which activate the essential ligand FGF9. Although FGF9 plays a central role in testis development, it is unable to induce testis formation on its own. However, other growth factors, including activins and TGFβs, also present testis during testis formation. In this study, we investigated the potential of FGF9 combined with activin and TGFβ to induce testis development in cultured XX gonads. Our data demonstrated differing individual and combined abilities of FGF9, activin and TGFβ to promote supporting cell proliferation, Sertoli cell development and male germ line differentiation in cultured XX gonads. FGF9 promoted proliferation of supporting cells in XX foetal gonads at rates similar to those observed in vivo during testis cord formation in XY gonads but was insufficient to initiate testis development. However, when FGF9, activin and TGFβ were combined, aspects of testicular development were induced, including the expression of Sox9, morphological reorganisation of the gonad and deposition of laminin around germ cells. Enhancing β-catenin activity diminished the testis-promoting activities of the combined growth factors. The male promoting activity of FGF9 and the combined growth factors directly or indirectly extended to the germ line, in which a mixed phenotype was observed. FGF9 and the combined growth factors promoted male germ line development, including mitotic arrest, but expression of pluripotency genes was maintained, rather than being repressed. Together, our data provide evidence that combined signalling by FGF9, activin and TGFβ can induce testicular characteristics in XX gonads. PMID:27495231

  1. The CDF Run IIb Silicon Detector: Design, preproduction, and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, T.; Aoki, M.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Behari, S.; Benjamin, D.; Bisello, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Burghard, A.; Busetto, G.; Cabrera, S.; Canepa, A.; Cardoso, G.; Chertok, M.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Derylo, G.; Fang, I.; Feng, E. J.; Fernandez, J. P.; Flaugher, B.; Freeman, J.; Galtieri, L.; Galyardt, J.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Gorelov, I.; Haber, C.; Hale, D.; Hara, K.; Harr, R.; Hill, C.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Hoff, J.; Holbrook, B.; Hong, S. C.; Hrycyk, M.; Hsiung, T. H.; Incandela, J.; Jeon, E. J.; Joo, K. K.; Junk, T.; Kahkola, H.; Karjalainen, S.; Kim, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Kong, D. J.; Krieger, B.; Kruse, M.; Kuznetsova, N.; Kyre, S.; Lander, R.; Landry, T.; Lauhakangas, R.; Lee, J.; Lu, R.-S.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Mandelli, E.; Manea, C.; Maksimovic, P.; Merkel, P.; Min, S. N.; Moccia, S.; Nakano, I.; Naoumov, D.; Nelson, T.; Nord, B.; Novak, J.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Orlov, Y.; Osterberg, K.; Pantano, D.; Pavlicek, V.; Pellett, D.; Pursley, J.; Riipinen, P.; Schuyler, B.; Seidel, S.; Shenai, A.; Soha, A.; Stuart, D.; Tanaka, R.; Tavi, M.; Von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, Z.; Watje, P.; Weber, Marc; Wester, W.; Yamamoto, K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.; Yao, W.; Yarema, R.; Yun, J. C.; Zetti, F.; Zimmerman, T.; Zimmermann, S.; Zucchelli, S.

    2006-01-01

    A new silicon microstrip detector was designed by the CDF collaboration for the proposed high-luminosity operation of the Tevatron pp¯ collider (Run IIb). The detector is radiation-tolerant and will still be functional after exposure to particle fluences of 1014 1-MeV equivalent neutrons/cm2 and radiation doses of 20 MRad. The detector will maintain or exceed the performance of the current CDF silicon detector throughout Run IIb. It is based on an innovative silicon "supermodule" design. Critical detector components like the custom radiation-hard SVX4 readout chip, the beryllia hybrids and mini-port (repeater) cards, and the silicon sensors fulfill their specifications and were produced with high yields. The design goals and solutions of the CDF Run IIb silicon detector are described, and the performance of preproduction modules is presented in detail. Results relevant for the development of future silicon systems are emphasized.

  2. ActivinB Is Induced in Insulinoma To Promote Tumor Plasticity through a β-Cell-Induced Dedifferentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ripoche, Doriane; Charbord, Jérémie; Hennino, Ana; Teinturier, Romain; Bonnavion, Rémy; Jaafar, Rami; Goehrig, Delphine; Cordier-Bussat, Martine; Ritvos, Olli; Zhang, Chang X.; Andersson, Olov

    2015-01-01

    Loss of pancreatic β-cell maturity occurs in diabetes and insulinomas. Although both physiological and pathological stresses are known to promote β-cell dedifferentiation, little is known about the molecules involved in this process. Here we demonstrate that activinB, a transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-related ligand, is upregulated during tumorigenesis and drives the loss of insulin expression and β-cell maturity in a mouse insulinoma model. Our data further identify Pax4 as a previously unknown activinB target and potent contributor to the observed β-cell dedifferentiation. More importantly, using compound mutant mice, we found that deleting activinB expression abolishes tumor β-cell dedifferentiation and, surprisingly, increases survival without significantly affecting tumor growth. Hence, this work reveals an unexpected role for activinB in the loss of β-cell maturity, islet plasticity, and progression of insulinoma through its participation in β-cell dedifferentiation. PMID:26711255

  3. Platelet Activation and Thrombus Formation over IgG Immune Complexes Requires Integrin αIIbβ3 and Lyn Kinase.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Huiying; Dai, Jing; Liu, Junling; Zhu, Jieqing; Newman, Debra K; Gao, Cunji; Newman, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    IgG immune complexes contribute to the etiology and pathogenesis of numerous autoimmune disorders, including heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid- and collagen-induced arthritis, and chronic glomerulonephritis. Patients suffering from immune complex-related disorders are known to be susceptible to platelet-mediated thrombotic events. Though the role of the Fc receptor, FcγRIIa, in initiating platelet activation is well understood, the role of the major platelet adhesion receptor, integrin αIIbβ3, in amplifying platelet activation and mediating adhesion and aggregation downstream of encountering IgG immune complexes is poorly understood. The goal of this investigation was to gain a better understanding of the relative roles of these two receptor systems in immune complex-mediated thrombotic complications. Human platelets, and mouse platelets genetically engineered to differentially express FcγRIIa and αIIbβ3, were allowed to interact with IgG-coated surfaces under both static and flow conditions, and their ability to spread and form thrombi evaluated in the presence and absence of clinically-used fibrinogen receptor antagonists. Although binding of IgG immune complexes to FcγRIIa was sufficient for platelet adhesion and initial signal transduction events, platelet spreading and thrombus formation over IgG-coated surfaces showed an absolute requirement for αIIbβ3 and its ligands. Tyrosine kinases Lyn and Syk were found to play key roles in IgG-induced platelet activation events. Taken together, our data suggest a complex functional interplay between FcγRIIa, Lyn, and αIIbβ3 in immune complex-induced platelet activation. Future studies may be warranted to determine whether patients suffering from immune complex disorders might benefit from treatment with anti-αIIbβ3-directed therapeutics.

  4. High circulating activin A level is associated with tumor progression and predicts poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hoda, Mir Alireza; Rozsas, Anita; Lang, Elisabeth; Klikovits, Thomas; Lohinai, Zoltan; Torok, Szilvia; Berta, Judit; Bendek, Matyas; Berger, Walter; Hegedus, Balazs; Klepetko, Walter; Renyi-Vamos, Ferenc; Grusch, Michael; Dome, Balazs; Laszlo, Viktoria

    2016-01-01

    Activin A (ActA)/follistatin (FST) signaling has been shown to be deregulated in different tumor types including lung adenocarcinoma (LADC). Here, we report that serum ActA protein levels are significantly elevated in LADC patients (n=64) as compared to controls (n=46, p=0.015). ActA levels also correlated with more advanced disease stage (p<0.0001) and T (p=0.0035) and N (p=0.0002) factors. M1 patients had significantly higher ActA levels than M0 patients (p<0.001). High serum ActA level was associated with poor overall survival (p<0.0001) and was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor (p=0.004). Serum FST levels were increased only in female LADC patients (vs. female controls, p=0.031). Two out of five LADC cell lines secreted biologically active ActA, while FST was produced in all of them. Transcripts of both type I and II ActA receptors were detected in all five LADC cell lines. In conclusion, our study does not only suggest that measuring blood ActA levels in LADC patients might improve the prediction of prognosis, but also indicates that this parameter might be a novel non-invasive biomarker for identifying LADC patients with organ metastases. PMID:26950277

  5. Exogenous supplementation of Activin A enhances germ cell differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Duggal, Galbha; Heindryckx, Björn; Warrier, Sharat; Taelman, Jasin; Van der Jeught, Margot; Deforce, Dieter; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana; De Sutter, Petra

    2015-05-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) derived in the presence of Activin A (ActA) demonstrate an increased differentiation propensity toward the germ cell lineage. In addition, mouse epiblast stem cells and mouse epiblast-like cells are poised toward germ cell differentiation and are derived in the presence of ActA. We therefore investigated whether supplementation with ActA enhances in vitro hESC differentiation toward germ cell lineage. ActA up-regulated early primordial germ cell (PGC) genes STELLA/DPPA3 (developmental pluripotency associated 3) and tyrosine kinase receptor cKIT in both ActA-derived and standard-derived hESCs indicating its role in priming hESCs toward the PGC lineage. Indeed, ActA plus bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) strongly increased germ cell differentiation potential of hESCs based on the high expression of late PGC markers DAZL (deleted in azoospermia-like) and VASA/DDX4 (DEAD-box polypeptide 4) at mRNA and protein level. Hence, the combination of ActA with BMP4 provides an additional boost for hESCs to develop into postmigratory germ cells. Together with increased VASA expression in the presence of ActA and BMP4, we also observed up-regulation of endoderm-specific genes GATA4 (GATA binding protein 4) and GATA6. Finally, we were able to further mature these in vitro-derived PGC-like cells (PGCLCs) by culturing them in in vitro maturation (IVM) medium, resulting in the formation of germ cell-like clusters and induction of meiotic gene expression. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time a synergism between ActA and BMP4 in facilitating germ cell-directed differentiation of hESCs, which is enhanced by extended culture in IVM medium, as shown by cytoplasmic VASA-expressing PGCLCs. We propose a novel relationship between the endoderm and germ cell lineage during hESC differentiation.

  6. [Molecular cloning of activin betaA subunit mature peptide from peafowl and its application in taxonomy and phylogeny].

    PubMed

    Zou, Fang-Dong; Tong, Xin-Xin; Yue, Bi-Song

    2005-03-01

    The sequences of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptide have been amplified from white peafowl, blue peafowl (pavo cristatus) and green peafowl (pavo muticus) genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a pair of degenerate primers. The target fragments were cloned into the vector pMD18-T and sequenced. The length of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptide is 345bp, which encoded a peptide of 115 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptide demonstrated that the identity of nucleotide is 98.0% between blue peaflowl and green peafowl, and the identity of that is 98.8% between blue peaflowl and white peafow. Sequences comparison in NCBI revealed that the sequences of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptides of different species are highly conserved during evolution process. In addition, the restriction enzyme map of activins is high similar between white peafowl and blue peafowl. Phylogenetic tree was constructed with Mega 2 and Clustalxldx software. The result showed that white peafowl has a closer relationship to blue peafowl than to green peafowl. Considered the nucleotide differences of peafowls' activin gene betaA subunit mature peptides, a highly conserved region, we supported that white peafowl was derived from blue peafowl, and it is more possible the hybrid but just the product of color mutation, or maybe as a subspecies of Pavo genus.

  7. Blood cell induction in Xenopus animal cap explants: effects of fibroblast growth factor, bone morphogenetic proteins, and activin.

    PubMed

    Miyanaga, Y; Shiurba, R; Asashima, M

    1999-02-01

    Cultures of Xenopus blastula animal caps were used to explore the haematopoietic effects of three candidate inducers of mesoderm: basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and activin A. In response to either bFGF or activin A, explants expanded into egg-shaped structures, and beneath an outer layer of epidermis, a ventral mesodermal lining surrounded a fluid-filled cavity containing "blood-like cells". Immunocytochemistry identified some of these cells as early leukocytes, but erythrocytes were rare. BMP-2 or BMP-4 induced primitive erythrocytes as well as leukocytes, and a high concentration was required for these cells to differentiate in only a small proportion of explants. BMP-2 but not BMP-4 induced ventral mesoderm concomitantly. High concentrations of activin A dorsalized explants, which contained infrequent leukocytes, and an optimal combination of activin A and bFGF caused differentiation of muscle with few blood cells. By contrast, BMP-2 or BMP-4 plus activin A synergistically increased the numbers of both leukocytes and erythrocytes. Explants treated with BMPs plus activin contained a well organized cell mass in which yolk-rich cells mixed with blood cells and pigmented cells did not. BMP-2 plus bFGF also induced numerous leukocytes and fewer erythrocytes, but BMP-4 antagonized the leukopoietic effect of bFGF. The data suggest that the signalling pathways these three factors use to induce leukopoiesis overlap and that erythropoiesis may be activated when inducers are present in combination.

  8. [Molecular cloning of activin betaA subunit mature peptide from peafowl and its application in taxonomy and phylogeny].

    PubMed

    Zou, Fang-Dong; Tong, Xin-Xin; Yue, Bi-Song

    2005-03-01

    The sequences of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptide have been amplified from white peafowl, blue peafowl (pavo cristatus) and green peafowl (pavo muticus) genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a pair of degenerate primers. The target fragments were cloned into the vector pMD18-T and sequenced. The length of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptide is 345bp, which encoded a peptide of 115 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptide demonstrated that the identity of nucleotide is 98.0% between blue peaflowl and green peafowl, and the identity of that is 98.8% between blue peaflowl and white peafow. Sequences comparison in NCBI revealed that the sequences of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptides of different species are highly conserved during evolution process. In addition, the restriction enzyme map of activins is high similar between white peafowl and blue peafowl. Phylogenetic tree was constructed with Mega 2 and Clustalxldx software. The result showed that white peafowl has a closer relationship to blue peafowl than to green peafowl. Considered the nucleotide differences of peafowls' activin gene betaA subunit mature peptides, a highly conserved region, we supported that white peafowl was derived from blue peafowl, and it is more possible the hybrid but just the product of color mutation, or maybe as a subspecies of Pavo genus. PMID:15843351

  9. [The survivability of patients with cervical cancer of IIB stage].

    PubMed

    Kryzhanivs'ka, A Ie; Diakiv, I B

    2014-01-01

    To the present tense finally mine-out not tactic of treatment of patients with the cervical cancer (CC) of IIB stage, but in the standards of diagnostics and treatment there are different variants of treatment of this pathology, and choice, most optimum, as a rule, depends on subjective opinion of doctor. Consequently, purpose of our work--to promote efficiency of treatment of patients on CC IIB the stage, by application of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the combined treatment. The results of treatment are analysed 291 patients on CC IIB stages which got radical treatment in Ivano-Frankivsk OKOD from 1998 to 2013 years. At the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy index of general 5-years-survival and nonrecurrence survivability made 74.4% and 70.8%, and to preoperative chemotherapy--70.8% and 68.3% accordingly. At application of independent chemoradial therapy, to the index of general 5-years-survival and nonrecurrence survivability was 51.1% and 49.3%, accordingly. It is not exposed reliable difference (P < 0.05) at comparison of indexes of 5-years-survivability of patients which have got the combined methods of treatment, but a reliable difference is exposed when compared to patients which have got independent chemoradial therapy (P > 0.05). Consequently, application of the combined methods of treatment of patients of CC IIB stages were improved by indexes general 5-years and to nonrecurrence survivability by comparison to independent cheradial therapy. .

  10. Single versus binary star progenitors of Type IIb supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sravan, Niharika

    2016-07-01

    Stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe) represent a challenge to our understanding of massive star evolution. Wind mass loss and binary interactions are the leading candidates to explain observations. The latter has gained support in the recent years with growing evidence that mass-loss rates due to line-driven winds are, in reality, 2 - 3 times lower. Type IIb SNe retain a small amount of their Hydrogen envelope before undergoing core-collapse and are the only class of stripped-envelope SNe with identified progenitors. Thus they are powerful tools for testing our understanding of massive stellar evolution. To identify possible evolutionary pathways to Type IIb SNe, we use Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) to model a large population of single and binary star sequences covering a broad parameter space with a wide range of component masses and initial orbital periods and identify those that undergo core-collapse with 0.01 to 0.5 solar masses of residual Hydrogen envelope. We find no single star Type IIb progenitors in the parameter space covered. We find a few Type IIb binary progenitors. These sequences have initial mass ratios greater than 0.6, wide orbital periods and undergo non-conservative mass transfer.

  11. Structural basis for specificity of TGF[beta] family receptor small molecule inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Ogunjimi, Abiodun A.; Zeqiraj, Elton; Ceccarelli, Derek F.; Sicheri, Frank; Wrana, Jeffrey L.; David, Laurent

    2012-07-24

    Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF{beta}) receptor kinase inhibitors have a great therapeutic potential. SB431542 is one of the mainly used kinase inhibitors of the TGF{beta}/Activin pathway receptors, but needs improvement of its EC{sub 50} (EC{sub 50} = 1 {mu}M) to be translated to clinical use. A key feature of SB431542 is that it specifically targets receptors from the TGF{beta}/Activin pathway but not the closely related receptors from the bone morphogenic proteins (BMP) pathway. To understand the mechanisms of this selectivity, we solved the crystal structure of the TGF{beta} type I receptor (T{beta}RI) kinase domain in complex with SB431542. We mutated T{beta}RI residues coordinating SB431542 to their counterparts in activin-receptor like kinase 2 (ALK2), a BMP receptor kinase, and tested the kinase activity of mutated T{beta}RI. We discovered that a Ser280Thr mutation yielded a T{beta}RI variant that was resistant to SB431542 inhibition. Furthermore, the corresponding Thr283Ser mutation in ALK2 yielded a BMP receptor sensitive to SB431542. This demonstrated that Ser280 is the key determinant of selectivity for SB431542. This work provides a framework for optimising the SB431542 scaffold to more potent and selective inhibitors of the TGF{beta}/Activin pathway.

  12. Identification of a potent Xenopus mesoderm-inducing factor as a homologue of activin A.

    PubMed

    Smith, J C; Price, B M; Van Nimmen, K; Huylebroeck, D

    1990-06-21

    The first inductive interaction in amphibian development is mesoderm induction, when a signal from the vegetal hemisphere of the blastula induces mesoderm from overlying equatorial cells. Recently, several 'mesoderm-inducing factors' (MIFs) have been discovered. These cause isolated Xenopus animal caps to form mesodermal cell types such as muscle, instead of their normal fate of epidermis. The MIFs fall into two classes. One comprises members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, and the other members of the transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-beta) family. Of the latter group, the most potent is XTC-MIF, a protein produced by Xenopus XTC cells. Here we show that XTC-MIF is the homologue of mammalian activin A. Activins modulate the release of follicle-stimulating hormone from cultured anterior pituitary cells and cause the differentiation of two erythroleukaemia cell lines. Our results indicate that these molecules may also act in early development during formation of the mesoderm.

  13. Serum activin A and B levels predict outcome in patients with acute respiratory failure: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction 30 day mortality in patients with Acute Respiratory Failure (ARF) is approximately 30%, defined as patients requiring ventilator support for more than 6 hours. Novel biomarkers are needed to predict patient outcomes and to guide potential future therapies. The activins A and B, members of the Transforming Growth Factor β family of proteins, and their binding protein, follistatin, have recently been shown to be important regulators of inflammation and fibrosis but no substantial data are available concerning their roles in ARF. Our objectives were to evaluate whether the serum levels of activin A, B and follistatin are elevated in 518 patients with ARF from the FINNALI study compared the concentrations in 138 normal subjects that form a reference range. Methods Specific assays for activin A, B and follistatin were used and the results analyzed according to diagnostic groups as well as according to standard measures in intensive care. Multivariable logistic regression was used to create a model to predict death at 90 days and 12 months from the onset of the ARF. Results Serum activin A and B were significantly elevated in most patients and in most of the diagnostic groups. Patients who had activin A and/or B concentrations above the reference maximum were significantly more likely to die in the 12 months following admission [either activin A or B above reference maximum: Positive Likelihood Ratio [LR+] 1.65 [95% CI 1.28-2.12, P = 0.00013]; both activin A and B above reference maximum: LR + 2.78 [95% CI 1.96-3.95, P < 0.00001]. The predictive model at 12 months had an overall accuracy of 80.2% [95% CI 76.6-83.3%]. Conclusions The measurement of activin A and B levels in these patients with ARF would have assisted in predicting those at greatest risk of death. Given the existing data from animal studies linking high activin A levels to significant inflammatory challenges, the results from this study suggest that approaches to modulate

  14. Transcriptional regulation of the sbeIIb genes in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and barley (Hordeum vulgare): importance of the barley sbeIIb second intron.

    PubMed

    Mutisya, Joel; Sun, Chuanxin; Palmqvist, Sara; Baguma, Yona; Odhiambo, Benjamin; Jansson, Christer

    2006-05-01

    The transcriptional activity of the sorghum sbeIIb gene, encoding starch branching enzyme IIb, is seed specific, with expression in both the endosperm and the embryo. In comparison, expression of barley sbeIIb is confined to the endosperm, whereas that of barley sbeIIa occurs in endosperm, embryonic and vegetative tissues. It has been suggested that the second intron of barley sbeIIb may be instrumental in conferring endosperm-specific expression. Therefore, to further investigate the regulatory mechanisms of barley and sorghum sbe, we examined the tissue-specific activity of the sorghum sbe promoter in transient assays of green fluorescent protein (gfp) reporter constructs. We found that, when linked to the barley sbeIIb second intron, the sorghum sbeIIb promoter could not drive gfp transcription in sorghum or barley embryonic cells. Similar results were obtained for the barley sbeIIa promoter. Database searches showed that sequences homologous to the barley sbeIIb intron also exist in introns and flanking regions of some other grass genes. Deletion mutagenesis of the sorghum sbeIIb promoter identified the minimal promoters required for high- and low-level expression, respectively, but did not reveal any putative promoter elements crucial for expression. A sequence with similarity to the SURE element, implicated in sugar signaling, was located in the distal promoter region of sorghum sbeIIb, upstream of the minimal promoters. SURE elements are present in the proximal promoter regions of the sugar-regulated barley iso1 gene, and barley sbeIIb. In keeping in line with these observations, RNA-gel blot analyses demonstrated that expression of barley sbeIIb was sugar inducible, whereas that of sorghum sbeIIb was not.

  15. Binding of 125I-labelled fibrin(ogen) fragments to platelets and to immunoprecipitated glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsen, L.I.; Brosstad, F.; Gogstad, G.; Sletten, K.; Solum, N.O.

    1986-06-01

    To further investigate which parts of the fibrinogen molecule that are responsible for its binding to the fibrinogen receptor on human platelets, the following approaches were made: The glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex (the putative fibrinogen receptor) was immunoprecipitated in crossed immunoelectrophoresis of Triton X-100-extracts of platelets against antibodies to whole platelet proteins. Subsequently, the immunoplates were incubated with /sup 125/I-labelled, plasmin- or CNBr-cleaved fibrinogen fragments (pre-X,X,Y,D,Degta,Efg,N-DSK) or fibrin fragments (E1,N-dsk), characterized by partial sequenation. The immunoplates were exposed to X-ray films, and binding of the fragments to the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex was examined. The findings were compared to the results obtained from studies on binding of the same fragments to intact gel-filtered platelets after ADP-stimulation. The following conclusions were made: All fragments except Efg and Degta bound to the immunoprecipitated GPIIb-IIIa complex as well as to ADP-stimulated platelets suggesting that at least two sequences in the E domain and one in each of the D domains of fibrinogen are involved in binding to the platelet receptor. The GPIIb-IIIa complex is the only surface-located platelet antigen that binds fibrinogen and the aforementioned fragments. The binding of the fragments to the receptor is dependent on divalent cations.

  16. Sequential sup 1 H NMR assignments of kistrin, a potent platelet aggregation inhibitor and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, M.; Wagner, G. )

    1992-02-04

    Sequence-specific nuclear magnetic resonances assignments have been obtained for the protons of kistrin. Kistrin is a small naturally occurring snake venom protein that inhibits platelet aggregation by blocking the interaction of fibrinogen with the membrane-bound glycoprotein IIb-IIIa (GP IIb-IIIa), a receptor from the integrin family. Kistrin has an Arg-Gly-Asp sequence which is believed to form an adhesion recognition sequence that is essential for activity. Therefore, the interaction between kistrin and GP IIb-IIIa may provide important information on the motif used by integrins to recognize their target proteins which bear RGD sequences. Kistrin consists of 68 residues and contains six intramolecular disulfide bonds. Although one-third of the amide protons are protected from exchange with the solvent, there appears to be little or no regular secondary structure. The large number of NOE's between residues separated by two and three positions in the sequence indicates that the protein contains a large number of tightly packed loops. Along with the sequential assignments, this paper also discusses the construction and use of computerized data bases for manipulating NMR results. A strategy for computer-assisted sequential resonance using these data bases is also presented.

  17. Level IIb Neck Dissection in Oral Cavity Cancers- When Should One Address it..?

    PubMed

    Dabholkar, Jyoti Pralhad; Kapre, Neeti Madan

    2016-09-01

    Nodal metastases is the most important prognostic marker for oral cavity cancers. Nodal dissection at level IIb risks damage to the spinal accessory nerve. We aim to study positivity of level IIb lymph nodes in oral cancers. In this non-randomized prospective observational study, 65 patients of oral cavity cancers were evaluated. Appropriate surgery for primary tumour and neck dissection were undertaken. All patients underwent level II b dissection. Out of 67 neck dissections (27 elective and 40 therapeutic), 7 patients had level IIb positive for metastases (10.44 %) with no isolated or contralateral metastases at level IIb and direct correlation with level IIa nodes. There was no statistical association of level IIb positivity with stage or site of primary. Level IIb dissection can be avoided in N0 necks. For therapeutic neck dissections, Level IIb should be cleared if there are positive nodes at level IIa. PMID:27651689

  18. Optical studies of Type IIb SN 2011dh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, D. K.; Anupama, G. C.; Chakradhari, N. K.

    2014-01-01

    UBVRI photometry and low resolution optical spectroscopy of the type IIb SN 2011dh in M51 are presented, covering the first year after the explosion. The peak absolute magnitude in V-band of -17.12+/-0.18 mag indicates SN 2011dh to be a normal bright type IIb event. The peak quasi-bolometric luminosity indicates that ~ 0.06 M⊙ of 56Ni was synthesized in the explosion. The He I lines were detected in the spectra much before the maximum light in B-band. The nebular spectra of SN 2011dh show a box shaped emission in the red wing of [OI] 6300, 6363 line due to Hα emission excited because of shock-wave interaction. The analysis of the nebular spectra indicates a progenitor with a main sequence mass of 10-15 M⊙.

  19. Mechanical properties of D0 Run IIB silicon detector staves

    SciTech Connect

    Lanfranco, Giobatta; Fast, James; /Fermilab

    2001-06-01

    A proposed stave design for the D0 Run IIb silicon tracker outer layers featuring central cooling channels and a composite shell mechanical structure is evaluated for self-deflection and deflection due to external loads. This paper contains an introduction to the stave structure, a section devoted to composite lamina and laminate properties and finally a section discussing the beam deflections expected for assembled staves using these laminates.

  20. Deflection test results on D0 Run IIB stave

    SciTech Connect

    Lanfranco, Giobatta; /Fermilab

    2003-09-01

    The D0 RunIIb final design stave has been tested to verify its actual mechanical performance. The effectiveness of four G-11 (fiberglass/epoxy) braces to bridge the two channels has been investigated as well. All staves have met the goal stiffness for the silicon area. The stave mockups with braces have shown excellent stiffness in complete agreement with what theoretically calculated.

  1. CDF Run IIb Silicon Vertex Detector DAQ Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    S. Behari et al.

    2003-12-18

    The CDF particle detector operates in the beamline of the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at Fermilab, Batavia, IL. The Tevatron is expected to undergo luminosity upgrades (Run IIb) in the future, resulting in a higher number of interactions per beam crossing. To operate in this dense radiation environment, an upgrade of CDF's silicon vertex detector (SVX) subsystem and a corresponding upgrade of its VME-based DAQ system has been explored. Prototypes of all the Run IIb SVX DAQ components have been constructed, assembled into a test stand and operated successfully using an adapted version of CDF's network-capable DAQ software. In addition, a PCI-based DAQ system has been developed as a fast and inexpensive tool for silicon detector and DAQ component testing in the production phase. In this paper they present an overview of the Run IIb silicon DAQ upgrade, emphasizing the new features and improvements incorporated into the constituent VME boards, and discuss a PCI-based DAQ system developed to facilitate production tests.

  2. Spectropolarimetry of the Type IIb SN 2008aq*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevance, H. F.; Maund, J. R.; Baade, D.; Höflich, P.; Patat, F.; Spyromilio, J.; Wheeler, J. C.; Clocchiatti, A.; Wang, L.; Yang, Y.; Zelaya, P.

    2016-09-01

    We present optical spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry of the Type IIb SN 2008aq 16-d and 27-d post-explosion. The spectrum of SN 2008aq remained dominated by Hα P Cygni profile at both epochs, but showed a significant increase in the strength of the helium features, which is characteristic of the transition undergone by supernovae between Type IIb and Type Ib. Comparison of the spectra of SN 2008aq to other Type IIb SNe (SN 1993J, SN 2011dh, and SN 2008ax) at similar epochs revealed that the helium lines in SN 2008aq are much weaker, suggesting that its progenitor was stripped to a lesser degree. SN 2008aq also showed significant levels of continuum polarization at pcont = 0.70 (±0.22) per cent in the first epoch, increasing to pcont = 1.21 (±0.33) per cent by the second epoch. Moreover, the presence of loops in the q - u planes of Hα and He I in the second epoch suggests a departure from axial symmetry.

  3. Activin Regulates Self-renewal and Differentiation of Trophoblast Stem Cells by Down-regulating the X Chromosome Gene Bcor*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Gaoyang; Fei, Teng; Li, Zhongwei; Yan, Xiaohua; Chen, Ye-Guang

    2015-01-01

    The development of a functional placenta is largely dependent upon proper proliferation and differentiation of trophoblast stem cells (TSCs). Activin signaling has long been regarded to play important roles during this process, but the exact mechanism is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the X chromosome gene BCL-6 corepressor (Bcor) is a critical downstream effector of activin to fine-tune mouse TSC fate decision. Bcor was specifically down-regulated by activin A in TSCs in a dose-dependent manner, and immediately up-regulated upon TSC differentiation. Knockdown of Bcor partially compensated for the absence of activin A in maintaining the self-renewal of TSCs together with FGF4, while promoting syncytiotrophoblast differentiation in the absence of FGF4. Moreover, the impaired trophoblast giant cell and spongiotrophoblast differentiation upon Bcor knockdown also resembled the function of activin. Reporter analysis showed that BCOR inhibited the expression of the key trophoblast regulator genes Eomes and Cebpa by binding to their promoter regions. Our findings provide us with a better understanding of placental development and placenta-related diseases. PMID:26221038

  4. Seasonal changes in spermatogenesis and immunolocalization of inhibin/activin subunits in the wild male ground squirrel (Citellus dauricus Brandt).

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xia; Zhang, Haolin; Zhang, Wei; Song, Moshi; Zhang, Mengyuan; Li, Ben; Weng, Qiang; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the seasonal changes in spermatogenesis and the immunolocalization of the inhibin alpha and inhibin/activin (betaA and betaB) subunits during the breeding and non-breeding seasons in the wild male ground squirrel. The testicular weight and size and seminiferous tubule diameter were measured, and histological observations of testes were performed. The sections of the testes were immunostained by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method (ABC) using polyclonal antisera raised against porcine inhibin alpha, inhibin/activin betaA and inhibin/activin betaB during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. There were marked variations in testicular weight and size and seminiferous tubule diameter between the breeding and non-breeding seasons, and all types of spermatogenic cells, including spermatozoa, were found in the breeding season. In addition, immunoreactivity was also detected for the inhibin alpha, betaA and betaB subunits in Sertoli and Leydig cells during the breeding season, but immunostaining was only present for the inhibin alpha and inhibin/activin betaB subunits in Sertoli cells during the non-breeding season. These results suggest that seasonal changes in testicular weight and size and seminiferous tubule diameter of wild ground squirrels are correlated with changes in spermatogenesis, and the cellular localization of the inhibin/activin subunits showed season related changes in the breeding and non-breeding seasons.

  5. Trastuzumab Emtansine in Treating Older Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-04

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  6. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva-related activated activin-like kinase signaling enhances osteoclast formation during heterotopic ossification in muscle tissues.

    PubMed

    Yano, Masato; Kawao, Naoyuki; Okumoto, Katsumi; Tamura, Yukinori; Okada, Kiyotaka; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2014-06-13

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is characterized by extensive ossification within muscle tissues, and its molecular pathogenesis is responsible for the constitutively activating mutation (R206H) of the bone morphogenetic protein type 1 receptor, activin-like kinase 2 (ALK2). In this study, we investigated the effects of implanting ALK2 (R206H)-transfected myoblastic C2C12 cells into nude mice on osteoclast formation during heterotopic ossification in muscle and subcutaneous tissues. The implantation of ALK2 (R206H)-transfected C2C12 cells with BMP-2 in nude mice induced robust heterotopic ossification with an increase in the formation of osteoclasts in muscle tissues but not in subcutaneous tissues. The implantation of ALK2 (R206H)-transfected C2C12 cells in muscle induced heterotopic ossification more effectively than that of empty vector-transfected cells. A co-culture of ALK2 (R206H)-transfected C2C12 cells as well as the conditioned medium from ALK2 (R206H)-transfected C2C12 cells enhanced osteoclast formation in Raw264.7 cells more effectively than those with empty vector-transfected cells. The transfection of ALK2 (R206H) into C2C12 cells elevated the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, whereas the inhibition of TGF-β signaling suppressed the enhanced formation of osteoclasts in the co-culture with ALK2 (R206H)-transfected C2C12 cells and their conditioned medium. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the causal mutation transfection of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva in myoblasts enhanced the formation of osteoclasts from its precursor through TGF-β in muscle tissues.

  7. Closed headpiece of integrin [alpah]IIb[beta]3 and its complex with an [alpha]IIb[beta]3-specific antagonist that does not induce opening

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jieqing; Zhu, Jianghai; Negri, Ana; Provasi, Davide; Filizola, Marta; Coller, Barry S.; Springer, Timothy A.

    2011-08-24

    The platelet integrin {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} is essential for hemostasis and thrombosis through its binding of adhesive plasma proteins. We have determined crystal structures of the {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} headpiece in the absence of ligand and after soaking in RUC-1, a novel small molecule antagonist. In the absence of ligand, the {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} headpiece is in a closed conformation, distinct from the open conformation visualized in presence of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) antagonists. In contrast to RGD antagonists, RUC-1 binds only to the {alpha}{sub IIb} subunit. Molecular dynamics revealed nearly identical binding. Two species-specific residues, {alpha}{sub IIb} Y190 and {alpha}{sub aIIb} D232, in the RUC-1 binding site were confirmed as important by mutagenesis. In sharp contrast to RGD-based antagonists, RUC-1 did not induce {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} to adopt an open conformation, as determined by gel filtration and dynamic light scattering. These studies provide insights into the factors that regulate integrin headpiece opening, and demonstrate the molecular basis for a novel mechanism of integrin antagonism.

  8. The Expression of Human Cytomegalovirus MicroRNA MiR-UL148D during Latent Infection in Primary Myeloid Cells Inhibits Activin A-triggered Secretion of IL-6.

    PubMed

    Lau, Betty; Poole, Emma; Krishna, Benjamin; Sellart, Immaculada; Wills, Mark R; Murphy, Eain; Sinclair, John

    2016-08-05

    The successful establishment and maintenance of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latency is dependent on the expression of a subset of viral genes. Whilst the exact spectrum and functions of these genes are far from clear, inroads have been made for protein-coding genes. In contrast, little is known about the expression of non-coding RNAs. Here we show that HCMV encoded miRNAs are expressed de novo during latent infection of primary myeloid cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-UL148D, one of the most highly expressed viral miRNAs during latent infection, directly targets the cellular receptor ACVR1B of the activin signalling axis. Consistent with this, we observed upregulation of ACVR1B expression during latent infection with a miR-UL148D deletion virus (ΔmiR-UL148D). Importantly, we observed that monocytes latently infected with ΔmiR-UL148D are more responsive to activin A stimulation, as demonstrated by their increased secretion of IL-6. Collectively, our data indicates miR-UL148D inhibits ACVR1B expression in latently infected cells to limit proinflammatory cytokine secretion, perhaps as an immune evasion strategy or to postpone cytokine-induced reactivation until conditions are more favourable. This is the first demonstration of an HCMV miRNA function during latency in primary myeloid cells, implicating that small RNA species may contribute significantly to latent infection.

  9. The Expression of Human Cytomegalovirus MicroRNA MiR-UL148D during Latent Infection in Primary Myeloid Cells Inhibits Activin A-triggered Secretion of IL-6

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Betty; Poole, Emma; Krishna, Benjamin; Sellart, Immaculada; Wills, Mark R.; Murphy, Eain; Sinclair, John

    2016-01-01

    The successful establishment and maintenance of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latency is dependent on the expression of a subset of viral genes. Whilst the exact spectrum and functions of these genes are far from clear, inroads have been made for protein-coding genes. In contrast, little is known about the expression of non-coding RNAs. Here we show that HCMV encoded miRNAs are expressed de novo during latent infection of primary myeloid cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-UL148D, one of the most highly expressed viral miRNAs during latent infection, directly targets the cellular receptor ACVR1B of the activin signalling axis. Consistent with this, we observed upregulation of ACVR1B expression during latent infection with a miR-UL148D deletion virus (ΔmiR-UL148D). Importantly, we observed that monocytes latently infected with ΔmiR-UL148D are more responsive to activin A stimulation, as demonstrated by their increased secretion of IL-6. Collectively, our data indicates miR-UL148D inhibits ACVR1B expression in latently infected cells to limit proinflammatory cytokine secretion, perhaps as an immune evasion strategy or to postpone cytokine-induced reactivation until conditions are more favourable. This is the first demonstration of an HCMV miRNA function during latency in primary myeloid cells, implicating that small RNA species may contribute significantly to latent infection. PMID:27491954

  10. The Expression of Human Cytomegalovirus MicroRNA MiR-UL148D during Latent Infection in Primary Myeloid Cells Inhibits Activin A-triggered Secretion of IL-6.

    PubMed

    Lau, Betty; Poole, Emma; Krishna, Benjamin; Sellart, Immaculada; Wills, Mark R; Murphy, Eain; Sinclair, John

    2016-01-01

    The successful establishment and maintenance of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latency is dependent on the expression of a subset of viral genes. Whilst the exact spectrum and functions of these genes are far from clear, inroads have been made for protein-coding genes. In contrast, little is known about the expression of non-coding RNAs. Here we show that HCMV encoded miRNAs are expressed de novo during latent infection of primary myeloid cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-UL148D, one of the most highly expressed viral miRNAs during latent infection, directly targets the cellular receptor ACVR1B of the activin signalling axis. Consistent with this, we observed upregulation of ACVR1B expression during latent infection with a miR-UL148D deletion virus (ΔmiR-UL148D). Importantly, we observed that monocytes latently infected with ΔmiR-UL148D are more responsive to activin A stimulation, as demonstrated by their increased secretion of IL-6. Collectively, our data indicates miR-UL148D inhibits ACVR1B expression in latently infected cells to limit proinflammatory cytokine secretion, perhaps as an immune evasion strategy or to postpone cytokine-induced reactivation until conditions are more favourable. This is the first demonstration of an HCMV miRNA function during latency in primary myeloid cells, implicating that small RNA species may contribute significantly to latent infection. PMID:27491954

  11. Clinical Relevance and Mechanisms of Antagonism Between the BMP and Activin/TGF-β Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Hudnall, Aaron M; Arthur, Jon W; Lowery, Jonathan W

    2016-07-01

    The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily is a large group of signaling molecules that participate in embryogenesis, organogenesis, and tissue homeostasis. These molecules are present in all animal genomes. Dysfunction in the regulation or activity of this superfamily's components underlies numerous human diseases and developmental defects. There are 2 distinct arms downstream of the TGF-β superfamily ligands-the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and activin/TGF-β signaling pathways-and these 2 responses can oppose one another's effects, most notably in disease states. However, studies have commonly focused on a single arm of the TGF-β superfamily, and the antagonism between these pathways is unknown in most physiologic and pathologic contexts. In this review, the authors summarize the clinically relevant scenarios in which the BMP and activin/TGF-β pathways reportedly oppose one another and identify several molecular mechanisms proposed to mediate this interaction. Particular attention is paid to experimental findings that may be informative to human pathology to highlight potential therapeutic approaches for future investigation. PMID:27367950

  12. Activin Plays a Key Role in the Maintenance of Long-Term Memory and Late-LTP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ageta, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Shiro; Miura, Masami; Masuda, Masao; Migishima, Rika; Hino, Toshiaki; Takashima, Noriko; Murayama, Akiko; Sugino, Hiromu; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Kida, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Tsuchida, Kunihiro; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Inokuchi, Kaoru

    2010-01-01

    A recent study has revealed that fear memory may be vulnerable following retrieval, and is then reconsolidated in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of these processes. Activin [beta]A, a member of the TGF-[beta] superfamily, is increased in activated neuronal circuits and regulates…

  13. RUC-4: A Novel αIIbβ3 Antagonist for Pre-hospital Therapy of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jihong; Vootukuri, Spandana; Shang, Yi; Negri, Ana; Jiang, Jian-kang; Nedelman, Mark; Diacovo, Thomas G.; Filizola, Marta; Thomas, Craig J.; Coller, Barry S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) within the first 1–2 hours with a thrombolytic agent, percutaneous coronary intervention, or an αIIbβ3 antagonist decreases mortality and the later development of heart failure. We previously reported on a novel small molecule αIIbβ3 antagonist, RUC-2, that has a unique mechanism of action. We have now developed a more potent and more soluble congener of RUC-2, RUC-4, designed to be easily administered intramuscularly (IM) by autoinjector to facilitate its use in the pre-hospital setting. Here we report the properties of RUC-4 and the antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects of RUC-2 and RUC-4 in animal models. Approach and Results RUC-4 was ~20% more potent than RUC-2 in inhibiting human ADP-induced platelet aggregation and much more soluble in aqueous solutions (60–80 mg/ml). It shared RUC-2’s specificity for αIIbβ3 vs αVβ3, did not prime the receptor to bind fibrinogen, or induce changes in β3 identified by a conformation-specific monoclonal antibody. Both RUC-2 and RUC-4 prevented FeCl3-induced thrombotic occlusion of the carotid artery in mice and decreased microvascular thrombi in response to laser injury produced by human platelets infused into transgenic mice containing a mutated von Willebrand factor that reacts with human, but not mouse platelets. IM injection of RUC-4 in non-human primates at 1.9 and 3.85 mg/kg led to complete inhibition of platelet aggregation within 15 minutes, with dose-dependent return of platelet aggregation after 4.5–24 hours. Conclusions RUC-4 has favorable biochemical, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, antithrombotic, and solubility properties as a pre-hospital therapy of MI, but the possibility of increased bleeding with therapeutic doses remains to be evaluated. PMID:25147334

  14. Docetaxel, Carboplatin, Trastuzumab, and Pertuzumab With or Without Estrogen Deprivation in Treating Patients With Hormone Receptor-Positive, HER2-Positive Operable or Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-01

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Positive; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. Level IIb CTV delineation based on cervical fascia anatomy in nasopharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Pan, Li; Ren, Jing; Lang, Jinyi; Wen, Hao; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Shichuan

    2015-04-01

    We carefully reviewed magnetic resonance (MR) images from 100 consecutive NPC patients and analyzed the lymph node distribution status at level IIb. We proposed several modifications of the existing consensus guidelines for determining the level IIb clinical target volume (CTV) in NPC patients. PMID:25770873

  16. Nonthermal ionization and excitation in Type IIb supernova 1993J.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utrobin, V. P.

    1996-02-01

    A non-LTE study of Type IIb supernova 1993J in the galaxy M 81 accounting for nonthermal ionization and line blocking effects is carried out. Hydrodynamical models and theoretical spectra clearly show that nonthermal ionization and excitation dominate after the second maximum, at day ~30, and play a decisive role in reproducing both a smooth tail of the light curve and an emergence of helium lines in the spectrum similar to those observed. Based on our model of supernova 1993J, we predict that the light curves of Type IIb supernovae should be subject to nonthermal ionization and excitation at earlier times than even that of supernova 1993J. To fit the bolometric and visual light curves of supernova 1993J, an outer layer of ~1Msun_ has to be helium-rich hydrogen shell with a hydrogen mass fraction of ~0.1. In this shell there is no nearly pure helium mantle as contrasted to most of the evolutionary models at the time of explosion. The fact that such a distribution of hydrogen results in a characteristic maximum of hydrogen number density at velocity of ~8600km/s in the expelled envelope is well consistent with late time observations of Hα emission at epochs of 0.5-1 year after the explosion. An emergence of helium lines between day 24 and day 30 illustrated by the evolution of calculated profile of the He I line λ6678A completely fits the spectral observations of supernova 1993J. The bolometric and visual light curves and the spectral evolution of helium lines are consistent with a mass of the ejected envelope of ~2.4Msun_ including a hydrogen mass of ~0.12Msun_, an explosion energy of ~1.6x10^51^ergs, and a mass of radioactive ^56^Ni of ~0.078Msun_. It is found that the bulk of the radioactive material should be confined to layers of the ejected envelope expanding with velocities less than ~3800km/s. In our model, the outburst of supernova 1993J is interpreted as the explosion of a ~4Msun_ red supergiant undergoing core collapse and leaving a neutron star in a

  17. Genomic clone encoding the. cap alpha. chain of the OKM1, LFA-1, and platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove, L.J.; Sandrin, M.S.; Rajasekariah, P.; McKenzie, I.F.C.

    1986-02-01

    LFA-1, an antigen involved in cytolytic T lymphocyte-mediated killing, and Mac-1, the receptor for complement component C3bi, constitute a family of structurally and functionally related cell surface glycoproteins involved in cellular interactions. In both mouse and man, Mac-1 (OKM1) and LFA-1 share a common 95-kDa ..beta.. subunit but are distinguished by their ..cap alpha.. chains, which have different cellular distributions, apparent molecular masses (165 and 177 kDa, respectively), and peptide maps. The authors report the isolation of a genomic clone from a human genomic library that on transfection into mouse fibroblasts produced a molecule(s) reactive with monoclonal antibodies to OKM1, to LFA-1, and to platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa. This gene was cloned by several cycles of transfection of L cells with a human genomic library cloned in lambda phase Charon 4A and subsequent rescue of the lambda phage. Transfection with the purified recombinant lambda DNA yielded a transfectant that expressed the three human ..cap alpha.. chains of OKM1, LFA-1, and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa, presumably in association with the murine ..beta.. chain.

  18. The Cassiopeia A supernova was of type IIb.

    PubMed

    Krause, Oliver; Birkmann, Stephan M; Usuda, Tomonori; Hattori, Takashi; Goto, Miwa; Rieke, George H; Misselt, Karl A

    2008-05-30

    Cassiopeia A is the youngest supernova remnant known in the Milky Way and a unique laboratory for supernova physics. We present an optical spectrum of the Cassiopeia A supernova near maximum brightness, obtained from observations of a scattered light echo more than three centuries after the direct light of the explosion swept past Earth. The spectrum shows that Cassiopeia A was a type IIb supernova and originated from the collapse of the helium core of a red supergiant that had lost most of its hydrogen envelope before exploding. Our finding concludes a long-standing debate on the Cassiopeia A progenitor and provides new insight into supernova physics by linking the properties of the explosion to the wealth of knowledge about its remnant.

  19. On asymptotic freedom and confinement from type-IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehagias, A.; Sfetsos, K.

    1999-06-01

    We present a new type-IIB supergravity vacuum that describes the strong coupling regime of a non-supersymmetric gauge theory. The latter has a running coupling such that the theory becomes asymptotically free in the ultraviolet. It also has a running theta angle due to a non-vanishing axion field in the supergravity solution. We also present a worm-hole solution, which has finite action per unit four-dimensional volume and two asymptotic regions, a flat space and an AdS5xS5. The corresponding N=2 gauge theory, instead of being finite, has a running coupling. We compute the quark-antiquark potential in this case and find that it exhibits, under certain assumptions, an area-law behaviour for large separations.

  20. Human platelet activation by Escherichia coli: roles for FcγRIIA and integrin αIIbβ3

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Callum N.; Kerrigan, Steven W.; Cox, Dermot; Henderson, Ian R.; Watson, Steve P.; Arman, Mònica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gram-negative Escherichia coli cause diseases such as sepsis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in which thrombotic disorders can be found. Direct platelet–bacterium interactions might contribute to some of these conditions; however, mechanisms of human platelet activation by E. coli leading to thrombus formation are poorly understood. While the IgG receptor FcγRIIA has a key role in platelet response to various Gram-positive species, its role in activation to Gram-negative bacteria is poorly defined. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of human platelet activation by E. coli, including the potential role of FcγRIIA. Using light-transmission aggregometry, measurements of ATP release and tyrosine-phosphorylation, we investigated the ability of two E. coli clinical isolates to activate platelets in plasma, in the presence or absence of specific receptors and signaling inhibitors. Aggregation assays with washed platelets supplemented with IgGs were performed to evaluate the requirement of this plasma component in activation. We found a critical role for the immune receptor FcγRIIA, αIIbβ3, and Src and Syk tyrosine kinases in platelet activation in response to E. coli. IgG and αIIbβ3 engagement was required for FcγRIIA activation. Moreover, feedback mediators adenosine 5’-diphosphate (ADP) and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) were essential for platelet aggregation. These findings suggest that human platelet responses to E. coli isolates are similar to those induced by Gram-positive organisms. Our observations support the existence of a central FcγRIIA-mediated pathway by which human platelets respond to both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:27025455

  1. Human platelet activation by Escherichia coli: roles for FcγRIIA and integrin αIIbβ3.

    PubMed

    Watson, Callum N; Kerrigan, Steven W; Cox, Dermot; Henderson, Ian R; Watson, Steve P; Arman, Mònica

    2016-09-01

    Gram-negative Escherichia coli cause diseases such as sepsis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in which thrombotic disorders can be found. Direct platelet-bacterium interactions might contribute to some of these conditions; however, mechanisms of human platelet activation by E. coli leading to thrombus formation are poorly understood. While the IgG receptor FcγRIIA has a key role in platelet response to various Gram-positive species, its role in activation to Gram-negative bacteria is poorly defined. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of human platelet activation by E. coli, including the potential role of FcγRIIA. Using light-transmission aggregometry, measurements of ATP release and tyrosine-phosphorylation, we investigated the ability of two E. coli clinical isolates to activate platelets in plasma, in the presence or absence of specific receptors and signaling inhibitors. Aggregation assays with washed platelets supplemented with IgGs were performed to evaluate the requirement of this plasma component in activation. We found a critical role for the immune receptor FcγRIIA, αIIbβ3, and Src and Syk tyrosine kinases in platelet activation in response to E. coli. IgG and αIIbβ3 engagement was required for FcγRIIA activation. Moreover, feedback mediators adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) were essential for platelet aggregation. These findings suggest that human platelet responses to E. coli isolates are similar to those induced by Gram-positive organisms. Our observations support the existence of a central FcγRIIA-mediated pathway by which human platelets respond to both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  2. Seminal fluid factors regulate activin A and follistatin synthesis in female cervical epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, David J; Schjenken, John E; Mottershead, David G; Robertson, Sarah A

    2015-12-01

    Seminal fluid induces pro-inflammatory cytokines and elicits an inflammation-like response in the cervix. Here, Affymetrix microarray and qPCR was utilised to identify activin A (INHBA) and its inhibitor follistatin (FST) amongst the cytokines induced by seminal plasma in Ect1 ectocervical epithelial cells, and a similar response was confirmed in primary ectocervical epithelial cells. TGFB is abundant in seminal plasma and all three TGFB isoforms induced INHBA in Ect1 and primary cells, and neutralisation of TGFB in seminal plasma suppressed the INHBA response. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide in seminal plasma also elicited INHBA, but potently suppressed FST production. There was moderate reciprocal inhibition between FST and INHBA, and cross-attenuating effects were seen. These data identify TGFB and potentially LPS as factors mediating seminal plasma-induced INHBA synthesis in cervical cells. INHBA and FST induced by seminal fluid in cervical tissues may thus contribute to regulation of the post-coital response in women.

  3. Characterization of Follistatin-Type Domains and Their Contribution to Myostatin and Activin A Antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Jennifer N.; Angerman, Elizabeth B.; Keutmann, Henry T.

    2012-01-01

    Follistatin (FST)-type proteins are important antagonists of some members of the large TGF-β family of cytokines. These include myostatin, an important negative regulator of muscle growth, and the closely related activin A, which is involved in many physiological functions, including maintenance of a normal reproductive axis. FST-type proteins, including FST and FST-like 3 (FSTL3), differentially inhibit various TGF-β family ligands by binding each ligand with two FST-type molecules. In this study, we sought to examine features that are important for ligand antagonism by FST-type proteins. Previous work has shown that a modified construct consisting of the FST N-terminal domain (ND) followed by two repeating follistatin domains (FSD), herein called FST ND-FSD1-FSD1, exhibits strong specificity for myostatin over activin A. Using cell-based assays, we show that FST ND-FSD1-FSD1 is unique in its specificity for myostatin as compared with similar constructs containing domains from FSTL3 and that the ND is critical to its activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that FSD3 of FST provides affinity to ligand inhibition and confers resistance to perturbations in the ND and FSD2, likely through the interaction of FSD3 of one FST molecule with the ND of the other FST molecule. Additionally, our data suggest that this contact provides cooperativity to ligand antagonism. Cross-linking studies show that this interaction also potentiates formation of 1:2 ligand-FST complexes, whereas lack of FSD3 allows formation of 1:1 complexes. Altogether, these studies support that domain differences generate FST-type molecules that are each uniquely suited ligand antagonists. PMID:22593183

  4. Platelet-derived ERp57 mediates platelet incorporation into a growing thrombus by regulation of the αIIbβ3 integrin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Zhou, Junsong; Ahmad, Syed S.; Mutus, Bulent; Garbi, Natalio; Hämmerling, Günter; Liu, Junling

    2013-01-01

    The platelet protein disulfide isomerase called ERp57 mediates platelet aggregation, but its role in thrombus formation is unknown. To determine the specific role of platelet-derived ERp57 in hemostasis and thrombosis, we generated a megakaryocyte/platelet-specific knockout. Despite normal platelet counts and platelet glycoprotein expression, mice with ERp57-deficient platelets had prolonged tail-bleeding times and thrombus occlusion times with FeCl3-induced carotid artery injury. Using a mesenteric artery thrombosis model, we found decreased incorporation of ERp57-deficient platelets into a growing thrombus. Platelets lacking ERp57 have defective activation of the αIIbβ3 integrin and platelet aggregation. The defect in aggregation was corrected by the addition of exogenous ERp57, implicating surface ERp57 in platelet aggregation. Using mutants of ERp57, we demonstrate the second active site targets a platelet surface substrate to potentiate platelet aggregation. Binding of Alexa 488−labeled ERp57 to thrombin-activated and Mn2+-treated platelets lacking β3 was decreased substantially, suggesting a direct interaction of ERp57 with αIIbβ3. Surface expression of ERp57 protein and activity in human platelets increased with platelet activation, with protein expression occurring in a physiologically relevant time frame. In conclusion, platelet-derived ERp57 directly interacts with αIIbβ3 during activation of this receptor and is required for incorporation of platelets into a growing thrombus. PMID:24030382

  5. Platelet-derived ERp57 mediates platelet incorporation into a growing thrombus by regulation of the αIIbβ3 integrin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Wu, Yi; Zhou, Junsong; Ahmad, Syed S; Mutus, Bulent; Garbi, Natalio; Hämmerling, Günter; Liu, Junling; Essex, David W

    2013-11-21

    The platelet protein disulfide isomerase called ERp57 mediates platelet aggregation, but its role in thrombus formation is unknown. To determine the specific role of platelet-derived ERp57 in hemostasis and thrombosis, we generated a megakaryocyte/platelet-specific knockout. Despite normal platelet counts and platelet glycoprotein expression, mice with ERp57-deficient platelets had prolonged tail-bleeding times and thrombus occlusion times with FeCl3-induced carotid artery injury. Using a mesenteric artery thrombosis model, we found decreased incorporation of ERp57-deficient platelets into a growing thrombus. Platelets lacking ERp57 have defective activation of the αIIbβ3 integrin and platelet aggregation. The defect in aggregation was corrected by the addition of exogenous ERp57, implicating surface ERp57 in platelet aggregation. Using mutants of ERp57, we demonstrate the second active site targets a platelet surface substrate to potentiate platelet aggregation. Binding of Alexa 488-labeled ERp57 to thrombin-activated and Mn(2+)-treated platelets lacking β3 was decreased substantially, suggesting a direct interaction of ERp57 with αIIbβ3. Surface expression of ERp57 protein and activity in human platelets increased with platelet activation, with protein expression occurring in a physiologically relevant time frame. In conclusion, platelet-derived ERp57 directly interacts with αIIbβ3 during activation of this receptor and is required for incorporation of platelets into a growing thrombus. PMID:24030382

  6. Level IIB Neck Dissection in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Science or Myth?

    PubMed

    Ghantous, Yasmine; Akrish, Sharon; Abd-Elraziq, Morad; El-Naaj, Imad Abu

    2016-06-01

    Selective neck dissection enables us to reduce the morbidity of neck dissection while maintaining the same oncological results, mainly in clinically negative neck N0. The most common morbidity associated with selective neck dissection is spinal accessory nerve dysfunction and related shoulder disability, which are encountered during dissection of level IIB.The aim of authors' study is to evaluate the incidence of sublevel IIB lymphatic metastasis in clinically N0 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients.The study group comprised 48 men (68%) and 22 women (32%). The median number of the lymph nodes removed from level IIB was 6.5. All the investigated necks were clinically classified as N0, of which 14 (20%) turned out to have an occult nodal metastasis, including only 1 patient (1.42%) of level IIB occult metastasis, which originated from the primary tumor located in the tongue and also metastasized to level IIA. The most associated morbidity was shoulder pain and dysfunction, which presented in 60% of the patients.Also, an electronic search was conducted to find relevant studies investigating the prevalence of level IIB metastasis in OSCC. Ten studies were included for full text review, including the current study. The overall incidence of level IIB metastasis is 4% (17 patients); of these 17 patients, only 4 patients had isolated level IIB nodal metastases (2%).To conclude, neck dissecting, including dissecting level IIB, remains the keystone of treating OSCC. Its prognostic and therapeutic value exceeds its associated morbidity; therefore, dissecting level IIB is recommended in treating OSCC in clinically N0 patients. PMID:27171965

  7. The heptapeptide LSARLAF mediates platelet activation through phospholipase Cgamma2 independently of glycoprotein IIb-IIIa.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Andrew C; Wonerow, Peter; Marshall, Stuart J; Frampton, Jon; Gartner, T Kent; Watson, Steve P

    2004-01-01

    The seven-amino-acid peptide LSARLAF has been reported to activate platelets via the integrin GPIIb-IIIa (glycoprotein IIb-IIIa). Activation by LSARLAF is reinforced by release of ADP and thromboxanes, but the initiating event in the signalling cascade is not known. In the present study, we demonstrate that LSARLAF stimulates Src kinase-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of many of the proteins in the GPIIb-IIIa cascade, including the tyrosine kinase Syk, the adapter SLP-76 (SH2-containing leucocyte phosphoprotein of 76 kDa) and PLCgamma2 (phospholipase Cgamma2). A critical role for PLCgamma2 in signalling by LSARLAF was demonstrated by abolition of aggregation in PLCgamma2-/- murine platelets to low concentrations of the peptide, although a partial recovery was seen with higher concentrations. In sharp contrast with the GPIIb-IIIa-regulated signalling cascade, aggregation was inhibited in murine platelets deficient in the adapter LAT (linker for activation of T-cells) and the Fc receptor gamma-chain. Aggregation was also partially inhibited by the cholesterol-lowering reagent, beta-methyl-cyclodextrin, at concentrations that disrupt membrane rafts, but do not interfere with signalling by GPIIb-IIIa. Furthermore, LSARLAF also stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation in GPIIb-deficient murine platelets, confirming that the integrin is not critical for activation of intracellular signalling pathways. LSARLAF also stimulated Ca2+ elevation in RBL-2H3 cells, which lack the platelet glycoproteins GPIIb, GPVI and GPIb. These results demonstrate that LSARLAF activates platelets through a PLCgamma2-dependent pathway that lies downstream of Src kinases and which is partially dependent on the Fc receptor gamma-chain, LAT and lipid rafts. The mechanism of cell activation by LSARLAF remains to be established, although the present results indicate that more than one surface glycoprotein may mediate this response. PMID:14558887

  8. IMMUNOLOCALIZATION OF INHIBIN/ACTIVIN SUBUNITS AND STEROIDOGENIC ENZYMES IN THE TESTES OF AN ADULT AFRICAN ELEPHANT (LOXODONTA AFRICANA).

    PubMed

    Li, Qinglin; Lu, Lu; Weng, Qiang; Kawakami, Shigehisa; Saito, Eriko; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Yuki; Kaewmanee, Saroch; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2016-06-01

    In this case report, the authors investigated immunolocalization of inhibin α and inhibin/activin βA and βB subunits, as well as steroidogenic enzymes, in the testes of an African elephant. Testes were collected from a reproductively active male African elephant (24 yr old) at autopsy. Histologically, all types of spermatogenic cells including mature-phase spermatozoa were found in the seminiferous tubules. Positive immunostaining for inhibin α and inhibin/activin βA and βB subunits was observed in Sertoli and Leydig cells. In addition, P450scc, 3βHSD, P450c17, and P450arom were also detected in the cytoplasm of Leydig cells. These results suggested that Leydig cells of adult African elephant testes have the ability to synthesize progestin, androgen, and estrogen, whereas both Sertoli and Leydig cells appear as a major source of inhibin secretion in the male African elephant.

  9. Activin-A stimulates hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone release by the explanted male rat hypothalamus: interaction with inhibin and androgens.

    PubMed

    Calogero, A E; Burrello, N; Ossino, A M; Polosa, P; D'Agata, R

    1998-02-01

    The presence of activins in those hypothalamic regions containing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-secreting neurons suggests that these peptides may regulate the reproductive function modulating not only pituitary FSH release and biosynthesis, but also hypothalamic GnRH release. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of activin-A, a homodimer of inhibin beta A subunit, on hypothalamic GnRH release in vitro and, because of their well known antithetical effects, to evaluate its interaction with inhibin. In addition, since androgens modulate the release of GnRH from male rat hypothalami, we thought it of interest to study the possible interplay between these steroids and activin on GnRH release. To accomplish this, we employed a hypothalamic organ culture system which enabled us to evaluate GnRH release from individually incubated hemi-hypothalami explanted from male rats. Activin-A stimulated GnRH release in a biphasic manner. The maximal effect was reached at a concentration of 10 ng/ml which increased GnRH output by about 75%. Inhibin abolished the stimulatory effect of a maximally effective concentration of activin-A in a dose-dependent manner, whereas alone it had no effect on GnRH output. As previously shown, testosterone (1 nmol/l) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, 0.1 nmol/l) suppressed basal GnRH release, but only testosterone was able to inhibit the release of GnRH stimulated by activin-A. Since DHT is a non-aromatizable androgen, we evaluated whether the inhibitory effect of testosterone was due to its in vitro conversion into 17 beta-estradiol. The addition of 4-hydroxyandrostenedione, a steroidal aromatase inhibitor, did not influence the suppressive effect of testosterone on GnRH release stimulated by activin-A. In conclusion, activin-A stimulated hypothalamic GnRH release in vitro and this effect was abolished by inhibin and was blunted by testosterone. These findings suggest that activins may participate in the regulation of the

  10. Splitting placodes: effects of bone morphogenetic protein and Activin on the patterning and identity of mouse incisors.

    PubMed

    Munne, Pauliina M; Felszeghy, Szabolcs; Jussila, Maria; Suomalainen, Marika; Thesleff, Irma; Jernvall, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    The single large rodent incisor in each jaw quadrant is evolutionarily derived from a mammalian ancestor with many small incisors. The embryonic placode giving rise to the mouse incisor is considerably larger than the molar placode, and the question remains whether this large incisor placode is a developmental requisite to make a thick incisor. Here we used in vitro culture system to experiment with the molecular mechanism regulating tooth placode development and how mice have thick incisors. We found that large placodes are prone to disintegration and formation of two to three small incisor placodes. The balance between one large or multiple small placodes was altered through the regulation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Activin signaling. Exogenous Noggin, which inhibits BMP signaling, or exogenous Activin cause the development of two to three incisors. These incisors were more slender than normal incisors. Additionally, two inhibitor molecules, Sostdc1 and Follistatin, which regulate the effects of BMPs and Activin and have opposite expression patterns, are likely to be involved in the incisor placode regulation in vivo. Furthermore, inhibition of BMPs by recombinant Noggin has been previously suggested to cause a change in the tooth identity from the incisor to the molar. This evidence has been used to support a homeobox code in determining tooth identity. Our work provides an alternative interpretation, where the inhibition of BMP signaling can lead to splitting of the large incisor placode and the formation of partly separate incisors, thereby acquiring molar-like morphology without a change in tooth identity.

  11. Role of osteoclasts in heterotopic ossification enhanced by fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva-related activin-like kinase 2 mutation in mice.

    PubMed

    Kawao, Naoyuki; Yano, Masato; Tamura, Yukinori; Okumoto, Katsumi; Okada, Kiyotaka; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a disorder of skeletal malformations and progressive heterotopic ossification. The constitutively activating mutation (R206H) of the bone morphogenetic protein type 1 receptor, activin-like kinase 2 (ALK2), is responsible for the pathogenesis of FOP. Although transfection of the causal mutation of FOP into myoblasts enhances osteoclast formation by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), the role of osteoclasts in heterotopic ossification is unknown. We therefore examined the effects of alendronate, SB431542 and SB203580 on heterotopic ossification induced by the causal mutation of FOP. Total bone mineral content as well as numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-positive cells in heterotopic bone were significantly higher in muscle tissues implanted with ALK2 (R206H)-transfected mouse myoblastic C2C12 cells than in the tissues implanted with empty vector-transfected cells in nude mice. Alendronate, an aminobisphosphonate, did not affect total mineral content or numbers of TRAP-positive multinucleated and ALP-positive cells in heterotopic bone, which were enhanced by the implantation of ALK2 (R206H)-transfected C2C12 cells, although it significantly decreased serum levels of cross-linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen, a bone resorption index. Moreover, neither SB431542, an inhibitor of TGF-β receptor type I kinase, nor SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, affected the increase in heterotopic ossification due to the implantation of ALK2 (R206H)-transfected C2C12 cells. In conclusion, the present study indicates that osteoclast inhibition does not affect heterotopic ossification enhanced by FOP-related mutation.

  12. Effect of repeated activin-A treatment on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of the adult male rat.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Rivier, C

    1997-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether recombinant activin-A increases mRNA levels of the peptide GnRH, and whether this phenomenon correlates with increased FSH and/or LH release. One acute s.c. injection of activin-A (120 micrograms/kg body weight) to adult male rats was found to significantly (P < 0.01) increase plasma FSH levels, with no detectable changes in LH or testosterone (T) release. Similarly, there were no significant differences between GnRH mRNA values measured in the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus. When activin-A was administered s.c. every 8 h for seven consecutive treatments, similar results were obtained for gonadotropin release; in addition, we observed a significant (p < 0.01) up-regulation of hypothalamic GnRH mRNA levels. The administration of activin-A intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v., 6 micrograms/rat) according to the same chronic schedule also produced a significant (p < 0.01) increase in FSH levels, as well as a modest, but detectable, elevation in LH concentrations, and a large augmentation of T secretion. In contrast, there were no changes in steady-state GnRH mRNA concentrations. Collectively, these results show that both the systemic (s.c.) and the central (i.c.v.) injection of activin-A stimulates FSH secretion. While we had originally thought that the lack of response of hypothalamic GnRH neurons to i.c.v. activin injections might have been due to increased steroid feedback, the observation that comparable results were obtained in both intact and castrated rats does not support this hypothesis. One possibility is that the previously reported stimulatory influence of i.c.v. activin-A treatment on neurons that manufacture corticotropin-releasing factor, and consequently on circulating catecholamine concentrations, may have increased testicular activity independently of changes in pituitary function.

  13. Synergistic Induction of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone β-Subunit Gene Expression by Gonadal Steroid Hormone Receptors and Smad Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Thackray, Varykina G.; Mellon, Pamela L.

    2008-01-01

    LH and FSH play crucial roles in mammalian reproduction by mediating steroidogenesis and gametogenesis. Gonadal steroid hormones influence gonadotropin production via feedback to the hypothalamus and pituitary. We previously demonstrated that progesterone and testosterone can stimulate expression of the FSH β-subunit gene in immortalized gonadotrope-derived LβT2 cells. Herein, we investigate how these gonadal steroids modulate activin signaling in the gonadotrope. Cotreatment of LβT2 cells or mouse primary pituitary cells with steroids and activin results in a synergistic induction of FSHβ gene expression. This synergy decreases when DNA-binding mutations are introduced into the steroid receptors or when mutations that reduce steroid hormone responsiveness are introduced into the FSHβ promoter, indicating that synergy requires direct DNA binding of the steroid receptors. Furthermore, classical activin signaling via Smad proteins is necessary for this synergy. In addition, these steroid receptors physically interact with Smads and are sufficient for the synergism to occur on the FSHβ promoter. Disruption of Smad binding to the promoter with a Smad protein lacking the DNA-binding domain or an FSHβ promoter containing mutated activin-response elements prevents the synergistic enhancement of FSHβ transcription. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the molecular mechanism for gonadal steroid hormone action on the FSHβ promoter involves cross-talk between the steroid and activin signaling pathways. They also reveal that this synergism requires binding of both the steroid receptors and Smad proteins to their cognate DNA-binding elements and likely involves a direct protein-protein interaction between the two types of transcription factors. PMID:18079204

  14. GpIIb/IIIa+ subpopulation of rat megakaryocyte progenitor cells exhibits high responsiveness to human thrombopoietin.

    PubMed

    Kato, T; Horie, K; Hagiwara, T; Maeda, E; Tsumura, H; Ohashi, H; Miyazaki, H

    1996-08-01

    The recently cloned factor thrombopoietin (TPO) has been shown to exhibit megakaryocyte colony-stimulating activity in vitro. In this investigation, to further evaluate the action of TPO on megakaryocyte progenitor cells (colony-forming units-megakaryocyte [CFU-MK]), GpIIb/IIIa+ and GpIIb/IIIa- populations of CFU-MK were prepared from rat bone marrow cells based on their reactivity with P55 antibody, a monoclonal antibody against rat GpIIb/IIIa, and their responsiveness to recombinant human TPO (rhTPO) and recombinant rat interleukin-3 (rrIL-3) was examined using a megakaryocyte colony-forming assay (Meg-CSA). rhTPO supported only megakaryocyte colony growth from both fractions in a dose-dependent fashion. The mean colony size observed with the GpIIb/IIIa+ population was smaller than that seen with the GpIIb/IIIa- population. With the optimal concentration of either rhTPO or rrIL-3, similar numbers of megakaryocyte colonies were formed from the GpIIb/IIIa+ population previously shown to be highly enriched for CFU-MK. In contrast, the maximum number of megakaryocyte colonies from the GpIIb/IIIa- population stimulated by rhTPO was only 24.2% of that achieved with rrIL-3. Morphologic analysis of rhTPO-promoted megakaryocyte colonies from the GpIIb/IIIa+ population showed that the average colony size was smaller but that the mean diameter of individual megakaryocytes was larger than in megakaryocyte colonies promoted with rrIL-3. rhTPO plus rrIL-3, each at suboptimal concentrations, had an additive effect on proliferation of CFU-MK in the GpIIb/IIIa+ fraction, whereas rhTPO plus murine IL-6 or murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mG-M-CSF) modestly but significantly reduced megakaryocyte colony growth. These results indicate that TPO preferentially acts on GpIIb/IIIa+ late CFU-MK with lower proliferative capacity and interacts with some other cytokines in CFU-MK development. PMID:8765496

  15. Effect of physical training on liver expression of activin A and follistatin in a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model in rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, R N; Bueno, P G; Avó, L R S; Nonaka, K O; Selistre-Araújo, H S; Leal, A M O

    2014-09-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fat accumulation in the liver and is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Activin A is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF)-β superfamily and inhibits hepatocyte growth. Follistatin antagonizes the biological actions of activin. Exercise is an important therapeutic strategy to reduce the metabolic effects of obesity. We evaluated the pattern of activin A and follistatin liver expression in obese rats subjected to swimming exercise. Control rats (C) and high-fat (HF) diet-fed rats were randomly assigned to a swimming training group (C-Swim and HF-Swim) or a sedentary group (C-Sed and HF-Sed). Activin βA subunit mRNA expression was significantly higher in HF-Swim than in HF-Sed rats. Follistatin mRNA expression was significantly lower in C-Swim and HF-Swim than in either C-Sed or HF-Sed animals. There was no evidence of steatosis or inflammation in C rats. In contrast, in HF animals the severity of steatosis ranged from grade 1 to grade 3. The extent of liver parenchyma damage was less in HF-Swim animals, with the severity of steatosis ranging from grade 0 to grade 1. These data showed that exercise may reduce the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet on the liver, suggesting that the local expression of activin-follistatin may be involved.

  16. Effect of physical training on liver expression of activin A and follistatin in a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model in rats

    PubMed Central

    Silva, R.N.; Bueno, P.G.; Avó, L.R.S.; Nonaka, K.O.; Selistre-Araújo, H.S.; Leal, A.M.O.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fat accumulation in the liver and is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Activin A is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF)-β superfamily and inhibits hepatocyte growth. Follistatin antagonizes the biological actions of activin. Exercise is an important therapeutic strategy to reduce the metabolic effects of obesity. We evaluated the pattern of activin A and follistatin liver expression in obese rats subjected to swimming exercise. Control rats (C) and high-fat (HF) diet-fed rats were randomly assigned to a swimming training group (C-Swim and HF-Swim) or a sedentary group (C-Sed and HF-Sed). Activin βA subunit mRNA expression was significantly higher in HF-Swim than in HF-Sed rats. Follistatin mRNA expression was significantly lower in C-Swim and HF-Swim than in either C-Sed or HF-Sed animals. There was no evidence of steatosis or inflammation in C rats. In contrast, in HF animals the severity of steatosis ranged from grade 1 to grade 3. The extent of liver parenchyma damage was less in HF-Swim animals, with the severity of steatosis ranging from grade 0 to grade 1. These data showed that exercise may reduce the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet on the liver, suggesting that the local expression of activin-follistatin may be involved. PMID:25075578

  17. The Notch ligand Delta-like 1 integrates inputs from TGFbeta/Activin and Wnt pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Bordonaro, Michael Tewari, Shruti Atamna, Wafa Lazarova, Darina L.

    2011-06-10

    Unlike the well-characterized nuclear function of the Notch intracellular domain, it has been difficult to identify a nuclear role for the ligands of Notch. Here we provide evidence for the nuclear function of the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 in colon cancer (CC) cells exposed to butyrate. We demonstrate that the intracellular domain of Delta-like 1 (Dll1icd) augments the activity of Wnt signaling-dependent reporters and that of the promoter of the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene. Data suggest that Dll1icd upregulates CTGF promoter activity through both direct and indirect mechanisms. The direct mechanism is supported by co-immunoprecipitation of endogenous Smad2/3 proteins and Dll1 and by chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses that revealed the occupancy of Dll1icd on CTGF promoter sequences containing a Smad binding element. The indirect upregulation of CTGF expression by Dll1 is likely due to the ability of Dll1icd to increase Wnt signaling, a pathway that targets CTGF. CTGF expression is induced in butyrate-treated CC cells and results from clonal growth assays support a role for CTGF in the cell growth-suppressive role of butyrate. In conclusion, integration of the Notch, Wnt, and TGFbeta/Activin signaling pathways is in part mediated by the interactions of Dll1 with Smad2/3 and Tcf4.

  18. Activation and shedding of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa under non-physiological shear stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zengsheng; Mondal, Nandan K; Ding, Jun; Koenig, Steven C; Slaughter, Mark S; Griffith, Bartley P; Wu, Zhongjun J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of non-physiological high shear stress on activation and shedding of platelet GP IIb/IIIa receptors. The healthy donor blood was exposed to three levels of high shear stresses (25, 75, 125 Pa) from the physiological to non-physiological status with three short exposure time (0.05, 0.5, 1.5 s), created by a specific blood shearing system. The activation and shedding of the platelet GPIIb/IIIa were analyzed using flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, platelet P-selectin expression of sheared blood, which is a marker for activated platelets, was also analyzed. The results from the present study showed that the number of activated platelets, as indicated by the surface GPIIb/IIIa activation and P-selectin expression, increased with increasing the shear stress level and exposure time. However, the mean fluorescence of GPIIb/IIIa on the platelet surface, decreased with increasing the shear stress level and exposure time. The reduction of GPIIb/IIIa on the platelet surface was further proved by the reduction of further activated platelet GPIIb/IIIa surface expression induced by ADP and the increase in GPIIb/IIIa concentration in microparticle-free plasma with increasing the applied shear stress and exposure time. It is clear that non-physiological shear stress induce a paradoxical phenomenon, in which both activation and shedding of the GPIIb/IIIa on the platelet surface occur simultaneously. This study may offer a new perspective to explain the reason of both increased thrombosis and bleeding events in patients implanted with high shear blood-contacting medical devices. PMID:26160282

  19. Comparison of Diversity of Type IIb Supernovae with Asymmetry in Cassiopeia A Using Light Echoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Kieran; Bianco, Federica B.; Modjaz, Maryam; Liu, Yu-Qian; Rest, Armin

    2016-10-01

    We compare the diversity of spectral line velocities in a large sample of type IIb supernovae (SNe IIb) with the expected asphericity in the explosion, as measured from the light echoes (LEs) of Cassiopeia A (Cas A), which was a historical galactic SN IIb. We revisit the results of Rest et al., who used LEs to observe Cas A from multiple lines of sight and hence determine its asphericity, as seen in the velocity of three spectral lines (He i λ5876, Hα, and the Ca ii near-infrared (NIR) triplet). We confirm and improve on this measurement by reproducing the effect of the LEs in the spectra of several extragalactic SNe IIb found in the literature as well as mean SN IIb spectra recently created by Liu et al. and comparing these to the observed light echo spectra of Cas A, including their associated uncertainties. In order to quantify the accuracy of this comparison, we smooth the light echo spectra of Cas A using Gaussian processes and use a Monte Carlo method to measure the absorption velocities of these three features in the spectra. We then test the hypothesis that the diversity of ejecta velocities seen in SNe IIb can be explained by asphericity. We do this by comparing the range of velocities seen in the different LEs, and hence different lines of sight, of Cas A to that seen in the population of SNe IIb. We conclude that these two ranges are of the same order and thus asphericity could be enough to explain the diversity in the expansion velocity alone.

  20. Peptides derived from central turn motifs within integrin αIIb and αV cytoplasmic tails inhibit integrin activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinlei; Liu, Yongqing; Haas, Thomas A

    2014-12-01

    We previously found that peptides derived from the full length of integrin αIIb and αV cytoplasmic tails inhibited their parent integrin activation, respectively. Here we showed that the cell-permeable peptides corresponding to the conserved central turn motif within αIIb and αV cytoplasmic tails, myr-KRNRPPLEED (αIIb peptide) and myr-KRVRPPQEEQ (αV peptide), similarly inhibited both αIIb and αV integrin activation. Pre-treatment with αIIb or αV peptides inhibited Mn(2+)-activated αIIbβ3 binding to soluble fibrinogen as well as the binding of αIIbβ3-expressing Chinese Hamster Ovary cells to immobilized fibrinogen. Our turn peptides also inhibited adhesion of two breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-435 and MCF7) to αV ligand vitronectin. These results suggest that αIIb and αV peptides share a same mechanism in regulating integrin function. Using αIIb peptide as a model, we found that replacement of RPP with AAA significantly attenuated the inhibitory activity of αIIb peptide. Furthermore, we found that αIIb peptide specifically bound to β-tubulin in cells. Our work suggests that the central motif of α tails is an anchoring point for cytoskeletons during integrin activation and integrin-mediated cell adhesion, and its function depends on the turn structure at RPP. However, post-treatment of peptides derived from the full-length tail or from the turn motif did not reverse αIIb and αV integrin activation.

  1. Amplification of bacteria-induced platelet activation is triggered by FcγRIIA, integrin αIIbβ3, and platelet factor 4

    PubMed Central

    Krauel, Krystin; Tilley, Dorothea O.; Weber, Claudia; Cox, Dermot; Greinacher, Andreas; Kerrigan, Steven W.; Watson, Steve P.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion to platelets is mediated via a range of strain-specific bacterial surface proteins that bind to a variety of platelet receptors. It is unclear how these interactions lead to platelet activation. We demonstrate a critical role for the immune receptor FcγRIIA, αIIbβ3, and Src and Syk tyrosine kinases in platelet activation by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. FcγRIIA activation is dependent on immunoglobulin G (IgG) and αIIbβ3 engagement. Moreover, feedback agonists adenosine 5′-diphosphate and thromboxane A2 are mandatory for platelet aggregation. Additionally, platelet factor 4 (PF4) binds to bacteria and reduces the lag time for aggregation, and gray platelet syndrome α-granule–deficient platelets do not aggregate to 4 of 5 bacterial strains. We propose that FcγRIIA-mediated activation is a common response mechanism used against a wide range of bacteria, and that release of secondary mediators and PF4 serve as a positive feedback mechanism for activation through an IgG-dependent pathway. PMID:24642751

  2. Activin A and equine chorionic gonadotropin recover reproductive dysfunction induced by neonatal exposure to an estrogenic endocrine disruptor in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Warita, Katsuhiko; Okamoto, Kazutaka; Mutoh, Ken-Ichiro; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Yue, Zhan-Peng; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Matsumoto, Yoshiki; Miki, Takanori; Takeuchi, Yoshiki; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Sugawara, Teruo; Hoshi, Nobuhiko

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of action of estrogenic endocrine disruptors and the rescue of reproductive function, particularly the responsiveness of testes to eCG and/or activin A (ACT) after establishing reproductive disorders. Newborn male mice (n = 29) were randomly divided into an untreated group and three treatment groups that received diethylstilbestrol (DES; 100 mug per animal) subcutaneously on Postnatal Day 3 to establish reproductive disorders and daily treatment with PBS (controls: DES + PBS), eCG (eCG group: DES + eCG), or eCG + ACT (eCG + ACT group: DES + eCG + ACT) at 6-8 wk of age prior to mating. After treatment, the controls showed diminished Leydig cells in the testes and thin germ cell layers containing pyknotic germ cells and multinucleated cells. In the eCG and eCG + ACT groups, spermatids and Leydig cells increased markedly. The immunoexpression of androgen receptors in the eCG group and steroidogenic acute regulatory (STAR) protein in the eCG and eCG + ACT groups recovered to approximately the levels in the untreated group; plasma LH and testosterone levels also increased relative to those in the controls. In addition, the cell proliferation index, which is estimated from 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine immunoexpression in spermatogonia, increased significantly under eCG treatment, and even more with eCG + ACT. However, the numbers of germ and Leydig cells decreased at 12 wk of age. Thus, ACT and eCG help the testes to recover from the dysfunction induced by neonatal DES administration. Furthermore, the permanent male reproductive disorder induced by neonatal exposure to estrogenic agents may be more likely to result from dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis than from dysfunction of the lower reproductive organs.

  3. Activin Enhances α- to β-Cell Transdifferentiation as a Source For β-Cells In Male FSTL3 Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Brown, Melissa L; Andrzejewski, Danielle; Burnside, Amy; Schneyer, Alan L

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes results from inadequate β-cell number and/or function to control serum glucose concentrations so that replacement of lost β-cells could become a viable therapy for diabetes. In addition to embryonic stem cell sources for new β-cells, evidence for transdifferentiation/reprogramming of non-β-cells to functional β-cells is accumulating. In addition, de-differentiation of β-cells observed in diabetes and their subsequent conversion to α-cells raises the possibility that adult islet cell fate is malleable and controlled by local hormonal and/or environmental cues. We previously demonstrated that inactivation of the activin antagonist, follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3) resulted in β-cell expansion and improved glucose homeostasis in the absence of β-cell proliferation. We recently reported that activin directly suppressed expression of critical α-cell genes while increasing expression of β-cell genes, supporting the hypothesis that activin is one of the local hormones controlling islet cell fate and that increased activin signaling accelerates α- to β-cell transdifferentiation. We tested this hypothesis using Gluc-Cre/yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) α-cell lineage tracing technology combined with FSTL3 knockout (KO) mice to label α-cells with YFP. Flow cytometry was used to quantify unlabeled and labeled α- and β-cells. We found that Ins+/YFP+ cells were significantly increased in FSTL3 KO mice compared with wild type littermates. Labeled Ins+/YFP+ cells increased significantly with age in FSTL3 KO mice but not wild type littermates. Sorting results were substantiated by counting fluorescently labeled cells in pancreatic sections. Activin treatment of isolated islets significantly increased the number of YFP+/Ins+ cells. These results suggest that α- to β-cell transdifferentiation is influenced by activin signaling and may contribute substantially to β-cell mass.

  4. FLT PET in Measuring Treatment Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-02

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  5. The glycoprotein-hormones activin A and inhibin A interfere with dendritic cell maturation

    PubMed Central

    Segerer, Sabine E; Müller, Nora; Brandt, Jens van den; Kapp, Michaela; Dietl, Johannes; Reichardt, Holger M; Rieger, Lorenz; Kämmerer, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    Background Pregnancy represents an exclusive situation in which the immune and the endocrine system cooperate to prevent rejection of the embryo by the maternal immune system. While immature dendritic cells (iDC) in the early pregnancy decidua presumably contribute to the establishment of peripheral tolerance, glycoprotein-hormones of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family including activin A (ActA) and inhibin A (InA) are candidates that could direct the differentiation of DCs into a tolerance-inducing phenotype. Methods To test this hypothesis we generated iDCs from peripheral-blood-monocytes and exposed them to TGF-beta1, ActA, as well as InA and Dexamethasone (Dex) as controls. Results Both glycoprotein-hormones prevented up-regulation of HLA-DR during cytokine-induced DC maturation similar to Dex but did not influence the expression of CD 40, CD 83 and CD 86. Visualization of the F-actin cytoskeleton confirmed that the DCs retained a partially immature phenotype under these conditions. The T-cell stimulatory capacity of DCs was reduced after ActA and InA exposure while the secretion of cytokines and chemokines was unaffected. Conclusion These findings suggest that ActA and InA interfere with selected aspects of DC maturation and may thereby help preventing activation of allogenic T-cells by the embryo. Thus, we have identified two novel members of the TGF-beta superfamily that could promote the generation of tolerance-inducing DCs. PMID:18460206

  6. Isolation and Localization of Type IIb Na/Pi Cotransporter in the Developing Rat Lung

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Mitsuyoshi; Wang, Dong-Yu; Kamo, Takaharu; Zhu, Yue; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi; Konishi, Yoichi; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Sugimura, Haruhiko

    2000-01-01

    Differential display analysis of rat lung at different developmental stages identified a fragment, HG80, which appeared on embryonic day 16.5 and thereafter. A full-length cDNA derived from a cDNA library of newborn rat lung probed with HG80 was the rat counterpart of sodium-dependent phosphate transporter type IIb and was designated rNaPi IIb. In situ hybridization showed that rNaPi IIb was expressed in type II alveolar cells, suggesting a role in the synthesis of surfactant in the alveoli. The time-dependent changes in localization of this gene in the developing lung and its possible use as a type II pneumocyte marker are discussed. PMID:10880371

  7. New type IIB backgrounds and aspects of their field theory duals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caceres, Elena; Macpherson, Niall T.; Núñez, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we study aspects of geometries in Type IIA and Type IIB String theory and elaborate on their field theory dual pairs. The backgrounds are associated with reductions to Type IIA of solutions with G 2 holonomy in eleven dimensions. We classify these backgrounds according to their G-structure, perform a non-Abelian T-duality on them and find new Type IIB configurations presenting dynamical SU(2)-structure. We study some aspects of the associated field theories defined by these new backgrounds. Various technical details are clearly spelled out.

  8. Fibroblast growth factor, but not activin, is a potent activator of mitogen-activated protein kinase in Xenopus explants.

    PubMed Central

    Graves, L M; Northrop, J L; Potts, B C; Krebs, E G; Kimelman, D

    1994-01-01

    Isolated explants from the animal hemisphere of Xenopus embryos were incubated with Xenopus basic fibroblast growth factor (XbFGF) or human activin A. XbFGF incubation resulted in the rapid activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and ribosomal S6 protein kinase (pp90rsk) in a dose-dependent manner with the highest levels of activation occurring at 50 ng/ml. Maximal activation occurred within 6-10 min after the addition of growth factor, and the activity of both kinases declined to unstimulated levels after 30 min. Activin was unable to activate either MAPK or pp90rsk in the Xenopus explants to a substantial level, although it induced dorsal mesoderm better than XbFGF under the same experimental conditions. The regulatory protein Xwnt-8 did not activate MAPK, nor did it enhance the activation of MAPK by XbFGF. XbFGF was able to activate MAPK through at least the midgastrula stage, suggesting that this family of growth factors may have a role in gastrula-stage events. Images PMID:7510404

  9. FGF signaling via MAPK is required early and improves Activin A-induced definitive endoderm formation from human embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sui, Lina; Mfopou, Josue K.; Geens, Mieke; Sermon, Karen; Bouwens, Luc

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deep study the FGF signaling role during DE specification in the context of hESCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DE differentiation from hESCs has an early dependence on FGF signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A serum-free DE protocol is developed based on the findings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DE cells showed potential to differentiate into pancreatic progenitor cells. -- Abstract: Considering their unlimited proliferation and pluripotency properties, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) constitute a promising resource applicable for cell replacement therapy. To facilitate this clinical translation, it is critical to study and understand the early stage of hESCs differentiation wherein germ layers are defined. In this study, we examined the role of FGF signaling in Activin A-induced definitive endoderm (DE) differentiation in the absence of supplemented animal serum. We found that activated FGF/MAPK signaling is required at the early time point of Activin A-induced DE formation. In addition, FGF activation increased the number of DE cells compared to Activin A alone. These DE cells could further differentiate into PDX1 and NKX6.1 positive pancreatic progenitors in vitro. We conclude that Activin A combined with FGF/MAPK signaling efficiently induce DE cells in the absence of serum. These findings improve our understanding of human endoderm formation, and constitute a step forward in the generation of clinical grade hESCs progenies for cell therapy.

  10. Haiti: Incentives To Improve Basic Education (IIBE)--Project Bilaterial d'Education (PROBED). Midterm Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locher, Uli; And Others

    Haiti's Incentives to Improve Basic Education (IIBE) or Project Bilteral d'Education (PROBED) program seeks to stimulate improvements in educational quality and efficiency in private primary schools. The program surpasses other efforts because of: (1) unusually thorough preparation; (2) rapid assumption of management by Haitians; (3) a…

  11. Method and making group IIB metal - telluride films and solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Basol, Bulent M.; Kapur, Vijay K.

    1990-08-21

    A technique is disclosed forming thin films (13) of group IIB metal-telluride, such as Cd.sub.x Zn.sub.1-x Te (0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1), on a substrate (10) which comprises depositing Te (18) and at least one of the elements (19) of Cd, Zn, and Hg onto a substrate and then heating the elements to form the telluride. A technique is also provided for doping this material by chemically forming a thin layer of a dopant on the surface of the unreacted elements and then heating the elements along with the layer of dopant. A method is disclosed of fabricating a thin film photovoltaic cell which comprises depositing Te and at least one of the elements of Cd, Zn, and Hg onto a substrate which contains on its surface a semiconductor film (12) and then heating the elements in the presence of a halide of the Group IIB metals, causing the formation of solar cell grade Group IIB metal-telluride film and also causing the formation of a rectifying junction, in situ, between the semiconductor film on the substrate and the Group IIB metal-telluride layer which has been formed.

  12. Spatial structure of zervamicin IIB bound to DPC micelles: implications for voltage-gating.

    PubMed Central

    Shenkarev, Z O; Balashova, T A; Efremov, R G; Yakimenko, Z A; Ovchinnikova, T V; Raap, J; Arseniev, A S

    2002-01-01

    Zervamicin IIB is a 16-amino acid peptaibol that forms voltage-dependent ion channels with multilevel conductance states in planar lipid bilayers and vesicular systems. The spatial structure of zervamicin IIB bound to dodecylphosphocholine micelles was studied by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The set of 20 structures obtained has a bent helical conformation with a mean backbone root mean square deviation value of approximately 0.2 A and resembles the structure in isotropic solvents (Balashova et al., 2000. NMR structure of the channel-former zervamicin IIB in isotropic solvents. FEBS Lett 466:333-336). The N-terminus represents an alpha-helix, whereas the C-terminal part has a mixed 3(10)/alpha(R) hydrogen-bond pattern. In the anisotropic micelle environment, the bending angle on Hyp10 (23 degrees) is smaller than that (47 degrees) in isotropic solvents. In the NOESY (Nuclear Overhauser Effect Spectroscopy) spectra, the characteristic attenuation of the peptide signals by 5- and 16-doxylstearate relaxation probes indicates a peripheral mode of the peptaibol binding to the micelle with the N-terminus immersed slightly deeper into micelle interior. Analysis of the surface hydrophobicity reveals that the zervamicin IIB helix is amphiphilic and well suited to formation of a tetrameric transmembrane bundle, according to the barrel-stave mechanism. The results are discussed in a context of voltage-driven peptaibol insertion into membrane. PMID:11806918

  13. A note on poly-instanton effects in type IIB orientifolds on Calabi-Yau threefolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Gao, Xin; Rahn, Thorsten; Shukla, Pramod

    2012-06-01

    The zero mode structure for the generation of poly-instanton corrections for Euclidian D3-branes wrapping complex surfaces in Type IIB orientifolds with O7- and O3-planes is analyzed. Working examples of such surfaces and explicit embeddings into compact Calabi-Yau threefolds are presented, with special emphasis on geometries capable of realizing the LARGE volume scenario.

  14. Fc gamma receptor IIb on target B cells promotes rituximab internalization and reduces clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sean H; Vaughan, Andrew T; Ashton-Key, Margaret; Williams, Emily L; Dixon, Sandra V; Chan, H T Claude; Beers, Stephen A; French, Ruth R; Cox, Kerry L; Davies, Andrew J; Potter, Kathleen N; Mockridge, C Ian; Oscier, David G; Johnson, Peter W M; Cragg, Mark S; Glennie, Martin J

    2011-09-01

    The anti-CD20 mAb rituximab is central to the treatment of B-cell malignancies, but resistance remains a significant problem. We recently reported that resistance could be explained, in part, by internalization of rituximab (type I anti-CD20) from the surface of certain B-cell malignancies, thus limiting engagement of natural effectors and increasing mAb consumption. Internalization of rituximab was most evident in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), but the extent of internalization was heterogeneous within each disease. Here, we show that the inhibitory FcγRIIb on target B cells promotes this process and is largely responsible for the observed heterogeneity across a range of B-cell malignancies. Internalization correlated strongly with FcγRIIb expression on normal and malignant B cells, and resulted in reduced macrophage phagocytosis of mAb-coated targets. Furthermore, transfection of FcγRIIb into FcγRIIb negative Ramos cells increased internalization of rituximab in a dose-dependent manner. Target-cell FcγRIIb promoted rituximab internalization in a cis fashion and was independent of FcγRIIb on neighboring cells. It became phosphorylated and internalized along with CD20:anti-CD20 complexes before lysosomal degradation. In MCL patients, high FcγRIIb expression predicted less durable responses after rituximab-containing regimens. Therefore, target-cell FcγRIIb provides a potential biomarker of response to type I anti-CD20 mAb.

  15. Peptaibol Zervamicin IIB Structure and Dynamics Refinement from Transhydrogen Bond J Couplings

    PubMed Central

    Shenkarev, Z. O.; Balashova, T. A.; Yakimenko, Z. A.; Ovchinnikova, T. V.; Arseniev, A. S.

    2004-01-01

    Zervamicin IIB (Zrv-IIB) is a channel-forming peptaibol antibiotic of fungal origin. The measured transhydrogen bond 3hJNC′ couplings in methanol solution heaving average value of −0.41 Hz indicate that the stability of the Zrv-IIB helix in this milieu is comparable to the stability of helices in globular proteins. The N-terminus of the peptide forms an α-helix, whereas 310-helical hydrogen bonds stabilize the C-terminus. However, two weak transhydrogen bond peaks are observed in a long-range HNCO spectrum for HN Aib12. Energy calculations using the Empirical Conformation Energy Program for Peptides (ECEPP)/2 force field and the implicit solvent model show that the middle of the peptide helix accommodates a bifurcated hydrogen bond that is simultaneously formed between HN Aib12 and CO Leu8 and CO Aib9. Several lowered 3hJNC′ on a polar face of the helix correlate with the conformational exchange process observed earlier and imply dynamic distortions of a hydrogen bond pattern with the predominant population of a properly folded helical structure. The refined structure of Zrv-IIB on the basis of the observed hydrogen bond pattern has a small (∼20°) angle of helix bending that is virtually identical to the angle of bending in dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles, indicating the stability of a hinge region in different environments. NMR parameters (1HN chemical shifts and transpeptide bond 1JNC′ couplings) sensitive to hydrogen bonding along with the solvent accessible surface area of carbonyl oxygens indicate a large polar patch on the convex side of the helix formed by three exposed backbone carbonyls of Aib7, Aib9, and Hyp10 and polar side chains of Hyp10, Gln11, and Hyp13. The unique structural features, high helix stability and the enhanced polar patch, set apart Zrv-IIB from other peptaibols (for example, alamethicin) and possibly underlie its biological and physiological properties. PMID:15189865

  16. Visualization of Activated Platelets by Targeted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Utilizing Conformation-Specific Antibodies against Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa

    PubMed Central

    von zur Muhlen, Constantin; Peter, Karlheinz; Ali, Ziad A.; Schneider, Jürgen E.; McAteer, Martina A.; Neubauer, Stefan; Channon, Keith M.; Bode, Christoph; Choudhury, Robin P.

    2009-01-01

    Ruptured atherosclerotic plaques, lined with activated platelets, constitute an attractive target for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study evaluated whether microparticles of iron oxide (MPIO) targeting ligand-induced binding sites (LIBS) on the activated conformation of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa could be used to image platelets. MPIO (size: 1 μm) were conjugated to anti-LIBS or control single-chain antibody. Following guidewire injury to mouse femoral artery, platelet adhesion was present after 24 h. Mice were perfused with anti-LIBS-MPIO (or control MPIO) via the left ventricle and 11.7-tesla MRI was performed on femoral arteries ex vivo. A 3D gradient echo sequence attained an isotropic resolution of 25 μm. MPIO binding, quantified by MRI, was 4-fold higher with anti-LIBS-MPIO in comparison to control MPIO (p < 0.01). In histological sections, low signal zones on MRI and MPIO correlated strongly (R2 = 0.72; p < 0.001), indicating accurate MR quantification. In conclusion, anti-LIBS-MPIO bind to activated platelets in mouse arteries, providing a basis for the use of function-specific single-chain antibody-MPIO conjugates for molecular MRI, and represent the first molecular imaging of a conformational change in a surface receptor. This presents an opportunity to specifically image activated platelets involved in acute atherothrombosis with MRI. PMID:18515970

  17. TAK-1/p38/nNFκB signaling inhibits myoblast differentiation by increasing levels of Activin A

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Skeletal-muscle differentiation is required for the regeneration of myofibers after injury. The differentiation capacity of satellite cells is impaired in settings of old age, which is at least one factor in the onset of sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal-muscle mass and major cause of frailty. One important cause of impaired regeneration is increased levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β accompanied by reduced Notch signaling. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are also upregulated in aging, which led us hypothesize that they might potentially contribute to impaired regeneration in sarcopenia. Thus, in this study, we further analyzed the muscle differentiation-inhibition pathway mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines in human skeletal muscle cells (HuSKMCs). Methods We studied the modulation of HuSKMC differentiation by the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α The grade of differentiation was determined by either imaging (fusion index) or creatine kinase (CK) activity, a marker of muscle differentiation. Secretion of TGF-β proteins during differentiation was assessed by using a TGF-β-responsive reporter-gene assay and further identified by means of pharmacological and genetic inhibitors. In addition, signaling events were monitored by western blotting and reverse transcription PCR, both in HuSKMC cultures and in samples from a rat sarcopenia study. Results The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α and TNF-α block differentiation of human myoblasts into myotubes. This anti-differentiation effect requires activation of TGF-β-activated kinase (TAK)-1. Using pharmacological and genetic inhibitors, the TAK-1 pathway could be traced to p38 and NFκB. Surprisingly, the anti-differentiation effect of the cytokines required the transcriptional upregulation of Activin A, which in turn acted through its established signaling pathway: ActRII/ALK/SMAD. Inhibition of Activin A signaling was able to rescue human

  18. Germ-line mosaicism for a valine-to-methionine substitution at residue 553 in the glycoprotein Ib-binding domain of von Willebrand factor, causing type IIB von Willebrand disease

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, E.W.; Giles, A.R.; Lillicrap, D. )

    1992-01-01

    The origin of new single-gene mutations resulting in inherited disease is an issue which may be at least partially resolved by our enhanced ability to detect these changes. In this report the authors describe the identification of a missense mutation at codon 553 (guanine to adenine) in the von Willebrand factor (vWf) gene in affected members of a family with type IIB von Willebrand's disease (vWd). They found no evidence for this substitution in 190 normal vWf genes. The encoded substitution of a methionine for a valine at this residue is nonconservative in nature and has affected a vWf protein region which has been shown to facilitate binding to the platelet receptor glycoprotein Ib. In patients with type IIb vWd this interaction is characteristically increased in affinity. This mutation has also recently been recorded in four other type IIb vWd families. Thus, there is strong circumstantial evidence to incriminate this substitution as the disease causing mutation in this family. As further supporting evidence for this claim, they have shown by vWf polymorphism analysis that the mutation originated in a vWf gene transmitted from a phenotypically normal grandfather. These results confirm (1) that the candidate type IIB vWd mutation in this family occurred at some time during the development of the germ line of the grandfather and presumably was related to a mitotic cell division and (2) that, as a result, he is a low-level germ-line mosaic for the mutation.

  19. Synthesis by cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells of two proteins structurally and immunologically related to platelet membrane glycoproteins IIb and IIIa

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, P.J.; Kawai, Y.; Montgomery, R.R.; Kunicki, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Human platelets participate in a number of adhesive interactions, including binding to exposed subendothelium after vascular injury, and platelet-platelet cohesion to form large aggregates. Platelet membrane glycoproteins (GP) IIb and IIIa constitute a receptor for fibrinogen that, together with fibrinogen and calcium, is largely responsible for mediating the formation of the primary hemostatic plug. Using highly specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies as probes, we could detect the presence of both of these glycoproteins in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Metabolic labeling of endothelium with (/sup 35/S)methionine demonstrated that both GPIIb and GPIIIa were actively synthesized in culture. Using the technique of crossed immunoelectrophoresis, evidence was obtained that the endothelial cell forms of GPIIb and GPIIIa may exist complexed to one another after solubilization in Triton X-100.

  20. Inhibition of αIIbβ3 Ligand Binding by an αIIb Peptide that Clasps the Hybrid Domain to the βI Domain of β3

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen Hwa; Schaffner-Reckinger, Elisabeth; Tsoukatos, Demokritos C.; Aylward, Kelly; Moussis, Vassilios; Tsikaris, Vassilios; Trypou, Paraskevi; Egot, Marion; Baruch, Dominique; Kieffer, Nelly; Bachelot-Loza, Christilla

    2015-01-01

    Agonist-stimulated platelet activation triggers conformational changes of integrin αIIbβ3, allowing fibrinogen binding and platelet aggregation. We have previously shown that an octapeptide, p1YMESRADR8, corresponding to amino acids 313–320 of the β-ribbon extending from the β-propeller domain of αIIb, acts as a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Here we have performed in silico modelling analysis of the interaction of this peptide with αIIbβ3 in its bent and closed (not swing-out) conformation and show that the peptide is able to act as a substitute for the β-ribbon by forming a clasp restraining the β3 hybrid and βI domains in a closed conformation. The involvement of species-specific residues of the β3 hybrid domain (E356 and K384) and the β1 domain (E297) as well as an intrapeptide bond (pE315-pR317) were confirmed as important for this interaction by mutagenesis studies of αIIbβ3 expressed in CHO cells and native or substituted peptide inhibitory studies on platelet functions. Furthermore, NMR data corroborate the above results. Our findings provide insight into the important functional role of the αIIb β-ribbon in preventing integrin αIIbβ3 head piece opening, and highlight a potential new therapeutic approach to prevent integrin ligand binding. PMID:26332040

  1. Di-J/Ψ Studies, Level 3 Tracking and the D0 Run IIb Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Vint, Philip John

    2010-02-01

    The D0 detector underwent an upgrade to its silicon vertex detector and triggering systems during the transition from Run IIa to Run IIb to maximize its ability to fully exploit Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron. This thesis describes improvements made to the tracking and vertexing algorithms used by the high level trigger in both Run IIa and Run IIb, as well as a search for resonant di-J/Ψ states using both Run IIa and Run IIb data. Improvements made to the tracking and vertexing algorithms during Run IIa included the optimization of the existing tracking software to reduce overall processing time and the certification and testing of a new software release. Upgrades made to the high level trigger for Run IIb included the development of a new tracking algorithm and the inclusion of the new Layer 0 silicon detector into the existing software. The integration of Layer 0 into the high level trigger has led to an improvement in the overall impact parameter resolution for tracks of ~50%. The development of a new parameterization method for finding the error associated to the impact parameter of tracks returned by the high level tracking algorithm, in association with the inclusion of Layer 0, has led to improvements in vertex resolution of ~4.5 μm. A previous search in the di-J/Ψ channel revealed a unpredicted resonance at ~13.7 GeV/c2. A confirmation analysis is presented using 2.8 fb-1 of data and two different approaches to cuts. No significant excess is seen in the di-J/Ψ mass spectrum.

  2. β-Subunit Binding Is Sufficient for Ligands to Open the Integrin αIIbβ3 Headpiece.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fu-Yang; Zhu, Jianghai; Eng, Edward T; Hudson, Nathan E; Springer, Timothy A

    2016-02-26

    The platelet integrin αIIbβ3 binds to a KQAGDV motif at the fibrinogen γ-chain C terminus and to RGD motifs present in loops in many extracellular matrix proteins. These ligands bind in a groove between the integrin α and β-subunits; the basic Lys or Arg side chain hydrogen bonds to the αIIb-subunit, and the acidic Asp side chain coordinates to a metal ion held by the β3-subunit. Ligand binding induces headpiece opening, with conformational change in the β-subunit. During this opening, RGD slides in the ligand-binding pocket toward αIIb, with movement of the βI-domain β1-α1 loop toward αIIb, enabling formation of direct, charged hydrogen bonds between the Arg side chain and αIIb. Here we test whether ligand interactions with β3 suffice for stable ligand binding and headpiece opening. We find that the AGDV tetrapeptide from KQAGDV binds to the αIIbβ3 headpiece with affinity comparable with the RGDSP peptide from fibronectin. AGDV induced complete headpiece opening in solution as shown by increase in hydrodynamic radius. Soaking of AGDV into closed αIIbβ3 headpiece crystals induced intermediate states similarly to RGDSP. AGDV has very little contact with the α-subunit. Furthermore, as measured by epitope exposure, AGDV, like the fibrinogen γ C-terminal peptide and RGD, caused integrin extension on the cell surface. Thus, pushing by the β3-subunit on Asp is sufficient for headpiece opening and ligand sliding, and no pulling by the αIIb subunit on Arg is required. PMID:26631735

  3. β-Subunit Binding Is Sufficient for Ligands to Open the Integrin αIIbβ3 Headpiece*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fu-Yang; Zhu, Jianghai; Eng, Edward T.; Hudson, Nathan E.; Springer, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    The platelet integrin αIIbβ3 binds to a KQAGDV motif at the fibrinogen γ-chain C terminus and to RGD motifs present in loops in many extracellular matrix proteins. These ligands bind in a groove between the integrin α and β-subunits; the basic Lys or Arg side chain hydrogen bonds to the αIIb-subunit, and the acidic Asp side chain coordinates to a metal ion held by the β3-subunit. Ligand binding induces headpiece opening, with conformational change in the β-subunit. During this opening, RGD slides in the ligand-binding pocket toward αIIb, with movement of the βI-domain β1-α1 loop toward αIIb, enabling formation of direct, charged hydrogen bonds between the Arg side chain and αIIb. Here we test whether ligand interactions with β3 suffice for stable ligand binding and headpiece opening. We find that the AGDV tetrapeptide from KQAGDV binds to the αIIbβ3 headpiece with affinity comparable with the RGDSP peptide from fibronectin. AGDV induced complete headpiece opening in solution as shown by increase in hydrodynamic radius. Soaking of AGDV into closed αIIbβ3 headpiece crystals induced intermediate states similarly to RGDSP. AGDV has very little contact with the α-subunit. Furthermore, as measured by epitope exposure, AGDV, like the fibrinogen γ C-terminal peptide and RGD, caused integrin extension on the cell surface. Thus, pushing by the β3-subunit on Asp is sufficient for headpiece opening and ligand sliding, and no pulling by the αIIb subunit on Arg is required. PMID:26631735

  4. Control of starch branching in barley defined through differential RNAi suppression of starch branching enzyme IIa and IIb

    PubMed Central

    Regina, Ahmed; Kosar-Hashemi, Behjat; Ling, Samuel; Li, Zhongyi; Rahman, Sadequr; Morell, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The roles of starch branching enzyme (SBE, EC 2.4.1.18) IIa and SBE IIb in defining the structure of amylose and amylopectin in barley (Hordeum vulgare) endosperm were examined. Barley lines with low expression of SBE IIa or SBE IIb, and with the low expression of both isoforms were generated through RNA-mediated silencing technology. These lines enabled the study of the role of each of these isoforms in determining the amylose content, the distribution of chain lengths, and the frequency of branching in both amylose and amylopectin. In lines where both SBE IIa and SBE IIb expression were reduced by >80%, a high amylose phenotype (>70%) was observed, while a reduction in the expression of either of these isoforms alone had minor impact on amylose content. The structure and properties of the high amylose starch resulting from the concomitant reduction in the expression of both isoforms of SBE II in barley were found to approximate changes seen in amylose extender mutants of maize, which result from lesions eliminating expression of the SBE IIb gene. Amylopectin chain length distribution analysis indicated that both SBE IIa and SBE IIb isoforms play distinct roles in determining the fine structure of amylopectin. A significant reduction in the frequency of branches in amylopectin was noticed only when both SBE IIa and SBE IIb were reduced, whereas there was a significant increase in the branching frequency of amylose when SBE IIb alone was reduced. Functional interactions between SBE isoforms are suggested, and a possible inhibitory role of SBE IIb on other SBE isoforms is discussed. PMID:20156842

  5. β-Subunit Binding Is Sufficient for Ligands to Open the Integrin αIIbβ3 Headpiece.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fu-Yang; Zhu, Jianghai; Eng, Edward T; Hudson, Nathan E; Springer, Timothy A

    2016-02-26

    The platelet integrin αIIbβ3 binds to a KQAGDV motif at the fibrinogen γ-chain C terminus and to RGD motifs present in loops in many extracellular matrix proteins. These ligands bind in a groove between the integrin α and β-subunits; the basic Lys or Arg side chain hydrogen bonds to the αIIb-subunit, and the acidic Asp side chain coordinates to a metal ion held by the β3-subunit. Ligand binding induces headpiece opening, with conformational change in the β-subunit. During this opening, RGD slides in the ligand-binding pocket toward αIIb, with movement of the βI-domain β1-α1 loop toward αIIb, enabling formation of direct, charged hydrogen bonds between the Arg side chain and αIIb. Here we test whether ligand interactions with β3 suffice for stable ligand binding and headpiece opening. We find that the AGDV tetrapeptide from KQAGDV binds to the αIIbβ3 headpiece with affinity comparable with the RGDSP peptide from fibronectin. AGDV induced complete headpiece opening in solution as shown by increase in hydrodynamic radius. Soaking of AGDV into closed αIIbβ3 headpiece crystals induced intermediate states similarly to RGDSP. AGDV has very little contact with the α-subunit. Furthermore, as measured by epitope exposure, AGDV, like the fibrinogen γ C-terminal peptide and RGD, caused integrin extension on the cell surface. Thus, pushing by the β3-subunit on Asp is sufficient for headpiece opening and ligand sliding, and no pulling by the αIIb subunit on Arg is required.

  6. Major Histocompatibility Complex class IIB polymorphism in an ancient Spanish breed.

    PubMed

    Atlija, Marina; Gutíerrez-Gil, Beatriz; Arranz, Juan-Jose; Semmer, Jördis; Stear, Michael J; Buitkamp, Johannes

    2015-09-01

    Genes from the Major Histocompatibility Complex class II region are involved in the presentation of antigens. Therefore, they have the key role in regulating the immune response and in the resistance to infections. We investigated the Major Histocompatibility Complex class IIB genes, DRB and DQB, in Churra sheep, one of the most important indigenous breeds of Spain. These genes are among the most polymorphic in the mammalian genome. Furthermore, often different numbers of class IIB genes per haplotype exist, complicating the genotyping and sequencing of these genes. Especially the DQB region is only partially characterized in sheep and the repertoire of DRB and DQB alleles in Churra sheep, an ancient breed, is unknown. Here, we sequenced the class IIB genes for 15 rams that are the pedigree heads of a selection Nucleus herd. In total, we found 12 DRB and 25 DQB alleles. From these, 3 and 15 were new, respectively. Fourteen haplotypes carrying one or two DQB alleles could be deduced and the evolutionary relationship of these was investigated by phylogenetic trees. Based on the sequences of these most common class II alleles, a more efficient genotyping system for larger numbers of Churra sheep will be developed. PMID:26184839

  7. DNA topoisomerase VIII: a novel subfamily of type IIB topoisomerases encoded by free or integrated plasmids in Archaea and Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gadelle, Danièle; Krupovic, Mart; Raymann, Kasie; Mayer, Claudine; Forterre, Patrick

    2014-07-01

    Type II DNA topoisomerases are divided into two families, IIA and IIB. Types IIA and IIB enzymes share homologous B subunits encompassing the ATP-binding site, but have non-homologous A subunits catalyzing DNA cleavage. Type IIA topoisomerases are ubiquitous in Bacteria and Eukarya, whereas members of the IIB family are mostly present in Archaea and plants. Here, we report the detection of genes encoding type IIB enzymes in which the A and B subunits are fused into a single polypeptide. These proteins are encoded in several bacterial genomes, two bacterial plasmids and one archaeal plasmid. They form a monophyletic group that is very divergent from archaeal and eukaryotic type IIB enzymes (DNA topoisomerase VI). We propose to classify them into a new subfamily, denoted DNA topoisomerase VIII. Bacterial genes encoding a topoisomerase VIII are present within integrated mobile elements, most likely derived from conjugative plasmids. Purified topoisomerase VIII encoded by the plasmid pPPM1a from Paenibacillus polymyxa M1 had ATP-dependent relaxation and decatenation activities. In contrast, the enzyme encoded by mobile elements integrated into the genome of Ammonifex degensii exhibited DNA cleavage activity producing a full-length linear plasmid and that from Microscilla marina exhibited ATP-independent relaxation activity. Topoisomerases VIII, the smallest known type IIB enzymes, could be new promising models for structural and mechanistic studies.

  8. Stimulation of circus movement by activin, bFGF and TGF-beta 2 in isolated animal cap cells of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Minoura, I; Nakamura, H; Tashiro, K; Shiokawa, K

    1995-01-01

    Lobopodium is a hyaline cytoplasmic protrusion which rotates circumferencially around a cell. This movement is called circus movement, which is seen in dissociated cells of amphibian embryos. Relative abundance of the lobopodia-forming cells changes temporally and spatially within Xenopus embryos, reflecting stage-dependent difference of morphogenetic movements. The lobopodia-forming activity of dissociated animal cap cells was stimulated strongly by activin and bFGF, and weakly by TGF-beta 2. In addition, activin A was found to stimulate cellular attachment to the substratum when the cultivation lasted long. Thus, mesoderm-inducing growth factors stimulate lobopodia formation and cellular movements which may be necessary for gastrulation and neurulation in Xenopus early embryos.

  9. Platelet receptors and patient responses: The contributions of Professor Stan Heptinstall to platelet research.

    PubMed

    Clemetson, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    Stan Heptinstall's contributions to platelet research covered organising meetings at the national and European level as well as starting and maintaining the journal "Platelets". The major part of his research addressed problems of inhibition of platelet receptors and the effects of this on patient health. In particular, the effects of P2Y12 inhibitors on patients with acute cardiovascular problems were a major focus. Other studies included the effects of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) extracts on platelets, of direct anti-IIb/IIIa receptorIIbβ3) inhibitors and of prostanoids on platelet function. Recently, methods for assessing the effectiveness of platelet inhibition were investigated.

  10. Mapping early conformational changes in alphaIIb and beta3 during biogenesis reveals a potential mechanism for alphaIIbbeta3 adopting its bent conformation.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, W Beau; Li, Jihong; Murcia, Marta; Valentin, Nathalie; Newman, Peter J; Coller, Barry S

    2007-05-01

    Current evidence supports a model in which the low-affinity state of the platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3 results from alphaIIbbeta3 adopting a bent conformation. To assess alphaIIbbeta3 biogenesis and how alphaIIbbeta3 initially adopts the bent conformation, we mapped the conformational states occupied by alphaIIb and beta3 during biogenesis using conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We found that alphaIIbbeta3 complex formation was not limited by the availability of either free pro-alphaIIb or free beta3, suggesting that other molecules, perhaps chaperones, control complex formation. Five beta3-specific, ligand-induced binding site (LIBS) mAbs reacted with much or all free beta3 but not with beta3 when in complex with mature alphaIIb, suggesting that beta3 adopts its mature conformation only after complex formation. Conversely, 2 alphaIIb-specific LIBS mAbs directed against the alphaIIb Calf-2 region adjacent to the membrane reacted with only minor fractions of free pro-alphaIIb, raising the possibility that pro-alphaIIb adopts a bent conformation early in biogenesis. Our data suggest a working model in which pro-alphaIIb adopts a bent conformation soon after synthesis, and then beta3 assumes its bent conformation by virtue of its interaction with the bent pro-alphaIIb.

  11. One year of monitoring of the Type IIb supernova SN 2011dh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, D. K.; Anupama, G. C.; Chakradhari, N. K.

    2013-07-01

    Optical UBVRI photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy of the Type IIb supernova SN 2011dh in M51 are presented, covering the first year after the explosion. The light curve and spectral evolution are discussed. The early phase light-curve evolution of SN 2011dh is very similar to SN 1993J and SN 2008ax. In the late phase, however, SN 2011dh declines faster than SN 1993J. The late phase decline in the B band is steeper than in the R and I bands, indicating the possibility of dust formation. With a peak V-band absolute magnitude of MV = -17.123 ± 0.18 mag, SN 2011dh is a marginally faint type IIb event. The reddening corrected colour curves of SN 2011dh are found to be redder than other well-studied Type IIb supernovae. The bolometric light curve indicates ˜0.09 M⊙ of 56Ni is synthesized during the explosion. The He I lines were detected in the spectra during the rise to maximum. The nebular spectra of SN 2011dh show a box-shaped emission in the red wing of the [O I] 6300-6363 Å feature, that is attributed to Hα emission from a shock-excited circumstellar material. The analysis of nebular spectra indicates that ˜0.2 M⊙ of oxygen was ejected during the explosion. Further, the [Ca II]/[O I] line ratio in the nebular phase is ˜0.7, indicating a progenitor with a main-sequence mass of 10-15 M⊙.

  12. Flow and transport at the Las Cruces trench site: Experiment IIb

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, J.; Hills, R.G.; Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H.

    1997-07-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has been directed by Congress in the Low Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 to develop regulatory guidance and assist the individual states and compacts in siting and assessing future low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. Three water flow and solute transport experiments were performed as part of a comprehensive field trench study near Las Cruces, New Mexico to test deterministic and stochastic models of vadose zone flow and transport. This report presents partial results from the third experiment (experiment IIb). Experiments IIa and b were conducted on the North side of the trench, on a plot 1.22 m wide by 12 m long, perpendicular to the trench. The area was drip irrigated during two time periods with water containing a variety of tracers. The advance of the water front during the two irrigation episodes was measured with tensiometers and neutron probes. Solute front positions were determined from soil solution sampling through suction samplers and from disturbed sampling. The results from experiment IIb show predominantly downward water movement through the layered unsaturated soil, as evidenced from neutron probe data and gravimetric sampling. Tritium plumes were only half as deep and half as wide as the water plumes at 310 days after the beginning of experiment IIb. Chromium, applied as Cr(VI), moved a readily as, and similar to tritium, but there was a loss of mass due to reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Chloride and nitrate, initially present at high concentrations in the soil solution, were displaced by the low concentration irrigation water, resulting in chloride and nitrate concentration distributions that looked like negative images of the tritium distributions. The extensive data presented should serve well as a data base for model testing.

  13. Arf6 controls platelet spreading and clot retraction via integrin αIIbβ3 trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yunjie; Joshi, Smita; Xiang, Binggang; Kanaho, Yasunori; Li, Zhenyu; Bouchard, Beth A.; Moncman, Carole L.

    2016-01-01

    Platelet and megakaryocyte endocytosis is important for loading certain granule cargo (ie, fibrinogen [Fg] and vascular endothelial growth factor); however, the mechanisms of platelet endocytosis and its functional acute effects are understudied. Adenosine 5'-diphosphate–ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a small guanosine triphosphate–binding protein that regulates endocytic trafficking, especially of integrins. To study platelet endocytosis, we generated platelet-specific Arf6 knockout (KO) mice. Arf6 KO platelets had less associated Fg suggesting that Arf6 affects αIIbβ3-mediated Fg uptake and/or storage. Other cargo was unaffected. To measure Fg uptake, mice were injected with biotinylated- or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)–labeled Fg. Platelets from the injected Arf6 KO mice showed lower accumulation of tagged Fg, suggesting an uptake defect. Ex vivo, Arf6 KO platelets were also defective in FITC-Fg uptake and storage. Immunofluorescence analysis showed initial trafficking of FITC-Fg to a Rab4-positive compartment followed by colocalization with Rab11-positive structures, suggesting that platelets contain and use both early and recycling endosomes. Resting and activated αIIbβ3 levels, as measured by flow cytometry, were unchanged; yet, Arf6 KO platelets exhibited enhanced spreading on Fg and faster clot retraction. This was not the result of alterations in αIIbβ3 signaling, because myosin light-chain phosphorylation and Rac1/RhoA activation were unaffected. Consistent with the enhanced clot retraction and spreading, Arf6 KO mice showed no deficits in tail bleeding or FeCl3-induced carotid injury assays. Our studies present the first mouse model for defining the functions of platelet endocytosis and suggest that altered integrin trafficking may affect the efficacy of platelet function. PMID:26738539

  14. Measurement of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade by flow cytometry with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated crotavirin, a member of disintegrins.

    PubMed

    Liu, C Z; Hur, B T; Huang, T F

    1996-10-01

    The blockade of platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb/IIIa by a monoclonal antibody, 7E3, was measured by flow cytometry using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated disintegrin, FITC-crotavirin, as the probe. After treatment of platelets with 7E3 or 7E3 F(ab')2, there is a good correlation between the inhibition of platelet aggregation and the blockade of FITC-crotavirin's binding to platelets. The content of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa for the subsequent binding of FITC-crotavirin to the 7E3-pretreated platelets highly correlated to the extent of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, remaining available. It was evidenced by the observation that the sum of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa occupation by 7E3 and that of FITC-crotavirin approached the total amount of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa expressed on the platelet membrane. This indicates that the percentage inhibition of FITC-crotavirin's binding at the saturation dose reflects the extent of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade by 7E3. At the saturation binding concentration (5 micrograms/ml), FITC-crotavirin did not displace platelet bound 7E3. Gating the light-scattering profile for platelets, the binding of FITC-crotavirin to platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa could be easily determined in diluted whole blood by direct stain method. The available unoccupied glycoprotein IIb/IIIa of platelets in the 7E3 or 7E3 F(ab')2-pretreated whole blood were measured by flow cytometry at the saturation binding dose of FITC-crotavirin (4 micrograms/ml) and the data showed that the higher deconcentration of antibody added into whole blood, the lower debinding of FITC-crotavirin to platelets. This technique may provide an alternative rapid method for measuring the blockade of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa by 7E3, a promising anti-thrombotic agent, thus providing a monitoring method for adjusting the therapeutic dose of 7E3 or its related derivatives.

  15. N = 4 supergravity for type IIB on T6/Bbb Z2 in presence of fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaulà, Silvia

    2004-05-01

    We report on the construction of four-dimensional gauged supergravity models that can be interpreted as type IIB orientifold compactification in the presence of 3-form fluxes and D3-branes. We mainly address our attention to the symplectic embedding of the U-duality group of the theory and the consequent choice of the gauge group, whose four-dimensional Killing vectors are the remnants of the ten-dimensional fluxes. We briefly discuss the structure of the scalar potential arising from the gauging and the properties of the Killing vectors in order to preserve some amount of supersymmetry.

  16. Maximal R-symmetry violating amplitudes in type IIb superstring theory.

    PubMed

    Boels, Rutger H

    2012-08-24

    On-shell superspace techniques are used to quantify R-symmetry violation in type IIB superstring theory amplitudes in a flat background in 10 dimensions. This shows the existence of a particularly simple class of nonvanishing amplitudes in this theory, which violate R symmetry maximally. General properties of the class and some of its extensions are established that at string tree level are shown to determine the first three nontrivial effective field theory contributions to all multiplicity. This leads to a natural conjecture for the exact analytic part of the first two of these.

  17. [Complications of surgical stage of treatment in patients with cancer of cervix uteri stage IIB].

    PubMed

    Kryzhanivs'ka, A Ie

    2013-11-01

    The results of treatment of 127 patients, suffering cervix uteri cancer stage IIB in period of 1998 - 2012 yrs, were analyzed. Complications of surgical stage of the combined treatment have had occurred in 40.9% patients, including 40.5% patients, to whom neoadjuvant chemotherapy was conducted and in 41.5%--radiation therapy (RTH). The main postoperative complications--retroperitoneal lymphatic cysts--were revealed in 35.4% patients. The factors, raising the risk of postoperative complications occurrence, are following: the primary tumor spreading, metastatic affection of lymphatic nodes of pelvic cavity, preoperative conduction of RTH or chemotherapy.

  18. Activin A/BMP2 chimera AB235 drives efficient redifferentiation of long term cultured autologous chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, G.; López-Ruiz, E.; Kwiatkowski, W.; Montañez, E.; Arrebola, F.; Carrillo, E.; Gray, P. C.; Belmonte, J. C. Izpisua; Choe, S.; Perán, M.; Marchal, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) depends on the quality and quantity of implanted cells and is hindered by the fact that chondrocytes cultured for long periods of time undergo dedifferentiation. Here we have developed a reproducible and efficient chondrogenic protocol to redifferentiate chondrocytes isolated from osteoarthritis (OA) patients. We used morphological, histological and immunological analysis together with a RT-PCR detection of collagen I and collagen II gene expression to show that chondrocytes isolated from articular cartilage biopsies of patients and subjected to long-term culture undergo dedifferentiation and that these cells can be redifferentiated following treatment with the chimeric Activin A/BMP2 ligand AB235. Examination of AB235-treated cell pellets in both in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that redifferentiated chondrocytes synthesized a cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM), primarily consisting of vertically-orientated collagen fibres and cartilage-specific proteoglycans. AB235-treated cell pellets also integrated into the surrounding subcutaneous tissue following transplantation in mice as demonstrated by their dramatic increase in size while non-treated control pellets disintegrated upon transplantation. Thus, our findings describe an effective protocol for the promotion of redifferentiation of autologous chondrocytes obtained from OA patients and the formation of a cartilage-like ECM that can integrate into the surrounding tissue in vivo. PMID:26563344

  19. Graded changes in dose of a Xenopus activin A homologue elicit stepwise transitions in embryonic cell fate.

    PubMed

    Green, J B; Smith, J C

    1990-09-27

    The protein XTC-MIF, a Xenopus homologue of activin A and a potent mesoderm-inducing factor, can induce responding animal pole explants to form several different cell types in a dose-dependent manner, higher doses eliciting more dorso-anterior tissues. This graded response, characteristic of classically postulated morphogens, may underlie pattern formation, but the response of intact animal caps to XTC-MIF provides only a crude indication of trends. Here we report the effects of XTC-MIF on dispersed blastomeres rather than intact animal caps. Under these conditions, responding cells distinguish sharply between doses of pure XTC-MIF differing by less than 1.5-fold. Two different response thresholds have been found, defining three cell states. This suggests that XTC-MIF has an instructive effect. Notochord and muscle are both induced in the same narrow dose-range. Mixing treated with untreated cells does not seem to shift the dose thresholds, showing that at least some cells can stably record the received dose of inducing factor.

  20. Derivation of mesenchymal stromal cells from canine induced pluripotent stem cells by inhibition of the TGFβ/activin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, Deanne J; Frith, Jessica E; Frith, Thomas J R; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A; Cooper-White, Justin J; Wolvetang, Ernst J

    2014-12-15

    In this study we have generated canine mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), also known as mesenchymal stem cells, from canine induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) by small-molecule inhibition of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)/activin signaling pathway. These ciPSC-derived MSCs (ciPSC-MSCs) express the MSC markers CD73, CD90, CD105, STRO1, cPDGFRβ and cKDR, in addition to the pluripotency factors OCT4, NANOG and REX1. ciPSC-MSCs lack immunostaining for H3K27me3, suggesting that they possess two active X chromosomes. ciPSC-MSCs are highly proliferative and undergo robust differentiation along the osteo-, chondro- and adipogenic pathways, but do not form teratoma-like tissues in vitro. Of further significance for the translational potential of ciPSC-MSCs, we show that these cells can be encapsulated and maintained within injectable hydrogel matrices that, when functionalized with bound pentosan polysulfate, dramatically enhance chondrogenesis and inhibit osteogenesis. The ability to efficiently derive large numbers of highly proliferative canine MSCs from ciPSCs that can be incorporated into injectable, functionalized hydrogels that enhance their differentiation along a desired lineage constitutes an important milestone towards developing an effective MSC-based therapy for osteoarthritis in dogs, but equally provides a model system for assessing the efficacy and safety of analogous approaches for treating human degenerative joint diseases. PMID:25055193

  1. Derivation of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Canine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Inhibition of the TGFβ/Activin Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Frith, Jessica E.; Frith, Thomas J.R.; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A.; Cooper-White, Justin J.; Wolvetang, Ernst J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we have generated canine mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), also known as mesenchymal stem cells, from canine induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) by small-molecule inhibition of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)/activin signaling pathway. These ciPSC-derived MSCs (ciPSC-MSCs) express the MSC markers CD73, CD90, CD105, STRO1, cPDGFRβ and cKDR, in addition to the pluripotency factors OCT4, NANOG and REX1. ciPSC-MSCs lack immunostaining for H3K27me3, suggesting that they possess two active X chromosomes. ciPSC-MSCs are highly proliferative and undergo robust differentiation along the osteo-, chondro- and adipogenic pathways, but do not form teratoma-like tissues in vitro. Of further significance for the translational potential of ciPSC-MSCs, we show that these cells can be encapsulated and maintained within injectable hydrogel matrices that, when functionalized with bound pentosan polysulfate, dramatically enhance chondrogenesis and inhibit osteogenesis. The ability to efficiently derive large numbers of highly proliferative canine MSCs from ciPSCs that can be incorporated into injectable, functionalized hydrogels that enhance their differentiation along a desired lineage constitutes an important milestone towards developing an effective MSC-based therapy for osteoarthritis in dogs, but equally provides a model system for assessing the efficacy and safety of analogous approaches for treating human degenerative joint diseases. PMID:25055193

  2. A likely inverse-Compton emission from the Type IIb SN 2013df.

    PubMed

    Li, K L; Kong, A K H

    2016-01-01

    The inverse-Compton X-ray emission model for supernovae has been well established to explain the X-ray properties of many supernovae for over 30 years. However, no observational case has yet been found to connect the X-rays with the optical lights as they should be. Here, we report the discovery of a hard X-ray source that is associated with a Type II-b supernova. Simultaneous emission enhancements have been found in both the X-ray and optical light curves twenty days after the supernova explosion. While the enhanced X-rays are likely dominated by inverse-Compton scatterings of the supernova's lights from the Type II-b secondary peak, we propose a scenario of a high-speed supernova ejecta colliding with a low-density pre-supernova stellar wind that produces an optically thin and high-temperature electron gas for the Comptonization. The inferred stellar wind mass-loss rate is consistent with that of the supernova progenitor candidate as a yellow supergiant detected by the Hubble Space Telescope, providing an independent proof for the progenitor. This is also new evidence of the inverse-Compton emission during the early phase of a supernova. PMID:27481538

  3. Acute Targeting of General Transcription Factor IIB Restricts Cardiac Hypertrophy via Selective Inhibition of Gene Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Sayed, Danish; Yang, Zhi; He, Minzhen; Pfleger, Jessica M.; Abdellatif, Maha

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously reported that specialized and housekeeping genes are differentially regulated via de novo recruitment and pause-release of RNA polymerase II (pol II), respectively, during cardiac hypertrophy. However, the significance of this finding remains to be examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms that differentially regulate these gene groups and exploit them for therapeutic targeting. Methods and Results Here we show that general transcription factor IIB (TFIIB) and cyclin-dependent kinase 9 are upregulated during hypertrophy, both targeted by miR-1, and play preferential roles in regulating those two groups of genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing reveals that TFIIB is constitutively bound to all paused, housekeeping, promoters, whereas, de novo recruitment of TFIIB and pol II is required for specialized genes that are induced during hypertrophy. We exploited this dichotomy to acutely inhibit induction of the latter set, which encompasses cardiomyopathy, immune reaction, and extracellular matrix genes, using locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified antisense TFIIB oligonucleotide treatment. This resulted in suppression of all specialized genes, while sparing the housekeeping ones, and, thus, attenuated pathological hypertrophy. Conclusions The data for the first time reveal distinct general transcription factor IIB dynamics that regulate specialized vs. housekeeping genes during cardiac hypertrophy. Thus, by acutely targeting TFIIB we were able to selectively inhibit the former set of genes and ameliorate pressure overload hypertrophy. We also demonstrate the feasibility of acutely and reversibly targeting cardiac mRNA for therapeutic purposes using LNA-modified antisense oligonucleotides. PMID:25398966

  4. Early Duplication of a Single MHC IIB Locus Prior to the Passerine Radiations

    PubMed Central

    Eimes, John A.; Lee, Sang-im; Townsend, Andrea K.; Jablonski, Piotr; Nishiumi, Isao; Satta, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    A key characteristic of MHC genes is the persistence of allelic lineages over macroevolutionary periods, often through multiple speciation events. This phenomenon, known as trans-species polymorphism (TSP), is well documented in several major taxonomic groups, but has less frequently been observed in birds. The order Passeriformes is arguably the most successful terrestrial vertebrate order in terms of diversity of species and ecological range, but the reasons for this success remain unclear. Passerines exhibit the most highly duplicated MHC genes of any major vertebrate taxonomic group, which may generate increased immune response relative to other avian orders with fewer MHC loci. Here, we describe phylogenetic patterns of the MHC IIB in the passerine family Corvidae. Our results indicate wide-spread TSP within this family, with at least four supported MHC IIB allelic lineages that predate speciation by many millions of years. Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations indicate that divergence of these lineages occurred near the time of the divergence of the Passeriformes and other avian orders. We suggest that the current MHC diversity observed in passerines is due in part to the multiple duplication of a single MHC locus, DAB1, early in passerine evolution and that subsequent duplications of these paralogues have contributed to the enormous success of this order by increasing their ability to recognize and mount immune responses to novel pathogens. PMID:27658204

  5. A likely inverse-Compton emission from the Type IIb SN 2013df.

    PubMed

    Li, K L; Kong, A K H

    2016-08-02

    The inverse-Compton X-ray emission model for supernovae has been well established to explain the X-ray properties of many supernovae for over 30 years. However, no observational case has yet been found to connect the X-rays with the optical lights as they should be. Here, we report the discovery of a hard X-ray source that is associated with a Type II-b supernova. Simultaneous emission enhancements have been found in both the X-ray and optical light curves twenty days after the supernova explosion. While the enhanced X-rays are likely dominated by inverse-Compton scatterings of the supernova's lights from the Type II-b secondary peak, we propose a scenario of a high-speed supernova ejecta colliding with a low-density pre-supernova stellar wind that produces an optically thin and high-temperature electron gas for the Comptonization. The inferred stellar wind mass-loss rate is consistent with that of the supernova progenitor candidate as a yellow supergiant detected by the Hubble Space Telescope, providing an independent proof for the progenitor. This is also new evidence of the inverse-Compton emission during the early phase of a supernova.

  6. Topological charges in SL(2,R) covariant massive 11-dimensional and type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callister, Andrew K.; Smith, Douglas J.

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we construct closed expressions that correspond to the topological charges of the various 1/2-BPS states of the maximal 10- and 11-dimensional supergravity theories. These expressions are related to the structure of the supersymmetry algebras in curved spacetimes. We mainly focus on IIB supergravity and 11-dimensional supergravity in a double M9-brane background, with an emphasis on the SL(2,R) multiplet structure of the charges and how these map between theories. This includes the charges corresponding to the multiplets of 7- and 9-branes in IIB. We find that examining the possible multiplet structures of the charges provides another tool for exploring the spectrum of BPS states that appear in these theories. As a prerequisite to constructing the charges we determine the field equations and multiplet structure of the 11-dimensional gauge potentials, extending previous results on the subject. The massive gauge transformations of the fields are also discussed. We also demonstrate how these massive gauge transformations are compatible with the construction of an SL(2,R) covariant kinetic term in the 11-dimensional Kaluza-Klein monopole worldvolume action.

  7. A likely inverse-Compton emission from the Type IIb SN 2013df

    PubMed Central

    Li, K. L.; Kong, A. K. H.

    2016-01-01

    The inverse-Compton X-ray emission model for supernovae has been well established to explain the X-ray properties of many supernovae for over 30 years. However, no observational case has yet been found to connect the X-rays with the optical lights as they should be. Here, we report the discovery of a hard X-ray source that is associated with a Type II-b supernova. Simultaneous emission enhancements have been found in both the X-ray and optical light curves twenty days after the supernova explosion. While the enhanced X-rays are likely dominated by inverse-Compton scatterings of the supernova’s lights from the Type II-b secondary peak, we propose a scenario of a high-speed supernova ejecta colliding with a low-density pre-supernova stellar wind that produces an optically thin and high-temperature electron gas for the Comptonization. The inferred stellar wind mass-loss rate is consistent with that of the supernova progenitor candidate as a yellow supergiant detected by the Hubble Space Telescope, providing an independent proof for the progenitor. This is also new evidence of the inverse-Compton emission during the early phase of a supernova. PMID:27481538

  8. [Preoperative endocavitary curietherapy of stage Ib-IIa-IIb cervical carcinoma. Personal observations].

    PubMed

    Gabriele, A M; Boidi Trotti, A; Fracchia, F; Rosmino, C; Rovea, P; Tardy, A

    1989-05-01

    From 1980 through 1984, 41 patients with squamous cell cervix carcinoma and 1 with adenosquamous carcinoma were treated with preoperative irradiation. Clinical stages were Ib in 6 patients, IIa in 24, and IIb in 12. At surgery, lymph node metastases were found in 5 cases, and residual tumors in 8. The latter risk patients were given further external radiotherapy after surgery. Overall three-year survival rates for FIGO stage Ib was 100%; 91.6% for stage IIa, and 83% for stage IIb (minimum follow-up: 3 years). Two patients died from locoregional recurrence of the disease 12-24 months after the treatment, and 2 from distant metastases; 5 patients have showed signs of local improvement. Our results seem to point to pelvic lymph node involvement as the major prognostic factor: in fact, 40% only of the patients with involved lymph nodes is alive. Actuarial survival rates show 90.4% of patients to be alive at 5 years. Tolerance to the combined use radiotherapy and surgery was fair: no severe side-effects were observed. Even though our results are encouraging, a randomized study is still recommended to verify the actual value of this treatment versus combined surgery and radiotherapy or radiotherapy alone.

  9. A likely inverse-Compton emission from the Type IIb SN 2013df

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K. L.; Kong, A. K. H.

    2016-08-01

    The inverse-Compton X-ray emission model for supernovae has been well established to explain the X-ray properties of many supernovae for over 30 years. However, no observational case has yet been found to connect the X-rays with the optical lights as they should be. Here, we report the discovery of a hard X-ray source that is associated with a Type II-b supernova. Simultaneous emission enhancements have been found in both the X-ray and optical light curves twenty days after the supernova explosion. While the enhanced X-rays are likely dominated by inverse-Compton scatterings of the supernova’s lights from the Type II-b secondary peak, we propose a scenario of a high-speed supernova ejecta colliding with a low-density pre-supernova stellar wind that produces an optically thin and high-temperature electron gas for the Comptonization. The inferred stellar wind mass-loss rate is consistent with that of the supernova progenitor candidate as a yellow supergiant detected by the Hubble Space Telescope, providing an independent proof for the progenitor. This is also new evidence of the inverse-Compton emission during the early phase of a supernova.

  10. Isolation and characterization of major histocompatibility complex class IIB genes from the nurse shark.

    PubMed Central

    Bartl, S; Weissman, I L

    1994-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contains a set of linked genes which encode cell surface proteins involved in the binding of small peptide antigens for their subsequent recognition by T lymphocytes. MHC proteins share structural features and the presence and location of polymorphic residues which play a role in the binding of antigens. In order to compare the structure of these molecules and gain insights into their evolution, we have isolated two MHC class IIB genes from the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum. Two clones, most probably alleles, encode proteins which differ by 13 amino acids located in the putative antigen-binding cleft. The protein structure and the location of polymorphic residues are similar to their mammalian counterparts. Although these genes appear to encode a typical MHC protein, no T-cell-mediated responses have been demonstrated in cartilaginous fish. The nurse shark represents the most phylogenetically primitive organism in which both class IIA [Kasahara, M., Vazquez, M., Sato, K., McKinney, E.C. & Flajnik, M.F. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 89, 6688-6692] and class IIB genes, presumably encoding the alpha/beta heterodimer, have been isolated. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8278377

  11. Coated platelets function in platelet-dependent fibrin formation via integrin αIIbβ3 and transglutaminase factor XIII

    PubMed Central

    Mattheij, Nadine J.A.; Swieringa, Frauke; Mastenbroek, Tom G.; Berny-Lang, Michelle A.; May, Frauke; Baaten, Constance C.F.M.J.; van der Meijden, Paola E.J.; Henskens, Yvonne M.C.; Beckers, Erik A.M.; Suylen, Dennis P.L.; Nolte, Marc W.; Hackeng, Tilman M.; McCarty, Owen J.T.; Heemskerk, Johan W.M.; Cosemans, Judith M.E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Coated platelets, formed by collagen and thrombin activation, have been characterized in different ways: i) by the formation of a protein coat of α-granular proteins; ii) by exposure of procoagulant phosphatidylserine; or iii) by high fibrinogen binding. Yet, their functional role has remained unclear. Here we used a novel transglutaminase probe, Rhod-A14, to identify a subpopulation of platelets with a cross-linked protein coat, and compared this with other platelet subpopulations using a panel of functional assays. Platelet stimulation with convulxin/thrombin resulted in initial integrin αIIbβ3 activation, the appearance of a platelet population with high fibrinogen binding, (independently of active integrins, but dependent on the presence of thrombin) followed by phosphatidylserine exposure and binding of coagulation factors Va and Xa. A subpopulation of phosphatidylserine-exposing platelets bound Rhod-A14 both in suspension and in thrombi generated on a collagen surface. In suspension, high fibrinogen and Rhod-A14 binding were antagonized by combined inhibition of transglutaminase activity and integrin αIIbβ3. Markedly, in thrombi from mice deficient in transglutaminase factor XIII, platelet-driven fibrin formation and Rhod-A14 binding were abolished by blockage of integrin αIIbβ3. Vice versa, star-like fibrin formation from platelets of a patient with deficiency in αIIbβ3 (Glanzmann thrombasthenia) was abolished upon blockage of transglutaminase activity. We conclude that coated platelets, with initial αIIbβ3 activation and high fibrinogen binding, form a subpopulation of phosphatidylserine-exposing platelets, and function in platelet-dependent star-like fibrin fiber formation via transglutaminase factor XIII and integrin αIIbβ3. PMID:26721892

  12. Towards an understanding of deep boron: study of type IIb blue diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillou, E.; Rost, D.; Post, J. E.; Butler, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Boron concentration and isotopic signature are known as a tracer of recycled crustal material from subduction zones inside the Earth's mantle. Thus far, the focus has been on analyzing boron in volcanic rocks and olivine inclusions. However, these materials always experience some degree of late processing on their way to the surface (alteration, crystallization, change in structure, etc.). As of now, the boron content and isotopic ratio of the mantle end-member is only assumed through mass balance calculations (Chaussidon & Marty, 1995). Diamonds, on the other hand, would be a more ideal material to analyze for boron, as it does not undergo significant processing while on its way to the surface. Boron-containing diamonds are well known but extremely rare; they are referred as type IIb diamonds. They are highly valuable in the gem market, as the presence of boron in the diamond structure gives rise to the blue color, such as in the Hope diamond. Only a few boron analyses have been undertaken on type IIb natural diamonds, however, it is generally accepted that their boron concentration is ~1 ppm or lower. The combination of rarity, high value, and low boron content are the most likely reasons why geologists have not yet performed boron analyses on blue diamonds. This study used various spectroscopic methods and time-of-fight (ToF-) SIMS, which are non- or nearly non-destructive techniques, to characterize and analyze for boron in natural type IIb blue diamonds, including the well-known Hope diamond. Results obtained by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and phosphorescence spectroscopies on 103 diamonds will be presented and compared to some analyses of boron contents measured using ToF-SIMS. ToF-SIMS analyses gave spot (50 x 50 μm x few nm deep) boron concentrations as high as 8.4 ± 1.1 (atomic) ppm for the Hope diamond to less than 0.08 ppm in other blue diamonds, with an overall average value of ~1 ppm. ToF-SIMS analyses revealed strong zoning of boron in some

  13. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody ITI-Pl 1 directed against human platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb using extracts of whole platelets and platelet surface and intracellular membranes.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, L I; Gaudernack, G; Hack, N; Wilkinson, J M; Brosstad, F; Solum, N O; Crawford, N

    1988-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (mAb) termed ITI-Pl 1 has been prepared by the hybridoma procedure. Using immuno-absorption and crossed immunoelectrophoresis of Triton X-100 extracts of untreated and EDTA-treated human platelets it was shown to be directed against the surface membrane glycoprotein IIb (GP IIb). This mAb binds to whole platelets independently of ADP-stimulation and the presence of Ca2+-ions. It saturates at around 870 ng/10(8) cells corresponding to approximately 35,800 molecules/platelet. ITI-Pl 1 did not significantly inhibit GP IIb-IIIa dependent functions such as platelet aggregation or fibrinogen binding. Immunofluorescence could be demonstrated using ITI-Pl 1 and intact normal platelets, but not with platelets from a Glanzmann's thrombasthenia patient. Crossed immuno-electrophoresis with platelet extracts from four different thrombasthenic patients gave a line precipitate in the intermediate gel with 125I-labelled ITI-Pl 1 and autoradiography indicating trace amounts of free GP IIb or the GP IIb-IIIa complex. The epitope on GP IIb detected by ITI-Pl 1 is not destroyed by neuraminidase treatment. Thus the mAb also interacts with neuraminidase-treated GP IIb-IIIa complex in highly purified platelet surface membrane fractions as well as with GP IIb-IIIa from untreated internal membranes isolated by continuous flow electrophoresis.

  14. Radiation therapy for stage IIA and IIB testicular seminoma: peripheral dose calculations and risk assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Berris, Theocharris; Lyraraki, Efrossyni; Damilakis, John

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to calculate the peripheral dose to critical structures and assess the radiation risks from modern radiotherapy for stage IIA/IIB testicular seminoma. A Monte Carlo code was used for treatment simulation on a computational phantom representing an average adult. The initial treatment phase involved anteroposterior and posteroanaterior modified dog-leg fields exposing para-aortic and ipsilateral iliac lymph nodes followed by a cone-down phase for nodal mass irradiation. Peripheral doses were calculated using different modified dog-leg field dimensions and an extended conventional dog-leg portal. The risk models of the BEIR-VII report and ICRP-103 were combined with dosimetric calculations to estimate the probability of developing stochastic effects. Radiotherapy for stage IIA seminoma with a target dose of 30 Gy resulted in a range of 23.0-603.7 mGy to non-targeted peripheral tissues and organs. The corresponding range for treatment of stage IIB disease to a cumulative dose of 36 Gy was 24.2-633.9 mGy. A dose variation of less than 13% was found by altering the field dimensions. Radiotherapy with the conventional instead of the modern modified dog-leg field increased the peripheral dose up to 8.2 times. The calculated heart doses of 589.0-632.9 mGy may increase the risk for developing cardiovascular diseases whereas the testicular dose of more than 231.9 mGy may lead to a temporary infertility. The probability of birth abnormalities in the offspring of cancer survivors was below 0.13% which is much lower than the spontaneous mutation rate. Abdominoplevic irradiation may increase the lifetime intrinsic risk for the induction of secondary malignancies by 0.6-3.9% depending upon the site of interest, patient’s age and tumor dose. Radiotherapy for stage IIA/IIB seminoma with restricted fields and low doses is associated with an increased morbidity. These data may allow the definition of a risk-adapted follow-up scheme for long

  15. Unveiling Type IIb Supernova Progenitors: SN 2011hs from a Supergiant Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufano, F.

    2014-10-01

    Type IIb Supernovae are the final evolutionary stage of massive stars that were able to retain only a thin (lesssim 1 M_{odot}) H/He external envelope at the time of the explosion. The mechanism of mass-loss that made such final structure possible and the nature of such progenitor stars are still open issues. We present the results obtained from the study of a sample of Type IIb SNe, in particular, of SN 2011hs (Bufano et al., 2013, MNRAS submitted). SN 2011hs was a relatively faint (M_{B} = -15.6 mag) and red Type IIb SN, characterized by a narrow light curve shape. Its spectral evolution showed the metamorphosis typical of this class of SN, from spectra dominated by H I lines to spectra where He I features dominate, but with broad absorption line profiles indicating high expansion velocities. Modeling the light curve of SN 2011hs and its velocity evolution with hydrodynamical calculations, we estimated that the SN is consistent with the explosion of a 3-4 M_{odot} He-core star, from a main sequence mass of 12-15 M_{odot}, ejecting a ^{56}Ni mass equal to 0.04 M_{odot} and characterized by an explosion energy of E≍ 8.5× 10^{50} erg s^{-1}. Based on the light curve evolution, we assumed that the explosion occurred 6 days before the discovery (2,455,872 ± 4 JD), resulting in an adiabatic cooling phase lasting 8 days, similarly to SN 1993J. Since the duration and the decreasing rate of the cooling branch depends mainly on the progenitor size, we could infer from it a progenitor radius of ≍ 500-600 R_{odot}, like a supergiant star. Our modeling rules out models with He core mass >5 M_{odot}, i.e. main sequence masses above 20 M_{odot}. Such a lower limit for the progenitor mass could indicate the possibility of a binary origin, although the radio light curve does not show strong deviations, typically signature of the presence of a companion star.

  16. Cell surface receptors for CCN proteins.

    PubMed

    Lau, Lester F

    2016-06-01

    The CCN family (CYR61; CTGF; NOV; CCN1-6; WISP1-3) of matricellular proteins in mammals is comprised of six homologous members that play important roles in development, inflammation, tissue repair, and a broad range of pathological processes including fibrosis and cancer. Despite considerable effort to search for a high affinity CCN-specific receptor akin to growth factor receptors, no such receptor has been found. Rather, CCNs bind several groups of multi-ligand receptors as characteristic of other matricellular proteins. The most extensively documented among CCN-binding receptors are integrins, including αvβ3, αvβ5, α5β1, α6β1, αIIbβ3, αMβ2, and αDβ2, which mediate diverse CCN functions in various cell types. CCNs also bind cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), low density liproprotein receptor-related proteins (LRPs), and the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) receptor, which are endocytic receptors that may also serve as co-receptors in cooperation with other cell surface receptors. CCNs have also been reported to bind FGFR-2, Notch, RANK, and TrkA, potentially altering the affinities of these receptors for their ligands. The ability of CCNs to bind a multitude of receptors in various cell types may account for the remarkable versatility of their functions, and underscore the diverse signaling pathways that mediate their activities.

  17. UNITED PRESBYTERIAN NATIONAL EDUCATION SURVEY, AN INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH PROJECT. VOLUMES IIA AND IIB, COMMUNICATIONS VARIABLES IN THE CHURCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WHITMAN, LAURIS B.; AND OTHERS

    THE DEPARTMENT OF RESEARCH OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CHURCHES CONDUCTED A SURVEY FOR THE UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF ITS MEMBERSHIP AND RELIGIOUS BELIEFS. THE AIM WAS TO COMPARE VARIOUS POPULATIONS (CLERGY, COMMUNICANTS, CHURCH SCHOOL TEACHERS, AND YOUTH), CONCERNING THE EXTENT OF THEIR ORTHODOXY. VOLUMES IIA AND IIB OF THE REPORT RELATE TO THE…

  18. Effect of Cordycepin-Enriched WIB801C from Cordyceps militaris Suppressing Fibrinogen Binding to Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Ha; Kim, Hyun-Hong; Lim, Deok Hwi; Kim, Jong-Lae; Park, Hwa-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of cordycepin-enriched (CE)-WIB801C, a n-butanol extract of Cordyceps militaris-hypha on collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation. CE-WIB801C dose dependently inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation, and had a synergistic effect together with cordycepin (W-cordycepin) from CE-WIB801C on the inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation. CE-WIB801C and cordycepin stimulated the phosphorylation of VASP (Ser157) and the dephosphorylation of PI3K and Akt, and inhibited the binding of fibrinogen to glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (αIIb/β3) and the release of ATP and serotonin in collagen-induced platelet aggregation. A-kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS reduced CE-WIB801C-, and cordycepin-increased VASP (Ser157) phosphorylation, and increased CE-WIB801C-, and cordycepin-inhibited the fibrinogen binding to αIIb/β3. Therefore, we demonstrate that CE-WIB801C-, and cordycepin-inhibited fibrinogen binding to αIIb/β3 are due to stimulation of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of VASP (Ser157), and inhibition of PI3K/Akt phosphorylation. These results strongly indicate that CE-WIB801C and cordycepin may have preventive or therapeutic potential for platelet aggregation-mediated diseases, such as thrombosis, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and ischemic cerebrovascular disease. PMID:25593645

  19. Inhibition of class IIb histone deacetylase significantly improves cloning efficiency in mice.

    PubMed

    Ono, Tetsuo; Li, Chong; Mizutani, Eiji; Terashita, Yukari; Yamagata, Kazuo; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2010-12-01

    Since the first mouse clone was produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer, the success rate of cloning in mice has been extremely low. Some histone deacetylase inhibitors, such as trichostatin A and scriptaid, have improved the full-term development of mouse clones significantly, but the mechanisms allowing for this are unclear. Here, we found that two other specific inhibitors, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and oxamflatin, could also reduce the rate of apoptosis in blastocysts, improve the full-term development of cloned mice, and increase establishment of nuclear transfer-generated embryonic stem cell lines significantly without leading to obvious abnormalities. However, another inhibitor, valproic acid, could not improve cloning efficiency. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, oxamflatin, trichostatin A, and scriptaid are inhibitors for classes I and IIa/b histone deacetylase, whereas valproic acid is an inhibitor for classes I and IIa, suggesting that inhibiting class IIb histone deacetylase is an important step for reprogramming mouse cloning efficiency.

  20. Measurements on irradiated L1 sensor prototypes for the D0 Run IIb silicon detector project

    SciTech Connect

    Ahsan, M.; Bolton, T.; Carnes, K.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Gray, T.; Korjenevski, S.; Lehner, F.; Lipton, R.; Mao, H.S.; McCarthy, R.; /SUNY, Stony Brook /Kansas State U. /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    We report on irradiation studies of Hamamatsu prototype silicon microstrip detectors for layer 1 of the D0 upgrade project for Run IIb. The irradiation was carried out with 10 MeV protons up to proton fluence of 10{sup 14} p/cm{sup 2} at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Manhatten, KS. The flux calibration was carefully checked using different dose normalization techniques. The results based on the obtained sensor leakage currents after irradiation show that the NIEL scaling hypothesis for low energy protons has to be applied with great care. We observe 30-40% less radiation damage in silicon for 10 MeV proton exposure than is expected from the predicted NIEL scaling.

  1. XMM-Newton and Swift observations of the Type IIb supernova 2011dh in Messier 51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, Sergio; Immler, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    The Type IIb supernova (SN) 2011dh exploded in the nearby galaxy M51 (the Whirlpool galaxy) and provides us with one of the best laboratories to study early high-energy emission from SNe. We give here a comprehensive view of the X-ray properties of SN 2011dh from the analyses of two pointed XMM-Newton early observations as well as the full Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) data set (163 ks). Due to the high XMM-Newton throughput, we were able to satisfactorily fit the X-ray spectrum with two hot diffuse gas components including an additional absorption component to our Galaxy. A power-law model provided a worse description of the data. In addition, the early Swift XRT light curve hints of a flux excess at early times (≲3 d), consistent with the adiabatic cooling of stellar's photosphere a few days after the shock breakout.

  2. ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY OF TYPE IIB SUPERNOVAE: DIVERSITY AND THE IMPACT OF CIRCUMSTELLAR MATERIAL

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Ami, Sagi; Hachinger, Stephan; Mazzali, Paolo A.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Horesh, Assaf; Yaron, Ofer; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Matheson, Thomas; Modjaz, Maryam; Sauer, Daniel N.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Nathan

    2015-04-10

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) multi-epoch ultraviolet (UV) spectra of the bright Type IIb SN 2013df, and undertake a comprehensive analysis of the set of four SNe IIb for which HST UV spectra are available (SN 1993J, SN 2001ig, SN 2011dh, and SN 2013df). We find strong diversity in both continuum levels and line features among these objects. We use radiative-transfer models that fit the optical part of the spectrum well, and find that in three of these four events we see a UV continuum flux excess, apparently unaffected by line absorption. We hypothesize that this emission originates above the photosphere, and is related to interaction with circumstellar material (CSM) located in close proximity to the SN progenitor. In contrast, the spectra of SN 2001ig are well fit by single-temperature models, display weak continuum and strong reverse-fluorescence features, and are similar to spectra of radioactive {sup 56}Ni-dominated SNe Ia. A comparison of the early shock-cooling components in the observed light curves with the UV continuum levels which we assume trace the strength of CSM interaction suggests that events with slower cooling have stronger CSM emission. The radio emission from events having a prominent UV excess is perhaps consistent with slower blast-wave velocities, as expected if the explosion shock was slowed down by the CSM that is also responsible for the strong UV, but this connection is currently speculative as it is based on only a few events.

  3. Characterization of MHC class IIB for four endangered Australian freshwater fishes obtained from ecologically divergent populations.

    PubMed

    Bracamonte, Seraina E; Smith, Steve; Hammer, Michael; Pavey, Scott A; Sunnucks, Paul; Beheregaray, Luciano B

    2015-10-01

    Genetic diversity is an essential aspect of species viability, and assessments of neutral genetic diversity are regularly implemented in captive breeding and conservation programs. Despite their importance, information from adaptive markers is rarely included in such programs. A promising marker of significance in fitness and adaptive potential is the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a key component of the adaptive immune system. Populations of Australian freshwater fishes are generally declining in numbers due to human impacts and the introduction of exotic species, a scenario of particular concern for members of the family Percichthyidae, several of which are listed as nationally vulnerable or endangered, and hence subject to management plans, captive breeding, and restoration plans. We used a next-generation sequencing approach to characterize the MHC IIB locus and provide a conservative description of its levels of diversity in four endangered percichthyids: Gadopsis marmoratus, Macquaria australasica, Nannoperca australis, and Nannoperca obscura. Evidence is presented for a duplicated MHC IIB locus, positively selected sites and recombination of MHC alleles. Relatively moderate levels of diversity were detected in the four species, as well as in different ecotypes within each species. Phylogenetic analyses revealed genus specific clustering of alleles and no allele sharing among species. There were also no shared alleles observed between two ecotypes within G. marmoratus and within M. australasica, which might be indicative of ecologically-driven divergence and/or long divergence times. This represents the first characterization and assessment of MHC diversity for Percichthyidae, and also for Australian freshwater fishes in general, providing key genetic resources for a vertebrate group of increasing conservation concern.

  4. Reduction of type IIb myosin and IIB fibers in tibialis anterior muscle of mini-muscle mice from high-activity lines.

    PubMed

    Bilodeau, Geneviève M; Guderley, Helga; Joanisse, Denis R; Garland, Theodore

    2009-03-01

    Selective breeding of laboratory house mice (Mus domesticus) for high voluntary wheel running has generated four replicate lines that show an almost threefold increase in daily wheel-running distances as compared with four nonselected control lines. An unusual hindlimb "mini-muscle" phenotype (small muscles, increased mitochondrial enzyme levels, disorganized fiber distribution) has increased in frequency in two of the four replicate selected lines. The gene of major effect that accounts for this phenotype is an autosomal recessive that has been mapped to a 2.6335 Mb interval on MMU11, but not yet identified. This study examined the tibialis anterior muscle to determine whether changes in muscle fiber types could explain such modifications in muscle size and properties. Although selected and control lines did not exhibit systematic differences in the fiber types present in the tibialis anterior muscle, as assessed by electrophoresis of myosin heavy chains (MHC) and by histochemistry, mini-muscle mice lacked type IIB fibers and the corresponding MHCs. Mini-muscle tibialis show increased activities of hexokinase and citrate synthase compared with the normally sized muscles, likely the result of the modified fiber types in the muscle. The mini-muscle phenotype is the major means through which selective breeding for high wheel running has modified the functional capacities of the hindlimb muscles, as normally sized tibialis anterior muscles from control and selected lines did not show general differences in their enzymatic capacities, MHC profiles or fiber type composition, with the exception of an elevated hexokinase activity and a reduced GPa activity in the selected lines. PMID:19177556

  5. Exogenous GDF9 but not Activin A, BMP15 or TGFβ alters tight junction protein transcript abundance in zebrafish ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Clelland, Eric S; Kelly, Scott P

    2011-04-01

    The tight junction (TJ) complex plays an important role in regulating paracellular permeability and provides mechanical stability in vertebrate epithelia and endothelia. In zebrafish ovarian follicles, TJ complexes in the follicular envelope degenerate as the follicles develop towards maturation. In the current study, transcript abundance of claudins (cldn d, g, h, 1, and 12) and occludins (ocln, and ocln b) were assessed in mid-vitellogenic follicles in response to treatment with exogenous growth factors that are reported to be involved in zebrafish follicle development (i.e. Activin A, BMP15, GDF9 and TGFβ). Exogenous GDF9 reduced the transcript abundance of cldn g, ocln and ocln b in mid-vitellogenic follicles, whereas Activin A, BMP15, and TGFβ had no effect. Subsequent studies with GDF9 revealed that this factor did not alter TJ protein transcript abundance in pre-vitellogenic follicles but did increase the abundance of ocln b in fully grown (maturing) follicles. GDF9 was also seen to increase the abundance of StAR mRNA in all but primary stage follicles. These data suggest a role for GDF9 in the regulation of TJ integrity in zebrafish ovarian follicles, perhaps in the facilitation of ovulation, and support a previously postulated role for GDF9 in zebrafish ovarian follicle development. In addition, data also support the idea that endocrine factors play an important role in the regulation of TJ proteins during ovarian follicle development.

  6. Dysfunction of the PI3 kinase/Rap1/integrin α(IIb)β(3) pathway underlies ex vivo platelet hypoactivity in essential thrombocythemia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Samantha F; Hunter, Roger W; Harper, Matthew T; Savage, Joshua S; Siddiq, Samreen; Westbury, Sarah K; Poole, Alastair W; Mumford, Andrew D; Hers, Ingeborg

    2013-02-14

    Patients with myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs), such as essential thrombocythemia (ET) have increased risk of thrombosis and bleeding, which are major sources of morbidity and mortality. Most MPD patients have a gain of function mutation in Janus kinase 2 (JAK2V617F), but little is known how JAK2V617F affects platelet function. Here, we demonstrate that platelets from ET patients have impaired SFLLRN-mediated fibrinogen binding and have lost the potentiating effect of thrombopoietin (which couples to JAK2) on this pathway. In contrast, SFLLRN-mediated P-selectin expression, ATP secretion, phosphorylation of the PKC substrate pleckstrin, and Ca(2+) mobilization were unaffected in JAK2V617F positive platelets. In addition, thrombopoietin-mediated JAK2 phosphorylation was unchanged, suggesting that signaling pathways activated downstream of JAK2 are impaired. Indeed, we found that platelets from JAK2V617F positive ET patients have significantly reduced phosphorylation of the PI3 kinase substrate Akt, and have reduced activation of Rap1 in response to thrombopoietin, IGF-1,ADP, SFLLRN, and thrombin. This effect was independent of Giα P2Y12 purinergic receptor function as ADP-mediated inhibition of VASP phosphorylation was unchanged. These results demonstrate that the PI3 kinase/Rap1 pathway is intrinsically impaired in platelets from JAK2V617F-positive ET patients, resulting in diminished thrombin and thrombopoietin-mediated integrin α(IIb)β(3) activation. PMID:23243278

  7. The maturation-inducing hormone 17a-20b-dihydroxy-4pregnen-3-one regulates gene expression of inhibin A and bambi (bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane bound inhibitor) in the rainbow trout ovary

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFb) superfamily members are important paracrine and autocrine regulators of ovarian development and steroidogenesis in mammals and birds, but their reproductive roles in fish are not well understood. The activin system, Tgfb, and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (Bmp...

  8. Changes in intrafollicular concentrations of free IGF-1, activin A, inhibin A, VEGF, estradiol, and prolactin before ovulation in mares.

    PubMed

    Bashir, S T; Ishak, G M; Gastal, M O; Roser, J F; Gastal, E L

    2016-05-01

    Changes in intrafollicular growth factors and hormones were evaluated in vivo in postdeviation and impending ovulation follicles. Mares (n = 30) were randomly assigned to five experimental groups based on target diameters of 25, 30, 35, 40 mm, and impending signs of ovulation. Furthermore, data belonging to two or more proximal diameter groups that were not different were combined and regrouped for each factor separately. Follicular fluid-free insulin-like growth factor 1 was highest (P < 0.003) in 35-mm follicles, followed by the 40-mm and impending ovulation follicle group, and the 25- to 30-mm follicle group. However, concentrations of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 in follicular fluid did not differ (P > 0.05) among groups. Additionally, follicular fluid activin A tended (P < 0.06) to be higher in impending ovulation follicles when compared with the 25- to 40-mm follicle group. Concentrations of intrafollicular estradiol were higher (P < 0.0001) in 40-mm and impending ovulation follicles than in the other follicle groups. Follicular fluid concentrations of inhibin A and vascular endothelial growth factor were lower (P < 0.05) in the 40-mm and the impending ovulation follicle group when compared with the 25- to 35-mm follicle group. Systemic and intrafollicular prolactin levels were lower (P < 0.05) in the impending ovulation group when compared with the 25- to 40-mm follicle group. Prolactin concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in the follicular fluid than in the plasma. The novel findings of this study, a decrease in intrafollicular-free insulin-like growth factor 1, inhibin A, vascular endothelial growth factor, and prolactin during the final stages of follicular growth, document for the first time the occurrence of dynamic changes among intrafollicular factors and hormones during the stages of follicle dominance and as ovulation approaches. PMID:26895618

  9. Effects of C and Hf concentration on the mechanical properties of wrought superalloys based on NASA IIB-11 produced from prealloyed powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, R. V., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This work describes the effects of C and Hf concentration on the mechanical properties of NASA IIB-11, a candidate material for advanced-temperature gas turbine engine disks. IIB-11 and four alloys of varied C and Hf concentrations were produced as cross-rolled disks from hot-isostatically pressed powder billets. The lower C, higher Hf modification exhibited the best mechanical properties at 760 C and below. These properties were at least equivalent to those of other candidate alloys for advanced temperature disks. Because of their finer grain sizes, all of these powder metallurgy alloys had lower rupture strength, however, than that achieved previously in conventionally processed IIB-11.

  10. Impact of time from symptom onset to drug administration on outcome in patients undergoing glycoprotein IIb-IIIa facilitated primary angioplasty (from the EGYPT cooperation).

    PubMed

    De Luca, Giuseppe; Van't Hof, Arnoud W J; Gibson, C Michael; Cutlip, Donald; Zeymer, Uwe; Noc, Marko; Maioli, Mauro; Zorman, Simona; Gabriel, H Mesquita; Emre, Ayse; Rakowski, Tomasz; Gyongyosi, Maryann; Huber, Kurt; Bellandi, Francesco; Dudek, Dariusz

    2015-03-15

    Contrasting data have been so far reported on facilitation with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitors (GpIIbIIIa) in patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. However, it has been demonstrated a time-dependent composition of coronary thrombus in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, with more platelets in the first hours. Subsequently, the benefits of early administration of GpIIbIIIa may be affected by the time from symptoms onset to GpIIbIIIa, that therefore is the aim of this study. Our population is represented by 814 patients who underwent GpIIbIIIa facilitated primary angioplasty included in the Early glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitors in primary angioplasty database. Patients were divided according to quartiles of time from symptom onset to GpIIbIIIa administration (≤65 minutes; 65 to 100 minutes; 101 to 178 minutes; and >178 minutes). Myocardial perfusion was evaluated by myocardial blush grade and ST-segment resolution. Time from symptoms onset to GpIIbIIIa was linearly associated with hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and previous myocardial infarction but inversely associated with smoking. Abciximab was more often administrated later from symptoms onset. Time from symptoms onset to GpIIbIIIa was significantly associated with the rate of preprocedural recanalization (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction [TIMI] 2 to 3; p <0.001), postprocedural TIMI 3 flow (p <0.001), the rate of complete ST-segment resolution (p <0.001), and the rate of myocardial blush grade 2 to 3 (p <0.001) and inversely associated with the occurrence of distal embolization (p <0.001). Follow-up data were collected at a median (twenty-fifth to seventy-fifth) of 360 (30 to 1,095) days. A total of 52 patients had died. Time to GpIIbIIIa had a significant impact on mortality (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] 1.46 [1.11 to 1.92], p = 0.007) that was confirmed after correction for baseline confounding factors (adjusted hazard ratio [95

  11. Induction of intermediate mesoderm by retinoic acid receptor signaling from differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Oeda, Shiho; Hayashi, Yohei; Chan, Techuan; Takasato, Minoru; Aihara, Yuko; Okabayashi, Koji; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi; Asashima, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Renal lineages including kidney are derived from intermediate mesoderm, which are differentiated from a subset of caudal undifferentiated mesoderm. The inductive mechanisms of mammalian intermediate mesoderm and renal lineages are still poorly understood. Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) can be a good in vitro model to reconstitute the developmental pathway of renal lineages and to analyze the mechanisms of the sequential differentiation. We examined the effects of Activin A and retinoic acid (RA) on the induction of intermediate mesoderm from mESCs under defined, serum-free, adherent, monolayer culture conditions. We measured the expression level of intermediate mesodermal marker genes and examined the developmental potential of the differentiated cells into kidney using an ex vivo transplantation assay. Adding Activin A followed by RA to mESC cultures induced the expression of marker genes and proteins for intermediate mesoderm, odd-skipped related 1 (Osr1) and Wilm’s Tumor 1 (Wt1). These differentiated cells integrated into laminin-positive tubular cells and Pax2-positive renal cells in cultured embryonic kidney explants. We demonstrated that intermediate mesodermal marker expression was also induced by RA receptor (RAR) agonist, but not by retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonists. Furthermore, the expression of these markers was decreased by RAR antagonists. We directed the differentiation of mESCs into intermediate mesoderm using Activin A and RA and revealed the role of RAR signaling in this differentiation. These methods and findings will improve our understanding of renal lineage development and could contribute to the regenerative medicine of kidney.

  12. Regulation of fibrinogen receptor expression on human platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Shattil, S.J.; Motulsky, H.J.; Insel, P.A.; Brass, L.F.

    1986-03-01

    Platelet aggregation requires the binding of fibrinogen to specific receptors on the plasma membrane glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex. Although the IIb-IIIa complex is identifiable on the surface of resting platelets, the fibrinogen receptor is expressed only after platelet activation. The authors have developed a monoclonal anti-IIb-IIIa antibody (PAC-1) that binds only to stimulated platelets and only in the presence of Ca. In order to better understand the steps leading to platelet aggregation, the authors used radiolabeled PAC-1 and fibrinogen to examine the effect of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonist, epinephrine, on the expression and function of the fibrinogen receptor. The addition of epinephrine to unstirred platelets caused and immediate increase in PAC-1 and fibrinogen binding that was associated with platelet aggregation once the platelets were stirred. Even after prolonged incubation of the platelets with epinephrine, fibrinogen receptor expression could be reversed by adding EGTA, PGl/sub 2/, or the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic antagonist, phentolamine. When unstirred platelets were exposed to epinephrine for more than 10 min, the extent of aggregation caused by subsequent stirring was decreased by 70%. Surprisingly, these desensitized platelets bound PAC-1 and fibrinogen normally, indicating that the loss of aggregation was not due to a decrease in fibrinogen receptor expression or function. These studies demonstrate that: (1) fibrinogen receptor expression is dependent on extracellular CA; (2) induction of the fibrinogen receptor by epinephrine requires the continued presence of the agonist; and (3) prolonged stimulation of the platelet by epinephrine can lead to a reduced aggregation response by a mechanism that does not involve a loss of either fibrinogen recepor expression or fibrinogen binding.

  13. Quiver matrix mechanics for IIB string theory II: generic dual tori, fractional matrix membrane and SL(2,Z) duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jian; Wu, Yong-Shi

    2005-02-01

    With the deconstruction technique, the geometric information of a torus can be encoded in a sequence of orbifolds. By studying the matrix theory on these orbifolds as quiver mechanics, we present a formulation that (de)constructs the torus of generic shape on which matrix theory is "compactified". The continuum limit of the quiver mechanics gives rise to a (1 + 2)-dimensional SYM. A hidden (fourth) dimension, that was introduced before in the matrix theory literature to argue for the electric-magnetic duality, can be easily identified in our formalism. We construct membrane wrapping states rigorously in terms of Dunford calculus in the context of matrix regularization. Unwanted degeneracy in the spectrum of the wrapping states is eliminated by using SL(2,Z) symmetry and the relations to the FD-string bound states. The dual IIB circle emerges in the continuum limit, constituting a critical evidence for IIB/M duality.

  14. Computational design of peptide-Au cluster probe for sensitive detection of αIIbβ3 integrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lina; Zhai, Jiao; Zhang, Xuejie; Gao, Xueyun; Fang, Xiaohong; Li, Jingyuan

    2016-02-01

    We have designed a novel peptide-Au cluster probe to specifically bind to αIIbβ3 integrin. As indicated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the binding mode of the native ligand of αIIbβ3 integrin, γC peptide, can be realized by the designed probe. More importantly, the peptide-Au probe can provide multiple coating peptides to form additional salt bridges with protein, and the binding stability of the probe is comparable to the native ligand. The designed probe was then successfully synthesized. The specific binding in a cellular environment was validated by colocalization analysis of confocal microscopy. In addition, the binding affinity was confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) based single molecule force spectroscopy. Our results suggest the combination of computational design and experimental verification can be a useful strategy for the development of nanoprobes.We have designed a novel peptide-Au cluster probe to specifically bind to αIIbβ3 integrin. As indicated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the binding mode of the native ligand of αIIbβ3 integrin, γC peptide, can be realized by the designed probe. More importantly, the peptide-Au probe can provide multiple coating peptides to form additional salt bridges with protein, and the binding stability of the probe is comparable to the native ligand. The designed probe was then successfully synthesized. The specific binding in a cellular environment was validated by colocalization analysis of confocal microscopy. In addition, the binding affinity was confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) based single molecule force spectroscopy. Our results suggest the combination of computational design and experimental verification can be a useful strategy for the development of nanoprobes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09175f

  15. SALT spectroscopic classification of PS15cjr (=LSQ15bgf) as a type-IIb supernova near maximum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. W.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Kniazev, A.

    2015-10-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of PS15cjr (=LSQ15bgf) on 2015 Oct 16.9 UT, covering the wavelength range 350-950 nm. Cross-correlation of the spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows PS15cjr is likely a type-IIb a few days past maximum light, with a good match to the spectrum of SN 1993J at +4 days.

  16. Mirage models confront the LHC. II. Flux-stabilized type IIB string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Bryan L.; Nelson, Brent D.

    2014-04-01

    We continue the study of a class of string-motivated effective supergravity theories in light of current data from the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In this installment we consider type IIB string theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau orientifold in the presence of fluxes, in the manner originally formulated by Kachru et al. We allow for a variety of potential uplift mechanisms and embeddings of the Standard Model field content into D3-and D7-brane configurations. We find that an uplift sector independent of the Kähler moduli, as is the case with anti-D3-branes, is inconsistent with data unless the matter and Higgs sectors are localized on D7 branes exclusively, or are confined to twisted sectors between D3-and D7-branes. We identify regions of parameter space for all possible D-brane configurations that remain consistent with Planck observations on the dark matter relic density and measurements of the CP-even Higgs mass at the LHC. Constraints arising from LHC searches at √s =8 TeV and the LUX dark matter detection experiment are discussed. The discovery prospects for the remaining parameter space at dark matter direct-detection experiments are described, and signatures for detection of superpartners at the LHC with √s =14 TeV are analyzed.

  17. Structure of the C-terminal Domain of Transcription Facto IIB from Trypanosoma brucei

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, B.; Kanneganti, N; Rieckhof, G; Das, A; Laurents, D; Palenchar, J; Bellofatto, V; Wah, D

    2009-01-01

    In trypanosomes, the production of mRNA relies on the synthesis of the spliced leader (SL) RNA. Expression of the SL RNA is initiated at the only known RNA polymerase II promoter in these parasites. In the pathogenic trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, transcription factor IIB (tTFIIB) is essential for SL RNA gene transcription and cell viability, but has a highly divergent primary sequence in comparison to TFIIB in well-studied eukaryotes. Here we describe the 2.3 A resolution structure of the C-terminal domain of tTFIIB (tTFIIBC). The tTFIIBC structure consists of 2 closely packed helical modules followed by a C-terminal extension of 32 aa. Using the structure as a guide, alanine substitutions of basic residues in regions analogous to functionally important regions of the well-studied eukaryotic TFIIB support conservation of a general mechanism of TFIIB function in eukaryotes. Strikingly, tTFIIBC contains additional loops and helices, and, in contrast to the highly basic DNA binding surface of human TFIIB, contains a neutral surface in the corresponding region. These attributes probably mediate trypanosome-specific interactions and have implications for the apparent bidirectional transcription by RNA polymerase II in protein-encoding gene expression in these organisms.

  18. Warped AdS 6 × S 2 in Type IIB supergravity I: local solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hoker, Eric; Gutperle, Michael; Karch, Andreas; Uhlemann, Christoph F.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the existence of solutions with 16 residual supersymmetries to Type IIB supergravity on a space-time of the formc AdS 6× S 2 warped over a two-dimensional Riemann surface Σ. The SO(2 , 5) × SO(3) isometry extends to invariance under the exceptional Lie superalgebra F (4). In the present paper, we construct the general Ansatz compatible with these symmetries, derive the corresponding reduced BPS equations, and obtain their complete local solution in terms of two locally holomorphic functions {A}_{± } on Σ, subject to certain positivity and regularity conditions. Globally, ( {A}+ , {A}- ) are allowed to be multiple-valued on Σ and be holomorphic sections of a holomorphic bundle over Σ with structure group contained in SU(1,1)× C . Globally regular solutions are expected to provide the near-horizon geometry of ( p, q) 5-brane and 7-brane webs which are holographic duals to five-dimensional conformal field theories. A preliminary analysis of the positivity and regularity conditions will be presented here, leaving the construction of globally regular solutions to a subsequent paper.

  19. On finiteness of type IIB compactifications: magnetized branes on elliptic Calabi-Yau threefolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Halverson, James; Klevers, Denis; Song, Peng

    2014-06-01

    The string landscape satisfies interesting finiteness properties imposed by supersymmetry and string-theoretical consistency conditions. We study = 1 supersymmetric compactifications of Type IIB string theory on smooth elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds at large volume with magnetized D9-branes and D5-branes. We prove that supersymmetry and tadpole cancellation conditions imply that there is a finite number of such configurations. In particular, we derive an explicitly computable bound on the number of magnetic flux quanta, as well as the number of D5-branes, which is independent of the continuous moduli of the setup. The proof applies if a number of easy to check geometric conditions of the twofold base are met. We show that these geometric conditions are satisfied for the almost Fano twofold bases given by each toric variety associated to a reflexive two-dimensional polytope as well as by the generic del Pezzo surfaces dP n with n = 0 ,…,8. Physically, this finiteness proof shows that there exist a finite collection of four-dimensional gauge groups and chiral matter spectra in the 4D supergravity theories realized by these compactifications. As a by-product we explicitly construct all generators of the Kähler cones of dP n and work out their relation to representation theory.

  20. Maintenance of MHC Class IIB diversity in a recently established songbird population

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Danielle J.; Dapper, Amy L.; Peterson, Mark P.; Atwell, Jonathan W.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

    2012-01-01

    We examined variation at MHC Class IIB genes in a recently established population of dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) in a coastal urban environment in southern California, USA relative to an ancestral-range population from a nearby species-typical montane environment. The founding population is estimated to have been quite small, but we predicted that variation at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) among the founders would nevertheless be preserved owing to the high functional significance of MHC. Previous studies of MHC in songbirds have had varying degrees of success in isolating loci, as passerines show extensive MHC gene duplication. In order to compare diversity in the two populations, we employed two published approaches to sequencing MHC Class II exon 2: direct sequencing with exon-based primers, and traditional cloning and sequencing with intron-based primers. Results from both methods show that the colonist population has maintained high levels of variation. Our results also indicate varying numbers of alleles across individuals, corroborating evidence for gene duplication in songbird MHC. While future studies in songbirds may need to take a genomic approach to fully understand the structure of MHC in this lineage, our results show that it is possible to use traditional methods to reveal functional variation across populations. PMID:22685370

  1. Maintenance of MHC Class IIB diversity in a recently established songbird population.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Danielle J; Dapper, Amy L; Peterson, Mark P; Atwell, Jonathan W; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2012-03-01

    We examined variation at MHC Class IIB genes in a recently established population of dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) in a coastal urban environment in southern California, USA relative to an ancestral-range population from a nearby species-typical montane environment. The founding population is estimated to have been quite small, but we predicted that variation at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) among the founders would nevertheless be preserved owing to the high functional significance of MHC. Previous studies of MHC in songbirds have had varying degrees of success in isolating loci, as passerines show extensive MHC gene duplication. In order to compare diversity in the two populations, we employed two published approaches to sequencing MHC Class II exon 2: direct sequencing with exon-based primers, and traditional cloning and sequencing with intron-based primers. Results from both methods show that the colonist population has maintained high levels of variation. Our results also indicate varying numbers of alleles across individuals, corroborating evidence for gene duplication in songbird MHC. While future studies in songbirds may need to take a genomic approach to fully understand the structure of MHC in this lineage, our results show that it is possible to use traditional methods to reveal functional variation across populations.

  2. Power-law expansion of the Universe from the bosonic Lorentzian type IIB matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Yuta; Nishimura, Jun; Tsuchiya, Asato

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies on the Lorentzian version of the type IIB matrix model show that (3+1)D expanding universe emerges dynamically from (9+1)D space-time predicted by superstring theory. Here we study a bosonic matrix model obtained by omitting the fermionic matrices. With the adopted simplification and the usage of a large-scale parallel computer, we are able to perform Monte Carlo calculations with matrix size up to N = 512, which is twenty times larger than that used previously for the studies of the original model. When the matrix size is larger than some critical value N c ≃ 110, we find that (3+1)D expanding universe emerges dynamically with a clear large- N scaling property. Furthermore, the observed increase of the spatial extent with time t at sufficiently late times is consistent with a power-law behavior t 1/2, which is reminiscent of the expanding behavior of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe in the radiation dominated era. We discuss possible implications of this result on the original supersymmetric model including fermionic matrices.

  3. Class IIb HDAC6 regulates endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis by deacetylation of cortactin.

    PubMed

    Kaluza, David; Kroll, Jens; Gesierich, Sabine; Yao, Tso-Pang; Boon, Reinier A; Hergenreider, Eduard; Tjwa, Marc; Rössig, Lothar; Seto, Edward; Augustin, Hellmut G; Zeiher, Andreas M; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Urbich, Carmen

    2011-10-19

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) deacetylate histones and non-histone proteins, thereby affecting protein activity and gene expression. The regulation and function of the cytoplasmic class IIb HDAC6 in endothelial cells (ECs) is largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that HDAC6 is upregulated by hypoxia and is essential for angiogenesis. Silencing of HDAC6 in ECs decreases sprouting and migration in vitro and formation of functional vascular networks in matrigel plugs in vivo. HDAC6 regulates zebrafish vessel formation, and HDAC6-deficient mice showed a reduced formation of perfused vessels in matrigel plugs. Consistently, overexpression of wild-type HDAC6 increases sprouting from spheroids. HDAC6 function requires the catalytic activity but is independent of ubiquitin binding and deacetylation of α-tubulin. Instead, we found that HDAC6 interacts with and deacetylates the actin-remodelling protein cortactin in ECs, which is essential for zebrafish vessel formation and which mediates the angiogenic effect of HDAC6. In summary, we show that HDAC6 is necessary for angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro, involving the interaction and deacetylation of cortactin that regulates EC migration and sprouting.

  4. 30 CFR 57.22231 - Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22231 Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 0.25 percent in...

  5. 30 CFR 57.22231 - Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22231 Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 0.25 percent in...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22238 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22238 Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22238 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22238 Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22235 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22235 Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines). (a) If methane reaches 1.0 percent in...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22235 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22235 Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines). (a) If methane reaches 1.0 percent in...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22231 - Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22231 Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 0.25 percent in...

  11. 30 CFR 57.22235 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22235 Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines). (a) If methane reaches 1.0 percent in...

  12. 30 CFR 57.22238 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22238 Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the...

  13. CDX-1401 and Poly-ICLC Vaccine Therapy With or Without CDX-301in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IV Melanoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-21

    Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin; Iris Melanoma; Medium/Large Size Posterior Uveal Melanoma; Mucosal Melanoma; Ocular Melanoma With Extraocular Extension; Small Size Posterior Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIB Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Uveal Melanoma; Stage IV Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Uveal Melanoma

  14. A Transmembrane Polymorphism of Fcγ Receptor IIb Is Associated with Kidney Deficiency Syndrome in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Na; Lai, Ruogu; Luo, Shizi; Xie, Jianglin; Wang, Xizi; Liu, Lijuan; Liu, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The purpose is to investigate the role of kidney deficiency and the association between kidney deficiency and a polymorphism FcγRIIb 695T>C coding for nonsynonymous substitution IIe232Thr (I232T) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Clinical parameters and autoantibodies were analyzed and genotyping was performed in 159 kidney deficiency and 161 non-kidney-deficiency RA patients. Results. The age of disease onset and disease duration exhibited significant differences between two groups (P < 0.01). Patients with kidney deficiency tend to have higher activity of disease (P < 0.05). Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides antibodies (ACPA) levels of patients with kidney deficiency were higher than the controls (P = 0.039). 125 (78.6%) kidney deficiency and 114 (70.8%) non-kidney-deficiency patients had both ACPA-positive and RF-positive (P = 0.04, OR = 3.29). FcγRIIb I232TT homozygotes were identified in 10 of 159 (6.3%) kidney deficiency subjects and 1 of 161 (0.6%) controls (P = 0.000, OR = 16.45). Furthermore, in pooled genotype analysis, I232IT and I232TT homozygotes were significantly enriched in kidney deficiency individuals compared with the controls (P = 0.000, OR = 3.79). Frequency of T allele was associated with kidney deficiency RA population (P = 0.000, OR = 3.18). Conclusion. This study confirmed that kidney deficiency was closely associated with disease activity and autoimmune disorder in RA. Kidney deficiency in RA is first to reveal a strong genetic link to FcγRIIb variants. PMID:27051449

  15. Platelet morphologic changes and fibrinogen receptor localization. Initial responses in ADP-activated human platelets.

    PubMed

    Hensler, M E; Frojmovic, M; Taylor, R G; Hantgan, R R; Lewis, J C

    1992-09-01

    Platelet exposure to agonists results in rapid morphologic changes paralleled by fibrinogen binding and platelet aggregation. The current study used standardized stereology in conjunction with immunogold electron microscopy to correlate the initial morphologic changes with fibrinogen receptor localization on the surfaces of ADP-activated human platelets. A 45% increase in platelet circumference was observed after 3 seconds of activation (P = 0.001). Virtually all of this increase was due to a 13-fold increase in projection membrane, and the projections observed by stereo microscopy at this time were mostly blunt. Both blunt and long projections also accounted for the increase in platelet-platelet contacts at 10 seconds of activation. Immunogold electron microscopy using the monoclonal antibodies P2 and AP-2 against the fibrinogen receptor, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GP IIb/IIIa), showed relatively equivalent immunogold densities on projections compared with cell body during 30 seconds of activation. The activation-dependent anti-GP IIb/IIIa monoclonal antibody, 7E3, showed an immunogold density 37% greater on projections compared with cell body (P = 0.0001). Colocalization studies using 7E3 with a polyclonal antifibrinogen antibody showed bound fibrinogen in close proximity to the GP IIb/IIIa localized by 7E3 on projections. These studies support an important role for platelet projections during the earliest stages of fibrinogen binding and ADP-induced aggregation.

  16. Structural basis for distinctive recognition of fibrinogen [gamma]C peptide by the platelet integrin [alpha][subscript IIb][beta]3

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, Timothy A.; Zhu, Jianghai; Xiao, Tsan

    2009-01-12

    Hemostasis and thrombosis (blood clotting) involve fibrinogen binding to integrin {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} on platelets, resulting in platelet aggregation. {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} binding fibrinogen via an Arg-Asp-Gly (RGD) motif in fibrinogen's {alpha} subunit. {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} also binds to fibrinogen; however, it does so via an unstructured RGD-lacking C-terminal region of the {gamma} subunit ({gamma}C peptide). These distinct modes of fibrinogen binding enable {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} and {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} to function cooperatively in hemostasis. In this study, crystal structures reveal the integrin {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3}-{gamma}C peptide interface, and, for comparison, integrin {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} bound to a lamprey {gamma}C primordial RGD motif. Compared with RGD, the GAKQAGDV motif in {gamma}C adopts a different backbone configuration and binds over a more extended region. The integrin metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) Mg{sup 2+} ion binds the {gamma}C Asp side chain. The adjacent to MIDAS (ADMIDAS) Ca{sup 2+} ion binds the {gamma}C C terminus, revealing a contribution for ADMIDAS in ligand binding. Structural data from this natively disordered {gamma}C peptide enhances our understanding of the involvement of {gamma}C peptide and integrin {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} in hemostasis and thrombosis.

  17. Hormonal and photoperiodic modulation of testicular mRNAs coding for inhibin/activin subunits and follistatin in Clethrionomys glareolus, Schreber.

    PubMed

    Tähkä, K M; Kaipia, A; Toppari, J; Tähkä, S; Tuuri, T; Tuohimaa, P

    1998-07-01

    Photoperiodic and hormonal modulation of mRNAs for testicular inhibin/activin subunits and follistatin were studied in a seasonally breeding rodent, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus). Photoperiod-induced testicular regression had no effect on the relatively low steady-state levels of follistatin mRNA. Inhibin alpha (I alpha) and beta B (I beta B) mRNA levels were significantly higher in regressed than in active gonads, but inhibin beta A was undetectable. The effect of gonadotropin administration on testicular weight and mRNA concentrations differed between the sexually active and quiescent voles. Neither FSH (1.2 U/kg; s.c. for 5 days) nor hCG (600 IU/kg; s.c. for 5 days) affected testicular weight in sexually active voles, whereas both gonadotropins significantly increased testicular weight in photo-regressed individuals. FSH had no effect on I alpha or I beta B mRNA concentrations in the active testes, whereas excessive hCG challenge induced a decrease in the steady-state levels of these mRNAs. FSH induced an increase in I alpha mRNA concentrations in the regressed gonad, whereas both gonadotropins concomitantly down-regulated I beta B mRNA levels. In conclusion, the high expression of I alpha and I beta B mRNA in the regressed testis imply autocrine and paracrine roles for inhibin/activin in the quiescent gonad of seasonal breeders. Inhibin alpha-subunit expression is at least partly under the control of FSH in the bank vole testis.

  18. Geology and mineral deposits of an area in the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas (Subzone IIB), Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feininger, Tomas; Barrero L., Dario; Castro, Nestor; Hall, R.B.

    1973-01-01

    The Inventario Minero National (IMN), a four-year cooperative geologic mapping and mineral resources appraisal project, was accomplished under an agreement between the Republic of Colombia and the U. S. Agency for International Development from 1964 through 1969. Subzone IIB, consisting essentially of the east half of Zone comprises nearly 20,000 km2 principally in the Department of Antioquia but including also small parts of the Departments of Caldas and Tolima. The rocks in IIB range from Precambrian to Holocene. Precambrian feldspar-quartz gneiss occupies a mosaic of fault-bounded blocks intruded by igneous rocks between the Oto fault and the Rio Magdalena. Paleozoic rocks are extensive, and include lightly metamorphosed graptolite-bearing Ordovician shale at Cristalina, and a major suite of graphitic quartz-mica schist, feldspathic and aluminous gneiss, quartzite, marble, amphibolite, and other rocks. Syntectonic intrusive gneiss included many of the older rocks during a late Paleozoic(?) orogeny, which was accompanied by Abukuma-type metamorphosing from lowermost greenschist to upper amphibolite facies. A Jurassic diorite pluton bounded by faults cuts volcanic rocks of unknown age east of the Otu fault. Cretaceous rocks are major units. Middle Cretaceous carbonaceous shale, sandstone, graywacke, conglomerate, and volcanic rocks are locally prominent. The Antioquian batholith (quartz diorite) of Late Cretaceous age cuts the middle Cretaceous and older rocks. A belt of Tertiary nonmarine clastic sedimentary rocks crops out along the Magdalena Valley. Patches of Tertiary alluvium are locally preserved in the mountains. Quaternary alluvium, much of it auriferous, is widespread in modern stream valleys. Structurally IIB constitutes part of a vast complex synclinorium intruded concordantly by syntectonic catazonal or mesozonal felsic plutons, and by the later epizonal post-tectonic Antioquian batholith. Previously unrecognized major wrench faults are outstanding

  19. von Willebrand factor binds to platelets and induces aggregation in platelet-type but not type IIB von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, J L; Kupinski, J M; Castella, A; Ruggeri, Z M

    1983-01-01

    Platelet-type von Willebrand disease (vWD) and pseudo-vWD are two recently described intrinsic platelet defects characterized by enhanced ristocetin-induced agglutination in platelet-rich plasma. A similar finding is also typical of type IIB vWD, where it has been related to a von Willebrand factor (vWF) rather than a platelet abnormality. Platelet aggregation induced by unmodified human vWF in the absence of other stimuli has been reported in pseudo-vWD. In this study we demonstrate that vWF induces aggregation in platelet-type but not type IIB vWD. Aggregation is observed when normal plasma cryoprecipitate or purified vWF are added to platelet-rich plasma. Cryoprecipitate also aggregates washed platelets, although at higher concentrations than required for platelet-rich plasma. Purified vWF, however, induces significant aggregation of washed platelets only when plasma is added. EDTA inhibits vWF-induced aggregation. Its effect can be overcome by calcium but much less effectively by magnesium ions. Unstimulated platelets in platelet-rich plasma from patients with platelet-type but not type IIB vWD bind 125I-vWF in a specific and saturable manner. All different sized multimers of vWF become associated with platelets. Both aggregation and binding exhibit a similar vWF concentration dependence, suggesting that a correlation exists between these two events. Removal of ADP by appropriate consuming systems is without effect upon such binding or upon vWF-induced aggregation. Thrombin-induced 125I-vWF binding to washed platelets is normal in platelet-type as well as type IIB vWD. These results demonstrate that a specific binding site for unmodified human vWF is exposed on unstimulated platelets in platelet-type vWD. The relatively high vWF concentrations required for aggregation and binding may explain the lack of significant in vivo aggregation and thrombocytopenia in these patients. Moreover, these studies provide additional evidence that platelet-type and type IIB v

  20. The continuing story of SN IIb 2013df: new optical and IR observations and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalai, Tamás; Vinkó, József; Nagy, Andrea P.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Dhungana, Govinda; Marion, G. Howie; Kehoe, Robert; Fox, Ori D.; Sárneczky, Krisztián; Marschalkó, Gábor; Bíró, Barna I.; Borkovits, Tamás; Hegedüs, Tibor; Szakáts, Róbert; Ferrante, Farley V.; Bányai, Evelin; Hodosán, Gabriella; Kelemen, János; Pál, András

    2016-08-01

    SN 2013df is a nearby Type IIb supernova that seems to be the spectroscopic twin of the well-known SN 1993J. Previous studies revealed many, but not all interesting properties of this event. Our goal was to add new understanding of both the early- and late-time phases of SN 2013df. Our spectral analysis is based on six optical spectra obtained with the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope during the first month after explosion, complemented by a near-infrared spectrum. We applied the SYNAPPS spectral synthesis code to constrain the chemical composition and physical properties of the ejecta. A principal result is the identification of `high-velocity' He I lines in the early spectra of SN 2013df, manifest as the blue component of the double-troughed profile at ˜5650 Å. This finding, together with the lack of clear separation of H and He lines in velocity space, indicates that both H and He features form at the outer envelope during the early phases. We also obtained ground-based BVRI and g'r 'i'z' photometric data up to +45 d and unfiltered measurements with the ROTSE-IIIb telescope up to +168 d. From the modelling of the early-time quasi-bolometric light curve, we find Mej ˜ 3.2-4.6 M⊙ and Ekin ˜ 2.6-2.8 × 1051 erg for the initial ejecta mass and the initial kinetic energy, respectively, which agree well with the values derived from the separate modelling of the light-curve tail. Late-time mid-infrared excess indicates circumstellar interaction starting ˜1 yr after explosion, in accordance with previously published optical, X-ray, and radio data.

  1. Structural basis for quinine-dependent antibody binding to platelet integrin αIIbβ3.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianghai; Zhu, Jieqing; Bougie, Daniel W; Aster, Richard H; Springer, Timothy A

    2015-10-29

    Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia (DITP) is caused by antibodies that react with specific platelet-membrane glycoproteins when the provoking drug is present. More than 100 drugs have been implicated as triggers for this condition, quinine being one of the most common. The cause of DITP in most cases appears to be a drug-induced antibody that binds to a platelet membrane glycoprotein only when the drug is present. How a soluble drug promotes binding of an otherwise nonreactive immunoglobulin to its target, leading to platelet destruction, is uncertain, in part because of the difficulties of working with polyclonal human antibodies usually available only in small quantities. Recently, quinine-dependent murine monoclonal antibodies were developed that recognize a defined epitope on the β-propeller domain of the platelet integrin αIIb subunit (GPIIb) only when the drug is present and closely mimic the behavior of antibodies found in human patients with quinine-induced thrombocytopenia in vitro and in vivo. Here, we demonstrate specific, high-affinity binding of quinine to the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of these antibodies and define in crystal structures the changes induced in the CDR by this interaction. Because no detectable binding of quinine to the target integrin could be demonstrated in previous studies, the findings indicate that a hybrid paratope consisting of quinine and reconfigured antibody CDR plays a critical role in recognition of its target epitope by an antibody and suggest that, in this type of drug-induced immunologic injury, the primary reaction involves binding of the drug to antibody CDRs, causing it to acquire specificity for a site on a platelet integrin.

  2. Mechanism of quinine-dependent monoclonal antibody binding to platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa.

    PubMed

    Bougie, Daniel W; Peterson, Julie; Rasmussen, Mark; Aster, Richard H

    2015-10-29

    Drug-dependent antibodies (DDAbs) that cause acute thrombocytopenia upon drug exposure are nonreactive in the absence of the drug but bind tightly to a platelet membrane glycoprotein, usually α(IIb)/β3 integrin (GPIIb/IIIa) when the drug is present. How a drug promotes binding of antibody to its target is unknown and is difficult to study with human DDAbs, which are poly-specific and in limited supply. We addressed this question using quinine-dependent murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which, in vitro and in vivo, closely mimic antibodies that cause thrombocytopenia in patients sensitive to quinine. Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis, we found that quinine binds with very high affinity (K(D) ≈ 10⁻⁹ mol/L) to these mAbs at a molar ratio of ≈ 2:1 but does not bind detectably to an irrelevant mAb. Also using SPR analysis, GPIIb/IIIa was found to bind monovalently to immobilized mAb with low affinity in the absence of quinine and with fivefold greater affinity (K(D) ≈ 2.2 × 10⁻⁶) when quinine was present. Measurements of quinine-dependent binding of intact mAb and fragment antigen-binding (Fab) fragments to platelets showed that affinity is increased 10 000- to 100 000-fold by bivalent interaction between antibody and its target. Together, the findings indicate that the first step in drug-dependent binding of a DDAb is the interaction of the drug with antibody, rather than with antigen, as has been widely thought, where it induces structural changes that enhance the affinity/specificity of antibody for its target epitope. Bivalent binding may be essential for a DDAb to cause thrombocytopenia.

  3. Plantar measurements to determine success of surgical correction of Stage IIb adult acquired flatfoot deformity.

    PubMed

    Matheis, Erika A; Spratley, E Meade; Hayes, Curtis W; Adelaar, Robert S; Wayne, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Adult acquired flatfoot deformity is a degenerative disease causing medial arch dysfunction. Surgical correction has typically involved tendon reconstruction with calcaneal osteotomy; however, the postoperative changes have not been fully characterized. The present study assessed the success of surgical correction of Stage IIb adult acquired flatfoot deformity through changes in plantar pressures and patient-generated outcome scores. With Institutional Review Board approval, 6 participants were evaluated before and after surgery using pedobarography, the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score, and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form questionnaire. The plantar pressures were recorded using a TekScan HRMat(®) during walking and in a 1- and 2-foot stance. The resulting contour maps were segmented into 9 regions, with the peak pressure, normalized force, and arch index calculated. Surgical effects were analyzed using paired t tests. Postoperatively, the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score and Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form questionnaire scores increased significantly from 180 ± 78 to 360 ± 136 (p < .03) and 47 ± 18 to 71 ± 19 (p = .06), respectively. During the 2-foot stance, the normalized force had increased significantly in the lateral midfoot (p < .03), although no significant differences were found in peak pressures. No significant differences were observed in the 1-foot stance. During walking, the normalized force increased significantly in the lateral mid- and forefoot (p < .05). The peak pressure increased significantly in the lateral forefoot (p < .01). The arch index values demonstrated no significant changes. The increased questionnaire scores indicated that surgical correction improved the self-perceived health of the participants. Lateral shifts in the peak pressure and normalized force suggest that forefoot and midfoot loading is altered postoperatively, consistent with the goal of offloading the dysfunctional arch. Thus, the present study has

  4. Ciprofloxacin DPI: a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase IIb efficacy and safety study on cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Dorkin, Henry L; Staab, Doris; Operschall, Elisabeth; Alder, Jeff; Criollo, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment of infective bronchitis involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a cornerstone of care in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This phase IIb, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the efficacy and safety of ciprofloxacin dry powder for inhalation (DPI) in this population. Methods Patients with CF, ≥12 years of age (N=286), were randomised to ciprofloxacin DPI (32.5 mg (n=93) or 48.75 mg (n=93)), or corresponding placebo (32.5 mg, n=65; 48.75 mg, n=35) twice daily for 28 days. The primary objective was the change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) from baseline (day 0) to end of treatment (day 29) in the intent-to-treat population for ciprofloxacin DPI compared with the corresponding placebo group. Results The primary effectiveness objective was not met; there were no significant differences in change in FEV1 between ciprofloxacin DPI and the corresponding placebo group for either dose (p=0.154). However, in pooled analyses, FEV1 decline from baseline to treatment end was significantly lower with ciprofloxacin DPI than with placebo (pooled data; p=0.02). Ciprofloxacin DPI showed positive effects on sputum bacterial load and quality of life, but these effects were not maintained at the 4-week follow-up. Ciprofloxacin DPI was well tolerated and there were no significant differences in type/incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events by treatment group (p=0.115). Conclusions Further investigations are needed to determine the full scope of the beneficial effects of ciprofloxacin DPI for patients with CF. Trial registration number Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00645788; EudraCT 2008-008314-40. PMID:26688732

  5. Structural basis for quinine-dependent antibody binding to platelet integrin αIIbβ3

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jianghai; Zhu, Jieqing; Bougie, Daniel W.; Aster, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia (DITP) is caused by antibodies that react with specific platelet-membrane glycoproteins when the provoking drug is present. More than 100 drugs have been implicated as triggers for this condition, quinine being one of the most common. The cause of DITP in most cases appears to be a drug-induced antibody that binds to a platelet membrane glycoprotein only when the drug is present. How a soluble drug promotes binding of an otherwise nonreactive immunoglobulin to its target, leading to platelet destruction, is uncertain, in part because of the difficulties of working with polyclonal human antibodies usually available only in small quantities. Recently, quinine-dependent murine monoclonal antibodies were developed that recognize a defined epitope on the β-propeller domain of the platelet integrin αIIb subunit (GPIIb) only when the drug is present and closely mimic the behavior of antibodies found in human patients with quinine-induced thrombocytopenia in vitro and in vivo. Here, we demonstrate specific, high-affinity binding of quinine to the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of these antibodies and define in crystal structures the changes induced in the CDR by this interaction. Because no detectable binding of quinine to the target integrin could be demonstrated in previous studies, the findings indicate that a hybrid paratope consisting of quinine and reconfigured antibody CDR plays a critical role in recognition of its target epitope by an antibody and suggest that, in this type of drug-induced immunologic injury, the primary reaction involves binding of the drug to antibody CDRs, causing it to acquire specificity for a site on a platelet integrin. PMID:26282540

  6. Bowman Birk Inhibitor Concentrate and Oral Leukoplakia: A Randomized Phase IIb Trial

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, William B.; Taylor, Thomas H.; Kennedy, Ann R.; Melrose, Raymond J.; Messadi, Diana V.; Gu, Mai; Le, Anh D.; Perloff, Marjorie; Civantos, Francisco; Goodwin, W. Jarrard; Wirth, Lori J.; Kerr, A. Ross; Meyskens, Frank L.

    2013-01-01

    Oral premalignancy serves as an ideal model for study of chemopreventive agents. Although 13-cis-retinoic acid demonstrated reversal of oral premalignancy, toxicity and reversal of clinical response after cessation of therapy obviated its widespread use. A search for nontoxic agents with cancer preventive activity led us to evaluate Bowman Birk Inhibitor (BBI) formulated as BBI Concentrate (BBIC). We previously reported encouraging results in a phase IIa trial of BBIC in patients with oral leukoplakia with measurable clinical responses and favorable biomarker changes. Based on these results, we undertook a randomized, placebo controlled phase IIb trial with patients receiving BBIC or placebo for 6 months, with assessment of clinical response and change in lesion area as primary endpoint and an intent to treat analysis. 132 subjects were randomized; and 89 subjects completed six months on study drug or placebo. Both placebo and BBIC demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in mean lesion area of 17.1% and 20.6% respectively, and partial or greater clinical responses of 30% and 28% respectively. No significant difference between placebo and study drug arms was observed. Histological review, review of photographs of lesions, and comparison of serum neu protein and oral mucosal cell protease activity also did not show significant differences between study arms. Probable reasons for these negative results were considered and are discussed, and include a placebo with non-BBIC clinical activity and reduced pharmacokinetic availability of the second batch of BBIC. This experience should be a strong cautionary note to those considering “Green” Chemoprevention. PMID:23639862

  7. 5-Fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) plus sunitinib or bevacizumab as first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer: a randomized Phase IIb study

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, J Randolph; Mitchell, Edith P; Yoshino, Takayuki; Welslau, Manfred; Lin, Xun; Chow Maneval, Edna; Paolini, Jolanda; Lechuga, Maria Jose; Kretzschmar, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Background Sunitinib is an oral inhibitor of tyrosine kinase receptors implicated in tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. In this randomized, multicenter, open-label Phase IIb study, sunitinib plus mFOLFOX6 (oxaliplatin plus leucovorin plus 5-fluorouracil) was compared with bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX6 as first-line therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Methods Patients were stratified by performance status, baseline lactate dehydrogenase level, and prior adjuvant treatment, and randomized 1:1 to receive sunitinib 37.5 mg/day for 4 weeks on and 2 weeks off plus mFOLFOX6 every 2 weeks or bevacizumab 5 mg/kg every 2 weeks plus mFOLFOX6 every 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. Secondary endpoints included objective response rate, overall survival, safety, and quality of life. Results Enrollment was closed early following accrual of 191 patients, based on an interim analysis showing an inferior trend in the primary progression-free survival efficacy endpoint for sunitinib. Ninety-six patients were randomized to sunitinib plus mFOLFOX6 and 95 to bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX6. Median progression-free survival was 9.3 months and 15.4 months, respectively, but the objective response rate was similar between the study arms. Median overall survival was 23.7 months and 34.1 months, respectively. Dose reductions and interruptions were more common with sunitinib. Hematologic toxicity was more common in the sunitinib arm. Conclusion While the results of the sunitinib arm are comparable with those of previously reported FOLFOX combinations, the sunitinib-based combination was associated with more toxicity than that observed with bevacizumab and mFOLFOX6. The bevacizumab arm had an unexpectedly good outcome, and was much better than that seen in the Phase III trials. Combination therapy with sunitinib plus mFOLFOX6 is not recommended for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:26109878

  8. Molecular cloning, expression pattern, and 3D structural analysis of the MHC class IIB gene in the Chinese longsnout catfish (Leiocassis longirostris).

    PubMed

    Shen, Tong; Xu, Shixia; Yang, Mei; Pang, Shuying; Yang, Guang

    2011-05-15

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules encode glycoproteins which mediate the specificity of the vertebrate adaptive immune response. In this study, MHC class IIB gene from the Chinese longsnout catfish (Leiocassis longirostris) was cloned and sequenced, which encoded a predicted protein of 248 amino acids (28.06 kDa) containing a signal peptide, a beta 1 domain, a beta 2 domain, a connecting peptide, a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic tail. Using PCR with primers designed from known fish MHC class IIB sequences followed by elongation of the 5' and 3' ends using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), the full-length cDNA of longsnout catfish MHC class IIB was identified to be 1293 bp, consisting of a 26 bp 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR), a 520 bp 3'-UTR, and a 747 bp open reading frame (ORF) bearing characteristics of the immunoglobulin C-type 1 (IGc1) family. The deduced amino acid sequences of the Chinese longsnout catfish MHC class IIB gene had 58-75% identity with those of other fishes. Six class IIB alleles were identified from five individuals. At most two different alleles observed in each individual may infer the existence of a single locus of class IIB gene in the Chinese longsnout catfish genome. An extensive study of polymorphism was examined in 60 individuals. A total of 11 haplotypes of exon 2 were detected in the sampled Chinese longsnout catfish. The rates of nonsynonymous substitutions (d(N)) occurred at a higher frequency than that of synonymous substitutions (d(S)), suggesting the polymorphism of exon 2 seemed to be maintained by the balancing selection. By using long PCR technique, the genomic sequence was further identified to be 2345 bp in length, which contained six exons and five introns. Interestingly, a 98 bp intron 5 cut the 3'-UTR into two parts. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated high expression of MHC IIB in gills, spleen, head kidney, and intestine, moderate expression in liver and

  9. Selective inhibition of class I but not class IIb histone deacetylases exerts cardiac protection from ischemia reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Aune, Sverre E; Herr, Daniel J; Mani, Santhosh K; Menick, Donald R

    2014-07-01

    While inhibition of class I/IIb histone deacetylases (HDACs) protects the mammalian heart from ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, class selective effects remain unexamined. We hypothesized that selective inhibition of class I HDACs would preserve left ventricular contractile function following IR in isolated hearts. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n=6 per group) were injected with vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide, 0.63mg/kg), the class I/IIb HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (1mg/kg), the class I HDAC inhibitor entinostat (MS-275, 10mg/kg), or the HDAC6 (class IIb) inhibitor tubastatin A (10mg/kg). After 24h, hearts were isolated and perfused in Langendorff mode for 30min (Sham) or subjected to 30min global ischemia and 120min global reperfusion (IR). A saline filled balloon attached to a pressure transducer was placed in the LV to monitor contractile function. After perfusion, LV tissue was collected for measurements of antioxidant protein levels and infarct area. At the conclusion of IR, MS-275 pretreatment was associated with significant preservation of developed pressure, rate of pressure generation, rate of pressure relaxation and rate pressure product, as compared to vehicle treated hearts. There was significant reduction of infarct area with MS-275 pretreatment. Contractile function was not significantly restored in hearts treated with trichostatin A or tubastatin A. Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and catalase protein and mRNA in hearts from animals pretreated with MS-275 were increased following IR, as compared to Sham. This was associated with a dramatic enrichment of nuclear FOXO3a transcription factor, which mediates the expression of SOD2 and catalase. Tubastatin A treatment was associated with significantly decreased catalase levels after IR. Class I HDAC inhibition elicits protection of contractile function following IR, which is associated with increased expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Class I/IIb HDAC inhibition with trichostatin A or

  10. Evolutionary history of black grouse major histocompatibility complex class IIB genes revealed through single locus sequence-based genotyping

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gene duplications are frequently observed in the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) of many species, and as a consequence loci belonging to the same MHC class are often too similar to tell apart. In birds, single locus genotyping of MHC genes has proven difficult due to concerted evolution homogenizing sequences at different loci. But studies on evolutionary history, mode of selection and heterozygosity correlations on the MHC cannot be performed before it is possible to analyse duplicated genes separately. In this study we investigate the architecture and evolution of the MHC class IIB genes in black grouse. We developed a sequence-based genotyping method for separate amplification of the two black grouse MHC class IIB genes BLB1 and BLB2. Based on this approach we are able to study differences in structure and selection between the two genes in black grouse and relate these results to the chicken MHC structure and organization. Results Sequences were obtained from 12 individuals and separated into alleles using the software PHASE. We compared nucleotide diversity measures and employed selection tests for BLB1 and BLB2 to explore their modes of selection. Both BLB1 and BLB2 are transcribed and display classic characteristics of balancing selection as predicted for expressed MHC class IIB genes. We found evidence for both intra- and interlocus recombination or gene conversion, as well as indication for positive but differential selection at both loci. Moreover, the two loci appear to be linked. Phylogenetic analyses revealed orthology of the black grouse MHC class IIB genes to the respective BLB loci in chicken. Conclusions The results indicate that the duplication of the BLB gene occurred before the species divergence into black grouse, chicken and pheasant. Further, we conclude that BLB1 and BLB2 in black grouse are subjected to homogenizing concerted evolution due to interlocus genetic exchange after species divergence. The loci are in linkage

  11. A point mutation in the EGF-4 domain of β3 integrin is responsible for the formation of the Seca platelet alloantigen and affects receptor function

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Ulrich J.; Bakchoul, Tamam; Eva, Olga; Giptner, Astrid; Bein, Gregor; Aster, Richard H.; Gitter, Maria; Peterson, Julie; Santoso, Sentot

    2013-01-01

    Summary Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT) is caused by fetomaternal platelet incompatibility with maternal antibodies crossing the placenta and destroying fetal platelets. Antibodies against human platelet antigen-1a (HPA-1a) and HPA-5b are responsible for the majority of NAIT cases. We observed a suspected NAIT in a newborn with a platelet count of 25 G/l and petechial haemorrhages. Serological analysis of maternal serum revealed an immunisation against αIIbβ3 on paternal platelets only, indicating the presence of an antibody against a new rare alloantigen (Seca) residing on αIIbβ3. The location of Seca on αIIbβ3 was confirmed by immunoprecipitation. Nucleotide sequence analysis of paternal β3 revealed a single nucleotide exchange (G1818T) in exon 11 of the β3 gene (ITGB3), changing Lys580 (wild-type) to Asn580 (Seca). Two additional members of the family Sec were typed Seca positive, but none of 300 blood donors. Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing Asn580, but not Lys580 αIIbβ3, bound anti-Seca, which was corroborated by immunoprecipitation. Adhesion of transfected cells onto immobilised fibrinogen showed reduced binding of the Asn580 variant compared to wild-type αIIbβ3. Analysis of transfected cells with anti-LIBS and PAC-1 antibody showed reduced binding when compared to the wild-type. No such effects were observed with Seca positive platelets, which, however, are heterozygous for the Lys580Asn mutation. In this study, we describe a NAIT case caused by maternal alloimmunisation against a new antigen on αIIbβ3. Analysis with mutant transfected cells showed that the Lys580Asn mutation responsible for the formation of the Seca antigenic determinant affects αIIbβ3 receptor function. PMID:22116617

  12. Trans and surface membrane bound zervamicin IIB: 13C-MAOSS-NMR at high spinning speed.

    PubMed

    Raap, J; Hollander, J; Ovchinnikova, T V; Swischeva, N V; Skladnev, D; Kiihne, S

    2006-08-01

    Interactions between (15)N-labelled peptides or proteins and lipids can be investigated using membranes aligned on a thin polymer film, which is rolled into a cylinder and inserted into the MAS-NMR rotor. This can be spun at high speed, which is often useful at high field strengths. Unfortuantely, substrate films like commercially available polycarbonate or PEEK produce severe overlap with peptide and protein signals in (13)C-MAOSS NMR spectra. We show that a simple house hold foil support allows clear observation of the carbonyl, aromatic and C(alpha) signals of peptides and proteins as well as the ester carbonyl and choline signals of phosphocholine lipids. The utility of the new substrate is validated in applications to the membrane active peptide zervamicin IIB. The stability and macroscopic ordering of thin PC10 bilayers was compared with that of thicker POPC bilayers, both supported on the household foil. Sidebands in the (31)P-spectra showed a high degree of alignment of both the supported POPC and PC10 lipid molecules. Compared with POPC, the PC10 lipids are slightly more disordered, most likely due to the increased mobilities of the shorter lipid molecules. This mobility prevents PC10 from forming stable vesicles for MAS studies. The (13)C-peptide peaks were selectively detected in a (13)C-detected (1)H-spin diffusion experiment. Qualitative analysis of build-up curves obtained for different mixing times allowed the transmembrane peptide in PC10 to be distinguished from the surface bound topology in POPC. The (13)C-MAOSS results thus independently confirms previous findings from (15)N spectroscopy [Bechinger, B., Skladnev, D.A., Ogrel, A., Li, X., Rogozhkina, E.V., Ovchinnikova, T.V., O'Neil, J.D.J. and Raap, J. (2001) Biochemistry, 40, 9428-9437]. In summary, application of house hold foil opens the possibility of measuring high resolution (13)C-NMR spectra of peptides and proteins in well ordered membranes, which are required to determine the secondary

  13. Role of Gas6 receptors in platelet signaling during thrombus stabilization and implications for antithrombotic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne; Burnier, Laurent; Flores, Nathalie; Savi, Pierre; DeMol, Maria; Schaeffer, Paul; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Lemke, Greg; Goff, Stephen P.; Matsushima, Glenn K.; Earp, H. Shelton; Vesin, Christian; Hoylaerts, Marc F.; Plaisance, Stéphane; Collen, Désiré; Conway, Edward M.; Wehrle-Haller, Bernhard; Carmeliet, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Mechanisms regulating thrombus stabilization remain largely unknown. Here, we report that loss of any 1 of the Gas6 receptors (Gas6-Rs), i.e., Tyro3, Axl, or Mer, or delivery of a soluble extracellular domain of Axl that traps Gas6 protects mice against life-threatening thrombosis. Loss of a Gas6-R does not prevent initial platelet aggregation but impairs subsequent stabilization of platelet aggregates, at least in part by reducing “outside-in” signaling and platelet granule secretion. Gas6, through its receptors, activates PI3K and Akt and stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of the β3 integrin, thereby amplifying outside-in signaling via αIIbβ3. Blocking the Gas6-R–αIIbβ3 integrin cross-talk might be a novel approach to the reduction of thrombosis. PMID:15650770

  14. A novel member of the integrin receptor family mediates Arg-Gly-Asp- stimulated neutrophil phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Human neutrophils (PMN) express a heterodimeric receptor that has ligand binding specificity for the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence within many adhesive proteins. A monoclonal antibody, B6H12, which binds to this receptor, inhibits both RGD-mediated ligand binding and stimulation of IgG-mediated phagocytosis by fibronectin, fibrinogen, vitronectin, von Willebrand's factor, and collagen type IV. By several criteria this receptor is neither a known very late antigen, a known cytoadhesin (gp IIb/IIIa-vitronectin receptor), nor a member of the LFA- 1, Mac-1, p150,95 group of integrin receptors. Ligand binding via this receptor is rapidly inactivated by products of the myeloperoxidase- hydrogen peroxide-halide system of PMN. We conclude that this receptor, for which we propose the name leukocyte response integrin, is a signal- transducing molecule on PMN which may have a significant early role in modulation of PMN function at inflammatory sites. PMID:2785522

  15. Supernova 2010as: the lowest-velocity member of a family of flat-velocity type IIb supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Folatelli, Gastón; Bersten, Melina C.; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Hamuy, Mario; Olivares Estay, Felipe; Pignata, Giuliano; Anderson, Joseph P.; Holmbo, Simon; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Maeda, Keiichi; Morrell, Nidia; Contreras, Carlos; Phillips, Mark M.; Förster, Francisco; Prieto, José Luis; Valenti, Stefano; Afonso, Paulo; Altenmüller, Konrad; Elliott, Jonny; and others

    2014-09-01

    We present extensive optical and near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic observations of the stripped-envelope supernova SN 2010as. Spectroscopic peculiarities such as initially weak helium features and low expansion velocities with a nearly flat evolution place this object in the small family of events previously identified as transitional Type Ib/c supernovae (SNe). There is ubiquitous evidence of hydrogen, albeit weak, in this family of SNe, indicating that they are in fact a peculiar kind of Type IIb SNe that we name 'flat-velocity' Type IIb. The flat-velocity evolution—which occurs at different levels between 6000 and 8000 km s{sup –1} for different SNe—suggests the presence of a dense shell in the ejecta. Despite the spectroscopic similarities, these objects show surprisingly diverse luminosities. We discuss the possible physical or geometrical unification picture for such diversity. Using archival Hubble Space Telescope images, we associate SN 2010as with a massive cluster and derive a progenitor age of ≈6 Myr, assuming a single star-formation burst, which is compatible with a Wolf-Rayet progenitor. Our hydrodynamical modeling, on the contrary, indicates that the pre-explosion mass was relatively low, ≈4 M {sub ☉}. The seeming contradiction between a young age and low pre-SN mass may be solved by a massive interacting binary progenitor.

  16. Myosin light chain kinase steady-state kinetics: comparison of smooth muscle myosin II and nonmuscle myosin IIB as substrates

    PubMed Central

    Alcala, Diego B.; Haldeman, Brian D.; Brizendine, Richard K.; Krenc, Agata K.; Baker, Josh E.; Rock, Ronald S.; Cremo, Christine R.

    2016-01-01

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates S19 of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC), which is required to activate myosin's ATPase activity and contraction. Smooth muscles are known to display plasticity in response to factors such as inflammation, developmental stage, or stress, which lead to differential expression of nonmuscle and smooth muscle isoforms. Here, we compare steady-state kinetics parameters for phosphorylation of different MLCK substrates: (1) nonmuscle RLC, (2) smooth muscle RLC, and heavy meromyosin subfragments of (3) nonmuscle myosin IIB, and (4) smooth muscle myosin II. We show that MLCK has a ~2-fold higher kcat for both smooth muscle myosin II substrates compared with nonmuscle myosin IIB substrates, whereas Km values were very similar. Myosin light chain kinase has a 1.6-fold and 1.5-fold higher specificity (kcat/Km) for smooth versus nonmuscle-free RLC and heavy meromyosin, respectively, suggesting that differences in specificity are dictated by RLC sequences. Of the 10 non-identical RLC residues, we ruled out 7 as possible underlying causes of different MLCK kinetics. The remaining 3 residues were found to be surface exposed in the N-terminal half of the RLC, consistent with their importance in substrate recognition. These data are consistent with prior deletion/chimera studies and significantly add to understanding of MLCK myosin interactions. PMID:27528075

  17. Biosynthetic uniform 13C,15N-labelling of zervamicin IIB. Complete 13C and 15N NMR assignment.

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikova, Tatyana V; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Yakimenko, Zoya A; Svishcheva, Natalia V; Tagaev, Andrey A; Skladnev, Dmitry A; Arseniev, Alexander S

    2003-01-01

    Zervamicin IIB is a member of the alpha-aminoisobutyric acid containing peptaibol antibiotics. A new procedure for the biosynthetic preparation of the uniformly 13C- and 15N-enriched peptaibol is described This compound was isolated from the biomass of the fungus-producer Emericellopsis salmosynnemata strain 336 IMI 58330 obtained upon cultivation in the totally 13C, 15N-labelled complete medium. To prepare such a medium the autolysed biomass and the exopolysaccharides of the obligate methylotrophic bacterium Methylobacillus flagellatus KT were used. This microorganism was grown in totally 13C, 15N-labelled minimal medium containing 13C-methanol and 15N-ammonium chloride as the only carbon and nitrogen sources. Preliminary NMR spectroscopic analysis indicated a high extent of isotope incorporation (> 90%) and led to the complete 13C- and 15N-NMR assignment including the stereospecific assignment of Aib residues methyl groups. The observed pattern of the structurally important secondary chemical shifts of 1H(alpha), 13C=O and 13C(alpha) agrees well with the previously determined structure of zervamicin IIB in methanol solution. PMID:14658801

  18. Type IIb supernova SN 2011dh: Spectra and photometry from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, G. H.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Foley, Ryan J.; Berlind, Perry; Bieryla, Allyson; Calkins, Michael L.; Challis, Peter; Chornock, Ryan; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Falco, Emilio E.; Friedman, Andrew S.; Vinko, Jozsef; Bloom, Joshua S.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Culliton, Chris; Curtis, Jason L.; Everett, Mark E.; France, Kevin; Fransson, Claes; Garnavich, Peter; and others

    2014-02-01

    We report spectroscopic and photometric observations of the Type IIb SN 2011dh obtained between 4 and 34 days after the estimated date of explosion (May 31.5 UT). The data cover a wide wavelength range from 2000 Å in the ultraviolet (UV) to 2.4 μm in the near-infrared (NIR). Optical spectra provide line profiles and velocity measurements of H I, He I, Ca II, and Fe II that trace the composition and kinematics of the supernova (SN). NIR spectra show that helium is present in the atmosphere as early as 11 days after the explosion. A UV spectrum obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph reveals that the UV flux for SN 2011dh is low compared to other SN IIb. Modeling the spectrum with SYNOW suggests that the UV deficit is due to line blanketing from Ti II and Co II. The H I and He I velocities in SN 2011dh are separated by about 4000 km s{sup –1} at all phases. A velocity gap is consistent with models for a preexplosion structure in which a hydrogen-rich shell surrounds the progenitor. We estimate that the H shell of SN 2011dh is ≈8 times less massive than the shell of SN 1993J and ≈3 times more massive than the shell of SN 2008ax. Light curves (LCs) for 12 passbands are presented: UVW2, UVM2, UVW1, U, u', B, V, r', i', J, H, and K{sub s} . In the B band, SN 2011dh reached peak brightness of 13.17 mag at 20.0 ± 0.5 after the explosion. The maximum bolometric luminosity of 1.8 ± 0.2 × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1} occurred ≈22 days after the explosion. NIR emission provides more than 30% of the total bolometric flux at the beginning of our observations, and the NIR contribution increases to nearly 50% of the total by day 34. The UV produces 16% of the total flux on day 4, 5% on day 9, and 1% on day 34. We compare the bolometric LCs of SN 2011dh, SN 2008ax, and SN 1993J. The LC are very different for the first 12 days after the explosions, but all three SN IIb display similar peak luminosities, times of peak, decline rates, and colors after maximum

  19. Pyelolithotomy in a patient with Glanzmann thrombasthenia and antiglycoprotein IIb/IIIa antibodies: the shortest possible duration of treatment with recombinant activated factor VII and platelet transfusions.

    PubMed

    Devecioğlu, Omer; Unüvar, Ayşegül; Anak, Sema; Bilge, Ilmay; Ander, Haluk; Ziylan, Orhan

    2003-01-01

    Transfusion of platelet concentrates remains the first-line therapy for Glanzmann thrombasthenia in case of bleeding or preparation for surgery. However, development of antibodies to platelet glycoprotein (Gp) IIb/IIIa complex or human leukocyte antigens (HLA) is frequent and the main cause of platelet refractoriness. Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) is a potent alternative for patients with Glanzmann thrombasthenia with anti-platelet antibodies. We describe a case of Glanzmann thrombasthenia with alloantibodies to platelet Gp IIb/IIIa complex who underwent a successful pyelolithotomy operation under the coverage of recombinant activated factor VIIa and platelet transfusions. PMID:12718376

  20. Dual Inhibition of Activin/Nodal/TGF-β and BMP Signaling Pathways by SB431542 and Dorsomorphin Induces Neuronal Differentiation of Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Madhu, Vedavathi; Dighe, Abhijit S.; Cui, Quanjun; Deal, D. Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Damage to the nervous system can cause devastating diseases or musculoskeletal dysfunctions and transplantation of progenitor stem cells can be an excellent treatment option in this regard. Preclinical studies demonstrate that untreated stem cells, unlike stem cells activated to differentiate into neuronal lineage, do not survive in the neuronal tissues. Conventional methods of inducing neuronal differentiation of stem cells are complex and expensive. We therefore sought to determine if a simple, one-step, and cost effective method, previously reported to induce neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem cells and induced-pluripotent stem cells, can be applied to adult stem cells. Indeed, dual inhibition of activin/nodal/TGF-β and BMP pathways using SB431542 and dorsomorphin, respectively, induced neuronal differentiation of human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) as evidenced by formation of neurite extensions, protein expression of neuron-specific gamma enolase, and mRNA expression of neuron-specific transcription factors Sox1 and Pax6 and matured neuronal marker NF200. This process correlated with enhanced phosphorylation of p38, Erk1/2, PI3K, and Akt1/3. Additionally, in vitro subcutaneous implants of SB431542 and dorsomorphin treated hADSCs displayed significantly higher expression of active-axonal-growth-specific marker GAP43. Our data offers novel insights into cell-based therapies for the nervous system repair. PMID:26798350

  1. Expression and distribution of forkhead activin signal transducer 2 (FAST2) during follicle development in mouse ovaries and pre-implantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guiping; Liu, Linlin; Guo, Shujuan; Zhang, Cong

    2016-07-01

    Xenopus forkhead activin signal transducer 1 (xFAST 1) was first characterized in Xenopus as the transcriptional partner for Smad proteins. FAST2, which is the xFAST 1 homologues in mouse, is expressed during early developmental stages of the organism. However, the function of FAST2 in mouse ovaries and pre-implantation embryos is unclear. Therefore, we investigated its expression during these processes. In postnatal mice, FAST2 was expressed in oocytes and thecal cells from postnatal day (PD) 1 to PD 21. In gonadotropin-induced immature mice, FAST2 was expressed in oocytes, thecal cells and newly formed corpora lutea (CLs), but was expressed at a lower level in degenerated CLs. Similar results were observed upon western blot analyses. In meloxicam-treated immature mice, ovulation was inhibited and FAST2 was expressed in thecal cells, luteinized granulosa cells and entrapped oocytes. Immunofluorescence results showed that FAST2 was expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus but not the nucleolus from the zygote to 8-cell embryo stage, after which it was localized to the cytoplasm of the morulae and inner cell mass of the blastocysts. Taken together, these observations suggest that FAST2 is expressed in a cell-specific manner during ovarian follicle development, ovulation, luteinization and early embryonic development, and that FAST2 might play important roles in these physiological processes. PMID:27432806

  2. Th2 lymphocytes migrating to the bone marrow under high-altitude hypoxia promote erythropoiesis via activin A and interleukin-9.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Zheng, Shan-jun; Jiang, Chun-hua; Zhou, Si-min; Tian, Huai-jun; Zhang, Gang; Gao, Yu-qi

    2014-09-01

    The mechanism of accelerated erythropoiesis under the hypoxic conditions of high altitude (HA) remains largely obscure. Here, we investigated the potential role of bone marrow (BM) T cells in the increased production of erythrocytes at HA. We found that mice exposed to a simulated altitude of 6,000 m for 1-3 weeks exhibited a significant expansion of BM CD4+ cells, mainly caused by increasing T helper 2 (Th2) cells. Using a coculture model of BM T cells and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, we observed that BM CD4+ cells from hypoxic mice induced erythroid output more easily, in agreement with the erythroid-enhancing effect observed for Th2-condition-cultured BM CD4+ cells. It was further demonstrated that elevated secretion of activin A and interleukin-9 by BM Th2 cells of hypoxic mice promoted erythroid differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and the growth of erythroblasts, respectively. Our study also provided evidence that the CXCL12-CXCR4 interaction played an important role in Th2 cell trafficking to the BM under HA conditions. These results collectively suggest that Th2 cells migrating to the BM during HA exposure have a regulatory role in erythropoiesis, which provides new insight into the mechanism of high altitude polycythemia.

  3. The Type IIb SN 2011dh: Two years of observations and modelling of the lightcurves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergon, M.; Jerkstrand, A.; Sollerman, J.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Fransson, C.; Fraser, M.; Pastorello, A.; Kotak, R.; Taubenberger, S.; Tomasella, L.; Valenti, S.; Benetti, S.; Helou, G.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Maund, J.; Smartt, S. J.; Spyromilio, J.

    2015-08-01

    We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry and spectroscopy as well as modelling of the lightcurves of the Type IIb supernova (SN) 2011dh. Our extensive dataset, for which we present the observations obtained after day 100, spans two years, and complemented with Spitzer mid-infrared (MIR) data, we use it to build an optical-to-MIR bolometric lightcurve between days 3 and 732. To model the bolometric lightcurve before day 400 we use a grid of hydrodynamical SN models, which allows us to determine the errors in the derived quantities, and a bolometric correction determined with steady-state non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) modelling. Using this method we find a helium core mass of 3.1+0.7-0.4 M⊙ for SN 2011dh, consistent within error bars with previous results obtained using the bolometric lightcurve before day 80. We compute bolometric and broad-band lightcurves between days 100 and 500 from spectral steady-state NLTE models, presented and discussed in a companion paper. The preferred 12 M⊙ (initial mass) model, previously found to agree well with the observed spectra, shows a good overall agreement with the observed lightcurves, although some discrepancies exist. Time-dependent NLTE modelling shows that after day ~600 a steady-state assumption is no longer valid. The radioactive energy deposition in this phase is likely dominated by the positrons emitted in the decay of 56Co, but seems insufficient to reproduce the lightcurves, and what energy source is dominating the emitted flux is unclear. We find an excess in the K and the MIR bands developing between days 100 and 250, during which an increase in the optical decline rate is also observed. A local origin of the excess is suggested by the depth of the He i 20 581 Å absorption. Steady-state NLTE models with a modest dust opacity in the core (τ = 0.44), turned on during this period, reproduce the observed behaviour, but an additional excess in the Spitzer 4.5 μm band remains. Carbon

  4. Novel mutations of integrin αIIb and β3 genes in Turkish children with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia.

    PubMed

    Tokgoz, Huseyin; Torun Ozkan, Didem; Caliskan, Umran; Akar, Nejat

    2015-01-01

    Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT) is an inherited disorder of platelet aggregation, characterized by qualitative and quantitative defect on platelet αIIbβ3 integrin (GpIIb/IIIa), resulting in lifelong bleeding tendency due to defective platelet plug formation. The αIIb gene (ITGA2B) and β3 gene (ITGB3) are closely located at chromosome 17q21.31-32. ITGA2B consist of 30 exons and encoding α chain, whereas ITGB3 has 15 exons and encoding β chain. Until now, according to the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), 138 mutations at ITGA2B gene and 101 mutations at ITGB3 gene have been identified. We aimed to determine whether there was any mutation in the ITGA2B and ITGB3 genes, and a correlation between clinical phenotype and genotype in Turkish GT patients. We examined 20 patients with GT followed at the Department of Pediatric Hematology, Meram Faculty of Medicine, for Clinical and Laboratory Findings and Molecular Genetic Analysis. Peripheral blood was collected from patients, and a written informed consent for genetic analysis was obtained from parents. DNA was isolated from by proteinase K and phenol/chloroform extraction. ITGA2B and ITGB3 genes were screened by polymerase chain reaction. There were 12 females and 8 males with a median age of 15.25 years. Major clinical presentations of these patients were mucocutaneous bleedings. The most common bleeding type was epistaxis (85%). Life-threatening bleedings were seen in five patients. Seven (35%) patients showed various mutations in the ITGA2B or ITGB3 genes. We detected four novel mutations in three different regions and two mutations defined previously within the ITGA2B gene. These changes are at exon 4; c.570 T > G alteration, at exon 13 c.1277 T > A, c.1291 T > G alterations, at exon 19 c.1921A > G alterations. And from the start point of exon 14, behind 107 bases, we detected a heterozygous alteration at Thymine to Guanine. According to PolyPhen Database Program and NCBI Multiple Alignment Tool Database

  5. The molecular defect in type IIB von Willebrand disease. Identification of four potential missense mutations within the putative GpIb binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, K A; Nichols, W C; Bruck, M E; Bahou, W F; Shapiro, A D; Bowie, E J; Gralnick, H R; Ginsburg, D

    1991-01-01

    Type IIB von Willebrand Disease (vWD) is characterized by the selective loss of large von Willebrand Factor (vWF) multimers from plasma, presumably due to their increased reactivity with platelets and subsequent clearance from the circulation. Using the PCR, one of a panel of four potential missense mutations was identified in each of the 14 patients studied from 11 unrelated families. None of these substitutions was encountered in a large panel of normal DNAs. These changes all represent C----T transitions at CpG dinucleotides, proposed "hot spots" for mutation in the human genome. The four resulting amino acid substitutions, Arg543----Trp, Arg545----Cys, Val553----Met, and Arg578----Gln, are all clustered within the GpIb binding domain of vWF. Disruption of this latter functional domain may explain the pathogenesis of Type IIB vWD. By sequence polymorphism analysis, the Arg543----Trp substitution was shown to have occurred as at least two independent mutational events. This latter observation, along with the identification of mutations in all 14 patients studied and their localization to the GpIb binding domain, all strongly suggest that these substitutions represent the authentic defects responsible for Type IIB vWD. This panel of mutations may provide a useful diagnostic tool for the majority of patients with Type IIB vWD. Images PMID:1672694

  6. Interactions between integrin αIIbβ3 and the serotonin transporter regulate serotonin transport and platelet aggregation in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Ana Marin D.; Cook, Edwin H.; Murphy, Dennis L.; Blakely, Randy D.

    2008-01-01

    The essential contribution of the antidepressant-sensitive serotonin (5-HT) transporter SERT (which is encoded by the SLC6A4 gene) to platelet 5-HT stores suggests an important role of this transporter in platelet function. Here, using SERT-deficient mice, we have established a role for constitutive SERT expression in efficient ADP- and thrombin-triggered platelet aggregation. Additionally, using pharmacological blockers of SERT and the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), we have identified a role for ongoing 5-HT release and SERT activity in efficient human platelet aggregation. We have also demonstrated that fibrinogen, an activator of integrin αIIbβ3, enhances SERT activity in human platelets and that integrin αIIbβ3 interacts directly with the C terminus of SERT. Consistent with these findings, knockout mice lacking integrin β3 displayed diminished platelet SERT activity. Conversely, HEK293 cells engineered to express human SERT and an activated form of integrin β3 exhibited enhanced SERT function that coincided with elevated SERT surface expression. Our results support an unsuspected role of αIIbβ3/SERT associations as well as αIIbβ3 activation in control of SERT activity in vivo that may have broad implications for hyperserotonemia, cardiovascular disorders, and autism. PMID:18317590

  7. Indoor air quality impacts of residential hvac systems phase II.B report: IAQ control retrofit simulations and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Emmerich, S.J.; Persily, A.K.

    1995-09-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) performed a preliminary study of the potential for using central forced-air heating and cooling system modifications to control indoor air quality (IAQ) in residential buildings. The objective of this effort was to provide insight into the use of state-of-the-art IAQ models to evaluate such modifications, the potential of these modifications to mitigate residential IAQ problems, the pollutant sources they are most likely to impact, and their potential limitations. This study was not intended to determine definitively whether the IAQ control options studied are reliable and cost-effective. The report summarizes the results on Phase II.B of this project, which consisted of three main efforts: computer simulations of contaminant levels with IAQ control retrofits, evaluation of the effectiveness of the IAQ control retrofits, and development of recommendations for future research.

  8. Secret symmetries of type IIB superstring theory on Ad{{S}_{3}} × {{S}^{3}} × {{M}^{4}}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittelli, Antonio; Torrielli, Alessandro; Wolf, Martin

    2014-11-01

    We establish features of so-called Yangian secret symmetries for AdS3 type IIB superstring backgrounds, thus verifying the persistence of such symmetries to this new instance of the AdS/CFT correspondence. Specifically, we find two a priori different classes of secret symmetry generators. One class of generators, anticipated from the previous literature, is more naturally embedded in the algebra governing the integrable scattering problem. The other class of generators is more elusive and somewhat closer in its form to its higher-dimensional AdS5 counterpart. All of these symmetries respect left-right crossing. In addition, by considering the interplay between left and right representations, we gain a new perspective on the AdS5 case. We also study the RTT-realisation of the Yangian in AdS3 backgrounds, thus establishing a new incarnation of the Beisert-de Leeuw construction.

  9. Four Kähler moduli stabilisation in type IIB orientifolds with K3-fibred Calabi-Yau threefold compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüst, Dieter; Zhang, Xu

    2013-05-01

    We present a concrete and consistent procedure to generate one kind of nonperturbative superpotential, including the gaugino condensation corrections and polyinstanton corrections, in type IIB orientifold compactification with four Kähler Moduli. After tuning some parameters in superpotential, we can fix all of the four Kähler moduli on a general Calabi-Yau manifold with typical K3-fibred volume form, by using this kind of superpotential as well as the α'-corrections to Kähler potential. In our construction, the considered Calabi-Yau threefolds are K3-fibred and admit at least one del Pezzo surface and one W-surface. Searching through all existing four dimensional reflexive lattice polytopes, we find 23 of them fulfilling all the requirements.

  10. Inferring supernova IIb/Ib/Ic ejecta properties from light curves and spectra: correlations from radiative-transfer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Woosley, Stan; Livne, Eli; Waldman, Roni; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Langer, Norbert

    2016-05-01

    We present 1D non-local thermodynamic equilibrium time-dependent radiative-transfer simulations for a large grid of supernovae (SNe) IIb/Ib/Ic that result from the terminal explosion of the mass donor in a close-binary system. Our sample covers ejecta masses Me of 1.7-5.2 M⊙, kinetic energies Ekin of 0.6-5.0 × 1051 erg, and 56Ni masses of 0.05-0.30 M⊙. We find a strong correlation between the 56Ni mass and the photometric properties at maximum, and between the rise time to bolometric maximum and the post-maximum decline rate. We confirm the small scatter in (V - R) at 10 d past R-band maximum. The quantity V_m ≡ √{2E_kin/M_e} is comparable to the Doppler velocity measured from He I 5875 Å at maximum in SNe IIb/Ib, although some scatter arises from the uncertain level of chemical mixing. The O I 7772 Å line may be used for SNe Ic, but the correspondence deteriorates with higher ejecta mass/energy. We identify a temporal reversal of the Doppler velocity at maximum absorption in the ˜1.05 μm feature in all models. The reversal is due to He I alone and could serve as a test for the presence of helium in SNe Ic. Because of variations in composition and ionization, the ejecta opacity shows substantial variations with both velocity and time. This is in part the origin of the offset between our model light curves and the predictions from the Arnett model.

  11. Calreticulin-independent regulation of the platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3 by the KVGFFKR alphaIIb-cytoplasmic motif.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Dermot; Larkin, Deirdre; Devocelle, Marc; Fitzgerald, Desmond J; Moran, Niamh

    2004-02-01

    The platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3 alters conformation in response to platelet activation and ligand binding, although the molecular mechanisms involved are not known. We previously showed that a lipid modified peptide, corresponding to the membrane proximal 989KVGFFKR995 portion of the alphaIIb cytoplasmic tail, independently activates platelet alphaIIbbeta3. Calreticulin (CRT) is a potential integrin regulatory protein based on its interaction with the highly conserved alpha-integrin sequence KxGFFKR. We therefore examined the possible interaction of calreticulin and alphaIIbbeta3 in human platelets. We demonstrate that calreticulin in platelets is localised to the granulomere. In contrast, the known integrin-binding protein talin accumulates at the periphery of spreading platelets and colocalises with alphaIIbbeta3 during the process of adhesion. An interaction between calreticulin and alphaIIbbeta3 could not be demonstrated using co-immunoprecipitation techniques under various platelet activation states, even in the presence of covalent chemical crosslinkers. Thus, calreticulin does not functionally interact with the major integrin in human platelets. In order to identify proteins that interact with the integrin KVGFFKR motif we then used a peptide 'pull-down' assay from platelet lysates with biotinylated peptides and demonstrate that only the alphaIIb and beta3 subunits selectively and individually interact with this sequence. This interaction is divalent cation-dependent, has high-affinity, and occurs both with purified alphaIIbbeta3 complex and with electroeluted alpha and beta subunits. Thus, our data show that the conserved integrin KVGFFKR domain interacts primarily with the alpha and beta cytoplasmic tails and not with CRT in human platelets. PMID:14985176

  12. Structural and Functional Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus’s Class IIb Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common nosocomial sources of soft-tissue and skin infections and has more recently become prevalent in the community setting as well. Since the use of penicillins to combat S. aureus infections in the 1940s, the bacterium has been notorious for developing resistances to antibiotics, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). With the persistence of MRSA as well as many other drug resistant bacteria and parasites, there is a growing need to focus on new pharmacological targets. Recently, class II fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases (FBAs) have garnered attention to fill this role. Regrettably, scarce biochemical data and no structural data are currently available for the class II FBA found in MRSA (SaFBA). With the recent finding of a flexible active site zinc-binding loop (Z-Loop) in class IIa FBAs and its potential for broad spectrum class II FBA inhibition, the lack of information regarding this feature of class IIb FBAs, such as SaFBA, has been limiting for further Z-loop inhibitor development. Therefore, we elucidated the crystal structure of SaFBA to 2.1 Å allowing for a more direct structural analysis of SaFBA. Furthermore, we determined the KM for one of SaFBA’s substrates, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, as well as performed mode of inhibition studies for an inhibitor that takes advantage of the Z-loop’s flexibility. Together the data offers insight into a class IIb FBA from a pervasively drug resistant bacterium and a comparison of Z-loops and other features between the different subtypes of class II FBAs. PMID:25390935

  13. Combining molecular evolution and environmental genomics to unravel adaptive processes of MHC class IIB diversity in European minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus)

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Helene; Burri, Reto; Comtesse, Fabien; Fumagalli, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Host–pathogen interactions are a major evolutionary force promoting local adaptation. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) represent unique candidates to investigate evolutionary processes driving local adaptation to parasite communities. The present study aimed at identifying the relative roles of neutral and adaptive processes driving the evolution of MHC class IIB (MHCIIB) genes in natural populations of European minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus). To this end, we isolated and genotyped exon 2 of two MHCIIB gene duplicates (DAB1 and DAB3) and 1′665 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in nine populations, and characterized local bacterial communities by 16S rDNA barcoding using 454 amplicon sequencing. Both MHCIIB loci exhibited signs of historical balancing selection. Whereas genetic differentiation exceeded that of neutral markers at both loci, the populations' genetic diversities were positively correlated with local pathogen diversities only at DAB3. Overall, our results suggest pathogen-mediated local adaptation in European minnows at both MHCIIB loci. While at DAB1 selection appears to favor different alleles among populations, this is only partially the case in DAB3, which appears to be locally adapted to pathogen communities in terms of genetic diversity. These results provide new insights into the importance of host–pathogen interactions in driving local adaptation in the European minnow, and highlight that the importance of adaptive processes driving MHCIIB gene evolution may differ among duplicates within species, presumably as a consequence of alternative selective regimes or different genomic context. Using next-generation sequencing, the present manuscript identifies the relative roles of neutral and adaptive processes driving the evolution of MHC class IIB (MHCIIB) genes in natural populations of a cyprinid fish: the European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). We highlight that the relative importance of neutral

  14. Integrin-Alpha IIb Identifies Murine Lymph Node Lymphatic Endothelial Cells Responsive to RANKL

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Olga G.; Chypre, Mélanie; Brouard, Nathalie; Rauber, Simon; Alloush, Farouk; Romera-Hernandez, Monica; Bénézech, Cécile; Li, Zhi; Eckly, Anita; Coles, Mark C.; Rot, Antal; Yagita, Hideo; Léon, Catherine; Ludewig, Burkhard; Cupedo, Tom; Lanza, François; Mueller, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    Microenvironment and activation signals likely imprint heterogeneity in the lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) population. Particularly LECs of secondary lymphoid organs are exposed to different cell types and immune stimuli. However, our understanding of the nature of LEC activation signals and their cell source within the secondary lymphoid organ in the steady state remains incomplete. Here we show that integrin alpha 2b (ITGA2b), known to be carried by platelets, megakaryocytes and hematopoietic progenitors, is expressed by a lymph node subset of LECs, residing in medullary, cortical and subcapsular sinuses. In the subcapsular sinus, the floor but not the ceiling layer expresses the integrin, being excluded from ACKR4+ LECs but overlapping with MAdCAM-1 expression. ITGA2b expression increases in response to immunization, raising the possibility that heterogeneous ITGA2b levels reflect variation in exposure to activation signals. We show that alterations of the level of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), by overexpression, neutralization or deletion from stromal marginal reticular cells, affected the proportion of ITGA2b+ LECs. Lymph node LECs but not peripheral LECs express RANK. In addition, we found that lymphotoxin-β receptor signaling likewise regulated the proportion of ITGA2b+ LECs. These findings demonstrate that stromal reticular cells activate LECs via RANKL and support the action of hematopoietic cell-derived lymphotoxin. PMID:27010197

  15. Integrin-Alpha IIb Identifies Murine Lymph Node Lymphatic Endothelial Cells Responsive to RANKL.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Olga G; Chypre, Mélanie; Brouard, Nathalie; Rauber, Simon; Alloush, Farouk; Romera-Hernandez, Monica; Bénézech, Cécile; Li, Zhi; Eckly, Anita; Coles, Mark C; Rot, Antal; Yagita, Hideo; Léon, Catherine; Ludewig, Burkhard; Cupedo, Tom; Lanza, François; Mueller, Christopher G

    2016-01-01

    Microenvironment and activation signals likely imprint heterogeneity in the lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) population. Particularly LECs of secondary lymphoid organs are exposed to different cell types and immune stimuli. However, our understanding of the nature of LEC activation signals and their cell source within the secondary lymphoid organ in the steady state remains incomplete. Here we show that integrin alpha 2b (ITGA2b), known to be carried by platelets, megakaryocytes and hematopoietic progenitors, is expressed by a lymph node subset of LECs, residing in medullary, cortical and subcapsular sinuses. In the subcapsular sinus, the floor but not the ceiling layer expresses the integrin, being excluded from ACKR4+ LECs but overlapping with MAdCAM-1 expression. ITGA2b expression increases in response to immunization, raising the possibility that heterogeneous ITGA2b levels reflect variation in exposure to activation signals. We show that alterations of the level of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), by overexpression, neutralization or deletion from stromal marginal reticular cells, affected the proportion of ITGA2b+ LECs. Lymph node LECs but not peripheral LECs express RANK. In addition, we found that lymphotoxin-β receptor signaling likewise regulated the proportion of ITGA2b+ LECs. These findings demonstrate that stromal reticular cells activate LECs via RANKL and support the action of hematopoietic cell-derived lymphotoxin. PMID:27010197

  16. Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation regulates expression of growth differentiation factor 11 and activin-like kinase 5 in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingxi; Zhang, Lina; He, Guoqian; Tan, Xiaodan; Jin, Xinhao; Li, Changqing

    2016-10-15

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), as a rejuvenation factor in heterochronic parabiosis, can increase proliferation of primary brain capillary endothelial cells (ECs). However, the angiogenic role of GDF11 in ischemia-induced brain injury is still unclear. There are no previous reports on the spatiotemporal expression of GDF11 in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) rats. Our recent work has strongly suggested that transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (ta-VNS) reduces infarct size and induces angiogenesis in focal cerebral I/R rats. This study focused on expression of GDF11 and activin-like kinase 5 (ALK5) and the effects of ta-VNS in a rat cerebral I/R model. For ta-VNS, electrical stimulation of the left cavum concha (1h duration) using percutaneous needles was initiated 30min after induction of ischemia. Expression of GDF11 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and western blot 24h, 3d, and 7d after reperfusion. In addition, neurobehavioral function, EC proliferation, and expression of ALK5 in ECs in the peri-infarct cortex were measured. Results showed that levels of GDF11 were significantly elevated after cerebral I/R, both in plasma and the peri-infarct cerebral cortex. Interestingly, splenic GDF11 levels decreased after ischemia. ALK5 was expressed in ECs in the peri-infarct cerebral cortex where active vessel remodeling was noted. ta-VNS improved neurobehavioral recovery, upregulated cerebral GDF11 and downregulated splenic GDF11, indicating a brain-spleen communication during stroke. ta-VNS also increased expression of ALK5 in ECs and stimulated proliferation of ECs. These results suggest that, after cerebral ischemia, GDF11 redistributes and participates in angiogenesis as an angiogenic factor that acts at least in part through ALK5. GDF11/ALK5 may represent a new potential therapy target for stroke. PMID:27653860

  17. Carboplatin and Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Veliparib in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IIIC Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-12

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  18. LT-IIb(T13I), a non-toxic type II heat-labile enterotoxin, augments the capacity of a ricin toxin subunit vaccine to evoke neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Greene, Christopher J; Chadwick, Chrystal M; Mandell, Lorrie M; Hu, John C; O'Hara, Joanne M; Brey, Robert N; Mantis, Nicholas J; Connell, Terry D

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there is a shortage of adjuvants that can be employed with protein subunit vaccines to enhance protection against biological threats. LT-IIb(T13I) is an engineered nontoxic derivative of LT-IIb, a member of the type II subfamily of heat labile enterotoxins expressed by Escherichia coli, that possesses potent mucosal adjuvant properties. In this study we evaluated the capacity of LT-IIb(T13I) to augment the potency of RiVax, a recombinant ricin toxin A subunit vaccine, when co-administered to mice via the intradermal (i.d.) and intranasal (i.n.) routes. We report that co-administration of RiVax with LT-IIb(T13I) by the i.d. route enhanced the levels of RiVax-specific serum IgG antibodies (Ab) and elevated the ratio of ricin-neutralizing to non-neutralizing Ab, as compared to RiVax alone. Protection against a lethal ricin challenge was also augmented by LT-IIb(T13I). While local inflammatory responses elicited by LT-IIb(T13I) were comparable to those elicited by aluminum salts (Imject®), LT-IIb(T13I) was more effective than aluminum salts at augmenting production of RiVax-specific serum IgG. Finally, i.n. administration of RiVax with LT-IIb(T13I) also increased levels of RiVax-specific serum and mucosal Ab and enhanced protection against ricin challenge. Collectively, these data highlight the potential of LT-IIb(T13I) as an effective next-generation i.d., or possibly i.n. adjuvant for enhancing the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines for biodefense.

  19. Hepcidin expression in the liver of rats fed a magnesium-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Natsumi; Kotani, Megumi; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsui, Tohru

    2011-10-01

    Mg deficiency accelerates Fe accumulation in the liver, which may induce various metabolic disturbances. In the present study, we examined the gene expression of Hepcidin, a peptide hormone produced in the liver to regulate intestinal Fe absorption negatively, in Mg-deficient rats. Although liver Fe concentration was significantly higher in rats fed an Mg-deficient diet for 4 weeks than in rats fed a control diet, Hepcidin expression in the liver was comparable between the dietary groups. Previous studies revealed that Fe overload up-regulated Hepcidin expression through transcriptional activation by Fe-induced bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) 6, a growth/differentiation factor belonging to the transforming growth factor-β family, in the liver. Mg deficiency up-regulated the expression of Bmp6 but did not affect the expression of inhibition of DNA binding 1, a sensitive Bmp-responsive gene. In addition, the expression of Bmp receptors such as activin receptor-like kinase 2 (Alk2), activin receptor type IIA (Actr2a), activin receptor type IIB (Actr2b) and Bmp type II receptor (Bmpr2) was lower in the liver of Mg-deficient rats than in that of control rats. The present study indicates that accumulation of hepatic Fe by Mg deficiency is a stimulant inducing Bmp6 expression but not Hepcidin expression by blunting Bmp signalling possibly resulting from down-regulation of the receptor expression. Unresponsive Hepcidin expression may have a role in Mg deficiency-induced changes related to increased liver Fe.

  20. A TaqMan-Based Multiplex qPCR Assay and DNA Extraction Method for Phylotype IIB Sequevars 1&2 (Select Agent) Strains of Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Stulberg, Michael J.; Huang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strains belonging to phylotype IIB, sequevars 1 and 2 (IIB-1&2) cause brown rot of potato in temperate climates, and are quarantined pathogens in Canada and Europe. Since these strains are not established in the U.S. and because of their potential risk to the potato industry, the U.S. government has listed them as select agents. Cultivated geraniums are also a host and have the potential to spread the pathogen through trade, and its extracts strongly inhibits DNA-based detection methods. We designed four primer and probe sets for an improved qPCR method that targets stable regions of DNA. RsSA1 and RsSA2 recognize IIB-1&2 strains, RsII recognizes the current phylotype II (the newly proposed R. solanacearum species) strains (and a non-plant associated R. mannitolilytica), and Cox1 recognizes eight plant species including major hosts of R. solanacearum such as potato, tomato and cultivated geranium as an internal plant control. We multiplexed the RsSA2 with the RsII and Cox1 sets to provide two layers of detection of a positive IIB-1&2 sample, and to validate plant extracts and qPCR reactions. The TaqMan-based uniplex and multiplex qPCR assays correctly identified 34 IIB-1&2 and 52 phylotype II strains out of 90 R. solanacearum species complex strains. Additionally, the multiplex qPCR assay was validated successfully using 169 artificially inoculated symptomatic and asymptomatic plant samples from multiple plant hosts including geranium. Furthermore, we developed an extraction buffer that allowed for a quick and easy DNA extraction from infected plants including geranium for detection of R. solanacearum by qPCR. Our multiplex qPCR assay, especially when coupled with the quick extraction buffer method, allows for quick, easy and reliable detection and differentiation of the IIB-1&2 strains of R. solanacearum. PMID:26426354

  1. Intraoperative validation of CT-based lymph nodal levels, sublevels IIa and IIb: Is it of clinical relevance in selective radiation therapy?

    SciTech Connect

    Levendag, Peter . E-mail: p.levendag@erasmusmc.nl; Gregoire, Vincent; Hamoir, Marc; Voet, Peter; Est, Henrie van der; Heijmen, Ben; Kerrebijn, Jeroen

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study are to discuss the intraoperative validation of CT-based boundaries of lymph nodal levels in the neck, and in particular the clinical relevance of the delineation of sublevels IIa and IIb in case of selective radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: To validate the radiologically defined level contours, clips were positioned intraoperatively at the level boundaries defined by surgical anatomy. In 10 consecutive patients, clips were placed, at the time of a neck dissection being performed, at the most cranial border of the neck. Anterior-posterior and lateral X-ray films were obtained intraoperatively. Next, in 3 patients, neck levels were contoured on preoperative contrast-enhanced CT scans according to the international consensus guidelines. From each of these 3 patients, an intraoperative CT scan was also obtained, with clips placed at the surgical-anatomy-based level boundaries. The preoperative (CT-based) and intraoperative (surgery-defined) CT scans were matched. Results: Clips placed at the most cranial part of the neck lined up at the caudal part of the transverse process of the cervical vertebra C-I. The posterior border of surgical level IIa (spinal accessory nerve [SAN]) did not match with the posterior border of CT-based level IIa (internal jugular vein [IJV]). Other surgical boundaries and CT-based contours were in good agreement. Conclusions: The cranial border of the neck, i.e., the cranial border of level IIa/IIb, corresponds to the caudal edge of the lateral process of C-I. Except for the posterior border between level IIa and level IIb, a perfect match was observed between the other surgical-clip-identified levels II-V boundaries (surgical-anatomy) and the CT-based delineation contours. It is argued that (1) because of the parotid gland overlapping part of level II, and (2) the frequent infestation of occult metastatic cells in the lymph channels around the IJV, the division of level II into radiologic

  2. A TaqMan-based multiplex qPCR assay and DNA extraction method for phylotype IIB sequevars 1&2 (select agent) strains of Ralstonia solanacearum

    DOE PAGES

    Stulberg, Michael J.; Huang, Qi

    2015-10-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strains belonging to phylotype IIB, sequevars 1 and 2 (IIB-1&2) cause brown rot of potato in temperate climates, and are quarantined pathogens in Canada and Europe. Since these strains are not established in the U.S. and because of their potential risk to the potato industry, the U.S. government has listed them as select agents. Cultivated geraniums are also a host and have the potential to spread the pathogen through trade, and its extracts strongly inhibits DNA-based detection methods. We designed four primer and probe sets for an improved qPCR method that targets stable regionsmore » of DNA. RsSA1 and RsSA2 recognize IIB-1&2 strains, RsII recognizes the current phylotype II (the newly proposed R. solanacearum species) strains (and a non-plant associated R. mannitolilytica), and Cox1 recognizes eight plant species including major hosts of R. solanacearum such as potato, tomato and cultivated geranium as an internal plant control. We multiplexed the RsSA2 with the RsII and Cox1 sets to provide two layers of detection of a positive IIB-1&2 sample, and to validate plant extracts and qPCR reactions. The TaqMan-based uniplex and multiplex qPCR assays correctly identified 34 IIB-1&2 and 52 phylotype II strains out of 90 R. solanacearum species complex strains. Additionally, the multiplex qPCR assay was validated successfully using 169 artificially inoculated symptomatic and asymptomatic plant samples from multiple plant hosts including geranium. Moreover, we developed an extraction buffer that allowed for a quick and easy DNA extraction from infected plants including geranium for detection of R. solanacearum by qPCR. Our multiplex qPCR assay, especially when coupled with the quick extraction buffer method, allows for quick, easy and reliable detection and differentiation of the IIB-1&2 strains of R. solanacearum.« less

  3. A TaqMan-Based Multiplex qPCR Assay and DNA Extraction Method for Phylotype IIB Sequevars 1&2 (Select Agent) Strains of Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Stulberg, Michael J; Huang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strains belonging to phylotype IIB, sequevars 1 and 2 (IIB-1&2) cause brown rot of potato in temperate climates, and are quarantined pathogens in Canada and Europe. Since these strains are not established in the U.S. and because of their potential risk to the potato industry, the U.S. government has listed them as select agents. Cultivated geraniums are also a host and have the potential to spread the pathogen through trade, and its extracts strongly inhibits DNA-based detection methods. We designed four primer and probe sets for an improved qPCR method that targets stable regions of DNA. RsSA1 and RsSA2 recognize IIB-1&2 strains, RsII recognizes the current phylotype II (the newly proposed R. solanacearum species) strains (and a non-plant associated R. mannitolilytica), and Cox1 recognizes eight plant species including major hosts of R. solanacearum such as potato, tomato and cultivated geranium as an internal plant control. We multiplexed the RsSA2 with the RsII and Cox1 sets to provide two layers of detection of a positive IIB-1&2 sample, and to validate plant extracts and qPCR reactions. The TaqMan-based uniplex and multiplex qPCR assays correctly identified 34 IIB-1&2 and 52 phylotype II strains out of 90 R. solanacearum species complex strains. Additionally, the multiplex qPCR assay was validated successfully using 169 artificially inoculated symptomatic and asymptomatic plant samples from multiple plant hosts including geranium. Furthermore, we developed an extraction buffer that allowed for a quick and easy DNA extraction from infected plants including geranium for detection of R. solanacearum by qPCR. Our multiplex qPCR assay, especially when coupled with the quick extraction buffer method, allows for quick, easy and reliable detection and differentiation of the IIB-1&2 strains of R. solanacearum.

  4. Multiple roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein, fibroblast growth factor and Wnt/β-catenin signalling in the anterior neural patterning of adherent human embryonic stem cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lupo, Giuseppe; Novorol, Claire; Smith, Joseph R.; Vallier, Ludovic; Miranda, Elena; Alexander, Morgan; Biagioni, Stefano; Pedersen, Roger A.; Harris, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have successfully produced a variety of neural cell types from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), but there has been limited systematic analysis of how different regional identities are established using well-defined differentiation conditions. We have used adherent, chemically defined cultures to analyse the roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and Wnt/β-catenin signalling in neural induction, anteroposterior patterning and eye field specification in hESCs. We show that either BMP inhibition or activation of FGF signalling is required for effective neural induction, but these two pathways have distinct outcomes on rostrocaudal patterning. While BMP inhibition leads to specification of forebrain/midbrain positional identities, FGF-dependent neural induction is associated with strong posteriorization towards hindbrain/spinal cord fates. We also demonstrate that Wnt/β-catenin signalling is activated during neural induction and promotes acquisition of neural fates posterior to forebrain. Therefore, inhibition of this pathway is needed for efficient forebrain specification. Finally, we provide evidence that the levels of Activin/Nodal and BMP signalling have a marked influence on further forebrain patterning and that constitutive inhibition of these pathways represses expression of eye field genes. These results show that the key mechanisms controlling neural patterning in model vertebrate species are preserved in adherent, chemically defined hESC cultures and reveal new insights into the signals regulating eye field specification. PMID:23576785

  5. Multiple roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein, fibroblast growth factor and Wnt/β-catenin signalling in the anterior neural patterning of adherent human embryonic stem cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Giuseppe; Novorol, Claire; Smith, Joseph R; Vallier, Ludovic; Miranda, Elena; Alexander, Morgan; Biagioni, Stefano; Pedersen, Roger A; Harris, William A

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have successfully produced a variety of neural cell types from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), but there has been limited systematic analysis of how different regional identities are established using well-defined differentiation conditions. We have used adherent, chemically defined cultures to analyse the roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and Wnt/β-catenin signalling in neural induction, anteroposterior patterning and eye field specification in hESCs. We show that either BMP inhibition or activation of FGF signalling is required for effective neural induction, but these two pathways have distinct outcomes on rostrocaudal patterning. While BMP inhibition leads to specification of forebrain/midbrain positional identities, FGF-dependent neural induction is associated with strong posteriorization towards hindbrain/spinal cord fates. We also demonstrate that Wnt/β-catenin signalling is activated during neural induction and promotes acquisition of neural fates posterior to forebrain. Therefore, inhibition of this pathway is needed for efficient forebrain specification. Finally, we provide evidence that the levels of Activin/Nodal and BMP signalling have a marked influence on further forebrain patterning and that constitutive inhibition of these pathways represses expression of eye field genes. These results show that the key mechanisms controlling neural patterning in model vertebrate species are preserved in adherent, chemically defined hESC cultures and reveal new insights into the signals regulating eye field specification. PMID:23576785

  6. The Bone Morphogenetic Protein Type Ib Receptor Is a Major Mediator of Glial Differentiation and Cell Survival in Adult Hippocampal Progenitor Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Brederlau, A.; Faigle, R.; Elmi, M.; Zarebski, A.; Sjöberg, S.; Fujii, M.; Miyazono, K.; Funa, K.

    2004-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) act as growth regulators and inducers of differentiation. They transduce their signal via three different type I receptors, termed activin receptor-like kinase 2 (Alk2), Alk3, or bone morphogenetic protein receptor Ia (BMPRIa) and Alk6 or BMPRIb. Little is known about functional differences between the three type I receptors. Here, we have investigated consequences of constitutively active (ca) and dominant negative (dn) type I receptor overexpression in adult-derived hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPs). The dn receptors have a nonfunctional intracellular but functional extracellular domain. They thus trap BMPs that are endogenously produced by AHPs. We found that effects obtained by overexpression of dnAlk2 and dnAlk6 were similar, suggesting similar ligand binding patterns for these receptors. Thus, cell survival was decreased, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was reduced, whereas the number of oligodendrocytes increased. No effect on neuronal differentiation was seen. Whereas the expression of Alk2 and Alk3 mRNA remained unchanged, the Alk6 mRNA was induced after impaired BMP signaling. After dnAlk3 overexpression, cell survival and astroglial differentiation increased in parallel to augmented Alk6 receptor signaling. We conclude that endogenous BMPs mediate cell survival, astroglial differentiation and the suppression of oligodendrocytic cell fate mainly via the Alk6 receptor in AHP culture. PMID:15194807

  7. Differential Binding Activity of TGF-β Family Proteins to Select TGF-β Receptors.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Ashraf M; Dotimas, Hyna; Kahn, Julius; Lamerdin, Jane E; Hayes, David B; Gupta, Priyanka; Franti, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF11) and myostatin (MSTN) are highly related transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) ligands with 89% amino acid sequence homology. They have different biologic activities and diverse tissue distribution patterns. However, the activities of these ligands are indistinguishable in in vitro assays. SMAD2/3 signaling has been identified as the canonical pathway for GDF11 and MSTN, However, it remains unclear which receptor heterodimer and which antagonists preferentially mediate and regulate signaling. In this study, we investigated the initiation and regulation of GDF11 and MSTN signaling at the receptor level using a novel receptor dimerization detection technology. We used the dimerization platform to link early receptor binding events to intracellular downstream signaling. This approach was instrumental in revealing differential receptor binding activity within the TGF-β family. We verified the ActR2b/ALK5 heterodimer as the predominant receptor for GDF11- and MSTN-induced SMAD2/3 signaling. We also showed ALK7 specifically mediates activin-B signaling. We verified follistatin as a potent antagonist to neutralize both SMAD2/3 signaling and receptor dimerization. More remarkably, we showed that the two related antagonists, growth and differentiation factor-associated serum protein (GASP)-1 and GASP2, differentially regulate GDF11 (and MSTN) signaling. GASP1 blocks both receptor dimerization and downstream signaling. However, GASP2 blocks only downstream signaling without interference from receptor dimerization. Our data strongly suggest that physical binding of GDF11 (and MSTN) to both ActR2b and ALK5 receptors is required for initiation of signaling. PMID:27340210

  8. Matrigel and Activin A promote cell-cell contact and anti-apoptotic activity in cultured human retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoling; Zhu, Deliang; Lian, Ruiling; Han, Yuting; Guo, Yonglong; Li, Zhijie; Tang, Shibo; Chen, Jiansu

    2016-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness among the aging population. Currently, replacement of diseased retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells with transplanted healthy RPE cells could be a feasible approach for AMD therapy. However, maintaining cell-cell contact and good viability of RPE cells cultured in vitro is difficult and fundamentally determines the success of RPE cell transplantation. This study was conducted to examine the role of Matrigel and Activin A (MA) in regulating cell-cell contact and anti-apoptotic activity in human RPE (hRPE) cells, as assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), immunofluorescence staining, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis, Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) analysis, mitochondrial membrane potential (△Ψ m) assays, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays and Western blotting. hRPE cells cultured in vitro could maintain their epithelioid morphology after MA treatment over at least 4 passages. The contact of N-cadherin to the lateral cell border was promoted in hRPE cells at P2 by MA. MA treatment also enhanced the expression of tight junction-associated genes and proteins, such as Claudin-1, Claudin-3, Occludin and ZO-1, as well as polarized ZO-1 protein distribution and barrier function, in cultured hRPE cells. Moreover, MA treatment decreased apoptotic cells, ROS and Bax and increased △Ψ m and Bcl2 in hRPE cells under serum withdrawal-induced apoptosis. In addition, MA treatment elevated the protein expression levels of β-catenin and its target proteins, including Cyclin D1, c-Myc and Survivin, as well as the gene expression levels of ZO-1, β-catenin, Survivin and TCF-4, all of which could be down-regulated by the Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor XAV-939. Taken together, MA treatment could effectively promote cell-cell contact and anti-apoptotic activity in hRPE cells, partly involving the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. This study

  9. Monoclonal antibody FC-5.01, directed against CD63 antigen, is internalized into cytoplasmic vesicles in the IIB-BR-G human breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Barrio, M M; Portela, P; Mordoh, J

    1998-12-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) FC-5.01, raised against the undifferentiated breast cancer cell line IIB-BR-G, has been recently shown to react with CD63. The antigen (Ag) recognized by MAb FC-5.01 is expressed in plasma membranes of IIB-BR-G and other neoplastic cells, as well as in activated platelets and endothelial cells, as detected by indirect immunofluorescence performed at 4 degrees C on live cells. In permeabilized cells, MAb FC-5.01 colocalizes with acridine orange in acidic vesicles (lysosomal/endosomal compartment). Scatchard plot analysis performed on IB-BR-G cells demonstrated a 1.4+/-0.4 x 10(7) M(-1) affinity constant and 2.1 x 10(6) antigenic sites per cell. MAb FC-5.01 is not able to mediate C fixation or ADCC toward CD63+ cells, but the FC-5.01-CD63 complex is efficiently internalized into cytoplasmic vesicles, as shown by an acid wash immunofluorescence assay. Cellular catabolism of the antibody bound by IIB-BR-G cells was studied using [125I]-FC-5.01. At 18 h, >70% of the radioactivity was present in the supernatant as degraded fragments (TCA-soluble). After internalization, rapid Ag re-expression could be demonstrated in IIB-BR-G cells. MAb FC-5.01 diminished migration of CD63+ cells in a Boyden chamber assay. Some of the above-mentioned properties would enable the use of MAb FC-5.01 as a vehicle to target different compounds inside CD63+ cells.

  10. 30 CFR 57.22232 - Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-B, II-A, II-B, IV, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-B, II-A, II-B, IV, V-B, and VI mines). 57.22232 Section 57.22232 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  11. MHC Class IIB Exon 2 Polymorphism in the Grey Partridge (Perdix perdix) Is Shaped by Selection, Recombination and Gene Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Bryjová, Anna; Albrecht, Tomáš; Bryja, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Among bird species, the most studied major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the chicken MHC. Although the number of studies on MHC in free-ranging species is increasing, the knowledge on MHC variation in species closely related to chicken is required to understand the peculiarities of bird MHC evolution. Here we describe the variation of MHC class IIB (MHCIIB) exon 2 in a population of the Grey partridge (Perdix perdix), a species of high conservation concern throughout Europe and an emerging galliform model in studies of sexual selection. We found 12 alleles in 108 individuals, but in comparison to other birds surprisingly many sites show signatures of historical positive selection. Individuals displayed between two to four alleles both on genomic and complementary DNA, suggesting the presence of two functional MHCIIB loci. Recombination and gene conversion appear to be involved in generating MHCIIB diversity in the Grey partridge; two recombination breakpoints and several gene conversion events were detected. In phylogenetic analysis of galliform MHCIIB, the Grey partridge alleles do not cluster together, but are scattered through the tree instead. Thus, our results indicate that the Grey partridge MHCIIB is comparable to most other galliforms in terms of copy number and population polymorphism. PMID:23935938

  12. Determination of lysine residues affinity labeled in the active site of yeast RNA polymerase II(B) by mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Treich, I; Carles, C; Sentenac, A; Riva, M

    1992-01-01

    In a previous study, yeast RNA polymerase II(B) was affinity labeled with two nucleotide derivatives (III and VIII) (1). In both cases, the labeled site was localized to the C-terminal part of the B150 subunit. The potential target lysyl residues of derivative III were mapped to the conserved domain H, between Asn946 and Met999. In the present work, we have mutagenized to arginine the five lysines present in domain H. Three lysines can be replaced, individually or simultaneously, without affecting cell growth, and each mutated enzyme can still be affinity labeled. Hence one or both of the other two lysyl residues, Lys979 and Lys987, is the target of the affinity reagent. These two lysines were each found to be essential for cell viability. Derivative VIII labeled another domain in addition to domain H. Supported by analogous results obtained for E. coli RNA polymerase using derivative VIII (2), we hypothesized that the second domain labeled by this derivative in the B150 subunit was domain I. Mutagenesis of the unique lysine present in domain I demonstrated that Lys 1102 was the target of derivative VIII. These results indicate that in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNA polymerases, domains H and I are in close proximity and participate to the active site. Images PMID:1408783

  13. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines...

  14. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines...

  15. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines...

  16. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines...

  17. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines...

  18. Stable expression of rat cytochrome P-450IIB1 cDNA in Chinese hamster cells (V79) and metabolic activation of aflatoxin B sub 1

    SciTech Connect

    Doehmer, J.; Dogra, S.; Friedberg, T.; Monier, S.; Adesnik, M.; Glatt, H.; Oesch, F. )

    1988-08-01

    V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts are widely used for mutagenicity testing but have the serious limitation that they do not express cytochromes P-450, which are needed for the activation of many promutagens to mutagenic metabolites. A full-length cDNA clone encoding the monooxygenase cytochrome P-450IIB1 under control of the simian virus 40 early promoter was constructed and cointroduced with the selection marker neomycin phosphotransferase (conferring resistance to G418) into V79 Chinese hamster cells. G418-resistant cells were selected, established as cell lines, and tested for cytochrome P-450IIB1 expression and enzymatic activity. Two cell lines (SD1 and SD3) were found that stably produce cytochrome P-450IIB1. Although purified cytochromes P-450 possess monooxygenase activity only after reconstitution with cytochrome P-450 reductase and phospholipid, the gene product of the construct exhibited this activity. This implies that the gene product is intracellularly localized in a way that allows access to the required components. If compared with V79 cells, the mutation rate for the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltranferase (HPRT) locus in SD1 cells is markedly increased when exposed to aflatoxin B{sub 1}, which is activated by this enzyme.

  19. Neural activity selects myosin IIB and VI with a specific time window in distinct dynamin isoform-mediated synaptic vesicle reuse pathways.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Michikata; Tanifuji, Shota; Ma, Huan; Murakami, Noriko; Mochida, Sumiko

    2015-06-10

    Presynaptic nerve terminals must maintain stable neurotransmissions via synaptic vesicle (SV) resupply despite encountering wide fluctuations in the number and frequency of incoming action potentials (APs). However, the molecular mechanism linking variation in neural activity to SV resupply is unknown. Myosins II and VI are actin-based cytoskeletal motors that drive dendritic actin dynamics and membrane transport, respectively, at brain synapses. Here we combined genetic knockdown or molecular dysfunction and direct physiological measurement of fast synaptic transmission from paired rat superior cervical ganglion neurons in culture to show that myosins IIB and VI work individually in SV reuse pathways, having distinct dependency and time constants with physiological AP frequency. Myosin VI resupplied the readily releasable pool (RRP) with slow kinetics independently of firing rates but acted quickly within 50 ms after AP. Under high-frequency AP firing, myosin IIB resupplied the RRP with fast kinetics in a slower time window of 200 ms. Knockdown of both myosin and dynamin isoforms by mixed siRNA microinjection revealed that myosin IIB-mediated SV resupply follows amphiphysin/dynamin-1-mediated endocytosis, while myosin VI-mediated SV resupply follows dynamin-3-mediated endocytosis. Collectively, our findings show how distinct myosin isoforms work as vesicle motors in appropriate SV reuse pathways associated with specific firing patterns. PMID:26063922

  20. Calcium-dependent properties of CIB binding to the integrin alphaIIb cytoplasmic domain and translocation to the platelet cytoskeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Shock, D D; Naik, U P; Brittain, J E; Alahari, S K; Sondek, J; Parise, L V

    1999-01-01

    The alphaIIbbeta3 integrin receives signals in agonist-activated platelets, resulting in its conversion to an active conformation that binds fibrinogen, thereby mediating platelet aggregation. Fibrinogen binding to alphaIIbbeta3 subsequently induces a cascade of intracellular signalling events. The molecular mechanisms of this bi-directional alphaIIbbeta3-mediated signalling are unknown but may involve the binding of proteins to the integrin cytoplasmic domains. We reported previously the sequence of a novel 22-kDa, EF-hand-containing, protein termed CIB (calcium- and integrin-binding protein) that interacts specifically with the alphaIIb cytoplasmic domain in the yeast two-hybrid system. Further analysis of numerous tissues and cell lines indicated that CIB mRNA and protein are widely expressed. In addition, isothermal titration calorimetry indicated that CIB binds to an alphaIIb cytoplasmic-domain peptide in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, with moderate affinity (K(d), 700 nM) and 1:1 stoichiometry. In aggregated platelets, endogenous CIB and alphaIIbbeta3 translocate to the Triton X-100-insoluble cytoskeleton in a parallel manner, demonstrating that the cellular localization of CIB is regulated, potentially by alphaIIbbeta3. Thus CIB may contribute to integrin-related functions by mechanisms involving Ca(2+)-modulated binding to the alphaIIb cytoplasmic domain and changes in intracellular distribution. PMID:10477286

  1. Total saponin from Korean Red Ginseng inhibits binding of adhesive proteins to glycoprotein IIb/IIIa via phosphorylation of VASP (Ser157) and dephosphorylation of PI3K and Akt

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyuk-Woo; Shin, Jung-Hae; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Rhee, Man Hee; Park, Hwa-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Binding of adhesive proteins (i.e., fibrinogen, fibronectin, vitronectin) to platelet integrin glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (αIIb/β3) by various agonists (thrombin, collagen, adenosine diphosphate) involve in strength of thrombus. This study was carried out to evaluate the antiplatelet effect of total saponin from Korean Red Ginseng (KRG-TS) by investigating whether KRG-TS inhibits thrombin-induced binding of fibrinogen and fibronectin to αIIb/β3. Methods We investigated the effect of KRG-TS on phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and dephosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt, affecting binding of fibrinogen and fibronectin to αIIb/β3, and clot retraction. Results KRG-TS had an antiplatelet effect by inhibiting the binding of fibrinogen and fibronectin to αIIb/β3 via phosphorylation of VASP (Ser157), and dephosphorylation of PI3K and Akt on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Moreover, A-kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cyclic adenosine monophosphates (cAMPs) reduced KRG-TS-increased VASP (Ser157) phosphorylation, and increased KRG-TS-inhibited fibrinogen-, and fibronectin-binding to αIIb/β3. These findings indicate that KRG-TS interferes with the binding of fibrinogen and fibronectin to αIIb/β3 via cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of VASP (Ser157). In addition, KRG-TS decreased the rate of clot retraction, reflecting inhibition of αIIb/β3 activation. In this study, we clarified ginsenoside Ro (G-Ro) in KRG-TS inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation via both inhibition of [Ca2+]i mobilization and increase of cAMP production. Conclusion These results strongly indicate that KRG-TS is a beneficial herbal substance inhibiting fibrinogen-, and fibronectin-binding to αIIb/β3, and clot retraction, and may prevent platelet αIIb/β3-mediated thrombotic disease. In addition, we demonstrate that G-Ro is a novel compound with antiplatelet characteristics of KRG-TS. PMID:26843825

  2. Insights into the Recognition, Binding and Reactivity of Catalytic Metallodrugs Targeting Stem Loop IIb of Hepatitis C IRES RNA

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Seth S.; Ross, Martin James; Fidai, Insiya; Cowan, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Complex Cu-GGHYrFK-amide (1-Cu) was previously reported as a novel metallotherapeutic that catalytically inactivates stem loop IIb of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Internal Ribosomal Entry Site (IRES) RNA and demonstrates significant antiviral activity in a cellular HCV replicon assay. Herein are described additional studies focused on understanding the cleavage mechanism, as well as the relationship of catalyst configuration to structural recognition and site-selective cleavage of the structured RNA motif. These are advanced by use of a combination of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, melting temperature determination, and computational analysis to develop a structural model for binding and reactivity toward SLIIb of the IRES RNA. In addition, the binding, reactivity, and structural chemistry of the all d-amino acid form of this metallopeptide, complex 2-Cu, is reported and compared to complex 1-Cu. In vitro RNA binding and cleavage assays for complex 2-Cu show a KD of 76 ± 3 nM, and Michaelis-Menten parameters of kcat of 0.14 ± 0.01 min−1 and KM of 7.9 ± 1.2 µM, with a turnover number exceeding 40. In a luciferase-based cellular replicon assay Cu-GGhyrfk-amide shows activity similar to the parent peptide, complex 1-Cu, with IC50 of 1.9 ± 0.4 µM and cytotoxicity exceeding 100 µM. RT-PCR experiments confirm a significant reduction in HCV RNA levels in replicon assays for up to nine days when treated with complex 1-Cu in three day dosing increments. This study shows the influence that the α-carbon stereocenter has for this the new class of compounds, while detailed mass spectrometry and computational analysis provide new insights into the mechanisms of recognition, binding, and reactivity. PMID:24756921

  3. Does the parasite-mediated selection drive the MHC class IIB diversity in wild populations of European chub (Squalius cephalus)?

    PubMed

    Seifertová, Mária; Jarkovský, Jiří; Šimková, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The genes of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) provide an excellent opportunity to study host-parasite relationships because they are expected to evolve in response to parasites and variation in parasite communities. In this study, we investigated the potential role of parasite-mediated selection acting on MHC class IIB (DAB) genes in European chub (Squalius cephalus) natural populations. We found significant differences between populations in metazoan parasites, neutral and adaptive genetic diversities. The analyses based on pairwise data revealed that populations with dissimilar MHC allelic profiles were geographically distant populations with significantly different diversity in microsatellites and a dissimilar composition of parasite communities. The results from the generalized estimating equations method (GEE) on the level of individuals revealed that metazoan parasite load in European chub was influenced by the diversity of DAB alleles as well as by the diversity of neutral genetic markers and host traits reflecting condition and immunocompetence. The multivariate co-inertia analysis showed specific associations between DAB alleles and parasite species. DAB1-like alleles were more involved in associations with ectoparasites, while DAB3-like alleles were positively associated with endoparasites which could suggest potential differences between DAB genes caused by different selection pressure. Our study revealed that parasite-mediated selection is not the only variable affecting MHC diversity in European chub; however, we strongly support the role of neutral processes as the main driver of DAB diversity across populations. In addition, our study contributes to the understanding of the evolution of MHC genes in wild living fish. PMID:26693717

  4. Understanding Differences in Enrollment Outcomes among High-Risk Populations Recruited to a Phase IIb HIV Vaccine Trial

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Paula M.; del Rio, Carlos; Lu, Lu; Clifton, Sarah; Mulligan, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Step Study, a Phase IIb HIV vaccine proof of concept study, enrolled approximately 3,000 persons in Clade B regions. The Atlanta site sought to enroll a diverse population. This prospective cohort study examined key factors associated with participant enrollment. Methods We obtained participant information (e.g., sociodemographic, medical) and followed outcomes from 2005 to 2007. Of the 810 potential “Step Study” participants, 340 cases were analyzed. Results The recruitment strategy generated strong interest among minorities with 37% eligible following prescreening, yet 25% of the minorities enrolled. However, the percentage of whites increased from 62% eligible (prescreened sample) to 75% enrolled. The regression model was significant with educational level being an enrollment predictor (p = 0.0023). Those with at least a bachelor’s degree were more likely to enroll compared to those with a K-12 education or some college (OR = 2.424, 95% CI = 1.372–4.281, p < 0.01). White race was also a significant factor (OR=2.330; 95% CI = 1.241–4.375, p < 0.01). No difference in enrollment was observed among recruitment approaches, Pearson χ2 (2, N = 336) = 5.286, p = 0.07. Conclusions The results from this study indicate that women, minorities, and those with lower educational attainment were less likely to enroll in an HIV vaccine efficacy study at our site. The findings highlight an important consideration on the role of health literacy to sustain participation of eligible minorities in HIV vaccine trials. PMID:19194310

  5. The association of thromboxane A2 receptor with lipid rafts is a determinant for platelet functional responses.

    PubMed

    Moscardó, A; Vallés, J; Latorre, A; Santos, M T

    2014-08-25

    We have investigated the presence of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor associated with lipid rafts in human platelets and the regulation of platelet function in response to TXA2 receptor agonists when lipid rafts are disrupted by cholesterol extraction. Platelet aggregation with TXA2 analogs U46619 and IBOP was almost blunted in cholesterol-depleted platelets, as well as αIIbβ3 integrin activation and P-selectin exposure. Raft disruption also inhibited TXA2-induced cytosolic calcium increase and nucleotide release, ruling out an implication of P2Y12 receptor. An important proportion of TXA2 receptor (40%) was colocalized at lipid rafts. The presence of the TXA2 receptor associated with lipid rafts in platelets is important for functional platelet responses to TXA2.

  6. Phase II Evaluation of Dalantercept, a Soluble Recombinant Activin Receptor-Like Kinase 1 (ALK1) Receptor Fusion Protein, for the Treatment of Recurrent or Persistent Endometrial Cancer: An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group Study 0229N

    PubMed Central

    Makker, Vicky; Filiaci, Virginia L.; Chen, Lee-may; Darus, Christopher J.; Kendrick, James E.; Sutton, Gregory; Moxley, Katherine; Aghajanian, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objective This two-stage phase II study assessed activity of single agent dalantercept in patients with recurrent/persistent endometrial carcinoma (EMC). Methods Eligible patients had persistent/recurrent EMC after 1–2 prior cytotoxic regimens, measurable disease (RECIST 1.1), and GOG performance ≤ 2. Dalantercept 1.2 mg/kg subcutaneous was administered once every 3 weeks until disease progression (PD)/development of prohibitory toxicity. Primary objectives were to estimate the proportion of patients with persistent/recurrent EMC, who survive progression-free without receiving non-protocol therapy (TPFS) for at least 6 months and to estimate the proportion having objective tumor response. Results All 28 enrolled patients were eligible and evaluable. Median age: 62 years. Most common histologies: 32% Grade 1/2 endometrioid and 54% serous tumors. Prior treatment: 1 or 2 regimens in 82% and 18% of patients, respectively. Eighteen patients received prior radiation therapy. Patients received 1–12 cycles of dalantercept, and 46% of patients received ≤2 cycles. The most common adverse events (AE) were fatigue, anemia, constipation and peripheral edema. Grade 3/4 AEs occurred in 39% and 4% of patients. One grade 5 gastric hemorrhage in a patient with a history of radiation fibrosis/small bowel obstruction was deemed possibly dalantercept-related. All patients are off study: 86% for PD. No ORs were observed; 57% had stable disease and 11% had TPFS ≥ 6 mos. Median progression-free and overall survival: 2.1 months (90% CI: 1.4–3.2) and 14.5 months (90% CI: 7.0–17.5), respectively. Conclusions Dalantercept has insufficient single agent activity in recurrent EMC to warrant further investigation at this dose level and schedule. PMID:25888978

  7. The antithrombotic activity of EP224283, a neutralizable dual factor Xa inhibitor/glycoprotein IIbIIIa antagonist, exceeds that of the coadministered parent compounds.

    PubMed

    Hechler, Béatrice; Freund, Monique; Alame, Ghina; Leguay, Cécile; Gaertner, Sébastien; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Petitou, Maurice; Gachet, Christian

    2011-08-01

    EP224283 combines in a single molecule idraparinux and tirofiban, which allows obtaining a predictable and sustained antiplatelet effect through the transfer of the pharmacokinetics properties of idraparinux to the anti-αIIbβ3 antagonist. The activity can be instantaneously neutralized by injection of avidin, a specific antidote. We have tested the effects of this new profile anticoagulant in various thrombosis models. The antithrombotic effect of EP224283 was compared with those of the parent compounds used alone or in association at doses achieving low to moderate inhibition of platelet aggregation ex vivo. In a model of systemic thromboembolism independent of thrombin generation, tirofiban and EP224283 had similar effects at equimolar doses. On the other hand, EP224283 was more potent than tirofiban or idraparinux under thrombin-dependent conditions. In a ferric chloride-induced thrombosis model, EP224283 was more potent than either parent compound or their combination. Similar results were obtained after atherosclerotic plaque rupture in ApoE(-/-) mice. Thus, the dual action of EP224283 exceeds that of the parent compounds used in combination. A possible explanation is that EP224283 could concentrate antithrombin inside the thrombus by binding to αIIbβ3 through the tirofiban moiety, as shown by immunolabeling of the occluded vessel. No prolongation of the bleeding time was observed at doses achieving strong antithrombotic effects, suggesting that low to moderate αIIbβ3 inhibition combined with factor Xa inhibition minimizes the bleeding risk. The favorable antithrombotic profile of EP224283 together with its possible neutralization by avidin makes it an interesting drug candidate for the treatment and prevention of acute ischemic events.

  8. The Effect of Extrafascial Hysterectomy After Completion of External Beam Radiotherapy for Treatment of Locally Advanced Stages (IIB-III) of Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sarraf, Zahra; Hamedi, Bahareh; Hooshmand, Soodabeh; Mosalaie, Ahmad; Robati, Minoo; Momtahan, Mozhdeh; Farhadi, Pouya

    2013-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, cervical cancer is one of the most challenging gynecologic cancers in treatment. Objectives: This study was designed with the aim of comparing patients treated with External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT) and Interactivity Brachytherapy (ICBT) with EBRT and extrafascial hysterectomy in locally advanced stages of cervical cancer (IIB-III). Patients and Methods: The present study was designed as a case-control which was performed on the patients with cervical cancer in locally advanced stages (IIB-III) admitted to Namazi and Faghihi hospitals (university hospitals in Shiraz) between 2008-2011. 51 patients were included in two distinct groups: 25 patients were treated with EBRT and Interactivity Brachytherapy (group A). 26 patients were treated with EBRT and extrafascial hysterectomy group B. Results: In group A, the number of patients with FIGO stage IIb and III were 16 and 9, respectively, and 17 and 9 in group B. The median duration of follow-up was 24 months. There were no significant differences between two groups in metastasis and recurrence rate (P > 0.05). 5-years overall survival rate was 54.8% [95% CI: 39-70.9] in group A and in group B was 50.9% [95% CI: 41.5-60] and The LOG-rank test which controls the effect of treatment modalities on overall survival rate, did not show any significant difference between two groups (P = 0.407). Conclusion: The results of our study showed that the trend of treatment using EBRT along with intracavity brachytherapy may have the same outcome as the method of using EBRT and extrafascial hysterectomy. Overall, it seems that external beam radiation followed by extrafascial hysterectomy could be a proper substitute for brachytherapy. PMID:24693381

  9. Observation and extirpation of a giant-size type-B2 thymoma IIb with its histological, macroscopic, and computer tomogram correlate, and literature review

    PubMed Central

    de Bucourt, Maximilian; Swierzy, Marc; Dankof, Anja; Teichgräber, Ulf; Rückert, Jens-Carsten

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the interdisciplinary approach and solving algorithm of a DIN 9001:2000 certified tumor board in managing a giant-size type-B2 thymoma IIb in an elderly patient. The process of managing the thymoma with specialists of surgery, internal medicine, radiology, and pathology until finally extirpation and continuous follow-up is described. Respective computerized tomography scans, histology, macro-pathology, and operative pictures of the case are provided as well as an upto-date literature review. PMID:21139832

  10. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for carcinoma of the cervix - Stages IIB, IIIA, IIIB, and IVA: results of a randomized study by the radiation therapy oncology group

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, L.W.; Plenk,H.P.; Hanley, J.A.

    1981-08-01

    A total of 65 patients with Stage IIB, IIIA, IIIB or IVA carcinoma of the cervix were randomized to receive conventional radiation therapy in air or hyperbaric oxygen therapy with radiation at optimal schedules. Seven patients could not be evaluated. Of the 19 patients treated in oxygen, 14 (73%) were living or had died without evidence of disease. Of the 29 patients treated with radiation alone 15 (52%) were alive or had died without evidence of tumor. Two of 29 patients treated in air and 5 of 19 patients treated in oxygen were dead of complications or intercurrent disease. No significant difference in survival could be demonstrated.

  11. Phase IIB/III Trial of Tenecteplase in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Results of a Prematurely Terminated Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haley, E. Clarke; Thompson, John L.P.; Grotta, James C.; Lyden, Patrick D.; Hemmen, Thomas G.; Brown, Devin L.; Fanale, Christopher; Libman, Richard; Kwiatkowski, Thomas G.; Llinas, Rafael H.; Levine, Steven R.; Johnston, Karen C.; Buchsbaum, Richard; Levy, Gilberto; Levin, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Background: Intravenous alteplase (rt-PA) remains the only approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke, but its use remains limited. In a previous pilot dose-escalation study, intravenous tenecteplase showed promise as a potentially safer alternative. Therefore, a Phase IIB clinical trial was begun to a) choose a best dose of tenecteplase to carry forward, and b) to provide evidence for either promise or futility of further testing of tenecteplase versus rt-PA. If promise was established, then the trial would continue as a Phase III efficacy trial comparing the selected tenecteplase dose to standard rt-PA. Methods: The trial began as a small, multi-center, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial comparing 0.1, 0.25, and 0.4 mg/kg tenecteplase with standard 0.9 mg/kg rt-PA in patients with acute stroke within 3 hours of onset. An adaptive sequential design used an early (24 hour) assessment of major neurological improvement balanced against occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) to choose a “best” dose of tenecteplase to carry forward. Once a “best” dose was established, the trial was to continue until at least 100 pairs of the selected tenecteplase dose versus standard rt-PA could be compared by 3 month outcome using the modified Rankin Scale in an interim analysis. Decision rules were devised to yield a clear recommendation to either stop for futility or to continue into Phase III. Results: The trial was prematurely terminated for slow enrollment after only 112 patients had been randomized at 8 clinical centers between 2006 and 2008. The 0.4 mg/kg dose was discarded as inferior after only 73 patients were randomized, but the selection procedure was still unable to distinguish between 0.1 mg/kg and 0.25 mg/kg as a propitious dose at the time the trial was stopped. There were no statistically persuasive differences in 3 month outcomes between the remaining tenecteplase groups and rt-PA. Symptomatic ICH rates were highest in the

  12. Composite spectraPaper 10: the equal-mass binary HR 2030 (K0IIb+B8IV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, R. E. M.; Griffin, R. F.

    2000-12-01

    We separate the spectra of the individual components of HR 2030, a sixth-magnitude composite-spectrum binary system, and show that they have types close to K0IIb and B8IV, and masses that are equal to within the precision of the measurements (mass ratio=1.00+/-0.03). The orbit appears to have a very small eccentricity, although reasons are given for believing that such eccentricity is spurious; it has a period of 66d and an inclination estimated at 30° to the line of sight. Our photometric model of the system confirms the luminosity types derived from the spectra and indicates an interstellar absorption of 0.4mag, in accord with the observed strength of the interstellar K line. We derive the physical parameters (Teff, Mbol, R, L) of the components, and calculate that the mass of each star is close to 4.0Msolar. We further show that the hot component (R=5.9+/-0.6Rsolar) has already evolved to a position significantly above the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS), and we propose that the primary (R=41+/-5Rsolar) is making its first ascent of the red-giant branch. From comparisons with evolutionary tracks, we deduce that the age of the binary (since its arrival at the ZAMS) is in the range 1-2×108yr. While we suspect that the components are sufficiently close for some tidal distortion to occur, the effects are not discernible in our data owing to the rather low orbital inclination. The system shows Sii in emission as a result of irradiation of the primary by the hot secondary, but in the optical spectrum we see little other clear evidence of interaction between the components even though the object has a relatively short period and is a strong X-ray source. On the other hand, Hipparcos photometry suggests the existence of a major non-uniformity of the surface of the primary star.

  13. Taking Personalized Medicine Seriously: Biomarker Approaches in Phase IIb/III Studies in Major Depression and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Laughren, Thomas; Lamers, Femke; Picard, Rosalind; Walther, Sebastian; Goff, Donald; Sainati, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    and integration of such markers into clinical research is both required and feasible in order to meet the benefit of personalized medicine. This article is based on proceedings from the “Taking Personalized Medicine Seriously—Biomarker Approaches in Phase IIb/III Studies in Major Depression and Schizophrenia” session, which was held during the 10th Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Society for Clinical Trials Meeting (ISCTM) in Washington, DC, February 18 to 20, 2014. PMID:25977838

  14. Self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells requires insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and ERBB2 receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Linlin; Schulz, Thomas C.; Sherrer, Eric S.; Dauphin, Derek S.; Shin, Soojung; Nelson, Angelique M.; Ware, Carol B.; Zhan, Mei; Song, Chao-Zhong; Chen, Xiaoji; Brimble, Sandii N.; McLean, Amanda; Galeano, Maria J.; Uhl, Elizabeth W.; D'Amour, Kevin A.; Chesnut, Jonathan D.; Rao, Mahendra S.

    2007-01-01

    Despite progress in developing defined conditions for human embryonic stem cell (hESC) cultures, little is known about the cell-surface receptors that are activated under conditions supportive of hESC self-renewal. A simultaneous interrogation of 42 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in hESCs following stimulation with mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) conditioned medium (CM) revealed rapid and prominent tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R); less prominent tyrosine phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family members, including ERBB2 and ERBB3; and trace phosphorylation of fibroblast growth factor receptors. Intense IGF1R and IR phosphorylation occurred in the absence of MEF conditioning (NCM) and was attributable to high concentrations of insulin in the proprietary KnockOut Serum Replacer (KSR). Inhibition of IGF1R using a blocking antibody or lentivirus-delivered shRNA reduced hESC self-renewal and promoted differentiation, while disruption of ERBB2 signaling with the selective inhibitor AG825 severely inhibited hESC proliferation and promoted apoptosis. A simple defined medium containing an IGF1 analog, heregulin-1β (a ligand for ERBB2/ERBB3), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), and activin A supported long-term growth of multiple hESC lines. These studies identify previously unappreciated RTKs that support hESC proliferation and self-renewal, and provide a rationally designed medium for the growth and maintenance of pluripotent hESCs. PMID:17761519

  15. The molecular basis of the antiplatelet action of ajoene: direct interaction with the fibrinogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Apitz-Castro, R; Ledezma, E; Escalante, J; Jain, M K

    1986-11-26

    Ajoene, the major antiplatelet compound derived from garlic inhibits the fibrinogen-supported aggregation of washed human platelets (ID50 = 13 microM) and, inhibits binding of 125I-fibrinogen to ADP-stimulated platelets (ID50 = 0.8 microM). In both cases, the inhibition is of the mixed non-competitive type. Furthermore, fibrinogen-induced aggregation of chymotrypsin-treated platelets is also inhibited by ajoene in a dose-dependent manner (ID50 = 2.3 microM). Other membrane receptors such as ADP or epinephrine receptors are not affected by ajoene. Ajoene strongly quenches the intrinsic fluorescence emission of purified glycoproteins IIb-IIIa (ID50 = 10 microM). These results indicate that the antiaggregatory effect of ajoene is causally related to its direct interaction with the putative fibrinogen receptor.

  16. A comparison of the fibrinogen receptor distribution on adherent platelets using both soluble fibrinogen and fibrinogen immobilized on gold beads.

    PubMed

    Estry, D W; Mattson, J C; Mahoney, G J; Oesterle, J R

    1991-04-01

    The distribution of fibrinogen receptors was determined on the surface of adherent platelets using both direct labeling with the ligand fibrinogen which was immobilized on gold particles (Fg-Au) and indirect immunogold (Ig-Au) labeling of bound soluble fibrinogen identified with a rabbit polyclonal anti-fibrinogen antibody. Two distinctly different patterns of labeling were obtained and appeared to depend on whether solid phase fibrinogen (Fg-Au) or soluble phase released fibrinogen were bound to the membrane receptor. The membrane-bound Fg-Au reorganized in patterns that closely mimicked the organization of the underlying cytoskeleton. In approximately 18% of the adherent platelets, Fg-Au was seen in channels or vesicle-like structures lying deep to the platelet surface suggesting internalization into the open canalicular system and/or endocytosis. The labeling pattern obtained when identifying the location of membrane-bound soluble released fibrinogen by Ig-Au was diffuse and lacked the organizational patterns characteristic of Fg-Au. Unlike the Fg-Au probe, early dendritic platelets were heavily labeled by the soluble phase fibrinogen using the Ig-Au technique. Although the label covered the entire exposed platelet membrane in fully spread platelets, labeling over the peripheral web was more dense than that over the intermediate or granulomere zone. The diffuse organization and heavier peripheral distributional pattern of the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa (GP IIb-IIIa) receptor in fixed, adherent platelets, was also seen with the GP IIb-IIIa receptor-specific antibody AP-2. The binding of both the Fg-Au and Ig-Au were inhibited using the tetrapeptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS) (93% and 98% inhibition, respectively), AP-2 (98% and 97%, respectively) and platelets from patients with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT) (99% and 98%, respectively). The data presented provides the first report that receptor reorganization, following binding of fibrinogen, appears to be related to

  17. 30 CFR 57.22501 - Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22501 Section 57.22501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND... Illumination § 57.22501 Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B...

  18. Systemic blockade of ACVR2B ligands prevents chemotherapy-induced muscle wasting by restoring muscle protein synthesis without affecting oxidative capacity or atrogenes

    PubMed Central

    Nissinen, T. A.; Degerman, J.; Räsänen, M.; Poikonen, A. R.; Koskinen, S.; Mervaala, E.; Pasternack, A.; Ritvos, O.; Kivelä, R.; Hulmi, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin is a widely used and effective chemotherapy drug. However, cardiac and skeletal muscle toxicity of doxorubicin limits its use. Inhibiting myostatin/activin signalling can prevent muscle atrophy, but its effects in chemotherapy-induced muscle wasting are unknown. In the present study we investigated the effects of doxorubicin administration alone or combined with activin receptor ligand pathway blockade by soluble activin receptor IIB (sACVR2B-Fc). Doxorubicin administration decreased body mass, muscle size and bone mineral density/content in mice. However, these effects were prevented by sACVR2B-Fc administration. Unlike in many other wasting situations, doxorubicin induced muscle atrophy without markedly increasing typical atrogenes or protein degradation pathways. Instead, doxorubicin decreased muscle protein synthesis which was completely restored by sACVR2B-Fc. Doxorubicin administration also resulted in impaired running performance without effects on skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity/function or capillary density. Running performance and mitochondrial function were unaltered by sACVR2B-Fc administration. Tumour experiment using Lewis lung carcinoma cells demonstrated that sACVR2B-Fc decreased the cachectic effects of chemotherapy without affecting tumour growth. These results demonstrate that blocking ACVR2B signalling may be a promising strategy to counteract chemotherapy-induced muscle wasting without damage to skeletal muscle oxidative capacity or cancer treatment. PMID:27666826

  19. Differential Requirement for LAT and SLP-76 in GPVI versus T Cell Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Judd, Barbi A.; Myung, Peggy S.; Obergfell, Achim; Myers, Erin E.; Cheng, Alec M.; Watson, Stephen P.; Pear, Warren S.; Allman, David; Shattil, Sanford J.; Koretzky, Gary A.

    2002-01-01

    Mice deficient in the adaptor Src homology 2 domain-containing leukocyte phosphoprotein of 76 kD (SLP-76) exhibit a bleeding disorder and lack T cells. Linker for activation of T cells (LAT)-deficient mice exhibit a similar T cell phenotype, but show no signs of hemorrhage. Both SLP-76 and LAT are important for optimal platelet activation downstream of the collagen receptor, GPVI. In addition, SLP-76 is involved in signaling mediated by integrin αIIbβ3. Because SLP-76 and LAT function coordinately in T cell signal transduction, yet their roles appear to differ in hemostasis, we investigated in detail the functional consequences of SLP-76 and LAT deficiencies in platelets. Previously we have shown that LAT−/− platelets exhibit defective responses to the GPVI-specific agonist, collagen-related peptide (CRP). Consistent with this, we find that surface expression of P-selectin in response to high concentrations of GPVI ligands is reduced in both LAT- and SLP-76–deficient platelets. However, platelets from LAT−/− mice, but not SLP-76−/− mice, aggregate normally in response to high concentrations of collagen and convulxin. Additionally, unlike SLP-76, LAT is not tyrosine phosphorylated after fibrinogen binding to integrin αIIbβ3, and collagen-stimulated platelets deficient in LAT spread normally on fibrinogen-coated surfaces. Together, these findings indicate that while LAT and SLP-76 are equally required for signaling via the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and pre-TCR, platelet activation downstream of GPVI and αIIbβ3 shows a much greater dependency on SLP-76 than LAT. PMID:11901197

  20. IIb trioctahedral chlorite from the Barberton greenstone belt: crystal structure and rock composition constraints with implications to geothermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaogang; Byerly, Gary R.; Ferrell, Ray E., Jr.

    IIb trioctahedral chlorite in the Barberton greenstone belt (BGB) metavolcanic rocks was formed during pervasive greenschist metamorphism. The chem-ical composition of the chlorite is highly variable, with the Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratio ranging from 0.12 to 0.8 among 53 samples. The chemical variation of the chlorite results from the chemical diversity of the host rock, especially the MgO content of the rock, but major details of the variation pattern of the chlorite are due to the crystal structure of the chlorite. All major cation abundances in the chlorite are strongly correlated with each other. Sil-icon increases with Mg and decreases with Fe, while AlIV and AlVI decrease with Mg and increase with Fe2+. A complex exchange vector explains over 90% of the chlorite compositional variation: Mg4SiFe2+-3AlVI-1 AlIV-1, which has 3 parts Fe-Mg substitution coupled with one part tschermakite substitution. This ratio is required to maintain the charge and site balances and the dimensional fit between the tetrahedral and octahedral sheets. The subtle change in Al substitution in chlorite implies that AlVI is preferentially ordered in the M(4) site, and about 84% of the AlVI present is in the M(4) sites when they are nearly filled with AlVI. Based on 47 analyzed chlorite-bearing rock samples, chlorite (Chl) composition is strongly correlated with the MgO content of the host rock. Calculated correlation coefficients are +0.91 for SiO2Chl-MgORock, -0.87 for Al2O3Chl-MgORock, +0.89 for MgOChl-MgORock, and -0.85 for FeOChl-MgORock. Only weak correlations have been found between chlorite oxides and other oxides of rock (between same oxides in chlorite and rock: SiO2-0.67, Al2O3+0.59, FeO -0.41). However, MgOChl is saturated at about 36 wt% in rocks that have MgO above 22 wt%.The MgOChl is about 5 wt% when the host rock approaches 0 wt% of MgO. This implies that Mg substituting into the chlorite is approximately limited to 1.5-9.2 Mg atoms per formula unit and 1.0-3.2 AlIV. Chlorite

  1. Somatostatin receptors.

    PubMed

    Srikant, C B; Patel, Y C

    1985-01-01

    It is now well established that the biological actions of tetradecapeptide somatostatin (somatostatin-14, S-14) are receptor-mediated. These receptors were first quantified in GH4C pituitary tumor cells using [125I-Tyr1] S-14 as radioligand which was found to exhibit high non-specific binding to membrane receptor preparations from normal tissues. Our studies have shown that [125I-Tyr11] S-14 in which the radiolabel is situated away from the N-terminus exhibits significantly lower non-specific binding and therefore is more suitable for S-14 receptor studies. In the CNS, highest concentration of S-14 receptors was found in the cerebral cortex, followed by thalamus, hypothalamus, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus while medulla-pons, cerebellum and spinal cord exhibited negligible binding. Outside the CNS membrane receptors for S-14 have been characterized in pituitary, adrenal cortex and pancreatic acini. In all these tissues a single class of high affinity binding sites for S-14 were present, the receptors in pancreatic acinar cells exhibiting significantly greater affinity for binding S-14 than in other tissues.

  2. Ultrastructural and biochemical analysis of fibrinogen receptors on activated thrombocytes

    SciTech Connect

    O'Toole, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    The present studies have been concerned with the role of fibrinogen and its receptor, GP IIb/IIIa, during the activation and early aggregation of pigeon thrombocytes. Thrombocytes were surface labeled with {sup 125}I then separated on SDS-PAGE. Analysis by gel autoradiography revealed major bands at MW 145 kd and 98 kd, which corresponded to human GPIIb and GPIIIa. Immunologic similarity of the pigeon and human receptor components was established by dot blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies directed against human GPIIb and GPIIIa. Pigeon fibrinogen, isolated by plasma precipitation with PEG-1000 and purified over Sepharose 4B, was used to study receptor-ligand interaction. Separation of pigeon fibrinogen on SDS-PAGE resulted in three peptides having apparent MW of 62kd, 55kd, and 47kd which are comparable to human fibrinogen. Further similarity of human and pigeon fibrinogen was verified by immonodiffusion against an antibody specific for the human protein. The role of fibrinogen and its receptor in thrombocyte function was established by turbidimetric aggregation using thrombin as an agonist under conditions requiring Ca++ and fibrinogen.

  3. Blockade of GpIIb/IIIa inhibits the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from tumor cell-activated platelets and experimental metastasis.

    PubMed

    Amirkhosravi, A; Amaya, M; Siddiqui, F; Biggerstaff, J P; Meyer, T V; Francis, J L

    1999-01-01

    Evidence that platelets play a role in tumor metastasis includes the observation of circulating tumor cell-platelet aggregates and the anti-metastatic effect of thrombocytopenia and anti-platelet drugs. Platelets have recently been shown to contain vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) which is released during clotting. We therefore studied the effects of (1) tumor cell-platelet adherence and tumor cell TF activity on platelet VEGF release; and (2) the effects of GpIIb/IIIa blockade on tumor cell-induced platelet VEGF release, tumor cell-induced thrombocytopenia and experimental metastasis. Adherent A375 human melanoma cells (TF+) and KG1 myeloid leukemia (TF-) cells were cultured in RPMI containing 10% fetal bovine serum. Platelet-rich plasma was obtained from normal citrated whole blood and the presence of VEGF (34 and 44 kDa isoforms) confirmed by immunoblotting. Platelet-rich plasma with or without anti-GpIIb/IIIa (Abciximab) was added to A375 monolayers and supernatant VEGF measured by ELISA. Tumor cell-induced platelet activation and release were determined by CD62P expression and serotonin release respectively. In vitro, tumor cell-platelet adherence was evaluated by flow cytometry. In vivo, thrombocytopenia and lung seeding were assessed 30 min and 18 days, respectively, after i.v. injection of Lewis Lung carcinoma (LL2) cells into control or murine 7E3 F(ab')(2) (6 mg/ kg) athymic rats. Maximal in vitro platelet activation (72% serotonin release) occurred 30 min after adding platelets to tumor cells. At this time, 87% of the A375 cells had adhered to platelets. Abciximab significantly (P<0.05) reduced platelet adherence to tumor cells as evidenced by flow cytometry. Incubation of A375 cells with platelets induced VEGF release in a time-dependent manner. This release was significantly inhibited by Abciximab (81% at 30 min; P<0.05). In the presence of fibrinogen and FII, VEGF release induced by A375 (TF+) cells was significantly higher than that induced

  4. Blockade of GpIIb/IIIa inhibits the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from tumor cell-activated platelets and experimental metastasis.

    PubMed

    Amirkhosravi, A; Amaya, M; Siddiqui, F; Biggerstaff, J P; Meyer, T V; Francis, J L

    1999-01-01

    Evidence that platelets play a role in tumor metastasis includes the observation of circulating tumor cell-platelet aggregates and the anti-metastatic effect of thrombocytopenia and anti-platelet drugs. Platelets have recently been shown to contain vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) which is released during clotting. We therefore studied the effects of (1) tumor cell-platelet adherence and tumor cell TF activity on platelet VEGF release; and (2) the effects of GpIIb/IIIa blockade on tumor cell-induced platelet VEGF release, tumor cell-induced thrombocytopenia and experimental metastasis. Adherent A375 human melanoma cells (TF+) and KG1 myeloid leukemia (TF-) cells were cultured in RPMI containing 10% fetal bovine serum. Platelet-rich plasma was obtained from normal citrated whole blood and the presence of VEGF (34 and 44 kDa isoforms) confirmed by immunoblotting. Platelet-rich plasma with or without anti-GpIIb/IIIa (Abciximab) was added to A375 monolayers and supernatant VEGF measured by ELISA. Tumor cell-induced platelet activation and release were determined by CD62P expression and serotonin release respectively. In vitro, tumor cell-platelet adherence was evaluated by flow cytometry. In vivo, thrombocytopenia and lung seeding were assessed 30 min and 18 days, respectively, after i.v. injection of Lewis Lung carcinoma (LL2) cells into control or murine 7E3 F(ab')(2) (6 mg/ kg) athymic rats. Maximal in vitro platelet activation (72% serotonin release) occurred 30 min after adding platelets to tumor cells. At this time, 87% of the A375 cells had adhered to platelets. Abciximab significantly (P<0.05) reduced platelet adherence to tumor cells as evidenced by flow cytometry. Incubation of A375 cells with platelets induced VEGF release in a time-dependent manner. This release was significantly inhibited by Abciximab (81% at 30 min; P<0.05). In the presence of fibrinogen and FII, VEGF release induced by A375 (TF+) cells was significantly higher than that induced

  5. Neural architecture of the "transient" ON directionally selective (class IIb1) ganglion cells in rabbit retina, partly co-stratified with starburst amacrine cells.

    PubMed

    Famiglietti, Edward V

    2016-01-01

    Recent physiological studies coupled with intracellular staining have subdivided ON directionally selective (DS) ganglion cells of rabbit retina into two types. One exhibits more "transient" and more "brisk" responses (ON DS-t), and the other has more "sustained' and more "sluggish" responses (ON DS-s), although both represent the same three preferred directions and show preference for low stimulus velocity, as reported in previous studies of ON DS ganglion cells in rabbit retina. ON DS-s cells have the morphology of ganglion cells previously shown to project to the medial terminal nucleus (MTN) of the accessory optic system, and the MTN-projecting, class IVus1 cells have been well-characterized previously in terms of their dendritic morphology, branching pattern, and stratification. ON DS-t ganglion cells have a distinctly different morphology and exhibit heterotypic coupling to amacrine cells, including axon-bearing amacrine cells, with accompanying synchronous firing, while ON DS-s cells are not coupled. The present study shows that ON DS-t cells are morphologically identical to the previously well-characterized, "orphan" class IIb1 ganglion cell, previously regarded as a member of the "brisk-concentric" category of ganglion cells. Its branching pattern, quantitatively analyzed, is similar to that of the morphological counterparts of X and Y cells, and very different from that of the ON DS-s ganglion cell. Close analysis of the dendritic stratification of class IIb1 ganglion cells together with fiducial cells indicates that they differ from that of the ON DS-s cells. In agreement with one of the three previous studies, class IIb1/ON DS-t cells, unlike class IVus1/ON DS-s ganglion cells, in the main do not co-stratify with starburst amacrine cells. As the present study shows, however, portions of their dendrites do deviate from the main substratum, coming within range of starburst boutons. Parsimony favors DS input from starburst amacrine cells both to ON DS

  6. Somatostatin receptors.

    PubMed

    Patel, Y C; Srikant, C B

    1997-12-01

    The diverse biological effects of somatostatin (SRIF) are mediated by a family of G protein-coupled receptors (termed sst) that are encoded by five nonallelic genes located on separate chromosomes. The receptors can be further divided into two subfamilies: sst(2,3,5) react with octapeptide and hexapeptide SRIF analogues and belong to one subclass; sst(1,4) react poorly with these compounds and fall into another subclass. This review focuses on the molecular pharmacology and function of these receptors, with particular emphasis on the ligand-binding domain, subtype-selective analogues, agonist-dependent receptor regulation and desensitization responses, subtype-specific effector coupling, and signal transduction pathways responsible for inhibiting cell secretion and cell growth or induction of apoptosis.

  7. Lipoxin receptors.

    PubMed

    Romano, Mario; Recchia, Irene; Recchiuti, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Lipoxins (LXs) represent a class of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites that carry potent immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, LXA4 and LXB4 being the main components of this series. LXs are generated by cooperation between 5-lipoxygenase (LO) and 12- or 15-LO during cell-cell interactions or by single cell types. LX epimers at carbon 15, the 15-epi-LXs, are formed by aspirin-acetylated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in cooperation with 5-LO. 15-epi-LXA4 is also termed aspirin-triggered LX (ATL). In vivo studies with stable LX and ATL analogs have established that these eicosanoids possess potent anti-inflammatory activities. A LXA4 receptor has been cloned. It belongs to the family of chemotactic receptors and clusters with formyl peptide receptors on chromosome 19. Therefore, it was initially denominated formyl peptide receptor like 1 (FPRL1). This receptor binds with high affinity and stereoselectivity LXA4 and ATL. It also recognizes a variety of peptides, synthetic, endogenously generated, or disease associated, but with lower affinity compared to LXA4. For this reason, this receptor has been renamed ALX. This review summarizes the current knowledge on ALX expression, signaling, and potential pathophysiological role. The involvement of additional recognition sites in LX bioactions is also discussed. PMID:17767357

  8. 30 CFR 57.22227 - Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... methane, other gases, and contaminants in mine air shall be approved by MSHA under the applicable..., II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22227 Section 57.22227 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22227 - Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... methane, other gases, and contaminants in mine air shall be approved by MSHA under the applicable..., II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22227 Section 57.22227 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND...

  10. MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF SUPERNOVA 2011ei: TIME-DEPENDENT CLASSIFICATION OF TYPE IIb AND Ib SUPERNOVAE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR PROGENITORS

    SciTech Connect

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Margutti, Raffaella; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Chomiuk, Laura; Sanders, Nathan E.; Pignata, Giuliano; Bufano, Filomena; Fesen, Robert A.; Parrent, Jerod T.; Parker, Stuart; Mazzali, Paolo; Pian, Elena; Pickering, Timothy; Buckley, David A. H.; Crawford, Steven M.; Gulbis, Amanda A. S.; Hettlage, Christian; Hooper, Eric; Nordsieck, Kenneth H.; O'Donoghue, Darragh; and others

    2013-04-10

    We present X-ray, UV/optical, and radio observations of the stripped-envelope, core-collapse supernova (SN) 2011ei, one of the least luminous SNe IIb or Ib observed to date. Our observations begin with a discovery within {approx}1 day of explosion and span several months afterward. Early optical spectra exhibit broad, Type II-like hydrogen Balmer profiles that subside rapidly and are replaced by Type Ib-like He-rich features on a timescale of one week. High-cadence monitoring of this transition suggests absorption attributable to a high-velocity ({approx}> 12, 000 km s{sup -1}) H-rich shell, which is likely present in many Type Ib events. Radio observations imply a shock velocity of v Almost-Equal-To 0.13 c and a progenitor star average mass-loss rate of M-dot {approx}1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} (assuming wind velocity v{sub w} = 10{sup 3} km s{sup -1}). This is consistent with independent constraints from deep X-ray observations with Swift-XRT and Chandra. Overall, the multi-wavelength properties of SN 2011ei are consistent with the explosion of a lower-mass (3-4 M{sub Sun }), compact (R{sub *} {approx}< 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm), He-core star. The star retained a thin hydrogen envelope at the time of explosion, and was embedded in an inhomogeneous circumstellar wind suggestive of modest episodic mass loss. We conclude that SN 2011ei's rapid spectral metamorphosis is indicative of time-dependent classifications that bias estimates of the relative explosion rates for Type IIb and Ib objects, and that important information about a progenitor star's evolutionary state and mass loss immediately prior to SN explosion can be inferred from timely multi-wavelength observations.

  11. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery has no therapeutic advantages over concurrent chemoradiotherapy in International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB-IIB cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gwi Eon

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery (NACT+S), and compared the clinical outcome with that of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) IB–IIB cervical cancer. Methods We reviewed 85 patients with FIGO IB–IIB cervical cancer who received NACT+S between 1989 and 2012, and compared them to 358 control patients who received CCRT. The clinical application of NACT was classified based on the following possible therapeutic benefits: increasing resectability after NACT by reducing tumor size or negative conversion of node metastasis; downstaging adenocarcinoma regarded as relatively radioresistant; and preservation of fertility through limited surgery after NACT. Results Of 85 patients in the NACT+S group, the pathologic downstaging and complete response rates were 68.2% and 22.6%, respectively. Only two young patients underwent limited surgery for preservation of fertility. Patients of the NACT+S group were younger, less likely to have node metastasis, and demonstrated a higher proportion of FIGO IB cases than those of the CCRT group (p≤0.001). The 5-year locoregional control, progression-free survival, and overall survival rates in the NACT+S group were 89.7%, 75.6%, and 92.1%, respectively, which were not significantly different from the rates of 92.5%, 74%, and 84.9% observed in the CCRT group, respectively (p>0.05). Conclusion NACT+S has no therapeutic advantages over CCRT, the standard treatment. Therefore, NACT+S should be considered only in selected patients through multidisciplinary discussion or clinical trial setting. PMID:27329200

  12. [Locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix uteri (stage IIB-IIIB TNM-UICC): radiotherapy combined with simultaneous daily low-dose platinum. Phase II study].

    PubMed

    Micheletti, E; La Face, B; Bianchi, E; Cagna, E; Sartori, E

    1996-05-01

    A prospective, single arm, phase-II trial was performed to assess the efficacy and local toxicity of the combination of low doses of platin and pelvic radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix. January, 1993, through August, 1994, twenty-three previously untreated patients with squamous carcinoma (stages IIB-IIIB UICC) entered the study. All patients were examined by a gynecologist and by a radiation oncologist and then submitted to conventional pretreatment staging procedures. Nine patients were classified as stage IIB and 14 patients as stage IIIB. Radiotherapy consisted of 60 Gy external beam irradiation (46 Gy to pelvis + 14 Gy boost to cervix uteri and parametria) plus one low dose rate intracavitary treatment to a dose of 8 Gy to point A. Cisplatin (3 mg/m2/day) or carboplatin (12 mg/m2/day) was also given for 6 weeks starting on radiotherapy day 1. The treatment was well tolerated and no patient required radiotherapy discontinuation. With a median follow-up time of 20 months, complete response was seen in 74% (17/23) of the patients. One of the 17 patients who achieved a complete remission, during follow-up, relapsed in the pelvis and one developed lung metastases. Total failure rate in the pelvis was 30.5% (7/23). Distant metastases were observed in 17.5% (4/23) of the patients. Actuarial overall and disease-free survival rates at 33 months were 69.1% and 65.2%, respectively. Late gastrointestinal toxicity (grade 3) occurred in 8.6% (2/23) of patients, with one patient developing a rectal ulcer-which was submitted to colostomy- and one patient a vaginal necrosis. The combination of platin and radiotherapy appears to be an effective regimen for the patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix and caused a relatively low rate of late gastrointestinal complications.

  13. Californium versus cobalt brachytherapy combined with external-beam radiotherapy for IIB stage cervical cancer: long-term experience of a single institute

    PubMed Central

    Janulionis, Ernestas; Valuckas, Konstantinas Povilas; Samerdokiene, Vitalija; Atkocius, Vydmantas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper was to observe and compare long-term curative effects and complications of FIGO stage IIB cervical cancer patients (n = 232) treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) californium (252Cf) neutron or cobalt (60Co) photon intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) combined with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Material and methods The EBRT dose to the small pelvis was 50 Gy in both groups. The brachytherapy component of 252Cf or 60Co was added in the 3rd week of EBRT, 5 fractions were performed once per week resulting in a total ICBT dose of 40 Gy/Gyeq (point A). Results Overall survival (OS) at 5, 10 and 15 years was 63.6%, 50.4% and 38.8% in the 252Cf group and 62.2%, 50.5%, 39.9%, in the 60Co group, respectively (p = 0.74). The percentage of tumour recurrence was statistically significantly lower in the 252Cf group with 7.4% versus 17.1% in the 60Co group (p = 0.02). Second primary cancers have developed similarly 9.1% and 8.1% cases for 252Cf and 60Co groups, respectively. Conclusions Our long-term retrospective study comparing 252Cf and 60Co isotopes with brachytherapy in combined treatment of FIGO IIB stage cervix carcinoma patients shows, that overall survival in the both groups are similar. However, the recurrence of tumour was significantly lower in the 252Cf group. The incidence of second primary cancers was similar in both groups. PMID:26622239

  14. Expression of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and its receptor in adult cat testis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; He, JunPing; Guo, QingYun; Wen, XueXue; Zhang, XueJing; Dong, ChangSheng

    2011-12-01

    Oocyte-secreted growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9 plays an essential role during follicle maturation through actions on granulosa cells. Despite its critical role in female reproduction, GDF9 expression, signalling and function are less well characterized during spermatogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate temporal and spatial expression and potential cellular targets of GDF9 in the adult cat testis. Our result confirmed that GDF9 is stage-specifically localized in the cytoplasm of round spermatids and pachytene spermatocytes of the cat seminiferous epithelium. In particular, activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) 5, the type I receptor of GDF9, is principally localized in the cytoplasm of round spermatids. Smad2/3, signal transducers for GDF9 signalling pathway, is mainly immunolocalized in the cytoplasm of germ cells, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells, but the expression in germ cells are weaker than in Sertoli cells. The expression pattern of ALK5 and Smad2/3 show that GDF9-ALK5-Smad2/3 may not be the only signalling pathway for testicular cell to respond to GDF9. Overall, our results demonstrate that GDF9 is a germ cell-specific factor in the adult cat testis, and that GDF9 regulates the tight junctions of Sertoli cells by paracrine secretion, and regulates the germ cells by autocrine secretion.

  15. Induction of Transforming Growth Factor Beta Receptors following Focal Ischemia in the Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Pál, Gabriella; Lovas, Gábor; Dobolyi, Arpád

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-βs (TGF-βs) regulate cellular proliferation, differentiation, and survival. TGF-βs bind to type I (TGF-βRI) and II receptors (TGF-βRII), which are transmembrane kinase receptors, and an accessory type III receptor (TGF-βRIII). TGF-β may utilize another type I receptor, activin-like kinase receptor (Alk1). TGF-β is neuroprotective in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of stroke. Recently, we reported the expression pattern of TGF-β1-3 after MCAO. To establish how TGF-βs exert their actions following MCAO, the present study describes the induction of TGF-βRI, RII, RIII and Alk1 at 24 h, 72 h and 1 mo after transient 1 h MCAO as well as following 24 h permanent MCAO using in situ hybridization histochemistry. In intact brain, only TGF-βRI had significant expression: neurons in cortical layer IV contained TGF-βRI. At 24 h after the occlusion, no TGF-β receptors showed induction. At 72 h following MCAO, all four types of TGF-β receptors were induced in the infarct area, while TGF-βRI and RII also appeared in the penumbra. Most cells with elevated TGF-βRI mRNA levels were microglia. TGF-βRII co-localized with both microglial and endothelial markers while TGF-βRIII and Alk1 were present predominantly in endothels. All four TGF-β receptors were induced within the lesion 1 mo after the occlusion. In particular, TGF-βRIII was further induced as compared to 72 h after MCAO. At this time point, TGF-βRIII signal was predominantly not associated with blood vessels suggesting its microglial location. These data suggest that TGF-β receptors are induced after MCAO in a timely and spatially regulated fashion. TGF-β receptor expression is preceded by increased TGF-β expression. TGF-βRI and RII are likely to be co-expressed in microglial cells while Alk1, TGF-βRII, and RIII in endothels within the infarct where TGF-β1 may be their ligand. At later time points, TGF-βRIII may also appear in glial cells to potentially

  16. Synthetic anabolic agents: steroids and nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    The central role of testosterone in the development of male characteristics, as well as its beneficial effects on physical performance and muscle growth, has led to the search for synthetic alternatives with improved pharmacological profiles. Hundreds of steroidal analogs have been prepared with a superior oral bioavailability, which should also possess reduced undesirable effects. However, only a few entered the pharmaceutical market due to severe toxicological incidences that were mainly attributed to the lack of tissue selectivity. Prominent representatives of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are for instance methyltestosterone, metandienone and stanozolol, which are discussed as model compounds with regard to general pharmacological aspects of synthetic AAS. Recently, nonsteroidal alternatives to AAS have been developed that selectively activate the androgen receptor in either muscle tissue or bones. These so-called selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are currently undergoing late clinical trials (IIb) and will be prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency from January 2008. Their entirely synthetic structures are barely related to steroids, but particular functional groups allow for the tissue-selective activation or inhibition of androgen receptors and, thus, the stimulation of muscle growth without the risk of severe undesirable effects commonly observed in steroid replacement therapies. Hence, these compounds possess a high potential for misuse in sports and will be the subject of future doping control assays.

  17. Racial Differences in Resistance to P2Y12 Receptor Antagonists in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Duvernay, Matthew T.; Holinstat, Michael; Colowick, Nancy E.; Hudson, Willie J.; Song, Yanna; Harrell, Frank E.

    2014-01-01

    Although resistance to the P2Y12 antagonist clopidogrel is linked to altered drug metabolism, some studies suggest that these pharmacokinetic abnormalities only partially account for drug resistance. To circumvent pharmacokinetic complications and target P2Y12 receptor function we applied the direct P2Y12 antagonist 2-methylthio-AMP (2-methylthioadenosine 5′-monophosphate triethylammonium salt) to purified platelets ex vivo. Platelets were purified from healthy and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and stimulated with thrombin or the selective protease-activated receptor agonists, protease-activated receptor 1–activating peptide (PAR1-AP), or PAR4-AP. Platelet activation as measured by αIIbβ3 activation, and P-selectin expression was monitored in 141 subjects. Our results demonstrate that, compared with healthy subjects, platelets from diabetic patients are resistant to inhibition by 2-methylthio-AMP, demonstrating P2Y12 pharmacodynamic defects among diabetic patients. Inhibition of thrombin-mediated αIIbβ3 activation by 2-methylthio-AMP was lower in diabetic platelets versus healthy platelets. Subgroup analysis revealed a racial difference in the resistance to 2-methylthio-AMP. We found no resistance in platelets from diabetic African Americans; they were inhibited by 2-methylthio-AMP equally as well as platelets from healthy African Americans. In contrast, platelets from Caucasian patients with diabetes were resistant to P2Y12 antagonism compared with healthy Caucasians. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that other variables, such as obesity, age, or gender, could not account for the differential resistance to 2-methylthio-AMP among races. These results suggest that in addition to altered drug metabolism, P2Y12 receptor function itself is altered in the Caucasian diabetic population. The racial difference in platelet function in T2DM is a novel finding, which may lead to differences in treatment as well as new targets for antiplatelet therapy

  18. Amino acid sequence of the alpha subunit of human leukocyte adhesion receptor Mo1 (complement receptor type 3)

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Mo1 (complement receptor type 3, CR3; CD11b/CD18) is an adhesion- promoting human leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer (alpha subunit 155 kD [CD11b] noncovalently linked to a beta subunit of 95 kD [CD18]). The complete amino acid sequence deduced from cDNA of the human alpha subunit is reported. The protein consists of 1,136 amino acids with a long amino-terminal extracytoplasmic domain, a 26-amino acid hydrophobic transmembrane segment, and a 19-carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic domain. The extracytoplasmic region has three putative Ca2+- binding domains with good homology and one with weak homology to the "lock washer" Ca2+-binding consensus sequence. These metal-binding domains explain the divalent cation-dependent functions mediated by Mo1. The alpha subunit is highly homologous to the alpha subunit of leukocyte p150,95 and to a lesser extent, to the alpha subunit of other "integrin" receptors such as fibronectin, vitronectin, and platelet IIb/IIIa receptors in humans and position-specific antigen-2 (PS2) in Drosophila. Mo1 alpha, like p150, contains a unique 187-amino acid stretch NH2-terminal to the metal-binding domains. This region could be involved in some of the specific functions mediated by these leukocyte glycoproteins. PMID:2454931

  19. A TaqMan-based multiplex qPCR assay and DNA extraction method for phylotype IIB sequevars 1&2 (select agent) strains of Ralstonia solanacearum

    SciTech Connect

    Stulberg, Michael J.; Huang, Qi

    2015-10-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strains belonging to phylotype IIB, sequevars 1 and 2 (IIB-1&2) cause brown rot of potato in temperate climates, and are quarantined pathogens in Canada and Europe. Since these strains are not established in the U.S. and because of their potential risk to the potato industry, the U.S. government has listed them as select agents. Cultivated geraniums are also a host and have the potential to spread the pathogen through trade, and its extracts strongly inhibits DNA-based detection methods. We designed four primer and probe sets for an improved qPCR method that targets stable regions of DNA. RsSA1 and RsSA2 recognize IIB-1&2 strains, RsII recognizes the current phylotype II (the newly proposed R. solanacearum species) strains (and a non-plant associated R. mannitolilytica), and Cox1 recognizes eight plant species including major hosts of R. solanacearum such as potato, tomato and cultivated geranium as an internal plant control. We multiplexed the RsSA2 with the RsII and Cox1 sets to provide two layers of detection of a positive IIB-1&2 sample, and to validate plant extracts and qPCR reactions. The TaqMan-based uniplex and multiplex qPCR assays correctly identified 34 IIB-1&2 and 52 phylotype II strains out of 90 R. solanacearum species complex strains. Additionally, the multiplex qPCR assay was validated successfully using 169 artificially inoculated symptomatic and asymptomatic plant samples from multiple plant hosts including geranium. Moreover, we developed an extraction buffer that allowed for a quick and easy DNA extraction from infected plants including geranium for detection of R. solanacearum by qPCR. Our multiplex qPCR assay, especially when coupled with the quick extraction buffer method, allows for quick, easy and reliable detection and differentiation of the IIB-1&2 strains of R. solanacearum.

  20. 5-(1,3-Benzothiazol-6-yl)-4-(4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-1H-imidazole derivatives as potent and selective transforming growth factor-β type I receptor inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Amada, Hideaki; Sekiguchi, Yoshinori; Ono, Naoya; Koami, Takeshi; Takayama, Tetsuo; Yabuuchi, Tetsuya; Katakai, Hironori; Ikeda, Akiko; Aoki, Mari; Naruse, Takumi; Wada, Reiko; Nozoe, Akiko; Sato, Masakazu

    2012-12-15

    A series of 5-(1,3-benzothiazol-6-yl)-4-(4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-1H-imidazole derivatives was synthesized as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) type I receptor (also known as activin-like kinase 5 or ALK5) inhibitors. These compounds were evaluated for their ALK5 inhibitory activity in an enzyme assay and for their TGF-β-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation inhibitory activity in a cell-based assay. As a representative compound, 16i was a potent and selective ALK5 inhibitor, exhibiting a good enzyme inhibitory activity (IC(50) = 5.5 nM) as well as inhibitory activity against TGF-β-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation at a cellular level (IC(50) = 36 nM). Furthermore, the topical application of 3% 16i lotion significantly inhibited Smad2 phosphorylation in Mouse skin (90% inhibition compared with vehicle-treated animals).

  1. The Number of Positive Pelvic Lymph Nodes and Multiple Groups of Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis Influence Prognosis in Stage IA–IIB Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Zhao, Li-Jun; Li, Ming-Zhu; Li, Ming-Xia; Wang, Jian-Liu; Wei, Li-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pelvic lymph node metastasis (LNM) is an important prognostic factor in cervical cancer. Cervical squamous cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 75–80% of all cervical cancers. Analyses of the effects of the number of positive lymph nodes (LNs), unilateral versus bilateral pelvic LNM and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM on survival and recurrence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma are still lacking. The study aimed to analyze the effects of the number of positive pelvic LNs and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM on survival and recurrence. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 296 patients diagnosed with Stage IA–IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma who received extensive/sub-extensive hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy/pelvic LN sampling at Peking University People's Hospital from November 2004 to July 2013. Ten clinicopathological variables were evaluated as risk factors for pelvic LNM: Age at diagnosis, gravidity, clinical stage, histological grade, tumor diameter, lymph-vascular space involvement (LVSI), depth of cervical stromal invasion, uterine invasion, parametrial invasion, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results: The incidence of pelvic LNM was 20.27% (60/296 cases). Pelvic LNM (P = 0.00) was significantly correlated with recurrence. Pelvic LNM (P = 0.00), the number of positive pelvic LNs (P = 0.04) and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM (P = 0.03) had a significant influence on survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that LVSI (P = 0.00), depth of cervical stromal invasion (P = 0.00) and parametrial invasion (P = 0.03) were independently associated with pelvic LNM. Conclusions: Patients with pelvic LNM had a higher recurrence rate and poor survival outcomes. Furthermore, more than 2 positive pelvic LNs and multiple groups of pelvic LNM appeared to identify patients with worse survival outcomes in node-positive IA-IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma. LVSI

  2. Cartilage-Specific Ablation of Site-1 Protease in Mice Results in the Endoplasmic Reticulum Entrapment of Type IIB Procollagen and Down-Regulation of Cholesterol and Lipid Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Debabrata; DeLassus, Elizabeth; Liang, Guosheng; Sandell, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    The proprotein convertase site-1 protease (S1P) converts latent ER-membrane bound transcription factors SREBPs and ATF6 to their active forms. SREBPs are involved in cholesterol and fatty acid homeostasis whereas ATF6 is involved in unfolded protein response pathways (UPR). Cartilage-specific ablation of S1P in mice (S1Pcko) results in abnormal cartilage devoid of type II collagen protein (Col II). S1Pcko mice also lack endochondral bone development. To analyze S1Pcko cartilage we performed double-labeled immunofluorescence studies for matrix proteins that demonstrated that type IIB procollagen is trapped inside the ER in S1Pcko chondrocytes. This retention is specific to type IIB procollagen; other cartilage proteins such as type IIA procollagen, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and aggrecan are not affected. The S1Pcko cartilage thus exhibits COMP-, aggrecan-, and type IIA procollagen-derived matrices but is characterized by the absence of a type IIB procollagen-derived matrix. To understand the molecular reason behind S1Pcko phenotypes we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of cartilage isolated from S1Pcko and wild type littermates. While the UPR pathways are unaffected, the SREBPs-directed cholesterol and fatty acid pathways are significantly down-regulated in S1Pcko chondrocytes, with maximal down-regulation of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (Scd1) gene. However, mouse models that lack Scd1 or exhibit reduction in lipid homeostasis do not suffer from the ER retention of Col II or lack endochondral bone. These studies indicate an indispensable role for S1P in type IIB procollagen trafficking from the ER. This role appears not to be related to lipid pathways or other current known functions of S1P and is likely dependent on additional, yet unknown, S1P substrates in chondrocytes. PMID:25147951

  3. Loss of function of 1-FEH IIb has more impact on post-harvest inulin degradation in Cichorium intybus than copy number variation of its close paralog 1-FEH IIa.

    PubMed

    Dauchot, Nicolas; Raulier, Pierre; Maudoux, Olivier; Notté, Christine; Draye, Xavier; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Key Message: The loss of mini-exon 2 in the 1-FEH IIb glycosyl-hydrolase results in a putative non-functional allele. This loss of function has a strong impact on the susceptibility to post-harvest inulin depolymerization. Significant variation of copy number was identified in its close paralog 1-FEH IIa, but no quantitative effect of copy number on carbohydrates-related phenotypes was detected. Inulin polyfructan is the second most abundant storage carbohydrate in flowering plants. After harvest, it is depolymerized by fructan exohydrolases (FEHs) as an adaptive response to end-season cold temperatures. In chicory, the intensity of this depolymerization differs between cultivars but also between individuals within a cultivar. Regarding this phenotypic variability, we recently identified statistically significant associations between inulin degradation and genetic polymorphisms located in three FEHs. We present here new results of a systematic analysis of copy number variation (CNV) in five key members of the chicory (Cichorium intybus) GH32 multigenic family, including three FEH genes and the two inulin biosynthesis genes: 1-SST and 1-FFT. qPCR analysis identified a significant variability of relative copy number only in the 1-FEH IIa gene. However, this CNV had no quantitative effect. Instead, cloning of the full length gDNA of a close paralogous sequence (1-FEH IIb) identified a 1028 bp deletion in lines less susceptible to post-harvest inulin depolymerization. This region comprises a 9 bp mini-exon containing one of the three conserved residues of the active site. This results in a putative non-functional 1-FEH IIb allele and an observed lower inulin depolymerization. Extensive genotyping confirmed that the loss of mini-exon 2 in 1-FEH IIb and the previously identified 47 bp duplication located in the 3'UTR of 1-FEH IIa belong to a single haplotype, both being statistically associated with reduced susceptibility to post-harvest inulin depolymerization

  4. The Divergent CD8+ T Cell Adjuvant Properties of LT-IIb and LT-IIc, Two Type II Heat-Labile Enterotoxins, Are Conferred by Their Ganglioside-Binding B Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Hu, John C.; Greene, Christopher J.; King-Lyons, Natalie D.; Connell, Terry D.

    2015-01-01

    Poor immune responses elicited by vaccine antigens can be enhanced by the use of appropriate adjuvants. Type II heat-labile enterotoxins (HLT) produced by Escherichia coli are extremely potent adjuvants that augment both humoral and cellular immunity to co-administered antigens. Recent findings demonstrate that LT-IIb and LT-IIc, two type II HLT adjuvants, exhibit potent, yet distinguishable CD8+ T cell adjuvant properties. While LT-IIc elicits a robust and rapid response at one week after administration, LT-IIb engenders a more gradual and slower expansion of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells that correlates with improved immunity. The variations in immune effects elicited by the HLT adjuvants have been generally attributed to their highly divergent B subunits that mediate binding to various gangliosides on cell surfaces. Yet, HLT adjuvants with point mutations in the B subunit that significantly alter ganglioside binding retain similar adjuvant functions. Therefore, the contribution of the B subunits to adjuvanticity remains unclear. To investigate the influence of the B subunits on the enhancement of immune responses by LT-IIb and LT-IIc, chimeric HLT were engineered in which the B subunits of the two adjuvants were exchanged. Comparing the immune potentiating characteristics of both native and chimeric HLT adjuvants, it was found that not all the adjuvant characteristics of the HLT adjuvants were modulated by the respective B subunits. Specifically, the differences in the CD8+ T cell kinetics and protective responses elicited by LT-IIb and LT-IIc did indeed followed their respective B subunits. However, induction of IL-1 from macrophages and the capacity to intoxicate cells in a mouse Y1 adrenal cell bioassay did not correlate with the B subunits. Therefore, it is likely that additional factors other than the B subunits contribute to the effects elicited by the HLT adjuvants. PMID:26565800

  5. Loss of function of 1-FEH IIb has more impact on post-harvest inulin degradation in Cichorium intybus than copy number variation of its close paralog 1-FEH IIa.

    PubMed

    Dauchot, Nicolas; Raulier, Pierre; Maudoux, Olivier; Notté, Christine; Draye, Xavier; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Key Message: The loss of mini-exon 2 in the 1-FEH IIb glycosyl-hydrolase results in a putative non-functional allele. This loss of function has a strong impact on the susceptibility to post-harvest inulin depolymerization. Significant variation of copy number was identified in its close paralog 1-FEH IIa, but no quantitative effect of copy number on carbohydrates-related phenotypes was detected. Inulin polyfructan is the second most abundant storage carbohydrate in flowering plants. After harvest, it is depolymerized by fructan exohydrolases (FEHs) as an adaptive response to end-season cold temperatures. In chicory, the intensity of this depolymerization differs between cultivars but also between individuals within a cultivar. Regarding this phenotypic variability, we recently identified statistically significant associations between inulin degradation and genetic polymorphisms located in three FEHs. We present here new results of a systematic analysis of copy number variation (CNV) in five key members of the chicory (Cichorium intybus) GH32 multigenic family, including three FEH genes and the two inulin biosynthesis genes: 1-SST and 1-FFT. qPCR analysis identified a significant variability of relative copy number only in the 1-FEH IIa gene. However, this CNV had no quantitative effect. Instead, cloning of the full length gDNA of a close paralogous sequence (1-FEH IIb) identified a 1028 bp deletion in lines less susceptible to post-harvest inulin depolymerization. This region comprises a 9 bp mini-exon containing one of the three conserved residues of the active site. This results in a putative non-functional 1-FEH IIb allele and an observed lower inulin depolymerization. Extensive genotyping confirmed that the loss of mini-exon 2 in 1-FEH IIb and the previously identified 47 bp duplication located in the 3'UTR of 1-FEH IIa belong to a single haplotype, both being statistically associated with reduced susceptibility to post-harvest inulin depolymerization

  6. Molecular basis of oocyte-paracrine signalling that promotes granulosa cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Robert B; Ritter, Lesley J; Myllymaa, Samu; Kaivo-Oja, Noora; Dragovic, Rebecca A; Hickey, Theresa E; Ritvos, Olli; Mottershead, David G

    2006-09-15

    Oocytes regulate follicle growth by secreting paracrine growth factors that act on neighbouring granulosa cells (GCs). Those factors identified to date are mainly members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) superfamily, but little is known about which specific receptor/signalling system(s) they employ. This study was conducted to determine the requisite pathways utilised by oocytes to promote GC proliferation. We used an established oocyte-secreted mitogen bioassay, where denuded mouse oocytes are co-cultured with mural GCs. Oocytes, growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9), TGFbeta1 and activin-A all promoted GC DNA synthesis, but bone-morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) did not. Subsequently, we tested the capacity of various TGFbeta superfamily receptor ectodomains (ECD) to neutralise oocyte- or specific growth factor-stimulated GC proliferation. The BMP type-II receptor (BMPR-II) ECD antagonised oocyte and GDF9 bioactivity dose-dependently, but had no or minimal effect on TGFbeta1 and activin-A bioactivity, demonstrating its specificity. The TGFbetaR-II, activinR-IIA and activinR-IIB ECDs all failed to neutralise oocyte- or GDF9-stimulated GC DNA synthesis, whereas they did antagonise the activity of their respective native ligands. An activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) 4/5/7 inhibitor, SB431542, also antagonised both oocyte and GDF9 bioactivity in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with these findings, oocytes, GDF9 and TGFbeta1 all activated SMAD2/3 reporter constructs in transfected GC, and led to phosphorylation of SMAD2 proteins in treated cells. Surprisingly, oocytes did not activate the SMAD1/5/8 pathway in transfected GCs although exogenous BMP6 did. This study indicates that oocyte paracrine factors primarily utilise a similar signalling pathway first identified for GDF9 that employs an unusual combination of TGFbeta superfamily receptors, the BMPR-II and a SMAD2/3 stimulatory ALK (4, 5 or 7), for transmitting their mitogenic actions in GC. This

  7. Are We Appropriately Selecting Therapy For Patients With Cervical Cancer? Longitudinal Patterns-of-Care Analysis for Stage IB-IIB Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Julie A.; Rusthoven, Chad; DeWitt, Peter E.; Davidson, Susan A.

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: We performed a patterns-of-care analysis evaluating the effects of newer technology and recent research findings on treatment decisions over 26 years to determine whether patients with cervical cancer are being appropriately selected for treatment to optimize the therapeutic ratio. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was conducted using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program from 1983 to 2009. We identified 10,933 women with stage IB-IIB cervical carcinoma. Results: Of the 10,933 subjects identified, 40.1% received surgery, 26.8% received radiation (RT), and 33.1% received surgery plus RT. RT use increased after 2000 compared to prior to 2000, with a corresponding decrease in surgery and surgery plus RT. Among patients with risk factors including tumor size >4 cm, positive parametria, and positive lymph nodes, declining use of surgery plus RT was observed. However, 23% of patients with tumors >4 cm, 20% of patients with positive parametria, and 55% of node-positive patients continued to receive surgery plus RT as of 2009. Factors associated with increased use of surgery plus RT included patient age <50 and node-positive status. Conclusions: In this largest patterns-of-care analysis to date for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, we found a substantial proportion of patients continue to undergo surgery followed by radiation, despite randomized data supporting the use of definitive radiation therapy, with lower morbidity than surgery and radiation.

  8. Interspecies comparison of the antiplatelet, antithrombotic, and hemorrhagic effects of SR 121566A, a novel nonpeptide GP IIb/IIIa antagonist.

    PubMed

    Bernat, A; Hoffmann, P; Savi, P; Lalé, A; Herbert, J M

    1999-06-01

    We report the results from an interspecies comparison of the antiplatelet, antithrombotic, and hemorrhagic actions of SR 121566A, a novel nonpeptide antiplatelet agent with high affinity and specificity for the GP IIb/IIIa complex. SR 121566A exhibited in vitro antiplatelet activity against adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced aggregation with a rank order of potency [humans = baboons = dogs] > marmosets > guinea pigs > rabbits. These in vitro findings were predictive for the ex vivo antiplatelet potency after i.v. administration of SR 121566A to dogs, guinea pigs, and rabbits [median effective dose (ED50) values, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.15 mg/kg]. The antiplatelet actions of SR 121566A translated into an acute antithrombotic effect in an arteriovenous shunt model after i.v. administration in dogs, guinea pigs, rabbits, and marmosets (ED50, 0.08, 0.10, 0.50, and 0.007 mg/kg). Hemorrhagic effects of SR 121566A were observed in guinea pigs and rabbits at doses that represented 2-3 times the antithrombotic ED50, whereas in marmosets, no bleeding was observed at the antithrombotic ED90. These results demonstrate that SR 121566A exhibits favorable actions in terms of antithrombotic potency and hemostatic safety in different animal species, suggesting that, in humans, SR 121566A will be a good candidate as an antithrombotic compound.

  9. Impact of down-regulation of starch branching enzyme IIb in rice by artificial microRNA- and hairpin RNA-mediated RNA silencing

    PubMed Central

    Butardo, Vito M.; Fitzgerald, Melissa A.; Bird, Anthony R.; Gidley, Michael J.; Flanagan, Bernadine M.; Larroque, Oscar; Resurreccion, Adoracion P.; Laidlaw, Hunter K. C.; Jobling, Stephen A.; Morell, Matthew K.; Rahman, Sadequr

    2011-01-01

    The inactivation of starch branching IIb (SBEIIb) in rice is traditionally associated with elevated apparent amylose content, increased peak gelatinization temperature, and a decreased proportion of short amylopectin branches. To elucidate further the structural and functional role of this enzyme, the phenotypic effects of down-regulating SBEIIb expression in rice endosperm were characterized by artificial microRNA (amiRNA) and hairpin RNA (hp-RNA) gene silencing. The results showed that RNA silencing of SBEIIb expression in rice grains did not affect the expression of other major isoforms of starch branching enzymes or starch synthases. Structural analyses of debranched starch showed that the doubling of apparent amylose content was not due to an increase in the relative proportion of amylose chains but instead was due to significantly elevated levels of long amylopectin and intermediate chains. Rices altered by the amiRNA technique produced a more extreme starch phenotype than those modified using the hp-RNA technique, with a greater increase in the proportion of long amylopectin and intermediate chains. The more pronounced starch structural modifications produced in the amiRNA lines led to more severe alterations in starch granule morphology and crystallinity as well as digestibility of freshly cooked grains. The potential role of attenuating SBEIIb expression in generating starch with elevated levels of resistant starch and lower glycaemic index is discussed. PMID:21791436

  10. Clot retraction is mediated by factor XIII-dependent fibrin-αIIbβ3-myosin axis in platelet sphingomyelin-rich membrane rafts.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Kohji; Kaneda, Mizuho; Miki, Toshiaki; Iida, Kazuko; Sekino-Suzuki, Naoko; Kawashima, Ikuo; Suzuki, Hidenori; Shimonaka, Motoyuki; Arai, Morio; Ohno-Iwashita, Yoshiko; Kojima, Soichi; Abe, Mitsuhiro; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Okazaki, Toshiro; Souri, Masayoshi; Ichinose, Akitada; Yamamoto, Naomasa

    2013-11-01

    Membrane rafts are spatially and functionally heterogenous in the cell membrane. We observed that lysenin-positive sphingomyelin (SM)-rich rafts are identified histochemically in the central region of adhered platelets where fibrin and myosin are colocalized on activation by thrombin. The clot retraction of SM-depleted platelets from SM synthase knockout mouse was delayed significantly, suggesting that platelet SM-rich rafts are involved in clot retraction. We found that fibrin converted by thrombin translocated immediately in platelet detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) rafts but that from Glanzmann's thrombasthenic platelets failed. The fibrinogen γ-chain C-terminal (residues 144-411) fusion protein translocated to platelet DRM rafts on thrombin activation, but its mutant that was replaced by A398A399 at factor XIII crosslinking sites (Q398Q399) was inhibited. Furthermore, fibrin translocation to DRM rafts was impaired in factor XIII A subunit-deficient mouse platelets, which show impaired clot retraction. In the cytoplasm, myosin translocated concomitantly with fibrin translocation into the DRM raft of thrombin-stimulated platelets. Furthermore, the disruption of SM-rich rafts by methyl-β-cyclodextrin impaired myosin activation and clot retraction. Thus, we propose that clot retraction takes place in SM-rich rafts where a fibrin-αIIbβ3-myosin complex is formed as a primary axis to promote platelet contraction. PMID:24002447

  11. Controlled Re-Entry of the H-IIB Launch Vehicle Upper Stage with the Use of the Re-Entry Safety System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, K.; Mori, S.; Sakamoto, K.; Ikeda, S.; Sato, T.; Kawabata, H.

    2012-01-01

    On January 22, 2011, during flight No. 2 of the H-IIB launch vehicle, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) succeeded in performing a controlled re-entry experiment for the upper stage. This is the first time this has been done for the upper stage of a Japanese launch vehicle. For flight No. 1, the upper stage performed a random re- entry. With a view to avoiding debris generation and debris-related impact accidents, JAXA resolved to develop a more refined re-entry process. Consequently, the "Re-entry Safety System" was developed in order to achieve controlled re-entry with certainty. After one orbit, while executing controlled re-entry, the Re-entry Safety System monitored the upper stage's function and orbit. Subsequently, a command disengaging the lockout of the deorbit manoeuvre was issued from ground and re-entry commenced. The details of the Re-entry Safety System, which facilitated the controlled re-entry, are described herein.

  12. Expression and misexpression of members of the FGF and TGFbeta families of growth factors in the developing mouse pancreas.

    PubMed

    Dichmann, Darwin S; Miller, Christopher P; Jensen, Jan; Scott Heller, R; Serup, Palle

    2003-04-01

    We have performed a high-capacity, semiquantitative, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction screen for expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) family genes as well as their cognate receptors. By using cDNA prepared from embryonic day 12 to postnatal day 0 embryonic mouse pancreas, we have identified several factors potentially involved in the development of the endocrine pancreas. We find high-level early expression of TGFbeta-1 and -2, and constitutive expression of TGFbeta-3 and their receptors. Of the Inhibin/Activin members, we found exclusively Inhibin-alpha and Activin-betaB to be expressed, and the BMP family was represented by BMP4, BMP5, and BMP7. The predominant forms of the BMP and Activin type II receptors were ActR-IIB and BMPR-II and of the type I receptors, BMPR-1A and -1B were the highest expressed. FGF1, FGF7, FGF9, FGF10, FGF11, and FGF18 were also expressed in the pancreas at varying time points and levels, as well as FGF receptor forms FGFR1b, FGFR1c, FGFR2b, FGFR2c, FGFR3b, and FGFR4. To gain insight into the biological function, we misexpressed members of these families in the pancreas by using the early pancreas promoter Pdx1. Misexpression of FGF4 results in disruption of the pancreas morphology with epithelial structures interspersed in stroma tissue. The endocrine compartment was reduced to scattered single cells, and the exocrine consisted of unbranched ductal epithelia with acinar structures budding off. In contrast, misexpression of BMP-6 resulted in complete agenesis of the pancreas and reduced the size of the stomach and spleen dramatically and caused fusion of the liver and duodenum.

  13. The structure of myostatin:follistatin 288: insights into receptor utilization and heparin binding

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Jennifer N; Rejon, Carlis A; McPherron, Alexandra C; Bernard, Daniel J; Thompson, Thomas B

    2009-01-01

    Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family and a strong negative regulator of muscle growth. Here, we present the crystal structure of myostatin in complex with the antagonist follistatin 288 (Fst288). We find that the prehelix region of myostatin very closely resembles that of TGF-β class members and that this region alone can be swapped into activin A to confer signalling through the non-canonical type I receptor Alk5. Furthermore, the N-terminal domain of Fst288 undergoes conformational rearrangements to bind myostatin and likely acts as a site of specificity for the antagonist. In addition, a unique continuous electropositive surface is created when myostatin binds Fst288, which significantly increases the affinity for heparin. This translates into stronger interactions with the cell surface and enhanced myostatin degradation in the presence of either Fst288 or Fst315. Overall, we have identified several characteristics unique to myostatin that will be paramount to the rational design of myostatin inhibitors that could be used in the treatment of muscle-wasting disorders. PMID:19644449

  14. The structure of myostatin:follistatin 288: insights into receptor utilization and heparin binding

    SciTech Connect

    Cash, Jennifer N.; Rejon, Carlis A.; McPherron, Alexandra C.; Bernard, Daniel J.; Thompson, Thomas B.

    2009-09-29

    Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) family and a strong negative regulator of muscle growth. Here, we present the crystal structure of myostatin in complex with the antagonist follistatin 288 (Fst288). We find that the prehelix region of myostatin very closely resembles that of TGF-{beta} class members and that this region alone can be swapped into activin A to confer signalling through the non-canonical type I receptor Alk5. Furthermore, the N-terminal domain of Fst288 undergoes conformational rearrangements to bind myostatin and likely acts as a site of specificity for the antagonist. In addition, a unique continuous electropositive surface is created when myostatin binds Fst288, which significantly increases the affinity for heparin. This translates into stronger interactions with the cell surface and enhanced myostatin degradation in the presence of either Fst288 or Fst315. Overall, we have identified several characteristics unique to myostatin that will be paramount to the rational design of myostatin inhibitors that could be used in the treatment of muscle-wasting disorders.

  15. BMP type I receptor ALK2 is required for angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Mohd; Spagnolli, Ester; Ernande, Laura; Thoonen, Robrecht; Kolodziej, Starsha A; Leyton, Patricio A; Cheng, Juan; Tainsh, Robert E T; Mayeur, Claire; Rhee, David K; Wu, Mei X; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Buys, Emmanuel S; Zapol, Warren M; Bloch, Kenneth D; Bloch, Donald B

    2016-04-15

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling contributes to the development of cardiac hypertrophy. However, the identity of the BMP type I receptor involved in cardiac hypertrophy and the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. By using quantitative PCR and immunoblotting, we demonstrated that BMP signaling increased during phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCs), as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of Smads 1 and 5 and induction of Id1 gene expression. Inhibition of BMP signaling with LDN193189 or noggin, and silencing of Smad 1 or 4 using small interfering RNA diminished the ability of phenylephrine to induce hypertrophy in NRCs. Conversely, activation of BMP signaling with BMP2 or BMP4 induced hypertrophy in NRCs. Luciferase reporter assay further showed that BMP2 or BMP4 treatment of NRCs repressed atrogin-1 gene expression concomitant with an increase in calcineurin protein levels and enhanced activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells, providing a mechanism by which BMP signaling contributes to cardiac hypertrophy. In a model of cardiac hypertrophy, C57BL/6 mice treated with angiotensin II (A2) had increased BMP signaling in the left ventricle. Treatment with LDN193189 attenuated A2-induced cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition in left ventricles. Cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of BMP type I receptor ALK2 (activin-like kinase 2), but not ALK1 or ALK3, inhibited BMP signaling and mitigated A2-induced cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricular fibrosis in mice. The results suggest that BMP signaling upregulates the calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cell pathway via BMP type I receptor ALK2, contributing to cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. PMID:26873969

  16. The LDL receptor.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Joseph L; Brown, Michael S

    2009-04-01

    In this article, the history of the LDL receptor is recounted by its codiscoverers. Their early work on the LDL receptor explained a genetic cause of heart attacks and led to new ways of thinking about cholesterol metabolism. The LDL receptor discovery also introduced three general concepts to cell biology: receptor-mediated endocytosis, receptor recycling, and feedback regulation of receptors. The latter concept provides the mechanism by which statins selectively lower plasma LDL, reducing heart attacks and prolonging life. PMID:19299327

  17. Finerenone Impedes Aldosterone-dependent Nuclear Import of the Mineralocorticoid Receptor and Prevents Genomic Recruitment of Steroid Receptor Coactivator-1*

    PubMed Central

    Amazit, Larbi; Le Billan, Florian; Kolkhof, Peter; Lamribet, Khadija; Viengchareun, Say; Fay, Michel R.; Khan, Junaid A.; Hillisch, Alexander; Lombès, Marc; Rafestin-Oblin, Marie-Edith; Fagart, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Aldosterone regulates sodium homeostasis by activating the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Hyperaldosteronism leads todeleterious effects on the kidney, blood vessels, and heart. Although steroidal antagonists such as spironolactone and eplerenone are clinically useful for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, they are associated with several side effects. Finerenone, a novel nonsteroidal MR antagonist, is presently being evaluated in two clinical phase IIb trials. Here, we characterized the molecular mechanisms of action of finerenone and spironolactone at several key steps of the MR signaling pathway. Molecular modeling and mutagenesis approaches allowed identification of Ser-810 and Ala-773 as key residues for the high MR selectivity of finerenone. Moreover, we showed that, in contrast to spironolactone, which activates the S810L mutant MR responsible for a severe form of early onset hypertension, finerenone displays strict antagonistic properties. Aldosterone-dependent phosphorylation and degradation of MR are inhibited by both finerenone and spironolactone. However, automated quantification of MR subcellular distribution demonstrated that finerenone delays aldosterone-induced nuclear accumulation of MR more efficiently than spironolactone. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that, as opposed to spironolactone, finerenone inhibits MR, steroid receptor coactivator-1, and RNA polymerase II binding at the regulatory sequence of the SCNN1A gene and also remarkably reduces basal MR and steroid receptor coactivator-1 recruitment, unraveling a specific and unrecognized inactivating mechanism on MR signaling. Overall, our data demonstrate that the highly potent and selective MR antagonist finerenone specifically impairs several critical steps of the MR signaling pathway and therefore represents a promising new generation MR antagonist. PMID:26203193

  18. Brachytherapy versus radical hysterectomy after external beam chemoradiation: a non-randomized matched comparison in IB2-IIB cervical cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Cetina, Lucely; Garcia-Arias, Alicia; Candelaria, Myrna; Cantú, David; Rivera, Lesbia; Coronel, Jaime; Bazan-Perkins, Blanca; Flores, Vladimir; Gonzalez, Aaron; Dueñas-González, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    Background A current paradigm in the treatment of cervical cancer with radiation therapy is that intracavitary brachytherapy is an essential component of radical treatment. This is a matched retrospective comparison of the results of treatment in patients treated with external beam chemoradiation (EBRT-CT) and radical hysterectomy versus those treated with identical chemoradiation followed by brachytherapy. Methods In this non-randomized comparison EBRT-CT protocol was the same in both groups of 40 patients. In the standard treated patients, EBRT-CT was followed by one or two intracavitary Cesium (low-dose rate) applications within 2 weeks of finishing external radiation to reach a point A dose of at least 85 Gy. In the surgically treated patients, radical hysterectomy with bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection and para-aortic lymph node sampling were performed within 7 weeks after EBRT-CT. Response, toxicity and survival were evaluated. Results A total of 80 patients were analyzed. The patients receiving EBRT-CT and surgery were matched with the standard treated cases. There were no differences in the clinicopathological characteristics between groups or in the delivery of EBRT-CT. The pattern of acute and late toxicity differed. Standard treated patients had more chronic proctitis while the surgically treated had acute complications of surgery and hydronephrosis. At a maximum follow-up of 60 months, median follow-up 26 (2–31) and 22 (3–27) months for the surgery and standard therapy respectively, eight patients per group have recurred and died. The progression free and overall survival are the same in both groups. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that radical hysterectomy can be used after EBRT-CT without compromising survival in FIGO stage IB2-IIB cervical cancer patients in settings were brachytherapy is not available. A randomized study is needed to uncover the value of surgery after EBRT-CT. PMID:19220882

  19. Preoperative Concurrent Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy for Bulky Stage IB2, IIA, and IIB Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix With Proximal Parametrial Invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Huguet, Florence; Cojocariu, Oana-Maria; Levy, Pierre; Lefranc, Jean-Pierre; Darai, Emile; Jannet, Denis; Ansquer, Yan; Lhuillier, Pierre-Eugene; Benifla, Jean-Louis; Seince, Nathalie; Touboul, Emmanuel

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate toxicity, local tumor control, and survival after preoperative chemoradiation for operable bulky cervical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Between December 1991 and July 2006, 92 patients with operable bulky stage IB2, IIA, and IIB cervical carcinoma without pelvic or para-aortic nodes on pretreatment imaging were treated. Treatment consisted of preoperative external beam pelvic radiation therapy (EBRT) and concomitant chemotherapy (CT) during the first and fourth weeks of radiation combining 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. The pelvic radiation dose was 40.5 Gy over 4.5 weeks. EBRT was followed by low-dose rate uterovaginal brachytherapy with a total dose of 20 Gy in 62 patients. After a median rest period of 44 days, all patients underwent Class II modified radical hysterectomy with bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy. Thirty patients who had not received preoperative uterovaginal brachytherapy underwent postoperative low-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy at a dose of 20 Gy. The mean follow-up was 46 months. Results: Pathologic residual tumor was observed in 43 patients. After multivariate analysis, additional preoperative uterovaginal brachytherapy was the single significant predictive factor for pathologic complete response rate (p = 0.019). The 2- and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 80.4% and 72.2%, respectively. Pathologic residual cervical tumor was the single independent factor decreasing the probability of DFS (p = 0.020). Acute toxicities were moderate. Two severe ureteral complications requiring surgical intervention were observed. Conclusions: Concomitant chemoradiation followed by surgery for operable bulky stage I-II cervical carcinoma without clinical lymph node involvement can be used with acceptable toxicity. Pathologic complete response increases the probability of DFS.

  20. Insight into the recognition, binding, and reactivity of catalytic metallodrugs targeting stem loop IIb of hepatitis C IRES RNA.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Seth S; Ross, Martin James; Fidai, Insiya; Cowan, James A

    2014-06-01

    The complex Cu-GGHYrFK-amide (1-Cu) was previously reported as a novel metallotherapeutic that catalytically inactivates stem loop IIb (SLIIb) of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) RNA and demonstrates significant antiviral activity in a cellular HCV replicon assay. Herein we describe additional studies focused on understanding the cleavage mechanism as well as the relationship of catalyst configuration to structural recognition and site-selective cleavage of the structured RNA motif. These are advanced by use of a combination of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, melting temperature determinations, and computational analysis to develop a structural model for binding and reactivity toward SLIIb of the IRES RNA. In addition, the binding, reactivity, and structural chemistry of the all-D-amino acid form of this metallopeptide, complex 2-Cu, are reported and compared with those of complex 1-Cu. In vitro RNA binding and cleavage assays for complex 2-Cu show a KD value of 76 ± 3 nM, and Michaelis-Menten parameters of kcat =0.14 ± 0.01 min(-1) and KM =7.9 ± 1.2 μM, with a turnover number exceeding 40. In a luciferase-based cellular replicon assay Cu-GGhyrfk-amide shows activity similar to that of the 1-Cu parent peptide, with an IC50 value of 1.9 ± 0.4 μM and cytotoxicity exceeding 100 μM. RT-PCR experiments confirm a significant decrease in HCV RNA levels in replicon assays for up to nine days when treated with complex 1-Cu in three-day dosing increments. This study shows the influence that the α-carbon stereocenter has for this new class of compounds, while detailed mass spectrometry and computational analyses provide new insight into the mechanisms of recognition, binding, and reactivity.

  1. Ultra-deep Illumina sequencing accurately identifies MHC class IIb alleles and provides evidence for copy number variation in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Lighten, Jackie; van Oosterhout, Cock; Paterson, Ian G; McMullan, Mark; Bentzen, Paul

    2014-07-01

    We address the bioinformatic issue of accurately separating amplified genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) from artefacts generated during high-throughput sequencing workflows. We fit observed ultra-deep sequencing depths (hundreds to thousands of sequences per amplicon) of allelic variants to expectations from genetic models of copy number variation (CNV). We provide a simple, accurate and repeatable method for genotyping multigene families, evaluating our method via analyses of 209 b of MHC class IIb exon 2 in guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Genotype repeatability for resequenced individuals (N = 49) was high (100%) within the same sequencing run. However, repeatability dropped to 83.7% between independent runs, either because of lower mean amplicon sequencing depth in the initial run or random PCR effects. This highlights the importance of fully independent replicates. Significant improvements in genotyping accuracy were made by greatly reducing type I genotyping error (i.e. accepting an artefact as a true allele), which may occur when using low-depth allele validation thresholds used by previous methods. Only a small amount (4.9%) of type II error (i.e. rejecting a genuine allele as an artefact) was detected through fully independent sequencing runs. We observed 1-6 alleles per individual, and evidence of sharing of alleles across loci. Variation in the total number of MHC class II loci among individuals, both among and within populations was also observed, and some genotypes appeared to be partially hemizygous; total allelic dosage added up to an odd number of allelic copies. Collectively, observations provide evidence of MHC CNV and its complex basis in natural populations.

  2. A randomised study of adjuvant chemotherapy after mantle radiotherapy in supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease PS IA-IIB: a report from the Manchester lymphoma group.

    PubMed

    Anderson, H; Deakin, D P; Wagstaff, J; Jones, J M; Todd, I D; Wilkinson, P M; James, R D; Steward, W P; Blackledge, G; Scarffe, J H

    1984-06-01

    One hundred and fourteen untreated patients with pathological stage (PS) IA-IIB supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's Disease were randomised to mantle radiotherapy alone (55) or mantle radiotherapy followed by 6 courses of adjuvant chemotherapy with mustine, vinblastine, prednisolone and procarbazine- MVPP (59). Patients excluded were those outside the age range 16-65 years and those with massive mediastinal disease precluding laparotomy. Bulk disease was defined as a mass of lymph nodes measuring five centimetres or more in any axis. Mediastinal bulk was present if the ratio of the maximum width of mediastinal disease to the maximal chest diameter was more than one third. All patients achieved a complete remission. Median duration of follow-up was 62 months (range 16-97). The relapse free survival (RFS) was 81%; 69% for radiotherapy alone and 93% for adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.002). RFS was also shown to be adversely affected by B symptoms (P = 0.0003), bulk disease (P = 0.018), abnormal CXR (P = 0.037), and increasing stage (P = 0.039). Age, sex, histology, and number of sites involved had no significant effect upon RFS. A Cox multivariate analysis showed that only three variables had a significant adverse effect on RFS - radiotherapy alone, the presence of bulk disease, and B symptoms. The overall 5 year survival was 93% with no statistically significant difference between the two treatment groups (P = 0.54). Survival was adversely affected by three variables - B symptoms (P = 0.02), the presence of bulk disease (P = 0.002), and pathological stage (P = 0.05). High risk groups for relapse are those with bulk and B symptoms. This analysis has shown that RFS was significantly improved by adjuvant chemotherapy, but that overall survival was not.

  3. Control of Integrin αIIbβ3 Outside-In Signaling and Platelet Adhesion by Sensing the Physical Properties of Fibrin(ogen) Substrates†

    PubMed Central

    Podolnikova, Nataly P.; Yermolenko, Ivan S.; Fuhrmann, Alexander; Lishko, Valeryi K.; Magonov, Sergei; Bowen, Benjamin; Enderlein, Joerg; Podolnikov, Andriy V.; Ros, Robert; Ugarova, Tatiana P.

    2015-01-01

    The physical properties of substrates are known to control cell adhesion via integrin-mediated signaling. Fibrin and fibrinogen, the principal components of hemostatic and pathological thrombi, may represent biologically relevant substrates whose variable physical properties control adhesion of leukocytes and platelets. In our previous work, we have shown that binding of fibrinogen to the surface of fibrin clot prevents cell adhesion by creating an antiadhesive fibrinogen layer. Furthermore, fibrinogen immobilized on various surfaces at high density supports weak cell adhesion whereas at low density it is highly adhesive. To explore the mechanism underlying differential cell adhesion, we examined the structural and physical properties of surfaces prepared by deposition of various concentrations of fibrinogen using atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy. Fibrinogen deposition at high density resulted in an aggregated multilayered material characterized by low adhesion forces. In contrast, immobilization of fibrinogen at low density produced a single layer in which molecules were directly attached to the solid surface, resulting in higher adhesion forces. Consistent with their distinct physical properties, low- but not high-density fibrinogen induced strong αIIbβ3-mediated outside-in signaling in platelets, resulting in their spreading. Moreover, while intact fibrin gels induced strong signaling in platelets, deposition of fibrinogen on the surface of fibrin resulted in diminished cell signaling. The data suggest that deposition of a multilayered fibrinogen matrix prevents stable cell adhesion by modifying the physical properties of surfaces, which results in reduced force generation and insufficient signaling. The mechanism whereby circulating fibrinogen alters adhesive properties of fibrin clots may have important implications for control of thrombus formation and thrombogenicity of biomaterials. PMID:19929007

  4. Deficiencies in both starch synthase IIIa and branching enzyme IIb lead to a significant increase in amylose in SSIIa-inactive japonica rice seeds

    PubMed Central

    Asai, Hiroki; Abe, Natsuko; Matsushima, Ryo; Crofts, Naoko; Oitome, Naoko F.; Nakamura, Yasunori; Fujita, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    Starch synthase (SS) IIIa has the second highest activity of the total soluble SS activity in developing rice endosperm. Branching enzyme (BE) IIb is the major BE isozyme, and is strongly expressed in developing rice endosperm. A mutant (ss3a/be2b) was generated from wild-type japonica rice which lacks SSIIa activity. The seed weight of ss3a/be2b was 74–94% of that of the wild type, whereas the be2b seed weight was 59–73% of that of the wild type. There were significantly fewer amylopectin short chains [degree of polymerization (DP) ≤13] in ss3a/be2b compared with the wild type. In contrast, the amount of long chains (DP ≥25) connecting clusters of amylopectin in ss3a/be2b was higher than in the wild type and lower than in be2b. The apparent amylose content of ss3a/be2b was 45%, which was >1.5 times greater than that of either ss3a or be2b. Both SSIIIa and BEIIb deficiencies led to higher activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI), which partly explains the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b endosperm. The percentage apparent amylose content of ss3a and ss3a/be2b at 10 days after flowering (DAF) was higher than that of the wild type and be2b. At 20 DAF, amylopectin biosynthesis in be2b and ss3a/be2b was not observed, whereas amylose biosynthesis in these lines was accelerated at 30 DAF. These data suggest that the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b mutant results from higher amylose biosynthesis at two stages, up to 20 DAF and from 30 DAF to maturity. PMID:25071222

  5. Clinical efficacy and mechanistic evaluation of aflibercept for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (acronym CLARITY): a multicentre phase IIb randomised active-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Sivaprasad, Sobha; Prevost, A Toby; Bainbridge, James; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Hopkins, David; Kelly, Joanna; Luthert, Phil; Murphy, Caroline; Ramu, Jayashree; Sarafraz-Shekary, Negin; Vasconcelos, Joana; White-Alao, Beverley; Hykin, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is the main cause of severe visual loss in people with diabetes mellitus. The standard treatment for this condition is panretinal photocoagulation (PRP). This laser treatment is inherently destructive, with predictable adverse effects on visual function, and a safer alternative is required. Intravitreal injection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors can induce short-term regression of retinal neovascularisation. The aim of this randomised controlled trial is to determine the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of intravitreal aflibercept, an inhibitor of VEGF-A, VEGF-B and placental growth factor (PLGF), in PDR, and to investigate the impact on local oxygenation. Methods and analysis This is a phase IIb randomised controlled single-masked multicentre clinical trial to determine the impact of repeated intravitreal aflibercept injections in the treatment and prevention of PDR. 220 participants with treatment-naïve or treated but active retinal neovascularisation in at least one eye will be randomly allocated 1:1 to intravitreal aflibercept injections or PRP for a period of 52 weeks. The primary outcome is the change in best-corrected visual acuity in the study eye at 52 weeks. Secondary outcomes include changes from baseline in other visual functions, anatomical changes and cost-effectiveness. Ocular and non-ocular adverse events will also be reported over 52 weeks. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the National Research Ethics Service (NRES) committee with respect to scientific content and compliance with applicable research and human subjects’ regulations. Findings will be reported through scientific publications and research conferences. The results of this study will provide clinical evidence for the feasibility, efficacy safety and cost-effectiveness of intravitreal aflibercept for PDR. Trial registration number ISRCTN 32207582. PMID:26369798

  6. Insight into the recognition, binding, and reactivity of catalytic metallodrugs targeting stem loop IIb of hepatitis C IRES RNA.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Seth S; Ross, Martin James; Fidai, Insiya; Cowan, James A

    2014-06-01

    The complex Cu-GGHYrFK-amide (1-Cu) was previously reported as a novel metallotherapeutic that catalytically inactivates stem loop IIb (SLIIb) of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) RNA and demonstrates significant antiviral activity in a cellular HCV replicon assay. Herein we describe additional studies focused on understanding the cleavage mechanism as well as the relationship of catalyst configuration to structural recognition and site-selective cleavage of the structured RNA motif. These are advanced by use of a combination of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, melting temperature determinations, and computational analysis to develop a structural model for binding and reactivity toward SLIIb of the IRES RNA. In addition, the binding, reactivity, and structural chemistry of the all-D-amino acid form of this metallopeptide, complex 2-Cu, are reported and compared with those of complex 1-Cu. In vitro RNA binding and cleavage assays for complex 2-Cu show a KD value of 76 ± 3 nM, and Michaelis-Menten parameters of kcat =0.14 ± 0.01 min(-1) and KM =7.9 ± 1.2 μM, with a turnover number exceeding 40. In a luciferase-based cellular replicon assay Cu-GGhyrfk-amide shows activity similar to that of the 1-Cu parent peptide, with an IC50 value of 1.9 ± 0.4 μM and cytotoxicity exceeding 100 μM. RT-PCR experiments confirm a significant decrease in HCV RNA levels in replicon assays for up to nine days when treated with complex 1-Cu in three-day dosing increments. This study shows the influence that the α-carbon stereocenter has for this new class of compounds, while detailed mass spectrometry and computational analyses provide new insight into the mechanisms of recognition, binding, and reactivity. PMID:24756921

  7. Platelet Activation by Low Concentrations of Intact Oxidized LDL Particles Involves the PAF Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Chen, Xi; Salomon, Robert G.; McIntyre, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Mitochondrial depolarization aids platelet activation. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) contains the medium length oxidatively truncated phospholipid hexadecyl azelaoyl-lysoPAF (HAz-LPAF) that disrupts mitochondrial function in nucleated cells, so oxLDL may augment platelet activation. Methods and Results Flow cytometry showed intact oxLDL particles synergized with sub-threshold amounts of soluble agonists to increase intracellular Ca++, and initiate platelet aggregation and surface expression of activated gpIIb/IIIa and P-selectin. oxLDL also induced aggregation and increased intracellular Ca++ in FURA2-labeled cells by itself at low, although not higher, concentrations. HAz-LPAF, alone and in combination with sub-stimulatory amounts of thrombin, rapidly increased cytoplasmic Ca++ and initiated aggregation. HAz-LPAF depolarized mitochondria in intact platelets, but this required concentrations beyond those that directly activated platelets. An unexpectedly large series of chemically pure truncated phospholipids generated by oxidative fragmentation of arachidonoyl-, docosahexaneoyl-, or linoleoyl alkyl phospholipids were platelet agonists. The PAF receptor, thought to effectively recognize only phospholipids with very short sn-2 residues, was essential for platelet activation because PAF receptor agonists blocked signaling by all these medium length phospholipids and oxLDL. Conclusions Intact oxLDL particles activate platelets through the PAF receptor, and the PAF receptor responds to a far wider range of oxidized phospholipids in oxLDL than anticipated. PMID:19112165

  8. A Novel Interaction of the Catalytic Subunit of Protein Phosphatase 2A with the Adaptor Protein CIN85 Suppresses Phosphatase Activity and Facilitates Platelet Outside-in αIIbβ3 Integrin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Khatlani, Tanvir; Pradhan, Subhashree; Da, Qi; Shaw, Tanner; Buchman, Vladimir L; Cruz, Miguel A; Vijayan, K Vinod

    2016-08-12

    The transduction of signals generated by protein kinases and phosphatases are critical for the ability of integrin αIIbβ3 to support stable platelet adhesion and thrombus formation. Unlike kinases, it remains unclear how serine/threonine phosphatases engage the signaling networks that are initiated following integrin ligation. Because protein-protein interactions form the backbone of signal transduction, we searched for proteins that interact with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2Ac). In a yeast two-hybrid study, we identified a novel interaction between PP2Ac and an adaptor protein CIN85 (Cbl-interacting protein of 85 kDa). Truncation and alanine mutagenesis studies revealed that PP2Ac binds to the P3 block ((396)PAIPPKKPRP(405)) of the proline-rich region in CIN85. The interaction of purified PP2Ac with CIN85 suppressed phosphatase activity. Human embryonal kidney 293 αIIbβ3 cells overexpressing a CIN85 P3 mutant, which cannot support PP2Ac binding, displayed decreased adhesion to immobilized fibrinogen. Platelets contain the ∼85 kDa CIN85 protein along with the PP2Ac-CIN85 complex. A myristylated cell-permeable peptide derived from residues 395-407 of CIN85 protein (P3 peptide) disrupted the platelet PP2Ac-CIN85 complex and decreased αIIbβ3 signaling dependent functions such as platelet spreading on fibrinogen and thrombin-mediated fibrin clot retraction. In a phospho-profiling study P3 peptide treated platelets also displayed decreased phosphorylation of several signaling proteins including Src and GSK3β. Taken together, these data support a role for the novel PP2Ac-CIN85 complex in supporting integrin-dependent platelet function by dampening the phosphatase activity. PMID:27334924

  9. Loss of function of 1-FEH IIb has more impact on post-harvest inulin degradation in Cichorium intybus than copy number variation of its close paralog 1-FEH IIa

    PubMed Central

    Dauchot, Nicolas; Raulier, Pierre; Maudoux, Olivier; Notté, Christine; Draye, Xavier; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Key Message: The loss of mini-exon 2 in the 1-FEH IIb glycosyl-hydrolase results in a putative non-functional allele. This loss of function has a strong impact on the susceptibility to post-harvest inulin depolymerization. Significant variation of copy number was identified in its close paralog 1-FEH IIa, but no quantitative effect of copy number on carbohydrates-related phenotypes was detected. Inulin polyfructan is the second most abundant storage carbohydrate in flowering plants. After harvest, it is depolymerized by fructan exohydrolases (FEHs) as an adaptive response to end-season cold temperatures. In chicory, the intensity of this depolymerization differs between cultivars but also between individuals within a cultivar. Regarding this phenotypic variability, we recently identified statistically significant associations between inulin degradation and genetic polymorphisms located in three FEHs. We present here new results of a systematic analysis of copy number variation (CNV) in five key members of the chicory (Cichorium intybus) GH32 multigenic family, including three FEH genes and the two inulin biosynthesis genes: 1-SST and 1-FFT. qPCR analysis identified a significant variability of relative copy number only in the 1-FEH IIa gene. However, this CNV had no quantitative effect. Instead, cloning of the full length gDNA of a close paralogous sequence (1-FEH IIb) identified a 1028 bp deletion in lines less susceptible to post-harvest inulin depolymerization. This region comprises a 9 bp mini-exon containing one of the three conserved residues of the active site. This results in a putative non-functional 1-FEH IIb allele and an observed lower inulin depolymerization. Extensive genotyping confirmed that the loss of mini-exon 2 in 1-FEH IIb and the previously identified 47 bp duplication located in the 3′UTR of 1-FEH IIa belong to a single haplotype, both being statistically associated with reduced susceptibility to post-harvest inulin depolymerization

  10. Integrin receptors and platelet adhesion to synthetic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Goodman, S L; Cooper, S L; Albrecht, R M

    1993-05-01

    The activation-independent and -dependent integrin receptors--glycoproteins GPIc-IIa (alpha 5-beta 1) and GPIIb-IIIa (alpha IIb-beta 3)--are involved in platelet adhesion and thrombus growth on damaged subendothelium through interactions with fibrinogen, fibronectin, von Willebrand factor, and other adhesive proteins. Because these receptors are used in normal in vivo hemostatic adhesion, they may also have a role for adhesion onto synthetic surfaces in the vasculature. Platelet adhesion in vitro was examined onto Formvar, glass, and four polyurethaneureas with various soft segment chemistries and surface properties. Platelets were pretreated with RGD peptides before and after adhesion. RGD peptide pretreatment inhibited spreading and close contact formation compared to treatment with saline or control RGE peptides, with no observable effect on the number of adherent platelets per area. High-voltage electron microscopy showed abnormally sparse and short microfilament structures with RGD peptide treatment, suggesting an indirect inhibition of actin filament formation. Video-enhanced light microscopy showed a cessation of spreading and a partial reversal of close contacts following RGD peptide application to adherent platelets. Because minimal amounts of plasma proteins are present in column-washed platelet suspensions, and as platelet secretion appeared to be minimal in these experiments, these observations suggest that RGD binding integrin receptors may function in platelet spreading even in the absence of exogenous ligand. As RGD peptides did not affect the numbers of adherent platelets, while producing substantial decreases in the extent of spreading, we suggest that platelet integrins, possibly GPIIb-IIIa, are involved in spreading on synthetic surfaces but not for initial adhesion.

  11. Insights into Long-Lasting Protection Induced by RTS,S/AS02A Malaria Vaccine: Further Results from a Phase IIb Trial in Mozambican Children

    PubMed Central

    Guinovart, Caterina; Aponte, John J.; Sacarlal, Jahit; Aide, Pedro; Leach, Amanda; Bassat, Quique; Macete, Eusébio; Dobaño, Carlota; Lievens, Marc; Loucq, Christian; Ballou, W. Ripley; Cohen, Joe; Alonso, Pedro L.

    2009-01-01

    Background The pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS02A has shown to confer protection against clinical malaria for at least 21 months in a trial in Mozambican children. Efficacy varied between different endpoints, such as parasitaemia or clinical malaria; however the underlying mechanisms that determine efficacy and its duration remain unknown. We performed a new, exploratory analysis to explore differences in the duration of protection among participants to better understand the protection afforded by RTS,S. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was a Phase IIb double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 2022 children aged 1 to 4 years. The trial was designed with two cohorts to estimate vaccine efficacy against two different endpoints: clinical malaria (cohort 1) and infection (cohort 2). Participants were randomly allocated to receive three doses of RTS,S/AS02A or control vaccines. We did a retrospective, unplanned sub-analysis of cohort 2 data using information collected for safety through the health facility-based passive case detection system. Vaccine efficacy against clinical malaria was estimated over the first six-month surveillance period (double-blind phase) and over the following 12 months (single-blind phase), and analysis was per-protocol. Adjusted vaccine efficacy against first clinical malaria episodes in cohort 2 was of 35.4% (95% CI 4.5–56.3; p = 0.029) over the double-blind phase and of 9.0% (−30.6–36.6; p = 0.609) during the single-blind phase. Conclusions/Significance Contrary to observations in cohort 1, where efficacy against clinical malaria did not wane over time, in cohort 2 the efficacy decreases with time. We hypothesize that this reduced duration of protection is a result of the early diagnosis and treatment of infections in cohort 2 participants, preventing sufficient exposure to asexual-stage antigens. On the other hand, the long-term protection against clinical disease observed in cohort 1 may be a consequence

  12. Platelet surface IgG in patients receiving infusions of Fab fragments of a chimaeric monoclonal antibody to glycoprotein IIb-IIIa.

    PubMed Central

    Christopoulos, C

    1994-01-01

    Platelet surface immunoglobulin G (PSIgG) was measured ex vivo in nine patients with stable angina pectoris receiving continuous (48-96 h) infusions of Fab fragments of a chimaeric MoAb (human IgG with murine variable regions) to platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa. PSIgG was measured using flow cytometry (FC) and an Fc-specific anti-IgG polyclonal antibody, which did not cross-react with the chimaeric Fab fragment (c7E3-Fab). A variable but statistically significant (P < 0.05) elevation of PSIgG was present within 24 h after the onset of the infusion, and was more marked (P < 0.01) several days after the end of the infusion despite an exponential fall in platelet surface c7E3-Fab post-infusion. PSIgG returned to normal within 2 weeks after the end of the infusion. The timing of IgG recruitment to the platelet surface suggested the pre-existence in the patients' plasma of IgG binding to c7E3-Fab-bearing platelets. None of the patients developed thrombocytopenia. In order to assess the incidence of IgG bindable to c7E3-Fab-bearing platelets in controls clinically comparable to the c7E3-Fab infusion patients, normal platelets coated with either chimaeric (c) or murine (m) 7E3-Fab were incubated with plasmas from 21 patients with ischaemic heart disease, and recruitment of IgG to the platelet surface was measured by FC. Fourteen of the 21 plasmas contained IgG bindable to c7E3-Fab-coated platelets, whereas only one of the 21 plasmas contained IgG bindable to m7E3-Fab-coated platelets (a highly significant difference, P < 0.001). These findings indicate that infusions of Fab fragments of the chimaeric anti-platelet antibody 7E3 are often associated with elevations in PSIgG, which are probably due to pre-existing 'naturally occurring' antibodies to the Fab fragments of chimaeric (but not murine) 7E3, and most probably other chimaeric MoAbs. The possible clinical significance of such ex vivo measured activities is at present a matter for speculation, and requires further

  13. Defoliation Induces Fructan 1-Exohydrolase II in Witloof Chicory Roots. Cloning and Purification of Two Isoforms, Fructan 1-Exohydrolase IIa and Fructan 1-Exohydrolase IIb. Mass Fingerprint of the Fructan 1-Exohydrolase II Enzymes1

    PubMed Central

    Van den Ende, Wim; Michiels, An; Van Wonterghem, Dominik; Clerens, Stefan P.; De Roover, Joke; Van Laere, André J.

    2001-01-01

    The cloning of two highly homologous chicory (Cichorium intybus var. foliosum cv Flash) fructan 1-exohydrolase cDNAs (1-FEH IIa and 1-FEH IIb) is described. Both isoenzymes could be purified from forced chicory roots as well as from the etiolated “Belgian endive” leaves where the 1-FEH IIa isoform is present in higher concentrations. Full-length cDNAs were obtained by a combination of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR and 5′- and 3′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends using primers based on N-terminal and conserved amino acid sequences. 1-FEH IIa and 1-FEH IIb cDNA-derived amino acid sequences are most homologous to a new group of plant glycosyl hydrolases harboring cell wall-type enzymes with acid isoelectric points. Unlike the observed expression profiles of chicory 1-FEH I, northern analysis revealed that 1-FEH II is expressed when young chicory plants are defoliated, suggesting that this enzyme can be induced at any developmental stage when large energy supplies are necessary (regrowth after defoliation). PMID:11457968

  14. Defoliation induces fructan 1-exohydrolase II in Witloof chicory roots. Cloning and purification of two isoforms, fructan 1-exohydrolase IIa and fructan 1-exohydrolase IIb. Mass fingerprint of the fructan 1-exohydrolase II enzymes.

    PubMed

    Van den Ende, W; Michiels, A; Van Wonterghem, D; Clerens, S P; De Roover, J; Van Laere, A J

    2001-07-01

    The cloning of two highly homologous chicory (Cichorium intybus var. foliosum cv Flash) fructan 1-exohydrolase cDNAs (1-FEH IIa and 1-FEH IIb) is described. Both isoenzymes could be purified from forced chicory roots as well as from the etiolated "Belgian endive" leaves where the 1-FEH IIa isoform is present in higher concentrations. Full-length cDNAs were obtained by a combination of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR and 5'- and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends using primers based on N-terminal and conserved amino acid sequences. 1-FEH IIa and 1-FEH IIb cDNA-derived amino acid sequences are most homologous to a new group of plant glycosyl hydrolases harboring cell wall-type enzymes with acid isoelectric points. Unlike the observed expression profiles of chicory 1-FEH I, northern analysis revealed that 1-FEH II is expressed when young chicory plants are defoliated, suggesting that this enzyme can be induced at any developmental stage when large energy supplies are necessary (regrowth after defoliation).

  15. Contribution of the P2Y12 receptor-mediated pathway to platelet hyperreactivity in hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Béla; Jin, Jianguo; Ashby, Barrie; Reilly, Michael P.; Kunapuli, Satya P.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background In hypercholesterolemia, platelets demonstrate increased reactivity and promote the development of cardiovascular disease. Objective This study was carried out to investigate the contribution of the ADP receptor P2Y12-mediated pathway in platelet hyperreactivity due to hypercholesterolemia. Methods Low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient mice and C57Bl/6 wild type mice were fed on normal chow and high-fat (Western or Paigen) diets for 8 weeks to generate differently elevated cholesterol levels. P2Y12 receptor induced functional responses via Gi signaling were studied ex vivo when washed murine platelets were activated by 2MeSADP and PAR4 agonist AYPGKF in the presence and absence of indomethacin. Platelet aggregation, secretion, αIIbβ3 receptor activation and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and Akt were analyzed. Results Plasma cholesterol levels ranged from 69±10 to 1011±185 mg/dl depending on diet in mice with different genotypes. Agonist-dependent aggregation, dense and α-granule secretion and JON/A binding were gradually and significantly (P < 0.05) augmented at low agonist concentration in correlation with the increasing plasma cholesterol levels even if elevated thromboxane generation was blocked. These functional responses were induced via increased level of Gi mediated ERK and Akt phosphorylation in hypercholesterolemic mice versus normocholesterolemic animals. In addition, blocking of the P2Y12 receptor by AR-C69931MX (Cangrelor) resulted in strongly reduced platelet aggregation in mice with elevated cholesterol levels compared to normocholesterolemic controls. Conclusions These data revealed that the P2Y12 receptor pathway was substantially involved in platelet hyperreactivity associated with mild and severe hypercholesterolemia. PMID:21261805

  16. Glycoprotein Ic-IIa functions as an activation-independent fibronectin receptor on human platelets.

    PubMed

    Piotrowicz, R S; Orchekowski, R P; Nugent, D J; Yamada, K Y; Kunicki, T J

    1988-04-01

    Soluble fibronectin binds specifically to glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa on thrombin-activated platelets, and this binding is not observed with platelets of patients with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT) which lack GPIIb-IIIa. Here we report that GT platelets retain the ability to interact with fibronectin-coated surfaces. Adhesion to fibronectin does not require platelet activation and is inhibited by soluble fibronectin, antibodies specific for fibronectin, peptides containing the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp and polyclonal antibodies specific for band 3 of the chicken embryo fibroblast fibronectin receptor (anti-band 3). Using anti-band 3, we have purified a second fibronectin receptor from human platelets, a heterodimer composed of glycoproteins previously designated GPIc and GPIIa. The GPIc-IIa complex is found on both GT and normal platelets and appears to be identical to the GP138 kD-GP160 kD complex recently immunopurified by Giancotti et al. (1986. Exp. Cell Res. 163:47-62) and by Sonnenberg et al. (1987. J. Biol. Chem. 268:10376-10383). In this report, we provide the first evidence that GPIc-IIa actually mediates adhesion of platelets to fibronectin-coated surfaces. GPIc-IIa thus represents a second functional fibronectin receptor, distinct from GPIIb-IIIa, that is largely responsible for the adhesion of nonactivated platelets to fibronectin-coated surfaces.

  17. TGF-β and opioid receptor signaling crosstalk results in improvement of endogenous and exogenous opioid analgesia under pathological pain conditions.

    PubMed

    Lantero, Aquilino; Tramullas, Mónica; Pílar-Cuellar, Fuencisla; Valdizán, Elsa; Santillán, Rosa; Roques, Bernard P; Hurlé, María A

    2014-04-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) protects against neuroinflammatory events underlying neuropathic pain. TGF-β signaling enhancement is a phenotypic characteristic of mice lacking the TGF-β pseudoreceptor BAMBI (BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor), which leads to an increased synaptic release of opioid peptides and to a naloxone-reversible hypoalgesic/antiallodynic phenotype. Herein, we investigated the following: (1) the effects of BAMBI deficiency on opioid receptor expression, functional efficacy, and analgesic responses to endogenous and exogenous opioids; and (2) the involvement of the opioid system in the antiallodynic effect of TGF-β1. BAMBI-KO mice were subjected to neuropathic pain by sciatic nerve crash injury (SNI). Gene (PCR) and protein (Western blot) expressions of μ- and δ-opioid receptors were determined in the spinal cord. The inhibitory effects of agonists on the adenylyl cyclase pathway were investigated. Two weeks after SNI, wild-type mice developed mechanical allodynia and the functionality of μ-opioid receptors was reduced. By this time, BAMBI-KO mice were protected against allodynia and exhibited increased expression and function of opioid receptors. Four weeks after SNI, when mice of both genotypes had developed neuropathic pain, the analgesic responses induced by morphine and RB101 (an inhibitor of enkephalin-degrading enzymes, which increases the synaptic levels of enkephalins) were enhanced in BAMBI-KO mice. Similar results were obtained in the formalin-induced chemical-inflammatory pain model. Subcutaneous TGF-β1 infusion prevented pain development after SNI. The antiallodynic effect of TGF-β1 was naloxone-sensitive. In conclusion, modulation of the endogenous opioid system by TGF-β signaling improves the analgesic effectiveness of exogenous and endogenous opioids under pathological pain conditions. PMID:24719115

  18. Historical overview of nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

    2016-03-01

    This review summarizes the birth of the field of nuclear receptors, from Jensen's discovery of estrogen receptor alpha, Gustafsson's discovery of the three-domain structure of the glucocorticoid receptor, the discovery of the glucocorticoid response element and the first partial cloning of the glucocorticoid receptor. Furthermore the discovery of the novel receptors called orphan receptors is described.

  19. Standardizing Scavenger Receptor Nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    PrabhuDas, Mercy; Bowdish, Dawn; Drickamer, Kurt; Febbraio, Maria; Herz, Joachim; Kobzik, Lester; Krieger, Monty; Loike, John; Means, Terry K.; Moestrup, Soren K.; Post, Steven; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Silverstein, Samuel; Wang, Xiang-Yang; El Khoury, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Scavenger receptors constitute a large family of proteins that are structurally diverse and participate in a wide range of biological functions. These receptors are expressed predominantly by myeloid cells and recognize a variety of ligands, including endogenous and modified host-derived molecules and microbial pathogens. There are currently eight classes of scavenger receptors, many of which have multiple names, leading to inconsistencies and confusion in the literature. To address this problem, a workshop was organized by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health to help develop a clear definition of scavenger receptors and a standardized nomenclature based on that definition. Fifteen experts in the scavenger receptor field attended the workshop and, after extensive discussion, reached a consensus regarding the definition of scavenger receptors and a proposed scavenger receptor nomenclature. Scavenger receptors were defined as cell surface receptors that typically bind multiple ligands and promote the removal of non-self or altered-self targets. They often function by mechanisms that include endocytosis, phagocytosis, adhesion, and signaling that ultimately lead to the elimination of degraded or harmful substances. Based on this definition, nomenclature and classification of these receptors into 10 classes were proposed. The discussion and nomenclature recommendations described in this report only refer to mammalian scavenger receptors. The purpose of this article is to describe the proposed mammalian nomenclature and classification developed at the workshop and to solicit additional feedback from the broader research community. PMID:24563502

  20. Loss of the insulin receptor in murine megakaryocytes/platelets causes thrombocytosis and alterations in IGF signalling

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Samantha F.; Williams, Christopher M.; Brown, Edward; Blair, Thomas A.; Harper, Matthew T.; Coward, Richard J.; Poole, Alastair W.; Hers, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Aims Patients with conditions that are associated with insulin resistance such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and polycystic ovary syndrome have an increased risk of thrombosis and a concurrent hyperactive platelet phenotype. Our aim was to determine whether insulin resistance of megakaryocytes/platelets promotes platelet hyperactivation. Methods and results We generated a conditional mouse model where the insulin receptor (IR) was specifically knocked out in megakaryocytes/platelets and performed ex vivo platelet activation studies in wild-type (WT) and IR-deficient platelets by measuring aggregation, integrin αIIbβ3 activation, and dense and α-granule secretion. Deletion of IR resulted in an increase in platelet count and volume, and blocked the action of insulin on platelet signalling and function. Platelet aggregation, granule secretion, and integrin αIIbβ3 activation in response to the glycoprotein VI (GPVI) agonist collagen-related peptide (CRP) were significantly reduced in platelets lacking IR. This was accompanied by a reduction in the phosphorylation of effectors downstream of GPVI. Interestingly, loss of IR also resulted in a reduction in insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)- and insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2)-mediated phosphorylation of IRS-1, Akt, and GSK3β and priming of CRP-mediated platelet activation. Pharmacological inhibition of IR and the IGF-1 receptor in WT platelets recapitulated the platelet phenotype of IR-deficient platelets. Conclusions Deletion of IR (i) increases platelet count and volume, (ii) does not cause platelet hyperactivity, and (iii) reduces GPVI-mediated platelet function and platelet priming by IGF-1 and IGF-2. PMID:25902782

  1. Suboptimal Activation of Protease-activated Receptors Enhances α2β1 Integrin-mediated Platelet Adhesion to Collagen*

    PubMed Central

    Marjoram, Robin J.; Voss, Bryan; Pan, Yumei; Dickeson, S. Kent; Zutter, Mary M.; Hamm, Heidi E.; Santoro, Samuel A.

    2009-01-01

    Thrombin and fibrillar collagen are potent activators of platelets at sites of vascular injury. Both agonists cause platelet shape change, granule secretion, and aggregation to form the primary hemostatic plug. Human platelets express two thrombin receptors, protease-activated receptors 1 and 4 (PAR1 and PAR4) and two collagen receptors, the α2β1 integrin (α2β1) and the glycoprotein VI (GPVI)/FcRγ chain complex. Although these receptors and their signaling mechanisms have been intensely studied, it is not known whether and how these receptors cooperate in the hemostatic function of platelets. This study examined cooperation between the thrombin and collagen receptors in platelet adhesion by utilizing a collagen-related peptide (α2-CRP) containing the α2β1-specific binding motif, GFOGER, in conjunction with PAR-activating peptides. We demonstrate that platelet adhesion to α2-CRP is substantially enhanced by suboptimal PAR activation (agonist concentrations that do not stimulate platelet aggregation) using the PAR4 agonist peptide and thrombin. The enhanced adhesion induced by suboptimal PAR4 activation was α2β1-dependent and GPVI/FcRγ-independent as revealed in experiments with α2β1- or FcRγ-deficient mouse platelets. We further show that suboptimal activation of other platelet Gq-linked G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) produces enhanced platelet adhesion to α2-CRP. The enhanced α2β1-mediated platelet adhesion is controlled by phospholipase C (PLC), but is not dependent on granule secretion, activation of αIIbβ3 integrin, or on phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) activity. In conclusion, we demonstrate a platelet priming mechanism initiated by suboptimal activation of PAR4 or other platelet Gq-linked GPCRs through a PLC-dependent signaling cascade that promotes enhanced α2β1 binding to collagens containing GFOGER sites. PMID:19815553

  2. P2X receptors.

    PubMed

    North, R Alan

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) activates cell surface P2X and P2Y receptors. P2X receptors are membrane ion channels preferably permeable to sodium, potassium and calcium that open within milliseconds of the binding of ATP. In molecular architecture, they form a unique structural family. The receptor is a trimer, the binding of ATP between subunits causes them to flex together within the ectodomain and separate in the membrane-spanning region so as to open a central channel. P2X receptors have a widespread tissue distribution. On some smooth muscle cells, P2X receptors mediate the fast excitatory junction potential that leads to depolarization and contraction. In the central nervous system, activation of P2X receptors allows calcium to enter neurons and this can evoke slower neuromodulatory responses such as the trafficking of receptors for the neurotransmitter glutamate. In primary afferent nerves, P2X receptors are critical for the initiation of action potentials when they respond to ATP released from sensory cells such as taste buds, chemoreceptors or urothelium. In immune cells, activation of P2X receptors triggers the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1β. The development of selective blockers of different P2X receptors has led to clinical trials of their effectiveness in the management of cough, pain, inflammation and certain neurodegenerative diseases.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377721

  3. A Study of Library Cooperatives, Networks and Demonstration Projects. Final Report. Volume II: Case Study Reports: Twelve Projects Supported by the HEA II-B Library Research and Demonstration Program and LSCA III Multitype Library Cooperation and Networking in Ten States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Joseph; And Others

    Case studies describing programs funded under the Library Research and Demonstration Component (II-B) of the Higher Education Act (HEA), and Title III of the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA) are included. The awarding of grants, and contracts to support research and demonstrations for improving library and information sciences,…

  4. The Inhibitory Core of the Myostatin Prodomain: Its Interaction with Both Type I and II Membrane Receptors, and Potential to Treat Muscle Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ohsawa, Yutaka; Takayama, Kentaro; Nishimatsu, Shin-ichiro; Okada, Tadashi; Fujino, Masahiro; Fukai, Yuta; Murakami, Tatsufumi; Hagiwara, Hiroki; Itoh, Fumiko; Tsuchida, Kunihiro; Hayashi, Yoshio; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2015-01-01

    Myostatin, a muscle-specific transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. The N-terminal prodomain of myostatin noncovalently binds to and suppresses the C-terminal mature domain (ligand) as an inactive circulating complex. However, which region of the myostatin prodomain is required to inhibit the biological activity of myostatin has remained unknown. We identified a 29-amino acid region that inhibited myostatin-induced transcriptional activity by 79% compared with the full-length prodomain. This inhibitory core resides near the N-terminus of the prodomain and includes an α-helix that is evolutionarily conserved among other TGF-β family members, but suppresses activation of myostatin and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) that share identical membrane receptors. Interestingly, the inhibitory core co-localized and co-immunoprecipitated with not only the ligand, but also its type I and type II membrane receptors. Deletion of the inhibitory core in the full-length prodomain removed all capacity for suppression of myostatin. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the inhibitory core (p29) ameliorates impaired myoblast differentiation induced by myostatin and GDF11, but not activin or TGF-β1. Moreover, intramuscular injection of p29 alleviated muscle atrophy and decreased the absolute force in caveolin 3-deficient limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1C model mice. The injection suppressed activation of myostatin signaling and restored the decreased numbers of muscle precursor cells caused by caveolin 3 deficiency. Our findings indicate a novel concept for this newly identified inhibitory core of the prodomain of myostatin: that it not only suppresses the ligand, but also prevents two distinct membrane receptors from binding to the ligand. This study provides a strong rationale for the use of p29 in the amelioration of skeletal muscle atrophy in various clinical settings. PMID:26226340

  5. The antidepressant 5-HT2A receptor antagonists pizotifen and cyproheptadine inhibit serotonin-enhanced platelet function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Olivia A; Karim, Zubair A; Vemana, Hari Priya; Espinosa, Enma V P; Khasawneh, Fadi T

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in defining new agents or targets for antithrombotic purposes. The 5-HT2A receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed on many cell types, and a known therapeutic target for many disease states. This serotonin receptor is also known to regulate platelet function. Thus, in our FDA-approved drug repurposing efforts, we investigated the antiplatelet activity of cyproheptadine and pizotifen, two antidepressant 5-HT2A Receptor antagonists. Our results revealed that cyproheptadine and pizotifen reversed serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo. And the inhibitory effects of these two agents were found to be similar to that of EMD 281014, a 5-HT2A Receptor antagonist under development. In separate experiments, our studies revealed that these 5-HT2A receptor antagonists have the capacity to reduce serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced elevation in intracellular calcium levels and tyrosine phosphorylation. Using flow cytometry, we also observed that cyproheptadine, pizotifen, and EMD 281014 inhibited serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, P-selectin expression, and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa activation. Furthermore, using a carotid artery thrombosis model, these agents prolonged the time for thrombotic occlusion in mice in vivo. Finally, the tail-bleeding time was investigated to assess the effect of cyproheptadine and pizotifen on hemostasis. Our findings indicated prolonged bleeding time in both cyproheptadine- and pizotifen-treated mice. Notably, the increases in occlusion and bleeding times associated with these two agents were comparable to that of EMD 281014, and to clopidogrel, a commonly used antiplatelet drug, again, in a fashion comparable to clopidogrel and EMD 281014. Collectively, our data indicate that the antidepressant 5-HT2A antagonists, cyproheptadine and pizotifen do exert antiplatelet and thromboprotective effects, but similar to clopidogrel and EMD 281014, their

  6. Signals and Receptors.

    PubMed

    Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Lu, Benson; Evans, Ron; Gutkind, J Silvio

    2016-04-01

    Communication between cells in a multicellular organism occurs by the production of ligands (proteins, peptides, fatty acids, steroids, gases, and other low-molecular-weight compounds) that are either secreted by cells or presented on their surface, and act on receptors on, or in, other target cells. Such signals control cell growth, migration, survival, and differentiation. Signaling receptors can be single-span plasma membrane receptors associated with tyrosine or serine/threonine kinase activities, proteins with seven transmembrane domains, or intracellular receptors. Ligand-activated receptors convey signals into the cell by activating signaling pathways that ultimately affect cytosolic machineries or nuclear transcriptional programs or by directly translocating to the nucleus to regulate transcription. PMID:27037414

  7. Platelet Specific Promoters Are Insufficient to Express Protease Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) Transgene in Mouse Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Arachiche, Amal; de la Fuente, María; Nieman, Marvin T.

    2014-01-01

    The in vivo study of protease activated receptors (PARs) in platelets is complicated due to species specific expression profiles. Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4 whereas mouse platelets express PAR3 and PAR4. Further, PAR subtypes interact with one another to influence activation and signaling. The goal of the current study was to generate mice expressing PAR1 on their platelets using transgenic approaches to mimic PAR expression found in human platelets. This system would allow us to examine specific signaling from PAR1 and the PAR1-PAR4 heterodimer in vivo. Our first approach used the mouse GPIbα promoter to drive expression of mouse PAR1 in platelets (GPIbα-Tg-mPAR1). We obtained the expected frequency of founders carrying the transgene and had the expected Mendelian distribution of the transgene in multiple founders. However, we did not observe expression or a functional response of PAR1. As a second approach, we targeted human PAR1 with the same promoter (GPIbα-Tg-hPAR1). Once again we observed the expected frequency and distributing of the transgene. Human PAR1 expression was detected in platelets from the GPIbα-Tg-hPAR1 mice by flow cytometry, however, at a lower level than for human platelets. Despite a low level of PAR1 expression, platelets from the GPIbα-Tg-hPAR1 mice did not respond to the PAR1 agonist peptide (SFLLRN). In addition, they did not respond to thrombin when crossed to the PAR4−/− mice. Finally, we used an alternative platelet specific promoter, human αIIb, to express human PAR1 (αIIb-Tg-hPAR1). Similar to our previous attempts, we obtained the expected number of founders but did not detect PAR1 expression or response in platelets from αIIb-Tg-hPAR1 mice. Although unsuccessful, the experiments described in this report provide a resource for future efforts in generating mice expressing PAR1 on their platelets. We provide an experimental framework and offer considerations that will save time and research funds. PMID:24830314

  8. Platelet specific promoters are insufficient to express protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) transgene in mouse platelets.

    PubMed

    Arachiche, Amal; de la Fuente, María; Nieman, Marvin T

    2014-01-01

    The in vivo study of protease activated receptors (PARs) in platelets is complicated due to species specific expression profiles. Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4 whereas mouse platelets express PAR3 and PAR4. Further, PAR subtypes interact with one another to influence activation and signaling. The goal of the current study was to generate mice expressing PAR1 on their platelets using transgenic approaches to mimic PAR expression found in human platelets. This system would allow us to examine specific signaling from PAR1 and the PAR1-PAR4 heterodimer in vivo. Our first approach used the mouse GPIbα promoter to drive expression of mouse PAR1 in platelets (GPIbα-Tg-mPAR1). We obtained the expected frequency of founders carrying the transgene and had the expected Mendelian distribution of the transgene in multiple founders. However, we did not observe expression or a functional response of PAR1. As a second approach, we targeted human PAR1 with the same promoter (GPIbα-Tg-hPAR1). Once again we observed the expected frequency and distributing of the transgene. Human PAR1 expression was detected in platelets from the GPIbα-Tg-hPAR1 mice by flow cytometry, however, at a lower level than for human platelets. Despite a low level of PAR1 expression, platelets from the GPIbα-Tg-hPAR1 mice did not respond to the PAR1 agonist peptide (SFLLRN). In addition, they did not respond to thrombin when crossed to the PAR4-/- mice. Finally, we used an alternative platelet specific promoter, human αIIb, to express human PAR1 (αIIb-Tg-hPAR1). Similar to our previous attempts, we obtained the expected number of founders but did not detect PAR1 expression or response in platelets from αIIb-Tg-hPAR1 mice. Although unsuccessful, the experiments described in this report provide a resource for future efforts in generating mice expressing PAR1 on their platelets. We provide an experimental framework and offer considerations that will save time and research funds. PMID:24830314

  9. Signaling by Sensory Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Julius, David; Nathans, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Sensory systems detect small molecules, mechanical perturbations, or radiation via the activation of receptor proteins and downstream signaling cascades in specialized sensory cells. In vertebrates, the two principal categories of sensory receptors are ion channels, which mediate mechanosensation, thermosensation, and acid and salt taste; and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate vision, olfaction, and sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. GPCR-based signaling in rods and cones illustrates the fundamental principles of rapid activation and inactivation, signal amplification, and gain control. Channel-based sensory systems illustrate the integration of diverse modulatory signals at the receptor, as seen in the thermosensory/pain system, and the rapid response kinetics that are possible with direct mechanical gating of a channel. Comparisons of sensory receptor gene sequences reveal numerous examples in which gene duplication and sequence divergence have created novel sensory specificities. This is the evolutionary basis for the observed diversity in temperature- and ligand-dependent gating among thermosensory channels, spectral tuning among visual pigments, and odorant binding among olfactory receptors. The coding of complex external stimuli by a limited number of sensory receptor types has led to the evolution of modality-specific and species-specific patterns of retention or loss of sensory information, a filtering operation that selectively emphasizes features in the stimulus that enhance survival in a particular ecological niche. The many specialized anatomic structures, such as the eye and ear, that house primary sensory neurons further enhance the detection of relevant stimuli. PMID:22110046

  10. Activated type I TGFbeta receptor (Alk5) kinase confers enhancedsurvival to mammary epithelial cells and accelerates mammary tumorprogression

    SciTech Connect

    Muraoka-Cook, Rebecca S.; Shin, Incheol; Yi, Jae Youn; Easterly,Evangeline; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Yingling, Jonathan M.; Zent, Roy; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2005-01-02

    The transforming growth factor-betas (TGF{beta}s) are members of a large superfamily of pleiotropic cytokines that also includes the activins and the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Members of the TGF{beta} family regulate complex physiological processes such cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, motility, and cell death, among others (Massague, 1998). Dysregulation of TGF{beta} signaling contributes to several pathological processes including cancer, fibrosis, and auto-immune disorders (Massague et al., 2000). The TGF{beta}s elicit their biological effects by binding to type II and type I transmembrane receptor serine-threonine kinases (T{beta}RII and T{beta}RI) which, in turn, phosphorylated Smad 2 and Smad 3. Phosphorylated Smad 2/3 associate with Smad 4 and, as a heteromeric complex, translocate to the nucleus where they regulate gene transcription. The inhibitory Smad7 down regulates TGF{beta} signaling by binding to activated T{beta}RI and interfering with its ability to phosphorylate Smad 2/3 (Derynck and Zhang, 2003; Shi and Massague, 2003). Signaling is also regulated by Smad proteolysis. TGF{beta} receptor-mediated activation results in multi-ubiquitination of Smad 2 in the nucleus and subsequent degradation of Smad 2 by the proteasome (Lo and Massague, 1999). Activation of TGF{beta} receptors also induces mobilization of a Smad 7-Smurf complex from the nucleus to the cytoplasm; this complex recognizes the activated receptors and mediates their ubiquitination and internalization via caveolin-rich vesicles, leading to termination of TGF{beta} signaling (Di Guglielmo et al., 2003). Other signal transducers/pathways have been implicated in TGF{beta} actions. These include the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (Jnk), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein phosphatase PP2A, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), and the family of Rho GTPases [reviewed in

  11. Functional Characterisation of Eel Dopamine D2 Receptors and Involvement in the Direct Inhibition of Pituitary Gonadotrophins.

    PubMed

    Jolly, C; Rousseau, K; Prézeau, L; Vol, C; Tomkiewicz, J; Dufour, S; Pasqualini, C

    2016-09-01

    In various vertebrate species, dopamine (DA) exerts an inhibitory action on reproduction. In the European eel, DA plays a pivotal role in the inhibitory control of gonadotroph function and the blockade of puberty. In vivo studies have suggested that this effect is mediated by receptors pharmacologically related to the D2 family. In the European eel, two distinct D2 receptor (D2-R) paralogous genes have been identified (D2A-R and D2B-R) and both were shown to be expressed in the pituitary. We investigated the potential role of each paralogue in the control of gonadotroph function in this species. Eel recombinant D2A-R or D2B-R were expressed in HEK 293 cells, with a universal Gα subunit, and receptor activation was followed by inositol phosphate production. Recombinant D2-Rs exhibited a comparable affinity for DA, although they had differential affinities for mammalian D2-R agonists and antagonists, supporting subtle structure/activity differences. Furthermore, using eel pituitary cell primary cultures, the expression by gonadotroph cells of both native eel D2-R paralogues was examined by in situ hybridisation of D2A-R or D2B-R transcripts, coupled with immunofluorescence of luteinising hormone (LH)β or follicle-stimulating (FSH)β. LH and to a lesser extent, FSH cells expressed both D2-R transcripts but with a clear predominance of D2B-R. Notably, D2B-R transcripts were detected for the majority of LH cells. Accordingly, using these cultures, we showed that DA potently inhibited basal and testosterone-stimulated LHβ expression and less potently basal and activin-stimulated FSHβ expression. We also tested some D2-R antagonists, aiming to select the most adequate one to be used in innovative protocols for induction of eel sexual maturation. We identified eticlopride as the most potent inhibitor of DA action on basal and stimulated LH expression in vitro. Our data suggest a differential functionalisation of the duplicated receptor genes and demonstrate that

  12. Leukotriene receptor antagonist therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, O

    2000-01-01

    Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA) are a new class of drugs for asthma treatment, available in tablet form. Their unique mechanism of action results in a combination of both bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory effects. While their optimal place in asthma management is still under review, LTRA represent an important advance in asthma pharmacotherapy.


Keywords: leukotriene receptor antagonist; asthma; montelukast; zafirlukast PMID:11085767

  13. Genetics of Taste Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Bosak, Natalia P.; Lin, Cailu; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Reed, Danielle R.; Nelson, Theodore M.

    2016-01-01

    Taste receptors function as one of the interfaces between internal and external milieus. Taste receptors for sweet and umami (T1R [taste receptor, type 1]), bitter (T2R [taste receptor, type 2]), and salty (ENaC [epithelial sodium channel]) have been discovered in the recent years, but transduction mechanisms of sour taste and ENaC-independent salt taste are still poorly understood. In addition to these five main taste qualities, the taste system detects such noncanonical “tastes” as water, fat, and complex carbohydrates, but their reception mechanisms require further research. Variations in taste receptor genes between and within vertebrate species contribute to individual and species differences in taste-related behaviors. These variations are shaped by evolutionary forces and reflect species adaptations to their chemical environments and feeding ecology. Principles of drug discovery can be applied to taste receptors as targets in order to develop novel taste compounds to satisfy demand in better artificial sweeteners, enhancers of sugar and sodium taste, and blockers of bitterness of food ingredients and oral medications. PMID:23886383

  14. Genetics of taste receptors.

    PubMed

    Bachmanov, Alexander A; Bosak, Natalia P; Lin, Cailu; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Reed, Danielle R; Nelson, Theodore M

    2014-01-01

    Taste receptors function as one of the interfaces between internal and external milieus. Taste receptors for sweet and umami (T1R [taste receptor, type 1]), bitter (T2R [taste receptor, type 2]), and salty (ENaC [epithelial sodium channel]) have been discovered in the recent years, but transduction mechanisms of sour taste and ENaC-independent salt taste are still poorly understood. In addition to these five main taste qualities, the taste system detects such noncanonical "tastes" as water, fat, and complex carbohydrates, but their reception mechanisms require further research. Variations in taste receptor genes between and within vertebrate species contribute to individual and species differences in taste-related behaviors. These variations are shaped by evolutionary forces and reflect species adaptations to their chemical environments and feeding ecology. Principles of drug discovery can be applied to taste receptors as targets in order to develop novel taste compounds to satisfy demand in better artificial sweeteners, enhancers of sugar and sodium taste, and blockers of bitterness of food ingredients and oral medications. PMID:23886383

  15. Dopamine Receptors and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Coronel, Israel; Florán, Benjamín

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is one of the major neurotransmitters and participates in a number of functions such as motor coordination, emotions, memory, reward mechanism, neuroendocrine regulation etc. DA exerts its effects through five DA receptors that are subdivided in 2 families: D1-like DA receptors (D1 and D5) and the D2-like (D2, D3 and D4). All DA receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and play an important role in not only in physiological conditions but also pathological scenarios. Abnormalities in the DAergic system and its receptors in the basal ganglia structures are the basis Parkinson’s disease (PD), however DA also participates in other neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington disease (HD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Under pathological conditions reorganization of DAergic system has been observed and most of the times, those changes occur as a mechanism of compensation, but in some cases contributes to worsening the alterations. Here we review the changes that occur on DA transmission and DA receptors (DARs) at both levels expression and signals transduction pathways as a result of neurotoxicity, inflammation and in neurodegenerative processes. The better understanding of the role of DA receptors in neuropathological conditions is crucial for development of novel therapeutic approaches to treat alterations related to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26425390

  16. The effects of an ActRIIb receptor Fc fusion protein ligand trap in juvenile simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Karyn E.; Guo, Wen; Serra, Carlo; Beck, Matthew; Wachtman, Lynn; Hoggatt, Amber; Xia, Dongling; Pearson, Chris; Knight, Heather; O’Connell, Micheal; Miller, Andrew D.; Westmoreland, Susan V.; Bhasin, Shalender

    2015-01-01

    There are no approved therapies for muscle wasting in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which portends poor disease outcomes. To determine whether a soluble ActRIIb receptor Fc fusion protein (ActRIIB.Fc), a ligand trap for TGF-β/activin family members including myostatin, can prevent or restore loss of lean body mass and body weight in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Fourteen pair-housed, juvenile male rhesus macaques were inoculated with SIVmac239 and, 4 wk postinoculation (WPI) treated with intramuscular injections of 10 mg ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ wk−1 ActRIIB.Fc or saline placebo. Body weight, lean body mass, SIV titers, and somatometric measurements were assessed monthly for 16 wk. Age-matched SIV-infected rhesus macaques were injected with saline. Intervention groups did not differ at baseline. Gains in lean mass were significantly greater in the ActRIIB.Fc group than in the placebo group (P < 0.001). Administration of ActRIIB.Fc was associated with greater gains in body weight (P = 0.01) and upper arm circumference than placebo. Serum CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and SIV copy numbers did not differ between groups. Administration of ActRIIB.Fc was associated with higher muscle expression of myostatin than placebo. ActRIIB.Fc effectively blocked and reversed loss of body weight, lean mass, and fat mass in juvenile SIV-infected rhesus macaques.—O’Connell, K. E., Guo, W., Serra, C., Beck, M., Wachtman, L., Hoggatt, A., Xia, D., Pearson, C., Knight, H., O’Connell, M., Miller, A. D., Westmoreland, S. V., Bhasin, S. The effects of an ActRIIb receptor Fc fusion protein ligand trap in juvenile simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques. PMID:25466897

  17. Isolation and characterization of a platelet membrane protein related to the vitronectin receptor.

    PubMed

    Lam, S C; Plow, E F; D'Souza, S E; Cheresh, D A; Frelinger, A L; Ginsberg, M H

    1989-03-01

    Glycoprotein IIb-IIIa is the most prominent Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-binding adhesion receptor on platelets. By affinity chromatography on an immobilized RGD peptide, we have investigated the possible existence of other platelet-associated adhesion receptors that bind RGD peptides. When an octyl glucoside extract of surface-radioiodinated platelets was applied to an affinity matrix of KYGRGDS-coupled Sepharose 4B, a 160-kDa-labeled protein (P160) and GPIIb-IIIa bound and were specifically eluted by soluble GRGDSP peptide, but not by the variant GRGESP peptide. Furthermore, a dodecapeptide corresponding to fibrinogen gamma 400-411 eluted only GPIIb-IIIa but not P160 from the RGD affinity matrix. Characterization of P160 by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by the O'Farrell gel electrophoresis system indicated that P160 is a component of platelet GPIc. GoH3, a monoclonal antibody recognizing the alpha subunit of the very late antigen-6, failed to immunoprecipitate P160 from the RGD eluate, indicating that it did not contain the very late antigen-6 alpha subunit. In immunoblots, P160 reacted specifically with a polyclonal anti-peptide antibody recognizing the alpha subunit of the vitronectin receptor (VnR), but not with the monoclonal anti-GPIIb antibody PMI-1, suggesting that P160 is the alpha subunit of platelet VnR. This possibility was further substantiated by the complete identity between the determined amino-terminal sequence of P160 and the known sequence of the VnR alpha subunit. Moreover, direct association of P160 with a beta subunit having an apparent molecular weight similar to that of GPIIIa was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation with LM609, an anti-VnR complex monoclonal antibody. These results indicate that the VnR complex is present on platelets and may play a functional role in platelet adhesive reactions.

  18. Alloantibodies to glycoprotein La/LLa (anti-HPA-5a and -5b) and IIb/IIIa (anti-HPA1a, -3a and -4a) in Nigerian parous women.

    PubMed

    Jeremiah, Z A; Oburu, J E; Erhabor, O; Buseri, F I

    2011-01-01

    Human platelet antibodies are often implicated in conditions such as neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT), idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and platelet refractoriness; however, the frequency of such alloantibodies has not been reported in Nigeria and West Africa. A cross section of apparently healthy adult female staff at a tertiary health facility in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, was screened for alloantibodies to human platelet antigens (HPA) using the GTI PakPlus qualitative solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Among the 100 women screened, no anti-glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (anti-HPA-Ia,-3a and -4a) antibodies were detected; however, prevalence of anti-glycoprotein Ia/IIa (anti-HPA-5b) was 30% and pf anti-glycoprotein Ia/IIa (anti-HPA-5a) was 18%. Parity had a significant influence on the development to HPA antibodies (Fisher's Exact test: 11.683, P < 0.05; 13.577, P < 0.01). Platelet count did not have an influence on the development of antibodies (P > 0.05). Clearly, there is need to initiate platelet serology in this setting and also a need to educate women about the risk associated with frequent pregnancies. Furthermore, caution should be exercised when recruiting parous women as blood donors

  19. Discovery of 7-methoxy-6-[4-(4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-5-yl]-1,3-benzothiazole (TASP0382088): a potent and selective transforming growth factor-β type I receptor inhibitor as a topical drug for alopecia.

    PubMed

    Amada, Hideaki; Asanuma, Hajime; Koami, Takeshi; Okada, Atsushi; Endo, Mayumi; Ueda, Yasuji; Naruse, Takumi; Ikeda, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    7-Methoxy-6-[4-(4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-5-yl]-1,3-benzothiazole 11 (TASP0382088) was synthesized and evaluated as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) type I receptor (also known as activin receptor-like kinase 5 or ALK5) inhibitor. Compound 11, a potent and selective ALK5 inhibitor, exhibited good enzyme inhibitory activity (IC50=4.8 nM) as well as inhibitory activity against TGF-β-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation at a cellular level (IC50=17 nM). The introduction of a methoxy group to the benzothiazole ring in 1 and the break up of the planarity between the imidazole ring and the thiazole ring improved the solubility in the lotion base of 11. Furthermore, the topical application of 3% 11 lotion significantly inhibited Smad2 phosphorylation in mouse skin at 8 h after application (71% inhibition, compared with vehicle-treated animals).