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Sample records for activin receptor iib

  1. Regulation of body mass growth through activin type IIB receptor in teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Carpio, Yamila; Acosta, Jannel; Morales, Reynold; Santisteban, Yaimín; Sanchéz, Aniel; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2009-01-15

    Myostatin is a TGF-beta family member that plays a key role in regulating skeletal muscle growth. Previous studies in mammals have demonstrated that myostatin is capable of binding the two activin type II receptors. Additionally, activin type II receptors have been shown to be capable of binding a number of other TGF-beta family members besides myostatin. An injection of a soluble form of activin type IIB receptor obtained from CHO cells into wild-type mice generated up to a 60% increase in muscle mass in 2 weeks. The knowledge on the role of activin receptors in fish is limited. In the present study, we examined the growth effect of administering a recombinant, soluble form of goldfish activin type IIB receptor extracellular domain to juvenile and larval goldfish (Carassius auratus), African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) larvae and tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) larvae. We have expressed the goldfish activin type IIB receptor extracellular domain in the yeast Pichia pastoris and we have demonstrated for the first time that this recombinant molecule stimulates growth in teleost fish in a dose-dependent manner. We provide evidence that this body weight increase is achieved by an increase in muscle mass and protein content. Histological analysis of the goldfish muscle revealed that treated fish exhibited hyperplasia as compared to controls. These findings contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms that regulate growth in non-mammalian vertebrates and suggest a powerful biotechnology approach to improving fish growth in aquaculture. PMID:19056390

  2. Inhibition of activin receptor type IIB increases strength and lifespan in myotubularin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Michael W; Read, Benjamin P; Edelstein, Rachel; Yang, Nicole; Pierson, Christopher R; Stein, Matthew J; Wermer-Colan, Ariana; Buj-Bello, Anna; Lachey, Jennifer L; Seehra, Jasbir S; Beggs, Alan H

    2011-02-01

    X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a congenital disorder caused by deficiency of the lipid phosphatase, myotubularin. Patients with XLMTM often have severe perinatal weakness that requires mechanical ventilation to prevent death from respiratory failure. Muscle biopsy specimens from patients with XLMTM exhibit small myofibers with central nuclei and central aggregations of organelles in many cells. It was postulated that therapeutically increasing muscle fiber size would cause symptomatic improvement in myotubularin deficiency. Recent studies have elucidated an important role for the activin-receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) in regulation of muscle growth and have demonstrated that ActRIIB inhibition results in significant muscle hypertrophy. To evaluate whether promoting muscle hypertrophy can attenuate symptoms resulting from myotubularin deficiency, the effect of ActRIIB-mFC treatment was determined in myotubularin-deficient (Mtm1δ4) mice. Compared with wild-type mice, untreated Mtm1δ4 mice have decreased body weight, skeletal muscle hypotrophy, and reduced survival. Treatment of Mtm1δ4 mice with ActRIIB-mFC produced a 17% extension of lifespan, with transient increases in weight, forelimb grip strength, and myofiber size. Pathologic analysis of Mtm1δ4 mice during treatment revealed that ActRIIB-mFC produced marked hypertrophy restricted to type 2b myofibers, which suggests that oxidative fibers in Mtm1δ4 animals are incapable of a hypertrophic response in this setting. These results support ActRIIB-mFC as an effective treatment for the weakness observed in myotubularin deficiency. PMID:21281811

  3. Administration of a soluble activin type IIB receptor promotes the transplantation of human myoblasts in dystrophic mice.

    PubMed

    Fakhfakh, Raouia; Lee, Se-Jin; Tremblay, Jacques P

    2012-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive disease caused by a dystrophin gene mutation. Myoblast transplantation permits the introduction of the dystrophin gene into dystrophic muscle fibers. However, this strategy has so far produced limited results. Modulation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily signaling promotes skeletal muscle differentiation and growth and myogenic regeneration. We investigated the possibility that the combination of TGF-β superfamily signaling inhibition with myoblast transplantation might be an effective therapeutic approach in dystrophin-deficient patients. In vitro, blocking myostatin and other ligands with a soluble form of the extracellular domain of the activin IIB receptor (ActRIIB/Fc) upregulated the expression of myogenic differentiation factors and increased human myoblast fusion. In vivo, systemic inhibition of activin IIB receptor signaling by delivery of ActRIIB/Fc increased the success of the myoblast transplantation. This effect was further increased by forcing the mice to swim weekly to induce cycles of muscle degeneration and regeneration. Treatment of dystrophic mice with ActRIIB/Fc led to increased body weight, increased skeletal muscle mass, and improved myoblast transplantation. Thus, ActRIIB/Fc represents an effective therapeutic strategy for muscular dystrophies, and its effects are enhanced when combined with muscle exercise. PMID:22449443

  4. Cripto forms a complex with activin and type II activin receptors and can block activin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Peter C.; Harrison, Craig A.; Vale, Wylie

    2003-01-01

    Activin, nodal, Vg1, and growth and differentiation factor 1 are members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily and signal via the activin type II (ActRII/IIB) and type I (ALK4) serine/threonine kinase receptors. Unlike activins, however, signaling by nodal, Vg1, and growth and differentiation factor 1 requires a coreceptor from the epidermal growth factor-Cripto-FRL1-Cryptic protein family such as Cripto. Cripto has important roles during development and oncogenesis and binds nodal or related ligands and ALK4 to facilitate assembly of type I and type II receptor signaling complexes. Because Cripto mediates signaling via activin receptors and binds directly to ALK4, we tested whether transfection with Cripto would affect the ability of activin to signal and/or interact with its receptors. Here we show that Cripto can form a complex with activin and ActRII/IIB. We were unable to detect activin binding to Cripto in the absence of ActRII/IIB, indicating that unlike nodal, activin requires type II receptors to bind Cripto. If cotransfected with ActRII/IIB and ALK4, Cripto inhibited crosslinking of activin to ALK4 and the association of ALK4 with ActRII/IIB. In addition, Cripto blocked activin signaling when transfected into either HepG2 cells or 293T cells. We have also shown that under conditions in which Cripto facilitates nodal signaling, it antagonizes activin. Inhibition of activin signaling provides an additional example of a Cripto effect on the regulation of signaling by transforming growth factor-β superfamily members. Because activin is a potent inhibitor of cell growth in multiple cell types, these results provide a mechanism that may partially explain the oncogenic action of Cripto. PMID:12682303

  5. A soluble activin receptor type IIB does not improve blood glucose in streptozotocin-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Guo, Tingqing; Portas, Jennifer; McPherron, Alexandra C

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), or insulin dependent DM, is accompanied by decreased muscle mass. The growth factor myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of muscle growth, and a loss of MSTN signaling has been shown to increase muscle mass and prevent the development of obesity, insulin resistance and lipodystrophic diabetes in mice. The effects of MSTN inhibition in a T1DM model on muscle mass and blood glucose are unknown. We asked whether MSTN inhibition would increase muscle mass and decrease hyperglycemia in mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to destroy pancreatic beta cells. After diabetes developed, mice were treated with a soluble MSTN/activin receptor fused to Fc (ACVR2B:Fc). ACVR2B:Fc increased body weight and muscle mass compared to vehicle treated mice. Unexpectedly, ACVR2B:Fc reproducibly exacerbated hyperglycemia within approximately one week of administration. ACVR2B:Fc treatment also elevated serum levels of the glucocorticoid corticosterone. These results suggest that although MSTN/activin inhibitors increased muscle mass, they may be counterproductive in improving health in patients with T1DM. PMID:25561902

  6. A Soluble Activin Receptor Type IIB Does Not Improve Blood Glucose in Streptozotocin-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Guo, Tingqing; Portas, Jennifer; McPherron, Alexandra C.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), or insulin dependent DM, is accompanied by decreased muscle mass. The growth factor myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of muscle growth, and a loss of MSTN signaling has been shown to increase muscle mass and prevent the development of obesity, insulin resistance and lipodystrophic diabetes in mice. The effects of MSTN inhibition in a T1DM model on muscle mass and blood glucose are unknown. We asked whether MSTN inhibition would increase muscle mass and decrease hyperglycemia in mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to destroy pancreatic beta cells. After diabetes developed, mice were treated with a soluble MSTN/activin receptor fused to Fc (ACVR2B:Fc). ACVR2B:Fc increased body weight and muscle mass compared to vehicle treated mice. Unexpectedly, ACVR2B:Fc reproducibly exacerbated hyperglycemia within approximately one week of administration. ACVR2B:Fc treatment also elevated serum levels of the glucocorticoid corticosterone. These results suggest that although MSTN/activin inhibitors increased muscle mass, they may be counterproductive in improving health in patients with T1DM. PMID:25561902

  7. Pretreatment with a soluble activin type IIB receptor/Fc fusion protein improves hypoxia-induced muscle dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Pistilli, Emidio E.; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Mosqueira, Matias; Lachey, Jennifer; Seehra, Jasbir

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia, or reduced oxygen, occurs in a variety of clinical and environmental situations. Hypoxic exposure is associated with decreased muscle mass and a concomitant reduction in exercise capacity, although the exact mechanisms are not completely understood. The activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB) is a receptor for transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) superfamily members that are involved in the negative regulation of lean tissue mass. Given that hypoxia has negative effects on muscle mass and function and that modulation of the ActRIIB has been shown to increase muscle mass, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological targeting of the ActRIIB for 2 wk would attenuate the loss of muscle mass and function in mice after exposure to normobaric hypoxia. ActRIIB modulation was achieved using a soluble activin receptor/Fc fusion protein (sActRIIB) in mice housed in a hypoxic chamber for 1 or 2 wk. Hypoxia induced a reduction in body weight in PBS- and sActRIIB-treated mice, although sActRIIB-treated mice remained larger throughout the hypoxic exposure. The absolute forces generated by extensor digitorum longus muscles were also significantly greater in sActRIIB- than PBS-treated mice and were more resistant to eccentric contraction-induced force drop after eccentric lengthening contractions. In summary, sActRIIB pretreatment attenuated hypoxia-induced muscle dysfunction. These data suggest that targeting the ActRIIB is an effective strategy to counter hypoxia-induced muscle dysfunction and to preacclimatize to hypoxia in clinical or high-altitude settings. PMID:19864340

  8. Pretreatment with a soluble activin type IIB receptor/Fc fusion protein improves hypoxia-induced muscle dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pistilli, Emidio E; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Mosqueira, Matias; Lachey, Jennifer; Seehra, Jasbir; Khurana, Tejvir S

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia, or reduced oxygen, occurs in a variety of clinical and environmental situations. Hypoxic exposure is associated with decreased muscle mass and a concomitant reduction in exercise capacity, although the exact mechanisms are not completely understood. The activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB) is a receptor for transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) superfamily members that are involved in the negative regulation of lean tissue mass. Given that hypoxia has negative effects on muscle mass and function and that modulation of the ActRIIB has been shown to increase muscle mass, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological targeting of the ActRIIB for 2 wk would attenuate the loss of muscle mass and function in mice after exposure to normobaric hypoxia. ActRIIB modulation was achieved using a soluble activin receptor/Fc fusion protein (sActRIIB) in mice housed in a hypoxic chamber for 1 or 2 wk. Hypoxia induced a reduction in body weight in PBS- and sActRIIB-treated mice, although sActRIIB-treated mice remained larger throughout the hypoxic exposure. The absolute forces generated by extensor digitorum longus muscles were also significantly greater in sActRIIB- than PBS-treated mice and were more resistant to eccentric contraction-induced force drop after eccentric lengthening contractions. In summary, sActRIIB pretreatment attenuated hypoxia-induced muscle dysfunction. These data suggest that targeting the ActRIIB is an effective strategy to counter hypoxia-induced muscle dysfunction and to preacclimatize to hypoxia in clinical or high-altitude settings. PMID:19864340

  9. Modified activin receptor IIB ligand trap mitigates ineffective erythropoiesis and disease complications in murine β-thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Suragani, Rajasekhar N. V. S.; Cawley, Sharon M.; Li, Robert; Wallner, Samantha; Alexander, Mark J.; Mulivor, Aaron W.; Gardenghi, Sara; Rivella, Stefano; Grinberg, Asya V.; Pearsall, R. Scott

    2014-01-01

    In β-thalassemia, unequal production of α- and β-globin chains in erythroid precursors causes apoptosis and inhibition of late-stage erythroid differentiation, leading to anemia, ineffective erythropoiesis (IE), and dysregulated iron homeostasis. Here we used a murine model of β-thalassemia intermedia (Hbbth1/th1 mice) to investigate effects of a modified activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) ligand trap (RAP-536) that inhibits Smad2/3 signaling. In Hbbth1/th1 mice, treatment with RAP-536 reduced overactivation of Smad2/3 in splenic erythroid precursors. In addition, treatment of Hbbth1/th1 mice with RAP-536 reduced α-globin aggregates in peripheral red cells, decreased the elevated reactive oxygen species present in erythroid precursors and peripheral red cells, and alleviated anemia by promoting differentiation of late-stage erythroid precursors and reducing hemolysis. Notably, RAP-536 treatment mitigated disease complications of IE, including iron overload, splenomegaly, and bone pathology, while reducing erythropoietin levels, improving erythrocyte morphology, and extending erythrocyte life span. These results implicate signaling by the transforming growth factor-β superfamily in late-stage erythropoiesis and reveal potential of a modified ActRIIB ligand trap as a novel therapeutic agent for thalassemia syndrome and other red cell disorders characterized by IE. PMID:24795345

  10. A Soluble Activin Receptor IIB Fails to Prevent Muscle Atrophy in a Mouse Model of Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Graham, Zachary A; Collier, Lauren; Peng, Yuanzhen; Saéz, Juan C; Bauman, William A; Qin, Weiping; Cardozo, Christopher P

    2016-06-15

    Myostatin (MST) is a potent regulator of muscle growth and size. Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in marked atrophy of muscle below the level of injury. Currently, there is no effective pharmaceutical treatment available to prevent sublesional muscle atrophy post-SCI. To determine whether inhibition of MST with a soluble activin IIB receptor (RAP-031) prevents sublesional SCI-induced muscle atrophy, mice were randomly assigned to the following groups: Sham-SCI; SCI+Vehicle group (SCI-VEH); and SCI+RAP-031 (SCI-RAP-031). SCI was induced by complete transection at thoracic level 10. Animals were euthanized at 56 days post-surgery. RAP-031 reduced, but did not prevent, body weight loss post-SCI. RAP-031 increased total lean tissue mass compared to SCI-VEH (14.8%). RAP-031 increased forelimb muscle mass post-SCI by 38% and 19% for biceps and triceps, respectively (p < 0.001). There were no differences in hindlimb muscle weights between the RAP-031 and SCI-VEH groups. In the gastrocnemius, messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was elevated for interleukin (IL)-6 (8-fold), IL-1β (3-fold), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (8-fold) in the SCI-VEH, compared to the Sham group. Muscle RING finger protein 1 mRNA was 2-fold greater in the RAP-031 group, compared to Sham-SCI. RAP-031 did not influence cytokine expression. Bone mineral density of the distal femur and proximal tibia were decreased post-SCI (-26% and -28%, respectively) and were not altered by RAP-031. In conclusion, MST inhibition increased supralesional muscle mass, but did not prevent sublesional muscle or bone loss, or the inflammation in paralyzed muscle. PMID:26529111

  11. Activation of signalling by the activin receptor complex.

    PubMed Central

    Attisano, L; Wrana, J L; Montalvo, E; Massagué, J

    1996-01-01

    Activin exerts its effects by simultaneously binding to two types of p rotein serine/threonine kinase receptors, each type existing in various isoforms. Using the ActR-IB and ActR-IIB receptor isoforms, we have investigated the mechanism of activin receptor activation. ActR-IIB are phosphoproteins with demonstrable affinity for each other. However, activin addition strongly promotes an interaction between these two proteins. Activin binds directly to ActR-IIB, and this complex associates with ActR-IB, which does not bind ligand on its own. In the resulting complex, ActR-IB becomes hyperphosphorylated, and this requires the kinase activity of ActR-IIB. Mutation of conserved serines and threonines in the GS domain, a region just upstream of the kinase domain in ActR-IB, abrogates both phosphorylation and signal propagation, suggesting that this domain contains phosphorylation sites required for signalling. ActR-IB activation can be mimicked by mutation of Thr-206 to aspartic acid, which yields a construct, ActR-IB(T206D), that signals in the absence of ligand. Furthermore, the signalling activity of this mutant construct is undisturbed by overexpression of a dominant negative kinase-defective ActR-IIB construct, indicating that ActR-IB(T206D) can signal independently of ActR-IIB. The evidence suggests that ActR-IIB acts as a primary activin receptor and ActR-IB acts as a downstream transducer of activin signals. PMID:8622651

  12. Gonadotrophins modulate hormone secretion and steady-state mRNA levels for activin receptors (type I, IIA, IIB) and inhibin co-receptor (betaglycan) in granulosa and theca cells from chicken prehierarchical and preovulatory follicles.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Tristan M; Al-Musawi, Sara L; Gladwell, Richard T; Knight, Philip G

    2007-06-01

    Ovarian follicle development is regulated through endocrine and local mechanisms. Increasing evidence indicates roles for transforming growth factor beta superfamily members, including inhibins and activins. We recently identified divergent expression of mRNAs encoding activin receptors (ActR) and inhibin co-receptor betaglycan in chicken follicles at different stages of maturation. Here, we compare the actions of LH and FSH (0, 1, 10, 100 ng/ml) on levels of mRNA for ActRI, ActRIIA, ActRIIB and betaglycan in chicken granulosa and theca cells (GC and TC) from preovulatory (F1) and prehierarchical (6-8 mm) follicles. The expression of mRNAs for LH-R and FSH-R and production of inhibin A, oestradiol and progesterone were also quantified. FSH decreased ActRIIB and ActRI mRNA levels in 6-8 mm GC, whereas LH increased the mRNA levels. Both LH and FSH enhanced ActRIIA (5- and 8.5-fold) and betaglycan mRNA expression (2- and 3.5-fold) in 6-8 mm GC. In 6-8 mm TC, LH and FSH both increased the betaglycan mRNA level (7- and 3.5-fold respectively) but did not affect ActRI, ActRIIA and ActRIIB transcript levels. In F1 GC, both LH and FSH stimulated ActRI (2- and 2.4-fold), ActRIIB (3.2- and 2.7-fold) and betaglycan (7- and 4-fold) mRNA levels, while ActRIIA mRNA was unaffected. In F1 TC, LH and FSH reduced ActRIIA (35-50%) and increased (4.5- and 7.6-fold) betaglycan mRNA, but had no effect on ActRI and ActRIIB transcript levels. Results support the hypothesis that expression of ActR and betaglycan are differentially regulated by gonadotrophins during follicle maturation in the hen. This may represent an important mechanism for fine-tuning follicle responsiveness to local and systemic activins and inhibins. PMID:17636170

  13. Development of novel activin-targeted therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Justin L; Walton, Kelly L; Al-Musawi, Sara L; Kelly, Emily K; Qian, Hongwei; La, Mylinh; Lu, Louis; Lovrecz, George; Ziemann, Mark; Lazarus, Ross; El-Osta, Assam; Gregorevic, Paul; Harrison, Craig A

    2015-03-01

    Soluble activin type II receptors (ActRIIA/ActRIIB), via binding to diverse TGF-β proteins, can increase muscle and bone mass, correct anemia or protect against diet-induced obesity. While exciting, these multiple actions of soluble ActRIIA/IIB limit their therapeutic potential and highlight the need for new reagents that target specific ActRIIA/IIB ligands. Here, we modified the activin A and activin B prodomains, regions required for mature growth factor synthesis, to generate specific activin antagonists. Initially, the prodomains were fused to the Fc region of mouse IgG2A antibody and, subsequently, "fastener" residues (Lys(45), Tyr(96), His(97), and Ala(98); activin A numbering) that confer latency to other TGF-β proteins were incorporated. For the activin A prodomain, these modifications generated a reagent that potently (IC(50) 5 nmol/l) and specifically inhibited activin A signaling in vitro, and activin A-induced muscle wasting in vivo. Interestingly, the modified activin B prodomain inhibited both activin A and B signaling in vitro (IC(50) ~2 nmol/l) and in vivo, suggesting it could serve as a general activin antagonist. Importantly, unlike soluble ActRIIA/IIB, the modified prodomains did not inhibit myostatin or GDF-11 activity. To underscore the therapeutic utility of specifically antagonising activin signaling, we demonstrate that the modified activin prodomains promote significant increases in muscle mass. PMID:25399825

  14. The transforming growth factor beta type II receptor can replace the activin type II receptor in inducing mesoderm.

    PubMed Central

    Bhushan, A; Lin, H Y; Lodish, H F; Kintner, C R

    1994-01-01

    The type II receptors for the polypeptide growth factors transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and activin belong to a new family of predicted serine/threonine protein kinases. In Xenopus embryos, the biological effects of activin and TGF-beta 1 are strikingly different; activin induces a full range of mesodermal cell types in the animal cap assay, while TGF-beta 1 has no effects, presumably because of the lack of functional TGF-beta receptors. In order to assess the biological activities of exogenously added TGF-beta 1, RNA encoding the TGF-beta type II receptor was introduced into Xenopus embryos. In animal caps from these embryos, TGF-beta 1 and activin show similar potencies for induction of mesoderm-specific mRNAs, and both elicit the same types of mesodermal tissues. In addition, the response of animal caps to TGF-beta 1, as well as to activin, is blocked by a dominant inhibitory ras mutant, p21(Asn-17)Ha-ras. These results indicate that the activin and TGF-beta type II receptors can couple to similar signalling pathways and that the biological specificities of these growth factors lie in their different ligand-binding domains and in different competences of the responding cells. Images PMID:8196664

  15. Activin Controls Ethanol Potentiation of Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission Through GABAA Receptors and Concomitant Behavioral Sedation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fang; Puppel, Anne; Huber, Sabine E; Link, Andrea S; Eulenburg, Volker; van Brederode, Johannes F; Müller, Christian P; Alzheimer, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Activin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β family, exerts multiple functions in the nervous system. Originally identified as a neurotrophic and -protective agent, increasing evidence implicates activin also in the regulation of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in brain regions associated with cognitive and affective functions. To explore how activin impacts on ethanol potentiation of GABA synapses and related behavioral paradigms, we used an established transgenic model of disrupted activin receptor signaling, in which mice express a dominant-negative activin receptor IB mutant (dnActRIB) under the control of the CaMKIIα promoter. Comparison of GABAA receptor currents in hippocampal neurons from dnActRIB mice and wild-type mice showed that all concentrations of ethanol tested (30-150 mM) produced much stronger potentiation of phasic inhibition in the mutant preparation. In dentate granule cells of dnActRIB mice, tonic GABA inhibition was more pronounced than in wild-type neurons, but remained insensitive to low ethanol (30 mM) in both preparations. The heightened ethanol sensitivity of phasic inhibition in mutant hippocampi resulted from both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms, the latter probably involving PKCɛ. At the behavioral level, ethanol produced significantly stronger sedation in dnActRIB mice than in wild-type mice, but did not affect consumption of ethanol or escalation after withdrawal. We link the abnormal narcotic response of dnActRIB mice to ethanol to the excessive potentiation of inhibitory neurotransmission. Our study suggests that activin counteracts oversedation from ethanol by curtailing its augmenting effect at GABA synapses. PMID:26717882

  16. Activin C Antagonizes Activin A in Vitro and Overexpression Leads to Pathologies in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Elspeth; Jetly, Niti; O'Bryan, Moira K.; Meachem, Sarah; Srinivasan, Deepa; Behuria, Supreeti; Sanchez-Partida, L. Gabriel; Woodruff, Teresa; Hedwards, Shelley; Wang, Hong; McDougall, Helen; Casey, Victoria; Niranjan, Birunthi; Patella, Shane; Risbridger, Gail

    2009-01-01

    Activin A is a potent growth and differentiation factor whose synthesis and bioactivity are tightly regulated. Both follistatin binding and inhibin subunit heterodimerization block access to the activin receptor and/or receptor activation. We postulated that the activin-βC subunit provides another mechanism regulating activin bioactivity. To test our hypothesis, we examined the biological effects of activin C and produced mice that overexpress activin-βC. Activin C reduced activin A bioactivity in vitro; in LNCaP cells, activin C abrogated both activin A-induced Smad signaling and growth inhibition, and in LβT2 cells, activin C antagonized activin A-mediated activity of an follicle-stimulating hormone-β promoter. Transgenic mice that overexpress activin-βC exhibited disease in testis, liver, and prostate. Male infertility was caused by both reduced sperm production and impaired sperm motility. The livers of the transgenic mice were enlarged because of an imbalance between hepatocyte proliferation and apoptosis. Transgenic prostates showed evidence of hypertrophy and epithelial cell hyperplasia. Additionally, there was decreased evidence of nuclear Smad-2 localization in the testis, liver, and prostate, indicating that overexpression of activin-βC antagonized Smad signaling in vivo. Underlying the significance of these findings, human testis, liver, and prostate cancers expressed increased activin-βC immunoreactivity. This study provides evidence that activin-βC is an antagonist of activin A and supplies an impetus to examine its role in development and disease. PMID:19095948

  17. RAP-011, an activin receptor ligand trap, increases hemoglobin concentration in Hepcidin transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Langdon, Jacqueline M.; Barkataki, Sangjucta; Berger, Alan E.; Cheadle, Chris; Xue, Qian-Li; Sung, Victoria; Roy, Cindy N.

    2014-01-01

    Over expression of hepcidin antimicrobial peptide is a common feature of iron-restricted anemia in humans. We investigated the erythroid response to either erythropoietin or RAP-011, a “murinized” ortholog of sotatercept, in C57BL/6 mice and in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide over expressing mice. Sotatercept, a soluble, activin receptor type IIA ligand trap, is currently being evaluated for the treatment of anemias associated with chronic renal disease, myelodysplastic syndrome, β-thalassemia, and Diamond Blackfan anemia and acts by inhibiting signaling downstream of activin and other Transforming Growth Factor-β superfamily members. We found that erythropoietin and RAP-011 increased hemoglobin concentration in C57BL/6 mice and in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide over expressing mice. While erythropoietin treatment depleted splenic iron stores in C57BL/6 mice, RAP-011 treatment did not deplete splenic iron stores in mice of either genotype. Bone marrow erythroid progenitors from erythropoietin-treated mice exhibited iron-restricted erythropoiesis, as indicated by increased median fluorescence intensity of transferrin receptor immunostaining by flow cytometry. In contrast, RAP-011-treated mice did not exhibit the same degree of iron-restricted erythropoiesis. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that RAP-011 can improve hemoglobin concentration in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide transgenic mice. Our data support the hypothesis that RAP-011 has unique biologic effects which prevent or circumvent depletion of mouse splenic iron stores. RAP-011 may, therefore, be an appropriate therapeutic for trials in human anemias characterized by increased expression of hepcidin antimicrobial peptide and iron-restricted erythropoiesis. PMID:25236856

  18. RAP-011, an activin receptor ligand trap, increases hemoglobin concentration in hepcidin transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Jacqueline M; Barkataki, Sangjucta; Berger, Alan E; Cheadle, Chris; Xue, Qian-Li; Sung, Victoria; Roy, Cindy N

    2015-01-01

    Over expression of hepcidin antimicrobial peptide is a common feature of iron-restricted anemia in humans. We investigated the erythroid response to either erythropoietin or RAP-011, a "murinized" ortholog of sotatercept, in C57BL/6 mice and in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide 1 over expressing mice. Sotatercept, a soluble, activin receptor type IIA ligand trap, is currently being evaluated for the treatment of anemias associated with chronic renal disease, myelodysplastic syndrome, β-thalassemia, and Diamond Blackfan anemia and acts by inhibiting signaling downstream of activin and other Transforming Growth Factor-β superfamily members. We found that erythropoietin and RAP-011 increased hemoglobin concentration in C57BL/6 mice and in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide 1 over expressing mice. While erythropoietin treatment depleted splenic iron stores in C57BL/6 mice, RAP-011 treatment did not deplete splenic iron stores in mice of either genotype. Bone marrow erythroid progenitors from erythropoietin-treated mice exhibited iron-restricted erythropoiesis, as indicated by increased median fluorescence intensity of transferrin receptor immunostaining by flow cytometry. In contrast, RAP-011-treated mice did not exhibit the same degree of iron-restricted erythropoiesis. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that RAP-011 can improve hemoglobin concentration in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide 1 transgenic mice. Our data support the hypothesis that RAP-011 has unique biologic effects which prevent or circumvent depletion of mouse splenic iron stores. RAP-011 may, therefore, be an appropriate therapeutic for trials in human anemias characterized by increased expression of hepcidin antimicrobial peptide and iron-restricted erythropoiesis. PMID:25236856

  19. The structure of the follistatin:activin complex reveals antagonism of both type I and type II receptor binding

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T.B.; Lerch, T.F.; Cook, R.W.; Woodruff, T.K.; Jardetzky, T.S.

    2010-03-08

    TGF-{beta} ligands stimulate diverse cellular differentiation and growth responses by signaling through type I and II receptors. Ligand antagonists, such as follistatin, block signaling and are essential regulators of physiological responses. Here we report the structure of activin A, a TGF-{beta} ligand, bound to the high-affinity antagonist follistatin. Two follistatin molecules encircle activin, neutralizing the ligand by burying one-third of its residues and its receptor binding sites. Previous studies have suggested that type I receptor binding would not be blocked by follistatin, but the crystal structure reveals that the follistatin N-terminal domain has an unexpected fold that mimics a universal type I receptor motif and occupies this receptor binding site. The formation of follistatin:BMP:type I receptor complexes can be explained by the stoichiometric and geometric arrangement of the activin:follistatin complex. The mode of ligand binding by follistatin has important implications for its ability to neutralize homo- and heterodimeric ligands of this growth factor family.

  20. MiR-125b Regulates Primordial Follicle Assembly by Targeting Activin Receptor Type 2a in Neonatal Mouse Ovary.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shufen; Liu, Jiali; Li, Xinqiang; Ji, Xiaowen; Zhang, Jianfang; Wang, Yue; Cui, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The establishment of the primordial follicle pool is crucial for fertility in mammalian females, and the interruption of overall micro-RNA production byDicer1conditional knockout in the female reproductive system results in infertility. However, there are few reports about the functions of individual micro-RNA in regulating primordial follicle assembly. The present study aimed to investigate the function of miR-125b, which is conserved and preferentially expressed in mammalian ovary during primordial follicle assembly. Detection of miR-125b in the developing mouse ovaries by real-time PCR and in situ hybridization showed that it was highly expressed perinatally and specifically located in the ovarian somatic cells. MiR-125b overexpression blocked the process of primordial follicle assembly in cultured newborn mouse ovaries, while its knockdown promoted this process. Further studies showed that miR-125b regulated the activin/Smad2 signaling in neonatal mouse ovary by directly targeting the 3'-untranslated region of activin receptor type 2a (Acvr2a). Overexpression of miR-125b in neonatal mouse ovary suppressed theAcvr2aprotein level, attenuating activin/Smad2 signaling, while knockdown of miR-125b showed the opposite effects. In addition, recombinant human activin A (rh-ActA) down-regulated miR-125b in the neonatal mouse ovary. Overexpression of miR-125b attenuated the promoting effects of rh-ActA on primordial follicle assembly. Taken together, these data suggest that miR-125b blocks the process of primordial follicle assembly, and miR-125b may play this role by regulating the expression ofAcvr2ain the activin/Smad2 signaling pathway. PMID:26962113

  1. Targeting tumour vasculature by inhibiting activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)1 function.

    PubMed

    de Vinuesa, Amaya García; Bocci, Matteo; Pietras, Kristian; Ten Dijke, Peter

    2016-08-15

    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancer and is now a validated therapeutic target in the clinical setting. Despite the initial success, anti-angiogenic compounds impinging on the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway display limited survival benefits in patients and resistance often develops due to activation of alternative pathways. Thus, finding and validating new targets is highly warranted. Activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)1 is a transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) type I receptor predominantly expressed in actively proliferating endothelial cells (ECs). ALK1 has been shown to play a pivotal role in regulating angiogenesis by binding to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)9 and 10. Two main pharmacological inhibitors, an ALK1-Fc fusion protein (Dalantercept/ACE-041) and a fully human antibody against the extracellular domain of ALK1 (PF-03446962) are currently under clinical development. Herein, we briefly recapitulate the role of ALK1 in blood vessel formation and the current status of the preclinical and clinical studies on inhibition of ALK1 signalling as an anti-angiogenic strategy. Future directions in terms of new combination regimens will also be presented. PMID:27528762

  2. Uterine activin receptor-like kinase 5 is crucial for blastocyst implantation and placental development

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jia; Monsivais, Diana; You, Ran; Zhong, Hua; Pangas, Stephanie A.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily are key regulators in most developmental and physiological processes. However, the in vivo roles of TGF-β signaling in female reproduction remain uncertain. Activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5) is the major type 1 receptor for the TGF-β subfamily. Absence of ALK5 leads to early embryonic lethality because of severe defects in vascular development. In this study, we conditionally ablated uterine ALK5 using progesterone receptor-cre mice to define the physiological roles of ALK5 in female reproduction. Despite normal ovarian functions and artificial decidualization in conditional knockout (cKO) mice, absence of uterine ALK5 resulted in substantially reduced female reproduction due to abnormalities observed at different stages of pregnancy, including implantation defects, disorganization of trophoblast cells, fewer uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, and impairment of spiral artery remodeling. In our microarray analysis, genes encoding proteins involved in cytokine–cytokine receptor interactions and NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity were down-regulated in cKO decidua compared with control decidua. Flow cytometry confirmed a 10-fold decrease in uNK cells in cKO versus control decidua. According to these data, we hypothesize that TGF-β acts on decidual cells via ALK5 to induce expression of other growth factors and cytokines, which are key regulators in luminal epithelium proliferation, trophoblast development, and uNK maturation during pregnancy. Our findings not only generate a mouse model to study TGF-β signaling in female reproduction but also shed light on the pathogenesis of many pregnancy complications in human, such as recurrent spontaneous abortion, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. PMID:26305969

  3. Uterine activin receptor-like kinase 5 is crucial for blastocyst implantation and placental development.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jia; Monsivais, Diana; You, Ran; Zhong, Hua; Pangas, Stephanie A; Matzuk, Martin M

    2015-09-01

    Members of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily are key regulators in most developmental and physiological processes. However, the in vivo roles of TGF-β signaling in female reproduction remain uncertain. Activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5) is the major type 1 receptor for the TGF-β subfamily. Absence of ALK5 leads to early embryonic lethality because of severe defects in vascular development. In this study, we conditionally ablated uterine ALK5 using progesterone receptor-cre mice to define the physiological roles of ALK5 in female reproduction. Despite normal ovarian functions and artificial decidualization in conditional knockout (cKO) mice, absence of uterine ALK5 resulted in substantially reduced female reproduction due to abnormalities observed at different stages of pregnancy, including implantation defects, disorganization of trophoblast cells, fewer uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, and impairment of spiral artery remodeling. In our microarray analysis, genes encoding proteins involved in cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions and NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity were down-regulated in cKO decidua compared with control decidua. Flow cytometry confirmed a 10-fold decrease in uNK cells in cKO versus control decidua. According to these data, we hypothesize that TGF-β acts on decidual cells via ALK5 to induce expression of other growth factors and cytokines, which are key regulators in luminal epithelium proliferation, trophoblast development, and uNK maturation during pregnancy. Our findings not only generate a mouse model to study TGF-β signaling in female reproduction but also shed light on the pathogenesis of many pregnancy complications in human, such as recurrent spontaneous abortion, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. PMID:26305969

  4. Structures of an ActRIIB:activin A complex reveal a novel binding mode for TGF-beta ligand:receptor interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T.B.; Woodruff, T.K.; Jardetzky, T.S.

    2010-03-08

    The TGF-{beta} superfamily of ligands and receptors stimulate cellular events in diverse processes ranging from cell fate specification in development to immune suppression. Activins define a major subgroup of TGF-{beta} ligands that regulate cellular differentiation, proliferation, activation and apoptosis. Activins signal through complexes formed with type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors. We have solved the crystal structure of activin A bound to the extracellular domain of a type II receptor, ActRIIB, revealing the details of this interaction. ActRIIB binds to the outer edges of the activin finger regions, with the two receptors juxtaposed in close proximity, in a mode that differs from TGF-{beta}3 binding to type II receptors. The dimeric activin A structure differs from other known TGF-{beta} ligand structures, adopting a compact folded-back conformation. The crystal structure of the complex is consistent with recruitment of two type I receptors into a close packed arrangement at the cell surface and suggests that diversity in the conformational arrangements of TGF-{beta} ligand dimers could influence cellular signaling processes.

  5. Pegylated Interferon-α Modulates Liver Concentrations of Activin-A and Its Related Proteins in Normal Wistar Rat

    PubMed Central

    Refaat, Bassem; El-Shemi, Adel Galal; Ashshi, Ahmed Mohamed; Mahamid, Elaf Wael; Al-Qadi, Noha Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To measure the expression of activin βA-subunit, activin IIA and IIB receptors, Smad4, Smad7, and follistatin in the liver and the liver and serum concentrations of mature activin-A and follistatin in normal rat following treatment with pegylated interferon-α (Peg-INF-α) and ribavirin (RBV). Materials and Methods. 40 male Wistar rats were divided equally into 4 groups: “control,” “Peg-only” receiving 4 injections of Peg-INF-α (6 µg/rat/week), “RBV-only” receiving ribavirin (4 mg/rat/day) orally, and “Peg & RBV” group receiving both drugs. The expression of candidate molecules in liver was measured by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR. The concentrations of mature proteins in serum and liver homogenate samples were measured using ELISA. Results. Peg-INF-α  ± RBV altered the expression of all candidate molecules in the liver at the gene and protein levels (P < 0.05) and decreased activin-A and increased follistatin in serum and liver homogenates compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). There were also significant correlations between serum and liver activin-A and follistatin. Conclusion. Peg-INF-α modulates the hepatic production of activin-A and follistatin, which can be detected in serum. Further studies are needed to explore the role of Peg-INF-α on the production of activins and follistatin by the liver and immune cells. PMID:26236109

  6. Activin A increases arterial pressure in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in rats by angiotension II.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jingyan; Fan, Yuqi; Lu, Yaqiong; Qi, Yan; Wang, Minghua; Liu, Zhonghui

    2016-06-15

    Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily, plays an important role in the central nervous system as a neurotrophic and neuroprotective factor. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in the central nervous system is characterized as an important integrative site to regulate arterial pressure (AP). However, whether activin A in the PVN is involved in the regulation of AP is not well characterized. This study aimed to determine the effect of activin A on AP in the PVN in rats. The results showed that activin βA, activin type IIA and IIB receptors (ActRIIA and ActRIIB), and Smad2 and Smad3 mRNA expressions were detectable in the PVN of WKY rats by reverse-transcription PCR, and the expression of ActRIIA protein in the PVN was further confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. A microinjection of angiotensin II (AngII) (0.1 nmol/100 nl) or activin A (2 ng/100 nl) into the PVN increased AP significantly in WKY rats (P<0.05). Moreover, activin A (5 ng/ml) promoted AngII release from the primary cultured PVN neurons that can increase AP and upregulated the expressions of ActRIIA and Smad3 mRNA in the primary cultured PVN neurons (P<0.05). These data suggest that activin A can regulate AP in the PVN in an autocrine or a paracrine manner, which is related to AngII release and the ActRIIA-Smad3 signal pathway. PMID:27138952

  7. Bioinformatic Analysis of Pathogenic Missense Mutations of Activin Receptor Like Kinase 1 Ectodomain

    PubMed Central

    Scotti, Claudia; Olivieri, Carla; Boeri, Laura; Canzonieri, Cecilia; Ornati, Federica; Buscarini, Elisabetta; Pagella, Fabio; Danesino, Cesare

    2011-01-01

    Activin A receptor, type II-like kinase 1 (also called ALK1), is a serine-threonine kinase predominantly expressed on endothelial cells surface. Mutations in its ACVRL1 encoding gene (12q11-14) cause type 2 Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT2), an autosomal dominant multisystem vascular dysplasia. The study of the structural effects of mutations is crucial to understand their pathogenic mechanism. However, while an X-ray structure of ALK1 intracellular domain has recently become available (PDB ID: 3MY0), structure determination of ALK1 ectodomain (ALK1EC) has been elusive so far. We here describe the building of a homology model for ALK1EC, followed by an extensive bioinformatic analysis, based on a set of 38 methods, of the effect of missense mutations at the sequence and structural level. ALK1EC potential interaction mode with its ligand BMP9 was then predicted combining modelling and docking data. The calculated model of the ALK1EC allowed mapping and a preliminary characterization of HHT2 associated mutations. Major structural changes and loss of stability of the protein were predicted for several mutations, while others were found to interfere mainly with binding to BMP9 or other interactors, like Endoglin (CD105), whose encoding ENG gene (9q34) mutations are known to cause type 1 HHT. This study gives a preliminary insight into the potential structure of ALK1EC and into the structural effects of HHT2 associated mutations, which can be useful to predict the potential effect of each single mutation, to devise new biological experiments and to interpret the biological significance of new mutations, private mutations, or non-synonymous polymorphisms. PMID:22028876

  8. Activin receptor IIA ligand trap in chronic kidney disease: 1 drug to prevent 2 complications-or even more?

    PubMed

    Massy, Ziad A; Drueke, Tilman B

    2016-06-01

    Vascular calcification and kidney fibrosis are 2 important features of chronic kidney disease. Bone morphogenetic proteins/growth differentiation factors and their receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of both processes. Modulation of the bone morphogenetic protein/growth differentiation factor pathways by a soluble chimeric protein that contains the activin receptor IIA (ActRIIA) domain and acts as an ActRIIA ligand trap for activin and other ligands could become a new therapeutic strategy for vascular calcification and kidney fibrosis in chronic kidney disease. PMID:27181771

  9. The type I activin receptor ActRIB is required for egg cylinder organization and gastrulation in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Zhenyu; Nomura, Masatoshi; Simpson, Brenda B.; Lei, Hong; Feijen, Alie; van den Eijnden-van Raaij, Janny; Donahoe, Patricia K.; Li, En

    1998-01-01

    ActRIB is a type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptor that has been shown to form heteromeric complexes with the type II activin receptors to mediate activin signal. To investigate the function of ActRIB in mammalian development, we generated ActRIB-deficient ES cell lines and mice by gene targeting. Analysis of the ActRIB−/− embryos showed that the epiblast and the extraembryonic ectoderm were disorganized, resulting in disruption and developmental arrest of the egg cylinder before gastrulation. To assess the function of ActRIB in mesoderm formation and gastrulation, chimera analysis was conducted. We found that ActRIB−/− ES cells injected into wild-type blastocysts were able to contribute to the mesoderm in chimeric embryos, suggesting that ActRIB is not required for mesoderm formation. Primitive streak formation, however, was impaired in chimeras when ActRIB−/− cells contributed highly to the epiblast. Further, chimeras generated by injection of wild-type ES cells into ActRIB−/− blastocysts formed relatively normal extraembryonic tissues, but the embryo proper developed poorly probably resulting from severe gastrulation defect. These results provide genetic evidence that ActRIB functions in both epiblast and extraembryonic cells to mediate signals that are required for egg cylinder organization and gastrulation. PMID:9512518

  10. Activin receptor-like kinase 2 and Smad6 regulate epithelial-mesenchymal transformation during cardiac valve formation.

    PubMed

    Desgrosellier, Jay S; Mundell, Nathan A; McDonnell, Maureen A; Moses, Harold L; Barnett, Joey V

    2005-04-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) occurs during both development and tumorigenesis. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) ligands signal EMT in the atrioventricular (AV) cushion of the developing heart, a critical step in valve formation. TGFbeta signals through a complex of type I and type II receptors. Several type I receptors exist although activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) 5 mediates the majority of TGFbeta signaling. Here, we demonstrate that ALK2 is sufficient to induce EMT in the heart. Both ALK2 and ALK5 are expressed throughout the heart with ALK2 expressed abundantly in endocardial cells of the outflow tract (OFT), ventricle, and AV cushion. Misexpression of constitutively active (ca) ALK2 in non-transforming ventricular endocardial cells induced EMT, while caALK5 did not, thus demonstrating that ALK2 activity alone is sufficient to stimulate EMT. Smad6, an inhibitor of Smad signaling downstream of ALK2, but not ALK5, inhibited EMT in AV cushion endocardial cells. These data suggest that ALK2 activation may stimulate EMT in the AV cushion and that Smad6 may act downstream of ALK2 to negatively regulate EMT. PMID:15766759

  11. Mutation Detection in Activin A Receptor, Type I (ACVR1) Gene in Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva in An Iranian Family.

    PubMed

    Morovvati, Ziba; Morovvati, Saeid; Alishiri, Gholamhossein; Moosavi, Seyed Hossein; Ranjbar, Reza; Bolouki Moghaddam, Yaser

    2014-02-01

    Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP, MIM 135100) is a rare genetic disease that is often inherited sporadically in an autosomal dominant pattern. The disease manifests in early life with malformed great toes and, its episodic and progressive bone formation in skeletal muscle after trauma is led to extra-articular ankylosis. In this study, a 17 year-old affected girl born to a father with chemical injury due to exposure to Mustard gas during the Iran-Iraq war, and her first degree relatives were examined to find the genetic cause of the disease. The mutation c.617G>A in the Activin A receptor, type I (ACVR1) gene was found in all previously reported patients with FOP. Therefore, peripheral blood samples were taken from the patient and her first-degree relatives. DNA was extracted and PCR amplification for ACVR1 was performed. The sequencing of ACVR1 showed the existence of the heterozygous c.617G>A mutation in the patient and the lack of it in her relatives. Normal result of genetic evaluation in relatives of the patient, ruled out the possibility of the mutation being inherited from parents. Therefore, the mutation causing disease in the child, whether is a new mutation with no relation to the father's exposure to chemical gas, or in case of somatic mutation due to exposure to chemical gas, the mutant cells were created in father's germ cells and were not detectable in his blood sample. PMID:24518978

  12. Administration of soluble activin receptor 2B increases bone and muscle mass in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    DiGirolamo, Douglas J.; Singhal, Vandana; Chang, Xiaoli; Lee, Se-Jin; Germain-Lee, Emily L.

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a group of heritable connective tissue disorders generally defined by recurrent fractures, low bone mass, short stature and skeletal fragility. Beyond the skeletal complications of OI, many patients also report intolerance to physical activity, fatigue and muscle weakness. Indeed, recent studies have demonstrated that skeletal muscle is also negatively affected by OI, both directly and indirectly. Given the well-established interdependence of bone and skeletal muscle in both physiology and pathophysiology and the observations of skeletal muscle pathology in patients with OI, we investigated the therapeutic potential of simultaneous anabolic targeting of both bone and skeletal muscle using a soluble activin receptor 2B (ACVR2B) in a mouse model of type III OI (oim). Treatment of 12-week-old oim mice with ACVR2B for 4 weeks resulted in significant increases in both bone and muscle that were similar to those observed in healthy, wild-type littermates. This proof of concept study provides encouraging evidence for a holistic approach to treating the deleterious consequences of OI in the musculoskeletal system. PMID:26161291

  13. Heterozygous disruption of activin receptor-like kinase 1 is associated with increased arterial pressure in mice

    PubMed Central

    González-Núñez, María; Riolobos, Adela S.; Castellano, Orlando; Fuentes-Calvo, Isabel; de los Ángeles Sevilla, María; Oujo, Bárbara; Pericacho, Miguel; Cruz-Gonzalez, Ignacio; Pérez-Barriocanal, Fernando; ten Dijke, Peter; López-Novoa, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK-1) is a type I cell-surface receptor for the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family of proteins. Hypertension is related to TGF-β1, because increased TGF-β1 expression is correlated with an elevation in arterial pressure (AP) and TGF-β expression is upregulated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of ALK-1 in regulation of AP using Alk1 haploinsufficient mice (Alk1+/−). We observed that systolic and diastolic AP were significantly higher in Alk1+/− than in Alk1+/+ mice, and all functional and structural cardiac parameters (echocardiography and electrocardiography) were similar in both groups. Alk1+/− mice showed alterations in the circadian rhythm of AP, with higher AP than Alk1+/+ mice during most of the light period. Higher AP in Alk1+/− mice is not a result of a reduction in the NO-dependent vasodilator response or of overactivation of the peripheral renin-angiotensin system. However, intracerebroventricular administration of losartan had a hypotensive effect in Alk1+/− and not in Alk1+/+ mice. Alk1+/− mice showed a greater hypotensive response to the β-adrenergic antagonist atenolol and higher concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma than Alk1+/+ mice. The number of brain cholinergic neurons in the anterior basal forebrain was reduced in Alk1+/− mice. Thus, we concluded that the ALK-1 receptor is involved in the control of AP, and the high AP of Alk1+/− mice is explained mainly by the sympathetic overactivation shown by these animals, which is probably related to the decreased number of cholinergic neurons. PMID:26398936

  14. An activin-A/C chimera exhibits activin and myostatin antagonistic properties.

    PubMed

    Muenster, Uwe; Harrison, Craig A; Donaldson, Cynthia; Vale, Wylie; Fischer, Wolfgang H

    2005-11-01

    Activins are involved in many physiological and pathological processes and, like other members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, signal via type II and I receptor serine kinases. Ligand residues involved in type II receptor binding are located in the two anti-parallel beta strands of the TGF-beta proteins, also known as the fingers. Activin-A mutants able to bind ActRII but unable to bind the activin type I receptor ALK4 define ligand residues involved in ALK4 binding and could potentially act as antagonists. Therefore, a series of FLAG-tagged activin-A/C chimeras were constructed, in each of which eight residues in the wrist loop and helix region (A/C 46-53, 54-61, 62-69, and 70-78) were replaced. Additionally, a chimera was generated in which the entire wrist region (A/C 46-78) was changed from activin-A to activin-C. The chimeras were assessed for ActRII binding, activin bioactivity, as well as antagonistic properties. All five chimeras retained high affinity for mouse ActRII. Of these, only A/C 46-78 was devoid of significant activin bioactivity in an A3 Lux reporter assay in 293T cells at concentrations up to 40 nM. A/C 46-53, 54-61, 62-69, and 70-78 showed activity comparable with wild type activin-A. When tested for the ability to antagonize ligands that signal via activin type II receptors, such as activin-A and myostatin, only the A/C 46-78 chimera showed antagonism (IC(50), 1-10 nM). Additionally, A/C 46-78 decreased follicle-stimulating hormone release from the LbetaT2 cell line and rat anterior pituitary cells in primary culture in a concentration-dependent manner. These data indicate that activin residues in the wrist are involved in ALK4-mediated signaling. The activin antagonist A/C 46-78 may be useful for the study and modulation of activin-dependent processes. PMID:16129674

  15. Does Activin Receptor Blockade by Bimagrumab (BYM338) Pose Detrimental Effects on Bone Healing in a Rat Fibula Osteotomy Model?

    PubMed

    Tankó, László B; Goldhahn, Jörg; Varela, Aurore; Lesage, Elisabeth; Smith, Susan Y; Pilling, Andrew; Chivers, Simon

    2016-09-01

    Bimagrumab (BYM338) is a novel fully human monoclonal antibody that exerts strong promyogenic effects on skeletal muscle by blocking activin type II receptors (ActRII). We investigated whether such blockade of ActRII by bimagrumab manifests any detrimental effect on outcomes of bone healing in a rat fibula osteotomy model. Animals (n = 150) were divided into 11 groups and received weekly treatment with either bimagrumab (10 or 100 mg/kg) or vehicle. Progression and outcomes of bone healing were assessed by lateral radiographs in vivo as well as by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), 4-point bending test, and microscopic examination of the excised fibula at Day 29 or later. The radiographic progression of bone healing showed no significant differences between treatment groups in any comparative setting. In 3-month-old animals, pQCT revealed slightly reduced immature callus size and bone mineral content in bimagrumab-treated animals compared with vehicle-treated animals at Day 29 (p < 0.05). There were, however, no differences in mature callus size, bone mineral density, or biomechanical competency. The aforementioned effects on immature callus size were not present when the treatment was initiated 4 weeks post osteotomy or when treating 6-month-old animals. In summary, these findings suggest that there is no major impact of ActRII blockade on overall fracture healing, and delayed treatment initiation can bypass the small and transient effect of the therapy on immature callus formation observed in younger animals. Verification of these findings in humans is the subject of an ongoing clinical trial on elderly hip fracture patients. PMID:27167138

  16. Activin signaling as an emerging target for therapeutic interventions

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchida, Kunihiro; Nakatani, Masashi; Hitachi, Keisuke; Uezumi, Akiyoshi; Sunada, Yoshihide; Ageta, Hiroshi; Inokuchi, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    After the initial discovery of activins as important regulators of reproduction, novel and diverse roles have been unraveled for them. Activins are expressed in various tissues and have a broad range of activities including the regulation of gonadal function, hormonal homeostasis, growth and differentiation of musculoskeletal tissues, regulation of growth and metastasis of cancer cells, proliferation and differentiation of embryonic stem cells, and even higher brain functions. Activins signal through a combination of type I and II transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors. Activin receptors are shared by multiple transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) ligands such as myostatin, growth and differentiation factor-11 and nodal. Thus, although the activity of each ligand is distinct, they are also redundant, both physiologically and pathologically in vivo. Activin receptors activated by ligands phosphorylate the receptor-regulated Smads for TGF-β, Smad2 and 3. The Smad proteins then undergo multimerization with the co-mediator Smad4, and translocate into the nucleus to regulate the transcription of target genes in cooperation with nuclear cofactors. Signaling through receptors and Smads is controlled by multiple mechanisms including phosphorylation and other posttranslational modifications such as sumoylation, which affect potein localization, stability and transcriptional activity. Non-Smad signaling also plays an important role in activin signaling. Extracellularly, follistatin and related proteins bind to activins and related TGF-β ligands, and control the signaling and availability of ligands. The functions of activins through activin receptors are pleiotrophic, cell type-specific and contextual, and they are involved in the etiology and pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. Accordingly, activin signaling may be a target for therapeutic interventions. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on activin signaling and discuss the potential roles of

  17. A myostatin and activin decoy receptor enhances bone formation in mice.

    PubMed

    Bialek, P; Parkington, J; Li, X; Gavin, D; Wallace, C; Zhang, J; Root, A; Yan, G; Warner, L; Seeherman, H J; Yaworsky, P J

    2014-03-01

    Myostatin is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein/transforming growth factor-β (BMP/TGFβ) super-family of secreted differentiation factors. Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle mass as shown by increased muscle mass in myostatin deficient mice. Interestingly, these mice also exhibit increased bone mass suggesting that myostatin may also play a role in regulating bone mass. To investigate the role of myostatin in bone, young adult mice were administered with either a myostatin neutralizing antibody (Mstn-mAb), a soluble myostatin decoy receptor (ActRIIB-Fc) or vehicle. While both myostatin inhibitors increased muscle mass, only ActRIIB-Fc increased bone mass. Bone volume fraction (BV/TV), as determined by microCT, was increased by 132% and 27% in the distal femur and lumbar vertebrae, respectively. Histological evaluation demonstrated that increased BV/TV in both locations was attributed to increased trabecular thickness, trabecular number and bone formation rate. Increased BV/TV resulted in enhanced vertebral maximum compressive force compared to untreated animals. The fact that ActRIIB-Fc, but not Mstn-mAb, increased bone volume suggested that this soluble decoy receptor may be binding a ligand other than myostatin, that plays a role in regulating bone mass. This was confirmed by the significant increase in BV/TV in myostatin deficient mice treated with ActRIIB-Fc. Of the other known ActRIIB-Fc ligands, BMP3 has been identified as a negative regulator of bone mass. However, BMP3 deficient mice treated with ActRIIB-Fc showed similar increases in BV/TV as wild type (WT) littermates treated with ActRIIB-Fc. This result suggests that BMP3 neutralization is not the mechanism responsible for increased bone mass. The results of this study demonstrate that ActRIIB-Fc increases both muscle and bone mass in mice. Therefore, a therapeutic that has this dual activity represents a potential approach for the treatment of frailty. PMID:24333131

  18. Virtual High-Throughput Screening To Identify Novel Activin Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jie; Mishra, Rama K; Schiltz, Gary E; Makanji, Yogeshwar; Scheidt, Karl A; Mazar, Andrew P; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2015-07-23

    Activin belongs to the TGFβ superfamily, which is associated with several disease conditions, including cancer-related cachexia, preterm labor with delivery, and osteoporosis. Targeting activin and its related signaling pathways holds promise as a therapeutic approach to these diseases. A small-molecule ligand-binding groove was identified in the interface between the two activin βA subunits and was used for a virtual high-throughput in silico screening of the ZINC database to identify hits. Thirty-nine compounds without significant toxicity were tested in two well-established activin assays: FSHβ transcription and HepG2 cell apoptosis. This screening workflow resulted in two lead compounds: NUCC-474 and NUCC-555. These potential activin antagonists were then shown to inhibit activin A-mediated cell proliferation in ex vivo ovary cultures. In vivo testing showed that our most potent compound (NUCC-555) caused a dose-dependent decrease in FSH levels in ovariectomized mice. The Blitz competition binding assay confirmed target binding of NUCC-555 to the activin A:ActRII that disrupts the activin A:ActRII complex's binding with ALK4-ECD-Fc in a dose-dependent manner. The NUCC-555 also specifically binds to activin A compared with other TGFβ superfamily member myostatin (GDF8). These data demonstrate a new in silico-based strategy for identifying small-molecule activin antagonists. Our approach is the first to identify a first-in-class small-molecule antagonist of activin binding to ALK4, which opens a completely new approach to inhibiting the activity of TGFβ receptor superfamily members. in addition, the lead compound can serve as a starting point for lead optimization toward the goal of a compound that may be effective in activin-mediated diseases. PMID:26098096

  19. Virtual High-Throughput Screening To Identify Novel Activin Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jie; Mishra, Rama K.; Schiltz, Gary E.; Makanji, Yogeshwar; Scheidt, Karl A.; Mazar, Andrew P.; Woodruff, Teresa K.

    2015-01-01

    Activin belongs to the TGFβ superfamily, which is associated with several disease conditions, including cancer-related cachexia, preterm labor with delivery, and osteoporosis. Targeting activin and its related signaling pathways holds promise as a therapeutic approach to these diseases. A small-molecule ligand-binding groove was identified in the interface between the two activin βA subunits and was used for a virtual high-throughput in silico screening of the ZINC database to identify hits. Thirty-nine compounds without significant toxicity were tested in two well-established activin assays: FSHβ transcription and HepG2 cell apoptosis. This screening workflow resulted in two lead compounds: NUCC-474 and NUCC-555. These potential activin antagonists were then shown to inhibit activin A-mediated cell proliferation in ex vivo ovary cultures. In vivo testing showed that our most potent compound (NUCC-555) caused a dose-dependent decrease in FSH levels in ovariectomized mice. The Blitz competition binding assay confirmed target binding of NUCC-555 to the activin A:ActRII that disrupts the activin A:ActRII complex’s binding with ALK4-ECD-Fc in a dose-dependent manner. The NUCC-555 also specifically binds to activin A compared with other TGFβ superfamily member myostatin (GDF8). These data demonstrate a new in silico-based strategy for identifying small-molecule activin antagonists. Our approach is the first to identify a first-in-class small-molecule antagonist of activin binding to ALK4, which opens a completely new approach to inhibiting the activity of TGFβ receptor superfamily members. in addition, the lead compound can serve as a starting point for lead optimization toward the goal of a compound that may be effective in activin-mediated diseases. PMID:26098096

  20. Interaction of disintegrins with the alpha IIb beta 3 receptor on resting and activated human platelets.

    PubMed Central

    McLane, M A; Kowalska, M A; Silver, L; Shattil, S J; Niewiarowski, S

    1994-01-01

    Viper venom disintegrins contain the RGD/KGD motif. They inhibit platelet aggregation and cell adhesion, but show structural and functional heterogeneity. We investigated the interaction of four prototypic disintegrins with alpha IIb beta 3 expressed on the surface of resting and activated platelets. The binding affinity (Kd) of 125I-albolabrin, 125I-echistatin, 125I-bitistatin and 125I-eristostatin toward resting platelets was 294, 153, 48 and 18 nM respectively. The Kd value for albolabrin decreased 3-fold and 6-fold after ADP- or thrombin-induced activation. The Kd values for bitistatin and echistatin also decreased with ADP, but there was no further decrease with thrombin. In contrast, eristostatin bound with the same high affinity to resting and activated platelets. The pattern of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-eristostatin and FITC-albolabrin binding to resting and activated platelets was consistent with observations using radiolabelled material. Eristostatin showed faster and more irreversible binding to platelets, and greater potency compared with albolabrin in inducing conformational neo-epitopes in beta 3. The anti-alpha IIb beta 3 monoclonal antibody OP-G2 that is RGD-dependent inhibited disintegrin binding to activated platelets more strongly than binding to resting platelets and it inhibited the binding to platelets of albolabrin more strongly than eristostatin. The specificity of disintegrin interaction with alpha IIb beta 3 was confirmed by demonstrating cross-linking of these peptides to alpha IIb beta 3 on normal platelets, but not to thrombasthenic platelets deficient in alpha IIb beta 3. Images Figure 6 PMID:8042985

  1. Activins and follistatins: Emerging roles in liver physiology and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kreidl, Emanuel; Öztürk, Deniz; Metzner, Thomas; Berger, Walter; Grusch, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Activins are secreted proteins belonging to the TGF-β family of signaling molecules. Activin signals are crucial for differentiation and regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in multiple tissues. Signal transduction by activins relies mainly on the Smad pathway, although the importance of crosstalk with additional pathways is increasingly being recognized. Activin signals are kept in balance by antagonists at multiple levels of the signaling cascade. Among these, follistatin and FLRG, two members of the emerging family of follistatin-like proteins, can bind secreted activins with high affinity, thereby blocking their access to cell surface-anchored activin receptors. In the liver, activin A is a major negative regulator of hepatocyte proliferation and can induce apoptosis. The functions of other activins expressed by hepatocytes have yet to be more clearly defined. Deregulated expression of activins and follistatin has been implicated in hepatic diseases including inflammation, fibrosis, liver failure and primary cancer. In particular, increased follistatin levels have been found in the circulation and in the tumor tissue of patients suffering from hepatocellular carcinoma as well as in animal models of liver cancer. It has been argued that up-regulation of follistatin protects neoplastic hepatocytes from activin-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis. The use of follistatin as biomarker for liver tumor development is impeded, however, due to the presence of elevated follistatin levels already during preceding stages of liver disease. The current article summarizes our evolving understanding of the multi-faceted activities of activins and follistatins in liver physiology and cancer. PMID:21160961

  2. Platelet GP IIb-IIIa Receptor Antagonists in Primary Angioplasty: Back to the Future.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Giuseppe; Savonitto, Stefano; van't Hof, Arnoud W J; Suryapranata, Harry

    2015-07-01

    Coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction still represent the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. Therefore, great efforts have been made in the last decades to improve reperfusion strategies and adjunctive antithrombotic therapies. In fact, despite optimal epicardial recanalisation, a large proportion of patients still experience impaired reperfusion and in-stent thrombosis. The adjunctive use of glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa inhibitors may certainly contribute in the reduction of such complications, especially when administered in the early phase of infarction. In fact, in this phase a larger platelet composition of the thrombus and the presence of a larger amount of viable myocardium, as compared to a delayed phase, may increase the benefits from this therapy and counterbalance the potential higher risk of bleeding. A large body of evidence has been accumulated on the benefits from GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors in terms of prevention of stent thrombosis, and benefits in mortality, especially among high-risk patients and as upstream strategy. Therefore, based on current available data, GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors can be recommended as early as possible (upstream strategy) among high-risk patients, such as those with advanced Killip class or anterior myocardial infarction (MI), and those presenting within the first three hours. Even though it is not universally accepted, in our opinion this strategy should be implemented in a pre-hospital setting (in ambulance) or at first hospital admission (Emergency Room or Coronary Care Unit, irrespective of whether they are in the spoke or hub hospitals). Peri-procedural intracoronary administration of GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors has not provided additional benefits as compared to intravenous administration and therefore cannot be recommended. Even though the vast majority of trials have been conducted with abciximab, several meta-analyses comparing small molecules (mainly high-dose tirofiban rather than eptifibatide

  3. Activin A balance regulates epithelial invasiveness and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Le Bras, Grégoire F.; Loomans, Holli A.; Taylor, Chase; Revetta, Frank; Andl, Claudia D.

    2015-01-01

    Activin A is a member of the TGFβ superfamily. Activin A and TGFβ have multiple common downstream targets and have been described to merge in their intracellular signaling cascades and function. We have previously demonstrated that coordinated loss of E-cadherin and TGFβ receptor II results in epithelial cell invasion. When grown in three-dimensional organotypic reconstruct cultures, esophageal keratinocytes expressing dominant-negative mutants of E-cadherin and TGFβ receptor II showed activated Smad2 in the absence of functional TGFβ receptor II. However, we could show increased levels of Activin A secretion, and Activin A was able to induce Smad2 phosphorylation. Growth factor secretion can activate autocrine and paracrine signaling, which affects crosstalk between the epithelial compartment and the surrounding microenvironment. We show that treatment with the Act A antagonist Follistatin or with a neutralizing Activin A antibody can increase cell invasion in organotypic cultures in a fibroblast- and MMP-dependent manner. Similarly, suppression of Activin A with shRNA increases cell invasion and tumorigenesis in vivo. Therefore, we conclude that maintaining a delicate balance of Activin A expression is critical for homeostasis in the esophageal microenvironment. PMID:25068654

  4. Selective Deletion of Leptin Receptors in Gonadotropes Reveals Activin and GnRH-Binding Sites as Leptin Targets in Support of Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Noor; CarlLee, Tyler; Syed, Mohsin M.; Odle, Angela K.; Cozart, Michael A.; Haney, Anessa C.; Allensworth-James, Melody L.; Beneš, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The adipokine, leptin (LEP), is a hormonal gateway, signaling energy stores to appetite-regulatory neurons, permitting reproduction when stores are sufficient. Dual-labeling for LEP receptors (LEPRs) and gonadotropins or GH revealed a 2-fold increase in LEPR during proestrus, some of which was seen in LH gonadotropes. We therefore investigated LEPR functions in gonadotropes with Cre-LoxP technology, deleting the signaling domain of the LEPR (Lepr-exon 17) with Cre-recombinase driven by the rat LH-β promoter (Lhβ-cre). Selectivity of the deletion was validated by organ genotyping and lack of LEPR and responses to LEP by mutant gonadotropes. The mutation had no impact on growth, body weight, the timing of puberty, or pregnancy. Mutant females took 36% longer to produce their first litter and had 50% fewer pups/litter. When the broad impact of the loss of gonadotrope LEPR on all pituitary hormones was studied, mutant diestrous females had reduced serum levels of LH (40%), FSH (70%), and GH (54%) and mRNA levels of Fshβ (59%) and inhibin/activin β A and β B (25%). Mutant males had reduced serum levels of GH (74%), TSH (31%), and prolactin (69%) and mRNA levels of Gh (31%), Ghrhr (30%), Fshβ (22%), and glycoprotein α-subunit (Cga) (22%). Serum levels of LEP and ACTH and mRNA levels of Gnrhr were unchanged. However, binding to GnRH receptors was reduced in LEPR-null LH or FSH gonadotropes by 82% or 89%, respectively, in females (P < .0001) and 27% or 53%, respectively, in males (P < .03). This correlated with reductions in GnRH receptor protein immunolabeling, suggesting that LEP's actions may be posttranscriptional. Collectively, these studies highlight the importance of LEP to gonadotropes with GnRH-binding sites and activin as potential targets. LEP may modulate population growth, adjusting the number of offspring to the availability of food supplies. PMID:25057790

  5. Activins and activin antagonists in the prostate and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Gold, Elspeth; Risbridger, Gail

    2012-08-15

    Activins are members of the TGF-β super-family. There are 4 mammalian activin subunits (β(A), β(B), β(C) and β(E)) that combine to form functional proteins. The role of activin A (β(A)β(A)) is well characterized and known to be a potent growth and differentiation factor. Two of the activin subunits (β(C) and β(E)) were discovered more recently and little is known about their biological functions. In this review the evidence that activin-β(C) is a significant regulator of activin A bioactivity is presented and discussed. It is concluded that activin-β(C), like other antagonists of activin A, is an important growth regulator in prostate health and disease. PMID:21787836

  6. Ligand trap for the activin type IIA receptor protects against vascular disease and renal fibrosis in mice with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Agapova, Olga A; Fang, Yifu; Sugatani, Toshifumi; Seifert, Michael E; Hruska, Keith A

    2016-06-01

    The causes of cardiovascular mortality associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are partly attributed to the CKD-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The causes of the early CKD-MBD are not well known. Our discovery of Wnt (portmanteau of wingless and int) inhibitors, especially Dickkopf 1, produced during renal repair as participating in the pathogenesis of the vascular and skeletal components of the CKD-MBD implied that additional pathogenic factors are critical. In the search for such factors, we studied the effects of activin receptor type IIA (ActRIIA) signaling by using a ligand trap for the receptor, RAP-011 (a soluble extracellular domain of ActRIIA fused to a murine IgG-Fc fragment). In a mouse model of CKD that stimulated atherosclerotic calcification, RAP-011 significantly increased aortic ActRIIA signaling assessed by the levels of phosphorylated Smad2/3. Furthermore, RAP-011 treatment significantly reversed CKD-induced vascular smooth muscle dedifferentiation as assessed by smooth muscle 22α levels, osteoblastic transition, and neointimal plaque calcification. In the diseased kidneys, RAP-011 significantly stimulated αklotho levels and it inhibited ActRIIA signaling and decreased renal fibrosis and proteinuria. RAP-011 treatment significantly decreased both renal and circulating Dickkopf 1 levels, showing that Wnt activation was downstream of ActRIIA. Thus, ActRIIA signaling in CKD contributes to the CKD-MBD and renal fibrosis. ActRIIA signaling may be a potential therapeutic target in CKD. PMID:27165838

  7. Activin receptor-like kinase5 inhibition suppresses mouse melanoma by ubiquitin degradation of Smad4, thereby derepressing eomesodermin in cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jeong-Hwan; Jung, Su Myung; Park, Seok Hee; Kato, Mitsuyasu; Yamashita, Tadashi; Lee, In-Kyu; Sudo, Katsuko; Nakae, Susumu; Han, Jin Soo; Kim, Ok-Hee; Oh, Byung-Chul; Sumida, Takayuki; Kuroda, Masahiko; Ju, Ji-Hyeon; Jung, Kyeong Cheon; Park, Seong Hoe; Kim, Dae-Kee; Mamura, Mizuko

    2013-01-01

    Varieties of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) antagonists have been developed to intervene with excessive TGF-β signalling activity in cancer. Activin receptor-like kinase5 (ALK5) inhibitors antagonize TGF-β signalling by blocking TGF-β receptor-activated Smad (R-Smad) phosphorylation. Here we report the novel mechanisms how ALK5 inhibitors exert a therapeutic effect on a mouse B16 melanoma model. Oral treatment with a novel ALK5 inhibitor, EW-7197 (2.5 mg/kg daily) or a representative ALK5 inhibitor, LY-2157299 (75 mg/kg bid) suppressed the progression of melanoma with enhanced cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. Notably, ALK5 inhibitors not only blocked R-Smad phosphorylation, but also induced ubiquitin-mediated degradation of the common Smad, Smad4 mainly in CD8+ T cells in melanoma-bearing mice. Accordingly, T-cell-specific deletion of Smad4 was sufficient to suppress the progression of melanoma. We further identified eomesodermin (Eomes), the T-box transcription factor regulating CTL functions, as a specific target repressed by TGF-β via Smad4 and Smad3 in CD8+ T cells. Thus, ALK5 inhibition enhances anti-melanoma CTL responses through ubiquitin-mediated degradation of Smad4 in addition to the direct inhibitory effect on R-Smad phosphorylation. PMID:24127404

  8. Activin receptor-like kinase5 inhibition suppresses mouse melanoma by ubiquitin degradation of Smad4, thereby derepressing eomesodermin in cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeong-Hwan; Jung, Su Myung; Park, Seok Hee; Kato, Mitsuyasu; Yamashita, Tadashi; Lee, In-Kyu; Sudo, Katsuko; Nakae, Susumu; Han, Jin Soo; Kim, Ok-Hee; Oh, Byung-Chul; Sumida, Takayuki; Kuroda, Masahiko; Ju, Ji-Hyeon; Jung, Kyeong Cheon; Park, Seong Hoe; Kim, Dae-Kee; Mamura, Mizuko

    2013-11-01

    Varieties of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) antagonists have been developed to intervene with excessive TGF-β signalling activity in cancer. Activin receptor-like kinase5 (ALK5) inhibitors antagonize TGF-β signalling by blocking TGF-β receptor-activated Smad (R-Smad) phosphorylation. Here we report the novel mechanisms how ALK5 inhibitors exert a therapeutic effect on a mouse B16 melanoma model. Oral treatment with a novel ALK5 inhibitor, EW-7197 (2.5 mg/kg daily) or a representative ALK5 inhibitor, LY-2157299 (75 mg/kg bid) suppressed the progression of melanoma with enhanced cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. Notably, ALK5 inhibitors not only blocked R-Smad phosphorylation, but also induced ubiquitin-mediated degradation of the common Smad, Smad4 mainly in CD8(+) T cells in melanoma-bearing mice. Accordingly, T-cell-specific deletion of Smad4 was sufficient to suppress the progression of melanoma. We further identified eomesodermin (Eomes), the T-box transcription factor regulating CTL functions, as a specific target repressed by TGF-β via Smad4 and Smad3 in CD8(+) T cells. Thus, ALK5 inhibition enhances anti-melanoma CTL responses through ubiquitin-mediated degradation of Smad4 in addition to the direct inhibitory effect on R-Smad phosphorylation. PMID:24127404

  9. FOXL2-induced follistatin attenuates activin A-stimulated cell proliferation in human granulosa cell tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jung-Chien; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Qiu, Xin; Fang, Lanlan; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Activin A stimulates cell proliferation in KGN human granulosa cell tumor-derived cell line. •Cyclin D2 mediates activin A-induced KGN cell proliferation. •FOXL2 induces follistatin expression in KGN cells. •FOXL2-induced follistatin attenuates activin A-stimulated KGN cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Human granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are rare, and their etiology remains largely unknown. Recently, the FOXL2 402C > G (C134W) mutation was found to be specifically expressed in human adult-type GCTs; however, its function in the development of human GCTs is not fully understood. Activins are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, which has been shown to stimulate normal granulosa cell proliferation; however, little is known regarding the function of activins in human GCTs. In this study, we examined the effect of activin A on cell proliferation in the human GCT-derived cell line KGN. We show that activin A treatment stimulates KGN cell proliferation. Treatment with the activin type I receptor inhibitor SB431542 blocks activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. In addition, our results show that cyclin D2 is induced by treatment with activin A and is involved in activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. Moreover, the activation of Smad signaling is required for activin A-induced cyclin D2 expression. Finally, we show that the overexpression of the wild-type FOXL2 but not the C134W mutant FOXL2 induced follistatin production. Treatment with exogenous follistatin blocks activin A-stimulated cell proliferation, and the overexpression of wild-type FOXL2 attenuates activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. These results suggest that FOXL2 may act as a tumor suppressor in human adult-type GCTs by inducing follistatin expression, which subsequently inhibits activin-stimulated cell proliferation.

  10. The effect of glycoprotein IIIa PIA 1/A2 polymorphism on the PFA-100 response to GP IIb IIa receptor inhibitors-the importance of anticoagulants used.

    PubMed

    Aalto-Setälä, Katriina; Karhunen, Pekka J; Mikkelsson, Jussi; Niemelä, Kari

    2005-08-01

    Antithrombotic drugs including glycoprotein (GP) IIb IIIa receptor inhibitors have significantly reduced ischaemic events in coronary disease. Variability in the response to GP receptor inhibitors has been observed both with healthy individuals and in clinical studies. One single nucleotide polymorphism on GP IIIa (PI(A1/A2)) correlates with increased risk for cardiovascular events in many studies. In this study we investigated whether this polymorphism associates with individual differences in the response to GP IIb IIIa receptor inhibitors in healthy individuals. Fresh blood samples were collected randomly from individuals without a history of coronary disease. Blood samples were anticoagulated with either sodium citrate or with PPACK. The ability of different GP IIb IIIa receptor inhibitors (tirofiban, eptifibatide and abciximab) to inhibit platelet aggregation was investigated using a commercial PFA-100 analyser. At baseline, the function of platelets with different PI(A) genotypes did not differ from each other. With sodium citrate anticoagulated samples, tirofiban prolonged the closure time slightly more rapidly when platelets with PI(A 2 A 2) genotype were used than with other genotypes (p<0.05) both on epinephrine-collagen and ADP-collagen coated membranes. With eptifibatide or abciximab no differences were observed. If an anticoagulant not affecting Ca(2+) concentration (PPACK) was used, no differences were observed between different GP IIIa genotypes and the ability of any of the GP IIb IIIa receptor inhibitors to prolong the closure time. The effect of tirofiban and eptifibatide was significantly affected by the anticoagulant used (p<0.001), whereas abciximab functioned equally regardless of the anticoagulant. Glycoprotein IIIa PI(A2) allele has been found in many studies to associate with risk of thrombosis. In healthy controls the function of GP IIb IIIa receptor inhibitors on platelets with different PI(A) genotypes was modified by anticoagulants used

  11. Structure-Guided Design of a High-Affinity Platelet Integrin αIIbβ3 Receptor Antagonist That Disrupts Mg2+ Binding to the MIDAS

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jieqing; Choi, Won-Seok; McCoy, Joshua G.; Negri, Ana; Zhu, Jianghai; Naini, Sarasija; Li, Jihong; Shen, Min; Huang, Wenwei; Bougie, Daniel; Rasmussen, Mark; Aster, Richard; Thomas, Craig J.; Filizola, Marta; Springer, Timothy A.; Coller, Barry S.

    2012-01-01

    An integrin found on platelets, αIIbβ3 mediates platelet aggregation, and αIIbβ3 antagonists are effective antithrombotic agents in the clinic. Ligands bind to integrins in part by coordinating a magnesium ion (Mg2+) located in the β subunit metal ion–dependent adhesion site (MIDAS). Drugs patterned on the integrin ligand sequence Arg-Gly-Asp have a basic moiety that binds the αIIb subunit and a carboxyl group that coordinates the MIDAS Mg2+ in the β3 subunits. They induce conformational changes in the β3 subunit that may have negative consequences such as exposing previously hidden epitopes and inducing the active conformation of the receptor. We recently reported an inhibitor of αIIbβ3 (RUC-1) that binds exclusively to the αIIb subunit; here, we report the structure-based design and synthesis of RUC-2, a RUC-1 derivative with a ~100-fold higher affinity. RUC-2 does not induce major conformational changes in β3 as judged by monoclonal antibody binding, light scattering, gel chromatography, electron microscopy, and a receptor priming assay. X-ray crystallography of the RUC-2–IIbβ3 headpiece complex in 1 mM calcium ion (Ca2+)/5 mM Mg2+ at 2.6 Å revealed that RUC-2 binds to αIIb the way RUC-1 does, but in addition, it binds to the β3 MIDAS residue glutamic acid 220, thus displacing Mg2+ from the MIDAS. When the Mg2+ concentration was increased to 20 mM, however, Mg2+ was identified in the MIDAS and RUC-2 was absent. RUC-2′s ability to inhibit ligand binding and platelet aggregation was diminished by increasing the Mg2+ concentration. Thus, RUC-2 inhibits ligand binding by a mechanism different from that of all other αIIbβ3 antagonists and may offer advantages as a therapeutic agent. PMID:22422993

  12. Activin Signaling in the Pathogenesis and Therapy of Neuropsychiatric Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Link, Andrea S.; Zheng, Fang; Alzheimer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Activins are members of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) family and serve as multifunctional regulatory proteins in many tissues and organs. In the brain, activin A, which is formed by two disulfide-linked βA subunits, is recognized as the predominant player in activin signaling. Over the last years, considerable progress has been made in elucidating novel and unexpected functions of activin in the normal and diseased brain and in deciphering the underlying molecular mechanisms. Initially identified as a neurotrophic and protective factor during development and in several forms of acute injury, the scope of effects of activin A in the adult central nervous system (CNS) has been considerably broadened by now. Here, we will highlight recent findings that bear significance for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of various neuropsychiatric diseases and might hold promise for novel therapeutic strategies. While the basal level of activin A in the adult brain is low, significant short-term up-regulation occurs in response to increased neuronal activity. In fact, brief exposure to an enriched environment (EE) is already sufficient to considerably strengthen activin signaling. Enhancement of this pathway tunes the performance of glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses in a fashion that impacts on cognitive functions and affective behavior, counteracts death-inducing signals through extrasynaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs), and stimulates adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. We will discuss how impaired activin signaling is involved in anxiety disorders, depression, drug dependence, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, and how reinforcement of activin signaling might be exploited for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27242425

  13. Complete reversal of muscle wasting in experimental cancer cachexia: Additive effects of activin type II receptor inhibition and β-2 agonist.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Míriam; Busquets, Sílvia; Penna, Fabio; Zhou, Xiaolan; Marmonti, Enrica; Betancourt, Angelica; Massa, David; López-Soriano, Francisco J; Han, H Q; Argilés, Josep M

    2016-04-15

    Formoterol is a highly potent β2-adrenoceptor-selective agonist, which is a muscle growth promoter in many animal species. Myostatin/activin inhibition reverses skeletal muscle loss and prolongs survival of tumor-bearing animals. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of a combination of the soluble myostatin receptor ActRIIB (sActRIIB) and the β2-agonist formoterol in the cachectic Lewis lung carcinoma model. The combination of formoterol and sActRIIB was extremely effective in reversing muscle wasting associated with experimental cancer cachexia in mice. Muscle weights from tumor-bearing animals were completely recovered following treatment and this was also reflected in the measured grip strength. This combination increased food intake in both control and tumor-bearing animals. The double treatment also prolonged survival significantly without affecting the weight and growth of the primary tumor. In addition, it significantly reduced the number of metastasis. Concerning the mechanisms for the preservation of muscle mass during cachexia, the effects of formoterol and sActRIIB seemed to be additive, since formoterol reduced the rate of protein degradation (as measured in vitro as tyrosine release, using incubated isolated individual muscles) while sActRIIB only affected protein synthesis (as measured in vivo using tritiated phenylalanine). Formoterol also increased the rate of protein synthesis and this seemed to be favored by the presence of sActRIIB. Combining formoterol and sActRIIB seemed to be a very promising treatment for experimental cancer cachexia. Further studies in human patients are necessary and may lead to a highly effective treatment option for muscle wasting associated with cancer. PMID:26595367

  14. Activin B is produced early in antral follicular development and suppresses thecal androgen production

    PubMed Central

    Young, J M; Henderson, S; Souza, C; Ludlow, H; Groome, N; McNeilly, A S

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the role of activin B during folliculogenesis. This study investigated the expression levels of activin/inhibin subunits (βA, βB, and α), steroid enzyme, and gonadotrophin receptors in theca (TC) and granulosa cells (GC) by QPCR and activin A and B and inhibin A protein levels in follicular fluid (FF) of developing sheep follicles during estrus and anestrus. The effect of activin B on androgen production from primary TC cultures in vitro was also assessed. During folliculogenesis, in anestrus and estrus, FF activin B concentrations and thecal and GC activin βB mRNA levels decreased as follicle diameter increased from 1–3 to >6 mm regardless of estrogenic status. Estrogenic preovulatory follicles had reduced concentrations of FF activins B and A, and TC and GCs expressed higher levels of activin βA mRNA at 3–4 mm, and TCs more inhibin α mRNA at >4 mm stages of development compared with nonestrogenic follicles. Activin B decreased androstenedione production from primary TCs in vitro, an effect blocked by inhibin A. Thus, sheep follicles 1–3 mm in diameter contained high FF levels of activin B, which decreased as the follicle size increased, and, like activin A, suppressed thecal androgen production in vitro, an effect blocked by inhibin. Furthermore, the theca of large estrogenic follicles expressed high levels of inhibin α and activin βA mRNA suggesting local thecal derived inhibin A production. This would inhibit the negative effects of thecal activins B and A ensuring maximum androgen production for enhanced estradiol production by the preovulatory follicle(s). PMID:22450673

  15. Enhanced GABAergic network and receptor function in pediatric cortical dysplasia Type IIB compared with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Carlos; André, Véronique M; Hauptman, Jason S; Yamazaki, Irene; Huynh, My N; Chang, Julia W; Chen, Jane Y; Fisher, Robin S; Vinters, Harry V; Levine, Michael S; Mathern, Gary W

    2012-01-01

    Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) and cortical dysplasia Type IIB (CDIIB) share histopathologic features that suggest similar epileptogenic mechanisms. This study compared the morphological and electrophysiological properties of cortical cells in tissue from pediatric TSC (n=20) and CDIIB (n=20) patients using whole-cell patch clamp recordings and biocytin staining. Cell types were normal-appearing and dysmorphic-cytomegalic pyramidal neurons, interneurons, and giant/balloon cells, including intermediate neuronal-glial cells. In the cortical mantle, giant/balloon cells occurred more frequently in TSC than in CDIIB cases, whereas cytomegalic pyramidal neurons were found more frequently in CDIIB. Cell morphology and membrane properties were similar in TSC and CDIIB cases. Except for giant/balloon and intermediate cells, all neuronal cell types fired action potentials and displayed spontaneous postsynaptic currents. However, the frequency of spontaneous glutamatergic postsynaptic currents in normal pyramidal neurons and interneurons was significantly lower in CDIIB compared with TSC cases and the GABAergic activity was higher in all neuronal cell types in CDIIB. Further, acutely dissociated pyramidal neurons displayed higher sensitivity to exogenous application of GABA in CDIIB compared with TSC cases. These results indicate that, in spite of similar histopathologic features and basic cell membrane properties, TSC and CDIIB display differences in the topography of abnormal cells, excitatory and inhibitory synaptic network properties, and GABA(A) receptor sensitivity. These differences support the notion that the mechanisms of epileptogenesis could differ in patients with TSC and CDIIB. Consequently, pharmacologic therapies should take these findings into consideration. PMID:21889982

  16. Ligation of Fc gamma receptor IIB inhibits antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kuan Rong; Zhang, Summer Li-Xin; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Chan, Ying Kai; Chow, Angelia; Lim, Angeline Pei Chiew; Vasudevan, Subhash G; Hanson, Brendon J; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2011-07-26

    The interaction of antibodies, dengue virus (DENV), and monocytes can result in either immunity or enhanced virus infection. These opposing outcomes of dengue antibodies have hampered dengue vaccine development. Recent studies have shown that antibodies neutralize DENV by either preventing virus attachment to cellular receptors or inhibiting viral fusion intracellularly. However, whether the antibody blocks attachment or fusion, the resulting immune complexes are expected to be phagocytosed by Fc gamma receptor (FcγR)-bearing cells and cleared from circulation. This suggests that only antibodies that are able to block fusion intracellularly would be able to neutralize DENV upon FcγR-mediated uptake by monocytes whereas other antibodies would have resulted in enhancement of DENV replication. Using convalescent sera from dengue patients, we observed that neutralization of the homologous serotypes occurred despite FcγR-mediated uptake. However, FcγR-mediated uptake appeared to be inhibited when neutralized heterologous DENV serotypes were used instead. We demonstrate that this inhibition occurred through the formation of viral aggregates by antibodies in a concentration-dependent manner. Aggregation of viruses enabled antibodies to cross-link the inhibitory FcγRIIB, which is expressed at low levels but which inhibits FcγR-mediated phagocytosis and hence prevents antibody-dependent enhancement of DENV infection in monocytes. PMID:21746897

  17. Exercise restores decreased physical activity levels and increases markers of autophagy and oxidative capacity in myostatin/activin-blocked mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Hulmi, Juha J; Oliveira, Bernardo M; Silvennoinen, Mika; Hoogaars, Willem M H; Pasternack, Arja; Kainulainen, Heikki; Ritvos, Olli

    2013-07-15

    The importance of adequate levels of muscle size and function and physical activity is widely recognized. Myostatin/activin blocking increases skeletal muscle mass but may decrease muscle oxidative capacity and can thus be hypothesized to affect voluntary physical activity. Soluble activin receptor IIB (sActRIIB-Fc) was produced to block myostatin/activins. Modestly dystrophic mdx mice were injected with sActRIIB-Fc or PBS with or without voluntary wheel running exercise for 7 wk. Healthy mice served as controls. Running for 7 wk attenuated the sActRIIB-Fc-induced increase in body mass by decreasing fat mass. Running also enhanced/restored the markers of muscle oxidative capacity and autophagy in mdx mice to or above the levels of healthy mice. Voluntary running activity was decreased by sActRIIB-Fc during the first 3-4 wk correlating with increased body mass. Home cage physical activity of mice, quantified from the force plate signal, was decreased by sActRIIB-Fc the whole 7-wk treatment in sedentary mice. To understand what happens during the first weeks after sActRIIB-Fc administration, when mice are less active, healthy mice were injected with sActRIIB-Fc or PBS for 2 wk. During the sActRIIB-Fc-induced rapid 2-wk muscle growth period, oxidative capacity and autophagy were reduced, which may possibly explain the decreased running activity. These results show that increased muscle size and decreased markers of oxidative capacity and autophagy during the first weeks of myostatin/activin blocking are associated with decreased voluntary activity levels. Voluntary exercise in dystrophic mice enhances the markers of oxidative capacity and autophagy to or above the levels of healthy mice. PMID:23695214

  18. Muscle protein synthesis, mTORC1/MAPK/Hippo signaling, and capillary density are altered by blocking of myostatin and activins.

    PubMed

    Hulmi, Juha J; Oliveira, Bernardo M; Silvennoinen, Mika; Hoogaars, Willem M H; Ma, Hongqiang; Pierre, Philippe; Pasternack, Arja; Kainulainen, Heikki; Ritvos, Olli

    2013-01-01

    Loss of muscle mass and function occurs in various diseases. Myostatin blocking can attenuate muscle loss, but downstream signaling is not well known. Therefore, to elucidate associated signaling pathways, we used the soluble activin receptor IIb (sActRIIB-Fc) to block myostatin and activins in mice. Within 2 wk, the treatment rapidly increased muscle size as expected but decreased capillary density per area. sActRIIB-Fc increased muscle protein synthesis 1-2 days after the treatment correlating with enhanced mTORC1 signaling (phosphorylated rpS6 and S6K1, r = 0.8). Concurrently, increased REDD1 and eIF2Bε protein contents and phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and AMPK was observed. In contrast, proangiogenic MAPK signaling and VEGF-A protein decreased. Hippo signaling has been characterized recently as a regulator of organ size and an important regulator of myogenesis in vitro. The phosphorylation of YAP (Yes-associated protein), a readout of activated Hippo signaling, increased after short- and longer-term myostatin and activin blocking and in exercised muscle. Moreover, dystrophic mdx mice had elevated phosphorylated and especially total YAP protein content. These results show that the blocking of myostatin and activins induce rapid skeletal muscle growth. This is associated with increased protein synthesis and mTORC1 signaling but decreased capillary density and proangiogenic signaling. It is also shown for the first time that Hippo signaling is activated in skeletal muscle after myostatin blocking and exercise and also in dystrophic muscle. This suggests that Hippo signaling may have a role in skeletal muscle in various circumstances. PMID:23115080

  19. Activin Decoy Receptor ActRIIB:Fc Lowers FSH and Therapeutically Restores Oocyte Yield, Prevents Oocyte Chromosome Misalignments and Spindle Aberrations, and Increases Fertility in Midlife Female SAMP8 Mice.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Lori R; Mackenzie, Amelia C L; Lee, Se-Jin; Chaffin, Charles L; Merchenthaler, István

    2016-03-01

    Women of advanced maternal age (AMA) (age ≥ 35) have increased rates of infertility, miscarriages, and trisomic pregnancies. Collectively these conditions are called "egg infertility." A root cause of egg infertility is increased rates of oocyte aneuploidy with age. AMA women often have elevated endogenous FSH. Female senescence-accelerated mouse-prone-8 (SAMP8) has increased rates of oocyte spindle aberrations, diminished fertility, and rising endogenous FSH with age. We hypothesize that elevated FSH during the oocyte's FSH-responsive growth period is a cause of abnormalities in the meiotic spindle. We report that eggs from SAMP8 mice treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) for the period of oocyte growth have increased chromosome and spindle misalignments. Activin is a molecule that raises FSH, and ActRIIB:Fc is an activin decoy receptor that binds and sequesters activin. We report that ActRIIB:Fc treatment of midlife SAMP8 mice for the duration of oocyte growth lowers FSH, prevents egg chromosome and spindle misalignments, and increases litter sizes. AMA patients can also have poor responsiveness to FSH stimulation. We report that although eCG lowers yields of viable oocytes, ActRIIB:Fc increases yields of viable oocytes. ActRIIB:Fc and eCG cotreatment markedly reduces yields of viable oocytes. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that elevated FSH contributes to egg aneuploidy, declining fertility, and poor ovarian response and that ActRIIB:Fc can prevent egg aneuploidy, increase fertility, and improve ovarian response. Future studies will continue to examine whether ActRIIB:Fc works via FSH and/or other pathways and whether ActRIIB:Fc can prevent aneuploidy, increase fertility, and improve stimulation responsiveness in AMA women. PMID:26713784

  20. Activin-A is overexpressed in severe asthma and is implicated in angiogenic processes.

    PubMed

    Samitas, Konstantinos; Poulos, Nikolaos; Semitekolou, Maria; Morianos, Ioannis; Tousa, Sofia; Economidou, Erasmia; Robinson, Douglas S; Kariyawasam, Harsha H; Zervas, Eleftherios; Corrigan, Christopher J; Ying, Sun; Xanthou, Georgina; Gaga, Mina

    2016-03-01

    Activin-A is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates allergic inflammation. Its role in the regulation of angiogenesis, a key feature of airways remodelling in asthma, remains unexplored. Our objective was to investigate the expression of activin-A in asthma and its effects on angiogenesis in vitro.Expression of soluble/immunoreactive activin-A and its receptors was measured in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and endobronchial biopsies from 16 healthy controls, 19 patients with mild/moderate asthma and 22 severely asthmatic patients. In vitro effects of activin-A on baseline and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced human endothelial cell angiogenesis, signalling and cytokine release were compared with BALF concentrations of these cytokines in vivo.Activin-A expression was significantly elevated in serum, BALF and bronchial tissue of the asthmatics, while expression of its protein receptors was reduced. In vitro, activin-A suppressed VEGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis, inducing autocrine production of anti-angiogenic soluble VEGF receptor (R)1 and interleukin (IL)-18, while reducing production of pro-angiogenic VEGFR2 and IL-17. In parallel, BALF concentrations of soluble VEGFR1 and IL-18 were significantly reduced in severe asthmatics in vivo and inversely correlated with angiogenesis.Activin-A is overexpressed and has anti-angiogenic effects in vitro that are not propagated in vivo, where reduced basal expression of its receptors is observed particularly in severe asthma. PMID:26869672

  1. Activin Receptor-Like Kinase Receptors ALK5 and ALK1 Are Both Required for TGFβ-Induced Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Kroon, Laurie M. G.; Narcisi, Roberto; Blaney Davidson, Esmeralda N.; Cleary, Mairéad A.; van Beuningen, Henk M.; Koevoet, Wendy J. L. M.; van Osch, Gerjo J. V. M.; van der Kraan, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are promising for cartilage regeneration because BMSCs can differentiate into cartilage tissue-producing chondrocytes. Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ) is crucial for inducing chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs and is known to signal via Activin receptor-Like Kinase (ALK) receptors ALK5 and ALK1. Since the specific role of these two TGFβ receptors in chondrogenesis is unknown, we investigated whether ALK5 and ALK1 are expressed in BMSCs and whether both receptors are required for chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Materials & Methods ALK5 and ALK1 gene expression in human BMSCs was determined with RT-qPCR. To induce chondrogenesis, human BMSCs were pellet-cultured in serum-free chondrogenic medium containing TGFβ1. Chondrogenesis was evaluated by aggrecan and collagen type IIα1 RT-qPCR analysis, and histological stainings of proteoglycans and collagen type II. To overexpress constitutively active (ca) receptors, BMSCs were transduced either with caALK5 or caALK1. Expression of ALK5 and ALK1 was downregulated by transducing BMSCs with shRNA against ALK5 or ALK1. Results ALK5 and ALK1 were expressed in in vitro-expanded as well as in pellet-cultured BMSCs from five donors, but mRNA levels of both TGFβ receptors did not clearly associate with chondrogenic induction. TGFβ increased ALK5 and decreased ALK1 gene expression in chondrogenically differentiating BMSC pellets. Neither caALK5 nor caALK1 overexpression induced cartilage matrix formation as efficient as that induced by TGFβ. Moreover, short hairpin-mediated downregulation of either ALK5 or ALK1 resulted in a strong inhibition of TGFβ-induced chondrogenesis. Conclusion ALK5 as well as ALK1 are required for TGFβ-induced chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and TGFβ not only directly induces chondrogenesis, but also modulates ALK5 and ALK1 receptor signaling in BMSCs. These results imply that optimizing cartilage formation by

  2. Regulation of FSHβ induction in LβT2 cells by BMP2 and an Activin A/BMP2 chimera, AB215.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Woo; Ahn, Chihoon; Shim, Sun Young; Gray, Peter C; Kwiatkowski, Witek; Choe, Senyon

    2014-10-01

    Activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) share activin type 2 signaling receptors but utilize different type 1 receptors and Smads. We designed AB215, a potent BMP2-like Activin A/BMP2 chimera incorporating the high-affinity type 2 receptor-binding epitope of Activin A. In this study, we compare the signaling properties of AB215 and BMP2 in HEK293T cells and gonadotroph LβT2 cells in which Activin A and BMP2 synergistically induce FSHβ. In HEK293T cells, AB215 is more potent than BMP2 and competitively blocks Activin A signaling, while BMP2 has a partial blocking activity. Activin A signaling is insensitive to BMP pathway antagonism in HEK293T cells but is strongly inhibited by constitutively active (CA) BMP type 1 receptors. By contrast, the potencies of AB215 and BMP2 are indistinguishable in LβT2 cells and although AB215 blocks Activin A signaling, BMP2 has no inhibitory effect. Unlike HEK293T, Activin A signaling is strongly inhibited by BMP pathway antagonism in LβT2 cells but is largely unaffected by CA BMP type 1 receptors. BMP2 increases phospho-Smad3 levels in LβT2 cells, in both the absence and the presence of Activin A treatment, and augments Activin A-induced FSHβ. AB215 has the opposite effect and sharply decreases basal phospho-Smad3 levels and blocks Smad2 phosphorylation and FSHβ induction resulting from Activin A treatment. These findings together demonstrate that while AB215 activates the BMP pathway, it has opposing effects to those of BMP2 on FSHβ induction in LβT2 cells apparently due to its ability to block Activin A signaling. PMID:25100748

  3. Identification of a point mutation in type IIB von Willebrand disease illustrating the regulation of von Willebrand factor affinity for the platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib-IX receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Ware, J; Dent, J A; Azuma, H; Sugimoto, M; Kyrle, P A; Yoshioka, A; Ruggeri, Z M

    1991-01-01

    von Willebrand factor (vWF) supports platelet adhesion on thrombogenic surfaces by binding to platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib in the GP Ib-IX receptor complex. This interaction is physiologically regulated so that it does not occur between circulating vWF and platelets but, rather, only at a site of vascular injury. The abnormal vWF found in type IIB von Willebrand disease, however, has a characteristically increased affinity for GP Ib and binds to circulating platelets. We have analyzed the molecular basis of this abnormality by sequence analysis of a type IIB vWF cDNA and have identified a single amino acid change, Trp550 to Cys550, located in the GP Ib-binding domain of the molecule comprising residues 449-728. Bacterial expression of recombinant fragments corresponding to this vWF domain yielded molecules that, whether containing a normal Trp550 or a mutant Cys550 residue, bound directly to GP Ib in the absence of modulators and with similar affinity. In contrast, mammalian cell expression of the same segment of sequence yielded molecules that, when containing the normal Trp550, did not bind to GP Ib directly but, like native vWF, bound in the presence of ristocetin. However, molecules containing the point mutation (Cys550) behaved like type IIB vWF--namely, bound to GP Ib even without ristocetin modulation and, in the presence of ristocetin, had 10-fold higher affinity than molecules with normal sequence. These results identify a region of vWF that, although not thought to be directly involved in binding to GP Ib, may modulate the interaction through conformational changes. Images PMID:2011604

  4. Structure–activity correlations of variant forms of the B pentamer of Escherichia coli type II heat-labile enterotoxin LT-IIb with Toll-like receptor 2 binding

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, Vivian; Pace, Jim; Nawar, Hesham F.; King-Lyons, Natalie; Liang, Shuang; Connell, Terry D.; Hajishengallis, George

    2012-12-01

    Structural data for the S74D variant of the pentameric B subunit of type II heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli reveal a smaller pore opening that may explain its reduced Toll-like receptor binding affinity compared to that of the wild type enterotoxin. The explanation for the enhanced Toll-like receptor binding affinity of the S74A variant is more complex than simply being attributed to the pore opening. The pentameric B subunit of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LT-IIb-B{sub 5}) is a potent signaling molecule capable of modulating innate immune responses. It has previously been shown that LT-IIb-B{sub 5}, but not the LT-IIb-B{sub 5} Ser74Asp variant [LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74D)], activates Toll-like receptor (TLR2) signaling in macrophages. Consistent with this, the LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74D) variant failed to bind TLR2, in contrast to LT-IIb-B{sub 5} and the LT-IIb-B{sub 5} Thr13Ile [LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(T13I)] and LT-IIb-B{sub 5} Ser74Ala [LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74A)] variants, which displayed the highest binding activity to TLR2. Crystal structures of the Ser74Asp, Ser74Ala and Thr13Ile variants of LT-IIb-B{sub 5} have been determined to 1.90, 1.40 and 1.90 Å resolution, respectively. The structural data for the Ser74Asp variant reveal that the carboxylate side chain points into the pore, thereby reducing the pore size compared with that of the wild-type or the Ser74Ala variant B pentamer. On the basis of these crystallographic data, the reduced TLR2-binding affinity of the LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74D) variant may be the result of the pore of the pentamer being closed. On the other hand, the explanation for the enhanced TLR2-binding activity of the LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74A) variant is more complex as its activity is greater than that of the wild-type B pentamer, which also has an open pore as the Ser74 side chain points away from the pore opening. Data for the LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(T13I) variant show that four of the five variant side chains point to the outside

  5. Identification of a point mutation in type IIB von Willebrand disease illustrating the regulation of von Willebrand factor affinity for the platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib-IX receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, J.; Dent, J.A.; Azuma, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Mitsuhiko; Kyrle, P.A.; Yoshioka, Akira; Ruggeri, Z.M. )

    1991-04-01

    von Willebrand factor (vWF) supports platelet adhesion on thrombogenic surfaces by binding to platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib in the GP Ib-IX receptor complex. This interaction is physiologically regulated so that it does not occur between circulating vWF and platelets but, rather, only at a site of vascular injury. The abnormal vWF found in type IIB von Willebrand disease, however, has a characteristically increased affinity for GP Ib and binds to circulating platelets. The authors have analyzed the molecular basis of this abnormality by sequence analysis of a type IIB vWF cDNA and have identified a single amino acid change, Trp{sup 550} to Cys{sup 550}, located in the GP IB-binding domain of the molecule comprising residues 449-728. Bacterial expression of recombinant fragments corresponding to this vWF domain yielded molecules that, whether containing a normal Trp{sup 550} or a mutant Cys{sup 550} residue, bound directly to GP Ib in the absence of modulators and with similar affinity. These results identify a region of vWF that, although not thought to be directly involved in binding to GP Ib, may modulate the interaction through conformational changes.

  6. A novel 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-activin A pathway in human alveolar macrophages is dysfunctional in patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP).

    PubMed

    Barna, Barbara P; Malur, Anagha; Dalrymple, Heidi; Karnekar, Reema; Culver, Daniel A; Abraham, Susamma; Singh, Ravinder J; Brescia, Donald; Kavuru, Mani S; Thomassen, Mary Jane

    2009-01-01

    We have shown that activin A, a cytokine implicated in regulating B-cell proliferation, is severely deficient in alveolar macrophages from patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), an autoimmune disorder characterized by surfactant accumulation and neutralizing autoantibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Mechanisms of activin regulation in alveolar macrophages are not well understood. Based on previous gene array results from PAP bronchoalveolar lavage cells suggesting deficiencies in vitamin D target genes, and on recent evidence of vitamin D receptor elements (VDREs) in the human activin A gene promoter, we investigated the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (vitamin D(3)) on activin A expression in alveolar macrophages from healthy individuals and PAP patients. Activin A expression was stimulated by LPS in cultures of either healthy control or PAP alveolar macrophages; in contrast, vitamin D(3) increased activin A only in healthy controls but not in PAP. Compared to healthy controls, freshly obtained (uncultured) PAP alveolar macrophages displayed healthy intrinsic vitamin D receptor expression but deficient expression of vitamin D target genes, cathelicidin and thioredoxin interacting protein. PAP patients also demonstrated a relative insufficiency of circulating vitamin D. Investigation of activin A in murine alveolar macrophages confirmed a lack of functional response to vitamin D as anticipated since murine activin A does not contain VDREs. Results suggest that mechanisms of activin A deficiency in PAP alveolar macrophages may involve dysregulation of a novel species-specific vitamin D-activin A pathway. PMID:18803071

  7. Cellular distribution of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and B (VEGFB) and VEGF receptors 1 and 2 in focal cortical dysplasia type IIB

    PubMed Central

    Boer, Karin; Troost, Dirk; Spliet, Wim G. M.; van Rijen, Peter C.; Gorter, Jan A.

    2008-01-01

    Members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family are key signaling proteins in the induction and regulation of angiogenesis, both during development and in pathological conditions. However, signaling mediated through VEGF family proteins and their receptors has recently been shown to have direct effects on neurons and glial cells. In the present study, we immunocytochemically investigated the expression and cellular distribution of VEGFA, VEGFB, and their associated receptors (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2) in focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type IIB from patients with medically intractable epilepsy. Histologically normal temporal cortex and perilesional regions displayed neuronal immunoreactivity (IR) for VEGFA, VEGFB, and VEGF receptors (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2), mainly in pyramidal neurons. Weak IR was observed in blood vessels and there was no notable glial IR within the grey and white matter. In all FCD specimens, VEGFA, VEGFB, and both VEGF receptors were highly expressed in dysplastic neurons. IR in astroglial and balloon cells was observed for VEGFA and its receptors. VEGFR-1 displayed strong endothelial staining in FCD. Double-labeling also showed expression of VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFR-1 in cells of the microglia/macrophage lineage. The neuronal expression of both VEGFA and VEGFB, together with their specific receptors in FCD, suggests autocrine/paracrine effects on dysplastic neurons. These autocrine/paracrine effects could play a role in the development of FCD, preventing the death of abnormal neuronal cells. In addition, the expression of VEGFA and its receptors in glial cells within the dysplastic cortex indicates that VEGF-mediated signaling could contribute to astroglial activation and associated inflammatory reactions. PMID:18317782

  8. Aspirin inhibits surface glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, P-selectin, CD63, and CD107a receptor expression on human platelets.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Marcus E; Malinin, Alex I; Bell, Christopher R; Dzhanashvili, Alex; Horowitz, Eric D; Oshrine, Benjamin R; Atar, Dan; Serebruany, Victor L

    2003-04-01

    Platelet inhibition after aspirin therapy reduces the risk for the development of acute coronary syndromes. However, the mechanism by which aspirin affect platelets other than by prostaglandin blockade is unclear. We sought to determine the in vitro effects of aspirin on the surface expression of nine platelet receptors using whole blood flow cytometry. Blood from 24 healthy volunteers was incubated for 30 min with 1.8 and 7.2 mg/l phosphate-buffered saline-diluted acetylsalicylic acid in the presence or absence of apyrase. Platelet serotonin release, and the surface expression of platelet receptors with or without apyrase were determined using the following monoclonal antibodies: anit-CD41 [glycoprotein (GP)IIb/IIIa], CD42b (GPIb), CD62p (P-selectin), CD51/CD61 (vitronectin receptor), CD31 [platelet/endothelial cellular adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1)], CD107a [lysosomal associated membrane protein (LAMP)-1], CD107b (LAMP-2), CD63 (LIMP or LAMP-3), and CD151 (PETA-3). Samples were then immediately fixed with 2% paraformaldehyde, and run on the flow cytometer within 48 h. Aspirin does not affect serotonin release from human platelets. Dose-dependent inhibition of GPIIb/IIIa, P-selectin, CD63, and CD107a receptor expression was observed in the aspirin-treated whole-blood samples. Apyrase potentiates the effects of aspirin, and independently inhibits PECAM-1. In addition to the known effect of irreversibly inhibiting platelet cyclooxygenase-1, thereby blocking thromboxane A(2) synthesis, it appears that aspirin exhibits direct effects on selective major platelet receptors. PMID:12695747

  9. Myostatin/activin pathway antagonism: molecular basis and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Han, H Q; Zhou, Xiaolan; Mitch, William E; Goldberg, Alfred L

    2013-10-01

    Muscle wasting is associated with a wide range of catabolic diseases. This debilitating loss of muscle mass and functional capacity reduces the quality of life and increases the risks of morbidity and mortality. Major progress has been made in understanding the biochemical mechanisms and signaling pathways regulating muscle protein balance under normal conditions and the enhanced protein loss in atrophying muscles. It is now clear that activation of myostatin/activin signaling is critical in triggering the accelerated muscle catabolism that causes muscle loss in multiple disease states. Binding of myostatin and activin to the ActRIIB receptor complex on muscle cell membrane leads to activation of Smad2/3-mediated transcription, which in turn stimulates FoxO-dependent transcription and enhanced muscle protein breakdown via ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy. In addition, Smad activation inhibits muscle protein synthesis by suppressing Akt signaling. Pharmacological blockade of the myostatin/activin-ActRIIB pathway has been shown to prevent or reverse the loss of muscle mass and strength in various disease models including cancer cachexia and renal failure. Moreover, it can markedly prolong the lifespan of animals with cancer-associated muscle loss. Furthermore, inhibiting myostatin/activin actions also improves insulin sensitivity, reduces excessive adiposity, attenuates systemic inflammation, and accelerates bone fracture healing in disease models. Based on these exciting advances, the potential therapeutic benefits of myostatin/activin antagonism are now being tested in multiple clinical settings. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Molecular basis of muscle wasting. PMID:23721881

  10. Structure-guided design of a high-affinity platelet integrin αIIbβ3 receptor antagonist that disrupts Mg²⁺ binding to the MIDAS.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jieqing; Choi, Won-Seok; McCoy, Joshua G; Negri, Ana; Zhu, Jianghai; Naini, Sarasija; Li, Jihong; Shen, Min; Huang, Wenwei; Bougie, Daniel; Rasmussen, Mark; Aster, Richard; Thomas, Craig J; Filizola, Marta; Springer, Timothy A; Coller, Barry S

    2012-03-14

    An integrin found on platelets, α(IIb)β(3) mediates platelet aggregation, and α(IIb)β(3) antagonists are effective antithrombotic agents in the clinic. Ligands bind to integrins in part by coordinating a magnesium ion (Mg(2+)) located in the β subunit metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS). Drugs patterned on the integrin ligand sequence Arg-Gly-Asp have a basic moiety that binds the α(IIb) subunit and a carboxyl group that coordinates the MIDAS Mg(2+) in the β(3) subunits. They induce conformational changes in the β(3) subunit that may have negative consequences such as exposing previously hidden epitopes and inducing the active conformation of the receptor. We recently reported an inhibitor of α(IIb)β(3) (RUC-1) that binds exclusively to the α(IIb) subunit; here, we report the structure-based design and synthesis of RUC-2, a RUC-1 derivative with a ~100-fold higher affinity. RUC-2 does not induce major conformational changes in β(3) as judged by monoclonal antibody binding, light scattering, gel chromatography, electron microscopy, and a receptor priming assay. X-ray crystallography of the RUC-2-α(IIb)β(3) headpiece complex in 1 mM calcium ion (Ca(2+))/5 mM Mg(2+) at 2.6 Å revealed that RUC-2 binds to α(IIb) the way RUC-1 does, but in addition, it binds to the β(3) MIDAS residue glutamic acid 220, thus displacing Mg(2+) from the MIDAS. When the Mg(2+) concentration was increased to 20 mM, however, Mg(2+) was identified in the MIDAS and RUC-2 was absent. RUC-2's ability to inhibit ligand binding and platelet aggregation was diminished by increasing the Mg(2+) concentration. Thus, RUC-2 inhibits ligand binding by a mechanism different from that of all other α(IIb)β(3) antagonists and may offer advantages as a therapeutic agent. PMID:22422993

  11. Activin inhibits telomerase activity in cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Katik, Indzi; Mackenzie-Kludas, Charley; Nicholls, Craig; Jiang, Fang-Xu; Zhou, Shufeng; Li, He; Liu, Jun-Ping

    2009-11-27

    Activin is a pleiotropic cytokine with broad tissue distributions. Recent studies demonstrate that activin-A inhibits cancer cell proliferation with unknown mechanisms. In this report, we demonstrate that recombinant activin-A induces telomerase inhibition in cancer cells. In breast and cervical cancer cells, activin-A resulted in telomerase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Significant inhibition was observed at 10 ng/ml of activin-A, with a near complete inhibition at 80 ng/ml. Consistently, activin-A induced repression of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, with the hTERT gene to be suppressed by 60-80% within 24 h. In addition, activin-A induced a concomitant increase in Smad3 signaling and decrease of the hTERT gene promoter activity in a concentration-dependent fashion. These data suggest that activin-A triggered telomerase inhibition by down-regulating hTERT gene expression is involved in activin-A-induced inhibition of cancer cell proliferation.

  12. The Biology Of Activin: Recent Advances In Structure, Regulation And Function

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yin; Schneyer, Alan L.

    2009-01-01

    Activin was discovered in the 1980’s as a gonadal protein that stimulated FSH release from pituitary gonadotropes and was thought of as a reproductive hormone. In the ensuing decades many additional activities of activin were described and it was found to be produced in a wide variety of cell types at nearly all stages of development. Its signaling and actions are regulated intracellularly as well as by extracellular antagonists. Over the past 5 years a number of important advances have been made that clarify our understanding of the structural basis for signaling and regulation, as well as the biological roles of activin in stem cells, embryonic development, and in adults. These include the crystallization of activin in complex with the activin type II receptor ActRIIB, or with the binding proteins follistatin and follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3), and identification of the activin roles in gonadal sex development, follicle development and luteolysis, in β-cell proliferation and function in the islet, in stem cell self-renewal and differentiation into different cell types, and in immune cells. These advances are reviewed to provide perspective for future studies. PMID:19273500

  13. Activin A, B and AB decrease progesterone production by down-regulating StAR in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Huang, He-Feng; Shi, Feng-Tao; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-09-01

    Activins are homo- or heterodimers of inhibin β subunits that play important roles in the reproductive system. Our previous work has shown that activins A (βAβA), B (βBβB) and AB (βAβB) induce aromatase/estradiol, but suppress StAR/progesterone production in human granulosa-lutein cells. However, the underlying molecular determinants of these effects have not been examined. In this continuing study, we used immortalized human granulosa cells (SVOG) to investigate the effects of activins in regulating StAR/progesterone and the potential mechanisms of action. In SVOG cells, activins A, B and AB produced comparable down-regulation of StAR expression and progesterone production. In addition, all three activin isoforms induced equivalent phosphorylation of both SMAD2 and SMAD3. Importantly, the activin-induced down-regulation of StAR, increase in SMAD2/3 phosphorylation, and decrease in progesterone were abolished by the TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor SB431542. Interestingly, the small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of ALK4 but not ALK5 reversed the activin-induced suppression of StAR. Furthermore, the knockdown of SMAD4 or SMAD2 but not SMAD3 abolished the inhibitory effects of all three activin isoforms on StAR expression. These results provide evidence that activins A, B and AB down-regulate StAR expression and decrease progesterone production in human granulosa cells, likely via an ALK4-mediated SMAD2/SMAD4-dependent pathway. Our findings provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory effects of activins on human granulosa cell steroidogenesis. PMID:26001835

  14. Overexpression of activin-A and -B in malignant mesothelioma – Attenuated Smad3 signaling responses and ERK activation promote cell migration and invasive growth

    SciTech Connect

    Tamminen, Jenni A.; Yin, Miao; Rönty, Mikko; Sutinen, Eva; Pasternack, Arja; Ritvos, Olli; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Koli, Katri

    2015-03-01

    Activin-A and activin-B, members of the TGF-β superfamily, are regulators of reproductive functions, inflammation and wound healing. These dimeric molecules regulate various cellular activities such as proliferation, migration and suvival. Malignant mesothelioma is an asbestos exposure related tumor affecting mainly pleura and it usually has a dismal prognosis. Here, we demonstrate that both activin-A and -B are abundantly expressed in mesothelioma tumor tissue as well as in cultured primary and established mesothelioma cells. Migratory and invasive mesothelioma cells were also found to have attenuated activation of the Smad2/3 pathway in response to activins. Migration and invasive growth of the cells in three-dimentional matrix was prevented by inhibition of activin activity using a soluble activin receptor 2B (sActR2B-Fc). This was associated with decreased ERK activity. Furthermore, migration and invasive growth was significantly inhibited by blocking ERK phosphorylation. Mesothelioma tumors are locally invasive and our results clearly suggest that acivins have a tumor-promoting function in mesothelioma through increasing expression and switching from canonical Smad3 pathway to non-canonical ERK pathway signaling. Blocking activin activity offers a new therapeutic approach for inhibition of mesothelioma invasive growth. - Highlights: • Activin-A and activin-B are highly expressed in mesothelioma. • Mesothelioma cell migration and invasive growth can be blocked with sActR2B. • Activin induced Smad3 activity is attenuated in invasive mesothelioma cells. • Activins induce ERK activity in mesothelioma cells.

  15. The immunoregulatory and fibrotic roles of activin A in allergic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, C L; Rolland, J M; O'Hehir, R E

    2015-01-01

    Activin A, a member of the TGF-β superfamily of cytokines, was originally identified as an inducer of follicle stimulating hormone release, but has since been ascribed roles in normal physiological processes, as an immunoregulatory cytokine and as a driver of fibrosis. In the last 10–15 years, it has also become abundantly clear that activin A plays an important role in the regulation of asthmatic inflammation and airway remodelling. This review provides a brief introduction to the activin A/TGF-β superfamily, focussing on the regulation of receptors and signalling pathways. We examine the contradictory evidence for generalized pro- vs. anti-inflammatory effects of activin A in inflammation, before appraising its role in asthmatic inflammation and airway remodelling specifically by evaluating data from both murine models and clinical studies. We identify key issues to be addressed, paving the way for safe exploitation of modulation of activin A function for treatment of allergic asthma and other inflammatory lung diseases. PMID:25962695

  16. αIIbβ3: structure and function.

    PubMed

    Coller, B S

    2015-06-01

    During the past decade, advanced techniques in structural biology have provided atomic level information on the platelet integrin αIIbβ3 activation mechanism that results in it adopting a high-affinity ligand-binding conformation(s). This review focuses on advances in imaging intact αIIbβ3 in a lipid bilayer in the absence of detergent and new structural insights into the changes in the ligand-binding pocket with receptor activation and ligand binding. It concludes with descriptions of novel therapeutic αIIbβ3 antagonists being developed based on an advanced knowledge of the receptor's structure. PMID:26149019

  17. GP IIb/IIIa Blockade During Peripheral Artery Interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Tepe, Gunnar Wiskirchen, Jakub; Pereira, Philippe; Claussen, Claus D.; Miller, Stephen; Duda, Stephan H.

    2008-01-15

    The activation of the platelet GP IIb/IIIa receptor is the final and common pathway in platelet aggregation. By blocking this receptor, platelet aggregation can be inhibited independently of the stimulus prompted the targeting of this receptor. Several years ago, three drugs have been approved for coronary artery indications. Since that time, there is increasing evidence that GP IIb/IIIa receptor blockade might have also an important role in peripheral arterial intervention. This article summarizes the action and differences of GP Ilb/IIIa receptor inhibitors and its possible indication in peripheral arteries.

  18. A phase I study of the human anti-activin receptor-like kinase 1 antibody PF-03446962 in Asian patients with advanced solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Doi, Toshihiko; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Tae-Min; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Kim, Tae Yong; Ikeda, Masafumi; Yoh, Kiyotaka; Gallo Stampino, Corrado; Hirohashi, Tomoko; Suzuki, Akiyuki; Fujii, Yosuke; Andrew Williams, James; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2016-07-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that ALK-1 signaling mediates a complementary angiogenesis pathway activated upon development of resistance to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted therapies. Inhibition of ALK-1 signaling may lead to disruption of tumor angiogenesis and growth. We report findings from a multicenter, open-label, phase I study of the fully human anti-ALK-1 mAb PF-03446962 conducted in Japan and South Korea, in Asian patients with advanced solid tumors. The dose escalation Part 1 of the study was based on a standard 3 + 3 design (n = 16). In Part 2, patients were treated with PF-03446962 at 7 and 10 mg/kg (10/cohort), including patients with disease progression following prior VEGF receptor (R)-targeted therapy. Primary objectives were determination of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Secondary objectives included safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antitumor activity of PF-03446962. No dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was noted in the 12 DLT-evaluable patients. Treatment was well tolerated. The MTD for biweekly intravenous administration was estimated to be 10 mg/kg and the RP2D 7 mg/kg. Treatment-related grades 1-3 thrombocytopenia was experienced by 27.8% patients. The most frequent nonhematologic treatment-related AEs were grades 1-2 pyrexia and epistaxis. Four patients (3/4 with hepatocellular carcinoma) developed telangiectasia suggesting vascular targeting and in vivo ALK-1 inhibition by PF-03446962. Stable disease for 12 weeks or more was observed in 25.7% of patients and in 44.4% of those with hepatocellular carcinoma. ALK-1 inhibition by PF-03446962 may represent a novel antiangiogenic strategy for patients with advanced solid malignancies complementary to current treatment with VEGF(R)-targeted inhibitors or chemotherapy. PMID:27075560

  19. αIIbβ3: structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Coller, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary During the past decade, advanced techniques in structural biology have provided atomic level information on the platelet integrin αIIbβ3 activation mechanism that results in it adopting a high-affinity ligand-binding conformation(s). This review focuses on advances in imaging intact αIIbβ3 in a lipid bilayer in the absence of detergent and new structural insights into the changes in the ligand-binding pocket with receptor activation and ligand binding. It concludes with descriptions of novel therapeutic αIIbβ3 antagonists being developed based on an advanced knowledge of the receptor’s structure. PMID:26149019

  20. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A) Mediates Activin A-Induced Human Trophoblast Endothelial-Like Tube Formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhu, Hua; Klausen, Christian; Peng, Bo; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-11-01

    Remodeling of maternal spiral arteries during pregnancy requires a subpopulation of extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVTs) to differentiate into endovascular EVTs. Activin A, which is abundantly expressed at the maternal-fetal interface, has been shown to promote trophoblast invasion, but its role in endovascular differentiation remains unknown. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is well recognized as a key regulator in trophoblast endovascular differentiation. Whether and how activin A might regulate VEGF-A production in human trophoblasts and its relationship to endovascular differentiation have yet to be determined. In the present study, we found that activin A increased VEGF-A production in primary and immortalized (HTR8/SVneo) human EVT cells. In addition, activin A enhanced HTR8/SVneo endothelial-like tube formation, and these effects were attenuated by pretreatment with small interfering RNA targeting VEGF-A or the VEGF receptor 1/2 inhibitor SU4312. Pretreatment with the activin/TGF-β type 1 receptor (ALK4/5/7) inhibitor SB431542 abolished the stimulatory effects of activin A on phosphorylated mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD)-2/3 phosphorylation, VEGF-A production, and endothelial-like tube formation. Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated down-regulation of SMAD2, SMAD3, or common SMAD4 abolished the effects of activin A on VEGF-A production and endothelial-like tube formation. In conclusion, activin A may promote human trophoblast cell endothelial-like tube formation by up-regulating VEGF-A production in an SMAD2/3-SMAD4-dependent manner. These findings provide insight into the cellular and molecular events regulated by activin A during human implantation. PMID:26327470

  1. BAFF and APRIL from Activin A-Treated Dendritic Cells Upregulate the Antitumor Efficacy of Dendritic Cells In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Shurin, Michael R; Ma, Yang; Keskinov, Anton A; Zhao, Ruijing; Lokshin, Anna; Agassandian, Marianna; Shurin, Galina V

    2016-09-01

    The members of the TGFβ superfamily play a key role in regulating developmental and homeostasis programs by controlling differentiation, proliferation, polarization, and survival of different cell types. Although the role of TGFβ1 in inflammation and immunity is well evident, the contribution of other TGFβ family cytokines in the modulation of the antitumor immune response remains less documented. Here we show that activin A triggers SMAD2 and ERK1/2 pathways in dendritic cells (DC) expressing type I and II activin receptors, and upregulates production of the TNFα family cytokines BAFF (TALL-1, TNFSF13B) and APRIL (TALL-2, TNFSF13A), which is blocked by SMAD2 and ERK1/2 inhibitors, respectively. BAFF and APRIL derived from activin A-treated DCs upregulate proliferation and survival of T cells expressing the corresponding receptors, BAFF-R and TACI. In vivo, activin A-stimulated DCs demonstrate a significantly increased ability to induce tumor-specific CTLs and inhibit the growth of melanoma and lung carcinoma, which relies on DC-derived BAFF and APRIL, as knockdown of the BAFF and APRIL gene expression in activin A-treated DCs blocks augmentation of their antitumor potential. Although systemic administration of activin A, BAFF, or APRIL for the therapeutic purposes is not likely due to the pluripotent effects on malignant and nonmalignant cells, our data open a novel opportunity for improving the efficacy of DC vaccines. In fact, a significant augmentation of the antitumor activity of DC pretreated with activin A and the proven role of DC-derived BAFF and APRIL in the induction of antitumor immunity in vivo support this direction. Cancer Res; 76(17); 4959-69. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27364554

  2. Activin A-induced increase in LOX activity in human granulosa-lutein cells is mediated by CTGF.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Liu, Yingtao; Klausen, Christian; Xu, Congjian; Leung, Peter C K

    2016-10-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is the key enzyme involved in the crosslinking of collagen and elastin that is essential for the formation of extracellular matrix (ECM). LOX-mediated ECM remodeling plays a critical role in follicle development, oocyte maturation and corpus luteum formation. To date, the regulation of LOX in human ovary has never been elucidated. Activin A and its functional receptors are highly expressed in ovarian follicles from an early developmental stage. They locally regulate follicle progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of activin A on the expression of LOX and its extracellular enzyme activity in primary and immortalized human granulosa-lutein cells obtained from patients undergoing an in vitro fertilization procedure. We demonstrated that activin A significantly upregulated the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and LOX via an activin/TGF-β type I receptor mediated-signaling pathway. Using a target depletion small interfering RNA knockdown approach, we further confirmed that the upregulation of CTGF expression resulted in an activin-A-induced increases in LOX expression and activity. These findings may provide insight into the mechanisms by which intrafollicular growth factors regulate the expression of LOX for ECM formation and tissue remodeling in the human ovary. PMID:27530347

  3. A truncated, activin-induced Smad3 isoform acts as a transcriptional repressor of FSHβ expression in mouse pituitary.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Youn; Zhu, Jie; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2011-08-01

    The receptor-regulated protein Smad3 is key player in the signaling cascade stimulated by the binding of activin to its cell surface receptor. Upon phosphorylation, Smad3 forms a heterocomplex with Smad2 and Smad4, translocates to the nucleus and acts as a transcriptional co-activator. We have identified a unique isoform of Smad3 that is expressed in mature pituitary gonadotropes. 5' RACE revealed that this truncated Smad3 isoform is transcribed from an ATG site within exon 4 and consists of 7 exons encoding half of the linker region and the MH2 region. In pituitary cells, the truncated Smad3 isoform was phosphorylated upon activin treatment, in a manner that was temporally distinct from the phosphorylation of full-length Smad3. Activin-induced phosphorylation of Smad3 and the truncated Smad3 isoform was blocked by both follistatin and siRNA-mediated knockdown of Smad3. The truncated Smad3 isoform antagonized Smad3-mediated, activin-responsive promoter activity. We propose that the pituitary gonadotrope contains an ultra-short, activin-responsive feedback loop utilizing two different isoforms of Smad3, one which acts as an agonist (Smad3) and another that acts as an intracrine antagonist (truncated Smad3 isoform) to regulate FSHβ production. PMID:21664424

  4. Myostatin/activin blocking combined with exercise reconditions skeletal muscle expression profile of mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Kainulainen, Heikki; Papaioannou, Konstantinos G; Silvennoinen, Mika; Autio, Reija; Saarela, Janne; Oliveira, Bernardo M; Nyqvist, Miro; Pasternack, Arja; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Kujala, Urho M; Ritvos, Olli; Hulmi, Juha J

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is characterized by muscle wasting and decreased aerobic metabolism. Exercise and blocking of myostatin/activin signaling may independently or combined counteract muscle wasting and dystrophies. The effects of myostatin/activin blocking using soluble activin receptor-Fc (sActRIIB-Fc) administration and wheel running were tested alone or in combination for 7 weeks in dystrophic mdx mice. Expression microarray analysis revealed decreased aerobic metabolism in the gastrocnemius muscle of mdx mice compared to healthy mice. This was not due to reduced home-cage physical activity, and was further downregulated upon sActRIIB-Fc treatment in enlarged muscles. However, exercise activated pathways of aerobic metabolism and counteracted the negative effects of sActRIIB-Fc. Exercise and sActRIIB-Fc synergistically increased expression of major urinary protein, but exercise blocked sActRIIB-Fc induced phosphorylation of STAT5 in gastrocnemius muscle. In conclusion, exercise alone or in combination with myostatin/activin blocking corrects aerobic gene expression profiles of dystrophic muscle toward healthy wild type mice profiles. PMID:25304272

  5. Activin A secreted by human mesenchymal stem cells induces neuronal development and neurite outgrowth in an in vitro model of Alzheimer's disease: neurogenesis induced by MSCs via activin A.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Eon; Lee, Jeongmin; Chang, Eun Hyuk; Kim, Jong Hwa; Sung, Ji-Hee; Na, Duk L; Chang, Jong Wook

    2016-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive loss of memory in addition to cortical atrophy. Cortical atrophy in AD brains begins in the parietal and temporal lobes, which are near the subventricular zone (SVZ). The aim of this study was to activate the neurogenesis in the SVZ of AD brains by human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Neural stem cells (NSCs) were isolated from SVZ of 4-month-old 5XFAD mice. Co-culture of hMSCs with SVZ-derived NSCs from 5XFAD mice induced neuronal development and neurite outgrowth. To examine the inducing factor of neurogenesis, human cytokine array was performed with co-cultured media, and revealed elevated release of activin A from hMSCs. Also, we confirmed that the mRNA levels of activin A and activin receptor in the SVZ of 5XFAD mice were significantly lower than normal mice. Treatment of human recombinant activin A in SVZ-derived NSCs from 5XFAD mice induced neuronal development and neurite outgrowth. These data suggest that use of hMSCs and activin A to recover neurogenesis in future studies of cortical regeneration to treat AD. PMID:27515053

  6. Identification and expression of Smads associated with TGF-beta/activin/nodal signaling pathways in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynuchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Smad proteins are essential components of the TGF-beta/activin/nodal family signaling pathway. We report the identification and characterization of transcripts representing 3 receptor Smads (Smad2a, Smad2b, Smad3), 2 common Smads (Smad4a, Smad4b) and one inhibitory Smad (Smad7). Phylogenetic an...

  7. Case-Control Study of Platelet Glycoprotein Receptor Ib and IIb/IIIa Expression in Patients with Acute and Chronic Cerebrovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Peter; Drechsler, Christiane; Gunreben, Ignaz; Heuschmann, Peter Ulrich; Kleinschnitz, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Background Animal models have been instrumental in defining thrombus formation, including the role of platelet surface glycoprotein (GP) receptors, in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). However, the involvement of GP receptors in human ischemic stroke pathophysiology and their utility as biomarkers for ischemic stroke risk and severity requires elucidation. Aims To determine whether platelet GPIb and GPIIb/IIIa receptors are differentially expressed in patients with AIS and chronic cerebrovascular disease (CCD) compared with healthy volunteers (HV) and to identify predictors of GPIb and GPIIb/IIIa expression. Methods This was a case—control study of 116 patients with AIS or transient ischemic attack (TIA), 117 patients with CCD, and 104 HV who were enrolled at our University hospital from 2010 to 2013. Blood sampling was performed once in the CCD and HV groups, and at several time points in patients with AIS or TIA. Linear regression and analysis of variance were used to analyze correlations between platelet GPIb and GPIIb/IIIa receptor numbers and demographic and clinical parameters. Results GPIb and GPIIb/IIIa receptor numbers did not significantly differ between the AIS, CCD, and HV groups. GPIb receptor expression level correlated significantly with the magnitude of GPIIb/IIIa receptor expression and the neutrophil count. In contrast, GPIIb/IIIa receptor numbers were not associated with peripheral immune-cell sub-population counts. C-reactive protein was an independent predictor of GPIIb/IIIa (not GPIb) receptor numbers. Conclusions Platelet GPIb and GPIIb/IIIa receptor numbers did not distinguish between patient or control groups in this study, negating their potential use as a biomarker for predicting stroke risk. PMID:25748430

  8. Two highly-related regulatory subunits of PP2A exert opposite effects on TGF-β/Activin/Nodal signalling

    PubMed Central

    Batut, Julie; Schmierer, Bernhard; Cao, Jing; Raftery, Laurel A.; Hill, Caroline S.; Howell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Summary We identify Bα (PPP2R2A) and Bδ (PPP2R2D), two highly-related members of the B family of regulatory subunits of the protein phosphatase PP2A, as important modulators of TGF-β/Activin/Nodal signalling, which affect the pathway in opposite ways. Knockdown of Bα in Xenopus embryos or mammalian tissue culture cells suppresses TGF-β/Activin/Nodal-dependent responses, whereas knockdown of Bδ enhances these responses. Moreover, in Drosophila, overexpression of Smad2 rescues a severe wing phenotype caused by overexpression of the single Drosophila PP2A B subunit, Twins. We show that in vertebrates Bα enhances TGF-β/Activin/Nodal signalling by stabilising the basal levels of type I receptor, whereas Bδ negatively modulates these pathways by restricting receptor activity. Thus, these highly-related members of the same subfamily of PP2A regulatory subunits differentially regulate TGF-β/Activin/Nodal signalling to elicit opposing biological outcomes. PMID:18697906

  9. Serum activin B concentration as predictive biomarker for ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Pooja; Senthilkumar, G P; Rajendiran, Soundravally; Sivaraman, K; Soundararaghavan, S; Kulandhasamy, Maheshwari

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of activin B in discriminating tubal ectopic pregnancy (tEP) from intrauterine miscarriages (IUM), and normal viable intrauterine pregnancy (IUP). We included 28 women with tEP, 31 women with IUM, and 29 normal IUP, confirmed both by clinical examination and ultrasonography. Serum activin B concentration was measured at the time of admission using the ELISA kit. The median serum activin B concentration was found to be significantly decreased in both tEP (p=0.004) and IUM (p=0.022) compared to normal IUP. When compared between tEP and IUM, activin B concentrations did not differ significantly. ROC analysis of activin B and free β-hCG demonstrated AUC of 0.722 and 0.805, respectively to discriminate tEP from viable IUP. The model including both activin B and free β-hCG improved the discriminating potential with greater AUC (0.824), and specificity (93%) than individual one. To discriminate tEP from IUM, activin B, free β-hCG and combination of both performed poorly. We conclude that serum activin B concentration is lower in tubal ectopic pregnancy, and can discriminate it from normal pregnancy with moderate accuracy. It also shows improved diagnostic potential along with free β-hCG, but cannot distinguish tEP from IUM reliably. PMID:26968108

  10. Activin A programs the differentiation of human TFH cells.

    PubMed

    Locci, Michela; Wu, Jennifer E; Arumemi, Fortuna; Mikulski, Zbigniew; Dahlberg, Carol; Miller, Andrew T; Crotty, Shane

    2016-08-01

    Follicular helper T cells (TFH cells) are CD4(+) T cells specialized in helping B cells and are associated both with protective antibody responses and autoimmune diseases. The promise of targeting TFH cells therapeutically has been limited by fragmentary understanding of extrinsic signals that regulate the differentiation of human TFH cells. A screen of a human protein library identified activin A as a potent regulator of TFH cell differentiation. Activin A orchestrated the expression of multiple genes associated with the TFH program, independently or in concert with additional signals. TFH cell programming by activin A was antagonized by the cytokine IL-2. Activin A's ability to drive TFH cell differentiation in vitro was conserved in non-human primates but not in mice. Finally, activin-A-induced TFH programming was dependent on signaling via SMAD2 and SMAD3 and was blocked by pharmacological inhibitors. PMID:27376469

  11. Uric acid: a modulator of prostate cells and activin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sangkop, Febbie; Singh, Geeta; Rodrigues, Ely; Gold, Elspeth; Bahn, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) or urate is associated with inflammation and gout. Recent evidence has linked urate to cancers, but little is known about urate effects in prostate cancer. Activins are inflammatory cytokines and negative growth regulators in the prostate. A hallmark of prostate cancer progression is activin insensitivity; however, mechanisms underlying this are unclear. We propose that elevated SUA is associated with prostate cancer counteracting the growth inhibitory effects of activins. The expression of activins A and B, urate transporter GLUT9 and tissue urate levels were examined in human prostate disease. Intracellular and secreted urate and GLUT9 expression were assessed in human prostate cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the effects of urate and probenecid, a known urate transport inhibitor, were determined in combination with activin A. Activin A expression was increased in low-grade prostate cancer, whereas activin B expression was reduced in high-grade prostate cancer. Intracellular urate levels decreased in all prostate pathologies, while GLUT9 expression decreased in benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis and high-grade prostate cancer. Activin responsive LNCaP cells had higher intracellular and lower secreted urate levels than activin-insensitive PC3 cells. GLUT9 expression in prostate cancer cells was progressively lower than in prostate epithelial cells. Elevated extracellular urate was growth promoting in vitro, which was abolished by the gout medication probenecid, and it antagonized the growth inhibitory effects of activins. This study shows for the first time that a change in plasma or intracellular urate levels, possibly involving GLUT9 and a urate efflux transporter, has an impact on prostate cancer cell growth, and that lowering SUA levels in prostate cancer is likely to be therapeutically beneficial. PMID:26910779

  12. Cloning of Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, and Smad7 from the goldfish pituitary and evidence for their involvement in activin regulation of goldfish FSHbeta promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Lau, Man-Tat; Ge, Wei

    2005-03-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a glycoprotein consisting of an alpha subunit and a unique beta subunit, is essential for gonadal development and function in vertebrates including teleosts. FSH is regulated by a variety of neuroendocrine and endocrine factors, and its biosynthesis is primarily determined by the expression of the beta subunit. Although the regulation of FSH biosynthesis has been well documented in mammals, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation are poorly understood. Our previous studies demonstrated that activin stimulated goldfish FSHbeta expression in the primary pituitary cell culture and enhanced its promoter activity in the mouse gonadotrope cell line LbetaT-2 cells. However, little is known about the signal transduction pathway involved in the transcriptional activation of this gene by activin. To assess the involvement of intracellular signaling protein Smads in regulating goldfish FSHbeta promoter, we first cloned full-length cDNAs for goldfish Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, and Smad7 from the pituitary. All Smads cloned show high sequence conservation with their mammalian counterparts. The spatial expression of these Smads overlapped with that of activin subunits and its receptors in various tissues examined. In addition, we demonstrated that activin induced Smad3 and Smad7 expression, but not Smad2 and Smad4. Co-transfection of Smad2 or Smad3 cDNA into the LbetaT-2 cells with the reporter construct of goldfish FSHbeta promoter significantly enhanced basal and activin-stimulated reporter (SEAP, secreted alkaline phosphatase) expression, while Smad7 completely blocked basal and Smad2/3-stimulated FSHbeta activity. Interestingly, the effect of Smad3 was much higher than that of Smad2, suggesting that Smad3 is likely the principal signal transducing molecule involved in activin stimulation of FSHbeta expression in the goldfish. This work lays a foundation for further analysis of goldfish FSHbeta promoter for the cis-regulatory elements

  13. Ligands to the platelet fibrinogen receptor glycoprotein IIb-IIIa do not affect agonist-induced second messengers Ca2+ or cyclic AMP.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J A; Ashby, B; Daniel, J L

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the platelet glycoprotein complex GPIIb-IIIa, which is the putative fibrinogen receptor, regulates Ca2+ influx into platelets, possibly operating as a Ca2+ channel. We have used RGD-peptides (peptides containing the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp; disintegrins), isolated from snake venoms, that have a high affinity and specificity for the fibrinogen-binding site of GPIIb-IIIa to address the question of whether blocking this site inhibits Ca2+ movement from the extracellular medium to the cytosol. Using fura-2-loaded human platelets, we found that neither disintegrins nor a monoclonal antibody (M148) to the GPIIb-IIIa complex altered the level of cytosolic Ca2+ obtained when the cells were stimulated with various agonists in the presence of either nominal or 1 mM extracellular Ca2+. In the presence of Mn2+, an ion that quenches fura-2 fluorescence, fura-2-loaded platelets were stimulated with thrombin or ADP. Neither disintegrins nor the monoclonal antibody altered the kinetics or the amount of quenching of fura-2 fluorescence by Mn2+. These data indicate that the binding of ligands to the fibrinogen receptor is not associated with an inhibition of Ca2+ movement through a receptor-operated channel. Furthermore, the disintegrins have no effect on platelet cyclic AMP metabolism in either the presence or the absence of phosphodiesterase inhibitors. PMID:2168700

  14. The Interaction of Integrin αIIbβ3 with Fibrin Occurs through Multiple Binding Sites in the αIIb β-Propeller Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Podolnikova, Nataly P.; Yakovlev, Sergiy; Yakubenko, Valentin P.; Wang, Xu; Gorkun, Oleg V.; Ugarova, Tatiana P.

    2014-01-01

    The currently available antithrombotic agents target the interaction of platelet integrin αIIbβ3 (GPIIb-IIIa) with fibrinogen during platelet aggregation. Platelets also bind fibrin formed early during thrombus growth. It was proposed that inhibition of platelet-fibrin interactions may be a necessary and important property of αIIbβ3 antagonists; however, the mechanisms by which αIIbβ3 binds fibrin are uncertain. We have previously identified the γ370–381 sequence (P3) in the γC domain of fibrinogen as the fibrin-specific binding site for αIIbβ3 involved in platelet adhesion and platelet-mediated fibrin clot retraction. In the present study, we have demonstrated that P3 can bind to several discontinuous segments within the αIIb β-propeller domain of αIIbβ3 enriched with negatively charged and aromatic residues. By screening peptide libraries spanning the sequence of the αIIb β-propeller, several sequences were identified as candidate contact sites for P3. Synthetic peptides duplicating these segments inhibited platelet adhesion and clot retraction but not platelet aggregation, supporting the role of these regions in fibrin recognition. Mutant αIIbβ3 receptors in which residues identified as critical for P3 binding were substituted for homologous residues in the I-less integrin αMβ2 exhibited reduced cell adhesion and clot retraction. These residues are different from those that are involved in the coordination of the fibrinogen γ404–411 sequence and from auxiliary sites implicated in binding of soluble fibrinogen. These results map the binding of fibrin to multiple sites in the αIIb β-propeller and further indicate that recognition specificity of αIIbβ3 for fibrin differs from that for soluble fibrinogen. PMID:24338009

  15. Activin A is essential for neurogenesis following neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Abdipranoto-Cowley, Andrea; Park, Jin Sung; Croucher, David; Daniel, James; Henshall, Susan; Galbraith, Sally; Mervin, Kyle; Vissel, Bryce

    2009-06-01

    It has long been proposed that excitotoxicity contributes to nerve cell death in neurodegenerative diseases. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, is expressed by neurons following excitotoxicity. We show for the first time that this activin A expression is essential for neurogenesis to proceed following neurodegeneration. We found that intraventricular infusion of activin A increased the number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 layers of the normal adult hippocampus and also, following lipopolysaccharide administration, had a potent inhibitory effect on gliosis in vivo and on microglial proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Consistent with the role of activin A in regulating central nervous system inflammation and neurogenesis, intraventricular infusion of follistatin, an activin A antagonist, profoundly impaired neurogenesis and increased the number of microglia and reactive astrocytes following onset of kainic acid-induced neurodegeneration. These results show that inhibiting endogenous activin A is permissive for a potent underlying inflammatory response to neurodegeneration. We demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory actions of activin A account for its neurogenic effects following neurodegeneration because co-administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reversed follistatin's inhibitory effects on neurogenesis in vivo. Our work indicates that activin A, perhaps working in conjunction with other transforming growth factor-beta superfamily molecules, is essential for neurogenesis in the adult central nervous system following excitotoxic neurodegeneration and suggests that neurons can regulate regeneration by suppressing the inflammatory response, a finding with implications for understanding and treating acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19489097

  16. A critical role for topoisomerase IIb and DNA double strand breaks in transcription.

    PubMed

    Calderwood, Stuart K

    2016-05-26

    Recent studies have indicated a novel role for topoisomerase IIb in transcription. Transcription of heat shock genes, serum-induced immediate early genes and nuclear receptor-activated genes, each required DNA double strands generated by topoisomerase IIb. Such strand breaks seemed both necessary and sufficient for transcriptional activation. In addition, such transcription was associated with initiation of the DNA damage response pathways, including the activation of the enzymes: ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), DNA-dependent protein kinase and poly (ADP ribose) polymerase 1. DNA damage response signaling was involved both in transcription and in repair of DNA breaks generated by topoisomerase IIb. PMID:27100743

  17. Amino acid sequence and molecular modelling of glycoprotein IIb-IIIa and fibronectin receptor iso-antagonists from Trimeresurus elegans venom.

    PubMed Central

    Scaloni, A; Di Martino, E; Miraglia, N; Pelagalli, A; Della Morte, R; Staiano, N; Pucci, P

    1996-01-01

    Low-molecular-mass Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing polypeptides were isolated from the venom of Trimeresurus elegans by a simple two-step procedure consisting of membrane filtration and reverse-phase HPLC. A combination of electrospray MS, fast-atom bombardment MS and Edman degradation allowed us to ascertain the presence in the venom of different isoforms and to determine their primary structures. The amino acid sequences resembled the structure of elegantin, the only disintegrin previously reported from the T. elegans venom [Williams, Rucinski, Holt and Niewiarowski (1990) Biochim. Biophys, Acta 1039, 81-89]. MS analyses indicated the occurrence of differential proteolytic processing at both the N-terminus and the C-termins of the polypeptide chains. The amino acid sequence alignment of the elegantin isoforms with known components of the disintegrin family demonstrated the complete conservation of the 12 cysteine residues involved in disulphide bridges. Molecular modelling of elegantins predicted an overall folding of these molecules quite similar to that reported for the kistrin solution structure. The newly identified polypeptide isoforms strongly inhibited ADP-induced aggregation in both human and canine platelet-rich plasma but showed a different species-dependent specificity. These molecules were also able to inhibit B16-BL6 murine melanoma cell adhesion to immobilized fibronectin. The comparison of the structures and biological activities of elegantin isoforms and kistrin allowed us to highlight some structural features that, in addition to the RGD locus might be involved in the interaction of these snake-venom polypeptides with the integrin receptors on the platelet and cell surface. PMID:8920980

  18. Interlayer bonding in IIb chlorite

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D.L.; Giese, R.F. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The interlayer bond energy of a IIb-4 chlorite has been calculated as a function of layer charge, the site of the charge and the selective replacement of hydroxyl groups by fluoride ions. Long hydrogen bonds between the hydroxide sheet and the adjacent oxygens are strong and by themselves sufficient to create a stable structure. Coupled substitutions giving the 2:1 layer a negative charge and the hydroxide sheet a positive charge increase substantially the interlayer bond energy. 3 figures.

  19. Activins and inhibins: Novel regulators of thymocyte development

    SciTech Connect

    Licona-Limon, Paula; Aleman-Muench, German; Macias-Silva, Marina; Garcia-Zepeda, Eduardo A.; Fortoul, Teresa I.; Soldevila, Gloria

    2009-04-03

    Activins and inhibins are members of the transforming growth factor-{beta} superfamily that act on different cell types and regulate a broad range of cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, we provide the first evidence that activins and inhibins regulate specific checkpoints during thymocyte development. We demonstrate that both activin A and inhibin A promote the DN3-DN4 transition in vitro, although they differentially control the transition to the DP stage. Whereas activin A induces the accumulation of a CD8{sup +}CD24{sup hi}TCR{beta}{sup lo} intermediate subpopulation, inhibin A promotes the differentiation of DN4 to DP. In addition, both activin A and inhibin A appear to promote CD8{sup +}SP differentiation. Moreover, inhibin {alpha} null mice have delayed in vitro T cell development, showing both a decrease in the DN-DP transition and reduced thymocyte numbers, further supporting a role for inhibins in the control of developmental signals taking place during T cell differentiation in vivo.

  20. Triciribine Phosphate, Paclitaxel, Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-13

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  1. A drug delivery hydrogel system based on activin B for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Darabi, Mohammadali; Gu, Jingjing; Shi, Junbin; Xue, Jinhua; Huang, Lu; Liu, Yutong; Zhang, Lei; Liu, N; Zhong, Wen; Zhang, Lin; Xing, Malcolm; Zhang, Lu

    2016-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Activins are members of the superfamily of transforming growth factors and have many potential neuroprotective effects. Herein, at the first place, we verified activin B's neuroprotective role in a PD model, and revealed that activin B's fast release has limited function in the PD therapy. To this end, we developed a multi-functional crosslinker based thermosensitive injectable hydrogels to deliver activin B, and stereotactically injected the activin B-loaded hydrogel into the striatum of a mouse model of PD. The histological evaluation showed that activin B can be detected even 5 weeks post-surgery in PD mice implanted with activin B-loaded hydrogels, and activin B-loaded hydrogels can significantly increase the density of tyrosine hydroxylase positive (TH(+)) nerve fibers and reduce inflammatory responses. The behavioral evaluation demonstrated that activin B-loaded hydrogels significantly improved the performance of the mice in the PD model. Meanwhile, we found that hydrogels can slightly induce the activation of microglia cells and astrocytes, while cannot induce apoptosis in the striatum. Overall, our data demonstrated that the developed activin B-loaded hydrogels provide sustained release of activin B for over 5 weeks and contribute to substantial cellular protection and behavioral improvement, suggesting their potential as a therapeutic strategy for PD. PMID:27322960

  2. Intertwining of Activin A and TGFβ Signaling: Dual Roles in Cancer Progression and Cancer Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Loomans, Holli A.; Andl, Claudia D.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a significant amount of research has examined the controversial role of activin A in cancer. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily, is best characterized for its function during embryogenesis in mesoderm cell fate differentiation and reproduction. During embryogenesis, TGFβ superfamily ligands, TGFβ, bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and activins, act as potent morphogens. Similar to TGFβs and BMPs, activin A is a protein that is highly systemically expressed during early embryogenesis; however, post-natal expression is overall reduced and remains under strict spatiotemporal regulation. Of importance, normal post-natal expression of activin A has been implicated in the migration and invasive properties of various immune cell types, as well as endometrial cells. Aberrant activin A signaling during development results in significant morphological defects and premature mortality. Interestingly, activin A has been found to have both oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles in cancer. Investigations into the role of activin A in prostate and breast cancer has demonstrated tumor suppressive effects, while in lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, it has been consistently shown that activin A expression is correlated with increased proliferation, invasion and poor patient prognosis. Activin A signaling is highly context-dependent, which is demonstrated in studies of epithelial cell tumors and the microenvironment. This review discusses normal activin A signaling in comparison to TGFβ and highlights how its dysregulation contributes to cancer progression and cell invasion. PMID:25560921

  3. Structure and activation of pro-activin A.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuelu; Fischer, Gerhard; Hyvönen, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Activins are growth factors with multiple roles in the development and homeostasis. Like all TGF-β family of growth factors, activins are synthesized as large precursors from which mature dimeric growth factors are released proteolytically. Here we have studied the activation of activin A and determined crystal structures of the unprocessed precursor and of the cleaved pro-mature complex. Replacing the natural furin cleavage site with a HRV 3C protease site, we show how the protein gains its bioactivity after proteolysis and is as active as the isolated mature domain. The complex remains associated in conditions used for biochemical analysis with a dissociation constant of 5 nM, but the pro-domain can be actively displaced from the complex by follistatin. Our high-resolution structures of pro-activin A share features seen in the pro-TGF-β1 and pro-BMP-9 structures, but reveal a new oligomeric arrangement, with a domain-swapped, cross-armed conformation for the protomers in the dimeric protein. PMID:27373274

  4. Structure and activation of pro-activin A

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuelu; Fischer, Gerhard; Hyvönen, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Activins are growth factors with multiple roles in the development and homeostasis. Like all TGF-β family of growth factors, activins are synthesized as large precursors from which mature dimeric growth factors are released proteolytically. Here we have studied the activation of activin A and determined crystal structures of the unprocessed precursor and of the cleaved pro-mature complex. Replacing the natural furin cleavage site with a HRV 3C protease site, we show how the protein gains its bioactivity after proteolysis and is as active as the isolated mature domain. The complex remains associated in conditions used for biochemical analysis with a dissociation constant of 5 nM, but the pro-domain can be actively displaced from the complex by follistatin. Our high-resolution structures of pro-activin A share features seen in the pro-TGF-β1 and pro-BMP-9 structures, but reveal a new oligomeric arrangement, with a domain-swapped, cross-armed conformation for the protomers in the dimeric protein. PMID:27373274

  5. Lateral mobility of integrin alpha IIb beta 3 (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa) in the plasma membrane of a human megakaryocyte.

    PubMed

    Schootemeijer, A; van Willigen, G; van der Vuurst, H; Tertoolen, L G; De Laat, S W; Akkerman, J W

    1997-01-01

    The migration of integrins to sites of cell-cell and cell-matrix contact is thought to be important for adhesion strengthening. We studied the lateral diffusion of integrin alpha IIb beta 3 (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa) in the plasma membrane of a cultured human megakaryocyte by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of FITC-labelled monovalent Fab fragments directed against the beta 3 subunit. The diffusion of beta 3 on the unstimulated megakaryocyte showed a lateral diffusion coefficient (D) of 0.37 x 10(-9) cm2/s and a mobile fraction of about 50%. Stimulation with ADP (20 microM) or alpha-thrombin (10 U/ml) at 22 degrees C induced transient decreases in both parameters reducing D to 0.21 x 10(-9) cm2/s and the mobile fraction to about 25%. The fall in D was observed within 1 min after stimulation but the fall in mobile fraction showed a lag phase of 5 min. The lag phase was absent in the presence of Calpain I inhibitor, where-as cytochalasin D completely abolished the decreased in mobile fraction. The data are compatible with the concept that cell activation induces anchorage of 50% of the mobile alpha IIb beta 3 (25% of the whole population of receptor) to the cytoplasmic actin filaments, although, as discussed, other rationals are not ruled out. PMID:9031465

  6. Activin-β(c) reduces reproductive tumour progression and abolishes cancer-associated cachexia in inhibin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Gold, Elspeth; Marino, Francesco Elia; Harrison, Craig; Makanji, Yogeshwar; Risbridger, Gail

    2013-03-01

    Activins are involved in the regulation of a diverse range of physiological processes including development, reproduction, and fertility, and have been implicated in the progression of cancers. Bioactivity is regulated by the inhibin α-subunit and by an activin-binding protein, follistatin. The activin-β(C) subunit was not considered functionally significant in this regard due to an absence of phenotype in knockout mice. However, activin-β(C) forms heterodimers with activin-β(A) and activin-C antagonizes activin-A in vitro. Thus, it is proposed that overexpression, rather than loss of activin-β(C) , regulates activin-A bioactivity. In order to prove biological efficacy, inhibin α-subunit knockout mice (α-KO) were crossed with mice overexpressing activin-β(C) (ActC++). Deletion of inhibin leads to Sertoli and granulosa cell tumours, increased activin-A, and cancer-associated cachexia. Therefore, cachexia and reproductive tumour development should be modulated in α-KO/ActC++ mice, where excessive activin-A is the underlying cause. Accordingly, a reduction in activin-A, no significant weight loss, and reduced incidence of reproductive tumours were evident in α-KO/ActC++ mice. Overexpression of activin-β(C) antagonized the activin signalling cascade; thus, the tumourigenic effects of activin-A were abrogated. This study provides proof of the biological relevance of activin-β(C) . Being a regulator of activin-A, it is able to abolish cachexia and modulate reproductive tumour development in α-KO mice. PMID:23180294

  7. A structural basis for integrin activation by the cytoplasmic tail of the αIIb-subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradova, Olga; Haas, Tom; Plow, Edward F.; Qin, Jun

    2000-01-01

    A key step in the activation of heterodimeric integrin adhesion receptors is the transmission of an agonist-induced cellular signal from the short α- and/or β-cytoplasmic tails to the extracellular domains of the receptor. The structural details of how the cytoplasmic tails mediate such an inside-out signaling process remain unclear. We report herein the NMR structures of a membrane-anchored cytoplasmic tail of the αIIb-subunit and of a mutant αIIb-cytoplasmic tail that renders platelet integrin αIIbβ3 constitutively active. The structure of the wild-type αIIb-cytoplasmic tail reveals a “closed” conformation where the highly conserved N-terminal membrane-proximal region forms an α-helix followed by a turn, and the acidic C-terminal loop interacts with the N-terminal helix. The structure of the active mutant is significantly different, having an “open” conformation where the interactions between the N-terminal helix and C-terminal region are abolished. Consistent with these structural differences, the two peptides differ in function: the wild-type peptide suppressed αIIbβ3 activation, whereas the mutant peptide did not. These results provide an atomic explanation for extensive biochemical/mutational data and support a conformation-based “on/off switch” model for integrin activation. PMID:10677482

  8. Covariant action for type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Ashoke

    2016-07-01

    Taking clues from the recent construction of the covariant action for type II and heterotic string field theories, we construct a manifestly Lorentz covariant action for type IIB supergravity, and discuss its gauge fixing maintaining manifest Lorentz invariance. The action contains a (non-gravitating) free 4-form field besides the usual fields of type IIB supergravity. This free field, being completely decoupled from the interacting sector, has no physical consequence.

  9. Analysis of human follistatin structure: identification of two discontinuous N-terminal sequences coding for activin A binding and structural consequences of activin binding to native proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Keutmann, H T; Schneyer, A L; Sluss, P M

    2000-09-01

    A primary physiological function of follistatin is the binding and neutralization of activin, a transforming growth factor-beta family growth factor, and loss of function mutations are lethal. Despite the critical biological importance of follistatin's neutralization of activin, the structural basis of activin's binding to follistatin is poorly understood. The purposes of these studies were 1) to identify the primary sequence(s) within the N-terminal domain of the follistatin coding for activin binding, and 2) to determine whether activin binding to the native protein causes changes in other structural domains of follistatin. Synthetic peptide mimotopes identified within a 63-residue N-terminal domain two discontinuous sequences capable of binding labeled activin A. The first is located in a region (amino acids 3-26) of follistatin, a site previously identified by directed mutagenesis as important for activin binding. The second epitope, predicted to be located between amino acids 46 and 59, is newly identified. Although the sequences 3-26 and 46-59 code for activin binding, native follistatin only binds activin if disulfide bonding is intact. Furthermore, pyridylethylation of Cys residues followed by N-terminal sequencing and amino acid analysis revealed that all of the Cys residues in follistatin are involved in disulfide bonds and lack reactive free sulfhydryl groups. Specific ligands were used to probe the structural effects of activin binding on the other domains of the full-length molecule, comprised largely of the three 10-Cys follistatin module domains. No effects on ligand binding to follistatin-like module I or II were observed after the binding of activin A to native protein. In contrast, activin binding diminished recognition of domain III and enhanced that of the C domain by their respective monoclonal antibody probes, indicating an alteration of the antigenic structures of these regions. Thus, subsequent to activin binding, interactions are likely to

  10. The activin A antagonist follistatin inhibits cystic fibrosis-like lung inflammation and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Charles L; King, Susannah J; Mifsud, Nicole A; Hedger, Mark P; Phillips, David J; Mackay, Fabienne; de Kretser, David M; Wilson, John W; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-limiting genetically acquired respiratory disorder. Patients with CF have thick mucus obstructing the airways leading to recurrent infections, bronchiectasis and neutrophilic airway inflammation culminating in deteriorating lung function. Current management targets airway infection and mucus clearance, but despite recent advances in care, life expectancy is still only 40 years. We investigated whether activin A is elevated in CF lung disease and whether inhibiting activin A with its natural antagonist follistatin retards lung disease progression. We measured serum activin A levels, lung function and nutritional status in CF patients. We studied the effect of activin A on CF lung pathogenesis by treating newborn CF transgenic mice (β-ENaC) intranasally with the natural activin A antagonist follistatin. Activin A levels were elevated in the serum of adult CF patients, and correlated inversely with lung function and body mass index. Follistatin treatment of newborn β-ENaC mice, noted for respiratory pathology mimicking human CF, decreased the airway activin A levels and key features of CF lung disease including mucus hypersecretion, airway neutrophilia and levels of mediators that regulate inflammation and chemotaxis. Follistatin treatment also increased body weight and survival of β-ENaC mice, with no evidence of local or systemic toxicity. Our findings demonstrate that activin A levels are elevated in CF and provide proof-of-concept for the use of the activin A antagonist, follistatin, as a therapeutic in the long-term management of lung disease in CF patients. PMID:25753271

  11. Activin A and follistatin during the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy in ewes.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Anne R; McNatty, Kenneth P; Hurst, Peter R; Spencer, Thomas E; Bazer, Fuller W; Reader, Karen L; Johnstone, Peter D; Davis, George H; Juengel, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    The activin pathway has been postulated to be involved in regulation of multiple reproductive processes important for survival of the conceptus. These processes include luteinisation of the follicular cells and thus function of the corpus luteum, early embryo development and uterine function including implantation of the conceptus. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine whether the concentrations of activin A and follistatin (FST), an activin-binding protein, differed between ewes with a lifetime history of enhanced or reduced embryonic survival (ES). The mRNAs encoding FST and activin A (inhibin beta A subunit; INHBA) were present in the uterus and abundant in the uterine luminal or glandular epithelia by day 18 of gestation. A peak of activin A was observed in the systemic circulation around the time of oestrus, and activin A concentrations were elevated in animals with reduced ES during the oestrous cycle and early gestation. Concentrations of activin A in uterine fluid were approximately twofold greater on day 16 of gestation in ewes with reduced ES compared to those with enhanced ES. No consistent differences in FST were observed between these groups. Treatment of luteinising ovine granulosa cells with activin A in vitro suppressed progesterone secretion providing evidence of a potential pathway whereby increased concentrations of activin A may decrease ES. PMID:26733604

  12. Kdm6b and Pmepa1 as Targets of Bioelectrically and Behaviorally Induced Activin A Signaling.

    PubMed

    Link, Andrea S; Kurinna, Svitlana; Havlicek, Steven; Lehnert, Sandra; Reichel, Martin; Kornhuber, Johannes; Winner, Beate; Huth, Tobias; Zheng, Fang; Werner, Sabine; Alzheimer, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family member activin A exerts multiple neurotrophic and protective effects in the brain. Activin also modulates cognitive functions and affective behavior and is a presumed target of antidepressant therapy. Despite its important role in the injured and intact brain, the mechanisms underlying activin effects in the CNS are still largely unknown. Our goal was to identify the first target genes of activin signaling in the hippocampus in vivo. Electroconvulsive seizures, a rodent model of electroconvulsive therapy in humans, were applied to C57BL/6J mice to elicit a strong increase in activin A signaling. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments with hippocampal lysates subsequently revealed that binding of SMAD2/3, the intracellular effectors of activin signaling, was significantly enriched at the Pmepa1 gene, which encodes a negative feedback regulator of TGF-β signaling in cancer cells, and at the Kdm6b gene, which encodes an epigenetic regulator promoting transcriptional plasticity. Underlining the significance of these findings, activin treatment also induced PMEPA1 and KDM6B expression in human forebrain neurons generated from embryonic stem cells suggesting interspecies conservation of activin effects in mammalian neurons. Importantly, physiological stimuli such as provided by environmental enrichment proved already sufficient to engender a rapid and significant induction of activin signaling concomitant with an upregulation of Pmepa1 and Kdm6b expression. Taken together, our study identified the first target genes of activin signaling in the brain. With the induction of Kdm6b expression, activin is likely to gain impact on a presumed epigenetic regulator of activity-dependent neuronal plasticity. PMID:26215835

  13. Expression of activins C and E induces apoptosis in human and rat hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Vejda, Susanne; Erlach, Natascha; Peter, Barbara; Drucker, Claudia; Rossmanith, Walter; Pohl, Jens; Schulte-Hermann, Rolf; Grusch, Michael

    2003-11-01

    Activins C and E (homodimers of the betaC and betaE subunits), which are almost exclusively expressed in the liver, are members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily of growth factors. We examined their expression in three different hepatoma cell lines and found that, compared with normal liver or primary hepatocytes, human hepatoblastoma (HepG2), human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep3B) and rat hepatoma (H4IIEC3) cells have either completely lost or drastically reduced the expression of activins C and E. In order to elucidate the biological function of these proteins we transiently transfected HepG2, Hep3B and H4IIEC3 cell lines with rat activin betaC or betaE cDNA to study the consequences of restoring activin expression in hepatoma cells. Transfection with activin betaA, a known inhibitor of hepatic DNA synthesis and inducer of apoptosis, served as a positive control. We found that transfection of the three cell lines with activin betaC or betaE, as well as with activin betaA, reduced the increase in cell number by up to 40% compared with cells transfected with a control plasmid. Co-culture with a CHO cell clone secreting activin C also inhibited HepG2 cell multiplication. Furthermore, the three hepatoma cell lines studied showed an enhanced rate of apoptosis and elevated levels of active caspases in response to activin transfection. These results indicate that activins C and E share the potential to induce apoptosis in liver derived cell lines with activin A and TGFbeta1. PMID:12949049

  14. Minimizing bleeding complications of percutaneous coronary intervention and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa antiplatelet therapy.

    PubMed

    Juran, N B

    1999-10-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with coronary artery disease can lead to thrombotic occlusion of the artery and to subsequent ischemic complications. Patients undergoing these procedures have been treated with aspirin, heparin, or both as a means of preventing thrombosis. The arsenal of antithrombotic agents has recently been augmented by the addition of a new class of drugs the platelet receptor glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa inhibitors, which include abciximab, eptifibatide, and tirofiban. Unlike aspirin or heparin, which inhibit some but not all pathways leading to thrombosis, GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors block the final common pathway of platelet aggregation. When used in conjunction with aspirin and heparin, GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors have yielded favorable clinical outcomes, reducing the incidence of death, myocardial infarction, and urgent intervention. However, GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors also have been associated with an increased risk of bleeding complications, especially at the femoral access site. This presents new challenges for nurses charged with the care of patients treated with these agents. The goal of nursing care for this population is to ensure the optimal benefits of GP IIb-IIIa inhibitor therapy while simultaneously preventing or minimizing groin bleeding in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary procedures. PMID:10502235

  15. Annular Anionic Lipids Stabilize the Integrin αIIbβ3 Transmembrane Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Thomas; Suk, Jae-Eun; Ye, Feng; Situ, Alan J.; Mazumder, Parichita; Ginsberg, Mark H.; Ulmer, Tobias S.

    2015-01-01

    Cationic membrane-proximal amino acids determine the topology of membrane proteins by interacting with anionic lipids that are restricted to the intracellular membrane leaflet. This mechanism implies that anionic lipids interfere with electrostatic interactions of membrane proteins. The integrin αIIbβ3 transmembrane (TM) complex is stabilized by a membrane-proximal αIIb(Arg995)-β3(Asp723) interaction; here, we examine the influence of anionic lipids on this complex. Anionic lipids compete for αIIb(Arg995) contacts with β3(Asp723) but paradoxically do not diminish the contribution of αIIb(Arg995)-β3(Asp723) to TM complex stability. Overall, anionic lipids in annular positions stabilize the αIIbβ3 TM complex by up to 0.50 ± 0.02 kcal/mol relative to zwitterionic lipids in a headgroup structure-dependent manner. Comparatively, integrin receptor activation requires TM complex destabilization of 1.5 ± 0.2 kcal/mol, revealing a sizeable influence of lipid composition on TM complex stability. We implicate changes in lipid headgroup accessibility to small molecules (physical membrane characteristics) and specific but dynamic protein-lipid contacts in this TM helix-helix stabilization. Thus, anionic lipids in ubiquitous annular positions can benefit the stability of membrane proteins while leaving membrane-proximal electrostatic interactions intact. PMID:25632962

  16. Atypical Activin A and IL-10 Production Impairs Human CD16+ Monocyte Differentiation into Anti-Inflammatory Macrophages.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, Érika; Domínguez-Soto, Ángeles; Nieto, Concha; Flores-Sevilla, José Luis; Pacheco-Blanco, Mariana; Campos-Peña, Victoria; Meraz-Ríos, Marco A; Vega, Miguel A; Corbí, Ángel L; Sánchez-Torres, Carmen

    2016-02-01

    Human CD14(++)CD16(-) and CD14(+/lo)CD16(+) monocyte subsets comprise 85 and 15% of blood monocytes, respectively, and are thought to represent distinct stages in the monocyte differentiation pathway. However, the differentiation fates of both monocyte subsets along the macrophage (Mϕ) lineage have not yet been elucidated. We have now evaluated the potential of CD14(++) CD16(-) and CD16(+) monocytes to differentiate and to be primed toward pro- or anti-inflammatory Mϕs upon culture with GM-CSF or M-CSF, respectively (subsequently referred to as GM14, M14, GM16, or M16). Whereas GM16 and GM14 were phenotypic and functionally analogous, M16 displayed a more proinflammatory profile than did M14. Transcriptomic analyses evidenced that genes associated with M-CSF-driven Mϕ differentiation (including FOLR2, IL10, IGF1, and SERPINB2) are underrepresented in M16 with respect to M14. The preferential proinflammatory skewing of M16 relative to M14 was found to be mediated by the secretion of activin A and the low levels of IL-10 produced by M16. In fact, activin A receptor blockade during the M-CSF-driven differentiation of CD16(+) monocytes, or addition of IL-10-containing M14-conditioned medium, significantly enhanced their expression of anti-inflammatory-associated molecules while impairing their acquisition of proinflammatory-related markers. Thus, we propose that M-CSF drives CD14(++)CD16- monocyte differentiation into bona fide anti-inflammatory Mϕs in a self-autonomous manner, whereas M-CSF-treated CD16(+) monocytes generate Mϕs with a skewed proinflammatory profile by virtue of their high activin A expression unless additional anti-inflammatory stimuli such as IL-10 are provided. PMID:26729812

  17. Platelet-Derived Microparticles and the Potential of Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Antagonists in Treating Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ximing; Cong, Hongliang

    2009-01-01

    Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors are major platelet membrane constituents. They are integral to the formation of the surface fibrinogen receptor on activated platelets, in which 73% of platelet-derived microparticles are positive for the glycoprotein IIa/IIIb receptor. Activated platelets can shed platelet-derived microparticles, especially during the course of an acute coronary syndrome. Data have shown that platelet-derived microparticles can bind to the endothelium, to leukocytes, and to the submatrix of vascular walls, and launch some signal-transduction pathways, such as the pertussis-toxin-sensitive G protein, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathways. One research group found that platelet-derived microparticles transfer glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors to isolated and whole-blood neutrophils. The receptors can co-localize with β2-integrins and cooperate in the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), which can be inhibited by glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists. Accordingly, it is possible that glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists produce a direct and marked effect on endothelial cells, smooth-muscle cells, and leukocytes through a platelet-derived microparticle pathway that will lead to a potential treatment for acute coronary syndrome. Herein, we review the medical literature and discuss the potential application of platelet-derived microparticles toward the treatment of acute coronary syndrome. PMID:19436807

  18. Activin enhances skin tumourigenesis and malignant progression by inducing a pro-tumourigenic immune cell response

    PubMed Central

    Antsiferova, Maria; Huber, Marcel; Meyer, Michael; Piwko-Czuchra, Aleksandra; Ramadan, Tamara; MacLeod, Amanda S.; Havran, Wendy L.; Dummer, Reinhard; Hohl, Daniel; Werner, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Activin is an important orchestrator of wound repair, but its potential role in skin carcinogenesis has not been addressed. Here we show using different types of genetically modified mice that enhanced levels of activin in the skin promote skin tumour formation and their malignant progression through induction of a pro-tumourigenic microenvironment. This includes accumulation of tumour-promoting Langerhans cells and regulatory T cells in the epidermis. Furthermore, activin inhibits proliferation of tumour-suppressive epidermal γδ T cells, resulting in their progressive loss during tumour promotion. An increase in activin expression was also found in human cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas when compared with control tissue. These findings highlight the parallels between wound healing and cancer, and suggest inhibition of activin action as a promising strategy for the treatment of cancers overexpressing this factor. PMID:22146395

  19. Impaired growth of pancreatic exocrine cells in transgenic mice expressing human activin {beta}E subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Osamu . E-mail: ohashim@vmas.kitasato-u.ac.jp; Ushiro, Yuuki; Sekiyama, Kazunari; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Yoshioka, Kazuki; Mutoh, Ken-Ichiro; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa

    2006-03-10

    Activins, TGF-{beta} superfamily members, have multiple functions in a variety of cells and tissues. Recently, additional activin {beta} subunit genes, {beta}C and {beta}E, have been identified. To explore the role of activin E, we created transgenic mice overexpressing human activin {beta}E subunit. There were pronounced differences in the pancreata of the transgenic animals as compared with their wild-type counterparts. Pancreatic weight, expressed relative to total body weight, was significantly reduced. Histologically, adipose replacement of acini in the exocrine pancreas was observed. There was a significant decrease in the number of PCNA-positive cells in the acinar cells, indicating reduced proliferation in the exocrine pancreas of the transgenic mice. However, quantitative pancreatic morphometry showed that the total number and mass of the islets of the transgenic mice were comparable with those of the nontransgenic control mice. Our findings suggest a role for activin E in regulating the proliferation of pancreatic exocrine cells.

  20. Dualising consistent IIA/IIB truncations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Emanuel; Samtleben, Henning

    2015-12-01

    We use exceptional field theory to establish a duality between certain consistent 7-dimensional truncations with maximal SUSY from IIA to IIB. We use this technique to obtain new consistent truncations of IIB on S 3 and H p,q and work out the explicit reduction formulas in the internal sector. We also present uplifts for other gaugings of 7-d maximal SUGRA, including theories with a trombone gauging. Some of the latter can only be obtained by a non-geometric compactification.

  1. The biological function of type I receptors of bone morphogenetic protein in bone

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuxian; Svoboda, Kathy K H; Feng, Jian Q; Jiang, Xinquan

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have multiple roles in skeletal development, homeostasis and regeneration. BMPs signal via type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors (BMPRI and BMPRII). In recent decades, genetic studies in humans and mice have demonstrated that perturbations in BMP signaling via BMPRI resulted in various diseases in bone, cartilage, and muscles. In this review, we focus on all three types of BMPRI, which consist of activin-like kinase 2 (ALK2, also called type IA activin receptor), activin-like kinase 3 (ALK3, also called BMPRIA), and activin-like kinase 6 (ALK6, also called BMPRIB). The research areas covered include the current progress regarding the roles of these receptors during myogenesis, chondrogenesis, and osteogenesis. Understanding the physiological and pathological functions of these receptors at the cellular and molecular levels will advance drug development and tissue regeneration for treating musculoskeletal diseases and bone defects in the future. PMID:27088043

  2. PCSK6 regulated by LH inhibits the apoptosis of human granulosa cells via activin A and TGFβ2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Fan, Deng-Xuan; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Ming-Qing; Wu, Hai-Xia; Jin, Li-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Mammalian proprotein convertases (PCs) play an important role in folliculogenesis, as they proteolytically activate a variety of substrates such as the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) superfamily. PC subtilism/kexin 6 (PCSK6) is a member of the PC family and is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in many physiological and pathological processes. However, in human granulosa cells, the expression of the PC family members, their hormonal regulation, and the function of PCs are not clear. In this study, we found that PCSK6 is the most highly expressed PC family member in granulosa cells. LH increased PCSK6 mRNA level and PCSK6 played an anti-apoptosis function in KGN cells. Knockdown of PCSK6 not only increased the secretion of activin A and TGFβ2 but also decreased the secretion of follistatin, estrogen, and the mRNA levels of FSH receptor (FSHR) and P450AROM (CYP19A1). We also found that, in the KGN human granulosa cell line, TGFβ2 and activin A could promote the apoptosis of KGN cells and LH could regulate the follistatin level. These data indicate that PCSK6, which is regulated by LH, is highly expressed in human primary granulosa cells of pre-ovulatory follicles and plays important roles in regulating a series of downstream molecules and apoptosis of KGN cells. PMID:24860148

  3. Constitutively Active FOXO1 Diminishes Activin Induction of Fshb Transcription in Immortalized Gonadotropes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chung Hyun; Skarra, Danalea V.; Rivera, Alissa J.; Arriola, David J.; Thackray, Varykina G.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate whether the FOXO1 transcription factor modulates activin signaling in pituitary gonadotropes. Our studies show that overexpression of constitutively active FOXO1 decreases activin induction of murine Fshb gene expression in immortalized LβT2 cells. We demonstrate that FOXO1 suppression of activin induction maps to the −304/−95 region of the Fshb promoter containing multiple activin response elements and that the suppression requires the FOXO1 DNA-binding domain (DBD). FOXO1 binds weakly to the −125/−91 region of the Fshb promoter in a gel-shift assay. Since this region of the promoter contains a composite SMAD/FOXL2 binding element necessary for activin induction of Fshb transcription, it is possible that FOXO1 DNA binding interferes with SMAD and/or FOXL2 function. In addition, our studies demonstrate that FOXO1 directly interacts with SMAD3/4 but not SMAD2 in a FOXO1 DBD-dependent manner. Moreover, we show that SMAD3/4 induction of Fshb-luc and activin induction of a multimerized SMAD-binding element-luc are suppressed by FOXO1 in a DBD-dependent manner. These results suggest that FOXO1 binding to the proximal Fshb promoter as well as FOXO1 interaction with SMAD3/4 proteins may result in decreased activin induction of Fshb in gonadotropes. PMID:25423188

  4. Activin A Predicts Left Ventricular Remodeling and Mortality in Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jeng-Feng; Hsu, Shun-Yi; Teng, Ming-Sheng; Wu, Semon; Hsieh, Chien-An; Jang, Shih-Jung; Liu, Chih-Jen; Huang, Hsuan-Li; Ko, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background Activin A levels increase in a variety of heart diseases including ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this study is to investigate whether the level of activin A can be beneficial in predicting left ventricular remodeling, heart failure, and death in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods We enrolled 278 patients with STEMI who had their activin A levels measured on day 2 of hospitalization. Echocardiographic studies were performed at baseline and were repeated 6 months later. Thereafter, the clinical events of these patients were followed for a maximum of 3 years, including all-cause death and readmission for heart failure. Results During hospitalization, higher activin A level was associated with higher triglyceride level, lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and lower left ventricular end diastolic ventricular volume index (LVEDVI) in multivariable linear regression model. During follow-up, patients with activin A levels > 129 pg/ml had significantly lower LVEF, and higher LVEDVI at 6 months. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that activin A level > 129 pg/ml was a predictor of all-cause death (p = 0.022), but not a predictor of heart failure (p = 0.767). Conclusions Activin A level > 129 pg/ml predicts worse left ventricular remodeling and all-cause death in STEMI. PMID:27471355

  5. αIIbβ3 variants defined by next-generation sequencing: Predicting variants likely to cause Glanzmann thrombasthenia

    PubMed Central

    Buitrago, Lorena; Rendon, Augusto; Liang, Yupu; Simeoni, Ilenia; Negri, Ana; Filizola, Marta; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Coller, Barry S.; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Ballmaier, Matthias; Bariana, Tadbir; Bellissimo, Daniel; Bertoli, Marta; Bray, Paul; Bury, Loredana; Carrell, Robin; Cattaneo, Marco; Collins, Peter; French, Deborah; Favier, Remi; Freson, Kathleen; Furie, Bruce; Germeshausen, Manuela; Ghevaert, Cedric; Gomez, Keith; Goodeve, Anne; Gresele, Paolo; Guerrero, Jose; Hampshire, Dan J.; Hadinnapola, Charaka; Heemskerk, Johan; Henskens, Yvonne; Hill, Marian; Hogg, Nancy; Johnsen, Jill; Kahr, Walter; Kerr, Ron; Kunishima, Shinji; Laffan, Michael; Natwani, Amit; Neerman-Arbez, Marguerite; Nurden, Paquita; Nurden, Alan; Ormiston, Mark; Othman, Maha; Ouwehand, Willem; Perry, David; Vilk, Shoshana Ravel; Reitsma, Pieter; Rondina, Matthew; Simeoni, Ilenia; Smethurst, Peter; Stephens, Jonathan; Stevenson, William; Szkotak, Artur; Turro, Ernest; Van Geet, Christel; Vries, Minka; Ward, June; Waye, John; Westbury, Sarah; Whiteheart, Sidney; Wilcox, David; Zhang, Bi

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing is transforming our understanding of human genetic variation but assessing the functional impact of novel variants presents challenges. We analyzed missense variants in the integrin αIIbβ3 receptor subunit genes ITGA2B and ITGB3 identified by whole-exome or -genome sequencing in the ThromboGenomics project, comprising ∼32,000 alleles from 16,108 individuals. We analyzed the results in comparison with 111 missense variants in these genes previously reported as being associated with Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT), 20 associated with alloimmune thrombocytopenia, and 5 associated with aniso/macrothrombocytopenia. We identified 114 novel missense variants in ITGA2B (affecting ∼11% of the amino acids) and 68 novel missense variants in ITGB3 (affecting ∼9% of the amino acids). Of the variants, 96% had minor allele frequencies (MAF) < 0.1%, indicating their rarity. Based on sequence conservation, MAF, and location on a complete model of αIIbβ3, we selected three novel variants that affect amino acids previously associated with GT for expression in HEK293 cells. αIIb P176H and β3 C547G severely reduced αIIbβ3 expression, whereas αIIb P943A partially reduced αIIbβ3 expression and had no effect on fibrinogen binding. We used receiver operating characteristic curves of combined annotation-dependent depletion, Polyphen 2-HDIV, and sorting intolerant from tolerant to estimate the percentage of novel variants likely to be deleterious. At optimal cut-off values, which had 69–98% sensitivity in detecting GT mutations, between 27% and 71% of the novel αIIb or β3 missense variants were predicted to be deleterious. Our data have implications for understanding the evolutionary pressure on αIIbβ3 and highlight the challenges in predicting the clinical significance of novel missense variants. PMID:25827233

  6. αIIbβ3 variants defined by next-generation sequencing: predicting variants likely to cause Glanzmann thrombasthenia.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Lorena; Rendon, Augusto; Liang, Yupu; Simeoni, Ilenia; Negri, Ana; Filizola, Marta; Ouwehand, Willem H; Coller, Barry S

    2015-04-14

    Next-generation sequencing is transforming our understanding of human genetic variation but assessing the functional impact of novel variants presents challenges. We analyzed missense variants in the integrin αIIbβ3 receptor subunit genes ITGA2B and ITGB3 identified by whole-exome or -genome sequencing in the ThromboGenomics project, comprising ∼32,000 alleles from 16,108 individuals. We analyzed the results in comparison with 111 missense variants in these genes previously reported as being associated with Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT), 20 associated with alloimmune thrombocytopenia, and 5 associated with aniso/macrothrombocytopenia. We identified 114 novel missense variants in ITGA2B (affecting ∼11% of the amino acids) and 68 novel missense variants in ITGB3 (affecting ∼9% of the amino acids). Of the variants, 96% had minor allele frequencies (MAF) < 0.1%, indicating their rarity. Based on sequence conservation, MAF, and location on a complete model of αIIbβ3, we selected three novel variants that affect amino acids previously associated with GT for expression in HEK293 cells. αIIb P176H and β3 C547G severely reduced αIIbβ3 expression, whereas αIIb P943A partially reduced αIIbβ3 expression and had no effect on fibrinogen binding. We used receiver operating characteristic curves of combined annotation-dependent depletion, Polyphen 2-HDIV, and sorting intolerant from tolerant to estimate the percentage of novel variants likely to be deleterious. At optimal cut-off values, which had 69-98% sensitivity in detecting GT mutations, between 27% and 71% of the novel αIIb or β3 missense variants were predicted to be deleterious. Our data have implications for understanding the evolutionary pressure on αIIbβ3 and highlight the challenges in predicting the clinical significance of novel missense variants. PMID:25827233

  7. Superstring vertex operators in type IIB matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Kitazawa, Yoshihisa; Nagaoka, Satoshi

    2008-06-15

    We clarify the relation between the vertex operators in type IIB matrix model and superstring. Green-Schwarz light-cone closed superstring theory is obtained from IIB matrix model on two-dimensional noncommutative backgrounds. Superstring vertex operators should be reproduced from those of IIB matrix model through this connection. Indeed, we confirm that supergravity vertex operators in IIB matrix model on the two-dimensional backgrounds reduce to those in superstring theory. Noncommutativity plays an important role in our identification. Through this correspondence, we can reproduce superstring scattering amplitudes from IIB matrix model.

  8. Effects of Activin A on the phenotypic properties of human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Sugii, Hideki; Maeda, Hidefumi; Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Naohide; Wada, Naohisa; Koori, Katsuaki; Hasegawa, Daigaku; Hamano, Sayuri; Yuda, Asuka; Monnouchi, Satoshi; Akamine, Akifumi

    2014-09-01

    Periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue plays an important role in tooth preservation by structurally maintaining the connection between the tooth root and the bone. The mechanisms involved in the healing and regeneration of damaged PDL tissue, caused by bacterial infection, caries and trauma, have been explored. Accumulating evidence suggests that Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and a dimer of inhibinβa, contributes to tissue healing through cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation of various target cells. In bone, Activin A has been shown to exert an inhibitory effect on osteoblast maturation and mineralization. However, there have been no reports examining the expression and function of Activin A in human PDL cells (HPDLCs). Thus, we aimed to investigate the biological effects of Activin A on HPDLCs. Activin A was observed to be localized in HPDLCs and rat PDL tissue. When PDL tissue was surgically damaged, Activin A and IL-1β expression increased and the two proteins were shown to be co-localized around the lesion. HPDLCs treated with IL-1β or TNF-α also up-regulated the expression of the gene encoding inhibinβa. Activin A promoted chemotaxis, migration and proliferation of HPDLCs, and caused an increase in fibroblastic differentiation of these cells while down-regulating their osteoblastic differentiation. These osteoblastic inhibitory effects of Activin A, however, were only noted during the early phase of HPDLC osteoblastic differentiation, with later exposures having no effect on differentiation. Collectively, our results suggest that Activin A could be used as a therapeutic agent for healing and regenerating PDL tissue in response to disease, trauma or surgical reconstruction. PMID:24928494

  9. Organization of the gene for platelet glycoprotein IIb

    SciTech Connect

    Heidenreich, R. ); Eisman, R.; Surrey, S.; Delgrosso, K.; Schwartz, E.; Poncz, M. Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia ); Bennett, J.S. Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia )

    1990-02-06

    The glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa heterodimer functions as a receptor for fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, and fibronectin on activated platelets; it is dysfunctional in the bleeding diathesis Glanzmann's thrombasthenia. This receptor is a member of the integrin family, which includes homologous membrane receptors involved in a number of different cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesive interactions. Knowledge of the sequence and organization of the GPIIb and GPIIIa genes will help in understanding evolutionary relationships and functional homologies of this family of adhesion protein receptors and will facilitate analysis of molecular defects responsible for thrombasthenia. Using the GPIIb cDNA as a probe, the authors have isolated overlapping genomic clones encompassing the entire coding region, the 5{prime}- and 3{prime}-untranslated sequences, and the immediate flanking regions for the GPIIb gene. The gene spans approximately 17.2 kilobases (kb); all but approximately 2.6 kb of intronic DNA sequence has been determined. The GPIIb gene contains 30 exons whose demarcations do not correlate with previously suggested functional domains. Two intron/exon borders have the rare GC splice donor sequence instead of the consensus GT sequence. There are at least seven complete and three partial AluI sequence repeats within the intron sequences. The immediate 5{prime}-flanking sequence of rodent GPIIb demonstrates complete identity near the proposed cap site with its human counterpart, but again, no TATA or CAAT boxes are apparent.

  10. [Role of Activin A and Myostatin in cancer cachexia].

    PubMed

    Thissen, Jean-Paul; Loumaye, Audrey

    2013-05-01

    Recent works suggest that Activin A (ActA) and Myostatin (Mstn), two members of the TGFβ superfamily, could contribute to skeletal muscle atrophy observed in some cancers. It is known that several human tumoral cell lines synthesize and secrete ActA and Mstn. In addition, systemic treatment with ActA and Mstn in mice induce muscle atrophy. Likewise, Inhibin-α knock-out mice, which are characterized by elevated circulating levels of ActA, exhibit muscle atrophy and die of cachexia. Finally, administration of ActA and Mstn antagonists prevents muscular atrophy and mortality induced by some animal tumors. Collectively, these findings suggest that ActA or Mstn production by several cancers could contribute to cachexia and thus to mortality associated with some cancers in human. This hypothesis is very interesting since new molecules that are able to inhibit ActA and Mstn, in particularly the sActRIIB, are under development. PMID:23566617

  11. Noncanonical Activin A Signaling in PC12 Cells: A Self-Limiting Feedback Loop.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiao-Qi; Liang, Wen-Zhao; Cui, Yang; He, Jin-Ting; Liu, Hong-Yu; Wang, Yue; Xue, Long-Xing; Ji, Qiu-Ye; Shi, Wei; Shao, Yan-Kun; Mang, Jing; Xu, Zhong-Xin

    2016-05-01

    Activin A (Act A), a member of transforming growth factor-β superfamily, plays a neuroprotective role in multiple neurological diseases through Act A/Smads signal activation. Traditionally, the up-regulation of Act A gene and extracellular Act A accumulation show the signal activation as a linear pathway. However, one of our discoveries indicated that Act A could lead a loop signaling in ischemic injury. To clarify the characteristic of this loop signaling in a non-pathological state, we up-regulated the expression of Act A, monitored extracellular Act A accumulation and examined the activity of Act A signaling, which was quantified by the expression of phosphorylated Smad3 and the fluorescence intensity of Smad4 in nuclei. The results demonstrated a noncanonical Act A signal loop with self-amplifying property in PC12 cells. Further, it showed self-limiting behavior due to temporary activation and spontaneous attenuation. This periodic behavior of Act A signal loop was found to be regulated by the level of Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA). Moreover, increased activity of Act A signal loop could promote PC12 cell proliferation and enhance the survival rate of cells to Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation. These practical discoveries will bring new insight on the functional outcome of Act A signaling in neurological diseases by the further understanding: loop signaling. PMID:26721511

  12. Activin A and follistatin as biomarkers for ectopic pregnancy and missed abortion.

    PubMed

    Daponte, Alexandros; Deligeoroglou, Efthimios; Garas, Antonios; Pournaras, Spyros; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Messinis, Ioannis E

    2013-01-01

    Activin A as a predictor of pregnancy failure has been the focus of heated debate, but the value of a combined activin A and follistatin (FS) measurement in serum to predict pregnancy failure has not been reported yet. We assessed whether a single serum measurement of the two physiological antagonists at 6-8 weeks gestation could differentiate ectopic pregnancies (EP) or missed abortions (MA) from healthy intrauterine pregnancies (IUP). activin A concentrations were significantly lower in women with EP (n = 30, median value of 264 pg/mL) and women with MA (n = 30, median value of 350 pg/mL) compared to IUP (n = 33, median value of 788 pg/mL); P < 0.001. At a threshold value of 505 pg/mL, activin A had 87.9% sensitivity and 100% specificity and negative predictive value of 0.974 for discriminating an ectopic pregnancy from viable pregnancies. FS was able to discriminate IUP from EP (ROC curve P < 0.001) as was their ratio (ROC curve P = 0.008), but was unable to discriminate a MA from an EP. In EP, activin A did not correlate with beta HCG levels. The present findings support the thesis that activin A or FS could be considered promising biomarkers for the discrimination between an IUP and a failed pregnancy (MA or EP). PMID:24222717

  13. Substantial Increases Occur in Serum Activins and Follistatin during Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    de Kretser, David M.; Bensley, Jonathan G.; Phillips, David J.; Levvey, Bronwyn J.; Snell, Greg I.; Lin, Enjarn; Hedger, Mark P.; O’Hehir, Robyn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung transplantation exposes the donated lung to a period of anoxia. Re-establishing the circulation after ischemia stimulates inflammation causing organ damage. Since our published data established that activin A is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine, we assessed the roles of activin A and B, and their binding protein, follistatin, in patients undergoing lung transplantation. Methods Sera from 46 patients participating in a published study of remote ischemia conditioning in lung transplantation were used. Serum activin A and B, follistatin and 11 other cytokines were measured in samples taken immediately after anaesthesia induction, after remote ischemia conditioning or sham treatment undertaken just prior to allograft reperfusion and during the subsequent 24 hours. Results Substantial increases in serum activin A, B and follistatin occurred after the baseline sample, taken before anaesthesia induction and peaked immediately after the remote ischemia conditioning/sham treatment. The levels remained elevated 15 minutes after lung transplantation declining thereafter reaching baseline 2 hours post-transplant. Activin B and follistatin concentrations were lower in patients receiving remote ischemia conditioning compared to sham treated patients but the magnitude of the decrease did not correlate with early transplant outcomes. Conclusions We propose that the increases in the serum activin A, B and follistatin result from a combination of factors; the acute phase response, the reperfusion response and the use of heparin-based anti-coagulants. PMID:26820896

  14. Effects of Activin in Embryoid Bodies Expressing Fibroblast Growth Factor 5.

    PubMed

    Shirouzu, Yasumasa; Yanai, Goichi; Yang, Kai-Chiang; Sumi, Shoichiro

    2016-06-01

    Nodal/activin signaling is indispensable for embryonic development. We examined what activin does to the embryoid bodies (EBs) produced from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) expressing an epiblast marker. The EBs were produced by culturing mESCs by the hanging drop method for 24 hours. The resulting EBs were transferred onto gelatin-coated dishes and allowed to further differentiate. The 24-hour EBs showed a stronger expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)5 and Brachyury (specific to the epiblast) in comparison with mESCs. Treating the transferred EBs with activin A maintained transcript levels of FGF5 and Oct4, while inhibiting definitive endoderm differentiation. The activin A treatment reversed the endoderm differentiation induced by retinoic acid (RA), while the inhibition of nodal/activin signaling promoted RA-induced endoderm differentiation. Inhibition of nodal/activin signaling in EBs, including epiblast-like cells, promotes differentiation into the endoderm, facilitating the transition from the pluripotent state to specification of the endoderm. PMID:27253628

  15. Activin A-Smad Signaling Mediates Connective Tissue Growth Factor Synthesis in Liver Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ze-Yang; Jin, Guan-Nan; Wang, Wei; Sun, Yi-Min; Chen, Wei-Xun; Chen, Lin; Liang, Hui-Fang; Datta, Pran K.; Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Zhang, Bixiang; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Liver progenitor cells (LPCs) are activated in chronic liver damage and may contribute to liver fibrosis. Our previous investigation reported that LPCs produced connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), an inducer of liver fibrosis, yet the regulatory mechanism of the production of CTGF/CCN2 in LPCs remains elusive. In this study, we report that Activin A is an inducer of CTGF/CCN2 in LPCs. Here we show that expression of both Activin A and CTGF/CCN2 were upregulated in the cirrhotic liver, and the expression of Activin A positively correlates with that of CTGF/CCN2 in liver tissues. We go on to show that Activin A induced de novo synthesis of CTGF/CCN2 in LPC cell lines LE/6 and WB-F344. Furthermore, Activin A contributed to autonomous production of CTGF/CCN2 in liver progenitor cells (LPCs) via activation of the Smad signaling pathway. Smad2, 3 and 4 were all required for this induction. Collectively, these results provide evidence for the fibrotic role of LPCs in the liver and suggest that the Activin A-Smad-CTGF/CCN2 signaling in LPCs may be a therapeutic target of liver fibrosis. PMID:27011166

  16. Activin a signaling regulates cell invasion and proliferation in esophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Le Bras, Gregoire F.; Koumangoye, Rainelli B.; Romero-Morales, Alejandra I.; Quast, Laura L.; Zaika, Alexander I.; El-Rifai, Wael; Andl, Thomas; Andl, Claudia D.

    2015-01-01

    TGFβ signaling has been implicated in the metaplasia from squamous epithelia to Barrett's esophagus and, ultimately, esophageal adenocarcinoma. The role of the family member Activin A in Barrett's tumorigenesis is less well established. As tumorigenesis is influenced by factors in the tumor microenvironment, such as fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix, we aimed to determine if epithelial cell-derived Activin affects initiation and progression differently than Activin signaling stimulation from a mimicked stromal source. Using Barrett's esophagus cells, CPB, and the esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines OE33 and FLO-1, we showed that Activin reduces colony formation only in CPB cells. Epithelial cell overexpression of Activin increased cell migration and invasion in Boyden chamber assays in CPB and FLO-1 cells, which exhibited mesenchymal features such as the expression of the CD44 standard form, vimentin, and MT1-MMP. When grown in organotypic reconstructs, OE33 cells expressed E-cadherin and Keratin 8. As mesenchymal characteristics have been associated with the acquisition of stem cell-like features, we analyzed the expression and localization of SOX9, showing nuclear localization of SOX9 in esophageal CPB and FLO-1 cells. In conclusion, we show a role for autocrine Activin signaling in the regulation of colony formation, cell migration and invasion in Barrett's tumorigenesis. PMID:26447543

  17. Activin a signaling regulates cell invasion and proliferation in esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Chase; Loomans, Holli A; Le Bras, Gregoire F; Koumangoye, Rainelli B; Romero-Morales, Alejandra I; Quast, Laura L; Zaika, Alexander I; El-Rifai, Wael; Andl, Thomas; Andl, Claudia D

    2015-10-27

    TGFβ signaling has been implicated in the metaplasia from squamous epithelia to Barrett's esophagus and, ultimately, esophageal adenocarcinoma. The role of the family member Activin A in Barrett's tumorigenesis is less well established. As tumorigenesis is influenced by factors in the tumor microenvironment, such as fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix, we aimed to determine if epithelial cell-derived Activin affects initiation and progression differently than Activin signaling stimulation from a mimicked stromal source. Using Barrett's esophagus cells, CPB, and the esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines OE33 and FLO-1, we showed that Activin reduces colony formation only in CPB cells. Epithelial cell overexpression of Activin increased cell migration and invasion in Boyden chamber assays in CPB and FLO-1 cells, which exhibited mesenchymal features such as the expression of the CD44 standard form, vimentin, and MT1-MMP. When grown in organotypic reconstructs, OE33 cells expressed E-cadherin and Keratin 8. As mesenchymal characteristics have been associated with the acquisition of stem cell-like features, we analyzed the expression and localization of SOX9, showing nuclear localization of SOX9 in esophageal CPB and FLO-1 cells.In conclusion, we show a role for autocrine Activin signaling in the regulation of colony formation, cell migration and invasion in Barrett's tumorigenesis. PMID:26447543

  18. The neuroprotective effect of Activin A and B: implication for neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Kupershmidt, Lana; Amit, Tamar; Bar-Am, Orit; Youdim, Moussa B H; Blumenfeld, Zeev

    2007-11-01

    Activin is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily which comprises a growing list of multifunctional proteins that function as modulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, hormone secretion and neuronal survival. This study examined the neuroprotective effect of both Activin A and B in serum withdrawal and oxidative stress apoptotic cellular models and investigated the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, which may account for the mechanism of Activin-induced neuroprotection. Here, we report that recombinant Activin A and B are neuroprotective against serum deprivation- and toxin- [either the parkinsonism-inducing neurotoxin, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or the peroxynitrite donor, 3-(4-morpholinyl) sydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1)] induced neuronal death in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that transient transfection with Activin betaA or betaB significantly protect SH-SY5Y and rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells against serum withdrawal-induced apoptosis. This survival effect is mediated by the Bcl-2 family members and involves inhibition of caspase-3 activation; reduction of cleaved poly-ADP ribose polymerase and phosphorylated H2A.X protein levels and elevation of tyrosine hydroxylase expression. These results indicate that both Activin-A and -B share the potential to induce neuroprotective activity and thus may have positive impact on aging and neurodegenerative diseases to retard the accelerated rate of neuronal degeneration. PMID:17680997

  19. Endoderm differentiation and inductive effect of activin-treated ectoderm in Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, H; Takahashi, S; Tanegashima, K; Yokota, C; Asashima, M

    1999-08-01

    When presumptive ectoderm is treated with high concentrations of activin A, it mainly differentiates into axial mesoderm (notochord, muscle) in Xenopus and into yolk-rich endodermal cells in newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster). Xenopus ectoderm consists of multiple layers, different from the single layer of Cynops ectoderm. This multilayer structure of Xenopus ectoderm may prevent complete treatment of activin A and subsequent whole differentiation into endoderm. In the present study, therefore, Xenopus ectoderm was separated into an outer layer and an inner layer, which were individually treated with a high concentration of activin A (100 ng/mL). Then the differentiation and inductive activity of these ectodermal cells were examined in explantation and transplantation experiments. In isolation culture, ectoderm treated with activin A formed endoderm. Ectodermal and mesodermal tissues were seldom found in these explants. The activin-treated ectoderm induced axial mesoderm and neural tissues, and differentiated into endoderm when it was sandwiched between two sheets of ectoderm or was transplanted into the ventral marginal zone of other blastulae. These findings suggest that Xenopus ectoderm treated with a high concentration of activin A forms endoderm and mimics the properties of the organizer as in Cynops. PMID:10466926

  20. Multi-Step Fibrinogen Binding to the Integrin αIIbβ3 Detected Using Force Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Litvinov, Rustem I.; Bennett, Joel S.; Weisel, John W.; Shuman, Henry

    2005-01-01

    The regulated ability of integrin αIIbβ3 to bind fibrinogen plays a crucial role in platelet aggregation and hemostasis. We have developed a model system based on laser tweezers, enabling us to measure specific rupture forces needed to separate single receptor-ligand complexes. First of all, we performed a thorough and statistically representative analysis of nonspecific protein-protein binding versus specific αIIbβ3-fibrinogen interactions in combination with experimental evidence for single-molecule measurements. The rupture force distribution of purified αIIbβ3 and fibrinogen, covalently attached to underlying surfaces, ranged from ∼20 to 150 pN. This distribution could be fit with a sum of an exponential curve for weak to moderate (20–60 pN) forces, and a Gaussian curve for strong (>60 pN) rupture forces that peaked at 80–90 pN. The interactions corresponding to these rupture force regimes differed in their susceptibility to αIIbβ3 antagonists or Mn2+, an αIIbβ3 activator. Varying the surface density of fibrinogen changed the total binding probability linearly >3.5-fold but did not affect the shape of the rupture force distribution, indicating that the measurements represent single-molecule binding. The yield strength of αIIbβ3-fibrinogen interactions was independent of the loading rate (160–16,000 pN/s), whereas their binding probability markedly correlated with the duration of contact. The aggregate of data provides evidence for complex multi-step binding/unbinding pathways of αIIbβ3 and fibrinogen revealed at the single-molecule level. PMID:16040750

  1. String coupling and interactions in type IIB matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Kitazawa, Yoshihisa; Nagaoka, Satoshi

    2009-05-15

    We investigate the interactions of closed strings in a IIB matrix model. The basic interaction of the closed superstring is realized by the recombination of two intersecting strings. Such interaction is investigated in a IIB matrix model via two-dimensional noncommutative gauge theory in the IR limit. By estimating the probability of the recombination, we identify the string coupling g{sub s} in the IIB matrix model. We confirm that our identification is consistent with matrix string theory.

  2. Specific Activin Receptor–Like Kinase 3 Inhibitors Enhance Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tsugawa, Daisuke; Oya, Yuki; Masuzaki, Ryota; Ray, Kevin; Engers, Darren W.; Dib, Martin; Do, Nhue; Kuramitsu, Kaori; Ho, Karen; Frist, Audrey; Yu, Paul B.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Hopkins, Corey R.; Hong, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacologic agents to enhance liver regeneration after injury would have wide therapeutic application. Based on previous work suggesting inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling stimulates liver regeneration, we tested known and novel BMP inhibitors for their ability to accelerate regeneration in a partial hepatectomy (PH) model. Compounds were produced based on the 3,6-disubstituted pyrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidine core of the BMP antagonist dorsomorphin and evaluated for their ability to inhibit BMP signaling and enhance liver regeneration. Antagonists of the BMP receptor activin receptor–like kinase 3 (ALK3), including LDN-193189 (LDN; 4-[6-[4-(1-piperazinyl)phenyl]pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl]-quinoline), DMH2 (4-(2-(4-(3-(quinolin-4-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-6-yl)phenoxy)ethyl)morpholine; VU0364849), and the novel compound VU0465350 (7-(4-isopropoxyphenyl)-3-(1H-pyrazol-4-yl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine; VU5350), blocked SMAD phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo, and enhanced liver regeneration after PH. In contrast, an antagonist of the BMP receptor ALK2, VU0469381 (5-(6-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl)quinolone; 1LWY), did not affect liver regeneration. LDN did not affect liver synthetic or metabolic function. Mechanistically, LDN increased serum interleukin-6 levels and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation in the liver, and modulated other factors known to be important for liver regeneration, including suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 and p53. These findings suggest that inhibition of ALK3 may be part of a therapeutic strategy for treating human liver disease. PMID:25271257

  3. Serum activin A and B, and follistatin in critically ill patients with influenza A(H1N1) infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Activin A and its binding protein follistatin (FS) are increased in inflammatory disorders and sepsis. Overexpression of activin A in the lung causes similar histopathological changes as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS and severe respiratory failure are complications of influenza A(H1N1) infection. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), which in experimental studies increases after activin A release, is known to be related to the severity of H1N1 infection. Our aim was to evaluate the levels of activin A, activin B, FS, IL-6 and IL-10 and their association with the severity of respiratory failure in critically ill H1N1 patients. Methods A substudy of a prospective, observational cohort of H1N1 patients in Finnish intensive care units (ICU). Clinical information was recorded during ICU treatment, and serum activin A, activin B, FS, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured at admission to ICU and on days 2 and 7. Results Blood samples from 29 patients were analysed. At the time of admission to intensive care unit, elevated serum levels above the normal range for respective age group and sex were observed in 44% for activin A, 57% for activin B, and 39% for FS. In 13 of the 29 patients, serial samples at all time points were available and in these the highest activin A, activin B and FS were above the normal range in 85%, 100% and 46% of the patients, respectively. No difference in baseline or highest activin A or activin B was found in patients with or without acute lung injury (ALI) or ARDS (P > 0.05 for all). Peak levels of IL-6 were significantly elevated in ALI/ARDS patients. Peak activin A and activin A/FS were associated with ventilatory support free-days, severity of acute illness and length of ICU stay (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusions Higher than normal values of these proteins were common in patients with H1N1 infection but we found no association with the severity of their respiratory failure. PMID:24885241

  4. The Ig-ITIM superfamily member PECAM-1 regulates the "outside-in" signaling properties of integrin alpha(IIb)beta3 in platelets.

    PubMed

    Wee, Janet L; Jackson, Denise E

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies have implicated the immunoglobulin (Ig)-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) superfamily member platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) in the regulation of integrin function. While PECAM-1 has been demonstrated to play a role as an inhibitory coreceptor of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-associated Fcgamma receptor IIa (FcgammaRIIa) and glycoprotein VI (GPVI)/FcR gamma-chain signaling pathways in platelets, its physiologic role in integrin alpha(IIb)beta3-mediated platelet function is unclear. In this study, we investigate the functional importance of PECAM-1 in murine platelets. Using PECAM-1-deficient mice, we show that the platelets have impaired "outside-in" integrin alpha(IIb)beta3 signaling with impaired platelet spreading on fibrinogen, failure to retract fibrin clots in vitro, and reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase p125 (125FAK) following integrin alpha(IIb)beta3-mediated platelet aggregation. This functional integrin alpha(IIb)beta3 defect could not be attributed to altered expression of integrin alpha(IIb)beta3. PECAM-1-/- platelets displayed normal platelet alpha granule secretion, normal platelet aggregation to protease-activated receptor-4 (PAR-4), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and calcium ionophore, and static platelet adhesion. In addition, PECAM-1-/- platelets displayed normal "inside-out" integrin alpha(IIb)beta3 signaling properties as demonstrated by normal agonist-induced binding of soluble fluoroscein isothiocyanate (FITC)-fibrinogen, JON/A antibody binding, and increases in cytosolic-free calcium and inositol (1,4,5)P3 triphosphate (IP3) levels. This study provides direct evidence that PECAM-1 is essential for normal integrin alpha(IIb)beta3-mediated platelet function and that disruption of PECAM-1 induced a moderate "outsidein" integrin alpha(IIb)beta3 signaling defect. PMID:16081692

  5. Induced expression of the new cytokine, activin A, in human monocytes: inhibition by glucocorticoids and retinoic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, J; Shao, L E; Frigon, N L; Lofgren, J; Schwall, R

    1996-01-01

    The capacity of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), glucocorticoids or all-trans-retinoic acid to modulate production of activin A by human monocytes was studied. It was shown that GM-CSF stimulated monocytes to accumulate activin A RNA after as few as 4 hr of incubation, reaching a peak of stimulation at approximately 16 hr of incubation. The activin A transcripts accumulated in the monocytes after stimulation with only 5 U/ml of GM-CSF and reached a maximum plateau level of expression between 25 and 50 U/ml of GM-CSF. Biologically active activin A molecules were detected in the conditioned media by a bioassay, performed both in the absence and presence of a neutralizing antiserum for activin A. Accumulation of bioactive activin A in conditioned medium of monocyte cultures was detected after 24 hr of incubation with GM-CSF and high levels of activin A were maintained for 72 hr. The production of the dimeric beta A beta A in these monocytes was further confirmed by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for activin A. In contrast to the stimulatory effect of GM-CSF, hydrocortisone, dexamethasone or all-trans-retinoic acid at 1 x 10(-7) to 1 x 10(-5) M inhibited the constitutive expression of activin A and greatly suppressed the GM-CSF-stimulated production. Thus, the expression of activin A is modulated in monocytes by different agents. These observations may imply new roles for activin A at sites of inflammation where monocytes accumulate. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8774352

  6. Activin A Protects Midbrain Neurons in the 6-Hydroxydopamine Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kong M.; Vissel, Bryce

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and a subsequent loss of dopamine (DA) within the striatum. Despite advances in the development of pharmacological therapies that are effective at alleviating the symptoms of PD, the search for therapeutic treatments that halt or slow the underlying nigral degeneration remains a particular challenge. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily, has been shown to play a role in the neuroprotection of midbrain neurons against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in vitro, suggesting that activin A may offer similar neuroprotective effects in in vivo models of PD. Using robust stereological methods, we found that intrastriatal injections of 6-OHDA results in a significant loss of both TH positive and NeuN positive populations in the SNpc at 1, 2, and 3 weeks post-lesioning in drug naïve mice. Exogenous application of activin A for 7 days, beginning the day prior to 6-OHDA administration, resulted in a significant survival of both dopaminergic and total neuron numbers in the SNpc against 6-OHDA-induced toxicity. However, we found no corresponding protection of striatal DA or dopamine transporter (DAT) expression levels in animals receiving activin A compared to vehicle controls. These results provide the first evidence that activin A exerts potent neuroprotection in a mouse model of PD, however this neuroprotection may be localized to the midbrain. PMID:25902062

  7. Activin Signaling Targeted by Insulin/dFOXO Regulates Aging and Muscle Proteostasis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hua; Kang, Ping; Hernandez, Ana Maria; Tatar, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Reduced insulin/IGF signaling increases lifespan in many animals. To understand how insulin/IGF mediates lifespan in Drosophila, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing analysis with the insulin/IGF regulated transcription factor dFOXO in long-lived insulin/IGF signaling genotypes. Dawdle, an Activin ligand, is bound and repressed by dFOXO when reduced insulin/IGF extends lifespan. Reduced Activin signaling improves performance and protein homeostasis in muscles of aged flies. Activin signaling through the Smad binding element inhibits the transcription of Autophagy-specific gene 8a (Atg8a) within muscle, a factor controlling the rate of autophagy. Expression of Atg8a within muscle is sufficient to increase lifespan. These data reveal how insulin signaling can regulate aging through control of Activin signaling that in turn controls autophagy, representing a potentially conserved molecular basis for longevity assurance. While reduced Activin within muscle autonomously retards functional aging of this tissue, these effects in muscle also reduce secretion of insulin-like peptides at a distance from the brain. Reduced insulin secretion from the brain may subsequently reinforce longevity assurance through decreased systemic insulin/IGF signaling. PMID:24244197

  8. Reversible increase of serum activin A levels in women with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Centanni, M; Viceconti, N; Luisi, S; Reis, F M; Gargano, L; Maiani, F; Franchi, A; Canettieri, G; Petraglia, F

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the serum levels of activin A in hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease. Serum activin A and FSH levels were measured in a total of 93 females (64 regularly cycling and 29 post-menopausal). Of these, 20 were hyperthyroid patients with Graves disease, 33 were euthyroid goitrous patients (20 had autoimmune thyroiditis AT and 13 only had goiter) representing the internal control group and 40 were healthy subjects representing the external control group. Serum levels of activin A were higher in goitrous patients with AT than in control subjects (p=0.0388). Activin A levels were almost doubled in the cycling and in post-menopausal hyperthyroid women (0.91+/-0.21 vs 0.43+/-0.07 microg/l; p<0.0001 and 0.92+/-0.22 vs 0.48+/-0.24 microg/l; p=0.0001, respectively). In 10 cycling hyperthyroid patients, studied even after methimazole treatment, that increase was substantially reversed, once euthyroidism was attained (p=0.002). These findings indicate that thyroid function and autoimmune processes significantly affect serum levels of activin A in patients with Graves' disease. PMID:12553556

  9. Activin A Suppresses Osteoblast Mineralization Capacity by Altering Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Composition and Impairing Matrix Vesicle (MV) Production*

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Rodrigo D. A. M.; Eijken, Marco; Bezstarosti, Karel; Demmers, Jeroen A. A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.

    2013-01-01

    During bone formation, osteoblasts deposit an extracellular matrix (ECM) that is mineralized via a process involving production and secretion of highly specialized matrix vesicles (MVs). Activin A, a transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily member, was previously shown to have inhibitory effects in human bone formation models through unclear mechanisms. We investigated these mechanisms elicited by activin A during in vitro osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Activin A inhibition of ECM mineralization coincided with a strong decline in alkaline phosphatase (ALP1) activity in extracellular compartments, ECM and matrix vesicles. SILAC-based quantitative proteomics disclosed intricate protein composition alterations in the activin A ECM, including changed expression of collagen XII, osteonectin and several cytoskeleton-binding proteins. Moreover, in activin A osteoblasts matrix vesicle production was deficient containing very low expression of annexin proteins. ECM enhanced human mesenchymal stem cell osteogenic development and mineralization. This osteogenic enhancement was significantly decreased when human mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on ECM produced under activin A treatment. These findings demonstrate that activin A targets the ECM maturation phase of osteoblast differentiation resulting ultimately in the inhibition of mineralization. ECM proteins modulated by activin A are not only determinant for bone mineralization but also possess osteoinductive properties that are relevant for bone tissue regeneration. PMID:23781072

  10. The CDF Run IIb Silicon Detector

    SciTech Connect

    M. Aoki; N. Bacchetta; S. Behari et al.

    2004-02-25

    Fermilab plans to deliver 5-15 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity to the CDF and D0 experiments. The current inner silicon detectors at CDF (SVXIIa and L00) will not tolerate the radiation dose associated with high luminosity running and will need to be replaced. A new readout chip (SVX4) has been designed in radiation-hard 0.25 {micro}m CMOS technology. Single sided sensors are arranged in a compact structure, called a stave, with integrated readout and cooling systems. This paper describes the general design of the Run IIb system, testing results of prototype electrical components (staves), and prototype silicon sensor performance before and after irradiation.

  11. Activin/Nodal signalling before implantation: setting the stage for embryo patterning

    PubMed Central

    Papanayotou, Costis; Collignon, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Activins and Nodal are members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family of growth factors. Their Smad2/3-dependent signalling pathway is well known for its implication in the patterning of the embryo after implantation. Although this pathway is active early on at preimplantation stages, embryonic phenotypes for loss-of-function mutations of prominent components of the pathway are not detected before implantation. It is only fairly recently that an understanding of the role of the Activin/Nodal signalling pathway at these stages has started to emerge, notably from studies detailing how it controls the expression of target genes in embryonic stem cells. We review here what is currently known of the TGF-β-related ligands that determine the activity of Activin/Nodal signalling at preimplantation stages, and recent advances in the elucidation of the Smad2/3-dependent mechanisms underlying developmental progression. PMID:25349448

  12. Low miR-143/miR-145 Cluster Levels Induce Activin A Overexpression in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, Which Contributes to Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Bufalino, Andreia; Cervigne, Nilva K.; de Oliveira, Carine Ervolino; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Rodrigues, Priscila Campioni; Macedo, Carolina Carneiro Soares; Sobral, Lays Martin; Miguel, Marcia Costa; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Lambert, Daniel W.; Salo, Tuula A.; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Graner, Edgard; Coletta, Ricardo D.

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated expression of activin A is reported in several tumors, but its biological functions in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are unknown. Here, we investigate whether activin A can play a causal role in OSCCs. Activin A expression was assessed by qPCR and immunohistochemistry in OSCC tissues. Low activin A-expressing cells were treated with recombinant activin A and assessed for apoptosis, proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Those phenotypes were also evaluated in high activin A-expressing cells treated with follistatin (an activin A antagonist) or stably expressing shRNA targeting activin A. Transfections of microRNA mimics were performed to determine whether the overexpression of activin A is regulated by miR-143/miR-145 cluster. Activin A was overexpressed in OSCCs in comparison with normal oral mucosa, and high activin A levels were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, tumor differentiation and poor survival. High activin A levels promoted multiple properties associated with malignant transformation, including decreased apoptosis and increased proliferation, migration, invasion and EMT. Both miR-143 and miR-145 were markedly downregulated in OSCC cell lines and in clinical specimens, and inversely correlated to activin A levels. Forced expression of miR-143 and miR-145 in OSCC cells significantly decreased the expression of activin A. Overexpression of activin A in OSCCs, which is controlled by downregulation of miR-143/miR-145 cluster, regulates apoptosis, proliferation and invasiveness, and it is clinically correlated with lymph node metastasis and poor survival. PMID:26317418

  13. Induction of prostanoid, nitric oxide, and cytokine formation in rat bone marrow derived macrophages by activin A.

    PubMed

    Nüsing, R M; Barsig, J

    1999-06-01

    1. In this study we describe that activin A, a transforming growth factor (TGF) beta-like polypeptide affects the expression of inflammatory response genes and their products. 2. In rat bone marrow derived macrophages 15 nM activin A caused the stimulation of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and thromboxane (TX) A2 formation, production of nitrite as a marker for nitric oxide (NO) and the release of the cytokines tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and interleukin (IL) -1beta. As shown by mRNA analysis induction of cyclo-oxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase by activin A gave rise to the enhanced release of prostanoids and NO. 3. Costimulation of bone marrow derived macrophages with 15 nM activin A and 100 nM 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) potentiated the synthesis of prostanoids in a synergistic manner. With respect to NO formation the effect of activin A and TPA was additive. 4. In contrast to the nitrite production activin A induced PGE2 synthesis was susceptible to tyrosine kinase inhibition by genistein and tyrphostin 46 (IC50 was 10 and 20 microM, respectively). This observed inhibition was caused by the selective suppression of activin A induced cyclo-oxygenase-2 mRNA expression. Further, the release of TNFalpha in the presence of activin A was potentiated by tyrosine kinase inhibition. 5. In summary, we report that activin A exerts proinflammatory activity which results in the formation of prostanoids, NO and cytokines in rat bone marrow derived macrophages. Tyrosine kinase dependent and independent signalling pathways are involved leading to the increased synthesis of these metabolites. Based upon these results, we speculate that activin A may be considered as a possible component of inflammatory processes affecting at least the haematopoietic system. PMID:10433499

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of serum activin A in detection of ectopic pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Roghaei, Mohammad Ali; Sabet, Fahimeh; Mohamadi, Keivan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ectopic pregnancy (EP) still remains a main cause of maternal mortalities. This study is designed to evaluate the accuracy of serum Activin A in detection of ectopic pregnancy. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted from 2009 to 2010 at two main referral university hospitals, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Two hundred subjects who were under 10 week's pregnancy with clinical presentations of abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding were enrolled. After sampling serum Activin A, patients underwent ultrasonography, titer of B-HCG and surgery (if indicated) and were divided into two groups: EP (n = 100) and intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) (n = 100). The mean of Activin A was compared between groups and by ROC curve, the optimal cut off with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were determined. Results: The mean age of women with IUP was 25.4 ± 4.3 years (15-40 years) compared with 25.9 ± 4.1 years in women in EP group (P = 0.448). Statistical difference was not found between EP versus IUP groups in gestational age (6.32 ± 1.03 vs. 6.85 ± 1.82 weeks, P = 0.124). The mean of serum Activin A in EP group was 0.264 ± 0.0703 ng/ml versus 0.949 ± 0.5283 ng/ml in IUP group (P < 0.05). According to ROC curve (area under the curve = 0.981, P < 0.05, confidence interval: 0.961-1.000), the optimal cut off was estimated as 0.504 ng/ml with sensitivity of 97% and specificity of 93.5%. Conclusion: This study indicated that the mean of serum Activin A is lower in EP compared with IUP. The serum Activin A has a fair accuracy in detecting EP. PMID:23267401

  15. [Molecular cloning of the DNA sequence of activin beta A subunit gene mature peptides from panda and related species and its application in the research of phylogeny and taxonomy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Ya-Jun; Wang, Xi-Zhong; He, Guang-Xin; Chen, Hong-Wei; Fei, Li-Song

    2002-09-01

    Activin, which is included in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) superfamily of proteins and receptors, is known to have broad-ranging effects in the creatures. The mature peptide of beta A subunit of this gene, one of the most highly conserved sequence, can elevate the basal secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the pituitary and FSH is pivotal to organism's reproduction. Reproduction block is one of the main reasons which cause giant panda to extinct. The sequence of Activin beta A subunit gene mature peptides has been successfully amplified from giant panda, red panda and malayan sun bear's genomic DNA by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a pair of degenerate primers. The PCR products were cloned into the vector pBlueScript+ of Esherichia coli. Sequence analysis of Activin beta A subunit gene mature peptides shows that the length of this gene segment is the same (359 bp) and there is no intron in all three species. The sequence encodes a peptide of 119 amino acid residues. The homology comparison demonstrates 93.9% DNA homology and 99% homology in amino acid among these three species. Both GenBank blast search result and restriction enzyme map reveal that the sequences of Activin beta A subunit gene mature peptides of different species are highly conserved during the evolution process. Phylogeny analysis is performed with PHYLIP software package. A consistent phylogeny tree has been drawn with three different methods. The software analysis outcome accords with the academic view that giant panda has a closer relationship to the malayan sun bear than the red panda. Giant panda should be grouped into the bear family (Uersidae) with the malayan sun bear. As to the red panda, it would be better that this animal be grouped into the unique family (red panda family) because of great difference between the red panda and the bears (Uersidae). PMID:12561224

  16. Platelet Inhibitors in Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors, Clopidogrel, or Both?

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Matthew A; Donovan, Jennifer L; Gandhi, Pritesh J; Volturo, Gregory A

    2006-01-01

    The role of glycoprotein (Gp) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists remains controversial and these agents are infrequently utilized during non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) despite American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines. Despite recommendations, the NRMI-4 (National Registry of Myocardial Infarction 4) and CRUSADE (Can rapid risk stratification of unstable angina patients suppress adverse outcomes with early implementation of the ACC/AHA guidelines?) registries observed that only 25%–32% of eligible patients received early Gp IIb/IIIa therapy, despite a 6.3% absolute mortality reduction in NRMI-4 and a 2% absolute mortality reduction in CRUSADE. A pooled analysis of Gp IIb/IIIa data from these registries suggest a major reduction in mortality (Odds Ratio = 0.43, 95% Confidence Index 0.25–0.74, p = 0.002) with early Gp IIb/IIIa therapy, yet clinicians fail to utilize this option in NSTE-ACS. The evidence-based approach to NSTE-ACS involves aspirin, clopidogrel, low-molecular weight heparins, or unfractionated heparin in concert with Gp IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists, however, newer percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-based trials challenge current recommendations. Novel strategies emerging in NSTE-ACS include omitting Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitors altogether or using Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitors with higher doses of clopidogrel in selected patients. The ISAR-REACT (Intracoronary stenting and antithrombotic regimen–Rapid early action for coronary treatment) and ISAR-SWEET (ISAR–Is abciximab a superior way to eliminate elevated thrombotic risk in diabetics) trials question the value of abciximab when 600 mg of clopidogrel concurrently administered during PCI. The CLEAR-PLATELETS (Clopidogrel loading with eptifibatide to arrest the reactivity of platelets) and PEACE (Platelet activity extinction in non-Q-wave MI with ASA, clopidogrel, and eptifibatide) trials suggest more durable platelet inhibition when Gp IIb

  17. αIIbβ3-integrin Ligands: Abciximab and Eptifibatide as Proapoptotic Factors in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kononczuk, Joanna; Surazynski, Arkadiusz; Czyzewska, Urszula; Prokop, Izabela; Tomczyk, Michal; Palka, Jerzy; Miltyk, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Integrin receptors are considered to be the key factors in carcinogenesis. αIIbβ3-Integrin (GP IIb/IIIa) is the main glycoprotein of the surface of platelets, its presence has also been noted on the certain cancer cell lines. The molecular mechanism of its action in cancer cells remains unknown. This study presents effects of two αIIbβ3-inhibitors: Abciximab and Eptifibatide on apoptosis, expression of proline oxidase (POX), signaling molecules ERK 1/2, transcription factor NF-κB and HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as DNA biosynthesis, collagen biosynthesis and prolidase activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Both ligands induced apoptosis, however we found significant differences in molecular mechanism of action between tested αIIbβ3-inhibitors. These differences include expression of POX, HIF-1α, NF-κB,VEGF and collagen biosynthesis. Eptifibatide presented stronger proapoptotic activity in MCF-7 cells than Abciximab. Results of this study suggest that Eptifibatide may be considered as a novel candidate for development of new anticancer therapy. PMID:25090985

  18. Human eosinophil activin A synthesis and mRNA stabilization are induced by the combination of IL-3 plus TNF.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Elizabeth A; Esnault, Stephane; Johnson, Sean H; Liu, Lin Ying; Malter, James S; Burnham, Mandy E; Jarjour, Nizar N

    2016-08-01

    Eosinophils contribute to immune regulation and wound healing/fibrosis in various diseases, including asthma. Growing appreciation for the role of activin A in such processes led us to hypothesize that eosinophils are a source of this transforming growth factor-ß superfamily member. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) induces activin A by other cell types and is often present at the site of allergic inflammation along with the eosinophil-activating common ß (ßc) chain-signaling cytokines (interleukin (IL)-5, IL-3, granulocyte-macrophages colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)). Previously, we established that the combination of TNF plus a ßc chain-signaling cytokine synergistically induces eosinophil synthesis of the remodeling enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-9. Therefore, eosinophils were stimulated ex vivo by these cytokines and in vivo through an allergen-induced airway inflammatory response. In contrast to IL-5+TNF or GM-CSF+TNF, the combination of IL-3+TNF synergistically induced activin A synthesis and release by human blood eosinophils. IL-3+TNF enhanced activin A mRNA stability, which required sustained signaling of pathways downstream of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinases. In vivo, following segmental airway allergen challenge of subjects with mild allergic asthma, activin A mRNA was upregulated in airway eosinophils compared with circulating eosinophils, and ex vivo, circulating eosinophils tended to release more activin A in response to IL-3+TNF. These data provide evidence that eosinophils release activin A and that this function is enhanced when eosinophils are present in an allergen-induced inflammatory environment. Moreover, these data provide the first evidence for posttranscriptional control of activin A mRNA. We propose that an environment rich in IL-3+TNF will lead to eosinophil-derived activin A, which has an important role in regulating inflammation and/or fibrosis. PMID:27001469

  19. Activin A enhances MMP-7 activity via the transcription factor AP-1 in an esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Keiji; Mimori, Koshi; Inoue, Hiroshi; Kamohara, Yukio; Yamashita, Keishi; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Mori, Masaki

    2008-09-01

    Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, is often overexpressed in solid carcinomas. We have previously reported that the expression of activin A is associated with lymph node metastasis in esophageal cancer. In the current study, our goal was to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying the aggressive behavior of tumors expressing high levels of activin A. Using cDNA microarrays, the gene expression profile of a human esophageal carcinoma cell line (KYSE170) stably transfected with activin betaA (Act-betaA, a subunit of activin A) was compared with those of control human esophageal carcinoma cell lines. We found that expression of MMP-7 was higher in the Act-betaA transfectants than in the control cells. To reveal the mechanism of expression of MMP-7 mediated by activin A, we evaluated mRNA expression of MMP-7 and Act-betaA with or without activin A neutralizing antibody, using real-time PCR and Northern blot analysis. We also performed promoter analysis of the MMP-7 promoter and assessed c-Jun and Smad2/3 expression. MMP-7 expression in the transfectants was correlated with the level of Act-betaA expression and was reduced by activin A neutralizing antibody. The Act-betaA transfectants had higher MMP-7 promoter activity than control cells. MMP-7 promoter activity was not affected by mutation in the Smad binding site, while mutation of the AP-1 binding site did reduce activity. Moreover, the expression of c-Jun was increased in Act-betaA transfectants. These results indicate that activin A may modulate the expression of MMP-7 via AP-1 and not through Smad2/3. PMID:18695873

  20. Tissue absence initiates regeneration through follistatin-mediated inhibition of activin signaling.

    PubMed

    Gaviño, Michael A; Wenemoser, Danielle; Wang, Irving E; Reddien, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    Regeneration is widespread, but mechanisms that activate regeneration remain mysterious. Planarians are capable of whole-body regeneration and mount distinct molecular responses to wounds that result in tissue absence and those that do not. A major question is how these distinct responses are activated. We describe a follistatin homolog (Smed-follistatin) required for planarian regeneration. Smed-follistatin inhibition blocks responses to tissue absence but does not prevent normal tissue turnover. Two activin homologs (Smed-activin-1 and Smed-activin-2) are required for the Smed-follistatin phenotype. Finally, Smed-follistatin is wound-induced and expressed at higher levels following injuries that cause tissue absence. These data suggest that Smed-follistatin inhibits Smed-Activin proteins to trigger regeneration specifically following injuries involving tissue absence and identify a mechanism critical for regeneration initiation, a process important across the animal kingdom. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00247.001. PMID:24040508

  1. Activin/Nodal Signaling Switches the Terminal Fate of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-derived Trophoblasts*

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Prasenjit; Randall, Shan M.; Collier, Timothy S.; Nero, Anthony; Russell, Teal A.; Muddiman, David C.; Rao, Balaji M.

    2015-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been routinely treated with bone morphogenetic protein and/or inhibitors of activin/nodal signaling to obtain cells that express trophoblast markers. Trophoblasts can terminally differentiate to either extravillous trophoblasts or syncytiotrophoblasts. The signaling pathways that govern the terminal fate of these trophoblasts are not understood. We show that activin/nodal signaling switches the terminal fate of these hESC-derived trophoblasts. Inhibition of activin/nodal signaling leads to formation of extravillous trophoblast, whereas loss of activin/nodal inhibition leads to the formation of syncytiotrophoblasts. Also, the ability of hESCs to form bona fide trophoblasts has been intensely debated. We have examined hESC-derived trophoblasts in the light of stringent criteria that were proposed recently, such as hypomethylation of the ELF5-2b promoter region and down-regulation of HLA class I antigens. We report that trophoblasts that possess these properties can indeed be obtained from hESCs. PMID:25670856

  2. Role of activin, inhibin, and follistatin in the pathogenesis of bovine cystic ovarian disease.

    PubMed

    Stangaferro, Matías L; Matiller, Valentina; Díaz, Pablo U; Ortega, Hugo H; Rey, Florencia; Rodríguez, Fernanda M; Silva, Manuel A; Salvetti, Natalia R

    2014-08-01

    Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is an important cause of infertility in dairy cattle. Although many researchers have focused their work on the endocrine changes related to this disease, evidence indicates that intraovarian components play an important role in follicular persistence. Activin, inhibin, and follistatin participate as intraovarian regulatory molecules involved in follicular cell proliferation, differentiation, steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, and corpus luteum function. Given the importance of these factors in folliculogenesis, we examined the expression and immunolocalization of activin/inhibin βA-subunit, inhibin α-subunit, and follistatin in the ovaries of healthy estrus-synchronized cows and in those of cows with spontaneous or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-induced COD. We also studied inhibin B (α βB) levels in serum and follicular fluid. We found an increased expression of the βA-subunit of activin A/inhibin A, the α-subunit of inhibin, and follistatin in granulosa cells of spontaneous follicular cysts by immunohistochemistry, and decreased concentrations of inhibin B (α βB) in the follicular fluid of spontaneous follicular cysts. These results, together with those previously obtained, indicate that the expression of the components of the activin-inhibin-follistatin system is altered. This could lead to multiple alterations in important functions in the ovary like the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic factors, follicular proliferation/apoptosis, and steroidogenesis, which may contribute to the follicular persistence and endocrine changes found in cattle with COD. PMID:25001504

  3. Activin/nodal signaling switches the terminal fate of human embryonic stem cell-derived trophoblasts.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Prasenjit; Randall, Shan M; Collier, Timothy S; Nero, Anthony; Russell, Teal A; Muddiman, David C; Rao, Balaji M

    2015-04-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been routinely treated with bone morphogenetic protein and/or inhibitors of activin/nodal signaling to obtain cells that express trophoblast markers. Trophoblasts can terminally differentiate to either extravillous trophoblasts or syncytiotrophoblasts. The signaling pathways that govern the terminal fate of these trophoblasts are not understood. We show that activin/nodal signaling switches the terminal fate of these hESC-derived trophoblasts. Inhibition of activin/nodal signaling leads to formation of extravillous trophoblast, whereas loss of activin/nodal inhibition leads to the formation of syncytiotrophoblasts. Also, the ability of hESCs to form bona fide trophoblasts has been intensely debated. We have examined hESC-derived trophoblasts in the light of stringent criteria that were proposed recently, such as hypomethylation of the ELF5-2b promoter region and down-regulation of HLA class I antigens. We report that trophoblasts that possess these properties can indeed be obtained from hESCs. PMID:25670856

  4. Serum Activin A and Follistatin Levels in Gestational Diabetes and the Association of the Activin A-Follistatin System with Anthropometric Parameters in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Näf, Silvia; Escote, Xavier; Ballesteros, Mónica; Yañez, Rosa Elena; Simón-Muela, Inmaculada; Gil, Pilar; Albaiges, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Context The Activin A-Follistatin system has emerged as an important regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism with possible repercussions on fetal growth. Objective To analyze circulating activin A, follistatin and follistatin-like-3 (FSTL3) levels and their relationship with glucose metabolism in pregnant women and their influence on fetal growth and neonatal adiposity. Design and methods A prospective cohort was studied comprising 207 pregnant women, 129 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 78 with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and their offspring. Activin A, follistatin and FSTL3 levels were measured in maternal serum collected in the early third trimester of pregnancy. Serial fetal ultrasounds were performed during the third trimester to evaluate fetal growth. Neonatal anthropometry was measured to assess neonatal adiposity. Results Serum follistatin levels were significantly lower in GDM than in NGT pregnant women (8.21±2.32 ng/mL vs 9.22±3.41, P = 0.012) whereas serum FSTL3 and activin A levels were comparable between the two groups. Serum follistatin concentrations were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR and positively with ultrasound growth parameters such as fractional thigh volume estimation in the middle of the third trimester and percent fat mass at birth. Also, in the stepwise multiple linear regression analysis serum follistatin levels were negatively associated with HOMA-IR (β = −0.199, P = 0.008) and the diagnosis of gestational diabetes (β = −0.138, P = 0.049). Likewise, fractional thigh volume estimation in the middle of third trimester and percent fat mass at birth were positively determined by serum follistatin levels (β = 0.214, P = 0.005 and β = 0.231, P = 0.002, respectively). Conclusions Circulating follistatin levels are reduced in GDM compared with NGT pregnant women and they are positively associated with fetal growth and neonatal adiposity. These data suggest a role of the Activin

  5. Facilitating roles of murine platelet glycoprotein Ib and αIIbβ3 in phosphatidylserine exposure during vWF–collagen-induced thrombus formation

    PubMed Central

    Kuijpers, Marijke J E; Schulte, Valerie; Oury, Cécile; Lindhout, Theo; Broers, Jos; Hoylaerts, Marc F; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Heemskerk, Johan W M

    2004-01-01

    Vessel wall damage exposes collagen fibres, to which platelets adhere directly via the collagen receptors glycoprotein (GP) VI and integrin α2β1 and indirectly by collagen-bound von Willebrand factor (vWF) via the GPIb-V-IX and integrin αIIbβ3 receptor complexes. Platelet–collagen interaction under shear stimulates thrombus formation in two ways, by integrin-dependent formation of platelet aggregates and by surface exposure of procoagulant phosphatidylserine (PS). GPVI is involved in both processes, complemented by α2β1. In mouse blood flowing over collagen, we investigated the additional role of platelet–vWF binding via GPIb and αIIbβ3. Inhibition of GPIb as well as blocking of vWF binding to collagen reduced stable platelet adhesion at high shear rate. This was accompanied by delayed platelet Ca2+ responses and reduced PS exposure, while microaggregates were still formed. Inhibition of integrin αIIbβ3 with JON/A antibody, which blocks αIIbβ3 binding to both vWF and fibrinogen, reduced PS exposure and aggregate formation. The JON/A effects were not enhanced by combined blocking of GPIb–vWF binding, suggesting a function for αIIbβ3 downstream of GPIb. Typically, with blood from FcR γ-chain +/− mutant mice, expressing 50% of normal platelet GPVI levels, GPIb blockage almost completely abolished platelet adhesion and PS exposure. Together, these data indicate that, under physiological conditions of flow, both adhesive receptors GPIb and αIIbβ3 facilitate GPVI-mediated PS exposure by stabilizing platelet binding to collagen. Hence, these glycoproteins have an assistant procoagulant role in collagen-dependent thrombus formation, which is most prominent at reduced GPVI activity and is independent of the presence of thrombin. PMID:15155790

  6. Dok-1 negatively regulates platelet integrin αIIbβ3 outside-in signalling and inhibits thrombosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Niki, Masaru; Nayak, Manasa K; Jin, Hong; Bhasin, Neha; Plow, Edward F; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Rothman, Paul B; Chauhan, Anil K; Lentz, Steven R

    2016-05-01

    Adaptor proteins play a critical role in the assembly of signalling complexes after engagement of platelet receptors by agonists such as collagen, ADP and thrombin. Recently, using proteomics, the Dok (downstream of tyrosine kinase) adapter proteins were identified in human and mouse platelets. In vitro studies suggest that Dok-1 binds to platelet integrin β3, but the underlying effects of Dok-1 on αIIbβ3 signalling, platelet activation and thrombosis remain to be elucidated. In the present study, using Dok-1-deficient (Dok-1-/-) mice, we determined the phenotypic role of Dok-1 in αIIbβ3 signalling. We found that platelets from Dok-1-/- mice displayed normal aggregation, activation of αIIbβ3 (assessed by binding of JON/A), P-selectin surface expression (assessed by anti-CD62P), and soluble fibrinogen binding. These findings indicate that Dok-1 does not affect "inside-out" platelet signalling. Compared with platelets from wild-type (WT) mice, platelets from Dok-1-/- mice exhibited increased clot retraction (p < 0.05 vs WT), increased PLCγ2 phosphorylation, and enhanced spreading on fibrinogen after thrombin stimulation (p < 0.01 vs WT), demonstrating that Dok-1 negatively regulates αIIbβ3 "outside-in" signalling. Finally, we found that Dok-1-/- mice exhibited significantly shortened bleeding times and accelerated carotid artery thrombosis in response to photochemical injury (p < 0.05 vs WT mice). We conclude that Dok-1 modulates thrombosis and haemostasis by negatively regulating αIIbβ3 outside-in signalling. PMID:26790499

  7. The Catalytic Subunit of Protein Phosphatase 1 Gamma Regulates Thrombin-Induced Murine Platelet αIIbβ3 Function

    PubMed Central

    Gushiken, Francisca C.; Hyojeong, Han; Pradhan, Subhashree; Langlois, Kimberly W.; Alrehani, Nawaf; Cruz, Miguel A.; Rumbaut, Rolando E.; Vijayan, K. Vinod

    2009-01-01

    Background Hemostasis and thrombosis are regulated by agonist-induced activation of platelet integrin αIIbβ3. Integrin activation, in turn is mediated by cellular signaling via protein kinases and protein phosphatases. Although the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1c) interacts with αIIbβ3, the role of PP1c in platelet reactivity is unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Using γ isoform of PP1c deficient mice (PP1cγ−/−), we show that the platelets have moderately decreased soluble fibrinogen binding and aggregation to low concentrations of thrombin or protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4)-activating peptide but not to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen or collagen-related peptide (CRP). Thrombin-stimulated PP1cγ−/− platelets showed decreased αIIbβ3 activation despite comparable levels of αIIbβ3, PAR3, PAR4 expression and normal granule secretion. Functions regulated by outside-in integrin αIIbβ3 signaling like adhesion to immobilized fibrinogen and clot retraction were not altered in PP1cγ−/− platelets. Thrombus formation induced by a light/dye injury in the cremaster muscle venules was significantly delayed in PP1cγ−/− mice. Phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3)β-serine 9 that promotes platelet function, was reduced in thrombin-stimulated PP1cγ−/− platelets by an AKT independent mechanism. Inhibition of GSK3β partially abolished the difference in fibrinogen binding between thrombin-stimulated wild type and PP1cγ−/− platelets. Conclusions/Significance These studies illustrate a role for PP1cγ in maintaining GSK3β-serine9 phosphorylation downstream of thrombin signaling and promoting thrombus formation via fibrinogen binding and platelet aggregation. PMID:20016849

  8. ActivinB Is Induced in Insulinoma To Promote Tumor Plasticity through a β-Cell-Induced Dedifferentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ripoche, Doriane; Charbord, Jérémie; Hennino, Ana; Teinturier, Romain; Bonnavion, Rémy; Jaafar, Rami; Goehrig, Delphine; Cordier-Bussat, Martine; Ritvos, Olli; Zhang, Chang X.; Andersson, Olov

    2015-01-01

    Loss of pancreatic β-cell maturity occurs in diabetes and insulinomas. Although both physiological and pathological stresses are known to promote β-cell dedifferentiation, little is known about the molecules involved in this process. Here we demonstrate that activinB, a transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-related ligand, is upregulated during tumorigenesis and drives the loss of insulin expression and β-cell maturity in a mouse insulinoma model. Our data further identify Pax4 as a previously unknown activinB target and potent contributor to the observed β-cell dedifferentiation. More importantly, using compound mutant mice, we found that deleting activinB expression abolishes tumor β-cell dedifferentiation and, surprisingly, increases survival without significantly affecting tumor growth. Hence, this work reveals an unexpected role for activinB in the loss of β-cell maturity, islet plasticity, and progression of insulinoma through its participation in β-cell dedifferentiation. PMID:26711255

  9. High circulating activin A level is associated with tumor progression and predicts poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hoda, Mir Alireza; Rozsas, Anita; Lang, Elisabeth; Klikovits, Thomas; Lohinai, Zoltan; Torok, Szilvia; Berta, Judit; Bendek, Matyas; Berger, Walter; Hegedus, Balazs; Klepetko, Walter; Renyi-Vamos, Ferenc; Grusch, Michael; Dome, Balazs; Laszlo, Viktoria

    2016-01-01

    Activin A (ActA)/follistatin (FST) signaling has been shown to be deregulated in different tumor types including lung adenocarcinoma (LADC). Here, we report that serum ActA protein levels are significantly elevated in LADC patients (n=64) as compared to controls (n=46, p=0.015). ActA levels also correlated with more advanced disease stage (p<0.0001) and T (p=0.0035) and N (p=0.0002) factors. M1 patients had significantly higher ActA levels than M0 patients (p<0.001). High serum ActA level was associated with poor overall survival (p<0.0001) and was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor (p=0.004). Serum FST levels were increased only in female LADC patients (vs. female controls, p=0.031). Two out of five LADC cell lines secreted biologically active ActA, while FST was produced in all of them. Transcripts of both type I and II ActA receptors were detected in all five LADC cell lines. In conclusion, our study does not only suggest that measuring blood ActA levels in LADC patients might improve the prediction of prognosis, but also indicates that this parameter might be a novel non-invasive biomarker for identifying LADC patients with organ metastases. PMID:26950277

  10. Structural basis for specificity of TGF[beta] family receptor small molecule inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Ogunjimi, Abiodun A.; Zeqiraj, Elton; Ceccarelli, Derek F.; Sicheri, Frank; Wrana, Jeffrey L.; David, Laurent

    2012-07-24

    Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF{beta}) receptor kinase inhibitors have a great therapeutic potential. SB431542 is one of the mainly used kinase inhibitors of the TGF{beta}/Activin pathway receptors, but needs improvement of its EC{sub 50} (EC{sub 50} = 1 {mu}M) to be translated to clinical use. A key feature of SB431542 is that it specifically targets receptors from the TGF{beta}/Activin pathway but not the closely related receptors from the bone morphogenic proteins (BMP) pathway. To understand the mechanisms of this selectivity, we solved the crystal structure of the TGF{beta} type I receptor (T{beta}RI) kinase domain in complex with SB431542. We mutated T{beta}RI residues coordinating SB431542 to their counterparts in activin-receptor like kinase 2 (ALK2), a BMP receptor kinase, and tested the kinase activity of mutated T{beta}RI. We discovered that a Ser280Thr mutation yielded a T{beta}RI variant that was resistant to SB431542 inhibition. Furthermore, the corresponding Thr283Ser mutation in ALK2 yielded a BMP receptor sensitive to SB431542. This demonstrated that Ser280 is the key determinant of selectivity for SB431542. This work provides a framework for optimising the SB431542 scaffold to more potent and selective inhibitors of the TGF{beta}/Activin pathway.

  11. Structural Basis for Specificity of TGFβ Family Receptor Small Molecule Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ogunjimi, Abiodun A.; Zeqiraj, Elton; Ceccarelli, Derek F.; Sicheri, Frank; Wrana, Jeffrey L.; David, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) receptor kinase inhibitors have a great therapeutic potential. SB431542 is one of the mainly used kinase inhibitors of the TGFβ/Activin pathway receptors, but needs improvement of its EC50 (EC50 = 1 μM) to be translated to clinical use. A key feature of SB431542 is that it specifically targets receptors from the TGFβ/Activin pathway but not the closely related receptors from the bone morphogenic proteins (BMP) pathway. To understand the mechanisms of this selectivity, we solved the crystal structure of the TGFβ type I receptor (TβRI) kinase domain in complex with SB431542. We mutated TβRI residues coordinating SB431542 to their counterparts in activin-receptor like kinase 2 (ALK2), a BMP receptor kinase, and tested the kinase activity of mutated TβRI. We discovered that a Ser280Thr mutation yielded a TβRI variant that was resistant to SB431542 inhibition. Furthermore, the corresponding Thr283Ser mutation in ALK2 yielded a BMP receptor sensitive to SB431542. This demonstrated that Ser280 is the key determinant of selectivity for SB431542. This work provides a framework for optimizing the SB431542 scaffold to more potent and selective inhibitors of the TGFβ/Activin pathway. PMID:21983015

  12. [Molecular cloning of activin betaA subunit mature peptide from peafowl and its application in taxonomy and phylogeny].

    PubMed

    Zou, Fang-Dong; Tong, Xin-Xin; Yue, Bi-Song

    2005-03-01

    The sequences of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptide have been amplified from white peafowl, blue peafowl (pavo cristatus) and green peafowl (pavo muticus) genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a pair of degenerate primers. The target fragments were cloned into the vector pMD18-T and sequenced. The length of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptide is 345bp, which encoded a peptide of 115 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptide demonstrated that the identity of nucleotide is 98.0% between blue peaflowl and green peafowl, and the identity of that is 98.8% between blue peaflowl and white peafow. Sequences comparison in NCBI revealed that the sequences of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptides of different species are highly conserved during evolution process. In addition, the restriction enzyme map of activins is high similar between white peafowl and blue peafowl. Phylogenetic tree was constructed with Mega 2 and Clustalxldx software. The result showed that white peafowl has a closer relationship to blue peafowl than to green peafowl. Considered the nucleotide differences of peafowls' activin gene betaA subunit mature peptides, a highly conserved region, we supported that white peafowl was derived from blue peafowl, and it is more possible the hybrid but just the product of color mutation, or maybe as a subspecies of Pavo genus. PMID:15843351

  13. Structure-activity relationships of alphaIIb 313-320 derived peptide inhibitors of human platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Stanica, Ruxandra Maria; Benaki, Dimitra; Rodis, Foteini I; Mikros, Emmanuel; Tsoukatos, Dimokritos; Tselepis, Alexandros; Tsikaris, Vasilios

    2008-11-01

    The alphaIIbbeta3 receptor, which is the most abundant receptor on the surface of platelets, can interact with a variety of adhesive proteins including fibrinogen, fibronectin and the von Willebrand factor. Fibrinogen binding on alphaIIbbeta3 is an event essential for platelet aggregation and thrombus formation. Mapping of the fibrinogen-binding domains on alphaIIb subunit suggested the sequence 313-332 as a possible binding site. This region was restricted to sequence alphaIIb 313-320 (Y313MESRADR320) using synthetic octapeptides overlapping by six residues. The YMESRADR octapeptide inhibits ADP-stimulated human platelets aggregation and binds to immobilized fibrinogen. In this study, we used the Ala scanning methodology within the sequence 313-320 aiming to evaluate the contribution of each amino acid in inhibiting platelet aggregation. It was found that the substitution of Y313, M314, E315 or S316 by A does not affect the activity of the parent octapeptide. The-RADR-motif seems to be the most essential for the biological activity of the alphaIIb 313-320 site. The conformational analysis of the YAESRADR, YMESAADR and YMESRAAR analogs by using NMR spectroscopy and distance geometry calculations revealed significant differences in their conformational states in DMSO-d6. PMID:18646252

  14. Perspectives on the future of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Tcheng, J E

    1998-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, advances in molecular and cellular biology have greatly expanded our understanding of the critical role of platelets in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes. This work has suggested that aggressive platelet inhibition might reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates beyond the reductions already achieved with aspirin and other conventional therapies. Researchers in basic science laboratories have identified a specific platelet receptor, the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa integrin, which serves as the mediator, or final common pathway, leading to platelet aggregation. This glycoprotein receptor is a logical target for the development of antagonists to inhibit thrombosis. A number of these antagonists have been tested in clinical trials involving coronary intervention, unstable angina, and acute myocardial infarction. Herein, I present some of the rationale behind the investigation of these agents, as well as some issues to be considered with regard to the future of this exciting new class of drugs. PMID:9566064

  15. The integrin alpha IIb beta 3 contains distinct and interacting binding sites for snake-venom RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) proteins. Evidence that the receptor-binding characteristics of snake-venom RGD proteins are related to the amino acid environment flanking the sequence RGD.

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, S; Lu, X; Kakkar, V V; Authi, K S

    1995-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated [Lu, Williams, Deadman, Salmon, Kakkar, Wilkinson, Baruch, Authi and Rahman (1994) Biochem. J. 304, 929-936] the preferential antagonism of the interactions of the integrin alpha IIb beta 3 on activated platelets with three immobilized glycoprotein ligands (fibrinogen, fibronectin and von Willebrand factor) by a selected panel of snake-venom RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp)-containing proteins including the disintegrins kistrin and elegantin, and the neurotoxin variant dendroaspin. Kistrin and dendroaspin, although structurally unrelated, contain similar amino acids flanking the tripeptide RGD and behaved as identical antagonists preferentially inhibiting platelet adhesion to immobilized fibrinogen as opposed to fibronectin. In contrast, elegantin, which shares extensive sequence similarity with kistrin but has different amino acids around the tripeptide RGD, preferentially inhibited platelet adhesion to immobilized fibronectin as opposed to fibrinogen. To develop further insights into the mechanisms underlying the preferential antagonism shown by the venom proteins in the adhesion studies, we, in the present study, sought to determine the binding properties of kistrin, elegantin and dendroaspin to the alpha IIb beta 3 complex by radioligand kinetic and competition studies. In direct binding experiments, both kistrin and dendroaspin were observed to bind to a single class of binding site on ADP-activated platelets with apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (Kdapp) values of 42 +/- 2 nM and 21 +/- 6 nM respectively. In competition studies, dendroaspin blocked the binding of 125I-labelled kistrin to ADP-activated platelets in a simple competitive manner, with an apparent equilibrium inhibition constant (Kiapp) of 143 +/- 14 nM, from which an indirect Kdapp = 22 nM for dendroaspin was determined. This result suggests that kistrin and dendroaspin bind to the same site on the integrin alpha IIb beta 3 consistent with their similar inhibitory

  16. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors: The resurgence of tirofiban.

    PubMed

    King, Shawn; Short, Marintha; Harmon, Cassidy

    2016-03-01

    Glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors block platelet aggregation, reducing thrombotic events in acute coronary syndrome. They are most often utilized in patients who likely have an intracoronary thrombus. Tirofiban, eptifibatide, and abciximab are the three GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors approved for use in the United States. Each agent has unique pharmacological properties. They all have a rapid onset and are most often utilized in conjunction with heparin. Tirofiban, in particular, fell out of favor due to inferior dosing with its original Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indication, but has re-emerged in the market with a high-dose bolus regimen that is considered equally as effective as the FDA approved dosing regimens of other GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors. This review looks at pharmacological properties of all three agents, significant clinical trials associated with their use, and their place in current guidelines. PMID:26187354

  17. Serum activin A and B levels predict outcome in patients with acute respiratory failure: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction 30 day mortality in patients with Acute Respiratory Failure (ARF) is approximately 30%, defined as patients requiring ventilator support for more than 6 hours. Novel biomarkers are needed to predict patient outcomes and to guide potential future therapies. The activins A and B, members of the Transforming Growth Factor β family of proteins, and their binding protein, follistatin, have recently been shown to be important regulators of inflammation and fibrosis but no substantial data are available concerning their roles in ARF. Our objectives were to evaluate whether the serum levels of activin A, B and follistatin are elevated in 518 patients with ARF from the FINNALI study compared the concentrations in 138 normal subjects that form a reference range. Methods Specific assays for activin A, B and follistatin were used and the results analyzed according to diagnostic groups as well as according to standard measures in intensive care. Multivariable logistic regression was used to create a model to predict death at 90 days and 12 months from the onset of the ARF. Results Serum activin A and B were significantly elevated in most patients and in most of the diagnostic groups. Patients who had activin A and/or B concentrations above the reference maximum were significantly more likely to die in the 12 months following admission [either activin A or B above reference maximum: Positive Likelihood Ratio [LR+] 1.65 [95% CI 1.28-2.12, P = 0.00013]; both activin A and B above reference maximum: LR + 2.78 [95% CI 1.96-3.95, P < 0.00001]. The predictive model at 12 months had an overall accuracy of 80.2% [95% CI 76.6-83.3%]. Conclusions The measurement of activin A and B levels in these patients with ARF would have assisted in predicting those at greatest risk of death. Given the existing data from animal studies linking high activin A levels to significant inflammatory challenges, the results from this study suggest that approaches to modulate

  18. Brane world generated dynamically from string type IIB matrices

    PubMed

    Nishimura; Vernizzi

    2000-11-27

    We have recently proposed a dynamical mechanism that may realize a flat four-dimensional space-time as a brane in type IIB superstring theory. A crucial role is played by the phase of the chiral fermion integral associated with the IKKT (Ishibashi-Kawai-Kitazawa-Tsuchiya) matrix theory, which is conjectured to be a nonperturbative definition of type IIB superstring theory. We demonstrate our mechanism by studying a simplified model, in which we find that a lower-dimensional brane indeed appears dynamically. We also comment on some implications of our mechanism on model building of the brane world. PMID:11082622

  19. Green-Schwarz superstring from type IIB matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Kitazawa, Yoshihisa; Nagaoka, Satoshi

    2008-01-15

    We construct a Green-Schwarz (GS) light-cone closed superstring theory from the type IIB matrix model. A GS light-cone string action is derived from the two-dimensional N=8 U(n) noncommutative Yang-Mills (NCYM) theory by identifying a noncommutative scale with a string scale. The supersymmetry transformation for the light-cone gauge action is also derived from supersymmetry transformation for the IIB matrix model. By identifying the physical states and interaction vertices, string theory is perturbatively reproduced.

  20. Supersymmetric Wilson loops in a type-IIB matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, K.

    1997-12-01

    We show that the supersymmetric Wilson loops in a type-IIB matrix model give a transition operator from reduced supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory to supersymmetric space-time theory. In comparison with Green-Schwarz superstring we identify the supersymmetric Wilson loops with the asymptotic states of a type-IIB superstring. It is pointed out that the supersymmetry transformation law of the Wilson loops is the inverse of that for the vertex operators of massless modes in the U(N) open superstring with a Dirichlet boundary condition. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Overexpression of Leap2 impairs Xenopus embryonic development and modulates FGF and activin signals.

    PubMed

    Thiébaud, Pierre; Garbay, Bertrand; Auguste, Patrick; Sénéchal, Caroline Le; Maciejewska, Zuzanna; Fédou, Sandrine; Gauthereau, Xavier; Costaglioli, Patricia; Thézé, Nadine

    2016-09-01

    Besides its widely described function in the innate immune response, no other clear physiological function has been attributed so far to the Liver-Expressed-Antimicrobial-Peptide 2 (LEAP2). We used the Xenopus embryo model to investigate potentially new functions for this peptide. We identified the amphibian leap2 gene which is highly related to its mammalian orthologues at both structural and sequence levels. The gene is expressed in the embryo mostly in the endoderm-derived tissues. Accordingly it is induced in pluripotent animal cap cells by FGF, activin or a combination of vegT/β-catenin. Modulating leap2 expression level by gain-of-function strategy impaired normal embryonic development. When overexpressed in pluripotent embryonic cells derived from blastula animal cap explant, leap2 stimulated FGF while it reduced the activin response. Finally, we demonstrate that LEAP2 blocks FGF-induced migration of HUman Vascular Endothelial Cells (HUVEC). Altogether these findings suggest a model in which LEAP2 could act at the extracellular level as a modulator of FGF and activin signals, thus opening new avenues to explore it in relation with cellular processes such as cell differentiation and migration. PMID:27335344

  2. The Effects of Fibroblast Co-Culture and Activin A on in vitro Growth of Mouse Preantral Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Karimpour Malekshah, Abbasali; Heidari, Mahmoud; Parivar, Kazem; Azami, Nasrin Sadat

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to evaluate fibroblast co-culture and Activin A on in vitro maturation and fertilization of mouse preantral follicles. Methods: The ovaries from 12-14-day-old mice were dissected, and 120-150 μm preantral follicles were cultured individually in α-MEM as based medium for 12 days. A total number of 456 follicles were cultured in four conditions: (i) base medium as control group (n = 113), (ii) base medium supplemented with 30 ng/ml Activin A (n = 115), (iii) base medium co-cultured with mouse embryonic fibroblast (n = 113), and (iv) base medium supplemented with 30 ng/ml Activin A and co-cultured with fibroblast (n = 115). Rate of growth, survivability, antrum formation, ovulation, embryonic development and steroid production were evaluated. Analysis of Variance and Duncan test were applied for analyzing. Results: Both co-culture and co-culture + Activin A groups showed significant difference (P<0.05) in growth (on days 4, 6, and 8 of culture period) and survival rates. However, there was no significant difference in antrum formation, ovulation rate, and embryonic development of ovulated oocytes. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the estradiol production on days 8, 10, and 12 between co-culture + Activin A and the control group. Progesterone production also was significant (P<0.05) in co-culture + Activin A group on days 6, 8, 10, and 12 compared to control group. Conclusion: Fibroblast co-culture and Activin A promoted growth and survivability of preantral follicles. However, simultaneous use of them was more efficient. PMID:24375163

  3. Single versus binary star progenitors of Type IIb supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sravan, Niharika

    2016-07-01

    Stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe) represent a challenge to our understanding of massive star evolution. Wind mass loss and binary interactions are the leading candidates to explain observations. The latter has gained support in the recent years with growing evidence that mass-loss rates due to line-driven winds are, in reality, 2 - 3 times lower. Type IIb SNe retain a small amount of their Hydrogen envelope before undergoing core-collapse and are the only class of stripped-envelope SNe with identified progenitors. Thus they are powerful tools for testing our understanding of massive stellar evolution. To identify possible evolutionary pathways to Type IIb SNe, we use Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) to model a large population of single and binary star sequences covering a broad parameter space with a wide range of component masses and initial orbital periods and identify those that undergo core-collapse with 0.01 to 0.5 solar masses of residual Hydrogen envelope. We find no single star Type IIb progenitors in the parameter space covered. We find a few Type IIb binary progenitors. These sequences have initial mass ratios greater than 0.6, wide orbital periods and undergo non-conservative mass transfer.

  4. Sequential sup 1 H NMR assignments of kistrin, a potent platelet aggregation inhibitor and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, M.; Wagner, G. )

    1992-02-04

    Sequence-specific nuclear magnetic resonances assignments have been obtained for the protons of kistrin. Kistrin is a small naturally occurring snake venom protein that inhibits platelet aggregation by blocking the interaction of fibrinogen with the membrane-bound glycoprotein IIb-IIIa (GP IIb-IIIa), a receptor from the integrin family. Kistrin has an Arg-Gly-Asp sequence which is believed to form an adhesion recognition sequence that is essential for activity. Therefore, the interaction between kistrin and GP IIb-IIIa may provide important information on the motif used by integrins to recognize their target proteins which bear RGD sequences. Kistrin consists of 68 residues and contains six intramolecular disulfide bonds. Although one-third of the amide protons are protected from exchange with the solvent, there appears to be little or no regular secondary structure. The large number of NOE's between residues separated by two and three positions in the sequence indicates that the protein contains a large number of tightly packed loops. Along with the sequential assignments, this paper also discusses the construction and use of computerized data bases for manipulating NMR results. A strategy for computer-assisted sequential resonance using these data bases is also presented.

  5. Skelemin Association with αIIbβ3 Integrin: A Structural Model

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, our knowledge concerning intracellular events that regulate integrin’s affinity to their soluble ligands has significantly improved. However, the mechanism of adhesion-induced integrin clustering and development of focal complexes, which could further mature to form focal adhesions, still remains under-investigated. Here we present a structural model of tandem IgC2 domains of skelemin in complex with the cytoplasmic tails of integrin αIIbβ3. The model of tertiary assembly is generated based upon NMR data and illuminates a potential link between the essential cell adhesion receptors and myosin filaments. This connection may serve as a basis for generating the mechanical forces necessary for cell migration and remodeling. PMID:25224262

  6. Trastuzumab Emtansine in Treating Older Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-31

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  7. [Type IIb primary hyperlipoproteinemia. An homogenous series of 412 cases].

    PubMed

    Rouffy, J; Loeper, J; Dreux, C; Lemogne, M; Loeper, J; Pestel, M; Dakkak, R

    1976-03-20

    On the basis of a homogeneous series of 412 cases of type IIb primary hyperlipoproteinaemia, the authors compare their experience with findings in the literature. The prevalence of this type of hyperlipoproteinaemia in the general population has been underestimated at 3%. Biological diagnosis remains simple (identification of a double and distinct excess in beta and pre beta lipoproteins). Extravascular lipid deposits (gerontoxon, xanthelasma, tendon xanthomata) are not type specific. Hyperlipidaemic syndrome is rare. Above all, the importance of type IIb in atheromatous disease in the young subject now seems obvious. The mode of hereditary transmission of the familial anomaly is not certain but would appear to be often associated with a double heterozygote condition. PMID:1264609

  8. Mechanical properties of D0 Run IIB silicon detector staves

    SciTech Connect

    Lanfranco, Giobatta; Fast, James; /Fermilab

    2001-06-01

    A proposed stave design for the D0 Run IIb silicon tracker outer layers featuring central cooling channels and a composite shell mechanical structure is evaluated for self-deflection and deflection due to external loads. This paper contains an introduction to the stave structure, a section devoted to composite lamina and laminate properties and finally a section discussing the beam deflections expected for assembled staves using these laminates.

  9. Deflection test results on D0 Run IIB stave

    SciTech Connect

    Lanfranco, Giobatta; /Fermilab

    2003-09-01

    The D0 RunIIb final design stave has been tested to verify its actual mechanical performance. The effectiveness of four G-11 (fiberglass/epoxy) braces to bridge the two channels has been investigated as well. All staves have met the goal stiffness for the silicon area. The stave mockups with braces have shown excellent stiffness in complete agreement with what theoretically calculated.

  10. Spectropolarimetry of the Type IIb SN 2008aq*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevance, H. F.; Maund, J. R.; Baade, D.; Höflich, P.; Patat, F.; Spyromilio, J.; Wheeler, J. C.; Clocchiatti, A.; Wang, L.; Yang, Y.; Zelaya, P.

    2016-09-01

    We present optical spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry of the Type IIb SN 2008aq 16-d and 27-d post-explosion. The spectrum of SN 2008aq remained dominated by Hα P Cygni profile at both epochs, but showed a significant increase in the strength of the helium features, which is characteristic of the transition undergone by supernovae between Type IIb and Type Ib. Comparison of the spectra of SN 2008aq to other Type IIb SNe (SN 1993J, SN 2011dh, and SN 2008ax) at similar epochs revealed that the helium lines in SN 2008aq are much weaker, suggesting that its progenitor was stripped to a lesser degree. SN 2008aq also showed significant levels of continuum polarization at pcont = 0.70 (±0.22) per cent in the first epoch, increasing to pcont = 1.21 (±0.33) per cent by the second epoch. Moreover, the presence of loops in the q - u planes of Hα and He I in the second epoch suggests a departure from axial symmetry.

  11. CDF Run IIb Silicon Vertex Detector DAQ Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    S. Behari et al.

    2003-12-18

    The CDF particle detector operates in the beamline of the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at Fermilab, Batavia, IL. The Tevatron is expected to undergo luminosity upgrades (Run IIb) in the future, resulting in a higher number of interactions per beam crossing. To operate in this dense radiation environment, an upgrade of CDF's silicon vertex detector (SVX) subsystem and a corresponding upgrade of its VME-based DAQ system has been explored. Prototypes of all the Run IIb SVX DAQ components have been constructed, assembled into a test stand and operated successfully using an adapted version of CDF's network-capable DAQ software. In addition, a PCI-based DAQ system has been developed as a fast and inexpensive tool for silicon detector and DAQ component testing in the production phase. In this paper they present an overview of the Run IIb silicon DAQ upgrade, emphasizing the new features and improvements incorporated into the constituent VME boards, and discuss a PCI-based DAQ system developed to facilitate production tests.

  12. The Expression of Human Cytomegalovirus MicroRNA MiR-UL148D during Latent Infection in Primary Myeloid Cells Inhibits Activin A-triggered Secretion of IL-6

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Betty; Poole, Emma; Krishna, Benjamin; Sellart, Immaculada; Wills, Mark R.; Murphy, Eain; Sinclair, John

    2016-01-01

    The successful establishment and maintenance of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latency is dependent on the expression of a subset of viral genes. Whilst the exact spectrum and functions of these genes are far from clear, inroads have been made for protein-coding genes. In contrast, little is known about the expression of non-coding RNAs. Here we show that HCMV encoded miRNAs are expressed de novo during latent infection of primary myeloid cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-UL148D, one of the most highly expressed viral miRNAs during latent infection, directly targets the cellular receptor ACVR1B of the activin signalling axis. Consistent with this, we observed upregulation of ACVR1B expression during latent infection with a miR-UL148D deletion virus (ΔmiR-UL148D). Importantly, we observed that monocytes latently infected with ΔmiR-UL148D are more responsive to activin A stimulation, as demonstrated by their increased secretion of IL-6. Collectively, our data indicates miR-UL148D inhibits ACVR1B expression in latently infected cells to limit proinflammatory cytokine secretion, perhaps as an immune evasion strategy or to postpone cytokine-induced reactivation until conditions are more favourable. This is the first demonstration of an HCMV miRNA function during latency in primary myeloid cells, implicating that small RNA species may contribute significantly to latent infection. PMID:27491954

  13. Human type II receptor for bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs): extension of the two-kinase receptor model to the BMPs.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, F; Ventura, F; Doody, J; Massagué, J

    1995-01-01

    Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) are universal regulators of animal development. We report the identification and cloning of the BMP type II receptor (BMPR-II), a missing component of this receptor system in vertebrates. BMPR-II is a transmembrane serine/threonine kinase that binds BMP-2 and BMP-7 in association with multiple type I receptors, including BMPR-IA/Brk1, BMPR-IB, and ActR-I, which is also an activin type I receptor. Cloning of BMPR-II resulted from a strong interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with diverse transforming growth factor beta family type I receptor cytoplasmic domains in a yeast two-hybrid system. In mammalian cells, however, the interaction of BMPR-II is restricted to BMP type I receptors and is ligand dependent. BMPR-II binds BMP-2 and -7 on its own, but binding is enhanced by coexpression of type I BMP receptors. BMP-2 and BMP-7 can induce a transcriptional response when added to cells coexpressing ActR-I and BMPR-II but not to cells expressing either receptor alone. The kinase activity of both receptors is essential for signaling. Thus, despite their ability to bind to type I and II receptors receptors separately, BMPs appear to require the cooperation of these two receptors for optimal binding and for signal transduction. The combinatorial nature of these receptors and their capacity to crosstalk with the activin receptor system may underlie the multifunctional nature of their ligands. PMID:7791754

  14. The Epstein-Barr virus encoded LMP1 oncoprotein modulates cell adhesion via regulation of activin A/TGFβ and β1 integrin signalling

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Mhairi A.; Dawson, Christopher W.; Laverick, Louise; Davis, Alexandra M.; Dudman, Joe P. R.; Raveenthiraraj, Sathuwarman; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Yap, Lee-Fah; Young, Lawrence S.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 20% of global cancer incidence is causally linked to an infectious agent. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) accounts for around 1% of all virus-associated cancers and is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), the major oncoprotein encoded by EBV, behaves as a constitutively active tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor activating a variety of signalling pathways, including the three classic MAPKs (ERK-MAPK, p38 MAPK and JNK/SAPK). The present study identifies novel signalling properties for this integral membrane protein via the induction and secretion of activin A and TGFβ1, which are both required for LMP1’s ability to induce the expression of the extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin. However, it is evident that LMP1 is unable to activate the classic Smad-dependent TGFβ signalling pathway, but rather elicits its effects through the non-Smad arm of TGFβ signalling. In addition, there is a requirement for JNK/SAPK signalling in LMP1-mediated fibronectin induction. LMP1 also induces the expression and activation of the major fibronectin receptor, α5β1 integrin, an effect that is accompanied by increased focal adhesion formation and turnover. Taken together, these findings support the putative role for LMP1 in the pathogenesis of NPC by contributing to the metastatic potential of epithelial cells. PMID:26782058

  15. Activin B induces human endometrial cancer cell adhesion, migration and invasion by up-regulating integrin β3 via SMAD2/3 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Siyuan; Klausen, Christian; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Zhu, Hua; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the fourth most common female cancer and the most common gynecological malignancy. Although it comprises only ~10% of all endometrial cancers, the serous histological subtype accounts for ~40% of deaths due to its aggressive behavior and propensity to metastasize. Histopathological studies suggest that elevated expression of activin/inhibin βB subunit is associated with reduced survival in non-endometrioid endometrial cancers (type II, mostly serous). However, little is known about the specific roles and mechanisms of activin (βB dimer) in serous endometrial cancer growth and progression. In the present study, we examined the biological functions of activin B in type II endometrial cancer cell lines, HEC-1B and KLE. Our results demonstrate that treatment with activin B increases cell migration, invasion and adhesion to vitronectin, but does not affect cell viability. Moreover, we show that activin B treatment increases integrin β3 mRNA and protein levels via SMAD2/3-SMAD4 signaling. Importantly, siRNA knockdown studies revealed that integrin β3 is required for basal and activin B-induced cell migration, invasion and adhesion. Our results suggest that activin B-SMAD2/3-integrin β3 signaling could contribute to poor patient survival by promoting the invasion and/or metastasis of type II endometrial cancers. PMID:26384307

  16. Clinical Relevance and Mechanisms of Antagonism Between the BMP and Activin/TGF-β Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Hudnall, Aaron M; Arthur, Jon W; Lowery, Jonathan W

    2016-07-01

    The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily is a large group of signaling molecules that participate in embryogenesis, organogenesis, and tissue homeostasis. These molecules are present in all animal genomes. Dysfunction in the regulation or activity of this superfamily's components underlies numerous human diseases and developmental defects. There are 2 distinct arms downstream of the TGF-β superfamily ligands-the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and activin/TGF-β signaling pathways-and these 2 responses can oppose one another's effects, most notably in disease states. However, studies have commonly focused on a single arm of the TGF-β superfamily, and the antagonism between these pathways is unknown in most physiologic and pathologic contexts. In this review, the authors summarize the clinically relevant scenarios in which the BMP and activin/TGF-β pathways reportedly oppose one another and identify several molecular mechanisms proposed to mediate this interaction. Particular attention is paid to experimental findings that may be informative to human pathology to highlight potential therapeutic approaches for future investigation. PMID:27367950

  17. Activin A directs striatal projection neuron differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Arber, Charles; Precious, Sophie V.; Cambray, Serafí; Risner-Janiczek, Jessica R.; Kelly, Claire; Noakes, Zoe; Fjodorova, Marija; Heuer, Andreas; Ungless, Mark A.; Rodríguez, Tristan A.; Rosser, Anne E.; Dunnett, Stephen B.; Li, Meng

    2015-01-01

    The efficient generation of striatal neurons from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is fundamental for realising their promise in disease modelling, pharmaceutical drug screening and cell therapy for Huntington's disease. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) are the principal projection neurons of the striatum and specifically degenerate in the early phase of Huntington's disease. Here we report that activin A induces lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) characteristics in nascent neural progenitors derived from hESCs and hiPSCs in a sonic hedgehog-independent manner. Correct specification of striatal phenotype was further demonstrated by the induction of the striatal transcription factors CTIP2, GSX2 and FOXP2. Crucially, these human LGE progenitors readily differentiate into postmitotic neurons expressing the striatal projection neuron signature marker DARPP32, both in culture and following transplantation in the adult striatum in a rat model of Huntington's disease. Activin-induced neurons also exhibit appropriate striatal-like electrophysiology in vitro. Together, our findings demonstrate a novel route for efficient differentiation of GABAergic striatal MSNs from human pluripotent stem cells. PMID:25804741

  18. Regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition in bovine conceptuses through the interaction between follistatin and activin A.

    PubMed

    Kusama, Kazuya; Bai, Rulan; Ideta, Atsushi; Aoyagi, Yoshito; Okuda, Kiyoshi; Imakawa, Kazuhiko

    2016-10-15

    Dynamic changes in bovine conceptus and endometrium occur during early gestation, in which the conceptus undergoes epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) after the conceptus attachment to endometrium. To characterize EMT inducing factors, we initially undertook iTRAQ analysis with bovine uterine flushing (UF) obtained from pregnant animals on days 17 (P17: pre-attachment) and 20 (P20: post-attachment). The iTRAQ analysis demonstrated that follistatin (FST), an inhibitor of activin A, increased in P20 UF. We then found that FST decreased in P22 conceptuses, whereas elevated activin A found in P20 UF and endometria was further increased on P22. In addition, phosphorylated SMAD2 increased in P22 conceptuses. In bovine trophoblast cells, the treatment with P22 UF or activin An up-regulated EMT marker expressions, which were inhibited by FST. These results suggest that the initiation of bovine conceptus EMT could be regulated through the spatiotemporal expression of FST or activin A during the peri-attachment period. PMID:27321969

  19. Activin Plays a Key Role in the Maintenance of Long-Term Memory and Late-LTP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ageta, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Shiro; Miura, Masami; Masuda, Masao; Migishima, Rika; Hino, Toshiaki; Takashima, Noriko; Murayama, Akiko; Sugino, Hiromu; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Kida, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Tsuchida, Kunihiro; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Inokuchi, Kaoru

    2010-01-01

    A recent study has revealed that fear memory may be vulnerable following retrieval, and is then reconsolidated in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of these processes. Activin [beta]A, a member of the TGF-[beta] superfamily, is increased in activated neuronal circuits and regulates…

  20. Docetaxel, Carboplatin, Trastuzumab, and Pertuzumab With or Without Estrogen Deprivation in Treating Patients With Hormone Receptor-Positive, HER2-Positive Operable or Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-15

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Positive; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  1. Cucurbitacin IIb exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through modulating multiple cellular behaviors of mouse lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Zhao, Gao-Xiang; Xu, Li-Hui; Liu, Kun-Peng; Pan, Hao; He, Jian; Cai, Ji-Ye; Ouyang, Dong-Yun; He, Xian-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbitacin IIb (CuIIb) is one of the major active compounds in Hemsleyadine tablets which have been used for clinical treatment of bacillary dysentery, enteritis and acute tonsilitis. However, its action mechanism has not been completely understood. This study aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of CuIIb and its underlying mechanism in mitogen-activated lymphocytes isolated from mouse mesenteric lymph nodes. The results showed that CuIIb inhibited the proliferation of concanavalin A (Con A)-activated lymphocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. CuIIb treatment arrested their cell cycle in S and G2/M phases probably due to the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and the modulation of p27(Kip1) and cyclin levels. Moreover, the surface expression of activation markers CD69 and CD25 on Con A-activated CD3(+) T lymphocytes was suppressed by CuIIb treatment. Both Con A- and phorbol ester plus ionomycin-induced expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-6 proteins was attenuated upon exposure to CuIIb. Mechanistically, CuIIb treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of JNK and Erk1/2 but not p38 in Con A-activated lymphocytes. Although CuIIb unexpectedly enhanced the phosphorylation of IκB and NF-κB (p65), it blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB (p65). In support of this, CuIIb significantly decreased the mRNA levels of IκBα and TNF-α, two target genes of NF-κB, in Con A-activated lymphocytes. In addition, CuIIb downregulated Con A-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and increased cell apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that CuIIb exhibits its anti-inflammatory activity through modulating multiple cellular behaviors and signaling pathways, leading to the suppression of the adaptive immune response. PMID:24587010

  2. Cucurbitacin IIb Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity through Modulating Multiple Cellular Behaviors of Mouse Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kun-Peng; Pan, Hao; He, Jian; Cai, Ji-Ye; Ouyang, Dong-Yun; He, Xian-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbitacin IIb (CuIIb) is one of the major active compounds in Hemsleyadine tablets which have been used for clinical treatment of bacillary dysentery, enteritis and acute tonsilitis. However, its action mechanism has not been completely understood. This study aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of CuIIb and its underlying mechanism in mitogen-activated lymphocytes isolated from mouse mesenteric lymph nodes. The results showed that CuIIb inhibited the proliferation of concanavalin A (Con A)-activated lymphocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. CuIIb treatment arrested their cell cycle in S and G2/M phases probably due to the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and the modulation of p27Kip1 and cyclin levels. Moreover, the surface expression of activation markers CD69 and CD25 on Con A-activated CD3+ T lymphocytes was suppressed by CuIIb treatment. Both Con A- and phorbol ester plus ionomycin-induced expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-6 proteins was attenuated upon exposure to CuIIb. Mechanistically, CuIIb treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of JNK and Erk1/2 but not p38 in Con A-activated lymphocytes. Although CuIIb unexpectedly enhanced the phosphorylation of IκB and NF-κB (p65), it blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB (p65). In support of this, CuIIb significantly decreased the mRNA levels of IκBα and TNF-α, two target genes of NF-κB, in Con A-activated lymphocytes. In addition, CuIIb downregulated Con A-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and increased cell apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that CuIIb exhibits its anti-inflammatory activity through modulating multiple cellular behaviors and signaling pathways, leading to the suppression of the adaptive immune response. PMID:24587010

  3. Numerical analysis of the double scaling limit in the string type IIB matrix model.

    PubMed

    Horata, S; Egawa, H S

    2001-05-14

    The bosonic IIB matrix model is studied using a numerical method. This model contains the bosonic part of the IIB matrix model conjectured to be a nonperturbative definition of the type IIB superstring theory. The large N scaling behavior of the model is shown performing a Monte Carlo simulation. The expectation value of the Wilson loop operator is measured and the string tension is estimated. The numerical results show the prescription of the double scaling limit. PMID:11384258

  4. Closed headpiece of integrin [alpah]IIb[beta]3 and its complex with an [alpha]IIb[beta]3-specific antagonist that does not induce opening

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jieqing; Zhu, Jianghai; Negri, Ana; Provasi, Davide; Filizola, Marta; Coller, Barry S.; Springer, Timothy A.

    2011-08-24

    The platelet integrin {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} is essential for hemostasis and thrombosis through its binding of adhesive plasma proteins. We have determined crystal structures of the {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} headpiece in the absence of ligand and after soaking in RUC-1, a novel small molecule antagonist. In the absence of ligand, the {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} headpiece is in a closed conformation, distinct from the open conformation visualized in presence of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) antagonists. In contrast to RGD antagonists, RUC-1 binds only to the {alpha}{sub IIb} subunit. Molecular dynamics revealed nearly identical binding. Two species-specific residues, {alpha}{sub IIb} Y190 and {alpha}{sub aIIb} D232, in the RUC-1 binding site were confirmed as important by mutagenesis. In sharp contrast to RGD-based antagonists, RUC-1 did not induce {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} to adopt an open conformation, as determined by gel filtration and dynamic light scattering. These studies provide insights into the factors that regulate integrin headpiece opening, and demonstrate the molecular basis for a novel mechanism of integrin antagonism.

  5. Evolution of the Type IIb SN 2011fu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, S. B.; Kumar, Brajesh; Sahu, D. K.; Vinko, J.; Moskvitin, A. S.; Anupama, G. C.; Bhatt, V. K.; Ordasi, A.; Nagy, A.; Sokolov, V. V.; Sokolova, T. N.; Komarova, V. N.; Kumar, Brijesh; Bose, Subhash; Roy, Rupak; Sagar, Ram

    2014-01-01

    The UBVRI photometric follow-up of SN 2011fu has been initiated a few days after the explosion, shows a rise followed by steep decay in all bands and shares properties very similar to that seen in case of SN 1993J, with a possible detection of the adiabatic cooling phase at very early epochs. The spectral modeling performed with SYNOW suggests that the early-phase line velocities for H and Fe ii features were ~ 16000 km s-1 and ~ 14000 km s-1, respectively. Studies of rare class of type IIb SNe are important to understand the evolution of the possible progenitors of core-collapse SNe in more details.

  6. Vertex operators of ghost number three in Type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, Andrei

    2016-06-01

    We study the cohomology of the massless BRST complex of the Type IIB pure spinor superstring in flat space. In particular, we find that the cohomology at the ghost number three is nontrivial and transforms in the same representation of the supersymmetry algebra as the solutions of the linearized classical supergravity equations. Modulo some finite dimensional spaces, the ghost number three cohomology is the same as the ghost number two cohomology. We also comment on the difference between the naive and semi-relative cohomology, and the role of b-ghost.

  7. Heparin Modulates the Conformation and Signaling of Platelet Integrin αIIbβ3

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Mayumi; Murray, Jacqueline; Strand, Kurt; Blystone, Scott; Interlandi, Gianluca; Suda, Yasuo; Sobel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The glycosaminoglycan heparin has been shown to bind to platelet integrin αIIbβ3 and induce platelet activation and aggregation, although the relationship between binding and activation is unclear. We analyzed the interaction of heparin and αIIbβ3 in detail, to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism by which heparin acts on platelets. Methods We assessed conformational changes in αIIbβ3 by flow cytometry of platelets exposed to unfractionated heparin. In human platelets and K562 cells engineered to express αIIbβ3, we assayed the effect of heparin on key steps in integrin signaling: phosphorylation of the β3 chain cytoplasmic tail, and activation of src kinase. We measured the heparin binding affinity of purified αIIbβ3, and of recombinant fragments of αIIb and β3, by surface plasmon resonance. Results and Conclusions Heparin binding results in conformational changes in αIIbβ3, similar to those observed upon ligand binding. Heparin binding alone is not sufficient to induce tyrosine phosphorylation of the integrin β3 cytoplasmic domain, but the presence of heparin increased both β3 phosphorylation and src kinase activation in response to ligand binding. Specific recombinant fragments derived from αIIb bound heparin, while recombinant β3 did not bind. This pattern of heparin binding, compared to the crystal structure of αIIbβ3, suggests that heparin-binding sites are located in clusters of basic amino acids in the headpiece and/or leg domains of αIIb. Binding of heparin to these clusters may stabilize the transition of αIIbβ3 to an open conformation with enhanced affinity for ligand, facilitating outside-in signaling and platelet activation. PMID:22197178

  8. Expression cloning of Xantivin, a Xenopus lefty/antivin-related gene, involved in the regulation of activin signaling during mesoderm induction.

    PubMed

    Tanegashima, K; Yokota, C; Takahashi, S; Asashima, M

    2000-12-01

    In a screening for activin-responsive genes, we isolated a Xenopus lefty/antivin-related gene, called Xantivin (Xatv). In the animal cap assay, the expression of Xatv was induced by activin signaling, and in the embryo, by nodal-related genes. Overexpression of Xatv in the marginal zone caused suppression of mesoderm formation and gastrulation defects, and inhibited the secondary axis formation induced by Xnr1 and Xactivin, suggesting that Xatv acted as a feedback inhibitor of activin signaling. However, in the animal cap, Xatv failed to antagonize Xnr1 and Xactivin. This result suggested that Xatv has different responses in the marginal zone and in the animal region, and antagonizes to a higher degree activin signaling in the marginal zone. PMID:11091069

  9. RUC-4: A Novel αIIbβ3 Antagonist for Pre-hospital Therapy of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jihong; Vootukuri, Spandana; Shang, Yi; Negri, Ana; Jiang, Jian-kang; Nedelman, Mark; Diacovo, Thomas G.; Filizola, Marta; Thomas, Craig J.; Coller, Barry S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) within the first 1–2 hours with a thrombolytic agent, percutaneous coronary intervention, or an αIIbβ3 antagonist decreases mortality and the later development of heart failure. We previously reported on a novel small molecule αIIbβ3 antagonist, RUC-2, that has a unique mechanism of action. We have now developed a more potent and more soluble congener of RUC-2, RUC-4, designed to be easily administered intramuscularly (IM) by autoinjector to facilitate its use in the pre-hospital setting. Here we report the properties of RUC-4 and the antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects of RUC-2 and RUC-4 in animal models. Approach and Results RUC-4 was ~20% more potent than RUC-2 in inhibiting human ADP-induced platelet aggregation and much more soluble in aqueous solutions (60–80 mg/ml). It shared RUC-2’s specificity for αIIbβ3 vs αVβ3, did not prime the receptor to bind fibrinogen, or induce changes in β3 identified by a conformation-specific monoclonal antibody. Both RUC-2 and RUC-4 prevented FeCl3-induced thrombotic occlusion of the carotid artery in mice and decreased microvascular thrombi in response to laser injury produced by human platelets infused into transgenic mice containing a mutated von Willebrand factor that reacts with human, but not mouse platelets. IM injection of RUC-4 in non-human primates at 1.9 and 3.85 mg/kg led to complete inhibition of platelet aggregation within 15 minutes, with dose-dependent return of platelet aggregation after 4.5–24 hours. Conclusions RUC-4 has favorable biochemical, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, antithrombotic, and solubility properties as a pre-hospital therapy of MI, but the possibility of increased bleeding with therapeutic doses remains to be evaluated. PMID:25147334

  10. Thermal properties of D0 Run IIb silicon detector staves

    SciTech Connect

    Lanfranco, Giobatta; Fast, James; /Fermilab

    2001-06-01

    A proposed stave design for the D0 Run IIb silicon tracker outer layers featuring central cooling channels and hybrid substrates mounted directly to the silicon sensor surfaces is evaluated for heat transfer characteristics and thermal deflections. In order to control leakage current noise in the silicon it is necessary to maintain the silicon in Layer 2 (R {approx} 100mm) at or below +5C. The current cooling system using 30% ethylene glycol in water can deliver coolant to the inlet of the silicon tracker at a temperature of -8C to -10C. This paper also investigates some alternative coolant options for Run IIB. While these are not required for the outer layers of silicon, they may be needed for L0, which sits at R {approx} 15mm. In this case the silicon must be kept at or below -5C, very near the lower limit for delivery of 30% glycol/water coolant. However, for the inner layers the electronics will be mounted independently from the silicon so the local heat flux is greatly reduced. This paper does not consider the cooling issues for the inner layers.

  11. Arsenate transport by sodium/phosphate cotransporter type IIb

    SciTech Connect

    Villa-Bellosta, Ricardo; Sorribas, Victor

    2010-08-15

    Arsenic is a metalloid that causes the dysfunction of critical enzymes, oxidative stress, and malignancies. In recent years several transporters of As{sup III} have been identified, including aquaglyceroporins (AQP) and multidrug resistance proteins (MRP). As{sup V} transport, however, has not been sufficiently studied because it has been assumed that arsenate is taken up by mammalian cells through inorganic phosphate (Pi) transporters. In this paper we have analyzed the role of Pi transporters in the uptake of arsenate by directly using {sup 73}As{sup V} as a radiotracer in phosphate transporter-expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes. The affinities of Pi transporters for H{sub 3}AsO{sub 4} were lower than the affinities for Pi. NaPiIIa, NaPiIIc, Pit1, and Pit2 showed a K{sub m} for arsenate that was > 1 mM (i.e., at least ten times lower than the affinities for Pi). The NaPiIIb isoform showed the highest affinity for As{sup V} in mouse (57 {mu}M), rat (51 {mu}M), and human (9.7 {mu}M), which are very similar to the affinities for Pi. Therefore, NaPiIIb can have a prominent role in the toxicokinetics of arsenic following oral exposure to freshwater or food contaminated with As{sup V}.

  12. Activin regulation of the follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit gene involves Smads and the TALE homeodomain proteins Pbx1 and Prep1.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Janice S; Rave-Harel, Naama; McGillivray, Shauna M; Coss, Djurdjica; Mellon, Pamela L

    2004-05-01

    FSH is critical for normal reproductive function in both males and females. Activin, a member of the TGFbeta family of growth factors, is an important regulator of FSH expression, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms through which it acts. We used transient transfections into the immortalized gonadotrope cell line LbetaT2 to identify three regions (at -973/-962, -167, and -134) of the ovine FSH beta-subunit gene that are required for full activin response. All three regions contain homology to consensus binding sites for Smad proteins, the intracellular mediators of TGFbeta family signaling. Mutation of the distal site reduces activin responsiveness, whereas mutation of either proximal site profoundly disrupts activin regulation of the FSHbeta gene. These sites specifically bind LbetaT2 nuclear proteins in EMSAs, and the -973/-962 site binds Smad4 protein. Interestingly, the protein complex binding to the -134 site contains Smad4 in association with the homeodomain proteins Pbx1 and Prep1. Using glutathione S-transferase interaction assays, we demonstrate that Pbx1 and Prep1 interact with Smads 2 and 3 as well. The two proximal activin response elements are well conserved across species, and Pbx1 and Prep1 proteins bind to the mouse gene in vivo. Furthermore, mutation of either proximal site abrogates activin responsiveness of a mouse FSHbeta reporter gene as well, confirming their functional conservation. Our studies provide a basis for understanding activin regulation of FSHbeta gene expression and identify Pbx1 and Prep1 as Smad partners and novel mediators of activin action. PMID:14764653

  13. PI3K/mTORC2 regulates TGF-β/Activin signalling by modulating Smad2/3 activity via linker phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jason S. L.; Ramasamy, Thamil Selvee; Murphy, Nick; Holt, Marie K.; Czapiewski, Rafal; Wei, Shi-Khai; Cui, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Crosstalk between the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and the transforming growth factor-β signalling pathways play an important role in regulating many cellular functions. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning this crosstalk remain unclear. Here, we report that PI3K signalling antagonizes the Activin-induced definitive endoderm (DE) differentiation of human embryonic stem cells by attenuating the duration of Smad2/3 activation via the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2). Activation of mTORC2 regulates the phosphorylation of the Smad2/3-T220/T179 linker residue independent of Akt, CDK and Erk activity. This phosphorylation primes receptor-activated Smad2/3 for recruitment of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4L, which in turn leads to their degradation. Inhibition of PI3K/mTORC2 reduces this phosphorylation and increases the duration of Smad2/3 activity, promoting a more robust mesendoderm and endoderm differentiation. These findings present a new and direct crosstalk mechanism between these two pathways in which mTORC2 functions as a novel and critical mediator. PMID:25998442

  14. PI3K/mTORC2 regulates TGF-β/Activin signalling by modulating Smad2/3 activity via linker phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jason S L; Ramasamy, Thamil Selvee; Murphy, Nick; Holt, Marie K; Czapiewski, Rafal; Wei, Shi-Khai; Cui, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Crosstalk between the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and the transforming growth factor-β signalling pathways play an important role in regulating many cellular functions. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning this crosstalk remain unclear. Here, we report that PI3K signalling antagonizes the Activin-induced definitive endoderm (DE) differentiation of human embryonic stem cells by attenuating the duration of Smad2/3 activation via the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2). Activation of mTORC2 regulates the phosphorylation of the Smad2/3-T220/T179 linker residue independent of Akt, CDK and Erk activity. This phosphorylation primes receptor-activated Smad2/3 for recruitment of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4L, which in turn leads to their degradation. Inhibition of PI3K/mTORC2 reduces this phosphorylation and increases the duration of Smad2/3 activity, promoting a more robust mesendoderm and endoderm differentiation. These findings present a new and direct crosstalk mechanism between these two pathways in which mTORC2 functions as a novel and critical mediator. PMID:25998442

  15. 30 CFR 57.22604 - Blasting from the surface (II-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting from the surface (II-B mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22604 Blasting from the surface (II-B mines). All development, production, and bench rounds shall be initiated from the...

  16. Level IIb CTV delineation based on cervical fascia anatomy in nasopharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Pan, Li; Ren, Jing; Lang, Jinyi; Wen, Hao; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Shichuan

    2015-04-01

    We carefully reviewed magnetic resonance (MR) images from 100 consecutive NPC patients and analyzed the lymph node distribution status at level IIb. We proposed several modifications of the existing consensus guidelines for determining the level IIb clinical target volume (CTV) in NPC patients. PMID:25770873

  17. Genomic clone encoding the. cap alpha. chain of the OKM1, LFA-1, and platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove, L.J.; Sandrin, M.S.; Rajasekariah, P.; McKenzie, I.F.C.

    1986-02-01

    LFA-1, an antigen involved in cytolytic T lymphocyte-mediated killing, and Mac-1, the receptor for complement component C3bi, constitute a family of structurally and functionally related cell surface glycoproteins involved in cellular interactions. In both mouse and man, Mac-1 (OKM1) and LFA-1 share a common 95-kDa ..beta.. subunit but are distinguished by their ..cap alpha.. chains, which have different cellular distributions, apparent molecular masses (165 and 177 kDa, respectively), and peptide maps. The authors report the isolation of a genomic clone from a human genomic library that on transfection into mouse fibroblasts produced a molecule(s) reactive with monoclonal antibodies to OKM1, to LFA-1, and to platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa. This gene was cloned by several cycles of transfection of L cells with a human genomic library cloned in lambda phase Charon 4A and subsequent rescue of the lambda phage. Transfection with the purified recombinant lambda DNA yielded a transfectant that expressed the three human ..cap alpha.. chains of OKM1, LFA-1, and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa, presumably in association with the murine ..beta.. chain.

  18. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and P2Y12 Induction by Oligochitosan Accelerates Platelet Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Hussein, Abdul Rahim; Ujang, Zanariah

    2014-01-01

    Platelet membrane receptor glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (gpiibiiia) is a receptor detected on platelets. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) activates gpiibiiia and P2Y12, causing platelet aggregation and thrombus stabilization during blood loss. Chitosan biomaterials were found to promote surface induced hemostasis and were capable of activating blood coagulation cascades by enhancing platelet aggregation. Our current findings show that the activation of the gpiibiiia complex and the major ADP receptor P2Y12 is required for platelet aggregation to reach hemostasis following the adherence of various concentrations of chitosan biomaterials [7% N,O-carboxymethylchitosan (NO-CMC) with 0.45 mL collagen, 8% NO-CMC, oligochitosan (O-C), and oligochitosan 53 (O-C 53)]. We studied gpiibiiia and P2Y12 through flow cytometric analysis and western blotting techniques. The highest expression of gpiibiiia was observed with Lyostypt (74.3 ± 7.82%), followed by O-C (65.5 ± 7.17%). Lyostypt and O-C resulted in gpiibiiia expression increases of 29.2% and 13.9%, respectively, compared with blood alone. Western blot analysis revealed that only O-C 53 upregulated the expression of P2Y12 (1.12 ± 0.03-fold) compared with blood alone. Our findings suggest that the regulation of gpiibiiia and P2Y12 levels could be clinically useful to activate platelets to reach hemostasis. Further, we show that the novel oligochitosan is able to induce the increased expression of gpiibiiia and P2Y12, thus accelerating platelet aggregation in vitro. PMID:25247182

  19. Human platelet activation by Escherichia coli: roles for FcγRIIA and integrin αIIbβ3

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Callum N.; Kerrigan, Steven W.; Cox, Dermot; Henderson, Ian R.; Watson, Steve P.; Arman, Mònica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gram-negative Escherichia coli cause diseases such as sepsis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in which thrombotic disorders can be found. Direct platelet–bacterium interactions might contribute to some of these conditions; however, mechanisms of human platelet activation by E. coli leading to thrombus formation are poorly understood. While the IgG receptor FcγRIIA has a key role in platelet response to various Gram-positive species, its role in activation to Gram-negative bacteria is poorly defined. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of human platelet activation by E. coli, including the potential role of FcγRIIA. Using light-transmission aggregometry, measurements of ATP release and tyrosine-phosphorylation, we investigated the ability of two E. coli clinical isolates to activate platelets in plasma, in the presence or absence of specific receptors and signaling inhibitors. Aggregation assays with washed platelets supplemented with IgGs were performed to evaluate the requirement of this plasma component in activation. We found a critical role for the immune receptor FcγRIIA, αIIbβ3, and Src and Syk tyrosine kinases in platelet activation in response to E. coli. IgG and αIIbβ3 engagement was required for FcγRIIA activation. Moreover, feedback mediators adenosine 5’-diphosphate (ADP) and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) were essential for platelet aggregation. These findings suggest that human platelet responses to E. coli isolates are similar to those induced by Gram-positive organisms. Our observations support the existence of a central FcγRIIA-mediated pathway by which human platelets respond to both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:27025455

  20. IMMUNOLOCALIZATION OF INHIBIN/ACTIVIN SUBUNITS AND STEROIDOGENIC ENZYMES IN THE TESTES OF AN ADULT AFRICAN ELEPHANT (LOXODONTA AFRICANA).

    PubMed

    Li, Qinglin; Lu, Lu; Weng, Qiang; Kawakami, Shigehisa; Saito, Eriko; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Yuki; Kaewmanee, Saroch; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2016-06-01

    In this case report, the authors investigated immunolocalization of inhibin α and inhibin/activin βA and βB subunits, as well as steroidogenic enzymes, in the testes of an African elephant. Testes were collected from a reproductively active male African elephant (24 yr old) at autopsy. Histologically, all types of spermatogenic cells including mature-phase spermatozoa were found in the seminiferous tubules. Positive immunostaining for inhibin α and inhibin/activin βA and βB subunits was observed in Sertoli and Leydig cells. In addition, P450scc, 3βHSD, P450c17, and P450arom were also detected in the cytoplasm of Leydig cells. These results suggested that Leydig cells of adult African elephant testes have the ability to synthesize progestin, androgen, and estrogen, whereas both Sertoli and Leydig cells appear as a major source of inhibin secretion in the male African elephant. PMID:27468011

  1. Affleck-Dine baryogenesis in type IIB string models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Cicoli, Michele; Muia, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    We propose a possible string embedding of Affleck-Dine baryogenesis in type IIB sequestered models where the late-time decay of the lightest modulus reheats the universe to relatively low temperatures. We show that if inflation is driven by a blow-up Kähler modulus, the Affleck-Dine field can become tachyonic during inflation if the Kähler metric for matter fields has an appropriate inflaton-dependent contribution. We find that the Affleck-Dine mechanism can generate the observed baryon asymmetry for natural values of the underlying parameters which lead also to successful inflation and low-energy gaugino masses in a split supersymmetry scenario. The reheating temperature from the lightest modulus decay is high enough to allow thermal Higgsino-like dark matter.

  2. Visualizing the ai5γ group IIB intron

    PubMed Central

    Somarowthu, Srinivas; Legiewicz, Michal; Keating, Kevin S.; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    It has become apparent that much of cellular metabolism is controlled by large well-folded noncoding RNA molecules. In addition to crystallographic approaches, computational methods are needed for visualizing the 3D structure of large RNAs. Here, we modeled the molecular structure of the ai5γ group IIB intron from yeast using the crystal structure of a bacterial group IIC homolog. This was accomplished by adapting strategies for homology and de novo modeling, and creating a new computational tool for RNA refinement. The resulting model was validated experimentally using a combination of structure-guided mutagenesis and RNA structure probing. The model provides major insights into the mechanism and regulation of splicing, such as the position of the branch-site before and after the second step of splicing, and the location of subdomains that control target specificity, underscoring the feasibility of modeling large functional RNA molecules. PMID:24203709

  3. The activin binding proteins follistatin and follistatin-related protein are differentially regulated in vitro and during cutaneous wound repair.

    PubMed

    Wankell, M; Kaesler, S; Zhang, Y Q; Florence, C; Werner, S; Duan, R

    2001-12-01

    Follistatin is a secreted protein that binds activin in vitro and in vivo and thereby inhibits its biological functions. Recently, related human and murine genes, designated follistatin-related gene (FLRG), were identified, and their products were shown to bind activin with high affinity. In this study we further characterized the murine FLRG protein, and we analyzed its tissue-specific expression and regulation in comparison with those of follistatin. Transient expression of the mouse FLRG protein in COS-1 cells revealed that the FLRG cDNA encodes a secreted glycoprotein. FLRG mRNA was expressed at high levels in the lung, the testis, the uterus and, particularly, the skin. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of FLRG in the basement membrane between the dermis and the epidermis and around blood vessels. FLRG mRNA expression was induced in keratinocytes by keratinocyte growth factor, epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta 1, and in fibroblasts by platelet-derived growth factor and epidermal growth factor. The induction was more rapid, but weaker, than that of follistatin. Most interestingly, both follistatin and FLRG were expressed during the wound healing process, but their distribution within the wound was different. The different expression pattern of FLRG and follistatin and their differential regulation suggest different functions of these activin-binding proteins in vivo. PMID:11739004

  4. Dissociation of bimolecular αIIbβ3-fibrinogen complex under a constant tensile force.

    PubMed

    Litvinov, Rustem I; Barsegov, Valeri; Schissler, Andrew J; Fisher, Andrew R; Bennett, Joel S; Weisel, John W; Shuman, Henry

    2011-01-01

    The regulated ability of integrin αIIbβ3 to bind fibrinogen plays a crucial role in platelet aggregation, adhesion, and hemostasis. Employing an optical-trap-based electronic force clamp, we studied the thermodynamics and kinetics of αIIbβ3-fibrinogen bond formation and dissociation under constant unbinding forces, mimicking the forces of physiologic blood shear on a thrombus. The distribution of bond lifetimes was bimodal, indicating that the αIIbβ3-fibrinogen complex exists in two bound states with different mechanical stability. The αIIbβ3 antagonist, abciximab, inhibited binding without affecting the unbinding kinetics, whereas Mn²(+) biased the αIIbβ3-fibrinogen complex to the strong bound state with reduced off-rate. The average bond lifetimes decreased exponentially with increasing pulling force from ∼5 pN to 50 pN, suggesting that in this force range the αIIbβ3-fibrinogen interactions are classical slip bonds. We found no evidence for catch bonds, which is consistent with the known lack of shear-enhanced platelet adhesion on fibrinogen-coated surfaces. Taken together, these data provide important quantitative and qualitative characteristics of αIIbβ3-fibrinogen binding and unbinding that underlie the dynamics of platelet adhesion and aggregation in blood flow. PMID:21190668

  5. Level IIB Neck Dissection in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Science or Myth?

    PubMed

    Ghantous, Yasmine; Akrish, Sharon; Abd-Elraziq, Morad; El-Naaj, Imad Abu

    2016-06-01

    Selective neck dissection enables us to reduce the morbidity of neck dissection while maintaining the same oncological results, mainly in clinically negative neck N0. The most common morbidity associated with selective neck dissection is spinal accessory nerve dysfunction and related shoulder disability, which are encountered during dissection of level IIB.The aim of authors' study is to evaluate the incidence of sublevel IIB lymphatic metastasis in clinically N0 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients.The study group comprised 48 men (68%) and 22 women (32%). The median number of the lymph nodes removed from level IIB was 6.5. All the investigated necks were clinically classified as N0, of which 14 (20%) turned out to have an occult nodal metastasis, including only 1 patient (1.42%) of level IIB occult metastasis, which originated from the primary tumor located in the tongue and also metastasized to level IIA. The most associated morbidity was shoulder pain and dysfunction, which presented in 60% of the patients.Also, an electronic search was conducted to find relevant studies investigating the prevalence of level IIB metastasis in OSCC. Ten studies were included for full text review, including the current study. The overall incidence of level IIB metastasis is 4% (17 patients); of these 17 patients, only 4 patients had isolated level IIB nodal metastases (2%).To conclude, neck dissecting, including dissecting level IIB, remains the keystone of treating OSCC. Its prognostic and therapeutic value exceeds its associated morbidity; therefore, dissecting level IIB is recommended in treating OSCC in clinically N0 patients. PMID:27171965

  6. Three-Dimensional Structures of Full-Length, Membrane-Embedded Human α(IIb)β(3) Integrin Complexes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Ping; Kim, Eldar; Swift, Mark; Smith, Jeffrey W; Volkmann, Niels; Hanein, Dorit

    2016-02-23

    Integrins are bidirectional, allosteric transmembrane receptors that play a central role in hemostasis and arterial thrombosis. Using cryo-electron microscopy, multireference single-particle reconstruction methods, and statistics-based computational fitting approaches, we determined three-dimensional structures of human integrin αIIbβ3 embedded in a lipid bilayer (nanodiscs) while bound to domains of the cytosolic regulator talin and to extracellular ligands. We also determined the conformations of integrin in solution by itself to localize the membrane and the talin-binding site. To our knowledge, our data provide unprecedented three-dimensional information about the conformational states of intact, full-length integrin within membrane bilayers under near-physiological conditions and in the presence of cytosolic activators and extracellular ligands. We show that αIIbβ3 integrins exist in a conformational equilibrium clustered around four main states. These conformations range from a compact bent nodule to two partially extended intermediate conformers and finally to a fully upright state. In the presence of nanodiscs and the two ligands, the equilibrium is significantly shifted toward the upright conformation. In this conformation, the receptor extends ∼20 nm upward from the membrane. There are no observable contacts between the two subunits other than those in the headpiece near the ligand-binding pocket, and the α- and β-subunits are well separated with their cytoplasmic tails ∼8 nm apart. Our results indicate that extension of the ectodomain is possible without separating the legs or extending the hybrid domain, and that the ligand-binding pocket is not occluded by the membrane in any conformations of the equilibrium. Further, they suggest that integrin activation may be influenced by equilibrium shifts. PMID:26910421

  7. Induction of primitive streak and mesendoderm formation in monolayer hESC culture by activation of TGF-β signaling pathway by Activin B.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Amer; Aldahmash, Abdullah

    2015-11-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the ability to differentiate into all human cells, however controlling the differentiation has always been a challenge. In the present study we have investigated the direct differentiation of hESCs on MEFs by using TGF-β signaling pathway activators Activin A and Activin B. Activation of the TGF-β pathway with Activin B in low serum highly induced primitive streak and mesendoderm formation after 24 h, which included up-regulation of SOX 17 and BRACHYURY protein and gene expression. Continuous stimulation with Activin B in 2% serum further induced mesendoderm formation by increased gene expression of Brachyury, SOX17, MEOX and FOX at the same time we found down-regulation of neuroectodermal marker genes. Further, by stimulating the mesodermal cells by BMP-2 we succeeded to induce mesenchymal like cells with high expression of mesenchymal markers including; MEOX, FOX, RUNX2, COL1 and OSTEOPONTIN. In conclusion we have directed the differentiation of hESCs as monolayer to primitive streak like cells with Activin B and further into pure mesoderm and mesenchymal like cells by BMP-2. PMID:26586995

  8. Effect of physical training on liver expression of activin A and follistatin in a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model in rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, R N; Bueno, P G; Avó, L R S; Nonaka, K O; Selistre-Araújo, H S; Leal, A M O

    2014-09-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fat accumulation in the liver and is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Activin A is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF)-β superfamily and inhibits hepatocyte growth. Follistatin antagonizes the biological actions of activin. Exercise is an important therapeutic strategy to reduce the metabolic effects of obesity. We evaluated the pattern of activin A and follistatin liver expression in obese rats subjected to swimming exercise. Control rats (C) and high-fat (HF) diet-fed rats were randomly assigned to a swimming training group (C-Swim and HF-Swim) or a sedentary group (C-Sed and HF-Sed). Activin βA subunit mRNA expression was significantly higher in HF-Swim than in HF-Sed rats. Follistatin mRNA expression was significantly lower in C-Swim and HF-Swim than in either C-Sed or HF-Sed animals. There was no evidence of steatosis or inflammation in C rats. In contrast, in HF animals the severity of steatosis ranged from grade 1 to grade 3. The extent of liver parenchyma damage was less in HF-Swim animals, with the severity of steatosis ranging from grade 0 to grade 1. These data showed that exercise may reduce the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet on the liver, suggesting that the local expression of activin-follistatin may be involved. PMID:25075578

  9. The Notch ligand Delta-like 1 integrates inputs from TGFbeta/Activin and Wnt pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Bordonaro, Michael Tewari, Shruti Atamna, Wafa Lazarova, Darina L.

    2011-06-10

    Unlike the well-characterized nuclear function of the Notch intracellular domain, it has been difficult to identify a nuclear role for the ligands of Notch. Here we provide evidence for the nuclear function of the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 in colon cancer (CC) cells exposed to butyrate. We demonstrate that the intracellular domain of Delta-like 1 (Dll1icd) augments the activity of Wnt signaling-dependent reporters and that of the promoter of the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene. Data suggest that Dll1icd upregulates CTGF promoter activity through both direct and indirect mechanisms. The direct mechanism is supported by co-immunoprecipitation of endogenous Smad2/3 proteins and Dll1 and by chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses that revealed the occupancy of Dll1icd on CTGF promoter sequences containing a Smad binding element. The indirect upregulation of CTGF expression by Dll1 is likely due to the ability of Dll1icd to increase Wnt signaling, a pathway that targets CTGF. CTGF expression is induced in butyrate-treated CC cells and results from clonal growth assays support a role for CTGF in the cell growth-suppressive role of butyrate. In conclusion, integration of the Notch, Wnt, and TGFbeta/Activin signaling pathways is in part mediated by the interactions of Dll1 with Smad2/3 and Tcf4.

  10. Unconventional processive mechanics of non-muscle myosin IIB.

    PubMed

    Norstrom, Melanie F; Smithback, Philip A; Rock, Ronald S

    2010-08-20

    Proper tension maintenance in the cytoskeleton is essential for regulated cell polarity, cell motility, and division. Non-muscle myosin IIB (NMIIB) generates tension along actin filaments in many cell types, including neuronal, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells. Using a three-bead optical trapping assay, we recorded NMIIB interactions with actin filaments to determine if a NMIIB dimer cycles along an actin filament in a processive manner. Our results show that NMIIB is the first myosin II to exhibit evidence of processive stepping behavior. Analysis of these data reveals a forward displacement of 5.4 nm and, surprisingly, frequent backward steps of -5.9 nm. Processive stepping along the long pitch helix of actin may provide a mechanism for disassembly of fascin-actin bundles. Forward steps and detachment are weakly force-dependent at all forces, consistent with rate-limiting and force-dependent ADP release. However, backward steps are nearly force-independent. Our data support a model in which NMIIB can readily move in both directions at stall, which may be important for a general regulator of cytoskeleton tension. PMID:20511646

  11. Supernova 2003bg: The First Type IIb Hypernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamuy, Mario; Deng, Jinsong; Mazzali, Paolo A.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Phillips, Mark M.; Roth, Miguel; Gonzalez, Sergio; Thomas-Osip, Joanna; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Contreras, Carlos; Maza, José; González, Luis; Huerta, Leonor; Folatelli, Gastón; Chornock, Ryan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Persson, S. E.; Freedman, W. L.; Koviak, Kathleen; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Krisciunas, Kevin

    2009-10-01

    Optical and near-infrared photometry and optical spectroscopy are reported for SN 2003bg, starting a few days after explosion and extending for a period of more than 300 days. Our early-time spectra reveal the presence of broad, high-velocity Balmer lines. The nebular-phase spectra, on the other hand, show a remarkable resemblance to those of Type Ib/c supernovae, without clear evidence for hydrogen. Near maximum brightness SN 2003bg displayed a bolometric luminosity comparable to that of other Type I hypernovae unrelated to gamma-ray bursts, implying a rather normal amount of 56Ni production (0.1-0.2 M sun) compared with other such objects. The bolometric light curve of SN 2003bg, on the other hand, is remarkably broad, thus suggesting a relatively large progenitor mass at the moment of explosion. These observations, together with the large value of the kinetic energy of expansion established in the accompanying paper, suggest that SN 2003bg can be regarded as a Type IIb hypernova. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and is partly based on observations collected at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA), under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  12. CDF Run IIb silicon: Stave design and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Rong-Shyang Lu

    2003-11-07

    The CDF Silicon Vertex Detectors (SVX) have been shown to be excellent tools for heavy flavor physics, with the secondary vertex detection and good vertex resolution.The CDF RunIIb Silicon Vertex Detector (SVXIIb) was designed to be a radiation tolerant replacement for the current SVXII which was not anticipated to survive the projected Run II luminosity dose. The outer five layers use identical structural elements, called staves, to support six silicon sensors on each side. The stave is composed of carbon fiber skins on a foam core with a built-in cooling tube. Copper on Kapton bus cable carriers power and data/control signals underneath three silicon modules on each side of the stave. A Hybrid equipped with four new SVX4 chips are used to readout two silicon sensors on each module which can be readout and tested independently. This new design concept leads to a very compact mechanical and electrical detecting unit, allowing streamline production and ease of testing and installation. A description of the design and mechanical performance of the stave is given. They also present here results on the electrical performance obtained using prototype staves as well as results with the first pre-production parts.

  13. GpIIb/IIIa+ subpopulation of rat megakaryocyte progenitor cells exhibits high responsiveness to human thrombopoietin.

    PubMed

    Kato, T; Horie, K; Hagiwara, T; Maeda, E; Tsumura, H; Ohashi, H; Miyazaki, H

    1996-08-01

    The recently cloned factor thrombopoietin (TPO) has been shown to exhibit megakaryocyte colony-stimulating activity in vitro. In this investigation, to further evaluate the action of TPO on megakaryocyte progenitor cells (colony-forming units-megakaryocyte [CFU-MK]), GpIIb/IIIa+ and GpIIb/IIIa- populations of CFU-MK were prepared from rat bone marrow cells based on their reactivity with P55 antibody, a monoclonal antibody against rat GpIIb/IIIa, and their responsiveness to recombinant human TPO (rhTPO) and recombinant rat interleukin-3 (rrIL-3) was examined using a megakaryocyte colony-forming assay (Meg-CSA). rhTPO supported only megakaryocyte colony growth from both fractions in a dose-dependent fashion. The mean colony size observed with the GpIIb/IIIa+ population was smaller than that seen with the GpIIb/IIIa- population. With the optimal concentration of either rhTPO or rrIL-3, similar numbers of megakaryocyte colonies were formed from the GpIIb/IIIa+ population previously shown to be highly enriched for CFU-MK. In contrast, the maximum number of megakaryocyte colonies from the GpIIb/IIIa- population stimulated by rhTPO was only 24.2% of that achieved with rrIL-3. Morphologic analysis of rhTPO-promoted megakaryocyte colonies from the GpIIb/IIIa+ population showed that the average colony size was smaller but that the mean diameter of individual megakaryocytes was larger than in megakaryocyte colonies promoted with rrIL-3. rhTPO plus rrIL-3, each at suboptimal concentrations, had an additive effect on proliferation of CFU-MK in the GpIIb/IIIa+ fraction, whereas rhTPO plus murine IL-6 or murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mG-M-CSF) modestly but significantly reduced megakaryocyte colony growth. These results indicate that TPO preferentially acts on GpIIb/IIIa+ late CFU-MK with lower proliferative capacity and interacts with some other cytokines in CFU-MK development. PMID:8765496

  14. Overexpression of Smad2 Drives House Dust Mite–mediated Airway Remodeling and Airway Hyperresponsiveness via Activin and IL-25

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Lisa G.; Mathie, Sara A.; Walker, Simone A.; Pegorier, Sophie; Jones, Carla P.; Lloyd, Clare M.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Airway hyperreactivity and remodeling are characteristic features of asthma. Interactions between the airway epithelium and environmental allergens are believed to be important in driving development of pathology, particularly because altered epithelial gene expression is common in individuals with asthma. Objectives: To investigate the interactions between a modified airway epithelium and a common aeroallergen in vivo. Methods: We used an adenoviral vector to generate mice overexpressing the transforming growth factor-β signaling molecule, Smad2, in the airway epithelium and exposed them to house dust mite (HDM) extract intranasally. Measurements and Main Results: Smad2 overexpression resulted in enhanced airway hyperreactivity after allergen challenge concomitant with changes in airway remodeling. Subepithelial collagen deposition was increased and smooth muscle hyperplasia was evident resulting in thickening of the airway smooth muscle layer. However, there was no increase in airway inflammation in mice given the Smad2 vector compared with the control vector. Enhanced airway hyperreactivity and remodeling did not correlate with elevated levels of Th2 cytokines, such as IL-13 or IL-4. However, mice overexpressing Smad2 in the airway epithelium showed significantly enhanced levels of IL-25 and activin A after HDM exposure. Blocking activin A with a neutralizing antibody prevented the increase in lung IL-25 and inhibited subsequent collagen deposition and also the enhanced airway hyperreactivity observed in the Smad2 overexpressing HDM-exposed mice. Conclusions: Epithelial overexpression of Smad2 can specifically alter airway hyperreactivity and remodeling in response to an aeroallergen. Moreover, we have identified novel roles for IL-25 and activin A in driving airway hyperreactivity and remodeling. PMID:20339149

  15. FLT PET in Measuring Treatment Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-02

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  16. Activin, BMP and FGF pathways cooperate to promote endoderm and pancreatic lineage cell differentiation from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofang; Browning, Victoria L; Odorico, Jon S

    2011-01-01

    The study of how human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) differentiate into insulin-producing beta cells has twofold significance: first, it provides an in vitro model system for the study of human pancreatic development, and second, it serves as a platform for the ultimate production of beta cells for transplantation into patients with diabetes. The delineation of growth factor interactions regulating pancreas specification from hESCs in vitro is critical to achieving these goals. In this study, we describe the roles of growth factors bFGF, BMP4 and Activin A in early hESC fate determination. The entire differentiation process is carried out in serum-free chemically-defined media (CDM) and results in reliable and robust induction of pancreatic endoderm cells, marked by PDX1, and cell clusters co-expressing markers characteristic of beta cells, including PDX1 and insulin/C-peptide. Varying the combinations of growth factors, we found that treatment of hESCs with bFGF, Activin A and BMP4 (FAB) together for 3-4days resulted in strong induction of primitive-streak and definitive endoderm-associated genes, including MIXL1, GSC, SOX17 and FOXA2. Early proliferative foregut endoderm and pancreatic lineage cells marked by PDX1, FOXA2 and SOX9 expression are specified in EBs made from FAB-treated hESCs, but not from Activin A alone treated cells. Our results suggest that important tissue interactions occur in EB-based suspension culture that contribute to the complete induction of definitive endoderm and pancreas progenitors. Further differentiation occurs after EBs are embedded in Matrigel and cultured in serum-free media containing insulin, transferrin, selenium, FGF7, nicotinamide, islet neogenesis associated peptide (INGAP) and exendin-4, a long acting GLP-1 agonist. 21-28days after embedding, PDX1 gene expression levels are comparable to those of human islets used for transplantation, and many PDX1(+) clusters are formed. Almost all cells in PDX1(+) clusters co

  17. Pro32Pro33 mutations in the integrin β3 PSI domain result in αIIbβ3 priming and enhanced adhesion: reversal of the hypercoagulability phenotype by the Src inhibitor SKI-606.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Kendra H; Jessen, Tammy; Crawford, Emily L; Chung, Chang Y; Sutcliffe, James S; Carneiro, Ana M

    2014-06-01

    The plasma-membrane integrin αIIbβ3 (CD41/CD61, GPIIbIIIa) is a major functional receptor in platelets during clotting. A common isoform of integrin β3, Leu33Pro is associated with enhanced platelet function and increased risk for coronary thrombosis and stroke, although these findings remain controversial. To better understand the molecular mechanisms by which this sequence variation modifies platelet function, we produced transgenic knockin mice expressing a Pro32Pro33 integrin β3. Consistent with reports utilizing human platelets, we found significantly reduced bleeding and clotting times, as well as increased in vivo thrombosis, in Pro32Pro33 homozygous mice. These alterations paralleled increases in platelet attachment and spreading onto fibrinogen resulting from enhanced integrin αIIbβ3 function. Activation with protease-activated receptor 4- activating peptide, the main thrombin signaling receptor in mice, showed no significant difference in activation of Pro32Pro33 mice as compared with controls, suggesting that inside-out signaling remains intact. However, under unstimulated conditions, the Pro32Pro33 mutation led to elevated Src phosphorylation, facilitated by increased talin interactions with the β3 cytoplasmic domain, indicating that the αIIbβ3 intracellular domains are primed for activation while the ligand-binding domain remains unchanged. Acute dosing of animals with a Src inhibitor was sufficient to rescue the clotting phenotype in knockin mice to wild-type levels. Together, our data establish that the Pro32Pro33 structural alteration modifies the function of integrin αIIbβ3, priming the integrin for outside-in signaling, ultimately leading to hypercoagulability. Furthermore, our data may support a novel approach to antiplatelet therapy by Src inhibition where hemostasis is maintained while reducing risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:24695082

  18. Activation and shedding of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa under non-physiological shear stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zengsheng; Mondal, Nandan K; Ding, Jun; Koenig, Steven C; Slaughter, Mark S; Griffith, Bartley P; Wu, Zhongjun J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of non-physiological high shear stress on activation and shedding of platelet GP IIb/IIIa receptors. The healthy donor blood was exposed to three levels of high shear stresses (25, 75, 125 Pa) from the physiological to non-physiological status with three short exposure time (0.05, 0.5, 1.5 s), created by a specific blood shearing system. The activation and shedding of the platelet GPIIb/IIIa were analyzed using flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, platelet P-selectin expression of sheared blood, which is a marker for activated platelets, was also analyzed. The results from the present study showed that the number of activated platelets, as indicated by the surface GPIIb/IIIa activation and P-selectin expression, increased with increasing the shear stress level and exposure time. However, the mean fluorescence of GPIIb/IIIa on the platelet surface, decreased with increasing the shear stress level and exposure time. The reduction of GPIIb/IIIa on the platelet surface was further proved by the reduction of further activated platelet GPIIb/IIIa surface expression induced by ADP and the increase in GPIIb/IIIa concentration in microparticle-free plasma with increasing the applied shear stress and exposure time. It is clear that non-physiological shear stress induce a paradoxical phenomenon, in which both activation and shedding of the GPIIb/IIIa on the platelet surface occur simultaneously. This study may offer a new perspective to explain the reason of both increased thrombosis and bleeding events in patients implanted with high shear blood-contacting medical devices. PMID:26160282

  19. Analysis of Altered Micro RNA Expression Profiles in Focal Cortical Dysplasia IIB.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Liu, Chang-Qing; Li, Tian-Fu; Guan, Yu-Guang; Zhou, Jian; Qi, Xue-Ling; Yang, Yu-Tao; Deng, Jia-Hui; Xu, Zhi-Qing David; Luan, Guo-Ming

    2016-04-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia type IIB is a commonly encountered subtype of developmental malformation of the cerebral cortex and is often associated with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. In this study, to investigate the molecular etiology of focal cortical dysplasia type IIB, the authors performed micro ribonucleic acid (RNA) microarray on surgical specimens from 5 children (2 female and 3 male, mean age was 73.4 months, range 50-112 months) diagnosed of focal cortical dysplasia type IIB and matched normal tissue adjacent to the lesion. In all, 24 micro RNAs were differentially expressed in focal cortical dysplasia type IIB, and the microarray results were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Then the putative target genes of the differentially expressed micro RNAs were identified by bioinformatics analysis. Moreover, biological significance of the target genes was evaluated by investigating the pathways in which the genes were enriched, and the Hippo signaling pathway was proposed to be highly related with the pathogenesis of focal cortical dysplasia type IIB. PMID:26442942

  20. Endonasal modification of the frontal sinus drainage type IIb according to Draf.

    PubMed

    Al Kadah, Basel; Schick, B

    2015-08-01

    The description of different endonasal drainage options (type I, II and III according to Draf) and their successful use in numerous patients has reached a milestone in frontal sinus surgery. We herein describe a modification of an endonasal frontal sinus drainage type IIb with the additional removal of the lower part of the frontal sinus septum without opening the frontal recess of the other side and without resection of the nasal septum. The modified endonasal endoscopic frontal sinus drainage type IIb was performed on 9 patients at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar between 02/2011 and 6/2013 after having gained patients' consent. Follow-ups with endoscopic examination were performed after 6, 12 and 24 months (median follow-up: 14 months). Endonasal endoscopic opening of the frontal sinus was achieved in all patients. Endoscopic examination 6, 12 and 24 months after surgery revealed patent frontal sinus drainage in 8 patients. The frontal sinus drainage could not be visualized endoscopically in one patient who was free of symptoms for 24 months and where a ventilated frontal sinus was proven radiologically by computed tomography. The study demonstrates the option to additionally remove the lower part of the inter-frontal septum with a frontal sinus drainage type IIb. As the number of patients treated by this modified frontal sinus type IIb drainage is limited, further investigations are needed to define the value of a modified frontal sinus drainage type IIb. PMID:25294052

  1. Activins and Follistatin in Chronic Hepatitis C and Its Treatment with Pegylated-Interferon-α Based Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Refaat, Bassem; Ashshi, Ahmed Mohamed; El-Shemi, Adel Galal

    2015-01-01

    Pegylated-interferon-α based therapy for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is considered suboptimal as not all patients respond to the treatment and it is associated with several side effects that could lead to dose reduction and/or termination of therapy. The currently used markers to monitor the response to treatment are based on viral kinetics and their performance in the prediction of treatment outcome is moderate and does not combine accuracy and their values have several limitations. Hence, the development of new sensitive and specific predictor markers could provide a useful tool for the clinicians and healthcare providers, especially in the new era of interferon-free therapy, for the classification of patients according to their response to the standard therapy and only subscribing the novel directly acting antiviral drugs to those who are anticipated not to respond to the conventional therapy and/or have absolute contraindications for its use. The importance of activins and follistatin in the regulation of immune system, liver biology, and pathology has recently emerged. This review appraises the up-to-date knowledge regarding the role of activins and follistatin in liver biology and immune system and their role in the pathophysiology of CHC. PMID:25969625

  2. Fibre inflation: observable gravity waves from IIB string compactifications

    SciTech Connect

    Cicoli, M.; Quevedo, F.; Burgess, C.P. E-mail: cburgess@perimeterinstitute.ca

    2009-03-15

    We introduce a simple string model of inflation, in which the inflaton field can take trans-Planckian values while driving a period of slow-roll inflation. This leads naturally to a realisation of large field inflation, inasmuch as the inflationary epoch is well described by the single-field scalar potential V = V{sub 0}(3-4e{sup -{phi}/(3){sup 1{sup /{sup 2}}}}). Remarkably, for a broad class of vacua all adjustable parameters enter only through the overall coefficient V{sub 0}, and in particular do not enter into the slow-roll parameters. Consequently these are determined purely by the number of e -foldings, N{sub e}, and so are not independent: {epsilon} {approx_equal} 3/2{eta}{sup 2}. This implies similar relations among observables like the primordial scalar-to-tensor amplitude, r, and the scalar spectral tilt, n{sub s}: r {approx_equal} 6(n{sub s}-1){sup 2}. N{sub e} is itself more model-dependent since it depends partly on the post-inflationary reheat history. In a simple reheating scenario a reheating temperature of T{sub rh} {approx_equal} 10{sup 9} GeV gives N{sub e} {approx_equal} 58, corresponding to n{sub s} {approx_equal} 0.970 and r {approx_equal} 0.005, within reach of future observations. The model is an example of a class that arises naturally in the context of type IIB string compactifications with large-volume moduli stabilisation, and takes advantage of the generic existence there of Kaehler moduli whose dominant appearance in the scalar potential arises from string loop corrections to the Kaehler potential. The inflaton field is a combination of Kaehler moduli of a K3-fibered Calabi-Yau manifold. We believe there are likely to be a great number of models in this class-''high-fibre models''-in which the inflaton starts off far enough up the fibre to produce observably large primordial gravity waves.

  3. FGF signaling via MAPK is required early and improves Activin A-induced definitive endoderm formation from human embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sui, Lina; Mfopou, Josue K.; Geens, Mieke; Sermon, Karen; Bouwens, Luc

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deep study the FGF signaling role during DE specification in the context of hESCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DE differentiation from hESCs has an early dependence on FGF signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A serum-free DE protocol is developed based on the findings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DE cells showed potential to differentiate into pancreatic progenitor cells. -- Abstract: Considering their unlimited proliferation and pluripotency properties, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) constitute a promising resource applicable for cell replacement therapy. To facilitate this clinical translation, it is critical to study and understand the early stage of hESCs differentiation wherein germ layers are defined. In this study, we examined the role of FGF signaling in Activin A-induced definitive endoderm (DE) differentiation in the absence of supplemented animal serum. We found that activated FGF/MAPK signaling is required at the early time point of Activin A-induced DE formation. In addition, FGF activation increased the number of DE cells compared to Activin A alone. These DE cells could further differentiate into PDX1 and NKX6.1 positive pancreatic progenitors in vitro. We conclude that Activin A combined with FGF/MAPK signaling efficiently induce DE cells in the absence of serum. These findings improve our understanding of human endoderm formation, and constitute a step forward in the generation of clinical grade hESCs progenies for cell therapy.

  4. Type-IIB-string-M-theory duality and longitudinal membranes in M(atrix) theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Pei-Ming; Wu, Yong-Shi

    1998-02-01

    In this paper we study duality properties of the M(atrix) theory compactified on a circle. We present evidence for the equivalence of this theory to the strong coupling limit of type-IIB string theory compactified on a circle. In the M(atrix) theory context, our evidence for this duality consists of showing the appearance (upon compactification) of a topological term recently discovered in the D-string action, identifying the BPS states of type-IIB strings in the spectrum and finding the remnant symmetry of SL(2,Z) and the associated τ moduli. By this type-IIB-string-M-theory duality, a number of insights are gained into the physics of longitudinal membranes in the infinite momentum frame.

  5. 1-Desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) infusion in type IIB von Willebrand's disease: shortening of bleeding time and induction of a variable pseudothrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Casonato, A; Sartori, M T; de Marco, L; Girolami, A

    1990-08-13

    We have investigated the effects of 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) infusion on platelet count and bleeding time in 4 patients with type IIB von Willebrand's disease (vWd). Three of four patients showed a normalization of the bleeding time within 1 h after the infusion, while bleeding time was not modified in the fourth. In accordance with the literature, thrombocytopenia was observed after DDAVP infusion, but this thrombocytopenia was due to the anticoagulants used for blood collection. In two patients (F.I., G.F.) no thrombocytopenia was observed when platelets were counted by fingerstick method but there was a 20% platelet decrease in blood samples collected in sodium citrate and a 50% decrease in samples collected in EDTA. Dramatic falls in platelet counts (70-95%) were observed in the additional two patients (C.A., D.Z.) after DDAVP infusion, when both sodium citrate or EDTA were used as anticoagulants. In the latter two patients there was also a 50% decrease in platelet count when the fingerstick method was used. The decrease in the patient's platelet count in EDTA samples after DDAVP infusion could be prevented, in part, by the previous additions of an anti GPIb monoclonal antibody and an anti GPIIb-IIIa monoclonal antibody. Thus, the thrombocytopenia observed in the four IIB vWd patients studied after DDAVP infusion seems to be, at least partially, a pseudothrombocytopenia depending on the calcium concentration in the blood samples and the availability of GPIb and GPIIb-IIIa receptors. These findings and the normalization of the bleeding time observed in three of the four patients has led us to reconsider the possible use of DDAVP in the treatment of our IIB vwd patients. PMID:2274916

  6. Divergent activities of osteogenic BMP2, and tenogenic BMP12 and BMP13 independent of receptor binding affinities

    PubMed Central

    Berasi, Stephen P; Varadarajan, Usha; Archambault, Joanne; Cain, Michael; Souza, Tatyana A; Abouzeid, Abe; Li, Jian; Brown, Christopher T; Dorner, Andrew J; Seeherman, Howard J; Jelinsky, Scott A

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic expression of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP2) induces osteogenesis, while ectopic expression of rhBMP12 and rhBMP13 induces the formation of tendon-like tissue. Despite their different in vivo activities, all three ligands bound to the type I bone morphogenic protein receptors (BMPRs), activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)-3 and ALK6, and to the type II BMPRs, activin receptor type-2A, activin receptor type-2B, and BMPR2, with similar affinities. Treatment of C3H10T1/2 cells with rhBMP2 activated SMAD signaling and induced expression of osteoblast markers including osteocalcin mRNA (Ocn). In contrast, treatment with rhBMP12 or rhBMP13 resulted in a dose-dependent induction of a tendon-specific gene (Thbs4) expression with no detectable activation of SMAD 1, 5, and 8. Differential regulation of Thbs4 and Ocn has potential utility as an in vitro biomarker for induction of tenogenic signaling. Such an assay also permits the ability to distinguish between the activities of different BMPs and may prove useful in studies on the molecular mechanisms of BMP tenogenic activity. PMID:21702718

  7. A unique tool to selectively detect the chondrogenic IIB form of human type II procollagen protein.

    PubMed

    Aubert-Foucher, Elisabeth; Mayer, Nathalie; Pasdeloup, Marielle; Pagnon, Aurélie; Hartmann, Daniel; Mallein-Gerin, Frédéric

    2014-02-01

    Type II collagen, the major fibrillar collagen of cartilage, is synthesized as precursor forms (procollagens) containing N- and C-terminal propeptides. Three splice variants are thought to be translated to produce procollagen II isoforms (IIA/D and IIB) which differ in their amino propeptide parts. The IIA and IID are transient embryonic isoforms that include an additional cysteine-rich domain encoded by exon 2. The IIA and IID transcripts are co-expressed during chondrogenesis then decline and the IIB isoform is the only one expressed and synthesized in fully differentiated chondrocytes. Additionally, procollagens IIA/D can be re-expressed by dedifferentiating chondrocytes and in osteoarthritic cartilage. Therefore, it is an important point to determine which isoform(s) is (are) synthesized in vivo in normal and pathological situations and in vitro, to fully assess the phenotype of cells producing type II collagen protein. Antibodies directed against the cysteine-rich extra domain found in procollagens IIA and IID are already available but antibodies detecting only the chondrogenic IIB form of type II procollagen were missing so far. A synthetic peptide encompassing the junction between exon 1 and exon 3 of the human sequence was used as immunogen to produce rabbit polyclonal antibodies to procollagen IIB. After affinity purification on immobilized peptide their absence of crossreaction with procollagens IIA/D and with the fibrillar procollagens I, III and V was demonstrated by Western blotting. These antibodies were used to reveal at the protein level that the treatment of dedifferentiated human chondrocytes by bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 induces the synthesis of the IIB (chondrocytic) isoform of procollagen II. In addition, immunohistochemical staining of bovine cartilage demonstrates the potential of these antibodies in the analysis of the differential spatiotemporal distribution of N-propeptides of procollagens IIA/D and IIB during normal development and

  8. Short-Term Energy Deprivation Alters Activin A and Follistatin But Not Inhibin B Levels of Lean Healthy Women in a Leptin-Independent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Moragianni, Vasiliki A.; Aronis, Konstantinos N.; Chamberland, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Leptin is a potent modulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis mediating the effect of energy deprivation on several hypothalamic-pituitary-peripheral axes. Activin A, inhibin B, and follistatin (FST) also regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in humans. It remains unknown whether energy deprivation affects these hormone levels in a leptin-dependent or -independent manner. Objective: We investigated 1) day-night variability patterns of activin, inhibin, and FST in the fed state, 2) whether their levels are affected by fasting, and 3) whether such an effect is mediated by leptin in physiological replacement or pharmacological doses. Design: We conducted two studies in healthy, eumenorrheic females, each comprising three separate admissions. In study 1, six women were maintained for 72 h 1) on isocaloric diet, 2) fasting while receiving placebo, or 3) fasting while receiving metreleptin in physiological replacement doses. In study 2, five women were administered physiological or pharmacological metreleptin doses (0.01, 0.1, or 0.3 mg/kg iv four times daily). Results: Neither activin A nor FST had a pulsatile or day-night variability pattern. Inhibin B levels were also nonpulsatile, but a trend toward a day-night pattern was noted. When compared with the fed state, inhibin B levels remained unchanged, whereas FST levels increased (P = 0.01) and activin A decreased (P = 0.01) in the fasting state. These changes were not corrected with metreleptin administered in replacement or pharmacological doses. Conclusions: Short-term energy deprivation alters levels of activin A and FST, but these effects are not mediated by leptin. PMID:21917874

  9. New type IIB backgrounds and aspects of their field theory duals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caceres, Elena; Macpherson, Niall T.; Núñez, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we study aspects of geometries in Type IIA and Type IIB String theory and elaborate on their field theory dual pairs. The backgrounds are associated with reductions to Type IIA of solutions with G 2 holonomy in eleven dimensions. We classify these backgrounds according to their G-structure, perform a non-Abelian T-duality on them and find new Type IIB configurations presenting dynamical SU(2)-structure. We study some aspects of the associated field theories defined by these new backgrounds. Various technical details are clearly spelled out.

  10. Abundant expression of myosin heavy-chain IIB RNA in a subset of human masseter muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Michael J.; Brandon, Carla A.; Morris, Terence J.; Braun, Thomas W.; Yaw, Kenneth M.; Sciote, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Type IIB fast fibres are typically demonstrated in human skeletal muscle by histochemical staining for the ATPase activity of myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) isoforms. However, the monoclonal antibody specific for the mammalian IIB isoform does not detect MyHC IIB protein in man and MyHC IIX RNA is found in histochemically identified IIB fibres, suggesting that the IIB protein isoform may not be present in man; if this is not so, jaw-closing muscles, which express a diversity of isoforms, are likely candidates for their presence. ATPase histochemistry, immunohistochemistry polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in situ hybridization, which included a MyHC IIB-specific mRNA riboprobe, were used to compare the composition and RNA expression of MyHC isoforms in a human jaw-closing muscle, the masseter, an upper limb muscle, the triceps, an abdominal muscle, the external oblique, and a lower limb muscle, the gastrocnemius. The external oblique contained a mixture of histochemically defined type I, IIA and IIB fibres distributed in a mosaic pattern, while the triceps and gastrocnemius contained only type I and IIA fibres. Typical of limb muscle fibres, the MyHC I-specific mRNA probes hybridized with histochemically defined type I fibres, the IIA-specific probes with type IIA fibres and the IIX-specific probes with type IIB fibres. The MyHC IIB mRNA probe hybridized only with a few histochemically defined type I fibres in the sample from the external oblique; in addition to this IIB message, these fibres also expressed RNAs for MyHC I, IIA and IIX. MyHC IIB RNA was abundantly expressed in histochemical and immunohistochemical type IIA fibres of the masseter, together with transcripts for IIA and in some cases IIX. No MyHC IIB protein was detected in fibres and extracts of either the external oblique or masseter by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and electrophoresis. Thus, IIB RNA, but not protein, was found in the fibres of two different human skeletal muscles. It is

  11. TAK-1/p38/nNFκB signaling inhibits myoblast differentiation by increasing levels of Activin A

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Skeletal-muscle differentiation is required for the regeneration of myofibers after injury. The differentiation capacity of satellite cells is impaired in settings of old age, which is at least one factor in the onset of sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal-muscle mass and major cause of frailty. One important cause of impaired regeneration is increased levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β accompanied by reduced Notch signaling. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are also upregulated in aging, which led us hypothesize that they might potentially contribute to impaired regeneration in sarcopenia. Thus, in this study, we further analyzed the muscle differentiation-inhibition pathway mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines in human skeletal muscle cells (HuSKMCs). Methods We studied the modulation of HuSKMC differentiation by the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α The grade of differentiation was determined by either imaging (fusion index) or creatine kinase (CK) activity, a marker of muscle differentiation. Secretion of TGF-β proteins during differentiation was assessed by using a TGF-β-responsive reporter-gene assay and further identified by means of pharmacological and genetic inhibitors. In addition, signaling events were monitored by western blotting and reverse transcription PCR, both in HuSKMC cultures and in samples from a rat sarcopenia study. Results The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α and TNF-α block differentiation of human myoblasts into myotubes. This anti-differentiation effect requires activation of TGF-β-activated kinase (TAK)-1. Using pharmacological and genetic inhibitors, the TAK-1 pathway could be traced to p38 and NFκB. Surprisingly, the anti-differentiation effect of the cytokines required the transcriptional upregulation of Activin A, which in turn acted through its established signaling pathway: ActRII/ALK/SMAD. Inhibition of Activin A signaling was able to rescue human

  12. Data Collection and Description of HEA II-B Institutes - 1968-1969. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeProspo, Ernest R.

    This study examines the first two years of the Higher Education Act (HEA) Title II-B Institute Program, 1968 and 1969. The primary objective is to describe the institutes and provide a data base for the program. The data base includes Division of Library Programs records, final evaluative reports, "plans of operation," and information on the…

  13. Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein is involved in αIIbβ3-mediated cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, Shigeru; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Ochs, Hans D

    2006-01-01

    The Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-chromosome-linked immunodeficiency disorder. The most common symptom seen in WAS patients is bleeding. One of the main causes of bleeding is defective platelet aggregation. The causative gene of WAS encodes WAS protein (WASP). Here, we show that WASP binds to the calcium- and integrin-binding protein (CIB) in platelets. CIB was originally identified as a protein binding to the αIIb cytoplasmic tail of platelet integrin αIIbβ3, which has a primary role in platelet aggregation. We also show that the WASP–CIB complex is important in αIIbβ3-mediated cell adhesion, and that in patients mutant forms of WASP are expressed at reduced levels or show lower affinities for CIB than wild-type WASP. Our results indicate that impaired complex formation between mutant WASPs and CIB reduces αIIbβ3-mediated cell adhesion and causes defective platelet aggregation, resulting in bleeding. PMID:16582881

  14. Stage IIB carcinoma of the cervix that is associated with pelvic kidney: A therapeutic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Lataifeh, Isam; Amarin, Zouhair; Jaradat, Imad

    2007-12-01

    Locally advanced cervical cancer with congenital pelvic kidney is reported uncommonly. A 50-year-old patient with stage IIB cervical cancer and pelvic kidney was treated with irradiation and concurrent chemotherapy. Follow-up evaluation for 2 years revealed normal renal function and no evidence of recurrent disease. PMID:18060936

  15. Design, Virtual Screening, and Synthesis of Antagonists of αIIbβ3 as Antiplatelet Agents.

    PubMed

    Polishchuk, Pavel G; Samoylenko, Georgiy V; Khristova, Tetiana M; Krysko, Olga L; Kabanova, Tatyana A; Kabanov, Vladimir M; Kornylov, Alexander Yu; Klimchuk, Olga; Langer, Thierry; Andronati, Sergei A; Kuz'min, Victor E; Krysko, Andrei A; Varnek, Alexandre

    2015-10-01

    This article describes design, virtual screening, synthesis, and biological tests of novel αIIbβ3 antagonists, which inhibit platelet aggregation. Two types of αIIbβ3 antagonists were developed: those binding either closed or open form of the protein. At the first step, available experimental data were used to build QSAR models and ligand- and structure-based pharmacophore models and to select the most appropriate tool for ligand-to-protein docking. Virtual screening of publicly available databases (BioinfoDB, ZINC, Enamine data sets) with developed models resulted in no hits. Therefore, small focused libraries for two types of ligands were prepared on the basis of pharmacophore models. Their screening resulted in four potential ligands for open form of αIIbβ3 and four ligands for its closed form followed by their synthesis and in vitro tests. Experimental measurements of affinity for αIIbβ3 and ability to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation (IC50) showed that two designed ligands for the open form 4c and 4d (IC50 = 6.2 nM and 25 nM, respectively) and one for the closed form 12b (IC50 = 11 nM) were more potent than commercial antithrombotic Tirofiban (IC50 = 32 nM). PMID:26367138

  16. One-loop Einstein-Hilbert term in minimally supersymmetric type IIB orientifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, Michael; Kang, Jin U.

    2016-02-01

    We evaluate string one-loop contributions to the Einstein-Hilbert term in toroidal minimally supersymmetric type IIB orientifolds with D-branes. These have potential applications to the determination of quantum corrections to the moduli Kähler metric in these models.

  17. Fermionic backgrounds and condensation of supergravity fields in the type IIB matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Iso, Satoshi; Terachi, Hidenori; Sugino, Fumihiko; Umetsu, Hiroshi

    2005-09-15

    In a previous paper 1 we constructed wave functions of a D-instanton and vertex operators in type IIB matrix model by expanding supersymmetric Wilson line operators. They describe couplings of a D-instanton and type IIB matrix model to the massless closed string fields, respectively, and form a multiplet of D=10 N=2 supersymmetries. In this paper we consider fermionic backgrounds and condensation of supergravity fields in IIB matrix model by using these wave functions. We start from the type IIB matrix model in a flat background whose matrix size is (N+1)x(N+1), or equivalently the effective action for (N+1) D-instantons. We then calculate an effective action for N D-instantons by integrating out 1 D-instanton (which we call a mean-field D-instanton) with an appropriate wave function and show that various terms can be induced corresponding to the choice of the wave functions. In particular, a Chern-Simons-like term is induced when the mean-field D-instanton has a wave function of the antisymmetric tensor field. A fuzzy sphere becomes a classical solution to the equation of motion for the effective action. We also give an interpretation of the above wave functions in the superstring theory side as overlaps of the D-instanton boundary state with the closed string massless states in the Green-Schwarz formalism.

  18. Library Career Training Program: Abstracts of Funded Projects, 1991. Title II-B, Higher Education Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Yvonne B., Comp.; Owens, Janice E., Comp.

    The Library Career Training Program, Title II-B of the Higher Education Act (HEA), provides grants to institutions of higher education and library organizations or agencies to train persons in librarianship through fellowships, institutes, and traineeships, and to establish, develop, and expand programs of library and information science. The U.S.…

  19. A note on poly-instanton effects in type IIB orientifolds on Calabi-Yau threefolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Gao, Xin; Rahn, Thorsten; Shukla, Pramod

    2012-06-01

    The zero mode structure for the generation of poly-instanton corrections for Euclidian D3-branes wrapping complex surfaces in Type IIB orientifolds with O7- and O3-planes is analyzed. Working examples of such surfaces and explicit embeddings into compact Calabi-Yau threefolds are presented, with special emphasis on geometries capable of realizing the LARGE volume scenario.

  20. Haiti: Incentives To Improve Basic Education (IIBE)--Project Bilaterial d'Education (PROBED). Midterm Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locher, Uli; And Others

    Haiti's Incentives to Improve Basic Education (IIBE) or Project Bilteral d'Education (PROBED) program seeks to stimulate improvements in educational quality and efficiency in private primary schools. The program surpasses other efforts because of: (1) unusually thorough preparation; (2) rapid assumption of management by Haitians; (3) a…

  1. Method and making group IIB metal - telluride films and solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Basol, Bulent M.; Kapur, Vijay K.

    1990-08-21

    A technique is disclosed forming thin films (13) of group IIB metal-telluride, such as Cd.sub.x Zn.sub.1-x Te (0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1), on a substrate (10) which comprises depositing Te (18) and at least one of the elements (19) of Cd, Zn, and Hg onto a substrate and then heating the elements to form the telluride. A technique is also provided for doping this material by chemically forming a thin layer of a dopant on the surface of the unreacted elements and then heating the elements along with the layer of dopant. A method is disclosed of fabricating a thin film photovoltaic cell which comprises depositing Te and at least one of the elements of Cd, Zn, and Hg onto a substrate which contains on its surface a semiconductor film (12) and then heating the elements in the presence of a halide of the Group IIB metals, causing the formation of solar cell grade Group IIB metal-telluride film and also causing the formation of a rectifying junction, in situ, between the semiconductor film on the substrate and the Group IIB metal-telluride layer which has been formed.

  2. The lateral diffusion and fibrinogen induced clustering of platelet integrin αIIbβ3 reconstituted into physiologically mimetic GUVs.

    PubMed

    Gaul, Vinnie; Lopez, Sergio G; Lentz, Barry R; Moran, Niamh; Forster, Robert J; Keyes, Tia E

    2015-04-01

    Platelet integrin αIIbβ3 is a key mediator of platelet activation and thrombosis. Upon activation αIIbβ3 undergoes significant conformational rearrangement, inducing complex bidirectional signalling and protein recruitment leading to platelet activation. Reconstituted lipid models of the integrin can enhance our understanding of the structural and mechanistic details of αIIbβ3 behaviour away from the complexity of the platelet machinery. Here, a novel method of αIIbβ3 insertion into Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs) is described that allows for effective integrin reconstitution unrestricted by lipid composition. αIIbβ3 was inserted into two GUV lipid compositions that seek to better mimic the platelet membrane. First, "nature's own", comprising 32% DOPC, 25% DOPE, 20% CH, 15% SM and 8% DOPS, intended to mimic the platelet cell membrane. Fluorescence Lifetime Correlation Spectroscopy (FLCS) reveals that exposure of the integrin to the activators Mn(2+) or DTT does not influence the diffusion coefficient of αIIbβ3. Similarly, exposure to αIIbβ3's primary ligand fibrinogen (Fg) alone does not affect αIIbβ3's diffusion coefficient. However, addition of Fg with either activator reduces the integrin diffusion coefficient from 2.52 ± 0.29 to μm(2) s(-1) to 1.56 ± 0.26 (Mn(2+)) or 1.49 ± 0.41 μm(2) s(-1) (DTT) which is consistent with aggregation of activated αIIbβ3 induced by fibrinogen binding. The Multichannel Scaler (MCS) trace shows that the integrin-Fg complex diffuses through the confocal volume in clusters. Using the Saffman-Delbrück model as a first approximation, the diffusion coefficient of the complex suggests at least a 20-fold increase in the radius of membrane bound protein, consistent with integrin clustering. Second, αIIbβ3 was also reconstituted into a "raft forming" GUV with well defined liquid disordered (Ld) and liquid ordered (Lo) phases. Using confocal microscopy and lipid partitioning dyes, αIIbβ3 showed an affinity for

  3. Visualization of Activated Platelets by Targeted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Utilizing Conformation-Specific Antibodies against Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa

    PubMed Central

    von zur Muhlen, Constantin; Peter, Karlheinz; Ali, Ziad A.; Schneider, Jürgen E.; McAteer, Martina A.; Neubauer, Stefan; Channon, Keith M.; Bode, Christoph; Choudhury, Robin P.

    2009-01-01

    Ruptured atherosclerotic plaques, lined with activated platelets, constitute an attractive target for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study evaluated whether microparticles of iron oxide (MPIO) targeting ligand-induced binding sites (LIBS) on the activated conformation of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa could be used to image platelets. MPIO (size: 1 μm) were conjugated to anti-LIBS or control single-chain antibody. Following guidewire injury to mouse femoral artery, platelet adhesion was present after 24 h. Mice were perfused with anti-LIBS-MPIO (or control MPIO) via the left ventricle and 11.7-tesla MRI was performed on femoral arteries ex vivo. A 3D gradient echo sequence attained an isotropic resolution of 25 μm. MPIO binding, quantified by MRI, was 4-fold higher with anti-LIBS-MPIO in comparison to control MPIO (p < 0.01). In histological sections, low signal zones on MRI and MPIO correlated strongly (R2 = 0.72; p < 0.001), indicating accurate MR quantification. In conclusion, anti-LIBS-MPIO bind to activated platelets in mouse arteries, providing a basis for the use of function-specific single-chain antibody-MPIO conjugates for molecular MRI, and represent the first molecular imaging of a conformational change in a surface receptor. This presents an opportunity to specifically image activated platelets involved in acute atherothrombosis with MRI. PMID:18515970

  4. Germ-line mosaicism for a valine-to-methionine substitution at residue 553 in the glycoprotein Ib-binding domain of von Willebrand factor, causing type IIB von Willebrand disease

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, E.W.; Giles, A.R.; Lillicrap, D. )

    1992-01-01

    The origin of new single-gene mutations resulting in inherited disease is an issue which may be at least partially resolved by our enhanced ability to detect these changes. In this report the authors describe the identification of a missense mutation at codon 553 (guanine to adenine) in the von Willebrand factor (vWf) gene in affected members of a family with type IIB von Willebrand's disease (vWd). They found no evidence for this substitution in 190 normal vWf genes. The encoded substitution of a methionine for a valine at this residue is nonconservative in nature and has affected a vWf protein region which has been shown to facilitate binding to the platelet receptor glycoprotein Ib. In patients with type IIb vWd this interaction is characteristically increased in affinity. This mutation has also recently been recorded in four other type IIb vWd families. Thus, there is strong circumstantial evidence to incriminate this substitution as the disease causing mutation in this family. As further supporting evidence for this claim, they have shown by vWf polymorphism analysis that the mutation originated in a vWf gene transmitted from a phenotypically normal grandfather. These results confirm (1) that the candidate type IIB vWd mutation in this family occurred at some time during the development of the germ line of the grandfather and presumably was related to a mitotic cell division and (2) that, as a result, he is a low-level germ-line mosaic for the mutation.

  5. Suppression of integrin activation by the membrane-distal sequence of the integrin alphaIIb cytoplasmic tail.

    PubMed Central

    Yamanouchi, Jun; Hato, Takaaki; Tamura, Tatsushiro; Fujita, Shigeru

    2004-01-01

    Integrin cytoplasmic tails regulate integrin activation including an increase in integrin affinity for ligands. Although there is ample evidence that the membrane-proximal regions of the alpha and beta tails interact with each other to maintain integrins in a low-affinity state, little is known about the role of the membrane-distal region of the alpha tail in regulation of integrin activation. We report a critical sequence for regulation of integrin activation in the membrane-distal region of the alphaIIb tail. Alanine substitution of the RPP residues in the alphaIIb tail rendered alphaIIbbeta3 constitutively active in a metabolic energy-dependent manner. Although an alphaIIb/alpha6Abeta3 chimaeric integrin, in which the alphaIIb tail was replaced by the alpha6A tail, was in an energy-dependent active state to bind soluble ligands, introduction of the RPP sequence into the alpha6A tail inhibited binding of an activation-dependent antibody PAC1. In alphaIIb/alpha6Abeta3, deleting the TSDA sequence from the alpha6A tail or single amino acid substitutions of the TSDA residues inhibited alphaIIb/alpha6Abeta3 activation and replacing the membrane-distal region of the alphaIIb tail with TSDA rendered alphaIIbbeta3 active, suggesting a stimulatory role of TSDA in energy-dependent integrin activation. However, adding TSDA to the alphaIIb tail containing the RPP sequence of the membrane-distal region failed to activate alphaIIbbeta3. These results suggest that the RPP sequence after the GFFKR motif of the alphaIIb tail suppresses energy-dependent alphaIIbbeta3 activation. These findings provide a molecular basis for the regulation of energy-dependent integrin activation by alpha subunit tails. PMID:14723599

  6. Synthesis by cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells of two proteins structurally and immunologically related to platelet membrane glycoproteins IIb and IIIa

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, P.J.; Kawai, Y.; Montgomery, R.R.; Kunicki, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Human platelets participate in a number of adhesive interactions, including binding to exposed subendothelium after vascular injury, and platelet-platelet cohesion to form large aggregates. Platelet membrane glycoproteins (GP) IIb and IIIa constitute a receptor for fibrinogen that, together with fibrinogen and calcium, is largely responsible for mediating the formation of the primary hemostatic plug. Using highly specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies as probes, we could detect the presence of both of these glycoproteins in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Metabolic labeling of endothelium with (/sup 35/S)methionine demonstrated that both GPIIb and GPIIIa were actively synthesized in culture. Using the technique of crossed immunoelectrophoresis, evidence was obtained that the endothelial cell forms of GPIIb and GPIIIa may exist complexed to one another after solubilization in Triton X-100.

  7. Zygosity at the major histocompatibility class IIB locus predicts susceptibility to Renibacterium salmoninarum in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Turner, S M; Faisal, M; DeWoody, J A

    2007-10-01

    Major histocompatibility (MH) class II genes play an important role in the vertebrate immune response. Here, we investigate the relationship between Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) MH class IIB zygosity and susceptibility to Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causal agent of bacterial kidney disease. By combining DNA sequences from the salmon MH class IIB gene with quantitative ELISA data on R. salmoninarum antigen levels, we found that MH class IIB homozygotes were significantly more susceptible to R. salmoninarum than heterozygotes. These findings are discussed in the context of current evolutionary theory. PMID:17627802

  8. Transcriptional activation of mouse mast cell Protease-7 by activin and transforming growth factor-beta is inhibited by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Funaba, Masayuki; Ikeda, Teruo; Murakami, Masaru; Ogawa, Kenji; Tsuchida, Kunihiro; Sugino, Hiromu; Abe, Matanobu

    2003-12-26

    Previous studies have revealed that activin A and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) induced migration and morphological changes toward differentiation in bone marrow-derived cultured mast cell progenitors (BMCMCs). Here we show up-regulation of mouse mast cell protease-7 (mMCP-7), which is expressed in differentiated mast cells, by activin A and TGF-beta1 in BMCMCs, and the molecular mechanism of the gene induction of mmcp-7. Smad3, a signal mediator of the activin/TGF-beta pathway, transcriptionally activated mmcp-7. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), a tissue-specific transcription factor predominantly expressed in mast cells, melanocytes, and heart and skeletal muscle, inhibited Smad3-mediated mmcp-7 transcription. MITF associated with Smad3, and the C terminus of MITF and the MH1 and linker region of Smad3 were required for this association. Complex formation between Smad3 and MITF was neither necessary nor sufficient for the inhibition of Smad3 signaling by MITF. MITF inhibited the transcriptional activation induced by the MH2 domain of Smad3. In addition, MITF-truncated N-terminal amino acids could associate with Smad3 but did not inhibit Smad3-mediated transcription. The level of Smad3 was decreased by co-expression of MITF but not of dominant-negative MITF, which resulted from proteasomal protein degradation. The changes in the level of Smad3 protein were paralleled by those in Smad3-mediated signaling activity. These findings suggest that MITF negatively regulates Smad-dependent activin/TGF-beta signaling in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:14527958

  9. Inhibition of αIIbβ3 Ligand Binding by an αIIb Peptide that Clasps the Hybrid Domain to the βI Domain of β3

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen Hwa; Schaffner-Reckinger, Elisabeth; Tsoukatos, Demokritos C.; Aylward, Kelly; Moussis, Vassilios; Tsikaris, Vassilios; Trypou, Paraskevi; Egot, Marion; Baruch, Dominique; Kieffer, Nelly; Bachelot-Loza, Christilla

    2015-01-01

    Agonist-stimulated platelet activation triggers conformational changes of integrin αIIbβ3, allowing fibrinogen binding and platelet aggregation. We have previously shown that an octapeptide, p1YMESRADR8, corresponding to amino acids 313–320 of the β-ribbon extending from the β-propeller domain of αIIb, acts as a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Here we have performed in silico modelling analysis of the interaction of this peptide with αIIbβ3 in its bent and closed (not swing-out) conformation and show that the peptide is able to act as a substitute for the β-ribbon by forming a clasp restraining the β3 hybrid and βI domains in a closed conformation. The involvement of species-specific residues of the β3 hybrid domain (E356 and K384) and the β1 domain (E297) as well as an intrapeptide bond (pE315-pR317) were confirmed as important for this interaction by mutagenesis studies of αIIbβ3 expressed in CHO cells and native or substituted peptide inhibitory studies on platelet functions. Furthermore, NMR data corroborate the above results. Our findings provide insight into the important functional role of the αIIb β-ribbon in preventing integrin αIIbβ3 head piece opening, and highlight a potential new therapeutic approach to prevent integrin ligand binding. PMID:26332040

  10. Universal properties of type IIB and F-theory flux compactifications at large complex structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, M. C. David; Sousa, Kepa

    2016-03-01

    We consider flux compactifications of type IIB string theory and F-theory in which the respective superpotentials at large complex structure are dominated by cubic or quartic terms in the complex structure moduli. In this limit, the low-energy effective theory exhibits universal properties that are insensitive to the details of the compactification manifold or the flux configuration. Focussing on the complex structure and axio-dilaton sector, we show that there are no vacua in this region and the spectrum of the Hessian matrix is highly peaked and consists only of three distinct eigenvalues (0, 2 m 3/2 2 and 8 m 3/2 2 ), independently of the number of moduli. We briefly comment on how the inclusion of Kähler moduli affect these findings. Our results generalise those of Brodie & Marsh [1], in which these universal properties were found in a subspace of the large complex structure limit of type IIB compactifications.

  11. Di-J/psi Studies, Level 3 Tracking and the D0 Run IIb Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Vint, Philip John; /Imperial Coll., London

    2009-10-01

    The D0 detector underwent an upgrade to its silicon vertex detector and triggering systems during the transition from Run IIa to Run IIb to maximize its ability to fully exploit Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron. This thesis describes improvements made to the tracking and vertexing algorithms used by the high level trigger in both Run IIa and Run IIb, as well as a search for resonant di-J/{psi} states using both Run IIa and Run IIb data. Improvements made to the tracking and vertexing algorithms during Run IIa included the optimization of the existing tracking software to reduce overall processing time and the certification and testing of a new software release. Upgrades made to the high level trigger for Run IIb included the development of a new tracking algorithm and the inclusion of the new Layer 0 silicon detector into the existing software. The integration of Layer 0 into the high level trigger has led to an improvement in the overall impact parameter resolution for tracks of {approx}50%. The development of a new parameterization method for finding the error associated to the impact parameter of tracks returned by the high level tracking algorithm, in association with the inclusion of Layer 0, has led to improvements in vertex resolution of {approx}4.5 {micro}m. A previous search in the di-J/{psi} channel revealed a unpredicted resonance at {approx}13.7 GeV/c{sup 2}. A confirmation analysis is presented using 2.8 fb{sup -1} of data and two different approaches to cuts. No significant excess is seen in the di-J/{psi} mass spectrum.

  12. SALT spectroscopic classification of PS15bqc as a type-IIb SN before maximum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. W.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Miszalski, B.

    2015-08-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of PS15bqc on 2015 Aug 10.8 UT, covering the wavelength range 340-920 nm. Cross-correlation of the spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows PS15bqc is likely a type-IIb supernova a few days before maximum light, with good matches to spectra of SN 1993J at -3 or -2 days from maximum.

  13. β-Subunit Binding Is Sufficient for Ligands to Open the Integrin αIIbβ3 Headpiece.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fu-Yang; Zhu, Jianghai; Eng, Edward T; Hudson, Nathan E; Springer, Timothy A

    2016-02-26

    The platelet integrin αIIbβ3 binds to a KQAGDV motif at the fibrinogen γ-chain C terminus and to RGD motifs present in loops in many extracellular matrix proteins. These ligands bind in a groove between the integrin α and β-subunits; the basic Lys or Arg side chain hydrogen bonds to the αIIb-subunit, and the acidic Asp side chain coordinates to a metal ion held by the β3-subunit. Ligand binding induces headpiece opening, with conformational change in the β-subunit. During this opening, RGD slides in the ligand-binding pocket toward αIIb, with movement of the βI-domain β1-α1 loop toward αIIb, enabling formation of direct, charged hydrogen bonds between the Arg side chain and αIIb. Here we test whether ligand interactions with β3 suffice for stable ligand binding and headpiece opening. We find that the AGDV tetrapeptide from KQAGDV binds to the αIIbβ3 headpiece with affinity comparable with the RGDSP peptide from fibronectin. AGDV induced complete headpiece opening in solution as shown by increase in hydrodynamic radius. Soaking of AGDV into closed αIIbβ3 headpiece crystals induced intermediate states similarly to RGDSP. AGDV has very little contact with the α-subunit. Furthermore, as measured by epitope exposure, AGDV, like the fibrinogen γ C-terminal peptide and RGD, caused integrin extension on the cell surface. Thus, pushing by the β3-subunit on Asp is sufficient for headpiece opening and ligand sliding, and no pulling by the αIIb subunit on Arg is required. PMID:26631735

  14. Type IIb Supernova 2013df Entering into an Interaction Phase: A Link between the Progenitor and the Mass Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.; Hattori, T.; Milisavljevic, D.; Folatelli, G.; Drout, M. R.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Margutti, R.; Kamble, A.; Soderberg, A.; Tanaka, M.; Kawabata, M.; Kawabata, K. S.; Yamanaka, M.; Nomoto, K.; Kim, J. H.; Simon, J. D.; Phillips, M. M.; Parrent, J.; Nakaoka, T.; Moriya, T. J.; Suzuki, A.; Takaki, K.; Ishigaki, M.; Sakon, I.; Tajitsu, A.; Iye, M.

    2015-07-01

    We report the late-time evolution of Type IIb supernova (SN IIb) 2013df. SN 2013df showed a dramatic change in its spectral features at ˜1 yr after the explosion. Early on it showed typical characteristics shared by SNe IIb/Ib/Ic dominated by metal emission lines, while later on it was dominated by broad and flat-topped Hα and He i emissions. The late-time spectra are strikingly similar to SN IIb 1993J, which is the only previous example clearly showing the same transition. This late-time evolution is fully explained by a change in the energy input from the 56Co decay to the interaction between the SN ejecta and dense circumstellar matter (CSM). The mass-loss rate is derived to be ˜ (5.4+/- 3.2)× {10}-5 {M}⊙ yr-1 (for the wind velocity of ˜20 km s-1), similar to SN 1993J but larger than SN IIb 2011dh by an order of magnitude. The striking similarity between SNe IIb 2013df and 1993J in the (candidate) progenitors and the CSM environments and the contrast in these natures to SN 2011dh infer that there is a link between the natures of the progenitor and the mass loss: SNe IIb with a more extended progenitor have experienced a much stronger mass loss in the final centuries toward the explosion. It might indicate that SNe IIb from a more extended progenitor are the explosions during a strong binary interaction phase, while those from a less extended progenitor have a delay between the strong binary interaction and the explosion. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and also at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona.

  15. β-Subunit Binding Is Sufficient for Ligands to Open the Integrin αIIbβ3 Headpiece*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fu-Yang; Zhu, Jianghai; Eng, Edward T.; Hudson, Nathan E.; Springer, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    The platelet integrin αIIbβ3 binds to a KQAGDV motif at the fibrinogen γ-chain C terminus and to RGD motifs present in loops in many extracellular matrix proteins. These ligands bind in a groove between the integrin α and β-subunits; the basic Lys or Arg side chain hydrogen bonds to the αIIb-subunit, and the acidic Asp side chain coordinates to a metal ion held by the β3-subunit. Ligand binding induces headpiece opening, with conformational change in the β-subunit. During this opening, RGD slides in the ligand-binding pocket toward αIIb, with movement of the βI-domain β1-α1 loop toward αIIb, enabling formation of direct, charged hydrogen bonds between the Arg side chain and αIIb. Here we test whether ligand interactions with β3 suffice for stable ligand binding and headpiece opening. We find that the AGDV tetrapeptide from KQAGDV binds to the αIIbβ3 headpiece with affinity comparable with the RGDSP peptide from fibronectin. AGDV induced complete headpiece opening in solution as shown by increase in hydrodynamic radius. Soaking of AGDV into closed αIIbβ3 headpiece crystals induced intermediate states similarly to RGDSP. AGDV has very little contact with the α-subunit. Furthermore, as measured by epitope exposure, AGDV, like the fibrinogen γ C-terminal peptide and RGD, caused integrin extension on the cell surface. Thus, pushing by the β3-subunit on Asp is sufficient for headpiece opening and ligand sliding, and no pulling by the αIIb subunit on Arg is required. PMID:26631735

  16. Closed string Ramond-Ramond proposed higher derivative interactions on fermionic amplitudes in IIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatefi, Ehsan

    2014-03-01

    The complete form of the amplitude of one closed string Ramond-Ramond (RR), two fermionic strings and one scalar field in IIB superstring theory has been computed in detail. Deriving by using suitable gauge fixing, we discover some new vertices and their higher derivative corrections. We investigate both infinite gauge and scalar u-channel poles of this amplitude. In particular, by using the fact that the kinetic term of fermion fields has no correction, employing Born-Infeld action, the Wess-Zumino terms and their higher derivative corrections, we discover all infinite t,s-channel fermion poles. The couplings between one RR and two fermions and all their infinite higher derivative corrections have been explored. In order to look for all infinite (s+t+u)-channel scalar/gauge poles for p+2=n, p=n cases, we obtain the couplings between two fermions-two scalars and two fermions, one scalar and one gauge field as well as all their infinite higher derivative corrections in type IIB. Specifically we make various comments based on arXiv:1205.5079 in favor of universality conjecture for all order higher derivative corrections (with or without low energy expansion) and the relation of open/closed string that is responsible for all superstring scattering amplitudes in IIA, IIB.

  17. Involvement of divalent cations in the complex between the platelet glycoproteins IIb and IIIa.

    PubMed

    Hangen, I; Bjerrum, O J; Gogstad, G; Korsmo, R; Solum, N O

    1982-02-01

    The major immunoprecipitate (No. 16) seen on crossed immunoelectrophoresis of Triton X-100-solubilized platelet proteins against whole platelet antibodies represents a complex containing the membrane glycoproteins IIb and IIIa. When EDTA is present during the solubilization, immunoprecipitate 16 as such is not observed, and two new arcs, termed 16a and 16b, appear. As with 16 these immunoprecipitates become radioactively labelled on lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination of platelets. Immunoprecipitate 16a showed partial immunochemical identity with 16, and was precipitated by an antibody raised against immunoprecipitate 16. The areas covered by immunoprecipitates 16, 16a and 16b were strongly reduced compared to normal with platelets from a patient with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia type II. Such platelets are known to contain reduced amounts of glycoproteins IIb and IIIa. The new arcs appearing when divalent cations are chelated by EDTA thus represent proteins derived from the immunoprecipitate 16 proteins, and divalent cations seem to be necessary to preserve the protein complex containing glycoprotein IIb and IIIa. The different complex formations between the components of immunoprecipitate 16 may reflect biochemical alterations of functional importance. PMID:6173070

  18. Depletion of kinesin-12, a myosin-IIB-interacting protein, promotes migration of cortical astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Hu, Zunlu; Chen, Haijiao; Hua, Juan; Wu, Ronghua; Dong, Zhangji; Qiang, Liang; Liu, Yan; Baas, Peter W; Liu, Mei

    2016-06-15

    Kinesin-12 (also named Kif15) participates in important events during neuronal development, such as cell division of neuronal precursors, migration of young neurons and establishment of axons and dendritic arbors, by regulating microtubule organization. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind the functions of kinesin-12, and even less is known about its roles in other cell types of the nervous system. Here, we show that kinesin-12 depletion from cultured rat cortical astrocytes decreases cell proliferation but increases migration. Co-immunoprecipitation, GST pulldown and small interfering RNA (siRNA) experiments indicated that kinesin-12 directly interacts with myosin-IIB through their tail domains. Immunofluorescence analyses indicated that kinesin-12 and myosin-IIB colocalize in the lamellar region of astrocytes, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses revealed an interaction between the two. The phosphorylation at Thr1142 of kinesin-12 was vital for their interaction. Loss of their interaction through expression of a phosphorylation mutant of kinesin-12 promoted astrocyte migration. We suggest that kinesin-12 and myosin-IIB can form a hetero-oligomer that generates force to integrate microtubules and actin filaments in certain regions of cells, and in the case of astrocytes, that this interaction can modulate their migration. PMID:27170353

  19. Risk model in stage IB1-IIB cervical cancer with positive node after radical hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhilan; Huang, Kecheng; Lu, Zhiyong; Deng, Song; Xiong, Jiaqiang; Huang, Jia; Li, Xiong; Tang, Fangxu; Wang, Zhihao; Sun, Haiying; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Shasha; Wang, Xiaoli; Jia, Yao; Hu, Ting; Gui, Juan; Wan, Dongyi; Ma, Ding; Li, Shuang; Wang, Shixuan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors in patients with surgically treated node-positive IB1-IIB cervical cancer and to establish a risk model for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). A total of 170 patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy as primary treatment for node-positive International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB1-IIB cervical cancer from January 2002 to December 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Five published risk models were evaluated in this population. The variables, including common iliac lymph node metastasis and parametrial invasion, were independent predictors of outcome in a multivariate analysis using a Cox regression model. Three distinct prognostic groups (low, intermediate, and high risk) were defined using these variables. Five-year DFS rates for the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 73.7%, 60.0%, and 25.0%, respectively (P<0.001), and 5-year OS rates were 81.9%, 42.8%, and 25.0%, respectively (P<0.001). The risk model derived in this study provides a novel means for assessing prognosis of patients with node-positive stage IB1-IIB cervical cancer. Future study will focus on external validation of the model and refinement of the risk scoring systems by adding new biologic markers. PMID:27313462

  20. A natural variant of the cysteine protease virulence factor of group A Streptococcus with an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif preferentially binds human integrins αvβ3 and αIIbβ3

    PubMed Central

    Stockbauer, Kathryn E.; Magoun, Loranne; Liu, Mengyao; Burns, Eugene H.; Gubba, Siddeswar; Renish, Sarah; Pan, Xi; Bodary, Sarah C.; Baker, Elizabeth; Coburn, Jenifer; Leong, John M.; Musser, James M.

    1999-01-01

    The human pathogenic bacterium group A Streptococcus produces an extracellular cysteine protease [streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB)] that is a critical virulence factor for invasive disease episodes. Sequence analysis of the speB gene from 200 group A Streptococcus isolates collected worldwide identified three main mature SpeB (mSpeB) variants. One of these variants (mSpeB2) contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence, a tripeptide motif that is commonly recognized by integrin receptors. mSpeB2 is made by all isolates of the unusually virulent serotype M1 and several other geographically widespread clones that frequently cause invasive infections. Only the mSpeB2 variant bound to transfected cells expressing integrin αvβ3 (also known as the vitronectin receptor) or αIIbβ3 (platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa), and binding was blocked by a mAb that recognizes the streptococcal protease RGD motif region. In addition, mSpeB2 bound purified platelet integrin αIIbβ3. Defined β3 mutants that are altered for fibrinogen binding were defective for SpeB binding. Synthetic peptides with the mSpeB2 RGD motif, but not the RSD sequence present in other mSpeB variants, blocked binding of mSpeB2 to transfected cells expressing αvβ3 and caused detachment of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The results (i) identify a Gram-positive virulence factor that directly binds integrins, (ii) identify naturally occurring variants of a documented Gram-positive virulence factor with biomedically relevant differences in their interactions with host cells, and (iii) add to the theme that subtle natural variation in microbial virulence factor structure alters the character of host-pathogen interactions. PMID:9874803

  1. Development of a small-molecule screening method for inhibitors of cellular response to myostatin and activin A.

    PubMed

    Cash, Jennifer N; Angerman, Elizabeth B; Kirby, R Jason; Merck, Lisa; Seibel, William L; Wortman, Matthew D; Papoian, Ruben; Nelson, Sandra; Thompson, Thomas B

    2013-08-01

    Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family of secreted ligands, is a strong negative regulator of muscle growth. As such, therapeutic inhibitors of myostatin are actively being investigated for their potential in the treatment of muscle-wasting diseases such as muscular dystrophy and sarcopenia. Here, we sought to develop a high-throughput screening (HTS) method for small-molecule inhibitors that target myostatin. We created a HEK293 stable cell line that expresses the (CAGA)12-luciferase reporter construct and robustly responds to signaling of certain classes of TGF-β family ligands. After optimization and miniaturization of the assay to a 384-well format, we successfully screened a library of compounds for inhibition of myostatin and the closely related activin A. Selection of some of the tested compounds was directed by in silico screening against myostatin, which led to an enrichment of target hits as compared with random selection. Altogether, we present an HTS method that will be useful for screening potential inhibitors of not only myostatin but also many other ligands of the TGF-β family. PMID:23543431

  2. Differential effect of Activin A and WNT3a on definitive endoderm differentiation on electrospun nanofibrous PCL scaffold.

    PubMed

    Hoveizi, Elham; Massumi, Mohammad; Ebrahimi-barough, Somayeh; Tavakol, Shima; Ai, Jafar

    2015-05-01

    The first step in the formation of hepatocytes and beta cells is the generation of definitive endoderm (DE) which involves a central issue in developmental biology. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have the pluripotency to differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro and have been considered potent candidates for regenerative medicine as an unlimited source of cells for therapeutic applications. In this study, we investigated the differentiating potential of hiPSCs on poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibrous scaffold into DE cells. Here, we demonstrate directed differentiation of hiPSCs by factors such as Activin A and Wnt3a. The differentiation was determined by immunofluoresence staining with Sox17, FoxA2 and Goosecoid (Gsc) and also by qRT-PCR analysis. The results of this study showed that hiPSCs, as a new cell source, have the ability to differentiate into DE cells with a high capacity and also demonstrate that three dimension (3D) culture provides a suitable nanoenviroment for growth, proliferation and differentiation of hiPSCs. PCL nanofibrous scaffold with essential supplements, stimulating factors and EB-derived cells is able to provide a novel method for enhancing functional differentiation of hiPSCs into DE cells. PMID:25640312

  3. Derivation of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Canine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Inhibition of the TGFβ/Activin Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Frith, Jessica E.; Frith, Thomas J.R.; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A.; Cooper-White, Justin J.; Wolvetang, Ernst J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we have generated canine mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), also known as mesenchymal stem cells, from canine induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) by small-molecule inhibition of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)/activin signaling pathway. These ciPSC-derived MSCs (ciPSC-MSCs) express the MSC markers CD73, CD90, CD105, STRO1, cPDGFRβ and cKDR, in addition to the pluripotency factors OCT4, NANOG and REX1. ciPSC-MSCs lack immunostaining for H3K27me3, suggesting that they possess two active X chromosomes. ciPSC-MSCs are highly proliferative and undergo robust differentiation along the osteo-, chondro- and adipogenic pathways, but do not form teratoma-like tissues in vitro. Of further significance for the translational potential of ciPSC-MSCs, we show that these cells can be encapsulated and maintained within injectable hydrogel matrices that, when functionalized with bound pentosan polysulfate, dramatically enhance chondrogenesis and inhibit osteogenesis. The ability to efficiently derive large numbers of highly proliferative canine MSCs from ciPSCs that can be incorporated into injectable, functionalized hydrogels that enhance their differentiation along a desired lineage constitutes an important milestone towards developing an effective MSC-based therapy for osteoarthritis in dogs, but equally provides a model system for assessing the efficacy and safety of analogous approaches for treating human degenerative joint diseases. PMID:25055193

  4. Activin A/BMP2 chimera AB235 drives efficient redifferentiation of long term cultured autologous chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, G; López-Ruiz, E; Kwiatkowski, W; Montañez, E; Arrebola, F; Carrillo, E; Gray, P C; Izpisua Belmonte, J C; Choe, S; Perán, M; Marchal, J A

    2015-01-01

    Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) depends on the quality and quantity of implanted cells and is hindered by the fact that chondrocytes cultured for long periods of time undergo dedifferentiation. Here we have developed a reproducible and efficient chondrogenic protocol to redifferentiate chondrocytes isolated from osteoarthritis (OA) patients. We used morphological, histological and immunological analysis together with a RT-PCR detection of collagen I and collagen II gene expression to show that chondrocytes isolated from articular cartilage biopsies of patients and subjected to long-term culture undergo dedifferentiation and that these cells can be redifferentiated following treatment with the chimeric Activin A/BMP2 ligand AB235. Examination of AB235-treated cell pellets in both in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that redifferentiated chondrocytes synthesized a cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM), primarily consisting of vertically-orientated collagen fibres and cartilage-specific proteoglycans. AB235-treated cell pellets also integrated into the surrounding subcutaneous tissue following transplantation in mice as demonstrated by their dramatic increase in size while non-treated control pellets disintegrated upon transplantation. Thus, our findings describe an effective protocol for the promotion of redifferentiation of autologous chondrocytes obtained from OA patients and the formation of a cartilage-like ECM that can integrate into the surrounding tissue in vivo. PMID:26563344

  5. Activin A/BMP2 chimera AB235 drives efficient redifferentiation of long term cultured autologous chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, G.; López-Ruiz, E.; Kwiatkowski, W.; Montañez, E.; Arrebola, F.; Carrillo, E.; Gray, P. C.; Belmonte, J. C. Izpisua; Choe, S.; Perán, M.; Marchal, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) depends on the quality and quantity of implanted cells and is hindered by the fact that chondrocytes cultured for long periods of time undergo dedifferentiation. Here we have developed a reproducible and efficient chondrogenic protocol to redifferentiate chondrocytes isolated from osteoarthritis (OA) patients. We used morphological, histological and immunological analysis together with a RT-PCR detection of collagen I and collagen II gene expression to show that chondrocytes isolated from articular cartilage biopsies of patients and subjected to long-term culture undergo dedifferentiation and that these cells can be redifferentiated following treatment with the chimeric Activin A/BMP2 ligand AB235. Examination of AB235-treated cell pellets in both in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that redifferentiated chondrocytes synthesized a cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM), primarily consisting of vertically-orientated collagen fibres and cartilage-specific proteoglycans. AB235-treated cell pellets also integrated into the surrounding subcutaneous tissue following transplantation in mice as demonstrated by their dramatic increase in size while non-treated control pellets disintegrated upon transplantation. Thus, our findings describe an effective protocol for the promotion of redifferentiation of autologous chondrocytes obtained from OA patients and the formation of a cartilage-like ECM that can integrate into the surrounding tissue in vivo. PMID:26563344

  6. A new variant of Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (Strasbourg I). Platelets with functionally defective glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complexes and a glycoprotein IIIa 214Arg----214Trp mutation.

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, F; Stierlé, A; Fournier, D; Morales, M; André, G; Nurden, A T; Cazenave, J P

    1992-01-01

    We describe a new variant of Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (variant Strasbourg I). The patient (M.S.) showed an absence of platelet aggregation to ADP, thrombin, and collagen, and a decreased clot retraction. Platelet fibrinogen was approximately 20% of normal levels. ADP-stimulated platelets bound markedly reduced amounts of soluble fibrinogen and platelet adhesion to surface-bound fibrinogen was defective. Normal to subnormal amounts of glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa (alpha IIb beta 3) complexes, the platelet fibrinogen receptor, were revealed by SDS-PAGE, crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and antibody binding. However, the complexes were unusually sensitive to dissociation with EDTA at room temperature. Furthermore, flow cytometry showed that the platelets failed to bind the activation-dependent monoclonal antibody, PAC-1, after stimulation. In contrast, an RGDS-containing peptide induced significant binding of the anti-ligand-induced binding site antibody, D3GP3, suggesting the presence of a functional RGD binding domain on the patient's GPIIb-IIIa complex. Sequence analysis was performed after polymerase chain reaction amplification of selected patient's GPIIIa exons, and of the patient's platelet GPIIb and GPIIIa mRNAs. A point mutation (C to T) was localized in exon D (iv) of GPIIIa that resulted in an 214Arg to 214Trp amino acid substitution. The defect has been inherited from the parents who are heterozygous for the same mutation. This substitution points to an essential amino acid in a region of GPIIIa involved in the binding of fibrinogen and influencing the Ca(2+)-dependent stability of the GPIIb-IIIa complex. Images PMID:1602006

  7. Primary Megakaryocytes Reveal a Role for Transcription Factor Nf-E2 in Integrin αiibβ3 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Shiraga, Masamichi; Ritchie, Alec; Aidoudi, Sallouha; Baron, Veronique; Wilcox, David; White, Gilbert; Ybarrondo, Belen; Murphy, George; Leavitt, Andrew; Shattil, Sanford

    1999-01-01

    Platelet integrin αIIbβ3 responds to intracellular signals by binding fibrinogen and triggering cytoskeletal reorganization, but the mechanisms of αIIbβ3 signaling remain poorly understood. To better understand this process, we established conditions to study αIIbβ3 signaling in primary murine megakaryocytes. Unlike platelets, these platelet precursors are amenable to genetic manipulation. Cytokine-stimulated bone marrow cultures produced three arbitrary populations of αIIbβ3-expressing cells with increasing size and DNA ploidy: small progenitors, intermediate-size young megakaryocytes, and large mature megakaryocytes. A majority of the large megakaryocytes bound fibrinogen in response to agonists, while almost none of the smaller cells did. Fibrinogen binding to large megakaryocytes was inhibited by Sindbis virus-mediated expression of isolated β3 integrin cytoplasmic tails. Strikingly, large megakaryocytes from mice deficient in the transcription factor NF-E2 failed to bind fibrinogen in response to agonists, despite normal surface expression of αIIbβ3. Furthermore, while megakaryocytes from wild-type mice spread on immobilized fibrinogen and exhibited filopodia, lamellipodia and Rho-dependent focal adhesions and stress fibers, NF-E2–deficient megakaryocytes adhered poorly. These studies establish that agonist-induced activation of αIIbβ3 is controlled by NF-E2–regulated signaling pathways that mature late in megakaryocyte development and converge at the β3 cytoplasmic tail. Megakaryocytes provide a physiologically relevant and tractable system for analysis of bidirectional αIIbβ3 signaling. PMID:10613901

  8. Flow and transport at the Las Cruces trench site: Experiment IIb

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, J.; Hills, R.G.; Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H.

    1997-07-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has been directed by Congress in the Low Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 to develop regulatory guidance and assist the individual states and compacts in siting and assessing future low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. Three water flow and solute transport experiments were performed as part of a comprehensive field trench study near Las Cruces, New Mexico to test deterministic and stochastic models of vadose zone flow and transport. This report presents partial results from the third experiment (experiment IIb). Experiments IIa and b were conducted on the North side of the trench, on a plot 1.22 m wide by 12 m long, perpendicular to the trench. The area was drip irrigated during two time periods with water containing a variety of tracers. The advance of the water front during the two irrigation episodes was measured with tensiometers and neutron probes. Solute front positions were determined from soil solution sampling through suction samplers and from disturbed sampling. The results from experiment IIb show predominantly downward water movement through the layered unsaturated soil, as evidenced from neutron probe data and gravimetric sampling. Tritium plumes were only half as deep and half as wide as the water plumes at 310 days after the beginning of experiment IIb. Chromium, applied as Cr(VI), moved a readily as, and similar to tritium, but there was a loss of mass due to reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Chloride and nitrate, initially present at high concentrations in the soil solution, were displaced by the low concentration irrigation water, resulting in chloride and nitrate concentration distributions that looked like negative images of the tritium distributions. The extensive data presented should serve well as a data base for model testing.

  9. MULTI-WAVELENGTH PROPERTIES OF THE TYPE IIb SN 2008ax

    SciTech Connect

    Roming, P. W. A.; Pritchard, T. A.; Brown, P. J.; Hoversten, E. A.; Holland, S. T.; Immler, S.; Weiler, K. W.; Panagia, N.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Oates, S. R.; Russell, B.

    2009-10-20

    We present the UV, optical, X-ray, and radio properties of the Type IIb SN 2008ax discovered in NGC 4490. The observations in the UV are one of the earliest of a Type IIb supernova (SN). On approximately day 4 after the explosion, a dramatic upturn in the u and uvw1 (lambda{sub c} = 2600 A) light curves occurred after an initial rapid decline which is attributed to adiabatic cooling after the initial shock breakout. This rapid decline and upturn is reminiscent of the Type IIb SN 1993J on day 6 after the explosion. Optical/near-IR spectra taken around the peak reveal prominent Halpha, He I, and Ca II absorption lines. A fading X-ray source is also located at the position of SN 2008ax, implying an interaction of the SN shock with the surrounding circumstellar material and a mass-loss rate of the progenitor of M-dot=(9+-3)x10{sup -6}M{sub odot}yr{sup -1}. The unusual time evolution (14 days) of the 6 cm peak radio luminosity provides further evidence that the mass-loss rate is low. Combining the UV, optical, X-ray, and radio data with models of helium exploding stars implies the progenitor of SN 2008ax was an unmixed star in an interacting binary. Modeling of the SN light curve suggests a kinetic energy (E{sub k} ) of 0.5 x 10{sup 51} erg, an ejecta mass (M {sub ej}) of 2.9 M {sub sun}, and a nickel mass (M {sub Ni}) of 0.06 M {sub sun}.

  10. Kinetic Characterization of Nonmuscle Myosin IIB at the Single Molecule Level*

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Attila; Takagi, Yasuharu; Billington, Neil; Sun, Sara A.; Hong, Davin K. T.; Homsher, Earl; Wang, Aibing; Sellers, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Nonmuscle myosin IIB (NMIIB) is a cytoplasmic myosin, which plays an important role in cell motility by maintaining cortical tension. It forms bipolar thick filaments with ∼14 myosin molecule dimers on each side of the bare zone. Our previous studies showed that the NMIIB is a moderately high duty ratio (∼20–25%) motor. The ADP release step (∼0.35 s−1) of NMIIB is only ∼3 times faster than the rate-limiting phosphate release (0.13 ± 0.01 s−1). The aim of this study was to relate the known in vitro kinetic parameters to the results of single molecule experiments and to compare the kinetic and mechanical properties of single- and double-headed myosin fragments and nonmuscle IIB thick filaments. Examination of the kinetics of NMIIB interaction with actin at the single molecule level was accomplished using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) with fluorescence imaging with 1-nm accuracy (FIONA) and dual-beam optical trapping. At a physiological ATP concentration (1 mm), the rate of detachment of the single-headed and double-headed molecules was similar (∼0.4 s−1). Using optical tweezers we found that the power stroke sizes of single- and double-headed heavy meromyosin (HMM) were each ∼6 nm. No signs of processive stepping at the single molecule level were observed in the case of NMIIB-HMM in optical tweezers or TIRF/in vitro motility experiments. In contrast, robust motility of individual fluorescently labeled thick filaments of full-length NMIIB was observed on actin filaments. Our results are in good agreement with the previous steady-state and transient kinetic studies and show that the individual nonprocessive nonmuscle myosin IIB molecules form a highly processive unit when polymerized into filaments. PMID:23148220

  11. Arf6 controls platelet spreading and clot retraction via integrin αIIbβ3 trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yunjie; Joshi, Smita; Xiang, Binggang; Kanaho, Yasunori; Li, Zhenyu; Bouchard, Beth A.; Moncman, Carole L.

    2016-01-01

    Platelet and megakaryocyte endocytosis is important for loading certain granule cargo (ie, fibrinogen [Fg] and vascular endothelial growth factor); however, the mechanisms of platelet endocytosis and its functional acute effects are understudied. Adenosine 5'-diphosphate–ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a small guanosine triphosphate–binding protein that regulates endocytic trafficking, especially of integrins. To study platelet endocytosis, we generated platelet-specific Arf6 knockout (KO) mice. Arf6 KO platelets had less associated Fg suggesting that Arf6 affects αIIbβ3-mediated Fg uptake and/or storage. Other cargo was unaffected. To measure Fg uptake, mice were injected with biotinylated- or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)–labeled Fg. Platelets from the injected Arf6 KO mice showed lower accumulation of tagged Fg, suggesting an uptake defect. Ex vivo, Arf6 KO platelets were also defective in FITC-Fg uptake and storage. Immunofluorescence analysis showed initial trafficking of FITC-Fg to a Rab4-positive compartment followed by colocalization with Rab11-positive structures, suggesting that platelets contain and use both early and recycling endosomes. Resting and activated αIIbβ3 levels, as measured by flow cytometry, were unchanged; yet, Arf6 KO platelets exhibited enhanced spreading on Fg and faster clot retraction. This was not the result of alterations in αIIbβ3 signaling, because myosin light-chain phosphorylation and Rac1/RhoA activation were unaffected. Consistent with the enhanced clot retraction and spreading, Arf6 KO mice showed no deficits in tail bleeding or FeCl3-induced carotid injury assays. Our studies present the first mouse model for defining the functions of platelet endocytosis and suggest that altered integrin trafficking may affect the efficacy of platelet function. PMID:26738539

  12. Maximal R-symmetry violating amplitudes in type IIb superstring theory.

    PubMed

    Boels, Rutger H

    2012-08-24

    On-shell superspace techniques are used to quantify R-symmetry violation in type IIB superstring theory amplitudes in a flat background in 10 dimensions. This shows the existence of a particularly simple class of nonvanishing amplitudes in this theory, which violate R symmetry maximally. General properties of the class and some of its extensions are established that at string tree level are shown to determine the first three nontrivial effective field theory contributions to all multiplicity. This leads to a natural conjecture for the exact analytic part of the first two of these. PMID:23002738

  13. Cell surface receptors for CCN proteins.

    PubMed

    Lau, Lester F

    2016-06-01

    The CCN family (CYR61; CTGF; NOV; CCN1-6; WISP1-3) of matricellular proteins in mammals is comprised of six homologous members that play important roles in development, inflammation, tissue repair, and a broad range of pathological processes including fibrosis and cancer. Despite considerable effort to search for a high affinity CCN-specific receptor akin to growth factor receptors, no such receptor has been found. Rather, CCNs bind several groups of multi-ligand receptors as characteristic of other matricellular proteins. The most extensively documented among CCN-binding receptors are integrins, including αvβ3, αvβ5, α5β1, α6β1, αIIbβ3, αMβ2, and αDβ2, which mediate diverse CCN functions in various cell types. CCNs also bind cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), low density liproprotein receptor-related proteins (LRPs), and the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) receptor, which are endocytic receptors that may also serve as co-receptors in cooperation with other cell surface receptors. CCNs have also been reported to bind FGFR-2, Notch, RANK, and TrkA, potentially altering the affinities of these receptors for their ligands. The ability of CCNs to bind a multitude of receptors in various cell types may account for the remarkable versatility of their functions, and underscore the diverse signaling pathways that mediate their activities. PMID:27098435

  14. Derivatisation of buforin IIb, a cationic henicosapeptide, to afford its complexation to platinum(ii) resulting in a novel platinum(ii)-buforin IIb conjugate with anti-cancer activity.

    PubMed

    Parker, J P; Devocelle, M; Morgan, M P; Marmion, C J

    2016-08-16

    Herein we report the synthesis of buforin IIb, its novel malonate derivative malBuf and its Pt(ii) complex cis-[Pt(NH3)2(malBuf-2H)]. We decided to harness the cell targeting, cell-penetrating and anti-proliferative effects of buforin IIb to help target a cytotoxic dose of a Pt DNA binding species, {Pt(NH3)2} to cancer cells whilst also delivering a peptide with potent anti-cancer properties. Preliminary in vitro data shows cis-[Pt(NH3)2(malBuf-2H)] to be more cytotoxic against the cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cell line (A2780cisR) relative to buforin IIb, cisplatin and cis-[Pt(NH3)2(malonate)]. PMID:27292799

  15. Coated platelets function in platelet-dependent fibrin formation via integrin αIIbβ3 and transglutaminase factor XIII

    PubMed Central

    Mattheij, Nadine J.A.; Swieringa, Frauke; Mastenbroek, Tom G.; Berny-Lang, Michelle A.; May, Frauke; Baaten, Constance C.F.M.J.; van der Meijden, Paola E.J.; Henskens, Yvonne M.C.; Beckers, Erik A.M.; Suylen, Dennis P.L.; Nolte, Marc W.; Hackeng, Tilman M.; McCarty, Owen J.T.; Heemskerk, Johan W.M.; Cosemans, Judith M.E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Coated platelets, formed by collagen and thrombin activation, have been characterized in different ways: i) by the formation of a protein coat of α-granular proteins; ii) by exposure of procoagulant phosphatidylserine; or iii) by high fibrinogen binding. Yet, their functional role has remained unclear. Here we used a novel transglutaminase probe, Rhod-A14, to identify a subpopulation of platelets with a cross-linked protein coat, and compared this with other platelet subpopulations using a panel of functional assays. Platelet stimulation with convulxin/thrombin resulted in initial integrin αIIbβ3 activation, the appearance of a platelet population with high fibrinogen binding, (independently of active integrins, but dependent on the presence of thrombin) followed by phosphatidylserine exposure and binding of coagulation factors Va and Xa. A subpopulation of phosphatidylserine-exposing platelets bound Rhod-A14 both in suspension and in thrombi generated on a collagen surface. In suspension, high fibrinogen and Rhod-A14 binding were antagonized by combined inhibition of transglutaminase activity and integrin αIIbβ3. Markedly, in thrombi from mice deficient in transglutaminase factor XIII, platelet-driven fibrin formation and Rhod-A14 binding were abolished by blockage of integrin αIIbβ3. Vice versa, star-like fibrin formation from platelets of a patient with deficiency in αIIbβ3 (Glanzmann thrombasthenia) was abolished upon blockage of transglutaminase activity. We conclude that coated platelets, with initial αIIbβ3 activation and high fibrinogen binding, form a subpopulation of phosphatidylserine-exposing platelets, and function in platelet-dependent star-like fibrin fiber formation via transglutaminase factor XIII and integrin αIIbβ3. PMID:26721892

  16. A new mechanism of Kähler moduli stabilization in type IIB theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García del Moral, María Pilar

    2006-04-01

    We study the scalar potential in supersymmetric (orientifolded) Calabi Yau flux compactifications of Type IIB theory. We present a new mechanism to stabilize all closed string moduli at leading order in α' by consistently introducing fluxes. As usual we consider the dilaton and the complex structure moduli stabilized by turning on three-form fluxes that couple to the F-part of the scalar potential. The Kahler moduli get fixed by the combined action of the flux-induced scalar masses with the magnetic fields of the open string sector, and Fayet-Illiopoulos terms. For supersymmetric three-form fluxes the model is N = 1, otherwise the mass terms are the scalar soft breaking terms of the MSSM fields. For the case of imaginary self dual three-form fluxes (ISD), the mass terms are positive and the minimum of the potential is at exactly zero energy. We argue that, under generic assumptions, this is a general mechanism for the full stabilization of closed string moduli. The vacua depend explicitly on the fluxes introduced in the manifold. A concrete realization of this mechanism for type IIB on a (T6/Z2 × Z2) orientifold is provided.

  17. Comparison of melanoma antigens in whole tumor vaccine to those from IIB-MEL-J cells.

    PubMed

    McGee, J M; Patten, M R; Malnar, K F; Price, J A; Mayes, J S; Watson, G H

    1999-06-01

    Immunotherapy for melanoma shows promise. Our previous whole tumor (WT) vaccine was noted to have positive clinical effects. We have now developed a new, safer melanoma vaccine that is derived from IIB-MEL-J tissue culture (TC) cells. In this study, we compare by Western blot analyses the antigens in the WT vaccine to antigens in the TC vaccine. Sera from 12 WT vaccine recipients, 8 melanoma patients who received no immunotherapy, and 8 controls served as a source of antibodies to investigate potential antigens in the vaccines. Three major antigenic peptides with approximate molecular weighs of 46, 40, and 36 kDA were present in both vaccines, while two other antigenic peptides with approximate molecular weighs of 68 and 48 kDA were present only in the TC vaccine. The reaction was similar between the patients who received the WT vaccine and those who did not receive the vaccine. Some of the individuals who did not have melanoma showed some reaction, but not to the extent of the melanoma patients. The intensity of immunostaining was greater for the TC vaccine when compared to the WT vaccine, indicating that these proteins are in a higher concentration in the TC vaccine. This new vaccine from IIB-MEL-J tissue culture cells provides a higher yield and a much more consistent source of potentially clinically relevant antigens without risk of infection or contamination by other irrelevant materials. PMID:10850304

  18. A likely inverse-Compton emission from the Type IIb SN 2013df

    PubMed Central

    Li, K. L.; Kong, A. K. H.

    2016-01-01

    The inverse-Compton X-ray emission model for supernovae has been well established to explain the X-ray properties of many supernovae for over 30 years. However, no observational case has yet been found to connect the X-rays with the optical lights as they should be. Here, we report the discovery of a hard X-ray source that is associated with a Type II-b supernova. Simultaneous emission enhancements have been found in both the X-ray and optical light curves twenty days after the supernova explosion. While the enhanced X-rays are likely dominated by inverse-Compton scatterings of the supernova’s lights from the Type II-b secondary peak, we propose a scenario of a high-speed supernova ejecta colliding with a low-density pre-supernova stellar wind that produces an optically thin and high-temperature electron gas for the Comptonization. The inferred stellar wind mass-loss rate is consistent with that of the supernova progenitor candidate as a yellow supergiant detected by the Hubble Space Telescope, providing an independent proof for the progenitor. This is also new evidence of the inverse-Compton emission during the early phase of a supernova. PMID:27481538

  19. Topological charges in SL(2,R) covariant massive 11-dimensional and type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callister, Andrew K.; Smith, Douglas J.

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we construct closed expressions that correspond to the topological charges of the various 1/2-BPS states of the maximal 10- and 11-dimensional supergravity theories. These expressions are related to the structure of the supersymmetry algebras in curved spacetimes. We mainly focus on IIB supergravity and 11-dimensional supergravity in a double M9-brane background, with an emphasis on the SL(2,R) multiplet structure of the charges and how these map between theories. This includes the charges corresponding to the multiplets of 7- and 9-branes in IIB. We find that examining the possible multiplet structures of the charges provides another tool for exploring the spectrum of BPS states that appear in these theories. As a prerequisite to constructing the charges we determine the field equations and multiplet structure of the 11-dimensional gauge potentials, extending previous results on the subject. The massive gauge transformations of the fields are also discussed. We also demonstrate how these massive gauge transformations are compatible with the construction of an SL(2,R) covariant kinetic term in the 11-dimensional Kaluza-Klein monopole worldvolume action.

  20. Isolation and characterization of major histocompatibility complex class IIB genes from the nurse shark.

    PubMed Central

    Bartl, S; Weissman, I L

    1994-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contains a set of linked genes which encode cell surface proteins involved in the binding of small peptide antigens for their subsequent recognition by T lymphocytes. MHC proteins share structural features and the presence and location of polymorphic residues which play a role in the binding of antigens. In order to compare the structure of these molecules and gain insights into their evolution, we have isolated two MHC class IIB genes from the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum. Two clones, most probably alleles, encode proteins which differ by 13 amino acids located in the putative antigen-binding cleft. The protein structure and the location of polymorphic residues are similar to their mammalian counterparts. Although these genes appear to encode a typical MHC protein, no T-cell-mediated responses have been demonstrated in cartilaginous fish. The nurse shark represents the most phylogenetically primitive organism in which both class IIA [Kasahara, M., Vazquez, M., Sato, K., McKinney, E.C. & Flajnik, M.F. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 89, 6688-6692] and class IIB genes, presumably encoding the alpha/beta heterodimer, have been isolated. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8278377

  1. A likely inverse-Compton emission from the Type IIb SN 2013df

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K. L.; Kong, A. K. H.

    2016-08-01

    The inverse-Compton X-ray emission model for supernovae has been well established to explain the X-ray properties of many supernovae for over 30 years. However, no observational case has yet been found to connect the X-rays with the optical lights as they should be. Here, we report the discovery of a hard X-ray source that is associated with a Type II-b supernova. Simultaneous emission enhancements have been found in both the X-ray and optical light curves twenty days after the supernova explosion. While the enhanced X-rays are likely dominated by inverse-Compton scatterings of the supernova’s lights from the Type II-b secondary peak, we propose a scenario of a high-speed supernova ejecta colliding with a low-density pre-supernova stellar wind that produces an optically thin and high-temperature electron gas for the Comptonization. The inferred stellar wind mass-loss rate is consistent with that of the supernova progenitor candidate as a yellow supergiant detected by the Hubble Space Telescope, providing an independent proof for the progenitor. This is also new evidence of the inverse-Compton emission during the early phase of a supernova.

  2. Endoscopic agger nasi type Draf IIb treatment for frontal sinus lesions

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Linggai; Liu, Jun; Ma, Jiqing; Liu, Fei; Wang, Guangke

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of frontal sinus using surgery is complicated owing to the complex anatomical structure of the sinus region. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of Draf IIb endoscopic frontal sinus surgery treatment for frontal sinus lesions using the agger nasi approach on 19 patients (28 left or and right nasal cavities). A 10–12 mm excision of the upper frontal maxilla was performed for endoscopic resection between the middle turbinate and lateral nasal wall. No serious complications in frontal sinus surgery treatment for the removal of the frontal sinus were observed. Patients were followed up after surgery for 6–36 months. Chronic sinusitis and nasal polyps were identified in 10 cases (19 left or and right nasal cavities; disease control, 15 left or and right nasal cavities; and disease partial control, 4 left or and right nasal cavities). Frontal sinus inverted papilloma was observed in 9 cases (9 left or and right nasal cavities). Frontal sinus inverted papilloma were successfully treated in 8 cases, and 1 case of recurrence was observed. In conclusion, the nasal endoscopic Draf IIb agger nasi approach is a minimally invasive treatment for frontal sinus lesions. This surgical procedure is safe and less complicated and may be applied in the clinic.

  3. A likely inverse-Compton emission from the Type IIb SN 2013df.

    PubMed

    Li, K L; Kong, A K H

    2016-01-01

    The inverse-Compton X-ray emission model for supernovae has been well established to explain the X-ray properties of many supernovae for over 30 years. However, no observational case has yet been found to connect the X-rays with the optical lights as they should be. Here, we report the discovery of a hard X-ray source that is associated with a Type II-b supernova. Simultaneous emission enhancements have been found in both the X-ray and optical light curves twenty days after the supernova explosion. While the enhanced X-rays are likely dominated by inverse-Compton scatterings of the supernova's lights from the Type II-b secondary peak, we propose a scenario of a high-speed supernova ejecta colliding with a low-density pre-supernova stellar wind that produces an optically thin and high-temperature electron gas for the Comptonization. The inferred stellar wind mass-loss rate is consistent with that of the supernova progenitor candidate as a yellow supergiant detected by the Hubble Space Telescope, providing an independent proof for the progenitor. This is also new evidence of the inverse-Compton emission during the early phase of a supernova. PMID:27481538

  4. Towards an understanding of deep boron: study of type IIb blue diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillou, E.; Rost, D.; Post, J. E.; Butler, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Boron concentration and isotopic signature are known as a tracer of recycled crustal material from subduction zones inside the Earth's mantle. Thus far, the focus has been on analyzing boron in volcanic rocks and olivine inclusions. However, these materials always experience some degree of late processing on their way to the surface (alteration, crystallization, change in structure, etc.). As of now, the boron content and isotopic ratio of the mantle end-member is only assumed through mass balance calculations (Chaussidon & Marty, 1995). Diamonds, on the other hand, would be a more ideal material to analyze for boron, as it does not undergo significant processing while on its way to the surface. Boron-containing diamonds are well known but extremely rare; they are referred as type IIb diamonds. They are highly valuable in the gem market, as the presence of boron in the diamond structure gives rise to the blue color, such as in the Hope diamond. Only a few boron analyses have been undertaken on type IIb natural diamonds, however, it is generally accepted that their boron concentration is ~1 ppm or lower. The combination of rarity, high value, and low boron content are the most likely reasons why geologists have not yet performed boron analyses on blue diamonds. This study used various spectroscopic methods and time-of-fight (ToF-) SIMS, which are non- or nearly non-destructive techniques, to characterize and analyze for boron in natural type IIb blue diamonds, including the well-known Hope diamond. Results obtained by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and phosphorescence spectroscopies on 103 diamonds will be presented and compared to some analyses of boron contents measured using ToF-SIMS. ToF-SIMS analyses gave spot (50 x 50 μm x few nm deep) boron concentrations as high as 8.4 ± 1.1 (atomic) ppm for the Hope diamond to less than 0.08 ppm in other blue diamonds, with an overall average value of ~1 ppm. ToF-SIMS analyses revealed strong zoning of boron in some

  5. Angiomodulin is required for cardiogenesis of embryonic stem cells and is maintained by a feedback loop network of p63 and Activin-A.

    PubMed

    Wolchinsky, Zohar; Shivtiel, Shoham; Kouwenhoven, Evelyn Nathalie; Putin, Daria; Sprecher, Eli; Zhou, Huiqing; Rouleau, Matthieu; Aberdam, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor p63, member of the p53 gene family, encodes for two main isoforms, TAp63 and ΔNp63 with distinct functions on epithelial homeostasis and cancer. Recently, we discovered that TAp63 is essential for in vitro cardiogenesis and heart development in vivo. TAp63 is expressed by embryonic endoderm and acts on cardiac progenitors by a cell-non-autonomous manner. In the present study, we search for cardiogenic secreted factors that could be regulated by TAp63 and, by ChIP-seq analysis, identified Angiomodulin (AGM), also named IGFBP7 or IGFBP-rP1. We demonstrate that AGM is necessary for cardiac commitment of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and its regulation depends on TAp63 isoform. TAp63 directly activates both AGM and Activin-A during ESC cardiogenesis while these secreted factors modulate TAp63 gene expression by a feedback loop mechanism. The molecular circuitry controlled by TAp63 on AGM/Activin-A signaling pathway and thus on cardiogenesis emphasizes the importance of p63 during early cardiac development. PMID:24145187

  6. The maturation-inducing hormone 17a-20b-dihydroxy-4pregnen-3-one regulates gene expression of inhibin A and bambi (bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane bound inhibitor) in the rainbow trout ovary

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFb) superfamily members are important paracrine and autocrine regulators of ovarian development and steroidogenesis in mammals and birds, but their reproductive roles in fish are not well understood. The activin system, Tgfb, and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (Bmp...

  7. Role of G protein signaling in the formation of the fibrin(ogen)-integrin αIIbβ3-actin cytoskeleton complex in platelets.

    PubMed

    Budnik, Ivan; Shenkman, Boris; Savion, Naphtali

    2016-09-01

    Effective platelet function requires formation of a physical link between fibrin(ogen), integrin αIIbβ3, and cytoplasmic actin filaments. We investigated the role of the Gαq, Gαi, and Gα12/13 families of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) in the assembly of a ligand-αIIbβ3-actin cytoskeleton complex. Selective and combined activation of the G proteins was achieved by using combinations of various platelet agonists and inhibitors. Formation and stability of fibrinogen-αIIbβ3 interaction were evaluated by the extent of platelet aggregation and the rate of eptifibatide-induced platelet disaggregation; association of αIIbβ3 with the cytoskeleton was analyzed by western blot. Formation of the fibrin-αIIbβ3-actin cytoskeleton complex was evaluated by rotational thromboelastometry assay in which clot formation was induced by the mixture of reptilase and factor XIIIa. We demonstrated that involvement of heterotrimeric G proteins in the formation of the ligand-αIIbβ3-cytoskeleton complex depends on whether fibrinogen or fibrin serves as the integrin ligand. Formation of the fibrinogen-αIIbβ3-cytoskeleton complex requires combined activation of at least two G protein pathways while the maximal αIIbβ3-cytoskeleton association and the strongest αIIbβ3-fibrinogen binding supporting irreversible platelet aggregation require combined activation of all three-Gαq, Gαi, and Gα12/13-G protein families. In contrast, formation of the fibrin-αIIbβ3-cytoskeleton complex mediating clot retraction is critically dependent on the activation of the Gαi family, especially on the activation of Gαz. PMID:27026498

  8. Radiation therapy for stage IIA and IIB testicular seminoma: peripheral dose calculations and risk assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Berris, Theocharris; Lyraraki, Efrossyni; Damilakis, John

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to calculate the peripheral dose to critical structures and assess the radiation risks from modern radiotherapy for stage IIA/IIB testicular seminoma. A Monte Carlo code was used for treatment simulation on a computational phantom representing an average adult. The initial treatment phase involved anteroposterior and posteroanaterior modified dog-leg fields exposing para-aortic and ipsilateral iliac lymph nodes followed by a cone-down phase for nodal mass irradiation. Peripheral doses were calculated using different modified dog-leg field dimensions and an extended conventional dog-leg portal. The risk models of the BEIR-VII report and ICRP-103 were combined with dosimetric calculations to estimate the probability of developing stochastic effects. Radiotherapy for stage IIA seminoma with a target dose of 30 Gy resulted in a range of 23.0-603.7 mGy to non-targeted peripheral tissues and organs. The corresponding range for treatment of stage IIB disease to a cumulative dose of 36 Gy was 24.2-633.9 mGy. A dose variation of less than 13% was found by altering the field dimensions. Radiotherapy with the conventional instead of the modern modified dog-leg field increased the peripheral dose up to 8.2 times. The calculated heart doses of 589.0-632.9 mGy may increase the risk for developing cardiovascular diseases whereas the testicular dose of more than 231.9 mGy may lead to a temporary infertility. The probability of birth abnormalities in the offspring of cancer survivors was below 0.13% which is much lower than the spontaneous mutation rate. Abdominoplevic irradiation may increase the lifetime intrinsic risk for the induction of secondary malignancies by 0.6-3.9% depending upon the site of interest, patient’s age and tumor dose. Radiotherapy for stage IIA/IIB seminoma with restricted fields and low doses is associated with an increased morbidity. These data may allow the definition of a risk-adapted follow-up scheme for long

  9. Unveiling Type IIb Supernova Progenitors: SN 2011hs from a Supergiant Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufano, F.

    2014-10-01

    Type IIb Supernovae are the final evolutionary stage of massive stars that were able to retain only a thin (lesssim 1 M_{odot}) H/He external envelope at the time of the explosion. The mechanism of mass-loss that made such final structure possible and the nature of such progenitor stars are still open issues. We present the results obtained from the study of a sample of Type IIb SNe, in particular, of SN 2011hs (Bufano et al., 2013, MNRAS submitted). SN 2011hs was a relatively faint (M_{B} = -15.6 mag) and red Type IIb SN, characterized by a narrow light curve shape. Its spectral evolution showed the metamorphosis typical of this class of SN, from spectra dominated by H I lines to spectra where He I features dominate, but with broad absorption line profiles indicating high expansion velocities. Modeling the light curve of SN 2011hs and its velocity evolution with hydrodynamical calculations, we estimated that the SN is consistent with the explosion of a 3-4 M_{odot} He-core star, from a main sequence mass of 12-15 M_{odot}, ejecting a ^{56}Ni mass equal to 0.04 M_{odot} and characterized by an explosion energy of E≍ 8.5× 10^{50} erg s^{-1}. Based on the light curve evolution, we assumed that the explosion occurred 6 days before the discovery (2,455,872 ± 4 JD), resulting in an adiabatic cooling phase lasting 8 days, similarly to SN 1993J. Since the duration and the decreasing rate of the cooling branch depends mainly on the progenitor size, we could infer from it a progenitor radius of ≍ 500-600 R_{odot}, like a supergiant star. Our modeling rules out models with He core mass >5 M_{odot}, i.e. main sequence masses above 20 M_{odot}. Such a lower limit for the progenitor mass could indicate the possibility of a binary origin, although the radio light curve does not show strong deviations, typically signature of the presence of a companion star.

  10. Changes in intrafollicular concentrations of free IGF-1, activin A, inhibin A, VEGF, estradiol, and prolactin before ovulation in mares.

    PubMed

    Bashir, S T; Ishak, G M; Gastal, M O; Roser, J F; Gastal, E L

    2016-05-01

    Changes in intrafollicular growth factors and hormones were evaluated in vivo in postdeviation and impending ovulation follicles. Mares (n = 30) were randomly assigned to five experimental groups based on target diameters of 25, 30, 35, 40 mm, and impending signs of ovulation. Furthermore, data belonging to two or more proximal diameter groups that were not different were combined and regrouped for each factor separately. Follicular fluid-free insulin-like growth factor 1 was highest (P < 0.003) in 35-mm follicles, followed by the 40-mm and impending ovulation follicle group, and the 25- to 30-mm follicle group. However, concentrations of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 in follicular fluid did not differ (P > 0.05) among groups. Additionally, follicular fluid activin A tended (P < 0.06) to be higher in impending ovulation follicles when compared with the 25- to 40-mm follicle group. Concentrations of intrafollicular estradiol were higher (P < 0.0001) in 40-mm and impending ovulation follicles than in the other follicle groups. Follicular fluid concentrations of inhibin A and vascular endothelial growth factor were lower (P < 0.05) in the 40-mm and the impending ovulation follicle group when compared with the 25- to 35-mm follicle group. Systemic and intrafollicular prolactin levels were lower (P < 0.05) in the impending ovulation group when compared with the 25- to 40-mm follicle group. Prolactin concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in the follicular fluid than in the plasma. The novel findings of this study, a decrease in intrafollicular-free insulin-like growth factor 1, inhibin A, vascular endothelial growth factor, and prolactin during the final stages of follicular growth, document for the first time the occurrence of dynamic changes among intrafollicular factors and hormones during the stages of follicle dominance and as ovulation approaches. PMID:26895618

  11. Effect of Cordycepin-Enriched WIB801C from Cordyceps militaris Suppressing Fibrinogen Binding to Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Ha; Kim, Hyun-Hong; Lim, Deok Hwi; Kim, Jong-Lae; Park, Hwa-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of cordycepin-enriched (CE)-WIB801C, a n-butanol extract of Cordyceps militaris-hypha on collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation. CE-WIB801C dose dependently inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation, and had a synergistic effect together with cordycepin (W-cordycepin) from CE-WIB801C on the inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation. CE-WIB801C and cordycepin stimulated the phosphorylation of VASP (Ser157) and the dephosphorylation of PI3K and Akt, and inhibited the binding of fibrinogen to glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (αIIb/β3) and the release of ATP and serotonin in collagen-induced platelet aggregation. A-kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS reduced CE-WIB801C-, and cordycepin-increased VASP (Ser157) phosphorylation, and increased CE-WIB801C-, and cordycepin-inhibited the fibrinogen binding to αIIb/β3. Therefore, we demonstrate that CE-WIB801C-, and cordycepin-inhibited fibrinogen binding to αIIb/β3 are due to stimulation of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of VASP (Ser157), and inhibition of PI3K/Akt phosphorylation. These results strongly indicate that CE-WIB801C and cordycepin may have preventive or therapeutic potential for platelet aggregation-mediated diseases, such as thrombosis, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and ischemic cerebrovascular disease. PMID:25593645

  12. An epitope tag derived from human transcription factor IIB that reacts with a polyol-responsive monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Duellman, Sarah J; Thompson, Nancy E; Burgess, Richard R

    2004-05-01

    Polyol-responsive monoclonal antibodies (PR-mAbs) provide a strategy to purify active, nondenatured proteins by a single-step immunoaffinity chromatography procedure. The high affinity interaction between these antibodies and the antigen can be dissociated in the presence of a nonchaotropic salt and a low molecular weight polyhydroxylated compound (polyol). The epitope for PR-mAb IIB8 is located near the N-terminus of the human transcription factor IIB (TFIIB). The epitope is an eight amino acid sequence, TKDPSRVG, that can be fused to a desired protein for use as a purification tag. This epitope tag (termed hIIB) was fused to the C-terminus of green fluorescent protein (GFP). An additional GFP fusion protein utilized another version of hIIB containing a point mutation at position two. These fusion proteins, expressed in Escherichia coli, allowed successful separation of the desired protein in a single chromatographic step. This strategy extends PR-mAb gentle-release purification to numerous expressed proteins. PMID:15039078

  13. UNITED PRESBYTERIAN NATIONAL EDUCATION SURVEY, AN INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH PROJECT. VOLUMES IIA AND IIB, COMMUNICATIONS VARIABLES IN THE CHURCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WHITMAN, LAURIS B.; AND OTHERS

    THE DEPARTMENT OF RESEARCH OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CHURCHES CONDUCTED A SURVEY FOR THE UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF ITS MEMBERSHIP AND RELIGIOUS BELIEFS. THE AIM WAS TO COMPARE VARIOUS POPULATIONS (CLERGY, COMMUNICANTS, CHURCH SCHOOL TEACHERS, AND YOUTH), CONCERNING THE EXTENT OF THEIR ORTHODOXY. VOLUMES IIA AND IIB OF THE REPORT RELATE TO THE…

  14. Analysis of Title IIB Mathematics and Science Partnerships in the Northwest Region. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gummer, Edith; Stepanek, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the first year of the funded professional development activities in the Title IIB Math and Science Partnership (MSP) projects in the Northwest Region and the evaluation models. The analysis is structured around the factors of professional development associated with changes in teacher knowledge and practice. This study is…

  15. SN 2011dh: DISCOVERY OF A TYPE IIb SUPERNOVA FROM A COMPACT PROGENITOR IN THE NEARBY GALAXY M51

    SciTech Connect

    Arcavi, Iair; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Yaron, Ofer; Sternberg, Assaf; Rabinak, Itay; Waxman, Eli; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Quimby, Robert M.; Ofek, Eran O.; Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Li, Weidong; Bloom, Joshua S.; Nugent, Peter E.; Poznanski, Dovi; Sullivan, Mark; Gorbikov, Evgeny; and others

    2011-12-15

    On 2011 May 31 UT a supernova (SN) exploded in the nearby galaxy M51 (the Whirlpool Galaxy). We discovered this event using small telescopes equipped with CCD cameras and also detected it with the Palomar Transient Factory survey, rapidly confirming it to be a Type II SN. Here, we present multi-color ultraviolet through infrared photometry which is used to calculate the bolometric luminosity and a series of spectra. Our early-time observations indicate that SN 2011dh resulted from the explosion of a relatively compact progenitor star. Rapid shock-breakout cooling leads to relatively low temperatures in early-time spectra, compared to explosions of red supergiant stars, as well as a rapid early light curve decline. Optical spectra of SN 2011dh are dominated by H lines out to day 10 after explosion, after which He I lines develop. This SN is likely a member of the cIIb (compact IIb) class, with progenitor radius larger than that of SN 2008ax and smaller than the eIIb (extended IIb) SN 1993J progenitor. Our data imply that the object identified in pre-explosion Hubble Space Telescope images at the SN location is possibly a companion to the progenitor or a blended source, and not the progenitor star itself, as its radius ({approx}10{sup 13} cm) would be highly inconsistent with constraints from our post-explosion spectra.

  16. Small C-terminal Domain Phosphatase 3 Dephosphorylates the Linker Sites of Receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads) to Ensure Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ)-mediated Germ Layer Induction in Xenopus Embryos.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guanni; Hu, Zhirui; Min, Zheying; Yan, Xiaohua; Guan, Zhenpo; Su, Hanxia; Fu, Yu; Ma, Xiaopeng; Chen, Ye-Guang; Zhang, Michael Q; Tao, Qinghua; Wu, Wei

    2015-07-10

    Germ layer induction is one of the earliest events shortly after fertilization that initiates body formation of vertebrate embryos. In Xenopus, the maternally deposited transcriptional factor VegT promotes the expression of zygotic Nodal/Activin ligands that further form a morphogen gradient along the vegetal-animal axis and trigger the induction of the three germ layers. Here we found that SCP3 (small C-terminal domain phosphatase 3) is maternally expressed and vegetally enriched in Xenopus embryos and is essential for the timely induction of germ layers. SCP3 is required for the full activation of Nodal/Activin and bone morphogenetic protein signals and functions via dephosphorylation in the linker regions of receptor-regulated Smads. Consistently, the linker regions of receptor-regulated Smads are heavily phosphorylated in fertilized eggs, and this phosphorylation is gradually removed when embryos approach the midblastula transition. Knockdown of maternal SCP3 attenuates these dephosphorylation events and the activation of Nodal/Activin and bone morphogenetic protein signals after midblastula transition. This study thus suggested that the maternal SCP3 serves as a vegetally enriched, intrinsic factor to ensure a prepared status of Smads for their activation by the upcoming ligands during germ layer induction of Xenopus embryos. PMID:26013826

  17. Investigations of Activated ACVR1/ALK2, a Bone Morphogenetic Protein Type I Receptor, That Causes Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Frederick S.; Seemann, Petra; Haupt, Julia; Xu, Meiqi; Lounev, Vitali Y.; Mullins, Mary; Shore, Eileen M.

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptors are serine-threonine kinase transmembrane signal transduction proteins that regulate a vast array of ligand-dependent cell-fate decisions with temporal and spatial fidelity during development and postnatal life. A recent discovery identified a recurrent activating heterozygous missense mutation in a BMP type I receptor [Activin receptor IA/activin-like kinase 2 (ACVR1; also known as ALK2)] in patients with the disabling genetic disorder fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP). Individuals with FOP experience episodes of tissue metamorphosis that convert soft connective tissue such as skeletal muscle into a highly ramified and disabling second skeleton of heterotopic bone. The single nucleotide ACVR1/ALK2 mutation that causes FOP is one of the most specific disease-causing mutations in the human genome and to date the only known inherited activating mutation of a BMP receptor that causes a human disease. Thus, the study of FOP provides the basis for understanding the clinically relevant effects of activating mutations in the BMP signaling pathway. Here we briefly review methodologies that we have applied to studying activated BMP signaling in FOP. PMID:21036241

  18. Left ventricular assist device pump thrombosis: is there a role for glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors?

    PubMed

    Bellumkonda, Lavanya; Subrahmanyan, Lakshman; Jacoby, Daniel; Bonde, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) fill a critical need by providing circulatory support to patients with end-stage heart failure who are either ineligible for heart transplant or too ill to stably wait for an eventual donor organ. Furthermore, they are critical to the arsenal of the heart failure cardiologist, given the supply/demand mismatch for donor organs. Unfortunately, these devices present their own complications. Despite antiplatelet agents and systemic anticoagulation, a number of patients present with pump thrombosis, a life-threatening event requiring either pump exchange or treatment with systemic thrombolytics. In an effort to avoid these morbid therapies, glycogen IIb/IIIa inhibitors, which have both antiplatelet and thrombolytic properties, have been proposed to treat pump thrombosis. We report here the largest case series using these agents and document a previously unreported high failure rate with this therapy. PMID:24335386

  19. Displacements and stress distribution in D0 Run IIb stave due to CTE mismatches

    SciTech Connect

    Lanfranfo, Giobatta; Fast, James; /Fermilab

    2001-07-01

    A possible D0 Run IIb stave design currently under study is characterized by an outer carbon fiber stiffening shell with the silicon detectors mounted internally and a single central cooling line running between them; in this paper the stave will be analyzed for thermal compatibility since the different coefficient of thermal expansion in the materials may cause unpredictable stresses and strains in the structure. A simplified stave section has been modeled with finite elements for different materials configurations and the vertical and longitudinal displacements induced by the thermal gradient, together with the related stresses, have been computed. Finally, once selected the most suitable material combination, a more realistic model has been created in order to study the influence of the hybrid location along the ladders.

  20. IgG platelet antibodies in EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia bind to platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb.

    PubMed

    Fiorin, F; Steffan, A; Pradella, P; Bizzaro, N; Potenza, R; De Angelis, V

    1998-08-01

    EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP) consists of an inappropriate low platelet count caused by autoantibodies present in the serum samples reacting with platelets only in EDTA-anticoagulated blood. By using immunoprecipitation and Western blot techniques, we studied the immunochemical specificity of platelet agglutinating autoantibodies in the serum samples of 10 patients with PTCP. Furthermore, to evaluate a possible role of PTCP-associated IgG autoantibodies in increased platelet turnover, we assayed the plasma glycocalicin (GC) level and calculated the GC index for every patient. Our results provide direct evidence that an epitope located on platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb is recognized by PTCP-associated IgG antibodies; moreover GC levels in patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP were similar to control levels, thus excluding an increased platelet turnover. We conclude that antiplatelet antibodies directed against platelet cryptantigens are unlikely to have a major role in the increased removal of cells from circulation. PMID:9704616

  1. Dimensional oxidation and modular completion of non-geometric type IIB action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Shukla, Pramod

    2015-05-01

    Utilizing a setup of type IIB superstring theory compactified on an orientifold of , we propose a modular invariant dimensional oxidation of the four- dimensional scalar potential. In the oxidized ten-dimensional supergravity action, the standard NS-NS and RR three form fluxes ( H-, F -) as well as the non-geometric fluxes ( Q-, P -) are found to nicely rearrange themselves to form generalized flux-combinations. As an application towards moduli stabilization, using the same S-duality invariant scalar potential, we examine the recently proposed No-Go theorem [1] about creating a mass-hierarchy between universal-axion and the dilaton relevant for axionic-inflation. Considering a two-field dynamics of universal axion and dilator while assuming the other moduli/axions being stabilized, we find a part of the No-Go arguments to be quite robust even with the inclusion of non-geometric ( Q-, P -) fluxes.

  2. Measurements on irradiated L1 sensor prototypes for the D0 Run IIb silicon detector project

    SciTech Connect

    Ahsan, M.; Bolton, T.; Carnes, K.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Gray, T.; Korjenevski, S.; Lehner, F.; Lipton, R.; Mao, H.S.; McCarthy, R.; /SUNY, Stony Brook /Kansas State U. /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    We report on irradiation studies of Hamamatsu prototype silicon microstrip detectors for layer 1 of the D0 upgrade project for Run IIb. The irradiation was carried out with 10 MeV protons up to proton fluence of 10{sup 14} p/cm{sup 2} at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Manhatten, KS. The flux calibration was carefully checked using different dose normalization techniques. The results based on the obtained sensor leakage currents after irradiation show that the NIEL scaling hypothesis for low energy protons has to be applied with great care. We observe 30-40% less radiation damage in silicon for 10 MeV proton exposure than is expected from the predicted NIEL scaling.

  3. Most general spherically symmetric M2-branes and type-IIB strings

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhaolong; Lue, H.

    2009-09-15

    We obtain the most general spherically symmetric M2-branes and type-IIB strings, with R{sup 1,2}xSO(8) and R{sup 1,1}xSO(8) isometries, respectively. We find that there are 12 different classes of M2-branes, and we study their curvature properties. In particular, we obtain new smooth M2-brane wormholes that connect two asymptotic regions: one is flat and the other can be either flat or AdS{sub 4}xS{sup 7}. We find that these wormholes are traversable with certain timelike trajectories. We also obtain the most general Ricci-flat solutions in five dimensions with R{sup 1,1}xSO(3) isometries.

  4. A Jordanian deformation of AdS space in type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Io; Matsumoto, Takuya; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2014-06-01

    We consider a Jordanian deformation of the AdS5×S5 superstring action by taking a simple R-operator which satisfies the classical Yang-Baxter equation. The metric and NS-NS two-form are explicitly derived with a coordinate system. Only the AdS part is deformed and the resulting geometry contains the 3D Schrödinger spacetime as a subspace. Then we present the full solution in type IIB supergravity by determining the other field components. In particular, the dilaton is constant and a R-R three-form field strength is turned on. The symmetry of the solution is [SL(2 , ) × U(1)2] × [SU(3) × U(1)] and contains an anisotropic scale symmetry.

  5. Radiative-transfer models for supernovae IIb/Ib/Ic from binary-star progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Woosley, Stan; Livne, Eli; Waldman, Roni; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Langer, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    We present 1D non-local thermodynamic equilibrium time-dependent radiative-transfer simulations for supernovae (SNe) of Type IIb, Ib, and Ic that result from the terminal explosion of the mass donor in a close-binary system. Here, we select three ejecta with a total kinetic energy of ≈1.2 × 1051 erg, but characterized by different ejecta masses (2-5 M⊙), composition, and chemical mixing. The Type IIb/Ib models correspond to the progenitors that have retained their He-rich shell at the time of explosion. The Type Ic model arises from a progenitor that has lost its helium shell, but retains 0.32 M⊙ of helium in a CO-rich core of 5.11 M⊙. We discuss their photometric and spectroscopic properties during the first 2-3 months after explosion, and connect these to their progenitor and ejecta properties including chemical stratification. For these three models, Arnett's rule overestimates the 56Ni mass by ≈ 50 per cent while the procedure of Katz et al., based on an energy argument, yields a more reliable estimate. The presence of strong C I lines around 9000Å prior to maximum is an indicator that the pre-SN star was underabundant in helium. As noted by others, the 1.08μm feature is a complex blend of C I, Mg II, and He I lines, which makes the identification of He uncertain in SNe Ibc unless other He I lines can be identified. Our models show little scatter in (V - R) colour 10 d after R-band maximum. We also address a number of radiative transfer properties of SNe Ibc, including the notion of a photosphere, the inference of a representative ejecta expansion rate, spectrum formation, blackbody fits and `correction factors'.

  6. The type IIb supernova 2013df and its cool supergiant progenitor

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Foley, Ryan J.; Miller, Adam A.; Smith, Nathan; Lee, William H.; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Gal-Yam, Avishay

    2014-02-01

    We have obtained early-time photometry and spectroscopy of supernova (SN) 2013df in NGC 4414. The SN is clearly of Type IIb, with notable similarities to SN 1993J. From its luminosity at secondary maximum light, it appears that less {sup 56}Ni (≲ 0.06 M {sub ☉}) was synthesized in the SN 2013df explosion than was the case for the SNe IIb 1993J, 2008ax, and 2011dh. Based on a comparison of the light curves, the SN 2013df progenitor must have been more extended in radius prior to explosion than the progenitor of SN 1993J. The total extinction for SN 2013df is estimated to be A{sub V} = 0.30 mag. The metallicity at the SN location is likely to be solar. We have conducted Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Target of Opportunity observations of the SN with the Wide Field Camera 3, and from a precise comparison of these new observations to archival HST observations of the host galaxy obtained 14 yr prior to explosion, we have identified the progenitor of SN 2013df to be a yellow supergiant, somewhat hotter than a red supergiant progenitor for a normal Type II-Plateau SN. From its observed spectral energy distribution, assuming that the light is dominated by one star, the progenitor had effective temperature T {sub eff} = 4250 ± 100 K and a bolometric luminosity L {sub bol} = 10{sup 4.94±0.06} L {sub ☉}. This leads to an effective radius R {sub eff} = 545 ± 65 R {sub ☉}. The star likely had an initial mass in the range of 13-17 M {sub ☉}; however, if it was a member of an interacting binary system, detailed modeling of the system is required to estimate this mass more accurately. The progenitor star of SN 2013df appears to have been relatively similar to the progenitor of SN 1993J.

  7. Characterization of MHC class IIB for four endangered Australian freshwater fishes obtained from ecologically divergent populations.

    PubMed

    Bracamonte, Seraina E; Smith, Steve; Hammer, Michael; Pavey, Scott A; Sunnucks, Paul; Beheregaray, Luciano B

    2015-10-01

    Genetic diversity is an essential aspect of species viability, and assessments of neutral genetic diversity are regularly implemented in captive breeding and conservation programs. Despite their importance, information from adaptive markers is rarely included in such programs. A promising marker of significance in fitness and adaptive potential is the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a key component of the adaptive immune system. Populations of Australian freshwater fishes are generally declining in numbers due to human impacts and the introduction of exotic species, a scenario of particular concern for members of the family Percichthyidae, several of which are listed as nationally vulnerable or endangered, and hence subject to management plans, captive breeding, and restoration plans. We used a next-generation sequencing approach to characterize the MHC IIB locus and provide a conservative description of its levels of diversity in four endangered percichthyids: Gadopsis marmoratus, Macquaria australasica, Nannoperca australis, and Nannoperca obscura. Evidence is presented for a duplicated MHC IIB locus, positively selected sites and recombination of MHC alleles. Relatively moderate levels of diversity were detected in the four species, as well as in different ecotypes within each species. Phylogenetic analyses revealed genus specific clustering of alleles and no allele sharing among species. There were also no shared alleles observed between two ecotypes within G. marmoratus and within M. australasica, which might be indicative of ecologically-driven divergence and/or long divergence times. This represents the first characterization and assessment of MHC diversity for Percichthyidae, and also for Australian freshwater fishes in general, providing key genetic resources for a vertebrate group of increasing conservation concern. PMID:26093210

  8. Prognostic and predictive value of YKL-40 in stage IIB-III melanoma.

    PubMed

    Krogh, Merete; Christensen, Ib; Bouwhuis, Marna; Johansen, Julia S; Nørgaard, Peter; Schmidt, Henrik; Hansson, Johan; Suciu, Stefan; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Bastholt, Lars

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the prognostic and predictive value of YKL-40 in stage IIB-III melanoma patients who were randomized to adjuvant interferon α-2b (IFN) or observation. Serum YKL-40 was determined postoperatively in patients from the Nordic IFN Trial (n=602), EORTC 18952 (n=246), and EORTC 18991 (n=386) (EORTC, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer). YKL-40 protein expression was determined in 300 tissue sections of primary melanoma or lymph node metastases from 204 Danish patients from the Nordic IFN Trial. Multivariate Cox analysis (including sex, age, stage, ulceration, YKL-40) showed that elevated baseline YKL-40 level was associated with shorter overall survival (OS) in observation groups from the Nordic IFN Trial and EORTC 18952 [hazard ratio (HR)=1.33; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.74; P=0.04], but not in the interferon groups (1-year IFN: HR=0.97; 95% CI 0.76-1.25; P=0.83; 2-years IFN: HR=1.06; 95% CI 0.83-1.34; P=0.64). During follow-up, increases in YKL-40 were significantly associated with shorter OS, but not with recurrence-free survival in univariate analysis. YKL-40 expression was stronger in tumor-associated macrophages than melanoma cells in primary melanoma. High YKL-40 expression in macrophages in lymph node metastases was associated with shorter OS in the observation group (HR=2.76; 95% CI: 1.13-6.76, P=0.02), but not in the interferon-treated groups. YKL-40 was an independent prognostic biomarker of OS in melanoma patients stage IIB-III. High serum YKL-40 in poor-prognosis patients may originate from macrophages in the tumor microenvironment and the melanoma cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that elevated serum YKL-40 after surgery may predict the efficacy of adjuvant IFN treatment. PMID:27076041

  9. Reduction of type IIb myosin and IIB fibers in tibialis anterior muscle of mini-muscle mice from high-activity lines.

    PubMed

    Bilodeau, Geneviève M; Guderley, Helga; Joanisse, Denis R; Garland, Theodore

    2009-03-01

    Selective breeding of laboratory house mice (Mus domesticus) for high voluntary wheel running has generated four replicate lines that show an almost threefold increase in daily wheel-running distances as compared with four nonselected control lines. An unusual hindlimb "mini-muscle" phenotype (small muscles, increased mitochondrial enzyme levels, disorganized fiber distribution) has increased in frequency in two of the four replicate selected lines. The gene of major effect that accounts for this phenotype is an autosomal recessive that has been mapped to a 2.6335 Mb interval on MMU11, but not yet identified. This study examined the tibialis anterior muscle to determine whether changes in muscle fiber types could explain such modifications in muscle size and properties. Although selected and control lines did not exhibit systematic differences in the fiber types present in the tibialis anterior muscle, as assessed by electrophoresis of myosin heavy chains (MHC) and by histochemistry, mini-muscle mice lacked type IIB fibers and the corresponding MHCs. Mini-muscle tibialis show increased activities of hexokinase and citrate synthase compared with the normally sized muscles, likely the result of the modified fiber types in the muscle. The mini-muscle phenotype is the major means through which selective breeding for high wheel running has modified the functional capacities of the hindlimb muscles, as normally sized tibialis anterior muscles from control and selected lines did not show general differences in their enzymatic capacities, MHC profiles or fiber type composition, with the exception of an elevated hexokinase activity and a reduced GPa activity in the selected lines. PMID:19177556

  10. Demonstration of novel gain-of-function mutations of αIIbβ3: association with macrothrombocytopenia and glanzmann thrombasthenia-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Hirokazu; Kunishima, Shinji; Kiyomizu, Kazunobu; Amano, Yoshiro; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Morishita, Masashi; Kanakura, Yuzuru; Tomiyama, Yoshiaki

    2013-07-01

    Integrin αIIbβ3 is indispensable for normal hemostasis, but its role for thrombopoiesis is still controversial. Recently, αIIb and β3 mutations have been identified in patients with congenital macrothrombocytopenia. We analyzed three unrelated Japanese families with congenital macrothrombocytopenia. Expression and activation state of αIIbβ3 in platelets was examined by flow cytometry and immunoblotting. Sequence of whole coding region and exon-intron boundaries of ITGA2B and ITGB3 genes was performed. The effects of mutations on αIIbβ3 activation state and phosphorylation of FAK were analyzed in transfected cells. We newly identified three mutations: two mutations in highly conserved Gly-Phe-Phe-Lys-Arg sequence in juxtamembrane region of αIIb, p.Gly991Cys and p.Phe993del, and one donor site mutation of intron 13 of ITGB3 leading to 40 amino acids deletion, p.(Asp621_Glu660del), in the membrane proximal β-tail domain of β3. One patient, who showed Glanzmann thrombasthenia-like marked reduction in surface αIIbβ3 expression (3-11% of normal control), was a compound heterozygote with ITGA2B p.Gly991Cys and a novel nonsense mutation, ITGA2B p.Arg422*. All three mutations, ITGA2B p.Gly991Cys, ITGA2B p.Phe993del, and ITGB3 p.(Asp621_Glu660del), led to highly activated conformation of αIIbβ3 and spontaneous tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK in transfected cells. These results suggest that gain-of-function mutations around membrane region of αIIbβ3 lead to abnormal platelet number and morphology with impaired surface αIIbβ3 expression. PMID:24498605

  11. Differential effects of short-term β agonist and growth hormone treatments on expression of myosin heavy chain IIB and associated metabolic genes in sheep muscle.

    PubMed

    Hemmings, K M; Daniel, Z C T R; Buttery, P J; Parr, T; Brameld, J M

    2015-02-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and β agonists increase muscle mass, but the mechanisms for this response are unclear and the magnitude of response is thought to vary with age of animal. To investigate the mechanisms driving the muscle response to these agents, we examined the effects of short-term (6 day) administration of GH or cimaterol (a β2-adrenergic agonist, BA) on skeletal muscle phenotype in both young (day 60) and mature (day 120) lambs. Expression of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were measured in Longissimus dorsi (LD), Semitendinosus (ST) and Supraspinatus (SS) muscles as markers of fibre type and metabolic enzyme activities were measured in LD. To investigate potential mechanisms regulating the changes in fibre type/metabolism, expression or activity of a number of signalling molecules were examined in LD. There were no effects of GH administration on MyHC isoform expression at either the mRNA or protein level in any of the muscles. However, BA treatment induced a proportional change in MyHC mRNA expression at both ages, with the %MyHCI and/or IIA mRNA being significantly decreased in all three muscles and %MyHCIIX/IIB mRNA significantly increased in the LD and ST. BA treatment induced de novo expression of MyHCIIB mRNA in LD, the fastest isoform not normally expressed in sheep LD, as well as increasing expression in the other two muscles. In the LD, the increased expression of the fastest MyHC isoforms (IIX and IIB) was associated with a decrease in isocitrate dehydrogenase activity, but no change in lactate dehydrogenase activity, indicating a reduced capacity for oxidative metabolism. In both young and mature lambs, changes in expression of metabolic regulatory factors were observed that might induce these changes in muscle metabolism/fibre type. In particular, BA treatment decreased PPAR-γ coactivator-1β mRNA and increased receptor-interacting protein 140 mRNA. The results suggest that the two agents work via different mechanisms or over different

  12. Regulation of Endothelial Barrier Function by TGF-β type I Receptor ALK5: Potential Role of Contractile Mechanisms and Heat Shock Protein 90

    PubMed Central

    Antonov, Alexander S.; Antonova, Galina N.; Fujii, Makiko; Dijke, Peter ten; Handa, Vaishali; Catravas, John D.; Verin, Alexander D.

    2013-01-01

    Multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of acute lung inflammation by controlling endothelial monolayer permeability. TGF-β1 regulates endothelial cell (EC) functions via two distinct receptors, activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) and activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5). The precise roles of ALK1 and ALK5 in the regulation of TGF-β1-induced lung endothelium dysfunction remain mostly unknown. We now report that adenoviral infection with constitutively active ALK5 (caALK5), but not caALK1, induces EC retraction and that this receptor predominantly controls EC permeability. We demonstrate that ubiquitinated ALK5 and phosphorylated heat shock protein 27 (phospho-Hsp27) specifically accumulate in the cytoskeleton fraction, which parallels with microtubule collapse, cortical actin disassembly and increased EC permeability. We have found that ALK1 and ALK5 interact with heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). Moreover, the Hsp90 inhibitor radicicol (RA) prevents accumulation of ubiquitinated caALK5 and phospho-Hsp27 in the cytoskeletal fraction and restore the decreased EC permeability induced by caALK5. We hypothesize that specific translocation of ubiquitinated ALK5 receptor into the cytoskeleton compartment due to its lack of degradation is the mechanism that causes the divergence of caALK1 and caALK5 signaling. PMID:21465483

  13. Cholera toxin, LT-I, LT-IIa, and LT-IIb: the critical role of ganglioside-binding in immunomodulation by Type I and Type II heat-labile enterotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Terry D.

    2010-01-01

    The heat-labile enterotoxins (HLT) expressed by Vibrio cholerae (cholera toxin) and Escherichia coli (LT-I, LT-IIa, and LT-IIb) are potent systemic and mucosal adjuvants. Co-administration of the enterotoxins with a foreign antigen (Ag) produces an augmented immune response to that antigen. Although each enterotoxin has potent adjuvant properties, the means by which the enterotoxins induce various immune responses are distinctive for each adjuvant. Various mutants have been engineered to dissect the functions of the enterotoxins required for their adjuvanticity. The capacity to strongly bind to one or more specific ganglioside receptors appears to drive the distinctive immunomodulatory properties associated with each enterotoxin. Mutant enterotoxins with ablated or altered ganglioside binding affinities have been employed to investigate the role of gangliosides in enterotoxin-dependent immunomodulation. PMID:17931161

  14. Receptors and signaling pathways involved in proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli cells

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Thaís FG; Nascimento, Aline R; Pisolato, Raisa; Pimenta, Maristela T; Lazari, Maria Fatima M; Porto, Catarina S

    2014-01-01

    The identification of the hormones and other factors regulating Sertoli cell survival, proliferation, and maturation in neonatal, peripubertal, and pubertal life remains one of the most critical questions in testicular biology. The regulation of Sertoli cell proliferation and differentiation is thought to be controlled by cell–cell junctions and a set of circulating and local hormones and growth factors. In this review, we will focus on receptors and intracellular signaling pathways activated by androgen, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormone, activin, retinoids, insulin, insulin-like growth factor, relaxin, and estrogen, with special emphasis on estrogen receptors. Estrogen receptors activate intracellular signaling pathways that converge on cell cycle and transcription factors and play a role in the regulation of Sertoli cell proliferation and differentiation. PMID:25225624

  15. Effects of C and Hf concentration on the mechanical properties of wrought superalloys based on NASA IIB-11 produced from prealloyed powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, R. V., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This work describes the effects of C and Hf concentration on the mechanical properties of NASA IIB-11, a candidate material for advanced-temperature gas turbine engine disks. IIB-11 and four alloys of varied C and Hf concentrations were produced as cross-rolled disks from hot-isostatically pressed powder billets. The lower C, higher Hf modification exhibited the best mechanical properties at 760 C and below. These properties were at least equivalent to those of other candidate alloys for advanced temperature disks. Because of their finer grain sizes, all of these powder metallurgy alloys had lower rupture strength, however, than that achieved previously in conventionally processed IIB-11.

  16. Immunological characterization of eristostatin and echistatin binding sites on alpha IIb beta 3 and alpha V beta 3 integrins.

    PubMed Central

    Marcinkiewicz, C; Rosenthal, L A; Mosser, D M; Kunicki, T J; Niewiarowski, S

    1996-01-01

    Two disintegrins with a high degree of amino acid sequence similarity, echistatin and eristostatin, showed a low level of interaction with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, but they bound to CHO cells transfected with alpha IIb beta 3 genes (A5 cells) and to CHO cells transfected with alpha v beta 3 genes (VNRC3 cells) in a reversible and saturable manner. Scatchard analysis revealed that eristostatin bound to 816000 sites per A5 cell (Kd 28 nM) and to 200000 sites (Kd 14 nM) per VNRC3 cell respectively. However, VNRC3 cells did not bind to immobilized eristostatin. Echistatin bound to 495000 sites (Kd 53 nM) per A5 cell and to 443000 sites (Kd 20 nM) per VNRC3 cell. As determined by flow cytometry, radiobinding assay and adhesion studies, binding of both disintegrins to A5 cells and resting platelets and binding of echistatin to VNRC3 cells resulted in the expression of ligand-induced binding sites (LIBS) on the beta 3 subunit. Eristostatin inhibited, more strongly than echistatin, the binding of three monoclonal antibodies: OPG2 (RGD motif dependent), A2A9 (alpha IIb beta 3 complex dependent) and 7E3 (alpha IIb beta 3 and alpha v beta 3 complex dependent) to A5 cells, to resting and to activated platelets and to purified alpha IIb beta 3. Experiments in which echistatin and eristostatin were used alone or in combination to inhibit the binding of 7E3 and OPG2 antibodies to resting platelets suggested that these two disintegrins bind to different but overlapping sites on alpha IIb beta 3 integrin. Monoclonal antibody LM 609 and echistatin seemed to bind to different sites on alpha v beta 3 integrin. However, echistatin inhibited binding of 7E3 antibody to VNRC3 cells and to purified alpha v beta 3 suggesting that alpha v beta 3 and alpha IIb beta 3 might share the same epitope to which both echistatin and 7E3 bind. Eristostatin had no effect in these systems, providing further evidence that it binds to a different epitope on alpha v beta 3. PMID:8760368

  17. Computational design of peptide-Au cluster probe for sensitive detection of αIIbβ3 integrin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lina; Zhai, Jiao; Zhang, Xuejie; Gao, Xueyun; Fang, Xiaohong; Li, Jingyuan

    2016-02-11

    We have designed a novel peptide-Au cluster probe to specifically bind to αIIbβ3 integrin. As indicated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the binding mode of the native ligand of αIIbβ3 integrin, γC peptide, can be realized by the designed probe. More importantly, the peptide-Au probe can provide multiple coating peptides to form additional salt bridges with protein, and the binding stability of the probe is comparable to the native ligand. The designed probe was then successfully synthesized. The specific binding in a cellular environment was validated by colocalization analysis of confocal microscopy. In addition, the binding affinity was confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) based single molecule force spectroscopy. Our results suggest the combination of computational design and experimental verification can be a useful strategy for the development of nanoprobes. PMID:26831577

  18. Quiver matrix mechanics for IIB string theory II: generic dual tori, fractional matrix membrane and SL(2,Z) duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jian; Wu, Yong-Shi

    2005-02-01

    With the deconstruction technique, the geometric information of a torus can be encoded in a sequence of orbifolds. By studying the matrix theory on these orbifolds as quiver mechanics, we present a formulation that (de)constructs the torus of generic shape on which matrix theory is "compactified". The continuum limit of the quiver mechanics gives rise to a (1 + 2)-dimensional SYM. A hidden (fourth) dimension, that was introduced before in the matrix theory literature to argue for the electric-magnetic duality, can be easily identified in our formalism. We construct membrane wrapping states rigorously in terms of Dunford calculus in the context of matrix regularization. Unwanted degeneracy in the spectrum of the wrapping states is eliminated by using SL(2,Z) symmetry and the relations to the FD-string bound states. The dual IIB circle emerges in the continuum limit, constituting a critical evidence for IIB/M duality.

  19. Computational design of peptide-Au cluster probe for sensitive detection of αIIbβ3 integrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lina; Zhai, Jiao; Zhang, Xuejie; Gao, Xueyun; Fang, Xiaohong; Li, Jingyuan

    2016-02-01

    We have designed a novel peptide-Au cluster probe to specifically bind to αIIbβ3 integrin. As indicated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the binding mode of the native ligand of αIIbβ3 integrin, γC peptide, can be realized by the designed probe. More importantly, the peptide-Au probe can provide multiple coating peptides to form additional salt bridges with protein, and the binding stability of the probe is comparable to the native ligand. The designed probe was then successfully synthesized. The specific binding in a cellular environment was validated by colocalization analysis of confocal microscopy. In addition, the binding affinity was confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) based single molecule force spectroscopy. Our results suggest the combination of computational design and experimental verification can be a useful strategy for the development of nanoprobes.We have designed a novel peptide-Au cluster probe to specifically bind to αIIbβ3 integrin. As indicated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the binding mode of the native ligand of αIIbβ3 integrin, γC peptide, can be realized by the designed probe. More importantly, the peptide-Au probe can provide multiple coating peptides to form additional salt bridges with protein, and the binding stability of the probe is comparable to the native ligand. The designed probe was then successfully synthesized. The specific binding in a cellular environment was validated by colocalization analysis of confocal microscopy. In addition, the binding affinity was confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) based single molecule force spectroscopy. Our results suggest the combination of computational design and experimental verification can be a useful strategy for the development of nanoprobes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09175f

  20. SALT spectroscopic classification of PS15cjr (=LSQ15bgf) as a type-IIb supernova near maximum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. W.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Kniazev, A.

    2015-10-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of PS15cjr (=LSQ15bgf) on 2015 Oct 16.9 UT, covering the wavelength range 350-950 nm. Cross-correlation of the spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows PS15cjr is likely a type-IIb a few days past maximum light, with a good match to the spectrum of SN 1993J at +4 days.

  1. Genomic Porosity between Invasive Chondrostoma nasus and Endangered Endemic Parachondrostoma toxostoma (Cyprinidae): The Evolution of MHC IIB Genes

    PubMed Central

    Šimková, Andrea; Civáňová, Kristína; Gettová, Lenka; Gilles, André

    2013-01-01

    Two cyprinid species, Parachondrostoma toxostoma, an endemic threatened species, and Chondrostoma nasus, an invasive species, live in sympatry in southern France and form two sympatric zones where the presence of intergeneric hybrids is reported. To estimate the potential threat to endemic species linked to the introduction of invasive species, we focused on the DAB genes (functional MHC IIB genes) because of their adaptive significance and role in parasite resistance. More specifically, we investigated (1) the variability of MHC IIB genes, (2) the selection pattern shaping MHC polymorphism, and (3) the extent to which trans-species evolution and intergeneric hybridization affect MHC polymorphism. In sympatric areas, the native species has more diversified MHC IIB genes when compared to the invasive species, probably resulting from the different origins and dispersal of both species. A similar level of MHC polymorphism was found at population level in both species, suggesting similar mechanisms generating MHC diversity. In contrast, a higher number of DAB-like alleles per specimen were found in invasive species. Invasive species tended to express the alleles of two DAB lineages, whilst native species tended to express the alleles of only the DAB3 lineage. Hybrids have a pattern of MHC expression intermediate between both species. Whilst positive selection acting on peptide binding sites (PBS) was demonstrated in both species, a slightly higher number of positively selected sites were identified in C. nasus, which could result from parasite-mediated selection. Bayesian clustering analysis revealed a similar pattern of structuring for the genetic variation when using microsatellites or the MHC approach. We confirmed the importance of trans-species evolution for MHC polymorphism. In addition, we demonstrated bidirectional gene flow for MHC IIB genes in sympatric areas. The positive significant correlation between MHC and microsatellites suggests that demographic

  2. 30 CFR 57.22231 - Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). 57.22231 Section 57.22231 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 0.25 percent in...

  3. 30 CFR 57.22238 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). 57.22238 Section 57.22238 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the...

  4. 30 CFR 57.22238 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). 57.22238 Section 57.22238 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the...

  5. 30 CFR 57.22238 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). 57.22238 Section 57.22238 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22231 - Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). 57.22231 Section 57.22231 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 0.25 percent in...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22231 - Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). 57.22231 Section 57.22231 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 0.25 percent in...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22238 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). 57.22238 Section 57.22238 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22231 - Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). 57.22231 Section 57.22231 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 0.25 percent in...

  10. CDX-1401 and Poly-ICLC Vaccine Therapy With or Without CDX-301in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IV Melanoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-21

    Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin; Iris Melanoma; Medium/Large Size Posterior Uveal Melanoma; Mucosal Melanoma; Ocular Melanoma With Extraocular Extension; Small Size Posterior Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIB Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Uveal Melanoma; Stage IV Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Uveal Melanoma

  11. 30 CFR 57.22231 - Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22231 Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 0.25 percent in...

  12. 30 CFR 57.22238 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22238 Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the...

  13. A Transmembrane Polymorphism of Fcγ Receptor IIb Is Associated with Kidney Deficiency Syndrome in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Na; Lai, Ruogu; Luo, Shizi; Xie, Jianglin; Wang, Xizi; Liu, Lijuan; Liu, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The purpose is to investigate the role of kidney deficiency and the association between kidney deficiency and a polymorphism FcγRIIb 695T>C coding for nonsynonymous substitution IIe232Thr (I232T) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Clinical parameters and autoantibodies were analyzed and genotyping was performed in 159 kidney deficiency and 161 non-kidney-deficiency RA patients. Results. The age of disease onset and disease duration exhibited significant differences between two groups (P < 0.01). Patients with kidney deficiency tend to have higher activity of disease (P < 0.05). Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides antibodies (ACPA) levels of patients with kidney deficiency were higher than the controls (P = 0.039). 125 (78.6%) kidney deficiency and 114 (70.8%) non-kidney-deficiency patients had both ACPA-positive and RF-positive (P = 0.04, OR = 3.29). FcγRIIb I232TT homozygotes were identified in 10 of 159 (6.3%) kidney deficiency subjects and 1 of 161 (0.6%) controls (P = 0.000, OR = 16.45). Furthermore, in pooled genotype analysis, I232IT and I232TT homozygotes were significantly enriched in kidney deficiency individuals compared with the controls (P = 0.000, OR = 3.79). Frequency of T allele was associated with kidney deficiency RA population (P = 0.000, OR = 3.18). Conclusion. This study confirmed that kidney deficiency was closely associated with disease activity and autoimmune disorder in RA. Kidney deficiency in RA is first to reveal a strong genetic link to FcγRIIb variants. PMID:27051449

  14. Spectropolarimetry of SN 2011dh in M51: geometric insights on a Type IIb supernova progenitor and explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauerhan, Jon C.; Williams, G. Grant; Leonard, Douglas C.; Smith, Paul S.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Smith, Nathan; Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Huk, Leah; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Milne, Peter; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ben-Ami, Sagi

    2015-11-01

    We present seven epochs of spectropolarimetry of the Type IIb supernova (SN IIb) 2011dh in M51, spanning 86 d of its evolution. The first epoch was obtained 9 d after the explosion, when the photosphere was still in the depleted hydrogen layer of the stripped-envelope progenitor. Continuum polarization is securely detected at the level of P ≈ 0.5 per cent through day 14 and appears to diminish by day 30, which is different from the prevailing trends suggested by studies of other core-collapse SNe. Time-variable modulations in P and position angle are detected across P-Cygni line features. H α and He I polarization peak after 30 d and exhibit position angles roughly aligned with the earlier continuum, while O I and Ca II appear to be geometrically distinct. We discuss several possibilities to explain the evolution of the continuum and line polarization, including the potential effects of a tidally deformed progenitor star, aspherical radioactive heating by fast-rising plumes of 56Ni from the core, oblique shock breakout, or scattering by circumstellar material. While these possibilities are plausible and guided by theoretical expectations, they are not unique solutions to the data. The construction of more detailed hydrodynamic and radiative-transfer models that incorporate complex aspherical geometries will be required to further elucidate the nature of the polarized radiation from SN 2011dh and other SNe IIb.

  15. Power-law expansion of the Universe from the bosonic Lorentzian type IIB matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Yuta; Nishimura, Jun; Tsuchiya, Asato

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies on the Lorentzian version of the type IIB matrix model show that (3+1)D expanding universe emerges dynamically from (9+1)D space-time predicted by superstring theory. Here we study a bosonic matrix model obtained by omitting the fermionic matrices. With the adopted simplification and the usage of a large-scale parallel computer, we are able to perform Monte Carlo calculations with matrix size up to N = 512, which is twenty times larger than that used previously for the studies of the original model. When the matrix size is larger than some critical value N c ≃ 110, we find that (3+1)D expanding universe emerges dynamically with a clear large- N scaling property. Furthermore, the observed increase of the spatial extent with time t at sufficiently late times is consistent with a power-law behavior t 1/2, which is reminiscent of the expanding behavior of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe in the radiation dominated era. We discuss possible implications of this result on the original supersymmetric model including fermionic matrices.

  16. A BINARY PROGENITOR FOR THE TYPE IIb SUPERNOVA 2011dh IN M51

    SciTech Connect

    Benvenuto, Omar G.

    2013-01-10

    We perform binary stellar evolutionary calculations following the simultaneous evolution of both stars in the system to study a potential progenitor system for the Type IIb supernova 2011dh. Pre-explosion photometry as well as light-curve modeling has provided constraints on the physical properties of the progenitor system. Here, we present a close binary system (CBS) that is compatible with such constraints. The system is formed by stars of solar composition with 16 M {sub Sun} + 10 M {sub Sun} on a circular orbit with an initial period of 125 days. The primary star ends its evolution as a yellow supergiant with a mass of Almost-Equal-To 4 M {sub Sun }, a final hydrogen content of Almost-Equal-To (3-5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M {sub Sun }, and with an effective temperature and luminosity in agreement with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pre-explosion observations of SN 2011dh. These results are nearly insensitive to the adopted accretion efficiency factor {beta}. At the time of explosion, the companion star has an effective temperature of 22,000-40,000 K, depending on the value of {beta}, and lies near the zero-age main sequence. Considering the uncertainties in the HST pre-SN photometry, the secondary star is only marginally detectable in the bluest observed band. CBSs, as opposed to single stars, provide a natural frame to explain the properties of SN 2011dh.

  17. Mirage models confront the LHC. II. Flux-stabilized type IIB string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Bryan L.; Nelson, Brent D.

    2014-04-01

    We continue the study of a class of string-motivated effective supergravity theories in light of current data from the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In this installment we consider type IIB string theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau orientifold in the presence of fluxes, in the manner originally formulated by Kachru et al. We allow for a variety of potential uplift mechanisms and embeddings of the Standard Model field content into D3-and D7-brane configurations. We find that an uplift sector independent of the Kähler moduli, as is the case with anti-D3-branes, is inconsistent with data unless the matter and Higgs sectors are localized on D7 branes exclusively, or are confined to twisted sectors between D3-and D7-branes. We identify regions of parameter space for all possible D-brane configurations that remain consistent with Planck observations on the dark matter relic density and measurements of the CP-even Higgs mass at the LHC. Constraints arising from LHC searches at √s =8 TeV and the LUX dark matter detection experiment are discussed. The discovery prospects for the remaining parameter space at dark matter direct-detection experiments are described, and signatures for detection of superpartners at the LHC with √s =14 TeV are analyzed.

  18. Structure of the C-terminal Domain of Transcription Facto IIB from Trypanosoma brucei

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, B.; Kanneganti, N; Rieckhof, G; Das, A; Laurents, D; Palenchar, J; Bellofatto, V; Wah, D

    2009-01-01

    In trypanosomes, the production of mRNA relies on the synthesis of the spliced leader (SL) RNA. Expression of the SL RNA is initiated at the only known RNA polymerase II promoter in these parasites. In the pathogenic trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, transcription factor IIB (tTFIIB) is essential for SL RNA gene transcription and cell viability, but has a highly divergent primary sequence in comparison to TFIIB in well-studied eukaryotes. Here we describe the 2.3 A resolution structure of the C-terminal domain of tTFIIB (tTFIIBC). The tTFIIBC structure consists of 2 closely packed helical modules followed by a C-terminal extension of 32 aa. Using the structure as a guide, alanine substitutions of basic residues in regions analogous to functionally important regions of the well-studied eukaryotic TFIIB support conservation of a general mechanism of TFIIB function in eukaryotes. Strikingly, tTFIIBC contains additional loops and helices, and, in contrast to the highly basic DNA binding surface of human TFIIB, contains a neutral surface in the corresponding region. These attributes probably mediate trypanosome-specific interactions and have implications for the apparent bidirectional transcription by RNA polymerase II in protein-encoding gene expression in these organisms.

  19. Metallicity dependence of Type Ib/c and IIb supernova progenitors in binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sung-CHul

    2015-08-01

    Type Ib/c supernovae (SNe Ib/c) are characterized by the lack of prominent hydrogen lines in the spectra, implying that their progenitors have lost most of their hydrogen envelopes by the time of the iron core collapse. Binary interactions provide an important evolutionary chanel for SNe Ib/c, and recent observations indicate that the inferred ejecta masses of SNe Ibc are more consistent with the prediction of the binary scenario than that of the single star scenario that invokes mass loss as the key evolutionary factor for SNe Ib/c progenitors. So far, theoretical predictions on the detailed properties of SNe Ib/c progenitors in binary systems have been made mostly with models using solar metallicity. However, unlike the single star scenario, where SNe Ib/c are expected only for sufficiently high metallicity, hydrogen-deficent SN progenitors can be produced via binary interactions at any metallicity. In this talk, I will discuss theoretical predictions on the metallicity dependence of the SNe Ib/c progenitor structure, based on evolutionary models of massive binary stars. Sepefically, I will address how the ejecta masses of SNe Ib and Ic and the ratio of SN Ib/c to SN IIb as well as SN Ib to SN Ic would systematically change as a function of metallicity, and which new types of SNe are expected in binary systems at low metallicity.

  20. Class IIb HDAC6 regulates endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis by deacetylation of cortactin

    PubMed Central

    Kaluza, David; Kroll, Jens; Gesierich, Sabine; Yao, Tso-Pang; Boon, Reinier A; Hergenreider, Eduard; Tjwa, Marc; Rössig, Lothar; Seto, Edward; Augustin, Hellmut G; Zeiher, Andreas M; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Urbich, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) deacetylate histones and non-histone proteins, thereby affecting protein activity and gene expression. The regulation and function of the cytoplasmic class IIb HDAC6 in endothelial cells (ECs) is largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that HDAC6 is upregulated by hypoxia and is essential for angiogenesis. Silencing of HDAC6 in ECs decreases sprouting and migration in vitro and formation of functional vascular networks in matrigel plugs in vivo. HDAC6 regulates zebrafish vessel formation, and HDAC6-deficient mice showed a reduced formation of perfused vessels in matrigel plugs. Consistently, overexpression of wild-type HDAC6 increases sprouting from spheroids. HDAC6 function requires the catalytic activity but is independent of ubiquitin binding and deacetylation of α-tubulin. Instead, we found that HDAC6 interacts with and deacetylates the actin-remodelling protein cortactin in ECs, which is essential for zebrafish vessel formation and which mediates the angiogenic effect of HDAC6. In summary, we show that HDAC6 is necessary for angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro, involving the interaction and deacetylation of cortactin that regulates EC migration and sprouting. PMID:21847094

  1. The type IIB string axiverse and its low-energy phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicoli, Michele; Goodsell, Mark D.; Ringwald, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    We study closed string axions in type IIB orientifold compactifications. We show that for natural values of the background fluxes the moduli stabilisation mechanism of the LARGE Volume Scenario (LVS) gives rise to an axiverse characterised by the presence of a QCD axion plus many light axion-like particles whose masses are logarithmically hierarchical. We study the phenomenological features of the LVS axiverse, deriving the masses of the axions and their couplings to matter and gauge fields. We also determine when closed string axions can solve the strong CP problem, and analyse the first explicit examples of semi-realistic models with stable moduli and a QCD axion candidate which is not eaten by an anomalous Abelian gauge boson. We discuss the impact of the choice of inflationary scenario on the LVS axiverse, and summarise the astrophysical, cosmological and experimental constraints upon it. Moreover, we show how models can be constructed with additional light axion-like particles that could explain some intriguing astrophysical anomalies, and could be searched for in the next generation of axion helioscopes and light-shining-through-a-wall experiments.

  2. Warped AdS 6 × S 2 in Type IIB supergravity I: local solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hoker, Eric; Gutperle, Michael; Karch, Andreas; Uhlemann, Christoph F.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the existence of solutions with 16 residual supersymmetries to Type IIB supergravity on a space-time of the formc AdS 6× S 2 warped over a two-dimensional Riemann surface Σ. The SO(2 , 5) × SO(3) isometry extends to invariance under the exceptional Lie superalgebra F (4). In the present paper, we construct the general Ansatz compatible with these symmetries, derive the corresponding reduced BPS equations, and obtain their complete local solution in terms of two locally holomorphic functions {A}_{± } on Σ, subject to certain positivity and regularity conditions. Globally, ( {A}+ , {A}- ) are allowed to be multiple-valued on Σ and be holomorphic sections of a holomorphic bundle over Σ with structure group contained in SU(1,1)× C . Globally regular solutions are expected to provide the near-horizon geometry of ( p, q) 5-brane and 7-brane webs which are holographic duals to five-dimensional conformal field theories. A preliminary analysis of the positivity and regularity conditions will be presented here, leaving the construction of globally regular solutions to a subsequent paper.

  3. On finiteness of type IIB compactifications: magnetized branes on elliptic Calabi-Yau threefolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Halverson, James; Klevers, Denis; Song, Peng

    2014-06-01

    The string landscape satisfies interesting finiteness properties imposed by supersymmetry and string-theoretical consistency conditions. We study = 1 supersymmetric compactifications of Type IIB string theory on smooth elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds at large volume with magnetized D9-branes and D5-branes. We prove that supersymmetry and tadpole cancellation conditions imply that there is a finite number of such configurations. In particular, we derive an explicitly computable bound on the number of magnetic flux quanta, as well as the number of D5-branes, which is independent of the continuous moduli of the setup. The proof applies if a number of easy to check geometric conditions of the twofold base are met. We show that these geometric conditions are satisfied for the almost Fano twofold bases given by each toric variety associated to a reflexive two-dimensional polytope as well as by the generic del Pezzo surfaces dP n with n = 0 ,…,8. Physically, this finiteness proof shows that there exist a finite collection of four-dimensional gauge groups and chiral matter spectra in the 4D supergravity theories realized by these compactifications. As a by-product we explicitly construct all generators of the Kähler cones of dP n and work out their relation to representation theory.

  4. Structural basis for distinctive recognition of fibrinogen [gamma]C peptide by the platelet integrin [alpha][subscript IIb][beta]3

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, Timothy A.; Zhu, Jianghai; Xiao, Tsan

    2009-01-12

    Hemostasis and thrombosis (blood clotting) involve fibrinogen binding to integrin {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} on platelets, resulting in platelet aggregation. {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} binding fibrinogen via an Arg-Asp-Gly (RGD) motif in fibrinogen's {alpha} subunit. {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} also binds to fibrinogen; however, it does so via an unstructured RGD-lacking C-terminal region of the {gamma} subunit ({gamma}C peptide). These distinct modes of fibrinogen binding enable {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} and {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} to function cooperatively in hemostasis. In this study, crystal structures reveal the integrin {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3}-{gamma}C peptide interface, and, for comparison, integrin {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} bound to a lamprey {gamma}C primordial RGD motif. Compared with RGD, the GAKQAGDV motif in {gamma}C adopts a different backbone configuration and binds over a more extended region. The integrin metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) Mg{sup 2+} ion binds the {gamma}C Asp side chain. The adjacent to MIDAS (ADMIDAS) Ca{sup 2+} ion binds the {gamma}C C terminus, revealing a contribution for ADMIDAS in ligand binding. Structural data from this natively disordered {gamma}C peptide enhances our understanding of the involvement of {gamma}C peptide and integrin {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} in hemostasis and thrombosis.

  5. Effects of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb from horse chestnut, the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L., on acute inflammation in animals.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Li, Y; Murakami, T; Ninomiya, K; Yamahara, J; Yoshikawa, M

    1997-10-01

    We investigated the effects of escins Ia, Ib, and IIb isolated from horse chestnut, the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L., and desacylescins I and II obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of escins on acute inflammation in animals (p.o.). Escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb (50-200 mg/kg) inhibited the increase of vascular permeability induced by both acetic acid in mice and histamine in rats. Escins Ib, IIa, and IIb (50-200 mg/kg) also inhibited that induced by serotonin in rats, but escin Ia didn't. Escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb (200 mg/kg) inhibited the hind paw edema induced by carrageenin at the first phase in rats. Escin Ia (200 mg/kg) and escins Ib, IIa, and IIb (50-200 mg/kg) inhibited the scratching behavior induced by compound 48/80 in mice, but escin Ia was weakest. Desacylescins I and II (200 mg/kg) showed no effect. With regard to the relationship between their chemical structures and activities, the acyl groups in escins were essential. Escins Ib, IIa, and IIb with either the 21-angeloyl group or the 2'-O-xylopyranosyl moiety showed more potent activities than escin Ia which had both the 21-tigloyl group and the 2'-O-glucopyranosyl moiety. PMID:9353571

  6. Enhancement of humoral immunity by the type II heat-labile enterotoxin LT-IIb is dependent upon IL-6 and neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Greene, Christopher J; Hu, John C; Vance, David J; Rong, Yinghui; Mandell, Lorrie; King-Lyons, Natalie; Masso-Welch, Patricia; Mantis, Nicholas J; Connell, Terry D

    2016-08-01

    LT-IIb, a type II heat-labile enterotoxin produced by Escherichia coli, is a potent intradermal adjuvant that enhances immune responses to coadministered antigens. Although the immune mechanisms that promote this augmented immune response have not been well defined, prior intradermal immunization experiments suggested that early cellular and immunomodulatory events at the site of immunization modulated the augmentation of antigen-specific immune responses by LT-IIb. To investigate that hypothesis, mice were intradermally immunized with a recombinant ricin vaccine, a prospective toxin subunit antigen, in the presence and absence of LT-IIb. Analysis of tissue-fluid collection, coupled with histologic sections from the site of intradermal immunization, revealed that a single dose of LT-IIb induced local production of interleukin 6 and promoted a regional infiltration of neutrophils. The adjuvant effects of LT-IIb were abrogated in interleukin 6-deficient mice and when mice were depleted of neutrophils by pretreatment with anti-Ly6G. Overall, these data firmly demonstrated that LT-IIb, when used as an intradermal adjuvant, recruits neutrophils and is a potent rapid inducer of interleukin 6. PMID:27059843

  7. RGD labeled Ru(II) polypyridyl conjugates for platelet integrin αIIbβ3 recognition and as reporters of integrin conformation.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Kellie; Dolan, Ciaran; Moran, Niamh; Forster, Robert J; Keyes, Tia E

    2014-05-21

    The ability of two novel ruthenium(II) polypyridyl-Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide conjugates to act as molecular probes for reporting on the presence and conformation of integrin αIIbβ3 in solution and in live cells was described. The compounds are [Ru(bpy)2PIC-RGD](2+), bpy-RGD, and [Ru(dpp)2PIC-RGD](2+), dpp-RGD, where dpp is 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, and PIC is 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline. Bpy-RGD is hydrophilic, whereas dpp-RGD is comparatively hydrophobic. Both probes exhibited good affinity and high specificity for purified αIIbβ3 in solution. Binding of either complex to the resting integrin resulted in an approximately 8-fold increase of emission intensity from the metal center with dissociation constants (Kd) in the micromolar range for each complex. The Kd for each conjugate/αIIbβ3 assembly were compared following treatment of the integrin with the activating agents, Mn(2+) and dithiothreitol (DTT), which are commonly used to induce active-like conformational changes in the integrin. For bpy-RGD/αIIbβ3 Kd showed relatively little variation with integrin activation, presenting the following trend: denatured αIIbβ3 > resting αIIbβ3 = pretreated DTT = pretreated Mn(2+). Kd for dpp-RGD/ αIIbβ3 showed greater variation with integrin activation and the following trend was followed: denatured αIIbβ3 > resting αIIbβ3 > pretreated Mn(2+) = pretreated DTT. Time resolved luminescence anisotropy was carried out to obtain the rotational correlation time of bpy-RGD and dpp-RGD bound to resting or nominally activated integrin. The rotational correlation times of bpy-RGD and dpp-RGD, too fast to measure unbound, decreased to 1.50 ± 0.03 μs and 2.58 ± 0.04 μs, respectively, when the complexes were bound to resting integrin. Addition of Mn(2+) to bpy-RGD/αIIbβ3 or dpp-RGD/αIIbβ3 reduced the rotational correlation time of the ruthenium center to 1.29 ± 0.03 μs and to 1.72 ± 0.03

  8. Geology and mineral deposits of an area in the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas (Subzone IIB), Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feininger, Tomas; Barrero L., Dario; Castro, Nestor; Hall, R.B.

    1973-01-01

    The Inventario Minero National (IMN), a four-year cooperative geologic mapping and mineral resources appraisal project, was accomplished under an agreement between the Republic of Colombia and the U. S. Agency for International Development from 1964 through 1969. Subzone IIB, consisting essentially of the east half of Zone comprises nearly 20,000 km2 principally in the Department of Antioquia but including also small parts of the Departments of Caldas and Tolima. The rocks in IIB range from Precambrian to Holocene. Precambrian feldspar-quartz gneiss occupies a mosaic of fault-bounded blocks intruded by igneous rocks between the Oto fault and the Rio Magdalena. Paleozoic rocks are extensive, and include lightly metamorphosed graptolite-bearing Ordovician shale at Cristalina, and a major suite of graphitic quartz-mica schist, feldspathic and aluminous gneiss, quartzite, marble, amphibolite, and other rocks. Syntectonic intrusive gneiss included many of the older rocks during a late Paleozoic(?) orogeny, which was accompanied by Abukuma-type metamorphosing from lowermost greenschist to upper amphibolite facies. A Jurassic diorite pluton bounded by faults cuts volcanic rocks of unknown age east of the Otu fault. Cretaceous rocks are major units. Middle Cretaceous carbonaceous shale, sandstone, graywacke, conglomerate, and volcanic rocks are locally prominent. The Antioquian batholith (quartz diorite) of Late Cretaceous age cuts the middle Cretaceous and older rocks. A belt of Tertiary nonmarine clastic sedimentary rocks crops out along the Magdalena Valley. Patches of Tertiary alluvium are locally preserved in the mountains. Quaternary alluvium, much of it auriferous, is widespread in modern stream valleys. Structurally IIB constitutes part of a vast complex synclinorium intruded concordantly by syntectonic catazonal or mesozonal felsic plutons, and by the later epizonal post-tectonic Antioquian batholith. Previously unrecognized major wrench faults are outstanding

  9. A point mutation in the EGF-4 domain of β3 integrin is responsible for the formation of the Seca platelet alloantigen and affects receptor function

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Ulrich J.; Bakchoul, Tamam; Eva, Olga; Giptner, Astrid; Bein, Gregor; Aster, Richard H.; Gitter, Maria; Peterson, Julie; Santoso, Sentot

    2013-01-01

    Summary Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT) is caused by fetomaternal platelet incompatibility with maternal antibodies crossing the placenta and destroying fetal platelets. Antibodies against human platelet antigen-1a (HPA-1a) and HPA-5b are responsible for the majority of NAIT cases. We observed a suspected NAIT in a newborn with a platelet count of 25 G/l and petechial haemorrhages. Serological analysis of maternal serum revealed an immunisation against αIIbβ3 on paternal platelets only, indicating the presence of an antibody against a new rare alloantigen (Seca) residing on αIIbβ3. The location of Seca on αIIbβ3 was confirmed by immunoprecipitation. Nucleotide sequence analysis of paternal β3 revealed a single nucleotide exchange (G1818T) in exon 11 of the β3 gene (ITGB3), changing Lys580 (wild-type) to Asn580 (Seca). Two additional members of the family Sec were typed Seca positive, but none of 300 blood donors. Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing Asn580, but not Lys580 αIIbβ3, bound anti-Seca, which was corroborated by immunoprecipitation. Adhesion of transfected cells onto immobilised fibrinogen showed reduced binding of the Asn580 variant compared to wild-type αIIbβ3. Analysis of transfected cells with anti-LIBS and PAC-1 antibody showed reduced binding when compared to the wild-type. No such effects were observed with Seca positive platelets, which, however, are heterozygous for the Lys580Asn mutation. In this study, we describe a NAIT case caused by maternal alloimmunisation against a new antigen on αIIbβ3. Analysis with mutant transfected cells showed that the Lys580Asn mutation responsible for the formation of the Seca antigenic determinant affects αIIbβ3 receptor function. PMID:22116617

  10. Role of Gas6 receptors in platelet signaling during thrombus stabilization and implications for antithrombotic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne; Burnier, Laurent; Flores, Nathalie; Savi, Pierre; DeMol, Maria; Schaeffer, Paul; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Lemke, Greg; Goff, Stephen P.; Matsushima, Glenn K.; Earp, H. Shelton; Vesin, Christian; Hoylaerts, Marc F.; Plaisance, Stéphane; Collen, Désiré; Conway, Edward M.; Wehrle-Haller, Bernhard; Carmeliet, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Mechanisms regulating thrombus stabilization remain largely unknown. Here, we report that loss of any 1 of the Gas6 receptors (Gas6-Rs), i.e., Tyro3, Axl, or Mer, or delivery of a soluble extracellular domain of Axl that traps Gas6 protects mice against life-threatening thrombosis. Loss of a Gas6-R does not prevent initial platelet aggregation but impairs subsequent stabilization of platelet aggregates, at least in part by reducing “outside-in” signaling and platelet granule secretion. Gas6, through its receptors, activates PI3K and Akt and stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of the β3 integrin, thereby amplifying outside-in signaling via αIIbβ3. Blocking the Gas6-R–αIIbβ3 integrin cross-talk might be a novel approach to the reduction of thrombosis. PMID:15650770

  11. 5-Fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) plus sunitinib or bevacizumab as first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer: a randomized Phase IIb study

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, J Randolph; Mitchell, Edith P; Yoshino, Takayuki; Welslau, Manfred; Lin, Xun; Chow Maneval, Edna; Paolini, Jolanda; Lechuga, Maria Jose; Kretzschmar, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Background Sunitinib is an oral inhibitor of tyrosine kinase receptors implicated in tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. In this randomized, multicenter, open-label Phase IIb study, sunitinib plus mFOLFOX6 (oxaliplatin plus leucovorin plus 5-fluorouracil) was compared with bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX6 as first-line therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Methods Patients were stratified by performance status, baseline lactate dehydrogenase level, and prior adjuvant treatment, and randomized 1:1 to receive sunitinib 37.5 mg/day for 4 weeks on and 2 weeks off plus mFOLFOX6 every 2 weeks or bevacizumab 5 mg/kg every 2 weeks plus mFOLFOX6 every 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. Secondary endpoints included objective response rate, overall survival, safety, and quality of life. Results Enrollment was closed early following accrual of 191 patients, based on an interim analysis showing an inferior trend in the primary progression-free survival efficacy endpoint for sunitinib. Ninety-six patients were randomized to sunitinib plus mFOLFOX6 and 95 to bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX6. Median progression-free survival was 9.3 months and 15.4 months, respectively, but the objective response rate was similar between the study arms. Median overall survival was 23.7 months and 34.1 months, respectively. Dose reductions and interruptions were more common with sunitinib. Hematologic toxicity was more common in the sunitinib arm. Conclusion While the results of the sunitinib arm are comparable with those of previously reported FOLFOX combinations, the sunitinib-based combination was associated with more toxicity than that observed with bevacizumab and mFOLFOX6. The bevacizumab arm had an unexpectedly good outcome, and was much better than that seen in the Phase III trials. Combination therapy with sunitinib plus mFOLFOX6 is not recommended for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:26109878

  12. DIP2 disco-interacting protein 2 homolog A (Drosophila) is a candidate receptor for follistatin-related protein/follistatin-like 1--analysis of their binding with TGF-β superfamily proteins.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masao; Murakami, Kosaku; Ozaki, Shoichi; Imura, Yoshitaka; Tong, Xiao-Peng; Watanabe, Takuo; Sawaki, Toshioki; Kawanami, Takafumi; Kawabata, Daisuke; Fujii, Takao; Usui, Takashi; Masaki, Yasufumi; Fukushima, Toshihiro; Jin, Zhe-Xiong; Umehara, Hisanori; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2010-10-01

    Follistatin-related protein (FRP)/follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) is a member of the follistatin protein family, all of which share a characteristic structure unit found in follistatin, called the FS domain. Developmental studies have suggested that FRP regulates organ tissue formation in embryos. Immunological studies showed that FRP modifies joint inflammation in arthritic disease, and modulates allograft tolerance. However, the principle physiological function of FRP is currently unknown. To address this issue, we cloned four FRP-associated proteins using a two-hybrid cloning method: disco-interacting protein 2 homolog A from Drosophila (DIP2A), CD14, glypican 1 and titin. Only DIP2A was expected to be a membrane receptor protein with intracellular regions. Over-expression of FLAG epitope-tagged DIP2A augmented the suppressive effect of FRP on FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS) expression, and the Fab fragment of IgG to FLAG blocked this effect. Knockdown of Dip2a leaded to Fos gene up-regulation, and this was not affected by exogenous FRP. These in vitro experiments confirmed that DIP2A could be a cell-surface receptor protein and mediate a FOS down-regulation signal of FRP. Moreover, molecular interaction analyses using Biacore demonstrated that FRP bound to DIP2A and CD14, and also with proteins of the TGF-β superfamily, i.e. activin, TGF-β, bone morphogenetic protein 2/4 (BMP-2/4), their receptors and follistatin. FRP binding to DIP2A was blocked by CD14, follistatin, activin and BMP-2. FRP blocked the ligand-receptor binding of activin and BMP-2, but integrated itself with that of BMP-4. This multi-specific binding may reflect the broad physiological activity of FRP. PMID:20860622

  13. The Two-Peptide (Class-IIb) Bacteriocins: Genetics, Biosynthesis, Structure, and Mode of Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen-Meyer, Jon; Oppegård, Camilla; Rogne, Per; Haugen, Helen Sophie; Kristiansen, Per Eugen

    The two-peptide (class-IIb) bacteriocins consist of two different peptides, both of which are required to obtain high antimicrobial activity. These bacteriocins kill target-cells by inducing membrane-leakage and they seem to display some specificity with respect to the molecules they transfer across membranes. The genes encoding the two peptides of two-peptide bacteriocins are next to each other on the same operon. In the same or a nearby operon are genes encoding (i) the immunity protein that protects the bacteriocin-producer from its own bacteriocin, (ii) a dedicated ABC-transporter that exports the bacteriocin from cells and cleaves off the N-terminal bacteriocin leader sequence, and (iii) an accessory protein whose exact function has not been fully clarified. Some two-peptide bacteriocins appear to be produced constitutively, whereas the production of other two-peptide bacteriocins is regulated through a three-component regulatory system that consists of a peptide pheromone, a membrane-associated histidine protein kinase, and response regulators. It has recently been proposed that the two peptides of (some) two-peptide bacteriocins may form a membrane-penetrating helix-helix structure involving helix-helix interacting GxxxG-motifs present in all currently characterized two-peptide bacteriocins. It has also been suggested that the helix-helix structure interacts with an integrated membrane (transport) protein, thus inducing a conformational change in the protein, which in turn causes membrane-leakage. This proposed mode-of-action is similar to that of the pediocin-like (class-IIa) bacteriocins and lactococcin A, which bind to a part of the mannose phosphotransferase permease that is embedded in the cell membrane, thereby altering the conformation of the ­permease in a manner that causes membrane-leakage and cell death.

  14. Structural basis for quinine-dependent antibody binding to platelet integrin αIIbβ3

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jianghai; Zhu, Jieqing; Bougie, Daniel W.; Aster, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia (DITP) is caused by antibodies that react with specific platelet-membrane glycoproteins when the provoking drug is present. More than 100 drugs have been implicated as triggers for this condition, quinine being one of the most common. The cause of DITP in most cases appears to be a drug-induced antibody that binds to a platelet membrane glycoprotein only when the drug is present. How a soluble drug promotes binding of an otherwise nonreactive immunoglobulin to its target, leading to platelet destruction, is uncertain, in part because of the difficulties of working with polyclonal human antibodies usually available only in small quantities. Recently, quinine-dependent murine monoclonal antibodies were developed that recognize a defined epitope on the β-propeller domain of the platelet integrin αIIb subunit (GPIIb) only when the drug is present and closely mimic the behavior of antibodies found in human patients with quinine-induced thrombocytopenia in vitro and in vivo. Here, we demonstrate specific, high-affinity binding of quinine to the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of these antibodies and define in crystal structures the changes induced in the CDR by this interaction. Because no detectable binding of quinine to the target integrin could be demonstrated in previous studies, the findings indicate that a hybrid paratope consisting of quinine and reconfigured antibody CDR plays a critical role in recognition of its target epitope by an antibody and suggest that, in this type of drug-induced immunologic injury, the primary reaction involves binding of the drug to antibody CDRs, causing it to acquire specificity for a site on a platelet integrin. PMID:26282540

  15. The Continuing Story of SN IIb 2013df: New Optical and IR Observations and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalai, Tamás; Vinkó, József; Nagy, Andrea P.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Dhungana, Govinda; Marion, G. Howie; Kehoe, Robert; Fox, Ori D.; Sárneczky, Krisztián; Marschalkó, Gábor; Bíró, Barna I.; Borkovits, Tamás; Hegedüs, Tibor; Szakáts, Róbert; Ferrante, Farley V.; Bányai, Evelin; Hodosán, Gabriella; Kelemen, János; Pál, András

    2016-05-01

    SN 2013df is a nearby Type IIb supernova that seems to be the spectroscopic twin of the well-known SN 1993J. Previous studies revealed many, but not all interesting properties of this event. Our goal was to add new understanding of both the early and late-time phases of SN 2013df. Our spectral analysis is based on 6 optical spectra obtained with the 9.2m Hobby-Eberly Telescope during the first month after explosion, complemented by a near-infrared spectrum. We applied the SYNAPPS spectral synthesis code to constrain the chemical composition and physical properties of the ejecta. A principal result is the identification of "high-velocity" He I lines in the early spectra of SN 2013df, manifest as the blue component of the double-troughed profile at ˜5650 Å. This finding, together with the lack of clear separation of H and He lines in velocity space, indicates that both H and He features form at the outer envelope during the early phases. We also obtained ground-based BVRI and g'r'i'z' photometric data up to +45 days and unfiltered measurements with the ROTSE-IIIb telescope up to +168 days. From the modelling of the early-time quasi-bolometric light curve, we find Mej ˜ 3.2-4.6 M⊙ and Ekin ˜ 2.6-2.8 × 1051 erg for the initial ejecta mass and the initial kinetic energy, respectively, which agree well with the values derived from the separate modelling of the light-curve tail. Late-time mid-infrared excess indicates circumstellar interaction starting ˜1 year after explosion, in accordance with previously published optical, X-ray, and radio data.

  16. Conditional Ablation of Nonmuscle Myosin II-B Delineates Heart Defects in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xuefei; Takeda, Kazuyo; Singh, Aman; Yu, Zu-Xi; Zerfas, Patricia; Blount, Anthony; Liu, Chengyu; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Schneider, Michael D.; Adelstein, Robert S.; Wei, Qize

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Germline ablation of the cytoskeletal protein nonmuscle myosin II-B (NMII-B) results in embryonic lethality with defects in both the brain and heart. Tissue specific ablation of NMII-B by a Cre-recombinase strategy should avoid embryonic lethality and permit study of the function of NMII-B in adult hearts. Objective To understand the function of NMII-B in adult mouse hearts and to see if the brain defects found in germline ablated mice influence cardiac development. Methods and Results We used a loxP/Cre-recombinase strategy to specifically ablate NMII-B in the brains or hearts of mice. Mice ablated for NMII-B in neural tissues, die between postnatal day 12 and 22 without showing cardiac defects. Mice deficient in NMII-B only in cardiac myocytes (BαMHC/BαMHC mice) do not show brain defects. However BαMHC/BαMHC mice display novel cardiac defects not seen in NMII-B germline ablated mice. Most of the BαMHC/BαMHC mice are born with enlarged cardiac myocytes some of which are multinucleated, reflecting a defect in cytokinesis. Between 6–10 months they develop a cardiomyopathy which includes interstitial fibrosis and infiltration of the myocardium and pericardium with inflammatory cells. Four of five BαMHC/BαMHC hearts develop marked widening of intercalated discs. Conclusion By avoiding the embryonic lethality found in germline-ablated mice we were able to study the function of NMII-B in adult mice and show that absence of NMII-B in cardiac myocytes results in cardiomyopathy in the adult heart. We also define a role for NMII-B in maintaining the integrity of intercalated discs. PMID:19815823

  17. Ciprofloxacin DPI: a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase IIb efficacy and safety study on cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Dorkin, Henry L; Staab, Doris; Operschall, Elisabeth; Alder, Jeff; Criollo, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment of infective bronchitis involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a cornerstone of care in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This phase IIb, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the efficacy and safety of ciprofloxacin dry powder for inhalation (DPI) in this population. Methods Patients with CF, ≥12 years of age (N=286), were randomised to ciprofloxacin DPI (32.5 mg (n=93) or 48.75 mg (n=93)), or corresponding placebo (32.5 mg, n=65; 48.75 mg, n=35) twice daily for 28 days. The primary objective was the change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) from baseline (day 0) to end of treatment (day 29) in the intent-to-treat population for ciprofloxacin DPI compared with the corresponding placebo group. Results The primary effectiveness objective was not met; there were no significant differences in change in FEV1 between ciprofloxacin DPI and the corresponding placebo group for either dose (p=0.154). However, in pooled analyses, FEV1 decline from baseline to treatment end was significantly lower with ciprofloxacin DPI than with placebo (pooled data; p=0.02). Ciprofloxacin DPI showed positive effects on sputum bacterial load and quality of life, but these effects were not maintained at the 4-week follow-up. Ciprofloxacin DPI was well tolerated and there were no significant differences in type/incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events by treatment group (p=0.115). Conclusions Further investigations are needed to determine the full scope of the beneficial effects of ciprofloxacin DPI for patients with CF. Trial registration number Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00645788; EudraCT 2008-008314-40. PMID:26688732

  18. The continuing story of SN IIb 2013df: new optical and IR observations and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalai, Tamás; Vinkó, József; Nagy, Andrea P.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Dhungana, Govinda; Marion, G. Howie; Kehoe, Robert; Fox, Ori D.; Sárneczky, Krisztián; Marschalkó, Gábor; Bíró, Barna I.; Borkovits, Tamás; Hegedüs, Tibor; Szakáts, Róbert; Ferrante, Farley V.; Bányai, Evelin; Hodosán, Gabriella; Kelemen, János; Pál, András

    2016-08-01

    SN 2013df is a nearby Type IIb supernova that seems to be the spectroscopic twin of the well-known SN 1993J. Previous studies revealed many, but not all interesting properties of this event. Our goal was to add new understanding of both the early- and late-time phases of SN 2013df. Our spectral analysis is based on six optical spectra obtained with the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope during the first month after explosion, complemented by a near-infrared spectrum. We applied the SYNAPPS spectral synthesis code to constrain the chemical composition and physical properties of the ejecta. A principal result is the identification of `high-velocity' He I lines in the early spectra of SN 2013df, manifest as the blue component of the double-troughed profile at ˜5650 Å. This finding, together with the lack of clear separation of H and He lines in velocity space, indicates that both H and He features form at the outer envelope during the early phases. We also obtained ground-based BVRI and g'r 'i'z' photometric data up to +45 d and unfiltered measurements with the ROTSE-IIIb telescope up to +168 d. From the modelling of the early-time quasi-bolometric light curve, we find Mej ˜ 3.2-4.6 M⊙ and Ekin ˜ 2.6-2.8 × 1051 erg for the initial ejecta mass and the initial kinetic energy, respectively, which agree well with the values derived from the separate modelling of the light-curve tail. Late-time mid-infrared excess indicates circumstellar interaction starting ˜1 yr after explosion, in accordance with previously published optical, X-ray, and radio data.

  19. The warm circumstellar envelope and wind of the G9 IIb star HR 6902

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, T.; Baade, R.; Reimers, D.

    2001-12-01

    IUE observations of the eclipsing binary system HR 6902 obtained at various epochs spread over four years indicate the presence of warm circumstellar material enveloping the G9 IIb primary. The spectra show Si Iv and C Iv absorption up to a distance of 3.3 giant radii (Rg). Line ratio diagnostics yields an electron temperature of ~ 78 000 K which appears to be constant over the observed height range. Applying a least square fit absorption line analysis we derive column densities as a function of height. We find that the inner envelope (< 3;Rg) of the bright giant is consistent with a hydrostatic density distribution. The derived line broadening velocity of ~ 70 km s-1 is sufficient to provide turbulent pressure support for the required scale height. However, an improved agreement with observations over the whole height regime including the emission line region is obtained with an outflow model. We demonstrate that the common β power-law as well as a P ∝ ρ wind yield appropriate fit models. Adopting a continuous mass outflow we obtain a mass-loss rate of M⊙=0.8 - 3.4 × 10-11 Msolar yr-1 depending on the particular wind model. The emission lines observed during total eclipse are attributed mostly to resonance scattering of B star photons in the extended envelope of the giant. By means of a multi-dimensional line formation study we show that the global envelope properties are consistent with the wind models derived from the absorption line analysis. We argue that future high resolution UV spectroscopy will resolve the large-scale velocity structure of the circumstellar shell. As an illustration we present theoretical Si Iv and C Iv emission profiles showing model-dependent line shifts and asymmetries.

  20. Nonmuscle myosin IIB as a therapeutic target for the prevention of relapse to methamphetamine use.

    PubMed

    Young, E J; Blouin, A M; Briggs, S B; Sillivan, S E; Lin, L; Cameron, M D; Rumbaugh, G; Miller, C A

    2016-05-01

    Memories associated with drug use increase vulnerability to relapse in substance use disorder (SUD), and there are no pharmacotherapies for the prevention of relapse. Previously, we reported a promising finding that storage of memories associated with methamphetamine (METH), but not memories for fear or food reward, is vulnerable to disruption by actin depolymerization in the basolateral amygdala complex (BLC). However, actin is not a viable therapeutic target because of its numerous functions throughout the body. Here we report the discovery of a viable therapeutic target, nonmuscle myosin IIB (NMIIB), a molecular motor that supports memory by directly driving synaptic actin polymerization. A single intra-BLC treatment with Blebbistatin (Blebb), a small-molecule inhibitor of class II myosin isoforms, including NMIIB, produced a long-lasting disruption of context-induced drug seeking (at least 30 days). Further, postconsolidation genetic knockdown of Myh10, the heavy chain of the most highly expressed NMII in the BLC, was sufficient to produce METH-associated memory loss. Blebb was found to be highly brain penetrant. A single systemic injection of the compound selectively disrupted the storage of METH-associated memory and reversed the accompanying increase in BLC spine density. This effect was specific to METH-associated memory, as it had no effect on an auditory fear memory. The effect was also independent of retrieval, as METH-associated memory was disrupted 24 h after a single systemic injection of Blebb delivered in the home cage. Together, these results argue for the further development of small-molecule inhibitors of NMII as potential therapeutics for the prevention of SUD relapse triggered by drug associations. PMID:26239291

  1. BMP signaling mediated by constitutively active Activin type 1 receptor (ACVR1) results in ectopic bone formation localized to distal extremity joints

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shailesh; Loder, Shawn J.; Brownley, Cameron; Eboda, Oluwatobi; Peterson, Jonathan; Hayano, Satoru; Wu, Bingrou; Zhao, Bin; Kaartinen, Vesa; Wong, Victor C.; Mishina, Yuji; Levi, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    BMP signaling mediated by ACVR1 plays a critical role for development of multiple structures including the cardiovascular and skeletal systems. While deficient ACVR1 signaling impairs normal embryonic development, hyperactive ACVR1 function (R206H in humans and Q207D mutation in mice, ca-ACVR1) results in formation of heterotopic ossification (HO). We developed a mouse line, which conditionally expresses ca-ACVR1 with Nfatc1-Cre+ transgene. Mutant mice developed ectopic cartilage and bone at the distal joints of the extremities including the interphalangeal joints and hind limb ankles as early as P4 in the absence of trauma or exogenous bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) administration. Micro-CT showed that even at later time points (up to P40), cartilage and bone development persisted at the affected joints most prominently in the ankle. Interestingly, this phenotype was not present in areas of bone outside of the joints – tibia are normal in mutants and littermate controls away from the ankle. These findings demonstrate that this model may allow for further studies of heterotopic ossification, which does not require the use of stem cells, direct trauma or activation with exogenous Cre gene administration. PMID:25722188

  2. Regulation of an antisense RNA with the transition of neonatal to IIb myosin heavy chain during postnatal development and hypothyroidism in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Pandorf, Clay E; Jiang, Weihua; Qin, Anqi X; Bodell, Paul W; Baldwin, Kenneth M; Haddad, Fadia

    2012-04-01

    Postnatal development of fast skeletal muscle is characterized by a transition in expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms, from primarily neonatal MHC at birth to primarily IIb MHC in adults, in a tightly coordinated manner. These isoforms are encoded by distinct genes, which are separated by ∼17 kb on rat chromosome 10. The neonatal-to-IIb MHC transition is inhibited by a hypothyroid state. We examined RNA products [mRNA, pre-mRNA, and natural antisense transcript (NAT)] of developmental and adult-expressed MHC genes (embryonic, neonatal, I, IIa, IIx, and IIb) at 2, 10, 20, and 40 days after birth in normal and thyroid-deficient rat neonates treated with propylthiouracil. We found that a long noncoding antisense-oriented RNA transcript, termed bII NAT, is transcribed from a site within the IIb-Neo intergenic region and across most of the IIb MHC gene. NATs have previously been shown to mediate transcriptional repression of sense-oriented counterparts. The bII NAT is transcriptionally regulated during postnatal development and in response to hypothyroidism. Evidence for a regulatory mechanism is suggested by an inverse relationship between IIb MHC and bII NAT in normal and hypothyroid-treated muscle. Neonatal MHC transcription is coordinately expressed with bII NAT. A comparative phylogenetic analysis also suggests that bII NAT-mediated regulation has been a conserved trait of placental mammals for most of the eutherian evolutionary history. The evidence in support of the regulatory model implicates long noncoding antisense RNA as a mechanism to coordinate the transition between neonatal and IIb MHC during postnatal development. PMID:22262309

  3. Distinct Roles for the α, β and γ1 isoforms of Protein Phosphatase 1 in the Outside-in αIIbβ3 Integrin Signaling Dependent Functions

    PubMed Central

    Alrehani, Nawaf; Pradhan, Subhashree; Khatlani, Tanvir; Kailasam, Lavanya; Vijayan, K. Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Although protein kinases and phosphatases participate in integrin αIIbβ3 signaling, whether integrin functions are regulated by the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1c) isoforms are unclear. We show that siRNA mediated knockdown of all PP1c isoforms (α, β and γ1) in 293 αIIbβ3 cells decreased adhesion to immobilized fibrinogen and fibrin clot retraction. Selective knockdown of only PP1cγ1 did not alter adhesion or clot retraction, while depletion of PP1cβ decreased both functions. Unexpectedly, knockdown of PP1cα enhanced αIIbβ3 adhesion to fibrinogen and clot retraction. Protein interaction studies revealed that all PP1c isoforms can interact with the integrin αIIb subunit. Phosphoprofiling studies revealed an enhanced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 in the PP1cα depleted cells. Enhanced adhesive phenotype displayed by the PP1cα depleted 293 αIIbβ3 cells was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of p38. Conversely, the decreased adhesion of PP1cα overexpressing cells was rescued by the expression of constitutively active p38α or p38γ. Thus, PP1c isoforms have distinct contribution to the outside-in αIIbβ3 signaling-dependent functions in 293 αIIbβ3 cells. Moreover, PP1cα negatively regulates integrin function by suppressing the p38 pathway. PMID:23197154

  4. Novel Ex Vivo Culture Method for the Study of Dupuytren's Disease: Effects of TGFβ Type 1 Receptor Modulation by Antisense Oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Karkampouna, Sofia; Kruithof, Boudewijn PT; Kloen, Peter; Obdeijn, Miryam C; van der Laan, Annelies MA; Tanke, Hans J; Kemaladewi, Dwi U; Hoogaars, Willem MH; ‘t Hoen, Peter AC; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Clark, Ian M; ten Dijke, Peter; Goumans, Marie-José; Kruithof-de Julio, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    Dupuytren's disease (DD) is a benign fibroproliferative disease of the hand. It is characterized by the excessive production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, which form a strong fibrous tissue between the handpalm and fingers, permanently disrupting the fine movement ability. The major contractile element in DD is the myofibroblast (MFB). This cell has both fibroblast and smooth muscle cell-type characteristics and causes pathological collagen deposition. MFBs generate contractile forces that are transmitted to the surrounding collagen matrix. Μajor profibrotic factors are members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) pathway which directly regulate the expression levels of several fibrous proteins such as collagen type 1, type 3, and α-smooth muscle actin. Molecular modulation of this signaling pathway could serve as a therapeutic approach. We, therefore, have developed an ex vivo “clinical trial” system to study the properties of intact, patient-derived resection specimens. In these culture conditions, Dupuytren's tissue retains its three-dimensional (3D) structure and viability. As a novel antifibrotic therapeutic approach, we targeted TGFβ type 1 receptor (also termed activin receptor-like kinase 5) expression in cultured Dupuytren's specimens by antisense oligonucleotide-mediated exon skipping. Antisense oligonucleotides targeting activin receptor-like kinase 5 showed specific reduction of ECM and potential for clinical application. PMID:24448195

  5. Molecular cloning, expression pattern, and 3D structural analysis of the MHC class IIB gene in the Chinese longsnout catfish (Leiocassis longirostris).

    PubMed

    Shen, Tong; Xu, Shixia; Yang, Mei; Pang, Shuying; Yang, Guang

    2011-05-15

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules encode glycoproteins which mediate the specificity of the vertebrate adaptive immune response. In this study, MHC class IIB gene from the Chinese longsnout catfish (Leiocassis longirostris) was cloned and sequenced, which encoded a predicted protein of 248 amino acids (28.06 kDa) containing a signal peptide, a beta 1 domain, a beta 2 domain, a connecting peptide, a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic tail. Using PCR with primers designed from known fish MHC class IIB sequences followed by elongation of the 5' and 3' ends using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), the full-length cDNA of longsnout catfish MHC class IIB was identified to be 1293 bp, consisting of a 26 bp 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR), a 520 bp 3'-UTR, and a 747 bp open reading frame (ORF) bearing characteristics of the immunoglobulin C-type 1 (IGc1) family. The deduced amino acid sequences of the Chinese longsnout catfish MHC class IIB gene had 58-75% identity with those of other fishes. Six class IIB alleles were identified from five individuals. At most two different alleles observed in each individual may infer the existence of a single locus of class IIB gene in the Chinese longsnout catfish genome. An extensive study of polymorphism was examined in 60 individuals. A total of 11 haplotypes of exon 2 were detected in the sampled Chinese longsnout catfish. The rates of nonsynonymous substitutions (d(N)) occurred at a higher frequency than that of synonymous substitutions (d(S)), suggesting the polymorphism of exon 2 seemed to be maintained by the balancing selection. By using long PCR technique, the genomic sequence was further identified to be 2345 bp in length, which contained six exons and five introns. Interestingly, a 98 bp intron 5 cut the 3'-UTR into two parts. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated high expression of MHC IIB in gills, spleen, head kidney, and intestine, moderate expression in liver and

  6. An Assay of Measuring Platelet Reactivity Using Monoclonal Antibody against Activated Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in Patients Taking Clopidogrel

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joon-Hyouk; Kim, Song-Yi; Kim, Ki-Seok; Kim, Young Ree; Kang, Sung Ha

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Residual platelet reactivity in patients who are taking clopidogrel is commonly measured with VerifyNow assay, which is based on the principle of light transmission aggregometry. However, to evaluate the residual platelet reactivity, it would be more accurate if the reactivity of platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa is directly monitored. In this study, PAC1, a monoclonal antibody against activated platelet GP IIb/IIIa, was used to measure the residual platelet reactivity. Subjects and Methods Twenty seven patients with coronary artery disease taking clopidogrel were enrolled. Platelets in whole blood were stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated PAC1. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) and % positive platelets (PP) were measured with flow cytometry, and the binding index (BI; MFI × %PP/100) was calculated. P2Y12 reaction unit (PRU) and % inhibition of VerifyNow assay were also measured in the usual manner. Results PRU of VerifyNow assay correlated significantly with MFI, %PP, and BI at 10 µM (r=0.59, 0.73, and 0.60, respectively, all p<0.005) and 20 µM of adenosine diphosphate (ADP; r=0.61, 0.75, and 0.63, respectively, all p<0.005). The % inhibition also correlated significantly with MFI, %PP, and BI at 10 µM (r=-0.60, -0.69, and -0.59, respectively, all p<0.005) and 20 µM of ADP (r=-0.63, -0.71, and -0.62, respectively, all p<0.005). Conclusion Direct measurements of the reactivity of platelet GP IIb/IIIa were feasible using PAC1 and flow cytometry in patients taking clopidogrel. Further clinical studies are required to determine the cut-off values which would define high residual platelet reactivity in patients on this treatment protocol. PMID:26413105

  7. Activin/nodal signaling and NANOG orchestrate human embryonic stem cell fate decisions by controlling the H3K4me3 chromatin mark.

    PubMed

    Bertero, Alessandro; Madrigal, Pedro; Galli, Antonella; Hubner, Nina C; Moreno, Inmaculada; Burks, Deborah; Brown, Stephanie; Pedersen, Roger A; Gaffney, Daniel; Mendjan, Sasha; Pauklin, Siim; Vallier, Ludovic

    2015-04-01

    Stem cells can self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types. These characteristics are maintained by the combination of specific signaling pathways and transcription factors that cooperate to establish a unique epigenetic state. Despite the broad interest of these mechanisms, the precise molecular controls by which extracellular signals organize epigenetic marks to confer multipotency remain to be uncovered. Here, we use human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to show that the Activin-SMAD2/3 signaling pathway cooperates with the core pluripotency factor NANOG to recruit the DPY30-COMPASS histone modifiers onto key developmental genes. Functional studies demonstrate the importance of these interactions for correct histone 3 Lys4 trimethylation and also self-renewal and differentiation. Finally, genetic studies in mice show that Dpy30 is also necessary to maintain pluripotency in the pregastrulation embryo, thereby confirming the existence of similar regulations in vivo during early embryonic development. Our results reveal the mechanisms by which extracellular factors coordinate chromatin status and cell fate decisions in hESCs. PMID:25805847

  8. Dual Inhibition of Activin/Nodal/TGF-β and BMP Signaling Pathways by SB431542 and Dorsomorphin Induces Neuronal Differentiation of Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Madhu, Vedavathi; Dighe, Abhijit S.; Cui, Quanjun; Deal, D. Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Damage to the nervous system can cause devastating diseases or musculoskeletal dysfunctions and transplantation of progenitor stem cells can be an excellent treatment option in this regard. Preclinical studies demonstrate that untreated stem cells, unlike stem cells activated to differentiate into neuronal lineage, do not survive in the neuronal tissues. Conventional methods of inducing neuronal differentiation of stem cells are complex and expensive. We therefore sought to determine if a simple, one-step, and cost effective method, previously reported to induce neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem cells and induced-pluripotent stem cells, can be applied to adult stem cells. Indeed, dual inhibition of activin/nodal/TGF-β and BMP pathways using SB431542 and dorsomorphin, respectively, induced neuronal differentiation of human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) as evidenced by formation of neurite extensions, protein expression of neuron-specific gamma enolase, and mRNA expression of neuron-specific transcription factors Sox1 and Pax6 and matured neuronal marker NF200. This process correlated with enhanced phosphorylation of p38, Erk1/2, PI3K, and Akt1/3. Additionally, in vitro subcutaneous implants of SB431542 and dorsomorphin treated hADSCs displayed significantly higher expression of active-axonal-growth-specific marker GAP43. Our data offers novel insights into cell-based therapies for the nervous system repair. PMID:26798350

  9. Expression and distribution of forkhead activin signal transducer 2 (FAST2) during follicle development in mouse ovaries and pre-implantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guiping; Liu, Linlin; Guo, Shujuan; Zhang, Cong

    2016-07-01

    Xenopus forkhead activin signal transducer 1 (xFAST 1) was first characterized in Xenopus as the transcriptional partner for Smad proteins. FAST2, which is the xFAST 1 homologues in mouse, is expressed during early developmental stages of the organism. However, the function of FAST2 in mouse ovaries and pre-implantation embryos is unclear. Therefore, we investigated its expression during these processes. In postnatal mice, FAST2 was expressed in oocytes and thecal cells from postnatal day (PD) 1 to PD 21. In gonadotropin-induced immature mice, FAST2 was expressed in oocytes, thecal cells and newly formed corpora lutea (CLs), but was expressed at a lower level in degenerated CLs. Similar results were observed upon western blot analyses. In meloxicam-treated immature mice, ovulation was inhibited and FAST2 was expressed in thecal cells, luteinized granulosa cells and entrapped oocytes. Immunofluorescence results showed that FAST2 was expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus but not the nucleolus from the zygote to 8-cell embryo stage, after which it was localized to the cytoplasm of the morulae and inner cell mass of the blastocysts. Taken together, these observations suggest that FAST2 is expressed in a cell-specific manner during ovarian follicle development, ovulation, luteinization and early embryonic development, and that FAST2 might play important roles in these physiological processes. PMID:27432806

  10. Activin Upregulation by NF-κB is Required to Maintain Mesenchymal Features of Cancer Stem-like Cells in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wamsley, J. Jacob; Kumar, Manish; Allison, David F.; Clift, Sheena H.; Holzknecht, Caitlyn M.; Szymura, Szymon J.; Hoang, Stephen A.; Xu, Xiaojiang; Moskaluk, Christopher A.; Jones, David R.; Bekiranov, Stefan; Mayo, Marty W.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble growth factors and cytokines within the tumor microenvironment aid in the induction of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Although EMT promotes the development of cancer-initiating cells (CICs), cellular mechanisms by which cancer cells maintain mesenchymal phenotypes remain poorly understood. Work presented here indicates that induction of EMT stimulates non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to secrete soluble factors that function in an autocrine fashion. Using gene expression profiling of all annotated and predicted secreted gene products, we find that NF-κB activity is required to upregulate INHBA/Activin, a morphogen in the TGFβ superfamily. INHBA is capable of inducing and maintaining mesenchymal phenotypes, including the expression of EMT master-switch regulators and self-renewal factors that sustain CIC phenotypes and promote lung metastasis. Our work demonstrates that INHBA mRNA and protein expression is commonly elevated in primary human NSCLC and provide evidence that INHBA is a critical autocrine factor that maintains mesenchymal properties of CICs to promote metastasis in NSCLC. PMID:25432175

  11. Preference for a vanishingly small cosmological constant in supersymmetric vacua in a Type IIB string theory model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumitomo, Yoske; Tye, S.-H. Henry

    2013-06-01

    We study the probability distribution P (Λ) of the cosmological constant Λ in a specific set of KKLT type models of supersymmetric IIB vacua. We show that, as we sweep through the quantized flux values in this flux compactification, P (Λ) behaves divergent at Λ =0- and the median magnitude of Λ drops exponentially as the number of complex structure moduli h 2, 1 increases. Also, owing to the hierarchical and approximate no-scale structure, the probability of having a positive Hessian (mass-squared matrix) approaches unity as h 2, 1 increases.

  12. Transforming Growth Factor {beta} Can Stimulate Smad1 Phosphorylation Independently of Bone Morphogenic Protein Receptors.

    PubMed

    Wrighton, Katharine H; Lin, Xia; Yu, Paul B; Feng, Xin-Hua

    2009-04-10

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) superfamily ligands control a diverse set of cellular processes by activating type I and type II serine-threonine receptor kinases. Canonical TGFbeta signaling is mediated via the TbetaRI/ALK5 type I receptor that phosphorylates Smad2 and Smad3 in their SXS motif to facilitate their activation and subsequent role in transcriptional regulation. Canonical bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling is mediated via the ALK1/2/3/6 type I receptors that phosphorylate Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8 in their SXS motif. However, studies in endothelial cells have shown that TGFbeta can also lead to the phosphorylation of Smad1, dependent on ALK1 receptor activity. Here we present data showing that TGFbeta can significantly induce Smad1 phosphorylation in several non-endothelial cell lineages. Additionally, by using chemical inhibitors specific for the TGFbeta/activin/nodal (ALK4/5/7) and BMP (ALK1/2/3/6) type I receptors, we show that in some cell types TGFbeta induces Smad1 phosphorylation independently of the BMP type I receptors. Thus, TGFbeta-mediated Smad1 phosphorylation appears to occur via different receptor complexes in a cell type-specific manner. PMID:19224917

  13. Incidence of post myocardial infarction left ventricular thrombus formation in the era of primary percutaneous intervention and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. A prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Rehan, Arshad; Kanwar, Manpreet; Rosman, Howard; Ahmed, Sujood; Ali, Arshad; Gardin, Julius; Cohen, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    Background Before the widespread use of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GP IIb/IIIa) left ventricular (LV) thrombus formation had been reported to complicate up to 20% of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI). The incidence of LV thrombus formation with these treatment modalities is not well known. Methods 92 consecutive patients with ST-elevation AMI treated with PCI and GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors underwent 2-D echocardiograms, with and without echo contrast agent, within 24–72 hours. Results Only 4/92 (4.3%) had an LV thrombus, representing a significantly lower incidence than that reported in the pre-PCI era. Use of contrast agents did not improve detection of LV thrombi in our study. Conclusion The incidence of LV thrombus formation after acute MI, in the current era of rapid reperfusion, is lower than what has been historically reported. PMID:16600036

  14. Evaluation of heat-labile enterotoxins type IIa and type IIb in the pathogenicity of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli for neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Casey, Thomas A; Connell, Terry D; Holmes, Randall K; Whipp, Shannon C

    2012-09-14

    Type II heat-labile enterotoxins (LT-II) have been reported in Escherichia coli isolates from humans, animals, food and water samples. The goal here was to determine the specific roles of the antigenically distinguishable LT-IIa and LT-IIb subtypes in pathogenesis and virulence of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) which has not been previously reported. The prevalence of genes encoding for LT-II was determined by colony blot hybridization in a collection of 1648 E. coli isolates from calves and pigs with diarrhea or other diseases and from healthy animals. Only five isolates hybridized with the LT-II probe and none of these isolates contained genes for other enterotoxins or adhesins associated with porcine or bovine ETEC. Ligated intestinal loops in calves, pigs, and rabbits were used to determine the potential of purified LT-IIa and LT-IIb to cause intestinal secretion. LT-IIa and LT-IIb caused significant secretion in the intestinal loops in calves but not in the intestinal loops of rabbits or pigs. In contrast, neonatal pigs inoculated with isogenic adherent E. coli containing the cloned genes for LT-I, LT-IIa or LT-IIb developed severe watery diarrhea with weight loss that was significantly greater than pigs inoculated with the adherent, non-toxigenic parental or vector only control strains. The results demonstrate that the incidence of LT-II appeared to be very low in porcine and bovine E. coli. However, a potential role for these enterotoxins in E. coli-mediated diarrhea in animals was confirmed because purified LT-IIa and LT-IIb caused fluid secretion in bovine intestinal loops and adherent isogenic strains containing cloned genes encoding for LT-IIa or LT-IIb caused severe diarrhea in neonatal pigs. PMID:22480773

  15. Cost-effectiveness of radical hysterectomy with adjuvant radiotherapy versus radical radiotherapy for FIGO stage IIB cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Yanlan; Wang, Juan; Wang, Tao; Shi, Fan; Wang, Jiquan; Su, Jin; Yang, Yunyi; Zhou, Xi; Ma, Hailin; He, Bin; Liu, Zi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recent literature reports that radical hysterectomy followed by adjuvant radiotherapy has comparable progression-free survival and overall survival compared to radical radiotherapy for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB cervical cancer. Now, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness (CE) of these two treatment regimens. Primary and secondary outcome measures A decision-tree model was constructed comparing CE between treatment arms using the published studies for overall survival rates and treatment-related toxicity rates for 5 years. The cost data were obtained from the hospital system of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University. Effectiveness was measured as quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Treatment arms were compared with regard to costs and life expectancy using incremental CE ratio, and the results were presented using costs per QALY. Results The mean cost was $10,872 for radical hysterectomy followed by adjuvant radiotherapy versus $5,702 for radical radiotherapy. The incremental CE ratio for surgery-based treatment compared to radiotherapy-based treatment was –$76,453 per QALY. Conclusion Radical radiotherapy would be a cost-effective method for FIGO stage IIB cervical cancer and would be favored in settings where resources are limited. PMID:26855584

  16. Isolated flexor digitorum profundus tendon injuries in zones IIA and IIB repaired with figure of eight sutures.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, M M

    2011-02-01

    The 'figure of eight' suture technique for flexor tendon repair is known to be simple and strong but it has the major disadvantage of being bulky, with the knots outside the repair site. When the superficialis tendon is intact it may cause impingement and/or increase the work of flexion with postoperative mobilization and it is not known whether this bulky repair is suitable for isolated profundus injuries in zone II. A series of 36 patients (36 fingers) with clean-cut isolated flexor digitorum profundus tendon injuries in zones IIA/IIB were reviewed retrospectively. Repairs were done with three 'figure of eight' sutures and the pulleys proximal to the tendon laceration level were vented. Postoperatively, early active exercises were carried out. There were no ruptures. At a mean final follow-up of 6 months, the outcome (in range of motion) was excellent in 27 fingers and good in the remaining nine fingers by the Strickland criteria. It was concluded that the bulky 'figure of eight' technique can be used in isolated profundus tendon injuries in zones IIA/IIB. PMID:21045020

  17. HCV IRES domain IIb affects the configuration of coding RNA in the 40S subunit's decoding groove.

    PubMed

    Filbin, Megan E; Kieft, Jeffrey S

    2011-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) uses a structured internal ribosome entry site (IRES) RNA to recruit the translation machinery to the viral RNA and begin protein synthesis without the ribosomal scanning process required for canonical translation initiation. Different IRES structural domains are used in this process, which begins with direct binding of the 40S ribosomal subunit to the IRES RNA and involves specific manipulation of the translational machinery. We have found that upon initial 40S subunit binding, the stem-loop domain of the IRES that contains the start codon unwinds and adopts a stable configuration within the subunit's decoding groove. This configuration depends on the sequence and structure of a different stem-loop domain (domain IIb) located far from the start codon in sequence, but spatially proximal in the IRES•40S complex. Mutation of domain IIb results in misconfiguration of the HCV RNA in the decoding groove that includes changes in the placement of the AUG start codon, and a substantial decrease in the ability of the IRES to initiate translation. Our results show that two distal regions of the IRES are structurally communicating at the initial step of 40S subunit binding and suggest that this is an important step in driving protein synthesis. PMID:21606179

  18. Immunodiagnosis of platelet activation in immune thrombocytopenia through scFv antibodies cognate to activated IIb3 integrins

    PubMed Central

    Bhoria, Preeti; Varma, Neelam; Malhotra, Pankaj; Varma, Subhash; Luthra-Guptasarma, Manni

    2015-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune bleeding disorder characterized by low platelet count and presence of IgG autoantibodies to platelet surface glycoproteins, such as αIIbβ3 and GPIb/IX. Our previous work has shown that platelets in ITP patients exist in an activated state. Two different marker-based approaches are used to study the course of platelet activation: (1) binding of PAC-1 antibody, signifying a change in αIIbβ3 conformation, and (2) expression of P-selectin, signifying alpha granule content release from platelets. Here, we describe the development of a new scFv antibody (R38) that, compared with PAC-1, appears to better distinguish between platelets of ITP patients and healthy controls. Notably, R38 was generated using commercially sourced resting-state integrin that was coated on a microtiter plate. Its ability to distinguish between ITP patients and healthy controls thus suggests that inadvertent integrin activation caused by coating involves a conformational change and exposure of a cryptic epitope. This report also describes for the first time the potential use of an scFv antibody in the immunodiagnosis of platelet activation in ITP patients. PMID:26301697

  19. TATA-binding protein and transcription factor IIB induce transcript slipping during early transcription by RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Benjamin; Drullinger, Linda F; Kugel, Jennifer F; Goodrich, James A

    2009-04-01

    To better understand the mechanism of steps in early transcription by RNA polymerase II (pol II), we investigated the molecular determinants of transcript slipping within complexes assembled on promoters containing a pre-melted transcription bubble from -9 to +3. Transcript slippage occurs when an RNA transcript contains a repetitive sequence that allows the transcript to slip back and pair with the template strand of the DNA at a new register before transcription continues. We established the contributions of individual transcription factors, DNA elements, and RNA length to slipping on a heteroduplex template using a highly purified human pol II transcription system. We found that transcripts slip at a very defined point in the transcription reaction, after pol II completes phosphodiester bond synthesis at register +5. This point is set by the position of the polymerase active site on the DNA template, as opposed to the length of the transcript, as well as by a repetitive CUCU sequence that must occur from +2 to +5. Interestingly, slipping at this juncture is induced by TATA-binding protein and transcription factor IIB and requires a TATA box but not a transcription factor IIB recognition sequence. We propose a model in which transcribing complexes, upon completing phosphodiester bond synthesis at register +5, enter one of two branches in which they either complete productive synthesis of the transcript or undergo multiple rounds of transcript slipping. PMID:19193635

  20. Supernova 2010as: the lowest-velocity member of a family of flat-velocity type IIb supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Folatelli, Gastón; Bersten, Melina C.; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Hamuy, Mario; Olivares Estay, Felipe; Pignata, Giuliano; Anderson, Joseph P.; Holmbo, Simon; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Maeda, Keiichi; Morrell, Nidia; Contreras, Carlos; Phillips, Mark M.; Förster, Francisco; Prieto, José Luis; Valenti, Stefano; Afonso, Paulo; Altenmüller, Konrad; Elliott, Jonny; and others

    2014-09-01

    We present extensive optical and near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic observations of the stripped-envelope supernova SN 2010as. Spectroscopic peculiarities such as initially weak helium features and low expansion velocities with a nearly flat evolution place this object in the small family of events previously identified as transitional Type Ib/c supernovae (SNe). There is ubiquitous evidence of hydrogen, albeit weak, in this family of SNe, indicating that they are in fact a peculiar kind of Type IIb SNe that we name 'flat-velocity' Type IIb. The flat-velocity evolution—which occurs at different levels between 6000 and 8000 km s{sup –1} for different SNe—suggests the presence of a dense shell in the ejecta. Despite the spectroscopic similarities, these objects show surprisingly diverse luminosities. We discuss the possible physical or geometrical unification picture for such diversity. Using archival Hubble Space Telescope images, we associate SN 2010as with a massive cluster and derive a progenitor age of ≈6 Myr, assuming a single star-formation burst, which is compatible with a Wolf-Rayet progenitor. Our hydrodynamical modeling, on the contrary, indicates that the pre-explosion mass was relatively low, ≈4 M {sub ☉}. The seeming contradiction between a young age and low pre-SN mass may be solved by a massive interacting binary progenitor.

  1. Biosynthetic uniform 13C,15N-labelling of zervamicin IIB. Complete 13C and 15N NMR assignment.

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikova, Tatyana V; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Yakimenko, Zoya A; Svishcheva, Natalia V; Tagaev, Andrey A; Skladnev, Dmitry A; Arseniev, Alexander S

    2003-01-01

    Zervamicin IIB is a member of the alpha-aminoisobutyric acid containing peptaibol antibiotics. A new procedure for the biosynthetic preparation of the uniformly 13C- and 15N-enriched peptaibol is described This compound was isolated from the biomass of the fungus-producer Emericellopsis salmosynnemata strain 336 IMI 58330 obtained upon cultivation in the totally 13C, 15N-labelled complete medium. To prepare such a medium the autolysed biomass and the exopolysaccharides of the obligate methylotrophic bacterium Methylobacillus flagellatus KT were used. This microorganism was grown in totally 13C, 15N-labelled minimal medium containing 13C-methanol and 15N-ammonium chloride as the only carbon and nitrogen sources. Preliminary NMR spectroscopic analysis indicated a high extent of isotope incorporation (> 90%) and led to the complete 13C- and 15N-NMR assignment including the stereospecific assignment of Aib residues methyl groups. The observed pattern of the structurally important secondary chemical shifts of 1H(alpha), 13C=O and 13C(alpha) agrees well with the previously determined structure of zervamicin IIB in methanol solution. PMID:14658801

  2. Type IIb supernova SN 2011dh: Spectra and photometry from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, G. H.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Foley, Ryan J.; Berlind, Perry; Bieryla, Allyson; Calkins, Michael L.; Challis, Peter; Chornock, Ryan; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Falco, Emilio E.; Friedman, Andrew S.; Vinko, Jozsef; Bloom, Joshua S.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Culliton, Chris; Curtis, Jason L.; Everett, Mark E.; France, Kevin; Fransson, Claes; Garnavich, Peter; and others

    2014-02-01

    We report spectroscopic and photometric observations of the Type IIb SN 2011dh obtained between 4 and 34 days after the estimated date of explosion (May 31.5 UT). The data cover a wide wavelength range from 2000 Å in the ultraviolet (UV) to 2.4 μm in the near-infrared (NIR). Optical spectra provide line profiles and velocity measurements of H I, He I, Ca II, and Fe II that trace the composition and kinematics of the supernova (SN). NIR spectra show that helium is present in the atmosphere as early as 11 days after the explosion. A UV spectrum obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph reveals that the UV flux for SN 2011dh is low compared to other SN IIb. Modeling the spectrum with SYNOW suggests that the UV deficit is due to line blanketing from Ti II and Co II. The H I and He I velocities in SN 2011dh are separated by about 4000 km s{sup –1} at all phases. A velocity gap is consistent with models for a preexplosion structure in which a hydrogen-rich shell surrounds the progenitor. We estimate that the H shell of SN 2011dh is ≈8 times less massive than the shell of SN 1993J and ≈3 times more massive than the shell of SN 2008ax. Light curves (LCs) for 12 passbands are presented: UVW2, UVM2, UVW1, U, u', B, V, r', i', J, H, and K{sub s} . In the B band, SN 2011dh reached peak brightness of 13.17 mag at 20.0 ± 0.5 after the explosion. The maximum bolometric luminosity of 1.8 ± 0.2 × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1} occurred ≈22 days after the explosion. NIR emission provides more than 30% of the total bolometric flux at the beginning of our observations, and the NIR contribution increases to nearly 50% of the total by day 34. The UV produces 16% of the total flux on day 4, 5% on day 9, and 1% on day 34. We compare the bolometric LCs of SN 2011dh, SN 2008ax, and SN 1993J. The LC are very different for the first 12 days after the explosions, but all three SN IIb display similar peak luminosities, times of peak, decline rates, and colors after maximum

  3. Type IIb Supernova SN 2011dh: Spectra and Photometry from the Ultraviolet to the Near-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, G. H.; Vinko, Jozsef; Kirshner, Robert P.; Foley, Ryan J.; Berlind, Perry; Bieryla, Allyson; Bloom, Joshua S.; Calkins, Michael L.; Challis, Peter; Chevalier, Roger A.; Chornock, Ryan; Culliton, Chris; Curtis, Jason L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Everett, Mark E.; Falco, Emilio E.; France, Kevin; Fransson, Claes; Friedman, Andrew S.; Garnavich, Peter; Leibundgut, Bruno; Meyer, Samuel; Smith, Nathan; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Sollerman, Jesper; Starr, Dan L.; Szklenar, Tamas; Takats, Katalin; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2014-02-01

    We report spectroscopic and photometric observations of the Type IIb SN 2011dh obtained between 4 and 34 days after the estimated date of explosion (May 31.5 UT). The data cover a wide wavelength range from 2000 Å in the ultraviolet (UV) to 2.4 μm in the near-infrared (NIR). Optical spectra provide line profiles and velocity measurements of H I, He I, Ca II, and Fe II that trace the composition and kinematics of the supernova (SN). NIR spectra show that helium is present in the atmosphere as early as 11 days after the explosion. A UV spectrum obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph reveals that the UV flux for SN 2011dh is low compared to other SN IIb. Modeling the spectrum with SYNOW suggests that the UV deficit is due to line blanketing from Ti II and Co II. The H I and He I velocities in SN 2011dh are separated by about 4000 km s-1 at all phases. A velocity gap is consistent with models for a preexplosion structure in which a hydrogen-rich shell surrounds the progenitor. We estimate that the H shell of SN 2011dh is ≈8 times less massive than the shell of SN 1993J and ≈3 times more massive than the shell of SN 2008ax. Light curves (LCs) for 12 passbands are presented: UVW2, UVM2, UVW1, U, u', B, V, r', i', J, H, and Ks . In the B band, SN 2011dh reached peak brightness of 13.17 mag at 20.0 ± 0.5 after the explosion. The maximum bolometric luminosity of 1.8 ± 0.2 × 1042 erg s-1 occurred ≈22 days after the explosion. NIR emission provides more than 30% of the total bolometric flux at the beginning of our observations, and the NIR contribution increases to nearly 50% of the total by day 34. The UV produces 16% of the total flux on day 4, 5% on day 9, and 1% on day 34. We compare the bolometric LCs of SN 2011dh, SN 2008ax, and SN 1993J. The LC are very different for the first 12 days after the explosions, but all three SN IIb display similar peak luminosities, times of peak, decline rates, and colors after maximum. This suggests that the

  4. Characterization and cloning of a receptor for BMP-2 and BMP-4 from NIH 3T3 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, B B; Cook, J S; Wolsing, D H; Ting, J; Tiesman, J P; Correa, P E; Olson, C A; Pecquet, A L; Ventura, F; Grant, R A

    1994-01-01

    The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a group of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)-related factors whose only receptor identified to date is the product of the daf-4 gene from Caenorhabditis elegans. Mouse embryonic NIH 3T3 fibroblasts display high-affinity 125I-BMP-4 binding sites. Binding assays are not possible with the isoform 125I-BMP-2 unless the positively charged N-terminal sequence is removed to create a modified BMP-2, 125I-DR-BMP-2. Cross-competition experiments reveal that BMP-2 and BMP-4 interact with the same binding sites. Affinity cross-linking assays show that both BMPs interact with cell surface proteins corresponding in size to the type I (57- to 62-kDa) and type II (75- to 82-kDa) receptor components for TGF-beta and activin. Using a PCR approach, we have cloned a cDNA from NIH 3T3 cells which encodes a novel member of the transmembrane serine/threonine kinase family most closely resembling the cloned type I receptors for TGF-beta and activin. Transient expression of this receptor in COS-7 cells leads to an increase in specific 125I-BMP-4 binding and the appearance of a major affinity-labeled product of approximately 64 kDa that can be labeled by either tracer. This receptor has been named BRK-1 in recognition of its ability to bind BMP-2 and BMP-4 and its receptor kinase structure. Although BRK-1 does not require cotransfection of a type II receptor in order to bind ligand in COS cells, complex formation between BRK-1 and the BMP type II receptor DAF-4 can be demonstrated when the two receptors are coexpressed, affinity labeled, and immunoprecipitated with antibodies to either receptor subunit. We conclude that BRK-1 is a putative BMP type I receptor capable of interacting with a known type II receptor for BMPs. Images PMID:8065329

  5. The Type IIb SN 2011dh: Two years of observations and modelling of the lightcurves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergon, M.; Jerkstrand, A.; Sollerman, J.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Fransson, C.; Fraser, M.; Pastorello, A.; Kotak, R.; Taubenberger, S.; Tomasella, L.; Valenti, S.; Benetti, S.; Helou, G.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Maund, J.; Smartt, S. J.; Spyromilio, J.

    2015-08-01

    We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry and spectroscopy as well as modelling of the lightcurves of the Type IIb supernova (SN) 2011dh. Our extensive dataset, for which we present the observations obtained after day 100, spans two years, and complemented with Spitzer mid-infrared (MIR) data, we use it to build an optical-to-MIR bolometric lightcurve between days 3 and 732. To model the bolometric lightcurve before day 400 we use a grid of hydrodynamical SN models, which allows us to determine the errors in the derived quantities, and a bolometric correction determined with steady-state non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) modelling. Using this method we find a helium core mass of 3.1+0.7-0.4 M⊙ for SN 2011dh, consistent within error bars with previous results obtained using the bolometric lightcurve before day 80. We compute bolometric and broad-band lightcurves between days 100 and 500 from spectral steady-state NLTE models, presented and discussed in a companion paper. The preferred 12 M⊙ (initial mass) model, previously found to agree well with the observed spectra, shows a good overall agreement with the observed lightcurves, although some discrepancies exist. Time-dependent NLTE modelling shows that after day ~600 a steady-state assumption is no longer valid. The radioactive energy deposition in this phase is likely dominated by the positrons emitted in the decay of 56Co, but seems insufficient to reproduce the lightcurves, and what energy source is dominating the emitted flux is unclear. We find an excess in the K and the MIR bands developing between days 100 and 250, during which an increase in the optical decline rate is also observed. A local origin of the excess is suggested by the depth of the He i 20 581 Å absorption. Steady-state NLTE models with a modest dust opacity in the core (τ = 0.44), turned on during this period, reproduce the observed behaviour, but an additional excess in the Spitzer 4.5 μm band remains. Carbon

  6. The effects of a single intravenous injection of novel activin A/BMP-2 (AB204) on toxicity and the respiratory and central nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Byung-Hak; Lee, Jae Hyup; Na, Kyuheum; Ahn, Chihoon; Cho, Jongho; Ahn, Hyun Chan; Choi, Jungyoun; Oh, Hyosun; Kim, Byong Moon; Choe, Senyon

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a single intravenous injection of a novel osteoinductive material, activin A/BMP-2 (AB204), to rodents on toxicity and their respiratory functions and central nervous system (CNS). A single intravenous injection of AB204 was given to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in doses of 0, 0.625, 2.5 and 10 mg/kg to observe the mortality rate, the general symptoms for 14 days. The experimental groups were also given 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg of AB204, respectively, and the respiration rate, the tidal volume and the minute volume were measured for 240 min. The experimental groups of imprinting control region (ICR) mice were given a single intravenous injection of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg of AB204, respectively. Their body temperature was taken and general behaviors were observed to evaluate the effect of AB204 on the CNS for 240 min. The study on toxicity of a single intravenous injection found no death or abnormal symptoms, abnormal findings from autopsy, or abnormal body weight gain or loss in all the experimental groups. No abnormal variation associated with the test substance was observed in the respiration rate, the tidal volume, the minute volume, body temperature or the general behaviors. On the basis of these results, the approximate lethal dose of AB204 for a single intravenous injection exceeds 10 mg/kg for SD rats and a single intravenous injection of ≤0.8 mg/kg AB204 has no effect on their respiratory system for SD rat and no effect on their CNS for ICR mice. PMID:26446865

  7. Molecular interaction studies of hemostasis: fibrinogen ligand-human platelet receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Imshik; Marchant, Roger E

    2003-01-01

    The interactions between fibrinogen ligands and platelet receptor alpha(IIb)beta(3) were studied under physiological conditions by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Two linear peptide sequences in fibrinogen, RGD and HHLGGAKQAGDV, play central roles in the regulation of hemostasis and thrombosis by facilitating adhesion and aggregation of platelets. In order to measure the interactions (i.e., debonding force), oligopeptides, GSSSGaaa, where aaa is -RGDSPA or -HHLGGAKQAGDV, were synthesized and grafted on to the surface of AFM probe tips. The interaction forces between a peptide-modified AFM probe tip and platelet surface were determined from pN to nN levels using AFM force measurements. Our results show that the zero kinetic off-rate, K(off)(0), for RGDSPA is significantly smaller than that for HHLGGAKQAGDV, under the consideration of flexible receptor surfaces. From our analysis, the K(off)(0), the single molecular binding energy E(b), and the transition state x(b), were extracted from the data, and estimated to be 1.53s(-1), -2.64x10(-20)J and 1.03A for the RGD-alpha(IIb)beta(3) system, and 47.58s(-1), 2.67x10(-20), 1.09A for the HHLGGAKQAGDV-alpha(IIb)beta(3) system, respectively. PMID:12801687

  8. Interactions between integrin αIIbβ3 and the serotonin transporter regulate serotonin transport and platelet aggregation in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Ana Marin D.; Cook, Edwin H.; Murphy, Dennis L.; Blakely, Randy D.

    2008-01-01

    The essential contribution of the antidepressant-sensitive serotonin (5-HT) transporter SERT (which is encoded by the SLC6A4 gene) to platelet 5-HT stores suggests an important role of this transporter in platelet function. Here, using SERT-deficient mice, we have established a role for constitutive SERT expression in efficient ADP- and thrombin-triggered platelet aggregation. Additionally, using pharmacological blockers of SERT and the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), we have identified a role for ongoing 5-HT release and SERT activity in efficient human platelet aggregation. We have also demonstrated that fibrinogen, an activator of integrin αIIbβ3, enhances SERT activity in human platelets and that integrin αIIbβ3 interacts directly with the C terminus of SERT. Consistent with these findings, knockout mice lacking integrin β3 displayed diminished platelet SERT activity. Conversely, HEK293 cells engineered to express human SERT and an activated form of integrin β3 exhibited enhanced SERT function that coincided with elevated SERT surface expression. Our results support an unsuspected role of αIIbβ3/SERT associations as well as αIIbβ3 activation in control of SERT activity in vivo that may have broad implications for hyperserotonemia, cardiovascular disorders, and autism. PMID:18317590

  9. Evaluation of heat-labile enterotoxins type IIa and type IIb in the pathogenicity of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli for neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Type II heat-labile enterotoxins (LT-II) have been reported in Escherichia coli isolates from humans, animals, food and water samples. The roles of the antigenically distinguishable LT-IIa and LT-IIb subtypes in pathogenesis and virulence of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) have not been previously re...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22235 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines). (a) If methane reaches 1.0 percent in the... reaches 1.0 percent at a work place and there has been a failure of the main ventilation system,...

  11. 30 CFR 57.22235 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines). (a) If methane reaches 1.0 percent in the... reaches 1.0 percent at a work place and there has been a failure of the main ventilation system,...

  12. Allelic Analysis of the Maize amylose-extender Locus Suggests That Independent Genes Encode Starch-Branching Enzymes IIa and IIb.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, D. K.; Gao, M.; Kim, K. N.; Boyer, C. D.; Guiltinan, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    Starch branching enzymes (SBE) catalyze the formation of [alpha]-1,6-glucan linkages in the biosynthesis of starch. Three distinct SBE isoforms have been identified in maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm, SBEI, IIa, and IIb. Independent genes have been identified that encode maize SBEI and IIb; however, it has remained controversial as to whether SBEIIa and IIb result from posttranscriptional processes acting on the product of a single gene or whether they are encoded by separate genes. To investigate this question, we analyzed 16 isogenic lines carrying independent alleles of the maize amylose-extender (ae) locus, the structural gene for SBEIIb. We show that 22 d after pollination ae-B1 endosperm expressed little Sbe2b (ae)-hybridizing transcript, and as expected, ae-B1 endosperm also lacked detectable SBEIIb enzymatic activity. Significantly, we show that ae-B1 endosperm contained SBEIIa enzymatic activity, strongly supporting the hypothesis that endosperm SBEIIa and IIb are encoded by separate genes. Furthermore, we show that in addition to encoding the predominant Sbe2b-hybridizing message expressed in endosperm, the ae gene also encodes the major Sbe2b-like transcript expressed in developing embryos and tassels. PMID:12226207

  13. Clinical-pathologic study of stage IIB, III, and IVA carcinoma of the cervix: extended diagnostic evaluation for paraaortic node metastasis--a Gynecologic Oncology Group study.

    PubMed

    Heller, P B; Maletano, J H; Bundy, B N; Barnhill, D R; Okagaki, T

    1990-09-01

    Three hundred twenty patients were entered into GOG Protocol 63, a clinical-pathologic study of stage IIB, III, and IVA cervical carcinoma. Following the completion of FIGO staging prerequisites, patients had computerized tomography (CT), a lymph-angiogram (LAG), and an ultrasound (US) of the aortic area. If any study was positive, a cytologic or histologic evaluation by fine-needle aspiration or selective paraaortic lymphadenectomy was performed. Paraaortic node dissection was mandated for patients with negative extended staging studies. Results of extended staging evaluations were compared with histologic or cytologic results. Two hundred sixty-four patients were eligible and evaluable. One hundred sixty-seven patients (63%) were stage IIB, 89 (34%) were stage III, and 8 (3%) were stage IVA. Positive paraaortic nodes occurred in 21% of stage IIB, 31% of stage III, and 13% of stage IVA. LAG sensitivity was 79% with a specificity of 73%. Sensitivity of CT and US was 34 and 19%, respectively, with specificities of 96 and 99%, respectively. The frequency of false-negative results with LAG for patients with stage IIB disease was 6%. This decrease is consistent with a stable sensitivity and specificity. These findings suggest that a negative LAG may be adequate to eliminate surgical staging in subgroups with low risk of metastasis to the aortic nodes. Until new noninvasive testing methods are developed, LAG appears to be the most reliable noninvasive examination to evaluate spread of cervical cancer to aortic nodes. PMID:2227556

  14. Indoor air quality impacts of residential hvac systems phase II.B report: IAQ control retrofit simulations and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Emmerich, S.J.; Persily, A.K.

    1995-09-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) performed a preliminary study of the potential for using central forced-air heating and cooling system modifications to control indoor air quality (IAQ) in residential buildings. The objective of this effort was to provide insight into the use of state-of-the-art IAQ models to evaluate such modifications, the potential of these modifications to mitigate residential IAQ problems, the pollutant sources they are most likely to impact, and their potential limitations. This study was not intended to determine definitively whether the IAQ control options studied are reliable and cost-effective. The report summarizes the results on Phase II.B of this project, which consisted of three main efforts: computer simulations of contaminant levels with IAQ control retrofits, evaluation of the effectiveness of the IAQ control retrofits, and development of recommendations for future research.

  15. Thermal D-Brane Boundary States from Type Iib Green-Schwarz Superstring in pp-WAVE Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vancea, Ion V.

    We construct the thermal boundary states from the type IIB Green-Schwarz superstring in pp-wave background in the light-cone gauge. The superstring is treated in the canonical ensemble and in the TFD formalism which is appropriate to discuss canonically quantized systems. The thermal boundary states are obtained by thermalizing the total boundary states which are the boundary states of the total system that is composed by the superstring modes and the corresponding thermal reservoir modes. That analysis is similar to the one in the flat space-time case.67 However, there are some subtleties concerning the construction of the total string which are discussed. Next, we compute the entropy of thermal boundary state which is defined as the expectation value of the superstring entropy operator in the thermal boundary state.

  16. Levels and interactions of selenium with group IIB metals in mussels from Swansea Bay, South Wales, U. K

    SciTech Connect

    Micallef, S.; Tyler, P.A.

    1989-03-01

    Swansea Bay is an inlet located on the northern coastline of the Bristol Channel, U.K. Past and present urban and industrialized development has led to the direct or indirect input to the bay, the latter from rivers, of various industrial and domestic waste discharge containing appreciable amounts of metal effluents. This area also supports a small commercial fishery. In an aquatic dynamic system such as this, the fate of a single chemical is complicated by possible interaction with other elements. In this study the results of a survey of the Group IIB metals, zinc, cadmium and mercury in the mussel, Mytilus edulis, from the Swansea bay area are presented. In addition, selenium concentrations are reported since it has been reported that this micronutrient can exert an antagonistic effect on these metals. Correlations between the different elements are included.

  17. Bond-stretching and bond-bending force constant of binary tetrahedral (A IIIB V and A IIB VI) semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, A. S.

    2008-12-01

    In this Letter we present the two expressions relating the bond-stretching force constant ( α in N/m) and bond-bending force constant ( β in N/m) for the A IIIB V and A IIB VI semiconductors with the product of ionic charges ( ZZ) and nearest neighbor distance d (Å). Interatomic force constants of these compounds exhibit a linear relationship when plotted on a log-log scale against the nearest neighbor distance d (Å), but fall on different straight lines according to the ionic charge product of the compounds. A fairly good agreement has been found between the observed and calculated values of the α and β for binary tetrahedral semiconductors.

  18. Four Kähler moduli stabilisation in type IIB orientifolds with K3-fibred Calabi-Yau threefold compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüst, Dieter; Zhang, Xu

    2013-05-01

    We present a concrete and consistent procedure to generate one kind of nonperturbative superpotential, including the gaugino condensation corrections and polyinstanton corrections, in type IIB orientifold compactification with four Kähler Moduli. After tuning some parameters in superpotential, we can fix all of the four Kähler moduli on a general Calabi-Yau manifold with typical K3-fibred volume form, by using this kind of superpotential as well as the α'-corrections to Kähler potential. In our construction, the considered Calabi-Yau threefolds are K3-fibred and admit at least one del Pezzo surface and one W-surface. Searching through all existing four dimensional reflexive lattice polytopes, we find 23 of them fulfilling all the requirements.

  19. Conformally de Sitter space from anisotropic space-like D3-brane of type IIB string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Shibaji

    2014-05-01

    We construct a four-dimensional de Sitter space up to a conformal transformation by compactifying the anisotropic SD3-brane solution of type IIB string theory on a six-dimensional product space of the form H5×S1, where H5 is a five-dimensional hyperbolic space and S1 is a circle. The radius of the hyperbolic space is chosen to be constant. The radius of the circle and the dilaton in four dimensions are time dependent and not constant in general. By different choices of parameters characterizing the SD3-brane solution, either the dilaton or the radius of the circle can be made constant but not both. The form field is also nonvanishing in general, but it can be made to vanish without affecting the solution. This construction might be useful for a better understanding of dS/CFT correspondence as well as for cosmology.

  20. Secret symmetries of type IIB superstring theory on Ad{{S}_{3}} × {{S}^{3}} × {{M}^{4}}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittelli, Antonio; Torrielli, Alessandro; Wolf, Martin

    2014-11-01

    We establish features of so-called Yangian secret symmetries for AdS3 type IIB superstring backgrounds, thus verifying the persistence of such symmetries to this new instance of the AdS/CFT correspondence. Specifically, we find two a priori different classes of secret symmetry generators. One class of generators, anticipated from the previous literature, is more naturally embedded in the algebra governing the integrable scattering problem. The other class of generators is more elusive and somewhat closer in its form to its higher-dimensional AdS5 counterpart. All of these symmetries respect left-right crossing. In addition, by considering the interplay between left and right representations, we gain a new perspective on the AdS5 case. We also study the RTT-realisation of the Yangian in AdS3 backgrounds, thus establishing a new incarnation of the Beisert-de Leeuw construction.

  1. Progenitors of Type IIB Supernovae in the Light of Radio and X-Rays from SN 2013DF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamble, Atish; Margutti, Raffaella; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Chakraborti, Sayan; Fransson, Claes; Chevalier, Roger; Powell, Diana; Milisavljevic, Dan; Parrent, Jerod; Bietenholz, Michael

    2016-02-01

    We present radio and X-ray observations of the nearby SN IIb 2013df in NGC 4414 from 10 to 250 days after the explosion. The radio emission showed a peculiar steep-to-shallow spectral evolution. We present a model in which inverse Compton cooling of synchrotron emitting electrons can account for the observed spectral and light curve evolution. A significant mass-loss rate, \\dot{M}≈ 8× {10}-5 {M}⊙ yr-1 for a wind velocity of 10 km s-1, is estimated from the detailed modeling of radio and X-ray emission, which are primarily due to synchrotron and bremsstrahlung, respectively. We show that SN 2013df is similar to SN 1993J in various ways. The shock wave speed of SN 2013df was found to be average among the radio supernovae; {v}{sh}/c˜ 0.07. We did not find any significant deviation from smooth decline in the light curve of SN 2013df. One of the main results of our self-consistent multiband modeling is the significant deviation from energy equipartition between magnetic fields and relativistic electrons behind the shock. We estimate {ɛ }e=200{ɛ }B. In general for SNe IIb, we find that the presence of bright optical cooling envelope emission is linked with free-free radio absorption and bright thermal X-ray emission. This finding suggests that more extended progenitors, similar to that of SN 2013df, suffer from substantial mass loss in the years before the supernova.

  2. Calreticulin-independent regulation of the platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3 by the KVGFFKR alphaIIb-cytoplasmic motif.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Dermot; Larkin, Deirdre; Devocelle, Marc; Fitzgerald, Desmond J; Moran, Niamh

    2004-02-01

    The platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3 alters conformation in response to platelet activation and ligand binding, although the molecular mechanisms involved are not known. We previously showed that a lipid modified peptide, corresponding to the membrane proximal 989KVGFFKR995 portion of the alphaIIb cytoplasmic tail, independently activates platelet alphaIIbbeta3. Calreticulin (CRT) is a potential integrin regulatory protein based on its interaction with the highly conserved alpha-integrin sequence KxGFFKR. We therefore examined the possible interaction of calreticulin and alphaIIbbeta3 in human platelets. We demonstrate that calreticulin in platelets is localised to the granulomere. In contrast, the known integrin-binding protein talin accumulates at the periphery of spreading platelets and colocalises with alphaIIbbeta3 during the process of adhesion. An interaction between calreticulin and alphaIIbbeta3 could not be demonstrated using co-immunoprecipitation techniques under various platelet activation states, even in the presence of covalent chemical crosslinkers. Thus, calreticulin does not functionally interact with the major integrin in human platelets. In order to identify proteins that interact with the integrin KVGFFKR motif we then used a peptide 'pull-down' assay from platelet lysates with biotinylated peptides and demonstrate that only the alphaIIb and beta3 subunits selectively and individually interact with this sequence. This interaction is divalent cation-dependent, has high-affinity, and occurs both with purified alphaIIbbeta3 complex and with electroeluted alpha and beta subunits. Thus, our data show that the conserved integrin KVGFFKR domain interacts primarily with the alpha and beta cytoplasmic tails and not with CRT in human platelets. PMID:14985176

  3. Treatment of bulky stage IB and IIB cervical cancers with outpatient neutron brachytherapy, external pelvic radiation and extrafascial hysterectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Van Nagell, J.R.; Maruyama, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Donaldson, E.S.; Hanson, M.B.; Gallion, H.H.; Powell, D.E.; Kryscio, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    From January, 1977, to December, 1982, twenty-nine patients with bulky (>4 cms diameter) Stage IB or IIB cervical cancer were treated at the University of Kentucky Medical Center by a combination of out-patient neutron brachytherapy (Cf-252) and external pelvic radiation followed by extrafascial hysterectomy. Residual tumor was present in the hysterectomy specimens of 25 per cent. Complications during and following radiation therapy and surgery were minimal and included vaginal stenosis, proctitis, and hemorrhagic cystitis. The mean duration of hospitalization for surgery in these patients was 6.6 days (range 5-15 days) and postoperative morbidity was low. No patient required blood transfusion. Four patients developed urinary tract infections and two had superficial wound separations. Following treatment, patients were seen at monthly intervals for one year, every three months for two years, and every six months thereafter. No patient has been lost to follow-up. Two patients (7 per cent) developed tumor recurrence and have died of disease (1 of distant metastases; 1 local). The remaining 27 patients (93 per cent) are alive and well with no evidence of disease 24-89 months (mean 48 months) after therapy. No radiogenic fistulae or bowel obstruction were observed. These preliminary results suggest that the combination of outpatient neutron brachytherapy, external pelvic radiation, and extrafascial hysterectomy for patients with Stage IB and IIB cervical cancer is well tolerated. Complications associated with this treatment regimen have been minimal, and the recurrence rate is low. The duration of intracavitary neutron brachytherapy was short, and outpatient therapy was well received by patients.

  4. Structural and Functional Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus’s Class IIb Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common nosocomial sources of soft-tissue and skin infections and has more recently become prevalent in the community setting as well. Since the use of penicillins to combat S. aureus infections in the 1940s, the bacterium has been notorious for developing resistances to antibiotics, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). With the persistence of MRSA as well as many other drug resistant bacteria and parasites, there is a growing need to focus on new pharmacological targets. Recently, class II fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases (FBAs) have garnered attention to fill this role. Regrettably, scarce biochemical data and no structural data are currently available for the class II FBA found in MRSA (SaFBA). With the recent finding of a flexible active site zinc-binding loop (Z-Loop) in class IIa FBAs and its potential for broad spectrum class II FBA inhibition, the lack of information regarding this feature of class IIb FBAs, such as SaFBA, has been limiting for further Z-loop inhibitor development. Therefore, we elucidated the crystal structure of SaFBA to 2.1 Å allowing for a more direct structural analysis of SaFBA. Furthermore, we determined the KM for one of SaFBA’s substrates, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, as well as performed mode of inhibition studies for an inhibitor that takes advantage of the Z-loop’s flexibility. Together the data offers insight into a class IIb FBA from a pervasively drug resistant bacterium and a comparison of Z-loops and other features between the different subtypes of class II FBAs. PMID:25390935

  5. Combining molecular evolution and environmental genomics to unravel adaptive processes of MHC class IIB diversity in European minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus)

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Helene; Burri, Reto; Comtesse, Fabien; Fumagalli, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Host–pathogen interactions are a major evolutionary force promoting local adaptation. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) represent unique candidates to investigate evolutionary processes driving local adaptation to parasite communities. The present study aimed at identifying the relative roles of neutral and adaptive processes driving the evolution of MHC class IIB (MHCIIB) genes in natural populations of European minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus). To this end, we isolated and genotyped exon 2 of two MHCIIB gene duplicates (DAB1 and DAB3) and 1′665 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in nine populations, and characterized local bacterial communities by 16S rDNA barcoding using 454 amplicon sequencing. Both MHCIIB loci exhibited signs of historical balancing selection. Whereas genetic differentiation exceeded that of neutral markers at both loci, the populations' genetic diversities were positively correlated with local pathogen diversities only at DAB3. Overall, our results suggest pathogen-mediated local adaptation in European minnows at both MHCIIB loci. While at DAB1 selection appears to favor different alleles among populations, this is only partially the case in DAB3, which appears to be locally adapted to pathogen communities in terms of genetic diversity. These results provide new insights into the importance of host–pathogen interactions in driving local adaptation in the European minnow, and highlight that the importance of adaptive processes driving MHCIIB gene evolution may differ among duplicates within species, presumably as a consequence of alternative selective regimes or different genomic context. Using next-generation sequencing, the present manuscript identifies the relative roles of neutral and adaptive processes driving the evolution of MHC class IIB (MHCIIB) genes in natural populations of a cyprinid fish: the European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). We highlight that the relative importance of neutral

  6. Inferring supernova IIb/Ib/Ic ejecta properties from light curves and spectra: correlations from radiative-transfer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Woosley, Stan; Livne, Eli; Waldman, Roni; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Langer, Norbert

    2016-05-01

    We present 1D non-local thermodynamic equilibrium time-dependent radiative-transfer simulations for a large grid of supernovae (SNe) IIb/Ib/Ic that result from the terminal explosion of the mass donor in a close-binary system. Our sample covers ejecta masses Me of 1.7-5.2 M⊙, kinetic energies Ekin of 0.6-5.0 × 1051 erg, and 56Ni masses of 0.05-0.30 M⊙. We find a strong correlation between the 56Ni mass and the photometric properties at maximum, and between the rise time to bolometric maximum and the post-maximum decline rate. We confirm the small scatter in (V - R) at 10 d past R-band maximum. The quantity V_m ≡ √{2E_kin/M_e} is comparable to the Doppler velocity measured from He I 5875 Å at maximum in SNe IIb/Ib, although some scatter arises from the uncertain level of chemical mixing. The O I 7772 Å line may be used for SNe Ic, but the correspondence deteriorates with higher ejecta mass/energy. We identify a temporal reversal of the Doppler velocity at maximum absorption in the ˜1.05 μm feature in all models. The reversal is due to He I alone and could serve as a test for the presence of helium in SNe Ic. Because of variations in composition and ionization, the ejecta opacity shows substantial variations with both velocity and time. This is in part the origin of the offset between our model light curves and the predictions from the Arnett model.

  7. The Bone Morphogenetic Protein Type Ib Receptor Is a Major Mediator of Glial Differentiation and Cell Survival in Adult Hippocampal Progenitor Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Brederlau, A.; Faigle, R.; Elmi, M.; Zarebski, A.; Sjöberg, S.; Fujii, M.; Miyazono, K.; Funa, K.

    2004-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) act as growth regulators and inducers of differentiation. They transduce their signal via three different type I receptors, termed activin receptor-like kinase 2 (Alk2), Alk3, or bone morphogenetic protein receptor Ia (BMPRIa) and Alk6 or BMPRIb. Little is known about functional differences between the three type I receptors. Here, we have investigated consequences of constitutively active (ca) and dominant negative (dn) type I receptor overexpression in adult-derived hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPs). The dn receptors have a nonfunctional intracellular but functional extracellular domain. They thus trap BMPs that are endogenously produced by AHPs. We found that effects obtained by overexpression of dnAlk2 and dnAlk6 were similar, suggesting similar ligand binding patterns for these receptors. Thus, cell survival was decreased, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was reduced, whereas the number of oligodendrocytes increased. No effect on neuronal differentiation was seen. Whereas the expression of Alk2 and Alk3 mRNA remained unchanged, the Alk6 mRNA was induced after impaired BMP signaling. After dnAlk3 overexpression, cell survival and astroglial differentiation increased in parallel to augmented Alk6 receptor signaling. We conclude that endogenous BMPs mediate cell survival, astroglial differentiation and the suppression of oligodendrocytic cell fate mainly via the Alk6 receptor in AHP culture. PMID:15194807

  8. Light-travel-time diagnostics in early supernova spectra: substantial mass-loss of the IIb progenitor of SN 2013cu through a superwind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräfener, G.; Vink, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The progenitors of Type-IIb supernovae (SNe IIb) are believed to have lost their H-rich envelopes almost completely in the direct pre-SN phase. Recently the first `flash spectrum' of an SN IIb (SN 2013cu) has been presented, taken early enough to study its immediate circumstellar medium (CSM). Similar to a previous study by Groh, we analyse the structure and chemical composition of the optically thick CSM using non-local thermodynamic equilibrium(non-LTE) model atmospheres. For the first time, we take light-travel time effects on the spectrum formation into account, which affect the shapes and strengths of the observable emission lines, as well as the inferred SN luminosity. Based on the new CSM parameters, we estimate a lower limit of ˜0.3 M⊙ for the CSM mass, which is a factor 10-100 higher than previous estimates. The spectral fit implies a CSM in the form of a homogeneous and spherically symmetric superwind whose mass-loss rate exceeds common expectations by up to two orders of magnitude. The derived chemical composition is in agreement with a progenitor that has just left, or is just about to leave the Red-Supergiant stage, confirming the standard picture for the origin of SNe IIb. Due to its extreme mass-loss, the SN progenitor will likely appear as extreme RSG, Luminous Blue Variable, or Yellow Hypergiant. The direct detection of a superwind, and the high inferred CSM mass suggest that stellar wind mass-loss may play an important role in the formation of SNe IIb.

  9. Multiple roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein, fibroblast growth factor and Wnt/β-catenin signalling in the anterior neural patterning of adherent human embryonic stem cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lupo, Giuseppe; Novorol, Claire; Smith, Joseph R.; Vallier, Ludovic; Miranda, Elena; Alexander, Morgan; Biagioni, Stefano; Pedersen, Roger A.; Harris, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have successfully produced a variety of neural cell types from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), but there has been limited systematic analysis of how different regional identities are established using well-defined differentiation conditions. We have used adherent, chemically defined cultures to analyse the roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and Wnt/β-catenin signalling in neural induction, anteroposterior patterning and eye field specification in hESCs. We show that either BMP inhibition or activation of FGF signalling is required for effective neural induction, but these two pathways have distinct outcomes on rostrocaudal patterning. While BMP inhibition leads to specification of forebrain/midbrain positional identities, FGF-dependent neural induction is associated with strong posteriorization towards hindbrain/spinal cord fates. We also demonstrate that Wnt/β-catenin signalling is activated during neural induction and promotes acquisition of neural fates posterior to forebrain. Therefore, inhibition of this pathway is needed for efficient forebrain specification. Finally, we provide evidence that the levels of Activin/Nodal and BMP signalling have a marked influence on further forebrain patterning and that constitutive inhibition of these pathways represses expression of eye field genes. These results show that the key mechanisms controlling neural patterning in model vertebrate species are preserved in adherent, chemically defined hESC cultures and reveal new insights into the signals regulating eye field specification. PMID:23576785

  10. Multiple roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein, fibroblast growth factor and Wnt/β-catenin signalling in the anterior neural patterning of adherent human embryonic stem cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Giuseppe; Novorol, Claire; Smith, Joseph R; Vallier, Ludovic; Miranda, Elena; Alexander, Morgan; Biagioni, Stefano; Pedersen, Roger A; Harris, William A

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have successfully produced a variety of neural cell types from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), but there has been limited systematic analysis of how different regional identities are established using well-defined differentiation conditions. We have used adherent, chemically defined cultures to analyse the roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and Wnt/β-catenin signalling in neural induction, anteroposterior patterning and eye field specification in hESCs. We show that either BMP inhibition or activation of FGF signalling is required for effective neural induction, but these two pathways have distinct outcomes on rostrocaudal patterning. While BMP inhibition leads to specification of forebrain/midbrain positional identities, FGF-dependent neural induction is associated with strong posteriorization towards hindbrain/spinal cord fates. We also demonstrate that Wnt/β-catenin signalling is activated during neural induction and promotes acquisition of neural fates posterior to forebrain. Therefore, inhibition of this pathway is needed for efficient forebrain specification. Finally, we provide evidence that the levels of Activin/Nodal and BMP signalling have a marked influence on further forebrain patterning and that constitutive inhibition of these pathways represses expression of eye field genes. These results show that the key mechanisms controlling neural patterning in model vertebrate species are preserved in adherent, chemically defined hESC cultures and reveal new insights into the signals regulating eye field specification. PMID:23576785

  11. Differential Binding Activity of TGF-β Family Proteins to Select TGF-β Receptors.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Ashraf M; Dotimas, Hyna; Kahn, Julius; Lamerdin, Jane E; Hayes, David B; Gupta, Priyanka; Franti, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF11) and myostatin (MSTN) are highly related transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) ligands with 89% amino acid sequence homology. They have different biologic activities and diverse tissue distribution patterns. However, the activities of these ligands are indistinguishable in in vitro assays. SMAD2/3 signaling has been identified as the canonical pathway for GDF11 and MSTN, However, it remains unclear which receptor heterodimer and which antagonists preferentially mediate and regulate signaling. In this study, we investigated the initiation and regulation of GDF11 and MSTN signaling at the receptor level using a novel receptor dimerization detection technology. We used the dimerization platform to link early receptor binding events to intracellular downstream signaling. This approach was instrumental in revealing differential receptor binding activity within the TGF-β family. We verified the ActR2b/ALK5 heterodimer as the predominant receptor for GDF11- and MSTN-induced SMAD2/3 signaling. We also showed ALK7 specifically mediates activin-B signaling. We verified follistatin as a potent antagonist to neutralize both SMAD2/3 signaling and receptor dimerization. More remarkably, we showed that the two related antagonists, growth and differentiation factor-associated serum protein (GASP)-1 and GASP2, differentially regulate GDF11 (and MSTN) signaling. GASP1 blocks both receptor dimerization and downstream signaling. However, GASP2 blocks only downstream signaling without interference from receptor dimerization. Our data strongly suggest that physical binding of GDF11 (and MSTN) to both ActR2b and ALK5 receptors is required for initiation of signaling. PMID:27340210

  12. Integrin-Alpha IIb Identifies Murine Lymph Node Lymphatic Endothelial Cells Responsive to RANKL

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Olga G.; Chypre, Mélanie; Brouard, Nathalie; Rauber, Simon; Alloush, Farouk; Romera-Hernandez, Monica; Bénézech, Cécile; Li, Zhi; Eckly, Anita; Coles, Mark C.; Rot, Antal; Yagita, Hideo; Léon, Catherine; Ludewig, Burkhard; Cupedo, Tom; Lanza, François; Mueller, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    Microenvironment and activation signals likely imprint heterogeneity in the lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) population. Particularly LECs of secondary lymphoid organs are exposed to different cell types and immune stimuli. However, our understanding of the nature of LEC activation signals and their cell source within the secondary lymphoid organ in the steady state remains incomplete. Here we show that integrin alpha 2b (ITGA2b), known to be carried by platelets, megakaryocytes and hematopoietic progenitors, is expressed by a lymph node subset of LECs, residing in medullary, cortical and subcapsular sinuses. In the subcapsular sinus, the floor but not the ceiling layer expresses the integrin, being excluded from ACKR4+ LECs but overlapping with MAdCAM-1 expression. ITGA2b expression increases in response to immunization, raising the possibility that heterogeneous ITGA2b levels reflect variation in exposure to activation signals. We show that alterations of the level of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), by overexpression, neutralization or deletion from stromal marginal reticular cells, affected the proportion of ITGA2b+ LECs. Lymph node LECs but not peripheral LECs express RANK. In addition, we found that lymphotoxin-β receptor signaling likewise regulated the proportion of ITGA2b+ LECs. These findings demonstrate that stromal reticular cells activate LECs via RANKL and support the action of hematopoietic cell-derived lymphotoxin. PMID:27010197

  13. Carboplatin and Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Veliparib in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IIIC Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-12

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  14. LT-IIb(T13I), a non-toxic type II heat-labile enterotoxin, augments the capacity of a ricin toxin subunit vaccine to evoke neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Greene, Christopher J; Chadwick, Chrystal M; Mandell, Lorrie M; Hu, John C; O'Hara, Joanne M; Brey, Robert N; Mantis, Nicholas J; Connell, Terry D

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there is a shortage of adjuvants that can be employed with protein subunit vaccines to enhance protection against biological threats. LT-IIb(T13I) is an engineered nontoxic derivative of LT-IIb, a member of the type II subfamily of heat labile enterotoxins expressed by Escherichia coli, that possesses potent mucosal adjuvant properties. In this study we evaluated the capacity of LT-IIb(T13I) to augment the potency of RiVax, a recombinant ricin toxin A subunit vaccine, when co-administered to mice via the intradermal (i.d.) and intranasal (i.n.) routes. We report that co-administration of RiVax with LT-IIb(T13I) by the i.d. route enhanced the levels of RiVax-specific serum IgG antibodies (Ab) and elevated the ratio of ricin-neutralizing to non-neutralizing Ab, as compared to RiVax alone. Protection against a lethal ricin challenge was also augmented by LT-IIb(T13I). While local inflammatory responses elicited by LT-IIb(T13I) were comparable to those elicited by aluminum salts (Imject®), LT-IIb(T13I) was more effective than aluminum salts at augmenting production of RiVax-specific serum IgG. Finally, i.n. administration of RiVax with LT-IIb(T13I) also increased levels of RiVax-specific serum and mucosal Ab and enhanced protection against ricin challenge. Collectively, these data highlight the potential of LT-IIb(T13I) as an effective next-generation i.d., or possibly i.n. adjuvant for enhancing the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines for biodefense. PMID:23936344

  15. Classic and Atypical FOP Phenotypes are Caused by Mutations in the BMP Type I Receptor ACVR1

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Frederick S.; Xu, Meiqi; Seemann, Petra; Connor, Michael; Glaser, David L.; Carroll, Liam; Delai, Patricia; Fastnacht-Urban, Elisabeth; Forman, Stephen J.; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Hoover-Fong, Julie; Köster, Bernhard; Pauli, Richard M.; Reardon, William; Zaidi, Syed-Adeel; Zasloff, Michael; Morhart, Rolf; Mundlos, Stefan; Groppe, Jay; Shore, Eileen M.

    2010-01-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is an autosomal dominant human disorder of bone formation that causes developmental skeletal defects and extensive debilitating bone formation within soft connective tissues (heterotopic ossification) during childhood. All patients with classic clinical features of FOP (great toe malformations and progressive heterotopic ossification) have previously been found to carry the same heterozygous mutation (c.617G>A; p.R206H) in the GS activation domain of activin A type I receptor/activin-like kinase 2 (ACVR1/ALK2), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor. Among patients with FOP-like heterotopic ossification and/or toe malformations, we identified patients with clinical features unusual for FOP. These atypical FOP patients form two classes: FOP-plus (classic defining features of FOP plus one or more atypical features) and FOP variants (major variations in one or both of the two classic defining features of FOP). All patients examined have heterozygous ACVR1 missense mutations in conserved amino acids. While the recurrent c.617G>A; p.R206H mutation was found in all cases of classic FOP and most cases of FOP-plus, novel ACVR1 mutations occur in the FOP variants and two cases of FOP-plus. Protein structure homology modeling predicts that each of the amino acid substitutions activates the ACVR1 protein to enhance receptor signaling. We observed genotype-phenotype correlation between some ACVR1 mutations and the age of onset of heterotopic ossification or on embryonic skeletal development. PMID:19085907

  16. Matrigel and Activin A promote cell-cell contact and anti-apoptotic activity in cultured human retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoling; Zhu, Deliang; Lian, Ruiling; Han, Yuting; Guo, Yonglong; Li, Zhijie; Tang, Shibo; Chen, Jiansu

    2016-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness among the aging population. Currently, replacement of diseased retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells with transplanted healthy RPE cells could be a feasible approach for AMD therapy. However, maintaining cell-cell contact and good viability of RPE cells cultured in vitro is difficult and fundamentally determines the success of RPE cell transplantation. This study was conducted to examine the role of Matrigel and Activin A (MA) in regulating cell-cell contact and anti-apoptotic activity in human RPE (hRPE) cells, as assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), immunofluorescence staining, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis, Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) analysis, mitochondrial membrane potential (△Ψ m) assays, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays and Western blotting. hRPE cells cultured in vitro could maintain their epithelioid morphology after MA treatment over at least 4 passages. The contact of N-cadherin to the lateral cell border was promoted in hRPE cells at P2 by MA. MA treatment also enhanced the expression of tight junction-associated genes and proteins, such as Claudin-1, Claudin-3, Occludin and ZO-1, as well as polarized ZO-1 protein distribution and barrier function, in cultured hRPE cells. Moreover, MA treatment decreased apoptotic cells, ROS and Bax and increased △Ψ m and Bcl2 in hRPE cells under serum withdrawal-induced apoptosis. In addition, MA treatment elevated the protein expression levels of β-catenin and its target proteins, including Cyclin D1, c-Myc and Survivin, as well as the gene expression levels of ZO-1, β-catenin, Survivin and TCF-4, all of which could be down-regulated by the Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor XAV-939. Taken together, MA treatment could effectively promote cell-cell contact and anti-apoptotic activity in hRPE cells, partly involving the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. This study

  17. Bioactive saponins and glycosides. III. Horse chestnut. (1): The structures, inhibitory effects on ethanol absorption, and hypoglycemic activity of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, and IIIa from the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Murakami, T; Matsuda, H; Yamahara, J; Murakami, N; Kitagawa, I

    1996-08-01

    Five bioactive triterpene oligoglycosides named escins, Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, and IIIa were isolated from the seeds of horse chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae). The chemical structures of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, and IIIa were determine on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, which included selective cleavage of the glucuronide linkage using photochemical reaction and lead tetraacetate decarboxylation reaction. Escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb were found to exhibit an ethanol absorption-inhibitory effect and hypoglycemic activity in the oral glucose tolerance test in rats. Some structure-activity relationships are reported. PMID:8795266

  18. Escins-Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, and IIIa, bioactive triterpene oligoglycosides from the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L.: their inhibitory effects on ethanol absorption and hypoglycemic activity on glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Harada, E; Murakami, T; Matsuda, H; Wariishi, N; Yamahara, J; Murakami, N; Kitagawa, I

    1994-06-01

    Five triterpene oligoglycosides named escins-Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, and IIIa were isolated from the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L. and their chemical structures were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. Escins-Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb were found to exhibit inhibitory effect on ethanol absorption and hypoglycemic activity on oral glucose tolerance test in rats. Among them, escins-IIa and IIb showed the higher activities for both bioassays, while desacylescins-I and II had no activity. PMID:8069982

  19. Intraoperative validation of CT-based lymph nodal levels, sublevels IIa and IIb: Is it of clinical relevance in selective radiation therapy?

    SciTech Connect

    Levendag, Peter . E-mail: p.levendag@erasmusmc.nl; Gregoire, Vincent; Hamoir, Marc; Voet, Peter; Est, Henrie van der; Heijmen, Ben; Kerrebijn, Jeroen

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study are to discuss the intraoperative validation of CT-based boundaries of lymph nodal levels in the neck, and in particular the clinical relevance of the delineation of sublevels IIa and IIb in case of selective radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: To validate the radiologically defined level contours, clips were positioned intraoperatively at the level boundaries defined by surgical anatomy. In 10 consecutive patients, clips were placed, at the time of a neck dissection being performed, at the most cranial border of the neck. Anterior-posterior and lateral X-ray films were obtained intraoperatively. Next, in 3 patients, neck levels were contoured on preoperative contrast-enhanced CT scans according to the international consensus guidelines. From each of these 3 patients, an intraoperative CT scan was also obtained, with clips placed at the surgical-anatomy-based level boundaries. The preoperative (CT-based) and intraoperative (surgery-defined) CT scans were matched. Results: Clips placed at the most cranial part of the neck lined up at the caudal part of the transverse process of the cervical vertebra C-I. The posterior border of surgical level IIa (spinal accessory nerve [SAN]) did not match with the posterior border of CT-based level IIa (internal jugular vein [IJV]). Other surgical boundaries and CT-based contours were in good agreement. Conclusions: The cranial border of the neck, i.e., the cranial border of level IIa/IIb, corresponds to the caudal edge of the lateral process of C-I. Except for the posterior border between level IIa and level IIb, a perfect match was observed between the other surgical-clip-identified levels II-V boundaries (surgical-anatomy) and the CT-based delineation contours. It is argued that (1) because of the parotid gland overlapping part of level II, and (2) the frequent infestation of occult metastatic cells in the lymph channels around the IJV, the division of level II into radiologic

  20. A TaqMan-based multiplex qPCR assay and DNA extraction method for phylotype IIB sequevars 1&2 (select agent) strains of Ralstonia solanacearum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stulberg, Michael J.; Huang, Qi

    2015-10-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strains belonging to phylotype IIB, sequevars 1 and 2 (IIB-1&2) cause brown rot of potato in temperate climates, and are quarantined pathogens in Canada and Europe. Since these strains are not established in the U.S. and because of their potential risk to the potato industry, the U.S. government has listed them as select agents. Cultivated geraniums are also a host and have the potential to spread the pathogen through trade, and its extracts strongly inhibits DNA-based detection methods. We designed four primer and probe sets for an improved qPCR method that targets stable regionsmore » of DNA. RsSA1 and RsSA2 recognize IIB-1&2 strains, RsII recognizes the current phylotype II (the newly proposed R. solanacearum species) strains (and a non-plant associated R. mannitolilytica), and Cox1 recognizes eight plant species including major hosts of R. solanacearum such as potato, tomato and cultivated geranium as an internal plant control. We multiplexed the RsSA2 with the RsII and Cox1 sets to provide two layers of detection of a positive IIB-1&2 sample, and to validate plant extracts and qPCR reactions. The TaqMan-based uniplex and multiplex qPCR assays correctly identified 34 IIB-1&2 and 52 phylotype II strains out of 90 R. solanacearum species complex strains. Additionally, the multiplex qPCR assay was validated successfully using 169 artificially inoculated symptomatic and asymptomatic plant samples from multiple plant hosts including geranium. Moreover, we developed an extraction buffer that allowed for a quick and easy DNA extraction from infected plants including geranium for detection of R. solanacearum by qPCR. Our multiplex qPCR assay, especially when coupled with the quick extraction buffer method, allows for quick, easy and reliable detection and differentiation of the IIB-1&2 strains of R. solanacearum.« less

  1. A TaqMan-Based Multiplex qPCR Assay and DNA Extraction Method for Phylotype IIB Sequevars 1&2 (Select Agent) Strains of Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Stulberg, Michael J.; Huang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strains belonging to phylotype IIB, sequevars 1 and 2 (IIB-1&2) cause brown rot of potato in temperate climates, and are quarantined pathogens in Canada and Europe. Since these strains are not established in the U.S. and because of their potential risk to the potato industry, the U.S. government has listed them as select agents. Cultivated geraniums are also a host and have the potential to spread the pathogen through trade, and its extracts strongly inhibits DNA-based detection methods. We designed four primer and probe sets for an improved qPCR method that targets stable regions of DNA. RsSA1 and RsSA2 recognize IIB-1&2 strains, RsII recognizes the current phylotype II (the newly proposed R. solanacearum species) strains (and a non-plant associated R. mannitolilytica), and Cox1 recognizes eight plant species including major hosts of R. solanacearum such as potato, tomato and cultivated geranium as an internal plant control. We multiplexed the RsSA2 with the RsII and Cox1 sets to provide two layers of detection of a positive IIB-1&2 sample, and to validate plant extracts and qPCR reactions. The TaqMan-based uniplex and multiplex qPCR assays correctly identified 34 IIB-1&2 and 52 phylotype II strains out of 90 R. solanacearum species complex strains. Additionally, the multiplex qPCR assay was validated successfully using 169 artificially inoculated symptomatic and asymptomatic plant samples from multiple plant hosts including geranium. Furthermore, we developed an extraction buffer that allowed for a quick and easy DNA extraction from infected plants including geranium for detection of R. solanacearum by qPCR. Our multiplex qPCR assay, especially when coupled with the quick extraction buffer method, allows for quick, easy and reliable detection and differentiation of the IIB-1&2 strains of R. solanacearum. PMID:26426354

  2. A TaqMan-Based Multiplex qPCR Assay and DNA Extraction Method for Phylotype IIB Sequevars 1&2 (Select Agent) Strains of Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Stulberg, Michael J; Huang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strains belonging to phylotype IIB, sequevars 1 and 2 (IIB-1&2) cause brown rot of potato in temperate climates, and are quarantined pathogens in Canada and Europe. Since these strains are not established in the U.S. and because of their potential risk to the potato industry, the U.S. government has listed them as select agents. Cultivated geraniums are also a host and have the potential to spread the pathogen through trade, and its extracts strongly inhibits DNA-based detection methods. We designed four primer and probe sets for an improved qPCR method that targets stable regions of DNA. RsSA1 and RsSA2 recognize IIB-1&2 strains, RsII recognizes the current phylotype II (the newly proposed R. solanacearum species) strains (and a non-plant associated R. mannitolilytica), and Cox1 recognizes eight plant species including major hosts of R. solanacearum such as potato, tomato and cultivated geranium as an internal plant control. We multiplexed the RsSA2 with the RsII and Cox1 sets to provide two layers of detection of a positive IIB-1&2 sample, and to validate plant extracts and qPCR reactions. The TaqMan-based uniplex and multiplex qPCR assays correctly identified 34 IIB-1&2 and 52 phylotype II strains out of 90 R. solanacearum species complex strains. Additionally, the multiplex qPCR assay was validated successfully using 169 artificially inoculated symptomatic and asymptomatic plant samples from multiple plant hosts including geranium. Furthermore, we developed an extraction buffer that allowed for a quick and easy DNA extraction from infected plants including geranium for detection of R. solanacearum by qPCR. Our multiplex qPCR assay, especially when coupled with the quick extraction buffer method, allows for quick, easy and reliable detection and differentiation of the IIB-1&2 strains of R. solanacearum. PMID:26426354

  3. Crystal structures of phosphotransferase system enzymes PtxB (IIB(Asc)) and PtxA (IIA(Asc)) from Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jian; Li, Lan-Fen; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2009-02-20

    Streptococcus mutans is the primary etiological agent of dental caries in man and other mammalian organisms. This bacterium metabolizes carbohydrates actively and thrives under anaerobic conditions by fermenting l-ascorbate (Asc) via the sga operon, which includes SgaT, PtxB, and PtxA. These three proteins are members of the Asc family of enzyme II (EII) complexes of the bacterial phosphotransferase system. Here, we report the crystal structure of PtxB, solved by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing, and that of PtxA, solved by molecular replacement, from S. mutans. PtxB provides the first crystal structure of an EIIB from the Asc family, composed of a central beta sheet of parallel strands flanked by alpha helices on both sides. The structure of PtxB is similar to the structures of IIB(Mtl) (IIB subunit of mannitol PTS) and IIB(Cel) (IIB subunit of cellobiose) in Escherichia coli despite the low sequence identity. PtxA adopts a globular alpha/beta sandwich structure. The phosphorylation-site His68 is situated between beta2 and beta3, within a hydrophobic pocket. We found that the hydrogen bond on N(delta1) of the active-site histidine is a common means of ensuring that phosphate is on the correct N(varepsilon2) site in many EIIA families. Finally, a model of the PtxB-PtxA complex was constructed, and a PtxA-phospho-PtxB state is proposed. Analyses of the two structures shed light on the catalytic mechanism of the phosphotransferase system. PMID:19135450

  4. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines...

  5. A domain in the N-terminal extension of class IIb eukaryotic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases is important for tRNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Frugier, Magali; Moulinier, Luc; Giegé, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Cytoplasmic aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (AspRS) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a homodimer of 64 kDa subunits. Previous studies have emphasized the high sensitivity of the N-terminal region to proteolytic cleavage, leading to truncated species that have lost the first 20–70 residues but that retain enzymatic activity and dimeric structure. In this work, we demonstrate that the N-terminal extension in yeast AspRS participates in tRNA binding and we generalize this finding to eukaryotic class IIb aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. By gel retardation studies and footprinting experiments on yeast tRNAAsp, we show that the extension, connected to the anticodon-binding module of the synthetase, contacts tRNA on the minor groove side of its anticodon stem. Sequence comparison of eukaryotic class IIb synthetases identifies a lysine-rich 11 residue sequence (29LSKKALKKLQK39 in yeast AspRS with the consensus xSKxxLKKxxK in class IIb synthetases) that is important for this binding. Direct proof of the role of this sequence comes from a mutagenesis analysis and from binding studies using the isolated peptide. PMID:10811628

  6. Neural activity selects myosin IIB and VI with a specific time window in distinct dynamin isoform-mediated synaptic vesicle reuse pathways.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Michikata; Tanifuji, Shota; Ma, Huan; Murakami, Noriko; Mochida, Sumiko

    2015-06-10

    Presynaptic nerve terminals must maintain stable neurotransmissions via synaptic vesicle (SV) resupply despite encountering wide fluctuations in the number and frequency of incoming action potentials (APs). However, the molecular mechanism linking variation in neural activity to SV resupply is unknown. Myosins II and VI are actin-based cytoskeletal motors that drive dendritic actin dynamics and membrane transport, respectively, at brain synapses. Here we combined genetic knockdown or molecular dysfunction and direct physiological measurement of fast synaptic transmission from paired rat superior cervical ganglion neurons in culture to show that myosins IIB and VI work individually in SV reuse pathways, having distinct dependency and time constants with physiological AP frequency. Myosin VI resupplied the readily releasable pool (RRP) with slow kinetics independently of firing rates but acted quickly within 50 ms after AP. Under high-frequency AP firing, myosin IIB resupplied the RRP with fast kinetics in a slower time window of 200 ms. Knockdown of both myosin and dynamin isoforms by mixed siRNA microinjection revealed that myosin IIB-mediated SV resupply follows amphiphysin/dynamin-1-mediated endocytosis, while myosin VI-mediated SV resupply follows dynamin-3-mediated endocytosis. Collectively, our findings show how distinct myosin isoforms work as vesicle motors in appropriate SV reuse pathways associated with specific firing patterns. PMID:26063922

  7. Lnk regulates integrin αIIbβ3 outside-in signaling in mouse platelets, leading to stabilization of thrombus development in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Takizawa, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Satoshi; Takayama, Naoya; Oda, Atsushi; Nishikii, Hidekazu; Morita, Yohei; Kakinuma, Sei; Yamazaki, Satoshi; Okamura, Satoshi; Tamura, Noriko; Goto, Shinya; Sawaguchi, Akira; Manabe, Ichiro; Takatsu, Kiyoshi; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Takaki, Satoshi; Eto, Koji

    2009-01-01

    The nature of the in vivo cellular events underlying thrombus formation mediated by platelet activation remains unclear because of the absence of a modality for analysis. Lymphocyte adaptor protein (Lnk; also known as Sh2b3) is an adaptor protein that inhibits thrombopoietin-mediated signaling, and as a result, megakaryocyte and platelet counts are elevated in Lnk–/– mice. Here we describe an unanticipated role for Lnk in stabilizing thrombus formation and clarify the activities of Lnk in platelets transduced through integrin αIIbβ3–mediated outside-in signaling. We equalized platelet counts in wild-type and Lnk–/– mice by using genetic depletion of Lnk and BM transplantation. Using FeCl3- or laser-induced injury and in vivo imaging that enabled observation of single platelet behavior and the multiple steps in thrombus formation, we determined that Lnk is an essential contributor to the stabilization of developing thrombi within vessels. Lnk–/– platelets exhibited a reduced ability to fully spread on fibrinogen and mediate clot retraction, reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of the β3 integrin subunit, and reduced binding of Fyn to integrin αIIbβ3. These results provide new insight into the mechanism of αIIbβ3-based outside-in signaling, which appears to be coordinated in platelets by Lnk, Fyn, and integrins. Outside-in signaling modulators could represent new therapeutic targets for the prevention of cardiovascular events. PMID:20038804

  8. Stable expression of rat cytochrome P-450IIB1 cDNA in Chinese hamster cells (V79) and metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed Central

    Doehmer, J; Dogra, S; Friedberg, T; Monier, S; Adesnik, M; Glatt, H; Oesch, F

    1988-01-01

    V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts are widely used for mutagenicity testing but have the serious limitation that they do not express cytochromes P-450, which are needed for the activation of many promutagens to mutagenic metabolites. A full-length cDNA clone encoding the monooxygenase cytochrome P-450IIB1 under control of the simian virus 40 early promoter was constructed and cointroduced with the selection marker neomycin phosphotransferase (conferring resistance to G418) into V79 Chinese hamster cells. G418-resistant cells were selected, established as cell lines, and tested for cytochrome P-450IIB1 expression and enzymatic activity. Two cell lines (SD1 and SD3) were found that stably produce cytochrome P-450IIB1. Although purified cytochromes P-450 possess monooxygenase activity only after reconstitution with cytochrome P-450 reductase and phospholipid, the gene product of the construct exhibited this activity. This implies that the gene product is intracellularly localized in a way that allows access to the required components. If compared with V79 cells, the mutation rate for the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) locus in SD1 cells is markedly increased when exposed to aflatoxin B1, which is activated by this enzyme. Images PMID:3137560

  9. Cognitive behavioural therapy for depression in multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIB: a 1-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Castrejón, Jessica; Landa-Ramírez, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 24-year-old man diagnosed with multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIB and major depression. Because cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has proven effective in the treatment of major depression in the general population and patients with cancer, we decided to adapt and use this therapy and evaluate its impact on major depression and the patient’s quality of life. The therapy was conducted individually in 15 sessions that were given over a span of 25 weeks. The data show that therapy was a useful treatment that reduced depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV criteria and self-report instruments. CBT also helped improve the patient’s quality of life, and it was considered to be an acceptable intervention for the patient, with ongoing positive results 1 year after the last psychotherapy session. CBT is a potential option for treating depression in this population but further research is needed. PMID:24898996

  10. Identification of Multiple Phosphorylation Sites on Maize Endosperm Starch Branching Enzyme IIb, a Key Enzyme in Amylopectin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Makhmoudova, Amina; Williams, Declan; Brewer, Dyanne; Massey, Sarah; Patterson, Jenelle; Silva, Anjali; Vassall, Kenrick A.; Liu, Fushan; Subedi, Sanjeena; Harauz, George; Siu, K. W. Michael; Tetlow, Ian J.; Emes, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Starch branching enzyme IIb (SBEIIb) plays a crucial role in amylopectin biosynthesis in maize endosperm by defining the structural and functional properties of storage starch and is regulated by protein phosphorylation. Native and recombinant maize SBEIIb were used as substrates for amyloplast protein kinases to identify phosphorylation sites on the protein. A multidisciplinary approach involving bioinformatics, site-directed mutagenesis, and mass spectrometry identified three phosphorylation sites at Ser residues: Ser649, Ser286, and Ser297. Two Ca2+-dependent protein kinase activities were partially purified from amyloplasts, termed K1, responsible for Ser649 and Ser286 phosphorylation, and K2, responsible for Ser649 and Ser297 phosphorylation. The Ser286 and Ser297 phosphorylation sites are conserved in all plant branching enzymes and are located at opposite openings of the 8-stranded parallel β-barrel of the active site, which is involved with substrate binding and catalysis. Molecular dynamics simulation analysis indicates that phospho-Ser297 forms a stable salt bridge with Arg665, part of a conserved Cys-containing domain in plant branching enzymes. Ser649 conservation appears confined to the enzyme in cereals and is not universal, and is presumably associated with functions specific to seed storage. The implications of SBEIIb phosphorylation are considered in terms of the role of the enzyme and the importance of starch biosynthesis for yield and biotechnological application. PMID:24550386

  11. The Supernova Spectropolarimetry Project: Results from Multi-Epoch Observations of the Type IIb SN 2011dh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilinski, Christopher; Williams, G. G.; Smith, P. S.; Smith, N.; Milne, P.; Hoffman, J. L.; Huk, L. N.; Leonard, D. C.; Dessart, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Supernova Spectropolarimetry Project is a recently formed collaboration between observers and theorists that focuses on decoding the complex, time-dependent spectropolarimetric behavior of supernovae (SNe) of all types. Using the CCD Imaging/Spectropolarimeter (SPOL) at the 61" Kuiper, the 90" Bok, and the 6.5-m MMT telescopes, we obtain multi-epoch observations of each target, aiming to construct the most comprehensive survey to date of supernovae in polarized light. Preliminary results from the SNSPOL project provide support for the increasingly popular hypothesis that many supernovae are aspherical explosion events. Thus far, we have observed 27 different SNe, many over multiple epochs, over the course of the last three years. While the history and evolution of these events is often studied with photometric and spectroscopic information, most supernovae are not studied with the combined advantage that spectropolarimetric data provides. The use of polarimetry allows us to probe the extent of the asphericity of the explosions while the use of spectroscopy allows us to characterize this asphericity across a variety of chemical species individually and as a function of velocity. Modern 3-D model simulations favor an explosion mechanism that is often inherently asymmetric in nature. Here, we showcase some of our initial results for the nearby type-IIb SN 2011dh that demonstrate the unique information that spectropolarimetric observations provide.

  12. MHC Class IIB Exon 2 Polymorphism in the Grey Partridge (Perdix perdix) Is Shaped by Selection, Recombination and Gene Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Bryjová, Anna; Albrecht, Tomáš; Bryja, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Among bird species, the most studied major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the chicken MHC. Although the number of studies on MHC in free-ranging species is increasing, the knowledge on MHC variation in species closely related to chicken is required to understand the peculiarities of bird MHC evolution. Here we describe the variation of MHC class IIB (MHCIIB) exon 2 in a population of the Grey partridge (Perdix perdix), a species of high conservation concern throughout Europe and an emerging galliform model in studies of sexual selection. We found 12 alleles in 108 individuals, but in comparison to other birds surprisingly many sites show signatures of historical positive selection. Individuals displayed between two to four alleles both on genomic and complementary DNA, suggesting the presence of two functional MHCIIB loci. Recombination and gene conversion appear to be involved in generating MHCIIB diversity in the Grey partridge; two recombination breakpoints and several gene conversion events were detected. In phylogenetic analysis of galliform MHCIIB, the Grey partridge alleles do not cluster together, but are scattered through the tree instead. Thus, our results indicate that the Grey partridge MHCIIB is comparable to most other galliforms in terms of copy number and population polymorphism. PMID:23935938

  13. Determination of lysine residues affinity labeled in the active site of yeast RNA polymerase II(B) by mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Treich, I; Carles, C; Sentenac, A; Riva, M

    1992-01-01

    In a previous study, yeast RNA polymerase II(B) was affinity labeled with two nucleotide derivatives (III and VIII) (1). In both cases, the labeled site was localized to the C-terminal part of the B150 subunit. The potential target lysyl residues of derivative III were mapped to the conserved domain H, between Asn946 and Met999. In the present work, we have mutagenized to arginine the five lysines present in domain H. Three lysines can be replaced, individually or simultaneously, without affecting cell growth, and each mutated enzyme can still be affinity labeled. Hence one or both of the other two lysyl residues, Lys979 and Lys987, is the target of the affinity reagent. These two lysines were each found to be essential for cell viability. Derivative VIII labeled another domain in addition to domain H. Supported by analogous results obtained for E. coli RNA polymerase using derivative VIII (2), we hypothesized that the second domain labeled by this derivative in the B150 subunit was domain I. Mutagenesis of the unique lysine present in domain I demonstrated that Lys 1102 was the target of derivative VIII. These results indicate that in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNA polymerases, domains H and I are in close proximity and participate to the active site. Images PMID:1408783

  14. Copy number variation and genetic diversity of MHC Class IIb alleles in an alien population of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Mable, Barbara K; Kilbride, Elizabeth; Viney, Mark E; Tinsley, Richard C

    2015-10-01

    Xenopus laevis (the African clawed frog), which originated through hybridisation and whole genome duplication, has been used as a model for genetics and development for many years, but surprisingly little is known about immune gene variation in natural populations. The purpose of this study was to use an isolated population of X. laevis that was introduced to Wales, UK in the past 50 years to investigate how variation at the MHC compares to that at other loci, following a severe population bottleneck. Among 18 individuals, we found nine alleles based on exon 2 sequences of the Class IIb region (which includes the peptide binding region). Individuals carried from one to three of the loci identified from previous laboratory studies. Genetic variation was an order of magnitude higher at the MHC compared with three single-copy nuclear genes, but all loci showed high levels of heterozygosity and nucleotide diversity and there was not an excess of homozygosity or decrease in diversity over time that would suggest extensive inbreeding in the introduced population. Tajima's D was positive for all loci, which is consistent with a bottleneck. Moreover, comparison with published sequences identified the source of the introduced population as the Western Cape region of South Africa, where most commercial suppliers have obtained their stocks. These factors suggest that despite founding by potentially already inbred individuals, the alien population in Wales has maintained substantial genetic variation at both adaptively important and neutral genes. PMID:26329765

  15. The G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 is a TGFbeta-inducible antagonist of TGFbeta signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Ho, Joanne; Cocolakis, Eftihia; Dumas, Victor M; Posner, Barry I; Laporte, Stéphane A; Lebrun, Jean-Jacques

    2005-09-21

    Signaling from the activin/transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) family of cytokines is a tightly regulated process. Disregulation of TGFbeta signaling is often the underlying basis for various cancers, tumor metastasis, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In this study, we identify the protein G-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), a kinase involved in the desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), as a downstream target and regulator of the TGFbeta-signaling cascade. TGFbeta-induced expression of GRK2 acts in a negative feedback loop to control TGFbeta biological responses. Upon TGFbeta stimulation, GRK2 associates with the receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads) through their MH1 and MH2 domains and phosphorylates their linker region. GRK2 phosphorylation of the R-Smads inhibits their carboxyl-terminal, activating phosphorylation by the type I receptor kinase, thus preventing nuclear translocation of the Smad complex, leading to the inhibition of TGFbeta-mediated target gene expression, cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that GRK2 antagonizes TGFbeta-induced target gene expression and apoptosis ex vivo in primary hepatocytes, establishing a new role for GRK2 in modulating single-transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptor-mediated signal transduction. PMID:16121194

  16. Self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells requires insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and ERBB2 receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Linlin; Schulz, Thomas C.; Sherrer, Eric S.; Dauphin, Derek S.; Shin, Soojung; Nelson, Angelique M.; Ware, Carol B.; Zhan, Mei; Song, Chao-Zhong; Chen, Xiaoji; Brimble, Sandii N.; McLean, Amanda; Galeano, Maria J.; Uhl, Elizabeth W.; D'Amour, Kevin A.; Chesnut, Jonathan D.; Rao, Mahendra S.

    2007-01-01

    Despite progress in developing defined conditions for human embryonic stem cell (hESC) cultures, little is known about the cell-surface receptors that are activated under conditions supportive of hESC self-renewal. A simultaneous interrogation of 42 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in hESCs following stimulation with mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) conditioned medium (CM) revealed rapid and prominent tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R); less prominent tyrosine phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family members, including ERBB2 and ERBB3; and trace phosphorylation of fibroblast growth factor receptors. Intense IGF1R and IR phosphorylation occurred in the absence of MEF conditioning (NCM) and was attributable to high concentrations of insulin in the proprietary KnockOut Serum Replacer (KSR). Inhibition of IGF1R using a blocking antibody or lentivirus-delivered shRNA reduced hESC self-renewal and promoted differentiation, while disruption of ERBB2 signaling with the selective inhibitor AG825 severely inhibited hESC proliferation and promoted apoptosis. A simple defined medium containing an IGF1 analog, heregulin-1β (a ligand for ERBB2/ERBB3), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), and activin A supported long-term growth of multiple hESC lines. These studies identify previously unappreciated RTKs that support hESC proliferation and self-renewal, and provide a rationally designed medium for the growth and maintenance of pluripotent hESCs. PMID:17761519

  17. Total saponin from Korean Red Ginseng inhibits binding of adhesive proteins to glycoprotein IIb/IIIa via phosphorylation of VASP (Ser157) and dephosphorylation of PI3K and Akt

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyuk-Woo; Shin, Jung-Hae; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Rhee, Man Hee; Park, Hwa-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Binding of adhesive proteins (i.e., fibrinogen, fibronectin, vitronectin) to platelet integrin glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (αIIb/β3) by various agonists (thrombin, collagen, adenosine diphosphate) involve in strength of thrombus. This study was carried out to evaluate the antiplatelet effect of total saponin from Korean Red Ginseng (KRG-TS) by investigating whether KRG-TS inhibits thrombin-induced binding of fibrinogen and fibronectin to αIIb/β3. Methods We investigated the effect of KRG-TS on phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and dephosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt, affecting binding of fibrinogen and fibronectin to αIIb/β3, and clot retraction. Results KRG-TS had an antiplatelet effect by inhibiting the binding of fibrinogen and fibronectin to αIIb/β3 via phosphorylation of VASP (Ser157), and dephosphorylation of PI3K and Akt on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Moreover, A-kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cyclic adenosine monophosphates (cAMPs) reduced KRG-TS-increased VASP (Ser157) phosphorylation, and increased KRG-TS-inhibited fibrinogen-, and fibronectin-binding to αIIb/β3. These findings indicate that KRG-TS interferes with the binding of fibrinogen and fibronectin to αIIb/β3 via cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of VASP (Ser157). In addition, KRG-TS decreased the rate of clot retraction, reflecting inhibition of αIIb/β3 activation. In this study, we clarified ginsenoside Ro (G-Ro) in KRG-TS inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation via both inhibition of [Ca2+]i mobilization and increase of cAMP production. Conclusion These results strongly indicate that KRG-TS is a beneficial herbal substance inhibiting fibrinogen-, and fibronectin-binding to αIIb/β3, and clot retraction, and may prevent platelet αIIb/β3-mediated thrombotic disease. In addition, we demonstrate that G-Ro is a novel compound with antiplatelet characteristics of KRG-TS. PMID:26843825

  18. Does the parasite-mediated selection drive the MHC class IIB diversity in wild populations of European chub (Squalius cephalus)?

    PubMed

    Seifertová, Mária; Jarkovský, Jiří; Šimková, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The genes of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) provide an excellent opportunity to study host-parasite relationships because they are expected to evolve in response to parasites and variation in parasite communities. In this study, we investigated the potential role of parasite-mediated selection acting on MHC class IIB (DAB) genes in European chub (Squalius cephalus) natural populations. We found significant differences between populations in metazoan parasites, neutral and adaptive genetic diversities. The analyses based on pairwise data revealed that populations with dissimilar MHC allelic profiles were geographically distant populations with significantly different diversity in microsatellites and a dissimilar composition of parasite communities. The results from the generalized estimating equations method (GEE) on the level of individuals revealed that metazoan parasite load in European chub was influenced by the diversity of DAB alleles as well as by the diversity of neutral genetic markers and host traits reflecting condition and immunocompetence. The multivariate co-inertia analysis showed specific associations between DAB alleles and parasite species. DAB1-like alleles were more involved in associations with ectoparasites, while DAB3-like alleles were positively associated with endoparasites which could suggest potential differences between DAB genes caused by different selection pressure. Our study revealed that parasite-mediated selection is not the only variable affecting MHC diversity in European chub; however, we strongly support the role of neutral processes as the main driver of DAB diversity across populations. In addition, our study contributes to the understanding of the evolution of MHC genes in wild living fish. PMID:26693717

  19. Insights into the Recognition, Binding and Reactivity of Catalytic Metallodrugs Targeting Stem Loop IIb of Hepatitis C IRES RNA

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Seth S.; Ross, Martin James; Fidai, Insiya; Cowan, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Complex Cu-GGHYrFK-amide (1-Cu) was previously reported as a novel metallotherapeutic that catalytically inactivates stem loop IIb of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Internal Ribosomal Entry Site (IRES) RNA and demonstrates significant antiviral activity in a cellular HCV replicon assay. Herein are described additional studies focused on understanding the cleavage mechanism, as well as the relationship of catalyst configuration to structural recognition and site-selective cleavage of the structured RNA motif. These are advanced by use of a combination of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, melting temperature determination, and computational analysis to develop a structural model for binding and reactivity toward SLIIb of the IRES RNA. In addition, the binding, reactivity, and structural chemistry of the all d-amino acid form of this metallopeptide, complex 2-Cu, is reported and compared to complex 1-Cu. In vitro RNA binding and cleavage assays for complex 2-Cu show a KD of 76 ± 3 nM, and Michaelis-Menten parameters of kcat of 0.14 ± 0.01 min−1 and KM of 7.9 ± 1.2 µM, with a turnover number exceeding 40. In a luciferase-based cellular replicon assay Cu-GGhyrfk-amide shows activity similar to the parent peptide, complex 1-Cu, with IC50 of 1.9 ± 0.4 µM and cytotoxicity exceeding 100 µM. RT-PCR experiments confirm a significant reduction in HCV RNA levels in replicon assays for up to nine days when treated with complex 1-Cu in three day dosing increments. This study shows the influence that the α-carbon stereocenter has for this the new class of compounds, while detailed mass spectrometry and computational analysis provide new insights into the mechanisms of recognition, binding, and reactivity. PMID:24756921

  20. Minimal promoter systems reveal the importance of conserved residues in the B-finger of human transcription factor IIB.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Nancy E; Glaser, Bryan T; Foley, Katherine M; Burton, Zachary F; Burgess, Richard R

    2009-09-11

    The "B-finger" of transcription factor IIB (TFIIB) is highly conserved and believed to play a role in the initiation process. We performed alanine substitutions across the B-finger of human TFIIB, made change-of-charge mutations in selected residues, and substituted the B-finger sequence from other organisms. Mutant proteins were examined in two minimal promoter systems (containing only RNA polymerase II, TATA-binding protein, and TFIIB) and in a complex system, using TFIIB-immunodepleted HeLa cell nuclear extract (NE). Mutations in conserved residues located on the sides of the B-finger had the greatest effect on activity in both minimal promoter systems, with mutations in residues Glu-51 and Arg-66 eliminating activity. The double change-of-charge mutant (E51R:R66E) did not show activity in either minimal promoter system. Mutations in the nonconserved residues at the tip of the B-finger did not significantly affect activity. However, all of the mutations in the B-finger showed at least 25% activity in the HeLa cell NE. Chimeric proteins, containing B-finger sequences from species with conserved residues on the side of the B-finger, showed wild-type activity in a minimal promoter system and in the HeLa cell NE. However, chimeric proteins whose sequence showed divergence on the sides of the B-finger had reduced activity. Transcription factor IIF (TFIIF) partially restored activity of the inactive mutants in the minimal promoter system, suggesting that TFIIF in HeLa cell NE helps to rescue the inactive mutations by interacting with either the B-finger or another component of the initiation complex that is influenced by the B-finger. PMID:19590095

  1. Immunisation against αIIbβ3 and αvβ3 in a type 1 variant of Glanzmann's thrombasthenia caused by a missense mutation Gly540Asp on β3.

    PubMed

    Wihadmadyatami, Hevi; Röder, Lida; Berghöfer, Heike; Bein, Gregor; Heidinger, Kathrin; Sachs, Ulrich J; Santoso, Sentot

    2016-08-01

    Treatment of bleeding in patients with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT) can be hampered by iso-antibodies against the αIIbβ3 integrin, which cause rapid clearance of transfused donor platelets. Type 1 GT patients with a total absence of αIIbβ3 from the platelet surface are known to be susceptible to form such isoantibodies. In this study, we describe a type 1 GT patient with a missense mutation (Gly540Asn) located in the EGF3 domain of the β3 integrin subunit. Cotransfection analysis in CHO cells demonstrates total absence of αIIbβ3 from the surface, based on inappropriate αIIb maturation. The patient's serum was reactive with αIIbβ3 and αvβ3 integrins in a capture assay, when platelets and endothelial cells were used. Two specificities could be isolated from the patient's serum, anti-αIIbβ3 and anti-αvβ3 isoantibodies. Both specificities did not interfere with platelet aggregation. In contrast, isoantibodies against αvβ3, but not against αIIbβ3, were able to disturb endothelial cell adhesion onto vitronectin, triggered endothelial cell apoptosis and interfered with endothelial tube formation. This intriguing finding may explain more recently observed features of fetal/neonatal iso-immune thrombocytopenia in children from type 1 GT mothers with intracranial haemorrhage, which could be related to anti-endothelial activity of the maternal antibodies. In conclusion, we give evidence that two isoantibody entities exist in type 1 GT patients, which are unequivocally different, both in an immunological and functional sense. Further research on the clinical consequences of immunisation against αvβ3 is required, predominantly in GT patients of childbearing age. PMID:27098940

  2. A comparison of the fibrinogen receptor distribution on adherent platelets using both soluble fibrinogen and fibrinogen immobilized on gold beads.

    PubMed

    Estry, D W; Mattson, J C; Mahoney, G J; Oesterle, J R

    1991-04-01

    The distribution of fibrinogen receptors was determined on the surface of adherent platelets using both direct labeling with the ligand fibrinogen which was immobilized on gold particles (Fg-Au) and indirect immunogold (Ig-Au) labeling of bound soluble fibrinogen identified with a rabbit polyclonal anti-fibrinogen antibody. Two distinctly different patterns of labeling were obtained and appeared to depend on whether solid phase fibrinogen (Fg-Au) or soluble phase released fibrinogen were bound to the membrane receptor. The membrane-bound Fg-Au reorganized in patterns that closely mimicked the organization of the underlying cytoskeleton. In approximately 18% of the adherent platelets, Fg-Au was seen in channels or vesicle-like structures lying deep to the platelet surface suggesting internalization into the open canalicular system and/or endocytosis. The labeling pattern obtained when identifying the location of membrane-bound soluble released fibrinogen by Ig-Au was diffuse and lacked the organizational patterns characteristic of Fg-Au. Unlike the Fg-Au probe, early dendritic platelets were heavily labeled by the soluble phase fibrinogen using the Ig-Au technique. Although the label covered the entire exposed platelet membrane in fully spread platelets, labeling over the peripheral web was more dense than that over the intermediate or granulomere zone. The diffuse organization and heavier peripheral distributional pattern of the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa (GP IIb-IIIa) receptor in fixed, adherent platelets, was also seen with the GP IIb-IIIa receptor-specific antibody AP-2. The binding of both the Fg-Au and Ig-Au were inhibited using the tetrapeptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS) (93% and 98% inhibition, respectively), AP-2 (98% and 97%, respectively) and platelets from patients with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT) (99% and 98%, respectively). The data presented provides the first report that receptor reorganization, following binding of fibrinogen, appears to be related to

  3. Cholangiocyte Myosin IIB Is Required for Localized Aggregation of Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 1 to Sites of Cryptosporidium parvum Cellular Invasion and Facilitates Parasite Internalization ▿

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Steven P.; Gajdos, Gabriella B.; Trussoni, Christy E.; Splinter, Patrick L.; LaRusso, Nicholas F.

    2010-01-01

    Internalization of the obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite, Cryptosporidium parvum, results in the formation of a unique intramembranous yet extracytoplasmic niche on the apical surfaces of host epithelial cells, a process that depends on host cell membrane extension. We previously demonstrated that efficient C. parvum invasion of biliary epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) requires host cell actin polymerization and localized membrane translocation/insertion of Na+/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and of aquaporin 1 (Aqp1), a water channel, at the attachment site. The resultant localized water influx facilitates parasite cellular invasion by promoting host-cell membrane protrusion. However, the molecular mechanisms by which C. parvum induces membrane translocation/insertion of SGLT1/Aqp1 are obscure. We report here that cultured human cholangiocytes express several nonmuscle myosins, including myosins IIA and IIB. Moreover, C. parvum infection of cultured cholangiocytes results in the localized selective aggregation of myosin IIB but not myosin IIA at the region of parasite attachment, as assessed by dual-label immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Concordantly, treatment of cells with the myosin light chain kinase inhibitor ML-7 or the myosin II-specific inhibitor blebbistatin or selective RNA-mediated repression of myosin IIB significantly inhibits (P < 0.05) C. parvum cellular invasion (by 60 to 80%). Furthermore ML-7 and blebbistatin significantly decrease (P < 0.02) C. parvum-induced accumulation of SGLT1 at infection sites (by approximately 80%). Thus, localized actomyosin-dependent membrane translocation of transporters/channels initiated by C. parvum is essential for membrane extension and parasite internalization, a phenomenon that may also be relevant to the mechanisms of cell membrane protrusion in general. PMID:20457792

  4. Myosin IIB and F-actin control apical vacuolar morphology and histamine-induced trafficking of H-K-ATPase-containing tubulovesicles in gastric parietal cells

    PubMed Central

    Crothers, James M.; Rosen, Jared E.; Nakada, Stephanie L.; Rakholia, Milap; Okamoto, Curtis T.; Forte, John G.; Machen, Terry E.

    2014-01-01

    Selective inhibitors of myosin or actin function and confocal microscopy were used to test the role of an actomyosin complex in controlling morphology, trafficking, and fusion of tubulovesicles (TV) containing H-K-ATPase with the apical secretory canaliculus (ASC) of primary-cultured rabbit gastric parietal cells. In resting cells, myosin IIB and IIC, ezrin, and F-actin were associated with ASC, whereas H-K-ATPase localized to intracellular TV. Histamine caused fusion of TV with ASC and subsequent expansion resulting from HCl and water secretion; F-actin and ezrin remained associated with ASC whereas myosin IIB and IIC appeared to dissociate from ASC and relocalize to the cytoplasm. ML-7 (inhibits myosin light chain kinase) caused ASC of resting cells to collapse and most myosin IIB, F-actin, and ezrin to dissociate from ASC. TV were unaffected by ML-7. Jasplakinolide (stabilizes F-actin) caused ASC to develop large blebs to which actin, myosin II, and ezrin, as well as tubulin, were prominently localized. When added prior to stimulation, ML-7 and jasplakinolide prevented normal histamine-stimulated transformations of ASC/TV and the cytoskeleton, but they did not affect cells that had been previously stimulated with histamine. These results indicate that dynamic pools of actomyosin are required for maintenance of ASC structure in resting cells and for trafficking of TV to ASC during histamine stimulation. However, the dynamic pools of actomyosin are not required once the histamine-stimulated transformation of TV/ASC and cytoskeleton has occurred. These results also show that vesicle trafficking in parietal cells shares mechanisms with similar processes in renal collecting duct cells, neuronal synapses, and skeletal muscle. PMID:24578340

  5. Long-lasting X-ray emission from type IIb supernova 2011dh and mass-loss history of the yellow supergiant progenitor

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Keiichi; Katsuda, Satoru; Bamba, Aya; Terada, Yukikatsu; Fukazawa, Yasushi

    2014-04-20

    Type IIb supernova (SN) 2011dh, with conclusive detection of an unprecedented yellow supergiant (YSG) progenitor, provides an excellent opportunity to deepen our understanding on the massive star evolution in the final centuries toward the SN explosion. In this paper, we report on detection and analyses of thermal X-ray emission from SN IIb 2011dh at ∼500 days after the explosion on Chandra archival data, providing a solidly derived mass-loss rate of a YSG progenitor for the first time. We find that the circumstellar media should be dense, more than that expected from a Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star by one order of magnitude. The emission is powered by a reverse shock penetrating into an outer envelope, fully consistent with the YSG progenitor but not with a W-R progenitor. The density distribution at the outermost ejecta is much steeper than that expected from a compact W-R star, and this finding must be taken into account in modeling the early UV/optical emission from SNe IIb. The derived mass-loss rate is ∼3 × 10{sup –6} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for the mass-loss velocity of ∼20 km s{sup –1} in the final ∼1300 yr before the explosion. The derived mass-loss properties are largely consistent with the standard wind mass-loss expected for a giant star. This is not sufficient to be a main driver to expel nearly all the hydrogen envelope. Therefore, the binary interaction, with a huge mass transfer having taken place at ≳ 1300 yr before the explosion, is a likely scenario to produce the YSG progenitor.

  6. Variation in One Residue Associated with the Metal Ion-Dependent Adhesion Site Regulates αIIbβ3 Integrin Ligand Binding Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xue; Xiu, Zhilong; Li, Guohui; Luo, Bing-Hao

    2013-01-01

    The Asp of the RGD motif of the ligand coordinates with the β I domain metal ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) divalent cation, emphasizing the importance of the MIDAS in ligand binding. There appears to be two distinct groups of integrins that differ in their ligand binding affinity and adhesion ability. These differences may be due to a specific residue associated with the MIDAS, particularly the β3 residue Ala252 and corresponding Ala in the β1 integrin compared to the analogous Asp residue in the β2 and β7 integrins. Interestingly, mutations in the adjacent to MIDAS (ADMIDAS) of integrins α4β7 and αLβ2 increased the binding and adhesion abilities compared to the wild-type, while the same mutations in the α2β1, α5β1, αVβ3, and αIIbβ3 integrins demonstrated decreased ligand binding and adhesion. We introduced a mutation in the αIIbβ3 to convert this MIDAS associated Ala252 to Asp. By combination of this mutant with mutations of one or two ADMIDAS residues, we studied the effects of this residue on ligand binding and adhesion. Then, we performed molecular dynamics simulations on the wild-type and mutant αIIbβ3 integrin β I domains, and investigated the dynamics of metal ion binding sites in different integrin-RGD complexes. We found that the tendency of calculated binding free energies was in excellent agreement with the experimental results, suggesting that the variation in this MIDAS associated residue accounts for the differences in ligand binding and adhesion among different integrins, and it accounts for the conflicting results of ADMIDAS mutations within different integrins. This study sheds more light on the role of the MIDAS associated residue pertaining to ligand binding and adhesion and suggests that this residue may play a pivotal role in integrin-mediated cell rolling and firm adhesion. PMID:24116162

  7. The antithrombotic activity of EP224283, a neutralizable dual factor Xa inhibitor/glycoprotein IIbIIIa antagonist, exceeds that of the coadministered parent compounds.

    PubMed

    Hechler, Béatrice; Freund, Monique; Alame, Ghina; Leguay, Cécile; Gaertner, Sébastien; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Petitou, Maurice; Gachet, Christian

    2011-08-01

    EP224283 combines in a single molecule idraparinux and tirofiban, which allows obtaining a predictable and sustained antiplatelet effect through the transfer of the pharmacokinetics properties of idraparinux to the anti-αIIbβ3 antagonist. The activity can be instantaneously neutralized by injection of avidin, a specific antidote. We have tested the effects of this new profile anticoagulant in various thrombosis models. The antithrombotic effect of EP224283 was compared with those of the parent compounds used alone or in association at doses achieving low to moderate inhibition of platelet aggregation ex vivo. In a model of systemic thromboembolism independent of thrombin generation, tirofiban and EP224283 had similar effects at equimolar doses. On the other hand, EP224283 was more potent than tirofiban or idraparinux under thrombin-dependent conditions. In a ferric chloride-induced thrombosis model, EP224283 was more potent than either parent compound or their combination. Similar results were obtained after atherosclerotic plaque rupture in ApoE(-/-) mice. Thus, the dual action of EP224283 exceeds that of the parent compounds used in combination. A possible explanation is that EP224283 could concentrate antithrombin inside the thrombus by binding to αIIbβ3 through the tirofiban moiety, as shown by immunolabeling of the occluded vessel. No prolongation of the bleeding time was observed at doses achieving strong antithrombotic effects, suggesting that low to moderate αIIbβ3 inhibition combined with factor Xa inhibition minimizes the bleeding risk. The favorable antithrombotic profile of EP224283 together with its possible neutralization by avidin makes it an interesting drug candidate for the treatment and prevention of acute ischemic events. PMID:21527535

  8. Roles for GP IIb/IIIa and αvβ3 integrins in MDA-MB-231 cell invasion and shear flow-induced cancer cell mechanotransduction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fenglong; Li, Li; Guan, Liuyuan; Yang, Hong; Wu, Chunhui; Liu, Yiyao

    2014-03-01

    Adhesion of cancer cell to endothelial cells and the subsequent trans-endothelial migration are key steps in hematogenous metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms of cancer cell/endothelial cell interaction under hemodynamic shear flow and how shear flow-induced cancer cell mechanotransduction are yet to be fully defined. In this study, we identified that the integrins of both platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GP IIb/IIIa) and αvβ3 were crucial for hematogenous metastasis of human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. The cell migration and invasion were studied by using Millicell cell culture insert system. The numbers of invaded MDA-MB-231 cells significantly increased by thrombin-activated platelets and reduced by eptifibatide, a platelet inhibitor. Meanwhile, RGDWE peptides, a specific inhibitor of αvβ3 integrin, also inhibited MDA-MB-231 cell invasion. We further used a parallel-plate flow chamber to investigate MDA-MB-231 cell adhesion under flow conditions. Alike in static condition, the adhesion capability of MDA-MB-231 cells to endothelial monolayer was also significantly affected by GP IIb/IIIa and αvβ3 integrins. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9 and αvβ3 integrin in MDA-MB-231 cells were up-regulated after low shear stress exposure (1.84 dynes/cm(2), 2 h). Moreover, we also demonstrated that low shear stress induced a sustained activation of p85 (a regulatory subunit of PI3K) and Akt. Pre-treating MDA-MB-231 cells with the specific PI3K inhibitor of LY294002 abolished the shear stress induced-Akt activation, and the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and αvβ3 integrin were also down-regulated. Immunofluorescence assay showed that low shear stress also induced αvβ3 integrin clustering and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. Interestingly, shear stress-induced activation of Akt and NF-κB was attenuated by LM609, a specific antibody of αvβ3 integrin. It suggests that αvβ3

  9. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for carcinoma of the cervix - Stages IIB, IIIA, IIIB, and IVA: results of a randomized study by the radiation therapy oncology group

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, L.W.; Plenk,H.P.; Hanley, J.A.

    1981-08-01

    A total of 65 patients with Stage IIB, IIIA, IIIB or IVA carcinoma of the cervix were randomized to receive conventional radiation therapy in air or hyperbaric oxygen therapy with radiation at optimal schedules. Seven patients could not be evaluated. Of the 19 patients treated in oxygen, 14 (73%) were living or had died without evidence of disease. Of the 29 patients treated with radiation alone 15 (52%) were alive or had died without evidence of tumor. Two of 29 patients treated in air and 5 of 19 patients treated in oxygen were dead of complications or intercurrent disease. No significant difference in survival could be demonstrated.

  10. Platelet receptors and signaling in the dynamics of thrombus formation

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, José; Lozano, María Luisa; Navarro-Núñez, Leyre; Vicente, Vicente

    2009-01-01

    Hemostasis and pathological thrombus formation are dynamic processes that require a co-ordinated series of events involving platelet membrane receptors, bidirectional intracellular signals, and release of platelet proteins and inflammatory substances. This review aims to summarize current knowledge in the key steps in the dynamics of thrombus formation, with special emphasis on the crucial participation of platelet receptors and signaling in this process. Initial tethering and firm adhesion of platelets to the exposed subendothelium is mediated by glycoprotein (GP) Ib/IX/V complex and collagen receptors, GP VI and α2β1 integrin, in the platelet surface, and by VWF and fibrillar collagen in the vascular site. Interactions between these elements are largely influenced by flow and trigger signaling events that reinforce adhesion and promote platelet activation. Thereafter, soluble agonists, ADP, thrombin, TxA2, produced/released at the site of vascular injury act in autocrine and paracrine mode to amplify platelet activation and to recruit circulating platelets to the developing thrombus. Specific interactions of these agonists with their G-protein coupled receptors generate inside-out signaling leading to conformational activation of integrins, in particular αIIbβ3, increasing their ligand affinity. Binding of αIIbβ3 to its ligands, mainly fibrinogen, supports processes such as clot retraction and platelet aggregation. Stabilization of thrombi is supported by the late wave of signaling events promoted by close contact between aggregated platelets. The best known contact-dependent signaling is outside-in signaling through αIb β3, but new ones are being clarified such as those mediated by interaction of Eph receptors with ephrins, or by Sema 4D and Gas-6 binding to their receptors. Finally, newly identified mechanisms appear to control thrombus growth, including back-shifting of activated integrins and actuation of compensatory molecules such as ESAM or PECAM-1

  11. Taking Personalized Medicine Seriously: Biomarker Approaches in Phase IIb/III Studies in Major Depression and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Laughren, Thomas; Lamers, Femke; Picard, Rosalind; Walther, Sebastian; Goff, Donald; Sainati, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    and integration of such markers into clinical research is both required and feasible in order to meet the benefit of personalized medicine. This article is based on proceedings from the “Taking Personalized Medicine Seriously—Biomarker Approaches in Phase IIb/III Studies in Major Depression and Schizophrenia” session, which was held during the 10th Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Society for Clinical Trials Meeting (ISCTM) in Washington, DC, February 18 to 20, 2014. PMID:25977838

  12. Phase IIB/III Trial of Tenecteplase in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Results of a Prematurely Terminated Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haley, E. Clarke; Thompson, John L.P.; Grotta, James C.; Lyden, Patrick D.; Hemmen, Thomas G.; Brown, Devin L.; Fanale, Christopher; Libman, Richard; Kwiatkowski, Thomas G.; Llinas, Rafael H.; Levine, Steven R.; Johnston, Karen C.; Buchsbaum, Richard; Levy, Gilberto; Levin, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Background: Intravenous alteplase (rt-PA) remains the only approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke, but its use remains limited. In a previous pilot dose-escalation study, intravenous tenecteplase showed promise as a potentially safer alternative. Therefore, a Phase IIB clinical trial was begun to a) choose a best dose of tenecteplase to carry forward, and b) to provide evidence for either promise or futility of further testing of tenecteplase versus rt-PA. If promise was established, then the trial would continue as a Phase III efficacy trial comparing the selected tenecteplase dose to standard rt-PA. Methods: The trial began as a small, multi-center, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial comparing 0.1, 0.25, and 0.4 mg/kg tenecteplase with standard 0.9 mg/kg rt-PA in patients with acute stroke within 3 hours of onset. An adaptive sequential design used an early (24 hour) assessment of major neurological improvement balanced against occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) to choose a “best” dose of tenecteplase to carry forward. Once a “best” dose was established, the trial was to continue until at least 100 pairs of the selected tenecteplase dose versus standard rt-PA could be compared by 3 month outcome using the modified Rankin Scale in an interim analysis. Decision rules were devised to yield a clear recommendation to either stop for futility or to continue into Phase III. Results: The trial was prematurely terminated for slow enrollment after only 112 patients had been randomized at 8 clinical centers between 2006 and 2008. The 0.4 mg/kg dose was discarded as inferior after only 73 patients were randomized, but the selection procedure was still unable to distinguish between 0.1 mg/kg and 0.25 mg/kg as a propitious dose at the time the trial was stopped. There were no statistically persuasive differences in 3 month outcomes between the remaining tenecteplase groups and rt-PA. Symptomatic ICH rates were highest in the

  13. Ultrastructural and biochemical analysis of fibrinogen receptors on activated thrombocytes

    SciTech Connect

    O'Toole, E.T.