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Sample records for activities affecting quality

  1. Positive affect and pain: mediators of the within-day relation linking sleep quality to activity interference in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Dhwani J; Davis, Mary C; Yeung, Ellen W; Tennen, Howard A

    2015-03-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain condition often resulting in functional impairments. Nonrestorative sleep is a prominent symptom of FM that is related to disability, but the day-to-day mechanisms relating the prior night's sleep quality to next-day reports of disability have not been examined. This study examined the within-day relations among early-morning reports of sleep quality last night, late-morning reports of pain and positive and negative affect, and end-of-day reports of activity interference. Specifically, we tested whether pain, positive affect, and negative affect mediated the association between sleep quality and subsequent activity interference. Data were drawn from electronic diary reports collected from 220 patients with FM for 21 consecutive days. The direct and mediated effects at the within-person level were estimated with multilevel structural equation modeling. Results showed that pain and positive affect mediated the relation between sleep quality and activity interference. Early-morning reports of poor sleep quality last night predicted elevated levels of pain and lower levels of positive affect at late-morning, which, in turn, predicted elevated end-of-day activity interference. Of note, positive affect was a stronger mediator than pain and negative affect was not a significant mediator. In summary, the findings identify 2 parallel mechanisms, pain and positive affect, through which the prior night's sleep quality predicts disability the next day in patients with FM. Furthermore, results highlight the potential utility of boosting positive affect after a poor night's sleep as one means of preserving daily function in FM. PMID:25679472

  2. Physical Activity, Menopause, and Quality of Life: The Role of Affect and Self-Worth across Time

    PubMed Central

    Elavsky, Steriani

    2009-01-01

    Objective Physical activity has been shown to enhance quality of life, however, few investigations of these effects exist in women undergoing the menopausal transition. The present study examined the long-term effects of physical activity on menopause-related quality of life (QOL) and tested the mediating effects of physical self-worth and positive affect in this relationship. Design Middle-aged women previously enrolled in a 4-month randomized controlled trial involving walking, yoga, and a control group completed a follow-up mail-in survey two years following the end of the trial. The survey included a battery of psychological and physical activity measures, including measures of menopausal symptoms and menopause-related quality of life. Longitudinal linear panel analysis was conducted within a covariance modeling framework to test whether physical self-worth and positive affect mediated the physical activity - quality of life relationship over time. Results At the end of the trial, physical activity and menopausal symptoms were related to physical self-worth and positive affect, and in turn, greater levels of physical self-worth and positive affect were associated with higher levels of menopause-related QOL. Analyses indicated that increases in physical activity and decreases in menopausal symptoms over the 2-year period were related to increases in physical self-worth (βs = .23 and −.52) and for symptoms also to decreased positive affect (β = −.47), and both physical self-worth (β = .34) and affect (β = .43) directly influenced enhancements in QOL (R2 = .775). Conclusions The findings support the position that physical activity effects on QOL are in part mediated by intermediate psychological outcomes and that physical activity can have long-term benefits for women undergoing the menopausal transition. PMID:19169167

  3. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality

    PubMed Central

    MOSADEGHRAD, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Results Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Conclusion Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality. PMID:26060745

  4. Factors Affecting the Quality of Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Larry O.

    A review of the literature concerning the effectiveness and quality of staff development programs focuses on factors that affect the success of such programs. These factors include: individual concerns, training activities, applications, qualifications of consultants, scheduling, strategies, facilities, feedback, collaboration, and outcomes. It is…

  5. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph

    2015-09-01

    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  6. Response of antioxidant activity and sensory quality in fresh-cut pear as affected by high O2,active packaging compared with low O2 packaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of active modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, initial O2/CO2: 5/5; 30/5; 80/0) and passive packaging (initial O2/CO2: 20.8/0 (air)) on the antioxidant capacity and sensory quality of fresh-cut ‘Yaoshan’ pear stored at 4C for 12 days were investigated. Samples stored in high O2 (30% and 80%) ...

  7. Physical activity and quality of life among university students: exploring self-efficacy, self-esteem, and affect as potential mediators

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Royse, Kathryn E.; Benitez, Tanya J.; Pekmezi, Dorothy W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Physical activity (PA) has been shown to enhance quality of life (QOL) in older adults. Findings from these studies indicate that the relationship between PA and QOL is indirect and likely mediated by variables such as physical self-esteem, exercise self-efficacy, and affect. As PA varies greatly by age, the purpose of the current study is to extend this area of research to young adults and explore the complex relationship between PA and QOL in this target population. Methods Data were collected via anonymous questionnaire from N = 590 undergraduate students. PA was assessed with the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, and QOL was assessed by the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Path analysis was used to test the relationship between PA and QOL, with mediators of exercise self-efficacy, physical self-esteem, and affect. Results The PA model (RMSEA = .03, CFI = .99) accounted for 25 % of the variance in QOL. PA had positive direct effects on exercise self-efficacy (β = .28, P < .001), physical self-esteem (β = .10, P < .001), positive affect (β = .10, P < .05), and negative affect (β = .08, P < .05). Physical self-esteem was found to be the most powerful mediating variable on QOL (β = .30, P < .001), followed by positive affect (β = .27, P < .001) and negative affect (β = .14, P < .001). Conclusion Physical self-esteem and, to a lesser extent, positive affect emerged as integral components in the link between PA and QOL. Findings suggest that health education programs designed to promote regular PA and increase physical self-esteem may be effective in improving QOL in young adults. PMID:23928820

  8. Colored light-quality selective plastic films affect anthocyanin content, enzyme activities, and the expression of flavonoid genes in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit.

    PubMed

    Miao, Lixiang; Zhang, Yuchao; Yang, Xiaofang; Xiao, Jinping; Zhang, Huiqin; Zhang, Zuofa; Wang, Yuezhi; Jiang, Guihua

    2016-09-15

    The influence of colored light-quality selective plastic films (red, yellow, green, blue, and white) on the content of anthocyanin, the activities of the related enzymes and the transcripts of the flavonoid gene was studied in developing strawberry fruit. The results indicated that colored films had highly significant effects on the total anthocyanin content (TAC) and proportions of individual anthocyanins. Compared with the white control film, the red and yellow films led to the significant increase of TAC, while the green and blue films caused a decrease of TAC. Colored film treatments also significantly affected the related enzyme activity and the expression of structural genes and transcription factor genes, which suggested that the enhancement of TAC by the red and yellow films might have resulted from the activation of related enzymes and transcription factor genes in the flavonoid pathway. Treatment with red and yellow light-quality selective plastic films might be useful as a supplemental cultivation practice for enhancing the anthocyanin content in developing strawberry fruit. PMID:27080884

  9. Affect, Meaning and Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Research on quality of life in sociology is largely focused on a narrow range of dimensions including affect, happiness and satisfaction. It largely avoids a concern with the meanings that provide people with the purpose, significance, validity and coherence that are a basis of social relationships and social integration. Evidence is presented…

  10. Watermelon quality traits as affected by ploidy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers offering high quality watermelons [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.), Matsum & Nakai] that are also high in phytonutrients will have stronger market opportunities. In order to offer highly nutritious fruit, the industry must understand the nature of phytonutrient accumulation as it is affected by ...

  11. Nonmotion factors which can affect ride quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Data pertaining to nonmotion factors affecting ride quality of transport aircraft were obtained as part of NASA in-house and sponsored research studies carried out onboard commuter-airline and research aircraft. From these data, quantitative effects on passenger discomfort of seat width, seat legroom, change in cabin pressure, and cabin noise are presented. Visual cue effects are also discussed.

  12. Factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanski, M.L.; Higgins, J.M.; Kim, B.R.; Young, R.C.

    1980-07-01

    The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the project findings to date and suggests steps for upgrading the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section II presents background information on the characteristics of the basin, the reservoir, and the beneficial uses of the reservoir. Section III identifies the impacts of existing reservoir water quality on uses of the reservoir for water supply, fishery resources, recreation, and waste assimilation. Section IV presents an assessment of cause-effect relationships. The factors affecting water quality addressed in Section IV are: (1) reservoir thermal stratification and hydrodynamics; (2) dissolved oxygen depletion; (3) eutrophication; (4) toxic substances; and (5) reservoir fisheries. Section V presents a preliminary evaluation of alternatives for improving the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section VI presents preliminary conclusions and recommendations for developing and implementing a reservoir water quality management plan. 7 references, 22 figures, 21 tables.

  13. Response of antioxidant activity and sensory quality in fresh-cut pear as affected by high O(2) active packaging in comparison with low O(2) packaging.

    PubMed

    Li, W L; Li, X H; Fan, X; Tang, Y; Yun, J

    2012-06-01

    Effects of active modified atmosphere packaging (initial O(2)/CO(2): 5/5; 30/5; and 80/0) and passive packaging [initial O(2)/CO(2): 20.8/0 (air)] on the antioxidant capacity and sensory quality of fresh-cut 'Yaoshan' pear stored at 4 °C for 12 days were investigated. Samples stored in high O(2) (30% and 80%) packages had higher phenolics and anthocyanin contents compared with those in passive and low O(2) packages. After 12 days of storage, phenolics and anthocyanin contents of 80% O(2) samples were 2.5 and 12 times, respectively, higher than those in the passive package and 3 and 2 times higher than those in low O(2) package. High O(2) modified atmosphere packaging was effective in keeping free radical scavenging capacity as measured by the DPPH assay. The sensory evaluation indicated that surface color of cut fruits were stable for at least 12 days in the high O(2) modified atmosphere packaging. The results suggested that high O(2) modified atmosphere packaging could be used to inhibit browning and prolong the shelf life of fresh-cut 'Yaoshan' pears in spite of more than 50% loss in vitamin C content. PMID:22397831

  14. Can Supersaturation Affect Protein Crystal Quality?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    In quiescent environments (microgravity, capillary tubes, gels) formation of a depletion zone is to be expected, due either to limited sedimentation, density driven convection or a combination of both. The formation of a depletion zone can: Modify solution supersaturation near crystal; Give rise to impurity partitioning. It is conjectured that both supersaturation and impurity partitioning affect protein crystal quality and size. Further detailed investigations on various proteins are needed to assess above hypothesis.

  15. Can Solution Supersaturation Affect Protein Crystal Quality?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    The formation of large protein crystals of "high quality" is considered a characteristic manifestation of microgravity. The physical processes that predict the formation of large, high quality protein crystals in the microgravity environment of space are considered rooted in the existence of a "depletion zone" in the vicinity of crystal. Namely, it is considered reasonable that crystal quality suffers in earth-grown crystals as a result of the incorporation of large aggregates, micro-crystals and/or large molecular weight "impurities", processes which are aided by density driven convective flow or mixing at the crystal-liquid interface. Sedimentation and density driven convection produce unfavorable solution conditions in the vicinity of the crystal surface, which promotes rapid crystal growth to the detriment of crystal size and quality. In this effort, we shall further present the hypothesis that the solution supersaturatoin at the crystal surface determines the growth mechanism, or mode, by which protein crystals grow. It is further hypothesized that protein crystal quality is affected by the mechanism or mode of crystal growth. Hence the formation of a depletion zone in microgravity environment is beneficial due to inhibition of impurity incorporatoin as well as preventing a kinetic roughening transition. It should be noted that for many proteins the magnitude of neither protein crystal growth rates nor solution supersaturation are predictors of a kinetic roughening transition. That is, the kinetic roughening transition supersaturation must be dtermined for each individual protein.

  16. [Factors that affect inpatients' quality of sleep].

    PubMed

    da Costa, Shíntia Viana; Ceolim, Maria Filomena

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that interfere with the sleep quality of patients admitted to a university hospital in a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. This was an exploratory, cross sectional study using non-probability sampling. Participants were 117 patients (59% men, mean age 48.0 years, standard deviation 16.9) hospitalized for at least 72 hours in stable clinical condition. The data were collected with an identification questionnaire and the Factors Affecting Sleep Quality (FASQ) questionnaire. Data processing was performed with descriptive statistics; each item of the FASQ underwent a test and a retest. The factors most often reported were waking up early (55.6%), disrupted sleep (52.1%), excessive lighting (34.2%), receipt of care by nursing staff (33.3%) and organic disorders such as pain and fatigue (26.5%). It is suggested that nurses should plan interventions to modify factors that require intense noise and lighting at night in order to reduce disruption and, consequently, sleep deprivation among patients. PMID:23515802

  17. Undernutrition affects embryo quality of superovulated ewes.

    PubMed

    Abecia, J A; Forcada, F; Palacín, I; Sánchez-Prieto, L; Sosa, C; Fernández-Foren, A; Meikle, A

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effect of undernutrition on embryo production and quality in superovulated sheep, 45 ewes were allocated into two groups to be fed diets that provided 1.5 (control, C; n = 20) or 0.5 (low nutrition, L; n = 25) times daily requirements for maintenance, from oestrous synchronization with intravaginal sponges to embryo collection. Embryos were collected 7 days after the onset of oestrus (day 0). Low nutrition resulted in lower live weight and body condition at embryo collection (P < 0.05). Diet (P < 0.01) and day of sampling (P < 0.001) significantly affected plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and insulin concentrations. Plasma leptin concentrations decreased on day 7 only in L ewes. A significant effect of dietary treatment (P < 0.05) and day (P < 0.0001) was observed on plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations. The number of recovered oocytes and embryos did not differ between the groups (L: 15.4 ± 0.4; C: 12.4 ± 0.4). Recovery rate was lower (P < 0.05) in the L (60%) than in the C group (73%). The total number of embryos and number of viable-transferable embryos (5.0 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.3 embryos, respectively) of the L group were lower (P < 0.1) when compared with controls (8.4 ± 0.4 and 6.2 ± 0.4 embryos, respectively). Undernutrition during the period of superovulation and early embryonic development reduced total and viable number of embryos. These effects might be mediated by disruption of endocrine homeostasis, oviduct environment and/or oocyte quality. PMID:24103562

  18. Potentially bioaccessible phenolics, antioxidant activity and nutritional quality of young buckwheat sprouts affected by elicitation and elicitation supported by phenylpropanoid pathway precursor feeding.

    PubMed

    Świeca, Michał

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the study on impact of elicitation and the phenylpropanoid pathway feeding on the nutritional quality, the potentially bioaccessible phenolics and the antioxidant capacity of young buckwheat sprouts. Phenolics content was increased by elicitation and feeding with tyrosine and shikimic acid--an elevation of 30% and 17%, respectively. Antioxidant capacity was improved by feeding with tyrosine--an increase of 16.7% and 17.1% in both untreated and treated sprouts, respectively. The highest protein digestibility was determined for the control sprouts and those obtained after tyrosine feeding. The lowest starch digestibility was found for elicited sprouts obtained from seeds fed with tyrosine (a decrease by 52%). An increase of expected glycemic index by 38% was determined for elicited sprouts obtained after phenylalanine feeding. Starch and protein digestibility were negatively correlated with total phenolics (r = -0.55 and -0.58, respectively), however starch digestibility was also affected by resistant starch content. PMID:26304392

  19. Factors affecting enhanced video quality preferences

    PubMed Central

    Satgunam, PremNandhini; Woods, Russell L; Bronstad, P Matthew; Peli, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The development of video quality metrics requires methods for measuring perceived video quality. Most such metrics are designed and tested using databases of images degraded by compression and scored using opinion ratings. We studied video quality preferences for enhanced images of normally-sighted participants using the method of paired comparisons with a thorough statistical analysis. Participants (n=40) made pair-wise comparisons of high definition (HD) video clips enhanced at four different levels using a commercially available enhancement device. Perceptual scales were computed with binary logistic regression to estimate preferences for each level and to provide statistical inference of the differences among levels and the impact of other variables. While moderate preference for enhanced videos was found, two unexpected effects were also uncovered: (1) Participants could be broadly classified into two groups: those who preferred enhancement ("Sharp") and those who disliked enhancement ("Smooth"). (2) Enhancement preferences depended on video content, particularly for human faces to be enhanced less. The results suggest that algorithms to evaluate image quality (at least for enhancement) may need to be adjusted or applied differentially based on video content and viewer preferences. The possible impact of similar effects on image quality of compressed video needs to be evaluated. PMID:24107400

  20. Factors Affecting School Quality in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Barry; Arbogast, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the factors that are theorized to be determinants of school quality in the 67 counties of Florida from 2000 to 2011. The model constructed for this purpose is comprised of a mix of independent variables that include county educational attainment (number of high school graduates and State University System enrollees) and…

  1. Rotation of Boar Semen Doses During Storage Affects Sperm Quality.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M; Rüdiger, K; Waberski, D

    2015-08-01

    It is common practice to rotate boar semen doses during storage for prevention of sperm sedimentation. In this study, the effect of rotation of boar semen doses during storage on sperm quality was investigated. Manual turning twice daily and automatic rotation five times per hour resulted in the following effects: alkalinization of the BTS-extender, loss of membrane integrity at day 3, and loss of motility and changes in sperm kinematics during a thermoresistance test at day 5. Using a pH-stabilized variant of BTS extender, sperm motility and velocity decreased in continuously rotated samples, whereas membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity remain unaffected. It is concluded that rotation of semen samples adversely affects sperm quality and, therefore, should no longer be recommended for AI practice. PMID:25974759

  2. Mind Wandering, Sleep Quality, Affect and Chronotype: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Carciofo, Richard; Du, Feng; Song, Nan; Zhang, Kan

    2014-01-01

    Poor sleep quality impairs cognition, including executive functions and concentration, but there has been little direct research on the relationships between sleep quality and mind wandering or daydreaming. Evening chronotype is associated with poor sleep quality, more mind wandering and more daydreaming; negative affect is also a mutual correlate. This exploratory study investigated how mind wandering and daydreaming are related to different aspects of sleep quality, and whether sleep quality influences the relationships between mind wandering/daydreaming and negative affect, and mind wandering/daydreaming and chronotype. Three surveys (Ns = 213; 190; 270) were completed with Chinese adults aged 18–50, including measures of sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, mind wandering, daydreaming, chronotype and affect (positive and negative). Higher frequencies of mind wandering and daydreaming were associated with poorer sleep quality, in particular with poor subjective sleep quality and increased sleep latency, night-time disturbance, daytime dysfunction and daytime sleepiness. Poor sleep quality was found to partially mediate the relationships between daydreaming and negative affect, and mind wandering and negative affect. Additionally, low positive affect and poor sleep quality, in conjunction, fully mediated the relationships between chronotype and mind wandering, and chronotype and daydreaming. The relationships between mind wandering/daydreaming and positive affect were also moderated by chronotype, being weaker in those with a morning preference. Finally, while daytime sleepiness was positively correlated with daydream frequency, it was negatively correlated with a measure of problem-solving daydreams, indicating that more refined distinctions between different forms of daydreaming or mind wandering are warranted. Overall, the evidence is suggestive of a bi-directional relationship between poor sleep quality and mind wandering/daydreaming, which may be

  3. Teaching Affective Qualities in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidorn, Brent; Welch, Mindy M.

    2010-01-01

    Physical educators at all levels have observed learners in a school-based physical education setting as well as physical activity or sport settings outside of organized school curricula demonstrating behaviors deemed inappropriate or inconsistent with professional standards. Because sport is such a public, social, and international phenomenon,…

  4. Clinical factors affecting quality of life of patients with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Uchmanowicz, Bartosz; Panaszek, Bernard; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been increased interest in the subjective quality of life (QoL) of patients with bronchial asthma. QoL is a significant indicator guiding the efforts of professionals caring for patients, especially chronically ill ones. The identification of factors affecting the QoL reported by patients, despite their existing condition, is important and useful to provide multidisciplinary care for these patients. Aim To investigate the clinical factors affecting asthma patients’ QoL. Methods The study comprised 100 patients (73 female, 27 male) aged 18–84 years (mean age was 45.7) treated in the Allergy Clinic of the Wroclaw Medical University Department and Clinic of Internal Diseases, Geriatrics and Allergology. All asthma patients meeting the inclusion criteria were invited to participate. Data on sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected. In this study, we used medical record analysis and two questionnaires: the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) to assess the QoL of patients with asthma and the Asthma Control Test to measure asthma control. Results Active smokers were shown to have a significantly lower QoL in the “Symptoms” domain than nonsmokers (P=0.006). QoL was also demonstrated to decrease significantly as the frequency of asthma exacerbations increased (R=−0.231, P=0.022). QoL in the domain “Activity limitation” was shown to increase significantly along with the number of years of smoking (R=0.404; P=0.004). Time from onset and the dominant symptom of asthma significantly negatively affected QoL in the “Activity limitation” domain of the AQLQ (R=−0.316, P=0.001; P=0.029, respectively). QoL scores in the “Emotional function” and “Environmental stimuli” subscale of the AQLQ decreased significantly as time from onset increased (R=−0.200, P=0.046; R=−0.328, P=0.001, respectively). Conclusion Patients exhibiting better symptom control have higher QoL scores. Asthma patients’ Qo

  5. 28 CFR 55.15 - Affected activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.15 Affected... of applicable language minority groups to be effectively informed of and participate effectively in voting-connected activities. Accordingly, the quoted language should be broadly construed to apply to...

  6. 28 CFR 55.15 - Affected activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.15 Affected... of applicable language minority groups to be effectively informed of and participate effectively in voting-connected activities. Accordingly, the quoted language should be broadly construed to apply to...

  7. 28 CFR 55.15 - Affected activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.15 Affected... of applicable language minority groups to be effectively informed of and participate effectively in voting-connected activities. Accordingly, the quoted language should be broadly construed to apply to...

  8. 28 CFR 55.15 - Affected activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.15 Affected... of applicable language minority groups to be effectively informed of and participate effectively in voting-connected activities. Accordingly, the quoted language should be broadly construed to apply to...

  9. 28 CFR 55.15 - Affected activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.15 Affected... of applicable language minority groups to be effectively informed of and participate effectively in voting-connected activities. Accordingly, the quoted language should be broadly construed to apply to...

  10. Factors Affecting Quality Enhancement Procedures for E-Learning Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jara, Magdalena; Mellar, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports on an empirical study exploring the way in which campus-based higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK apply their internal quality assurance and enhancement (QA/QE) procedures to their e-learning courses. The purpose of this paper is to identify those characteristics of e-learning courses which affected the…

  11. Preslaughter factors affecting poultry meat quality chapter 2.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry meat quality is affected by numerous antemortem factors, in particular those occurring during the last 24 hours that the bird is alive. These short term factors influence carcass yield (live shrink), carcass defects (bruising, broken/dislocated bones), carcass microbiological contamination, ...

  12. CULTURAL SYSTEM AFFECTS FRUIT QUALITY AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY IN STRAWBERRIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultural system [hill plasticulture (HC) vs. matted row (MR)] and genotypes interactions affected strawberry fruit quality. In general, fruit soluble content, total sugar, fructose, glucose, ascorbic acid, titratable acid and citric acid content were increased in the HC system. Fruit from HC also ...

  13. Neighborhood Perceptions Affect Dietary Behaviors and Diet Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keita, Akilah Dulin; Casazza, Krista; Thomas, Olivia; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to determine if perceived neighborhood disorder affected dietary quality within a multiethnic sample of children. Design: Children were recruited through the use of fliers, wide-distribution mailers, parent magazines, and school presentations from June 2005 to December 2008. Setting:…

  14. Do recreational activities affect coastal biodiversity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, Rodrigo; Menci, Cristiano; Sanabria-Fernández, José Antonio; Becerro, Mikel A.

    2016-09-01

    Human activities are largely affecting coastal communities worldwide. Recreational perturbations have been overlooked in comparison to other perturbations, yet they are potential threats to marine biodiversity. They affect coastal communities in different ways, underpinning consistent shifts in fish and invertebrates assemblages. Several sites were sampled subjected to varying effects by recreational fishermen (low and high pressure) and scuba divers (low and high) in an overpopulated Atlantic island. Non-consistent differences in ecological, trophic and functional diversity were found in coastal communities, considering both factors ("diving" and "fishing"). Multivariate analyses only showed significant differences in benthic invertebrates between intensively-dived and non-dived sites. The lack of clear trends may be explained by the depletion of coastal resources in the study area, an extensively-affected island by overfishing.

  15. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality.

    PubMed

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC(50) value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment. PMID:25348886

  16. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC50 value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment.

  17. Electrodermal activity analysis during affective haptic elicitation.

    PubMed

    Greco, Alberto; Valenza, Gaetano; Nardelli, Mimma; Bianchi, Matteo; Lanata, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigates how the autonomic nervous system dynamics, quantified through the analysis of the electrodermal activity (EDA), is modulated according to affective haptic stimuli. Specifically, a haptic display able to convey caress-like stimuli is presented to 32 healthy subjects (16 female). Each stimulus is changed according to six combinations of three velocities and two forces levels of two motors stretching a strip of fabric. Subjects were also asked to score each stimulus in terms of arousal (high/low activation) and valence (pleasant/unpleasant), in agreement with the circumplex model of affect. EDA was processed using a deconvolutive method, separating tonic and phasic components. A statistical analysis was performed in order to identify significant differences in EDA features among force and velocity levels, as well as in their valence and arousal scores. Results show that the simulated caress induced by the haptic display significantly affects the EDA. In detail, the phasic component seems to be inversely related to the valence score. This finding is new and promising, since it can be used, e.g., as an additional cue for haptics design. PMID:26737605

  18. Resource quality affects carbon cycling in deep-sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Daniel J; Thornton, Barry; Hay, Steve; Zuur, Alain F; Nicol, Graeme W; McWilliam, Jenna M; Witte, Ursula F M

    2012-09-01

    Deep-sea sediments cover ~70% of Earth's surface and represent the largest interface between the biological and geological cycles of carbon. Diatoms and zooplankton faecal pellets naturally transport organic material from the upper ocean down to the deep seabed, but how these qualitatively different substrates affect the fate of carbon in this permanently cold environment remains unknown. We added equal quantities of (13)C-labelled diatoms and faecal pellets to a cold water (-0.7 °C) sediment community retrieved from 1080 m in the Faroe-Shetland Channel, Northeast Atlantic, and quantified carbon mineralization and uptake by the resident bacteria and macrofauna over a 6-day period. High-quality, diatom-derived carbon was mineralized >300% faster than that from low-quality faecal pellets, demonstrating that qualitative differences in organic matter drive major changes in the residence time of carbon at the deep seabed. Benthic bacteria dominated biological carbon processing in our experiments, yet showed no evidence of resource quality-limited growth; they displayed lower growth efficiencies when respiring diatoms. These effects were consistent in contrasting months. We contend that respiration and growth in the resident sediment microbial communities were substrate and temperature limited, respectively. Our study has important implications for how future changes in the biochemical makeup of exported organic matter will affect the balance between mineralization and sequestration of organic carbon in the largest ecosystem on Earth. PMID:22378534

  19. Subjective quality of life in war-affected populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to traumatic war events may lead to a reduction in quality of life for many years. Research suggests that these impairments may be associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms; however, wars also have a profound impact on social conditions. Systematic studies utilising subjective quality of life (SQOL) measures are particularly rare and research in post-conflict settings is scarce. Whether social factors independently affect SQOL after war in addition to symptoms has not been explored in large scale studies. Method War-affected community samples were recruited through a random-walk technique in five Balkan countries and through registers and networking in three Western European countries. The interviews were carried out on average 8 years after the war in the Balkans. SQOL was assessed on Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life - MANSA. We explored the impact of war events, posttraumatic stress symptoms and post-war environment on SQOL. Results We interviewed 3313 Balkan residents and 854 refugees in Western Europe. The MANSA mean score was 4.8 (SD = 0.9) for the Balkan sample and 4.7 (SD = 0.9) for refugees. In both samples participants were explicitly dissatisfied with their employment and financial situation. Posttraumatic stress symptoms had a strong negative impact on SQOL. Traumatic war events were directly linked with lower SQOL in Balkan residents. The post-war environment influenced SQOL in both groups: unemployment was associated with lower SQOL and recent contacts with friends with higher SQOL. Experiencing more migration-related stressors was linked to poorer SQOL in refugees. Conclusion Both posttraumatic stress symptoms and aspects of the post-war environment independently influence SQOL in war-affected populations. Aid programmes to improve wellbeing following the traumatic war events should include both treatment of posttraumatic symptoms and social interventions. PMID:23819629

  20. Factors affecting quality of dried low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Karthikeyan, M.; Kuma, J.V.M.; Hoe, C.S.; Ngo, D.L.Y.

    2007-07-01

    The chemical and physical properties of coal are strongly affected by the upgrading process employed. For high-moisture coals, upgrading involves thermal dehydration to improve the calorific value of the coal on mass basis. This study evaluates the feasibility of upgrading a low-rank/grade coal using the oven drying method. The objective of this research work is to study the drying characteristics of low-rank coals and to understand the factors affecting the quality of dried low-rank coals. This article describes laboratory experiments conducted on the characterization of the low-rank coals before and after the drying process. The results on drying kinetics, re-absorption of coal samples, and proximate analysis of coal samples before and after drying are discussed. It was found that the upgrading process produced coal with better heating value and combustion characteristics than those of the raw coal samples.

  1. Brain Activity, Personality Traits and Affect: Electrocortical Activity in Reaction to Affective Film Stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makvand Hosseini, Sh.; Azad Fallah, P.; Rasoolzadeh Tabatabaei, S. K.; Ghannadyan Ladani, S. H.; Heise, C.

    We studied the patterns of activation over the cerebral cortex in reaction to affective film stimuli in four groups of extroverts, introverts, neurotics and emotionally stables. Measures of extraversion and neuroticism were collected and resting EEG was recorded from 40 right handed undergraduate female students (19-23) on one occasion for five 30s periods in baseline condition and in affective states. Mean log-transformed absolute alpha power was extracted from 12 electrode sites and analyzed. Patterns of activation were different in personality groups. Different patterns of asymmetries were observed in personality groups in reaction to affective stimuli. Results were partly consistent with approach and withdrawal model and provided supportive evidence for the role of right frontal asymmetry in negative affects in two groups (introverts and emotionally stables) as well as the role of right central asymmetry (increase on right and decrease on left) in active affective states (anxiety and happiness) in all personality groups. Results were also emphasized on the role of decrease activity relative to baseline in cortical regions (bilaterally in frontal and unilaterally in left parietal and temporal regions) in moderating of positive and negative emotion.

  2. Multilevel factors affecting quality: examples from the cancer care continuum.

    PubMed

    Zapka, Jane; Taplin, Stephen H; Ganz, Patricia; Grunfeld, Eva; Sterba, Katherine

    2012-05-01

    The complex environmental context must be considered as we move forward to improve cancer care and, ultimately, patient and population outcomes. The cancer care continuum represents several care types, each of which includes multiple technical and communication steps and interfaces among patients, providers, and organizations. We use two case scenarios to 1) illustrate the variability, diversity, and interaction of factors from multiple levels that affect care quality and 2) discuss research implications and provide hypothetical examples of multilevel interventions. Each scenario includes a targeted literature review to illustrate contextual influences upon care and sets the stage for theory-informed interventions. The screening case highlights access issues in older women, and the survivorship case illustrates the multiple transition challenges faced by patients, families, and organizations. Example interventions show the potential gains of implementing intervention strategies that work synergistically at multiple levels. While research examining multilevel intervention is a priority, it presents numerous study design, measurement, and analytic challenges. PMID:22623591

  3. Mechanisms affecting water quality in an intermittent piped water supply.

    PubMed

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water distribution systems throughout the world supply water intermittently, leaving pipes without pressure between supply cycles. Understanding the multiple mechanisms that affect contamination in these intermittent water supplies (IWS) can be used to develop strategies to improve water quality. To study these effects, we tested water quality in an IWS system with infrequent and short water delivery periods in Hubli-Dharwad, India. We continuously measured pressure and physicochemical parameters and periodically collected grab samples to test for total coliform and E. coli throughout supply cycles at 11 sites. When the supply was first turned on, water with elevated turbidity and high concentrations of indicator bacteria was flushed out of pipes. At low pressures (<10 psi), elevated indicator bacteria were frequently detected even when there was a chlorine residual, suggesting persistent contamination had occurred through intrusion or backflow. At pressures between 10 and 17 psi, evidence of periodic contamination suggested that transient intrusion, backflow, release of particulates, or sloughing of biofilms from pipe walls had occurred. Few total coliform and no E. coli were detected when water was delivered with a chlorine residual and at pressures >17 psi. PMID:24459990

  4. Parameters affecting greywater quality and its safety for reuse.

    PubMed

    Maimon, Adi; Friedler, Eran; Gross, Amit

    2014-07-15

    Reusing greywater (GW) for on-site irrigation is becoming a common practice worldwide. Alongside its benefits, GW reuse might pose health and environmental risks. The current study assesses the risks associated with on-site GW reuse and the main factors affecting them. GW from 34 households in Israel was analyzed for physicochemical parameters, Escherichia coli (as an indicator for rotavirus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Each participating household filled out a questionnaire about their GW sources, treatment and usages. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was performed based on the measured microbial quality, and on exposure scenarios derived from the questionnaires and literature data. The type of treatment was found to have a significant effect on the quality of the treated GW. The average E. coli counts in GW (which exclude kitchen effluent) treated by professionally-designed system resulted in acceptable risk under all exposure scenarios while the risk from inadequately-treated GW was above the accepted level as set by the WHO. In conclusion, safe GW reuse requires a suitable and well-designed treatment system. A risk-assessment approach should be used to adjust the current regulations/guidelines and to assess the performance of GW treatment and reuse systems. PMID:24751591

  5. Contemporary Quality of Life Issues Affecting Gynecologic Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Jeanne; Penson, Richard; Barakat, Richard; Wenzel, Lari

    2015-01-01

    Gynecologic cancers account for approximately 11% of the newly diagnosed cancers in women in the United States and 18% in the world.1 The most common gynecologic malignancies occur in the uterus and endometrium (53%), ovary (25%), and cervix (14%).2 Cervical cancer is most prevalent in premenopausal women, during their childbearing years, whereas uterine and ovarian cancers tend to present in the perimenopausal or menopausal period. Vaginal and vulvar cancers and malignancies arising from gestation, or gestational trophoblastic neoplasms, occur to a lesser extent. Regardless of cancer origin or age of onset, the disease and its treatment can produce short- and long-term sequelae (ie, sexual dysfunction, infertility, or lymphedema) that adversely affect quality of life (QOL). This article outlines the primary contemporary issues or concerns that may affect QOL and offers strategies to offset or mitigate QOL disruption. These contemporary issues are identified within the domains of sexual functioning, reproductive issues, lymphedema, and the contribution of health-related QOL (HRQOL) in influential gynecologic cancer clinical trials. PMID:22244668

  6. Domestic cooking methods affect the nutritional quality of red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Zheng, Yonghua; Yang, Zhenfeng; Cao, Shifeng; Shao, Xingfeng; Wang, Hongfei

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of domestic cooking methods, including steaming, microwave heating, boiling and stir-frying on the nutritional quality of red cabbage. Compared with fresh-cut red cabbage, all cooking methods were found to cause significant reduction in anthocyanin and total glucosinolates contents. Moreover, steaming resulted in significantly greater retention of vitamin C and DPPH radical-scavenging activity, while stir-frying and boiling, two popular Chinese cooking methods, led to significant losses of total phenolic, vitamin C, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, and total soluble sugar as well as reducing sugars. Normally, red cabbage consumed fresh in salads could maintain the highest nutrition. However, considering the habits of Asian cuisine, it is recommended to use less water and less cooking time, such as steaming based on our present results, so as to retain the optimum benefits of the health-promoting compounds. PMID:24837935

  7. The importance of physical activity and sleep for affect on stressful days: Two intensive longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the potential stress-buffering effect of 3 health behaviors-physical activity, sleep quality, and snacking-on affect in the context of everyday life in young adults. In 2 intensive longitudinal studies with up to 65 assessment days over an entire academic year, students (Study 1, N = 292; Study 2, N = 304) reported stress intensity, sleep quality, physical activity, snacking, and positive and negative affect. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression analyses. Stress and positive affect were negatively associated; stress and negative affect were positively associated. The more physically active than usual a person was on a given day, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Study 1) and negative affect (Studies 1 and 2). The better than usual a person's sleep quality had been during the previous night, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Studies 1 and 2) and negative affect (Study 2). The association between daily stress and positive or negative affect did not differ as a function of daily snacking (Studies 1 and 2). On stressful days, increasing physical activity or ensuring high sleep quality may buffer adverse effects of stress on affect in young adults. These findings suggest potential targets for health-promotion and stress-prevention programs, which could help reduce the negative impact of stress in young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26709860

  8. Activities affecting surface water resources: A general overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    In November 1987, P.E.I. signed a federal/provincial work-sharing arrangement on water resource management focusing on groundwater pollution, surface water degradation and estuarine eutrophication. The surface water program was designed to identify current surface water uses and users within 12 major watersheds across the Island containing 26 individual rivers, as well as problems arising due to practices that degrade the quality of surface water and restricts its value to other user groups. This report presents a general overview of the program, covering the general characteristics of the Island; operations in agriculture, fish and wildlife, forestry, recreation, fisheries, and industry; alterations of natural features of waterways; wetlands; additional watershed activities such as hydrometric stations and subdivision development; and activities affecting surface water resources such as sedimentation sources, pollution point sources and instream obstructions.

  9. Regimen of ovarian stimulation affects oocyte and therefore embryo quality.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Ernesto; Labarta, Elena; Kolibianakis, Efstratios; Rosen, Mitchell; Meldrum, David

    2016-03-01

    Without any doubt the regimen used to mature multiple capable oocytes for IVF impacts IVF outcomes. Studies have indicated that the inclusion of LH activity, adjuvant agents such as growth hormone (GH), and regimens providing for simultaneous action of both LH and FSH during final oocyte maturation may have beneficial effects on IVF outcomes. Because of the difficulty in improving IVF outcomes in poor responders, the studies on GH are of particular interest. As pointed out in this review, the apparent beneficial effects of GH on oocyte competence may also apply to older women or to normal responders with reduced embryo quality. A much more difficult question is whether and how much ovarian stimulation impacts on oocyte competence. Paradoxically it seems that there are not demonstrated differences between the stimulated and the natural unstimulated cycle, whereas studies in laboratory animals and IVF patients have shown deleterious effects of higher compared with lower doses of gonadotropins. Recent studies suggest that the use of high doses of gonadotropins as an independent factor correlates negatively with the probability of live birth, whereas a high ovarian response per se is associated with better cumulative pregnancy rates, owing to the availability of more euploid and good-quality embryos. Although adjunctive use of androgens has not been discussed here, it is briefly covered in the first review of this series. PMID:26826273

  10. Biosolids applications affect runoff water quality following forest fire.

    PubMed

    Meyer, V F; Redente, E F; Barbarick, K A; Brobst, R

    2001-01-01

    Soil erosion and nutrient losses are great concerns following forest wildfires. Biosolids application might enhance revegetation efforts while reducing soil erodibility. Consequently, we applied Denver Metro Wastewater District composted biosolids at rates of 0, 40, and 80 Mg ha(-1) to a severely burned, previously forested site near Buffalo Creek, CO to increase plant cover and growth. Soils were classified as Ustorthents, Ustochrepts, and Haploborols. Simulated rainfall was applied for 30 min at a rate of 100 mm h(-1) to 3- x 10-m paired plots. Biosolids application rates did not significantly affect mean total runoff (p < 0.05). Sediment concentrations were significantly greater (p < 0.05) from the control plots compared with the plots that had received the 80 Mg biosolids ha(-1) rate. Biosolids application rate had mixed effects on water-quality constituents; however, concentrations of all runoff constituents for all treatment rates were below levels recommended for drinking water standards, except Pb. Biosolids application to this site increased plant cover, which should provide erosion control. PMID:11577857

  11. How Does Premarital Cohabitation Affect Trajectories of Marital Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tach, Laura; Halpern-Meekin, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the link between premarital cohabitation and trajectories of subsequent marital quality using random effects growth curve models and repeated measures of marital quality from married women in the NLSY-79 (N = 3,598). We find that premarital cohabitors experience lower quality marital relationships on average, but this is driven by…

  12. Financial Health of Child Care Facilities Affects Quality of Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brower, Mary R.; Sull, Theresa M.

    2003-01-01

    Contends that child care facility owners, boards of directors, staff, and parents need to focus on financial management, as poor financial health compromises the quality of care for children. Specifically addresses the issues of: (1) concern for providing high quality child care; (2) the connection between quality and money; and (3) strengthening…

  13. Dietary fatty acids affect semen quality: a review.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, V; Shahverdi, A H; Moghadasian, M H; Alizadeh, A R

    2015-05-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa are characterized by a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which play a crucial role in fertilization. This review focuses on analysis of sperm fatty acid profiles and the effects of omega-3, saturated and trans dietary and sperm fatty acids on sperm parameters. Two major points have been pivotal points of investigation in the field of sperm fatty acid profiles: first, the comparison between fatty acid profiles of fertile and infertile men and second, the effect of dietary fatty acids on sperm fatty acid profiles as well as sperm quality and quantity. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3), and palmitic acid (C16:0) are the predominant PUFA and saturated fatty acids, respectively, in human sperm cells. Higher levels of DHA are concentrated on the sperm's head or tail varying among different species. However, the human sperm head contains a higher concentration of DHA. Dietary fatty acids influence on sperm fatty acid profiles and it seems that sperm fatty acid profiles are most sensitive to dietary omega-3 PUFA. Although improvements in sperm parameters are a response to omega-3 sources after more than 4 weeks of supplementation in the male diet, time-dependent and dose-dependent responses may explain the failure in some experiments. In human spermatozoa, elevated saturated or trans fatty acid concentration and a low DHA level is a concern. The regulations of the sperm fatty acid mean melting point as well as expression regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) alongside with spermatozoon assembly, anti-apoptosis effects, eicosanoid formation, and hormone activity are the putative key factors that induce a response by inclusion of omega-3 PUFA. PMID:25951427

  14. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide in agroecosystems affects groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Torbert, H.A.; Prior, S.A.; Rogers, H.H.; Schlesinger, W.H.; Mullins, G.L.; Runion, G.B.

    1996-07-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentration has led to concerns about global changes to the environment. One area of global change that has not been addressed is the effect of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on groundwater quality below agroecosystems. Elevated CO{sub 2} concentration alterations of plant growth and C/N ratios may modify C and N cycling in soil and affect nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) leaching to groundwater. This study was conducted to examine the effects of a legume (soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]) and a nonlegume (grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]) CO{sub 2}-enriched agroecosystems on NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} movement below the root zone in a Blanton loamy sand (loamy siliceous, thermic, Grossarenic Paleudults). The study was a split-plot design replicated three times with plant species (soybean and grain sorghum) as the main plots and CO{sub 2} concentration ({approximately}360 and {approximately}720 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2}) as subplots using open-top field chambers. Fertilizer application was made with {sup 15}N-depleted NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} to act as a fertilizer tracer. Soil solution samples were collected weekly at 90-cm depth for a 2-yr period and monitored for NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentrations. Isotope analysis of soil solution indicated that the decomposition of organic matter was the primary source of No{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N in soil solution below the root zone through most of the monitoring period. Significant differences were observed for NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentrations between soybean and grain sorghum, with soybean having the higher NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentration. Elevated CO{sub 2} increased total dry weight, total N content, and C/N ratio of residue returned to soil in both years. Elevated CO{sub 2} significantly decreased NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentrations below the root zone in both soybean and grain sorghum. 37 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  16. Sociodemographic factors affecting the quality of life of patients with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Uchmanowicz, Bartosz; Panaszek, Bernard; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the subjective quality of life (QoL) of patients with bronchial asthma. Patients diagnosed with asthma experience a number of problems with regard to everyday activities and functions, which adversely affects their health-related QoL. Aim The aim of this study is to analyze the sociodemographic factors affecting the QoL of patients with asthma. Patients and methods The study comprised of 100 patients (73 females and 27 males) aged 18–84 years (mean age 45.7 years) treated in the Department and Clinic of Internal Diseases, Geriatrics and Allergology, Wroclaw Medical University. All patients with asthma who met the inclusion criteria participated in the study. We used medical record analysis and two questionnaires: the asthma quality of life questionnaire (AQLQ) and the asthma control test. Up-to-date sociodemographic data were collected from all participants, including sex, age, marital status, education, and sources of income. Results The sociodemographic variables that correlated positively with QoL in all domains of the AQLQ were professional activity and higher education level of respondents. Factors that negatively influenced the AQLQ domains were older age and lack of professional activity. Conclusion This study shows that age, physical work, and lack of professional activity decreased the QoL in this patient group. It was found that higher education contributes to better QoL scores. PMID:27051276

  17. Affective Response to Physical Activity: Testing for Measurement Invariance of the Physical Activity Affect Scale across Active and Non-Active Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Laura C.; Tompkins, Sara Anne; Schmiege, Sarah J.; Nilsson, Renea; Bryan, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Affective responses to physical activity are assumed to play a role in exercise initiation and maintenance. The Physical Activity Affect Scale measures four dimensions of an individual's affective response to exercise. Group differences in the interpretation of scale items can impact the interpretability of mean differences, underscoring the need…

  18. Wintering performance and how it affects carcass quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental variation undoubtedly can have the most significant impact on livestock performance in forage based production systems. Fluctuations in temperature and precipitation influence herbage production and quality, maintenance requirements and intake. Producers of “forage system” products h...

  19. Magnitude of genotype x environment interactions affecting tomato fruit quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a growing interest by consumers to purchase fresh tomato with improved quality traits including lycopene, total soluble solids (TSS), vitamin C and titratable acid (TA) content. Therefore, there are considerable efforts by tomato breeders to improve tomato for these traits. However, suitabl...

  20. Cultural Practices Affect Fruit Quality and Antioxident Capacity in Blueberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of cultural practices on fruit quality and antioxidant capacity in highbush blueberries var. Bluecrop was evaluated from random samples of commercial late harvest fields in New Jersey. Results from this single season survey showed that blueberry fruit grown from organic culture yielded hi...

  1. How Do Our Actions Affect Water Quantity and Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Water is an essential resource for all living things. How we live on our watershed can impact water quantity and quality. It is important to recognize how humans alter watershed dynamics, but students often find it challenging to visualize watershed processes and understand how decisions that they make as individuals and together as a community…

  2. Agriculture as a source of Aeolian sediment affecting air quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aeolian processes on agricultural lands have been examined for the past several decades on nearly every continent and has led to a better understanding of detachment, entrainment, transport, and deposition. Relatively little is known concerning the effect of these processes on air quality. In fact, ...

  3. RICE BREAD QUALITY AS AFFECTED BY YEAST AND BRAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole rice bread (WRB) has been developed in our laboratory for people suffering from Celiac disease and other food allergies. The WRB has texture and related qualities comparable with white or whole wheat breads. This paper reports the results of three levels of yeast, defatted rice bran on the t...

  4. Produce Surface Characteristics Affect Product Quality and Safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface characteristics of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables vary largely among produce types, maturities and processing procedure. Studies have shown that the surface topography of produce significantly affected adherence, attachment, and biofilm formation of bacteria, as well as their removal a...

  5. Quality of Visual Cue Affects Visual Reweighting in Quiet Standing.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Renato; de Freitas, Paulo Barbosa; Razuk, Milena; Barela, José Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Sensory reweighting is a characteristic of postural control functioning adopted to accommodate environmental changes. The use of mono or binocular cues induces visual reduction/increment of moving room influences on postural sway, suggesting a visual reweighting due to the quality of available sensory cues. Because in our previous study visual conditions were set before each trial, participants could adjust the weight of the different sensory systems in an anticipatory manner based upon the reduction in quality of the visual information. Nevertheless, in daily situations this adjustment is a dynamical process and occurs during ongoing movement. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of visual transitions in the coupling between visual information and body sway in two different distances from the front wall of a moving room. Eleven young adults stood upright inside of a moving room in two distances (75 and 150 cm) wearing a liquid crystal lenses goggles, which allow individual lenses transition from opaque to transparent and vice-versa. Participants stood still during five minutes for each trial and the lenses status changed every one minute (no vision to binocular vision, no vision to monocular vision, binocular vision to monocular vision, and vice-versa). Results showed that farther distance and monocular vision reduced the effect of visual manipulation on postural sway. The effect of visual transition was condition dependent, with a stronger effect when transitions involved binocular vision than monocular vision. Based upon these results, we conclude that the increased distance from the front wall of the room reduced the effect of visual manipulation on postural sway and that sensory reweighting is stimulus quality dependent, with binocular vision producing a much stronger down/up-weighting than monocular vision. PMID:26939058

  6. Quality of Visual Cue Affects Visual Reweighting in Quiet Standing

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Renato; de Freitas, Paulo Barbosa; Razuk, Milena; Barela, José Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Sensory reweighting is a characteristic of postural control functioning adopted to accommodate environmental changes. The use of mono or binocular cues induces visual reduction/increment of moving room influences on postural sway, suggesting a visual reweighting due to the quality of available sensory cues. Because in our previous study visual conditions were set before each trial, participants could adjust the weight of the different sensory systems in an anticipatory manner based upon the reduction in quality of the visual information. Nevertheless, in daily situations this adjustment is a dynamical process and occurs during ongoing movement. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of visual transitions in the coupling between visual information and body sway in two different distances from the front wall of a moving room. Eleven young adults stood upright inside of a moving room in two distances (75 and 150 cm) wearing a liquid crystal lenses goggles, which allow individual lenses transition from opaque to transparent and vice-versa. Participants stood still during five minutes for each trial and the lenses status changed every one minute (no vision to binocular vision, no vision to monocular vision, binocular vision to monocular vision, and vice-versa). Results showed that farther distance and monocular vision reduced the effect of visual manipulation on postural sway. The effect of visual transition was condition dependent, with a stronger effect when transitions involved binocular vision than monocular vision. Based upon these results, we conclude that the increased distance from the front wall of the room reduced the effect of visual manipulation on postural sway and that sensory reweighting is stimulus quality dependent, with binocular vision producing a much stronger down/up-weighting than monocular vision. PMID:26939058

  7. Does Aggregation Affect the Redistribution and Quality of Eroded SOC?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaxian; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2015-04-01

    A substantial amount of literature has discussed the impacts of soil erosion on global carbon cycling. However, numerous gaps in our knowledge remain unaddressed, for instance, the biogeochemical fate of displaced SOC during transport being one of them. The transport distance and the quality of eroded SOC are the two major factors that determine its fate. Previous laboratory-based research had demonstrated that the effects of aggregation can potentially shorten the transport distance of eroded SOC. The mineralization potential of SOC also differs in sediment fractions of different likely transport distances. It is therefore essential to examine the transport distance and quality of eroded SOC under field conditions with natural rainfall as the agent of erosion. Soil samples from a silty clay soil from Switzerland and a sandy soil from Denmark, were collected in the field this summer after natural rainfall events. The soil from Switzerland was sampled from a field of maize in St. Ursanne (47°20' N 7°09' E) on August 6th, 2014 after a natural rainfall event. A depositional fan consisting of aggregated sediment was formed outside the lower edge of the field. The sandy soil from Denmark was sampled from a farm in Foulum (56°30' N, 9°35' W) on September 4, 2014, after a series of natural rainfall events. Soil samples were collected at different topographic positions along the two slopes. All the soil samples from the two farms were fractionated by a settling tube. Bulk soil from Switzerland and Denmark was also dispersed by ultrasound. The SOC contents of all bulk soils and associated fractions were determined using a carbon analyzer Leco 612 at 1000°C. The quality of SOC in different settling fractions collected from various topographic positions were also determined by stable isotopes of C and N (13C and 15N). Our results show that 1) the aggregate specific SOC distribution evidently differs from the mineral particle specific SOC distribution, indicating that re

  8. Wind resource quality affected by high levels of renewables

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Diakov, Victor

    2015-06-17

    For solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind resources, the capacity factor is an important parameter describing the quality of the resource. As the share of variable renewable resources (such as PV and wind) on the electric system is increasing, so does curtailment (and the fraction of time when it cannot be avoided). At high levels of renewable generation, curtailments effectively change the practical measure of resource quality from capacity factor to the incremental capacity factor. The latter accounts only for generation during hours of no curtailment and is directly connected with the marginal capital cost of renewable generators for a givenmore » level of renewable generation during the year. The Western U.S. wind generation is analyzed hourly for a system with 75% of annual generation from wind, and it is found that the value for the system of resources with equal capacity factors can vary by a factor of 2, which highlights the importance of using the incremental capacity factor instead. Finally, the effect is expected to be more pronounced in smaller geographic areas (or when transmission limitations imposed) and less pronounced at lower levels of renewable energy in the system with less curtailment.« less

  9. Wind resource quality affected by high levels of renewables

    SciTech Connect

    Diakov, Victor

    2015-06-17

    For solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind resources, the capacity factor is an important parameter describing the quality of the resource. As the share of variable renewable resources (such as PV and wind) on the electric system is increasing, so does curtailment (and the fraction of time when it cannot be avoided). At high levels of renewable generation, curtailments effectively change the practical measure of resource quality from capacity factor to the incremental capacity factor. The latter accounts only for generation during hours of no curtailment and is directly connected with the marginal capital cost of renewable generators for a given level of renewable generation during the year. The Western U.S. wind generation is analyzed hourly for a system with 75% of annual generation from wind, and it is found that the value for the system of resources with equal capacity factors can vary by a factor of 2, which highlights the importance of using the incremental capacity factor instead. Finally, the effect is expected to be more pronounced in smaller geographic areas (or when transmission limitations imposed) and less pronounced at lower levels of renewable energy in the system with less curtailment.

  10. Solar Activity-driven Variability of Instrumental Data Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martayan, C.; Smette, A.; Hanuschik, R.; van Der Heyden, P.; Mieske, S.

    2016-06-01

    The unexplained variability of the data quality from Very Large Telescope instruments and the frequency of power cuts have been investigated. Origins for the variability in ambient temperature variations, software, data reduction pipelines and internal to hardware could be discarded. The most probable cause appears to be correlated with the evolution of the cosmic ray rate, and also with solar and terrestrial geomagnetic activity. We report on the consequences of such variability and describe how the observatory infrastructure, instruments and data are affected.

  11. Measuring Active Learning to Predict Course Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, John E.; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether active learning within computer-based training courses can be measured and whether it serves as a predictor of learner-perceived course quality. A major corporation participated in this research, providing access to internal employee training courses, training representatives, and historical course evaluation data.…

  12. Reduced Height (Rht) Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality

    PubMed Central

    Casebow, Richard; Hadley, Caroline; Uppal, Rajneet; Addisu, Molla; Loddo, Stefano; Kowalski, Ania; Griffiths, Simon; Gooding, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht) in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c) as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall), Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12). Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0–450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (P<0.05) reduced grain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN) was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there was the

  13. Reduced Height (Rht) Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality.

    PubMed

    Casebow, Richard; Hadley, Caroline; Uppal, Rajneet; Addisu, Molla; Loddo, Stefano; Kowalski, Ania; Griffiths, Simon; Gooding, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht) in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c) as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall), Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12). Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0-450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (P<0.05) reduced grain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN) was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there was the

  14. Gastroesophageal Reflux Affects Sleep Quality in Snoring Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Woodley, Frederick W; Skaggs, Beth; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Eneli, Ihuoma; Splaingard, Mark; Mousa, Hayat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the quality of sleep in snoring obese children without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); and to study the possible relationship between sleep interruption and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in snoring obese children. Methods Study subjects included 13 snoring obese children who were referred to our sleep lab for possible sleep-disordered breathing. Patients underwent multichannel intraluminal impedance and esophageal pH monitoring with simultaneous polysomnography. Exclusion criteria included history of fundoplication, cystic fibrosis, and infants under the age of 2 years. Significant association between arousals and awakenings with previous reflux were defined by symptom-association probability using 2-minute intervals. Results Sleep efficiency ranged from 67-97% (median 81%). A total of 111 reflux episodes (90% acidic) were detected during sleep, but there were more episodes per hour during awake periods after sleep onset than during sleep (median 2.3 vs. 0.6, p=0.04). There were 279 total awakenings during the sleep study; 56 (20.1%) of them in 9 patients (69.2%) were preceded by reflux episodes (55 acid, 1 non-acid). In 5 patients (38.5%), awakenings were significantly associated with reflux. Conclusion The data suggest that acid GER causes sleep interruptions in obese children who have symptoms of snoring or restless sleep and without evidence of OSA. PMID:27066445

  15. Pitch underlies activation of the vocal system during affective vocalization.

    PubMed

    Belyk, Michel; Brown, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Affective prosody is that aspect of speech that conveys a speaker's emotional state through modulations in various vocal parameters, most prominently pitch. While a large body of research implicates the cingulate vocalization area in controlling affective vocalizations in monkeys, no systematic test of functional homology for this area has yet been reported in humans. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare brain activations when subjects produced affective vocalizations in the form of exclamations vs non-affective vocalizations with similar pitch contours. We also examined the perception of affective vocalizations by having participants make judgments about either the emotions being conveyed by recorded affective vocalizations or the pitch contours of the same vocalizations. Production of affective vocalizations and matched pitch contours activated a highly overlapping set of brain areas, including the larynx-phonation area of the primary motor cortex and a region of the anterior cingulate cortex that is consistent with the macro-anatomical position of the cingulate vocalization area. This overlap contradicts the dominant view that these areas form two distinct vocal pathways with dissociable functions. Instead, we propose that these brain areas are nodes in a single vocal network, with an emphasis on pitch modulation as a vehicle for affective expression. PMID:26078385

  16. Exposure of wood in floodplains affects its chemical quality and its subsequent breakdown in streams.

    PubMed

    del Campo, Rubén; Gómez, Rosa

    2016-02-01

    In stream ecosystems, coarse organic matter from the riparian vegetation, a key food resource, is often retained in the floodplains before reaching the channel. During floodplain exposure, organic matter can be affected by abiotic and biotic processes ("preconditioning"), which alter its quality and affect its subsequent decomposition in streams. We analyzed the effect of floodplain preconditioning on wood quality (lignin, C, N, P, K, among others), and its subsequent aquatic breakdown, paying special attention to microbial activity. We simulated preconditioned standard wooden sticks on one arid stream floodplain for 3 and 4 months, and then monitored their breakdown in three different streams, together with control (non-preconditioned) sticks. Preconditioning reduced lignin mass and C:N and lignin:N ratios, caused the leaching of soluble nutrients such as P and K, as well as N immobilization by microbes. These changes enhanced the breakdown of wood in the first week of immersion, but had no effect on breakdown rates after 4 months of incubation in the streams, although N immobilization was diminished. Our results suggest that terrestrial preconditioning could alter the role of wood as a long-lasting nutrients and energy source for freshwater ecosystem. PMID:26613519

  17. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluates heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). Various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are reviewed. Available methods include in situ test...

  18. Corrugator activity confirms immediate negative affect in surprise.

    PubMed

    Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

    2015-01-01

    The emotion of surprise entails a complex of immediate responses, such as cognitive interruption, attention allocation to, and more systematic processing of the surprising stimulus. All these processes serve the ultimate function to increase processing depth and thus cognitively master the surprising stimulus. The present account introduces phasic negative affect as the underlying mechanism responsible for this switch in operating mode. Surprising stimuli are schema-discrepant and thus entail cognitive disfluency, which elicits immediate negative affect. This affect in turn works like a phasic cognitive tuning switching the current processing mode from more automatic and heuristic to more systematic and reflective processing. Directly testing the initial elicitation of negative affect by surprising events, the present experiment presented high and low surprising neutral trivia statements to N = 28 participants while assessing their spontaneous facial expressions via facial electromyography. High compared to low surprising trivia elicited higher corrugator activity, indicative of negative affect and mental effort, while leaving zygomaticus (positive affect) and frontalis (cultural surprise expression) activity unaffected. Future research shall investigate the mediating role of negative affect in eliciting surprise-related outcomes. PMID:25762956

  19. Corrugator activity confirms immediate negative affect in surprise

    PubMed Central

    Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

    2015-01-01

    The emotion of surprise entails a complex of immediate responses, such as cognitive interruption, attention allocation to, and more systematic processing of the surprising stimulus. All these processes serve the ultimate function to increase processing depth and thus cognitively master the surprising stimulus. The present account introduces phasic negative affect as the underlying mechanism responsible for this switch in operating mode. Surprising stimuli are schema-discrepant and thus entail cognitive disfluency, which elicits immediate negative affect. This affect in turn works like a phasic cognitive tuning switching the current processing mode from more automatic and heuristic to more systematic and reflective processing. Directly testing the initial elicitation of negative affect by surprising events, the present experiment presented high and low surprising neutral trivia statements to N = 28 participants while assessing their spontaneous facial expressions via facial electromyography. High compared to low surprising trivia elicited higher corrugator activity, indicative of negative affect and mental effort, while leaving zygomaticus (positive affect) and frontalis (cultural surprise expression) activity unaffected. Future research shall investigate the mediating role of negative affect in eliciting surprise-related outcomes. PMID:25762956

  20. The impact of agricultural activities on water quality in oxbow lakes in the Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Mississippi Delta, agricultural activity is a major source of nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants. Sediment, nutrients and pesticides have been considered as priority NPS pollutants and greatly affect the water quality in this area. The impacts of agricultural activities on water quality in oxbo...

  1. Proteomic studies on soybean seed quality as affected by high temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term high temperature stresses can occur during soybean seed development through maturity and negatively impact seed quality. We investigated soybean seed quality as affected by high temperature using a proteomic approach. The effects of a prolonged high temperature treatment (37/30ºC day/nigh...

  2. Soil moisture affects fatty acids and oil quality parameters in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought affects yield of peanut, but its effect on oleic and linoleic acids that influence its oil quality of peanut genotypes with different levels of drought resistance has not been clearly investigated. Therefore, the aims of this research were to determine whether soil water levels could affect...

  3. Monitoring Affect States during Effortful Problem Solving Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mello, Sidney K.; Lehman, Blair; Person, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    We explored the affective states that students experienced during effortful problem solving activities. We conducted a study where 41 students solved difficult analytical reasoning problems from the Law School Admission Test. Students viewed videos of their faces and screen captures and judged their emotions from a set of 14 states (basic…

  4. Factors that affect the quality of life of community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Takemasa, Seiichi; Nakagoshi, Ryoma; Uesugi, Masayuki; Inoue, Yuri; Gotou, Makoto; Koeda, Hideki; Naruse, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the quality of life (QOL) of community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders and factors that affect it. [Subjects] The subjects were 27 community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders (mean age: 76.3 ± 7.4 years). Their physical and psychological conditions, QOL, and other characteristics were researched. [Methods] The Japanese version of Life-Space Assessment was used to assess the subjects’ daily life activities; the Japanese version of Fall Efficacy Scale (FES), to assess their fear of falling; the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 15), to assess their depression status; and the Life Satisfaction Index K (LSIK), to assess their QOL. [Results] The results indicated that the number of family members living together, degree of pain, fear of falling, and depression affect the LSIK scores of the community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders. [Conclusion] The study results suggest that the LSIK scores of community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders can be improved by easing their pain, improving their physical abilities to prevent falls, and improving their mobility. The results also suggest that continuing rehabilitation treatment is required. PMID:26696713

  5. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing. PMID:27187432

  6. Sensory activity affects sensory axon development in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Peckol, E L; Zallen, J A; Yarrow, J C; Bargmann, C I

    1999-05-01

    The simple nervous system of the nematode C. elegans consists of 302 neurons with highly reproducible morphologies, suggesting a hard-wired program of axon guidance. Surprisingly, we show here that sensory activity shapes sensory axon morphology in C. elegans. A class of mutants with deformed sensory cilia at their dendrite endings have extra axon branches, suggesting that sensory deprivation disrupts axon outgrowth. Mutations that alter calcium channels or membrane potential cause similar defects. Cell-specific perturbations of sensory activity can cause cell-autonomous changes in axon morphology. Although the sensory axons initially reach their targets in the embryo, the mutations that alter sensory activity cause extra axon growth late in development. Thus, perturbations of activity affect the maintenance of sensory axon morphology after an initial pattern of innervation is established. This system provides a genetically tractable model for identifying molecular mechanisms linking neuronal activity to nervous system structure. PMID:10101123

  7. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional quality assessment activities. 460.140... FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional quality assessment activities. A PACE organization must meet external quality assessment and reporting...

  8. Wash operations affect water quality and packaged fresh-cut romaine lettuce quality and microbial growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Washing during the preparation of fresh-cut produce is an important step to maintaining the quality and safety of the finished products. It is often the only step aimed at reducing microbial populations and removing tissue fluids from cut produce. However, little is known about the effects of washi...

  9. How does the anthropogenic activity affect the spring discharge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yonghong; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Jiaojiao; Li, Ruifang; Hao, Pengmei; Zhan, Hongbin

    2016-09-01

    Karst hydrological process has largely been altered by climate change and human activity. In many places throughout the world, human activity (e.g. groundwater pumping and dewatering from mining) has intensified and surpassed climate change, where human activity becomes the primary factor that affects groundwater system. But it is still largely unclear how the human activity affects spring discharge in magnitude and periodicity. This study investigates the effects of anthropogenic activity on spring discharge, using the Xin'an Springs of China as an example. The Xin'an Spring discharge were divided into two time periods: the pre-development period from 1956 to 1971 and the post-development period from 1972 to 2013. We confirm the dividing time (i.e. 1971) of these two periods using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Then the wavelet transform and wavelet coherence were used to analyze the karst hydrological processes for the two periods respectively. We analyze the correlations of precipitation and the Xin'an spring discharge with the monsoons including the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and the West North Pacific Monsoon (WNPM) and the climate teleconnections including El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), respectively. The results indicated that the spring discharge was attenuated about 19.63% under the influence of human activity in the Xin'an Springs basin. However, human activity did not alter the size of the resonance frequencies between the spring discharge and the monsoons. In contrast, it reinforced the periodicities of the monsoons-driven spring discharge. It suggested that human has adapted to the major climate periodicities, and human activity had the same rhyme with the primary climate periodicity. In return, human activity enhances the correlation between the monsoons and the spring discharge.

  10. Observational skills assessment score: reliability in measuring amount and quality of use of the affected hand in unilateral cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Observational Skills Assessment Score (OSAS) measures amount and quality of use of the affected hand in children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) in bimanual activities and could therefore be a valuable addition to existing assessment tools. The OSAS consists of tasks that are age appropriate and require use of the affected hand. Methods To measure the agreement and reliability of the OSAS a convenience sample of two groups of 16 children with unilateral spastic CP (2.5-6 and 12–16 years old), performed age specific bimanual tasks in 2 measurement sessions. Three experienced raters took part in testing and 8 in scoring. Intra class correlation (ICC) values for intra- and inter-rater reliability, and the mean and standard deviation of the differences between measurements were calculated. For test-retest reliability beside ICC scores, Smallest Detectable Differences (SDDs) were calculated in 16 older and 10 younger children. Results Generally, there seems to be good agreement between repeated measurements of the OSAS, as indicated by the small SDDs on most scales for quality of movement, compared to the range of their scales. This indicates potentially good sensitivity to change if used for patient evaluation purposes. The exceptions were the ‘quality of reach’ score for all tasks, and all quality scores for the stacking blocks task for the young children. As used in the present study, the OSAS has good discriminative capacity within patient populations as indicated by the high ICCs for most quality scores. Measuring the amount of use does not seem to be useful for either discrimination or evaluation. Conclusion In general, the OSAS seems to be a reliable tool for assessing the quality of use of the affected hand in bimanual activities in younger and older children with unilateral CP. Some modifications may improve its usefulness and efficiency. PMID:24139170

  11. Does Gray-Tailed Vole Activity Affect Soil Quality?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Voles are well-known crop pests, especially when peak populations are present, but their role in soil fertility and impacts on agricultural sustainability are not well understood. Five months after the abrupt disappearance of a peak in a gray-tailed vole (Microtus canicaudus) population, we examined...

  12. Metal Toxicity Affects Fungal and Bacterial Activities in Soil Differently

    PubMed Central

    Rajapaksha, R. M. C. P.; Tobor-Kapłon, M. A; Bååth, E.

    2004-01-01

    Although the toxic effect of heavy metals on soil microorganism activity is well known, little is known about the effects on different organism groups. The influence of heavy metal addition on total, bacterial, and fungal activities was therefore studied for up to 60 days in a laboratory experiment using forest soil contaminated with different concentrations of Zn or Cu. The effects of the metals differed between the different activity measurements. During the first week after metal addition, the total activity (respiration rate) decreased by 30% at the highest level of contamination and then remained stable during the 60 days of incubation. The bacterial activity (thymidine incorporation rate) decreased during the first days with the level of metal contamination, resulting in a 90% decrease at the highest level of contamination. Bacterial activity then slowly recovered to values similar to those of the control soil. The recovery was faster when soil pH, which had decreased due to metal addition, was restored to control values by liming. Fungal activity (acetate-in-ergosterol incorporation rate) initially increased with the level of metal contamination, being up to 3 and 7 times higher than that in the control samples during the first week at the highest levels of Zn and Cu addition, respectively. The positive effect of metal addition on fungal activity then decreased, but fungal activity was still higher in contaminated than in control soil after 35 days. This is the first direct evidence that fungal and bacterial activities in soil are differently affected by heavy metals. The different responses of bacteria and fungi to heavy metals were reflected in an increase in the relative fungal/bacterial ratio (estimated using phospholipid fatty acid analysis) with increased metal load. PMID:15128558

  13. Metal toxicity affects fungal and bacterial activities in soil differently.

    PubMed

    Rajapaksha, R M C P; Tobor-Kapłon, M A; Bååth, E

    2004-05-01

    Although the toxic effect of heavy metals on soil microorganism activity is well known, little is known about the effects on different organism groups. The influence of heavy metal addition on total, bacterial, and fungal activities was therefore studied for up to 60 days in a laboratory experiment using forest soil contaminated with different concentrations of Zn or Cu. The effects of the metals differed between the different activity measurements. During the first week after metal addition, the total activity (respiration rate) decreased by 30% at the highest level of contamination and then remained stable during the 60 days of incubation. The bacterial activity (thymidine incorporation rate) decreased during the first days with the level of metal contamination, resulting in a 90% decrease at the highest level of contamination. Bacterial activity then slowly recovered to values similar to those of the control soil. The recovery was faster when soil pH, which had decreased due to metal addition, was restored to control values by liming. Fungal activity (acetate-in-ergosterol incorporation rate) initially increased with the level of metal contamination, being up to 3 and 7 times higher than that in the control samples during the first week at the highest levels of Zn and Cu addition, respectively. The positive effect of metal addition on fungal activity then decreased, but fungal activity was still higher in contaminated than in control soil after 35 days. This is the first direct evidence that fungal and bacterial activities in soil are differently affected by heavy metals. The different responses of bacteria and fungi to heavy metals were reflected in an increase in the relative fungal/bacterial ratio (estimated using phospholipid fatty acid analysis) with increased metal load. PMID:15128558

  14. Serotonin and Dopamine: Unifying Affective, Activational, and Decision Functions

    PubMed Central

    Cools, Roshan; Nakamura, Kae; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin, like dopamine (DA), has long been implicated in adaptive behavior, including decision making and reinforcement learning. However, although the two neuromodulators are tightly related and have a similar degree of functional importance, compared with DA, we have a much less specific understanding about the mechanisms by which serotonin affects behavior. Here, we draw on recent work on computational models of dopaminergic function to suggest a framework by which many of the seemingly diverse functions associated with both DA and serotonin—comprising both affective and activational ones, as well as a number of other functions not overtly related to either—can be seen as consequences of a single root mechanism. PMID:20736991

  15. Factors affecting the behavior of unburned carbon upon steam activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhe

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the factors that could affect the behavior of unburned carbon samples upon steam activation. Through this work, the relationships among the factors that could influence the carbon-steam reaction with the surface area of the produced activated carbon were explored. Statistical analysis was used to relate the chemical and physical properties of the unburned carbon to the surface area of the activated carbon. Six unburned carbons were selected as feedstocks for activated carbon, and marked as UCA through UCF. The unburned carbons were activated using steam at 850°C for 90 minutes, and the surface areas of their activated counterparts were measured using N2 adsorption isotherms at 77K. The activated carbons produced from different unburned carbon precursors presented different surface areas at similar carbon burn-off levels. Moreover, in different carbon burn-off regions, the sequences for surface area of activated carbons from different unburned carbon samples were different. The factors that may affect the carbon-steam gasification reactions, including the concentration of carbon active sites, the crystallite size of the carbon, the intrinsic porous structure of carbon, and the inorganic impurities, were investigated. All unburned carbons investigated in this study were similar in that they showed the very broad (002) and (10 ) carbon peaks, which are characteristic of highly disordered carbonaceous materials. In this study, the unburned carbon samples contained about 17--48% of inorganic impurities. Compared to coals, the unburned carbon samples contain a larger amount of inorganic impurities as a result of the burn-off, or at lease part, of the carbon during the combustion process. These inorganic particles were divided into two groups in terms of the way they are associated with carbon particles: free single particles, and particles combined with carbon particles. As indicated from the present work, unburned

  16. Seasonal time and frequency of switchgrass harvest affects biomass yield and feedstock quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal time of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) harvest affects both yield and feedstock quality and there is interest in reducing harvest frequency to improve wildlife habitat value when using Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land for biomass production. A field study in central Pennsylvania c...

  17. Marital Quality, Maternal Depressed Affect, Harsh Parenting, and Child Externalising in Hong Kong Chinese Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Lei; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Schwartz, David; Farver, Joann M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study used a family systems approach to examine harsh parenting, maternal depressed affect, and marital quality in relation to children's externalising behaviour problems in a sample of 158 Hong Kong primary school children. At two time points, peers and teachers provided ratings of children's externalising behaviours, and mothers…

  18. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of an evaluation of literature on heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). The various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are re...

  19. WebCT--The Quasimoderating Effect of Perceived Affective Quality on an Extending Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Franco, Manuel J.

    2010-01-01

    Perceived affective quality is an attractive area of research in Information System. Specifically, understanding the intrinsic and extrinsic individual factors and interaction effects that influence Information and Communications Technology (ICT) acceptance and adoption--in higher education--continues to be a focal interest in learning research.…

  20. A Case Study Showing Parameters Affecting the Quality of Education: Faculty Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumari, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to examine the faculty members' perspective (age Wise, Gender Wise and Work Experience wise) of parameters affecting the quality of education in an affiliated Undergraduate Engineering Institution in Haryana. It is a descriptive type of research. The data has been collected with the help of 'Questionnaire Based Survey'. The sample…

  1. Factors Affecting Perceived Learning, Satisfaction, and Quality in the Online MBA: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastianelli, Rose; Swift, Caroline; Tamimi, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined how six factors related to content and interaction affect students' perceptions of learning, satisfaction, and quality in online master of business administration (MBA) courses. They developed three scale items to measure each factor. Using survey data from MBA students at a private university, the authors estimated structural…

  2. Environmental layout complexity affects neural activity during navigation in humans.

    PubMed

    Slone, Edward; Burles, Ford; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Navigating large-scale surroundings is a fundamental ability. In humans, it is commonly assumed that navigational performance is affected by individual differences, such as age, sex, and cognitive strategies adopted for orientation. We recently showed that the layout of the environment itself also influences how well people are able to find their way within it, yet it remains unclear whether differences in environmental complexity are associated with changes in brain activity during navigation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how the brain responds to a change in environmental complexity by asking participants to perform a navigation task in two large-scale virtual environments that differed solely in interconnection density, a measure of complexity defined as the average number of directional choices at decision points. The results showed that navigation in the simpler, less interconnected environment was faster and more accurate relative to the complex environment, and such performance was associated with increased activity in a number of brain areas (i.e. precuneus, retrosplenial cortex, and hippocampus) known to be involved in mental imagery, navigation, and memory. These findings provide novel evidence that environmental complexity not only affects navigational behaviour, but also modulates activity in brain regions that are important for successful orientation and navigation. PMID:26990572

  3. A workbook for preparing a district quality- assurance plan for water-quality activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schertz, Terry L.; Childress, Carolyn J.O.; Kelly, Valerie J.; Boucher, Michelle S.; Pederson, Gary L.

    1998-01-01

    APPEARS TO BE A REPORT ON HOW TO WRITE REPORTS --THE 'ABSTRACT' THAT FOLLOWS IS JUST THE GENERIC ABSTRACT TO BE USED FOR WATER USE REPORTS: In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the [State name] District in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the [State name] District for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures that are documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the District quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities and to supplement the [State name] District quality-assurance plan.

  4. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities in the USGS Ohio Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Shaffer, Kimberly H.

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been written for use by the Ohio Water Science Center in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Ohio Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the Ohio Water Science Center quality-assurance plans for water-quality monitors, the microbiology laboratory, and surface-water and ground-water activities.

  5. Evaluation of macrophage antiviral activity in patients affected by neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Merendino, R A; Iannello, D; Arena, A; Bonina, L; Greco, V; Mesiti, M; Chillemi, S; Mastroeni, P

    1988-01-01

    The intrinsic antiviral activity of macrophages has been studied in healthy donors and in patients affected by breast cancer and melanoma. In vitro differentiated macrophages from blood-derived monocytes were infected with measles virus, herpes simplex virus type 2 and adenovirus 17. The challenge was carried out with different multiplicities of infection and the synthesis of virus was tested by evaluating the single cycle growth curve in 24 h. The results obtained show that the restriction of virus infectivity by macrophages is strongly influenced by the multiplicity of infection. This was particularly evident with the adenovirus 17. Moreover, macrophages from patients with melanoma and breast cancer showed an impairment of the intrinsic antiviral activity in comparison with normal subjects. PMID:2842553

  6. Miscanthus as a feedstock for fast-pyrolysis: does agronomic treatment affect quality?

    PubMed

    Hodgson, E M; Fahmi, R; Yates, N; Barraclough, T; Shield, I; Allison, G; Bridgwater, A V; Donnison, I S

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of the experiment were to assess the impact of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) fertiliser application on the cell wall composition and fast-pyrolysis conversion quality of the commercially cultivated hybrid Miscanthus x giganteus. Five different fertiliser treatments were applied to mature Miscanthus plants which were sampled at five intervals over a growing season. The different fertiliser treatments produced significant variation in concentrations of cell wall components and ash within the biomass and affected the composition and quality of the resulting fast-pyrolysis liquids. The results indicated that application of high rates of N fertiliser had a negative effect on feedstock quality for this conversion pathway: reducing the proportion of cell wall components and increasing accumulation of ash in the harvested biomass. No exclusive effect of potassium fertiliser was observed. The low-N fertiliser treatment produced high quality, low ash-high lignin biomass most suitable as a feedstock for thermo-chemical conversion. PMID:20338753

  7. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, M.; Pokorný, J.

    2011-12-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  8. Enzyme activities by indicator of quality in organic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raigon Jiménez, Mo; Fita, Ana Delores; Rodriguez Burruezo, Adrián

    2016-04-01

    The analytical determination of biochemical parameters, as soil enzyme activities and those related to the microbial biomass is growing importance by biological indicator in soil science studies. The metabolic activity in soil is responsible of important processes such as mineralization and humification of organic matter. These biological reactions will affect other key processes involved with elements like carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus , and all transformations related in soil microbial biomass. The determination of biochemical parameters is useful in studies carried out on organic soil where microbial processes that are key to their conservation can be analyzed through parameters of the metabolic activity of these soils. The main objective of this work is to apply analytical methodologies of enzyme activities in soil collections of different physicochemical characteristics. There have been selective sampling of natural soils, organic farming soils, conventional farming soils and urban soils. The soils have been properly identified conserved at 4 ° C until analysis. The enzyme activities determinations have been: catalase, urease, cellulase, dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase, which bring together a representative group of biological transformations that occur in the soil environment. The results indicate that for natural and agronomic soil collections, the values of the enzymatic activities are within the ranges established for forestry and agricultural soils. Organic soils are generally higher level of enzymatic, regardless activity of the enzyme involved. Soil near an urban area, levels of activities have been significantly reduced. The vegetation cover applied to organic soils, results in greater enzymatic activity. So the quality of these soils, defined as the ability to maintain their biological productivity is increased with the use of cover crops, whether or spontaneous species. The practice of cover based on legumes could be used as an ideal choice

  9. Factors Affecting Cirrus-HD OCT Optic Disc Scan Quality: A Review with Case Examples

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, Joshua S.; Taibbi, Giovanni; Nelson, Seth C.; Chao, Diana; Vizzeri, Gianmarco

    2015-01-01

    Spectral-domain OCT is an established tool to assist clinicians in detecting glaucoma and monitor disease progression. The widespread use of this imaging modality is due, at least in part, to continuous hardware and software advancements. However, recent evidence indicates that OCT scan artifacts are frequently encountered in clinical practice. Poor image quality invariably challenges the interpretation of test results, with potential implications for the care of glaucoma patients. Therefore, adequate knowledge of various imaging artifacts is necessary. In this work, we describe several factors affecting Cirrus HD-OCT optic disc scan quality and their effects on measurement variability. PMID:26351574

  10. Neural activities during affective processing in people with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tatia M C; Sun, Delin; Leung, Mei-Kei; Chu, Leung-Wing; Keysers, Christian

    2013-03-01

    This study examined brain activities in people with Alzheimer's disease when viewing happy, sad, and fearful facial expressions of others. A functional magnetic resonance imaging and a voxel-based morphometry methodology together with a passive viewing of emotional faces paradigm were employed to compare the affective processing in 12 people with mild Alzheimer's disease and 12 matched controls. The main finding was that the clinical participants showed reduced activations in regions associated with the motor simulation system (the ventral premotor cortex) and in regions associated with emotional simulation-empathy (the anterior insula and adjacent frontal operculum). This regional decline in blood oxygen level-dependent signals appeared to be lateralized in the left hemisphere and was not related to any structural degeneration in the clinical participants. Furthermore, the regions that showed changes in neural activity differed for the 3 emotional facial expressions studied. Findings of our study indicate that neural changes in regions associated with the motor and emotional simulation systems might play an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22840336

  11. Language affects patterns of brain activation associated with perceptual decision.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li Hai; Chan, Alice H D; Kay, Paul; Khong, Pek-Lan; Yip, Lawrance K C; Luke, Kang-Kwong

    2008-03-11

    Well over half a century ago, Benjamin Lee Whorf [Carroll JB (1956) Language, Thought, and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA)] proposed that language affects perception and thought and is used to segment nature, a hypothesis that has since been tested by linguistic and behavioral studies. Although clear Whorfian effects have been found, it has not yet been demonstrated that language influences brain activity associated with perception and/or immediate postperceptual processes (referred hereafter as "perceptual decision"). Here, by using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that brain regions mediating language processes participate in neural networks activated by perceptual decision. When subjects performed a perceptual discrimination task on easy-to-name and hard-to-name colored squares, largely overlapping cortical regions were identified, which included areas of the occipital cortex critical for color vision and regions in the bilateral frontal gyrus. Crucially, however, in comparison with hard-to-name colored squares, perceptual discrimination of easy-to-name colors evoked stronger activation in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, two regions responsible for word-finding processes, as demonstrated by a localizer experiment that uses an explicit color patch naming task. This finding suggests that the language-processing areas of the brain are directly involved in visual perceptual decision, thus providing neuroimaging support for the Whorf hypothesis. PMID:18316728

  12. Dental caries affects body weight, growth and quality of life in pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Sheiham, A

    2006-11-25

    The effect of a relatively common chronic disease, severe dental caries, affects young childrens' growth and well-being. Treating dental caries in pre-school children would increase growth rates and the quality of life of millions of children. Severe untreated dental caries is common in pre-school children in many countries. Children with severe caries weighed less than controls, and after treatment of decayed teeth there was more rapid weight gain and improvements in their quality of life. This may be due to dietary intake improving because pain affected the quantity and variety of food eaten, and second, chronic inflammation from caries related pulpitis and abscesses is known to suppress growth through a metabolic pathway and to reduce haemoglobin as a result of depressed erythrocyte production. PMID:17128231

  13. Evaluation of variations and affecting factors of eco-environmental quality during urbanization.

    PubMed

    Cui, Erqian; Ren, Lijun; Sun, Haoyu

    2015-03-01

    Regional eco-environmental quality is the foundation of economic sustainable development and rational utilization of resources. It is necessary to understand and evaluate the regional eco-environmental quality correctly. Based on national remote sensing land use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data and some other statistical data, this paper established an eco-environmental quality index (EQI) model to evaluate the ecological status of Jinan from 2000 to 2011. The results of eco-environmental quality showed little variation, with EQI values ranged from 62.00 to 69.01. EQI of each region in Jinan firstly decreased sharply and then increased slowly with the development of local economy. Besides the spatial and temporal variations analysis, affecting factors of eco-environmental quality was also discussed in this article. According to the results of correlation and regression analysis, meteorological conditions (rainfall and sunshine duration) and industrial structure (the proportion of primary industry) had relatively high correlations with eco-environmental quality. To summarize, a better eco-environmental status is associated with increasing rainfall, shorter sunshine duration, and lower proportion of primary industry. This article aims to giving supporting data and decision-making bases to restore the ecological environment and promote the sustainable development of Jinan. PMID:25369921

  14. Trauma-related symptoms in neglected preschoolers and affective quality of mother-child communication.

    PubMed

    Milot, Tristan; St-Laurent, Diane; Ethier, Louise S; Provost, Marc A

    2010-11-01

    This study (a) assessed whether child neglect is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative symptoms in the preschool period and (b) examined the role of quality of mother-child affective communication in the development of trauma-related symptoms among neglected children. Participants were 33 neglected and 72 non-neglected preschoolers (mean age = 60 months). Neglected children were recruited from the Child Protection Agencies. Neglected and non-neglected children victims of other form of abuse were excluded from the study. Trauma symptoms were evaluated through mother and preschool teacher reports. Quality of mother-child affective communication was assessed in a lab visit during an unstructured task. According to teachers, neglected children displayed more PTSD and dissociative symptoms than non-neglected children. Quality of mother-child communication was lower in neglected dyads. Mother-child affective communication predicted teacher-reported child trauma symptomatology, over and above child neglect. Discussion focuses on the traumatic nature of child neglect and the underlying parent-child relational processes. PMID:20930179

  15. Hearing the patient's voice? Factors affecting the use of patient survey data in quality improvement

    PubMed Central

    Davies, E; Cleary, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To develop a framework for understanding factors affecting the use of patient survey data in quality improvement. Design: Qualitative interviews with senior health professionals and managers and a review of the literature. Setting: A quality improvement collaborative in Minnesota, USA involving teams from eight medical groups, focusing on how to use patient survey data to improve patient centred care. Participants: Eight team leaders (medical, clinical improvement or service quality directors) and six team members (clinical improvement coordinators and managers). Results: Respondents reported three types of barriers before the collaborative: organisational, professional and data related. Organisational barriers included lack of supporting values for patient centred care, competing priorities, and lack of an effective quality improvement infrastructure. Professional barriers included clinicians and staff not being used to focusing on patient interaction as a quality issue, individuals not necessarily having been selected, trained or supported to provide patient centred care, and scepticism, defensiveness or resistance to change following feedback. Data related barriers included lack of expertise with survey data, lack of timely and specific results, uncertainty over the effective interventions or time frames for improvement, and consequent risk of perceived low cost effectiveness of data collection. Factors that appeared to have promoted data use included board led strategies to change culture and create quality improvement forums, leadership from senior physicians and managers, and the persistence of quality improvement staff over several years in demonstrating change in other areas. Conclusion: Using patient survey data may require a more concerted effort than for other clinical data. Organisations may need to develop cultures that support patient centred care, quality improvement capacity, and to align professional receptiveness and leadership with

  16. Inaudible high-frequency sounds affect brain activity: hypersonic effect.

    PubMed

    Oohashi, T; Nishina, E; Honda, M; Yonekura, Y; Fuwamoto, Y; Kawai, N; Maekawa, T; Nakamura, S; Fukuyama, H; Shibasaki, H

    2000-06-01

    Although it is generally accepted that humans cannot perceive sounds in the frequency range above 20 kHz, the question of whether the existence of such "inaudible" high-frequency components may affect the acoustic perception of audible sounds remains unanswered. In this study, we used noninvasive physiological measurements of brain responses to provide evidence that sounds containing high-frequency components (HFCs) above the audible range significantly affect the brain activity of listeners. We used the gamelan music of Bali, which is extremely rich in HFCs with a nonstationary structure, as a natural sound source, dividing it into two components: an audible low-frequency component (LFC) below 22 kHz and an HFC above 22 kHz. Brain electrical activity and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured as markers of neuronal activity while subjects were exposed to sounds with various combinations of LFCs and HFCs. None of the subjects recognized the HFC as sound when it was presented alone. Nevertheless, the power spectra of the alpha frequency range of the spontaneous electroencephalogram (alpha-EEG) recorded from the occipital region increased with statistical significance when the subjects were exposed to sound containing both an HFC and an LFC, compared with an otherwise identical sound from which the HFC was removed (i.e., LFC alone). In contrast, compared with the baseline, no enhancement of alpha-EEG was evident when either an HFC or an LFC was presented separately. Positron emission tomography measurements revealed that, when an HFC and an LFC were presented together, the rCBF in the brain stem and the left thalamus increased significantly compared with a sound lacking the HFC above 22 kHz but that was otherwise identical. Simultaneous EEG measurements showed that the power of occipital alpha-EEGs correlated significantly with the rCBF in the left thalamus. Psychological evaluation indicated that the subjects felt the sound containing an HFC to be more

  17. Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.

    PubMed

    Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers. PMID:24799232

  18. Association of HvLDI with limit dextrinase activity and malt quality in barley.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaoli; Cai, Shengguan; Ye, Lingzhen; Chen, Zhonghua; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2013-04-01

    Limit dextrinase (LD) is a unique de-branching enzyme involved in starch mobilization of barley grains during malting, and closely related to malt quality. Genotypic variation of LD activity is controlled by genetic factors and also affected by environmental conditions. Correlation analysis between LD activity and four malt quality parameters showed that LD activity was positively correlated with diastatic power, Kolbach index and the quality of malt extract, while negatively correlated with viscosity. The structure-based association analysis demonstrated that HvLDI, a gene encoding limit dextrinase inhibitor, was a major determinant of LD activity and malt quality. The single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with LD activity could be used in early generation selection for barley breeding. PMID:23264263

  19. Immune Activation Reduces Sperm Quality in the Great Tit

    PubMed Central

    Losdat, Sylvain; Richner, Heinz; Blount, Jonathan D.; Helfenstein, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    Mounting an immune response against pathogens incurs costs to organisms by its effects on important life-history traits, such as reproductive investment and survival. As shown recently, immune activation produces large amounts of reactive species and is suggested to induce oxidative stress. Sperm are highly susceptible to oxidative stress, which can negatively impact sperm function and ultimately male fertilizing efficiency. Here we address the question as to whether mounting an immune response affects sperm quality through the damaging effects of oxidative stress. It has been demonstrated recently in birds that carotenoid-based ornaments can be reliable signals of a male's ability to protect sperm from oxidative damage. In a full-factorial design, we immune-challenged great tit males while simultaneously increasing their vitamin E availability, and assessed the effect on sperm quality and oxidative damage. We conducted this experiment in a natural population and tested the males' response to the experimental treatment in relation to their carotenoid-based breast coloration, a condition-dependent trait. Immune activation induced a steeper decline in sperm swimming velocity, thus highlighting the potential costs of an induced immune response on sperm competitive ability and fertilizing efficiency. We found sperm oxidative damage to be negatively correlated with sperm swimming velocity. However, blood resistance to a free-radical attack (a measure of somatic antioxidant capacity) as well as plasma and sperm levels of oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation) remained unaffected, thus suggesting that the observed effect did not arise through oxidative stress. Towards the end of their breeding cycle, swimming velocity of sperm of more intensely colored males was higher, which has important implications for the evolution of mate choice and multiple mating in females because females may accrue both direct and indirect benefits by mating with males having better quality sperm

  20. Assessment of processes affecting low-flow water quality of Cedar Creek, west-central Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Arthur R.; Freeman, W.O.; McFarlane, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Water quality and the processes that affect dissolved oxygen, nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus species), and algal concentrations were evaluated for a 23.8-mile reach of Cedar Creek near Galesburg, west-central Illinois, during periods of warm-weather, low-flow conditions. Water quality samples were collected and stream conditions were measured over a diel (24 hour) period on three occasions during July and August 1985. Analysis of data from the diel-sampling periods indicates that concentrations of iron, copper, manganese, phenols, and total dissolved-solids exceeded Illinois ' general-use water quality standards in some locations. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were less than the State minimum standard throughout much of the study reach. These data were used to calibrate and verify a one-dimensional, steady-state, water quality model. The computer model was used to assess the relative effects on low-flow water quality of processes such as algal photosynthesis and respiration, ammonia oxidation, biochemical oxygen demand, sediment oxygen demand, and stream reaeration. Results from model simulations and sensitivity analysis indicate that sediment oxygen demand is the principal cause of low dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the creek. (USGS)

  1. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-06-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=-0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=-0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  2. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=−0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=−0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  3. Relaxation training affects success and activation on a teaching test.

    PubMed

    Helin, P; Hänninen, O

    1987-12-01

    We studied the effects of an audiocassette-relaxation training period (ART) and its timing on success at a teaching test (lecture type), on observed tension and on a number of physiological responses. The electrical activity of the upper trapezius muscle (EMG), heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), of female and male instructor candidates, were examined before, during and after the teaching test as well as during its critique. The relaxation period (18 min) was presented either on the preceding night (ARTnt) or immediately before the teaching test (ARTimm). The influence of personality (types A-B and extrovert-introvert) was also studied. ART improved success at the teaching test in both sexes. In males (but not in females), ARTimm decreased EMG level during the test, but ARTnt increased EMG at the test period as compared to the control group. In females, both ARTnt and ARTimm lowered HR more than in the control group. ARTimm lowered systolic BP in both sexes. Personality types affected the ART responses; ART was more beneficial for type A than B subjects. PMID:3325481

  4. Quality of fresh organic matter affects priming of soil organic matter and substrate utilization patterns of microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Boutton, Thomas W.; Xu, Wenhua; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Ping; Bai, Edith

    2015-05-01

    Changes in biogeochemical cycles and the climate system due to human activities are expected to change the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs to soils. How changing quality of fresh organic matter (FOM) might influence the priming effect (PE) on soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is still under debate. Here we determined the PE induced by two 13C-labeled FOMs with contrasting nutritional quality (leaf vs. stalk of Zea mays L.). Soils from two different forest types yielded consistent results: soils amended with leaf tissue switched faster from negative PE to positive PE due to greater microbial growth compared to soils amended with stalks. However, after 16 d of incubation, soils amended with stalks had a higher PE than those amended with leaf. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) results suggested that microbial demand for carbon and other nutrients was one of the major determinants of the PE observed. Therefore, consideration of both microbial demands for nutrients and FOM supply simultaneously is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of PE. Our study provided evidence that changes in FOM quality could affect microbial utilization of substrate and PE on SOM mineralization, which may exacerbate global warming problems under future climate change.

  5. Quality of fresh organic matter affects priming of soil organic matter and substrate utilization patterns of microbes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Boutton, Thomas W; Xu, Wenhua; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Ping; Bai, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Changes in biogeochemical cycles and the climate system due to human activities are expected to change the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs to soils. How changing quality of fresh organic matter (FOM) might influence the priming effect (PE) on soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is still under debate. Here we determined the PE induced by two (13)C-labeled FOMs with contrasting nutritional quality (leaf vs. stalk of Zea mays L.). Soils from two different forest types yielded consistent results: soils amended with leaf tissue switched faster from negative PE to positive PE due to greater microbial growth compared to soils amended with stalks. However, after 16 d of incubation, soils amended with stalks had a higher PE than those amended with leaf. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) results suggested that microbial demand for carbon and other nutrients was one of the major determinants of the PE observed. Therefore, consideration of both microbial demands for nutrients and FOM supply simultaneously is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of PE. Our study provided evidence that changes in FOM quality could affect microbial utilization of substrate and PE on SOM mineralization, which may exacerbate global warming problems under future climate change. PMID:25960162

  6. Quality of fresh organic matter affects priming of soil organic matter and substrate utilization patterns of microbes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Boutton, Thomas W.; Xu, Wenhua; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Ping; Bai, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Changes in biogeochemical cycles and the climate system due to human activities are expected to change the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs to soils. How changing quality of fresh organic matter (FOM) might influence the priming effect (PE) on soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is still under debate. Here we determined the PE induced by two 13C-labeled FOMs with contrasting nutritional quality (leaf vs. stalk of Zea mays L.). Soils from two different forest types yielded consistent results: soils amended with leaf tissue switched faster from negative PE to positive PE due to greater microbial growth compared to soils amended with stalks. However, after 16 d of incubation, soils amended with stalks had a higher PE than those amended with leaf. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) results suggested that microbial demand for carbon and other nutrients was one of the major determinants of the PE observed. Therefore, consideration of both microbial demands for nutrients and FOM supply simultaneously is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of PE. Our study provided evidence that changes in FOM quality could affect microbial utilization of substrate and PE on SOM mineralization, which may exacerbate global warming problems under future climate change. PMID:25960162

  7. Genetic and management factors affecting beef quality in grazing Hereford steers.

    PubMed

    Melucci, L M; Panarace, M; Feula, P; Villarreal, E L; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Soria, L A; Mezzadra, C A; Arceo, M E; Papaleo Mazzucco, J; Corva, P M; Irurueta, M; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Miquel, M C

    2012-12-01

    Attributes contributing to differences in beef quality of 206 Hereford steers finished on pasture were assessed. Beef quality traits evaluated were: Warner-Bratzler meat tenderness and muscle and fat color at one and seven days after slaughter and trained sensory panel traits (tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and marbling) at seven days. Molecular markers were CAPN1 316 and an SNP in exon 2 on the leptin gene (E2FB). Average daily live weight gain, ultrasound monthly backfat thickness gain and rib-eye area gain were estimated. Molecular markers effects on meat quality traits were analyzed by mixed models. Association of meat quality with post weaning growth traits was analyzed by canonical correlations. Muscle color and marbling were affected by CAPN1 316 and E2FB and Warner-Bratzler meat tenderness by the former. The results confirm that marker assisted selection for tenderness is advisable only when beef aging is a common practice. The most important sources of variation in tenderness and color of meat remained unaccounted for. PMID:22818350

  8. Factors Affecting the Quality of Life and the Illness Acceptance of Pregnant Women with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bień, Agnieszka; Rzońca, Ewa; Kańczugowska, Angelika; Iwanowicz-Palus, Grażyna

    2015-01-01

    The paper contains an analysis of the factors affecting the quality of life (QoL) and the illness acceptance of diabetic pregnant women. The study was performed between January and April, 2013. It included 114 pregnant women with diabetes, hospitalized in the High Risk Pregnancy Wards of several hospitals in Lublin, Poland. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instruments used were: The WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire and the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS). The women’s general quality of life was slightly higher than their perceived general health. A higher quality of life was reported by women with a very good financial standing, very good perceived health, moderate self-reported knowledge of diabetes, and also by those only treated with diet and stating that the illness did not interfere with their lives (p < 0.05). Women with a very good financial standing (p < 0.009), high self-reported health (p < 0.002), and those treated with by means of a diet (p < 0.04) had a higher acceptance of illness. A higher acceptance of illness contributes to a higher general quality of life and a better perception of one’s health. PMID:26703697

  9. Lead level in seminal plasma may affect semen quality for men without occupational exposure to lead

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infertility affects approximately 10–15% of reproductive-age couples. Poor semen quality contributes to about 25% of infertile cases. Resulting from the direct effect on testicular function or hormonal alterations, heavy metals exposure has been related to impaired semen quality. The objective of this study was to assess the level of lead in the seminal plasma in men without occupational exposure to lead, and to determine the relationship between semen quality and lead concentration in the semen. Methods This is a prospective and nonrandomized clinical study conducted in University infertility clinic and academic research laboratory. Three hundred and forty-one male partners of infertile couples undergoing infertility evaluation and management were recruited to the study. Semen samples collected for the analyses of semen quality were also used for the measurement of lead concentrations. Semen samples were evaluated according to the WHO standards. Results All subjects were married and from infertile couples without occupational exposure to lead. There is a significant inverse correlation between the lead concentration in seminal plasma and sperm count. A higher semen lead concentration was correlated with lower sperm count, but not with semen volume, sperm motility or sperm morphology as assessed by simple linear regression. Conclusions We found that semen lead concentration was significantly higher among the patients with lower sperm count. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that a high level of lead accumulation in semen may reduce the sperm count contributing to infertility of men without occupational exposure to lead. PMID:23137356

  10. Does Time Affect Patient Satisfaction and Health-Related Quality of Life After Reduction Mammoplasty?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Wess A.; Homel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A total of 62,611 patients with breast hypertrophy underwent breast reduction surgery in 2013 in the United States to improve their symptoms and health-related quality of life. While multiple studies utilizing various outcome instruments demonstrate the efficacy of reductive surgery, it is presently unknown how the postoperative course affects patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life as measured by the BREAST-Q. Our objective was to determine the temporal relationship of patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life after reduction mammoplasty. Methods: Patients prospectively completed the BREAST-Q reduction mammoplasty module at 3 time points during their treatment: preoperatively, at less than 3 months postoperatively, and at more than 3 months (<12 months) postoperatively. A single surgeon (N.P.P.) performed all of the breast reduction procedures. Results: Each time point contained 20 questionnaires. Mean preoperative BREAST-Q scores were significantly lower than scores at the less than 3-month postoperative time point for the scales Satisfaction With Breasts, Psychosocial Well-being, Sexual Well-being, and Physical Well-being (P < .001). There was no significant difference in BREAST-Q scores between the postoperative time points in these measures. Conclusion: Breast reduction surgery offers a vast improvement in patients’ satisfaction and health-related quality of life that is maintained throughout the postoperative period. These findings can assist surgeons in managing patient expectations after reduction mammoplasty and help improve the probability of obtaining prior authorization for insurance coverage. PMID:26819650

  11. Is Rural School-aged Children's Quality of Life Affected by Their Responses to Asthma?

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Sharon D.; Brown, Sharon A.; Walker, Veronica García

    2011-01-01

    The unpredictable nature of asthma makes it stressful for children and can affect their quality of life. An exploratory analysis of 183 rural school-aged children's data was conducted to determine relationships among demographic factors, children's responses to asthma (coping, asthma self-management), and their quality of life (QOL). Coping frequency, asthma severity, and race/ethnicity significantly predicted children's asthma-related QOL. Children reported more frequent coping as asthma-related QOL worsened (higher scores). Children with more asthma severity had worse asthma-related QOL. Post-hoc analyses showed that racial/ethnic minorities reported worse asthma-related QOL scores than did non-Hispanic Whites. PMID:22920660

  12. Mindfulness and dream quality: the inverse relationship between mindfulness and negative dream affect.

    PubMed

    Simor, Péter; Köteles, Ferenc; Sándor, Piroska; Petke, Zsolt; Bódizs, Róbert

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship of mindfulness to the emotional quality of dreaming. In our questionnaire-based study, comprising the data of 587 undergraduate students we examined the association between trait anxiety, perceived stress, trait mindfulness, negative dream affect and dream anxiety. Our results indicate that mindfulness is inversely related to disturbed dreaming and predicts less severe dream disturbances after controlling for trait anxiety. Moreover, the results of the applied hierarchical regression analysis suggest that mindfulness is associated with reduced dream anxiety by moderating the extent of waking anxiety. Our findings extend previous research relating mindfulness, emotional regulation and sleep quality to the domain of dream research. We suggest that mindfulness is a possible protective factor against dream disturbances. PMID:21504431

  13. How attendance and quality of participation affect treatment response to parent management training.

    PubMed

    Nix, Robert L; Bierman, Karen L; McMahon, Robert J

    2009-06-01

    This study examined whether attendance and quality of participation in parent management training predicted treatment response. Data were from 445 parents (55% minority, 62% single; almost all of low socioeconomic status) who had 1st-grade children with severe conduct problems. Quality of participation in weekly parent groups was based on group leader ratings. Parent outcomes were based on interviewer ratings, behavioral observations, parent reports, and teacher ratings. Results of hierarchical linear models suggested that few family characteristics predicted attendance in this efficacy trial and that attendance was not related to changes in parenting over the year. However, several family characteristics predicted quality of participation in parent management training, and this in turn predicted changes in parental perceptions, warmth, physical punishment, and school involvement. From a clinical perspective, these findings suggest that it is not enough to get parents to attend sessions; it is also necessary to facilitate their active engagement in the therapeutic process. PMID:19485585

  14. The Effect of Line Maintenance Activity on Airline Safety Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoades, Dawna L.; Reynolds, Rosemarie; Waguespack, Blaise, Jr.; Williams, Michael

    2005-01-01

    One of the arguments against deregulation of the airline industry has been the possibility that financially troubled carriers would be tempted to lower line maintenance spending, thus lowering maintenance quality and decreasing the overall safety of the carrier. Given the financial crisis triggered by the events of 9/11: it appears to be a good time to revisit this issue. This paper examines the quality of airline line maintenance activity and examines the impact of maintenance spending on maintenance quality and overall safety. Findings indicate that increased maintenance spending is associated with increased line maintenance activity and increased overall safety quality for the major U.S. carriers.

  15. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, T.P.

    1994-10-20

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, which are part of the overall Hanford Site Environmental Protection Plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of the individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans.

  16. Dairy manure and plant nutrient management issues affecting water quality and the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Lanyon, L E

    1994-07-01

    Specific requirements for dairy manure management to protect water quality from nutrient pollution depend on the organization of individual farms. Further, the management requirements and options are different for point (farmstead) and nonpoint (field-applied) sources of pollution from farms. A formal management process can guide decisions about existing crop nutrient utilization potential, provide a framework for tracking nutrients supplied to crops, and identify future requirements for dairy manure management to protect water quality. Farm managers can use the process to plan daily activities, to assess annual nutrient management performance, and to chart future requirements as herd size increases. Agronomic measures of nutrient balance and tracking of inputs and outputs for various farm management units can provide the quantitative basis for management to allocate better manure to fields, to modify dairy rations, or to develop alternatives to on-farm manure application. Changes in agricultural production since World War II have contributed to a shift from land-based dairy production to a reliance on capital factors of production supplied by the dairy industry. Meanwhile, management of dairy manure to meet increasingly stringent water quality protection requirements is still a land-based activity. Involving the dairy industry and off-farm stakeholders as participants in the management process for field, farm, and regional dairy production can be the basis for decision-making to reconcile the sometimes conflicting demands of production and water quality protection. PMID:7929961

  17. Laying performance and egg quality of blue-shelled layers as affected by different housing systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, X L; Zheng, J X; Ning, Z H; Qu, L J; Xu, G Y; Yang, N

    2009-07-01

    Blue-shelled eggs are gaining popularity as the consumption demand diversifies in some countries. This study was carried out to investigate the laying performance and egg quality of the blue-shelled egg layers as well as the effects of different housing systems on egg production and quality traits. One thousand pullets from Dongxiang blue-shelled layers were divided into 2 even groups and kept in different housing systems (outdoor vs. cage). Daily laying performance was recorded from 20 to 60 wk of age. External and internal egg quality traits were examined at 26, 34, 42, and 50 wk. Yolk cholesterol concentration and whole egg cholesterol content were measured at 40 wk of age. Average laying rate from 20 to 60 wk for the cage (54.7%) was significantly higher than that of outdoor layers (39.3%). Among all of the egg quality traits, only eggshell color was affected by housing system. Interaction between housing system and layer age was found in egg weight, eggshell color, eggshell ratio, yolk color, and yolk weight. Meanwhile, cholesterol concentration in yolk was 8.64 +/- 0.40 mg/g in the outdoor eggs, which was significantly lower than that of eggs from the cage birds (10.32 +/- 0.48 mg/g; P < 0.05). Whole egg cholesterol content in the outdoor eggs (125.23 +/- 6.32 mg/egg) was also significantly lower than that of eggs from the caged layers (158.01 +/- 8.62 mg/egg). The results demonstrated that blue-shelled layers have lower productivity in the outdoor system than in the cage system. Blue-shelled layers have lower egg weight, larger yolk proportion, and lower cholesterol content compared with commercial layers. In a proper marketing system, lower productivity could be balanced by a higher price for the better quality of blue-shelled eggs. PMID:19531721

  18. Factors Affecting Source-Water Quality after Disturbance of Forests by Wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, S. F.; Martin, D. A.; McCleskey, R. B.; Writer, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Forests yield high-quality water supplies to communities throughout the world, in part because forest cover reduces flooding and the consequent transport of suspended and dissolved constituents to surface water. Disturbance by wildfire reduces or eliminates forest cover, leaving watersheds susceptible to increased surface runoff during storms and reduced ability to retain contaminants. We assessed water-quality response to hydrologic events for three years after a wildfire in the Fourmile Creek Watershed, near Boulder, Colorado, and found that hydrologic and geochemical responses downstream of a burned area were primarily driven by small, brief convective storms that had relatively high, but not unusual, rainfall intensity. Total suspended sediment, dissolved organic carbon, nitrate, and manganese concentrations were 10-156 times higher downstream of a burned area compared to upstream, and water quality was sufficiently impaired to pose water-treatment concerns. The response in both concentration and yield of water-quality constituents differed depending on source availability and dominant watershed processes controlling the constituent. For example, while all constituent concentrations were highest during storm events, annual sediment yields downstream of the burned area were controlled by storm events and subsequent mobilization, whereas dissolved organic carbon yields were more dependent on spring runoff from upstream areas. The watershed response was affected by a legacy of historical disturbance: the watershed had been recovering from extensive disturbance by mining, railroad and road development, logging, and fires in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and we observed extensive erosion of mine waste in response to these summer storms. Therefore, both storm characteristics and historical disturbance in a burned watershed must be considered when evaluating the role of wildfire on water quality.

  19. Factors affecting the quality of anticoagulation with warfarin: experience of one cardiac centre

    PubMed Central

    Ciurus, Tomasz; Cichocka-Radwan, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The risk of complications in anticoagulation therapy can be reduced by maximising the percentage of time spent by the patient in the optimal therapeutic range (TTR). However, little is known about the predictors of anticoagulation control. The aim of this paper was to assess the quality of anticoagulant therapy in patients on warfarin and to identify the factors affecting its deterioration. Material and methods We studied 149 patients who required anticoagulant therapy with warfarin due to non-valvular atrial fibrillation and/or venous thromboembolism. Each patient underwent proper training regarding the implemented treatment and remained under constant medical care. Results The mean age of the patients was 68.8 ± 12.6 years, and 59% were male. A total of 2460 international normalised ratio (INR) measurements were collected during the 18-month period. The mean TTR in the studied cohort was 76 ± 21%, and the median was 80%. The level at which high-quality anticoagulation was recorded for this study was based on TTR values above 80%. Seventy-five patients with TTR ≥ 80% were included in the stable anticoagulation group (TTR ≥ 80%); the remaining 74 patients constituted the unstable anticoagulation group (TTR < 80%). According to multivariate stepwise regression analysis, the independent variables increasing the risk of deterioration of anticoagulation quality were: arterial hypertension (OR 2.74 [CI 95%: 1.06-7.10]; p = 0.038), amiodarone therapy (OR 4.22 [CI 95%: 1.30-13.70]; p = 0.017), and obesity (OR 1.11 [CI 95%: 1.02-1.21]; p = 0.013). Conclusions The presence of obesity, hypertension, or amiodarone therapy decreases the quality of anticoagulation with warfarin. High quality of anticoagulation can be achieved through proper monitoring and education of patients. PMID:26855650

  20. Risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Kerman, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri-Najand, Ladan; Rezaii, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Milk is often described as a complete food because it contains protein, sugar, fat, vitamins, and minerals. This study was performed to investigate risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. According to the following conducted experiments, the milk was divided into two standard and non-standard groups. Then, effect of risk factors on making the samples non-standard was studied. Risk factors such as type of milk delivery unit, distance of cattle farm from plant, size of herd, education level of stockbreeders, capacity of milk transport tank, capacity of cooler device, and number of workers employed in cattle farms were evaluated in this study. Microbial and chemical evaluations were performed. Beta-lactam antibiotic residues and somatic cell count were specified. At the same time, the stockbreeders who referred to the plant were given some questionnaires and the mentioned primary questions were asked. After collecting the data, logistic regression model was used. According to the obtained results and comparison with Iran’s national standard, 26 out of 109 samples were determined to be at standard level and 83 ones had at least one out-of-standard factor. The results obtained from the model demonstrated significant effect of education of stockbreeders and capacity of cooler devices on the milk quality. Education of stockbreeders could greatly affect management of a cattle farm unit. PMID:25992256

  1. Positive affect modulates activity in the visual cortex to images of high calorie foods.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2007-05-01

    Activity within the visual cortex can be influenced by the emotional salience of a stimulus, but it is not clear whether such cortical activity is modulated by the affective status of the individual. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the relationship between affect ratings on the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and activity within the occipital cortex of 13 normal-weight women while viewing images of high calorie and low calorie foods. Regression analyses revealed that when participants viewed high calorie foods, Positive Affect correlated significantly with activity within the lingual gyrus and calcarine cortex, whereas Negative Affect was unrelated to visual cortex activity. In contrast, during presentations of low calorie foods, affect ratings, regardless of valence, were unrelated to occipital cortex activity. These findings suggest a mechanism whereby positive affective state may affect the early stages of sensory processing, possibly influencing subsequent perceptual experience of a stimulus. PMID:17464782

  2. Affect and Subsequent Physical Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Study Examining the Affect-Activity Association in a Real-Life Context.

    PubMed

    Niermann, Christina Y N; Herrmann, Christian; von Haaren, Birte; van Kann, Dave; Woll, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, cognitive, motivational, and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the habit of being physically active on this relationship. An ambulatory assessment study in 89 persons (33.7% male, 25 to 65 years, M = 45.2, SD = 8.1) was conducted. Affect was assessed in the afternoon on 5 weekdays using smartphones. Physical activity was measured continuously objectively using accelerometers and subjectively using smartphones in the evening. Habit strength was assessed at the beginning of the diary period. The outcomes were objectively and subjectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) performed after work. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze the association between affect and after work MVPA. In addition, the cross-level interaction of habit strength and affect on after work MVPA was tested. Positive affect was positively related to objectively measured and self-reported after work MVPA: the greater the positive affect the more time persons subsequently spent on MVPA. An inverse relationship was found for negative affect: the greater the negative affect the less time persons spent on MVPA. The cross-level interaction effect was significant only for objectively measured MVPA. A strong habit seems to strengthen both the positive influence of positive affect and the negative influence of negative affect. The results of this study confirm previous results and indicate that affect plays an important role for the regulation of physical activity behavior in daily life. The results for positive affect were consistent. However, in

  3. Affect and Subsequent Physical Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Study Examining the Affect-Activity Association in a Real-Life Context

    PubMed Central

    Niermann, Christina Y. N.; Herrmann, Christian; von Haaren, Birte; van Kann, Dave; Woll, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, cognitive, motivational, and volitional determinants have been used to explain and predict health behaviors such as physical activity. Recently, the role of affect in influencing and regulating health behaviors received more attention. Affects as internal cues may automatically activate unconscious processes of behavior regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the association between affect and physical activity in daily life. In addition, we studied the influence of the habit of being physically active on this relationship. An ambulatory assessment study in 89 persons (33.7% male, 25 to 65 years, M = 45.2, SD = 8.1) was conducted. Affect was assessed in the afternoon on 5 weekdays using smartphones. Physical activity was measured continuously objectively using accelerometers and subjectively using smartphones in the evening. Habit strength was assessed at the beginning of the diary period. The outcomes were objectively and subjectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) performed after work. Multilevel regression models were used to analyze the association between affect and after work MVPA. In addition, the cross-level interaction of habit strength and affect on after work MVPA was tested. Positive affect was positively related to objectively measured and self-reported after work MVPA: the greater the positive affect the more time persons subsequently spent on MVPA. An inverse relationship was found for negative affect: the greater the negative affect the less time persons spent on MVPA. The cross-level interaction effect was significant only for objectively measured MVPA. A strong habit seems to strengthen both the positive influence of positive affect and the negative influence of negative affect. The results of this study confirm previous results and indicate that affect plays an important role for the regulation of physical activity behavior in daily life. The results for positive affect were consistent. However, in

  4. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Harvest-floor assessments of targeted characteristics that affect quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Beef Quality Audit-2011(NBQA-2011) was conducted to assess targeted characteristics on the harvest floor that affect the quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts. Survey teams evaluated approximately 18,000 cattle/carcasses between May and November 2011 in 8 beef processin...

  5. How do leader-member exchange quality and differentiation affect performance in teams? An integrated multilevel dual process model.

    PubMed

    Li, Alex Ning; Liao, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Integrating leader-member exchange (LMX) research with role engagement theory (Kahn, 1990) and role system theory (Katz & Kahn, 1978), we propose a multilevel, dual process model to understand the mechanisms through which LMX quality at the individual level and LMX differentiation at the team level simultaneously affect individual and team performance. With regard to LMX differentiation, we introduce a new configural approach focusing on the pattern of LMX differentiation to complement the traditional approach focusing on the degree of LMX differentiation. Results based on multiphase, multisource data from 375 employees of 82 teams revealed that, at the individual level, LMX quality positively contributed to customer-rated employee performance through enhancing employee role engagement. At the team level, LMX differentiation exerted negative influence on teams' financial performance through disrupting team coordination. In particular, teams with the bimodal form of LMX configuration (i.e., teams that split into 2 LMX-based subgroups with comparable size) suffered most in team performance because they experienced greatest difficulty in coordinating members' activities. Furthermore, LMX differentiation strengthened the relationship between LMX quality and role engagement, and team coordination strengthened the relationship between role engagement and employee performance. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25000359

  6. Water quality and processes affecting dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Blackwater River, Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldron, M.C.; Wiley, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The water quality and environmental processes affecting dissolved oxygen were determined for the Blackwater River in Canaan Valley, West Virginia. Canaan Valley is oval-shaped (14 miles by 5 miles) and is located in the Allegheny Mountains at an average elevation of 3,200 feet above sea level. Tourism, population, and real estate development have increased in the past two decades. Most streams in Canaan Valley are a dilute calcium magnesium bicarbonate-type water. Streamwater typicaly was soft and low in alkalinity and dissolved solids. Maximum values for specific conductance, hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved solids occurred during low-flow periods when streamflow was at or near baseflow. Dissolved oxygen concentrations are most sensitive to processes affecting the rate of reaeration. The reaeration is affected by solubility (atmospheric pressure, water temperature, humidity, and cloud cover) and processes that determine stream turbulence (stream depth, width, velocity, and roughness). In the headwaters, photosynthetic dissolved oxygen production by benthic algae can result in supersaturated dissolved oxygen concentrations. In beaver pools, dissolved oxygen consumption from sediment oxygen demand and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand can result in dissolved oxygen deficits.

  7. 42 CFR 423.162 - Quality improvement organization activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quality improvement organization activities. 423.162 Section 423.162 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality Improvement Requirements §...

  8. 42 CFR 423.162 - Quality improvement organization activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quality improvement organization activities. 423.162 Section 423.162 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality Improvement Requirements §...

  9. Adolescent Sleep Quality Measured During Leisure Activities.

    PubMed

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy

    2013-04-18

    A one-week sleep monitoring by logs and actigraphs in preteens during summer camp was conducted. Campers aged 11-16 attended a two-week day camp that focused on the learning about science. Nine campers agreed to monitor their sleep and have their patterns explained (anonymously) to other campers during the expert lecture by the author. The aim of the study was to identify the sleep quality in an adolescent group. All nine of the sleep logs and actigraphs denoted severe sleep deprivation. The findings from the logs and actigraphs denoted sever sleep deprivation. The expert lecturer provided basic information about sleep per the science designation of the day camp. A follow up session provided strategies to address sleep deprivation. PMID:26973908

  10. Adolescent Sleep Quality Measured During Leisure Activities

    PubMed Central

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    A one-week sleep monitoring by logs and actigraphs in preteens during summer camp was conducted. Campers aged 11-16 attended a two-week day camp that focused on the learning about science. Nine campers agreed to monitor their sleep and have their patterns explained (anonymously) to other campers during the expert lecture by the author. The aim of the study was to identify the sleep quality in an adolescent group. All nine of the sleep logs and actigraphs denoted severe sleep deprivation. The findings from the logs and actigraphs denoted sever sleep deprivation. The expert lecturer provided basic information about sleep per the science designation of the day camp. A follow up session provided strategies to address sleep deprivation. PMID:26973908

  11. Suture locking of isolated internal locking knotless suture anchors is not affected by bone quality

    PubMed Central

    Woodmass, Jarret M; Matthewson, Graeme; Ono, Yohei; Bois, Aaron J; Boorman, Richard S; Lo, Ian KY; Thornton, Gail M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical performance of different suture locking mechanisms including: i) interference fit between the anchor and the bone (eg, 4.5 mm PushLock, 5.5 mm SwiveLock), ii) internal locking mechanism within the anchor itself (eg, 5.5 mm SpeedScrew), or iii) a combination of interference fit and internal locking (eg, 4.5 mm MultiFIX P, 5.5 mm MultiFIX S). Methods Anchors were tested in foam blocks representing normal (20/8 foam) or osteopenic (8/8 foam) bone, using standard suture loops pulled in-line with the anchor to isolate suture locking. Mechanical testing included cyclic testing for 500 cycles from 10 N to 60 N at 60 mm/min, followed by failure testing at 60 mm/min. Displacement after 500 cycles at 60 N, number of cycles at 3 mm displacement, load at 3 mm displacement, and maximum load were evaluated. Results Comparing 8/8 foam to 20/8 foam, load at 3 mm displacement and maximum load were significantly decreased (P<0.05) with decreased bone quality for anchors that, even in part, relied on an interference fit suture locking mechanism (ie, 4.5 mm PushLock, 5.5 mm SwiveLock, 4.5 mm MultiFIX P, 5.5 mm MultiFIX S). Bone quality did not affect the mechanical performance of 5.5 mm SpeedScrew anchors which have an isolated internal locking mechanism. Conclusion The mechanical performance of anchors that relied, even in part, on interference fit were affected by bone quality. Isolated internal locking knotless suture anchors functioned independently of bone quality. Anchors with a combined type (interference fit and internal locking) suture locking mechanism demonstrated similar mechanical performance to isolated internal locking anchors in osteopenic foam comparing similar sized anchors. Clinical relevance In osteopenic bone, knotless suture anchors that have an internal locking mechanism (isolated or combined type) may be advantageous for secure tendon fixation to bone. PMID:26124683

  12. MEG brain activities reflecting affection for visual food stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kuriki, Shinya; Miyamura, Takahiro; Uchikawa, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the modulation of alpha rhythm in response to food pictures with distinct affection values. We examined the method to discriminate subject's state, i.e., whether he/she liked the article of food or not, from MEG signals detected over the head. Pictures of familiar foods were used as affective stimuli, while those pictures with complementary color phase were used as non-affective stimuli. Alpha band signals in a narrow frequency window around the spectral peak of individual subjects were wavelet analyzed and phase-locked component to the stimulus onset was obtained as a complex number. The amplitude of the phase-locked component was averaged during 0-1 s after stimulus onset for 30 epochs in a measurement session and across 76 channels of MEG sensor. In statistical test of individual subjects, significant difference was found in the real part of the averaged phase-locked amplitude between the normal-color and reverse-color pictures. These results suggest that affective information processing of food pictures is reflected in the synchronized component of narrow band alpha rhythm. PMID:21096510

  13. Dysautonomia Differentially Influences the Effect of Affective Pain Perception on Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rada, D.; Seco, J.; Tijero, B.; Abecia, L. C.; Gómez-Esteban, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Our aim was to evaluate the real effect of dysautonomic symptoms on the influence of affective pain perception on quality of life in PD patients. Methods. An observational cross-sectional study was carried out using 105 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients of the Movement Disorders Unit, Hospital de Cruces (Bilbao, Spain) [men 59 (56.2%), women 46 (43.85%)]. Statistical analysis was made in order to evaluate the possible association of pain with life quality. Results. Quality of life measured by PDQ-39 (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire for quality of life) was statistically associated with affective dimension of pain (PRIA, affective pain rating index). However, the influence of this dimension on PDQ-39 was different in the specific case of PD patients that experimented a high score (>12) in SCOPA-AUT (Scale for Outcomes in PD-Autonomic scale). Conclusions. These results confirm the effect of affective perception of pain in life quality of PD patients, indicating the critical role of autonomic symptoms in the modulation of the influence of pain on quality of life and showing the possible utility of dysautonomia as clinical prognostic indicator of quality of life in PD patients affected by pain. PMID:27239367

  14. Dysautonomia Differentially Influences the Effect of Affective Pain Perception on Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Rada, D; Seco, J; Echevarría, E; Tijero, B; Abecia, L C; Gómez-Esteban, J C

    2016-01-01

    Background. Our aim was to evaluate the real effect of dysautonomic symptoms on the influence of affective pain perception on quality of life in PD patients. Methods. An observational cross-sectional study was carried out using 105 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients of the Movement Disorders Unit, Hospital de Cruces (Bilbao, Spain) [men 59 (56.2%), women 46 (43.85%)]. Statistical analysis was made in order to evaluate the possible association of pain with life quality. Results. Quality of life measured by PDQ-39 (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire for quality of life) was statistically associated with affective dimension of pain (PRIA, affective pain rating index). However, the influence of this dimension on PDQ-39 was different in the specific case of PD patients that experimented a high score (>12) in SCOPA-AUT (Scale for Outcomes in PD-Autonomic scale). Conclusions. These results confirm the effect of affective perception of pain in life quality of PD patients, indicating the critical role of autonomic symptoms in the modulation of the influence of pain on quality of life and showing the possible utility of dysautonomia as clinical prognostic indicator of quality of life in PD patients affected by pain. PMID:27239367

  15. Water quality degradation effects on freshwater availability: Impacts to human activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, N.E.; Meybeck, Michel

    2000-01-01

    The quality of freshwater at any point on the landscape reflects the combined effects of many processes along water pathways. Human activities on all spatial scales affect both water quality and quantity. Alteration of the landscape and associated vegetation has not only changed the water balance, but typically has altered processes that control water quality. Effects of human activities on a small scale are relevant to an entire drainage basin. Furthermore, local, regional, and global differences in climate and water flow are considerable, causing varying effects of human activities on land and water quality and quantity, depending on location within a watershed, geology, biology, physiographic characteristics, and climate. These natural characteristics also greatly control human activities, which will, in turn, modify (or affect) the natural composition of water. One of the most important issues for effective resource management is recognition of cyclical and cascading effects of human activities on the water quality and quantity along hydrologic pathways. The degradation of water quality in one part of a watershed can have negative effects on users downstream. Everyone lives downstream of the effects of some human activity. An extremely important factor is that substances added to the atmosphere, land, and water generally have relatively long time scales for removal or clean up. The nature of the substance, including its affinity for adhering to soil and its ability to be transformed, affects the mobility and the time scale for removal of the substance. Policy alone will not solve many of the degradation issues, but a combination of policy, education, scientific knowledge, planning, and enforcement of applicable laws can provide mechanisms for slowing the rate of degradation and provide human and environmental protection. Such an integrated approach is needed to effectively manage land and water resources.

  16. T Cell Activation Thresholds are Affected by Gravitational

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Charley; Gonzalez, M.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.

    1999-01-01

    T cells stimulated in space flight by various mitogenic signals show a dramatic reduction in proliferation and expression of early activation markers. Similar results are also obtained in a ground based model of microgravity, clinorotation, which provides a vector-averaged reduction of the apparent gravity on cells without significant shear force. Here we demonstrate that T cell inhibition is due to an increase in the required threshold for activation. Dose response curves indicate that cells activated during clinorotation require higher stimulation to achieve the same level of activation, as measured by CD69 expression. Interleukin 2 receptor expression, and DNA synthesis. The amount of stimulation necessary for 50% activation is 5 fold in the clinostat relative to static. Correlation of TCR internalization with activation also exhibit a dramatic right shift in clinorotation, demonstrating unequivocally that signal transduction mechanism independent of TCR triggering account for the increased activation threshold. Previous results from space flight experiments are consistent with the dose response curves obtained for clinorotation. Activation thresholds are important aspects of T cell memory, autoimmunity and tolerance Clinorotation is a useful, noninvasive tool for the study of cellular and biochemical event regulating T cell activation threshold and the effects of gravitation forces on these systems.

  17. Factors affecting handling qualities of a lift-fan aircraft during steep terminal area approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerdes, R. M.; Hynes, C. S.

    1975-01-01

    The XV-5B lift-fan aircraft was used to explore the factors affecting handling qualities in the terminal area. A 10 deg ILS approach task was selected to explore these problems. Interception of the glide slope at 457.2 m, glide slope tracking, deceleration along the glide slope to a spot hover were considered. Variations in airplane deck angle, deceleration schedule, and powered-lift management were studied. The overall descent performance envelope was identified on the basis of fan stall, maximum comfortable descent rate, and controllability restrictions. The collective-lift stick provided precise glide slope tracking capability. The pilot preferred a deck-parallel attitude for which he used powered lift to control glide slope and pitch attitude to keep the angle of attack near zero. Workload was reduced when the deceleration schedule was delayed until the aircraft was well established on the glide slope, since thrust vector changes induced flight path disturbances.

  18. Parameters affecting image quality with Time-Resolved Optical Integrative Neutron (TRION) detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, I.; Vartsky, D.; Feldman, G.; Dangendorf, V.; Bar, D.; Goldberg, M. B.; Tittelmeier, K.; Bromberger, B.; Weierganz, M.; Brandis, M.

    2011-06-01

    We have investigated by simulations and experimentally the parameters that affect image quality (contrast and spatial-resolution) of the fast neutron TRION detector. A scintillating fiber screen with 0.5×0.5 mm 2 square fibers, few centimeters thick, provides superior spatial-resolution to that of a slab scintillator of the same thickness. A detailed calculation of the neutron interaction processes that influence the point-spread function (PSF) in the scintillating screen has been performed using the GEANT 3.21 code. The calculations showed that neutron scattering within the screen accounts for a significant loss of image contrast. The factors that limit the spatial-resolution of the image are the cross-sectional scintillating-fiber dimensions within the screen and the spatial response of the image-intensifier. A deconvolution method has been applied for restoring the contrast and the spatial-resolution of the fast neutron image.

  19. Mutation of the Zinc-Binding Metalloprotease Motif Affects Bacteroides fragilis Toxin Activity but Does Not Affect Propeptide Processing

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Augusto A.; Buckwold, Simy L.; Shin, Jai W.; Ascon, Miguel; Sears, Cynthia L.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the zinc-binding metalloprotease in Bacteroides fragilis toxin (BFT) processing and activity, the zinc-binding consensus sequences (H348, E349, H352, G355, H358, and M366) were mutated by site-directed-mutagenesis. Our results indicated that single point mutations in the zinc-binding metalloprotease motif do not affect BFT processing but do reduce or eliminate BFT biologic activity in vitro. PMID:16041055

  20. Effects of parent-child affective quality during high school years on subsequent substance use

    PubMed Central

    Trudeau, Linda S.; Spoth, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The literature indicates that the quality of affective relationships between youth and parents is associated with lower levels of a range of problem behaviors during childhood, early and late adolescence. While the protective effect of parental monitoring on substance use in the high school and post high school years has been demonstrated, there is a knowledge gap concerning effects of parent-child affective quality (PCAQ) during the same periods. We tested a conceptual theoretical model to examine the effects of PCAQ on substance use following high school. The sample was from a RCT that assessed adolescents in rural Iowa from the seventh grade through two years after high school (N=456). We specified direct effects of PCAQ in 12th grade on drunkenness, smoking and illicit drug use during the two years immediately following high school graduation. We also specified the effects of early substance use initiation (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use reported at baseline) on later use. The direct effect of PCAQ in 12th grade on substance use was significant for all substances during at least one of the two years past graduation (ypg). Results were: drunkenness 1 ypg, β=−.126, p<.05; smoking 1 ypg, β=−.119, p<.05; 2 ypg, β=−.146, p<.05; illicit drug use 2 ypg, β=−.165, p<.05. Some significant indirect effects of PCAQ at baseline, via PCAQ at 12th grade, were found. Results also indicated significant direct effects of early initiation on two of the three substances, albeit with a different pattern of effects over time for each substance by years post high school. Importantly, while early initiation remains the strongest predictor of long-term tobacco and illicit drug use, results show how PCAQ might reduce its harmful effects. PMID:24634896

  1. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  2. Determinants Affecting Physical Activity Levels In Animal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  3. Stress affects salivary alpha-Amylase activity in bonobos.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Verena; Deschner, Tobias; Möstl, Erich; Selzer, Dieter; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2012-01-18

    Salivary alpha-Amylase (sAA) is a starch digesting enzyme. In addition to its function in the context of nutrition, sAA has also turned out to be useful for monitoring sympathetic nervous system activity. Recent studies on humans have found a relationship between intra-individual changes in sAA activity and physical and psychological stress. In studies on primates and other vertebrates, non-invasive monitoring of short-term stress responses is usually based on measurements of cortisol levels, which are indicative of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. The few studies that have used both cortisol levels and sAA activity indicate that these two markers may respond differently and independently to different types of stress such that variation in the degree of the activation of different stress response systems might reflect alternative coping mechanisms or individual traits. Here, we present the first data on intra- and inter-individual variation of sAA activity in captive bonobos and compare the results with information from other ape species and humans. Our results indicate that sAA activity in the bonobo samples was significantly lower than in the human samples but within the range of other great ape species. In addition, sAA activity was significantly higher in samples collected at times when subjects had been exposed to stressors (judged by changes in behavioral patterns and cortisol levels) than in samples collected at other times. Our results indicate that bonobos possess functioning sAA and, as in other species, sAA activity is influenced by autonomic nervous system activity. Monitoring sAA activity could therefore be a useful tool for evaluating stress in bonobos. PMID:21945369

  4. Physical Activity Affects Brain Integrity in HIV + Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Mario; Baker, Laurie M.; Vaida, Florin; Paul, Robert; Basco, Brian; Ances, Beau M.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has suggested benefits of aerobic physical activity (PA) on cognition and brain volumes in HIV uninfected (HIV−) individuals, however, few studies have explored the relationships between PA and brain integrity (cognition and structural brain volumes) in HIV-infected (HIV +) individuals. Seventy HIV + individuals underwent neuropsychological testing, structural neuroimaging, laboratory tests, and completed a PA questionnaire, recalling participation in walking, running, and jogging activities over the last year. A PA engagement score of weekly metabolic equivalent (MET) hr of activity was calculated using a compendium of PAs. HIV + individuals were classified as physically active (any energy expended above resting expenditure, n = 22) or sedentary (n = 48). Comparisons of neuropsychological performance, grouped by executive and motor domains, and brain volumes were completed between groups. Physically active and sedentary HIV + individuals had similar demographic and laboratory values, but the active group had higher education (14.0 vs. 12.6 years, p = .034). Physically active HIV + individuals performed better on executive (p = .040, unadjusted; p = .043, adjusted) but not motor function (p = .17). In addition, among the physically active group the amount of physical activity (METs) positively correlated with executive (Pearson’s r = 0.45, p = 0.035) but not motor (r = 0.21; p = .35) performance. In adjusted analyses the physically active HIV + individuals had larger putamen volumes (p = .019). A positive relationship exists between PA and brain integrity in HIV + individuals. Results from the present study emphasize the importance to conduct longitudinal interventional investigation to determine if PA improves brain integrity in HIV + individuals. PMID:26581799

  5. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    PubMed Central

    Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2009-01-01

    Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any

  6. Habitat Quality Affects Early Physiology and Subsequent Neuromotor Development of Juvenile Black-Capped Chickadees

    PubMed Central

    Grava, Thibault; Fairhurst, Graham D.; Avey, Marc T.; Grava, Angelique; Bradley, James; Avis, Jillian L.; Bortolotti, Gary R.; Sturdy, Christopher B.; Otter, Ken A.

    2013-01-01

    In songbirds, the ability to learn and render the species-specific song is influenced by the development of both the song nuclei in the brain and the syrinx (bird's vocal apparatus) early in the bird's life. In black-capped chickadees (Poecille atricapillus), habitat quality is known to affect song structure, with birds in high-quality habitat (mature forest) having a higher song consistency than birds in low-quality habitat (young forest). Although this difference is suspected to stem from differences in development, the developmental status of juvenile birds in either habitat remains unexplored. In this study, we used ptilochronology and feather corticosterone to compare the conditional state of juvenile chickadees in young and mature forest during two distinct periods of song learning - the sensory phase, which occurs prior to settlement, and the sensorimotor phase, which occurs post-settlement. A sample of juvenile males was captured and euthanized several weeks prior to their first breeding season to compare the development of song center nuclei and syrinx in both habitats. The corticosterone levels of natally-grown feathers were greater among birds that settled in mature than young forests - as these feathers were grown pre-settlement, they reflect differences in physiology during the sensory phase. This difference in conditional state is reflected by differences in syrinx and song center nuclei development later during the sensorimotor phase - birds in young forest have smaller syrinx, and moderately-larger RA, than birds in mature forest. Those differences could be responsible for the difference in consistency in song structure observed across habitats. The difference in physiological state across habitats, combined with potential compounding effect of differences in winter resources between habitats, could influence the difference in syrinx and neural development seen in juvenile males during the early spring, and influence the male's ability to learn and

  7. Habitat quality affects early physiology and subsequent neuromotor development of juvenile black-capped chickadees.

    PubMed

    Grava, Thibault; Fairhurst, Graham D; Avey, Marc T; Grava, Angelique; Bradley, James; Avis, Jillian L; Bortolotti, Gary R; Sturdy, Christopher B; Otter, Ken A

    2013-01-01

    In songbirds, the ability to learn and render the species-specific song is influenced by the development of both the song nuclei in the brain and the syrinx (bird's vocal apparatus) early in the bird's life. In black-capped chickadees (Poecille atricapillus), habitat quality is known to affect song structure, with birds in high-quality habitat (mature forest) having a higher song consistency than birds in low-quality habitat (young forest). Although this difference is suspected to stem from differences in development, the developmental status of juvenile birds in either habitat remains unexplored. In this study, we used ptilochronology and feather corticosterone to compare the conditional state of juvenile chickadees in young and mature forest during two distinct periods of song learning - the sensory phase, which occurs prior to settlement, and the sensorimotor phase, which occurs post-settlement. A sample of juvenile males was captured and euthanized several weeks prior to their first breeding season to compare the development of song center nuclei and syrinx in both habitats. The corticosterone levels of natally-grown feathers were greater among birds that settled in mature than young forests - as these feathers were grown pre-settlement, they reflect differences in physiology during the sensory phase. This difference in conditional state is reflected by differences in syrinx and song center nuclei development later during the sensorimotor phase - birds in young forest have smaller syrinx, and moderately-larger RA, than birds in mature forest. Those differences could be responsible for the difference in consistency in song structure observed across habitats. The difference in physiological state across habitats, combined with potential compounding effect of differences in winter resources between habitats, could influence the difference in syrinx and neural development seen in juvenile males during the early spring, and influence the male's ability to learn and

  8. Do different degrees of human activity affect the diet of Brazilian silverside Atherinella brasiliensis?

    PubMed

    Alves, V E N; Patrício, J; Dolbeth, M; Pessanha, A; Palma, A R T; Dantas, E W; Vendel, A L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether different degrees of human activity affect the diet of the Brazilian silverside Atherinella brasiliensis in two tropical estuaries. Fish were collected along the salinity gradient of two Brazilian estuaries, the heavily impacted Paraiba Estuary and the less impacted Mamanguape Estuary, in the dry and wet seasons. The findings confirm that A. brasiliensis has generalist feeding habits and is able to change its diet under different environmental conditions. The results indicate clear spatial (i.e. along the estuarine gradient) changes in diet composition in both estuaries, but diet was also influenced by the degree of anthropogenic disturbance. During the wet season in the nutrient enriched Paraiba Estuary, when human activity was higher, the diet of A. brasiliensis was poorer and dominated by few dietary items, reflecting the potential impoverishment of prey items in this heavily disturbed system. The specimens collected in the most affected estuary also had a greater frequency of micro-plastics and parasites in their stomachs, reflecting the greater degree of human disturbance in the estuary. The present findings suggest that the diet of A. brasiliensis could be a useful indicator of changes in the ecological quality of these and other tropical estuaries of the western Atlantic Ocean. PMID:27328827

  9. Litter Environment Affects Behavior and Brain Metabolic Activity of Adult Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Crews, David; Rushworth, David; Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco; Ogawa, Sonoko

    2009-01-01

    In mammals, the formative environment for social and anxiety-related behaviors is the family unit; in the case of rodents, this is the litter and the mother-young bond. A deciding factor in this environment is the sex ratio of the litter and, in the case of mice lacking functional copies of gene(s), the ratio of the various genotypes in the litter. Both Sex and Genotype ratios of the litter affect the nature and quality of the individual's behavior later in adulthood, as well as metabolic activity in brain nuclei that underlie these behaviors. Mice were raised in litters reconstituted shortly after to birth to control for sex ratio and genotype ratio (wild type pups versus pups lacking a functional estrogen receptor α). In both males and females, the Sex and Genotype of siblings in the litter affected aggressive behaviors as well as patterns of metabolic activity in limbic nuclei in the social behavior network later in adulthood. Further, this pattern in males varied depending upon the Genotype of their brothers and sisters. Principal Components Analysis revealed two components comprised of several amygdalar and hypothalamic nuclei; the VMH showed strong correlations in both clusters, suggesting its pivotal nature in the organization of two neural networks. PMID:19707539

  10. Light treatment improves sleep quality and negative affectiveness in high arctic residents during winter.

    PubMed

    Paul, Michel A; Love, Ryan J; Hawton, Andrea; Brett, Kaighley; McCreary, Donald R; Arendt, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal extremes of photoperiod in the high Arctic place particular strain on the human circadian system, which leads to trouble sleeping and increased feelings of negative affect in the winter months. To qualify for our study, potential participants had to have been at Canadian Forces Station (CFS) Alert (82° 30' 00″ N) for at least 2 weeks. Subjects filled out questionnaires regarding sleep difficulty, psychological well-being and mood and wore Actigraphs to obtain objective sleep data. Saliva was collected at regular intervals on two occasions, 2 weeks apart, to measure melatonin and assess melatonin onset. Individuals with a melatonin rhythm that was in disaccord with their sleep schedule were given individualized daily light treatment interventions based on their pretreatment salivary melatonin profile. The light treatment prescribed to seven of the twelve subjects was effective in improving sleep quality both subjectively, based on questionnaire results, and objectively, based on the actigraphic data. The treatment also caused a significant reduction in negative affect among the participants. Since the treatment is noninvasive and has minimal associated side effects, our results support the use of the light visors at CFS Alert and other northern outposts during the winter for individuals who are experiencing sleep difficulty or low mood. PMID:25580574

  11. ANALYSIS OF DISCRIMINATING FACTORS IN HUMAN ACTIVITIES THAT AFFECT EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurately modeling exposure to particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants ultimately involves the utilization of human location-activity databases to assist in understanding the potential variability of microenvironmental exposures. This paper critically considers and stati...

  12. Oxidative Activity of Heated Coal Affected by Antypirogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torosyan, V. F.; Torosyan, E. S.; Borovikov, I. F.; Yakutova, V. A.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of antypirogens on chemical activity of heated coal is studied. It is proved that ammonium sulfate, calcium phosphate, calcium chloride, calcium nitrate and acid fluoride are the most effective antypirogens.

  13. How does study quality affect the results of a diagnostic meta-analysis?

    PubMed Central

    Westwood, Marie E; Whiting, Penny F; Kleijnen, Jos

    2005-01-01

    clinical stages assessed by the review. The results of regression analyses were also affected by whether or not a weighting (by sample size) was applied. Our analysis was severely limited by the completeness of reporting and the differences between the index tests evaluated and the reference standards used to confirm diagnoses in the primary studies. Few tests were evaluated by sufficient studies to allow meaningful use of meta-analytic pooling and investigation of heterogeneity. This meant that further analysis to investigate heterogeneity could only be undertaken using a subset of studies, and that the findings are open to various interpretations. Conclusion Further work is needed to investigate the influence of methodological quality on the results of diagnostic meta-analyses. Large data sets of well-reported primary studies are needed to address this question. Without significant improvements in the completeness of reporting of primary studies, progress in this area will be limited. PMID:15943861

  14. Diabetes and Quality of Life: Initial Approach to Depression, Physical Activity, and Sexual Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pozzo, M Josefina; Mociulsky, Juliana; Martinez, Esteban T; Senatore, Guido; Farias, Javier M; Sapetti, Adrian; Sanzana, M Gabriela; Gonzalez, Patricia; Cafferata, Alberto; Peloche, Andrea; Lemme, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    The different aspects that contribute to quality of life in patients with diabetes mellitus, such as mood, are of great importance for the treatment of this disease. These aspects not only influence the well-being of patients but also influence treatment adherence, therefore affecting the course of the disease. A panel of experts from Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay performed a review of the main aspects affecting quality of life in patients with diabetes: physical activity, mood disorders, and sexual activity. The consensus of the panel was that physical activity is important in the treatment of patients with diabetes because it reduces morbidity, mortality, and disease complications, and it should be performed on a regular basis, bearing in mind the patient's characteristics. Increased physical activity is associated with better glycemic control, and in individuals with glucose intolerance, it delays progression toward diabetes. In patients with diabetes, there is a high prevalence of depression, which can influence treatment adherence. Therefore, early detection of depression is essential to improve the course of diabetes. Regarding sexual activity, erectile dysfunction may be a significant sign in the case of suspected diabetes and the early diagnosis of vasculopathy in patients with diabetes. In conclusion, greater emphasis should be placed on improving patient knowledge, early detection, and multidisciplinary approaches to deal with the aspects of diabetes that affect patients' quality of life. PMID:24858335

  15. Spectral quality affects disease development of three pathogens on hydroponically grown plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants were grown under light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with various spectra to determine the effects of light quality on the development of diseases caused by tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlectend:Fr.) Pollaci] on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum Smith) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). One LED (660) array supplied 99% red light at 660 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660 nm and 17% far-red light at 735 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height). A third LED (660/BF) array supplied 98% red light at 660 nm, 1% blue light (BF) between 350 to 550 nm, and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. Control plants were grown under broad-spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Plants were grown at a mean photon flux (300 to 800 nm) of 330 micromoles m-2 s-1 under a 12-h day/night photoperiod. Spectral quality affected each pathosystem differently. In the ToMV/pepper pathosystem, disease symptoms developed slower and were less severe in plants grown under light sources that contained blue and UV-A wavelengths (MH and 660/BF treatments) compared to plants grown under light sources that lacked blue and UV-A wavelengths (660 and 660/735 LED arrays). In contrast, the number of colonies per leaf was highest and the mean colony diameters of S. fuliginea on cucumber plants were largest on leaves grown under the MH lamp (highest amount of blue and UV-A light) and least on leaves grown under the 660 LED array (no blue or UV-A light). The addition of far-red irradiation to the primary light source in the 660/735 LED array increased the colony counts per leaf in the S. fuliginea/cucumber pathosystem compared to the red-only (660) LED array. In the P. solanacearum/tomato pathosystem, disease symptoms were less severe in plants grown under the 660 LED array, but the

  16. Ionizing Radiation Impairs T Cell Activation by Affecting Metabolic Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Li, Heng-Hong; Wang, Yi-wen; Chen, Renxiang; Zhou, Bin; Ashwell, Jonathan D.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has a variety of acute and long-lasting adverse effects on the immune system. Whereas measureable effects of radiation on immune cell cytotoxicity and population change have been well studied in human and animal models, little is known about the functional alterations of the surviving immune cells after ionizing radiation. The objective of this study was to delineate the effects of radiation on T cell function by studying the alterations of T cell receptor activation and metabolic changes in activated T cells isolated from previously irradiated animals. Using a global metabolomics profiling approach, for the first time we demonstrate that ionizing radiation impairs metabolic reprogramming of T cell activation, which leads to substantial decreases in the efficiency of key metabolic processes required for activation, such as glucose uptake, glycolysis, and energy metabolism. In-depth understanding of how radiation impacts T cell function highlighting modulation of metabolism during activation is not only a novel approach to investigate the pivotal processes in the shift of T cell homeostasis after radiation, it also may lead to new targets for therapeutic manipulation in the combination of radiotherapy and immune therapy. Given that appreciable effects were observed with as low as 10 cGy, our results also have implications for low dose environmental exposures. PMID:26078715

  17. Does lunisolar gravitational tide affect the activity of animals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshcherevskii, A. V.; Sidorin, A. Ya.

    2010-12-01

    Multiyear time series obtained by the continuous instrumental monitoring of the electrical activity (EA) of weakly electric fish Gnathonemus leopoldianus and the motor activity (MA) of the freshwater catfish Hoplosternum thoracatum and the cockroach Blaberus craniifer are compared to the parameters of the lunisolar gravitational tide. These curves are observed to be very similar for a large number of time intervals. However, a more detailed analysis shows this to be only a superficial resemblance caused by the closeness of the periods of diurnal and semidiurnal rhythms of bioindicator activity (the dominant rhythms in EA and MA patterns) and the periods of main gravitational tidal waves. It is concluded that the lunisolar gravitational tide has no significant effect on animal behavior in our experiment.

  18. Interactive effects of temperature, ultraviolet radiation and food quality on zooplankton alkaline phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Wolinski, Laura; Modenutti, Beatriz; Souza, Maria Sol; Balseiro, Esteban

    2016-06-01

    Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) is a stressor for aquatic organisms affecting enzyme activities in planktonic populations because of the increase in reactive oxygen species. In addition, UVR exposure combined with other environmental factors (i.e. temperature and food quality) could have even higher detrimental effects. In this work, we aimed to determine the effect of UVR on somatic Alkaline Phosphatase Activity (APA) and Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity on the cladoceran Daphnia commutata under two different temperatures (10 °C and 20 °C) and under three food qualities (carbon:phosphorus ratios: 1150, 850 and 550). APA is a biomarker that is considered as a P deficiency indicator in zooplankton. Since recovery from UVR damage under dark conditions is an ATP depending reaction we also measured APA during recovery phases. We carried out a laboratory experiment combining different temperatures and food qualities with exposition to UVR followed by luminic and dark phases for recovery. In addition, we exposed organisms to H2O2, to establish if the response on APA to UVR was a consequence of the reactive oxygen species produced these short wavelengths. Our results showed that somatic APA was negatively affected by UVR exposure and this effect was enhanced under high temperature and low food quality. Consistently, GST activity was higher when exposed to UVR under both temperatures. The H2O2 experiments showed the same trend as UVR exposure, indicating that APA is affected mainly by oxidative stress than by direct effect of UVR on the enzyme. Finally, APA was affected in the dark phase of recovery confirming the P demands. These results enlighten the importance of food quality in the interacting effect of UVR and temperature, showing that C:P food ratio could determine the success or failure of zooplanktonic populations in a context of global change. PMID:26895537

  19. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  20. Terroir et vignoble: how the farming management can affect the production of a quality wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Alba; Bini, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    added to soil as fertilizer. In grape leaves, Al concentration is releated to Al content in soil, Cu could derive from foliar fungicides and no signs of toxicity from high content of Fe and Zn are visible. LPO test values are below the reference value, therefore vegetation in the study area is not affected by oxidative stress. Concerning the biological soil quality, 3 different classes (4, 5 and 6) were recorded (with noteworthy microarthropods adaption to soil conditions. This result suggest that the study area presents good grade ecosystem stability and limited stress evident. In conclusion, it is possible to assert that the study area is characterized by not polluted soils of good quality and without environmental stress. It is likely that the agronomic practices do not produce any negative effect on plant growth and, thus, on quality of wine.

  1. Factors affecting the adsorption of chromium (VI) on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Yavuz, R.; Orbak, I.; Karatepe, N.

    2006-09-15

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the adsorption behavior of chromium (VI) on two different activated carbon samples produced from Tuncbilek lignite. The effects of the initial chromium (VI) concentration (250-1000 mg/L), temperature (297-323 K) and pH (2.0-9.5) on adsorption were investigated systematically. The effectiveness of the parameters on chromium adsorption was found to be in the order of pH, the initial Cr(VI) concentration and the temperature. Increasing the pH from 2.0 to 9.5 caused a decrease in adsorption. However, the adsorption was increased by increasing the initial Cr(VI) concentration and temperature. The multilinear mathematical model was also developed to predict the Cr(VI) adsorption on activated carbon samples within the experimental conditions.

  2. Factors affecting daily activities of patients with cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Zhou, Cheng-ye; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yun-feng; Zou, Chang-lin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke is the leading cause of death and long-term disability. This study was undertaken to investigate the factors influencing daily activities of patients with cerebral infarction so as to take interventional measures earlier to improve their daily activities. METHODS: A total of 149 patients with first-episode cerebral infarction were recruited into this prospective study. They were admitted to the Encephalopathy Center, Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College in Zhejiang Province from August 2008 to December 2008. The baseline characteristics of the patients and cerebral infarction risk factors on the first day of admission were recorded. White blood cell (WBC) count, plasma glucose (PG), and many others of laboratory targets were collected in the next morning. Barthel index (BI) was calculated at 2 weeks and 3 months respectively after onset of the disease at the outpatient clinic or by telephone call. Lung infection, urinary tract infection and atrial fibrillation if any were recorded on admission. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and the GCS scores were recorded within 24 hours on and after admission, at the second week, and at the third month after the onset of cerebral infarction respectively. RESULTS: The factors of BI at 2 weeks and 3 months after onset were the initial PG level, WBC count and initial NIHSS scores. Besides, urinary tract infection on admission was also the factor for BI at 3 months. CONCLUSION: Active measures should be taken to control these factors to improve the daily activities of patients with cerebral infarction. PMID:25214953

  3. Factors affecting the adsorption of xenon on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Underhill, D.W.; DiCello, D.C.; Scaglia, L.A.; Watson, J.A.

    1986-08-01

    The presence of water vapor was found to interfere strongly with the dynamic adsorption of /sup 133/Xe on coconut-base activated charcoal. The percent loss in the xenon adsorption coefficient was similar to values reported earlier for the adsorption of krypton on humidified charcoal. Attempts to increase the adsorption of xenon by (a) using a petroleum-based adsorbent with an extremely high surface area and (b) by impregnation of the adsorbent with iodine were not successful.

  4. Seasonal Pacing - Match Importance Affects Activity in Professional Soccer.

    PubMed

    Link, Daniel; de Lorenzo, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the influence of match importance on player activity in professional soccer. Therefore, we used an observational approach and analyzed 1,211 matches of German Bundesliga and 2nd Bundesliga. The importance measurement employed is based on post season consequences of teams involved in a match. This means, if a match result could potentially influence the final rank, and this rank would lead to different consequences for a team, such as qualification for Champions League opposed to qualification for Europe League, then this match is classified as important; otherwise not. Activity was quantified by TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED, SPRINTS, FAST RUNS, DUELS, FOULS and ATTEMPTS. Running parameters were recorded using a semi-automatic optical tracking system, while technical variables were collected by professional data loggers. Based on our importance classification, low important matches occurred at the beginning of round 29. A two-way ANOVA indicates significantly increased FAST RUNS (+4%, d = 0.3), DUELS (+16%, d = 1.0) and FOULS (+36%, d = 1.2) in important matches compared to low important ones. For FAST RUNS and FOULS, this effect only exists in Bundesliga. A comparison of the two leagues show that TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED (+3%, d = 0.9), SPRINTS (+25%, d = 1.4) and FAST RUNS (+15%, d = 1.4) are higher compared to 2nd Bundesliga, whilst FOULS is less in Bundesliga (-7%, d = 0.3). No difference in player activity was found between matches at the beginning of a season (round 1-6) and at the end of a season (round 29-34). We conclude that match importance influences player activity in German professional soccer. The most reasonable explanation is a conscious or unconscious pacing strategy, motivated by preserving abilities or preventing injury. Since this tendency mainly exists in Bundesliga, this may suggest that more skilled players show a higher awareness for the need of pacing. PMID:27281051

  5. New thiazolidinediones affect endothelial cell activation and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rudnicki, Martina; Tripodi, Gustavo L; Ferrer, Renila; Boscá, Lisardo; Pitta, Marina G R; Pitta, Ivan R; Abdalla, Dulcineia S P

    2016-07-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists used in treating type 2 diabetes that may exhibit beneficial pleiotropic effects on endothelial cells. In this study, we characterized the effects of three new TZDs [GQ-32 (3-biphenyl-4-ylmethyl-5-(4-nitro-benzylidene)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione), GQ-169 (5-(4-chloro-benzylidene)-3-(2,6-dichloro-benzyl)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione), and LYSO-7 (5-(5-bromo-1H-indol-3-ylmethylene)-3-(4-chlorobenzyl)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione)] on endothelial cells. The effects of the new TZDs were evaluated on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell migration, tube formation and the gene expression of adhesion molecules and angiogenic mediators in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). PPARγ activation by new TZDs was addressed with a reporter gene assay. The three new TZDs activated PPARγ and suppressed the tumor necrosis factor α-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1. GQ-169 and LYSO-7 also inhibited the glucose-induced ROS production. Although NO production assessed with 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein-FM probe indicated that all tested TZDs enhanced intracellular levels of NO, only LYSO-7 treatment significantly increased the release of NO from HUVEC measured by chemiluminescence analysis of culture media. Additionally, GQ-32 and GQ-169 induced endothelial cell migration and tube formation by the up-regulation of angiogenic molecules expression, such as vascular endothelial growth factor A and interleukin 8. GQ-169 also increased the mRNA levels of basic fibroblast growth factor, and GQ-32 enhanced transforming growth factor-β expression. Together, the results of this study reveal that these new TZDs act as partial agonists of PPARγ and modulate endothelial cell activation and endothelial dysfunction besides to stimulate migration and tube formation. PMID:27108791

  6. Seasonal Pacing - Match Importance Affects Activity in Professional Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Link, Daniel; de Lorenzo, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the influence of match importance on player activity in professional soccer. Therefore, we used an observational approach and analyzed 1,211 matches of German Bundesliga and 2nd Bundesliga. The importance measurement employed is based on post season consequences of teams involved in a match. This means, if a match result could potentially influence the final rank, and this rank would lead to different consequences for a team, such as qualification for Champions League opposed to qualification for Europe League, then this match is classified as important; otherwise not. Activity was quantified by TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED, SPRINTS, FAST RUNS, DUELS, FOULS and ATTEMPTS. Running parameters were recorded using a semi-automatic optical tracking system, while technical variables were collected by professional data loggers. Based on our importance classification, low important matches occurred at the beginning of round 29. A two-way ANOVA indicates significantly increased FAST RUNS (+4%, d = 0.3), DUELS (+16%, d = 1.0) and FOULS (+36%, d = 1.2) in important matches compared to low important ones. For FAST RUNS and FOULS, this effect only exists in Bundesliga. A comparison of the two leagues show that TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED (+3%, d = 0.9), SPRINTS (+25%, d = 1.4) and FAST RUNS (+15%, d = 1.4) are higher compared to 2nd Bundesliga, whilst FOULS is less in Bundesliga (-7%, d = 0.3). No difference in player activity was found between matches at the beginning of a season (round 1–6) and at the end of a season (round 29–34). We conclude that match importance influences player activity in German professional soccer. The most reasonable explanation is a conscious or unconscious pacing strategy, motivated by preserving abilities or preventing injury. Since this tendency mainly exists in Bundesliga, this may suggest that more skilled players show a higher awareness for the need of pacing. PMID:27281051

  7. Elevated Progesterone Levels on the Day of Oocyte Maturation May Affect Top Quality Embryo IVF Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bo; Ren, Xinling; Wu, Li; Zhu, Lixia; Xu, Bei; Li, Yufeng; Ai, Jihui; Jin, Lei

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the impact of elevated progesterone on endometrial receptivity, the data on whether increased progesterone levels affects the quality of embryos is still limited. This study retrospectively enrolled 4,236 fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles and sought to determine whether increased progesterone is associated with adverse outcomes with regard to top quality embryos (TQE). The results showed that the TQE rate significantly correlated with progesterone levels on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger (P = 0.009). Multivariate linear regression analysis of factors related to the TQE rate, in conventional IVF cycles, showed that the TQE rate was negatively associated with progesterone concentration on the day of hCG (OR was -1.658, 95% CI: -2.806 to -0.510, P = 0.005). When the serum progesterone level was within the interval 2.0–2.5 ng/ml, the TQE rate was significantly lower (P <0.05) than when the progesterone level was < 1.0 ng/ml; similar results were obtained for serum progesterone levels >2.5 ng/ml. Then, we choose a progesterone level at 1.5ng/ml, 2.0 ng/ml and 2.5 ng/ml as cut-off points to verify this result. We found that the TQE rate was significantly different (P <0.05) between serum progesterone levels < 2.0 ng/ml and >2.0 ng/ml. In conclusion, the results of this study clearly demonstrated a negative effect of elevated progesterone levels on the day of hCG trigger, on TQE rate, regardless of the basal FSH, the total gonadotropin, the age of the woman, or the time of ovarian stimulation. These data demonstrate that elevated progesterone levels (>2.0 ng/ml) before oocyte maturation were consistently detrimental to the oocyte. PMID:26745711

  8. Individual differences in effects of child care quality: The role of child affective self-regulation and gender.

    PubMed

    Broekhuizen, Martine L; Aken, Marcel A G van; Dubas, Judith S; Mulder, Hanna; Leseman, Paul P M

    2015-08-01

    The current study investigated whether the relation between child care quality and children's socio-emotional behavior depended on children's affective self-regulation skills and gender. Participants were 545 children (Mage=27 months) from 60 center-based child care centers in the Netherlands. Multi-level analyses showed that children with low affective self-regulation skills or who were male demonstrated less teacher-rated social competence when exposed to relatively low quality child care. In addition, children with low affective self-regulation skills also showed more social competence in the case of relatively high quality child care, suggesting mechanisms of differential susceptibility. No main effects of child care quality or interactions were found for teacher- and parent-rated externalizing behavior. These findings emphasize the importance of considering children's affective self-regulation skills and gender in understanding the effects of child care quality. High quality child care can be a means to strengthen children's social development. PMID:26210737

  9. Risk factors affecting quality of life in a group of Italian children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Indinnimeo, L; Chiarotti, F; De Vittori, V; Baldini, L; De Castro, G; Zicari, A M; Tancredi, G; Leonardi, L; Duse, M

    2014-01-01

    The measure of Quality of Life (QoL) has become one of the most important criteria used to assess the impact of chronic illness, such as asthma, on the patient’s daily life, in adults and children alike. The objective of our open observational study was to measure the QoL and analyze several factors that potentially affect QoL, such as symptoms and functional respiratory parameters, in a cohort of children with asthma. One hundred and twenty-seven children with asthma, 6 to 14 years of age, living in the city of Rome, were enrolled as outpatients. They were subjected to Skin Prick Tests (SPT), underwent spirometry and filled out the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ). One hundred and eleven children were diagnosed with intermittent asthma, 12 (10%) with mild asthma, and four with moderate persistent asthma. Ninety-six children had a positive SPT. The mean total score of QoL, obtained from the questionnaire, was 5.4 (∓1.2 SD). Two QoL groups were created. Children with total QoL score <5.5 were included in the “Lower QoL” score group while children with total QoL score ≥ 5.5 were included in the “Higher QoL” score group. Children in the Higher group and their mothers had a higher mean age, suffered from fewer asthma exacerbations during the year preceding the study, and showed a higher mean value of forced expiratory volume (FEV1) compared to the children in the Lower category. Using Logistic regression we identified the main factors that may affect QoL as FEV1, symptoms in the previous year and mother’s age. QoL is correlated with the frequency of asthma exacerbations and FEV1 values. Furthermore, our research shows that a significant impairment of QoL may also occur in patients with normal lung function, pointing out the importance of evaluating QoL in all children with asthma. PMID:25004835

  10. Histology, composition, and quality traits of chicken Pectoralis major muscle affected by wooden breast abnormality.

    PubMed

    Soglia, F; Mudalal, S; Babini, E; Di Nunzio, M; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2016-03-01

    Only a few years ago, the poultry industry began to face a recent abnormality in breast meat, known as wooden breast, which frequently overlaps with white striping. This study aimed to assess the impact of wooden breast abnormality on quality traits of meat. For this purpose, 32 normal (NRM), 32 wooden (WB), and 32 wooden and white-striped (WB/WS) Pectoralis major muscles were selected from the same flock of heavy broilers (males, Ross 708, weighing around 3.7 kg) in the deboning area of a commercial processing plant at 3 h postmortem and used to assess histology, proximate (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and collagen) and mineral composition (Mg, K, P, Na and Ca), sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein patterns, and technological traits of breast meat. Compared to the normal group, WB/WS fillets showed more severe histological lesions characterized by fiber degeneration, fibrosis, and lipidosis, coupled with a significantly harder texture. With regard to proximate and mineral composition, abnormal samples exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher moisture, fat, and collagen contents coupled with lower (P < 0.001) amounts of protein and ash. Furthermore, increased calcium (131 vs. 84 mg kg(-1); P < 0.05) and sodium (741 vs. 393 mg kg(-1); P < 0.001) levels were found in WB/WS meat samples. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a significantly lower amount of calcium-ATPase (SERCA, 114 kDa), responsible for the translocation of Ca ions across the membrane, in normal breasts compared to abnormal ones. As for meat quality traits, fillets affected by wooden abnormality exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher ultimate pH and lower water-holding/water-binding capacity. In particular, compared to normal, abnormal samples showed reduced marinade uptake coupled with increased drip loss and cooking losses as well. In conclusion, this study revealed that meat affected by wooden breast or both wooden breast and white striping abnormalities exhibit poorer nutritional value, harder

  11. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in the Nandong karst underground river system in Yunan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yongjun; Wu, Yuexia; Groves, Chris; Yuan, Daoxian; Kambesis, Pat

    2009-10-01

    The Nandong Underground River System (NURS) is located in a typical karst agriculture dominated area in the southeast Yunnan Province, China. Groundwater plays an important role for social and economical development in the area. However, with the rapid increase in population and expansion of farm land, groundwater quality has degraded. 42 groundwater samples collected from springs in the NURS showed great variation of chemical compositions across the study basin. With increased anthropogenic contamination in the area, the groundwater chemistry has changed from the typical Ca-HCO 3 or Ca (Mg)-HCO 3 type in karst groundwater to the Ca-Cl (+ NO 3) or Ca (Mg)-Cl (+ NO 3), and Ca-Cl (+ NO 3 + SO 4) or Ca (Mg)-Cl (+ NO 3 + SO 4) type, indicating increases in NO 3-, Cl - and SO 42- concentrations that were caused most likely by human activities in the region. This study implemented the R-mode factor analysis to investigate the chemical characteristics of groundwater and to distinguish the natural and anthropogenic processes affecting groundwater quality in the system. The R-mode factor analysis together with geology and land uses revealed that: (a) contamination from human activities such as sewage effluents and agricultural fertilizers; (b) water-rock interaction in the limestone-dominated system; and (c) water-rock interaction in the dolomite-dominated system were the three major factors contributing to groundwater quality. Natural dissolution of carbonate rock (water-rock interaction) was the primary source of Ca 2+ and HCO 3- in groundwater, water-rock interaction in dolomite-dominated system resulted in higher Mg 2+ in the groundwater, and human activities were likely others sources. Sewage effluents and fertilizers could be the main contributor of Cl -, NO 3-, SO 42-, Na + and K + to the groundwater system in the area. This study suggested that both natural and anthropogenic processes contributed to chemical composition of groundwater in the NURS, human activities

  12. Biofouling of inlet pipes affects water quality in running seawater aquaria and compromises sponge cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Brittany E; Mueller, Benjamin; Vermeij, Mark J A; van der Geest, Harm H G; de Goeij, Jasper M

    2015-01-01

    Marine organism are often kept, cultured, and experimented on in running seawater aquaria. However, surprisingly little attention is given to the nutrient composition of the water flowing through these systems, which is generally assumed to equal in situ conditions, but may change due to the presence of biofouling organisms. Significantly lower bacterial abundances and higher inorganic nitrogen species (nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium) were measured in aquarium water when biofouling organisms were present within a 7-year old inlet pipe feeding a tropical reef running seawater aquaria system, compared with aquarium water fed by a new, biofouling-free inlet pipe. These water quality changes are indicative of the feeding activity and waste production of the suspension- and filter-feeding communities found in the old pipe, which included sponges, bivalves, barnacles, and ascidians. To illustrate the physiological consequences of these water quality changes on a model organism kept in the aquaria system, we investigated the influence of the presence and absence of the biofouling community on the functioning of the filter-feeding sponge Halisarca caerulea, by determining its choanocyte (filter cell) proliferation rates. We found a 34% increase in choanocyte proliferation rates following the replacement of the inlet pipe (i.e., removal of the biofouling community). This indicates that the physiological functioning of the sponge was compromised due to suboptimal food conditions within the aquarium resulting from the presence of the biofouling organisms in the inlet pipe. This study has implications for the husbandry and performance of experiments with marine organisms in running seawater aquaria systems. Inlet pipes should be checked regularly, and replaced if necessary, in order to avoid excessive biofouling and to approach in situ water quality. PMID:26664799

  13. Biofouling of inlet pipes affects water quality in running seawater aquaria and compromises sponge cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Benjamin; Vermeij, Mark J.A.; van der Geest, Harm H.G.

    2015-01-01

    Marine organism are often kept, cultured, and experimented on in running seawater aquaria. However, surprisingly little attention is given to the nutrient composition of the water flowing through these systems, which is generally assumed to equal in situ conditions, but may change due to the presence of biofouling organisms. Significantly lower bacterial abundances and higher inorganic nitrogen species (nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium) were measured in aquarium water when biofouling organisms were present within a 7-year old inlet pipe feeding a tropical reef running seawater aquaria system, compared with aquarium water fed by a new, biofouling-free inlet pipe. These water quality changes are indicative of the feeding activity and waste production of the suspension- and filter-feeding communities found in the old pipe, which included sponges, bivalves, barnacles, and ascidians. To illustrate the physiological consequences of these water quality changes on a model organism kept in the aquaria system, we investigated the influence of the presence and absence of the biofouling community on the functioning of the filter-feeding sponge Halisarca caerulea, by determining its choanocyte (filter cell) proliferation rates. We found a 34% increase in choanocyte proliferation rates following the replacement of the inlet pipe (i.e., removal of the biofouling community). This indicates that the physiological functioning of the sponge was compromised due to suboptimal food conditions within the aquarium resulting from the presence of the biofouling organisms in the inlet pipe. This study has implications for the husbandry and performance of experiments with marine organisms in running seawater aquaria systems. Inlet pipes should be checked regularly, and replaced if necessary, in order to avoid excessive biofouling and to approach in situ water quality. PMID:26664799

  14. Herbal drug quality and phytochemical composition of Hypericum perforatum L. affected by ash yellows phytoplasma infection.

    PubMed

    Bruni, Renato; Pellati, Federica; Bellardi, Maria Grazia; Benvenuti, Stefania; Paltrinieri, Samanta; Bertaccini, Assunta; Bianchi, Alberto

    2005-02-23

    Qualitative/quantitative phytochemical variations were observed in dried flowering tops of cultivated Hypericum perforatum L. cv. Zorzi infected by phytoplasmas of the "ash yellows" class, identified by direct and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR); this is the first report of ribosomial group 16SrVII phytoplasmas in St. John's Wort. Methanolic extracts of healthy and infected plants were separated by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography to quantify naphthodianthrones and flavonoids, while essential oils were analyzed by means of gas chromatography (GC)-GC/MS. The affected plants exhibited decreased amounts of rutin (1.96 +/- 0.23 vs 4.96 +/- 0.02 mg/g), hyperoside (2.38 +/- 0.21 vs 3.04 +/- 0.05 mg/g), isoquercitrin (1.47 +/- 0.04 vs 3.50 +/- 0.08 mg/g), amentoflavone (0.12 +/- 0.01 vs 0.39 +/- 0.02 mg/g), and pseudohypericin (1.41 +/- 0.23 vs 2.29 +/- 0.07 mg/g), whereas the chlorogenic acid content was doubled (1.56 +/- 0.11 vs 0.77 +/- 0.02 mg/g). Hypericin, quercitrin, and quercetin contents were not severely affected. The essential oil yield was drastically reduced in infected material (0.11 vs 0.75% in healthy material) and revealed an increased abundance of sesquiterpenes (beta-caryophyllene, delta-elemene, and germacrene D, in particular) and a matching decrease in monoterpene hydrocarbons and aliphatics. The consequences that the phytopathological condition of cultivated H. perforatum plants has on the commercial quality, market value, and therapeutic efficacy are outlined. PMID:15713006

  15. Dialysis-related factors affecting quality of life in patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Anees, Muhammad; Hameed, Farooq; Mumtaz, Asim; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Saeed Khan, Muhammad Nasir

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Treatment modalities for end-stage renal disease affect quality of life (QOL) of the patients. This study was conducted to assess the QOL of patients on hemodialysis and compare it with caregivers of these patients. Cause of ESRD and dialysis-related factors affecting QOL were also examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This cross-sectional study was conducted on patient on maintenance hemodialysis for more than 3 months at 3 dialysis centers of Lahore. Fifty healthy individuals were included as controls from among the patients' caregivers. The QOL index was measured using the World Health Organization QOL questionnaire, with higher scores corresponding to better QOL of patients. RESULTS. Eighty-nine patients (71.2%) were men, 99 (79.2%) were married, 75 (60.0%) were older than 45 years, and 77 (61.6%) were on dialysis for more than 8 months. Patients on hemodialysis had a poorer QOL as compared to their caregivers in all domains except for domain 4 (environment). There was no difference in the QOL between the three dialysis centers of the study, except for domain 3 (social relationship) of the patients at Mayo Hospital (a public hospital), which was significantly better. Nondiabetic patients had a better QOL in domain 1 (physical health) as compared to diabetic patients. Duration of dialysis had a reverse correlation with the overall QOL. CONCLUSIONS. We found that QOL of hemodialysis patients was poor as compared to caregivers of the patients, especially that of diabetics. Also, duration of dialysis had a reverse correlation with QOL. PMID:21189427

  16. Effect of Nasal Calcitonin on the Health-Related Quality of Life in Postmenopause Women Affected With Low Bone Density

    PubMed Central

    Shohrati, Majid; Bayat, Noushin; Saburi, Amin; Abbasi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity and mental health could be affected by osteoporosis and various therapeutic options such as calcitonin may influence Quality Of Life (QOL) of these patients with Low Bone Density (LBD). Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of nasal calcitonin on QOL in post menopause women with LBD. Patients and Methods: This clinical trial study was performed on one hundred and fifteen menopause women with LBD less than 1 SD in Bone Mineral Densitometry (BMD) referred to Baqiyatallah Hospital in Tehran, Iran, during 2009 - 2010. They were assigned to receive 200 IU calcitonin nasal spray along with calcium (1000 mg) and vitamin D (400 IU) for 6 months. Quality of life was assessed by Short-Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire (Persian-validated version). Results: The mean age (± SD) of the participants was 58.75 ± 8.15 years. Intranasal spray of calcitonin increased QOL scores significantly (88.05 ± 15.63 vs. 92.15 ± 13.22, P value = 0.000). Bone mineral density of spine was increased from 0.834 ± 0.11 to 0.12 ± 0.852 and this difference in BMD of lumbar spine was statistically significant (P value: 0.003) but not significant in femur’s BMD (P value = 0.061). In comparison with BMD indexes, The QOL scores especially Mental Health domain changes had only a significant correlation with the changes of total T score in BMD (P = 0.031, Coefficient Correlation = 0.248). Conclusions: It seems that nasal spray of calcitonin can effectively improve QOL of women with LBD and QOL changes were not influenced by clinical or para-clinical alteration. Mental health domain must be more considered in further studies as a predicting domain for Health-Related Quality of Life (HR-QOL) changes. PMID:26421180

  17. Rational protection of subjects in research and quality improvement activities.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Beth; Dixon, Lisa B; Adler, David A; Berlant, Jeffrey; Dulit, Rebecca A; Hackman, Ann; Oslin, David W; Siris, Samuel G; Valenstein, Marcia

    2010-02-01

    This Open Forum illuminates shortcomings with the basis for determining degree of oversight of health services research and quality improvement activities. Using a federally regulated definition of research rather than a direct appraisal of risk to patients can misallocate effort from activities with higher risk for patients to those with lower risk. The case of the Johns Hopkins multicenter study of central line safety checklists in intensive care units is cited. Definitions of research promulgated by the Office of Human Research Protection are reviewed, and an alternative model based on patient risk is proposed. Suggestions for how quality improvement work fits into the larger paradigm of research are made. PMID:20123824

  18. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedbalova, M.; Jandova, A.; Dohnalova, A.

    2011-12-01

    A specific kind of intracellular organelles, the mitochondria, is the place of metabolic energy production by oxidative mechanism. We used cell mediated immunity method for verification of the energy metabolism (ATP production). The antigen (immunological functional RNA) was obtained from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus (LDV) and prepared by the high pressure gel chromatography (HPGC). We have studied the immunological adaptability of LDH viral antigen in 62 pigs (12 parents and 50 piglings). Exitus of piglings was in case of positive imunological response on LDV. The statement results from a comparison of the relative frequency of an incidence of identical findings in male piglets and sows and from identical findings in female piglets and pigs. The efficient elaboration and utilization of energy in cell may be damaged by the changes of energy production systems and also by long-term parasitary depletion of ATP energy. Biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms. Biophysical processes are also involved in the transfer of information and its processing for making decisions and providing control, which are important parts of biological activity. These experimental results were used for the same study in human.

  19. Human Immunodeficiency Syndromes Affecting Human Natural Killer Cell Cytolytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Hyoungjun; Billadeau, Daniel D.

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that secrete cytokines upon activation and mediate the killing of tumor cells and virus-infected cells, especially those that escape the adaptive T cell response caused by the down regulation of MHC-I. The induction of cytotoxicity requires that NK cells contact target cells through adhesion receptors, and initiate activation signaling leading to increased adhesion and accumulation of F-actin at the NK cell cytotoxic synapse. Concurrently, lytic granules undergo minus-end directed movement and accumulate at the microtubule-organizing center through the interaction with microtubule motor proteins, followed by polarization of the lethal cargo toward the target cell. Ultimately, myosin-dependent movement of the lytic granules toward the NK cell plasma membrane through F-actin channels, along with soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor-dependent fusion, promotes the release of the lytic granule contents into the cleft between the NK cell and target cell resulting in target cell killing. Herein, we will discuss several disease-causing mutations in primary immunodeficiency syndromes and how they impact NK cell-mediated killing by disrupting distinct steps of this tightly regulated process. PMID:24478771

  20. Substrate and electrode potential affect electrotrophic activity of inverted bioanodes.

    PubMed

    Hartline, Rosanna M; Call, Douglas F

    2016-08-01

    Electricity-consuming microbial communities can serve as biocathodic catalysts in microbial electrochemical technologies. Initiating their functionality, however, remains a challenge. One promising approach is the polarity inversion of bioanodes. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of bioanode substrate and electrode potentials on inverted electrotrophic activity. Bioanodes derived from domestic wastewater were operated at -0.15V or +0.15V (vs. standard hydrogen electrode) with either acetate or formate as the sole carbon source. After this enrichment phase, cathodic linear sweep voltammetry and polarization revealed that formate-enriched cultures consumed almost 20 times the current (-3.0±0.78mA; -100±26A/m(3)) than those established with acetate (-0.16±0.09mA; -5.2±2.9A/m(3)). The enrichment electrode potential had an appreciable impact for formate, but not acetate, adapted cultures, with the +0.15V enrichment generating twice the cathodic current of the -0.15V enrichment. The total charge consumed during cathodic polarization was comparable to the charge released during subsequent anodic polarization for the formate-adapted cultures, suggesting that these communities accumulated charge or generated reduced products that could be rapidly oxidized. These findings imply that it may be possible to optimize electrotrophic activity through specific bioanodic enrichment procedures. PMID:26946157

  1. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings I: program implementation.

    PubMed

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh

    2015-03-01

    In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a "pull" system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with mobilization

  2. Delivering High-Quality Family Planning Services in Crisis-Affected Settings I: Program Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a “pull” system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with

  3. Exploring the High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Molecules that can Affect the Quality of your Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Terry A.

    2014-06-01

    Few things affect your quality of life more than the air you breathe and the temperature of your immediate environment. Since more than 80% of the energy used in the industrialized world today is still derived from fossil fuels, these two quantities are not unrelated. Most organic molecules injected into the troposphere are degraded via oxidative processes involving free radical intermediates, and many of these intermediates are the same as the ones involved in the combustion of fossil fuels. Key oxidizing intermediates are hydroxyl, OH (day), and nitrate, NO_3 (night), and early intermediates of oxidized organic compounds include the alkoxy (RO) and peroxy (RO_2) families of radicals. Recently we have explored the spectroscopy of RO, RO_2, and NO_3 radicals both for diagnostic purposes and to characterize their molecular properties and benchmark quantum chemistry calculations. We have utilized moderate resolution cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) to study ambient temperature radicals and high resolution CRDS and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) to study jet-cooled radicals. Peroxy radicals and NO_3 have weak tilde{A}-tilde{X} electronic transitions in the near infrared which we have studied with CRDS. Comparable LIF measurements have been made for the alkoxy species in the UV. Both vibrational and rotational resolution of the electronic spectra is observed. Data obtained from the spectral observations provide information about both the geometric and electronic structure of these radicals as well as their dynamics and also provide the capability for unambiguous diagnostics of their concentrations and reactions.

  4. Developmental changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism affect tea quality in different leaf position.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Xin; Yang, Wei-Jun; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Shen, Chen; Yan, Peng; Li, Xin; Han, Wen-Yan

    2016-09-01

    Leaf position represents a specific developmental stage that influences both photosynthesis and respiration. However, the precise relationships between photosynthesis and respiration in different leaf position that affect tea quality are largely unknown. Here, we show that the effective quantum yield of photosystem II [ΦPSⅡ] as well as total chlorophyll concentration (TChl) of tea leaves increased gradually with leaf maturity. Moreover, respiration rate (RR) together with total nitrogen concentration (TN) decreased persistently, but total carbon remained unchanged during leaf maturation. Analyses of major N-based organic compounds revealed that decrease in TN was attributed to a significant decrease in the concentration of caffeine and amino acids (AA) in mature leaves. Furthermore, soluble sugar (SS) decreased, but starch concentration increased with leaf maturity, indicating that source-sink relationship was altered during tea leaf development. Detailed correlation analysis showed that ΦPSⅡ was negatively correlated with RR, SS, starch, tea polyphenol (TP), total catechins and TN, but positively correlated with TChl; while RR was positively correlated with TN, SS, TP and caffeine, but negatively correlated with TChl and starch concentrations. Our results suggest that biosynthesis of chlorophyll, catechins and polyphenols is closely associated with photosynthesis and respiration in different leaf position that greatly influences the relationship between primary and secondary metabolism in tea plants. PMID:27380366

  5. Control of mechanically activated polymersome fusion: Factors affecting fusion

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F.

    2014-12-15

    Previously we have studied the mechanically-activated fusion of extruded (200 nm) polymer vesicles into giant polymersomes using agitation in the presence of salt. In this study we have investigated several factors contributing to this phenomenon, including the effects of (i) polymer vesicle concentration, (ii) agitation speed and duration, and iii) variation of the salt and its concentration. It was found that increasing the concentration of the polymer dramatically increases the production of giant vesicles through the increased collisions of polymersomes. Our investigations also found that increasing the frequency of agitation increased the efficiency of fusion, though ultimately limited the sizemore » of vesicle which could be produced due to the high shear involved. Finally it was determined that salt-mediation of the fusion process was not limited to NaCl, but is instead a general effect facilitated by the presence of solvated ionic compounds, albeit with different salts initiating fusion at different concentration.« less

  6. Control of mechanically activated polymersome fusion: Factors affecting fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F.

    2014-12-15

    Previously we have studied the mechanically-activated fusion of extruded (200 nm) polymer vesicles into giant polymersomes using agitation in the presence of salt. In this study we have investigated several factors contributing to this phenomenon, including the effects of (i) polymer vesicle concentration, (ii) agitation speed and duration, and iii) variation of the salt and its concentration. It was found that increasing the concentration of the polymer dramatically increases the production of giant vesicles through the increased collisions of polymersomes. Our investigations also found that increasing the frequency of agitation increased the efficiency of fusion, though ultimately limited the size of vesicle which could be produced due to the high shear involved. Finally it was determined that salt-mediation of the fusion process was not limited to NaCl, but is instead a general effect facilitated by the presence of solvated ionic compounds, albeit with different salts initiating fusion at different concentration.

  7. How Lipid Membranes Affect Pore Forming Toxin Activity.

    PubMed

    Rojko, Nejc; Anderluh, Gregor

    2015-12-15

    , events associated with pore formation can modulate properties of the lipid membrane and affect its organization. Model membranes do not necessarily reproduce the physicochemical properties of the native cellular membrane, and caution is needed when transferring results from model to native lipid membranes. In this context, the utilization of novel approaches that enable studying PFTs on living cells at a single molecule level should reveal complex protein-lipid membrane interactions in greater detail. PMID:26641659

  8. Temporal Signatures of Taste Quality Driven by Active Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chengsan; Hill, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Animals actively acquire sensory information from the outside world, with rodents sniffing to smell and whisking to feel. Licking, a rapid motor sequence used for gustation, serves as the primary means of controlling stimulus access to taste receptors in the mouth. Using a novel taste-quality discrimination task in head-restrained mice, we measured and compared reaction times to four basic taste qualities (salt, sour, sweet, and bitter) and found that certain taste qualities are perceived inherently faster than others, driven by the precise biomechanics of licking and functional organization of the peripheral gustatory system. The minimum time required for accurate perception was strongly dependent on taste quality, ranging from the sensory-motor limits of a single lick (salt, ∼100 ms) to several sampling cycles (bitter, >500 ms). Further, disruption of sensory input from the anterior tongue significantly impaired the speed of perception of some taste qualities, with little effect on others. Overall, our results show that active sensing may play an important role in shaping the timing of taste-quality representations and perception in the gustatory system. PMID:24872546

  9. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-02-15

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiety) while their brain responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a randomized crossover design. Stimuli were solutions of sucralose (sweet, no energy), maltodextrin (non-sweet, energy) and sucralose+maltodextrin (sweet, energy). We found no main effect of energy content and no interaction between energy content and sweetness. However, there was an interaction between hunger state and energy content in the median cingulate (bilaterally), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus. This indicates that the anterior insula and thalamus, areas in which hunger state and taste of a stimulus are integrated, also integrate hunger state with caloric content of a taste stimulus. Furthermore, in the median cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, tasting energy resulted in more activation during satiety compared to hunger. This finding indicates that these areas, which are known to be involved in processes that require approach and avoidance, are also involved in guiding ingestive behavior. In conclusion, our results suggest that energy sensing is a hunger state dependent process, in which the median cingulate, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus play a central role by integrating hunger state with stimulus relevance. PMID:25449847

  10. Might as well jump: sound affects muscle activation in skateboarding.

    PubMed

    Cesari, Paola; Camponogara, Ivan; Papetti, Stefano; Rocchesso, Davide; Fontana, Federico

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to reveal the role of sound in action anticipation and performance, and to test whether the level of precision in action planning and execution is related to the level of sensorimotor skills and experience that listeners possess about a specific action. Individuals ranging from 18 to 75 years of age--some of them without any skills in skateboarding and others experts in this sport--were compared in their ability to anticipate and simulate a skateboarding jump by listening to the sound it produces. Only skaters were able to modulate the forces underfoot and to apply muscle synergies that closely resembled the ones that a skater would use if actually jumping on a skateboard. More importantly we showed that only skaters were able to plan the action by activating anticipatory postural adjustments about 200 ms after the jump event. We conclude that expert patterns are guided by auditory events that trigger proper anticipations of the corresponding patterns of movements. PMID:24619134

  11. Temperature affects microbial abundance, activity and interactions in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiang; De Vrieze, Jo; Li, Jiabao; Li, Xiangzhen

    2016-06-01

    Temperature is a major factor determining the performance of the anaerobic digestion process. The microbial abundance, activity and interactional networks were investigated under a temperature gradient from 25°C to 55°C through amplicon sequencing, using 16S ribosomal RNA and 16S rRNA gene-based approaches. Comparative analysis of past accumulative elements presented by 16S rRNA gene-based analysis, and the in-situ conditions presented by 16S rRNA-based analysis, provided new insights concerning the identification of microbial functional roles and interactions. The daily methane production and total biogas production increased with temperature up to 50°C, but decreased at 55°C. Increased methanogenesis and hydrolysis at 50°C were main factors causing higher methane production which was also closely related with more well-defined methanogenic and/or related modules with comprehensive interactions and increased functional orderliness referred to more microorganisms participating in interactions. This research demonstrated the importance of evaluating functional roles and interactions of microbial community. PMID:26970926

  12. Meteorological Processes Affecting Air Quality – Research and Model Development Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meteorology modeling is an important component of air quality modeling systems that defines the physical and dynamical environment for atmospheric chemistry. The meteorology models used for air quality applications are based on numerical weather prediction models that were devel...

  13. Variable abattoir conditions affect Salmonella enterica prevalence and meat quality in swine and pork.

    PubMed

    Hurd, H S; Gailey, J K; McKean, J D; Griffith, R W

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that abattoir holding pens pose significant Salmonella enterica risk to swine immediately preharvest. The goal of this study was to evaluate those factors related to holding that increased the prevalence of S. enterica in swine at slaughter. To accomplish this goal, we focused on holding time and flooring. Our objectives were to (1) compare Salmonella enterica prevalence among pigs held for short (15-45 min) versus long (up to 4 h) periods before slaughter; and (2) determine the impact of flooring (slatted vs. concrete) as it relates to the prevalence of S. enterica. The study consisted of seven repetitions at a large volume (11,000 head/day) Midwest abattoir. Each repetition consisted of one truck load of pigs (n = 170) sorted into one of three groups: (1) animals held for a short time (15-45 min) on solid floors (short-hold); (2) animals held for 4 +/- 0.5 h on slatted floors; and (3) animals held for 4 +/- 0.5 h on solid concrete floors. At slaughter, samples were collected from 30 pigs in each group. Cecal contents (20 mL), feces (20 g), and the ileocecal lymph node were cultured for S. enterica. Additionally, the effect of holding time on meat quality parameters (loin pH at 35 min and 6 h, color, drip loss) was evaluated for the first four replicates. The proportion of S. enterica-positive samples was highest (p < 0.05) in the cecum of pigs held on solid concrete floors (72.4%), and slightly less for pigs held on slatted floors (63.3%). Animals held for less than 45 min before slaughter demonstrated the lowest proportion of S. enterica-positive samples (52.9%). The pig prevalence, as measured by any one of the three samples being positive, was significantly different (p < 0.05) between animals held on solid floors (81%) and those animals held for 45 min or less before slaughter (69%). Meat quality, as measured by multiple parameters, was adversely affected by lack of a rest period. The mean 24-h pH was significantly lower for the short

  14. CIPK23 is involved in iron acquisition of Arabidopsis by affecting ferric chelate reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qiuying; Zhang, Xinxin; Yang, An; Wang, Tianzuo; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2016-05-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the major limiting factors affecting quality and production of crops in calcareous soils. Numerous signaling molecules and transcription factors have been demonstrated to play a regulatory role in adaptation of plants to iron deficiency. However, the mechanisms underlying the iron deficiency-induced physiological processes remain to be fully dissected. Here, we demonstrated that the protein kinase CIPK23 was involved in iron acquisition. Lesion of CIPK23 rendered Arabidopsis mutants hypersensitive to iron deficiency, as evidenced by stronger chlorosis in young leaves and lower iron concentration than wild-type plants under iron-deficient conditions by down-regulating ferric chelate reductase activity. We found that iron deficiency evoked an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and the elevated Ca(2+) would bind to CBL1/CBL9, leading to activation of CIPK23. These novel findings highlight the involvement of calcium-dependent CBL-CIPK23 complexes in the regulation of iron acquisition. Moreover, mutation of CIPK23 led to changes in contents of mineral elements, suggesting that CBL-CIPK23 complexes could be as "nutritional sensors" to sense and regulate the mineral homeostasis in Arabisopsis. PMID:26993237

  15. Does High School Facility Quality Affect Student Achievement? A Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Urick, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to isolate the independent effects of high school facility quality on student achievement using a large, nationally representative U.S. database of student achievement and school facility quality. Prior research on linking school facility quality to student achievement has been mixed. Studies that relate overall…

  16. Tradeoffs between Price and Quality: How a Value Index Affects Preference Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creyer, Elizabeth H.; Ross, William T., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Some of a group of 143 consumers were given a choice between higher-priced, higher-quality items and items with lower price and quality but higher value index (benefit/cost tradeoff); others were given price and quality information only. Consumers were more likely to choose lower-priced, higher-value options when the index information was…

  17. Effective Use of Discovery Learning to Improve Understanding of Factors That Affect Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukherjee, Arup

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate business majors are required to take a course in operations management. In this course, a great deal of emphasis is put on developing a good understanding of quality because this is likely to be the only required course that covers this important topic. Quality of output exhibits a great deal of variation. To produce high quality on…

  18. Water quality of a reservoir as affected by agriculture in the east of Thailand: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tonmanee, N; Wada, H

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary study on the water quality of a reservoir, affected by agriculture, in the east of Thailand was conducted during 1996-1997. Monitoring water quality of a reservoir is important because the sloping lands surrounding the reservoirs are mainly utilized for cultivating cash crops (pineapple, cassava, etc). A lot of fertilizers and agrochemicals were applied to soil and crops which can polluted the water. The results from the preliminary studied will be applied for the monitoring of the water quality in other reservoirs in the 16 pilot areas. PMID:11724479

  19. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings II: results.

    PubMed

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Huang, Shuyuan; Noznesky, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    An estimated 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict in 2012. Already vulnerable from the insecurity of the emergency, women must also face the continuing risk of unwanted pregnancy but often are unable to obtain family planning services. The ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, has provided contraceptives, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), to refugees, internally displaced persons, and conflict-affected resident populations in Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan. The project works through the Ministry of Health in 4 key areas: (1) competency-based training, (2) supply chain management, (3) systematic supervision, and (4) community mobilization to raise awareness and shift norms related to family planning. This article presents data on program results from July 2011 to December 2013 from the 5 countries. Project staff summarized monthly data from client registers using hard-copy forms and recorded the data electronically in Microsoft Excel for compilation and analysis. The initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries, ranging from 575 in Djibouti to 21,191 in Chad. LARCs have predominated overall, representing 61% of new modern method users. The percentage of new users choosing LARCs varied by country: 78% in the DRC, 72% in Chad, and 51% in Mali, but only 29% in Pakistan. In Djibouti, those methods were not offered in the country through SAFPAC during the period discussed here. In Chad, the DRC, and Mali, implants have been the most popular LARC method, while in Pakistan the IUD has been more popular. Use of IUDs, however, has comprised a larger share of the method mix over time in all 4 of these countries. These results to date suggest that it is feasible to work with the public sector in fragile, crisis-affected states to deliver a wide range of quality

  20. Demographic factors affecting quality of life of hemodialysis patients – Lahore, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Anees, Muhammad; Malik, Muzammil Riaz; Abbasi, Tanzeel; Nasir, Zeeshan; Hussain, Yasir; Ibrahim, Muhamamd

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the demographic factors affecting Quality Of Life (QOL) of hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods: This observational study was conducted at Shalamar Hospital, Lahore. Patients of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and on maintenance HD for more than three months were included during the period March to June 2012. Patient of ESRD not on dialysis and Acute Renal Failure were excluded. One hundred and twenty five patients who fulfilled the criteria were included. Demographic data containing age, sex, residence, socio economic status, education, mode of traveling for dialysis, total time consumed in dialysis were collected by the investigators. QOL index was measured using 26 items, WHO QOL BREF. Results: There were 89(71.2%) male and 36(28.8%) female patients. Environmental domain score was highest (p=0.000) than all other domains in HD Patients. In overall analysis age, marital status and total time consumed in getting HD effect QOL significantly (p=<0.05). In domain wise analysis, male has better QOL in social relationship domain than female. Age has negative relationship with physical health and psychological health domain. QOL of unmarried and literate patients is significantly better (p=<0.05) in physical health domain. Employed patients have better QOL in physical, psychological and social relationship domain (p=<0.05) than unemployed patients. Patients of residence of rural areas have better QOL in physical and environment domain. Financial status of HD patients affect QOL in social domain. Distance covered to reach hospital effect QOL in psychological domain (p=<0.05). Patients traveling in private transport have better QOL in environmental domain (p=<0.05). Total time consumed in getting HD effect social relation in QOL (p=<0.05). According to linear regression model, marital status is positive predictor and unemployment is negative predictor of QOL in physical health domain. Age is negative predictor of QOL in

  1. Activity performance problems of patients with cardiac diseases and their impact on quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Duruturk, Neslihan; Tonga, Eda; Karatas, Metin; Doganozu, Ersin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To describe the functional consequences of patients with cardiac diseases and analyze associations between activity limitations and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy subjects (mean age: 60.1±12.0 years) were being treated by Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Cardiology Departments were included in the study. Activity limitations and participation restrictions as perceived by the individual were measured by the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). The Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) Scale was used to describe limitations in daily living activities. To detect the impact of activity limitations on quality of life the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) was used. [Results] The subjects described 46 different types of problematic activities. The five most identified problems were walking (45.7%), climbing up the stairs (41.4%), bathing (30%), dressing (28.6%) and outings (27.1%). The associations between COPM performance score with all subgroups of NEADL and NHP; total, energy, physical abilities subgroups, were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Our results showed that patients with cardiac diseases reported problems with a wide range of activities, and that also quality of life may be affected by activities of daily living. COPM can be provided as a patient-focused outcome measure, and it may be a useful tool for identifying those problems. PMID:26311919

  2. Activity performance problems of patients with cardiac diseases and their impact on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Duruturk, Neslihan; Tonga, Eda; Karatas, Metin; Doganozu, Ersin

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] To describe the functional consequences of patients with cardiac diseases and analyze associations between activity limitations and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy subjects (mean age: 60.1±12.0 years) were being treated by Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Cardiology Departments were included in the study. Activity limitations and participation restrictions as perceived by the individual were measured by the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). The Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) Scale was used to describe limitations in daily living activities. To detect the impact of activity limitations on quality of life the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) was used. [Results] The subjects described 46 different types of problematic activities. The five most identified problems were walking (45.7%), climbing up the stairs (41.4%), bathing (30%), dressing (28.6%) and outings (27.1%). The associations between COPM performance score with all subgroups of NEADL and NHP; total, energy, physical abilities subgroups, were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Our results showed that patients with cardiac diseases reported problems with a wide range of activities, and that also quality of life may be affected by activities of daily living. COPM can be provided as a patient-focused outcome measure, and it may be a useful tool for identifying those problems. PMID:26311919

  3. Directionality of affective priming: effects of trait anxiety and activation level.

    PubMed

    Maier, Markus A; Berner, Michael P; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2003-01-01

    Among the most influential models of automatic affective processing is the spreading activation account (Fazio, Sanbonmatsu, Powell, & Kardes, 1986). However, investigations of this model by different research groups using the pronunciation task in an affective priming paradigm yielded contradictory results. Whereas one research group reported congruency effects, another obtained reversed priming effects (contrast effects), and still another found null effects. In Experiment 1, we were able to show an influence of trait anxiety on the direction of the affective priming effect. By using a multiple priming paradigm in Experiment 2, we were able to link the occurrence of reversed priming effects to increased levels of activation of affective representations. We propose that this relation might underlie the influence of trait anxiety on the direction of affective priming effects. Both experiments indicate that automatic evaluation in an affective network is substantially moderated by personality traits and activation level. PMID:12693196

  4. Does the Reporting Quality of Diagnostic Test Accuracy Studies, as Defined by STARD 2015, Affect Citation?

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young Jun; Chung, Mi Sun; Koo, Hyun Jung; Park, Ji Eun; Yoon, Hee Mang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the rate with which diagnostic test accuracy studies that are published in a general radiology journal adhere to the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (STARD) 2015, and to explore the relationship between adherence rate and citation rate while avoiding confounding by journal factors. Materials and Methods All eligible diagnostic test accuracy studies that were published in the Korean Journal of Radiology in 2011–2015 were identified. Five reviewers assessed each article for yes/no compliance with 27 of the 30 STARD 2015 checklist items (items 28, 29, and 30 were excluded). The total STARD score (number of fulfilled STARD items) was calculated. The score of the 15 STARD items that related directly to the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS)-2 was also calculated. The number of times each article was cited (as indicated by the Web of Science) after publication until March 2016 and the article exposure time (time in months between publication and March 2016) were extracted. Results Sixty-three articles were analyzed. The mean (range) total and QUADAS-2-related STARD scores were 20.0 (14.5–25) and 11.4 (7–15), respectively. The mean citation number was 4 (0–21). Citation number did not associate significantly with either STARD score after accounting for exposure time (total score: correlation coefficient = 0.154, p = 0.232; QUADAS-2-related score: correlation coefficient = 0.143, p = 0.266). Conclusion The degree of adherence to STARD 2015 was moderate for this journal, indicating that there is room for improvement. When adjusted for exposure time, the degree of adherence did not affect the citation rate. PMID:27587959

  5. Event-based stormwater quality and quantity loadings from elevated urban infrastructure affected by transportation.

    PubMed

    Sansalone, John J; Hird, Jonathan P; Cartledge, Frank K; Tittlebaum, Marty E

    2005-01-01

    Urban-rainfall runoff affected by transportation is a complex matrix of a very wide gradation of particulate matter (< 1 to > 10 000 microm) and dissolved inorganic and organic constituents. Particulate matter transported by rainfall runoff can be a significant vector for many reactive particulate-bound constituents, particularly metal elements. The water quality and hydrology of nine events from a representative elevated section of Interstate 10 (I-10) (eastbound average daily traffic load of 70 400 vehicles) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, were characterized and compared with respect to the passage of each hydrograph. Residence time on the paved concrete surface was less than 30 minutes for all events. Results indicate that event-mean concentrations (EMCs) of particulate matter as total-suspended solids (TSS) (138 to 561 mg/L) and chemical-oxygen demand (COD) (128 to 1440 mg/L) were greater than those found in untreated municipal wastewater from the same service area. Particulate-matter dissolution and COD partitioned as a function of pH, pavement residence time, and organic content. In general, delivery of mass for aggregate indices, such as particulate matter (measured as TSS) and COD mass, were driven by the hydrology of the event, while concentrations of aggregate-constituent measurements, such as total-dissolved solids (TDS), illustrated an exponential-type decline during the rising limb of the hydrograph. Despite the short residence times, wide solids gradation, partitioning, and complexity of the rainfall-runoff chemistry, conductivity and dissolved solids were strongly correlated. Characterization of the transport and loads of constituents in urban-rainfall runoff, as a function of hydrology, is a necessary first step when considering treatability, structural or nonstructural controls, and mass trading for discharges from paved infrastructure. PMID:16121503

  6. Do Physical Therapy Interventions Affect Urinary Incontinence and Quality of Life in People with Multiple Sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Monica; Melnick, Marsha; Allen, Diane D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) presents with many debilitating symptoms, including urinary incontinence (UI), that physical therapy (PT) may address; UI is widely prevalent, but PT management of symptoms lacks consensus. A meta-analysis of long-term nonsurgical and nonpharmaceutical treatment options may supply this deficiency. We analyzed the current evidence for effectiveness of PT to decrease UI and improve quality of life (QOL) in people with MS. Methods: An electronic search conducted through November 26, 2013, included the following search terms: incontinence, bladder dysfunction, urinary incontinence, multiple sclerosis, MS, physical therapy, physiotherapy, therapy, and rehabilitation. Criteria for inclusion were as follows: MS diagnosis, intervention involved PT for UI or bladder dysfunction, outcomes assessed QOL or UI, and at least a 4 of 10 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale or a 2b level of evidence. Outcomes were combined across studies, and effect sizes are depicted in forest plots. Results: Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Between-group analysis revealed statistically significant differences in incontinence episodes and QOL, but did not reach significance for functional control mechanisms (eg, electromyography data on strength of contraction, relaxation, and endurance). Incontinence leakage episodes and QOL participation improved within groups. Conclusions: Meta-analysis indicates support for PT for minimizing incontinence compared with pretreatment and affecting incontinence and QOL more than control in people with MS. Protocols were heterogeneous regarding duration and type of PT intervention and were applied in different types of MS. Further research may reveal the most effective combination and variety of PT interventions for people with MS. PMID:26300703

  7. Quality-assurance and data-management plan for water-quality activities in the Kansas Water Science Center, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Foster, Guy M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Putnam, James E.

    2014-01-01

    As the Nation’s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey is relied on to collect high-quality data, and produce factual and impartial interpretive reports. This quality-assurance and data-management plan provides guidance for water-quality activities conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center. Policies and procedures are documented for activities related to planning, collecting, storing, documenting, tracking, verifying, approving, archiving, and disseminating water-quality data. The policies and procedures described in this plan complement quality-assurance plans for continuous water-quality monitoring, surface-water, and groundwater activities in Kansas.

  8. Momentary Affective States Are Associated with Momentary Volume, Prospective Trends, and Fluctuation of Daily Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kanning, Martina K.; Schoebi, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Several interventions aiming to enhance physical activity in everyday life showed mixed effects. Affective constructs are thought to potentially support health behavior change. However, little is known about within-subject associations between momentary affect and subsequent physical activity in everyday life. This study analyzed the extent to which three dimensions of affective states (valence, calmness, and energetic arousal) were associated with different components of daily activity trajectories. Sixty-five undergraduates’ students (Age: M = 24.6; SD = 3.2; females: 57%) participated in this study. Physical activity was assessed objectively through accelerometers during 24 h. Affective states assessments were conducted randomly every 45 min using an e-diary with a six-item mood scale that was especially designed for ambulatory assessment. We conducted three-level multi-level analyses to investigate the extent to which momentary affect accounted for momentary volume, prospective trends, and stability vs. fluctuation of physical activity in everyday life. All three affect dimensions were significantly associated with momentary activity volumes and prospective trends over 45 min periods. Physical activity didn’t fluctuate freely, but featured significant autocorrelation across repeated measurements, suggesting some stability of physical activity across 5-min assessments. After adjusting for the autoregressive structure in physical activity assessments, only energetic arousal remained a significant predictor. Feeling energized and awake was associated with an increased momentary volume of activity and initially smaller but gradually growing decreases in subsequent activity within the subsequent 45 min. Although not related to trends in physical activity, higher valence predicted lower stability in physical activity across subsequent 45 min, suggesting more short-term fluctuations in daily activity the more participants reported positive affective valence. The

  9. Exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid treatment affects citrate and amino acid accumulation to improve fruit quality and storage performance of postharvest citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ling; Shen, Dandan; Luo, Yi; Sun, Xiaohua; Wang, Jinqiu; Luo, Tao; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin; Cheng, Yunjiang

    2017-02-01

    The loss of organic acids during postharvest storage is one of the major factors that reduces the fruit quality and economic value of citrus. Citrate is the most important organic acid in citrus fruits. Molecular evidence has proved that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt plays a key role in citrate metabolism. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous GABA treatment on citrate metabolism and storage quality of postharvest citrus fruit. The content of citrate was significantly increased, which was primarily attributed to the inhibition of the expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). Amino acids, including glutamate, alanine, serine, aspartate and proline, were also increased. Moreover, GABA treatment decreased the fruit rot rate. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and the content of energy source ATP were affected by the treatment. Our results indicate that GABA treatment is a very effective approach for postharvest quality maintenance and improvement of storage performance in citrus production. PMID:27596402

  10. Do government brochures affect physical activity cognition? A pilot study of Canada's physical activity guide to healthy active living.

    PubMed

    Kliman, Aviva M; Rhodes, Ryan

    2008-08-01

    Health Canada has published national physical activity (PA) guidelines, which are included in their 26-page Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living (CPAG). To date, the use of CPAG as a motivational instrument for PA promotion has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether reading CPAG 1) increased motivational antecedents to engage in regular PA, and 2) increased regular PA intention and behaviour over 1 month. Participants included 130 randomly sampled Canadian adults (18 years or older) who were randomly mailed pack ages consisting of either 1) a questionnaire and a copy of CPAG, or 2) a questionnaire. Questionnaire items pertained to participants' sociodemographics, previous PA behaviours (Godin Leisure-Time Questionnaire) and PA motivation (theory of planned behaviour). Participants were then sent a follow-up questionnaire pertaining to their PA behaviours throughout the previous month. Results revealed significant interactions between the guide condition and previous activity status on instrumental behavioural beliefs about strength activities and subjective norms about endurance activities (p < 0.05), but all other factors were not significantly different. It was concluded that among previously inactive people, receiving this guide may change some informational/motivational constructs, but key motivational antecedents (affective attitude, perceived behavioural control) and outcomes (intention, behaviour) seem unaffected. PMID:18825580

  11. Colostrum quality affects immune system establishment and intestinal development of neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Yang, M; Zou, Y; Wu, Z H; Li, S L; Cao, Z J

    2015-10-01

    The first meal of a neonatal calf after birth is crucial for survival and health. The present experiment was performed to assess the effects of colostrum quality on IgG passive transfer, immune and antioxidant status, and intestinal morphology and histology in neonatal calves. Twenty-eight Holstein neonatal male calves were used in the current study, 24 of which were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: those that received colostrum (GrC), transitional milk (GrT, which was obtained after the first milking on 2-3 d after calving), and bulk tank milk (GrB) only at birth. The 4 extra neonatal calves who were not fed any milk were assigned to the control group and were killed immediately after birth to be a negative control to small intestinal morphology and histology detection. Calves in GrC gained more body weight than in GrT, whereas GrB calves lost 0.4 kg compared with the birth weight. Serum total protein, IgG, and superoxide dismutase concentrations were highest in GrC, GrT was intermediate, whereas GrB was the lowest on d 2, 3, and 7. Apparent efficiency of absorption at 48 h, serum complement 3 (C3), and complement 4 (C4) on d 2, 3, and 7 in GrB was low compared with GrC and GrT. On the contrary, malondialdehyde on d 7 increased in GrB. Calves in GrC had better villus length and width, crypt depth, villus height/crypt depth (V/C) value, and mucosal thickness in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, whereas GrT calves had lower villus length and width, crypt depth, and mucosal thickness than those fed colostrum. Villi of calves in GrB were nonuniform, sparse, severely atrophied, and apically abscised, and Peyer's patches and hydroncus were detected. Overall, colostrum is the best source for calves in IgG absorption, antioxidant activities, and serum growth metabolites, and promoting intestinal development. The higher quality of colostrum calves ingested, the faster immune defense mechanism and the more healthy intestinal circumstances they established. PMID:26233454

  12. Consumer perceptions of pork eating quality as affected by pork quality attributes and end-point cooked temperature.

    PubMed

    Moeller, S J; Miller, R K; Edwards, K K; Zerby, H N; Logan, K E; Aldredge, T L; Stahl, C A; Boggess, M; Box-Steffensmeier, J M

    2010-01-01

    The study evaluated the interactive and individual effects of fresh pork loin (n=679) ultimate pH (pH), intramuscular fat (IMF), Minolta L* color (L*), Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS), and four cooked temperatures (62.8 degrees C, 68.3 degrees C, 73.9 degrees C, and 79.4 degrees C) on consumer (n=2280) perception of eating quality (n=13,265 observations). Data were analyzed using ordered logistical regression. Predicted mean responses were consistently near or under five on the 1-8-point end-anchored scale, indicating a neutral perception of pork eating quality regardless of fresh quality or cooked temperature. Responses improved as IMF and pH increased and WBS decreased, whereas L* did not contribute significantly to variation in responses. Increasing IMF resulted in a very small incremental improvement in responses, but was of practical size only when comparing the least (1%) to the greatest (6%) levels. Loin pH and WBS were primary contributors to consumer perceptions, whereby an incremental increase in pH (0.20 unit) and decrease in WBS (4.9 N) resulted in a 4-5% reduction in the proportion of consumers rating pork as >or= 6 (favorable) on the 8-point scale. No interactions between quality and temperature effects were observed. Increased cooked temperature was negatively (P<0.05) associated with Overall-Like and Tenderness ratings, but the incremental effect was small. Juiciness-Like and Level responses decreased by 0.50 units as temperature increased across the range. Consumer responses favor pork with lower WBS, greater pH and IMF, and pork cooked to a lower temperature. PMID:20374749

  13. Work environment factors affecting quality work in Swedish oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Pilgård, Göran; Söderfeldt, Björn; Hjalmers, Karin; Rosenquist, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how work environment influenced attitudes to and knowledge of quality among employees of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) clinics in Sweden. Data were collected with a questionnaire of 67 questions, related to quality management at the clinic, working situation, content of "good work", physical environment and health. 22 clinics with 297 employees responded, 65% of the clinics and 86% of the employees. A multiple regression analysis with the dependent variable "Attitude towards quality work" showed that only "work environment" (p = 0.010) revealed a significant association (p < 0.05). The personnel will have a more favourable attitude to quality work if they regard work environment to be important. Dental nurses and assistant nurses had more than four times more knowledge of the used quality management system than had the maxillo-facial surgeons. Women had nearly four times more knowledge of quality management than men. Clinic size was important, with better knowledge of quality management in bigger clinics. Soft demands were defined as demands for "flexibility, creativity, quality, service, engagement/commitment and ability to work together, and competence". Hard demands included economy as important, and emphasis on efficiency and productivity. There was a weak association with knowledge of quality management systems if soft demands increased, but negative if hard demands increased. In conclusion, mainly work environment was of significance for the attitude towards quality work among the employees of OMFS clinics in Sweden. Profession, gender, clinic size, and the hard demands were significantly associated with knowledge of the quality management system used. PMID:18973085

  14. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Miami, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lietz, A. C., (compiler)

    2003-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Miami to conduct water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Miami USGS for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures that are documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the Miami USGS quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities.

  15. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities of the U.S. Geological Survey Montana Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambing, John H., (compiler)

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the USGS Montana Water Science Center in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the USGS Montana Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures presented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities complement the quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities and suspended-sediment analysis.

  16. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities in the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Richard J.; Kimbrough, Robert A.; Turney, Gary L.

    2007-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), this quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the USGS Washington Water Science Center (WAWSC) in conducting water-quality activities. The plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the personnel of the WAWSC for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures that are documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the WAWSC's quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities and to supplement the WAWSC quality-assurance plan.

  17. FUNGAL POPULATIONS ASSOCIATED TO NETTING TISSUE OF GALIA MELONS AFFECTING QUALITY DURING STORAGE.

    PubMed

    Parra, M A; Aguilar, F W; Martínez, J A

    2015-01-01

    Galia melons are produced in southeast Spain and exported to other European countries. The main problem of melons during transport and storage consists of the development of epiphytic populations of fungi living inside the netting areas located on fruit surface. These areas are natural wounds which are covered by local suberin and lignin secretion induced by the plant in response to the natural skin wounds which occurs during fruit growing. These fungi are growing from the scarce organic matter and nutrients that are either deposited or segregated from the fruit. Several genera of fungi have commonly been associated to those areas such as some species of Fusarium, Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp. and a few others. All microorganisms were living in an ecological equilibrium. However, when water was present inside the netting areas, the growth of Cladosporium sp. was exacerbated and then, the ecological equilibrium was broken, therefore these grey areas turned to green-dark colour due to hyphal development of this fungus. This process deteriorated visual quality of fruits, therefore the increase of losses during transport and storage were noticeable. A relative humidity very high, round 100% or a thinner layer of water condensed in these areas were sufficient to increase epiphytic development of Cladosporium without causing decay, even at refrigeration temperature. However, when relative humidity was lower than about 98%, no growth of aerial hyphae of Cladosporium was observed. In contrast, some brown stains round netting areas were developed due to the growth of the fungus through skin layers causing severe decay after 32 days of storage at 7 degrees C. When the affected fruits were transferred at ambient temperature, aerial mycelium of Cladosporium emerged from those brown skin areas exacerbating the losses. In conclusion, water condensation should be avoided to prevent epiphytic development of Cladosporium. If washing treatment of fruits is carried out during

  18. Psychosocial Predictors of Life Quality: How Are They Affected by Infertility, Gender, and Parenthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Longitudinally examined effects of infertility on marital and global life quality with 174 infertile couples and 74 fertile couples. By third interview, 42% of infertile couples and 36% of fertile couples were parents. Psychosocial predictors of life quality were highly similar for members of infertile and fertile couples and for couples with and…

  19. Mothers' Perceptions of the Quality of Childhood Sibling Relationships Affected by Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Melissa; Campbell, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The quality of the sibling relationship has an important role in the development of psychosocial skills throughout childhood. While the literature suggests that the significance of sibling relationships is heightened when one sibling has a disability, empirical findings about the quality of these relationships are few and inconsistent. The present…

  20. DIBROMOACETIC ACID AFFECTS REPRODUCTIVE COMPETENCE AND SPERM QUALITY IN THE MALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have recently shown that Dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) alters sperm quality in short duration tests. n this study, male rats were gavaged with 0, 2, 10, 50, 250 mg DBAA/kg/d for up to 49 d. Interim. and terminal measurements of sperm quality & reproductive outcome were made. BAA c...

  1. How Attendance and Quality of Participation Affect Treatment Response to Parent Management Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nix, Robert L.; Bierman, Karen L.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether attendance and quality of participation in parent management training predicted treatment response. Data were from 445 parents (55% minority, 62% single; almost all of low socioeconomic status) who had 1st-grade children with severe conduct problems. Quality of participation in weekly parent groups was based on group…

  2. Microbial water quality in streams as affected by high flow events

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bottom sediments in surface water sources were shown to serve as reservoirs of pathogen and indicator microorganisms. Resuspension of these sediments during the high flow events strongly modifies microbial quality of recreation and irrigation waters. Therefore, changes in microbial water quality are...

  3. Bone quality is affected by food restriction and by nutrition-induced catch-up growth.

    PubMed

    Pando, Rakefet; Masarwi, Majdi; Shtaif, Biana; Idelevich, Anna; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat; Shahar, Ron; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2014-12-01

    Growth stunting constitutes the most common effect of malnutrition. When the primary cause of malnutrition is resolved, catch-up (CU) growth usually occurs. In this study, we have explored the effect of food restriction (RES) and refeeding on bone structure and mechanical properties. Sprague-Dawley male rats aged 24 days were subjected to 10 days of 40% RES, followed by refeeding for 1 (CU) or 26 days long-term CU (LTCU). The rats fed ad libitum served as controls. The growth plates were measured, osteoclasts were identified using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, and micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning and mechanical testing were used to study structure and mechanical properties. Micro-CT analysis showed that RES led to a significant reduction in trabecular BV/TV and trabecular number (Tb.N), concomitant with an increase in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). Trabecular BV/TV and Tb.N were significantly greater in the CU group than in the RES in both short- and long-term experiments. Mechanical testing showed that RES led to weaker and less compliant bones; interestingly, bones of the CU group were also more fragile after 1 day of CU. Longer term of refeeding enabled correction of the bone parameters; however, LTCU did not achieve full recovery. These results suggest that RES in young rats attenuated growth and reduced trabecular bone parameters. While nutrition-induced CU growth led to an immediate increase in epiphyseal growth plate height and active bone modeling, it was also associated with a transient reduction in bone quality. This should be taken into consideration when treating children undergoing CU growth. PMID:25248555

  4. Affective regulation of stereotype activation: it's the (accessible) thought that counts.

    PubMed

    Huntsinger, Jeffrey R; Sinclair, Stacey; Dunn, Elizabeth; Clore, Gerald L

    2010-04-01

    Prior research has found that positive affect, compared to negative affect, increases stereotype activation. In four experiments the authors explore whether the link between affect and stereotype activation depends on the relative accessibility of stereotype-relevant thoughts and response tendencies. As well as manipulating mood, the authors measured or manipulated the accessibility of egalitarian response tendencies (Experiments 1 and 2) and counterstereotypic thoughts (Experiments 2 through 4). In the absence of such response tendencies and thoughts, people in positive moods displayed greater stereotype activation-consistent with past research. By contrast, in the presence of accessible egalitarian response tendencies or counterstereotypic thoughts, people in positive moods exhibited less stereotype activation than those in negative moods. Implications of these results for existing affect-cognition models are discussed. PMID:20363909

  5. Familial Vulnerability to ADHD Affects Activity in the Cerebellum in Addition to the Prefrontal Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Martijn J.; Baeyens, Dieter; Davidson, Matthew C.; Casey, B. J.; Van Den Ban, Els; Van Engeland, Herman; Durston, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether cerebellar systems are sensitive to familial risk for ADHD in addition to frontostriatal circuitry. The results conclude that familial vulnerability to ADHD affects activity in both the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum.

  6. Integrating quality improvement into continuing medical education activities within a community hospital system.

    PubMed

    Eiser, Arnold R; McNamee, William B; Miller, Jean Yodis

    2013-01-01

    The integration of the Mercy Health System's quality improvement (QI) and continuing medical educational (CME) activities is described. With the implementation of computerized medical data, the opportunities for QI-focused CME are growing. The authors reviewed their regularly scheduled series and special CME programs to assess their impact on quality care processes. Clinical improvements were affected by combining national guidelines and advancements with local clinical data and interactions with physicians within interdisciplinary as well as specialty conferences. Case-based, multidisciplinary conferences lent themselves to this process to a greater extent than didactic conferences. The latter also could lead to QI when the topics were focused on specific quality initiatives that often are part of a national QI initiative. Although the authors consider these efforts to be at an intermediate stage of development, they have observed several QI/patient safety process improvements. PMID:22984092

  7. Defective active silicon uptake affects some components of rice resistance to brown spot.

    PubMed

    Dallagnol, Leandro J; Rodrigues, Fabrício A; Mielli, Mateus V B; Ma, Jian F; Datnoff, Lawrence E

    2009-01-01

    Rice is known to accumulate high amounts of silicon (Si) in plant tissue, which helps to decrease the intensity of many economically important rice diseases. Among these diseases, brown spot, caused by the fungus Bipolaris oryzae, is one of the most devastating because it negatively affects yield and grain quality. This study aimed to evaluate the importance of active root Si uptake in rice for controlling brown spot development. Some components of host resistance were evaluated in a rice mutant, low silicon 1 (lsi1), defective in active Si uptake, and its wild-type counterpart (cv. Oochikara). Plants were inoculated with B. oryzae after growing for 35 days in a hydroponic culture amended with 0 or 2 mMol Si. The components of host resistance evaluated were incubation period (IP), relative infection efficiency (RIE), area under brown spot progress curve (AUBSPC), final lesion size (FLS), rate of lesion expansion (r), and area under lesion expansion progress curve (AULEPC). Si content from both Oochikara and lsi1 in the +Si treatment increased in leaf tissue by 219 and 178%, respectively, over the nonamended controls. Plants from Oochikara had 112% more Si in leaf tissue than plants from lsi1. The IP of brown spot from Oochikara increased approximately 6 h in the presence of Si and the RIE, AUBSPC, FLS, r, and AULEPC were significantly reduced by 65, 75, 33, 36, and 35%, respectively. In the presence of Si, the IP increased 3 h for lsi1 but the RIE, AUBSPC, FLS, r, and AULEPC were reduced by only 40, 50, 12, 21, and 12%, respectively. The correlation between Si leaf content and IP was significantly positive but Si content was negatively correlated with RIE, AUBSPC, FLS, r, and AULEPC. Single degree-of-freedom contrasts showed that Oochikara and lsi1 supplied with Si were significantly different from those not supplied with Si for all components of resistance evaluated. This result showed that a reduced Si content in tissues of plants from lsi1 dramatically affected

  8. WATER QUALITY IN THE NEAR COASTAL WATERS OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AFFECTED BY HURRICANE KATRINA: BEFORE AND AFTER THE STORM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality was assessed following Hurricane Katrina in the affected waters of Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. Post-landfall water quality was compared to pre-hurricane conditions using indicators assessed by EPA's National Coastal Assessment program and additional indicat...

  9. Soil organic matter dynamics under Beech and Hornbeam as affected by soil biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooijman, A. M.; Cammeraat, L. H.

    2009-04-01

    Organic matter dynamics are highly affected both the soil fauna as well as the source of organic matter, having important consequences for the spatial heterogeneity of organic matter storage and conversion. We studied oldgrowth mixed deciduous forests in Central-Luxemburg on decalcified dolomitic marl, dominated by high-degradable hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) or low-degradable beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Decomposition was measured both in the laboratory and in the field. Litter decomposition was higher for hornbeam than for beech under laboratory conditions, but especially in the field, which is mainly to be attributed to macro-fauna activity, specifically to earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris and Allolobophora species). We also investigated differences between beech and hornbeam with regard to litter input and habitat conditions. Total litter input was the same, but contribution of beech and hornbeam litter clearly differed between the two species. Also, mass of the ectorganic horizon and soil C:N ratio were significantly higher for beech, which was reflected in clear differences in the development of ectorganic profiles on top of the soil. Under beech a mull-moder was clearly present with a well developed fermentation and litter horizon, whereas under hornbeam all litter is incorporated into the soil, leaving the mineral soil surface bear in late summer (mull-type of horizon). In addition to litter quality, litter decomposition was affected by pH and soil moisture. Both pH and soil moisture were higher under hornbeam than under beech, which may reflect differences in soil development and litter quality effects over longer time scales. Under beech, dense layers of low-degradable litter may prevent erosion, and increase clay eluviation and leaching of base cations, leading to acid and dry conditions, which further decrease litter decay. Under hornbeam, the soil is not protected by a litter layer, and clay eluviation and acidification may be counteracted by erosion

  10. Community Perception of Water Quality in a Mining-Affected Area: A Case Study for the Certej Catchment in the Apuseni Mountains in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogaru, Diana; Zobrist, Jürg; Balteanu, Dan; Popescu, Claudia; Sima, Mihaela; Amini, Manouchehr; Yang, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Mining-contaminated sites and the affected communities at risk are important issues on the agenda of both researchers and policy makers, particularly in the former communist block countries in Eastern Europe. Integrated analyses and expert based assessments concerning mining affected areas are important in providing solid policy guidelines for environmental and social risk management and mitigation. Based on a survey for 103 households conducted in a former mining site in the Certej Catchment of the Apuseni Mountains, western Romania, this study assesses local communities’ perceptions on the quality of water in their living area. Logistic regression was used to examine peoples’ perception on the quality of the main river water and of the drinking water based on several predictors relating to social and economic conditions. The results from the perception analysis were then compared with the measurements of heavy metal contamination of the main river and drinking water undertaken in the same study area. The findings indicate that perception and measurement results for the water quality in the Certej Catchment are convergent, suggesting an obvious risk that mining activities pose on the surface water. However, the perception on drinking water quality was little predicted by the regression model and does not seem to be so much related to mining as to other explanatory factors, such as special mineralogy of rock and soils or improper water treatment infrastructure, facts suggested by the measurements of the contaminants. Discussion about the implications of these joint findings for risk mitigation policies completes this article.

  11. Chamber QoE: a multi-instrumental approach to explore affective aspects in relation to quality of experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Moor, Katrien; Mazza, Filippo; Hupont, Isabelle; Ríos Quintero, Miguel; Mäki, Toni; Varela, Martín.

    2014-02-01

    Evaluating (audio)visual quality and Quality of Experience (QoE) from the user's perspective, has become a key element in optimizing users' experiences and their quality. Traditionally, the focus lies on how multi-level quality features are perceived by a human user. The interest has however gradually expanded towards human cognitive, affective and behavioral processes that may impact on, be an element of, or be influenced by QoE, and which have been underinvestigated so far. In addition, there is a major discrepancy between the new, broadly supported and more holistic conceptualization of QoE proposed by Le Callet et al. (2012) and traditional, standardized QoE assessment. This paper explores ways to tackle this discrepancy by means of a multi-instrumental approach. More concretely, it presents results from a lab study on video quality (N=27), aimed at going beyond the dominant QoE assessment paradigm and at exploring affective aspects in relation to QoE and in relation to perceived overall quality. Four types of data were collected: `traditional' QoE self-report measures were complemented with `alternative', emotional state- and user engagement-related self-report measures to evaluate QoE. In addition, we collected EEG (physiological) data, gazetracking data and facial expressions (behavioral) data. The video samples used in test were longer in duration than is common in standard tests allowing us to study e.g. more realistic experience and deeper user engagement. Our findings support the claim that the traditional QoE measures need to be reconsidered and extended with additional, affective staterelated measures.

  12. Short communication: Effect of active food packaging materials on fluid milk quality and shelf life.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dana E; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Active packaging, in which active agents are embedded into or on the surface of food packaging materials, can enhance the nutritive value, economics, and stability of food, as well as enable in-package processing. In one embodiment of active food packaging, lactase was covalently immobilized onto packaging films for in-package lactose hydrolysis. In prior work, lactase was covalently bound to low-density polyethylene using polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers to form the packaging film. Because of the potential contaminants of proteases, lipases, and spoilage organisms in typical enzyme preparations, the goal of the current work was to determine the effect of immobilized-lactase active packaging technology on unanticipated side effects, such as shortened shelf-life and reduced product quality. Results suggested no evidence of lipase or protease activity on the active packaging films, indicating that such active packaging films could enable in-package lactose hydrolysis without adversely affecting product quality in terms of dairy protein or lipid stability. Storage stability studies indicated that lactase did not migrate from the film over a 49-d period, and that dry storage resulted in 13.41% retained activity, whereas wet storage conditions enabled retention of 62.52% activity. Results of a standard plate count indicated that the film modification reagents introduced minor microbial contamination; however, the microbial population remained under the 20,000 cfu/mL limit through the manufacturer's suggested 14-d storage period for all film samples. This suggests that commercially produced immobilized lactase active packaging should use purified cross-linkers and enzymes. Characterization of unanticipated effects of active packaging on food quality reported here is important in demonstrating the commercial potential of such technologies. PMID:24239074

  13. Walk on the Bright Side: Physical Activity and Affect in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Jutta; Thompson, Renee J.; Jaeggi, Susanne M.; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2014-01-01

    Although prescribed exercise has been found to improve affect and reduce levels of depression, we do not know how self-initiated everyday physical activity influences levels of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) in depressed persons. Fifty-three individuals diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 53 never-depressed controls participated in a seven-day experience sampling study. Participants were prompted randomly eight times per day and answered questions about their physical activity and affective state. Over the week, the two groups of participants did not differ in average level of physical activity. As expected, participants with MDD reported lower average PA and higher average NA than did never-depressed controls. Both participants with MDD and controls reported higher levels of PA at prompts after physical activity than at prompts after inactive periods; moreover, for both groups of participants, PA increased from a prompt after an inactive period to a subsequent prompt at which activity was reported. Depressed participants in particular showed a dose-response effect of physical activity on affect: longer duration and/or higher intensity of physical activity increased their PA significantly more than did short duration and/or lower intensity physical activity. Physical activity did not influence NA in either group. In contrast to previous treatment studies that examined the effects of prescribed structured exercise, this investigation showed that self-initiated physical activity influences PA. These findings also underscore the importance of distinguishing between PA and NA to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of physical activity on affect in MDD. PMID:21553939

  14. Urban-rural status affects associations between overall environmental quality and cancer incidence

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between environmental conditions and human health varies by urbanicity. To estimate ambient environmental conditions, an Environmental Quality Index (EQI) for 2000-2005 was constructed by the Environmental Protection Agency using county-level data representing fi...

  15. Near-Road Air Quality Monitoring: Factors Affecting Network Design and Interpretation of Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growing number of health studies identifying adverse health effects for populations spending significant amounts of time near large roadways has increased the interest in monitoring air quality in this microenvironment. Designing near-road air monitoring networks or interpret...

  16. Benthic invertebrate population characteristics as affected by water quality in coal-bearing regions of Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradfield, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate and water quality data collected during previous U.S. Geological Survey studies to provide background hydrologic information on streams draining Tennessee coal reserves, were evaluated to identify possible relations between stream biota and water quality. Linear regressions produced low correlation coefficients relating the number of taxa/sample, total number of organisms/sample, sample diversity, and percentage composition of selected orders of invertebrates, with average water quality parameter values available at sampling stations (r is < 0.62 at p=0.05). Analyses of these data by linear regressions explained little of the variability in benthic invertebrate samples primarily because the distributions of benthic organisms along environmental gradients are nonlinear. Variability in substrate characteristics in the study area and seasonal insect emergence patterns also complicated interpretation of these data. However, analysis of variance tests did indicate significant trends towards reduced number of taxa, number of organisms, and sample diversity at stations with relatively poor water quality conditions. Decreasing percentage composition of Ephemeroptera was generally accompanied by an increase in percent Diptera at stations with higher water quality constituent concentrations and acidic pH ( > than 0.6 units). These trends indicate significant differences in benthic communities at sites with evidence of more severe land use impacts. Additional data on benthic invertebrates, water quality , and physical habitat conditions, along with analyses of data using multivariate statistical methods are needed to define ecological relations between specific groups of invertebrates and environmental conditions. (Author 's abstract)

  17. Underground Test Area Activity Quality Assurance Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Krenzien, Susan; Farnham, Irene

    2015-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) activities. The requirements in this QAP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1D, Change 1, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2013a); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). If a participant’s requirement document differs from this QAP, the stricter requirement will take precedence. NNSA/NFO, or designee, must review this QAP every two years. Changes that do not affect the overall scope or requirements will not require an immediate QAP revision but will be incorporated into the next revision cycle after identification. Section 1.0 describes UGTA objectives, participant responsibilities, and administrative and management quality requirements (i.e., training, records, procurement). Section 1.0 also details data management and computer software requirements. Section 2.0 establishes the requirements to ensure newly collected data are valid, existing data uses are appropriate, and environmental-modeling methods are reliable. Section 3.0 provides feedback loops through assessments and reports to management. Section 4.0 provides the framework for corrective actions. Section 5.0 provides references for this document.

  18. Underground Test Area Activity Quality Assurance Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Farnham, Irene; Krenzien, Susan

    2012-10-01

    This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) activities. The requirements in this QAP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2005); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). NNSA/NSO, or designee, must review this QAP every two years. Changes that do not affect the overall scope or requirements will not require an immediate QAP revision but will be incorporated into the next revision cycle after identification. Section 1.0 describes UGTA objectives, participant responsibilities, and administrative and management quality requirements (i.e., training, records, procurement). Section 1.0 also details data management and computer software requirements. Section 2.0 establishes the requirements to ensure newly collected data are valid, existing data uses are appropriate, and environmental-modeling methods are reliable. Section 3.0 provides feedback loops through assessments and reports to management. Section 4.0 provides the framework for corrective actions. Section 5.0 provides references for this document.

  19. Physical-Chemical Factors Affecting the Low Quality of Natural Water in the Khibiny Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazukhina, Svetlana; Masloboev, Vladimir; Chudnenko, Konstantin; Maksimova, Viktoriia; Belkina, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    One peculiarity of the Khibiny Massif is its spatial location. Rising over 1000 m above the surrounding hilly land and thus obstructing the passage of air masses, it promotes condensation and accumulation of surface and underground water. Annual precipitation here amounts to 600-700 mm in the valleys and up to 1600 mm on mountainous plateaus. Using this water for drinking and household purposes is problematic due to excess Al and F concentrations and high pH values. Now it is known that in its profile, the Massif is represented by three hydrogeological subzones: the upper (aerated), medium and lower ones. The upper subzone spreads throughout the Massif and is affected by the local drainage network and climatic conditions. The medium subzone is permanently saturated with underground water flowing horizontally to sites of discharge at the level of local river valleys and lakes. The fissure-vein water in the lower subzone is confined to tectonic fractures and faults in the so far underexplored, deeper parts of the Massif. Being abundant, this water ascends under high pressure. At places, water has been observed spurting from as deep as 700 m, and even 960 m. In the latter case, the temperature of ascending water was higher than 18 centigrade (Hydrogeology of the USSR, V. 27, 1971). This work was undertaken to reveal the nature of the low quality of water in the Khibiny by using physical-chemical modeling (software package Selector, Chudnenko, 2010). Processes of surface and underground water formation in the Khibiny were examined within a physical-chemical model (PCM) of the "water-rock-atmosphere-hydrogen" system. In a multi-vessel model used, each vessel represented a geochemical level of the process interpreted as spatiotemporal data - ξ (Karpov, 1981). The flow reactor consisted of 4 tanks. In the first tank, water of the Kuniok River (1000 L) interacted with atmosphere and an organic substance. The resulting solution proceeded to tanks 2-4 containing with

  20. Quality of Life and Leisure Activities: How Do Leisure Activities Contribute to Subjective Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brajsa-Zganec, Andreja; Merkas, Marina; Sverko, Iva

    2011-01-01

    The quality of life is determined with objective factors and also with subjective perception of factors which influence human life. Leisure activities play a very important role in subjective well-being because they provide opportunities to meet life values and needs. Through participation in leisure activities people build social relationships,…

  1. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    SciTech Connect

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the Facility Monitoring Plans of the overall site-wide environmental monitoring plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. This document is intended to be a basic road map to the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan documents (i.e., the guidance document for preparing Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations, management plan, and Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans). The implementing procedures, plans, and instructions are appropriate for the control of effluent monitoring plans requiring compliance with US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, state, and local requirements. This Quality Assurance Project Plan contains a matrix of organizational responsibilities, procedural resources from facility or site manuals used in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and a list of the analytes of interest and analytical methods for each facility preparing a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 44 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Autoimmunity affects health-related quality of life in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Bektas Uysal, Hilal; Ayhan, Mediha

    2016-08-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is the most common endocrine disorder leading to hypothyroidism. HT is characterized by the presence of elevated circulating antibodies, especially anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg). In our study, we aimed to reveal the effects of autoimmunity on health-related quality of life of euthyroid HT patients. Patients who were admitted to the Adnan Menderes University Outpatient Clinic were enrolled. The medical records of the patients were surveyed and their demographical data were collected. By using communication data, the patients were invited to our clinic, to inform them about our study and to fill out the health-related quality of life questionnaire. A total of 84 euthyroid HT patients older than 18 years who completed the short form-36 questionnaire, were enrolled. As all patients were euthyroid, there was a significant negative correlation between each domain score and the antibody levels, individually. Patients who had higher anti-TPO and anti-Tg levels had significantly lower quality of life domain scores (p < 0.001). There was statistically no significant correlation between the antibody levels and thyroid function tests (p > 0.05). Additionally, all dimension scores were significantly higher both in the anti-Tg and anti-TPO negative groups, indicating a better quality of life than that in the antibody positive groups. Our study revealed that higher thyroid antibody levels were negatively correlated with life quality scores. Thus, patients who had higher anti-TPO and anti-Tg levels had significantly lower quality of life domain scores. We believe that apart from hypothyroidism, a high antibody level was one of the contributing factors for the development of HT-associated symptoms, leading to a lower quality of life. Other probable contributing factors such as selenium deficiency, thyroid hormone fluctuation, and disease awareness should keep in mind. PMID:27523457

  3. The Impact Of Sports Activities On Quality Of Life Of Persons With A Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Eminović, Fadilj; Dopsaj, Milivoj; Pavlović, Dragan; Arsić, Sladjana; Otašević, Jadranka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Studying the quality of life of people with a spinal cord injury is of great importance as it allows the monitoring of both functioning and adaptation to disability. The aim of this study was to determine the difference between persons with a spinal cord injury involved in sports activities and those not involved in sports activities in relation to their quality of life and the presence of secondary health conditions (pressure ulcers, urinary infections, muscle spasms, osteoporosis, pain, kidney problems-infections, calculosis and poor circulation). Methods The study included a total of 44 participants with spinal cord injury-paraplegia of both genders; 26 of them were athletes and 18 were not athletes. The athletes were training actively for the last two years, minimally 2-3 times per week. A specially designed questionnaire, medical documentation and the Spinal Cord Injury Quality of Life Questionnaire (SCI QL-23) were used for research purposes. Chi-square test was used to analyze the differences between the groups, while multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine the differences between the sets of variables. Results Among the participants, the athletes perceived higher quality of life than the non-athletes (male gender p<0.001 and female gender p<0.05). Regarding secondary health conditions, the athletes reported the presence of less pain (p=0.034) and a subjective feeling of better circulation (p=0.023). Conclusion The implementation of sports activities significantly improves quality of life in the population of people with spinal cord injury-paraplegia. However, sports activities only partially affect secondary health conditions. PMID:27284378

  4. Health care reform: will quality remodeling affect obstetrician-gynecologists in addition to patients?

    PubMed

    von Gruenigen, Vivian E; Deveny, T Clifford

    2011-05-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is a federal statute that attempts to address many fundamental problems with the current health care system including the uninsured, rising health care costs, and quality care. Quality metrics have been in development for years (by private and governmental sectors), and momentum is growing. The purpose of this commentary is to explore quality changes in the way practicing obstetricians and gynecologists will be held accountable for quality service. Two new options being explored for health care, both focusing on improving quality and physician metrics, include value-based purchasing and accountable-care organizations. Both will likely consist of universal clinical algorithms and cost monitoring as measures. For obstetrics this will probably include physician's rates of cesarean deliveries and elective inductions. For gynecology this may comprise of indications for hysterectomy with documented failed medical management, minor surgical management, or both medical and minor surgical management. It is anticipated patients will no longer be able to request obstetric testing, pregnancy induction, or hysterectomy. It is imperative we, as obstetrician-gynecologists, are involved in health care reform that inevitably involves the care of women. The expectation is that the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) will further develop evidenced-based opinions and guidelines, as medical communities embrace ACOG documents and reference these in hospital policies and peer review. PMID:21508757

  5. Affects of different tillage managements on soil physical quality in a clayey soil.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, Mustafa; Selvi, Kemal Çağatay; Dengiz, Orhan; Gürsoy, Fatma Esra

    2015-01-01

    This study, conducted in 2011, researches the effects of different tillage practices on the physical soil quality of clayey soil. This soil quality index (SQI) assessment was made by studying the changes in physical soil functions such as suitability for root development, facilitation for water entry, movement and storage, and resistance against surface degradation based on tillage management. When compared with the control parcel, statistically significant decreases were seen in the SQI with different tillage practices (p < 0.05). Among the tillage practices, the highest SQI was seen with the plow + rotary tiller + direct seeding machine, while the lowest SQI was seen with the direct drilling practice. On the other hand, the statistically insignificant effects of tillage practices on the soil quality of the study area were considered to be a result of either the study period or the joint effect of soil texture and climatic features. Thus, long-term tillage practices were recommended in order to get healthier information about soil quality by considering soil and climatic conditions. In addition, for heavy clayey soils, reduced tillage practices, which included plowing, were thought to develop physical soil qualities of root development and water movement. PMID:25467416

  6. Correlates of the Quality of life of Adolescents in families affected by HIV/AIDS in Benue State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akpa, Onoja Matthew; Bamgboye, Elijah Afolabi

    2015-01-01

    It was estimated that over 260,000 children are living with HIV/AIDS while close to 2 million are directly or indirectly affected by the disease in Nigeria. Improvements in treatments for infected children have been documented in the literature but there is a gross knowledge gap on the impact of HIV/AIDS on the quality of life and psychosocial functioning (PSF) of affected children in Nigeria. We comparatively explored the association of quality of life with PSF and other factors among adolescents in families affected by HIV/AIDS (FAHA) and in families not affected by HIV/AIDS (FNAHA). Data was extracted for 960 adolescents from a State wide cross-sectional study in which participants were selected through multistage sampling techniques. Data was collected using questionnaires consisting of demographic information, adapted WHO-QOL BREF and the Strength & Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ). The quality of life scores were categorized into Poor, Moderate and High based on the amount of standard deviation away from the mean while the SDQ scores were categorized into normal, borderline and abnormal based on the SDQ scoring systems. Chi-square test and independent t-test were used for bivariate analyses while logistic regression was used for multivariate analyses at 5% level of significance. Proportion with poor quality of life (27.0%) was significantly higher among adolescents in FAHA than in FNAHA (p=0.0001). Adolescents in FAHA (OR:2.32; 95%CI:1.67-4.09) were twice more likely to have poor quality of life than those in FNAHA. In FAHA, adolescents on the borderline of PSF (OR:2.19; 95%CI:1.23-3.89) were twice more likely to have poor quality of life than those with normal PSF. Adolescents in FAHA have poorer quality of life than those in FNAHA and also face additional burdens of psychosocial dysfunctions. Interventions focusing on functional social support and economic empowerment will benefit adolescents in FAHA in the studied location. PMID:26587049

  7. Head and neck cancer patients’ perceptions of quality of life and how it is affected by the disease and enteral tube feeding during treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Kay; Laurell, Göran; Langius-Eklöf, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To explore individual quality of life in patients with head and neck cancer from diagnosis up to 3 months after termination of radiotherapy. Research questions: 1) Which areas in life are important to quality of life, and which are influenced by the disease and by having oral or enteral nutrition; and 2) Which areas in life are influenced by having a nasogastric feeding tube (NGT) or a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube? Material and methods. Data were collected in 36 patients. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using an extended version of the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life (SEIQoL) and analysed with content analysis. Results. Negative and positive experiences of quality of life in general were about relation to family, own health, and leisure activities. Negative impacts on physical, psychological, existential and social problems, but also positive experiences are described by the patients related to the disease. More than half expressed eating-related problems. Enteral nutrition entailed negative and positive experiences, and no greater variations were described by the patients with NGT or PEG tube. Overall, there were interindividual variations. Conclusions. The patients’ perception of general or disease-related quality of life was not affected by whether they had enteral nutrition or not. From the patients’ perspective neither of the two feeding tubes (NGT or PEG) was clearly in favour. We suggest that more studies are needed on how the choice of enteral feeding tube can be evidence-based, and incorporating the patients’ perspective. PMID:26482657

  8. Female Genital Dialogues: Female Genital Self-Image, Sexual Dysfunction, and Quality of Life in Patients With Vitiligo With and Without Genital Affection.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Deena; Mohammed, Ghada F A; Gomaa, Amal H A; Eyada, Moustafa M K

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo has a major effect on sexual health because of the disfiguring skin lesions affecting self-image and self-esteem. However, this topic has not explored. This article aimed to assess the effect of vitiligo on genital self-image, sexual function, and quality of life in female patients. This cross-sectional study included 50 sexually active women with vitiligo and 25 women without vitiligo. All participants subjected to full history taking and examination. Extent of vitiligo was assessed with the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score, sexual function with the Female Sexual Function Index, genital self-image with Female Genital Self-Image Score and quality of life with the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaires. The main outcome measures were correlation between Vitiligo Area Scoring Index, Female Genital Self-Image Score, Female Sexual Function Index, and Dermatology Life Quality Index domains was determined using t test and Pearson correlation. This study revealed a negative correlation between the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score and sexual satisfaction. Vitiligo Area Scoring Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significantly correlated with Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score alone and with Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index alone and with both the Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score and the Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index (p <.05). Sexual and psychological assessment of patients with vitiligo is imperative to improve outcomes and increase patients' compliance with treatment. PMID:25650731

  9. Neural Activation Underlying Cognitive Control in the Context of Neutral and Affectively Charged Pictures in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Connie; White, Lauren K.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Fox, Nathan A.

    2012-01-01

    The neural correlates of cognitive control for typically developing 9-year-old children were examined using dense-array ERPs and estimates of cortical activation (LORETA) during a go/no-go task with two conditions: a neutral picture condition and an affectively charged picture condition. Activation was estimated for the entire cortex after which…

  10. Affection Activities: Procedures for Encouraging Young Children with Handicaps to Interact with Their Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvoy, Mary A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Affection activities (such as hugging, smiling, and saying positive things) can be added to typical preschool games and songs to encourage interaction between handicapped children and nonhandicapped peers. The intervention can be adapted for use with children with diverse handicapping conditions. Typical activities, modified directions for…

  11. Affective Decision-Making and Externalizing Behaviors: The Role of Autonomic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.

    2013-01-01

    We tested a conceptual model involving the inter-relations among affective decision-making (indexed by a gambling task), autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms in a largely impoverished, inner city sample of first through third grade children (N=63, 54% male). The present study hypothesized that impaired affective decision-making and decreased sympathetic and parasympathetic activation would be associated with higher levels of ADHD and ODD symptoms, and that low sympathetic and parasympathetic activation during an emotion-inducing task would mediate the relation between affective decision-making and child externalizing symptoms. In support of our model, disadvantageous decision-making on a gambling task was associated with ADHD hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms among boys, and attenuated sympathetic activation during an emotion-inducing task mediated this relation. Support for the model was not found among girls. PMID:18317919

  12. Yield and quality grade outcomes as affected by molecular breeding values for commercial beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Thompson, N M; DeVuyst, E A; Brorsen, B W; Lusk, J L

    2015-05-01

    Although genetic tests for many economically important beef cattle traits are commercially available, additional information is needed to help the industry better understand how the results from these tests translate into phenotypic outcomes. This information has important implications for marker-assisted management. The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between molecular breeding values (MBV) characterizing yield grade and marbling and distributions of phenotypic outcomes for yield grade and quality grade. Using data collected from commercially-fed cattle, mixed-model regression equations were estimated for yield grade and quality grade outcomes for both the full sample of commercial cattle (n= 8,995) and a subsample of black-hided steers (n = 4,790). Significant yield grade (P < 0.01) and marbling (P < 0.01) MBV effects were found. However, the yield grade MBV held up better at predicting phenotypic outcomes than the marbling MBV. Estimated conditional probability mass functions of yield and quality grade outcomes for the general population and black-hided steers were similar. Since distributions for black-hided steers were expected to be more applicable from a management perspective, we focused our analysis on these animals. For example, black-hided steers with "low" genetic potential for yield grade and marbling had about a 29% chance of achieving the base price or better on a price grid (yield grade 3 or lower and quality grade Low Choice or better). Increasing genetic potential for marbling increased the likelihood of achieving this same outcome. However, increasing genetic potential for yield grade was unlikely to increase overall carcass quality given its large deleterious effect on quality grade outcomes. Instead, simultaneous improvements in genetic potential for yield grade and marbling offered much more reliable improvements in overall carcass quality. For example, an animal with "moderate" genetic potential for both yield

  13. A simulator investigation of parameters affecting helicopter handling qualities in air combat (HAC II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Michael S.; Mansur, M. Hossein; Chen, Robert T. N.

    1987-01-01

    The Helicopter Air Combat system was used to conduct a pilot simulation study investigating the handling qualities and flight characteristics required for helicopter air-to-air combat. Results indicate that a well-damped directional response, low sideforce caused by sideslip, and some effective dihedral are all desirable for weapon system performance, good handling qualities, and low pilot workload. An angular rate command system was favored over the attitude-type pitch and roll response for most applications, and an enhanced maneuver envelope size over that of current generation aircraft was found to be of advantage.

  14. Quality of casein based Mozzarella cheese analogue as affected by stabilizer blends.

    PubMed

    Jana, A H; Patel, H G; Suneeta, Pinto; Prajapati, J P

    2010-03-01

    Suitability of xanthan gum (XG)-locust bean gum (LBG), carrageenan (CAR)-LBG, and XG-CAR in 1:1 proportion at 0.42% in the formulation was assessed in the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese analogue. The stabilizer blends did not significantly influence the composition, texture profile, organoleptic, baking qualities and pizza-related characteristics of cheese analogues. Considering the influence of stabilizer blend on the sensory quality of analogue and sensory rating of pizza pie, XG-LBG blend (1:1) was preferred over XG-CAR and CAR-LBG. PMID:23572632

  15. Modifications of 'Gold Finger' Grape Berry Quality as Affected by the Different Rootstocks.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhongxin; Sun, Hong; Sun, Tianyu; Wang, Qingjie; Yao, Yuxin

    2016-06-01

    Berry qualities of the grafted 'Gold Finger' grapevines were determined to evaluate the impacts of the resistant rootstocks on fruit quality. Compared to the own-rooted vines, berry and cluster weights and skin color were altered by the rootstocks to varying extents. The rootstock of 101-14M maintained TSS/TA and the contents of fructose, glucose, and sucrose, and SO4 decreased these parameters. 101-14M and 3309C increased and reduced the resveratrol content, respectively. SO4, 5BB, and 3309C decreased the total free amino acid content, along with the changes in amino acid composition. The amounts of aroma components were widely altered by the rootstocks. Additionally, a digital gene expression tag profiling revealed that the biological processes were largely altered by 3309C and 101-14M, including sugar, amino acid, and aroma metabolisms. In summary, the rootstock of 101-14M generally maintained berry quality, and SO4, 5BB, and 3309C imparted varying influences on different quality parameters. PMID:27088562

  16. Does Change in Functional Performance Affect Quality of Life in Persons with Orthopaedic Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostir, Glenn V.; Berges, Ivonne-Marie; Smith, Pamela M.; Smith, David; Rice, Janida L.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Examine the association between change in functional status and quality of life for individuals with orthopaedic impairments approximately 90 days after discharge from in-patient medical rehabilitation. Methods: A retrospective study from 2001 to 2002 using information from the IT HealthTrack database. The study included…

  17. Factors Affecting Professional Job Mastery: Quality of Study or Work Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aamodt, Per Olaf; Havnes, Anton

    2008-01-01

    For students and for society a core aspect of higher education is to prepare for future employment. Employability, however, goes beyond getting a job and this paper focuses on the quality of job performance, or job mastery. Employability is understood as a process and a product of learning both in higher education and in work life. The paper…

  18. Parents as a Resource: Communication Quality Affects the Relationship between Adolescents' Internet Use and Loneliness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Markus; Holtz, Peter; Stiglbauer, Barbara; Batinic, Bernad

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of parent-adolescent communication quality, as perceived by the adolescents, on the link between adolescents' Internet use and loneliness, controlling for perceived family support in general terms. Adolescents (N = 216, M[subscript age] = 15.80 years) provided data on Internet use, loneliness, Internet-related…

  19. Does Specific Instruction during Collecting from Several Sources Affect the Quality of the Written Text Product?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbig, Annemarie; Proske, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Although academic writing is a complex interplay of comprehending and producing text the aspect of collecting information from source texts is hardly addressed in writing research. This study examined the impact of instructions supporting the collection process on writing quality, as well as the role of prior motivation and computer experience.…

  20. Intergenerational Relations across 4 Years: Well-Being Is Affected by Quality, Not by Support Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merz, Eva-Maria; Schuengel, Carlo; Schulze, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Providing support to an aging parent may pose challenges to adult children but also provide an opportunity to "give back" to loved ones. The current study investigated changes in emotional and instrumental support and quality across a period of 4 years. Additionally, associations between intergenerational support and well-being in adult…

  1. PACKAGE FILM OXYGEN TRANSMISSION RATE AFFECTS POSTHARVEST BIOLOGY AND QUALITY OF FRESH-CUT CILANTRO LEAVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to develop a modified atmosphere packaging system for fresh-cut cilantro (Coriandrum sativum L.) leaves, and to determine the effect of package film oxygen transmission rate (OTR) on postharvest physiology and quality of the products. Package film OTR significantly (P<0.0...

  2. Does Rurality Affect Quality of Life Following Treatment for Breast Cancer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid-Arndt, Stephanie A.; Cox, Cathy R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The present research examined the extent to which rural residence and social support seeking are associated with quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer patients following chemotherapy. Methods: Female breast cancer patients (n = 46) from communities of varying degrees of rurality in a Midwestern state completed psychological and QOL…

  3. Modeling study on the factors affecting regional air quality during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Cheng, Y.; Tang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.; Pierce, R.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Flowers, B. A.; Dubey, M. K.; Krotkov, N. A.; Pickering, K. E.; Ramanathan, V.

    2009-12-01

    Chinese government took measures to control emissions of pollutants before and during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games in order to get better air quality for the event. A 3-dimensional regional chemical transport model, the University of Iowa’s Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM), is used to evaluate the effects of emission reductions on regional air quality by this event. The emission inventories with and without the consideration of emission reductions are used in case studies. Impacts of the emissions from different regions and sectors on Beijing and regional air quality are discussed in this study. Meteorological factor on the improvement of air quality during this event is also assessed by using the meteorological conditions from different years to drive the model. Model performance is evaluated by comparing the modeled trace gases and aerosols with the surface measurements from Beijing, the field observations from the Cheju ABC Plume-Asian Monsoon Experiment (CAPMEX) during this summer, and satellite data from NASA.

  4. Temperature abuse timing affects the quality deterioration of commercially packaged ready-to-eat baby spinach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature abuse of fresh-cut products occurs routinely during transportation and retail store display. However, the stage of product shelf life during temperature abuse and its impact on sensory attributes and product quality have not been studied. This study evaluated the effect of temperature ab...

  5. Dryland malt barley yield and quality affected by tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information is needed on the effects of management practices on dryland malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) yields and quality. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combination and N fertilization on dryland malt barley and pea yields, grain characterist...

  6. Factors affecting quality of batter-based gluten-free bread

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While wheat bread has been extensively studied, the quality basis for gluten-free bread remains controversial. Common gluten-free breads are prepared from soft batters, and in such systems, intact and damaged starch, pentosans, added hydrocolloids like xanthan gum and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (...

  7. Selenium Supplementation Does Not Affect Testicular Selenium Status or Semen Quality in North American Men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although selenium (Se) is essential for sperm function experimental animals, high Se intake in humans has been associated with both improvements and impairments in semen quality. We previously reported a decrease in sperm motility in five men fed high-Se foods in a metabolic research unit, but could...

  8. Surface and ground water quality in a restored urban stream affected by road salts

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2001 research began in Minebank Run, MD to examine the impact of restoration on water quality. Our research area was to determine if road salts in the surface and ground waters are detrimental to the stream channel restoration. The upstream reach (UP), above the Baltimore I-...

  9. Factors affecting quality of temperature models for the pre-appearance interval of forensically useful insects.

    PubMed

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Mądra, Anna

    2015-02-01

    In the case of many forensically important insects an interval preceding appearance of an insect stage on a corpse (called the pre-appearance interval or PAI) is strongly temperature-dependent. Accordingly, it was proposed to estimate PAI from temperature by using temperature models for PAI of particular insect species and temperature data specific for a given case. The quality of temperature models for PAI depends on the protocols for PAI field studies. In this article we analyze effects of sampling frequency and techniques, temperature data, as well as the size of a sample on the quality of PAI models. Models were created by using data from a largely replicated PAI field study, and their performance in estimation was tested with external body of PAI data. It was found that low frequency of insect sampling distinctly deteriorated temperature models for PAI. The effect of sampling techniques was clearly smaller. Temperature data from local weather station gave models of poor quality, however their retrospective correction clearly improved the models. Most importantly, current results demonstrate that sample size in PAI field studies may be substantially reduced, with no model deterioration. Samples consisting of 11-14 carcasses gave models of high quality, as long as the whole range of relevant temperatures was studied. Moreover, it was found that carcasses exposed in forests and carcasses exposed in early spring are particularly important, as they ensure that PAI data is collected at low temperatures. A preliminary best practice model for PAI field studies is given. PMID:25541074

  10. Benthic invertebrate population characteristics as affected by water quality in coal-bearing regions of Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Bradfield, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Linear regressions produced low correlation coefficients relating the number of taxa/sample, total number of organisms/sample, sample diversity, and percentage composition of selected orders of invertebrates, with average water quality parameter values available at sampling stations. Analyses of these data by linear regressions explained little of the variability in benthic invertebrate samples primarily because the distributions of benthic organisms along environmental gradients are nonlinear. Variability in substrate characteristics in the study area and seasonal insect emergence patterns also complicated interpretation of these data. However, analysis of variance tests did indicate significant trends towards reduced number of taxa, number of organisms, and sample diversity at stations with relatively poor water quality conditions. Decreasing percentage composition of Ephemeroptera was generally accompanied by an increase in percent Diptera at stations with higher water quality constituent concentrations and acidic pH. These trends indicate significant differences in benthic communities at sites with evidence of more severe land use impacts. Additional data on benthic invertebrates, water quality, and physical habitat conditions, along with analyses of data using multivariate statistical methods are needed to define ecological relations between specific groups of invertebrates and environmental conditions. 44 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  11. Student as Customer: Factors Affecting Satisfaction and Assessments of Institutional Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Beverly A.; Kaldenberg, Dennis O.; Browne, William G.; Brown, Daniel J.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 736 college students investigated satisfaction with a university's business education program, with attention to ratings of services and educational quality, and their relationship to students' global satisfaction, willingness to recommend the institution, and satisfaction with educational value received. Results suggest institutions…

  12. THE ORDINATION OF AQUATIC NEMATODE COMMUNITIES AS AFFECTED BY STREAM WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic nematodes were sampled at 16 sites on two streams to investigate the relationships of nematode community structure to various water quality factors. A prominence value for each species was calculated for use in three-dimensional community ordination. Species composition o...

  13. Elevation, rootstock, and soil depth affect the nutritional quality of mandarin oranges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of elevation, rootstock, and soil depth on the nutritional quality of mandarin oranges from 11 groves in California were investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy by quantifying 29 compounds and applying multivariate statistical data analysis. A comparison of the juic...

  14. Fungicide applications affect fruit diseases and quality of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungicides can significantly reduce losses due to disease in the yield and quality of muscadine grapes. In three studies fungicides were applied individually or as part of a full season schedule from early bloom until harvest of three muscadine cultivars. The objective was to compare the effect of a...

  15. Grass Yield and Quality Affect Potential Stocking Rate and Milk Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality changes within grass canopies may influence pasture utilization and performance of grazing animals. Our objective was to determine changes in crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD) within vertical layers of diverse temperate grass swards. Grasses were assigned ...

  16. Quality parameters for alpaca (Vicugna pacos) semen are affected by semen collection procedure.

    PubMed

    Morton, K M; Thomson, P C; Bailey, K; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2010-08-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is poorly developed in camelids owing to the difficulty in collecting high quality semen and the highly viscous nature of the semen. Semen collected by artificial vagina (AV) is often of low quality and must be improved before any further development of AI technology can occur. The present study investigated the effects of adding a cervix-like stricture to the AV, presence of females, collecting semen into Androhep, skim-milk or Tris diluents, and catalase supplementation (0, 100, 200 or 600 units/ml) of Tris diluent on alpaca semen quality parameters. The addition of a cervix-like stricture increased mating length (p < 0.05), whilst the presence of females during semen collection did not improve semen quality parameters (p > 0.05). Collection of semen into Tris diluent improved sperm motility (58.0 +/- 11.9%) compared with the control (34.0 +/- 10.8%; p < 0.05), Androhep (33.5 +/- 10.7%) and skim-milk diluents (28.2 +/- 10.4%). Semen viscosity was reduced by collection into Androhep (4.6 +/- 1.7 mm) and skim-milk diluents (3.6 +/- 1.3 mm) compared with Tris diluent (5.7 +/- 2.1 mm) and no collection medium (9.3 +/- 3.5 mm; p < 0.05). Tris diluent supplemented with 100, 200 or 600 units/ml catalase increased semen viscosity (5.0 +/- 3.2 and 4.9 +/- 3.2 mm). Collection of alpaca semen by AV into Tris diluent increased semen quality facilitating further development of AI technology in alpacas. PMID:19144029

  17. Examining the construct validity of affective judgments of physical activity measures.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Michael; Sala, Margarita; Tang, Rui; Baldwin, Austin

    2016-09-01

    Affective judgments of physical activity have emerged as important predictors of physical activity and interventions targeting affective judgments are a promising approach to improving regular physical activity. Currently, measures assessing a variety of potentially distinct constructs are treated as interchangeable assessments of affective judgments of physical activity. Moreover, little is known about the construct validity of the purported measures of this construct. We review several components of construct validity; highlighting their importance for health psychology research. Then, we examine the construct validity of a wide variety of affective judgment of physical activity measures in MTurk and student samples. Cronbach's alpha for the included measures was uniformly high; however, several scales contained excessively redundant items that ultimately lessen their construct validity. Moreover, dependability estimates for the majority of measures was poor, indicating high levels of transient measurement error. The included measures significantly predicted levels of physical activity; however, their relative predictive power was strongly associated with their dependability. In general, the affective judgment measures demonstrated poor convergent validity suggesting they are not interchangeable and best viewed as assessing distinct, albeit related, constructs. Another important limitation of these measures is that they exhibited poor discriminant validity from exercise self-efficacy, which represents an important theoretical and empirical issue for the field of health behavior research. Overall, the current findings indicate the available affective judgments of physical activity measures are suboptimal, have considerable construct validity limitations, and thereby prevent the further advancement of science, theory, and intervention development in this promising area of research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27537007

  18. Factors affecting the incidence of first-quality wheels of Trentingrana cheese.

    PubMed

    Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A; Cologna, N; Penasa, M; Tiezzi, F; De Marchi, M

    2011-07-01

    Trentingrana (or Grana Trentino) is a Protected Designation of Origin hard cheese produced in the eastern Italian Alps by small cooperative dairy factories. To obtain the certification of quality, wheels are evaluated at 9±1 mo of ripening and those classified as first quality are revaluated at 18±1 mo. Traditionally, the assessment is based on 2 sensory features: namely, the external aspect of the wheel and the internal texture; the latter is evaluated through the sound produced by beating the wheel with a special hammer. Traits considered in the study were the percentage of first-quality wheels of total wheels examined at 9±1 (QW(9 mo)) and 18±1 (QW(18 mo)) mo of ripening, and their combination [i.e., the percentage of first-quality wheels at 18±1 mo of ripening of the number of wheels evaluated at 9±1 mo (QW(tot))]. The experimental unit was the batch of 2 mo of production of each of 10 cooperative dairy factories from 2002 to 2008. Data were analyzed with a model that included fixed effects of dairy factory, year and season of production, and interactions between dairy factory and year, and dairy factory and season. The coefficients of determination of the models were 0.57, 0.68, and 0.67 for QW(9mo), QW(18 mo), and QW(tot), respectively. All factors significantly influenced the traits, with dairy factory being the most important source of variation, followed by season and year of production. Remarkable differences were found between the best and the worst dairy factory for QW(9 mo) (11.5%), QW(18 mo) (21.1%), and QW(tot) (25.6%). The first 4 yr of production had a negative effect on the percentage of wheels labeled as first quality and QW(tot) decreased from 74 to 64%; nevertheless, a complete recovery was detected in the following years. The season of production strongly influenced the studied traits with the best results in spring and summer, and the worst in autumn and winter. Compared with average, the 3 best dairy factories were smaller, with

  19. Amending greenroof soil with biochar to affect runoff water quantity and quality.

    PubMed

    Beck, Deborah A; Johnson, Gwynn R; Spolek, Graig A

    2011-01-01

    Numbers of greenroofs in urban areas continue to grow internationally; so designing greenroof soil to reduce the amount of nutrients in the stormwater runoff from these roofs is becoming essential. This study evaluated changes in extensive greenroof water discharge quality and quantity after adding biochar, a soil amendment promoted for its ability to retain nutrients in soils and increase soil fertility. Prototype greenroof trays with and without biochar were planted with sedum or ryegrass, with barren soil trays used as controls. The greenroof trays were subjected to two sequential 7.4cm/h rainfall events using a rain simulator. Runoff from the rain events was collected and evaluated. Trays containing 7% biochar showed increased water retention and significant decreases in discharge of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, phosphate, and organic carbon. The addition of biochar to greenroof soil improves both runoff water quality and retention. PMID:21320738

  20. Source characterization of volatile organic compounds affecting the air quality in a coastal urban area of South Texas.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Marciano; Karnae, Saritha; John, Kuruvilla

    2008-09-01

    Selected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emitted from various anthropogenic sources including industries and motor vehicles act as primary precursors of ozone, while some VOC are classified as air toxic compounds. Significantly large VOC emission sources impact the air quality in Corpus Christi, Texas. This urban area is located in a semi-arid region of South Texas and is home to several large petrochemical refineries and industrial facilities along a busy ship-channel. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has setup two continuous ambient monitoring stations (CAMS 633 and 634) along the ship channel to monitor VOC concentrations in the urban atmosphere. The hourly concentrations of 46 VOC compounds were acquired from TCEQ for a comprehensive source apportionment study. The primary objective of this study was to identify and quantify the sources affecting the ambient air quality within this urban airshed. Principal Component Analysis/Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA/APCS) was applied to the dataset. PCA identified five possible sources accounting for 69% of the total variance affecting the VOC levels measured at CAMS 633 and six possible sources affecting CAMS 634 accounting for 75% of the total variance. APCS identified natural gas emissions to be the major source contributor at CAMS 633 and it accounted for 70% of the measured VOC concentrations. The other major sources identified at CAMS 633 included flare emissions (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (9%), refinery operations (7%), and vehicle exhaust (2%). At CAMS 634, natural gas sources were identified as the major source category contributing to 31% of the observed VOC. The other sources affecting this site included: refinery operations (24%), flare emissions (22%), secondary industrial processes (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (8%) and vehicle exhaust (3%). PMID:19139530

  1. Source Characterization of Volatile Organic Compounds Affecting the Air Quality in a Coastal Urban Area of South Texas

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Marciano; Karnae, Saritha; John, Kuruvilla

    2008-01-01

    Selected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emitted from various anthropogenic sources including industries and motor vehicles act as primary precursors of ozone, while some VOC are classified as air toxic compounds. Significantly large VOC emission sources impact the air quality in Corpus Christi, Texas. This urban area is located in a semi-arid region of South Texas and is home to several large petrochemical refineries and industrial facilities along a busy ship-channel. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has setup two continuous ambient monitoring stations (CAMS 633 and 634) along the ship channel to monitor VOC concentrations in the urban atmosphere. The hourly concentrations of 46 VOC compounds were acquired from TCEQ for a comprehensive source apportionment study. The primary objective of this study was to identify and quantify the sources affecting the ambient air quality within this urban airshed. Principal Component Analysis/Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA/APCS) was applied to the dataset. PCA identified five possible sources accounting for 69% of the total variance affecting the VOC levels measured at CAMS 633 and six possible sources affecting CAMS 634 accounting for 75% of the total variance. APCS identified natural gas emissions to be the major source contributor at CAMS 633 and it accounted for 70% of the measured VOC concentrations. The other major sources identified at CAMS 633 included flare emissions (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (9%), refinery operations (7%), and vehicle exhaust (2%). At CAMS 634, natural gas sources were identified as the major source category contributing to 31% of the observed VOC. The other sources affecting this site included: refinery operations (24%), flare emissions (22%), secondary industrial processes (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (8%) and vehicle exhaust (3%). PMID:19139530

  2. Lopinavir/ritonavir dosage form affects quality of life during monotherapy in HIV-positive adults.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Rosa F; Lipman, Bryan A; Mayberry, Carl; Miguel, Bernie; Nemecek, John J; Gathe, Joseph C

    2010-01-01

    This was a single-center, open-label study of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) single-agent therapy in antiretroviral-naive, HIV-infected participants initiating therapy with twice-daily soft-gelatin capsules (SGC) and switched to tablets after ≥4 weeks. The objective was to evaluate quality of life and tolerability of the 2 formulations. Participants quality of life, depression, and tolerability were measured using the Medical Outcomes Study-HIV (MOS-HIV), Modified Global Condition Improvement (GCI), and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D), prior to and 4 weeks following switch. MOS-HIV showed significant improvements in general health perception (+6 (16), mean (SD); P = .047) and role functioning (+8 (19), mean (SD); P = .023) post-switch. GCI showed significant improvement in ease of taking medications with tablets (56.7% vs 83.3%; P = .021). No change was observed in CES-D. Tolerability improved in 47%. Reported diarrhea (grade 2) was higher during SGC (33.3% vs3.3%; P = .004). Quality-of-life measures, tolerability, and diarrhea improved with the LPV/r tablet formulation compared to SGC in HIV-positive patients not receiving other antiretroviral therapy (ART). PMID:20841439

  3. Quality of dissolved organic matter affects planktonic but not biofilm bacterial production in streams.

    PubMed

    Kamjunke, Norbert; Herzsprung, Peter; Neu, Thomas R

    2015-02-15

    Streams and rivers are important sites of organic carbon mineralization which is dependent on the land use within river catchments. Here we tested whether planktonic and epilithic biofilm bacteria differ in their response to the quality of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Thus, planktonic and biofilm bacterial production was compared with patterns of DOC along a land-use gradient in the Bode catchment area (Germany). The freshness index of DOC was positively related to the proportion of agricultural area in the catchment. The humification index correlated with the proportion of forest area. Abundance and production of planktonic bacteria were lower in headwaters than at downstream sites. Planktonic production was weakly correlated to the total concentration of DOC but more strongly to quality-measures as revealed by spectra indexes, i.e. positively to the freshness index and negatively to the humification index. In contrast to planktonic bacteria, abundance and production of biofilm bacteria were independent of DOC quality. This finding may be explained by the association of biofilm bacteria with benthic algae and an extracellular matrix which represent additional substrate sources. The data show that planktonic bacteria seem to be regulated at a landscape scale controlled by land use, whereas biofilm bacteria are regulated at a biofilm matrix scale controlled by autochthonous production. Thus, the effects of catchment-scale land use changes on ecosystem processes are likely lower in small streams dominated by biofilm bacteria than in larger streams dominated by planktonic bacteria. PMID:25460970

  4. Do weaver ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) marks affect mango internal quality and storage life?

    PubMed

    Peng, Renkang; Christian, Keith

    2013-02-01

    In implementing the integrated pest management mango (Mangifera indica L.) program using weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina F.) as a major component in the Northern Territory of Australia, we received a number of questions from farmers and extension officers asking whether weaver ant marks reduce internal fruit quality and induce fruit rot, which is economically important. However, this issue has not been investigated. Soluble sugar content in fruits with and without weaver ant marks and observations on the storage of fruits with the ant marks were recorded in 2002 and 2003. The sugar contents were, in general, higher on the side of the fruit with a relatively large area of ant marks than on the side with a smaller area of ant marks, irrespective of whether fruits were exposed to the sun or not. The field experiment showed that sugar content was generally higher in the treatment with weaver ants plus soft chemicals than in the insecticide treatment. For the storage of fruits bearing weaver ant marks, no signs of diffuse rot from any ant marks were observed, but fruit skin without the ant marks developed a considerable number of dark open lenticels, most of which developed to rot marks and patches. These results suggest that weaver ant marks are positively correlated with internal fruit quality, do not induce fruit rot and can be used as an indicator of better fruit quality and safety. PMID:23448044

  5. Plunger Kinematic Parameters Affecting Quality of High-Pressure Die-Cast Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorese, Elena; Bonollo, Franco

    2016-07-01

    The selection of the optimal process parameters in high-pressure die casting has been long recognized as a complex problem due to the involvement of a large number of interconnected variables. Among these variables, the effect of the plunger motion has been proved to play a prominent role, even if a thorough and exhaustive study is still missing in the literature. To overcome this gap, this work aims at identifying the most relevant plunger kinematic parameters and estimates their correlation with the casting quality, by means of a statistically significant sample manufactured with different plunger motion profiles. In particular, slow and fast shot velocities and switching position between two stages have been varied randomly in accordance with design of experiment methodology. The quality has been assessed through the static mechanical properties and porosity percentage. As a further proof, the percentage of oxides has been estimated on the fracture surfaces. These measurements have been correlated to novel parameters, representing the mechanical energy and the inertial force related to the plunger motion, that have been extracted from the time-history of the displacement curves. The application of statistical methods demonstrates that these novel parameters accurately explain and predict the overall quality of castings.

  6. Plunger Kinematic Parameters Affecting Quality of High-Pressure Die-Cast Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorese, Elena; Bonollo, Franco

    2016-04-01

    The selection of the optimal process parameters in high-pressure die casting has been long recognized as a complex problem due to the involvement of a large number of interconnected variables. Among these variables, the effect of the plunger motion has been proved to play a prominent role, even if a thorough and exhaustive study is still missing in the literature. To overcome this gap, this work aims at identifying the most relevant plunger kinematic parameters and estimates their correlation with the casting quality, by means of a statistically significant sample manufactured with different plunger motion profiles. In particular, slow and fast shot velocities and switching position between two stages have been varied randomly in accordance with design of experiment methodology. The quality has been assessed through the static mechanical properties and porosity percentage. As a further proof, the percentage of oxides has been estimated on the fracture surfaces. These measurements have been correlated to novel parameters, representing the mechanical energy and the inertial force related to the plunger motion, that have been extracted from the time-history of the displacement curves. The application of statistical methods demonstrates that these novel parameters accurately explain and predict the overall quality of castings.

  7. 'Active Surveillance' of Prostate Cancer Doesn't Dampen Quality of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Active Surveillance' of Prostate Cancer Doesn't Dampen Quality of Life Choosing no treatment and regular check- ... with low-risk prostate cancer report a good quality of life after choosing active surveillance as a ...

  8. Affective Response to a Loved One's Pain: Insula Activity as a Function of Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Viridiana; Latorre, Valeria; Petito, Annamaria; Gentili, Nicoletta; Fazio, Leonardo; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Arciero, Giampiero; Bondolfi, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Individual variability in emotion processing may be associated with genetic variation as well as with psychological predispositions such as dispositional affect styles. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that amygdala reactivity was independently predicted by affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone) and genotype of the serotonin transporter in a discrimination task of fearful facial expressions. Since the insula is associated with the subjective evaluation of bodily states and is involved in human feelings, we explored whether its activity could also vary in function of individual differences. In the present fMRI study, the association between dispositional affects and insula reactivity has been examined in two groups of healthy participants categorized according to affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone). Images of the faces of partners and strangers, in both painful and neutral situations, were used as visual stimuli. Interaction analyses indicate significantly different activations in the two groups in reaction to a loved one's pain: the phobic prone group exhibited greater activation in the left posterior insula. These results demonstrate that affective-cognitive style is associated with insula activity in pain empathy processing, suggesting a greater involvement of the insula in feelings for a certain cohort of people. In the mapping of individual differences, these results shed new light on variability in neural networks of emotion. PMID:21179564

  9. Active sound quality control of engine induced cavity noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Leopoldo P. R.; Janssens, Karl; Gajdatsy, Peter; Van der Auweraer, Herman; Varoto, Paulo S.; Sas, Paul; Desmet, Wim

    2009-02-01

    Active control solutions appear to be a feasible approach to cope with the steadily increasing requirements for noise reduction in the transportation industry. Active controllers tend to be designed with a target on the sound pressure level reduction. However, the perceived control efficiency for the occupants can be more accurately assessed if psychoacoustic metrics can be taken into account. Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate, numerically and experimentally, the effect of a feedback controller on the sound quality of a vehicle mockup excited with engine noise. The proposed simulation scheme is described and experimentally validated. The engine excitation is provided by a sound quality equivalent engine simulator, running on a real-time platform that delivers harmonic excitation in function of the driving condition. The controller performance is evaluated in terms of specific loudness and roughness. It is shown that the use of a quite simple control strategy, such as a velocity feedback, can result in satisfactory loudness reduction with slightly spread roughness, improving the overall perception of the engine sound.

  10. ‘Beauty Is No Quality in Things Themselves’: Epistemic Motivation Affects Implicit Preferences for Art

    PubMed Central

    Chirumbolo, Antonio; Brizi, Ambra; Mastandrea, Stefano; Mannetti, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Art preferences are affected by a number of subjective factors. This paper reports two studies which investigated whether need for closure shapes implicit art preferences. It was predicted that higher need for closure would negatively affect implicit preferences for abstract art. In study one, 60 participants were tested for dispositional need for closure and then completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) task to measure their implicit preference for abstract (vs. figurative) paintings. In study two, 54 participants completed the same IAT task. In this experiment need for closure was both manipulated by cognitive load and tapped as a dispositional trait. Results of the studies converged in showing that after controlling for other important individual factors such as participants'expertise and cognitive ability, need for closure, both as a dispositional trait and as a situationally induced motivational state, was negatively associated with implicit preference for abstract art. PMID:25360697

  11. Effects of seasonal variations of sugarcane stalk and extraneous matter quantity and quality as they affect recoverable sugar, starch, and fiber: Part 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raw sugar quality is dependent on the quality of the incoming cane supply across the processing season which, in turn, is greatly affected by the quantities and types of non-stalk tissues present. This study was undertaken to ascertain seasonal cane supply variations in juice quality parameters tha...

  12. Liver condition affects bovine oocyte qualities by changing the characteristics of follicular fluid and plasma.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Shibano, K; Monji, Y; Kuwayama, T; Iwata, H

    2013-08-01

    The liver is an important organ that contributes to milk production in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to examine whether liver conditions affect the characteristics of blood plasma and follicular fluid (FF) and whether supplementing in vitro maturation medium with FF from either cows with damaged livers (DL) or those with healthy livers (HL) affects oocyte developmental competence. Biochemical characteristics of FF were significantly correlated with those in plasma. As such, the characteristics of both plasma and FF were similarly affected by liver conditions in that the concentrations of total protein and inorganic phosphorus were higher for the DL cow group than for the HL cow group, whereas the concentrations of albumin, lactate dehydrogenase and calcium were lower for DL cows than for HL cows. In addition, supplementing the medium with DL-FF retarded the progression of the nuclear maturation of oocytes collected from the HL cows. On culturing oocytes in maturation medium containing HL-FF, DL-FF or foetal calf serum, the highest developmental rate to the blastocyst stage was observed in the HL-FF group, while the lowest developmental ratio was observed in the DL-FF group. The growth factor array of the FFs revealed that 10 growth factors were significantly downregulated in the DL-FF compared with those in HL-FF. In conclusion, the characteristics of plasma and FF are affected by liver conditions in a similar way. Concentrations of several growth factors were low in DL-FF, as was the ability of DL-FF to support oocyte maturation compared with that of HL-FF. PMID:23281835

  13. Corn silage hybrid type and quality of alfalfa hay affect dietary nitrogen utilization by early lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Holt, M S; Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; Nestor, K E

    2013-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage (CS) hybrids and quality of alfalfa hay (AH) in high-forage dairy diets on N utilization, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by early-lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The 8 cows (average days in milk = 23 ± 11.2) were surgically fitted with ruminal cannula, and the 2 squares were conducted simultaneously. Within square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 4 diets: conventional CS (CCS) or brown midrib CS (BMR) was combined with fair-quality AH [FAH: 46.7% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 18.4% crude protein (CP)] or high-quality AH (HAH: 39.2% NDF and 20.7% CP) to form 4 treatments: CCS with FAH, CCS with HAH, BMR with FAH, and BMR with HAH. Diets were isonitrogenous across treatments, averaging 15.9% CP. Each period lasted a total of 21 d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 7d for data collection and sampling. Intake of DM and milk yield did not differ in response to CS hybrids or AH quality. Although feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N output by 24%, it did not affect fecal N output. Feeding HAH decreased urinary N output by 15% but increased fecal N output by 20%. Nitrogen efficiency [milk N (g/d)/intake N (g/d)] tended to increase for BMR treatments. Ruminal ammonia-N concentration was lower for cows fed BMR-based diets than for those fed CCS-based diets but was not affected by quality of AH. Feeding BMR-based diets or HAH decreased milk urea N concentration by 23 or 15%, respectively, compared with CCS-based diets or FAH. Total volatile fatty acid concentration increased with HAH but was not influenced by CS hybrids. Feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N-to-fecal N ratio (UN:FN), and it was further reduced by feeding HAH. Although cows fed the BMR-based diets tended to increase milk N-to-manure N ratio, the

  14. Quality characteristics and plasmin activity of thermosonicated skim milk and cream.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S; Grewell, D; Annandarajah, C; Benner, L; Clark, S

    2015-10-01

    The shelf life of pasteurized milk is limited by heat-stable proteases, which cause gelation and bitter taste upon extended storage of milk. Ultra-high temperature processing inactivates proteases but detrimentally affects milk's sensory quality. An adjunct to pasteurization is desired to extend milk's shelf life while maintaining quality characteristics. In this study, the effects of combined heat and ultrasound (thermosonication) on total plasmin activity and various quality characteristics of skim milk and cream were studied. Thermosonication, at an average power of 115 W (152 µmp-p, where p-p=peak-to-peak amplitude) for 3 min, decreased the total plasmin activity (i.e., plasmin- and plasminogen-derived activity) by nearly 94% in fresh skim milk and cream. Enzyme activity in thermosonicated skim milk samples measured at the end of 30 d was 5- to 10-fold higher than on d 0, but remained stable in thermosonicated cream. Descriptive analysis of odor attributes was conducted for up to 4 wk with 8 trained panelists. No significant differences were observed between the intensities of offensive "eggy" and "rubbery" odor attributes of thermosonicated skim milk and pasteurized commercial skim milk and cream. In addition, lightness (L*) values and viscosity were not adversely affected by thermosonication. Thermosonication decreased the fat globule size in skim milk and cream, and the homogenizing effect increased with treatment time. Thermosonication at average powers of 104 W (133 µmp-p) and 115 W (152 µmp-p) for 1 and 3 min destroyed coliforms and over 99% of the total aerobic bacteria. The total aerobic bacteria counts of thermosonicated skim milk and cream samples were less than 20,000 cfu/mL on d 30. Because thermosonication did not induce off-aromas or viscosity changes but did inactivate microorganisms and protease enzymes, thermosonication may be an appropriate adjunct to pasteurization to extend milk shelf life. PMID:26233461

  15. From field barley to malt: detection and specification of microbial activity for quality aspects.

    PubMed

    Noots, I; Delcour, J A; Michiels, C W

    1999-01-01

    Barley grain carries a numerous, variable, and complex microbial population that mainly consists of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi and that can partly be detected and quantified using plating methods and microscopic and molecular techniques. The extent and the activity of this microflora are determined by the altering state of the grain and the environmental conditions in the malt production chain. Three ecological systems can be distinguished: the growing cereal in the field, the dry barley grain under storage, and the germinating barley kernel during actual malting. Microorganisms interact with the malting process both by their presence and by their metabolic activity. In this respect, interference with the oxygen uptake by the barley grain and secretion of enzymes, hormones, toxins, and acids that may affect the plant physiological processes have been studied. As a result of the interaction, microorganisms can cause important losses and influence malt quality as measured by brewhouse performance and beer quality. Of particular concern is the occurrence of mycotoxins that may affect the safety of malt. The development of the microflora during malt production can to a certain extent be controlled by the selection of appropriate process conditions. Physical and chemical treatments to inactivate the microbial population on the barley grain are suggested. Recent developments, however, aim to control the microbial activity during malt production by promoting the growth of desirable microbial cultures, selected either as biocontrol agents inhibiting mycotoxin-producing molds or as starter cultures actively contributing to malt modification. Such techniques may offer natural opportunities to improve the quality and safety of malt. PMID:10405796

  16. Do Physical Activity Facilities near Schools Affect Physical Activity in High School Girls?

    PubMed Central

    Trilk, Jennifer L.; Ward, Dianne S.; Dowda, Marsha; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Porter, Dwayne E.; Hibbert, James; Pate, Russell R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between the number of physical activity facilities within walking distance of school and physical activity behavior in 12th grade girls during after-school hours. Methods Girls (N=1394) from 22 schools completed a self-report to determine physical activity after 3:00 pm. The number of physical activity facilities within a 0.75-mile buffer of the school was counted with a Geographic Information System. Associations between the number of facilities and girls’ physical activity were examined using linear mixed-model analysis of variance. Results Overall, girls who attended schools with ≥ 5 facilities within the buffer reported more physical activity per day than girls in schools with < 5 facilities. In addition, girls who attended rural schools with ≥ 5 facilities reported ~12% more physical activity per day than girls who attended rural schools with < 5 facilities. No difference existed for girls in urban/suburban schools with ≥ 5 vs. < 5 facilities. Conclusion When school siting decisions are made, the number of physical activity facilities surrounding the school should be considered to encourage physical activity in 12th grade girls. PMID:21334248

  17. Prospective relationships of physical activity with quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity can enhance quality of life for cancer survivors. However, few longitudinal studies have examined whether physical activity has a sustained effect on improvements in quality of life. The present study aims to examine the relationships between physical activity and quality of life o...

  18. Urban cultivation in allotments maintains soil qualities adversely affected by conventional agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Edmondson, Jill L; Davies, Zoe G; Gaston, Kevin J; Leake, Jonathan R

    2014-01-01

    Modern agriculture, in seeking to maximize yields to meet growing global food demand, has caused loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) and compaction, impairing critical regulating and supporting ecosystem services upon which humans also depend. Own-growing makes an important contribution to food security in urban areas globally, but its effects on soil qualities that underpin ecosystem service provision are currently unknown. We compared the main indicators of soil quality; SOC storage, total nitrogen (TN), C : N ratio and bulk density (BD) in urban allotments to soils from the surrounding agricultural region, and between the allotments and other urban greenspaces in a typical UK city. A questionnaire was used to investigate allotment management practices that influence soil properties. Allotment soils had 32% higher SOC concentrations and 36% higher C : N ratios than pastures and arable fields and 25% higher TN and 10% lower BD than arable soils. There was no significant difference between SOC concentration in allotments and urban non-domestic greenspaces, but it was higher in domestic gardens beneath woody vegetation. Allotment soil C : N ratio exceeded that in non-domestic greenspaces, but was lower than that in garden soil. Three-quarters of surveyed allotment plot holders added manure, 95% composted biomass on-site, and many added organic-based fertilizers and commercial composts. This may explain the maintenance of SOC, C : N ratios, TN and low BD, which are positively associated with soil functioning. Synthesis and applications. Maintenance and protection of the quality of our soil resource is essential for sustainable food production and for regulating and supporting ecosystem services upon which we depend. Our study establishes, for the first time, that small-scale urban food production can occur without the penalty of soil degradation seen in conventional agriculture, and maintains the high soil quality seen in urban greenspaces. Given the

  19. Dioxin Exposure, from Infancy through Puberty, Produces Endocrine Disruption and Affects Human Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Mocarelli, Paolo; Gerthoux, Pier Mario; Patterson, Donald G.; Milani, Silvano; Limonta, Giuseppe; Bertona, Maria; Signorini, Stefano; Tramacere, Pierluigi; Colombo, Laura; Crespi, Carla; Brambilla, Paolo; Sarto, Cecilia; Carreri, Vittorio; Sampson, Eric J.; Turner, Wayman E.; Needham, Larry L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Environmental toxicants are allegedly involved in decreasing semen quality in recent decades; however, definitive proof is not yet available. In 1976 an accident exposed residents in Seveso, Italy, to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate reproductive hormones and sperm quality in exposed males. Methods We studied 135 males exposed to TCDD at three age groups, infancy/prepuberty (1–9 years), puberty (10–17 years), and adulthood (18–26 years), and 184 healthy male comparisons using 1976 serum TCDD levels and semen quality and reproductive hormones from samples collected 22 years later. Results Relative to comparisons, 71 men (mean age at exposure, 6.2 years; median serum TCDD, 210 ppt) at 22–31 years of age showed reductions in sperm concentration (53.6 vs. 72.5 million/mL; p = 0.025); percent progressive motility (33.2% vs. 40.8%; p < 0.001); total motile sperm count (44.2 vs. 77.5 × 106; p = 0.018); estradiol (76.2 vs. 95.9 pmol/L; p = 0.001); and an increase in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; 3.58 vs. 2.98 IU/L; p = 0.055). Forty-four men (mean age at exposure, 13.2 years; median serum TCDD, 164 ppt) at 32–39 years of age showed increased total sperm count (272 vs. 191.9 × 106; p = 0.042), total motile sperm count (105 vs. 64.9 ×106; p = 0.036), FSH (4.1 vs. 3.2 UI/L; p = 0.038), and reduced estradiol (74.4 vs. 92.9 pmol/L; p < 0.001). No effects were observed in 20 men, 40–47 years of age, who were exposed to TCDD (median, 123 ppt) as adults (mean age at exposure, 21.5 years). Conclusions Exposure to TCDD in infancy reduces sperm concentration and motility, and an opposite effect is seen with exposure during puberty. Exposure in either period leads to permanent reduction of estradiol and increased FSH. These effects are permanent and occur at TCDD concentrations < 68 ppt, which is within one order of magnitude of those in the industrialized world in the 1970s and 1980s and

  20. To What Degree Does Provider Performance Affect a Quality Indicator? The Case of Nursing Homes and ADL Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Charles D.; Chen, Min; Sherman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigates what factors affect the degree to which nursing home performance explains variance in residents' change in status of activities of daily living (ADL) after admission. Design and Methods: The database included all residents admitted in 2002 to a 10% random sample of nursing homes in the United States.…

  1. [Rapid method to extract high-quality RNA from activated sludge].

    PubMed

    Jin, Min; Zhao, Zu-Guo; Qiu, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Jing-Feng; Chen, Zhao-Li; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Chao; Wang, Xin-Wei; Dong, Yan; Li, Jun-Wen

    2010-01-01

    An effective and fast RNA isolation method of activated sludge was established and five different methods were compared based on RNA yield, purity, integrity, RT-PCR amplification of 16S rRNA genes and subsequent terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. That is, the precipitated activated sludge was washed with TENP and PBS buffer, followed by using lysozyme and TRIzol to direct lysis of microbial cells, chloroform to remove protein and most of the DNA from bacterial lysate, isopropanol to precipitate nucleic acid and DNase I to hydrolyze residual DNA. To further purify RNA, RNA purifying column was utilized. The results demonstrated that the extraction method, with the aid of TRIzol and RNA purification kit, can effectively extract high-quality RNA. It not only means low degradability and high quantity, purity and diversity, but also the genes of 16S rRNA and amoA can be amplified by RT-PCR. Compared with other methods, it showed great advantage of low cost and high efficiency and can be applied to RNA extraction of activated sludge in a large number. Furthermore, T-RFLP results indicated that the community composition as well as the abundance of individual members was affected by the kind of RNA extraction methods. This work established a rapid and effective method to extract high-quality RNA from activated sludge and would show great potential for monitoring microbial changes and studying metabolism and community array of activated sludge. PMID:20329549

  2. Demographic and psychological variables affecting test subject evaluations of ride quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, N. C.; Conley, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    Ride-quality experiments similar in objectives, design, and procedure were conducted, one using the U.S. Air Force Total In-Flight Simulator and the other using the Langley Passenger Ride Quality Apparatus to provide the motion environments. Large samples (80 or more per experiment) of test subjects were recruited from the Tidewater Virginia area and asked to rate the comfort (on a 7-point scale) of random aircraft motion typical of that encountered during STOL flights. Test subject characteristics of age, sex, and previous flying history (number of previous airplane flights) were studied in a two by three by three factorial design. Correlations were computed between one dependent measure, the subject's mean comfort rating, and various demographic characteristics, attitudinal variables, and the scores on Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. An effect of sex was found in one of the studies. Males made higher (more uncomfortable) ratings of the ride than females. Age and number of previous flights were not significantly related to comfort ratings. No significant interactions between the variables of age, sex, or previous number of flights were observed.

  3. Mutations in Durum Wheat SBEII Genes affect Grain Yield Components, Quality, and Fermentation Responses in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Naemeh, Mahmoudreza; Hamilton, M. Kristina; Rust, Bret; Raybould, Helen E.; Newman, John W.; Martin, Roy; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Increased amylose in wheat (Triticum ssp.) starch is associated with increased resistant starch, a fermentable dietary fiber. Fermentation of resistant starch in the large intestine produces short-chain fatty acids that are associated with human health benefits. Since wheat foods are an important component of the human diet, increases in amylose and resistant starch in wheat grains have the potential to deliver health benefits to a large number of people. In three replicated field trials we found that mutations in starch branching enzyme II genes (SBEIIa and SBEIIb) in both A and B genomes (SBEIIa/b-AB) of durum wheat [T. turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.] resulted in large increases of amylose and resistant starch content. The presence of these four mutations was also associated with an average 5% reduction in kernel weight (P = 0.0007) and 15% reduction in grain yield (P = 0.06) compared to the wild type. Complete milling and pasta quality analysis showed that the mutant lines have an acceptable quality with positive effects on pasta firmness and negative effects on semolina extraction and pasta color. Positive fermentation responses were detected in rats (Rattus spp.) fed with diets incorporating mutant wheat flour. This study quantifies benefits and limitations associated with the deployment of the SBEIIa/b-AB mutations in durum wheat and provides the information required to develop realistic strategies to deploy durum wheat varieties with increased levels of amylose and resistant starch. PMID:27134286

  4. Storage of refrigerated raw goat milk affecting the quality of whole milk powder.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, C R; Bordin, K; Fernandes, A M; Rodrigues, C E C; Corassin, C H; Cruz, A G; Oliveira, C A F

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the growth of lipolytic bacteria in raw goat milk stored under refrigeration for different periods on quality parameters of goat milk powder during its shelf life. Fresh goat milk (100L) was collected after milking, divided into 3 identical fractions, and stored at 4°C for 1, 3, and 5d. On d 1, 3, and 5, one sample (1L) was collected and used for microbiological and chemical analysis, and the remaining fraction (almost 30L) was spray dried and stored at 25°C. Milk powder was submitted to microbiological, chemical, and sensory analysis immediately after production, and on d 60, 120, and 180. Lipolytic psychrotrophic counts and total free fatty acid content did not increase in raw milk during storage. However, peroxide value, caprylic and capric acid concentrations, and total free fatty acid content of milk powder increased during 180d of storage, with higher levels found in milk powder manufactured with raw milk stored for 5d. Capric odor and rancid flavors increased in milk powder during storage, regardless the of storage of raw milk for 1, 3, or 5d. Heat treatments used during powder processing destroyed lipolytic psychrotrophic bacteria, but did not prevent lipolysis in milk powder. Results of this trial indicate that the storage of raw goat milk at 4°C should not exceed 3d to preserve the quality of goat milk powder during its shelf life of 180d. PMID:23664351

  5. Do malignant diseases affect semen quality? Sperm parameters of men with cancers.

    PubMed

    Caponecchia, L; Cimino, G; Sacchetto, R; Fiori, C; Sebastianelli, A; Salacone, P; Marcucci, I; Tomassini, S; Rago, R

    2016-04-01

    The advent of modern treatments together with the improvement of the surgical techniques has significantly increased 5-year survival rates of young patients with cancer. Although the deleterious effects of chemotherapy and radiation are well documented, controversies exist about the effect of cancer itself on semen parameters before treatment. We collected data on 236 patients representative of different types of cancers reoffered at our institution for sperm cryopreservation with the aim to correlate the pre-freeze semen parameters with type of cancer, disease stage and with semen quality of 102 fertile and healthy men. The median baseline semen parameters of all our patients with cancer are placed above the 5th percentile of the World Health Organization reference value, but the type of cancer may impact the sperm parameters. In testicular tumours and in Hodgkin lymphoma, we show a semen concentration statistically lower than in the fertile population, while in patients with other cancers, there is no difference with the healthy men. We found no correlation between semen quality and disease stage. Eighty-six per cent of our patients do not have children at the time of semen cryopreservation, and the only established clinical option for preserving fertility of these men is cryopreservation of spermatozoa. PMID:26173956

  6. Growth and quality of soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) as affected by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Li, Weili; Jiang, Yuqian

    2013-01-01

    In this study, soybean seeds and sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) were exposed to radiation doses up to 3.0 kGy. The irradiated and non-irradiated seeds were germinated, and then germination rate, sprouts length, vitamin C content, antioxidants and visual and olfactory quality were determined after irradiation. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in the germination rate and sprouts length between the control and 0.3 kGy treated soybeans, however, the reductions in sprouts length of the 1.0 kGy and 3.0 kGy treated samples were quite significant with reductions of 20.4% and 58.8%, respectively. Irradiated sprouts had similar visual and olfactory quality as the non-irradiated one. Therefore, irradiation of seeds alone would have limited value in terms of commercial use due to reduced germination and length of sprouts. However, irradiation of sprouts at doses up to 3.0 kGy was feasible to enhance microbial safety of sprouts.

  7. Physiological traits and meat quality of pigs as affected by genotype and housing system.

    PubMed

    Lebret, B; Prunier, A; Bonhomme, N; Foury, A; Mormède, P; Dourmad, J Y

    2011-05-01

    The influence of pig housing system: alternative (bedding with outdoor area, BO) vs. conventional (slatted floor, SF) on growth performance, reactivity to pre-slaughter handling and meat quality was evaluated in two genotypes differing in the sire line, Duroc (CD) or synthetic (CS) with 40 pigs/genotype. Animal response to housing did not differ between genotypes. BO pigs had higher growth rate and feed intake, but similar carcass composition to SF pigs. Levels of stress related hormones and plasma metabolites at slaughter were not different between BO and SF pigs, suggesting that housing did not influence pig reactivity to pre-slaughter handling. Similar (Longissimus lumborum and Biceps femoris) or slightly reduced (Semimembranosus) pH values, higher drip, lipid content and juiciness were observed in BO compared with SF pork. CD pigs had more tender meat than CS. In conclusion, the BO system resulted in higher feed intake, faster growth rate, increased intramuscular fat, and improved eating quality in both genotypes. PMID:21185130

  8. Physical Activity and Quality of Life Experienced by Highly Active Individuals with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Stancil, Michael; Hardin, Brent; Bryant, Lance

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined links between physical activity and quality of life experienced by individuals with physical disabilities recruited from a wheelchair user's basketball tournament. The participants included 12 male and 14 female adults between the ages of 18-54 (M = 31.12, SD = 10.75) who all reported one or more condition(s) that…

  9. Geochemical study of stream waters affected by mining activities in the SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Bech, Jaime

    2015-04-01

    Water pollution by dissolved metals in mining areas has mainly been associated with the oxidation of sulphide-bearing minerals exposed to weathering conditions, resulting in low quality effluents of acidic pH and containing a high level of dissolved metals. According to transport process, three types of pollution could be established: a) Primary contamination, formed by residues placed close to the contamination sources; b) Secondary contamination, produced as a result of transport out of its production areas; c) Tertiary contamination. The aim of this work was to study trace element in water samples affected by mining activities and to apply the MINTEQ model for calculating aqueous geochemical equilibria. The studied area constituted an important mining centre for more than 2500 years, ceasing activity in 1991. The ore deposits of this zone have iron, lead and zinc as the main metal components. As a result, a lot of contaminations sources, formed by mining steriles, waste piles and foundry residues are present. For this study, 36 surficial water samples were collected after a rain episode in 4 different areas. In these samples, the trace element content was determined by by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (Fe and Zn), electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (Pb and Cd), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (As) and ICP-MS for Al. MINTEQA2 is a geochemical equilibrium speciation model capable of computing equilibria among the dissolved, adsorbed, solid, and gas phases in an environmental setting and was applied to collected waters. Zone A: A5 is strongly influenced by tailing dumps and showed high trace element content. In addition, is influenced by the sea water and then showed high bromide, chloride, sodium and magnesium content, together with a basic pH. The MINTEQ model application suggested that Zn and Cd could precipitate as carbonate (hidrocincite, smithsonite and otavite). A9 also showed acid pH and high trace element content; is

  10. Determination of processes affecting groundwater quality in the coastal aquifer beneath Puri city, India: a multivariate statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, P K; Vijay, R; Pujari, P R; Sundaray, S K; Mohanty, B P

    2011-01-01

    Variability of groundwater quality parameters is linked to various processes such as weathering, organic matter degradation, aerobic respiration, iron reduction, mineral dissolution and precipitation, cation exchange and mixing of salt water with fresh water. Multivariate statistical analyses such as principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were applied to the standardized data set of eleven groundwater quality parameters (i.e. pH, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Fe3+, alkalinity, NO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-), TDS) collected during the post-monsoon and the summer seasons in order to elicit hydrologic and biogeochemical processes affecting water quality in the unconfined aquifer beneath Puri city in eastern India. The application of PCA resulted in four factors explaining 73% variance in post-monsoon and 81% variance in summer. The HCA using Ward's method and squared Euclidean distance measure classified the parameters into four clusters based on their similarities. PCA and HCA allowed interpretation of processes. During both post-monsoon and summer seasons, anthropogenic pollution and organic matter degradation/Fe(III) reduction were found dominant due to contribution from on-site sanitation in septic tanks and soak pits in the city. Cation exchange and mineral precipitation were possible causes for increase in Na+ and decrease in Ca2+ concentration in summer. Fresh water recharge during monsoon and Sea water intrusion in summer are attributed as significant hydrologic processes to variations of the groundwater quality at the study site. PMID:22097065

  11. From producer to consumer: greenhouse tomato quality as affected by variety, maturity stage at harvest, transport conditions, and supermarket storage.

    PubMed

    Verheul, Michèl J; Slimestad, Rune; Tjøstheim, Irene Holta

    2015-05-27

    Possible causes for differences in quality traits at the time of buying were studied in two widely different red tomato types. Three maturity stages were harvested from commercial greenhouses and transferred immediately to controlled environments simulating different storage, transport, and supermarket conditions. Results show significant differences in development of color, fruit firmness, contents of soluble solids (SSC), titratable acids (TTA), phenolics, and carotenoids from harvest to sale, as related to postharvest conditions. Fruit firmness, SSC, and TTA of vine-ripened red cherry tomatoes was 30, 55 and 11% higher than for those harvested at breakers and ripened to red. Temperature, light, UVC radiation, or ethylene during 4 days transport affected tomato quality traits, and differences persisted during 3 weeks of supermarket storage. Ethylene exposure gave a 3.7-fold increase in lycopene content in cherry tomatoes, whereas UVC hormesis revealed a 6-fold increase compared with the control. Results can be used to update recommendations concerning optimal handling. PMID:25916229

  12. Factors affecting the quality of fish caught by Native Americans in the Zone 6 fishery 1991 through 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Abernethy, C.S.

    1994-09-01

    A program to monitor the salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.) fishery in the lower Columbia River (Zone 6 fishery) was initiated in 1991 to respond to questions and comments frequently made by Native Americans at public meetings. Native Americans were concerned that the quality of the Columbia River had deteriorated and that the poor environmental conditions had affected the health and quality of fish they relied on for subsistence, ceremonial, religious, and commercial purposes. They also feared that eating contaminated fish might endanger the health of their children and future generations. Operations at the Hanford Site were listed as one of many causes of the deteriorating environment. Fisheries pathologists concluded that most of the external symptoms on fish were related to bacterial infection of gill net abrasions and pre-spawning trauma, and were not caused by pollution or contamination of the Columbia River. The pathologists also stated that consumption of the fish posed no threat to human consumers.

  13. Acute hypoxic exposure affects gamete quality and subsequent fertilization success and embryonic development in a serpulid polychaete.

    PubMed

    Shin, P K S; Leung, J Y S; Qiu, J W; Ang, P O; Chiu, J M Y; Thiyagarajan, V; Cheung, S G

    2014-08-30

    Hypoxia likely compromises the reproductive success of those marine organisms carrying out external fertilization because their gametes and embryos are inevitably exposed to the external environment. Hydroides elegans, a dominant serpulid polychaete in Hong Kong waters, can spawn throughout the year but the number of recruits drops during summer when hypoxia commonly occurs. This study attempted to explain such observation by investigating the gamete quality, including sperm motility, egg size, complexity and viability, after 1-h hypoxic exposure (1 mg O2 l(-1)). In addition, how gamete quality affects fertilization success and embryonic development was examined. After 1-h hypoxic exposure, sperm motility was significantly reduced, compromising fertilization success. Although the eggs remained viable, more malformed embryos and retarded embryonic development were observed. We interpreted that the harmful effect of hypoxia on embryonic development was attributed to the teratogenicity and induced oxidative stress, ultimately causing the reduction in recruitment during summer. PMID:24661460

  14. Affective mentalizing and brain activity at rest in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    Caminiti, Silvia P.; Canessa, Nicola; Cerami, Chiara; Dodich, Alessandra; Crespi, Chiara; Iannaccone, Sandro; Marcone, Alessandra; Falini, Andrea; Cappa, Stefano F.

    2015-01-01

    Background bvFTD patients display an impairment in the attribution of cognitive and affective states to others, reflecting GM atrophy in brain regions associated with social cognition, such as amygdala, superior temporal cortex and posterior insula. Distinctive patterns of abnormal brain functioning at rest have been reported in bvFTD, but their relationship with defective attribution of affective states has not been investigated. Objective To investigate the relationship among resting-state brain activity, gray matter (GM) atrophy and the attribution of mental states in the behavioral variant of fronto-temporal degeneration (bvFTD). Methods We compared 12 bvFTD patients with 30 age- and education-matched healthy controls on a) performance in a task requiring the attribution of affective vs. cognitive mental states; b) metrics of resting-state activity in known functional networks; and c) the relationship between task-performances and resting-state metrics. In addition, we assessed a connection between abnormal resting-state metrics and GM atrophy. Results Compared with controls, bvFTD patients showed a reduction of intra-network coherent activity in several components, as well as decreased strength of activation in networks related to attentional processing. Anomalous resting-state activity involved networks which also displayed a significant reduction of GM density. In patients, compared with controls, higher affective mentalizing performance correlated with stronger functional connectivity between medial prefrontal sectors of the default-mode and attentional/performance monitoring networks, as well as with increased coherent activity in components of the executive, sensorimotor and fronto-limbic networks. Conclusions Some of the observed effects may reflect specific compensatory mechanisms for the atrophic changes involving regions in charge of affective mentalizing. The analysis of specific resting-state networks thus highlights an intermediate level of

  15. CES1 genetic variation affects the activation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Wang, G; Shi, J; Aa, J; Comas, R; Liang, Y; Zhu, H-J

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) genetic variation on the activation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) prodrugs. In vitro incubation study of human liver, intestine and kidney s9 fractions demonstrated that the ACEI prodrugs enalapril, ramipril, perindopril, moexipril and fosinopril are selectively activated by CES1 in the liver. The impact of CES1/CES1VAR and CES1P1/CES1P1VAR genotypes and diplotypes on CES1 expression and activity on enalapril activation was investigated in 102 normal human liver samples. Neither the genotypes nor the diplotypes affected hepatic CES1 expression and activity. Moreover, among several CES1 nonsynonymous variants studied in transfected cell lines, the G143E (rs71647871) was a loss-of-function variant for the activation of all ACEIs tested. The CES1 activity on enalapril activation in human livers with the 143G/E genotype was approximately one-third of that carrying the 143G/G. Thus, some functional CES1 genetic variants (for example, G143E) may impair ACEI activation, and consequently affect therapeutic outcomes of ACEI prodrugs. PMID:26076923

  16. Quality assessment and antiplasmodial activity of West African Cochlospermum species.

    PubMed

    Lamien-Meda, Aline; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Compaoré, Moussa; Meda, Roland N T; Bacher, Markus; Koenig, Karin; Pacher, Thomas; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Noedl, Harald; Willcox, Merlin; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    The present study focuses on development of phytochemical methods for quality assessment of two West-African Cochlospermum species (Cochlospermum planchonii and Cochlospermum tinctorium) traditionally used for malaria treatment in Burkina Faso. Antimalarial activity of preparations from dried rhizomes (decoction) was tested against the chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium strain 3D7 using the histidine-rich protein II (HRP2) drug susceptibility assay and compared with extract preparations using organic solvents of different polarity. Two main apocarotenoids were isolated from rhizomes of C. planchonii and unambiguously identified as dihydrocochloxanthine and cochloxanthine by spectroscopic methods. Comparative HPLC analyses of thirty-nine (39) samples from markets and from collections in natural habitats of both species showed a high variability in the accumulation of cochloxanthines and related carotenoids which were proven to be characteristic for rhizomes of both species and generally absent in leaves. Furthermore, content of total phenolics and antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP) as well as haemolytic activity of various extracts was tested. The HPLC method presented here was validated and provides a good separation of both compounds including 10 minor carotenoids. Extracts from both species and pure cochloxanthine offered pronounced antioxidant activities and weak haemolytic activity while, in contrast, dihydrocochloxanthine had a strong haemolytic effect at the highest concentration analysed. However, cochloxanthine as well as dihydrocochloxanthine showed erythroprotective effects against the haemolytic activity of the reference saponin. Moderate antiplasmodial activity between 16 and 63 μg/ml were observed with all tested extracts, and lower IC50 values were obtained with pure dihydrocochloxanthine (IC50=6.9 μg/ml), cochloxanthine (IC50=6.8 μg/ml), the DCM fraction (IC50=2.4 μg/ml) and the ethyl acetate fraction (IC50=11.5μg/ml) derived from a methanolic

  17. Rheological quality of pearl millet porridge as affected by grits size.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Deep N; Chhikara, Navnidhi; Anand, Tanupriya; Sharma, Monika; Singh, Ashish K

    2014-09-01

    Study was conducted to optimize pearl millet grits size for the preparation of acceptable porridge with skimmed milk powder (SMP). Pearl millet porridge was prepared with different grits size (1.410, 0.841, 0.595, and 0.420 mm). A positive (r = 0.904) correlation was observed between water absorption index and grits size. Porridge showed shear thinning behavior as, initially shear stress increased with increase in shear rate and later on decreased. Porridge prepared with larger grits (1.410 mm) exhibited higher firmness (38.4 ± 1.27 N) and viscosity (446 ± 3.9 cP), whereas smaller grits (0.420 mm) resulted in less viscous (118.8 ± 1.74 cP) and firm (20.4 ± 1.85 N) porridge. The medium grits (0.841 mm) produced porridge with acceptable firmness (30.7 ± 1.56 N) and viscosity (298.1 ± 8.81 cP) with moderate (6.0 ± 0.10) acceptability. To improve sensory quality of porridge (grits size 0.841 mm); skimmed milk powder at different levels (0, 5, 10 and 15 %) was added and its effect on various quality parameters was studied. SMP addition significantly (P ≤ 0.05) modified the gelatinization and gelling behavior of grits and decreased (P ≤ 0.05) all the pasting characteristics except pasting temperature, which increased from 77.1 ± 1.85 to 85.9 ± 3.46 °C. The peak (499 ± 6.6 cP) and final viscosity (450 ± 11.9 cP) of porridge (0.841 mm) prepared with 15 % SMP are quite similar. Hence, it maintains viscosity on cooling, similar to maximum viscosity attained during cooking. Keeping in view the rheological, firmness and sensory quality, 0.841 mm grits of pearl millet with 15 % SMP was found optimum for preparation of acceptable porridge. PMID:25190879

  18. Affective regulation of stereotype activation: It’s the (accessible) thought that counts

    PubMed Central

    Huntsinger, Jeffrey R.; Sinclair, Stacey; Dunn, Elizabeth; Clore, Gerald L.

    2010-01-01

    Extant research demonstrates that positive affect, compared to negative affect, increases stereotyping. In four experiments we explore whether the link between affect and stereotyping depends, critically, on the relative accessibility of stereotype-relevant thoughts and response tendencies. As well as manipulating mood, we measured or manipulated the accessibility of egalitarian response tendencies (Experiments 1-2) and counter-stereotypic thoughts (Experiments 3-4). In the absence of such response tendencies and thoughts, people in positive moods displayed greater stereotype activation —consistent with past research. By contrast, in the presence of accessible egalitarian response tendencies or counter-stereotypic thoughts, people in positive moods exhibited less stereotype activation than those in negative moods. PMID:20363909

  19. Reconnaissance Assessment of the Potential for Roadside Dry Wells to Affect Water Quality on the Island of Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.; Senter, Craig A.; Johnson, Adam G.

    2009-01-01

    The County of Hawai'i Department of Public Works (DPW) uses dry wells to dispose of stormwater runoff from roads. Recently, concern has been raised that water entering the dry wells may transport contaminants to groundwater and affect the quality of receiving waters. The DPW operates 2,052 dry wells. Compiling an inventory of these dry wells and sorting it on the basis of presence or absence of urbanization in the drainage area, distance between the bottom of the dry well and the water table, and proximity to receiving waters helps identify the dry wells having greatest potential to affect the quality of receiving waters so that future studies or mitigation efforts can focus on a smaller number of dry wells. The drainage areas of some DPW dry wells encompass urbanized areas, which could be a source of contaminants. Some dry wells penetrate close to or through the water table, eliminating or substantially reducing opportunities for contaminant attenuation between the ground surface and water table. Dry wells that have drainage areas that encompass urbanization, penetrate to near the water table, and are near the coast have the highest potential to affect the quality of coastal waters (this study did not consider specific sections of coastline that may be of greater concern than others). Some DPW dry wells, including a few that have drainage areas that encompass urbanization, lie within the areas contributing recharge (ACR) to drinking-water wells. Numerical groundwater modeling studies by previous investigators indicate that water infiltrating those dry wells could eventually be pumped at drinking-water wells. Dry wells that have a high potential for affecting coastal receiving waters or drinking-water wells can be the focus of studies to further understand the effect of the dry wells on the quality of receiving waters. Possible study approaches include sampling for contaminants at the dry well and receiving water, injecting and monitoring the movement of tracers

  20. Shifts Toward Morningness During Behavioral Sleep Interventions Are Associated With Improvements in Depression, Positive Affect, and Sleep Quality.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Brant P; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Morningness-eveningness (M-E) is typically considered to be a trait-like construct. However, M-E could plausibly shift in concert with changes in circadian or homeostatic processes. We examined M-E changes across three studies employing behavioral or pharmacological sleep treatments. Baseline and posttreatment M-E scores were strongly correlated across all three samples. M-E showed small but systematic changes toward morningness in sleep-disturbed military veterans receiving behavioral interventions. No systematic M-E changes were observed in the two pharmacological studies (sleep-disturbed military veterans and adults with primary insomnia, respectively). In the behavioral study, M-E changes correlated with changes in depression, positive affect, and sleep quality. M-E changes also correlated with changes in positive affect in the adult insomnia group. M-E appears to exhibit state-like aspects in addition to trait-like aspects. PMID:26549156

  1. Factors affecting quality for beta dose rate measurements using ISO 6980 series I reference sources

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.E. Jr.; O`Brien, J.M. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    Atlan-Tech, Inc. has performed several calibrations of ISO 6980 Series 1 reference beta sources over the past two to three years. There were many problems encountered in attempting to compare the results of these calibrations with those from other laboratories, indicating the need for more standardization in the methodology employed for the measurement of the absorbed dose rate from ISO 6980 Series 1 reference beta sources. This document describes some of the problems encountered in attempting to intercompare results of beta dose-rate measurements. It proposes some solutions in an attempt to open a dialogue among facilities using reference beta standards for the purpose of promoting better measurement quality assurance through data intercomparison.

  2. Extrusion and Extruded Products: Changes in Quality Attributes as Affected by Extrusion Process Parameters: A Review.

    PubMed

    Alam, M S; Kaur, Jasmeen; Khaira, Harjot; Gupta, Kalika

    2016-01-01

    Extrusion of foods is an emerging technology for the food industries to process and market a large number of products of varying size, shape, texture, and taste. Extrusion cooking technology has led to production of wide variety of products like pasta, breakfast cereals, bread crumbs, biscuits, crackers, croutons, baby foods, snack foods, confectionery items, chewing gum, texturized vegetable protein (TVP), modified starch, pet foods, dried soups, dry beverage mixes etc. The functional properties of extruded foods plays an important role for their acceptability which include water absorption, water solubility, oil absorption indexes, expansion index, bulk density and viscosity of the dough. The aim of this review is to give the detailed outlines about the potential of extrusion technology in development of different types of products and the role of extrusion-operating conditions and their effect on product development resulting in quality changes i.e physical, chemical, and nutritional, experienced during the extrusion process. PMID:25574813

  3. Origin of Serum Affects Quality of Engineered Tissues Produced by the Self-Assembly Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chabaud, Stéphane; Simard, Melissa; Gendreau, Isabelle; Pouliot, Roxane; Bolduc, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Despite the emergence of serum-free media for cell culture, the use of serum to supplement the culture media is still essential in order to produce engineered urologic tissues using the self-assembly approach, not only for the stromal compartment but also for the uroepithelium. Effects of sera on thickness of these two compartments were measured and quality of the epithelial differentiation was evaluated. For bladder mucosa substitute reconstruction, the use of postnatal sera failed to produce an adequate uroepithelium whereas the fetal sera supplementation did. Postnatal sera also provided thinner stromal compartments than the one obtained using fetal sera, no matter if the fibroblasts from healthy or psoriatic donors were used to reconstruct human skin substitutes. PMID:27293972

  4. Is the quality and cost of food affected if industrially produced trans fatty acids are removed?

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Karsten

    2006-05-01

    Since the start in Italy and Denmark more than 10 years ago the application of fats and oils without trans fatty acids (TFA) has increased all over the world. Today the food industry uses enormous resources to decrease the content of TFA in existing and new products. The food industry has in most cases succeeded in making consumer accepted products without TFA-most of the quality issues have been related to the technological properties of the fat- and oil-based ingredients. The change from the traditional process of selective hydrogenation to fractionation and interesterification has caused a change in the demand of vegetable oils and process capacities in the market, but until now most of these changes has been absorbed by the market without significant changes in the cost of the raw materials. PMID:16716765

  5. Can Mood-Inducing Videos Affect Problem-Solving Activities in a Web-Based Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verleur, Ria; Verhagen, Plon W.; Heuvelman, Ard

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a video-induced positive and negative mood has a differential effect on subsequent problem-solving activities in a web-based environment. The study also examined whether task conditions (task demands) moderated the mood effect. As in traditional experimental mood-effect studies, the affective video…

  6. Elements of Design-Based Science Activities That Affect Students' Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Brett D.; Chittum, Jessica R.; Akalin, Sehmuz; Schram, Asta B.; Fink, Jonathan; Schnittka, Christine; Evans, Michael A.; Brandt, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which a 12-week after-school science and engineering program affected middle school students' motivation to engage in science and engineering activities. We used current motivation research and theory as a conceptual framework to assess 14 students' motivation through questionnaires,…

  7. Affective Decision-Making and Externalizing Behaviors: The Role of Autonomic Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubier, Jennifer L.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.

    2008-01-01

    We tested a conceptual model involving the inter-relations among affective decision-making (indexed by a gambling task), autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms in a largely impoverished, inner city sample of first through third grade children (N…

  8. Agar composition affects in vitro screening of biocontrol activity of antagonistic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, L; De Bruijn, I; De Mot, R; Rediers, H; Lievens, B

    2016-08-01

    Agar-based screening assays are the method of choice when evaluating antagonistic potential of bacterial biocontrol-candidates against pathogens. We showed that when using the same medium, but different agar compositions, the activity of a bacterial antagonist against Agrobacterium was strongly affected. Consequently, results from in vitro screenings should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:27166668

  9. Activation of Inaccurate Prior Knowledge Affects Primary-School Students' Metacognitive Judgments and Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Loon, Mariette H.; de Bruin, Anique B. H.; van Gog, Tamara; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated whether activation of inaccurate prior knowledge before study contributes to primary-school children's commission errors and overconfidence in these errors when learning new concepts. Findings indicate that inaccurate prior knowledge affects children's learning and calibration. The level of children's judgments of learning…

  10. Reconnaissance Study of Water Quality in the Mining-Affected Aries River Basin, Romania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, Michael J.; Tindall, James A.; Sardan, Daniel; Fey, David L.; Poputa, G.L.

    2008-01-01

    The Aries River basin of western Romania has been subject to mining activities as far back as Roman times. Present mining activities are associated with the extraction and processing of various metals including Au, Cu, Pb, and Zn. To understand the effects of these mining activities on the environment, this study focused on three objectives: (1) establish a baseline set of physical parameters, and water- and sediment-associated concentrations of metals in river-valley floors and floodplains; (2) establish a baseline set of physical and chemical measurements of pore water and sediment in tailings; and (3) provide training in sediment and water sampling to personnel in the National Agency for Mineral Resources and the Rosia Poieni Mine. This report summarizes basin findings of physical parameters and chemistry (sediment and water), and ancillary data collected during the low-flow synoptic sampling of May 2006.

  11. Dietary Protein Sources Affect Internal Quality of Raw and Cooked Shell Eggs under Refrigerated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X. C.; Zhang, H. J.; Wu, S. G.; Yue, H. Y.; Wang, J.; Li, J.; Qi, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; cottonseed protein, CSP; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM) on the internal quality of refrigerated eggs. A total of 360 laying hens (32 wk of age) were randomly allotted to six treatment groups (five replicates per treatment) and fed diets containing SBM, CSP, or DRM individually or in combination with equal crude protein content (SBM-CSP, SBM-DRM, and CSP-DRM) as the protein ingredient(s). A 6×3 factorial arrangement was employed with dietary types and storage time (0 d, 2 wk, and 4 wk) as the main effects. After 12 wk of diet feeding, a total of 270 eggs were collected for egg quality determination. The egg Haugh unit (HU) in the CSP, SBM-DRM, and DRM groups were significantly lower than those in the SBM and SBM-CSP groups. The hardness and springiness of the cooked yolk in the CSP group were significantly higher than those in the other treatment groups. A lower HU, lower yolk index and higher albumen pH were observed in the DRM group compared to the SBM and SBM-CSP groups when the eggs were stored to 4 wk, and the HU was improved in the CSP-DRM group compared to the DRM group (p<0.05). Higher yolk hardness was observed in the CSP group compared to the other groups during storage (p<0.05), but the hardness of the cooked yolk in the SBM-CSP and CSP-DRM groups showed no difference in comparison to the SBM group. In conclusion, CSP may ameliorate the negative effects of DRM on the HU of refrigerated eggs, and SBM or DRM may alleviate the adverse effects of CSP on yolk hardness. PMID:26580286

  12. Urban bat communities are affected by wetland size, quality, and pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Straka, Tanja Maria; Lentini, Pia Eloise; Lumsden, Linda Faye; Wintle, Brendan Anthony; van der Ree, Rodney

    2016-07-01

    Wetlands support unique biota and provide important ecosystem services. These services are highly threatened due to the rate of loss and relative rarity of wetlands in most landscapes, an issue that is exacerbated in highly modified urban environments. Despite this, critical ecological knowledge is currently lacking for many wetland-dependent taxa, such as insectivorous bats, which can persist in urban areas if their habitats are managed appropriately. Here, we use a novel paired landscape approach to investigate the role of wetlands in urban bat conservation and examine local and landscape factors driving bat species richness and activity. We acoustically monitored bat activity at 58 urban wetlands and 35 nonwetland sites (ecologically similar sites without free-standing water) in the greater Melbourne area, southeastern Australia. We analyzed bat species richness and activity patterns using generalized linear mixed-effects models. We found that the presence of water in urban Melbourne was an important driver of bat species richness and activity at a landscape scale. Increasing distance to bushland and increasing levels of heavy metal pollution within the waterbody also negatively influenced bat richness and individual species activity. Areas with high levels of artificial night light had reduced bat species richness, and reduced activity for all species except those adapted to urban areas, such as the White-striped free-tailed bat (Austronomus australis). Increased surrounding tree cover and wetland size had a positive effect on bat species richness. Our findings indicate that wetlands form critical habitats for insectivorous bats in urban environments. Large, unlit, and unpolluted wetlands flanked by high tree cover in close proximity to bushland contribute most to the richness of the bat community. Our findings clarify the role of wetlands for insectivorous bats in urban areas and will also allow for the preservation, construction, and management of wetlands

  13. Did the summer 2003 forest fires in Portugal affect air quality over Europe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, A. I.; Martins, V.; Sá, E.; Carvalho, A.; Amorim, J. H.; Borrego, C.

    2009-04-01

    A forest fire is a large-scale natural combustion process consuming various types, sizes and ages of botanical specimen growing outdoors in a defined geographical area. Although wildland fires are an integral part of ecosystems management and are essential to maintain functional ecosystems their dimensions can give rise to disastrous results. Due to the frequency of occurrence and the magnitude of effects on the environment, health, economy and security, forest fires have increasingly become a major subject of concern for decision-makers, firefighters, researchers and citizens in general. Among their consequences, is the emission of various environmentally significant gases and solid particulate matter to the atmosphere that interfere with local, regional and global phenomena in the biosphere. Smoke from forest fires contains important amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), particulate matter (PM) (that is usually referred in terms of particles with a mean diameter less than 2.5 μm, or PM2.5, and particles with a mean diameter less than 10 μm, or PM10), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and other chemical compounds. These air pollutants can cause serious consequences to local and regional air quality by reducing visibility, contributing to smog and impairing air quality in general, thus threatening human health and ecosystems. Pollutants emitted from forest fires are transported, chemically transformed, and dispersed in the atmosphere. Although major wildfires are limited to some hundreds of hectares, their impacts, with no natural or political boundaries, can be felt and reported far beyond the physical limits of the fire spread. Depending on meteorological conditions, smoke plumes and haze layers can persist in the atmosphere for long periods of time and prevailing conditions will influence the chemical and optical characteristics of the plume. The extreme fire events occurred in the summer of

  14. Activated carbon adsorbents from waste tires for air quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, C.M.B.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Hsi, H.C.

    1999-07-01

    This study evaluates methodologies for utilizing waste tire rubber to produce carbonaceous adsorbents for use in air quality control operations. Such an approach provides a two-fold environmental and economic benefit. A recycling path is developed for waste tire rubber and new adsorbents are produced from a low cost feedstock for use in environmentally-related operations. Bench-scale and pilot-scale quantities of tire-derived activated carbon (TDAC) were produced from waste tire rubber. Raw tire rubber samples and devolatilized tire char were obtained from several US vendors. The raw samples were analyzed using proximate, ultimate, and elemental analyses. Batches of activated carbon samples were prepared using a bench-scale fixed-tubular reactor to prepare {approximately}10 g samples and a fluidized-bed reactor to prepare {approximately}100 g quantities. About 25 kg of activated carbon was also produced at a pilot-scale commercial facility. The resulting TDACs were then characterized by nitrogen adsorption at 77K. The sample surface areas were determined by the BET method, and the pore size distribution (PSD) was evaluated using the BJH model, and a 3-D PSD model. Performance of the TDACs was evaluated in their ability to remove gaseous mercury species from simulated power-plant flue-gas streams, and for the removal of organic compounds (e.g., acetone and 1,1,1-trichloroethane) from flowing gas streams.

  15. Quality investigation of hydroxyprogesterone caproate active pharmaceutical ingredient and injection

    PubMed Central

    Chollet, John L.; Jozwiakowski, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of hydroxyprogesterone caproate (HPC) active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) sources that may be used by compounding pharmacies, compared to the FDA-approved source of the API; and to investigate the quality of HPC injection samples obtained from compounding pharmacies in the US, compared to the FDA-approved product (Makena®). Samples of API were obtained from every source confirmed to be an original manufacturer of the drug for human use, which were all companies in China that were not registered with FDA. Eight of the ten API samples (80%) did not meet the impurity specifications required by FDA for the API used in the approved product. One API sample was found to not be HPC at all; additional laboratory testing showed that it was glucose. Thirty samples of HPC injection obtained from com pounding pharmacies throughout the US were also tested, and eight of these samples (27%) failed to meet the potency requirement listed in the USP monograph for HPC injection and/or the HPLC assay. Sixteen of the thirty injection samples (53%) exceeded the impurity limit setforthe FDA-approved drug product. These results confirm the inconsistency of compounded HPC Injections and suggest that the risk-benefit ratio of using an unapproved compounded preparation, when an FDA-approved drug product is available, is not favorable. PMID:22329865

  16. Low-Activity Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives

    SciTech Connect

    MJ Truex; KD Wiemers

    1998-12-11

    This document describes characterization requirements for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Waste Disposal Program's privatization efforts in support of low-activity waste (LAW) treatment and immobilization, This revised Data Quality Objective (DQO) replaces earlier documents (PNNL 1997; DOE-W 1998zq Wiemers 1996). Revision O of this DQO was completed to meet Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) target milestone M-60-14-TO1. Revision 1 updates the data requirements based on the contract issued `August 1998 (DOE-RL 1998b). In addition, sections of Revision O pertaining to "environmental planning" were not acceptable to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and have been removed. Regulatory compliance for TWRS Privatization is being addressed in a separate DQO (Wiemers et al. 1998). The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Contractors and the private contractor may elect to complete issue-specific DQOS to accommodate their individual work scope.

  17. Marital quality, coping with conflict, marital complaints, and affection in couples with a depressed wife.

    PubMed

    Coyne, James C; Thompson, Richard; Palmer, Steven C

    2002-03-01

    This study compared three groups of women--outpatient depressed, inpatient depressed, and community control--and their husbands on a range of variables including marital functioning and styles of coping with conflict. Outpatient depressed couples reported greater marital distress and more destructive and less constructive tactics for resolving conflict than did community control couples. They also were more likely to have been previously married and to express regrets about having married their current husbands. There were smaller and less consistent differences for couples with inpatient depressed spouses, although inpatient couples with younger wives were similar to outpatient depressed couples. Both groups of depressed women and their husbands reported fewer expressions of affection and more complaints about the marriage than did control couples. Results are discussed in terms of interpersonal perspectives on depression. PMID:11915407

  18. Spatial heterogeneity of soil biochar content affects soil quality and wheat growth and yield.

    PubMed

    Olmo, Manuel; Lozano, Ana María; Barrón, Vidal; Villar, Rafael

    2016-08-15

    Biochar (BC) is a carbonaceous material obtained by pyrolysis of organic waste materials and has been proposed as a soil management strategy to mitigate global warming and to improve crop productivity. Once BC has been applied to the soil, its imperfect and incomplete mixing with soil during the first few years and the standard agronomic practices (i.e. tillage, sowing) may generate spatial heterogeneity of the BC content in the soil, which may have implications for soil properties and their effects on plant growth. We investigated how, after two agronomic seasons, the spatial heterogeneity of olive-tree prunings BC applied to a vertisol affected soil characteristics and wheat growth and yield. During the second agronomic season and just before wheat germination, we determined the BC content in the soil by an in-situ visual categorization based on the soil darkening, which was strongly correlated to the BC content of the soil and the soil brightness. We found a high spatial heterogeneity in the BC plots, which affected soil characteristics and wheat growth and yield. Patches with high BC content showed reduced soil compaction and increased soil moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient availability (P, Ca, K, Mn, Fe, and Zn); consequently, wheat had greater tillering and higher relative growth rate and grain yield. However, if the spatial heterogeneity of the soil BC content had not been taken into account in the data analysis, most of the effects of BC on wheat growth would not have been detected. Our study reveals the importance of taking into account the spatial heterogeneity of the BC content. PMID:27110980

  19. A Quality Improvement Study on Avoidable Stressors and Countermeasures Affecting Surgical Motor Performance and Learning

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Claudius; Konuk, Yusuf; Werner, Paul D.; Cao, Caroline G.; Warshaw, Andrew L.; Rattner, David W.; Stangenberg, Lars; Ott, Harald C.; Jones, Daniel B.; Miller, Diane L; Gee, Denise W.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore how the two most important components of surgical performance - speed and accuracy - are influenced by different forms of stress and what the impact of music on these factors is. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Based on a recently published pilot study on surgical experts, we designed an experiment examining the effects of auditory stress, mental stress, and music on surgical performance and learning, and then correlated the data psychometric measures to the role of music in a novice surgeon’s life. METHODS 31 surgeons were recruited for a crossover study. Surgeons were randomized to four simple standardized tasks to be performed on the Surgical SIM VR laparoscopic simulator, allowing exact tracking of speed and accuracy. Tasks were performed under a variety of conditions, including silence, dichotic music (auditory stress), defined classical music (auditory relaxation), and mental loading (mental arithmetic tasks). Tasks were performed twice to test for memory consolidation and to accommodate for baseline variability. Performance was correlated to the Brief Musical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ). RESULTS Mental loading influences performance with respect to accuracy, speed, and recall more negatively than does auditory stress. Defined classical music might lead to minimally worse performance initially, but leads to significantly improved memory consolidation. Furthermore, psychologic testing of the volunteers suggests that surgeons with greater musical commitment, measured by the MEQ, perform worse under the mental loading condition. CONCLUSION Mental distraction and auditory stress negatively affect specific components of surgical learning and performance. If used appropriately, classical music may positively affect surgical memory consolidation. It also may be possible to predict surgeons’ performance and learning under stress through psychological tests on the role of music in a surgeon’s life. Further investigation is necessary to determine

  20. Nonambulatory cows: Duration of recumbency and quality of nursing care affect outcome of flotation therapy.

    PubMed

    Stojkov, J; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2016-03-01

    Cows that are unable or unwilling to stand and remain recumbent for ≥ 12 h are defined as nonambulatory. Care and management of nonambulatory cattle is considered a major animal welfare concern facing the livestock industry, particularly the dairy sector. Flotation therapy has gained interest as a means to promote recovery in nonambulatory cows and is based on the concept that by floating the cow in warm water, secondary pressure damage to muscles and nerves will be reduced. The objective of this study was to assess the physiological responses to stress related to the flotation therapy and to evaluate the effect of recumbency duration and nursing care on the outcome of the flotation therapy. The outcomes of 34 nonambulatory Holstein dairy cows were analyzed after they were subjected to flotation therapy. The duration of recumbency and quality of nursing care provided before initiation of the flotation treatment were assessed based on producer responses to survey questions, and from on-site observations by the researchers. A veterinarian examined all cows before flotation therapy began. The treatment was divided into 5 phases: baseline (before filling), manipulation (placing the cow into the tank), filling (the tank was filled with water), flotation (the cow was confined in the filled tank), and draining (water was removed from the tank). Stress responses to the procedure, excluding the manipulation portion, were assessed using heart rate variability. The high-frequency component (HF normalized units) decreased during the filling and draining phases (2.8 ± 0.2 and 3.1 ± 0.4, respectively) compared with the baseline and floating phase (5.1 ± 0.6 and 4.9 ± 0.3, [corrected] respectively). These results indicate that the stress related to the flotation therapy is greatest during the filling and draining phases of the treatment, when cows likely have to exert increased effort to transition to a standing position. The flotation therapy was less likely to be

  1. Leaf litter quality affects aquatic insect emergence: contrasting patterns from two foundation trees.

    PubMed

    Compson, Zacchaeus G; Adams, Kenneth J; Edwards, Joeseph A; Maestas, Jesse M; Whitham, Thomas G; Marks, Jane C

    2013-10-01

    Reciprocal subsidies between rivers and terrestrial habitats are common where terrestrial leaf litter provides energy to aquatic invertebrates while emerging aquatic insects provide energy to terrestrial predators (e.g., birds, lizards, spiders). We examined how aquatic insect emergence changed seasonally with litter from two foundation riparian trees, whose litter often dominates riparian streams of the southwestern United States: Fremont (Populus fremontii) and narrowleaf (Populus angustifolia) cottonwood. P. fremontii litter is fast-decomposing and lower in defensive phytochemicals (i.e., condensed tannins, lignin) relative to P. angustifolia. We experimentally manipulated leaf litter from these two species by placing them in leaf enclosures with emergence traps attached in order to determine how leaf type influenced insect emergence. Contrary to our initial predictions, we found that packs with slow-decomposing leaves tended to support more emergent insects relative to packs with fast-decomposing leaves. Three findings emerged. Firstly, abundance (number of emerging insects m(-2) day(-1)) was 25% higher on narrowleaf compared to Fremont leaves for the spring but did not differ in the fall, demonstrating that leaf quality from two dominant trees of the same genus yielded different emergence patterns and that these patterns changed seasonally. Secondly, functional feeding groups of emerging insects differed between treatments and seasons. Specifically, in the spring collector-gatherer abundance and biomass were higher on narrowleaf leaves, whereas collector-filterer abundance and biomass were higher on Fremont leaves. Shredder abundance and biomass were higher on narrowleaf leaves in the fall. Thirdly, diversity (Shannon's H') was higher on Fremont leaves in the spring, but no differences were found in the fall, showing that fast-decomposing leaves can support a more diverse, complex emergent insect assemblage during certain times of the year. Collectively, these

  2. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on antimicrobial activity and quality of Manuka honey.

    PubMed

    Al-Habsi, Nasser A; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2012-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of Manuka honey is of major interest to beekeepers and the honey industry. In this study, the effect of high hydrostatic pressure and thermal treatments on antimicrobial activity and quality parameters (principally, diastase number and hydroxymethylfurfural levels (HMF)) of Manuka honey were investigated. The honey was subjected to different pressures (100-800MPa) at 25°C for a range of holding times (15-120min). The antimicrobial activity was found to increase with applied pressure for a given holding time, while the diastase number and HMF levels remained, more or less, unaffected. The percentage inhibition in microbial growth correlated linearly (R(2)=0.94) with methyglyoxal concentration in the honey after treatment over the entire range of pressure, temperature and holding times studied. Maximum percentage inhibition (78.83%) was achieved when honey was subjected to 800MPa compared to the control (57.93%). Thermal treatments at higher temperatures were found to have a detrimental effect on antimicrobial activity based on percentage inhibition as well as methylglyoxal content. Thus, it can be concluded that the levels of methylglyoxal, and therefore the antimicrobial effect of Manuka honey, can be enhanced by using high pressure processing without adversely affecting honey quality. PMID:22953879

  3. Task-Oriented and Bottle Feeding Adversely Affect the Quality of Mother-Infant Interactions Following Abnormal Newborn Screens

    PubMed Central

    Tluczek, Audrey; Clark, Roseanne; McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Orland, Kate Murphy; Brown, Roger L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Examine effects of newborn screening (NBS) and neonatal diagnosis on the quality of mother-infant interactions in the context of feeding. Methods Study compared the quality of mother-infant feeding interactions among four groups of infants classified by severity of NBS and diagnostic results: cystic fibrosis (CF), congenital hypothyroidism, heterozygote CF carrier, and healthy with normal NBS. The Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment and a task-oriented item measured the quality of feeding interactions for 130 dyads, infant ages 3–19 weeks (M=9.19, SD=3.28). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory measured maternal depression and anxiety. Results Composite Indicator Structure Equation Modeling showed that infant diagnostic status and, to a lesser extent, maternal education predicted feeding method. Mothers of infants with CF were most likely to bottle feed, which was associated with more task-oriented maternal behavior than breastfeeding. Mothers with low task-oriented behavior showed more sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues, as well as less negative affect and behavior in their interactions with their infants than mothers with high task-oriented scores. Mothers of infants with CF were significantly more likely to have clinically significant anxiety and depression than the other groups. However, maternal psychological profile did not predict feeding method or interaction quality. Conclusions Mothers in the CF group were the least likely to breastfeed. Research is needed to explicate long-term effects of feeding methods on quality of mother-child relationship and ways to promote continued breastfeeding following a neonatal CF diagnosis. PMID:20495477

  4. How nurses and their work environment affect patient experiences of the quality of care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare organisations monitor patient experiences in order to evaluate and improve the quality of care. Because nurses spend a lot of time with patients, they have a major impact on patient experiences. To improve patient experiences of the quality of care, nurses need to know what factors within the nursing work environment are of influence. The main focus of this research was to comprehend the views of Dutch nurses on how their work and their work environment contribute to positive patient experiences. Methods A descriptive qualitative research design was used to collect data. Four focus groups were conducted, one each with 6 or 7 registered nurses in mental health care, hospital care, home care and nursing home care. A total of 26 nurses were recruited through purposeful sampling. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. Results The nurses mentioned essential elements that they believe would improve patient experiences of the quality of nursing care: clinically competent nurses, collaborative working relationships, autonomous nursing practice, adequate staffing, control over nursing practice, managerial support and patient-centred culture. They also mentioned several inhibiting factors, such as cost-effectiveness policy and transparency goals for external accountability. Nurses feel pressured to increase productivity and report a high administrative workload. They stated that these factors will not improve patient experiences of the quality of nursing care. Conclusions According to participants, a diverse range of elements affect patient experiences of the quality of nursing care. They believe that incorporating these elements into daily nursing practice would result in more positive patient experiences. However, nurses work in a healthcare context in which they have to reconcile cost-efficiency and accountability with their desire to provide nursing care that is based on patient needs and preferences, and

  5. Amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex activation during affective startle modulation: a PET study of fear.

    PubMed

    Pissiota, Anna; Frans, Orjan; Michelgård, Asa; Appel, Lieuwe; Långström, Bengt; Flaten, Magne Arve; Fredrikson, Mats

    2003-09-01

    The human startle response is modulated by emotional experiences, with startle potentiation associated with negative affect. We used positron emission tomography with 15O-water to study neural networks associated with startle modulation by phobic fear in a group of subjects with specific snake or spider phobia, but not both, during exposure to pictures of their feared and non-feared objects, paired and unpaired with acoustic startle stimuli. Measurement of eye electromyographic activity confirmed startle potentiation during the phobic as compared with the non-phobic condition. Employing a factorial design, we evaluated brain correlates of startle modulation as the interaction between startle and affect, using the double subtraction contrast (phobic startle vs. phobic alone) vs. (non-phobic startle vs. non-phobic alone). As a result of startle potentiation, a significant increase in regional cerebral blood flow was found in the left amygdaloid-hippocampal region, and medially in the affective division of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). These results provide evidence from functional brain imaging for a modulatory role of the amygdaloid complex on startle reactions in humans. They also point to the involvement of the affective ACC in the processing of startle stimuli during emotionally aversive experiences. The co-activation of these areas may reflect increased attention to fear-relevant stimuli. Thus, we suggest that the amygdaloid area and the ACC form part of a neural system dedicated to attention and orientation to danger, and that this network modulates startle during negative affect. PMID:12956731

  6. Psychosocial problems of donor heart recipients adversely affecting quality of life.

    PubMed

    Bunzel, B; Wollenek, G; Grundböck, A

    1992-10-01

    Heart transplantation has become an accepted therapy for patients suffering from terminal heart disease for whom neither standard forms of medication nor the usual surgery are of any benefit. Although results regarding postoperative quantity and quality of life are encouraging, it must not be overlooked that the patient and his family face, and have to overcome, profound psychosocial problems. The main stressors were identified in interviews with 47 heart transplant patients. The main preoperative problems were: the way of being informed about the diagnosis, the waiting period for transplantation, anguishing doubts about the decision to have a transplant, being a body without heart ('zombie'), guilt and shame regarding the donor, the reactions of others. Postoperatively the patients have to cope with: re-entering social systems, reactions of friends, neighbours and colleagues, rejection episodes, death of a fellow patient, the need to redesign family life. All the problems reported by the patients interviewed are discussed regarding their psychosocial implications, and hints are given on how to minimize them. PMID:1299462

  7. Ozone and other air quality-related variables affecting visibility in the southeast United States.

    PubMed

    Aneja, Viney P; Brittig, Jeffrey S; Kim, Deug-Soo; Hanna, Adel

    2004-06-01

    An analysis of ozone (O3) concentrations and several other air quality-related variables was performed to elucidate their relationship with visibility at five urban and semi-urban locations in the southeast United States during the summer seasons of 1980-1996. The role and impact of O3 on aerosols was investigated to ascertain a relationship with visibility. Regional trend analysis over the 1980s reveals an increase in maximum O3 concentration coupled with a decrease in visibility. However, a similar analysis for the 1990s shows a leveling-off of both O3 and visibility; in both cases, the results were not statistically significant at the 5% level. A case study of site-specific trends at Nashville, TN, followed similar trends. To better understand the relationships between O3 concentration and visibility, the analysis was varied from yearly through daily to hourly averaged values. This increased temporal resolution showed a statistically significant inverse relationship between visibility and O3. Site-specific hourly r2 values ranged from 0.02 to 0.43. Additionally, by performing back-trajectory analysis, it was found that the visibility degraded by air mass migration over polluted areas. PMID:15242148

  8. Metal contaminated biochar and wood ash negatively affect plant growth and soil quality after land application.

    PubMed

    Jones, D L; Quilliam, R S

    2014-07-15

    Pyrolysis or combustion of waste wood can provide a renewable source of energy and produce byproducts which can be recycled back to land. To be sustainable requires that these byproducts pose minimal threat to the environment or human health. Frequently, reclaimed waste wood is contaminated by preservative-treated timber containing high levels of heavy metals. We investigated the effect of feedstock contamination from copper-preservative treated wood on the behaviour of pyrolysis-derived biochar and combustion-derived ash in plant-soil systems. Biochar and wood ash were applied to soil at typical agronomic rates. The presence of preservative treated timber in the feedstock increased available soil Cu; however, critical Cu guidance limits were only exceeded at high rates of feedstock contamination. Negative effects on plant growth and soil quality were only seen at high levels of biochar contamination (>50% derived from preservative-treated wood). Negative effects of wood ash contamination were apparent at lower levels of contamination (>10% derived from preservative treated wood). Complete removal of preservative treated timber from wood recycling facilities is notoriously difficult and low levels of contamination are commonplace. We conclude that low levels of contamination from Cu-treated wood should pose minimal environmental risk to biochar and ash destined for land application. PMID:24915641

  9. Male and female mate choice affects offspring quality in a sex-role-reversed pipefish.

    PubMed

    Sandvik, M; Rosenqvist, G; Berglund, A

    2000-11-01

    Where both sexes invest substantially in offspring, both females and males should discriminate between potential partners when choosing mates. The degree of choosiness should relate to the costs of choice and to the potential benefits to be gained. We measured offspring quality from experimentally staged matings with preferred and non-preferred partners in a sex-role-reversed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle L. Here, a substantial male investment in offspring results in a lower potential reproductive rate in males than in females, and access to males limits female reproductive success rather than vice versa. Thus, males are choosier than females and females compete more intensely over mates than do males. Broods from preferred matings were superior at escaping predation, when either males or females were allowed to choose a partner. However, only 'choosing' females benefited in terms of faster-growing offspring. Our results have important implications for mate-choice research: here we show that even the more competitive and less choosy sex may contribute significantly to sexual selection through mate choice. PMID:11413626

  10. Validation of AIRS Cloud Cleared Radiances Using MODIS and its Affect on QualityControl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. C.; Schreier, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) was launched aboard the AQUA satellite to provide measurements of temperature, humidity, and various trace gases in support of climate research and weather prediction. Only clear sky measurements of the outgoing radiance are used in the AIRS physical retrieval of temperature, water vapor, and certain trace gases. To overcome cloud contamination the clear sky radiance is estimated using an iterative procedure that combines an initial estimate of the clear state from a neural network along with a three by three grid of AIRS measurements. The radiance error estimate, a component critical to the AIRS physical retrieval, must include contributions from all assumed parameters input to the forward model on top of instrument noise and amplification from cloud clearing. When the error estimate is too large the AIRS physical retrieval becomes over-constrained to the first guess profile. Therefore quantifying the cloud cleared error estimate is essential to an effective physical retrieval. We will validate the cloud-cleared radiances through the use of nearby clear ocean scenes and with comparisons to clear pixels from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS). AIRS cloud cleared radiances are spectrally convolved to MODIS channels for this comparison. This analysis quantifies error due to cloud-clearing and demonstrates that clear MODIS pixels can be used with the standard AIRS quality control procedure to improve identification poor retrievals.

  11. In vivo exposure of female rats to toxicants may affect oocyte quality.

    PubMed

    Berger, Trish; Horner, Catherine M

    2003-01-01

    A potential endpoint for female reproductive toxicants is fertilizability of the oocytes. This endpoint has not been adequately examined for mammalian females. The objective of these studies was to evaluate fertilizability of rat oocytes following in vivo exposure to known male reproductive toxicants that exert effects via pathways that do not include endocrine disruption and to 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide, known to interfere with early follicular development. Oocytes were obtained from females following exposure and quality assessed by in vitro fertilization rate. One study evaluated fertilizability following 2 weeks exposure of females to inhaled tetrachloroethylene (2h/day, 5 days/week). The remaining studies evaluated fertilizability immediately following 2 weeks exposure via drinking water to tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, the fuel oxidants methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), and a metabolite of the first two ethers 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol (2M2P), and to 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide. The percentage of oocytes fertilized was reduced following inhalation exposure to tetrachloroethylene, or consumption of trichloroethylene or TAME. Fertilizability was not altered by exposures to the other reproductive toxicants or to the other fuel oxidants. Consistent with the reduced oocyte fertilizability following exposure to trichloroethylene, oocytes from exposed females had a reduced ability to bind sperm plasma membrane proteins. Female reproductive capability assessed by the endpoint, oocyte fertilizability, was reduced by exposure to trichloroethylene and inhaled tetrachloroethylene. PMID:12759095

  12. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    PubMed

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes. PMID:25922214

  13. Rheological and Quality Characteristics of Taftoon Bread as Affected by Salep and Persian Gums

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, R.; Hamidi Esfehani, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Effects of salep gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/w flour basis) and the Persian gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, and 3% (w/w flour basis) and combination of the two gums at concentrations of 0.5% + 0.5%, 0.75% + 0.25%, and 0.25% + 0.75% on rheological properties of the wheat flour dough and quality of Taftoon bread were studied with regard to retardation of staling. Rheological (farinograph and extensograph) characteristics, staling, and organoleptic evaluations were performed on the dough and the resulting Taftoon bread. Statistical results showed that the salep gum at 5% and Persian gum at 3% (w/w flour basis) had a significant effect on the dough properties. Salep and Persian gums when each separately added increased and decreased dough water absorption, respectively. Both hydrocolloids increased the dough resistance to extension and decreased its extensibility. Persian gum shows dual nature in water absorption and some other baking properties. Textural studies revealed that addition of 5% salep gum (w/w flour basis) reduced the bread crumb firmness and delayed the staling process of the Taftoon bread. X-ray diffraction study also confirmed this result. PMID:26904649

  14. How Team-Based Reflection Affects Quality Improvement Implementation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Eric K.; Howard, Jenna; Etz, Rebecca S.; Hudson, Shawna V.; Crabtree, Benjamin F.

    2012-01-01

    Quality improvement (QI) interventions in health care organizations have produced mixed results with significant questions remaining about how QI interventions are implemented. Team-based reflection may be an important element for understanding QI implementation. Extensive research has focused on individual benefits of reflection including links between reflection, learning, and change. There are currently no published studies that explore how team-based reflection impact QI interventions. We selected 4 primary care practices participating in a QI trial that used a facilitated, team-based approach to improve colorectal cancer screening rates. Trained facilitators met with a team of practice members for up to eleven 1-hour meetings. Data include audio-recorded team meetings and associated fieldnotes. We used a template approach to code transcribed data and an immersion/crystallization technique to identify patterns and themes. Three types of team-based reflection and how each mattered for QI implementation were identified: organizational reflection promoted buy-in, motivation, and feelings of inspiration; process reflection enhanced team problem solving and change management; and relational reflection enhanced discussions of relational dynamics necessary to implement desired QI changes. If QI interventions seek to make changes where collaboration and coordination of care is required, then deliberately integrating team-based reflection into interventions can provide opportunities to facilitate change processes. PMID:22453821

  15. How team-based reflection affects quality improvement implementation: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Eric K; Howard, Jenna; Etz, Rebecca S; Hudson, Shawna V; Crabtree, Benjamin F

    2012-01-01

    Quality improvement (QI) interventions in health care organizations have produced mixed results with significant questions remaining about how QI interventions are implemented. Team-based reflection may be an important element for understanding QI implementation. Extensive research has focused on individual benefits of reflection including links between reflection, learning, and change. There are currently no published studies that explore how team-based reflection impact QI interventions. We selected 4 primary care practices participating in a QI trial that used a facilitated, team-based approach to improve colorectal cancer screening rates. Trained facilitators met with a team of practice members for up to eleven 1-hour meetings. Data include audio-recorded team meetings and associated fieldnotes. We used a template approach to code transcribed data and an immersion/crystallization technique to identify patterns and themes. Three types of team-based reflection and how each mattered for QI implementation were identified: organizational reflection promoted buy-in, motivation, and feelings of inspiration; process reflection enhanced team problem solving and change management; and relational reflection enhanced discussions of relational dynamics necessary to implement desired QI changes. If QI interventions seek to make changes where collaboration and coordination of care is required, then deliberately integrating team-based reflection into interventions can provide opportunities to facilitate change processes. PMID:22453821

  16. Affective Analgesia following Muscarinic Activation of the Ventral Tegmental Area in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kender, Robert G.; Harte, Steven E.; Munn, Elizabeth M.; Borszcz, George S.

    2009-01-01

    Cholinergic stimulation of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) underlies activation of the brain reward circuitry. Activation of this circuit is proposed to preferentially suppress the affective reaction to noxious stimulation. Vocalization afterdischarges (VADs) are a validated model of the affective response of rats to noxious tailshock. The antinociceptive action of the acetylcholine agonist carbachol microinjected into the VTA on VAD threshold was compared to its effect on the thresholds of other tailshock-elicited responses (VDS = vocalizations during shock, and SMR = spinal motor reflexes). Whereas VADs are organized within the forebrain, VDSs and SMRs are organized at medullary and spinal levels of the neuraxis, respectively. Carbachol (1 μg, 2 μg, and 4 μg) injected into VTA produced dose-dependent increases in VAD and VDS thresholds, although increases in VAD threshold were significantly greater than increases in VDS threshold. Administration of carbachol into VTA failed to elevate SMR threshold. Elevations in vocalization thresholds produced by intra-VTA carbachol were reversed in a dose-dependent manner by local administration of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine sulfate (30 μg and 60 μg). These results provide the first demonstration of the involvement of the VTA in muscarinic-induced suppression of pain affect. Perspective Cholinergic activation of the brain reward circuit produced a preferential suppression of rats’ affective reaction to noxious stimulation. The neurobiology that relates reinforcement to suppression of pain affect may provide insights into new treatments for pain and its associated affective disorders. PMID:18387853

  17. Oral administration of stavudine induces hyperalgesia without affecting activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Weber, Juliane; Mitchell, Duncan; Kamerman, Peter R

    2007-12-01

    We have investigated whether long-term oral administration of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) stavudine affects nociception in Sprague-Dawley rats, and whether any changes of nociception are accompanied by deterioration in activity and appetite. Stavudine (50 mg kg(-1)) was administered to rats orally once daily for six weeks in gelatine cubes. Mechanical hyperalgesia of the tail was assessed using a bar algometer, and thermal hyperalgesia by tail immersion in 49 degrees C water. Withdrawal latencies were compared to those of rats receiving placebo gelatine cubes. Withdrawal latencies to the noxious thermal challenge were not affected by stavudine, but those to the mechanical challenge were significantly decreased in rats receiving stavudine, compared to rats receiving placebo, from week three to week six of drug administration (P<0.05, ANCOVA with Newman Keuls post-hoc comparisons). The overall condition of the rats was assessed by recording daily voluntary wheel running distance and maximum running speed, food intake and body mass. Daily stavudine administration did not adversely affect voluntary running activity, appetite or growth. We have shown that long-term daily oral administration of the NRTI stavudine results in mechanical hyperalgesia in rats within three weeks without affecting appetite, growth and physical activity. PMID:17632188

  18. Tadpole swimming performance and activity affected by acute exposure to sublethal levels of carbaryl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    General activity and swimming performance (i.e., sprint speed and distance) of plains leopard frog tadpoles (Rana blairi) were examined after acute exposure to three sublethal concentrations of carbaryl (3.5, 5.0, and 7.2 mg/L). Both swimming performance and spontaneous swimming activity are important for carrying out life history functions (e.g., growth and development) and for escaping from predators. Measured tadpole activity diminished by nearly 90% at 3.5 mg/L carbaryl and completely ceased at 7.2 mg/L. Sprint speed and sprint distance also decreased significantly following exposure. Carbaryl affected both swimming performance and activity after just 24 h, suggesting that 24 h may be an adequate length of exposure to determine behavioral effects on tadpoles. Slight recovery of activity levels was noted at 24 and 48 h post-exposure; no recovery of swimming performance was observed. Reduction in activity and swimming performance may result in increased predation rates and, because activity is closely associated with feeding, may result in slowed growth leading to a failure to emerge before pond drying or an indirect reduction in adult fitness. Acute exposure to sublethal toxicants such as carbaryl may not only affect immediate survival of tadpoles but also impact critical life history functions and generate changes at the local population level.

  19. Catechins Variously Affect Activities of Conjugation Enzymes in Proliferating and Differentiated Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Lněničková, Kateřina; Procházková, Eliška; Skálová, Lenka; Matoušková, Petra; Bártíková, Hana; Souček, Pavel; Szotáková, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of processes in intestinal cells is essential, as most xenobiotics come into contact with the small intestine first. Caco-2 cells are human colorectal adenocarcinoma that once differentiated, exhibit enterocyte-like characteristics. Our study compares activities and expressions of important conjugation enzymes and their modulation by green tea extract (GTE) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) using both proliferating (P) and differentiated (D) caco-2 cells. The mRNA levels of the main conjugation enzymes were significantly elevated after the differentiation of Caco-2 cells. However, no increase in conjugation enzymes' activities in differentiated cells was detected in comparison to proliferating ones. GTE/EGCG treatment did not affect the mRNA levels of any of the conjugation enzymes tested in either type of cells. Concerning conjugation enzymes activities, GTE/EGCG treatment elevated glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity by approx. 30% and inhibited catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity by approx. 20% in differentiated cells. On the other hand, GTE as well as EGCG treatment did not significantly affect the activities of conjugation enzymes in proliferating cells. Administration of GTE/EGCG mediated only mild changes of GST and COMT activities in enterocyte-like cells, indicating a low risk of GTE/EGCG interactions with concomitantly administered drugs. However, a considerable chemo-protective effect of GTE via the pronounced induction of detoxifying enzymes cannot be expected as well. PMID:27617982

  20. The effects of activity-elicited humor and group structure on group cohesion and affective responses.

    PubMed

    Banning, M R; Nelson, D L

    1987-08-01

    The ability to analyze the therapeutic components of an activity is an important skill for occupational therapists. This study examined two potentially significant factors in activity analysis: the use of humor and the effect of group structure. Four groups (two with a parallel structure and two with a project structure) participated in a hat-making activity designed to elicit humor. Four groups (two with a parallel structure and two with a project structure) participated in a bookmark-making activity. The 28 female subjects' affective responses were measured by Osgood's short-form semantic differential, and the cohesion among group members was assessed by the Group Environment Scale. Results indicated that subjects who participated in groups which included humor rated their activity significantly higher on two factors of affective meaning (evaluation and action) and significantly higher in terms of cohesion. There was a significant interaction between the two activities and group structure in terms of the action factor and cohesion. In both cases the parallel groups making bookmarks received particularly low scores. The findings have implications for conceptualizing occupational therapy group activities. PMID:3434603

  1. Affective dysfunction in a mouse model of Rett syndrome: Therapeutic effects of environmental stimulation and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Mari A; Gray, Laura J; Pelka, Gregory J; Leang, Sook-Kwan; Christodoulou, John; Tam, Patrick P L; Hannan, Anthony J

    2016-02-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with mutations in the X-linked gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and consequent dysregulation of brain maturation. Patients suffer from a range of debilitating physical symptoms, however, behavioral and emotional symptoms also severely affect their quality of life. Here, we present previously unreported and clinically relevant affective dysfunction in the female heterozygous Mecp2(tm1Tam) mouse model of RTT (129sv and C57BL6 mixed background). The affective dysfunction and aberrant anxiety-related behavior of the Mecp2(+/-) mice were found to be reversible with environmental enrichment (EE) from 4 weeks of age. The effect of exercise alone (via wheel running) was also explored, providing the first evidence that increased voluntary physical activity in an animal model of RTT is beneficial for some phenotypes. Mecp2(+/-) mutants displayed elevated corticosterone despite decreased Crh expression, demonstrating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation. EE of Mecp2(+/-) mice normalized basal serum corticosterone and hippocampal BDNF protein levels. The enrichment-induced rescue appears independent of the transcriptional regulation of the MeCP2 targets Bdnf exon 4 and Crh. These findings provide new insight into the neurodevelopmental role of MeCP2 and pathogenesis of RTT, in particular the affective dysfunction. The positive outcomes of environmental stimulation and physical exercise have implications for the development of therapies targeting the affective symptoms, as well as behavioral and cognitive dimensions, of this devastating neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:26019053

  2. Polymorphisms in positional candidate genes on BTA14 and BTA26 affect carcass quality in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Marques, E; Nkrumah, J D; Sherman, E L; Moore, S S

    2009-08-01

    Several studies have reported the presence of carcass quality QTL on BTA14 and BTA26, with no specific genes being conclusively linked as their cause. The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms in genes known to affect lipid metabolism in other species and to assess their association with carcass quality traits. Two genes located on BTA14, 2,4 dienoyl CoA reductase 1 (DECR1) and core binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2, translocated to 1 gene (CBFA2T1), have been previously evaluated in other species and found to contain polymorphisms influencing lipid metabolism. A gene on BTA26, fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8), has in recent studies been linked to several QTL affecting obesity in mice, indicating its potential for regulating adiposity in other species. Sequencing analysis identified 9 polymorphisms in DECR1, 4 in CBFA2T1, and 4 in FGF8. Multiple sequence alignment of DECR1 among cattle, humans, and mice showed that 4 of these mutations lie in conserved regions across these species. Using 464 Angus, Charolais, and crossbred animals produced associations with ultrasound marbling score (CBFA2T1, P = 0.019), ultrasound backfat (DECR1, P = 0.012), carcass backfat (FGF8, P = 0.004), and lean meat yield (FGF8, P = 0.005). Quantitative trait loci analysis including a set of previously genotyped markers on BTA14, and 1 DECR1 polymorphism resulted in several significant QTL peaks: ultrasound backfat (UBF) at 91 cM, lean meat yield at 86 cM, carcass gradefat at 15 cM, and yield grade at 87 cM, all at the P < 0.05 level. Using DECR1 as a genetic covariate removed the UBF QTL, indicating that this SNP was contributing to the variation observed in UBF. A similar analysis was performed on BTA26 using 1 of the FGF8 polymorphisms. Results showed significant peaks for lean meat yield at 2 cM and for yield grade at 25 cM, both at P < 0.01, and for carcass backfat at 25 cM (P < 0.05). Removal of FGF8 SNP in further analysis resulted in the disappearance of the

  3. Quality of Life Assessment for Physical Activity and Health Promotion: Further Psychometrics and Comparison of Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Diane L.; Reifsteck, Erin J.; Adams, Melanie M.; Shang, Ya-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Despite the clear relationship between physical activity and quality of life, few sound, relevant quality of life measures exist. Gill and colleagues developed a 32-item quality of life survey, and provided initial psychometric evidence. This study further examined that quality of life survey in comparison with the widely used short form (SF-36)…

  4. Disability and Quality of Life of Subjects with Bipolar Affective Disorder in Remission

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Soumya P.; Nisha, A.; Varghese, P. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite significant advances in pharmacological and psychological therapies for bipolar disorder, many people continue to have less than optimal outcomes, which are associated with significant disability and poor quality of life (QOL). This study aimed to assess the disability and QOL and factors associated with such suboptimal outcomes in subjects with bipolar disorder in remission. Methods: Consecutive patients diagnosed to have bipolar disorder in remission attending the Department of Psychiatry, MOSC Medical College, Kerala, India were recruited for the study. They were assessed using the International Classification of Diseases Diagnostic Criteria for Research-10, Hamilton Scale for Depression, Young's Mania Rating Scale, World Health Organization-QOL (WHO QOL-BREF), WHO-Disability Assessment Scale (WHO-DAS), and Kuppuswamy's scale for socioeconomic status assessment. Results: Eighty-four patients were evaluated. The mean total WHO-DAS score was 19.2 ± 2.09, the maximum disability in domain 4 (getting along) followed by domain 2 (mobility). The mean total WHO-QOL BREF score was 54.26 ± 2.85, the lowest subscore in domain 3 (social interactions). Disability scores were significantly associated with increasing age, female gender, not being an earning member of the family, and lower QOL scores. Poorer QOL scores were significantly associated with increasing age and higher disability score. Conclusions: Many bipolar patients in remission have significant disability and poorer QOL. There is a need for longitudinal studies to explore such associations and develop interventions to reduce the disability thereby enhancing the QOL. PMID:27570346

  5. Does river restoration affect diurnal and seasonal changes to surface water quality? A study along the Thur River, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Chittoor Viswanathan, Vidhya; Molson, John; Schirmer, Mario

    2015-11-01

    Changes in river water quality were investigated along the lower reach of the Thur River, Switzerland, following river restoration and a summer storm event. River restoration and hydrological storm events can each cause dramatic changes to water quality by affecting various bio-geochemical processes in the river, but have to date not been well documented, especially in combination. Evaluating the success of river restoration is often restricted in large catchments due to a lack of high frequency water quality data, which are needed for process understanding. These challenges were addressed in this study by measuring water quality parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with a high temporal frequency (15 min-1h) over selected time scales. In addition, the stable isotopes of water (δD and δ(18)O-H2O) as well as those of nitrate (δ(15)N-NO3(-) and δ(18)O-NO3(-)) were measured to follow changes in water quality in response to the hydrological changes in the river. To compare the spatial distribution of pre- and post-restoration water quality, the sampling stations were chosen upstream and downstream of the restored section. The diurnal and seasonal changes were monitored by conducting 24-hour campaigns in three seasons (winter, summer and autumn) in 2012 and 2013. The amplitude of the diurnal changes of the various observed parameters showed significant seasonal and spatial variability. Biological processes--mainly photosynthesis and respiration--were found to be the major drivers of these diurnal cycles. During low flow in autumn, a reduction of nitrate (attributed to assimilation by autotrophs) in the pre-dawn period and a production of DOC during the daytime (attributed to photosynthesis) were observed downstream of the restored site. Further, a summer storm event was found to override the influence of these biological processes that control the diurnal changes. High

  6. Temperature change affected groundwater quality in a confined marine aquifer during long-term heating and cooling.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takeshi; Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Ueki, Takashi; Ohkubo, Satoshi; Moldrup, Per; Kawamoto, Ken; Komatsu, Toshiko

    2016-05-01

    Global warming and urbanization together with development of subsurface infrastructures (e.g. subways, shopping complexes, sewage systems, and Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) systems) will likely cause a rapid increase in the temperature of relatively shallow groundwater reservoirs (subsurface thermal pollution). However, potential effects of a subsurface temperature change on groundwater quality due to changed physical, chemical, and microbial processes have received little attention. We therefore investigated changes in 34 groundwater quality parameters during a 13-month enhanced-heating period, followed by 14 months of natural or enhanced cooling in a confined marine aquifer at around 17 m depth on the Saitama University campus, Japan. A full-scale GSHP test facility consisting of a 50 m deep U-tube for circulating the heat-carrying fluid and four monitoring wells at 1, 2, 5, and 10 m from the U-tube were installed, and groundwater quality was monitored every 1-2 weeks. Rapid changes in the groundwater level in the area, especially during the summer, prevented accurate analyses of temperature effects using a single-well time series. Instead, Dual-Well Analysis (DWA) was applied, comparing variations in subsurface temperature and groundwater chemical concentrations between the thermally-disturbed well and a non-affected reference well. Using the 1 m distant well (temperature increase up to 7 °C) and the 10 m distant well (non-temperature-affected), the DWA showed an approximately linear relationships for eight components (B, Si, Li, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Mg(2+), NH4(+), Na(+), and K(+)) during the combined 27 months of heating and cooling, suggesting changes in concentration between 4% and 31% for a temperature change of 7 °C. PMID:26938497

  7. How do socio-economic status, perceived economic barriers and nutritional benefits affect quality of dietary intake among US adults?

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Socio-economic factors may affect diet quality, perhaps differentially across gender and ethnicity. The mechanism of this association is still largely unknown. Objectives We examined the independent effects of socio-economic status (SES), perceived barrier of food price (PBFP), and perceived benefit of diet quality (PBDQ) on diet quality indicators and indices (DQIj,k), across gender and ethnicity. Additionally, we estimated the mediation proportion of the effect of SES on DQIj,k through PBFP and PBDQ. Methods Data from two cross-sectional surveys, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS) 1994–96 were used. Our sample consisted of 4,356 US adults aged 20–65 years. With principal components analysis, SES (an index) was measured using household income per capita and education, and PBDQ was measured using an 11-item scale. PBFP was defined as the ratio of importance of food price score relative to nutrition. DQIj,k were assessed by a set of indicators and two indices including the Healthy Eating Index. Results The associations between SES, PBFP, PBDQ, and DQIj,k varied significantly across gender and ethnic groups. PBFP acted as a mediator in the association between SES and selected DQIj indicators, namely energy, fat intake, sodium, and simple sugar consumption (mediation proportion>10%), but not PBDQ. Conclusions SES, PBFP and PBDQ all affect dietary intake, and vary by ethnicity and gender. Positive effect of SES on DQIj,k may be mediated by PBFP but not PBDQ which is an independent protective factor. Nutrition education is important to promote healthy eating. PMID:17342164

  8. A health promotion intervention can affect diet quality in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Spence, Alison C; McNaughton, Sarah A; Lioret, Sandrine; Hesketh, Kylie D; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J

    2013-10-01

    Initiatives to promote children's nutrition and prevent childhood obesity are vital. Dietary patterns are a useful way to characterize whole diets, though no previous early childhood health promotion trial to our knowledge has assessed intervention impact using this approach. This research aimed to assess the effect of a healthy eating and physical activity intervention on young children's dietary patterns. The Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program was a health promotion, cluster-randomized controlled trial involving 542 families. Child diets were assessed by multiple 24-h recalls postintervention at ~18 mo of age. An Obesity Protective Dietary Index (OPDI) was created and dietary patterns were also assessed by principal components analysis (PCA). These outcomes were used to compare intervention and control participants to test the effectiveness of the intervention. Children in the intervention arm scored higher (15.6 ± 5.9) than those in the control arm (14.5 ± 6.7) for the OPDI (scores out of 30, P = 0.01). Three dietary patterns were identified by PCA; however, the scores did not substantially differ between the intervention and control arms. In conclusion, this paper presents novel results in both the evaluation of an early childhood health promotion intervention and the assessment of child dietary patterns. The results highlight the capacity for such an initiative to improve child diets and the need for further research in this area. PMID:23966329

  9. Chloride stress triggers maturation and negatively affects the postharvest quality of persimmon fruit. Involvement of calyx ethylene production.

    PubMed

    Besada, Cristina; Gil, Rebeca; Bonet, Luis; Quiñones, Ana; Intrigliolo, Diego; Salvador, Alejandra

    2016-03-01

    In recent years many hectares planted with persimmon trees in E Spain have been diagnosed with chloride toxicity. An effect of this abiotic stress on fruit quality has been reported in different crops. However, the impact of chloride stress on persimmon fruit quality is unknown. The harvest and postharvest quality of persimmons harvested from trees that manifest different intensities of chloride toxicity foliar symptoms was evaluated herein. Our results revealed that fruits from trees under chloride stress conditions underwent chloride accumulation in the calyx, which was more marked the greater the salt stress intensity trees were exposed to. Increased chloride concentrations in the calyx stimulated ethylene production in this tissue. In the fruits affected by slight and moderate chloride stress, calyx ethylene production accelerated the maturity process, as reflected by increased fruit colour and diminished fruit firmness. In the fruits under severe chloride stress, the high ethylene levels in the calyx triggered autocatalytic ethylene production in other fruit tissues, which led fruit maturity to drastically advance. In these fruits effectiveness of CO2 deastringency treatment was not complete and fruit softening enhanced during the postharvest period. Moreover, chloride stress conditions had a marked effect on reducing fruit weight, even in slightly stressed trees. PMID:26807935

  10. Recovery approach affects soil quality in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: implications for revegetation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chen; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-02-01

    Plants in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region disappeared due to winter-flooding and prolonged inundation. Revegetation (plantation and natural recovery) have been promoted to restore and protect the riparian ecosystem in recent years. Revegetation may affect soil qualities and have broad important implications both for ecological services and soil recovery. In this study, we investigated soil properties including soil pH values, bulk density, soil organic matter (SOM), soil nutrients and heavy metals, soil microbial community structure, microbial biomass, and soil quality index under plantation and natural recovery in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Most soil properties showed significant temporal and spatial variations in both the plantation and natural recovery areas. Higher contents of SOM and NO3-N were found in plantation area, while higher contents of soil pH values, bulk density, and total potassium were observed in the natural recovery area. However, there were no significant differences in plant richness and diversity and soil microbial community structure between the two restoration approaches. A soil quality index derived from SOM, bulk density, Zn, Cd, and Hg indicated that natural recovery areas with larger herbaceous coverage had more effective capacity for soil restoration. PMID:24019143

  11. Multiplicative and Additive Modulation of Neuronal Tuning with Population Activity Affects Encoded Information.

    PubMed

    Arandia-Romero, Iñigo; Tanabe, Seiji; Drugowitsch, Jan; Kohn, Adam; Moreno-Bote, Rubén

    2016-03-16

    Numerous studies have shown that neuronal responses are modulated by stimulus properties and also by the state of the local network. However, little is known about how activity fluctuations of neuronal populations modulate the sensory tuning of cells and affect their encoded information. We found that fluctuations in ongoing and stimulus-evoked population activity in primate visual cortex modulate the tuning of neurons in a multiplicative and additive manner. While distributed on a continuum, neurons with stronger multiplicative effects tended to have less additive modulation and vice versa. The information encoded by multiplicatively modulated neurons increased with greater population activity, while that of additively modulated neurons decreased. These effects offset each other so that population activity had little effect on total information. Our results thus suggest that intrinsic activity fluctuations may act as a "traffic light" that determines which subset of neurons is most informative. PMID:26924437

  12. Sex and storage affect cholinesterase activity in blood plasma of Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    Freezing at -25?C had confounding effects on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in blood plasma from breeding female quail, but did not affect ChE activity in plasma from males. Plasma ChE activity of control females increased consistently during 28 days of storage while both carbamate- and cidrotophos-inhibited ChE decreased. Refrigeration of plasma at 4?C for 2 days had little effect of ChE activity. Plasma ChE activity was averaged about 34% higher in breeding males than in females. Extreme caution should be exercised in use of blood plasma for evaluation of anti ChE exposure in free-living birds.

  13. LANDSAT ESTUARINE WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF SILVICULTURE AND DREDGING ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the application of Landsat multispectral scanning to estuarine water quality, with specific reference to dredging and silviculture practices. Water quality data collected biweekly since 1972 in the Apalachicola, Bay, Florida, by Florida State University, and...

  14. Fermentation Quality of Ensiled Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as Affected by Additives

    PubMed Central

    Tham, Ho Thanh; Van Man, Ngo; Pauly, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A lab-scale ensiling study was carried out to investigate the fermentation quality of water hyacinth (WH) supplemented with molasses, rice bran, as an absorbent, and an inoculant in the form of fermented vegetable juice and their combinations. After wilting the water hyacinths for 7 h to a dry matter (DM) content of 240 to 250 g/kg, the following treatments were applied: i) Control (C), WH only; ii) WH with sugarcane molasses at 40 g/kg WH (CM); iii) WH inoculated with fermented vegetable juice at 10 ml/kg WH (CI); iv) CM and CI (CMI) combined; v) WH with 150 g rice bran/kg WH (CA); vi) CA and CI combined (CAI); vii) CA and CM combined (CAM); and viii) CA, CM and CI combined (CAMI). After application of additives, the differently treated forages were mixed and ensiled in triplicates in 1,500-ml polyethylene jars. After ensiling for 3 d, pH values in all treatments, except C and CI, had decreased to approximately 4.0 and remained low till 14 d. After 56 d, pH had increased between 0.4 to 0.9 pH-units compared to those at 14 d. The ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration ranged from an acceptable level in treatment CM (8 g/kg N) to a high NH3-N value in treatment CMI (16 g/kg N). Lactic acid formation was higher in CI than in all other treatments. Butyric acid contents, which indicate badly fermented silages, were low in all silages (<2 g/kg DM). There were two-way interactions (p-values from <0.001 to 0.045) for almost all fermentation end-products and pH, except for the molasses×inoculant interaction on NH3-N (p = 0.26). Significant 3-way interactions were found on all observed variables except for weight losses of silages. It is concluded that conserving wilted WH as silage for ruminants may be improved by the addition of molasses or rice bran. PMID:25049776

  15. Shifts in vegetation affect organic carbon quality in a coastal marsh along the Hudson River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, A. H.; Corbett, J. E.; Tfaily, M. M.; Martin, I.; Ho, L.; Sun, E.; Sevilla, L.; Vincent, S.; Newton, R.; Peteet, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    To better understand carbon storage in coastal salt marshes, samples were collected from Piermont Marsh, NY (40 ̊00' N, 73 ̊55'W) located within the Hudson River Estuary. Porewater from three different vegetation sites was analyzed to compare the quality of the dissolved organic carbon. Sites contained either native or invasive vegetation with variations in live plant root depth. Porewater was taken from 0-3m in 50cm intervals, and sites were dominated either by invasive Phragmites australis, native Eleocharis , or native mixed vegetation (Spartina patens, Scirpus, and Typha angustifolia). Sites dominated by invasive Phragmites australis were found to have lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, lower cDOM absorption values, and more labile organic carbon compounds. The molecular composition of the DOC was determined with Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Labile DOC components were defined as proteins, carbohydrates, and amino sugars while recalcitrant DOC components were defined as lipids, unsaturated hydrocarbons, lignins, tannins, and condensed hydrocarbons. For the Phragmites, Eleocharis, and mixed vegetation sites, average DOC concentrations with depth were found to be 1.71 ± 1.06, 4.64 ± 1.73, and 4.62 ± 3.5 (mM), respectively and cDOM absorption values with depth were found to be 13.22 ± 4.81, 49.42 ± 10.8, and 35.74 ± 17.49 (m-1). Additionally, DOC concentrations increased with depth in the mixed vegetation and Eleocharis sites, but remained relatively constant in the Phragmites site. The percent of labile compounds in the surface samples were found to be 19.02, 14.64, and 14.07% for the Phragmites, Eleocharis, and mixed vegetation sites, respectively. These findings suggest that sites dominated by Phragmites may have more reactive DOC substrates than sites dominated by native vegetation. These results indicate that the carbon storage in marshes invaded by Phragmites would be expected to decrease over time.

  16. Endosperm structure affects the malting quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Ulla R M; Wilhelmson, Annika; Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo; Rajala, Ari; Reinikainen, Pekka; Kotaviita, Erja; Simolin, Helena; Home, Silja

    2005-09-01

    Twenty-seven barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) samples collected from growing sites in Scandinavia in 2001 and 2002 were examined to study the effect of endosperm structure on malting behavior. Samples were micromalted, and several malt characteristics were measured. Samples were classified as having a mealier or steelier endosperm on the basis of light transflectance (LTm). Because endosperm structure is greatly dependent on protein content, three barley sample pairs with similar protein contents were chosen for further analysis. During malting, the steelier barley samples produced less root mass, but showed higher respiration losses and higher activities of starch-hydrolyzing enzymes. Malts made from steelier barley had a less friable structure, with more urea-soluble D hordein and more free amino nitrogen and soluble protein. The reason for these differences may lie in the structure or localization of the hordeins as well as the possible effects of endosperm packing on water uptake and movement of enzymes. PMID:16131143

  17. Rootstock and fruit canopy position affect peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] (cv. Rich May) plant productivity and fruit sensorial and nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Gullo, Gregorio; Motisi, Antonio; Zappia, Rocco; Dattola, Agostino; Diamanti, Jacopo; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2014-06-15

    The right combination of rootstock and training system is important for increased yield and fruit sensorial and nutritional homogeneity and quality with peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]. We investigated the effects of rootstock and training system on these parameters, testing the effect of vigorous GF677 and weaker Penta rootstock on 'Rich May' peach cultivar. Fruit position effects regarding photosynthetically active radiation availability, along the canopy profile using the Y training system, were investigated. The positive relationships between total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity according to canopy vigour and architecture were determined for the two scion/stock combinations. Changes in fruit epicarp colour and content of bioactive compounds were also determined. Lower-vigour trees from Penta rootstock grafting yielded larger fruit with improved skin overcolour, and greater total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity. GF677 rootstock produced more vigorous trees with fruit with lower sensorial and nutritional parameters. Canopy position strongly affects fruit sensorial and nutritional qualities. These data define potential for improvements to peach production efficiency and fruit quality, particularly for southern Europe peach cultivation conditions. PMID:24491725

  18. Bilateral implant reconstruction does not affect the quality of postmastectomy radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Alice Y.; Patel, Nisha; Ohri, Nisha; Morrow, Monica; Mehrara, Babak J.; Disa, Joseph J.; Cordeiro, Peter G.; Shi, Weiji; Zhang, Zhigang; Gelblum, Daphna; Nerbun, Claire T.; Woch, Katherine M.; Ballangrud, Ase; McCormick, Beryl; Powell, Simon N.

    2014-04-01

    To determine if the presence of bilateral implants, in addition to other anatomic and treatment-related variables, affects coverage of the target volume and dose to the heart and lung in patients receiving postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT). A total of 197 consecutive women with breast cancer underwent mastectomy and immediate tissue expander (TE) placement, with or without exchange for a permanent implant (PI) before radiation therapy at our center. PMRT was delivered with 2 tangential beams + supraclavicular lymph node field (50 Gy). Patients were grouped by implant number: 51% unilateral (100) and 49% bilateral (97). The planning target volume (PTV) (defined as implant + chest wall + nodes), heart, and ipsilateral lung were contoured and the following parameters were abstracted from dose-volume histogram (DVH) data: PTV D{sub 95%} > 98%, Lung V{sub 20}Gy > 30%, and Heart V{sub 25}Gy > 5%. Univariate (UVA) and multivariate analyses (MVA) were performed to determine the association of variables with these parameters. The 2 groups were well balanced for implant type and volume, internal mammary node (IMN) treatment, and laterality. In the entire cohort, 90% had PTV D{sub 95%} > 98%, indicating excellent coverage of the chest wall. Of the patients, 27% had high lung doses (V{sub 20}Gy > 30%) and 16% had high heart doses (V{sub 25}Gy > 5%). No significant factors were associated with suboptimal PTV coverage. On MVA, IMN treatment was found to be highly associated with high lung and heart doses (both p < 0.0001), but implant number was not (p = 0.54). In patients with bilateral implants, IMN treatment was the only predictor of dose to the contralateral implant (p = 0.001). In conclusion, bilateral implants do not compromise coverage of the target volume or increase lung and heart dose in patients receiving PMRT. The most important predictor of high lung and heart doses in patients with implant-based reconstruction, whether unilateral or bilateral, is treatment of

  19. Usability and quality of the Cluster Active Archive (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, H. E.

    2009-12-01

    There is a large number of data archives for magnetospheric physics that, however, usually provide access only to spin-averaged datasets. In addition only limited resources have been used to calibrate the measurements to a level that the users could easily analyze them with no need to worry about the quality of the data. These are the starting points to the ESA Cluster Active Archive (CAA, see URL: http://caa.estec.esa.int) that provides access to the calibrated full-resolution datasets of the four-satellite Cluster mission. The data archive is publicly accessible and suitable for science use and publication by the world-wide scientific community. This presentation will focus on the usability aspects of the overall system and its services and the quality of its datasets. The Cluster mission has collected observations for nine years since 2001 and has now submitted a proposal for further observations during years 2010-12. The CAA will contain the entire set of Cluster high-resolution data and other allied products in a standard format and with a complete set of metadata in machine readable format. The data can be accessed either via web GUI or via command line wget tool. Currently there are more than 200 datasets from each spacecraft, including high-resolution magnetic and electric DC and AC fields; full 3-dimensional electron and ion distribution functions and moments from a few eV to hundreds of keV; and various ancillary and browse products to help with spacecraft and event location. To ensure the high quality of its datasets, the CAA runs a series of cross-calibration workshops that focus on detailed comparisons of the measurements. Currently the observations from years 2001-7 are available for most instruments. The total amount of data files in compressed format is expected to exceed 50 TB. The CAA became operational in February 2006 and now has more than 900 registered users who download about 100-1000 GB of data every month. The CAA provides user

  20. The effect of antifungal hot-water treatments on papaya postharvest quality and activity of pectinmethylesterase and polygalacturonase.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Sánchez, Ignacio; Carrillo-López, Armando; Vega-García, Misael; Yahia, Elhadi M

    2013-02-01

    The effect of antifungal hot-water treatments (AHWT) at 55 °C for 0, 3, 6 and 9 min on quality attributes and cell-wall enzymatic activity during storage at 25 °C was investigated in papaya fruit. The total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), firmness and fresh weight loss were not affected, whereas color on skin was negatively affected by the treatments of 6- and 9-min. However, the skin color was not different between the 3-min treated fruit and the untreated fruit during the storage. Decay was delayed and reduced by AHWT. We observed that the 3-min treatment of 55 °C did not affect softening and quality of papaya cv Maradol when applied as a pesticide-free treatment at color-break stage of papaya. PME (Pectinmethylesterase) and PG (Polygalacturonase) activities were not significantly affected by AHWT. We concluded that the AHWT did not affect the softening process from papaya pulp since the cell-wall enzyme activity (PME and PG) was not altered by treatments. PMID:24425893

  1. Soil Organic Matter Quality of an Oxisol Affected by Plant Residues and Crop Sequence under No-Tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cora, Jose; Marcelo, Adolfo

    2013-04-01

    Plant residues are considered the primarily resource for soil organic matter (SOM) formation and the amounts and properties of plant litter are important controlling factors for the SOM quality. We determined the amounts, quality and decomposition rate of plant residues and the effects of summer and winter crop sequences on soil organic C (TOC) content, both particulate organic C (POC) and mineral-associated organic C (MOC) pools and humic substances in a Brazilian Rhodic Eutrudox soil under a no-tillage system. The organic C analysis in specifics pools used in this study was effective and should be adopted in tropical climates to evaluate the soil quality and the sustainability of various cropping systems. Continuous growth of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) on summer provided higher contents of soil POC and continuous growth of maize (Zea mays L.) provided higher soil humic acid and MOC contents. Summer soybean-maize rotation provided the higher plant diversity, which likely improved the soil microbial activity and the soil organic C consumption. The winter sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke) enhanced the soil MOC, a finding that is attributable to the higher N content of the crop residue. Sunn hemp and pigeon pea provided the higher soil POC content. Sunn hemp showed better performance and positive effects on the SOM quality, making it a suitable winter crop choice for tropical conditions with a warm and dry winter.

  2. In the mood for love or vice versa? Exploring the relations among sexual activity, physical affection, affect, and stress in the daily lives of mid-aged women.

    PubMed

    Burleson, Mary H; Trevathan, Wenda R; Todd, Michael

    2007-06-01

    How do physical affection, sexual activity, mood, and stress influence one another in the daily lives of mid-aged women? Fifty-eight women (M age, 47.6 yrs) recorded physical affection, several different sexual behaviors, stressful events, and mood ratings every morning for 36 weeks. Using multilevel modeling, we determined that physical affection or sexual behavior with a partner on one day significantly predicted lower negative mood and stress and higher positive mood on the following day. The relation did not hold for orgasm without a partner. Additionally, positive mood on one day predicted more physical affection and sexual activity with a partner, but fewer solo orgasms the following day. Negative mood was mostly unrelated to next-day sexual activity or physical affection. Sexual orientation, living with a partner, and duration of relationship moderated some of these effects. Results support a bidirectional causal model in which dyadic sexual interaction and physical affection improve mood and reduce stress, with improved mood and reduced stress in turn increasing the likelihood of future sex and physical affection. PMID:17109236

  3. Starch, inulin and maltodextrin as encapsulating agents affect the quality and stability of jussara pulp microparticles.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Ellen Cristina Quirino; Calado, Verônica Maria de Araújo; Monteiro, Mariana; Finotelli, Priscilla Vanessa; Torres, Alexandre Guedes; Perrone, Daniel

    2016-10-20

    The influence of encapsulating carbohydrates (EC) with varying properties on the technological and functional properties of jussara pulp microparticles produced by spray drying were evaluated using experimental design. Microparticles produced with sodium octenyl succinate (OSA) starch at 0.5 core to EC ratio and with mixtures of inulin and maltodextrin at 1.0 and 2.0 core to EC ratio showed darker color, and higher anthocyanins contents and antioxidant activity. Seven microparticles showing high water solubility and desirable surface morphology. Hygroscopicity (10.7% and 11.5%) and wettability (41s and 43s) were improved when OSA starch and mixtures of inulin and maltodextrin were used. The anthocyanins contents and color of the microparticles did not change when exposed to light at 50°C for 38days. Finally, microparticles produced at 1.0 core to EC ratio with 2/3 OSA starch, 1/6 inulin and 1/6 maltodextrin were selected. These microparticles may be applied as colorant in numerous foods, whilst adding prebiotic fiber and anthocyanins. PMID:27474594

  4. Disease activity, quality of life and indirect costs of psoriatic arthritis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kawalec, Paweł; Malinowski, Krzysztof Piotr; Pilc, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the indirect costs, health-related quality of life and clinical characteristics of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), measured using a PsA disease activity index in Poland. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the association between the activity, utility of PsA-affected patients and productivity loss in a Polish setting. A questionnaire survey was conducted to assess disease activity, as well as productivity loss, and a paper version of the EuroQoly-5D-3L questionnaire was used to assess productivity loss and the quality of life. Indirect costs were assessed with the human capital approach employing the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, gross value added (GVA) and gross income (GI) per worker in 2014 in Poland and were expressed in Polish zlotys (PLN) as well as in euros. The correlation was presented using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Our analysis was performed on the basis of 50 full questionnaires collected. We observed a mean utility value of 0.6567. The mean number of days off work was 2.88 days per month, and mean on-the-job productivity loss was 24.1 %. Average monthly indirect costs per patient were €206.7 (864.01 PLN) calculated using the GDP; €484.56 (2025.46 PLN) calculated using the GVA; and €209.70 (876.56 PLN) calculated using the GI. PsA reduces the patients' quality of life as well as their productivity loss associated with both absenteeism and presenteeism. Total indirect costs were negatively correlated with utility. The greater the disease activity, the lower the utility and the greater the indirect costs. PMID:27339273

  5. Sound quality of low-frequency and car engine noises after active noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, A.; Ferrer, M.; de Diego, M.; Piñero, G.; Garcia-Bonito, J. J.

    2003-08-01

    The ability of active noise control (ANC) systems to achieve a more pleasant sound has been evaluated by means of sound quality analysis of a real multi-channel active noise controller. Recordings of real car engine noises had been carried out using a Head acoustics TM binaural head simulator seated in a typical car seat, and these signals together with synthesized noise have been actively controlled in an enclosed room. The sound quality study has focused on the estimation of noise quality changes through the evaluation of the sense of comfort. Two methods have been developed: firstly, a predictive method based on psychoacoustic parameters (loudness, roughness, tonality and sharpness); and secondly, a subjective method using a jury test. Both results have been related to the spectral characteristics of the sounds before and after active control. It can be concluded from both analyses that ANC positively affects acoustic comfort. The engine noise mathematical comfort predictor is based on loudness and roughness (two psychoacoustic parameters directly influenced by ANC), and has satisfactorily predicted the improvements in the pleasantness of the sounds. As far as the subjective evaluation method is concerned, the jury test has showed that acoustic comfort is, in most cases, directly related to the sense of quietness. However, ANC has also been assessed negatively by the jury in the cases that it was unable to reduce the loudness, perhaps because of the low amplitudes of the original sounds. Finally, from what has been shown, it can be said that the subjective improvements strongly depends on the attenuation level achieved by the ANC system operation, as well as the spectral characteristics of the sounds before and after control.

  6. Locomotor micro-activities associated with therapeutic responses in patients with seasonal affective disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu; Teicher, Martin H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychomotor retardation, leaden paralysis and fatigue are often used to describe patients with depressive disorders. However, there is limited understanding of their meaning and how they are objectively manifested in the physical world. Patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) are characteristically hypoactive, and experience restoration in energy during effective treatment with bright light. In this study, we attempt to identify quantitative metrics of psychomotor activity that correspond to the clinical perceptions of hypoactivity and to the early activating effects of treatment. Methods Novel means of assessing the microstructure of activity was employed using wavelets and Hurst exponents to indicate the proclivity of subjects to persist at higher and lower levels of activity. This was assesed using actigraphs in 16 unmedicated patients with SAD before and following two weeks of bright light therapy. Results Two weeks of phototherapy had no significant effect on mean levels of diurnal activity, but altered the microstructure of the activity. Specifically, phototherapy produced a significant reduction in inertial resistance in patients who had a 50% or greater reduction in Hamilton Depression scores (n=8), as reflected in reduced tendency to persist at low levels of activity. There was also a strong correlation between ratings of fatigue and measures of persistence at high versus low activity in initial responders, but not in initial non-responders. Conclusion These findings suggest that light therapy alters the nature of diurnal activity troughs in early responsive patients, reducing their tendency to persist at low levels, possibly reflecting an alleviation of psychomotor retardation. PMID:27135034

  7. Relationships among affective factors and preferred engagement in science-related activities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances; Lin, Shu-Fen; Hong, Zuway-R

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated how affective factors impact participation in science learning using structural equation modeling. Using a dataset from Taiwan, a model was obtained that showed the relationships among science-related interest, enjoyment, self-efficacy, self-concept, competency, leisure time engagement, and future interest in science. The paths relating to engagement and future interest were much stronger for interest and enjoyment than for self-efficacy and self-concept. There was no significant path between science competency and future science interest or engagement. The results suggest that the affective and cognitive pathways to scientific competency are divergent and that they might be differentially activated by different contexts and activities. This indicates that school science educators might wish to reconsider the merit of overemphasizing achievement in comparison to interest. Finally, the results suggest that the development of science competency per se may not be the best way to ensure public engagement and understanding of science. PMID:24151085

  8. 76 FR 61707 - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the intention of the Agency for Healthcare Research and...

  9. Ambient air concentration of sulfur dioxide affects flight activity in bees

    SciTech Connect

    Ginevan, M.E.; Lane, D.D.; Greenberg, L.

    1980-10-01

    Three long-term (16 to 29 days) low-level (0.14 to 0.28 ppM) sulfur dioxide fumigations showed that exposure tothis gas has deleterious effects on male sweat bees (Lasioglossum zephrum). Although effects on mortality were equivocal, flight activity was definitely reduced. Because flight is necessary for successful mating behavior, the results suggest that sulfur dioxide air pollution could adversely affect this and doubtless other terrestrial insects.

  10. Effect of Spinal Cord Injury on Quality of Life of Affected Soldiers in India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bhawna

    2016-01-01

    Study Design A prospective cross-sectional study with convenience sampling approach was done to assess quality of life (QoL) in 100 soldiers and veterans affected by spinal cord injury (SCI). Purpose SCI affects almost every aspect of the life of an affected individual. This study was done to measure the impact of SCI on QoL of affected soldiers and veterans using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Overview of Literature The devastating effect of SCI on QoL is well known. However, this study is unique in that it includes soldiers and veterans, who constitute a large, but excluded, cohort in most demographic studies. Methods A cross-sectional study was done at two SCI rehabilitation centres of the Indian armed forces. Data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 100 patients, which included both sociodemographic data as well as all the questions included in WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results Age and marital status did not have any influence on QoL. Level of injury (paraplegic or quadriplegic), level of education and presence of other medical co-morbidities had the most significant influence on QoL. Presence of other medical co-morbidities had a negative influence on QoL. Conclusions Identification of factors having a positive and negative influence on QoL help in formulating measures and policies that positively influence the QoL following SCI in soldiers. Future longitudinal studies with larger sample sizes and assessment of additional variables in addition to WHOQOL-BREF, like presence/absence of secondary complications, are required to bring about policy changes to provide SCI patients with additional support and increased access to equipment or lifestyle interventions. PMID:27114767

  11. How grazing and soil quality affect native and exotic plant diversity in Rocky Mountain grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Schell, L.D.; Vanden, Heuvel B.

    1999-01-01

    (adjacent and distant 1000-m2 plots) in the same vegetation type overlapped just 48.6 ?? 3.6%, and the ungrazed plots and distant grazed plots overlapped 49.4 ?? 3.6%. Differences in vegetation and soils between grazed and ungrazed sites were minimal in most cases, but soil characteristics and elevation were strongly correlated with native and exotic plant diversity in the study region. For the 78 1000-m2 plots, 59.4% of the variance in total species richness was explained by percentage of silt (coefficient = 0.647, t = 5.107, P < 0.001), elevation (coefficient = 0.012, t = 5.084, P < 0.001), and total foliar cover (coefficient = 0.110, t = 2.104, P < 0.039). Only 12.8% of the variance in exotic species cover (log10cover) was explained by percentage of clay (coefficient = -0.011, t = -2.878, P < 0.005), native species richness (coefficient = -0.011, t = -2.156, P < 0.034), and log10N (coefficient = 2.827, t = 1.860, P < 0.067). Native species cover and exotic species richness and frequency were also significantly positively correlated with percentage of soil N at the 1000-m2 plot scale. Our research led to five broad generalizations about current levels of grazing in these Rocky Mountain grasslands: (1) grazing probably has little effect on native species richness at landscape scales; (2) grazing probably has little effect on the accelerated spread of most exotic plant species at landscape scales; (3) grazing affects local plant species and life-form composition and cover, but spatial variation is considerable; (4) soil characteristics, climate, and disturbances may have a greater effect on plant species diversity than do current levels of grazing; and (5) few plant species show consistent, directional responses to grazing or cessation of grazing.

  12. Protease-activated-receptor-2 affects protease-activated-receptor-1-driven breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Mohammad; Maoz, Miriam; Kancharla, Arun; Agranovich, Daniel; Peretz, Tamar; Grisaru-Granovsky, Sorina; Uziely, Beatrice; Bar-Shavit, Rachel

    2014-07-01

    Mammalian protease-activated-receptor-1 and -2 (PAR1 and PAR2) are activated by proteases found in the flexible microenvironment of a tumor and play a central role in breast cancer. We propose in the present study that PAR1 and PAR2 act together as a functional unit during malignant and physiological invasion processes. This notion is supported by assessing pro-tumor functions in the presence of short hairpin; shRNA knocked-down hPar2 or by the use of a truncated PAR2 devoid of the entire cytoplasmic tail. Silencing of hPar2 by shRNA-attenuated thrombin induced PAR1 signaling as recapitulated by inhibiting the assembly of Etk/Bmx or Akt onto PAR1-C-tail, by thrombin-instigated colony formation and invasion. Strikingly, shRNA-hPar2 also inhibited the TFLLRN selective PAR1 pro-tumor functions. In addition, while evaluating the physiological invasion process of placenta extravillous trophoblast (EVT) organ culture, we observed inhibition of both thrombin or the selective PAR1 ligand; TFLLRNPNDK induced EVT invasion by shRNA-hPar2 but not by scrambled shRNA-hPar2. In parallel, when a truncated PAR2 was utilized in a xenograft mouse model, it inhibited PAR1-PAR2-driven tumor growth in vivo. Similarly, it also attenuated the interaction of Etk/Bmx with the PAR1-C-tail in vitro and decreased markedly selective PAR1-induced Matrigel invasion. Confocal images demonstrated co-localization of PAR1 and PAR2 in HEK293T cells over-expressing YFP-hPar2 and HA-hPar1. Co-immuno-precipitation analyses revealed PAR1-PAR2 complex formation but no PAR1-CXCR4 complex was formed. Taken together, our observations show that PAR1 and PAR2 act as a functional unit in tumor development and placenta-uterus interactions. This conclusion may have significant consequences on future breast cancer therapeutic modalities and improved late pregnancy outcome. PMID:24177339

  13. The affect of industrial activities on zinc in alluvial Egyptian soil determined using neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Sabour, M F; Abdel-Basset, N

    2002-07-01

    Thirty-two surface (0-20 cm) soil samples were collected from different locations in Egypt representing non-polluted, moderately and highly polluted soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate total Zn content in alluvial soils of Nile Delta in Egypt by using the delayed neutron activation analysis technique (DNAA), in the irradiation facilities of the first Egyptian research reactor (ET-RR-1). The gamma-ray spectra were recorded with a hyper pure germanium detection system. The well resolved gamma-ray peak at 1116.0 keV was efficiently used for 65Zn content determination. Zn content in non-polluted soil samples ranged between 74.1 and 103.8 ppm with an average of 98.5 +/- 5.1 ppm. Zn content in moderately polluted soils ranged between 136.0 and 232.5 ppm with an average of 180.1 +/- 32.6 ppm. The highest Zn levels ranging from 240.0 and 733.0 ppm with an average of 410.3 +/- 54.4 ppm, were observed in soil samples collected from, either highly polluted agricultural soils exposed to prolonged irrigation with industrial wastewater or surface soil samples from industrial sites. PMID:12211982

  14. Does the trematode Centrocestus formosanus affect the locomotory activity of the mollusc Melanoides tuberculatus?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774) (Thiaridae), an introduced gastropod mollusc with a wide geographical distribution in the Neotropics, is the intermediate host of the trematode Centrocestus formosanus (Nishigori, 1924) (Heterophyidae). This parasite is considered to be pathogenic to humans. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the locomotory activity of uninfected M. tuberculatus compared with those naturally infected with C. formosanus. Findings The locomotory activity of each mollusc was recorded using an image analysis biomonitoring system, Videomex-V ®, to evaluate and quantify the parameters of ‘Stereotypic’ and ‘Resting time’. The Generalized Estimating Equation analysis of locomotory activity of M. tuberculatus infected with C. formosanus revealed significant differences compared with uninfected molluscs for the parameters ‘Stereotypic time’ and ‘Resting time’ with a reduction of movement. The variations in the values of the monitoring intervals recorded showed a significant difference for the infected molluscs in the case of Stereotypic time, with an irregular locomotory activity pattern, as compared to that of uninfected molluscs. The analysis of the standard length of all molluscs did not exhibit any correlation with locomotory activity, showing that C. formosanus is able to alter the locomotory activity of its snail host regardless of the standard length. Conclusions The trematode C. formosanus affects the locomotory activity of the mollusc M. tuberculatus by reducing its movement and causing it to exhibit an irregular pattern of activity, both of which are independent of the snail's standard length. PMID:23574763

  15. Water quality, sediment, and soil characteristics near Fargo-Moorhead urban areas as affected by major flooding of the Red River of the North

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to assess if urban environments affect floodwater quality, and to determine the quantity and quality of overbank sediment deposited in an urban environment after floodwaters recede. Water samples during major flooding of the Red River of the North (RR) were taken on...

  16. Influence of Shielding Gas and Mechanical Activation of Metal Powders on the Quality of Surface Sintered Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saprykina, N. A.; Saprykin, A. A.; Arkhipova, D. A.

    2016-04-01

    The thesis analyses the influence of argon shielding gas and mechanical activation of PMS-1 copper powder and DSK-F75 cobalt chrome molybdenum powder on the surface sintered layer quality under various sintering conditions. Factors affecting the quality of the sintered surface and internal structure are studied. The obtained results prove positive impact of the shielding gas and mechanical activation. Sintering PMS-1 copper powder in argon shielding gas after mechanical activation leads to reduced internal stresses and roughness, as well as improved strength characteristics of the sintered surface. Analysis of sintered samples of mechanically activated DSK-F75 cobalt chrome molybdenum powder shows that the strength of the sintered surface grows porosity and coagulation changes.

  17. The cleaning method selected for new PEX pipe installation can affect short-term drinking water quality.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Keven M; Stenson, Alexandra C; Cooley, Racheal; Dey, Rajarashi; Whelton, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    The influence of four different cleaning methods used for newly installed polyethylene (PEX) pipes on chemical and odor quality was determined. Bench-scale testing of two PEX (type b) pipe brands showed that the California Plumbing Code PEX installation method does not maximize total organic carbon (TOC) removal. TOC concentration and threshold odor number values significantly varied between two pipe brands. Different cleaning methods impacted carbon release, odor, as well the level of drinking water odorant ethyl tert-butyl ether. Both pipes caused odor values up to eight times greater than the US federal drinking water odor limit. Unique to this project was that organic chemicals released by PEX pipe were affected by pipe brand, fill/empty cycle frequency, and the pipe cleaning method selected by the installer. PMID:26608758

  18. False alarm reduction in BSN-based cardiac monitoring using signal quality and activity type information.

    PubMed

    Tanantong, Tanatorn; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit; Thiemjarus, Surapa

    2015-01-01

    False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs) can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring. PMID:25671512

  19. False Alarm Reduction in BSN-Based Cardiac Monitoring Using Signal Quality and Activity Type Information

    PubMed Central

    Tanantong, Tanatorn; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit; Thiemjarus, Surapa

    2015-01-01

    False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs) can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring. PMID:25671512

  20. Balancing Protein Stability and Activity in Cancer: A New Approach for Identifying Driver Mutations Affecting CBL Ubiquitin Ligase Activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghui; Kales, Stephen C; Ma, Ke; Shoemaker, Benjamin A; Crespo-Barreto, Juan; Cangelosi, Andrew L; Lipkowitz, Stanley; Panchenko, Anna R

    2016-02-01

    Oncogenic mutations in the monomeric Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (Cbl) gene have been found in many tumors, but their significance remains largely unknown. Several human c-Cbl (CBL) structures have recently been solved, depicting the protein at different stages of its activation cycle and thus providing mechanistic insight underlying how stability-activity tradeoffs in cancer-related proteins-may influence disease onset and progression. In this study, we computationally modeled the effects of missense cancer mutations on structures representing four stages of the CBL activation cycle to identify driver mutations that affect CBL stability, binding, and activity. We found that recurrent, homozygous, and leukemia-specific mutations had greater destabilizing effects on CBL states than random noncancer mutations. We further tested the ability of these computational models, assessing the changes in CBL stability and its binding to ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2, by performing blind CBL-mediated EGFR ubiquitination assays in cells. Experimental CBL ubiquitin ligase activity was in agreement with the predicted changes in CBL stability and, to a lesser extent, with CBL-E2 binding affinity. Two thirds of all experimentally tested mutations affected the ubiquitin ligase activity by either destabilizing CBL or disrupting CBL-E2 binding, whereas about one-third of tested mutations were found to be neutral. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that computational methods incorporating multiple protein conformations and stability and binding affinity evaluations can successfully predict the functional consequences of cancer mutations on protein activity, and provide a proof of concept for mutations in CBL. PMID:26676746

  1. The dual task-cost of standing balance affects quality of life in mildly disabled MS people.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Letizia; De Luca, Francesca; Marchetti, Maria Rita; Sellitto, Giovanni; Fanelli, Fulvia; Prosperini, Luca

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the correlations between the dual-task cost (DTC) of standing balance and quality of life (QoL) in mildly disabled patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In this cross-sectional study, patients affected by MS with an expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score of 3.0 or less and without an overt balance impairment were tested by means of static posturography under eyes-opened (single-task condition) and while performing the Stroop word-color test (dual-task condition), to estimate the DTC of standing balance. The self-reported 54-item MS quality of life questionnaire (MSQoL-54) was also administered to obtain a MS-specific assessment of health-related QoL. Among the 120 screened patients, 75 (53 women, 22 men) were tested. Although there was no impact of the DTC of standing balance on the physical and mental composite scores of MSQoL-54, patients who had a greater DTC of standing balance scored worse on role limitations due to physical problems (p = 0.007) and social function (p < 0.001), irrespective of demographic and other clinical characteristics including walking performance and cognitive status. However, the EDSS step and fatigue also contributed to reduced scores in these two QoL domains (p-values < 0.01). In conclusion, the phenomenon of cognitive-motor interference, investigated as DTC of standing balance, may affect specific QoL domains even in mildly disabled patients with MS and in the absence of an overt balance dysfunction. PMID:26728268

  2. Final Report Project Activity Task ORD-FY04-002 Nevada System of Higher Education Quality Assurance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Smiecinski, Amy; Keeler, Raymond; Bertoia, Julie; Mueller, Terry; Roosa, Morris; Roosa, Barbara

    2008-03-07

    The principal purpose of DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC28-04RW12232 is to develop and continue providing the public and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with an independently derived, unbiased body of scientific and engineering data concerning the study of Yucca Mountain as a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Under this agreement, the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE), formerly the University and Community College System of Nevada (UCCSN), performs scientific or engineering research, and maintains and fosters collaborative working relationships between government and academic researchers. In performing these activities, the NSHE has already developed and implemented a Quality Assurance (QA) program, which was accepted by the DOE Office of Quality Assurance, under the previous Cooperative Agreement Number DE-FC28-98NV12081. The following describes the objectives of Project Activity 002 “Quality Assurance Program” under cooperative agreement DE-FC28-04RW12232. The objective of this QA program was to assure that data produced under the cooperative agreement met the OCRWM QA Requirements and Description (QARD) requirements for quality-affecting (Q) data. The QA Program was written to address specific QARD requirements historically identified and incorporated in Q activities to the degree appropriate for the nature, scope, and complexity of the activity. Additional QARD requirements were integrated into the program when required to complete a specific activity. NSHE QA staff developed a detailed matrix to address each QARD element, identifying the applicable requirements and specifying where each requirement is addressed in the QA program procedures, or identify requirements as “not applicable” to the QA program. Controlled documents were prepared in the form of QA procedures (QAPs) and implementing procedures (IPs). NSHE identified new QAPs and IPs when needed. NSHE PIs

  3. Assessment of water quality and factors affecting dissolved oxygen in the Sangamon River, Decatur to Riverton, Illinois, summer 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, A.R.; Stamer, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Water quality and processes that affect the dissolved-oxygen concentration in a 45.9 mile reach of the Sangamon River from Decatur to Riverton, Illinois, were determined from data collected during low-flow periods in the summer of 1982. Relations among dissolved oxygen, water discharge, biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia and nitrite plus nitrate concentrations, and photosynthetic-oxygen production were simulated using a one-dimensional, steady-state computer model. Average dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 8.0 milligrams per liter at the upstream end of the study reach at Decatur to 5.2 milligrams per liter 12.2 miles downstream. Ammonia concentrations ranged from 45 milligrams per liter at the mouth of Stevens Creek (2.6 miles downstream from Decatur) to 0.03 milligram per liter at the downstream end of the study reach. Un-ionized ammonia concentrations exceeded the maximum concentration specified in the State water quality standard (0.04 milligram per liter) throughout most of the study reach. Model simulations indicated that oxidation of ammonia to form nitrite plus nitrate was the most significant process leading to low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the river. (USGS)

  4. Acclimations to light quality on plant and leaf level affect the vulnerability of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Anna M; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the influence of light quality on the vulnerability of pepper plants to water deficit. For this purpose plants were cultivated either under compact fluorescence lamps (CFL) or light-emitting diodes (LED) providing similar photon fluence rates (95 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) but distinct light quality. CFL emit a wide-band spectrum with dominant peaks in the green and red spectral region, whereas LEDs offer narrow band spectra with dominant peaks at blue (445 nm) and red (665 nm) regions. After one-week acclimation to light conditions plants were exposed to water deficit by withholding irrigation; this period was followed by a one-week regeneration period and a second water deficit cycle. In general, plants grown under CFL suffered more from water deficit than plants grown under LED modules, as indicated by the impairment of the photosynthetic efficiency of PSII, resulting in less biomass accumulation compared to respective control plants. As affected by water shortage, plants grown under CFL had a stronger decrease in the electron transport rate (ETR) and more pronounced increase in heat dissipation (NPQ). The higher amount of blue light suppressed plant growth and biomass formation, and consequently reduced the water demand of plants grown under LEDs. Moreover, pepper plants exposed to high blue light underwent adjustments at chloroplast level (e.g., higher Chl a/Chl b ratio), increasing the photosynthetic performance under the LED spectrum. Differently than expected, stomatal conductance was comparable for water-deficit and control plants in both light conditions during the stress and recovery phases, indicating only minor adjustments at the stomatal level. Our results highlight the potential of the target-use of light quality to induce structural and functional acclimations improving plant performance under stress situations. PMID:25626402

  5. Cannabinoid Modulation of Frontolimbic Activation and Connectivity During Volitional Regulation of Negative Affect.

    PubMed

    Gorka, Stephanie M; Phan, K Luan; Lyons, Maryssa; Mori, Shoko; Angstadt, Mike; Rabinak, Christine A

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral and brain research indicates that administration of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alters threat perception and enhances the suppression of conditioned fear responses via modulation of the frontolimbic circuit. No prior studies, however, have examined whether THC also affects volitional forms of emotion processing such as cognitive reappraisal. The aim of the current study was therefore to examine the effects of THC on frontolimbic activation and functional connectivity during cognitive reappraisal in a sample of healthy adults. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subject design and all participants ingested either an oral dose of synthetic THC (n=41) or placebo (n=37) before completion of an emotion regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Functional connectivity was assessed using generalized psychophysiological interaction (gPPI) analyses. Results indicated that although there were no group differences in self-reported attenuation of negative affect during cognitive reappraisal, relative to placebo, THC increased amygdala activation and reduced amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) functional coupling during cognitive reappraisal of emotionally negative pictures. This suggests that in addition to automatic emotional processes, THC affects frontolimbic functioning during cognitive reappraisal. PMID:26647971

  6. Affection of Fundamental Brain Activity By Using Sounds For Patients With Prosodic Disorders: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Emiko; Katagiri, Yoshitada; Seki, Keiko; Kawamata, Toshio

    2011-06-01

    We present a neural model of the production of modulated speech streams in the brain, referred to as prosody, which indicates the limbic structure essential for producing prosody both linguistically and emotionally. This model suggests that activating the fundamental brain including monoamine neurons at the basal ganglia will potentially contribute to helping patients with prosodic disorders coming from functional defects of the fundamental brain to overcome their speech problem. To establish effective clinical treatment for such prosodic disorders, we examine how sounds affect the fundamental activity by using electroencephalographic measurements. Throughout examinations with various melodious sounds, we found that some melodies with lilting rhythms successfully give rise to the fast alpha rhythms at the electroencephalogram which reflect the fundamental brain activity without any negative feelings.

  7. Birthdates of patients affected by mental illness and solar activity: A study from Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Borelli, Albacenzina; Bellomo, Antonello; Lepore, Alberto

    2011-04-01

    PurposeThis epidemiologic study tested an hypothesized association between the year of birth of persons with major mental illnesses and solar activity over the past century. MethodsWe collected data on diagnoses and birthdates of psychiatric patients born between 1926 and 1975 (N = 1954) in south Italy for comparison to yearly solar activity as registered by the International Observatories. ResultsWe found a strong inverse correlation between high solar activity (HSA) and incidence of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in a 20-year period whereas the incidence of non-affective/non-psychotic disorders was moderately associated with HSA in the same period. ConclusionsInterpretation of the observed correlations between HSA during years of birth and the incidence of mental illnesses remains unclear, but the findings encourage further study.

  8. Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José

    2009-01-01

    Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D3) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.

  9. The Tempo of Sexual Activity and Later Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassler, Sharon; Addo, Fenaba R.; Lichter, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid sexual involvement may have adverse long-term implications for relationship quality. This study examined the tempo of sexual intimacy and subsequent relationship quality in a sample of married and cohabiting men and women. Data come from the Marital and Relationship Survey, which provides information on nearly 600 low- to moderate-income…

  10. Influence of watershed activities on the water quality and fish assemblages of a tropical African reservoir.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, Moshood K

    2009-09-01

    Agricultural and fisheries activities around the watershed of an African tropical reservoir (Oyun reservoir, Offa, Nigeria) were found to contribute significantly to water quality deterioration of the dam axis of the reservoir, leading to eutrophication of that part of the reservoir. This is evident from the high amount of nitrate (6.4 mg/l), phosphate (2.2 mg/l) and sulphate (16.9 mg/l) in the water body which was higher than most other reservoirs in Nigeria. These nutrients originate in fertilizer run-offs from nearby farmlands and were found in higher concentrations in the rainy season which is usually the peak of agricultural activities in the locality. The eutrophication was more pronounced on the dam axis because it is the point of greatest human contact where pressure and run-off of sediments were high. The eutrophication altered the food web cycle which consequently affected the fish species composition and abundance with the dominance of cichlids (planktivorous group) and decline of some species in the fish population. Best management practices (BMP) to control and reduce the eutrophication and improve water quality and fish assemblages should be adopted and adapted to suit the situation in the reservoir. PMID:19928465

  11. Luminal acetylcholine does not affect the activity of the CFTR in tracheal epithelia of pigs.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Nikolaus P; Kummer, Wolfgang; Clauss, Wolfgang G; Fronius, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Fluid homeostasis mediated by the airway epithelium is required for proper lung function, and the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) Cl(-) channel is crucial for these processes. Luminal acetylcholine (ACh) acts as an auto-/paracrine mediator to activate Cl(-) channels in airway epithelia and evidence exists showing that nicotinic ACh receptors activate CFTR in murine airway epithelia. The present study investigated whether or not luminal ACh regulates CFTR activity in airway epithelia of pigs, an emerging model for investigations of human airway disease and cystic fibrosis (CF) in particular. Transepithelial ion currents of freshly dissected pig tracheal preparations were measured with Ussing chambers. Application of luminal ACh (100 μM) induced an increase of the short-circuit current (I(SC)). The ACh effect was mimicked by muscarine and pilocarpine (100 μM each) and was sensitive to muscarinic receptor antagonists (atropine, 4-DAMP, pirenzepine). No changes of the I(SC) were observed by nicotine (100 μM) and ACh responses were not affected by nicotine or mecamylamine (25 μM). Luminal application of IBMX (I, 100 μM) and forskolin (F, 10 μM), increase the I(SC) and the I/F-induced current were decreased by the CFTR inhibitor GlyH-101 (GlyH, 50 μM) indicating increased CFTR activity by I/F. In contrast, GlyH did not affect the ACh-induced current, indicating that the ACh response does not involve the activation of the CFTR. Results from this study suggest that luminal ACh does not regulate the activity of the CFTR in tracheal epithelia of pigs which opposes observation from studies using mice airway epithelium. PMID:26286842

  12. Biofilm activity and sludge characteristics affected by exogenous N-acyl homoserine lactones in biofilm reactors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huizhi; He, Junguo; Liu, Jian; Yu, Huarong; Zhang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    This study verified the effect of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) concentrations on mature biofilm systems. Three concentrations of an AHL mixture were used in the batch test. Introducing of 5nM AHLs significantly increased biofilm activity and increased sludge characteristics, which resulted in better pollutant removal performance, whereas exogenous 50nM and 500nM AHLs limited pollutant removal, especially COD and nitrogen removal. To further identify how exogenous signal molecular affects biofilm system nitrogen removal, analyzing of nitrifying bacteria through real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that these additional signal molecules affect nitrifying to total bacteria ratio. In addition, the running state of the system was stable during 15days of operation without an AHL dose, which suggests that the changes in the system due to AHL are irreversible. PMID:27030953

  13. Early neural activation during facial affect processing in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder☆

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Rachel C.; Pang, Elizabeth W.; Cassel, Daniel; Brian, Jessica A.; Smith, Mary Lou; Taylor, Margot J.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired social interaction is one of the hallmarks of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Emotional faces are arguably the most critical visual social stimuli and the ability to perceive, recognize, and interpret emotions is central to social interaction and communication, and subsequently healthy social development. However, our understanding of the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying emotional face processing in adolescents with ASD is limited. We recruited 48 adolescents, 24 with high functioning ASD and 24 typically developing controls. Participants completed an implicit emotional face processing task in the MEG. We examined spatiotemporal differences in neural activation between the groups during implicit angry and happy face processing. While there were no differences in response latencies between groups across emotions, adolescents with ASD had lower accuracy on the implicit emotional face processing task when the trials included angry faces. MEG data showed atypical neural activity in adolescents with ASD during angry and happy face processing, which included atypical activity in the insula, anterior and posterior cingulate and temporal and orbitofrontal regions. Our findings demonstrate differences in neural activity during happy and angry face processing between adolescents with and without ASD. These differences in activation in social cognitive regions may index the difficulties in face processing and in comprehension of social reward and punishment in the ASD group. Thus, our results suggest that atypical neural activation contributes to impaired affect processing, and thus social cognition, in adolescents with ASD. PMID:25610782

  14. Association between the physical activity level and the quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Çolak, Tuğba Kuru; Acar, Gönül; Dereli, E. Elçin; Özgül, Bahar; Demirbüken, İlkşan; Alkaç, Çiğdem; Polat, M. Gülden

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity and regular exercise play an important role in glycemic control, which is considered an important part of the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study evaluated physical activity level and its relationship with quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] We evaluated 129 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus through a face-to-face interview using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Diabetes-39. Demographic data, diabetes symptoms, time of initial diagnosis, and treatment procedure/approaches were recorded. [Results] Of the study subjects, 51 (39.5%) had low, 67 had moderate (51.9%), and 11 (8.5%) had high activity levels. The mean weekly sitting duration was 302 minutes. The mean weekly walking time was 231.7 minutes. Except for the “diabetes control” domain, scores for all the subgroups and the total score in the quality-of-life assessment had a statistically significant negative correlation with physical activity level. [Discussion] Physical inactivity negatively affects the quality of life of diabetic patients. A planned exercise education program and incorporation of exercise into the lifestyle can improve the quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26957746

  15. 45 CFR 2531.10 - What are the purposes of the Investment for Quality and Innovation activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Quality and Innovation activities? 2531.10 Section 2531.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... INVESTMENT FOR QUALITY AND INNOVATION ACTIVITIES § 2531.10 What are the purposes of the Investment for Quality and Innovation activities? Investment for Quality and Innovation activities are designed...

  16. 45 CFR 2531.10 - What are the purposes of the Investment for Quality and Innovation activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Quality and Innovation activities? 2531.10 Section 2531.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... INVESTMENT FOR QUALITY AND INNOVATION ACTIVITIES § 2531.10 What are the purposes of the Investment for Quality and Innovation activities? Investment for Quality and Innovation activities are designed...

  17. 45 CFR 2531.10 - What are the purposes of the Investment for Quality and Innovation activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Quality and Innovation activities? 2531.10 Section 2531.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... INVESTMENT FOR QUALITY AND INNOVATION ACTIVITIES § 2531.10 What are the purposes of the Investment for Quality and Innovation activities? Investment for Quality and Innovation activities are designed...

  18. 45 CFR 2531.10 - What are the purposes of the Investment for Quality and Innovation activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Quality and Innovation activities? 2531.10 Section 2531.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... INVESTMENT FOR QUALITY AND INNOVATION ACTIVITIES § 2531.10 What are the purposes of the Investment for Quality and Innovation activities? Investment for Quality and Innovation activities are designed...

  19. 45 CFR 2531.10 - What are the purposes of the Investment for Quality and Innovation activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Quality and Innovation activities? 2531.10 Section 2531.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... INVESTMENT FOR QUALITY AND INNOVATION ACTIVITIES § 2531.10 What are the purposes of the Investment for Quality and Innovation activities? Investment for Quality and Innovation activities are designed...

  20. Eccentric Exercise Activates Novel Transcriptional Regulation of Hypertrophic Signaling Pathways Not Affected by Hormone Changes

    PubMed Central

    MacNeil, Lauren G.; Melov, Simon; Hubbard, Alan E.; Baker, Steven K.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Unaccustomed eccentric exercise damages skeletal muscle tissue, activating mechanisms of recovery and remodeling that may be influenced by the female sex hormone 17β-estradiol (E2). Using high density oligonucleotide based microarrays, we screened for differences in mRNA expression caused by E2 and eccentric exercise. After random assignment to 8 days of either placebo (CON) or E2 (EXP), eighteen men performed 150 single-leg eccentric contractions. Muscle biopsies were collected at baseline (BL), following supplementation (PS), +3 hours (3H) and +48 hours (48H) after exercise. Serum E2 concentrations increased significantly with supplementation (P<0.001) but did not affect microarray results. Exercise led to early transcriptional changes in striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS), Rho family GTPase 3 (RND3), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) regulation and the downstream transcription factor FOS. Targeted RT-PCR analysis identified concurrent induction of negative regulators of calcineurin signaling RCAN (P<0.001) and HMOX1 (P = 0.009). Protein contents were elevated for RND3 at 3H (P = 0.02) and FOS at 48H (P<0.05). These findings indicate that early RhoA and NFAT signaling and regulation are altered following exercise for muscle remodeling and repair, but are not affected by E2. PMID:20502695

  1. Environmental noise levels affect the activity budget of the Florida manatee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Donaghay, Percy L.; Miller, James H.; Tyack, Peter L.

    2005-09-01

    Manatees inhabit coastal bays, lagoons, and estuaries because they are dependent on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters. Food requirements force manatees to occupy the same areas in which human activities are the greatest. Noise produced from human activities has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. This study quantifies the behavioral responses of manatees to both changing levels of ambient noise and transient noise sources. Results indicate that elevated environmental noise levels do affect the overall activity budget of this species. The proportion of time manatees spend feeding, milling, and traveling in critical habitats changed as a function of noise level. More time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behaviors of feeding and traveling, while less time was spent milling when noise levels were highest. The animals also responded to the transient noise of approaching vessels with changes in behavioral state and movements out of the geographical area. This suggests that manatees detect and respond to changes in environmental noise levels. Whether these changes legally constitute harassment and produce biologically significant effects need to be addressed with hypothesis-driven experiments and long-term monitoring. [For Animal Bioacoustics Best Student Paper Award.

  2. Quality-control method for the determination of biological activity of engineered calcineurin subunit B.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xinchang; Yang, Huan; Xu, Li; Li, Xiang; Huang, Zongwen; Han, Yudong; Wei, Qun; Rao, Chunming

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a quality-control method for calcineurin subunit B (CNB) biological activity determinations. CNB enhances the p-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP) dephosphorylating activity of calcineurin subunit A Δ316 mutant (CNAΔ316). A series of CNB concentrations were fitted to a four-parameter equation to calculate the corresponding pNPP maximum dephosphorylation rates. Values were calculated based on biological activity references using a parallel line method. The method was then validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, linear range, sensitivity, specificity, and robustness. The recovery results were greater than 98%. Intra-plate precision was 6.7%, with inter-plate precision of 10.8%. The coefficient of determination was greater than 0.98. The linear range was 0.05-50 μg mL(-1), with sensitivity of 50 μg mL(-1). Tested cytokines did not induce CNAΔ316 dephosphorylation of pNPP. The chosen CNAΔ316 concentration range did not affect activity determinations. PMID:27053126

  3. Activity against microorganisms affecting cellulosic objects of the volatile constituents of Leonotis nepetaefolia from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

    2014-11-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil from aerial parts of L. nepetaefolia (L.) R. Br. collected in Nicaragua was evaluated by GC and GC-MS. The main components were (Z)-phytol (22.8%), caryophyllene oxide (18.9%) and hexahydrofarnesylacetone (9.0%). The antibacterial activity against several Gram + and Gram - bacteria, including Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis, both infesting historical cellulosic material, was also determined. B. cereus, B. subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermis were the most affected by the action of the oil. PMID:25532300

  4. Denervation-Induced Activation of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Reduces Skeletal Muscle Quantity Not Quality.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Cory W; Liu, Haiming M; Thompson, LaDora V

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is activated in response to skeletal muscle wasting and functions to degrade contractile proteins. The loss of these proteins inevitably reduces skeletal muscle size (i.e., quantity). However, it is currently unknown whether activation of this pathway also affects function by impairing the muscle's intrinsic ability to produce force (i.e., quality). Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold, (1) document how the ubiquitin-proteasome system responds to denervation and (2) identify the physiological consequences of these changes. To induce soleus muscle atrophy, C57BL6 mice underwent tibial nerve transection of the left hindlimb for 7 or 14 days (n = 6-8 per group). At these time points, content of several proteins within the ubiquitin-proteasome system were determined via Western blot, while ex vivo whole muscle contractility was specifically analyzed at day 14. Denervation temporarily increased several key proteins within the ubiquitin-proteasome system, including the E3 ligase MuRF1 and the proteasome subunits 19S, α7 and β5. These changes were accompanied by reductions in absolute peak force and power, which were offset when expressed relative to physiological cross-sectional area. Contrary to peak force, absolute and relative forces at submaximal stimulation frequencies were significantly greater following 14 days of denervation. Taken together, these data represent two keys findings. First, activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is associated with reductions in skeletal muscle quantity rather than quality. Second, shortly after denervation, it appears the muscle remodels to compensate for the loss of neural activity via changes in Ca2+ handling. PMID:27513942

  5. Denervation-Induced Activation of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Reduces Skeletal Muscle Quantity Not Quality

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haiming M.; Thompson, LaDora V.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is activated in response to skeletal muscle wasting and functions to degrade contractile proteins. The loss of these proteins inevitably reduces skeletal muscle size (i.e., quantity). However, it is currently unknown whether activation of this pathway also affects function by impairing the muscle’s intrinsic ability to produce force (i.e., quality). Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold, (1) document how the ubiquitin-proteasome system responds to denervation and (2) identify the physiological consequences of these changes. To induce soleus muscle atrophy, C57BL6 mice underwent tibial nerve transection of the left hindlimb for 7 or 14 days (n = 6–8 per group). At these time points, content of several proteins within the ubiquitin-proteasome system were determined via Western blot, while ex vivo whole muscle contractility was specifically analyzed at day 14. Denervation temporarily increased several key proteins within the ubiquitin-proteasome system, including the E3 ligase MuRF1 and the proteasome subunits 19S, α7 and β5. These changes were accompanied by reductions in absolute peak force and power, which were offset when expressed relative to physiological cross-sectional area. Contrary to peak force, absolute and relative forces at submaximal stimulation frequencies were significantly greater following 14 days of denervation. Taken together, these data represent two keys findings. First, activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is associated with reductions in skeletal muscle quantity rather than quality. Second, shortly after denervation, it appears the muscle remodels to compensate for the loss of neural activity via changes in Ca2+ handling. PMID:27513942

  6. Sampling frequency affects the processing of Actigraph raw acceleration data to activity counts.

    PubMed

    Brønd, Jan Christian; Arvidsson, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    ActiGraph acceleration data are processed through several steps (including band-pass filtering to attenuate unwanted signal frequencies) to generate the activity counts commonly used in physical activity research. We performed three experiments to investigate the effect of sampling frequency on the generation of activity counts. Ideal acceleration signals were produced in the MATLAB software. Thereafter, ActiGraph GT3X+ monitors were spun in a mechanical setup. Finally, 20 subjects performed walking and running wearing GT3X+ monitors. Acceleration data from all experiments were collected with different sampling frequencies, and activity counts were generated with the ActiLife software. With the default 30-Hz (or 60-Hz, 90-Hz) sampling frequency, the generation of activity counts was performed as intended with 50% attenuation of acceleration signals with a frequency of 2.5 Hz by the signal frequency band-pass filter. Frequencies above 5 Hz were eliminated totally. However, with other sampling frequencies, acceleration signals above 5 Hz escaped the band-pass filter to a varied degree and contributed to additional activity counts. Similar results were found for the spinning of the GT3X+ monitors, although the amount of activity counts generated was less, indicating that raw data stored in the GT3X+ monitor is processed. Between 600 and 1,600 more counts per minute were generated with the sampling frequencies 40 and 100 Hz compared with 30 Hz during running. Sampling frequency affects the processing of ActiGraph acceleration data to activity counts. Researchers need to be aware of this error when selecting sampling frequencies other than the default 30 Hz. PMID:26635347

  7. Initiation of quality improvement activities in mental health services.

    PubMed

    Tobin, M; Chen, L

    1999-06-01

    In the public sector mental health service setting, accountability for quality has often been considered the responsibility of the individual clinician. This presents a particular challenge for introducing an organization-wide quality improvement culture in this setting. The introduction of a systemic view of quality may encounter resistance from individual clinicians reluctant to accept that some clinical autonomy must be subsumed within more standardized patterns of intervention and evaluation. Services must firstly tackle the issue of clinicians' readiness to embrace such a culture, which requires strong direction from the executive level. The area of recently diagnosed psychosis was selected in one public sector mental health service as a starting point for initiating the quality improvement culture. The eventual outcome for the organization has been a positive commitment to improvement, but the journey was long and hard. This paper describes the beginning of this ultimately rewarding journey. PMID:10408753

  8. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  9. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  10. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  11. The Impact of Myeloperoxidase and Activated Macrophages on Metaphase II Mouse Oocyte Quality.

    PubMed

    Shaeib, Faten; Khan, Sana N; Thakur, Mili; Kohan-Ghadr, Hamid-Reza; Drewlo, Sascha; Saed, Ghassan M; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Abu-Soud, Husam M

    2016-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an abundant heme-containing enzyme present in neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, is produced in high levels during inflammation, and associated with poor reproductive outcomes. MPO is known to generate hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) utilizing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chloride (Cl-). Here we investigate the effect of activated immune cells and MPO on oocyte quality. Mouse metaphase II oocytes were divided into the following groups: 1) Incubation with a catalytic amount of MPO (40 nM) for different incubation periods in the presence of 100 mM Cl- with and without H2O2 and with and without melatonin (100 μM), at 37°C (n = 648/648 total number of oocytes in each group for oocytes with and without cumulus cells); 2) Co-cultured with activated mouse peritoneal macrophage and neutrophils cells (1.0 x 106 cells/ml) in the absence and presence of melatonin (200 μM), an MPO inhibitor/ROS scavenger, for different incubation periods in HTF media, at 37°C (n = 200/200); 3) Untreated oocytes incubated for 4 hrs as controls (n = 73/64). Oocytes were then fixed, stained and scored based on the microtubule morphology and chromosomal alignment. All treatments were found to negatively affect oocyte quality in a time dependent fashion as compared to controls. In all cases the presence of cumulus cells offered no protection; however significant protection was offered by melatonin. Similar results were obtained with oocytes treated with neutrophils. This work provides a direct link between MPO and decreased oocyte quality. Therefore, strategies to decrease MPO mediated inflammation may influence reproductive outcomes. PMID:26982351

  12. The Impact of Myeloperoxidase and Activated Macrophages on Metaphase II Mouse Oocyte Quality

    PubMed Central

    Shaeib, Faten; Khan, Sana N.; Thakur, Mili; Kohan-Ghadr, Hamid-Reza; Drewlo, Sascha; Saed, Ghassan M.; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Abu-Soud, Husam M.

    2016-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an abundant heme-containing enzyme present in neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, is produced in high levels during inflammation, and associated with poor reproductive outcomes. MPO is known to generate hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) utilizing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chloride (Cl-). Here we investigate the effect of activated immune cells and MPO on oocyte quality. Mouse metaphase II oocytes were divided into the following groups: 1) Incubation with a catalytic amount of MPO (40 nM) for different incubation periods in the presence of 100 mM Cl- with and without H2O2 and with and without melatonin (100 μM), at 37°C (n = 648/648 total number of oocytes in each group for oocytes with and without cumulus cells); 2) Co-cultured with activated mouse peritoneal macrophage and neutrophils cells (1.0 x 106 cells/ml) in the absence and presence of melatonin (200 μM), an MPO inhibitor/ROS scavenger, for different incubation periods in HTF media, at 37°C (n = 200/200); 3) Untreated oocytes incubated for 4 hrs as controls (n = 73/64). Oocytes were then fixed, stained and scored based on the microtubule morphology and chromosomal alignment. All treatments were found to negatively affect oocyte quality in a time dependent fashion as compared to controls. In all cases the presence of cumulus cells offered no protection; however significant protection was offered by melatonin. Similar results were obtained with oocytes treated with neutrophils. This work provides a direct link between MPO and decreased oocyte quality. Therefore, strategies to decrease MPO mediated inflammation may influence reproductive outcomes. PMID:26982351

  13. Factors affecting the activity of anammox bacteria during start up in the continuous culture reactor.

    PubMed

    Jung, J Y; Kang, S H; Chung, Y C; Ahn, D H

    2007-01-01

    Factors affecting cultivation of extremely slow-growing bacteria (anaerobic ammonium oxidiser, doubling time 11 days) were investigated by using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors which can maintain high solid retention time. The effects of concentrations of DO, free ammonia (FA), and nitrite on activation of anammox activity were tested during the start-up period. The reactor was inoculated with granular sludge collected from a full-scale UASB reactor used for treating brewery wastewater, and sludge from a piggery wastewater treatment plant and rotating biological contactor treating sewage. Results of continuous operation showed that concentrations of DO, free ammonia (FA) and nitrite in the reactors played a key role in stimulating the anammox activity during start-up period. It is crucial to keep DO below 0.2 ppm, FA below 2 mg/L and nitrite nitrogen below 35 mg/L to cultivate anammox cells in the continuous bioreactor. When the levels of DO, FA and nitrite in the influent were controlled at less than the inhibition levels, the anammox activity increased gradually in the anaerobic condition. Addition of hydrogen sulphide into the reactor enhanced anammox activity in the continuous culture. Through the SEM, TEM and FISH analysis, anammox bacteria were detected in the granular sludge after 3 months of continuous operation. PMID:17305171

  14. Experimental evidence that livestock grazing intensity affects the activity of a generalist predator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villar, Nacho; Lambin, Xavier; Evans, Darren; Pakeman, Robin; Redpath, Steve

    2013-05-01

    Grazing by domestic ungulates has substantial impacts on ecosystem structure and composition. In grasslands of the northern hemisphere, livestock grazing limits populations of small mammals, which are a main food source for a variety of vertebrate predators. However, no experimental studies have described the impact of livestock grazing on vertebrate predators. We experimentally manipulated sheep and cattle grazing intensity in the Scottish uplands to test its impact on a relatively abundant small mammal, the field vole (Microtus agrestis), and its archetypal generalist predator, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). We demonstrate that ungulate grazing had a strong consistent negative impact on both vole densities and indices of fox activity. Ungulate grazing did not substantially affect the relationship between fox activity and vole densities. However, the data suggested that, as grazing intensity increased i) fox activity indices tended to be higher when vole densities were low, and ii) the relationship between fox activity and vole density was weaker. All these patterns are surprising given the relative small scale of our experiment compared to large red fox territories in upland habitats of Britain, and suggest that domestic grazing intensity causes a strong response in the activity of generalist predators important for their conservation in grassland ecosystems.

  15. Neuronal Heterotopias Affect the Activities of Distant Brain Areas and Lead to Behavioral Deficits.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kazuhiro; Kubo, Ken-ichiro; Endo, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Keitaro; Benner, Seico; Ito, Yukiko; Aizawa, Hidenori; Aramaki, Michihiko; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Tanaka, Kohichi; Takata, Norio; Tanaka, Kenji F; Mimura, Masaru; Tohyama, Chiharu; Kakeyama, Masaki; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2015-09-01

    Neuronal heterotopia refers to brain malformations resulting from deficits of neuronal migration. Individuals with heterotopias show a high incidence of neurological deficits, such as epilepsy. More recently, it has come to be recognized that focal heterotopias may also show a range of psychiatric problems, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. However, because focal heterotopias are not always located in the brain areas responsible for the symptoms, the causal relationship between the symptoms and heterotopias remains elusive. In this study, we showed that mice with focal heterotopias in the somatosensory cortex generated by in utero electroporation exhibited spatial working memory deficit and low competitive dominance behavior, which have been shown to be closely associated with the activity of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in rodents. Analysis of the mPFC activity revealed that the immediate-early gene expression was decreased and the local field potentials of the mPFC were altered in the mice with heterotopias compared with the control mice. Moreover, activation of these ectopic and overlying sister neurons using the DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) system improved the working memory deficits. These findings suggest that cortical regions containing focal heterotopias can affect distant brain regions and give rise to behavioral abnormalities. Significance statement: Recent studies reported that patients with heterotopias have a variety of clinical symptoms, such as cognitive disturbance, psychiatric symptoms, and autistic behavior. However, the causal relationship between the symptoms and heterotopias remains elusive. Here we showed that mice with focal heterotopias in the somatosensory cortex generated by in utero electroporation exhibited behavioral deficits that have been shown to be associated with the mPFC activity in rodents. The existence of heterotopias indeed altered the neural activities of the mPFC, and

  16. Recent (2003-05) Water Quality of Barton Springs, Austin, Texas, With Emphasis on Factors Affecting Variability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Garner, Bradley D.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Guilfoyle, Amber L.; Rao, Mohan V.

    2006-01-01

    From 2003 to 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, collected and analyzed water samples from the four springs (orifices) of Barton Springs in Austin, Texas (Upper, Main, Eliza, and Old Mill Springs), with the objective of characterizing water quality. Barton Springs is the major discharge point for the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer. A three-pronged sampling approach was used: physicochemical properties (including specific conductance and turbidity) were measured continuously; samples were collected from the four springs routinely every 2 weeks (during August-September 2003) to 3 weeks (during June 2004-June 2005) and analyzed for some or all major ions, nutrients, trace elements, soluble pesticides, and volatile organic compounds; and samples were collected from the four springs at more closely spaced intervals during the 2 weeks following two storms and analyzed for the same suite of constituents. Following the two storms, samples also were collected from five of the six major streams that provide recharge to Barton Springs. Spring discharge during both sample collection periods was above average (60 cubic feet per second or greater). Barton Springs was found to be affected by persistent low concentrations of atrazine (an herbicide), chloroform (a drinking-water disinfection by-product), and tetrachloroethene (a solvent). Increased recharge from the major recharging streams resulted in increased calcium, sulfate, atrazine, simazine, and tetrachloroethene concentrations and decreased concentrations of most other major ions, nitrate, and chloroform at one or more of the springs. These changes in concentration demonstrate the influence of water quality in recharging streams on water quality at the springs even during non-stormflow conditions. The geochemical compositions of the four springs indicate that Upper Spring is more contaminated and is influenced by a contributing flow path that

  17. Factors Affecting Gender Differences in the Association between Health-Related Quality of Life and Metabolic Syndrome Components: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Parisa; Deihim, Tina; Taherian, Reza; Karimi, Mehrdad; Gharibzadeh, Safoora; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Shiva, Niloofar; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Using structural equation modeling, this study is one of the first efforts aimed at assessing influential factors causing gender differences in the association between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and metabolic syndrome. Methods A sample of 950 adults, from Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study were recruited for this cross sectional study in 2005–2007. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the Iranian version of SF-36. Metabolic syndrome components (MetSCs) and physical and mental HRQoL were considered as continuous latent constructs explaining the variances of their observed components. Structural equation modeling was performed to examine the association between the constructs of MetSCs and the physical and mental HRQoL within the two gender groups. Results Based on the primary hypothesis, MetSCs and HRQoL were fitted in a model. The negative effect of MetSCs on HRQoL was found to be significant only in the physical domain and only in women. The proportion of all the cardio-metabolic risk factors as well as subscales of physical HRQoL that have been explained via the two constructs of MetSCs and HRQoL, respectively, were significantly higher in women. Physical activity in both men (β = 3.19, p<0.05) and women (β = 3.94, p<0.05), age (β = -3.28, p<0.05), education (β = 2.63, p<0.05) only in women and smoking (β = 2.28, p<0.05) just in men, directly affected physical HRQoL. Regarding the mental domain, physical activity (β = 3.37, p<0.05) and marital status (β = 3.44, p<0.05) in women and age (β = 2.01, p<0.05) in men were direct effective factors. Age and education in women as well as smoking in men indirectly affected physical HRQoL via MetSCs. Conclusion Gender differences in the association between MetSCs and physical HRQoL could mostly be attributed to the different structures of both MetSCs and physical HRQoL constructs in men and women. Age and smoking are the most important socio-behavioral factors which could affect this

  18. Detection and characterization of transient forcing episodes affecting earthquake activity in the Aleutian Arc system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverso, T.; Marsan, D.; Helmstetter, A.

    2015-02-01

    Crustal, slow deformation transients can be caused by fluid or magmatic intrusions, and by slow slip on faults. They can affect earthquake dynamics, if they occur close to or within seismically active zones. We here further develop, and test, a statistical method for detecting and characterizing seismicity anomalies that is only based on earthquake occurrence times and locations. We make use of this method to analyze the 2004-2013 seismicity at mc = 3.5 in the Aleutian subduction system, to find six statistically significant anomalies, with typical 1 day duration and 30 to 50 km size, that are likely related to slow deformation transients. They tend to be located in zones characterized by intermediate seismic coupling, and to mark the termination of past large to mega-thrust earthquakes. These anomalies account for a non-negligible (9%) part of the total activity, proving that non-stationary aseismic loading plays an important role in the dynamics of crustal deformation.

  19. Barley chloroplast glutamine synthetase activity is not affected by CO sub 2 -concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, C.; Forde, B.; Wallsgrove, R. )

    1990-05-01

    It has been reported that when photorespiration is suppressed by raising the concentration of CO{sub 2}, the expression of the chloroplast glutamine synthetase (GS2) gene in pea leaves is reduced (Plant Cell, 1, 241). We have examined this effect in barley (Hordeum vulgare), and confirm that plants grown continuously in 0.8% CO{sub 2}, or transferred to such conditions after growth in air, appear to have a reduced GS2 mRNA abundance. However, we were unable to detect any significant difference in the extractable GS2 activity, or any change in amount of GS2 protein (judged by Western blots). Whatever controls are operating on gS2 mRNA expression in response to changes is external CO{sub 2}, they do not affect the activity or amount of the enzyme in barley.

  20. Harvest date affects aronia juice polyphenols, sugars, and antioxidant activity, but not anthocyanin stability.

    PubMed

    Bolling, Bradley W; Taheri, Rod; Pei, Ruisong; Kranz, Sarah; Yu, Mo; Durocher, Shelley N; Brand, Mark H

    2015-11-15

    The goal of this work was to characterize how the date of harvest of 'Viking' aronia berry impacts juice pigmentation, sugars, and antioxidant activity. Aronia juice anthocyanins doubled at the fifth week of the harvest, and then decreased. Juice hydroxycinnamic acids decreased 33% from the first week, while proanthocyanidins increased 64%. Juice fructose and glucose plateaued at the fourth week, but sorbitol increased 40% to the seventh harvest week. Aronia juice pigment density increased due to anthocyanin concentration, and polyphenol copigmentation did not significantly affect juice pigmentation. Anthocyanin stability at pH 4.5 was similar between weeks. However, addition of quercetin, sorbitol, and chlorogenic acid to aronia anthocyanins inhibited pH-induced loss of color. Sorbitol and citric acid may be partially responsible for weekly variation in antioxidant activity, as addition of these agents inhibited DPPH scavenging 13-30%. Thus, aronia polyphenol and non-polyphenol components contribute to its colorant and antioxidant functionality. PMID:25977015

  1. Procyanidins Negatively Affect the Activity of the Phosphatases of Regenerating Liver

    PubMed Central

    Stadlbauer, Sven; Rios, Pablo; Ohmori, Ken; Suzuki, Keisuke; Köhn, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Natural polyphenols like oligomeric catechins (procyanidins) derived from green tea and herbal medicines are interesting compounds for pharmaceutical research due to their ability to protect against carcinogenesis in animal models. It is nevertheless still unclear how intracellular pathways are modulated by polyphenols. Monomeric polyphenols were shown to affect the activity of some protein phosphatases (PPs). The three phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRLs) are close relatives and promising therapeutic targets in cancer. In the present study we show that several procyanidins inhibit the activity of all three members of the PRL family in the low micromolar range, whereas monomeric epicatechins show weak inhibitory activity. Increasing the number of catechin units in procyanidins to more than three does not further enhance the potency. Remarkably, the tested procyanidins showed selectivity in vitro when compared to other PPs, and over 10-fold selectivity toward PRL-1 over PRL-2 and PRL-3. As PRL overexpression induces cell migration compared to control cells, the effect of procyanidins on this phenotype was studied. Treatment with procyanidin C2 led to a decrease in cell migration of PRL-1- and PRL-3-overexpressing cells, suggesting the compound-dependent inhibition of PRL-promoted cell migration. Treatment with procyanidin B3 led to selective suppression of PRL-1 overexpressing cells, thereby corroborating the selectivity toward PRL-1- over PRL-3 in vitro. Together, our results show that procyanidins negatively affect PRL activity, suggesting that PRLs could be targets in the polypharmacology of natural polyphenols. Furthermore, they are interesting candidates for the development of PRL-1 inhibitors due to their low cellular toxicity and the selectivity within the PRL family. PMID:26226290

  2. Noticing relevant problem features: activating prior knowledge affects problem solving by guiding encoding

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, Noelle M.; Alibali, Martha W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether activating elements of prior knowledge can influence how problem solvers encode and solve simple mathematical equivalence problems (e.g., 3 + 4 + 5 = 3 + __). Past work has shown that such problems are difficult for elementary school students (McNeil and Alibali, 2000). One possible reason is that children's experiences in math classes may encourage them to think about equations in ways that are ultimately detrimental. Specifically, children learn a set of patterns that are potentially problematic (McNeil and Alibali, 2005a): the perceptual pattern that all equations follow an “operations = answer” format, the conceptual pattern that the equal sign means “calculate the total”, and the procedural pattern that the correct way to solve an equation is to perform all of the given operations on all of the given numbers. Upon viewing an equivalence problem, knowledge of these patterns may be reactivated, leading to incorrect problem solving. We hypothesized that these patterns may negatively affect problem solving by influencing what people encode about a problem. To test this hypothesis in children would require strengthening their misconceptions, and this could be detrimental to their mathematical development. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis in undergraduate participants. Participants completed either control tasks or tasks that activated their knowledge of the three patterns, and were then asked to reconstruct and solve a set of equivalence problems. Participants in the knowledge activation condition encoded the problems less well than control participants. They also made more errors in solving the problems, and their errors resembled the errors children make when solving equivalence problems. Moreover, encoding performance mediated the effect of knowledge activation on equivalence problem solving. Thus, one way in which experience may affect equivalence problem solving is by influencing what students encode about the

  3. Characteristics of the Activity-Affect Association in Inactive People: An Ambulatory Assessment Study in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    von Haaren, Birte; Loeffler, Simone Nadine; Haertel, Sascha; Anastasopoulou, Panagiota; Stumpp, Juergen; Hey, Stefan; Boes, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Acute and regular exercise as well as physical activity (PA) is related to well-being and positive affect. Recent studies have shown that even daily, unstructured physical activities increase positive affect. However, the attempt to achieve adherence to PA or exercise in inactive people through public health interventions has often been unsuccessful. Most studies analyzing the activity-affect association in daily life, did not report participants’ habitual activity behavior. Thus, samples included active and inactive people, but they did not necessarily exhibit the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Therefore the present study investigated whether the association between PA and subsequent affective state in daily life can also be observed in inactive individuals. We conducted a pilot study with 29 inactive university students (mean age 21.3 ± 1.7 years) using the method of ambulatory assessment. Affect was assessed via electronic diary and PA was measured with accelerometers. Participants had to rate affect every 2 h on a six item bipolar scale reflecting the three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence, and calmness. We calculated activity intensity level [mean Metabolic Equivalent (MET) value] and the amount of time spent in light activity over the last 15 min before every diary prompt and conducted within-subject correlations. We did not find significant associations between activity intensity and the three mood dimensions. Due to the high variability in within-subject correlations we conclude that not all inactive people show the same affective reactions to PA in daily life. Analyzing the PA-affect association of inactive people was difficult due to little variance and distribution of the assessed variables. Interactive assessment and randomized controlled trials might help solving these problems. Future studies should examine characteristics of affective responses of inactive people to PA in daily life. General assumptions

  4. Preoperative Factors Affecting Postoperative Early Quality of Life During the Learning Curve of Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kang Jun; Kim, Hyo Sin; Koh, Jun Sung; Han, Seung Bum; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyun Woo; Cho, Su Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the preoperative factors related to early quality of life (QoL) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) during the surgeon's learning curve. Methods The medical records of 82 patients with a follow-up period of at least 3 months who were treated with HoLEP during the time of a surgeon's learning curve were analyzed retrospectively. We divided the patients into two groups on the basis of the QoL component of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) 3 months after HoLEP: the high QoL group (IPSS/QoL≤3) and the low QoL group (IPSS/QoL≥4). Preoperative factors in each group were compared, including prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen, history of acute urinary retention (AUR), urgency incontinence, IPSS, and urodynamic parameters. Detrusor underactivity was defined as a bladder contractility index less than 100 on urodynamic study. Results A total of 61 patients (74.3%) had a high QoL, whereas 21 (25.7%) had a low QoL. A history of AUR, detrusor pressure on maximal flow (PdetQmax), bladder outlet obstruction grade, bladder contractility index, and detrusor underactivity were associated with postoperative QoL in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, a history of AUR and PdetQmax were independent factors affecting postoperative QoL. Conclusions A history of AUR and bladder contractility affect early QoL, and preoperative urodynamic study plays an important role in the proper selection of patients during the HoLEP learning curve. PMID:23869273

  5. Menstrual cycle phase does not affect sympathetic neural activity in women with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Stickford, Abigail SL; VanGundy, Tiffany B; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Patients with the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) are primarily premenopausal women, which may be attributed to female sex hormones. We tested the hypothesis that hormonal fluctuations of the menstrual cycle alter sympathetic neural activity and orthostatic tolerance in POTS women. Ten POTS women were studied during the early follicular (EF) and mid-luteal (ML) phases of the menstrual cycle. Haemodynamics and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were measured when supine, during 60 deg upright tilt for 45 min or until presyncope, and during the cold pressor test (CPT) and Valsalva manoeuvres. Blood pressure and total peripheral resistance were higher during rest and tilting in the ML than EF phase; however, heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output were similar between phases. There were no mean ± SD differences in MSNA burst frequency (8 ± 8 EF phase vs. 10 ± 10 bursts min–1 ML phase at rest; 34 ± 15 EF phase vs. 36 ± 16 bursts min–1 ML phase at 5 min tilt), burst incidence or total activity, nor any differences in the cardiovagal and sympathetic baroreflex sensitivities between phases under any condition. The incidence of presyncope was also the same between phases. There were no differences in haemodynamic or sympathetic responses to CPT or Valsalva. These results suggest that the menstrual cycle does not affect sympathetic neural activity but modulates blood pressure and vasoconstriction in POTS women during tilting. Thus, factors other than sympathetic neural activity are probably responsible for the symptoms of orthostatic intolerance across the menstrual cycle in women with POTS. Key points Women with the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) report fluctuations in orthostatic tolerance throughout the menstrual cycle. The mechanism(s) underlying blood pressure control across the menstrual cycle in women with POTS are unknown. The findings of the present study indicate that the menstrual

  6. 45 CFR 98.51 - Activities to improve the quality of child care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51 Activities to improve the quality of child care. (a) No less than four percent of the aggregate funds expended by the Lead... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Activities to improve the quality of child...

  7. 45 CFR 98.51 - Activities to improve the quality of child care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51 Activities to improve the quality of child care. (a) No less than four percent of the aggregate funds expended by the Lead... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Activities to improve the quality of child...

  8. 45 CFR 98.51 - Activities to improve the quality of child care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51 Activities to improve the quality of child care. (a) No less than four percent of the aggregate funds expended by the Lead... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Activities to improve the quality of child...

  9. 45 CFR 98.51 - Activities to improve the quality of child care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51 Activities to improve the quality of child care. (a) No less than four percent of the aggregate funds expended by the Lead... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Activities to improve the quality of child...

  10. 45 CFR 98.51 - Activities to improve the quality of child care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51 Activities to improve the quality of child care. (a) No less than four percent of the aggregate funds expended by the Lead... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Activities to improve the quality of child...

  11. Environmental Resource Guide: Air Quality. A Series of Classroom Activities for Grades 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Elizabeth W., Ed.

    Many different types of air quality can be studied in middle school science classes using available supplies. This grade 6-8 activity guide was developed to provide opportunities for children to learn about the issue of air quality. Sixteen hands-on activities integrate the issue into middle school science classes. A chart categorizes the…

  12. Increased sow nutrition during midgestation affects muscle fiber development and meat quality, with no consequences on growth performance.

    PubMed

    Cerisuelo, A; Baucells, M D; Gasa, J; Coma, J; Carrión, D; Chapinal, N; Sala, R

    2009-02-01

    Pregnant sow nutrition has potential effects on the muscle fiber development of progeny in utero. A total of 199 Landrace x Large White sows from parities 0 to 6 and their offspring were used to evaluate the effects of increasing the feeding amount during midpregnancy on the muscle tissue, growth performance, and meat quality of the progeny. The experiment was divided into 2 study replicates, and in each replicate, sows were assigned to 1 of the 2 treatments: 1) sows in the control group (C sows) were fed 2.5 to 3.0 kg/d (feed: 12.1 MJ of ME/kg and 0.62% lysine) throughout gestation; and 2) sows in the high group (H sows) received an extra feed allowance of 1.5 kg/d for gilts and 2.0 kg/d for multiparous sows above the C amount from d 45 to 85 of gestation (period of secondary muscle fiber formation). Sow backfat was recorded on d 40 and 85 of gestation. Sow performance (litter size and piglet BW) at farrowing and on d 18 of lactation was measured. At weaning, pigs were divided into 5 BW groups/treatment, and progeny growth performance was measured during the nursery (n = 958) and the growing-finishing (n = 636) periods. At slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits (lean content, main cut weight, pH, Minolta color, and drip loss) were recorded from the second lightest group at weaning (BW group 4; n = 90), and samples from the longissimus thoracis muscle were taken to study muscle fiber characteristics (n = 70). The extra nutrition from d 45 to 85 of gestation did not lead to differences in litter size or piglet BW at farrowing and on d 18 of lactation. Pigs born to H mothers had fewer muscle fibers and fewer estimated primary and secondary fibers than did pigs born to C mothers (P < 0.05). However, postnatal growth performance was not consistently affected by the maternal treatment. The smaller number of muscle fibers found in the H group of pigs was associated with fewer type IIB fibers (P < 0.05) with greater cross-sectional areas (P < 0.10), which might be

  13. Cognitive-affective neural plasticity following active-controlled mindfulness intervention

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Micah; Dietz, Martin; Blair, Karina S.; van Beek, Martijn; Rees, Geraint; Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter; Lutz, Antoine; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation is a set of attention-based, regulatory and self-inquiry training regimes. Although the impact of mindfulness meditation training (MT) on self-regulation is well established, the neural mechanisms supporting such plasticity are poorly understood. MT is thought to act on attention through interoceptive salience and attentional control mechanisms, but until now conflicting evidence from behavioral and neural measures has made it difficult to distinguish the role of these mechanisms. To resolve this question we conducted a fully randomized 6-week longitudinal trial of MT, explicitly controlling for cognitive and treatment effects with an active control group. We measured behavioral metacognition and whole-brain Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signals using functional MRI during an affective Stroop task before and after intervention. Although both groups improved significantly on a response-inhibition task, only the MT group showed reduced affective Stroop conflict. Moreover, the MT group displayed greater dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) responses during executive processing, consistent with increased recruitment of top-down mechanisms to resolve conflict. In contrast, we did not observe overall group by time interactions on negative affect-related RTs or BOLD responses. However, only participants with the greatest amount of MT practice showed improvements in response-inhibition and increased recruitment of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and right anterior insula during negative valence processing. Collectively our findings highlight the importance of active control in MT research, and indicate unique neural mechanisms for progressive stages of mindfulness training. PMID:23115195

  14. PGL, encoding chlorophyllide a oxygenase 1, impacts leaf senescence and indirectly affects grain yield and quality in rice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaolong; Xu, Jie; Huang, Lichao; Leng, Yujia; Dai, Liping; Rao, Yuchun; Chen, Long; Wang, Yuqiong; Tu, Zhengjun; Hu, Jiang; Ren, Deyong; Zhang, Guangheng; Zhu, Li; Guo, Longbiao; Qian, Qian; Zeng, Dali

    2016-03-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) b is a ubiquitous accessory pigment in land plants, green algae, and prochlorophytes. This pigment is synthesized from Chl a by chlorophyllide a oxygenase and plays a key role in adaptation to various environments. This study characterizes a rice mutant, pale green leaf (pgl), and isolates the gene PGL by using a map-based cloning approach. PGL, encoding chlorophyllide a oxygenase 1, is mainly expressed in the chlorenchyma and activated in the light-dependent Chl synthesis process. Compared with wild-type plants, pgl exhibits a lower Chl content with a reduced and disorderly thylakoid ultrastructure, which decreases the photosynthesis rate and results in reduced grain yield and quality. In addition, pgl exhibits premature senescence in both natural and dark-induced conditions and more severe Chl degradation and reactive oxygen species accumulation than does the wild-type. Moreover, pgl is sensitive to heat stress. PMID:26709310

  15. PGL, encoding chlorophyllide a oxygenase 1, impacts leaf senescence and indirectly affects grain yield and quality in rice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaolong; Xu, Jie; Huang, Lichao; Leng, Yujia; Dai, Liping; Rao, Yuchun; Chen, Long; Wang, Yuqiong; Tu, Zhengjun; Hu, Jiang; Ren, Deyong; Zhang, Guangheng; Zhu, Li; Guo, Longbiao; Qian, Qian; Zeng, Dali

    2016-01-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) b is a ubiquitous accessory pigment in land plants, green algae, and prochlorophytes. This pigment is synthesized from Chl a by chlorophyllide a oxygenase and plays a key role in adaptation to various environments. This study characterizes a rice mutant, pale green leaf (pgl), and isolates the gene PGL by using a map-based cloning approach. PGL, encoding chlorophyllide a oxygenase 1, is mainly expressed in the chlorenchyma and activated in the light-dependent Chl synthesis process. Compared with wild-type plants, pgl exhibits a lower Chl content with a reduced and disorderly thylakoid ultrastructure, which decreases the photosynthesis rate and results in reduced grain yield and quality. In addition, pgl exhibits premature senescence in both natural and dark-induced conditions and more severe Chl degradation and reactive oxygen species accumulation than does the wild-type. Moreover, pgl is sensitive to heat stress. PMID:26709310

  16. A comparative study on phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of legumes as affected by extraction solvents.

    PubMed

    Xu, B J; Chang, S K C

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how 6 commonly used solvent systems affected the yields of phenolic substances and the antioxidant capacity of extracts from 8 major classes of food legumes. Several antioxidant-related phytochemical compositions, namely, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), and condensed tannins content (CTC), were investigated. In addition, antioxidant activities were tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The results showed that the 50% acetone extracts exhibited the highest TPC for yellow pea, green pea, chickpea, and yellow soybean. Acidic 70% acetone (+0.5% acetic acid) extracts exhibited the highest TPC, TFC, and FRAP values for black bean, lentil, black soybean, and red kidney bean. The 80% acetone extracts exhibited the highest TFC, CTC, and DPPH-free radical scavenging activity for yellow pea, green pea, chickpea, and yellow soybean. The 70% ethanol extracts exhibited the greatest ORAC value for all selected legumes. These results indicated that solvents with different polarity had significant effects on total phenolic contents, extracted components, and antioxidant activities. High correlations between phenolic compositions and antioxidant activities of legume extracts were observed. The information is of interest to the nutraceutical food/ingredient industries since legumes are a rich source of antioxidants. PMID:17995858

  17. Rice proteins, extracted by alkali and α-amylase, differently affect in vitro antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengxuan; Liu, Ye; Li, Hui; Yang, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Alkali treatment and α-amylase degradation are different processes for rice protein (RP) isolation. The major aim of this study was to determine the influence of two different extraction methods on the antioxidant capacities of RPA, extracted by alkaline (0.2% NaOH), and RPE, extracted by α-amylase, during in vitro digestion for 2h with pepsin and for 3h with pancreatin. Upon pepsin-pancreatin digestion, the protein hydrolysates (RPA-S, RPE-S), which were the supernatants in the absence of undigested residue, and the whole protein digests (RPA, RPE), in which undigested residue remained, were measured. RPE exhibited the stronger antioxidant responses to free radical scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and reducing power, whereas the weakest antioxidant capacities were produced by RPE-S. In contrast, no significant differences in antioxidant activity were observed between RPA and RPA-S. The present study demonstrated that the in vitro antioxidant responses induced by the hydrolysates and the protein digests of RPs could be affected differently by alkali treatment and α-amylase degradation, suggesting that the extraction is a vital processing step to modify the antioxidant capacities of RPs. The results of the current study indicated that the protein digests, in which undigested residues remained, could exhibit more efficacious antioxidant activity compared to the hydrolysates. PMID:27041309

  18. The Histamine N-Methyltransferase T105I Polymorphism Affects Active Site Structure and Dynamics†

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Karen; Parson, William W.; Daggett, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) is the sole enzyme responsible for inactivating histamine in the mammalian brain. The human HNMT gene contains a common threonine-isoleucine polymorphism at residue 105, distal from the active site. The 105I variant has decreased activity and lower protein levels relative to the 105T protein. Crystal structures of both variants have been solved, but reveal little regarding how the T105I polymorphism affects activity. We performed molecular dynamics simulations of both 105T and 105I at 37°C to explore the structural and dynamic consequences of the polymorphism. The simulations indicate that replacing Thr with the larger Ile residue leads to greater burial of residue 105 and heightened packing interactions between residue105 and residues within helix α3 and strand β3. This altered packing is directly translated to the active site resulting in the reorientation of several co-substrate-binding residues. The simulations also show that the hydrophobic histamine-binding domain in both proteins undergoes a large-scale breathing motion that exposes key catalytic residues and lessens the hydrophobicity of the substrate-binding site. PMID:18154359

  19. Streptomycin affects the growth and photochemical activity of the alga Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; García, Roberto Velasco; Gómez-Juárez, Evelyn Alicia; Salcedo-Álvarez, Martha Ofelia; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2016-10-01

    Antibiotics are increasingly being used in human and veterinary medicine, as well as pest control in agriculture. Recently, their emergence in the aquatic environment has become a global concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of streptomycin on growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlorella vulgaris after 72h exposure. We found that growth, photosynthetic activity and the content of the D1 protein of photosystem II decreased. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence emission shows a reduction in the energy transfer between the antenna complex and reaction center. Also the activity of the oxygen evolution complex and electron flow between QA and QB were significantly reduced; in contrast, we found an increase in the reduction rate of the acceptor side of photosystem I. The foregoing can be attributed to the inhibition of the synthesis of the D1 protein and perhaps other coded chloroplast proteins that are part of the electron transport chain which are essential for the transformation of solar energy in the photosystems. We conclude that micromolar concentrations of streptomycin can affect growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlorella vulgaris. The accumulation of antibiotics in the environment can become an ecological problem for primary producers in the aquatic environment. PMID:27344399

  20. Muscular activity level during pedalling is not affected by crank inertial load.

    PubMed

    Duc, S; Villerius, V; Bertucci, W; Pernin, J N; Grappe, F

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of gear ratio (GR) and thus crank inertial load (CIL), on the activity levels of lower limb muscles. Twelve competitive cyclists performed three randomised trials with their own bicycle equipped with a SRM crankset and mounted on an Axiom ergometer. The power output ( approximately 80% of maximal aerobic power) and the pedalling cadence were kept constant for each subject across all trials but three different GR (low, medium and high) were indirectly obtained for each trial by altering the electromagnetic brake of the ergometer. The low, medium and high GR (mean +/- SD) resulted in CIL of 44 +/- 3.7, 84 +/- 6.5 and 152 +/- 17.9 kg.m(2), respectively. Muscular activity levels of the gluteus maximus (GM), the vastus medialis (VM), the vastus lateralis (VL), the rectus femoris (RF), the medial hamstrings (MHAM), the gastrocnemius (GAS) and the soleus (SOL) muscles were quantified and analysed by mean root mean square (RMS(mean)). The muscular activity levels of the measured lower limb muscles were not significantly affected when the CIL was increased approximately four fold. This suggests that muscular activity levels measured on different cycling ergometers (with different GR and flywheel inertia) can be compared among each other, as they are not influenced by CIL. PMID:16032416

  1. Mutations Affecting the Trna-Splicing Endonuclease Activity of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Winey, M.; Culbertson, M. R.

    1988-01-01

    Two unlinked mutations that alter the enzyme activity of tRNA-splicing endonuclease have been identified in yeast. The sen1-1 mutation, which maps on chromosome 12, causes temperature-sensitive growth, reduced in vitro endonuclease activity, and in vivo accumulation of unspliced pre-tRNAs. The sen2-1 mutation does not confer a detectable growth defect, but causes a temperature-dependent reduction of in vitro endonuclease activity. Pre-tRNAs do not accumulate in sen2-1 strains. The in vitro enzyme activities of sen1-1 and sen2-1 complement in extracts from a heterozygous diploid, but fail to complement in mixed extracts from separate sen1-1 and sen2-1 haploid strains. These results suggest a direct role for SEN gene products in the enzymatic removal of introns from tRNA that is distinct from the role of other products known to affect tRNA splicing. PMID:3284787

  2. Ranking online quality and reputation via the user activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Lu; Guo, Qiang; Hou, Lei; Cheng, Can; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2015-10-01

    How to design an accurate algorithm for ranking the object quality and user reputation is of importance for online rating systems. In this paper we present an improved iterative algorithm for online ranking object quality and user reputation in terms of the user degree (IRUA), where the user's reputation is measured by his/her rating vector, the corresponding objects' quality vector and the user degree. The experimental results for the empirical networks show that the AUC values of the IRUA algorithm can reach 0.9065 and 0.8705 in Movielens and Netflix data sets, respectively, which is better than the results generated by the traditional iterative ranking methods. Meanwhile, the results for the synthetic networks indicate that user degree should be considered in real rating systems due to users' rating behaviors. Moreover, we find that enhancing or reducing the influences of the large-degree users could produce more accurate reputation ranking lists.

  3. Selenium status affects selenoprotein expression, reproduction, and F₁ generation locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Penglase, Sam; Hamre, Kristin; Rasinger, Josef D; Ellingsen, Staale

    2014-06-14

    Se is an essential trace element, and is incorporated into selenoproteins which play important roles in human health. Mammalian selenoprotein-coding genes are often present as paralogues in teleost fish, and it is unclear whether the expression patterns or functions of these fish paralogues reflect their mammalian orthologues. Using the model species zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF), we aimed to assess how dietary Se affects key parameters in Se metabolism and utilisation including glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, the mRNA expression of key Se-dependent proteins (gpx1a, gpx1b, sepp1a and sepp1b), oxidative status, reproductive success and F1 generation locomotor activity. From 27 d until 254 d post-fertilisation, ZF were fed diets with graded levels of Se ranging from deficient ( < 0·10 mg/kg) to toxic (30 mg/kg). The mRNA expression of gpx1a and gpx1b and GPX activity responded in a similar manner to changes in Se status. GPX activity and mRNA levels were lowest when dietary Se levels (0·3 mg/kg) resulted in the maximum growth of ZF, and a proposed bimodal mechanism in response to Se status below and above this dietary Se level was identified. The expression of the sepp1 paralogues differed, with only sepp1a responding to Se status. High dietary Se supplementation (30 mg/kg) decreased reproductive success, while the offspring of ZF fed above 0·3 mg Se/kg diet had lower locomotor activity than the other groups. Overall, the novel finding of low selenoprotein expression and activity coinciding with maximum body growth suggests that even small Se-induced variations in redox status may influence cellular growth rates. PMID:24666596

  4. Randomized Controlled Trial of Positive Affect Induction to Promote Physical Activity After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Janey C.; Charlson, Mary E.; Hoffman, Zachary; Wells, Martin T.; Wong, Shing-Chiu; Hollenberg, James P.; Jobe, Jared B.; Boschert, Kathryn A.; Isen, Alice M.; Allegrante, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Within 1 year after percutaneous coronary intervention, more than 20% of patients experience new adverse events. Physical activity confers a 25% reduction in mortality; however, physical activity is widely underused. Thus, there is a need for more powerful behavioral interventions to promote physical activity. Our objective was to motivate patients to achieve an increase in expenditure of 336 kcal/wk or more at 12 months as assessed by the Paffenbarger Physical Activity and Exercise Index. Methods Two hundred forty-two patients were recruited immediately after percutaneous coronary intervention between October 2004 and October 2006. Patients were randomized to 1 of 2 groups. The patient education (PE) control group (n=118) (1) received an educational workbook, (2) received a pedometer, and (3) set a behavioral contract for a physical activity goal. The positive affect/self-affirmation (PA) intervention group (n=124) received the 3 PE control components plus (1) a PA workbook chapter, (2) bimonthly induction of PA by telephone, and (3) small mailed gifts. All patients were contacted with standardized bimonthly telephone follow-up for 12 months. Results Attrition was 4.5%, and 2.1% of patients died. Significantly more patients in the PA intervention group increased expenditure by 336 kcal/wk or more at 12 months, our main outcome, compared with the PE control group (54.9% vs 37.4%, P=.007). The PA intervention patients were 1.7 times more likely to reach the goal of a 336-kcal/wk or more increase by 12 months, controlling for demographic and psychosocial measures. In multivariate analysis, the PA intervention patients had nearly double the improvement in kilocalories per week at 12 months compared with the PE control patients (602 vs 328, P=.03). Conclusion Patients who receive PA intervention after percutaneous coronary intervention are able to achieve a sustained and clinically significant increase in physical activity by 12 months. Trial Registration

  5. Home visiting programs for HIV-affected families: a comparison of service quality between volunteer-driven and paraprofessional models

    PubMed Central

    Kidman, Rachel; Nice, Johanna; Taylor, Tory; Thurman, Tonya R.

    2014-01-01

    Home visiting is a popular component of programs for HIV-affected children in sub-Saharan Africa, but its implementation varies widely. While some home visitors are lay volunteers, other programs invest in more highly trained paraprofessional staff. This paper describes a study investigating whether additional investment in paraprofessional staffing translated into higher quality service delivery in one program context. Beneficiary children and caregivers at sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa were interviewed after 2 years of program enrollment and asked to report about their experiences with home visiting. Analysis focused on intervention exposure, including visit intensity, duration and the kinds of emotional, informational and tangible support provided. Few beneficiaries reported receiving home visits in program models primarily driven by lay volunteers; when visits did occur, they were shorter and more infrequent. Paraprofessional-driven programs not only provided significantly more home visits, but also provided greater interaction with the child, communication on a larger variety of topics, and more tangible support to caregivers. These results suggest that programs that invest in compensation and extensive training for home visitors are better able to serve and retain beneficiaries, and they support a move toward establishing a professional workforce of home visitors to support vulnerable children and families in South Africa. PMID:25379052

  6. Biochar amendment before or after composting affects compost quality and N losses, but not P plant uptake.

    PubMed

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Sinicco, Tania; D'Hose, Tommy; Vanden Nest, Thijs; Mondini, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the use of biochar (10% on a dry weight basis) to improve the composting process and/or the compost quality by adding it to either the feedstock mixture or the mature compost. The addition of biochar to the feedstocks was essayed in a full scale trial using a mixture of green waste and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Addition of biochar to mature compost was performed in a medium scale experiment. The use of biochar, even in small amounts, changed the composting process and the properties of the end products. However these effects depended on the time of application. We observed a faster decomposition in the bio-oxidative phase and lower greenhouse gas emissions when biochar was added at the beginning of the composting process, and a reduction in readily available P when biochar was applied during compost storage. Biochar as a means to increase the C content of the compost was only effective during compost storage. The P fertilizer replacement value of the compost with and without biochar was tested in a plant trial with annual ryegrass. While there was a clear effect on readily available P concentrations in the compost, adding biochar to the feedstock or the compost did not affect the P fertilizer replacement value. PMID:26708650

  7. [Biotic and abiotic factors that affect the quality of Schinopsis balansae Engl. and Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schltdl. seeds].

    PubMed

    Alzugaray, Claudia; Carnevale, Nélida J; Salinas, Adriana R; Pioli, Rosanna

    2007-06-01

    Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco (white quebracho) and Schinopsis balansae (red quebracho) are distinctive trees of the South American Park in Argentina. Quebrachos are found in forests that have been exploited very intensively. The object of this work was the identification of biotic and abiotic factors specially fungal pathogen that affect the quality of both species and its relation with germination. Seeds where evaluated through germination test and the percentage of the incidence of fungal agents in two different years of harvest was determined. In S. balansae the germination rate was 77% and of 27% in 2000 and 2001 harvests, respectively. Associations fungi-germination were found in 2001 for Alternaria spp., Curvularia spp., and Fusarium spp., showing an coefficient of correlation = -0.84; -0.85 and -0.73 (p < 0.00004), respectively. A high percentage of vane seeds (55%) was also found in 2001 harvest, due to adverse environmental factors, specifically higher precipitations during flowering. In A. quebracho-blanco seeds, the germination rate was 50% and 90% in 2000 and 2003 respectively, with a 42% of immature seeds in 2000 harvest that was associated to high precipitations and high temperatures during flowering and ripping of fruits. The incidence of pathogens was low and did not have association to germination. PMID:17604434

  8. Nicotinamide polymeric nanoemulsified systems: a quality-by-design case study for a sustained antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Zidan, Ahmed S; Ahmed, Osama Aa; Aljaeid, Bader M

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinamide, the amide form of vitamin B3, was demonstrated to combat some of the antibiotic-resistant infections that are increasingly common around the world. The objective of this study was to thoroughly understand the formulation and process variabilities affecting the preparation of nicotinamide-loaded polymeric nanoemulsified particles. The quality target product profile and critical quality attributes of the proposed product were presented. Plackett-Burman screening design was employed to screen eight variables for their influences on the formulation's critical characteristics. The formulations were prepared by an oil-in-water emulsification followed by solvent replacement. The prepared systems were characterized by entrapment capacity (EC), entrapment efficiency (EE), particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, in vitro drug release, and their antibacterial activity against bacterial scrums. EC, EE, particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and percentage release in 24 hours were found to be in the range of 33.5%-68.8%, 53.1%-67.1%, 43.3-243.3 nm, 0.08-0.28, 9.5-53.3 mV, and 5.8%-22.4%, respectively. One-way analysis of variance and Pareto charts revealed that the experimental loadings of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and Eudragit(®) S100 were the most significant for their effects on nicotinamide EC and EE. Moreover, the polymeric nanoemulsified particles demonstrated a sustained release profile for nicotinamide. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction demonstrated a significant interaction between the drug and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin that might modulate the sustained release behavior. Furthermore, the formulations provided a sustained antibacterial activity that depended on nicotinamide-loading concentration, release rate, and

  9. Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; Schaeffer, Sheldon

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the Coordinator's Notebook focuses on the quality of Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) programs. The bulk of the issue is devoted to an article "Quality in ECCD: Everyone's Concern" (Judith Evans), which reviews the need for a definition of high quality in ECCD programs and discusses how diverse stakeholders define quality.…

  10. Cardiovascular and Affective Outcomes of Active Gaming: Using the Nintendo Wii as a Cardiovascular Training Tool

    PubMed Central

    Naugle, Keith E.; Naugle, Kelly M.; Wikstrom, Erik A.

    2014-01-01

    Naugle, KE, Naugle, KM, and Wikstrom, EA. Cardiovascular and affective outcomes of active gaming: Using the Nintendo Wii as a cardiovascular training tool. J Strength Cond Res 28(2): 443–451, 2014–Active-video gaming is purported to produce similar cardiovascular responses as aerobic fitness activities. This study compared the emotional and cardiovascular effects of Wii games with those of traditional exercise in college-aged adults with different exercise backgrounds. Specifically, the percentage of heart rate reserve, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), level of enjoyment, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule scores were compared between subjects who reported exercising frequently at high intensities (high-intensity exerciser group: age = 20.18 years [0.87]; Height = 165.23 cm [9.97]; Mass = 62.37 kg [11.61]), N = 11 and those who exercise more often at lower intensities (low-intensity exercisers group: age = 20.72 years [1.19]; Height = 164.39 cm [8.05]; Mass = 68.04 kg [10.71]), N = 11. The subjects completed six 20-minute exercises sessions: treadmill walking, stationary cycling, and Wii's Tennis, Boxing, Cycling, and Step. The low-intensity exerciser group achieved a greater percentage of heart rate reserve (a) during traditional exercise compared with that during Wii boxing, (b) playing Wii boxing compared with that for Wii tennis, and (c) playing Wii boxing compared with that when the high-intensity exercisers group played any Wii games (p < 0.05). The RPE was greater for boxing and cycling compared with that for tennis and step (p < 0.05). Ratings of enjoyment and the increase in positive emotion were greater for boxing and for tennis compared with those for traditional exercises (p < 0.05). Results suggest that Wii boxing shows the greatest potential as a cardiovascular fitness tool among the Wii games, particularly for individuals who typically exercise at lower intensities. PMID:23660574

  11. Standardizing orbit planning, satellite operations, and communication activities that are affected by space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W.

    2007-12-01

    Precision satellite orbit determination, constellation station-keeping, debris avoidance, reentry timing, satellite subsystem performance and safety, and communication link enhancement are among the major technological activities that are affected by space weather. There are numerous applications being developed to mitigate space weather affects on these domains. However, the common language for information exchange still needs community attention. We report on progress towards a) providing applications and services that mitigate adverse effects caused by space weather and b) developing international standards for exchange of information. For applications and services, Space Environment Technologies (SET) has developed a) new solar indices that reduce 1-sigma uncertainty by 50 percent in atmosphere density calculations, b) new spacecraft surface charging characterizations, and c) new solar irradiances that capture solar flare effects on transionospheric communications. These solar products have been developed and tested for: 1) daily time resolution for historical, nowcast, and intermediate-term forecast periods (1-day granularity, 1-hour cadence, and 1-hour latency extending 4.5 months); 2) high time resolution for recent, nowcast, and short-term forecast periods (3-hour granularity, 1-hour cadence, and 1-hour latency extending 96 hours); and 3) precision time resolution for recent, current epoch, and near-term forecast periods (1-minute granularity, 2-minute cadence, and 5-minute latency extending 6 hours). These indices and solar irradiances are used for improving atmosphere density and ionosphere models' outputs and we describe specific case studies as well as coupled applications that serve space systems users in orbit planning, satellite operations, and communication activities. For standards, we report on the activities of ISO TC20/SC14/WG4, which has the authority to develop international standards related to the space environment.

  12. Promoting Lifelong Physical Activity through Quality Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Amelia M.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the recognized health risks associated with physical inactivity, most Americans are not active enough to achieve health benefits, and many report no planned physical activity at all. The Surgeon General's report on physical activity and health and several research studies have provided evidence that most Americans do not exercise and are…

  13. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activators affect the maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Gosset, P; Charbonnier, A S; Delerive, P; Fontaine, J; Staels, B; Pestel, J; Tonnel, A B; Trottein, F

    2001-10-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma ), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, has recently been described as a modulator of macrophage functions and as an inhibitor of T cell proliferation. Here, we investigated the role of PPARgamma in dendritic cells (DC), the most potent antigen-presenting cells. We showed that PPARgamma is highly expressed in immature human monocyte-derived DC (MDDC) and that it may affect the immunostimulatory function of MDDC stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or via CD40 ligand (CD40L). We found that the synthetic PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone (as well as pioglitazone and troglitazone) significantly increases on LPS- and CD40L-activated MDDC, the surface expression of CD36 (by 184% and 104%, respectively) and CD86 (by 54% and 48%), whereas it reduces the synthesis of CD80 (by 42% and 42%). Moreover, activation of PPARgamma resulted in a dramatic decreased secretion of the Th1-promoting factor IL-12 in LPS- and CD40L-stimulated cells (by 47% and 62%), while the production of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 was unaffected. Finally, PPARgamma ligands down-modulate the synthesis of IFN-gamma -inducible protein-10 (recently termed as CXCL10) and RANTES (CCL5), both chemokines involved in the recruitment of Th1 lymphocytes (by 49% and 30%), but not the levels of the Th2 cell-attracting chemokines,macrophage-derived chemokine (CCL22) and thymus and activation regulated chemokine (CCL17), in mature MDDC. Taken together, our data suggest that activation of PPARgamma in human DC may have an impact in the orientation of primary and secondary immune responses by favoring type 2 responses. PMID:11592060

  14. Environmental setting and factors that affect water quality in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berndt, M.P.; Oaksford, E.T.; Darst, M.R.; Marella, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    , geologic setting, ground-water systems, surface- water systems, climate, floods, droughts, population, land use, and water use. Factors affecting water quality in the study area are land use (primarily urban and agricultural land uses), water use in coastal areas, hydrogeology, ground-water/surface-water interaction, geology, and climate. Surface-water quality problems in urban areas have occurred in the Ogeechee, Canoochee, Ocmulgee, St. Marys, Alapaha, Withlacoochee (north), Santa Fe, Ochlockonee, St. Johns, and Oklawaha Rivers and include nitrogen and phosphorus loading, low dissolved oxygen, elevated bacteria, sediment, and turbidity, and increased concentrations of metals. In agricultural areas, surface-water quality problems include elevated nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, erosion, and sedimentation and have occurred in the Ocmulgee, St. Marys, Santa Fe, Ochlockonee, St. Johns, Oklawaha, Withlacoochee (South), Hillsborough, and Alafia Rivers. Ground water-quality problems such as saltwater intrusion have occurred mostly in coastal areas and were caused by excessive withdrawals.

  15. Human residential status and habitat quality affect the likelihood but not the success of lapwing breeding in an urban matrix.

    PubMed

    Roche, Dylan V; Cardilini, Adam P A; Lees, Daniel; Maguire, Grainne S; Dann, Peter; Sherman, Craig D H; Weston, Michael A

    2016-06-15

    Wildlife living in the suburbs faces the challenge of dealing with human presence and yard management (including the occurrence of pets) which vary at the scale of the house block. This study examined the influence of ecological factors (e.g. extent of grass and food availability) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. human activity and garden usage) on breeding site choice and reproductive success of the ground-nesting masked lapwing Vanellus miles on Phillip Island, Australia. Lapwings nested less frequently in residential properties (high levels of human usage) compared with vacant blocks and holiday houses. They were also more likely to breed on properties with high food availability and larger areas of grass. None of these variables influenced clutch size or the probability of eggs hatching, although larger clutches and higher hatching rates tended to be associated with more food. This study shows that, for an urban exploiting species, habitat quality is not homogenous at the scale of the house block, and that human activity is avoided by a species generally considered highly tolerant of people. PMID:26971220

  16. ERK Pathway Activation Bidirectionally Affects Visual Recognition Memory and Synaptic Plasticity in the Perirhinal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Silingardi, Davide; Angelucci, Andrea; De Pasquale, Roberto; Borsotti, Marco; Squitieri, Giovanni; Brambilla, Riccardo; Putignano, Elena; Pizzorusso, Tommaso; Berardi, Nicoletta

    2011-01-01

    ERK 1,2 pathway mediates experience-dependent gene transcription in neurons and several studies have identified its pivotal role in experience-dependent synaptic plasticity and in forms of long term memory involving hippocampus, amygdala, or striatum. The perirhinal cortex (PRHC) plays an essential role in familiarity-based object recognition memory. It is still unknown whether ERK activation in PRHC is necessary for recognition memory consolidation. Most important, it is unknown whether by modulating the gain of the ERK pathway it is possible to bidirectionally affect visual recognition memory and PRHC synaptic plasticity. We have first pharmacologically blocked ERK activation in the PRHC of adult mice and found that this was sufficient to impair long term recognition memory in a familiarity-based task, the object recognition task (ORT). We have then tested performance in the ORT in Ras-GRF1 knock-out (KO) mice, which exhibit a reduced activation of ERK by neuronal activity, and in ERK1 KO mice, which have an increased activation of ERK2 and exhibit enhanced striatal plasticity and striatal mediated memory. We found that Ras-GRF1 KO mice have normal short term memory but display a long term memory deficit; memory reconsolidation is also impaired. On the contrary, ERK1 KO mice exhibit a better performance than WT mice at 72 h retention interval, suggesting a longer lasting recognition memory. In parallel with behavioral data, LTD was strongly reduced and LTP was significantly smaller in PRHC slices from Ras-GRF1 KO than in WT mice while enhanced LTP and LTD were found in PRHC slices from ERK1 KO mice. PMID:22232579

  17. Short fungal fractions of β-1,3 glucans affect platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Vancraeyneste, Hélène; Charlet, Rogatien; Guerardel, Yann; Choteau, Laura; Bauters, Anne; Tardivel, Meryem; François, Nadine; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Soloviev, Dmitry; Poulain, Daniel; Sendid, Boualem; Jawhara, Samir

    2016-09-01

    Platelets are capable of binding, aggregating, and internalizing microorganisms, which enhances the elimination of pathogens from the blood. The yeast Candida albicans is a pathobiont causing life-threatening invasive infections. Its cell wall contains β-1,3 glucans that are known to trigger a wide range of host cell activities and to circulate during infection. We studied the effect of β-1,3 glucan fractions (BGFs) consisting of diglucosides (Glc2), tetraglucosides (Glc4), and pentaglucosides (Glc5) on human platelets, their mechanisms of action, and their possible impact on host defenses. The effect of BGFs on the coagulation process was determined by measuring thrombin generation. Platelets pretreated with BGFs were analyzed in terms of activation, receptor expression, aggregation, and adhesion to neutrophils and to C. albicans The results show that BGFs affected the endogenous thrombin potential in a concentration-dependent manner. For platelet activation, BGFs at a low concentration (2 μmol/l) reduced ATP release and prevented the phosphorylation of protein kinase C. BGFs diminished the expression of P-selectin and the activation of αIIbβ3 BGFs decreased platelet aggregation and the interaction between thrombin-stimulated platelets and neutrophils, fibrinogen, and C. albicans GLc5 decreased ATP release and TGF-β1 production in response to TLR4 upregulation in thrombin-stimulated platelets, but TLR4 blockage abolished the effect of BGFs on platelets. This study provides evidence that fungal pentaglucosides modulate platelet activity mediated via TLR4 stimulation and reduce platelet-neutrophil interaction. PMID:27288438

  18. Chromatographic fingerprint combined with content of asperosaponin VI and antioxidant activity for quality evaluation of wine-fried Dipsaci Radix.

    PubMed

    Song, Li; Wang, Shaoyun; Duan, Xiaoju; Liu, Xinhua; Li, Zhaofang; Nie, Lei; Chu, Guangyi

    2014-06-01

    Dipsaci Radix, the dry root of Dipsacusasper Wall. ex Henry, is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). A novel comprehensive method was proposed for quality evaluation of wine-fried Dipsaci Radix by an integrated data including three aspects of information: high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint, asperosaponin VI content and antioxidant activity (AA). Various indicators including fingerprint similarity, asperosaponin VI content and AA were respectively employed for quality assessment of processed Dipsaci Radix samples. Results showed that considerable differences existed in quality of processed samples with different processing conditions according to three indicators. Among the factors affecting quality of wine-fried Dipsaci Radix, heating temperature was the most influential factor based on analysis of variance (ANOVA), and should be cautiously controlled. The three evaluation indicators respectively used for optimization of processing technology suggested different optimal conditions of wine-frying. Therefore, a combined indicator based on three evaluation indicators was used for determination of optimal processing condition. Multivariate statistical methods such as Hierarchical Clustering Analysis (HCA) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were both employed to classify the processed samples for quality evaluation. To more comprehensively evaluate the quality of wine-fried Dipsaci Radix, HPLC fingerprint combined with content of asperosaponin VI and AA may be a reasonable and practical approach. PMID:25115076

  19. 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields do not affect human lymphocyte activation and proliferation in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capri, Miriam; Mesirca, Pietro; Remondini, Daniel; Carosella, Simona; Pasi, Sara; Castellani, Gastone; Franceschi, Claudio; Bersani, Ferdinando

    2004-12-01

    In the last 30 years, an increasing public concern about the possible harmful effects of electromagnetic fields generated by power lines and domestic appliances has pushed the scientific community to search for a correct and comprehensive answer to this problem. In this work the effects of exposure to 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields, with a magnetic flux density of 0.05 mT and 2.5 mT (peak values), were studied on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from healthy young and elderly donors. Cell activation and proliferation were investigated by using flow cytometry techniques and 3H-TdR incorporation assays, respectively. The results obtained indicated that exposure to the fields altered neither DNA synthesis nor the capacity of lymphocytes to enter the activation phase and progress into the cell cycle. Thus, the conclusions are that two important functional phases of human lymphocytes, such as activation and proliferation, are not affected by exposures to 50 Hz magnetic fields similar to those found under power lines.

  20. Amygdala atrophy affects emotion-related activity in face-responsive regions in frontotemporal degeneration.

    PubMed

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Van den Stock, Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Peeters, Ronald; Jastorff, Jan; Sunaert, Stefan; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    In the healthy brain, modulatory influences from the amygdala commonly explain enhanced activation in face-responsive areas by emotional facial expressions relative to neutral expressions. In the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) facial emotion recognition is impaired and has been associated with atrophy of the amygdala. By combining structural and functional MRI in 19 patients with bvFTD and 20 controls we investigated the neural effects of emotion in face-responsive cortex and its relationship with amygdalar gray matter (GM) volume in neurodegeneration. Voxel-based morphometry revealed decreased GM volume in anterior medio-temporal regions including amygdala in patients compared to controls. During fMRI, we presented dynamic facial expressions (fear and chewing) and their spatiotemporally scrambled versions. We found enhanced activation for fearful compared to neutral faces in ventral temporal cortex and superior temporal sulcus in controls, but not in patients. In the bvFTD group left amygdalar GM volume correlated positively with emotion-related activity in left fusiform face area (FFA). This correlation was amygdala-specific and driven by GM in superficial and basolateral (BLA) subnuclei, consistent with reported amygdalar-cortical networks. The data suggests that anterior medio-temporal atrophy in bvFTD affects emotion processing in distant posterior areas. PMID:27389802