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Sample records for activities biology operation

  1. Programming biological operating systems: genome design, assembly and activation.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Daniel G

    2014-05-01

    The DNA technologies developed over the past 20 years for reading and writing the genetic code converged when the first synthetic cell was created 4 years ago. An outcome of this work has been an extraordinary set of tools for synthesizing, assembling, engineering and transplanting whole bacterial genomes. Technical progress, options and applications for bacterial genome design, assembly and activation are discussed.

  2. Effect of basic operating parameters on biological phosphorus removal in a continuous-flow anaerobic-anoxic activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Kapagiannidis, A G; Zafiriadis, I; Aivasidis, A

    2012-03-01

    A continuous-flow anaerobic-anoxic (A2) activated sludge system was operated for efficient enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Because of the system configuration with no aeration zones, phosphorus (P) uptake takes place solely under anoxic conditions with simultaneous denitrification. Basic operating conditions, namely biomass concentration, influent carbon to phosphorus ratio and anaerobic retention time were chosen as variables in order to assess their impact on the system performance. The experimental results indicated that maintenance of biomass concentration above 2,500 mg MLVSS/L resulted in the complete phosphate removal from the influent (i.e. 15 mg PO(4) (3-)-P/L) for a mean hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 15 h. Additionally, by increasing the influent COD/P ratio from 10 to 20 g/g, the system P removal efficiency was improved although the experimental results indicated a possible enhancement of the competition between phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) and other microbial populations without phosphorus uptake ability. Moreover, because of the use of acetate (i.e. easily biodegradable substrate) as the sole carbon source in the system feed, application of anaerobic retention times greater than 2 h resulted in no significant release of additional P in the anaerobic zone and no further amelioration of the system P removal efficiency. The application of anoxic P removal resulted in more than 50% reduction of the organic carbon necessitated for nitrogen and phosphorus removal when compared to a conventional EBPR system incorporating aerobic phosphorus removal.

  3. Major operations and activities

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  4. Long-term operation of biological activated carbon pre-treatment for microfiltration of secondary effluent: Correlation between the organic foulants and fouling potential.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2016-03-01

    The impact of long-term (>2 years) biological activated carbon (BAC) treatment for mitigating organic fouling in the microfiltration of biologically treated secondary effluent was investigated. Correlation between the organic constituents and hydraulic filtration resistance was investigated to identify the major components responsible for fouling. Over two years operation, the removal efficiency for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by the BAC treatment was fairly consistent (30 ± 3%), although the reduction in UVA254 gradually decreased from 56 to 34%. BAC treatment effectively decreased the organic foulants in the effluent and so contributed to the mitigation of membrane fouling as shown by reduction in the unified membrane fouling index (UMFI). BAC consistently removed biopolymers whereas the removal of humic substances decreased from 52 to 25% after two years of BAC operation, and thus led to a gradual decrease in UMFI reduction efficiency from 78 to 43%. This was due to gradual reduction in adsorption capacity of the activated carbon as confirmed by analysis of its pore size distribution. Hence humics also played an important role in membrane fouling. However, there was a good correlation between protein and carbohydrate contents with hydraulically reversible and irreversible filtration resistance, compared with UVA254, turbidity and DOC. Although the mitigation of membrane fouling decreased over time, this study demonstrated that the long-term use of BAC pre-treatment of biologically treated secondary effluent prior to microfiltration has potential to reduce the need for frequent chemical cleaning and so increase membrane life span.

  5. [Biological activity of Spirulina].

    PubMed

    Blinkova, L P; Gorobets, O B; Baturo, A P

    2001-01-01

    In this review information of Spirulina platensis (SP), a blue-green alga (photosynthesizing cyanobacterium) having diverse biological activity is presented. Due to high content of highly valuable proteins, indispensable amino acids, vitamins, beta-carotene and other pigments, mineral substances, indispensable fatty acids and polysaccharides, PS has been found suitable for use as bioactive additive. SP produces an immunostimulating effect by enhancing the resistance of humans, mammals, chickens and fish to infections, the capacity of influencing hemopoiesis, stimulating the production of antibodies and cytokines. Under the influence of SP macrophages, T and B cells are activated. SP sulfolipids have proved to be effective against HIV. Preparations obtained from SP biomass have also been found active against herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, etc. SP extracts are capable in inhibiting cancerogenesis. SP preparations are regarded as functional products contributing to the preservation of the resident intestinal microflora, especially lactic acid bacilli and bifidobacteria, and to a decrease in the level of Candida albicans. The biological activity of SP with respect to microorganisms holds good promise for using these microalgae as components of culture media.

  6. Comparing cost and process performance of activated sludge (AS) and biological aerated filters (BAF) over ten years of full sale operation.

    PubMed

    Hansen, R; Thogersen, T; Rogalla, F

    2007-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) of Frederikshavn, Denmark, was extended to meet new requirements for nutrient removal (8 mg/L TN, 1.5 mg TP/L) as well as to increase its average daily flow to 16,500 m(3)/d (4.5 MGD). As the most economical upgrade of the existing activated sludge (AS) plant, a parallel biological aerated filter (BAF) was selected, and started up in 1995. Running two full scale processes in parallel for over ten years on the same wastewater and treatment objectives enabled a direct comparison in relation to operating performance, costs and experience. Common pretreatment consists of screening, an aerated grit and grease removal and three primary settlers with chemical addition. The effluent is then pumped to the two parallel biological treatment stages, AS with recirculation and an upflow BAF with floating media. The wastewater is a mixture of industrial and domestic wastewater, with a dominant discharge of fish processing effluent which can amount to 50% of the flow. The maximum hydraulic load on the pretreatment section as a whole is 1,530 m(3)/h. Approximately 60% of the sewer system is combined with a total of 32 overflow structures. To avoid the direct discharge of combined sewer overflows into the receiving waters, the total hydraulic wet weather capacity of the plant is increased to 4,330 m(3)/h, or 6 times average flow. During rain, some of the raw sewage can be directed through a stormwater bypass to the BAF, which can be modified in its operation to accommodate various treatment needs: either using simultaneous nitrification/denitrification in all filters with recirculation introducing bottom aeration with full nitrification in some filters for storm treatment and/or post-denitrification in one filter. After treatment, the wastewater is discharged to the Baltic Sea through a 500 m outfall. The BAF backwash sludge, approximately 1,900 m(3) per 24 h in dry weather, is redirected to the AS plant. Primary settler

  7. Biological activation of carbon filters.

    PubMed

    Seredyńska-Sobecka, Bozena; Tomaszewska, Maria; Janus, Magdalena; Morawski, Antoni W

    2006-01-01

    To prepare biological activated carbon (BAC), raw surface water was circulated through granular activated carbon (GAC) beds. Biological activity of carbon filters was initiated after about 6 months of filter operation and was confirmed by two methods: measurement of the amount of biomass attached to the carbon and by the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) test. The effect of carbon pre-washing on WG-12 carbon properties was also studied. For this purpose, the nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77K and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectra analyses were performed. Moreover, iodine number, decolorizing power and adsorption properties of carbon in relation to phenol were studied. Analysis of the results revealed that after WG-12 carbon pre-washing its BET surface increased a little, the pH value of the carbon water extract decreased from 11.0 to 9.4, decolorizing power remained at the same level, and the iodine number and phenol adsorption rate increased. In preliminary studies of the ozonation-biofiltration process, a model phenol solution with concentration of approximately 10mg/l was applied. During the ozonation process a dose of 1.64 mg O(3)/mg TOC (total organic carbon) was employed and the contact time was 5 min. Four empty bed contact times (EBCTs) in the range of 2.4-24.0 min were used in the biofiltration experiment. The effectiveness of purification was measured by the following parameters: chemical oxygen demand (COD(Mn)), TOC, phenol concentration and UV(254)-absorbance. The parameters were found to decrease with EBCT.

  8. Gold nanoparticle chemiresistors operating in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Lee J; Chow, Edith; Cooper, James S; Webster, Melissa; Müller, Karl-Heinz; Wieczorek, Lech; Raguse, Burkhard

    2012-09-07

    Functionalised gold nanoparticle (Au(NP)) chemiresistors are investigated for direct sensing of small organic molecules in biological fluids. The principle reason that Au(NP) chemiresistors, and many other sensing devices, have limited operation in biological fluids is due to protein and lipid fouling deactivating the sensing mechanism. In order to extend the capability of such chemiresistor sensors to operate directly in biofluids, it is essential to minimise undesirable matrix effects due to protein and lipidic components. Ultrafiltration membranes were investigated as semi-permeable size-selective barriers to prevent large biomolecule interactions with Au(NP) chemiresistors operating in protein-loaded biofluids. All of the ultrafiltration membranes protected the Au(NP) chemiresistors from fouling by the globular biomolecules, with the 10 kDa molecular weight cut-off size being optimum for operation in biofluids. Titrations of toluene in different protein-loaded fluids indicated that small molecule detection was possible. A sensor array consisting of six different thiolate-functionalised Au(NP) chemiresistors protected with a size-selective ultrafiltration membrane successfully identified, and discriminated the spoilage of pasteurised bovine milk. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates the on-chip protein separation and small metabolite detection capability, illustrating the potential for this technology in the field of microbial metabolomics. Overall, these results demonstrate that a sensor array can be protected from protein fouling with the use of a membrane, significantly increasing the possible application areas of Au(NP) chemiresistors ranging from the food industry to health services.

  9. Sustainable operation of a biological wastewater treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trikoilidou, E.; Samiotis, G.; Bellos, D.; Amanatidou, E.

    2016-11-01

    The sustainable operation of a biological wastewater treatment plant is significantly linked to its removal efficiency, cost of sludge management, energy consumption and monitoring cost. The biological treatment offers high organic removal efficiency, it also entails significant sludge production, which contains active (live) and inactive (dead) microorganisms and must be treated prior to final disposal, in order to prevent adverse impact on public health and environment. The efficiency of the activated sludge treatment process is correlated to an efficient solid-liquid separation, which is strongly depended on the biomass settling properties. The most commonly encountered settling problems in a wastewater treatment plant, which are usually associated with operating conditions and specific microorganisms growth, are sludge bulking, floating sludge, pin point flocs and straggler flocs. Sustainable management of sludge and less energy consumption are the two principal aspects that determine the operational cost of wastewater treatment plants. Sludge treatment and management accumulate more than 50% of the operating cost. Aerobic wastewater treatment plants have high energy requirements for covering the needs of aeration and recirculations. In order to ensure wastewater treatment plants’ effective operation, a large number of physicochemical parameters have to be monitored, thus further increasing the operational cost. As the operational parameters are linked to microbial population, a practical way of wastewater treatment plants’ controlling is the microscopic examination of sludge, which is proved to be an important tool for evaluating plants’ performance and assessing possible problems and symptoms. This study presents a biological wastewater treatment plant with almost zero biomass production, less energy consumption and a practical way for operation control through microbial manipulation and microscopic examination.

  10. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of biology experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher information…

  11. Biological activity of ionene polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.

    1973-01-01

    Ionene polymers are polyammonium salts with positive nitrogens in the backbone, resulting from the polycondensation of diamines with dihalides or from the polycondensation of halo amines. The mechanism of formation of ionene polymers of different structures and their biological activity is reviewed. The antimicrobial and antifungal properties are compared with low molecular weight ammonium salts. Ionenes were found to combine with DNA by means of ionic bonds to yield similar complexes to those obtained with polyamines (spermine and spermidine). They also combine with nerve cell receptors and exercise a more powerful and longer duration ganglionic blocking action than their monomeric analogs. The antiheparin activity of ionenes and the thromboresistance of elastomeric ionene heparin coatings is described. The enhanced biological activity of ionenes as compared with low molecular weight compounds is attributed to a cooperative effect of a large number of positive charges on the polymeric chains.

  12. Diverse biological activities of dandelion.

    PubMed

    González-Castejón, Marta; Visioli, Francesco; Rodriguez-Casado, Arantxa

    2012-09-01

    Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber) is a member of the Asteraceae (Compositae) family, native to Europe but widely distributed in the warmer temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere. Dandelion and its parts are habitually consumed as plant foods in several areas of the world, where they are also employed in phytotherapy. Indeed, dandelion contains a wide array of phytochemicals whose biological activities are actively being explored in various areas of human health. In particular, emerging evidence suggests that dandelion and its constituents have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities that result in diverse biological effects. The present review provides a comprehensive analysis of the constituents of dandelion, an assessment of the pharmacological properties of dandelion, and a description of relevant studies that support the use of dandelion as a medicinal plant.

  13. Molecular characteristics versus biological activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Applegate, Vernon C.; Smith, Manning A.; Willeford, Bennett R.

    1967-01-01

    The molecular characteristics of mononitrophenols containing halogens not only play a key role in their biological activity but provide a novel example of selective toxicity among vertebrate animals. It has been reported that efforts to control the parasitic sea lamprey in the Great Lakes are directed at present to the applications of a selective toxicant to streams inhabited by lamprey larvae. Since 1961, the larvicide that has been used almost exclusively in the control program has been 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM). However, this is only one of about 15 closely related compounds, all halogen-containing mononitrophenols, that display a selectively toxic action upon lampreys. Although not all of the halogenated mononitrophenols are selectively toxic to lampreys (in fact, fewer than half of those tested), no other group of related compounds has displayed any useful larvicidal activity except for the substituted nitrosalicylanilides.

  14. Improvement strategy on enhanced biological phosphorus removal for municipal wastewater treatment plants: full-scale operating parameters, sludge activities, and microbial features.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhijian; Li, Hui; Zhu, Jun; Weiping, Liu; Xin, Xu

    2011-04-01

    The poor quality of effluent discharged by municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is threatening the safety of water ecology. This study, which integrated a field survey, batch tests, and microbial community identification, was designed to improve the effectiveness of the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process for WWTPs. Over two-thirds of the investigated WWTPs could not achieve total P in effluent lower than 0.5 mg/L, mainly due to the high ratio of chemical oxygen demand to P (28.6-196.2) in the influent. The rates of anaerobic P release and aerobic P uptake for the activated sludge varied from 0.22 to 7.9 mg/g VSS/h and 0.43 to 8.11 mg/g VSS/h, respectively. The fraction of Accumulibacter (PAOs: polyphosphate accumulating organisms) was 4.8 ± 2.0% of the total biomass, while Competibacter (GAOs: glycogen-accumulating organisms) accounted for 4.8 ± 6.4%. The anaerobic P-release rate was found to be an effective indicator of EBPR. Four classifications of the principal components were identified to improve the EBPR effluent quality and sludge activity.

  15. Strigolactones: structures and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, Koichi; Xie, Xiaonan; Yoneyama, Kaori; Takeuchi, Yasutomo

    2009-05-01

    Strigolactones released from plant roots induce seed germination of root parasitic weeds, witchweeds (Striga spp.) and broomrapes (Orobanche spp.), and hyphal branching of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. In addition to these functions in the rhizosphere, strigolactones have recently been shown to be a novel class of plant hormones regulating shoot outgrowth. The natural strigolactones identified so far have the common C-D ring moiety, which is thought to be the essential structure for exhibiting biological activity. The introduction of substitutions on the A-B ring moiety of 5-deoxystrigol, the basic strigolactone, affords various strigolactones, e.g. hydroxylation on C-4, C-5 and C-9 leads to orobanchol, strigol and sorgomol respectively. Then, acetylation and probably other derivatisations of these hydroxy-strigolactones would occur. Although the C-2'-(R) stereochemistry was thought to be an important structural feature for potent germination stimulation activity, 2'-epi-strigolactones were found in root exudates of tobacco, rice, pea and other plant species, indicating that at least some plants produce both epimers.

  16. Biological Activity of Masked Endotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Harald; Gornicec, Jan; Neuper, Theresa; Parigiani, Maria Alejandra; Wallner, Michael; Duschl, Albert; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta

    2017-01-01

    Low endotoxin recovery (LER) is a recently discovered phenomenon describing the inability of limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-based assays to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) because of a “masking effect” caused by chelators or detergents commonly used in buffer formulations for medical products and recombinant proteins. This study investigates the masking capacities of different buffer formulations and whether masked endotoxin is biologically active. We show that both naturally occurring endotoxin as well as control standard endotoxin can be affected by LER. Furthermore, whereas masked endotoxin cannot be detected in Factor C based assays, it is still detectable in a cell-based TLR4-NF-κB-luciferase reporter gene assay. Moreover, in primary human monocytes, masked LPS induces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and surface activation markers even at very low concentrations. We therefore conclude that masked LPS is a potent trigger of immune responses, which emphasizes the potential danger of masked LPS, as it may pose a health threat in pharmaceutical products or compromise experimental results. PMID:28317862

  17. Concepts for Biologically Active Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kastin, Abba J.; Pan, Weihong

    2012-01-01

    Here we review a unique aspect of CNS research on biologically active peptides that started against a background of prevalent dogmas but ended by exerting considerable influence on the field. During the course of refuting some doctrines, we introduced several concepts that were unconventional and paradigm-shifting at the time. We showed that (1) hypothalamic peptides can act ‘up’ on the brain as well as ‘down’ on the pituitary, (2) peripheral peptides can affect the brain, (3) peptides can cross the blood-brain barrier, (4) the actions of peptides can persist longer than their half-lives in blood, (5) perinatal administration of peptides can exert actions persisting into adulthood, (6) a single peptide can have more than one action, (7) dose-response relationships of peptides need not be linear, (8) the brain produces antiopiate as well as opiate peptides, (9) there is a selective high affinity endogenous peptide ligand for the mu-opiate receptor, (10) a peptide’s name does not restrict its effects, and (11) astrocytes assume an active role in response to metabolic disturbance and hyperleptinemia. The evolving questions in our laboratories reflect the diligent effort of the neuropeptide community to identify the roles of peptides in the CNS. The next decade is expected to see greater progress in the following areas: (a) interactions of peptides with other molecules in the CNS; (b) peptide involvement in cell-cell interactions; and (c) peptides in neuropsychiatric, autoimmune, and neurodegenerative diseases. The development of peptidomics and gene silencing approaches will expedite the formation of many new concepts in a new era. PMID:20726835

  18. Biological spectra analysis: Linking biological activity profiles to molecular structure

    PubMed Central

    Fliri, Anton F.; Loging, William T.; Thadeio, Peter F.; Volkmann, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Establishing quantitative relationships between molecular structure and broad biological effects has been a longstanding challenge in science. Currently, no method exists for forecasting broad biological activity profiles of medicinal agents even within narrow boundaries of structurally similar molecules. Starting from the premise that biological activity results from the capacity of small organic molecules to modulate the activity of the proteome, we set out to investigate whether descriptor sets could be developed for measuring and quantifying this molecular property. Using a 1,567-compound database, we show that percent inhibition values, determined at single high drug concentration in a battery of in vitro assays representing a cross section of the proteome, provide precise molecular property descriptors that identify the structure of molecules. When broad biological activity of molecules is represented in spectra form, organic molecules can be sorted by quantifying differences between biological spectra. Unlike traditional structure–activity relationship methods, sorting of molecules by using biospectra comparisons does not require knowledge of a molecule's putative drug targets. To illustrate this finding, we selected as starting point the biological activity spectra of clotrimazole and tioconazole because their putative target, lanosterol demethylase (CYP51), was not included in the bioassay array. Spectra similarity obtained through profile similarity measurements and hierarchical clustering provided an unbiased means for establishing quantitative relationships between chemical structures and biological activity spectra. This methodology, which we have termed biological spectra analysis, provides the capability not only of sorting molecules on the basis of biospectra similarity but also of predicting simultaneous interactions of new molecules with multiple proteins. PMID:15625110

  19. A review exploring biological activities of hydrazones

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Garima; Marella, Akranth; Shaquiquzzaman, Mohammad; Akhtar, Mymoona; Ali, Mohammad Rahmat; Alam, Mohammad Mumtaz

    2014-01-01

    The development of novel compounds, hydrazones has shown that they possess a wide variety of biological activities viz. antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiplatelet, antimalarial, anticancer, antifungal, antitubercular, antiviral, cardio protective etc., Hydrazones/azomethines/imines possess-NHN = CH- and constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. A number of researchers have synthesized and evaluated the biological activities of hydrazones. This review aims at highlighting the diverse biological activities of hydrazones. PMID:24741273

  20. Biologically active proteins from natural product extracts.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, B R

    2001-10-01

    The term "biologically active proteins" is almost redundant. All proteins produced by living creatures are, by their very nature, biologically active to some extent in their homologous species. In this review, a subset of these proteins will be discussed that are biologically active in heterologous systems. The isolation and characterization of novel proteins from natural product extracts including those derived from microorganisms, plants, insects, terrestrial vertebrates, and marine organisms will be reviewed and grouped into several distinct classes based on their biological activity and their structure.

  1. Engineering Design and Operation Report: Biological ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many regions in the United States have excessive levels of ammonia in their drinking water sources (e.g., ground and surface waters) as a result of naturally occurring processes, agricultural and urban runoff, concentrated animal feeding operations, municipal wastewater treatment plants, and other sources. Ammonia is not regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a contaminant. Based on a 2003 World Health Organization (WHO) assessment, ammonia levels in groundwater are typically below 0.2 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and do not pose a direct health concern at levels expected in drinking water (WHO 2003); however, they may pose a concern when nitrification of significant levels of ammonia from the source water occurs in the drinking water distribution system. Specifically, this nitrification, which is the conversion of the ammonia to nitrite and nitrate by bacteria, leads to water quality issues, such as potential corrosion problems, oxidant demand, taste and odor complaints, and elevated nitrite levels (Bremer et al.,2001; Fleming et al., 2005; Lee et al., 1980; Odell et al., 1996; Rittman & Snoeyink, 1984; Suffet et al., 1996). The EPA’s regulatory limits for nitrite and nitrate (at the entry point to the distribution system) are 0.1 and 10 mg N/L, respectively. Ammonia in water may also pose problems with water treatment effectiveness. For example, in source waters containing both ammonia and arsenic, the ammonia may negatively impact

  2. Biological Incident Operations: A Guide for Law Enforcement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    and sent to the hospital. Analysis of the suspect material showed the substance contained no hazardous material. Other recent biological hoaxes ...international terrorism. Counterrorism Watch (CT Watch) is the FBI’s 24-hour global command center for terrorism prevention operations. Staffed by... Warm , and Cold Zones) • Assisting with control and identification of the agents involved • Facilitating the rescue, decontamination, triage, treatment

  3. Biological activity of liposomal vanillin.

    PubMed

    Castan, Leniher; Del Toro, Grisel; Fernández, Adolfo A; González, Manuel; Ortíz, Emilia; Lobo, Daliana

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a study of vanillin encapsulation inside multilamellar liposomes, with emphasis on the evaluation of antioxidant activity, the hemolytic effect, and the antisickling properties of these products. Egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol and egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol-1-O-decylglycerol liposomes were prepared by mechanical dispersion, all with vanillin included. Vesicles were characterized by determination of encapsulation efficiency and vanillin retention capacity. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The hemolytic effect of liposomes was also evaluated by spectrophotometry, as well as the antisickling activity by the Huck test using optical microscopy. Results showed that the lipid composition of liposomes did not significantly affect the encapsulation efficiency. Stable vesicles were obtained with a high retention percentage of vanillin. Liposomes exhibited a high capture of the DPPH radical compared to free vanillin and 1-O-decylglycerol (C10) in solution. Vesicles caused no significant hemolisys in normal erythrocytes, nor in those coming from patients with sickle cell anemia. Vanillin encapsulated in liposomes retained its antisickling activity, with a greater effect for C10-containing vesicles. Our results show that vanillin encapsulation in liposomes is a way to enhance the pharmacologic properties of this molecule using a suitable vehicle.

  4. Elsholtzia: phytochemistry and biological activities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Plants of the genus Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae) have a long history of medicinal use in folk. The phytochemical investigations revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, terpenoids, and other compounds. Abundant volatile components are also identified. Pure compounds, volatile constituents and crude extracts from the genus exhibited a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities. The aims of this review hopefully provide comprehensive information on the distribution, phytochemistry, volatile components, and pharmacological research of Elsholtzia for exploring the potential and advance researches. PMID:23216850

  5. Marine Pyridoacridine Alkaloids: Biosynthesis and Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A

    2016-01-01

    Pyridoacridines are a class of strictly marine-derived alkaloids that constitute one of the largest chemical families of marine alkaloids. During the last few years, both natural pyridoacridines and their analogues have constituted excellent targets for synthetic works. They have been the subject of intense study due to their significant biological activities; cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, insecticidal, anti-HIV, and anti-parasitic activities. In the present review, 95 pyridoacridine alkaloids isolated from marine organisms are discussed in term of their occurrence, biosynthesis, biological activities, and structural assignment.

  6. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  7. Biological activity of acetylated phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Fragopoulou, Elizabeth; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Karantonis, Haralabos C; Apostolakis, Constantinos; Pliakis, Emmanuel; Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi

    2007-01-10

    In recent years an effort has been made to isolate and identify biologically active compounds that are included in the Mediterranean diet. The existence of naturally occurring acetylated phenolics, as well as studies with synthetic ones, provide evidence that acetyl groups could be correlated with their biological activity. Platelet activating factor (PAF) is implicated in atherosclerosis, whereas its inhibitors seem to play a protective role against cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the biological activity of resveratrol and tyrosol and their acetylated derivatives as inhibitors of PAF-induced washed rabbit platelet aggregation. Acetylation of resveratrol and tyrosol was performed, and separation was achieved by HPLC. Acetylated derivatives were identified by negative mass spectrometry. The data showed that tyrosol and its monoacetylated derivatives act as PAF inhibitors, whereas diacetylated derivatives induce platelet aggregation. Resveratrol and its mono- and triacetylated derivatives exert similar inhibitory activity, whereas the diacetylated ones are more potent inhibitors. In conclusion, acetylated phenolics exert the same or even higher antithrombotic activity compared to the biological activity of the initial one.

  8. [Biologically active metabolites of the marine actinobacteria].

    PubMed

    Sobolevskaia, M P; Kuznetsova, T A

    2010-01-01

    This review systematically data on the chemical structure and biological activity of metabolites of obligate and facultative marine actinobacteria, published from 2000 to 2007. We discuss some structural features of the five groups of metabolites related to macrolides and compounds containing lactone, quinone and diketopiperazine residues, cyclic peptides, alkaloids, and compounds of mixed biosynthesis. Survey shows a large chemical diversity of metabolites actinobacteria isolated from marine environment. It is shown that, along with metabolites, identical to previously isolated from terrestrial actinobacteria, marine actinobacteria synthesize unknown compounds not found in other natural sources, including micro organisms. Perhaps the biosynthesis of new chemotypes bioactive compounds in marine actinobacteria is one manifestation of chemical adaptation of microorganisms to environmental conditions at sea. Review stresses the importance of the chemical study of metabolites of marine actinobacteria. These studies are aimed at obtaining new data on marine microorganisms producers of biologically active compounds and chemical structure and biological activity of new low-molecular bioregulators of natural origin.

  9. Towards molecular computers that operate in a biological environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahan, Maya; Gil, Binyamin; Adar, Rivka; Shapiro, Ehud

    2008-07-01

    important consequences when performed in a proper context. We envision that molecular computers that operate in a biological environment can be the basis of “smart drugs”, which are potent drugs that activate only if certain environmental conditions hold. These conditions could include abnormalities in the molecular composition of the biological environment that are indicative of a particular disease. Here we review the research direction that set this vision and attempts to realize it.

  10. Perylenequinones: Isolation, Synthesis, and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mulrooey, Carol A.; O'Brien, Erin M.; Morgan, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    The perylenequinones are a novel class of natural products characterized by pentacyclic conjugated chromophore giving rise to photoactivity. Potentially useful light-activated biological activity, targeting protein kinase C (PKC), has been identified for several of the natural products. Recently discovered new members of this class of compound, as well as several related phenanthroperylenequinones, are reviewed. Natural product modifications that improve biological profiles, and avenues for the total synthesis of analogs, which are not available from the natural product series, are outlined. An overview of structure/function relationships is provided. PMID:24039544

  11. The plasminogen activator system: biology and regulation.

    PubMed

    Irigoyen, J P; Muñoz-Cánoves, P; Montero, L; Koziczak, M; Nagamine, Y

    1999-10-01

    The regulation of plasminogen activation involves genes for two plasminogen activators (tissue type and urokinase type), two specific inhibitors (type 1 and type 2), and a membrane-anchored urokinase-type plasminogen-activator-specific receptor. This system plays an important role in various biological processes involving extracellular proteolysis. Recent studies have revealed that the system, through interplay with integrins and the extracellular matrix protein vitronectin, is also involved in the regulation of cell migration and proliferation in a manner independent of proteolytic activity. The genes are expressed in many different cell types and their expression is under the control of diverse extracellular signals. Gene expression reflects the levels of the corresponding mRNA, which should be the net result of synthesis and degradation. Thus, modulation of mRNA stability is an important factor in overall regulation. This review summarizes current understanding of the biology and regulation of genes involved in plasminogen activation at different levels.

  12. The biological activity of silicon carbide whiskers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.F.

    1989-01-01

    Size characteristics of SiC whiskers are similar to asbestos and contain potentially carcinogenic long thin fibers. Size distribution suggests that it is highly respirable, with majority of particles having diameters <3.0 [mu]m. Cytotoxic activity of SiC whiskers in cultured cells is [ge] than that of crocidolite asbestos. Inhalation exposures are needed to further delineate the biological activity; while SiC whiskers were as or more cytotoxic than crocidolite, JM Code 100 also displays such activity but results in no increased risk of lung cancer, pulmonary fibrosis or mesothelioma. PRD-166, a coarse continuous glass filament, displays little in vitro biological activity. It is recommended that SiC whiskers be treated as asbestos, and to continue investigating the potential health effects of SiC whiskers, in particular conducting animal experiments with acute and chronic inhalation exposures. 17 refs., 11 tabs., 18 figs.

  13. [Biologically Active Peptides of King Crab Hepatopancreas].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, V V; Berezin, B B; Il'ina, A P; Yamskova, V P; Yamskov, I A

    2015-01-01

    Substances of a peptide nature isolated from the hepatopancreas of the king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus exhibited physicochemical properties and membranotropic and specific activities similar to those of membranotropic homeostatic tissue-specific bioregulators previously found in different mammalian and plant tissues. Their biological effect on vertebrate tissues was demonstrated on a model of roller organotypic cultivation of Pleurodeles waltl newt liver tissue.

  14. Improvement of operational activities efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitruk, Fabien

    This paper presents the methods used by the Toulouse Space Center (CNES) to minimize the risk of deterioration in service during flight mission operations. It also presents planned improvements following recent analyses.

  15. Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2013-01-01

    Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases. It is semiparasitic plant because of growing on various host trees and shrubs and absorbing mineral nutrition and water from respective host. Hence, the phytochemicals and biological activities of L. micranthus demonstrated strong host and harvesting period dependency. The leaves have been proved to possess immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, and hypolipidemic activities. This review summarizes the information and findings concerning the current knowledge on the biological activities, pharmacological properties, toxicity, and chemical constituents of Loranthus micranthus. PMID:24109490

  16. Glycosides from marine sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): structures, taxonomical distribution, biological activities and biological roles.

    PubMed

    Kalinin, Vladimir I; Ivanchina, Natalia V; Krasokhin, Vladimir B; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Stonik, Valentin A

    2012-08-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed.

  17. Estrogenic flavonoids: structural requirements for biological activity.

    PubMed

    Miksicek, R J

    1995-01-01

    A systematic survey of polycyclic phenols has been performed to identify members of this chemical group with estrogenic activity. Twelve compounds were found to be able to stimulate the transcriptional activity of the human estrogen receptor expressed in cultured cells by transient transfection. These natural estrogens belong to several distinct, but chemically related classes including chalcones, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, and isoflavones. Selected examples of estrogenic flavonoids were further analyzed to determine their biological potencies and their relative affinities for binding to the estrogen receptor. These data are interpreted with respect to the molecular structure of polycyclic phenols required for hormonal activity as nonsteroidal estrogens.

  18. Isoflavones: estrogenic activity, biological effect and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Daniela Cristina; Piazza, Cateno; Melilli, Barbara; Drago, Filippo; Salomone, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    Isoflavones are phytoestrogens with potent estrogenic activity; genistein, daidzein and glycitein are the most active isoflavones found in soy beans. Phytoestrogens have similarity in structure with the human female hormone 17-β-estradiol, which can bind to both alpha and beta estrogen receptors, and mimic the action of estrogens on target organs, thereby exerting many health benefits when used in some hormone-dependent diseases. Numerous clinical studies claim benefits of genistein and daidzein in chemoprevention of breast and prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis as well as in relieving postmenopausal symptoms. The ability of isoflavones to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases largely depends on pharmacokinetic properties of these compounds, in particular absorption and distribution to the target tissue. The chemical form in which isoflavones occur is important because it influences their bioavailability and, therefore, their biological activity. Glucose-conjugated isoflavones are highly polar, water-soluble compounds. They are hardly absorbed by the intestinal epithelium and have weaker biological activities than the corresponding aglycone. Different microbial families of colon can transform glycosylated isoflavones into aglycones. Clinical studies show important differences between the aglycone and conjugated forms of genistein and daidzein. The evaluation of isoflavone metabolism and bioavailability is crucial to understanding their biological effects. Lipid-based formulations such as drug incorporation into oils, emulsions and self-microemulsifying formulations have been introduced to increase bioavailability. Complexation with cyclodextrin also represent a valid method to improve the physicochemical characteristics of these substances in order to be absorbed and distributed to target tissues. We review and discuss pharmacokinetic issues that critically influence the biological activity of isoflavones.

  19. Biological activities of selected basidiomycetes from Yemen.

    PubMed

    Al-Fatimi, M; Schröder, G; Kreisel, H; Lindequist, U

    2013-03-01

    In a previous paper we demonstrated the results of biological screening of Yemeni basidiomycetes. The present study was aimed to investigate the antimicrobial and the antioxidant activity of further basidiomycetes collected in Yemen. Dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous extracts of the fruiting bodies of 25 species were screened in vitro for their antibacterial activities against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphyloccocus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus flavus) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), against six human fungal pathogens (Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Aspergillus fumigatus, Mucor sp., Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and against one non human pathogenic fungus (Candida maltosa). The results indicated that 75 extracts exhibited activity against one or more of the bacteria. The methanol extracts of Agaricus cf. bernardii, Agrocybe pediades, Chlorophyllum molybdites, Coriolopsis polyzona, Ganoderma xylonoides, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Trametes lactinea and Trametes cingulata showed activity against all tested bacteria. The highest antibacterial activity was exhibited by methanol extracts from Chlorophyllum molybdites, Ganoderma xylonoides and Trametes cingulata and Agaricus cf. bernardii, Agrocybe pediades, Coriolopsis polyzona, Pycnoporus sanguineus and Trametes lactinea. The methanol extracts of Chlorophyllum molybdites, Ganoderma xylonoides and Pycnoporus sanguineus showed considerable antifungal activities against the tested fungal strains. Strong antioxidative effects employing the DPPH assay were exhibited by methanol extracts from Chlorophyllum molybdites, Ganoderma xylonoides, Hexagonia velutina, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Trametes lactinea and Trametes cingulata. Our previous and presented studies about 48 basidiomycetes collected in Yemen provide evidence that basidiomycetes from the Arabic region so far should attract more attention as potential source for new biologically active

  20. Perspectives on Biologically Active Camptothecin Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying-Qian; Li, Wen-Qun; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Qian, Keduo; Yang, Liu; Zhu, Gao-Xiang; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Chen, An-Liang; Zhang, Shao-Yong; Song, Zi-Long; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    Camptothecins (CPTs) are cytotoxic natural alkaloids that specifically target DNA topoisomerase I. Research on CPTs has undergone a significant evolution from the initial discovery of CPT in the late 1960s through the study of synthetic small molecule derivatives to investigation of macromolecular constructs and formulations. Over the past years, intensive medicinal chemistry efforts have generated numerous CPT derivatives. Three derivatives, topotecan, irinotecan, and belotecan, are currently prescribed as anticancer drugs, and several related compounds are now in clinical trials. Interest in other biological effects, besides anticancer activity, of CPTs is also growing exponentially, as indicated by the large number of publications on the subject during the last decades. Therefore, the main focus of the present review is to provide an ample but condensed overview on various biological activities of CPT derivatives, in addition to continued up-to-date coverage of anticancer effects. PMID:25808858

  1. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  2. Nonclassical biological activities of quinolone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Abeer; Daneshtalab, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Quinolones are considered as a big family of multi-faceted drugs; their chemical synthesis is flexible and can be easily adapted to prepare new congeners with rationally devised structures. This is shown by the description of many thousands of derivatives in the literature. Scientists could accurately describe their QSAR, which is essential for effective drug design. This also gave them the chance to discover new and unprecedented activities, which makes quinolones an endless source of hope and enables further development of new clinically useful drugs. Quinolones are among the most common frameworks present in the bioactive molecules that have dominated the market for more than four decades. Since 1962, 4(1H)-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid derivatives are widely used as antibacterial agents. Quinolones have a broad and potent spectrum of activity and are also used as second-line drugs to treat tuberculosis (TB). Recently, quinolones have been reported to display "nonclassical" biological activities, such as antitumor, anti-HIV-1 integrase, anti-HCV-NS3 helicase and -NS5B-polymerase activities. The present review focuses on the structural modifications responsible for the transformation of an antibacterial into an anticancer agent and/or an antiviral agent. Indeed, quinolones' antimicrobial action is distinguishable among antibacterial agents, because they target different type II topoisomerase enzymes. Many derivatives of this family show high activity against bacterial topoisomerases and eukaryotic topoisomerases, and are also toxic to cultured mammalian cells and in vivo tumor models. Moreover, quinolones have shown antiviral activity against HIV and HCV viruses. In this context the quinolones family of drugs seem to link three different biological activities (antibacterial, anticancer, and the antiviral profiles) and the review will also provide an insight into the different mechanisms responsible for these activities among different species.

  3. Computational biology approach to uncover hepatitis C virus helicase operation

    PubMed Central

    Flechsig, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) helicase is a molecular motor that splits nucleic acid duplex structures during viral replication, therefore representing a promising target for antiviral treatment. Hence, a detailed understanding of the mechanism by which it operates would facilitate the development of efficient drug-assisted therapies aiming to inhibit helicase activity. Despite extensive investigations performed in the past, a thorough understanding of the activity of this important protein was lacking since the underlying internal conformational motions could not be resolved. Here we review investigations that have been previously performed by us for HCV helicase. Using methods of structure-based computational modelling it became possible to follow entire operation cycles of this motor protein in structurally resolved simulations and uncover the mechanism by which it moves along the nucleic acid and accomplishes strand separation. We also discuss observations from that study in the light of recent experimental studies that confirm our findings. PMID:24707123

  4. Computational biology approach to uncover hepatitis C virus helicase operation.

    PubMed

    Flechsig, Holger

    2014-04-07

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) helicase is a molecular motor that splits nucleic acid duplex structures during viral replication, therefore representing a promising target for antiviral treatment. Hence, a detailed understanding of the mechanism by which it operates would facilitate the development of efficient drug-assisted therapies aiming to inhibit helicase activity. Despite extensive investigations performed in the past, a thorough understanding of the activity of this important protein was lacking since the underlying internal conformational motions could not be resolved. Here we review investigations that have been previously performed by us for HCV helicase. Using methods of structure-based computational modelling it became possible to follow entire operation cycles of this motor protein in structurally resolved simulations and uncover the mechanism by which it moves along the nucleic acid and accomplishes strand separation. We also discuss observations from that study in the light of recent experimental studies that confirm our findings.

  5. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Xia, En-Qin; Deng, Gui-Fang; Guo, Ya-Jun; Li, Hua-Bin

    2010-01-01

    The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included. PMID:20386657

  6. Milk inhibits the biological activity of ricin.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel

    2012-08-10

    Ricin is a highly toxic protein produced by the castor plant Ricinus communis. The toxin is relatively easy to isolate and can be used as a biological weapon. There is great interest in identifying effective inhibitors for ricin. In this study, we demonstrated by three independent assays that a component of reconstituted powdered milk has a high binding affinity to ricin. We discovered that milk can competitively bind to and reduce the amount of toxin available to asialofetuin type II, which is used as a model to study the binding of ricin to galactose cell-surface receptors. Milk also removes ricin bound to the microtiter plate. In parallel experiments, we demonstrated by activity assay and by immuno-PCR that milk can bind competitively to 1 ng/ml ricin, reducing the amount of toxin uptake by the cells, and thus inhibit the biological activity of ricin. The inhibitory effect of milk on ricin activity in Vero cells was at the same level as by anti-ricin antibodies. We also found that (a) milk did not inhibit ricin at concentrations of 10 or 100 ng/ml; (b) autoclaving 10 and 100 ng/ml ricin in DMEM at 121 °C for 30 min completely abolished activity; and (c) milk did not affect the activity of another ribosome inactivating protein, Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2), produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Unlike ricin, which is internalized into the cells via a galactose-binding site, Stx2 is internalized through the cell surface receptor glycolipid globotriasylceramides Gb3 and Gb4. These observations suggest that ricin toxicity may possibly be reduced at room temperature by a widely consumed natural liquid food.

  7. SORPTION ON WASTEWATER SOLIDS: ELIMINATION OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption was found to be greatly affected by the biological activity in wastewater solids. wo experimental techniques, cyanide treatment and pasteurization, were developed for eliminating the biological activity during isotherm measurements. oth methods are effective; however, pa...

  8. Biologically Active Metabolites Synthesized by Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    de Morais, Michele Greque; Vaz, Bruna da Silva; de Morais, Etiele Greque; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are microorganisms that have different morphological, physiological, and genetic traits that confer the ability to produce different biologically active metabolites. Microalgal biotechnology has become a subject of study for various fields, due to the varied bioproducts that can be obtained from these microorganisms. When microalgal cultivation processes are better understood, microalgae can become an environmentally friendly and economically viable source of compounds of interest, because production can be optimized in a controlled culture. The bioactive compounds derived from microalgae have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities, among others. Furthermore, these microorganisms have the ability to promote health and reduce the risk of the development of degenerative diseases. In this context, the aim of this review is to discuss bioactive metabolites produced by microalgae for possible applications in the life sciences. PMID:26339647

  9. Potential biological activity of acacia honey.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Aliyu; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Ibrahim, Mohammed A; Sallau, Abdullahi B; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Aimola, Idown A; Malami, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in functional foods-based research have increasingly become an area of major interest because it affects human health and activities. Functional foods are classes of foods with health promoting and disease preventing properties in addition to multiple nutritional values and of such type is honey. Acacia honey is a type of honey produced by bees (Apis mellifera) fed on Acacia flowers, hence the name. This review focuses on the potential biological activities of Acacia honey which includes quality, antioxidant, immuno-modulatory, antiproliferative and neurological properties at in vitro and in vivo levels. Based on our review, Acacia honey used from various researches is of high purity, contains some bioactive compounds ranging from vitamins, phenolics, flavonoids and fatty acids. It's highly nutritional with strong antioxidant and immuno-modulatory potentials which may therefore be considered a potential candidate for both cancer prevention and treatment. Neurologically, it may be considered as a viable therapeutic agent in the management of Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Spectroscopic study of biologically active glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumera, M.; Wacławska, I.; Mozgawa, W.; Sitarz, M.

    2005-06-01

    It is known that the chemical activity phenomenon is characteristic for some inorganic glasses and they are able to participate in biological processes of living organisms (plants, animals and human bodies). An example here is the selective removal of silicate-phosphate glass components under the influence of biological solutions, which has been applied in designing glasses acting as ecological fertilizers of controlled release rate of the nutrients for plants. The structure of model silicate-phosphate glasses containing the different amounts of the glass network formers, i.e. Ca 2+ and Mg 2+, as a binding components were studied. These elements besides other are indispensable of the normal growth of plants. In order to establish the function and position occupied by the particular components in the glass structure, the glasses were examined by FTIR spectroscopy (with spectra decomposition) and XRD methods. It has been found that the increasing amount of MgO in the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses causes the formation of domains the structure of which changes systematically from a structure of the cristobalite type to a structure corresponding to forsterite type. Whilst the increasing content of CaO in the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses causes the formation of domains the structure of which changes from a structure typical for cristobalite through one similar to the structure of calcium orthophosphate, to a structure corresponding to calcium silicates. The changing character of domains structure is the reason of different chemical activity of glasses.

  11. Carbon nanomaterials: Biologically active fullerene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bogdanović, Gordana; Djordjević, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene attract significant attention of researches in various scientific fields including biomedicine. Nano-scale size and a possibility for diverse surface modifications allow carbon nanoallotropes to become an indispensable nanostructured material in nanotechnologies, including nanomedicine. Manipulation of surface chemistry has created diverse populations of water-soluble derivatives of fullerenes, which exhibit different behaviors. Both non-derivatized and derivatized fullerenes show various biological activities. Cellular processes that underline their toxicity are oxidative, genotoxic, and cytotoxic responses.The antioxidant/cytoprotective properties of fullerenes and derivatives have been considered in the prevention of organ oxidative damage and treatment. The same unique physiochemical properties of nanomaterials may also be associated with potential health hazards. Non-biodegradability and toxicity of carbon nanoparticles still remain a great concern in the area of biomedical application. In this review, we report on basic physical and chemical properties of carbon nano-clusters--fullerenes, nanotubes, and grapheme--their specificities, activities, and potential application in biological systems. Special emphasis is given to our most important results obtained in vitro and in vivo using polyhydroxylated fullerene derivative C₆₀(OH)₂₄.

  12. On the assessment of biological life support system operation range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsev, Sergey

    Biological life support systems (BLSS) can be used in long-term space missions only if well-thought-out assessment of the allowable operating range is obtained. The range has to account both permissible working parameters of BLSS and the critical level of perturbations of BLSS stationary state. Direct approach to outlining the range by statistical treatment of experimental data on BLSS destruction seems to be not applicable due to ethical, economical, and saving time reasons. Mathematical model is the unique tool for the generalization of experimental data and the extrapolation of the revealed regularities beyond empirical experience. The problem is that the quality of extrapolation depends on the adequacy of corresponding model verification, but good verification requires wide range of experimental data for fitting, which is not achievable for manned experimental BLSS. Possible way to improve the extrapolation quality of inevitably poorly verified models of manned BLSS is to extrapolate general tendency obtained from unmanned LSS theoretical-experiment investigations. Possibilities and limitations of such approach are discussed.

  13. Biological activity of some conjugated gibberellins.

    PubMed

    Sembdner, G; Borgmann, E; Schneider, G; Liebisch, H W; Miersch, O; Adam, G; Lischewski, M; Schrefber, K

    1976-01-01

    The biological activity of several gibberellin (GA) conjugates was studied and compared with that of the corresponding free GAs. The following conjugates were included: O(3)-β-D-glucopyranosides of GA1, GA3 and GA4; O(13)-β-D-glucopyranosides of GA1, GA3 and GA5; O(13)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-GA5-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester; GA3-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester and GA3-α-D-glucopyranosyl ester; N-GA3-oyl-glycine, its methyl ester, N-GA3-oyl-glycylglycine, and N-GA3-oyl-proline. All compounds were synthesized chemically but some of them are known to occur as endogenous plant products, or to be formed in plants upon application of a free GA. Activity was determined in the dwarf pea, dwarf corn, dwarf rice, and lettuce hypocotyl bioassays. The GA conjugates were found to posses different relative activities depending on the chemical structure, the bioassay system, and the site of application (shoot or roots). It is concluded that the activity of GA conjugates as measured in different bioassays is based upon the ability of plant enzymes and possibly of certain microorganisms to hydrolyze glucosidic, glucosyl ester, and amide-like linkages.

  14. Biologically Active and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Carlos E.; Badillo-Corona, Jesus A.; Ramírez-Sotelo, Guadalupe; Oliver-Salvador, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application. PMID:25815307

  15. Biotransformations and biological activities of hop flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Karabin, Marcel; Hudcova, Tereza; Jelinek, Lukas; Dostalek, Pavel

    2015-11-01

    Female hop cones are used extensively in the brewing industry, but there is now increasing interest in possible uses of hops for non-brewing purposes, especially in the pharmaceutical industry. Among pharmaceutically important compounds from hops are flavonoids, having proven anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic effects. In this review we aim to present current knowledge on the biotransformation of flavonoids from hop cones with respect to products, catalysis and conversion. A list of microbial enzymatic reactions associated with gastrointestinal microbiota is presented. A comparative analysis of the biological activities of hop flavonoids and their biotransformation products is described, indicating where further research has potential for applications in the pharmaceutical industry.

  16. Biologically active and antimicrobial peptides from plants.

    PubMed

    Salas, Carlos E; Badillo-Corona, Jesus A; Ramírez-Sotelo, Guadalupe; Oliver-Salvador, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application.

  17. [Nonequilibrium state of electrochemically activated water and its biological activity].

    PubMed

    Petrushanko, I Iu; Lobyshev, V I

    2001-01-01

    Changes in the physicochemical parameters (pH, redox potential and electroconductivity) of catholyte and anolyte produced by membrane electrolysis of distilled water and dilute (c < 10(-3) M) sodium chloride solutions were studied. The relaxation of these parameters after electrolysis and the influence of catholyte and anolyte on the growth of roots of Tradescantia viridis grafts, the development of duckweed, and the motive activity of infusoria Spirostomum ambiguum were investigated. It was found that the anolyte of distilled water stimulated development of these biological objects. The direction of shift of physicochemical parameters of catholyte and anolyte from equilibrium values and the type of their biological activity (stimulation or inhibition) depend on salt concentration in initial solution. Barbotage of initial distilled water with argon or nitrogen leads to a greater decrease in the redox potential of catholyte during electrolysis. The physicochemical parameters relax to equilibrium values, and the biological activity of catholite and anolyte decreases with time and practically disappears by the end of the day. It was found that the oxidation of reducing agent by atmospheric oxygen is not the sole cause of the relaxation of catalyte redox potential. The increase in the ionic strength of catholite and anolyte by the addition of concentrated sodium chloride after electrolysis decreases the rate of redox potential relaxation several times. The redox potential can be maintained for long periods by freezing.

  18. Sulfation and biological activities of konjac glucomannan.

    PubMed

    Bo, Surina; Muschin, Tegshi; Kanamoto, Taisei; Nakashima, Hideki; Yoshida, Takashi

    2013-05-15

    The sulfation of konjac glucomannan and its anti-HIV and blood anticoagulant activities were investigated. Konjac glucomannan is a polysaccharide occurring naturally in konjac plant tubers and has high molecular weights. Solubility in water is very low, and the aqueous solutions at low concentrations have high viscosity. Before sulfation, hydrolysis by diluted sulfuric acid was carried out to decrease the molecular weights of M¯n=19.2 × 10(4)-0.2 × 10(4). Sulfation with piperidine-N-sulfonic acid or SO3-pyridine complex gave sulfated konjac glucomannans with molecular weights of M¯n=1.0 × 10(4)-0.4 × 10(4) and degrees of sulfation (DS) of 1.3-1.4. It was found that the sulfated konjac glucomannans had potent anti-HIV activity at a 50% effective concentration, (EC50) of 1.2-1.3 μg/ml, which was almost as high as that of an AIDS drug, ddC, whose EC50=3.2 μg/ml, and moderate blood anticoagulant activity, AA=0.8-22.7 units/mg, compared to those of standard sulfated polysaccharides, curdlan (10 units/mg) and dextran (22.7 units/mg) sulfates. Structural analysis of sulfated konjac glucomannans with negatively charged sulfated groups was performed by high resolution NMR, and the interaction between poly-l-lysine with positively charged amino groups as a model compound of proteins and peptides was measured by surface plasmon resonance measurement, suggesting that the sulfated konjac glucomannans had a high binding stability on immobilized poly-l-lysine. The binding of sulfated konjac glucomannan was concentration-dependent, and the biological activity of the sulfated konjac glucomannans may be due to electrostatic interaction between the sulfate and amino groups.

  19. Operational Space Weather Activities in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas; Singer, Howard; Onsager, Terrance; Viereck, Rodney; Murtagh, William; Rutledge, Robert

    2016-07-01

    We review the current activities in the civil operational space weather forecasting enterprise of the United States. The NOAA/Space Weather Prediction Center is the nation's official source of space weather watches, warnings, and alerts, working with partners in the Air Force as well as international operational forecast services to provide predictions, data, and products on a large variety of space weather phenomena and impacts. In October 2015, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy released the National Space Weather Strategy (NSWS) and associated Space Weather Action Plan (SWAP) that define how the nation will better forecast, mitigate, and respond to an extreme space weather event. The SWAP defines actions involving multiple federal agencies and mandates coordination and collaboration with academia, the private sector, and international bodies to, among other things, develop and sustain an operational space weather observing system; develop and deploy new models of space weather impacts to critical infrastructure systems; define new mechanisms for the transition of research models to operations and to ensure that the research community is supported for, and has access to, operational model upgrade paths; and to enhance fundamental understanding of space weather through support of research models and observations. The SWAP will guide significant aspects of space weather operational and research activities for the next decade, with opportunities to revisit the strategy in the coming years through the auspices of the National Science and Technology Council.

  20. Monascus secondary metabolites: production and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Patakova, Petra

    2013-02-01

    The genus Monascus, comprising nine species, can reproduce either vegetatively with filaments and conidia or sexually by the formation of ascospores. The most well-known species of genus Monascus, namely, M. purpureus, M. ruber and M. pilosus, are often used for rice fermentation to produce red yeast rice, a special product used either for food coloring or as a food supplement with positive effects on human health. The colored appearance (red, orange or yellow) of Monascus-fermented substrates is produced by a mixture of oligoketide pigments that are synthesized by a combination of polyketide and fatty acid synthases. The major pigments consist of pairs of yellow (ankaflavin and monascin), orange (rubropunctatin and monascorubrin) and red (rubropunctamine and monascorubramine) compounds; however, more than 20 other colored products have recently been isolated from fermented rice or culture media. In addition to pigments, a group of monacolin substances and the mycotoxin citrinin can be produced by Monascus. Various non-specific biological activities (antimicrobial, antitumor, immunomodulative and others) of these pigmented compounds are, at least partly, ascribed to their reaction with amino group-containing compounds, i.e. amino acids, proteins or nucleic acids. Monacolins, in the form of β-hydroxy acids, inhibit hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis in animals and humans.

  1. Biologically active peptides: prospects for drug development.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J

    1980-08-11

    Biologically active peptides aree typified by their unbiquity of distribution, their high receptor affinity and an almost infinite diversity of structure. For these reasons, considerable effort is now being expended to elucidate the possible role of peptides in brain function. This effort has been stimulated by the discovery of a number of new endogenous peptides, such as the enkephalins, endorphins, vasoactive intestinal peptide and neurotensin. At present, there is no clearly defined role for these peptides, although they may form an important basis for the chemical coding of various brain functions, including pain, mood and memory. At present, the potential for drug development of peptide agonists remains in fairly circumscribed areas such as analgesia, pituitary hormone control, and gastrointestinal motor and secretory control. Peptide antagonists may provide a vast field for future development, although only one area, that of antifertility drugs based on LHRH antagonists, shows any promise of immediate success. Industrial research approaches to new peptide agonists and antagonists mainly rely at present on rational drug design through structural analogies. Other fruitful approaches to be considered are the screening of natural microbial and plant products and the possible application of genetic engineering techniques.

  2. Counter-Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-26

    Present. [Order from DTIC-E, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Suite 0944, Ft Belvoir, VA 22060-6218.] Douglas, Joseph, and Livingstone, Neil , America the...Harris, Sheldon H ., Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932-45, and the American Cover-up (Routledge). 1994. Hayes, Peter L...Biological Warfare (Office of Surgeon General, Borden Institute). 1997. Sloan, Steven, Beating International Terrorism (Air University Press). 1986

  3. Preparation and characterization of new biologically active polyurethane foams.

    PubMed

    Savelyev, Yuri; Veselov, Vitali; Markovskaya, Ludmila; Savelyeva, Olga; Akhranovich, Elena; Galatenko, Natalya; Robota, Ludmila; Travinskaya, Tamara

    2014-12-01

    Biologically active polyurethane foams are the fast-developed alternative to many applications of biomedical materials. Due to the polyurethane structure features and foam technology it is possible to incorporate into their structure the biologically active compounds of target purpose via structural-chemical modification of macromolecule. A series of new biologically active polyurethane foams (PUFs) was synthesized with polyethers (MM 2500-5000), polyesters MM (500-2200), 2,4(2,6) toluene diisocyanate, water as a foaming agent, catalysts, foam stabilizers and functional compounds. Different functional compounds: 1,4-di-N-oxy-2,3-bis-(oxymethyl)-quinoxaline (DOMQ), partial sodium salt of poly(acrylic acid) and 2,6-dimethyl-N,N-diethyl aminoacetatanilide hydrochloride were incorporated into the polymer structure/composition due to the chemical and/or physical bonding. Structural peculiarities of PUFs were studied by FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. Self-adhesion properties of PUFs were estimated by measuring of tensile strength at break of adhesive junction. The optical microscopy method was performed for the PUF morphology studies. Toxicological estimation of the PUFs was carried out in vitro and in vivo. The antibacterial action towards the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATC 25922, E. coli ATC 2150, Klebsiella pneumoniae 6447, Staphylococcus aureus 180, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8180, Proteus mirabilis F 403, P. mirabilis 6054, and Proteus vulgaris 8718) was studied by the disc method on the solid nutrient. Physic-chemical properties of the PUFs (density, tensile strength and elongation at break, water absorption and vapor permeability) showed that all studied PUFs are within the operational requirements for such materials and represent fine-cellular foams. Spectral studies confirmed the incorporation of DOMQ into the PUF's macrochain. PUFs are characterized by microheterogeneous structure. They are antibacterially active, non

  4. Interesting biological activities from plants traditionally used by Native Australians.

    PubMed

    Pennacchio, Marcello; Kemp, Annabeth S; Taylor, Rory P; Wickens, Kristen M; Kienow, Lucie

    2005-01-15

    Four plants routinely used for medicinal purposes by Native Australians were screened for various biological activities. Methanol extracts of Eremophila maculata, Acacia auriculoformis and Acacia bivenosa exhibited antibiotic effects, while Eremophila alternifolia yielded an extract that induced significant changes to the heart activity of spontaneously hypertensive rats. We report on these biological activities.

  5. Field Operations Program Activities Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. Francfort; D. V. O'Hara; L. A. Slezak

    1999-05-01

    The Field Operations Program is an electric vehicle testing and evaluation program sponsored by US Department of Energy and managed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Program's goals are to evaluate electric vehicles in real-world applications and environments, support electric vehicle technology advancement, develop infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use, support increased use of electric vehicles in federal fleets, and increase overall awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles. This report covers Program activities from fiscal year 1997 through mid-fiscal year 1999. The Field Operations Program succeeded the Site Operator Program, which ended in September 1996. Electric vehicle testing conducted by the Program includes baseline performance testing (EV America testing), accelerated reliability (life-cycle) testing, and fleet testing. The baseline performance parameters include accelerations, braking, range, energy efficiency, and charging time. The Program collects accelerated reliability and fleet operations data on electric vehicles operated by the Program's Qualified Vehicle Testing (QVT) partners. The Program's QVT partners have over 3 million miles of electric vehicle operating experience.

  6. Office of Biological Informatics and Outreach geospatial technology activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Office of Biological Informatics and Outreach (OBIO) in Reston, Virginia, and its Center for Biological Informatics (CBI) in Denver, Colorado, provide leadership in the development and use of geospatial technologies to advance the Nation's biological science activities.

  7. Lung biological activity of American attapulgite

    SciTech Connect

    Begin, R.; Masse, S.; Rola-Pleszczynski, M.; Geoffroy, M.; Martel, M.; Desmarais, Y.; Sebastien, P.

    1987-04-01

    Attapulgite is a fibrous mineral industrially consumed at the rate of over a million tons per year but the biological activity of the material is not fully known. To evaluate the in vivo toxicity of the fibrous materials, they exposed the tracheal lobe of 16 sheep to a single exposure of either 100 ml saline, 100 mg UICC asbestos fibers in 100 ml saline, 100 mg short asbestos fibers in 100 ml saline, or 100 mg attapulgite in 100 ml saline. The animals were studied by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at Days 2, 12, 24, 40, and 60 and by autopsy at Day 60. In the saline-exposed sheep, BAL and lung histology did not change. In the UICC asbestos-exposed animals, they reproduced the BAL changes previously reported. In the short asbestos-exposed sheep, there were no significant BAL changes. In the attapulgite sheep, they found significant and sustained increases in total BAL cells, macrophages, neutrophils, fibronectin, lactate dehydrogenase, ..beta..-glucuronidase, but BAL cellularity returned to control levels by Day 60 whereas in the UICC asbestos-exposed sheep, it remained significantly above control. Lung histology demonstrated the characteristic peribronchiolar fibrosing alveolitis in the UICC asbestos-exposed sheep, whereas macrophagic alveolitis with minimal airway distortion was seen in the short asbestos-exposed sheep, whereas macrophagic alveolitis with minimal airway distortion was seen in the short asbestos-exposed sheep and in all of the attapulgite-exposed sheep but three which had typical peribronchiolar alveolitis quite similar to that observed in UICC-exposed sheep, but of lower intensity.

  8. Biology for Operators. Training Module 1.311.2.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with the basic concepts of biology related to water/wastewater technology. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts, and transparency masters. The module considers organisms and their relationship, cell structures,…

  9. The ice nucleation activity of biological aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothe, H.; Pummer, B.; Bauer, H.; Bernardi, J.

    2012-04-01

    Primary Biological Aerosol Particles (PBAPs), including bacteria, spores and pollen may be important for several atmospheric processes. Particularly, the ice nucleation caused by PBAPs is a topic of growing interest, since their impact on ice cloud formation and thus on radiative forcing, an important parameter in global climate is not yet fully understood. In laboratory model studies we investigated the ice nucleation activity of selected PBAPs. We studied the immersion mode freezing using water-oil emulsion, which we observed by optical microscopy. We particularly focused on pollen. We show that pollen of different species strongly differ in their ice nucleation behavior. The average freezing temperatures in laboratory experiments range from 240 K to 255 K. As the most efficient nuclei (silver birch, Scots pine and common juniper pollen) have a distribution area up to the Northern timberline, their ice nucleation activity might be a cryoprotective mechanism. For comparison the ice nucleation activity of Snomax, fungal spores, and mushrooms will be discussed as well. In the past, pollen have been rejected as important atmospheric IN, as they are not as abundant in the atmosphere as bacteria or mineral dust and are too heavy to reach higher altitudes. However, in our experiments (Pummer et al. 2011) it turned out that water, which had been in contact with pollen and then been separated from the bodies, nucleates as good as the pollen grains themselves. So the ice nuclei have to be easily-suspendable macromolecules (100-300 kDa) located on the pollen. Once extracted, they can be distributed further through the atmosphere than the heavy pollen grains and so augment the impact of pollen on ice cloud formation even in the upper troposphere. It is widely known, that material from the pollen, like allergens and sugars, can indeed leave the pollen body and be distributed independently. The most probable mechanism is the pollen grain bursting by rain, which releases

  10. The Infusion of Environmental Activities into a Secondary Biology Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Helen M.

    1976-01-01

    Reviewed are "adventure-type" environmental education activities incorporated into a secondary level biology course. Student wilderness experiences included 24 weekend activities of hiking, bird watching, camping, and cross-country skiing. (SL)

  11. Multifunctional and biologically active matrices from multicomponent polymeric solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiick, Kristi L. (Inventor); Yamaguchi, Nori (Inventor); Rabolt, John (Inventor); Casper, Cheryl (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A functionalized electrospun matrix for the controlled-release of biologically active agents, such as growth factors, is presented. The functionalized matrix comprises a matrix polymer, a compatibilizing polymer and a biomolecule or other small functioning molecule. In certain aspects the electrospun polymer fibers comprise at least one biologically active molecule functionalized with low molecular weight heparin.

  12. Milk inhibits the biological activity of ricin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ricin is a highly toxic protein produced by the castor plant Ricinus communis. The toxin is relatively easy to isolate and can be used as a biological weapon. There is great interest in identifying effective inhibitors for ricin. In this study, we demonstrated by three independent assays that compon...

  13. Trends and implications of biological analyses for agricultural operations

    SciTech Connect

    Ash, D.H.; Salladay, D.G.

    1994-10-01

    State and federal legislatures, regulatory agencies, the agricultural community, and the public at large have increasing concerns about groundwater contamination and other environmental issues. The U.S. Congress has requested all federal agencies working with agriculture to address these issues. Even with current pressures to {open_quotes}cut government spending,{close_quotes} public pressure prevails to clean up polluted sites and to prevent future contamination. Farmers, agrichemical dealers and producers, and related trade associations have voiced concern about regulations affecting their industries. Over the last three decades positive changes have evolved in the disposal or final resolution of agricultural wastes from indiscriminate disposal on land and in water, through regulated land filling and incineration to a point where biological treatment/remediation strategies are coming to the forefront. These biological strategies bring with them different requirements for analytical methods. In March of this year the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and ARA organized a work group which met in Cincinnati, Ohio, to discuss the bioremediation of pesticide-laden soil. This work group consisted of EPA researchers, regulators, and administrators; state ag-environmental technologists and program directors; ag-chemical producer, remediation program managers, university ag researchers, USDA researchers, and TVA technologists. Consensus was quickly obtained on the utter unaffordability of current chemical and thermal treatment schemes for agricultural wastes, contaminated soils, and rinsewaters. Consensus was also reached that conventional analytical methods are too expensive and complicated for use in the field demonstration/application of the bioremediation-type processes. Thus the group recommended and supported field agrichemical dealer demonstrations of landfarming and composting with an emphasis on the need to develop low cost, easy toxicological measurements.

  14. Biology Research Activities: Teacher's Edition (with Answers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Barbara

    This book is part of the series "Explorations in Science" which contains enrichment activities for the general science curriculum. Each book in the series contains innovative and traditional projects for both the bright and average, the self-motivated, and those who find activity motivating. Each activity is self-contained and provides everything…

  15. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Mawa, Shukranul; Husain, Khairana; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents. PMID:24159359

  16. Impact of Volcanic Activity on AMC Channel Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    IMPACT OF VOLCANIC ACTIVITY ON AMC CHANNEL OPERATIONS GRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT Matthew D... VOLCANIC ACTIVITY ON AMC CHANNEL OPERATIONS GRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences...AFIT-ENS-GRP-14-J-11 IMPACT OF VOLCANIC ACTIVITY ON AMC CHANNEL OPERATIONS Matthew D. Meshanko, BS, MA Major, USAF

  17. Biological processing in oscillatory baffled reactors: operation, advantages and potential

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, M. S. R.; Harvey, A. P.; Perez, G. Valente; Theodorou, M. K.

    2013-01-01

    The development of efficient and commercially viable bioprocesses is essential for reducing the need for fossil-derived products. Increasingly, pharmaceuticals, fuel, health products and precursor compounds for plastics are being synthesized using bioprocessing routes as opposed to more traditional chemical technologies. Production vessels or reactors are required for synthesis of crude product before downstream processing for extraction and purification. Reactors are operated either in discrete batches or, preferably, continuously in order to reduce waste, cost and energy. This review describes the oscillatory baffled reactor (OBR), which, generally, has a niche application in performing ‘long’ processes in plug flow conditions, and so should be suitable for various bioprocesses. We report findings to suggest that OBRs could increase reaction rates for specific bioprocesses owing to low shear, good global mixing and enhanced mass transfer compared with conventional reactors. By maintaining geometrical and dynamic conditions, the technology has been proved to be easily scaled up and operated continuously, allowing laboratory-scale results to be easily transferred to industrial-sized processes. This is the first comprehensive review of bioprocessing using OBRs. The barriers facing industrial adoption of the technology are discussed alongside some suggested strategies to overcome these barriers. OBR technology could prove to be a major aid in the development of commercially viable and sustainable bioprocesses, essential for moving towards a greener future. PMID:24427509

  18. Biological processing in oscillatory baffled reactors: operation, advantages and potential.

    PubMed

    Abbott, M S R; Harvey, A P; Perez, G Valente; Theodorou, M K

    2013-02-06

    The development of efficient and commercially viable bioprocesses is essential for reducing the need for fossil-derived products. Increasingly, pharmaceuticals, fuel, health products and precursor compounds for plastics are being synthesized using bioprocessing routes as opposed to more traditional chemical technologies. Production vessels or reactors are required for synthesis of crude product before downstream processing for extraction and purification. Reactors are operated either in discrete batches or, preferably, continuously in order to reduce waste, cost and energy. This review describes the oscillatory baffled reactor (OBR), which, generally, has a niche application in performing 'long' processes in plug flow conditions, and so should be suitable for various bioprocesses. We report findings to suggest that OBRs could increase reaction rates for specific bioprocesses owing to low shear, good global mixing and enhanced mass transfer compared with conventional reactors. By maintaining geometrical and dynamic conditions, the technology has been proved to be easily scaled up and operated continuously, allowing laboratory-scale results to be easily transferred to industrial-sized processes. This is the first comprehensive review of bioprocessing using OBRs. The barriers facing industrial adoption of the technology are discussed alongside some suggested strategies to overcome these barriers. OBR technology could prove to be a major aid in the development of commercially viable and sustainable bioprocesses, essential for moving towards a greener future.

  19. Biological Activity of Recently Discovered Halogenated Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the biological activity—antibacterial, antifungal, anti-parasitic, antiviral, antitumor, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and enzymatic activity—of halogenated marine natural products discovered in the past five years. Newly discovered examples that do not report biological activity are not included. PMID:26133553

  20. Sensitive bioassay for detection of biologically active ricin in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential use of ricin as an agent of biological warfare highlights the need to develop fast and effective methods to detect biologically active ricin. The current “gold standard” for ricin detection is an in vivo mouse bioassay; however, this method is not practical to test on a large number of...

  1. Biological activities of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Eduardo Ferreira; Rosario, Diele Magno; Silva Veiga, Andreza Socorro; Brasil, Davi Do Socorro Barros; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Dolabela, Maria Fâni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different species of Croton are used in traditional Amazonian medicine. Among the popular uses are treatment of bacterial diseases, poorly healing wounds and fevers. Objective: This study evaluated the antileishmanial, antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activities of the extracts and diterpenes of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch (Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: Leaves and bark were extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. The bark dichloromethane extract (BDE) was chromatographed on a column, obtaining cordatin and aparisthman. The extracts and diterpenes were assayed thought agar disk diffusion method and their bactericidal or fungicidal effects were evaluated by minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration. The antiplasmodial activity was evaluated after 24 and 72 h of exposition. The antileishmanial activity was performed on promastigotes forms of Leishmania amazonensis. Results: The bark methanol extract (BME) and cordatin were not active against any microbial strains tested; BDE and leaves methanol extract (LME) were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and aparisthman was positive for Candida albicans. In the determination of the minimum bactericidal concentration, neither of them were active in the highest concentration tested. The extracts and diterpenes were inactive in Plasmodium falciparum, except the LME in 72 h. Any extract was shown to be active in promastigote forms of L. amazonensis. Conclusion: These results indicate that the BDE and LME did not inhibit the bacterial growth, then they probably had bacteriostatic effect. LME presented activity in P. falciparum. PMID:26246738

  2. Biological activities of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Eduardo Ferreira; Rosario, Diele Magno; Silva Veiga, Andreza Socorro; Barros Brasil, Davi Do Socorro; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Dolabela, Maria Fâni

    2016-01-01

    Background: Different species of Croton are used in traditional Amazonian medicine. Among the popular uses are treatment of bacterial diseases, poorly healing wounds and fevers. Objective: This study evaluated the antileishmanial, antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activities of the extracts and diterpenes of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch (Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: Leaves and bark were extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. The bark dichloromethane extract (BDE) was chromatographed on a column, obtaining cordatin and aparisthman. The extracts and diterpenes were assayed thought agar disk diffusion method and their bactericidal or fungicidal effects were evaluated by minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration. The antiplasmodial activity was evaluated after 24 and 72 h of exposition. The antileishmanial activity was performed on promastigotes forms of Leishmania amazonensis. Results: The bark methanol extract (BME) and cordatin were not active against any microbial strains tested; BDE and leaves methanol extract (LME) were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and aparisthman was positive for Candida albicans. In the determination of the minimum bactericidal concentration, neither of them were active in the highest concentration tested. The extracts and diterpenes were inactive in Plasmodium falciparum, except the LME in 72 h. Any extract was shown to be active in promastigote forms of L. amazonensis. Conclusion: These results indicate that the BDE and LME did not inhibit the bacterial growth, then they probably had bacteriostatic effect. LME presented activity in P. falciparum. PMID:27041867

  3. Multifunctional and biologically active matrices from multicomponent polymeric solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiick, Kristi L. (Inventor); Yamaguchi, Nori (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a biologically active functionalized electrospun matrix to permit immobilization and long-term delivery of biologically active agents. In particular the invention relates to a functionalized polymer matrix comprising a matrix polymer, a compatibilizing polymer and a biomolecule or other small functioning molecule. In certain aspects the electrospun polymer fibers comprise at least one biologically active molecule functionalized with low molecular weight heparin. Examples of active molecules that may be used with the multicomponent polymer of the invention include, for example, a drug, a biopolymer, for example a growth factor, a protein, a peptide, a nucleotide, a polysaccharide, a biological macromolecule or the like. The invention is further directed to the formation of functionalized crosslinked matrices, such as hydrogels, that include at least one functionalized compatibilizing polymer capable of assembly.

  4. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    SciTech Connect

    Merino, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  5. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    DOEpatents

    Merino, Sandra

    2014-10-28

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  6. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    DOEpatents

    Merino, Sandra

    2014-05-27

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  7. Methods of increasing secretion of polypeptides having biological activity

    SciTech Connect

    Merino, Sandra

    2015-04-14

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a secreted polypeptide having biological activity, comprising: (a) transforming a fungal host cell with a fusion protein construct encoding a fusion protein, which comprises: (i) a first polynucleotide encoding a signal peptide; (ii) a second polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of an endoglucanase or a portion thereof; and (iii) a third polynucleotide encoding at least a catalytic domain of a polypeptide having biological activity; wherein the signal peptide and at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase increases secretion of the polypeptide having biological activity compared to the absence of at least the catalytic domain of the endoglucanase; (b) cultivating the transformed fungal host cell under conditions suitable for production of the fusion protein; and (c) recovering the fusion protein, a component thereof, or a combination thereof, having biological activity, from the cultivation medium.

  8. Physical activity and biological maturation: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bacil, Eliane Denise Araújo; Mazzardo, Oldemar; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Legnani, Rosimeide Francisco dos Santos; de Campos, Wagner

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between physical activity (PA) and biological maturation in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCE: We performed a systematic review in April 2013 in the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, SportDiscus, Web of Science and LILACS without time restrictions. A total of 628 potentially relevant articles were identified and 10 met the inclusion criteria for this review: cross-sectional or longitudinal studies, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, with schoolchildren aged 9-15 years old of both genders. DATA SYNTHESIS: Despite the heterogeneity of the studies, there was an inverse association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increased biological and chronological age in both genders. Boys tend to be more physically active than girls; however, when controlling for biological age, the gender differences disappear. The association between PA and timing of maturation varies between the genders. Variation in the timing of biological maturation affects the tracking of PA in early adolescent girls. This review suggests that mediators (BMI, depression, low self-esteem, and concerns about body weight) can explain the association between PA and biological maturation. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increasing biological age with no differences between genders. As for the timing of biological maturation, this association varies between genders. PMID:25583624

  9. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware & Operations Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Sandra; Marmolejo, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this presentation are to: Define Extravehicular Activity (EVA), identify the reasons for conducting an EVA, and review the role that EVA has played in the space program; Identify the types of EVAs that may be performed; Describe some of the U.S. Space Station equipment and tools that are used during an EVA, such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER), the International Space Station (ISS) Joint Airlock and Russian Docking Compartment 1 (DC-1), and EVA Tools & Equipment; Outline the methods and procedures of EVA Preparation, EVA, and Post-EVA operations; Describe the Russian spacesuit used to perform an EVA; Provide a comparison between U.S. and Russian spacesuit hardware and EVA support; and Define the roles that different training facilities play in EVA training.

  10. Activated Sludge. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Owen K.; Klopping, Paul H.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. Topic areas addressed in the lessons include: (1) activated sludge concepts and components (including aeration tanks, aeration systems, clarifiers, and sludge pumping systems); (2) activated sludge variations and modes; (3) biological nature of activated…

  11. Operational radiation protection for astronauts and cosmonauts and correlated activities of ESA Medical Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straube, Ulrich; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Facius, Rainer; Fuglesang, Christer; Reiter, Thomas; Damann, Volker; Tognini, Michel

    2010-04-01

    Since the early times of human spaceflight radiation has been, besides the influence of microgravity on the human body, recognized as a main health concern to astronauts and cosmonauts. The radiation environment that the crew experiences during spaceflight differs significantly to that found on earth due to particles of greater potential for biological damage. Highly energetic charged particles, such as protons, helium nuclei ("alpha particles") and heavier ions up to iron, originating from several sources, as well as protons and electrons trapped in the Earth's radiation belts, are the main contributors. The exposure that the crew receives during a spaceflight significantly exceeds exposures routinely received by terrestrial radiation workers. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Astronaut Center (EAC) in Cologne, Germany, is home of the European Astronaut Corps. Part of the EAC is the Crew Medical Support Office (CMSO or HSF-AM) responsible for ensuring the health and well-being of the European Astronauts. A sequence of activities is conducted to protect astronauts and cosmonauts health, including those aiming to mitigate adverse effects of space radiation. All health related activities are part of a multinational Medical Operations (MedOps) concept, which is executed by the different Space Agencies participating in the human spaceflight program of the International Space Station (ISS). This article will give an introduction to the current measures used for radiation monitoring and protection of astronauts and cosmonauts. The operational guidelines that shall ensure proper implementation and execution of those radiation protection measures will be addressed. Operational hardware for passive and active radiation monitoring and for personal dosimetry, as well as the operational procedures that are applied, are described.

  12. Biologically active secondary metabolites from Asphodelus microcarpus.

    PubMed

    Ghoneim, Mohammed M; Ma, Guoyi; El-Hela, Atef A; Mohammad, Abd-Elsalam I; Kottob, Saeid; El-Ghaly, Sayed; Cutler, Stephen J; Ross, Samir A

    2013-08-01

    Bioassay guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm.et Vivi (Asphodelaceae) resulted in the isolation of one new metabolite, 1,6-dimethoxy-3-methyl-2-naphthoic acid (1) as well as nine known compounds: asphodelin (2), chrysophanol (3), 8-methoxychrysophanol (4), emodin (5), 2-acetyl-1,8-dimethoxy-3-methylnaphthalene (6), 10-(chrysophanol-7'-yl)-10-hydroxychrysophanol-9-anthrone (7), aloesaponol-III-8-methyl ether (8), ramosin (9) and aestivin (10). The compounds were identified by 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. Compounds 3, 6 and 10 were isolated for the first time from this species. Compounds 3 and 4 showed moderate to weak antileishmanial activity with IC50 values of 14.3 and 35.1 microg/mL, respectively. Compound 4 exhibited moderate antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 15.0 microg/mL, while compounds 5, 7 and 10 showed good to potent activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with IC50 values of 6.6, 9.4 microg/mL and 1.4 microg/mL respectively. Compounds 5, 8 and 9 displayed good activity against S. aureus with IC50 values of 3.2, 7.3 and 8.5 microg/mL, respectively. Compounds 7 and 9 exhibited a potent cytotoxic activity against leukemia LH60 and K562 cell lines. Compound 10 showed potent antimalarial activities against both chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values in the range of 0.8-0.7 microg/mL without showing any cytotoxicity to mammalian cells.

  13. Biologically active phenols from Saussurea medusa.

    PubMed

    Fan, Cheng-Qi; Yue, Jian-Min

    2003-03-06

    Sixteen phenolic compounds were isolated from the polar fraction of Saussurea medusa and were structurally elucidated by chemical evidences and spectral methods. These compounds include two new lignan glucosides, namely medusasides A (1) and B (2), and fourteen known phenolic compounds (3-16). One major compound, apigenin 7-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (6) showed remarkable activity to attenuate the scopolamine induced memory deficit of mice. Compound 6 and another major one, quercetin (8) also exhibited moderate cell protecting activities against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) induced PC12 cell damage.

  14. Transport and biological activities of bile acids.

    PubMed

    Zwicker, Brittnee L; Agellon, Luis B

    2013-07-01

    Bile acids have emerged as important biological molecules that support the solubilization of various lipids and lipid-soluble compounds in the gut, and the regulation of gene expression and cellular function. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and eventually released into the small intestine. The majority of bile acids are recovered in the distal end of the small intestine and then returned to the liver for reuse. The components of the mechanism responsible for the recycling of bile acids within the enterohepatic circulation have been identified whereas the mechanism for intracellular transport is less understood. Recently, the ileal lipid binding protein (ILBP; human gene symbol FABP6) was shown to be needed for the efficient transport of bile acids from the apical side to the basolateral side of enterocytes in the distal intestine. This review presents an overview of the transport of bile acids between the liver and the gut as well as within hepatocytes and enterocytes. A variety of pathologies is associated with the malfunction of the bile acid transport system.

  15. Synthesis and biological activity of radiolabeled phytosterols

    SciTech Connect

    De Palma, A.

    1984-01-01

    /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C-labeled phytosterols were synthesized for the purpose of elucidating insect sterol side-chain dealkylating mechanisms. Sitosterol, stigmasterol, and the 29-fluoro derivatives of these compounds, which are highly toxic, were labeled with /sup 3/H at C-29 in order to study the fate of the two-carbon dealkylation product in vivo and in vitro. The first rapid, reliable in vitro dealkylation bioassay was developed using doubly-labeled (29-/sup 3/H)-(24-/sup 14/C) fucosterol epoxides as the substrates, incubated with midgut preparations from Manduca sexta, the tobacco hornworm. Since C-28 and C-29 are lost in the dealkylation process, the extent of dealkylation is expressed as the change in the isotopic ratio when the system is partitioned between an organic solvent and water after incubation. As predicted, the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio decreases in the organic layer as a function of time, due to loss of /sup 3/H into the aqueous phase as acetate or a biological equivalent. This ratio likewise increases in the aqueous phase for the same reason. The (29-/sup 3/H) phytosterols alone are reliable substrates for the first rapid in vivo bioassay of phytosterol dealkylation.

  16. Building biologically active nucleic acid nanocomplexes.

    PubMed

    Smith, C I Edvard; Lundin, Karin E; Simonson, Oscar E; Moreno, Pedro M D; Svahn, Mathias G; Wenska, Malgorzata; Strömberg, Roger

    2008-01-01

    The Bioplex technology allows the hybridization of functional entities to various forms of nucleic acids by the use of synthetic nucleic acid analogs. Such supramolecular assemblies can be made in a predetermined fashion and can confer new properties. The Zorro technology is based on a novel construct generated to simultaneously bind to both DNA strands. Such compounds may have gene silencing activity.

  17. Standard Local Operating Procedures for Endangered Species (SLOPES) for Selected Nationwide Permit Activities Affecting Bull Trout in Western Montana and Northern Idaho. Endangered Species Act Section 7 Consultation: Biological Opinion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-17

    57 Table 8. Nature of expected bull trout take and level of SLOPES activity for the action area within each core area...Replacement of existing stream crossings will be designed to promote natural sediment transport, allow maximum fluvial debris movement, and improve... natural movement of existing streambed material. Utility Line Activities: (NWP 12 type actions) Utility line construction or repair could involve

  18. Isoxanthohumol--Biologically active hop flavonoid.

    PubMed

    Żołnierczyk, Anna Katarzyna; Mączka, Wanda Krystyna; Grabarczyk, Małgorzata; Wińska, Katarzyna; Woźniak, Edyta; Anioł, Mirosław

    2015-06-01

    Isoxanthohumol (IXN), apart from xanthohumol (XN) and 8-prenylnaringenin (8PN), is one of the most important prenylflavonoids found in hops. Another natural source of this compound is a shrub Sophora flavescens, used in traditional Chinese medicine. Main dietary source of IXN is beer, and the compound is produced from XN during wort boiling. In the human body, the compound is O-demethylated to 8PN, the strongest known phytoestrogen. This process takes place in the liver and in the intestine, where it is mediated by local microflora. It has been reported in some studies that even though beer contains small amounts of hops and its preparations, these compounds may affect the functioning of the human body. IXN exhibits an antiproliferative activity against human cell lines typical for breast cancer (MCF-7), ovarian cancer (A-2780), prostate cancer (DU145 and PC-3), and colon cancer (HT-29 and SW620) cells. It strongly inhibits the activation of the following carcinogens: 2-amino-3-methylimidazol-[4,5-f]quinoline and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) via human cytochrome P450 (CYP1A2). It also inhibits the production of prostate specific antigen (PSA). IXN significantly reduces the expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in the case of invasive breast cancer MDA-MB-231. It interferes with JAK/STAT signaling pathway and inhibits the expression of pro1inflammatory genes in the monoblastic leukemia cell line (MonoMac6). It activates apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). In addition, IXN shows an antiviral activity towards herpes viruses (HSV1 and HSV2) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV).

  19. Pragmatic turn in biology: From biological molecules to genetic content operators

    PubMed Central

    Witzany, Guenther

    2014-01-01

    Erwin Schrödinger‘s question “What is life?” received the answer for decades of “physics + chemistry”. The concepts of Alain Turing and John von Neumann introduced a third term: “information”. This led to the understanding of nucleic acid sequences as a natural code. Manfred Eigen adapted the concept of Hammings “sequence space”. Similar to Hilbert space, in which every ontological entity could be defined by an unequivocal point in a mathematical axiomatic system, in the abstract ”sequence space” concept each point represents a unique syntactic structure and the value of their separation represents their dissimilarity. In this concept molecular features of the genetic code evolve by means of self-organisation of matter. Biological selection determines the fittest types among varieties of replication errors of quasi-species. The quasi-species concept dominated evolution theory for many decades. In contrast to this, recent empirical data on the evolution of DNA and its forerunners, the RNA-world and viruses indicate cooperative agent-based interactions. Group behaviour of quasi-species consortia constitute de novo and arrange available genetic content for adaptational purposes within real-life contexts that determine epigenetic markings. This review focuses on some fundamental changes in biology, discarding its traditional status as a subdiscipline of physics and chemistry. PMID:25225596

  20. Pragmatic turn in biology: From biological molecules to genetic content operators.

    PubMed

    Witzany, Guenther

    2014-08-26

    Erwin Schrödinger's question "What is life?" received the answer for decades of "physics + chemistry". The concepts of Alain Turing and John von Neumann introduced a third term: "information". This led to the understanding of nucleic acid sequences as a natural code. Manfred Eigen adapted the concept of Hammings "sequence space". Similar to Hilbert space, in which every ontological entity could be defined by an unequivocal point in a mathematical axiomatic system, in the abstract "sequence space" concept each point represents a unique syntactic structure and the value of their separation represents their dissimilarity. In this concept molecular features of the genetic code evolve by means of self-organisation of matter. Biological selection determines the fittest types among varieties of replication errors of quasi-species. The quasi-species concept dominated evolution theory for many decades. In contrast to this, recent empirical data on the evolution of DNA and its forerunners, the RNA-world and viruses indicate cooperative agent-based interactions. Group behaviour of quasi-species consortia constitute de novo and arrange available genetic content for adaptational purposes within real-life contexts that determine epigenetic markings. This review focuses on some fundamental changes in biology, discarding its traditional status as a subdiscipline of physics and chemistry.

  1. Physical aspects of biological activity and cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, Jiří

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondria are organelles at the boundary between chemical-genetic and physical processes in living cells. Mitochondria supply energy and provide conditions for physical mechanisms. Protons transferred across the inner mitochondrial membrane diffuse into cytosol and form a zone of a strong static electric field changing water into quasi-elastic medium that loses viscosity damping properties. Mitochondria and microtubules form a unique cooperating system in the cell. Microtubules are electrical polar structures that make possible non-linear transformation of random excitations into coherent oscillations and generation of coherent electrodynamic field. Mitochondria supply energy, may condition non-linear properties and low damping of oscillations. Electrodynamic activity might have essential significance for material transport, organization, intra- and inter-cellular interactions, and information transfer. Physical processes in cancer cell are disturbed due to suppression of oxidative metabolism in mitochodria (Warburg effect). Water ordering level in the cell is decreased, excitation of microtubule electric polar oscilations diminished, damping increased, and non-linear energy transformation shifted towards the linear region. Power and coherence of the generated electrodynamic field are reduced. Electromagnetic activity of healthy and cancer cells may display essential differences. Local invasion and metastastatic growth may strongly depend on disturbed electrodynamic activity. Nanotechnological measurements may disclose yet unknown properties and parameters of electrodynamic oscillations and other physical processes in healthy and cancer cells.

  2. Extravehicular Activity Operations Concepts Under Communication Latency and Bandwidth Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Chappell, Steven P.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Miller, Matthew J.; Nawotniak, Shannon Kobs; Hughes, Scott; Brady, Allyson; Lim, Darlene S. S.

    2017-01-01

    The Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains (BASALT) project is a multi-year program dedicated to iteratively develop, implement, and evaluate concepts of operations (ConOps) and supporting capabilities intended to enable and enhance human scientific exploration of Mars. This pa-per describes the planning, execution, and initial results from the first field deployment, referred to as BASALT-1, which consisted of a series of 10 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs) on volcanic flows in Idaho's Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument. The ConOps and capabilities deployed and tested during BASALT-1 were based on previous NASA trade studies and analog testing. Our primary research question was whether those ConOps and capabilities work acceptably when performing real (non-simulated) biological and geological scientific exploration under 4 different Mars-to-Earth communication conditions: 5 and 15 min one-way light time (OWLT) communication latencies and low (0.512 Mb/s uplink, 1.54 Mb/s downlink) and high (5.0 Mb/s uplink, 10.0 Mb/s downlink) bandwidth conditions representing the lower and higher limits of technical communication capabilities currently proposed for future human exploration missions. The synthesized results of BASALT-1 with respect to the ConOps and capabilities assessment were derived from a variety of sources, including EVA task timing data, network analytic data, and subjective ratings and comments regarding the scientific and operational acceptability of the ConOp and the extent to which specific capabilities were enabling and enhancing, and are presented here. BASALT-1 established preliminary findings that baseline ConOp, software systems, and communication protocols were scientifically and operationally acceptable with minor improvements desired by the "Mars" extravehicular (EV) and intravehicular (IV) crewmembers, but unacceptable with improvements required by the "Earth" Mission Support Center. These data will provide a

  3. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  4. Biological activities of terthiophenes and polyynes from the Asteraceae.

    PubMed

    Hudson, J B; Graham, E A; Rossi, R; Carpita, A; Neri, D; Towers, G H

    1993-10-01

    We evaluated a number of terthiophenes and polyynes, from the Asteraceae, for biological activities against microorganisms, viruses, and tumor cells, with and without the aid of UVA (long wavelength ultraviolet) radiation. The terthiophenes, which represented the basic alpha-terthienyl nucleus with simple side chains, showed impressive UVA-dependent activities, some of which were superior to alpha-terthienyl itself. In contrast, the polyynes had no significant biological activity, with or without UVA. We believe that these terthiophenes would be worthwhile evaluating in animal models of infectious diseases.

  5. Polyphosphate Kinase from Activated Sludge Performing Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal†

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Katherine D.; Dojka, Michael A.; Pace, Norman R.; Jenkins, David; Keasling, Jay D.

    2002-01-01

    A novel polyphosphate kinase (PPK) was retrieved from an uncultivated organism in activated sludge carrying out enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Acetate-fed laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors were used to maintain sludge with a high phosphorus content (approximately 11% of the biomass). PCR-based clone libraries of small subunit rRNA genes and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to verify that the sludge was enriched in Rhodocyclus-like β-Proteobacteria known to be associated with sludges carrying out EBPR. These organisms comprised approximately 80% of total bacteria in the sludge, as assessed by FISH. Degenerate PCR primers were designed to retrieve fragments of putative ppk genes from a pure culture of Rhodocyclus tenuis and from organisms in the sludge. Four novel ppk homologs were found in the sludge, and two of these (types I and II) shared a high degree of amino acid similarity with R. tenuis PPK (86 and 87% similarity, respectively). Dot blot analysis of total RNA extracted from sludge demonstrated that the Type I ppk mRNA was present, indicating that this gene is expressed during EBPR. Inverse PCR was used to obtain the full Type I sequence from sludge DNA, and a full-length PPK was cloned, overexpressed, and purified to near homogeneity. The purified PPK has a specific activity comparable to that of other PPKs, has a requirement for Mg2+, and does not appear to operate in reverse. PPK activity was found mainly in the particulate fraction of lysed sludge microorganisms. PMID:12324346

  6. Should soil testing services measure soil biological activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Health of agricultural soils depends largely on conservation management to promote soil organic C accumulation. Total soil organic C changes slowly, but active fractions are more dynamic. A key indicator of healthy soil is potential biological activity, which could be measured rapidly with soil te...

  7. Models Role within Active Learning in Biology. A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pop-Pacurar, Irina; Tirla, Felicia-Doina

    2009-01-01

    In order to integrate ideas and information creatively, to motivate students and activate their thinking, we have used in Biology classes a series of active methods, among which the methods of critical thinking, which had very good results. Still, in the case of some intuitive, abstract, more difficult topics, such as the cell structure,…

  8. Azaglycomimetics: Natural Occurrence, Biological Activity, and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Naoki

    A large number of alkaloids mimicking the structures of monosaccharides or oligosaccharides have been isolated from plants and microorganisms. The sugar mimicking alkaloids with a nitrogen in the ring are called azasugars or iminosugars. Naturally occurring azasugars are classified into five structural classes: polyhydroxylated piperidines, pyrrolidines, indolizidines, pyrrolizidines, and nortropanes. They are easily soluble in water because of their polyhydroxylated structures and inhibit glycosidases because of a structural resemblance to the sugar moiety of the natural substrate. Glycosidases are involved in a wide range of anabolic and catabolic processes, such as digestion, lysosomal catabolism of glycoconjugates, biosynthesis of glycoproteins, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control and ER-associated degradation of glycoproteins. Hence, modifying or blocking these processes in vivo by inhibitors is of great interest from a therapeutic point of view. Azasugars are an important class of glycosidase inhibitors and are arousing great interest for instance as antidiabetics, antiobesity drugs, antivirals, and therapeutic agents for some genetic disorders. This review describes the recent studies on isolation, characterization, glycosidase inhibitory activity, and therapeutic application of azaglycomimetics.

  9. Phytochemistry and biological activities of Phlomis species.

    PubMed

    Limem-Ben Amor, Ilef; Boubaker, Jihed; Ben Sgaier, Mohamed; Skandrani, Ines; Bhouri, Wissem; Neffati, Aicha; Kilani, Soumaya; Bouhlel, Ines; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2009-09-07

    The genus Phlomis L. belongs to the Lamiaceae family and encompasses 100 species native to Turkey, North Africa, Europe and Asia. It is a popular herbal tea enjoyed for its taste and aroma. Phlomis species are used to treat various conditions such as diabetes, gastric ulcer, hemorrhoids, inflammation, and wounds. This review aims to summarize recent research on the phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of the genus Phlomis, with particular emphasis on its ethnobotanical uses. The essential oil of Phomis is composed of four chemotypes dominated by monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, limonene and linalool), sesquiterpenes (germacrene D and beta-caryophyllene), aliphalic compounds (9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid methyl ester), fatty acids (hexadecanoic acid) and other components (trans-phytol, 9,12,15-octadecatrien-1-ol). Flavonoids, iridoids and phenylethyl alcohol constitute the main compounds isolated from Phlomis extracts. The pharmacological activities of some Phlomis species have been investigated. They are described according to antidiabetic, antinociceptive, antiulcerogenic, protection of the vascular system, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.

  10. 29 CFR 779.207 - Related activities in retail operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Related activities in retail operations. 779.207 Section... Coverage Related Activities § 779.207 Related activities in retail operations. In the case of an enterprise which has one or more retail or service establishments, all of the activities which are performed...

  11. Sensitive bioassay for detection of biologically active ricin in food.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; He, Xiaohua

    2012-05-01

    The potential use of ricin as an agent of biological warfare highlights the need to develop fast and effective methods to detect biologically active ricin. The current "gold standard" for ricin detection is an in vivo mouse bioassay; however, this method is not practical to test on a large number of samples and raises ethical concerns with regard to the use of experimental animals. In this work, we generated adenoviral vectors that express the green fluorescent protein gene and used the relative fluorescence units intensity inhibition by transduced cells for quantitative measurement of biologically active ricin. The detection limit of the assay was 200 pg/ml, which is over 500,000 times greater than the adult human lethal oral dose. The inhibition of fluorescence intensity between ricin treatment and control was higher in 72-h posttransduction Vero cells than 24-h human embryonic kidney cells. Therefore, to detect biologically active ricin in food matrices that might influence the assay, we used 72-h posttransduction Vero cells. This simple assay could be used for large-scale screening to detect biologically active ricin in food without added substrates or use of cell fixation methods.

  12. Understanding the granulation process of activated sludge in a biological phosphorus removal sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-Yong; Peng, Yong-Zhen; Wang, Ran-Deng; Zhou, Yue-Xi

    2012-02-01

    The granulation of activated sludge was investigated using two parallel sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) operated in biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal conditions though the reactor configuration and operating parameters did not favor the granulation. Granules were not observed when the SBR was operated in biological nitrogen removal period for 30d. However, aerobic granules were formed naturally without the increase of aeration intensity when enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) was achieved. It can be detected that plenty of positive charged particles were formed with the release of phosphorus during the anaerobic period of EBPR. The size of the particles was about 5-20 μm and their highest positive ζ potential was about 73 mV. These positive charged particles can stimulate the granulation. Based on the experimental results, a hypothesis was proposed to interpret the granulation process of activated sludge in the EBPR process in SBR. Dense and compact subgranules were formed stimulated by the positive charged particles. The subgranules grew gradually by collision, adhesion and attached growth of bacteria. Finally, the extrusion and shear of hydrodynamic shear force would help the maturation of granules. Aerobic granular SBR showed excellent biological phosphorus removal ability. The average phosphorus removal efficiency was over 95% and the phosphorus in the effluent was below 0.50 mg L(-1) during the operation.

  13. [Biological activity of Penicillium sp. 10-51 exometabolites].

    PubMed

    Savchuk, Ia I; Zaĭchenko, A M; Tsyganenko, E S

    2012-01-01

    Silica gel column chromatography (silica gel "L" II kind of activity 100/160 mkm) of the chloroform extract from the cultural filtrate of Penicillium sp. 10-51 gave two fractions (chloroform and chloroform-acetone, 5:1) having biological activity. Recrystallization yielded two compounds. On the basis of physico-chemical and spectral data these compounds were identified as curvularin and hydroxycurvularin, which have a large spectrum of biological action as to bacteria, yeast, blue-green algae and phytopathogenic micromycetes.

  14. Functional toxicology: a new approach to detect biologically active xenobiotics.

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, J A

    1993-01-01

    The pervasiveness of chemicals in the environment with estrogenic activity and other biological functions recommends the development of new approaches to monitor and study them. Chemicals can be screened for activity in vitro using a panel of human or animal cells that have been transfected with a specific receptor and reporter gene; for example, the estrogen receptor. By using a variety of different receptors, the screening of xenobiotics for biological functions can be broad. Chemicals could then be classified by their function in vitro which, in some cases, may be a useful guide for toxicological studies. Images Figure 1. PMID:8119246

  15. Biological Activity of Aminophosphonic Acids and Their Short Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejczak, Barbara; Kafarski, Pawel

    The biological activity and natural occurrence of the aminophosphonic acids were described half a century ago. Since then the chemistry and biology of this class of compounds have developed into the separate field of phosphorus chemistry. Today it is well acknowledged that these compounds possess a wide variety of promising, and in some cases commercially useful, physiological activities. Thus, they have found applications ranging from agrochemical (with the herbicides glyphosate and bialaphos being the most prominent examples) to medicinal (with the potent antihypertensive fosinopril and antiosteoporetic bisphosphonates being examples).

  16. 7 CFR 1470.23 - Conservation activity operation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation activity operation and maintenance. 1470... CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION STEWARDSHIP PROGRAM Contracts and Payments § 1470.23 Conservation activity operation and maintenance....

  17. 7 CFR 1470.23 - Conservation activity operation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conservation activity operation and maintenance. 1470... CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION STEWARDSHIP PROGRAM Contracts and Payments § 1470.23 Conservation activity operation and maintenance....

  18. 7 CFR 1470.23 - Conservation activity operation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conservation activity operation and maintenance. 1470... CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION STEWARDSHIP PROGRAM Contracts and Payments § 1470.23 Conservation activity operation and maintenance....

  19. 7 CFR 1470.23 - Conservation activity operation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation activity operation and maintenance. 1470... CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION STEWARDSHIP PROGRAM Contracts and Payments § 1470.23 Conservation activity operation and maintenance....

  20. 7 CFR 1470.23 - Conservation activity operation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation activity operation and maintenance. 1470... CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION STEWARDSHIP PROGRAM Contracts and Payments § 1470.23 Conservation activity operation and maintenance....

  1. Advanced Rotating Biological Surface Operation. Training Module 2.122.4.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, W. L.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with operation and maintenance of a rotating biological surface (RBS) wastewater treatment system. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts, and transparency masters. This is the third level of a three module series and…

  2. Intermediate Rotating Biological Surface Operation. Training Module 2.121.3.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, W. L.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with operation and maintenance of rotating biological surface (RBS) wastewater treatment systems. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This is the second level of a three module series. The…

  3. Basic Rotating Biological Surface Operation. Training Module 2.120.2.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, W. L.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with operation and maintenance of rotating biological surface (RBS) wastewater treatment systems. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This is the first level of a three module series. The…

  4. Gemini ester quat surfactants and their biological activity.

    PubMed

    Łuczyński, Jacek; Frąckowiak, Renata; Włoch, Aleksandra; Kleszczyńska, Halina; Witek, Stanisław

    2013-03-01

    Cationic gemini surfactants are an important class of surface-active compounds that exhibit much higher surface activity than their monomeric counterparts. This type of compound architecture lends itself to the compound being easily adsorbed at interfaces and interacting with the cellular membranes of microorganisms. Conventional cationic surfactants have high chemical stability but poor chemical and biological degradability. One of the main approaches to the design of readily biodegradable and environmentally friendly surfactants involves inserting a bond with limited stability into the surfactant molecule to give a cleavable surfactant. The best-known example of such a compound is the family of ester quats, which are cationic surfactants with a labile ester bond inserted into the molecule. As part of this study, a series of gemini ester quat surfactants were synthesized and assayed for their biological activity. Their hemolytic activity and changes in the fluidity and packing order of the lipid polar heads were used as the measures of their biological activity. A clear correlation between the hemolytic activity of the tested compounds and their alkyl chain length was established. It was found that the compounds with a long hydrocarbon chain showed higher activity. Moreover, the compounds with greater spacing between their alkyl chains were more active. This proves that they incorporate more easily into the lipid bilayer of the erythrocyte membrane and affect its properties to a greater extent. A better understanding of the process of cell lysis by surfactants and of their biological activity may assist in developing surfactants with enhanced selectivity and in widening their range of application.

  5. Modeling Radial Holoblastic Cleavage: A Laboratory Activity for Developmental Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Linda K.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a laboratory activity designed for an undergraduate developmental biology course. Uses Play-Doh (plastic modeling clay) to build a multicellular embryo in order to provide a 3-D demonstration of cleavage. Includes notes for the instructor and student directions. (YDS)

  6. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  7. Biologically active substances produced by antarctic cryptoendolithic fungi.

    PubMed

    Ocampo-Friedmann, R; Friedmann, E I

    1993-01-01

    Researchers report results of laboratory studies of over 200 microbial strains of fungi, algae, cyanobacteria, and heterotrophic bacteria collected in the Ross Desert region of Antarctica. All of the 35 fungal strains produced substances that inhibited the growth of cyanobacteria and algae. The inhibitory effect of the biologically active substance was evident in crushed cell extract but less in spent broth.

  8. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal…

  9. On the biological activity of drug molecules: Busulfan and nabumetone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Igor; Kovač, Branka

    2010-10-01

    The electronic structures of drug molecules busulfan (BSU) and nabumetone (NAB) have been investigated by HeI and HeII UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), quantum chemical calculations and virtual docking studies. Their biological activities are discussed in the framework of their electronic and molecular structures, reactivity and drug-enzyme binding.

  10. Aspartate and glutamate mimetic structures in biologically active compounds.

    PubMed

    Stefanic, Peter; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2004-04-01

    Glutamate and aspartate are frequently recognized as key structural elements for the biological activity of natural peptides and synthetic compounds. The acidic side-chain functionality of both the amino acids provides the basis for the ionic interaction and subsequent molecular recognition by specific receptor sites that results in the regulation of physiological or pathophysiological processes in the organism. In the development of new biologically active compounds that possess the ability to modulate these processes, compounds offering the same type of interactions are being designed. Thus, using a peptidomimetic design approach, glutamate and aspartate mimetics are incorporated into the structure of final biologically active compounds. This review covers different bioisosteric replacements of carboxylic acid alone, as well as mimetics of the whole amino acid structure. Amino acid analogs presented include those with different distances between anionic moieties, and analogs with additional functional groups that result in conformational restriction or alternative interaction sites. The article also provides an overview of different cyclic structures, including various cycloalkane, bicyclic and heterocyclic analogs, that lead to conformational restriction. Higher di- and tripeptide mimetics in which carboxylic acid functionality is incorporated into larger molecules are also reviewed. In addition to the mimetic structures presented, emphasis in this article is placed on their steric and electronic properties. These mimetics constitute a useful pool of fragments in the design of new biologically active compounds, particularly in the field of RGD mimetics and excitatory amino acid agonists and antagonists.

  11. Stereochemical Assignment of Strigolactone Analogues Confirms Their Selective Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Artuso, Emma; Ghibaudi, Elena; Lace, Beatrice; Marabello, Domenica; Vinciguerra, Daniele; Lombardi, Chiara; Koltai, Hinanit; Kapulnik, Yoram; Novero, Mara; Occhiato, Ernesto G; Scarpi, Dina; Parisotto, Stefano; Deagostino, Annamaria; Venturello, Paolo; Mayzlish-Gati, Einav; Bier, Ariel; Prandi, Cristina

    2015-11-25

    Strigolactones (SLs) are new plant hormones with various developmental functions. They are also soil signaling chemicals that are required for establishing beneficial mycorrhizal plant/fungus symbiosis. In addition, SLs play an essential role in inducing seed germination in root-parasitic weeds, which are one of the seven most serious biological threats to food security. There are around 20 natural SLs that are produced by plants in very low quantities. Therefore, most of the knowledge on SL signal transduction and associated molecular events is based on the application of synthetic analogues. Stereochemistry plays a crucial role in the structure-activity relationship of SLs, as compounds with an unnatural D-ring configuration may induce biological effects that are unrelated to SLs. We have synthesized a series of strigolactone analogues, whose absolute configuration has been elucidated and related with their biological activity, thus confirming the high specificity of the response. Analogues bearing the R-configured butenolide moiety showed enhanced biological activity, which highlights the importance of this stereochemical motif.

  12. Controlled release of biologically active silver from nanosilver surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingyu; Sonshine, David A; Shervani, Saira; Hurt, Robert H

    2010-11-23

    Major pathways in the antibacterial activity and eukaryotic toxicity of nanosilver involve the silver cation and its soluble complexes, which are well established thiol toxicants. Through these pathways, nanosilver behaves in analogy to a drug delivery system, in which the particle contains a concentrated inventory of an active species, the ion, which is transported to and released near biological target sites. Although the importance of silver ion in the biological response to nanosilver is widely recognized, the drug delivery paradigm has not been well developed for this system, and there is significant potential to improve nanosilver technologies through controlled release formulations. This article applies elements of the drug delivery paradigm to nanosilver dissolution and presents a systematic study of chemical concepts for controlled release. After presenting thermodynamic calculations of silver species partitioning in biological media, the rates of oxidative silver dissolution are measured for nanoparticles and macroscopic foils and used to derive unified area-based release kinetics. A variety of competing chemical approaches are demonstrated for controlling the ion release rate over 4 orders of magnitude. Release can be systematically slowed by thiol and citrate ligand binding, formation of sulfidic coatings, or the scavenging of peroxy-intermediates. Release can be accelerated by preoxidation or particle size reduction, while polymer coatings with complexation sites alter the release profile by storing and releasing inventories of surface-bound silver. Finally, the ability to tune biological activity is demonstrated through a bacterial inhibition zone assay carried out on selected formulations of controlled release nanosilver.

  13. Client satisfaction. Operations research activities and results.

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    Operations research (OR) is a major component of the Quality Assurance Project's (QAP) strategy for improving the quality of health care delivery worldwide. QAP's Operations Research Program aims to improve the feasibility, utility, and cost-effectiveness of quality assurance strategies in developing countries. QAP and its field partners work to maximize the utility of each field study's findings. As such, the project hopes to disseminate information on all aspects of important OR projects, from the initial design to implementation and results. Over the course of the project, QAP's staff and their partners will develop studies in 16 technical areas. One key area of interest is the study of client satisfaction with health care delivery. The project currently has two major studies on client satisfaction underway in Niger and Peru. Phase one results from the Niger research and QAP and the Max Salud Institute in Peru are discussed.

  14. Similar Biological Activities of Two Isostructural Ruthenium and Osmium Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimoska,J.; Williams, D.; Atilla-Gokcumen, G.; Smalley, K.; Carroll, P.; Webster, R.; Filippakopoulos, P.; Knapp, S.; Herlyn, M.; Meggers, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we probe and verify the concept of designing unreactive bioactive metal complexes, in which the metal possesses a purely structural function, by investigating the consequences of replacing ruthenium in a bioactive half-sandwich kinase inhibitor scaffold by its heavier congener osmium. The two isostructural complexes are compared with respect to their anticancer properties in 1205?Lu melanoma cells, activation of the Wnt signaling pathway, IC50 values against the protein kinases GSK-3? and Pim-1, and binding modes to the protein kinase Pim-1 by protein crystallography. It was found that the two congeners display almost indistinguishable biological activities, which can be explained by their nearly identical three-dimensional structures and their identical mode of action as protein kinase inhibitors. This is a unique example in which the replacement of a metal in an anticancer scaffold by its heavier homologue does not alter its biological activity.

  15. 1,3,4-oxadiazole: a biologically active scaffold.

    PubMed

    Khalilullah, H; Ahsan, M J; Hedaitullah, Md; Khan, S; Ahmed, B

    2012-07-01

    There has been considerable interest in the development of novel compounds with anticonvulsant, antidepressant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antipsychotic, antimicrobial, antimycobecterial, antitumour, antiviral and antitubercular activities. 1,3,4-oxadiazoles constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. Therefore, many researchers have synthesized these compounds as target structures and evaluated their biological activities. These observations led to the development of new 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives. This review article describes the various biological activities associated with 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring system and is useful in guiding the researchers across the world working on this moiety and consequently have been instrumental in the advancement of 1,3,4-oxadiazole chemistry.

  16. Biological activities of phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Cicerale, Sara; Lucas, Lisa; Keast, Russell

    2010-02-02

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a traditional Mediterranean diet. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, antimicrobial activity and bone health. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the bioavailability and biological activities of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  17. Protein stability and enzyme activity at extreme biological temperatures.

    PubMed

    Feller, Georges

    2010-08-18

    Psychrophilic microorganisms thrive in permanently cold environments, even at subzero temperatures. To maintain metabolic rates compatible with sustained life, they have improved the dynamics of their protein structures, thereby enabling appropriate molecular motions required for biological activity at low temperatures. As a consequence of this structural flexibility, psychrophilic proteins are unstable and heat-labile. In the upper range of biological temperatures, thermophiles and hyperthermophiles grow at temperatures > 100 °C and synthesize ultra-stable proteins. However, thermophilic enzymes are nearly inactive at room temperature as a result of their compactness and rigidity. At the molecular level, both types of extremophilic proteins have adapted the same structural factors, but in opposite directions, to address either activity at low temperatures or stability in hot environments. A model based on folding funnels is proposed accounting for the stability-activity relationships in extremophilic proteins.

  18. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Oxadiazole Derivatives: A Review.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Ankur; Jain, Shweta; Jain, Priyanka; Jain, Prachi; Tiwari, Nidhi; Jain, Roshni; Jain, Rashi; Jain, Abhishek K; Agrawal, Ram K

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been wide interest in compounds containing the oxadiazole scaffold because of their unique chemical structure and their broad spectrum of biological properties. This review provides readers with an overview of the main synthetic methodologies for oxadiazoles and of their broad spectrum of pharmacological activities such as, anti-microbial, anti-fungal activity, antiviral, anti-tubercular, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant, anti-angiogenic, anti-proliferative, analgesic, anti-oedema and in alzheimer activity, which were reported over the past years.

  19. Biological Ice Nucleation Activity in Cloud Water (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delort, A.

    2013-12-01

    Ice nucleation active (INA) biological particles, in particular microorganisms, were studied in cloud water. Twelve cloud samples were collected over a period of 16 months from the puy de Dôme summit (1465 m, France) using sterile cloud droplet impactors. The samples were characterized through biological (cultures, cell counts) and physico-chemical measurements (pH, ion concentrations, carbon content...), and biological ice nuclei were investigated by droplet-freezing assays from -3°C to -13°C. The concentration of total INA particles within this temperature range typically varied from ~1 to ~100 per mL of cloud water; the concentrations of biological IN were several orders of magnitude higher than the values previously reported for precipitations. At -12°C, at least 76% of the IN were biological in origin, i.e. they were inactivated by heating at 95°C, and at temperatures above -8°C only biological material could induce ice. By culture, 44 Pseudomonas-like strains of bacteria were isolated from cloud water samples; 16% of them were found INA at the temperature of -8°C and they were identified as Pseudomonas syringae, Xanthomonas sp. and Pseudoxanthomonas sp.. Two strains induced freezing at as warm as -2°C, positioning them among the most active ice nucleators described so far. We estimated that, in average, 0.18% and more than 1%.of the bacterial cells present in clouds (~104 mL-1) are INA at the temperatures of -8°C and -12°C, respectively.

  20. Models to support active sensing of biological aerosol clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Andrea M.; Kalter, Jeffrey M.; Corson, Elizabeth C.; Chaudhry, Zahra; Boggs, Nathan T.; Brown, David M.; Thomas, Michael E.; Carter, Christopher C.

    2013-05-01

    Elastic backscatter LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) is a promising approach for stand-off detection of biological aerosol clouds. Comprehensive models that explain the scattering behavior from the aerosol cloud are needed to understand and predict the scattering signatures of biological aerosols under varying atmospheric conditions and against different aerosol backgrounds. Elastic signatures are dependent on many parameters of the aerosol cloud, with two major components being the size distribution and refractive index of the aerosols. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has been in a unique position to measure the size distributions of released biological simulant clouds using a wide assortment of aerosol characterization systems that are available on the commercial market. In conjunction with the size distribution measurements, JHU/APL has also been making a dedicated effort to properly measure the refractive indices of the released materials using a thin-film absorption technique and laboratory characterization of the released materials. Intimate knowledge of the size distributions and refractive indices of the biological aerosols provides JHU/APL with powerful tools to build elastic scattering models, with the purpose of understanding, and ultimately, predicting the active signatures of biological clouds.

  1. Biological activities of xanthatin from Xanthium strumarium leaves.

    PubMed

    Nibret, Endalkachew; Youns, Mahamoud; Krauth-Siegel, R Luise; Wink, Michael

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the biological activities of the major bioactive compound, xanthatin, and other compounds from Xanthium strumarium (Asteraceae) leaves. Inhibition of bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and leukaemia HL-60 cell proliferation was assessed using resazurin as a vital stain. Xanthatin was found to be the major and most active compound against T. b. brucei with an IC(50) value of 2.63 µg/mL and a selectivity index of 20. The possible mode of action of xanthatin was further evaluated. Xanthatin showed antiinflammatory activity by inhibiting both PGE(2) synthesis (24% inhibition) and 5-lipoxygenase activity (92% inhibition) at concentrations of 100 µg/mL and 97 µg/mL, respectively. Xanthatin exhibited weak irreversible inhibition of parasite specific trypanothione reductase. Unlike xanthatin, diminazene aceturate and ethidium bromide showed strong DNA intercalation with IC(50) values of 26.04 µg/mL and 44.70 µg/mL, respectively. Substantial induction of caspase 3/7 activity in MIA PaCa-2 cells was observed after 6 h of treatment with 100 µg/mL of xanthatin. All these data taken together suggest that xanthatin exerts its biological activity by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting both PGE(2) synthesis and 5-lipoxygenase activity thereby avoiding unwanted inflammation commonly observed in diseases such as trypanosomiasis.

  2. Mars Exploration Rover Operations with the Science Activity Planner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffrey S. Norris; Powell, Mark W.; Vona, Marsette A.; Backes, Paul G.; Wick, Justin V.

    2005-01-01

    The Science Activity Planner (SAP) is the primary science operations tool for the Mars Exploration Rover mission and NASA's Software of the Year for 2004. SAP utilizes a variety of visualization and planning capabilities to enable the mission operations team to direct the activities of the Spirit and Opportunity rovers. This paper outlines some of the challenging requirements that drove the design of SAP and discusses lessons learned from the development and use of SAP in mission operations.

  3. Milk kefir: composition, microbial cultures, biological activities, and related products

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Maria R.; Blandón, Lina Marcela; Vandenberghe, Luciana P. S.; Rodrigues, Cristine; Castro, Guillermo R.; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir’s exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir’s microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance. PMID:26579086

  4. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.)

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekar, V; Rao, E Upender; P, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    Bada Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.) is perhaps the most useful traditional medicinal plant in India. Each part of the neem tree has some medicinal property and is thus commercially exploitable. During the last five decades, apart from the chemistry of the Pedalium murex compounds, considerable progress has been achieved regarding the biological activity and medicinal applications of this plant. It is now considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. This review gives a bird's eye view mainly on the biological activities of some of this compounds isolated, pharmacological actions of the extracts, clinical studies and plausible medicinal applications of gokharu along with their safety evaluation. PMID:23569975

  5. Removal of Biologically Active Organic Contaminants using Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Banks, Michael A. (Inventor); Banks, Eric B. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Biomedical devices that are to come into contact with living tissue, such as prosthetic and other implants for the human body and the containers used to store and transport them, are together cleaned of non-living, but biologically active organic materials, including endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharides, and assembled into a hermetically sealed package without recontamination. This is achieved by cleaning both the device and package components together in an apparatus, which includes a hermetically sealed chamber, in which they are contacted with atomic oxygen which biocleans them, by oxidizing the biologically active organic materials. The apparatus also includes means for manipulating the device and container and hermetically sealing the cleaned device into the cleaned container to form the package. A calibrated witness coupon visually indicates whether or not the device and container have received enough exposure to the atomic oxygen to have removed the organic materials from their surfaces. Gamma radiation is then used to sterilize the device in the sealed container.

  6. [New selen-organic biologically active nutrition supplement as a palliative for protection against chemical exposure].

    PubMed

    Sanotskiĭ, I V

    2009-01-01

    The article covers data on new biologically active nutrition supplement containing 3 generation selenium compound. The data include biologic effects, pharmacokinetics and usage recommendation for the supplement.

  7. Current status of pyrazole and its biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Naim, Mohd Javed; Alam, Ozair; Nawaz, Farah; Alam, Md. Jahangir; Alam, Perwaiz

    2016-01-01

    Pyrazole are potent medicinal scaffolds and exhibit a full spectrum of biological activities. This review throws light on the detailed synthetic approaches which have been applied for the synthesis of pyrazole. This has been followed by an in depth analysis of the pyrazole with respect to their medical significance. This follow-up may help the medicinal chemists to generate new leads possessing pyrazole nucleus with high efficacy. PMID:26957862

  8. Current status of pyrazole and its biological activities.

    PubMed

    Naim, Mohd Javed; Alam, Ozair; Nawaz, Farah; Alam, Md Jahangir; Alam, Perwaiz

    2016-01-01

    Pyrazole are potent medicinal scaffolds and exhibit a full spectrum of biological activities. This review throws light on the detailed synthetic approaches which have been applied for the synthesis of pyrazole. This has been followed by an in depth analysis of the pyrazole with respect to their medical significance. This follow-up may help the medicinal chemists to generate new leads possessing pyrazole nucleus with high efficacy.

  9. Preparation, characterization and biological activity of C8-substituted cytokinins.

    PubMed

    Zahajská, Lenka; Nisler, Jaroslav; Voller, Jiří; Gucký, Tomáš; Pospíšil, Tomáš; Spíchal, Lukáš; Strnad, Miroslav

    2017-03-01

    Naturally occurring cytokinins are adenine-based plant hormones. Although, the effect of various substituents at positions N1, C2, N3, N(6), N7, or N9 on the biological activity of cytokinins has been studied, the C8-substituted compounds have received little attention. Here, we report the synthesis and in vitro biological testing of thirty-one cytokinin derivatives substituted at the C8 position of the adenine skeleton and twenty-seven compounds which served as their N9-tetrahydropyranyl protected precursors. The cytokinin activity of all the compounds was determined in classical cytokinin biotests (wheat leaf senescence, Amaranthus and tobacco callus assays). With some exceptions, the compounds with a N9-tetrahydropyranyl group were generally less active than their de-protected analogs. The latter were further tested for their ability to activate the Arabidopsis cytokinin receptors AHK3 and CRE1/AHK4 in bacterial receptor activation assays. Using this approach, we identified derivatives bearing short aliphatic chains and retaining high cytokinin activity. Such compounds are suitable candidates for fluorescence labeling or as protein-affinity ligands. We further found that some C8-substituted cytokinins exhibited no or lower cytotoxicity toward tobacco cells when compared to their parent compound. Therefore, we also present and discuss the cytotoxicity of all the compounds against three normal human cell lines.

  10. Myricetin: A Dietary Molecule with Diverse Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Semwal, Ruchi Badoni; Combrinck, Sandra; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2016-02-16

    Myricetin is a common plant-derived flavonoid and is well recognised for its nutraceuticals value. It is one of the key ingredients of various foods and beverages. The compound exhibits a wide range of activities that include strong anti-oxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities. It displays several activities that are related to the central nervous system and numerous studies have suggested that the compound may be beneficial to protect against diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. The use of myricetin as a preserving agent to extend the shelf life of foods containing oils and fats is attributed to the compound's ability to protect lipids against oxidation. A detailed search of existing literature revealed that there is currently no comprehensive review available on this important molecule. Hence, the present work includes the history, synthesis, pharmaceutical applications and toxicity studies of myricetin. This report also highlights structure-activity relationships and mechanisms of action for various biological activities.

  11. Expression of biologically active murine interleukin-18 in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Feizollahzadeh, Sadegh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Rahimmanesh, Ilnaz; Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Mazdak; Andalib, Alireza; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Rezaei, Abbas

    2016-11-01

    The food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis is increasingly used for heterologous protein expression in therapeutic and industrial applications. The ability of L. lactis to secrete biologically active cytokines may be used for the generation of therapeutic cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-18 enhances the immune response, especially on mucosal surfaces, emphasizing its therapeutic potential. However, it is produced as an inactive precursor and has to be enzymatically cleaved for maturation. We genetically manipulated L. lactis to secrete murine IL-18. The mature murine IL-18 gene was inserted downstream of a nisin promoter in pNZ8149 plasmid and the construct was used to transform L. lactis NZ3900. The transformants were selected on Elliker agar and confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing. The expression and secretion of IL-18 protein was verified by SDS-PAGE, western blotting and ELISA. The biological activity of recombinant IL-18 was determined by its ability to induce interferon (IFN)-γ production in L. lactis co-cultured with murine splenic T cells. The amounts of IL-18 in bacterial lysates and supernatants were 3-4 μg mL(-1) and 0.6-0.7 ng mL(-1), respectively. The successfully generated L. lactis strain that expressed biologically active murine IL-18 can be used to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects of IL-18 on mucosal surfaces.

  12. Integrity and Biological Activity of DNA after UV Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Delina Y.; Monier, Jean-Michel; Dupraz, Sébastien; Freissinet, Caroline; Simonet, Pascal; Vogel, Timothy M.

    2010-04-01

    The field of astrobiology lacks a universal marker with which to indicate the presence of life. This study supports the proposal to use nucleic acids, specifically DNA, as a signature of life (biosignature). In addition to its specificity to living organisms, DNA is a functional molecule that can confer new activities and characteristics to other organisms, following the molecular biology dogma, that is, DNA is transcribed to RNA, which is translated into proteins. Previous criticisms of the use of DNA as a biosignature have asserted that DNA molecules would be destroyed by UV radiation in space. To address this concern, DNA in plasmid form was deposited onto different surfaces and exposed to UVC radiation. The surviving DNA was quantified via the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results demonstrate increased survivability of DNA attached to surfaces versus non-adsorbed DNA. The DNA was also tested for biological activity via transformation into the bacterium Acinetobacter sp. and assaying for antibiotic resistance conferred by genes encoded by the plasmid. The success of these methods to detect DNA and its gene products after UV exposure (254 nm, 3.5 J/m2s) not only supports the use of the DNA molecule as a biosignature on mineral surfaces but also demonstrates that the DNA retained biological activity.

  13. [Experimental research on combined water and air backwashing reactor technology for biological activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhi-Gang; Qiu, Xue-Min; Zhao, Yan-Ling

    2012-01-01

    To proper control the backwashing process of biological activated carbon (BAC) reactor and improve the overall operation performance, the evaluative indexes such as backwashing wastewater turbidity, organic pollutants removal rate of pre and post-backwashing, and the variation of biomass and biological activity in carbon column are used to compare and analyze the effect of three different combined water and air backwashing methods on the operation of BAC reactor. The result shows that intermittent combined water and air backwashing method is most suitable to BAC reactor. The biological activaty obviously increases by 62.5% after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process. While, the biological activaty using the backwashing method of air plus water and the backwashing method of water and air compounded plus water washing increases by 55.6%, 38.5%, respectively. After backwashing 308h, the reactor recovered to its normal function after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process with the removal rate of UV254 reaching to 60.0%. The fulvic-like fluorescence peak of backwashing water are very weak, and are characterized by low-excitation wavelength tryptophan like (peak S) and high excitation wavelength of tryptophan (peak T), which are caused by the microbial debris washed down. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectra also show that microbial fragments are easy to be washed clean with intermittent combined water and air backwashing.

  14. Distribution and biological activities of the flavonoid luteolin.

    PubMed

    López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that flavonoids may play an important role in the decreased risk of chronic diseases associated with a diet rich in plant-derived foods. Flavonoids are also common constituents of plants used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of diseases. The purpose of this article is to summarize the distribution and biological activities of one of the most common flavonoids: luteolin. This flavonoid and its glycosides are widely distributed in the plant kingdom; they are present in many plant families and have been identified in Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Pinophyta and Magnoliophyta. Dietary sources of luteolin include, for instance, carrots, peppers, celery, olive oil, peppermint, thyme, rosemary and oregano. Preclinical studies have shown that this flavone possesses a variety of pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The ability of luteolin to inhibit angiogenesis, to induce apoptosis, to prevent carcinogenesis in animal models, to reduce tumor growth in vivo and to sensitize tumor cells to the cytotoxic effects of some anticancer drugs suggests that this flavonoid has cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential. Modulation of ROS levels, inhibition of topoisomerases I and II, reduction of NF-kappaB and AP-1 activity, stabilization of p53, and inhibition of PI3K, STAT3, IGF1R and HER2 are possible mechanisms involved in the biological activities of luteolin.

  15. Chitosan oligosaccharide: Biological activities and potential therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Muanprasat, Chatchai; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj

    2017-02-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) is an oligomer of β-(1➔4)-linked d-glucosamine. COS can be prepared from the deacetylation and hydrolysis of chitin, which is commonly found in the exoskeletons of arthropods and insects and the cell walls of fungi. COS is water soluble, non-cytotoxic, readily absorbed through the intestine and mainly excreted in the urine. Of particular importance, COS and its derivatives have been demonstrated to possess several biological activities including anti-inflammation, immunostimulation, anti-tumor, anti-obesity, anti-hypertension, anti-Alzheimer's disease, tissue regeneration promotion, drug and DNA delivery enhancement, anti-microbial, anti-oxidation and calcium-absorption enhancement. The mechanisms of actions of COS have been found to involve the modulation of several important pathways including the suppression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). This review summarizes the current knowledge of the preparation methods, pharmacokinetic profiles, biological activities, potential therapeutic applications and safety profiles of COS and its derivatives. In addition, future research directions are discussed.

  16. The Chemistry and Biological Activities of Mimosine: A Review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2016-08-01

    Mimosine [β-[N-(3-hydroxy-4-oxypyridyl)]-α-aminopropionic acid] is a non-protein amino acid found in the members of Mimosoideae family. There are a considerable number of reports available on the chemistry, methods for estimation, biosynthesis, regulation, and degradation of this secondary metabolite. On the other hand, over the past years of active research, mimosine has been found to have various biological activities such as anti-cancer, antiinflammation, anti-fibrosis, anti-influenza, anti-virus, herbicidal and insecticidal activities, and others. Mimosine is a leading compound of interest for use in the development of RAC/CDC42-activated kinase 1 (PAK1)-specific inhibitors for the treatment of various diseases/disorders, because PAK1 is not essential for the growth of normal cells. Interestingly, the new roles of mimosine in malignant glioma treatment, regenerative dentistry, and phytoremediation are being emerged. These identified properties indicate an exciting future for this amino acid. The present review is focused on the chemistry and recognized biological activities of mimosine in an attempt to draw a link between these two characteristics. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Chemistry, biological activity, and uses of formamidine pesticides.

    PubMed Central

    Hollingworth, R M

    1976-01-01

    The formamidines, a relatively new group of acaricide-insecticides, are novel both in their range of biological activities and in their mode of action, which is presently unknown. This paper is a review of the historical development, properties, structures, uses, and chemistry of this group of pesticides, with particular emphasis on chlordimeform (Galecron or Fundal), N'-4-chloro-o-tolyl-N,N-dimethylformamidine, and amitraz, 1,3=di-(2,4-dimethylphenylimino)-2-methyl-2-azapropane. Their biological activity and uses are defined by their toxicity to spider mites, ticks, and certain insects, and they are particularly effective against juvenile and resistant forms of these organisms. A significant, but poorly understood feature of their field effectiveness is their breadth of toxic action which includes direct lethality, excitant-repellant behavioral effects, and chemosterilization. They are generally of low hazard for nontarget species with the significant exception of predaceous mites. Several aspects of the chemistry of these compounds are considered, including structure--activity relations, synthetic pathways, isomerism and configuration, and their chemical and environmental stability. A significant feature of the metabolism and toxicity of these agents is the possible activation of chlordimeform by N-demethylation in vivo. Strong evidence for this has been presented with the cattle tick, but recent results discussed here suggest that in other species, i.e., mice, German cockroaches or black cutworm eggs, N-demethylation is neither a strong activation nor a detoxication reaction. PMID:789070

  18. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil.

    PubMed

    Servili, Maurizio; Sordini, Beatrice; Esposto, Sonia; Urbani, Stefania; Veneziani, Gianluca; Di Maio, Ilona; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese

    2013-12-20

    Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  19. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    PubMed Central

    Servili, Maurizio; Sordini, Beatrice; Esposto, Sonia; Urbani, Stefania; Veneziani, Gianluca; Maio, Ilona Di; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life. PMID:26784660

  20. Controlled Release of Biologically Active Silver from Nanosilver Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingyu; Sonshine, David A.; Shervani, Saira; Hurt, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Major pathways in the antibacterial activity and eukaryotic toxicity of nano-silver involve the silver cation and its soluble complexes, which are well established thiol toxicants. Through these pathways, nano-silver behaves in analogy to a drug delivery system, in which the particle contains a concentrated inventory of an active species, the ion, which is transported to and released near biological target sites. Although the importance of silver ion in the biological response to nano-silver is widely recognized, the drug delivery paradigm has not been well developed for this system, and there is significant potential to improve nano-silver technologies through controlled release formulations. This article applies elements of the drug delivery paradigm to nano-silver dissolution and presents a systematic study of chemical concepts for controlled release. After presenting thermodynamic calculations of silver species partitioning in biological media, the rates of oxidative silver dissolution are measured for nanoparticles and macroscopic foils and used to derive unified area-based release kinetics. A variety of competing chemical approaches are demonstrated for controlling the ion release rate over four orders of magnitude. Release can be systematically slowed by thiol and citrate ligand binding, formation of sulfidic coatings, or the scavenging of peroxy-intermediates. Release can be accelerated by pre-oxidation or particle size reduction, while polymer coatings with complexation sites alter the release profile by storing and release inventories of surface-bound silver. Finally, the ability to tune biological activity is demonstrated through bacterial inhibition zone assay carried out on selected formulations of controlled release nano-silver. PMID:20968290

  1. Isoleukotrienes are biologically active free radical products of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Harrison, K A; Murphy, R C

    1995-07-21

    The free radical oxidation of arachidonic acid esterified to glycerophospholipids is known to generate complex metabolites, termed isoprostanes, that share structural features of prostaglandins derived from prostaglandin H2 synthase. Furthermore, certain isoprostanes have been found to exert biological activity through endogenous receptors on cell surfaces. Using mass spectrometry and ancillary techniques, the free radical oxidation of 1-hexadecanoyl-2-arachidonoyl-glycerophosphocholine was studied in the search for products of arachidonic acid isomeric to the leukotrienes that are derived from 5-lipoxygenase-catalyzed metabolism of arachidonic acid. Several conjugated triene metabolites were chromatographically separated from known 5-lipoxygenase products and structures characterized as 5,12-dihydroxy-6,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid esterified to the glycerophosphocholine backbone. We have termed these products as B4-isoleukotrienes. Following saponification some, but not all, B4-isoleukotrienes were found to exert biological activity in elevating intracellular calcium in Indo-1-loaded human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This activity could be blocked by a leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist. An EC50 of approximately 30 nM was determined for one unique B4-isoleukotriene with a relative retention index of 2.54. We have shown that free radical processes can lead to the formation of biologically active isoleukotrienes in glycerophosphocholine liposomes, and we propose that B4-isoleukotrienes may also be formed in membrane glycerophospholipids as a result of lipid peroxidation during tissue injury. Such B4-isoleukotrienes could then mediate events of tissue damage through activation of leukotriene B4 receptors on target cells.

  2. Multivariate neural network operators with sigmoidal activation functions.

    PubMed

    Costarelli, Danilo; Spigler, Renato

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we study pointwise and uniform convergence, as well as order of approximation, of a family of linear positive multivariate neural network (NN) operators with sigmoidal activation functions. The order of approximation is studied for functions belonging to suitable Lipschitz classes and using a moment-type approach. The special cases of NN operators, activated by logistic, hyperbolic tangent, and ramp sigmoidal functions are considered. Multivariate NNs approximation finds applications, typically, in neurocomputing processes. Our approach to NN operators allows us to extend previous convergence results and, in some cases, to improve the order of approximation. The case of multivariate quasi-interpolation operators constructed with sigmoidal functions is also considered.

  3. Biological activities of water-soluble fullerene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, S.; Mashino, T.

    2009-04-01

    Three types of water-soluble fullerene derivatives were synthesized and their biological activities were investigated. C60-dimalonic acid, an anionic fullerene derivative, showed antioxidant activity such as quenching of superoxide and relief from growth inhibition of E. coli by paraquat. C60-bis(7V,7V-dimethylpyrrolidinium iodide), a cationic fullerene derivative, has antibacterial activity and antiproliferative effect on cancer cell lines. The mechanism is suggested to be respiratory chain inhibition by reactive oxygen species produced by the cationic fullerene derivative. Proline-type fullerene derivatives showed strong inhibition activities on HIV-reverse transcriptase. The IC50 values were remarkably lower than nevirapine, a clinically used anti-HIV drug. Fullerene derivatives have a big potential for a new type of lead compound to be used as medicine.

  4. [Influence of biological activated carbon dosage on landfill leachate treatment].

    PubMed

    Cui, Yan-Rui; Guo, Yan; Wu, Qing

    2014-08-01

    Effects of biological activated carbon (BAC) dosage on COD removal in landfill leachate treatment were compared. The COD removal efficiency of reactors with 0, 100 and 300 g activated carbon dosage per litre activated sludge was 12.9%, 19.6% and 27.7%, respectively. The results indicated that BAC improved the refractory organic matter removal efficiency and there was a positive correlation between COD removal efficiency and BAC dosage. The output of carbon dioxide after 8h of aeration in reactors was 109, 193 and 306 mg corresponding to the activated carbon dosages mentioned above, which indicated the amount of biodegradation and BAC dosage also had a positive correlation. The combination of adsorption and bioregeneration of BAC resulted in the positive correlation betweem organic matter removal efficiency and BAC dosage, and bioregeneration was the root cause for the microbial decomposition of refractory organics.

  5. Physical activity and cancer prevention: etiologic evidence and biological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Friedenreich, Christine M; Orenstein, Marla R

    2002-11-01

    Scientific evidence is accumulating on physical activity as a means for the primary prevention of cancer. Nearly 170 observational epidemiologic studies of physical activity and cancer risk at a number of specific cancer sites have been conducted. The evidence for decreased risk with increased physical activity is classified as convincing for breast and colon cancers, probable for prostate cancer, possible for lung and endometrial cancers and insufficient for cancers at all other sites. Despite the large number of studies conducted on physical activity and cancer, most have been hampered by incomplete assessment of physical activity and a lack of full examination of effect modification and confounding. Several plausible hypothesized biological mechanisms exist for the association between physical activity and cancer, including changes in endogenous sexual and metabolic hormone levels and growth factors, decreased obesity and central adiposity and possibly changes in immune function. Weight control may play a particularly important role because links between excess weight and increased cancer risk have been established for several sites, and central adiposity has been particularly implicated in promoting metabolic conditions amenable to carcinogenesis. Based on existing evidence, some public health organizations have issued physical activity guidelines for cancer prevention, generally recommending at least 30 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity on > or =5 d/wk. Although most research has focused on the efficacy of physical activity in cancer prevention, evidence is increasing that exercise also influences other aspects of the cancer experience, including cancer detection, coping, rehabilitation and survival after diagnosis.

  6. Natural products as a resource for biologically active compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Hanke, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate various sources of biologically active natural products in an effort to identify the active pesticidal compounds involved. The study is divided into several parts. Chapter 1 contains a discussion of several new compounds from plant and animal sources. Chapter 2 introduces a new NMR technique. In section 2.1 a new technique for better utilizing the lanthanide relaxation agent Gd(fod)/sub 3/ is presented which allows the predictable removal of resonances without line broadening. Section 2.2 discusses a variation of this technique for use in an aqueous solvent by applying this technique towards identifying the binding sites of metals of biological interest. Section 2.3 presents an unambiguous /sup 13/C NMR assignment of melibiose. Chapter 3 deals with work relating to the molting hormone of most arthropods, 20-hydroxyecdysone. Section 3.1 discusses the use of two-dimensional NMR (2D NMR) to assign the /sup 1/H NMR spectrum of this biologically important compound. Section 3.2 presents a new application for Droplet countercurrent chromatography (DCCC). Chapter 4 presents a basic improvement to the commercial DCCC instrument that is currently being applied to future commercial instruments. Chapter 5 discusses a curious observation of the effects that two previously known compounds, nagilactone C and (-)-epicatechin, have on lettuce and rice and suggest a possible new role for the ubiquitous flavanol (-)-epicatechin in plants.

  7. Towards biologically active self-assemblies: model nucleotide chimeras.

    PubMed

    Vebert-Nardin, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    With this article, we wish to give an overview of our main research activities assessing the potential of a suitable polymer modification of DNA fragments to self-assemble biologically active nanostructures. Specifically, the grafting of a hydrophobic polymer segment on DNA fragments results in amphiphilic nucleotide-based macromolecules, which, owing to both chemical and physical incompatibility, organize in self-assembled structures either on surfaces or in aqueous solution. Through the combination of the existing know-how in polymer chemistry with modern analytical techniques, we are currently focusing on establishing the mechanism of self-assembly of the polymer-modified nucleotide sequences in solution and on surfaces prior to the assessment of their hybridization capacity once involved in the ensemble. With the evaluation of the potential of the functional nanostructures to undergo biological-like adhesion through hybridization one can eventually foresee that the optimal functionality of these bio-inspired systems could be fine-tuned for biological applications such as drug delivery, gene therapy, tissue engineering and the design of either biomedical devices or biosensors.

  8. [Histidine triad protein superfamily--biological function and enzymatic activity].

    PubMed

    Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Fryc, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    The HIT superfamily consists of proteins that share the histidine triad motif, His-X-His-X-His-X-X (where X is a hydrophobic amino acid), which constitutes enzymatic catalytic center. These enzymes act as nucleotidylyl hydrolase or transferase, and the mutation of the second histidine in the triad abolishes their activity. HIT proteins were found ubiquitous in all organisms and they were classified into 5 branches, which are represented by human proteins: HINT1, FHIT, Aprataxin, GALT and DCPS. Because HINT1 orthologs, which belong to the evolutionally oldest family branch, were found from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, it is clear that HIT motif was conserved during the evolution what means that the enzymatic activity is necessary for functions of these proteins. However, in few cases, e.g. HINT1 and FHIT, the connection between the biological function and the enzymatic activity is still obscure. In this review, the relations between biology and activity for 7 HIT proteins, which were found in human, are highlighted.

  9. Biologically Active Metabolites Produced by the Basidiomycete Quambalaria cyanescens

    PubMed Central

    Stodůlková, Eva; Císařová, Ivana; Kolařík, Miroslav; Chudíčková, Milada; Novák, Petr; Man, Petr; Kuzma, Marek; Pavlů, Barbora; Černý, Jan; Flieger, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Four strains of the fungus Quambalaria cyanescens (Basidiomycota: Microstromatales), were used for the determination of secondary metabolites production and their antimicrobial and biological activities. A new naphthoquinone named quambalarine A, (S)-(+)-3-(5-ethyl-tetrahydrofuran-2-yliden)-5,7,8-trihydroxy-2-oxo-1,4-naphthoquinone (1), together with two known naphthoquinones, 3-hexanoyl-2,5,7,8-tetrahydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (named here as quambalarine B, 2) and mompain, 2,5,7,8-tetrahydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (3) were isolated. Their structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction crystallography, NMR and MS spectrometry. Quambalarine A (1) had a broad antifungal and antibacterial activity and is able inhibit growth of human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and fungi co-occurring with Q. cyanescens in bark beetle galleries including insect pathogenic species Beauveria bassiana. Quambalarine B (2) was active against several fungi and mompain mainly against bacteria. The biological activity against human-derived cell lines was selective towards mitochondria (2 and 3); after long-term incubation with 2, mitochondria were undetectable using a mitochondrial probe. A similar effect on mitochondria was observed also for environmental competitors of Q. cyanescens from the genus Geosmithia. PMID:25723150

  10. Ion exchange defines the biological activity of titanate nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Rónavári, Andrea; Kovács, Dávid; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Kónya, Zoltán; Kiricsi, Mónika; Pfeiffer, Ilona

    2016-05-01

    One-dimensional titanate nanotubes (TiONTs) were subjected to systematic ion exchange to determine the impact of these modifications on biological activities. Ion exchanged TiONTs (with Ag, Mg, Bi, Sb, Ca, K, Sr, Fe, and Cu ions) were successfully synthesized and the presence of the substituted ions was verified by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). A complex screening was carried out to reveal differences in toxicity to human cells, as well as in antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities between the various modified nanotubes. Our results demonstrated that Ag ion exchanged TiONTs exerted potent antibacterial and antifungal effects against all examined microbial species but were ineffective on viruses. Surprisingly, the antibacterial activity of Cu/TiONTs was restricted to Micrococcus luteus. Most ion exchanged TiONTs did not show antimicrobial activity against the tested bacterial and fungal species. Incorporation of various ions into nanotube architectures lead to mild, moderate, or even to a massive loss of human cell viability; therefore, this type of biological effect exerted by TiONTs can be greatly modulated by ion exchange. These findings further emphasize the contribution of ion exchange in determining not only the physical and chemical characteristics but also the bioactivity of TiONT against different types of living cells.

  11. Application of activation techniques to biological analysis. [813 references

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, H.J.M.

    1981-12-01

    Applications of activation analysis in the biological sciences are reviewed for the period of 1970 to 1979. The stages and characteristics of activation analysis are described, and its advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Most applications involve activation by thermal neutrons followed by either radiochemical or instrumental determination. Relatively little use has been made of activation by fast neutrons, photons, or charged particles. In vivo analyses are included, but those based on prompt gamma or x-ray emission are not. Major applications include studies of reference materials, and the elemental analysis of plants, marine biota, animal and human tissues, diets, and excreta. Relatively little use of it has been made in biochemistry, microbiology, and entomology, but it has become important in toxicology and environmental science. The elements most often determined are Ag, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, and Zn, while few or no determinations of B, Be, Bi, Ga, Gd, Ge, H, In, Ir, Li, Nd, Os, Pd, Pr, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Te, Tl, or Y have been made in biological materials.

  12. Mutant p53: Multiple Mechanisms Define Biologic Activity in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Michael Paul; Zhang, Yun; Lozano, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    The functional importance of p53 as a tumor suppressor gene is evident through its pervasiveness in cancer biology. The p53 gene is the most commonly altered gene in human cancer; however, not all genetic alterations are biologically equivalent. The majority of alterations involve p53 missense mutations that result in the production of mutant p53 proteins. Such mutant p53 proteins lack normal p53 function and may concomitantly gain novel functions, often with deleterious effects. Here, we review characterized mechanisms of mutant p53 gain of function in various model systems. In addition, we review mutant p53 addiction as emerging evidence suggests that tumors may depend on sustained mutant p53 activity for continued growth. We also discuss the role of p53 in stromal elements and their contribution to tumor initiation and progression. Lastly, current genetic mouse models of mutant p53 in various organ systems are reviewed and their limitations discussed. PMID:26618142

  13. Inhibitors of Angiogenesis in Cancer Therapy - Synthesis and Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Gensicka, Monika; Głowacka, Agnieszka; Dzierzbicka, Krystyna; Cholewinski, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of formation of new capillaries from preexisting blood vessels. Angiogenesis is involved in normal physiological processes, and plays an important role in tumor invasion and development of metastases. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in angiogenesis. VEGF is a mitogen for vascular endothelial cells and stimulates their proliferation. By inhibiting the biological activity of VEGF, and then signal cascades with neutralizing VEGF antibodies and signal inhibitors, may negatively regulate the growth and metastasis. Anti-angiogenesis therapy is less toxic than chemotherapy. Angiogenesis is a multistep and multifactorial process, and therefore, can be blocked at different levels. In this review article, the authors present the synthesis of novel inhibitors of angiogenesis, together with the results of biological tests in vitro, and in some cases, state trials.

  14. Mutant p53: Multiple Mechanisms Define Biologic Activity in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Michael Paul; Zhang, Yun; Lozano, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    The functional importance of p53 as a tumor suppressor gene is evident through its pervasiveness in cancer biology. The p53 gene is the most commonly altered gene in human cancer; however, not all genetic alterations are biologically equivalent. The majority of alterations involve p53 missense mutations that result in the production of mutant p53 proteins. Such mutant p53 proteins lack normal p53 function and may concomitantly gain novel functions, often with deleterious effects. Here, we review characterized mechanisms of mutant p53 gain of function in various model systems. In addition, we review mutant p53 addiction as emerging evidence suggests that tumors may depend on sustained mutant p53 activity for continued growth. We also discuss the role of p53 in stromal elements and their contribution to tumor initiation and progression. Lastly, current genetic mouse models of mutant p53 in various organ systems are reviewed and their limitations discussed.

  15. Soil biological activity at European scale - two calculation concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Janine; Rühlmann, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    The CATCH-C project aims to identify and improve the farm-compatibility of Soil Management Practices including to promote productivity, climate change mitigation and soil quality. The focus of this work concentrates on turnover conditions for soil organic matter (SOM). SOM is fundamental for the maintenance of quality and functions of soils while SOM storage is attributed a great importance in terms of climate change mitigation. The turnover conditions depend on soil biological activity characterized by climate and soil properties. To assess the turnover conditions two model concepts are applied: (I) Biological active time (BAT) regression approach derived from CANDY model (Franko & Oelschlägel 1995) expresses the variation of air temperature, precipitation and soil texture as a timescale and an indicator of biological activity for soil organic matter (SOM) turnover. (II) Re_clim parameter within the Introductory Carbon Balance Model (Andrén & Kätterer 1997) states the soil temperature and soil water to estimate soil biological activity. The modelling includes two strategies to cover the European scale and conditions. BAT was calculated on a 20x20 km grid basis. The European data sets of precipitation and air temperature (time period 1901-2000, monthly resolution), (Mitchell et al. 2004) were used to derive long-term averages. As we focus on agricultural areas we included CORINE data (2006) to extract arable land. The resulting BATs under co-consideration of the main soil textures (clay, silt, sand and loam) were investigated per environmental zone (ENZs, Metzger et al. 2005) that represents similar conditions for precipitation, temperature and relief to identify BAT ranges and hence turnover conditions for each ENZ. Re_clim was quantified by climatic time series of more than 250 weather stations across Europe presented by Klein Tank et al. (2002). Daily temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (maximal thermal extent) were used to calculate

  16. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyano, Yuki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2016-08-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous two-dimensional fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it was shown [A. S. Mikhailov and R. Kapral, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015), 10.1073/pnas.1506825112] that such active proteins should induce nonthermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxislike drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them.

  17. Biological Activity Predictions and Hydrogen Bonding Analysis in Quinolines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Palvi; Kamni

    The paper has been designed to make a comprehensive review of a particular series of organic molecular assembly in the form of compendium. An overview of general description of fifteen quinoline derivatives has been given. The biological activity spectra of quinoline derivatives have been correlated on structure activity relationships base which provides the different Pa (possibility of activity) and Pi (possibility of inactivity) values. Expositions of the role of intermolecular interactions in the identified derivatives have been discussed with the standard distance and angle cut-off criteria criteria as proposed by Desiraju and Steiner (1999) in an International monogram on crystallography. Distance-angle scatter plots for intermolecular interactions are presented for a better understanding of the packing interactions which exist in quinoline derivatives.

  18. CANTHARELLUS CIBARIUS - CULINARY-MEDICINAL MUSHROOM CONTENT AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY.

    PubMed

    Muszyńska, Bozena; Kała, Katarzyna; Firlej, Anna; Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    One of the most frequently harvested mushrooms in Polish forests is Yellow chanterelle (chanterelle) - Cantharellus cibarius Fr. from the Cantharellaceae family. Chanterelle is an ectomycorrhizal mushroom occurring in Poland. Chanterelle lives in symbiosis with pine, spruce, oak and hombeam. In cookery, chanterelle is appreciated because of the aroma, taste, firmness and crunchiness of its fruiting bodies. Wild edible mushrooms are widely consumed in Asia, Western Europe and Central America. Chanterelle contains a great number of carbohydrates and proteins and a low amount of fat. Actual review presents the main groups of physiologically active primary and secondary metabolites in the fruiting bodies of chanterelle such as indole and phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, fatty acids, proteins, free amino acids, sterols, carotenoids, enzymes, vitamins and elements with biological activity. The presence of these compounds and elements conditions the nutrient and therapeutic activity of chanterelle, e.g., immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antimicrobial and antigenotoxic properties.

  19. Biological activities of aqueous extract from Cinnamomum porrectum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah, H. Siti; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate biological activities of an extract obtained from Cinnamomum porrectum under reflux using water. Aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was tested for antibacterial activity against six Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria as well as MRSA. The results confirmed that the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was bactericidal. Cytotoxic tests on Vero cell culture revealed that Cinnamomum porrectum was non-toxic which IC50 value higher than 0.02 mg/mL. Antiviral activity was tested based on the above IC50 values together with the measured EC50 values to obtain Therapeutic Index. The result showed that Cinnamomum porrectum has the ability to inhibit viral replication of HSV-1 in Vero cells.

  20. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae) Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Souza, Lucèia Fàtima; Caputo, Lucia; Inchausti De Barros, Ingrid Bergman; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-09-03

    The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL) and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g). The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY) expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  1. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae) Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Lucèia Fàtima; Caputo, Lucia; Inchausti De Barros, Ingrid Bergman; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL) and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g). The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY) expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression. PMID:27598154

  2. Gynura procumbens: An Overview of the Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui-Li; Chan, Kok-Gan; Pusparajah, Priyia; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. (Family Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant commonly found in tropical Asia countries such as China, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam. Traditionally, it is widely used in many different countries for the treatment of a wide variety of health ailments such as kidney discomfort, rheumatism, diabetes mellitus, constipation, and hypertension. Based on the traditional uses of G. procumbens, it seems to possess high therapeutic potential for treatment of various diseases making it a target for pharmacological studies aiming to validate and provide scientific evidence for the traditional claims of its efficacy. Although there has been considerable progress in the research on G. procumbens, to date there is no review paper gathering the reported biological activities of G. procumbens. Hence, this review aims to provide an overview of the biological activities of G. procumbens based on reported in vitro and in vivo studies. In brief, G. procumbens has been reported to exhibit antihypertensive, cardioprotective, antihyperglycemic, fertility enhancement, anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, organ protective, and antiinflammatory activity. The commercial applications of G. procumbens have also been summarized in this paper based on existing patents. The data compiled illustrate that G. procumbens is a potential natural source of compounds with various pharmacological actions which can be utilized for the development of novel therapeutic agents. PMID:27014066

  3. Propolis volatile compounds: chemical diversity and biological activity: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Propolis is a sticky material collected by bees from plants, and used in the hive as building material and defensive substance. It has been popular as a remedy in Europe since ancient times. Nowadays, propolis use in over-the-counter preparations, “bio”-cosmetics and functional foods, etc., increases. Volatile compounds are found in low concentrations in propolis, but their aroma and significant biological activity make them important for propolis characterisation. Propolis is a plant-derived product: its chemical composition depends on the local flora at the site of collection, thus it offers a significant chemical diversity. The role of propolis volatiles in identification of its plant origin is discussed. The available data about chemical composition of propolis volatiles from different geographic regions are reviewed, demonstrating significant chemical variability. The contribution of volatiles and their constituents to the biological activities of propolis is considered. Future perspectives in research on propolis volatiles are outlined, especially in studying activities other than antimicrobial. PMID:24812573

  4. Isolation of biologically-active exosomes from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Muller, Laurent; Hong, Chang-Sook; Stolz, Donna B; Watkins, Simon C; Whiteside, Theresa L

    2014-09-01

    Effects of exosomes present in human plasma on immune cells have not been examined in detail. Immunological studies with plasma-derived exosomes require their isolation by procedures involving ultracentrifugation. These procedures were largely developed using supernatants of cultured cells. To test biologic activities of plasma-derived exosomes, methods are necessary that ensure adequate recovery of exosome fractions free of contaminating larger vesicles, cell fragments and protein/nucleic acid aggregates. Here, an optimized method for exosome isolation from human plasma/serum specimens of normal controls (NC) or cancer patients and its advantages and pitfalls are described. To remove undesirable plasma-contaminating components, ultrafiltration of differentially-centrifuged plasma/serum followed by size-exclusion chromatography prior to ultracentrifugation facilitated the removal of contaminants. Plasma or serum was equally acceptable as a source of exosomes based on the recovered protein levels (in μg protein/mL plasma) and TEM image quality. Centrifugation on sucrose density gradients led to large exosome losses. Fresh plasma was the best source of morphologically-intact exosomes, while the use of frozen/thawed plasma decreased exosome purity but not their biologic activity. Treatments of frozen plasma with DNAse, RNAse or hyaluronidase did not improve exosome purity and are not recommended. Cancer patients' plasma consistently yielded more isolated exosomes than did NCs' plasma. Cancer patients' exosomes also mediated higher immune suppression as evidenced by decreased CD69 expression on responder CD4+ T effector cells. Thus, the described procedure yields biologically-active, morphologically-intact exosomes that have reasonably good purity without large protein losses and can be used for immunological, biomarker and other studies.

  5. Synthesis and biological activity of novel deoxycholic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Popadyuk, Irina I; Markov, Andrey V; Salomatina, Oksana V; Logashenko, Evgeniya B; Shernyukov, Andrey V; Zenkova, Marina A; Salakhutdinov, Nariman F

    2015-08-01

    We report the synthesis and biological activity of new semi-synthetic derivatives of naturally occurring deoxycholic acid (DCA) bearing 2-cyano-3-oxo-1-ene, 3-oxo-1(2)-ene or 3-oxo-4(5)-ene moieties in ring A and 12-oxo or 12-oxo-9(11)-ene moieties in ring C. Bioassays using murine macrophage-like cells and tumour cells show that the presence of the 9(11)-double bond associated with the increased polarity of ring A or with isoxazole ring joined to ring A, improves the ability of the compounds to inhibit cancer cell growth.

  6. Local or distributed activation? The view from biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimers, Mark

    2011-06-01

    There is considerable disagreement among connectionist modellers over whether to represent distinct properties by distinct nodes of a network or whether properties should be represented by patterns of activity across all nodes. This paper draws on the literature of neuroscience to say that a more subtle way of describing how different brain regions contribute to a behaviour, in terms of individual learning and in terms of degrees of importance, may render the current debate moot: both sides of the 'localist' versus 'distributed' debate emphasise different aspects of biology.

  7. A Conceptual Framework for Organizing Active Learning Experiences in Biology Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Joel; Belland, Brian R.

    2012-08-01

    Introductory biology courses form a cornerstone of undergraduate instruction. However, the predominantly used lecture approach fails to produce higher-order biology learning. Research shows that active learning strategies can increase student learning, yet few biology instructors use all identified active learning strategies. In this paper, we present a framework to design biology instruction that incorporates all active learning strategies. We review active learning research in undergraduate biology courses, present a framework for organizing active learning strategies, and provide clear implications and future research for designing instruction in introductory undergraduate biology courses.

  8. Elucidating GPR Response to Biological Activity: Field and Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoflias, G. P.; Schillig, P. C.; McGlashan, M. A.; Roberts, J. A.; Devlin, J. F.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies of the geophysical signatures of biological processes in earth environments have resulted in the emergent field of “biogeophysics”. The ability to monitor remotely and to quantify active biological processes in the subsurface can have transformative implications to a wide range of investigations, including the bioremediation of contaminated sites. Previous studies have demonstrated that ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be used to detect the products of microbial activity in the subsurface, such as changes in bulk electrical conductivity, mineral dissolution and precipitation, and the formation of biogenic gas. We present field and laboratory experiments that offer insights to the response of GPR signals to microbial activity. In the field, time-lapse borehole radar tomography was used to monitor biodegradation of a hydrocarbon plume over a period of two years. A dense grid of fourteen borehole pairs monitoring the bioactive region showed radar wave velocity changes of +/-4% and signal attenuation changes of +/-25%. These GPR observations correlated spatially and temporally to independent measurements of groundwater velocity and geochemical variations that occurred in response to microbial activity. The greatest relative changes in radar wave velocity of propagation and attenuation were observed in the region of enhanced bacterial stimulation where biomass growth was the greatest. Radar wave velocity and attenuation decreased during periods of enhanced biostimulation. Two laboratory experiments were conducted to further assess radar response to biomass growth. The first experiment monitored GPR wave transmission through a water-saturated quartz-sand reactor during the course of enhanced biostimulation. Radar wave velocity initially decreased as a result of bacterial activity and subsequently increased rapidly as biogenic gas formed in the pore space. Radar signal attenuation increased during the course of the experiment as a result of an

  9. A method for operative quantitative interpretation of multispectral images of biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.

    2013-10-01

    A method for operative retrieval of spatial distributions of biophysical parameters of a biological tissue by using a multispectral image of it has been developed. The method is based on multiple regressions between linearly independent components of the diffuse reflection spectrum of the tissue and unknown parameters. Possibilities of the method are illustrated by an example of determining biophysical parameters of the skin (concentrations of melanin, hemoglobin and bilirubin, blood oxygenation, and scattering coefficient of the tissue). Examples of quantitative interpretation of the experimental data are presented.

  10. Enhanced biological activity of carotenoids stabilized by phenyl groups.

    PubMed

    You, Ji Suk; Jeon, Sunhwa; Byun, Youn Jung; Koo, Sangho; Choi, Shin Sik

    2015-06-15

    Carotenoids are lipid soluble food ingredients with multifunction including antioxidant and anticancer activities. However, carotenoids are destructively oxidized upon reaction with radicals resulting in toxic effects on biological systems. Two synthetic carotenoids (BAS and BTS) containing the aromatic phenyl groups with a para-substituent (OMe and Me, respectively) at C-13 and C-13' position were prepared in order to overcome a structural instability of carotenoid. Both BAS and BTS exerted stronger radical scavenging activity than β-carotene in DPPH and ABTS assays. In particular, BTS significantly reduced in vivo ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels and improved body growth and reproduction of Caenorhabditiselegans. BTS has a great potential for the advanced and modified carotenoid material with stability leading to enhanced bioavailability.

  11. Biological activity of lactoferrin-functionalized biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Nocerino, Nunzia; Fulgione, Andrea; Iannaccone, Marco; Tomasetta, Laura; Ianniello, Flora; Martora, Francesca; Lelli, Marco; Roveri, Norberto; Capuano, Federico; Capparelli, Rosanna

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics is a general public health problem. Progress in developing new molecules with antimicrobial properties has been made. In this study, we evaluated the biological activity of a hybrid nanocomposite composed of synthetic biomimetic hydroxyapatite surface-functionalized by lactoferrin (LF-HA). We evaluated the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of LF-HA and found that the composite was active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and that it modulated proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses and enhanced antioxidant properties as compared with LF alone. These results indicate the possibility of using LF-HA as an antimicrobial system and biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a candidate for innovative biomedical applications. PMID:24623976

  12. Rethinking biological activation of methane and conversion to liquid fuels.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Chad A; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    If methane, the main component of natural gas, can be efficiently converted to liquid fuels, world reserves of methane could satisfy the demand for transportation fuels in addition to use in other sectors. However, the direct activation of strong C-H bonds in methane and conversion to desired products remains a difficult technological challenge. This perspective reveals an opportunity to rethink the logic of biological methane activation and conversion to liquid fuels. We formulate a vision for a new foundation for methane bioconversion and suggest paths to develop technologies for the production of liquid transportation fuels from methane at high carbon yield and high energy efficiency and with low CO2 emissions. These technologies could support natural gas bioconversion facilities with a low capital cost and at small scales, which in turn could monetize the use of natural gas resources that are frequently flared, vented or emitted.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of Rhein-cyclodextrin conjugate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Manshuo; Lv, Pin; Liao, Rongqiang; Zhao, Yulin; Yang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Cyclodextrin conjugate complexation is a useful method to enhance the solubility and absorption of poorly soluble drugs. A series of new Rhein-β-cyclodextrin conjugates (Rh-CD conjugates) have been synthesized and examined. Rhein is covalently linked with the β-CD by amido linkage in a 1:1 molar ratio. The conjugates were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HRMS, powder X-ray diffraction (powder XRD) as well as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results reveal that incorporation of β-CD could improve the aqueous solubility of Rhein and the cytotoxicity against hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line as well as antibacterial activity against three organisms. The improved biological activity and the satisfactory water solubility of the conjugates will be potentially useful for developing novel drug-cyclodextrin conjugates, such as herbal medicine.

  14. Chemical Variability and Biological Activities of Eucalyptus spp. Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Luiz Claudio Almeida; Filomeno, Claudinei Andrade; Teixeira, Robson Ricardo

    2016-12-07

    Many plant species produce mixtures of odorous and volatile compounds known as essential oils (EOs). These mixtures play important roles in Nature and have been utilized by mankind for different purposes, such as pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, aromatherapy, and food flavorants. There are more than 3000 EOs reported in the literature, with approximately 300 in commercial use, including the EOs from Eucalyptus species. Most EOs from Eucalyptus species are rich in monoterpenes and many have found applications in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, food flavorants, and perfumes. Such applications are related to their diverse biological and organoleptic properties. In this study, we review the latest information concerning the chemical composition and biological activities of EOs from different species of Eucalyptus. Among the 900 species and subspecies of the Eucalyptus genus, we examined 68 species. The studies associated with these species were conducted in 27 countries. We have focused on the antimicrobial, acaricidal, insecticidal and herbicidal activities, hoping that such information will contribute to the development of research in this field. It is also intended that the information described in this study can be useful in the rationalization of the use of Eucalyptus EOs as components for pharmaceutical and agrochemical applications as well as food preservatives and flavorants.

  15. A biologically active peptide mimetic of N-acetylgalactosamine/galactose

    PubMed Central

    Eggink, Laura L; Hoober, J Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Background Glycosylated proteins and lipids are important regulatory factors whose functions can be altered by addition or removal of sugars to the glycan structure. The glycans are recognized by sugar-binding lectins that serve as receptors on the surface of many cells and facilitate initiation of an intracellular signal that changes the properties of the cells. We identified a peptide that mimics the ligand of an N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-specific lectin and asked whether the peptide would express specific biological activity. Findings A 12-mer phage display library was screened with a GalNAc-specific lectin to identify an amino acid sequence that binds to the lectin. Phage particles that were eluted from the lectin with free GalNAc were considered to have been bound to a GalNAc-binding site. Peptides were synthesized with the selected sequence as a quadravalent structure to facilitate receptor crosslinking. Treatment of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells for 24 h with the peptide stimulated secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) but not of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The secretion of IL-21 was stimulated as strongly with the peptide as with interferon-γ. Conclusion The data indicate that the quadravalent peptide has biological activity with a degree of specificity. These effects occurred at concentrations in the nanomolar range, in contrast to free sugars that generally bind to proteins in the micro- to millimolar range. PMID:19284521

  16. Phage Display of a Biologically Active Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Kasman, Laura M.; Lukowiak, Andrew A.; Garczynski, Stephen F.; McNall, Rebecca J.; Youngman, Phil; Adang, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Activated forms of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxins have consistently been found to form insoluble and inactive precipitates when they are expressed in Escherichia coli. Genetic engineering of these proteins to improve their effectiveness as biological pesticides would be greatly facilitated by the ability to express them in E. coli, since the molecular biology tools available for Bacillus are limited. To this end, we show that activated B. thuringiensis toxin (Cry1Ac) can be expressed in E. coli as a translational fusion with the minor phage coat protein of filamentous phage. Phage particles displaying this fusion protein were viable, infectious, and as lethal as pure toxin on a molar basis when the phage particles were fed to insects susceptible to native Cry1Ac. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analysis showed the fusion protein to be antigenically equivalent to native toxin, and micropanning with anti-Cry1Ac antibody was positive for the toxin-expressing phage. Phage display of B. thuringiensis toxins has many advantages over previous expression systems for these proteins and should make it possible to construct large libraries of toxin variants for screening or biopanning. PMID:9687463

  17. Fruit cuticular waxes as a source of biologically active triterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Szakiel, Anna; Pączkowski, Cezary; Pensec, Flora; Bertsch, Christophe

    2012-06-01

    The health benefits associated with a diet rich in fruit and vegetables include reduction of the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, that are becoming prevalent in the aging human population. Triterpenoids, polycyclic compounds derived from the linear hydrocarbon squalene, are widely distributed in edible and medicinal plants and are an integral part of the human diet. As an important group of phytochemicals that exert numerous biological effects and display various pharmacological activities, triterpenoids are being evaluated for use in new functional foods, drugs, cosmetics and healthcare products. Screening plant material in the search for triterpenoid-rich plant tissues has identified fruit peel and especially fruit cuticular waxes as promising and highly available sources. The chemical composition, abundance and biological activities of triterpenoids occurring in cuticular waxes of some economically important fruits, like apple, grape berry, olive, tomato and others, are described in this review. The need for environmentally valuable and potentially profitable technologies for the recovery, recycling and upgrading of residues from fruit processing is also discussed.

  18. [Application of biologically active suture materials in emergency surgery of abdominal cavity organs].

    PubMed

    Mokhov, E M; Chumakov, R Iu; Sergeev, A N

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of specific course of the wound process and near results of operations on 398 patients with emergency abdominal surgical pathology has revealed advantages of using new biologically active suture materials "Nikant" (with doxicyclin) and "Nikant-P" (with doxicyclin and stimulator of regeneration from the group of hermanium-containing organic compounds) in performing surgical interventions. Total number of patients with complications at the early postoperative period, operated using threads "Nikant" (38-29.9%) and "Nikant-P" (30-23.8%) proved to be reliably less than in patients of the control group (71-48.9%). The results of operations improved at the expense of considerable reduction of the number of postoperative local pyo-inflammatory processes.

  19. Inhalable DNase I microparticles engineered with biologically active excipients.

    PubMed

    Osman, Rihab; Al Jamal, Khuloud T; Kan, Pei-Lee; Awad, Gehanne; Mortada, Nahed; El-Shamy, Abd-Elhameed; Alpar, Oya

    2013-12-01

    Highly viscous mucus poses a big challenge for the delivery of particulates carrying therapeutics to patients with cystic fibrosis. In this study, surface modifying DNase I loaded particles using different excipients to achieve better lung deposition, higher enzyme stability or better biological activity had been exploited. For the purpose, controlled release microparticles (MP) were prepared by co-spray drying DNase I with the polymer poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and the biocompatible lipid surfactant 1,2-dipalmitoyl-Sn-phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) using various hydrophilic excipients. The effect of the included modifiers on the particle morphology, size, zeta potential as well as enzyme encapsulation efficiency, biological activity and release had been evaluated. Powder aerosolisation performance and particle phagocytosis by murine macrophages were also investigated. The results showed that more than 80% of enzyme activity was recovered after MP preparation and that selected surface modifiers greatly increased the enzyme encapsulation efficiency. The particle morphology was greatly modified altering in turn the powders inhalation indices where dextran, ovalbumin and chitosan hydrochloride increased considerably the respirable fraction compared to the normal hydrophilic carriers lactose and PVP. Despite of the improved aerosolisation caused by chitosan hydrochloride, yet retardation of chitosan coated particles in artificial mucus samples discouraged its application. On the other hand, dextran and polyanions enhanced DNase I effect in reducing cystic fibrosis mucus viscosity. DPPC proved good ability to reduce particles phagocytic uptake even in the presence of the selected adjuvants. The prepared MP systems were biocompatible with lung epithelial cells. To conclude, controlled release DNase I loaded PLGA-MP with high inhalation indices and enhanced mucolytic activity on CF sputum could be obtained by surface modifying the particles with PGA or dextran.

  20. Myricetin: A Dietary Molecule with Diverse Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Semwal, Ruchi Badoni; Combrinck, Sandra; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Myricetin is a common plant-derived flavonoid and is well recognised for its nutraceuticals value. It is one of the key ingredients of various foods and beverages. The compound exhibits a wide range of activities that include strong anti-oxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities. It displays several activities that are related to the central nervous system and numerous studies have suggested that the compound may be beneficial to protect against diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. The use of myricetin as a preserving agent to extend the shelf life of foods containing oils and fats is attributed to the compound’s ability to protect lipids against oxidation. A detailed search of existing literature revealed that there is currently no comprehensive review available on this important molecule. Hence, the present work includes the history, synthesis, pharmaceutical applications and toxicity studies of myricetin. This report also highlights structure-activity relationships and mechanisms of action for various biological activities. PMID:26891321

  1. Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment by internal micro-electrolysis--coagulation, biological treatment and activated carbon adsorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangle; Liu, Suiqing; Zhang, Qiang; He, Yiliang

    2009-12-01

    Treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater by the combined process of internal micro-electrolysis and coagulation, biological treatment and activated carbon adsorption was studied. Internal micro-electrolysis and coagulation served as the pretreatment for the wastewater before biological treatment to reduce the contaminants' toxicity to microbes and improve the biodegradability of wastewater to guarantee the smooth operation of the biological process. Biological treatment was the main body of the whole process which took an unparalleled role in removing COD (chemical oxygen demand). Activated carbon adsorption was adopted as the post-treatment process to further remove the remaining non-biodegradable particles. Results showed that the removal rates of COD and S2- (sulphide ion) by pretreatment were 66.9% and 98.9%, respectively, and the biodegradability, as measured by the ratio of biodegradable COD to initial COD, of the wastewater was greatly improved from 0.16 +/- 0.02 to 0.41 +/- 0.02. The overall removal rate of COD in the wastewater achieved by this combined treatment process was up to 96%, and the effluent COD met the Chinese tertiary discharge standard (GB 8978-1996).

  2. Calcium phosphate precipitation in a SBR operated for EBPR: interactions with the biological process.

    PubMed

    Barat, R; Montoya, T; Borras, L; Ferrer, J; Seco, A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the precipitation process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operated for EBPR (enhanced biological phosphorus removal) and the possible effects of this phosphorus precipitation in the biological process. Four experiments were carried out under different influent calcium concentration. The experimental results and the equilibrium study, based on the Saturation Index calculation, confirm that the process controlling the calcium behaviour in a SBR operated for EBPR is the calcium phosphate precipitation. This precipitation takes place at two stages initially precipitation of the ACP and later crystallization of HAP. Also the accumulation of phosphorus precipitated was observed when the influent Ca concentration was increased. In all the experiments the influent wastewater ratio P/COD was kept constant. It has been observed that at high Ca concentration the amount of poly-P granules decrease, decreasing the ratio between phosphate release and acetate uptake (P(rel)/Ac(uptake)). Changes on PAO and GAO populations during the experimental period were ruled out by means of methilene blue stains for poly-P detection. These results confirmed the phosphate precipitation as a process that can affect to the PAO metabolism and the EBPR performance.

  3. Industrial wastewater platform: upgrading of the biological process and operative configurations for best performance.

    PubMed

    Eusebi, Anna Laura; Massi, Alessandro; Sablone, Emiliano; Santinelli, Martina; Battistoni, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of industrial liquid wastes is placed in a wide context of technologies and is related to the high variability of the influent physical-chemical characteristics. In this condition, the achievement of satisfactory biological unit efficiency could be complicated. An alternate process (AC) with aerobic and anoxic phases fed in a continuous way was evaluated as an operative solution to optimize the performance of the biological reactor in a platform for the treatment of industrial liquid wastes. The process application has determined a stable quality effluent with an average concentration of 25 mg TN L(-1), according to the law limits. The use of discharged wastewaters as rapid carbon sources to support the anoxic phase of the alternate cycle, realizes a reduction of TN of 95% without impact on the total operative costs. The evaluation of the micro-pollutants behaviour has highlighted a bio-adsorption phenomenon in the first reactor. The implementation of the process defined 31% of energy saving during period 1 and 19% for the periods 2, 3 and 4.

  4. [Water quality safety of ozonation and biologically activated carbon process in application].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tie-Jun; Zhang, Xi-Hui

    2009-11-01

    Ozonation and biologically activated carbon process, one of advanced treatment technologies, has been applied in many places at home and abroad. However, some emerging water quality problems appeared in operation. Drinking water treatment plant (6 x 10(5) m3/d) with ozonation and biologically activated carbon process (O3-BAC process) was investigated systematically, including microbial safety, the excessive growth of aquatic microorganism and chemical stability of water quality. And some experiments were done in the pilot plant (10 m3/h) at the same time. O3-BAC process is reliable in microbial safety, but operation management should be enhanced. A good number of aquatic microorganisms grow immoderately during operation of O3-BAC process, which is more serious especially in place with high temperature and humidity. With prolong of runtime, the growth of aquatic microorganisms varies regularly. That is hazardous to water quality safety. When raw water is low with alkalinity, decrease of pH in O3-BAC process is obvious. That will seriously affect on chemical stability.

  5. Biological activity of soil contaminated with cobalt, tin, and molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Zaborowska, Magdalena; Kucharski, Jan; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga

    2016-07-01

    In this age of intensive industrialization and urbanization, mankind's highest concern should be to analyze the effect of all metals accumulating in the environment, both those considered toxic and trace elements. With this aim in mind, a unique study was conducted to determine the potentially negative impact of Sn(2+), Co(2+), and Mo(5+) in optimal and increased doses on soil biological properties. These metals were applied in the form of aqueous solutions of Sn(2+) (SnCl2 (.)2H2O), Co(2+) (CoCl2 · 6H2O), and Mo(5+) (MoCl5), each in the doses of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg kg(-1) soil DM. The activity of dehydrogenases, urease, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase, and catalase and the counts of twelve microorganism groups were determined on the 25th and 50th day of experiment duration. Moreover, to present the studied problem comprehensively, changes in the biochemical activity and yield of spring barley were shown using soil and plant resistance indices-RS. The study shows that Sn(2+), Co(2+), and Mo(5+) disturb the state of soil homeostasis. Co(2+) and Mo(5+) proved the greatest soil biological activity inhibitors. The residence of these metals in soil, particularly Co(2+), also generated a drastic decrease in the value of spring barley resistance. Only Sn(2+) did not disrupt its yielding. The studied enzymes can be arranged as follows for their sensitivity to Sn(2+), Co(2+), Mo(5+): Deh > Ure > Aryl > Pal > Pac > Cat. Dehydrogenases and urease may be reliable soil health indicators.

  6. Biological activity of bee propolis in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mahmoud Lotfy

    2006-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product derived from plant resins collected by honeybees. It is used by bees as glue, a general-purpose sealer, and as draught-extruder for beehives. Propolis has been used in folk medicine for centuries. It is known that propolis possesses anti-microbial, antioxidative, anti-ulcer and anti-tumor activities. Therefore, propolis has attracted much attention in recent years as a useful or potential substance used in medicine and cosmetics products. Furthermore, it is now extensively used in foods and beverages with the claim that it can maintain or improve human health. The chemical composition of propolis is quite complicated. More than 300 compounds such as polyphenols, phenolic aldehydes, sequiterpene quinines, coumarins, amino acids, steroids and inorganic compounds have been identified in propolis samples. The contents depend on the collecting location, time and plant source. Consequently, biological activities of propolis gathered from different phytogeographical areas and time periods vary greatly. In this review, the activity of bee propolis will be presented with special emphasis on the antitumor activity.

  7. Biological Activities of Oleanolic Acid Derivatives from Calendula officinalis Seeds.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Ahmed; Ashour, Ahmed; Mira, Amira; Kishikawa, Asuka; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Zhu, Qinchang; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Phytochemical examination of butanol fraction of Calendula officinalis seeds led to the isolation of two compounds identified as 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS1) and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS2). Biological evaluation was carried out for these two compounds such as melanin biosynthesis inhibitory, hyaluronic acid production activities, anti obesity using lipase inhibition and adipocyte differentiation as well as evaluation of the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells. The results showed that, compound CS2 has a melanin biosynthesis stimulatory activity; however, compound CS1 has a potent stimulatory effect for the production of hyaluronic acid on normal human dermal fibroblast from adult (NHDF-Ad). Both compounds did not show any inhibitory effect on both lipase and adipocyte differentiation. Compound CS2 could protect neuro-2A cells and increased cell viability against H2 O2 . These activities (melanin biosynthesis stimulatory and protective effect against H2 O2 of CS2 and hyaluronic acid productive activities of these triterpene derivatives) have been reported for the first time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Soil degradation effect on biological activity in Mediterranean calcareous soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca-Pérez, L.; Alcover-Sáez, S.; Mormeneo, S.; Boluda, R.

    2009-04-01

    Soil degradation processes include erosion, organic matter decline, compaction, salinization, landslides, contamination, sealing and biodiversity decline. In the Mediterranean region the climatological and lithological conditions, together with relief on the landscape and anthropological activity are responsible for increasing desertification process. It is therefore considered to be extreme importance to be able to measure soil degradation quantitatively. We studied soil characteristics, microbiological and biochemical parameters in different calcareous soil sequences from Valencia Community (Easter Spain), in an attempt to assess the suitability of the parameters measured to reflect the state of soil degradation and the possibility of using the parameters to assess microbiological decline and soil quality. For this purpose, forest, scrubland and agricultural soil in three soil sequences were sampled in different areas. Several sensors of the soil biochemistry and microbiology related with total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration, microorganism number and enzyme activities were determined. The results show that, except microorganism number, these parameters are good indicators of a soil biological activity and soil quality. The best enzymatic activities to use like indicators were phosphatases, esterases, amino-peptidases. Thus, the enzymes test can be used as indicators of soil degradation when this degradation is related with organic matter losses. There was a statistically significant difference in cumulative O2 uptake and extracellular enzymes among the soils with different degree of degradation. We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for funding and support (MICINN, project CGL2006-09776).

  9. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shashank; Pandey, Abhay K.

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production. PMID:24470791

  10. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus.

    PubMed

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Orsomando, Giuseppe; Sorci, Leonardo; Maggi, Filippo; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Biapa Nya, Prosper C; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Hofer, Anders; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2016-08-13

    Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD), a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4%) and limonene (8.8%). The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL). Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL), with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g).

  11. Catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles synthesized using essential oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilas, Vidya; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    There are numerous reports on phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and various phytochemicals are involved in the reduction and stabilization. Pure explicit phytosynthetic protocol for catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles is of importance as it is an environmentally benign green method. This paper reports the use of essential oil of Myristica fragrans enriched in terpenes and phenyl propenes in the reduction and stabilization. FTIR spectra of the essential oil and the synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles are in accordance with the GC-MS spectral analysis reports. Nanosilver is initially characterized by an intense SPR band around 420 nm, followed by XRD and TEM analysis revealing the formation of 12-26 nm sized, highly pure, crystalline silver nanoparticles. Excellent catalytic and bioactive potential of the silver nanoparticles is due to the surface modification. The chemocatalytic potential of nanosilver is exhibited by the rapid reduction of the organic pollutant, para nitro phenol and by the degradation of the thiazine dye, methylene blue. Significant antibacterial activity of the silver colloid against Gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone - 12 mm) and Gram negative, Escherichia coli (inhibition zone - 14 mm) is demonstrated by Agar-well diffusion method. Strong antioxidant activity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles is depicted through NO scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power, DPPH and total antioxidant activity assays.

  12. Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shashank; Pandey, Abhay K

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production.

  13. Biological Activity and Phytochemical Study of Scutellaria platystegia

    PubMed Central

    Madani mousavi, Seyedeh Neda; Delazar, Abbas; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Khodaie, Laleh

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine biological activity and phytochemical study of Scutellaria platystegia (family Labiatae). Methanolic (MeOH) extract of aerial parts of S. platystegia and SPE fractions of methanolic extract (specially 20% and 40% methanolic fractions), growing in East-Azarbaijan province of Iran were found to have radical scavenging activity by DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl -1- pycryl hydrazyl) assay. Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of this plant exhibited animalarial activity by cell free method providing IC50 at 1.1876 mg/mL. Crude extracts did not exhibit any toxicity assessed by brine shrimp lethality assay. Phytochemical study of methanolic extract by using reverse phase HPLC method and NMR instrument for isolation and identification of pure compounds respectively, yielded 2-(4- hydroxy phenyl) ethyl-O-β-D- glucopyranoside from 10% and apigenin 7-O-glucoside, verbascoside and martynoside from 40% SPE fraction. Occurance of verbascoside and martynoside as biochemical markers appeared to be widespread in this genus. Antioxidant and antimalarial activity of MeOH and DCM extracts, respectively, as well as no general toxicity of them could provide a basis for further in-vitro and in-vivo studies and clinical trials to develop new therapeutical alternatives. PMID:25561927

  14. Diastereoselective Synthesis of Biologically Active Cyclopenta[b]indoles.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marilia S; Fernandes, Daniara C; Rodrigues, Manoel T; Regiani, Thais; Andricopulo, Adriano D; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; Vendramini-Costa, Débora B; de Carvalho, João E; Eberlin, Marcos N; Coelho, Fernando

    2016-08-05

    The cyclopenta[b]indole motif is present in several natural and synthetic biologically active compounds, being directly responsible for the biological effects some of them present. We described herein a three step sequence for the synthesis of cyclopenta[b]indoles with a great structural diversity. The method is based on an oxidative Michael addition of suitable indoles on the double bond of Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts mediated by a hypervalent iodine reagent (IBX) to form β-ketoesters, which were chemoselectively reduced with NaBH4 in THF to give the corresponding β-hydroxy-esters. The diastereoisomeric mixture was then treated with a catalytic amount of triflic acid (20 mol %) to give cyclopenta[b]indoles with overall yields ranging from 8 to 73% (for 2 steps). The acid-catalyzed cyclization step gave the required heterocycles, via an intramolecular Friedel-Crafts reaction, with high diastereoselectivity, where only the trans product was observed. A mechanistic study monitored by ESI-(+)-MS was also conducted to collect evidence about the mechanism of this reaction. The new molecules herein synthesized were also evaluated against a panel of human cancer cells demonstrating a promising antitumoral profile.

  15. Residual matrix from different separation techniques impacts exosome biological activity

    PubMed Central

    Paolini, Lucia; Zendrini, Andrea; Noto, Giuseppe Di; Busatto, Sara; Lottini, Elisabetta; Radeghieri, Annalisa; Dossi, Alessandra; Caneschi, Andrea; Ricotta, Doris; Bergese, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are gaining a prominent role in research due to their intriguing biology and several therapeutic opportunities. However, their accurate purification from body fluids and detailed physicochemical characterization remain open issues. We isolated exosomes from serum of patients with Multiple Myeloma by four of the most popular purification methods and assessed the presence of residual contaminants in the preparations through an ad hoc combination of biochemical and biophysical techniques - including Western Blot, colloidal nanoplasmonics, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning helium ion microscopy (HIM). The preparations obtained by iodixanol and sucrose gradients were highly pure. To the contrary, those achieved with limited processing (serial centrifugation or one step precipitation kit) resulted contaminated by a residual matrix, embedding the exosomes. The contaminated preparations showed lower ability to induce NfkB nuclear translocation in endothelial cells with respect to the pure ones, probably because the matrix prevents the interaction and fusion of the exosomes with the cell membrane. These findings suggest that exosome preparation purity must be carefully assessed since it may interfere with exosome biological activity. Contaminants can be reliably probed only by an integrated characterization approach aimed at both the molecular and the colloidal length scales. PMID:27009329

  16. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal and its modeling for the activated sludge and membrane bioreactor processes.

    PubMed

    Zuthi, M F R; Guo, W S; Ngo, H H; Nghiem, L D; Hai, F I

    2013-07-01

    A modified activated sludge process (ASP) for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) needs to sustain stable performance for wastewater treatment to avoid eutrophication in the aquatic environment. Unfortunately, the overall efficiency of the EBPR in ASPs and membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is frequently hindered by different operational/system constraints. Moreover, although phosphorus removal data from several wastewater treatment systems are available, a comprehensive mathematical model of the process is still lacking. This paper presents a critical review that highlights the core issues of the biological phosphorus removal in ASPs and MBRs while discussing the inhibitory process requirements for other nutrients' removal. This mini review also successfully provided an assessment of the available models for predicting phosphorus removal in both ASP and MBR systems. The advantages and limitations of the existing models were discussed together with the inclusion of few guidelines for their improvement.

  17. Fungal phytotoxins with potential herbicidal activity: chemical and biological characterization.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Alessio; Masi, Marco; Evidente, Marco; Superchi, Stefano; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-12-19

    Covering: 2007 to 2015 Fungal phytotoxins are secondary metabolites playing an important role in the induction of disease symptoms interfering with host plant physiological processes. Although fungal pathogens represent a heavy constraint for agrarian production and for forest and environmental heritage, they can also represent an ecofriendly alternative to manage weeds. Indeed, the phytotoxins produced by weed pathogenic fungi are an efficient tool to design natural, safe bioherbicides. Their use could avoid that of synthetic pesticides causing resistance in the host plants and the long term impact of residues in agricultural products with a risk to human and animal health. The isolation and structural and biological characterization of phytotoxins produced by pathogenic fungi for weeds, including parasitic plants, are described. Structure activity relationships and mode of action studies for some phytotoxins are also reported to elucidate the herbicide potential of these promising fungal metabolites.

  18. Neutron activation analysis of biological materials by the monostandard method.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Shinogi, M

    1979-12-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis by the monostandard method has been applied to the analyses of biological NBS standard reference materials; 1571 Orchard Leaves and 1577 Bovine Liver. Aluminum foils containing 0.100% gold or 2.00% cobalt were used as the monostandards. The gamma-ray spectral data were recorded on punched paper tape and were analyzed by a computer assisted data processing. The following 25 elements were determined: Al, Ca, Cl Cu, Mg, Mn, V (by short period irradiation), As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm and Zn (by long period irradiation). The results were compared with the certified values by NBS and the reported values in literatures to prove the reliability and accuracy of the monostandard method.

  19. Comparison between geochemical and biological estimates of subsurface microbial activities.

    PubMed

    Phelps, T J; Murphy, E M; Pfiffner, S M; White, D C

    1994-01-01

    Geochemical and biological estimates of in situ microbial activities were compared from the aerobic and microaerophilic sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Radioisotope time-course experiments suggested oxidation rates greater than millimolar quantities per year for acetate and glucose. Geochemical analyses assessing oxygen consumption, soluble organic carbon utilization, sulfate reduction, and carbon dioxide production suggested organic oxidation rates of nano- to micromolar quantities per year. Radiotracer timecourse experiments appeared to overestimate rates of organic carbon oxidation, sulfate reduction, and biomass production by a factor of 10(3)-10(6) greater than estimates calculated from groundwater analyses. Based on the geochemical evidence, in situ microbial metabolism was estimated to be in the nano- to micromolar range per year, and the average doubling time for the microbial community was estimated to be centuries.

  20. Phase diagram for assembly of biologically-active peptide amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Tsonchev, Stefan; Niece, Krista L; Schatz, George C; Ratner, Mark A; Stupp, Samuel I

    2008-01-17

    We construct a phase diagram for self-assembling biologically active peptide amphiphiles. The structure and stability of the assemblies are studied as a function of pH and salinity of the solution. The general features of the phase diagram are predicted based on theoretical modeling of the self-assembly process, as well as experimental data, and further experiments are performed to verify and ascertain the boundary locations of the diagram. Depending on solution conditions, the amphiphiles can form cylindrical or spherical micelles, intermediate structures between these, or may not assemble at all. We also demonstrate that changing conditions may result in phase transitions among these structures. This type of phase diagram could be useful in the design of certain supramolecular nanostructures by providing information on the necessary conditions to form them.

  1. Macrophage activation syndrome in the era of biologic therapy.

    PubMed

    Grom, Alexei A; Horne, AnnaCarin; De Benedetti, Fabrizio

    2016-05-01

    Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) refers to acute overwhelming inflammation caused by a 'cytokine storm'. Although increasingly recognized as a life-threatening complication of various rheumatic diseases, clinically, MAS is strikingly similar to primary and secondary forms of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Not surprisingly, many rheumatologists prefer the term secondary HLH rather than MAS to describe this condition, and efforts to change the nomenclature are in progress. The pathophysiology of MAS remains elusive, but observations in animal models, as well as data on the effects of new anticytokine therapies on rates and clinical presentations of MAS in patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA), provide clues to the understanding of this perplexing clinical phenomenon. In this Review, we explore the latest available evidence and discuss potential diagnostic challenges in the era of increasing use of biologic therapies.

  2. Production and biological activities of yellow pigments from Monascus fungi.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-08-01

    Monascus yellow pigments (MYPs), are azaphilone compounds and one of the three main components of total Monascus pigments (MPs). Thirty-five hydrophilic or hydrophobic MYPs have been identified, with the majority being hydrophobic. Apart from screening special Monascus strains, some advanced approaches, such as extractive and high-cell-density fermentations, have been applied for developing or producing new MYPs, especially extracellular hydrophilic MYPs. The outstanding performance of MYPs in terms of resistance to photodegradation, as well as tolerance for temperature and pH, give natural MYPs reasonable prospects, compared with the orange and red MPs, for practical use in the present and future. Meanwhile, MYPs have shown promising potential for applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries based on their described bioactivities. This review briefly summarizes the reports to date on chemical structures, biological activities, biosynthetic pathways, production technologies, and physicochemical performances of MYPs. The existing problems for MYPs are discussed and research prospects proposed.

  3. Synthesis and biological activity of homoarginine-containing opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Izdebski, Jan; Kunce, Danuta; Schiller, Peter W; Chung, Nga N; Gers, Tomasz; Zelman, Monika; Grabek, Monika

    2007-01-01

    Two tris-alkoxycarbonyl homoarginine derivatives, Boc-Har{omega,omega'-[Z(2Br)]2}-OH and Boc-Har{omega,omega'-[Z(2Cl)]2}-OH, were prepared by guanidinylation of Boc-Lys-OH, and used for the synthesis of neo-endorphins and dynorphins. The results were compared with that obtained in the synthesis in which Boc-Lys(Fmoc)-OH was incorporated into the peptide chain, and after removing Fmoc protection, the resulting peptide-resin was guanidinylated with N,N'-[Z(2Br)]2- or N,N'-[Z(2Cl)]2-S-methylisourea. The peptides were tested in the guinea-pig ileum (GPI) and mouse vas deferens (MVD) assays. The results indicated that replacement of Arg by Har may be a good avenue for the design of biologically active peptides with increased resistance to degradation by trypsin-like enzymes.

  4. [The release of biologically active compounds from peat peloids].

    PubMed

    Babaskin, D V

    2011-01-01

    This work had the objective to study kinetics of the release of flavonoides from peat peloid compositions containing extracts of medicinal herbs in model systems.The key parameters of the process are defined. The rate of liberation of flavonoides is shown to depend on their initial concentration in the compositions being used. The influence of the flavonoide composition of the tested extracts and dimethylsulfoxide on the release of biologically active compounds contained in the starting material in the model environment is estimated. The possibility of the layer-by-layer deposition of the compositions and peat peloids in order to increase the efficacy of flavonoide release from the starting composition and to ensure more rational utilization of the extracts of medicinal plants is demonstrated.

  5. Molecular Requirements for the Biological Activity of Ethylene 1

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Stanley P.; Burg, Ellen A.

    1967-01-01

    The molecular requirements for ethylene action were investigated using the pea straight growth test. Biological activity requires an unsaturated bond adjacent to a terminal carbon atom, is inversely related to molecular size, and is decreased by substitutions which lower the electron density in the unsaturated position. Evidence is presented that ethylene binds to a metal containing receptor site. CO2 is a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action, and prevents high concentrations of auxin (which stimulate ethylene formation) from retarding the elongation of etiolated pea stem sections. It is suggested that CO2 delays fruit ripening by displacing the ripening hormone, ethylene, from its receptor site. Binding of ethylene to the receptor site is also impeded when the O2 concentration is lowered, and this may explain why fruit ripening is delayed at low O2 tensions. PMID:16656478

  6. Relationships between the stereochemistry and biological activity of fungal phytotoxins.

    PubMed

    Evidente, Antonio; Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio

    2011-10-01

    Toxins produced by phytopathogenic fungi assume great importance because of their involvement in several plant diseases. Although such pathogens are known to have seriously damaged crops, forest, and environmental resources, they represent a very important tool to develop new environmentally friendly herbicides and fungicides. This review deals with the relationships between the biological activity of some phytotoxins produced by pathogenic fungi for major forest plants and for damaging weeds and their stereochemistry. In particular, the methods used to determine their relative and/or absolute configuration will be illustrated. These include the application of Mosher's and Murata's methods, X-ray diffractometric analysis, circular dichroism, and the use of computational methods to determine the theoretical optical rotatory power as well as the CD spectrum. The importance of determining the absolute configuration to achieve the total synthesis of some phytotoxins, interesting for their potential practical application, is also discussed.

  7. Differential Biological Activities of Swine Interferon-α Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti, Cinzia; Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Crooke, Helen; Soule, Olubukola; Pezzoni, Giulia; Ferraris, Monica; Ferrari, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) play a crucial role in the host's immune response and other homeostatic control actions. Three IFN types and several IFN families within the types allow for a plethora of regulatory actions. The number of distinct IFN molecules is highest among type I IFNs and, in particular, within the IFN-α family. In pigs, there are 17 IFN-α subtypes with different antiviral activities and different expression profiles; however, no data are available about biological properties other than the antiviral effector activities. Therefore, 16 porcine IFN-α genes were cloned, expressed in mammalian Chinese hamster ovary cells, and characterized for antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and MHC-modulating activities at a pre-established level of 10 IU/mL. Antiviral activity: IFN-α2, -α5, -α9, and -α10 showed the highest level of activity in a pseudorabies virus yield reduction assay. On the contrary, little, if any, activity was shown by IFN-α3, -α7, -α13, -α4, and -α15. Anti-inflammatory activity: With the exception of IFNs-α2, -α7, -α9, and -α11, all IFN-α subtypes had significant anti-inflammatory control activity in an interleukin-8 (IL-8) yield reduction assay. Gene expression analyses showed that some IFN-α subtypes can significantly downregulate the expression of IL-8, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-6, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), βD1, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-kB) genes, while maintaining or upregulating the expression of βD4. Immunomodulation: A significant upregulation of class I and/or class II MHC was induced by all the IFNs under study, with the exception of IFNs-α11, -α15, and -α16, which instead significantly downregulated class I MHC. Our results indicate that gene duplications in the porcine IFN-α family underlie diverse effector and regulatory activities, being therefore instrumental in host survival and environmental adaptation. This role of IFN-α could be founded on fine-tuning and regulation of pro- and anti

  8. Dynamic properties of biologically active synthetic heparin-like hexasaccharides.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Jesús; Hricovíni, Milos; Gairi, Margarida; Guerrini, Marco; de Paz, José Luis; Ojeda, Rafael; Martín-Lomas, Manuel; Nieto, Pedro M

    2005-10-01

    A complete study of the dynamics of two synthetic heparin-like hexasaccharides, D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-1-->iPr (1) and -->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHAc-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-1-->iPr (2), has been performed using 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation parameters, T1, T2, and heteronuclear nuclear Overhauser effect (NOEs). Compound 1 is constituted from sequences corresponding to the major polysaccharide heparin region, while compound 2 contains a sequence never found in natural heparin. They differ from each other only in sulphation patterns, and are capable of stimulating fibroblast growth factors (FGFs)-1 induced mitogenesis. Both oligosaccharides exhibit a remarkable anisotropic overall motion in solution as revealed by their anisotropic ratios (tau /tau||), 4.0 and 3.0 respectively. This is a characteristic behaviour of natural glycosaminoglycans (GAG) which has also been observed for the antithrombin (AT) binding pentasaccharide D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcA-beta-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-(3,6-SO4)-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-1-->Me (3) (Hricovíni, M., Guerrini, M., Torri, G., Piani, S., and Ungarelli, F. (1995) Conformational analysis of heparin epoxide in aqueous solution. An NMR relaxation study. Carbohydr. Res., 277, 11-23). The motional properties observed for 1 and 2 provide additional support to the suitability of these compounds as heparin models in agreement with previous structural (de Paz, J.L., Angulo, J., Lassaletta, J.M., Nieto, P.M., Redondo-Horcajo, M., Lozano, R.M., Jiménez-Gallego, G., and Martín-Lomas, M. (2001) The activation of fibroblast growth factors by heparin: synthesis, structure and biological activity of heparin-like oligosaccharides. Chembiochem, 2, 673-685; Ojeda, R

  9. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

    PubMed Central

    Dah-Nouvlessounon, Durand; Adoukonou-Sagbadja, Hubert; Diarrassouba, Nafan; Sina, Haziz; Adjanohoun, Adolphe; Inoussa, Mariam; Akakpo, Donald; Gbenou, Joachim D.; Kotchoni, Simeon O.; Dicko, Mamoudou H.; Baba-Moussa, Lamine

    2015-01-01

    Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida's bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5 ± 0.7 mm (C. albicans) to 9.5 ± 0.7 mm (P. vulgaris). The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida's bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine. PMID:25767723

  10. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark.

    PubMed

    Dah-Nouvlessounon, Durand; Adoukonou-Sagbadja, Hubert; Diarrassouba, Nafan; Sina, Haziz; Adjanohoun, Adolphe; Inoussa, Mariam; Akakpo, Donald; Gbenou, Joachim D; Kotchoni, Simeon O; Dicko, Mamoudou H; Baba-Moussa, Lamine

    2015-01-01

    Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida's bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5 ± 0.7 mm (C. albicans) to 9.5 ± 0.7 mm (P. vulgaris). The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida's bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine.

  11. Advances in structural modifications and biological activities of berberine: an active compound in traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z-J; Zeng, Y; Lan, P; Sun, P-H; Chen, W-M

    2011-11-01

    Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Chinese herbs such as Coptidis Rhizome. This paper is a systematic review of the structural modifications of berberine for different biological activities such as antitumor, antimicrobial, anti-Alzheimer's disease, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory and antimalaria. The current review would provide some useful information for further studies on structural modification of berberine for discovering new drug leads.

  12. A Conceptual Framework for Organizing Active Learning Experiences in Biology Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Joel; Belland, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Introductory biology courses form a cornerstone of undergraduate instruction. However, the predominantly used lecture approach fails to produce higher-order biology learning. Research shows that active learning strategies can increase student learning, yet few biology instructors use all identified active learning strategies. In this paper, we…

  13. Teaching Systems Biology: An Active-Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Anuj

    2005-01-01

    With genomics well established in modern molecular biology, recent studies have sought to further the discipline by integrating complementary methodologies into a holistic depiction of the molecular mechanisms underpinning cell function. This genomic subdiscipline, loosely termed "systems biology," presents the biology educator with both…

  14. Background activities, induction, and behavioral allocation in operant performance.

    PubMed

    Baum, William M; Davison, Michael

    2014-09-01

    In experiments on operant behavior, other activities, called "background" activities, compete with the operant activities. Herrnstein's (1970) formulation of the matching law included background reinforcers in the form of a parameter rO, but remained vague about the activities (BO) that produce rO. To gain more understanding, we analyzed data from three studies of performance with pairs of variable-interval schedules that changed frequently in the relative rate at which they produced food: Baum and Davison (2014), Belke and Heyman (1994), and Soto, McDowell, and Dallery (2005). Results sometimes deviated from the matching law, suggesting variation in rO. When rO was calculated from the matching equation, two results emerged: (a) rO is directly proportional to BO, as in a ratio schedule; and (b) rO and BO depend on the food rate, which is to say that BO consists of activities induced by food, as a phylogenetically important event. Other activities unrelated to food (BN ) correspond to Herrnstein's original conception of rO and may be included in the matching equation. A model based on Baum's (Baum, 2012) concepts of allocation, induction, and contingency explained the deviations from the matching law. In the model, operant activity B, BO, and BN competed unequally in the time allocation: B and BO both replaced BN , BO replaced lever pressing (Soto et al.), and key pecking replaced BO (Baum & Davison). Although the dependence of rO and BO on food rate changes Herrnstein's (1970) formulation, the model preserved the generalized matching law for operant activities by incorporating power-function induction.

  15. Biological activities of thionated thyrotropin-releasing hormone analogs.

    PubMed

    Lankiewicz, L; Bowers, C Y; Reynolds, G A; Labroo, V; Cohen, L A; Vonhof, S; Sirén, A L; Spatola, A F

    1992-04-15

    Analogs of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (Glp-His-Pro-NH2, TRH) have been prepared which contain thioamide moieties in the pyroglutamic acid ring, the carboxyamide proline terminus, and in both positions (dithio). These compounds have been tested for TSH-releasing activities (in vitro and in vivo), and for binding to TRH receptors in rat pituitary and cortex. The monothionated analogs showed no significant differences in TSH-releasing potency from TRH either in vitro or in vivo. However, with two thioamide replacements the potency decreases about 50%. Significantly, in terms of receptor selectivity, thionation has resulted in differentiation between brain receptors (pituitary and cortex). The Pro psi[CSNH2] and dithio analogs were more selective (higher affinity to pituitary receptors) than the parent hormone, while the analog containing a thioamide replacement in the pyroglutamyl ring had lower affinity and was not selective. These results suggest that the subtle exchange of sulphur for oxygen can have an important impact on both receptor selectivity and affinity within a biologically active peptide.

  16. Chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Rao, L Jagan Mohan

    2011-07-01

    The genus Cinnamomum comprises of several hundreds of species, which are distributed in Asia and Australia. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, the source of cinnamon bark and leaf oils, is an indigenous tree of Sri Lanka, although most oil now comes from cultivated areas. C. zeylanicum is an important spice and aromatic crop having wide applications in flavoring, perfumery, beverages, and medicines. Volatile oils from different parts of cinnamon such as leaves, bark, fruits, root bark, flowers, and buds have been isolated by hydro distillation/steam distillation and supercritical fluid extraction. The chemical compositions of the volatile oils have been identified by GC and GC-MS. More than 80 compounds were identified from different parts of cinnamon. The leaf oil has a major component called eugenol. Cinnamaldehyde and camphor have been reported to be the major components of volatile oils from stem bark and root bark, respectively. Trans-cinnamyl acetate was found to be the major compound in fruits, flowers, and fruit stalks. These volatile oils were found to exhibit antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic activities. C. zeylanicum bark and fruits were found to contain proanthocyandins with doubly linked bis-flavan-3-ol units in the molecule. The present review provides a coherent presentation of scattered literature on the chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of cinnamon.

  17. Soil biological activity as affected by tillage intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajda, A.; Przewłoka, B.

    2012-02-01

    The effect of tillage intensity on changes of microbiological activity and content of particulate organic matter in soil under winter wheat duirng 3 years was studied. Microbial response related to the tillage-induced changes in soil determined on the content of biomass C and N, the rate of CO2 evolution, B/F ratio, the activity of dehydrogenases, acid and alkaline phosphatases, soil C/N ratio and microbial biomass C/N ratio confirmed the high sensitivity of soil microbial populations to the tillage system applied. After three year studies, the direct sowing system enhanced the increase of labile fraction of organic matter content in soil. There were no significant changes in the labile fraction quantity observed in soil under conventional tillage. Similar response related to the tillage intensity was observed in particulate organic matter quantities expressed as a percentage of total organic matter in soil. A high correlation coefficients calculated between contents of soil microbial biomass C and N, particulate organic matter and potentially mineralizable N, and the obtained yields of winter wheat grown on experimental fields indicated on a high importance of biological quality of status of soil for agricultural crop production.

  18. Prescribed Active Learning Increases Performance in Introductory Biology

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Eileen; Parks, John W.; Cunningham, Matthew; Hurley, David; Haak, David; Dirks, Clarissa; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2007-01-01

    We tested five course designs that varied in the structure of daily and weekly active-learning exercises in an attempt to lower the traditionally high failure rate in a gateway course for biology majors. Students were given daily multiple-choice questions and answered with electronic response devices (clickers) or cards. Card responses were ungraded; clicker responses were graded for right/wrong answers or participation. Weekly practice exams were done as an individual or as part of a study group. Compared with previous versions of the same course taught by the same instructor, students in the new course designs performed better: There were significantly lower failure rates, higher total exam points, and higher scores on an identical midterm. Attendance was higher in the clicker versus cards section; attendance and course grade were positively correlated. Students did better on clicker questions if they were graded for right/wrong answers versus participation, although this improvement did not translate into increased scores on exams. In this course, achievement increases when students get regular practice via prescribed (graded) active-learning exercises. PMID:17548875

  19. Chemical constituents and biological activities of two Iranian Cystoseira species.

    PubMed

    Yegdaneh, Afsaneh; Ghannadi, Alireza; Dayani, Ladan

    2016-07-01

    The marine environment represents approximately half of the global biodiversity and could provide unlimited biological resources for the production of therapeutic drugs. Marine seaweeds comprise few thousands of species representing a considerable part of the littoral biomass. Extracts of the Cystoseira indica and Cystoseira merica were subjected to phytochemical and cytotoxicity evaluation. The amount of total phenol was determined with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Cytotoxicity was characterized by IC50 of human cancer cell lines including MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), and HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma) using Sulforhodamin assay. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The analysis revealed that tannins, saponins, sterols and triterpenes were the most abundant constituents in these Cystoseira species while cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides were the least ones. C. indica had the higher content of total phenolics and also showed higher antioxidant activity. Cytotoxic results showed that both species inhibited cell growth effectively, especially against MCF-7 cell line. The present findings suggest potential pharmacological applications of selected seaweeds but require further investigation and identification of their bioactive principles.

  20. A new assay system for guinea pig interferon biological activity.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiko; Jeevan, Amminikutty; Ohishi, Kazue; Nojima, Yasuhiro; Umemori, Kiyoko; Yamamoto, Saburo; McMurray, David N

    2002-07-01

    We have developed an assay system for guinea pig interferon (IFN) based on reduction of viral cytopathic effect (CPE) in various cell lines. CPE inhibition was detected optimally in the guinea pig fibroblast cell line 104C1 infected with encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). The amount of biologically active guinea pig IFN was quantified by estimating viable cell numbers colorimetrically by means of a tetrazolium compound, 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium monosodium salt (WST-1) and 1-methoxy-5-methylphenazinium methylsulfate (PMS). WST-1 color developed until stopped by the addition of sulfuric acid. This had no effect on the colorimetric assay, and the color was stable for at least 24 h. The acid also inactivated the EMCV and, thus, eliminated the viral hazard. Inhibition of CPE activity was highly correlated with the concentration of culture supernatants from BCG-vaccinated guinea pig splenocytes stimulated in vitro with tuberculin or an immunostimulatory oligoDNA. This assay detected guinea pig IFN and human IFN-alpha, but not IFN-gamma from human, mouse, rat, pig, or dog. This assay system has proved useful for the titration of guinea pig IFN, being easy to perform, free from viral hazard, relatively species specific, highly reproducible, and inexpensive.

  1. Chemical constituents and biological activities of two Iranian Cystoseira species

    PubMed Central

    Yegdaneh, Afsaneh; Ghannadi, Alireza; Dayani, Ladan

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment represents approximately half of the global biodiversity and could provide unlimited biological resources for the production of therapeutic drugs. Marine seaweeds comprise few thousands of species representing a considerable part of the littoral biomass. Extracts of the Cystoseira indica and Cystoseira merica were subjected to phytochemical and cytotoxicity evaluation. The amount of total phenol was determined with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Cytotoxicity was characterized by IC50 of human cancer cell lines including MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), and HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma) using Sulforhodamin assay. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The analysis revealed that tannins, saponins, sterols and triterpenes were the most abundant constituents in these Cystoseira species while cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides were the least ones. C. indica had the higher content of total phenolics and also showed higher antioxidant activity. Cytotoxic results showed that both species inhibited cell growth effectively, especially against MCF-7 cell line. The present findings suggest potential pharmacological applications of selected seaweeds but require further investigation and identification of their bioactive principles. PMID:27651811

  2. Oat Phytochrome Is Biologically Active in Transgenic Tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Boylan, M. T.; Quail, P. H.

    1989-08-01

    To determine the functional homology between phytochromes from evolutionarily divergent species, we used the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter to express a monocot (oat) phytochrome cDNA in a dicot plant (tomato). Immunoblot analysis shows that more than 50% of the transgenic tomato plants synthesize the full-length oat phytochrome polypeptide. Moreover, leaves of light-grown transgenic plants contain appreciably less oat phytochrome than leaves from dark-adapted plants, and etiolated R1 transgenic seedlings have higher levels of spectrally active phytochrome than wild-type tomato seedlings in direct proportion to the level of immunochemically detectable oat polypeptide present. These data suggest that the heterologous oat polypeptide carries a functional chromophore, allowing reversible photoconversion between the two forms of the molecule, and that the far-red absorbing form (Pfr) is recognized and selectively degraded by the Pfr-specific degradative machinery in the dicot cell. The overexpression of oat phytochrome has pleiotropic, phenotypic consequences at all major phases of the life cycle. Adult transgenic tomato plants expressing high levels of the oat protein tend to be dwarfed, with dark green foliage and fruits. R1 transgenic seedlings have short hypocotyls with elevated anthocyanin contents. We conclude that a monocot phytochrome can be synthesized and correctly processed to a biologically active form in a dicot cell, and that the transduction pathway components that interact with the photoreceptor are evolutionarily conserved.

  3. KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity Database for retrieving the relationships between metabolites and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yukiko; Afendi, Farit Mochamad; Parvin, Aziza Kawsar; Ono, Naoaki; Tanaka, Ken; Hirai Morita, Aki; Sato, Tetsuo; Sugiura, Tadao; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2014-01-01

    Databases (DBs) are required by various omics fields because the volume of molecular biology data is increasing rapidly. In this study, we provide instructions for users and describe the current status of our metabolite activity DB. To facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the interactions between the metabolites of organisms and the chemical-level contribution of metabolites to human health, we constructed a metabolite activity DB known as the KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB. It comprises 9,584 triplet relationships (metabolite-biological activity-target species), including 2,356 metabolites, 140 activity categories, 2,963 specific descriptions of biological activities and 778 target species. Approximately 46% of the activities described in the DB are related to chemical ecology, most of which are attributed to antimicrobial agents and plant growth regulators. The majority of the metabolites with antimicrobial activities are flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. The metabolites with plant growth regulatory effects include plant hormones. Over half of the DB contents are related to human health care and medicine. The five largest groups are toxins, anticancer agents, nervous system agents, cardiovascular agents and non-therapeutic agents, such as flavors and fragrances. The KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB is integrated within the KNApSAcK Family DBs to facilitate further systematized research in various omics fields, especially metabolomics, nutrigenomics and foodomics. The KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB could also be utilized for developing novel drugs and materials, as well as for identifying viable drug resources and other useful compounds.

  4. Simulation and optimization of a coking wastewater biological treatment process by activated sludge models (ASM).

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaohui; Yang, Yang; Wu, Gaoming; Mao, Juan; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Applications of activated sludge models (ASM) in simulating industrial biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are still difficult due to refractory and complex components in influents as well as diversity in activated sludges. In this study, an ASM3 modeling study was conducted to simulate and optimize a practical coking wastewater treatment plant (CWTP). First, respirometric characterizations of the coking wastewater and CWTP biomasses were conducted to determine the specific kinetic and stoichiometric model parameters for the consecutive aeration-anoxic-aeration (O-A/O) biological process. All ASM3 parameters have been further estimated and calibrated, through cross validation by the model dynamic simulation procedure. Consequently, an ASM3 model was successfully established to accurately simulate the CWTP performances in removing COD and NH4-N. An optimized CWTP operation condition could be proposed reducing the operation cost from 6.2 to 5.5 €/m(3) wastewater. This study is expected to provide a useful reference for mathematic simulations of practical industrial WWTPs.

  5. Cellular aspartyl proteases promote the unconventional secretion of biologically active HIV-1 matrix protein p17

    PubMed Central

    Caccuri, Francesca; Iaria, Maria Luisa; Campilongo, Federica; Varney, Kristen; Rossi, Alessandro; Mitola, Stefania; Schiarea, Silvia; Bugatti, Antonella; Mazzuca, Pietro; Giagulli, Cinzia; Fiorentini, Simona; Lu, Wuyuan; Salmona, Mario; Caruso, Arnaldo

    2016-01-01

    The human immune deficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) matrix protein p17 (p17), although devoid of a signal sequence, is released by infected cells and detected in blood and in different organs and tissues even in HIV-1-infected patients undergoing successful combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Extracellularly, p17 deregulates the function of different cells involved in AIDS pathogenesis. The mechanism of p17 secretion, particularly during HIV-1 latency, still remains to be elucidated. A recent study showed that HIV-1-infected cells can produce Gag without spreading infection in a model of viral latency. Here we show that in Gag-expressing cells, secretion of biologically active p17 takes place at the plasma membrane and occurs following its interaction with phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate and its subsequent cleavage from the precursor Gag (Pr55Gag) operated by cellular aspartyl proteases. These enzymes operate a more complex Gag polypeptide proteolysis than the HIV-1 protease, thus hypothetically generating slightly truncated or elongated p17s in their C-terminus. A 17 C-terminal residues excised p17 was found to be structurally and functionally identical to the full-length p17 demonstrating that the final C-terminal region of p17 is irrelevant for the protein’s biological activity. These findings offer new opportunities to identify treatment strategies for inhibiting p17 release in the extracellular microenvironment. PMID:27905556

  6. [Studies on acetylspiramycin. II. Biological activities of spiramycin components].

    PubMed

    Kondo, A; Sato, K; Shuto, K; Yamashita, K; Ichikawa, S; Takahashi, K; Kita, K; Nishiie, Y; Sano, H; Yamaguchi, K

    1990-09-01

    Acetylspiramycin (ASPM) was fractionated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The peak fractions were named F1 to F7 successively in order of increasing retention times (Rt), i.e., increasing hydrophobicity, and studied for 1) antibacterial activities (MIC), 2) antibacterial potency against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, 3) therapeutic effect on mice infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae III, Staphylococcus aureus Smith, 4) acute toxicity by i.p. administration to mice (LD50) and 5) cytotoxicities to fibroblasts derived from Chinese-hamster lung (CHL), cow pulmonary artery endothelial cells (CPAE) and rat hepatic cells. The results obtained are summarized below. 1. Components F1 and 4'-acetylspiramycin F2 had significantly different biological activities from those of other components: F1 showed the lowest antibacterial potency of 492 micrograms (potency)/mg, F2 showed the highest antibacterial potency of 2,040 micrograms (potency)/mg and correspondingly the lowest LD50 value of 692 mg/kg (the highest toxicity). The therapeutic effect of F2 on infections in mice was found to be the second smallest and was superior only to that of F1. The LD50 value of F1 was 1,200 mg/kg and similar to that of ASPM. 2. Antibacterial potencies of F3, F4, F5 and F6 were 1,165, 1,266, 1,374 and 1,530 micrograms (potency)/mg, respectively; fraction with the higher antibacterial activities corresponded to the longer retention times, i.e., the greater hydrophobicities. The most hydrophobic component, F7, 3-propionyl-3",4"-diacetylspiramycin, however, showed a low antibacterial potency of 1,085 micrograms (potency)/mg, next to the lowest one, F1, a fact which was in contradiction to with the sequential relation between hydrophobicities and potencies from F3 to F6.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Actinobacteria from Arid and Desert Habitats: Diversity and Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh; Wink, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The lack of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical pipeline guides more and more researchers to leave the classical isolation procedures and to look in special niches and ecosystems. Bioprospecting of extremophilic Actinobacteria through mining untapped strains and avoiding resiolation of known biomolecules is among the most promising strategies for this purpose. With this approach, members of acidtolerant, alkalitolerant, psychrotolerant, thermotolerant, halotolerant and xerotolerant Actinobacteria have been obtained from respective habitats. Among these, little survey exists on the diversity of Actinobacteria in arid areas, which are often adapted to relatively high temperatures, salt concentrations, and radiation. Therefore, arid and desert habitats are special ecosystems which can be recruited for the isolation of uncommon Actinobacteria with new metabolic capability. At the time of this writing, members of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, Cellulomonas, Amycolatopsis, Geodermatophilus, Lechevalieria, Nocardia, and Actinomadura are reported from arid habitats. However, metagenomic data present dominant members of the communities in desiccating condition of areas with limited water availability that are not yet isolated. Furthermore, significant diverse types of polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes are detected in xerophilic and xerotolerant Actinobacteria and some bioactive compounds are reported from them. Rather than pharmaceutically active metabolites, molecules with protection activity against drying such as Ectoin and Hydroxyectoin with potential application in industry and agriculture have also been identified from xerophilic Actinobacteria. In addition, numerous biologically active small molecules are expected to be discovered from arid adapted Actinobacteria in the future. In the current survey, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria obtained from arid ecosystems

  8. Actinobacteria from Arid and Desert Habitats: Diversity and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh; Wink, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The lack of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical pipeline guides more and more researchers to leave the classical isolation procedures and to look in special niches and ecosystems. Bioprospecting of extremophilic Actinobacteria through mining untapped strains and avoiding resiolation of known biomolecules is among the most promising strategies for this purpose. With this approach, members of acidtolerant, alkalitolerant, psychrotolerant, thermotolerant, halotolerant and xerotolerant Actinobacteria have been obtained from respective habitats. Among these, little survey exists on the diversity of Actinobacteria in arid areas, which are often adapted to relatively high temperatures, salt concentrations, and radiation. Therefore, arid and desert habitats are special ecosystems which can be recruited for the isolation of uncommon Actinobacteria with new metabolic capability. At the time of this writing, members of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, Cellulomonas, Amycolatopsis, Geodermatophilus, Lechevalieria, Nocardia, and Actinomadura are reported from arid habitats. However, metagenomic data present dominant members of the communities in desiccating condition of areas with limited water availability that are not yet isolated. Furthermore, significant diverse types of polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes are detected in xerophilic and xerotolerant Actinobacteria and some bioactive compounds are reported from them. Rather than pharmaceutically active metabolites, molecules with protection activity against drying such as Ectoin and Hydroxyectoin with potential application in industry and agriculture have also been identified from xerophilic Actinobacteria. In addition, numerous biologically active small molecules are expected to be discovered from arid adapted Actinobacteria in the future. In the current survey, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria obtained from arid ecosystems

  9. Effects of dynamic operating conditions on nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Carson O; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Musovic, Sanin; Smets, Barth; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Binning, Philip

    2014-11-01

    Biological rapid sand filters are often used to remove ammonium from groundwater for drinking water supply. They often operate under dynamic substrate and hydraulic loading conditions, which can lead to increased levels of ammonium and nitrite in the effluent. To determine the maximum nitrification rates and safe operating windows of rapid sand filters, a pilot scale rapid sand filter was used to test short-term increased ammonium loads, set by varying either influent ammonium concentrations or hydraulic loading rates. Ammonium and iron (flock) removal were consistent between the pilot and the full-scale filter. Nitrification rates and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea were quantified throughout the depth of the filter. The ammonium removal capacity of the filter was determined to be 3.4 g NH4-N m(-3) h(-1), which was 5 times greater than the average ammonium loading rate under reference operating conditions. The ammonium removal rate of the filter was determined by the ammonium loading rate, but was independent of both the flow and influent ammonium concentration individually. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea were almost equally abundant in the filter. Both ammonium removal and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria density were strongly stratified, with the highest removal and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria densities at the top of the filter. Cell specific ammonium oxidation rates were on average 0.6 × 10(2) ± 0.2 × 10(2) fg NH4-N h(-1) cell(-1). Our findings indicate that these rapid sand filters can safely remove both nitrite and ammonium over a larger range of loading rates than previously assumed.

  10. Impact of oxygen cut off and starvation conditions on biological activity and physico-chemical properties of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Villain, Maud; Clouzot, Ludiwine; Guibaud, Gilles; Marrot, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Physico-chemical and biological parameters were monitored both throughout different oxygen cut off and starvation (OCS) times (6 h-72 h) and after the restoration of normal operational conditions. Sludge apparent viscosity and soluble extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) characteristics were measured to determine the activated sludge (AS) properties. Oxygen transfer, biological activity with specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) measurements during endogenous/exogenous conditions (without any external substrate/with external substrate consumption) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were measured to assess the AS performances. During the different stress times, AS deflocculated as a decrease of apparent viscosity was observed and microorganisms biodegraded the released EPS to survive. After aeration return, and under endogenous conditions, size exclusion chromatographic fingerprints of soluble EPS were modified and macromolecules probably of type humic-like substances appeared in significant quantities. These new macromolecules presumably acted as biosurfactants. Consequently, the liquid surface tension, as well as the oxygen transfer rate (OTR), decreased. Under exogenous conditions, high biological activity (SOUR = 11.8 +/- 2.1 mg(O2 x g(MLVSS)(-1) x h(-1)) compensated the decrease of oxygen transfer. Finally, AS biomass maintained a constant COD degradation rate (15.7 +/- 1.9 mg(O2) x g(MLVSS)(-1) x h(-1)) before and after the disturbances for all times tested. This work demonstrates that AS microorganisms can counteract concomitant oxygen and nutrients shortage when the duration of such a condition does not exceed 72 h. Dissociation of endogenous/exogenous conditions appears to offer an ideal laboratory model to study EPS and biomass activity effects on oxygen transfer.

  11. Persistence of biologically active compounds in aquatic systems: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boelter, A.M.; Fernandez, J.D.; Meyer, J.S.; Sanchez, D.A.; Bergman, H.L.

    1986-11-01

    Waters collected from two study sites were tested for persistence of biologically active compounds as the waters percolated through experimental media. At the first site, the Paraho Lysimeter in Anvil Points, Colorado, two leachate samples (early and late flow in Spring 1983) were collected from each of four piles of processed oil shale overlain by different thicknesses of soil. Although water quality differed among samples, six of eight lysimeter leachates tested were acutely toxic to an aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, and five were acutely toxic to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Water collected from a modified in situ (MIS) retort was percolated through columns containing three different types of soil. Raw leachate from the MIS spent shale was acutely toxic to an aquatic invertebrate, Ceriodaphnia dubia. The toxicity of samples from nine pore volumes of retort water percolating through a column containing a sandy soil increased with successive pore volumes, but leachate toxicity never equaled the toxicity of the retort water. In contrast, the first pore volumes of retort water or reconstituted water leached through a sandy loam soil were more toxic than the retort water; however, the second pore volumes of leachates were not toxic. First pore volume leachates of retort water percolating through a sandy clay loam soil were much less toxic than the retort water; second pore volume leachates were not toxic.

  12. Chelating ability and biological activity of hesperetin Schiff base.

    PubMed

    Lodyga-Chruscinska, Elzbieta; Symonowicz, Marzena; Sykula, Anna; Bujacz, Anna; Garribba, Eugenio; Rowinska-Zyrek, Magdalena; Oldziej, Stanislaw; Klewicka, Elzbieta; Janicka, Magdalena; Krolewska, Karolina; Cieslak, Marcin; Brodowska, Katarzyna; Chruscinski, Longin

    2015-02-01

    Hydrazone hesperetin Schiff base (HHSB) - N-[(±)-[5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-phenyl)chroman-4-ylidene]amino]benzamide has been synthesized and its crystal structure was determined. This compound was used for the formation of Cu(II) complexes in solid state and in solution which were characterized using different spectroscopic methods. The analyses of potentiometric titration curves revealed that monomeric and dimeric complexes of Cu(II) are formed above pH7. The ESI-MS (electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) spectra confirmed their formation. The EPR and UV-visible spectra evidenced the involvement of oxygen and nitrogen atoms in Cu(II) coordination. Hydrazone hesperetin Schiff base can show keto-enol tautomerism and coordinate Cu(II) in the keto (O(-), N, Oket) and in the enolate form (O(-), N, O(-)enol). The semi-empirical molecular orbital method PM6 and DFT (density functional theory) calculations have revealed that the more stable form of the dimeric complex is that one in which the ligand is present in the enol form. The CuHHSB complex has shown high efficiency in the cleavage of plasmid DNA in aqueous solution, indicating its potential as chemical nuclease. Studies on DNA interactions, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities have been undertaken to gain more information on the biological significance of HHSB and copper(II)-HHSB chelate species.

  13. Evaluation of biological activity of quantum dots in a microsystem.

    PubMed

    Grabowska-Jadach, Ilona; Haczyk, Maja; Drozd, Marcin; Fischer, Agnieszka; Pietrzak, Mariusz; Malinowska, Elżbieta; Brzózka, Zbigniew

    2016-02-01

    The presented work aimed at systematic investigation of biological activity of CdSex S1- x /ZnS and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs), whose surface was modified with different ligands. For these studies, we used a microfluidic system combined with fluorescence microscopy techniques, which enabled analysis of cells' morphology, viability, and QDs uptake. PDMS and glass-based microfluidic system enabled the precise control of the cell environment, allowed to examine five replications of each tested QDs concentrations (statistically significant number), monitor multiple cellular events, and avoid manual preparation of QDs dilutions. We investigated the influence of the core composition and the type of surface modifiers on QDs toxicity. We also determined whether the examined nanoparticles penetrate into the cells. For all tested nanoparticles, the decrease of cells' viability was observed when increasing nanoparticles concentration. The decrease of live cells' number in microchambers and the accumulation of the nanoparticles around cultured cells were observed. The effect of hydrocarbon chain length of surface modifiers and QDs core composition on the cell viability was confirmed in our tests.

  14. Biological activities caused by far-infrared radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoué, Shojiro; Kabaya, Morihiro

    1989-09-01

    Contrary to previous presumption, accumulated evidence indicates that far-infrared rays are biologically active. A small ceramic disk that emist far-infrared rays (4 16 μm) has commonly been applied to a local spot or a whole part of the body for exposure. Pioneering attempts to experimentally analyze an effect of acute and chronic radiation of far-infrared rays on living organisms have detected a growth-promoting effect in growing rats, a sleep-modulatory effect in freely behaving rats and an insomiac patient, and a blood circulation-enhancing effect in human skin. Question-paires to 542 users of far-infrared radiator disks embedded in bedelothes revealed that the majority of the users subjectively evaluated an improvement of their health. These effects on living organisms appear to be non-specifically triggered by an exposure to far-infrared rays, which eventually induce an increase in temperature of the body tissues or, more basically, an elevated motility of body fluids due to decrease in size of water clusters.

  15. Polyphenols from Bee Pollen: Structure, Absorption, Metabolism and Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Rzepecka-Stojko, Anna; Stojko, Jerzy; Kurek-Górecka, Anna; Górecki, Michał; Kabała-Dzik, Agata; Kubina, Robert; Moździerz, Aleksandra; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-12-04

    Bee pollen constitutes a natural source of antioxidants such as phenolic acids and flavonoids, which are responsible for its biological activity. Research has indicated the correlation between dietary polyphenols and cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancerogenic, immunostimulating, antianaemic effects, as well as their beneficial influence on osseous tissue. The beneficial effects of bee pollen on health result from the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids which possess anti-inflammatory properties, phytosterol and linolenic acid which play an anticancerogenic role, and polysaccharides which stimulate immunological activity. Polyphenols are absorbed in the alimentary tract, metabolised by CYP450 enzymes, and excreted with urine and faeces. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are characterised by high antioxidative potential, which is closely related to their chemical structure. The high antioxidant potential of phenolic acids is due to the presence and location of hydroxyl groups, a carboxyl group in the immediate vicinity of ortho-diphenolic substituents, and the ethylene group between the phenyl ring and the carboxyl group. As regards flavonoids, essential structural elements are hydroxyl groups at the C5 and C7 positions in the A ring, and at the C3' and C4' positions in the B ring, and a hydroxyl group at the C3 position in the C ring. Furthermore, both, the double bond between C2 and C3, and a ketone group at the C4 position in the C ring enhance the antioxidative potential of these compounds. Polyphenols have an ideal chemical structure for scavenging free radicals and for creating chelates with metal ions, which makes them effective antioxidants in vivo.

  16. Sustainable production of biologically active molecules of marine based origin.

    PubMed

    Murray, Patrick M; Moane, Siobhan; Collins, Catherine; Beletskaya, Tanya; Thomas, Olivier P; Duarte, Alysson W F; Nobre, Fernando S; Owoyemi, Ifeloju O; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Sette, L D; McHugh, Edward; Causse, Eric; Pérez-López, Paula; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma T; Rubiolo, Juan; Leirós, Marta; Botana, Luis M; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Allewaert, Celine; Verween, Annick; Vyverman, Wim; Laptev, Ivan; Sineoky, Sergei; Bisio, Angela; Manconi, Renata; Ledda, Fabio; Marchi, Mario; Pronzato, Roberto; Walsh, Daniel J

    2013-09-25

    The marine environment offers both economic and scientific potential which are relatively untapped from a biotechnological point of view. These environments whilst harsh are ironically fragile and dependent on a harmonious life form balance. Exploitation of natural resources by exhaustive wild harvesting has obvious negative environmental consequences. From a European industry perspective marine organisms are a largely underutilised resource. This is not due to lack of interest but due to a lack of choice the industry faces for cost competitive, sustainable and environmentally conscientious product alternatives. Knowledge of the biotechnological potential of marine organisms together with the development of sustainable systems for their cultivation, processing and utilisation are essential. In 2010, the European Commission recognised this need and funded a collaborative RTD/SME project under the Framework 7-Knowledge Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) Theme 2 Programme 'Sustainable culture of marine microorganisms, algae and/or invertebrates for high value added products'. The scope of that project entitled 'Sustainable Production of Biologically Active Molecules of Marine Based Origin' (BAMMBO) is outlined. Although the Union is a global leader in many technologies, it faces increasing competition from traditional rivals and emerging economies alike and must therefore improve its innovation performance. For this reason innovation is placed at the heart of a European Horizon 2020 Strategy wherein the challenge is to connect economic performance to eco performance. This article provides a synopsis of the research activities of the BAMMBO project as they fit within the wider scope of sustainable environmentally conscientious marine resource exploitation for high-value biomolecules.

  17. Enhanced biological nutrient removal in sequencing batch reactors operated as static/oxic/anoxic (SOA) process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dechao; Chen, Hongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Tianjing; Luo, Kun; Zeng, Guangming

    2013-09-01

    An innovative static/oxic/anoxic (SOA) activated sludge process characterized by static phase as a substitute for conventional anaerobic stage was developed to enhance biological nutrient removal (BNR) with influent ammonia of 20 and 40 mg/L in R1 and R2 reactors, respectively. The results demonstrated that static phase could function as conventional anaerobic stage. In R1 lower influent ammonia concentration facilitated more polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) growth, but secondary phosphorus release occurred due to NOx(-) depletion during post-anoxic period. In R2, however, denitrifying phosphorus removal proceeded with sufficient NOx(-). Both R1 and R2 saw simultaneous nitrification-denitrification. Glycogen was utilized to drive post-denitrification with denitrification rates in excess of typical endogenous decay rates. The anoxic stirring duration could be shortened from 3 to 1.5h to avoid secondary phosphorus release in R1 and little adverse impact was found on nutrients removal in R2.

  18. Arginine mimetic structures in biologically active antagonists and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Masic, Lucija Peterlin

    2006-01-01

    Peptidomimetics have found wide application as bioavailable, biostable, and potent mimetics of naturally occurring biologically active peptides. L-Arginine is a guanidino group-containing basic amino acid, which is positively charged at neutral pH and is involved in many important physiological and pathophysiological processes. Many enzymes display a preference for the arginine residue that is found in many natural substrates and in synthetic inhibitors of many trypsin-like serine proteases, e.g. thrombin, factor Xa, factor VIIa, trypsin, and in integrin receptor antagonists, used to treat many blood-coagulation disorders. Nitric oxide (NO), which is produced by oxidation of L-arginine in an NADPH- and O(2)-dependent process catalyzed by isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), exhibits diverse roles in both normal and pathological physiologies and has been postulated to be a contributor to the etiology of various diseases. Development of NOS inhibitors as well as analogs and mimetics of the natural substrate L-arginine, is desirable for potential therapeutic use and for a better understanding of their conformation when bound in the arginine binding site. The guanidino residue of arginine in many substrates, inhibitors, and antagonists forms strong ionic interactions with the carboxylate of an aspartic acid moiety, which provides specificity for the basic amino acid residue in the active side. However, a highly basic guanidino moiety incorporated in enzyme inhibitors or receptor antagonists is often associated with low selectivity and poor bioavailability after peroral application. Thus, significant effort is focused on the design and preparation of arginine mimetics that can confer selective inhibition for specific trypsin-like serine proteases and NOS inhibitors as well as integrin receptor antagonists and possess reduced basicity for enhanced oral bioavailability. This review will describe the survey of arginine mimetics designed to mimic the function of the

  19. Cloning, expression and biological activity of equine interleukin (IL)-5.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, F M; Vandergrifft, E; Bailey, S R; Sepulveda, M F; Goode, N T; Horohov, D W

    2003-09-15

    The cytokine, interleukin (IL)-5 stimulates eosinophil differentiation, activation and survival and can prime these cells, increasing the response to other mediators. In view of its many effects on eosinophils, IL-5 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic disease in man. Here we report the cloning of equine IL-5 and expression of the recombinant protein by transfection of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The cloned cDNA sequence consisted of 405 nucleotides and encoded a protein of 135 amino acids. There is >85% identity with feline, bovine, ovine, canine, and human IL-5 sequences at the nucleotide and protein level. Supernatants containing equine IL-5 were also examined for biological activity. CHO supernatant containing equine recombinant (eqr) IL-5, like the human ortholog (hrIL-5), induced concentration dependent equine eosinophil adherence to autologous serum-coated plastic (9.7+/-1.5% with a 1:100 dilution of eqrIL-5 and 9.1+/-1.6% adherence with 1 nM hrIL-5; n = 4). The eqr protein also caused concentration dependent superoxide production (11.9+/-2.4 nmol (reduced cytochrome (cyt) C)/10(6) cells at a 1:50 dilution, n = 4). In contrast, hrIL-5 only caused significant superoxide production when diluted in conditioned CHO medium, an effect that was inhibited by the anti-human mAb, TRFK5 (4.4+/-0.3 versus 0.3+/-0.4 nmol/10(6) cells for 0.5 nM hrIL-5 in the presence of the isotype matched IgG1 control (10 microM) and TRFK5 (10 microM), respectively). TRFK5 also significantly inhibited hrIL-5 induced adherence at concentrations of 0.3 microg/ml and above but had no significant inhibitory effect on either superoxide or adherence caused by eqrIL-5. These results demonstrate that equine IL-5 expressed by CHO cells stimulates equine eosinophils, suggesting that this cytokine could play a role in eosinophil recruitment and activation in equine allergic disease. The anti-human and murine moAb TRFK5 does not appear to recognise the equine protein.

  20. Microbial Survey of a Full-Scale, Biologically Active Filter for Treatment of Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    DeBry, Ronald W.; Lytle, Darren A.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial community of a full-scale, biologically active drinking water filter was surveyed using molecular techniques. Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira, Sphingomonadales, and Rhizobiales dominated the clone libraries. The results elucidate the microbial ecology of biological filters and demonstrate that biological treatment of drinking water should be considered a viable alternative to physicochemical methods. PMID:22752177

  1. Investigating the Use of Inquiry & Web-Based Activities with Inclusive Biology Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Waller, Patricia L.; Edwards, Lana; Darlene Kale, Santoro

    2007-01-01

    A Web-integrated biology program is used to explore how to best assist inclusive high school students to learn biology with inquiry-based activities. Classroom adaptations and instructional strategies teachers may use to assist in promoting biology learning with inclusive learners are discussed.

  2. Microbial survey of a full-scale, biologically active filter for treatment of drinking water.

    PubMed

    White, Colin P; Debry, Ronald W; Lytle, Darren A

    2012-09-01

    The microbial community of a full-scale, biologically active drinking water filter was surveyed using molecular techniques. Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira, Sphingomonadales, and Rhizobiales dominated the clone libraries. The results elucidate the microbial ecology of biological filters and demonstrate that biological treatment of drinking water should be considered a viable alternative to physicochemical methods.

  3. Activities for Students: Biology as a Source for Algebra Equations--The Heart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, Virginia M.

    2005-01-01

    The high school course that integrated first year algebra with an introductory environmental biology/anatomy and physiology course, in order to solve algebra problems is discussed. Lessons and activities for the course were taken by identifying the areas where mathematics and biology content intervenes may help students understand biology concepts…

  4. Insect-gene-activity detection system for chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackie, Ryan S.; Schilling, Amanda S.; Lopez, Arturo M.; Rayms-Keller, Alfredo

    2002-02-01

    Detection of multiple chemical and biological weapons (CBW) agents and/or complex mixtures of toxic industrial chemicals (TIC) is imperative for both the commercial and military sectors. In a military scenario, a multi-CBW attack would create confusion, thereby delaying decontamination and therapeutic efforts. In the commercial sector, polluted sites invariably contain a mixture of TIC. Novel detection systems capable of detecting CBW and TIC are sorely needed. While it may be impossible to build a detector capable of discriminating all the possible combinations of CBW, a detection system capable of statistically predicting the most likely composition of a given mixture is within the reach of current emerging technologies. Aquatic insect-gene activity may prove to be a sensitive, discriminating, and elegant paradigm for the detection of CBW and TIC. We propose to systematically establish the expression patterns of selected protein markers in insects exposed to specific mixtures of chemical and biological warfare agents to generate a library of biosignatures of exposure. The predicting capabilities of an operational library of biosignatures of exposures will allow the detection of emerging novel or genetically engineered agents, as well as complex mixtures of chemical and biological weapons agents. CBW and TIC are discussed in the context of war, terrorism, and pollution.

  5. GT-CATS: Tracking Operator Activities in Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Mitchell, Christine M.; Palmer, Everett A.

    1999-01-01

    Human operators of complex dynamic systems can experience difficulties supervising advanced control automation. One remedy is to develop intelligent aiding systems that can provide operators with context-sensitive advice and reminders. The research reported herein proposes, implements, and evaluates a methodology for activity tracking, a form of intent inferencing that can supply the knowledge required for an intelligent aid by constructing and maintaining a representation of operator activities in real time. The methodology was implemented in the Georgia Tech Crew Activity Tracking System (GT-CATS), which predicts and interprets the actions performed by Boeing 757/767 pilots navigating using autopilot flight modes. This report first describes research on intent inferencing and complex modes of automation. It then provides a detailed description of the GT-CATS methodology, knowledge structures, and processing scheme. The results of an experimental evaluation using airline pilots are given. The results show that GT-CATS was effective in predicting and interpreting pilot actions in real time.

  6. Is anaerobic digestion effective for the removal of organic micropollutants and biological activities from sewage sludge?

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gil, L; Papa, M; Feretti, D; Ceretti, E; Mazzoleni, G; Steimberg, N; Pedrazzani, R; Bertanza, G; Lema, J M; Carballa, M

    2016-10-01

    The occurrence of emerging organic micropollutants (OMPs) in sewage sludge has been widely reported; nevertheless, their fate during sludge treatment remains unclear. The objective of this work was to study the fate of OMPs during mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD), the most common processes used for sludge stabilization, by using raw sewage sludge without spiking OMPs. Moreover, the results of analytical chemistry were complemented with biological assays in order to verify the possible adverse effects (estrogenic and genotoxic) on the environment and human health in view of an agricultural (re)use of digested sludge. Musk fragrances (AHTN, HHCB), ibuprofen (IBP) and triclosan (TCS) were the most abundant compounds detected in sewage sludge. In general, the efficiency of the AD process was not dependent on operational parameters but compound-specific: some OMPs were highly biotransformed (e.g. sulfamethoxazole and naproxen), while others were only slightly affected (e.g. IBP and TCS) or even unaltered (e.g. AHTN and HHCB). The MCF-7 assay evidenced that estrogenicity removal was driven by temperature. The Ames test did not show point mutation in Salmonella typhimurium while the Comet test exhibited a genotoxic effect on human leukocytes attenuated by AD. This study highlights the importance of combining chemical analysis and biological activities in order to establish appropriate operational strategies for a safer disposal of sewage sludge. Actually, it was demonstrated that temperature has an insignificant effect on the disappearance of the parent compounds while it is crucial to decrease estrogenicity.

  7. Effect of activated sludge properties and membrane operation conditions on fouling characteristics in membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeok; Zhang, Kai; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Oerther, Daniel B; Sorial, George A

    2006-06-01

    Biofouling control is considered to be a major challenge in operating membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for the treatment of wastewater. This study examined the impact of biological, chemical, and physical properties of activated sludge on membrane filtration performance in laboratory-scale MBRs. Sludges with different microbial communities were produced using pseudo-continuous stirred-tank reactors and pseudo-plug flow reactors treating a synthetic paper mill wastewater. Various filtration resistances were used to investigate membrane fouling characteristics, and molecular biology tools targeting 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequences were used to identify predominant bacterial populations in the sludges or attached to the fouled membranes. Filtration experiments using axenic cultures of Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and Gordonia amarae were also performed to better understand the initiation and development of biofouling. The results showed that the tendency of membranes to biofoul depended upon membrane operating conditions as well as the properties of the activated sludge in the MBR systems. Specific bacterial populations, which were not dominant in the activated sludges, were selectively accumulated on the membrane surface leading to the development of irreversible biofouling.

  8. [The importance of the airborne microorganisms evaluation in the operating rooms: the biological risk for health care workers].

    PubMed

    Gioffrè, A; Dragone, M; Ammoscato, I; Iannò, A; Marramao, A; Samele, P; Sorrentino, D

    2007-01-01

    The operating room is a complex environment, traditionally considered at high infectious risk, for both the patients and the health care workers, they can contract diseases, because of the exposure for relatively long times to various dangerous chemical, physical and biological factors. The biological contamination in the operating rooms is mostly imputable to airborne and bloodborne microorganisms, whose primary source represent the staff: patients and operating team, while either secondary sources are the contaminate air introduced from the VCCC system and the use of the infect instruments. About 10% of the hospital infections are determined by airborne bacteria and a variable fraction of these, not only in immunocompromised patients but also in healthy people, may cause the respirators pathologies. The aim of this paper was to estimate the microbial contamination, in 20 hospitals located in three regions of the South Italy, for a total 81 operating rooms. The results show that 17 of the 20 operating units and 45 out of 81 operating rooms examined are contaminated. Periodic inspections should be carried out in order to control and lower the biological risk for both the patients and the health care workers.

  9. Preparing for the Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Threat Within the Contemporary Operating Environment (COE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    20 Chapter 3: CBRN Support for OPERATIONS ENDURING FREEDOM, NOBLE EAGLE...structure, the monograph assesses the impact and effectiveness of the CBRN organizations that supported OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM and OPERATION IRAQI...2) What assets were deployed in support of OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM and OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM? What was their impact? (3) What were the

  10. Joint Spacelab-J (SL-J) Activities at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The science laboratory, Spacelab-J (SL-J), flown aboard the STS-47 flight was a joint venture between NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) utilizing a manned Spacelab module. The mission conducted 24 materials science and 20 life science experiments, of which 35 were sponsored by NASDA, 7 by NASA, and two collaborative efforts. Materials science investigations covered such fields as biotechnology, electronic materials, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, glasses and ceramics, metals and alloys, and acceleration measurements. Life sciences included experiments on human health, cell separation and biology, developmental biology, animal and human physiology and behavior, space radiation, and biological rhythms. Test subjects included the crew, Japanese koi fish (carp), cultured animal and plant cells, chicken embryos, fruit flies, fungi and plant seeds, and frogs and frog eggs. Featured together in joint ground activities during the SL-J mission are NASA/NASDA personnel at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  11. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    PubMed

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  12. A sensitive geomagnetic activity index for space weather operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, D.; Xu, W. Y.; Zhao, M. X.; Chen, B.; Lu, J. Y.; Yang, G. L.

    2010-12-01

    There is an ongoing demand for real-time geomagnetic indices in space services. The traditional 3 h K index and K-derived planetary indices cannot issue alters promptly during large storms, and the 3 h interval is much larger than the time scales of ionospheric responses. To overcome these difficulties, we define a new consecutive and linear geomagnetic activity index, the range of hourly H component index (rH) with 1 min resolution, and develop a local rH index nowcast system for space weather operation, which can issue geomagnetic storm alerts quickly. We also derive Kp/Ap indices conveniently from a single station data to describe the global geomagnetic activity. Then we make a statistic comparison between rH and other definite index values during storm and find that rH is sensitive to the geomagnetic disturbance and can reflect the geomagnetic activity more delicately.

  13. Active-heave compensation benefits North Sea operations

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    Active-heave-compensation (AHC) systems have become prominent in semisubmersible drilling-rig (SDR) operations. The increasing number of retrofit AHC systems being introduced to the semisubmersible fleet has permitted actual comparisons and field evaluation of semisubmersibles having AHC systems with similar semisubmersibles having passive compensation only. The passive drillstring compensator (PDC) was designed to allow floating drilling rigs to maintain a near-constant load while in operation. The PDC can be described as damping or a low-rate spring device used to reduce disturbance or load variation caused by wave motion. The term active refers to the ability to react to movement, in real time, and maintain a high degree of hook-load stability. AHC, therefore, means the ability to keep the load (drillstring) in a stable position in reference to the seabed or well bottom throughout all the floating drilling rig`s heave motion. The AHC system comprises an actuating accumulator cylinder, heave sensors, a control unit (computer), an operator panel, and a hydraulic-power unit.

  14. Teacher Assessment of University of London A-Level Biology Practical Notebooks--A Report on the First Operational Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingdon, J. M.; Hartley, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    Candidates taking University of London Advanced Level Biology Examination submit their practical/field-work notebooks for assessment (contributing 10 percent to final grade). Describes research undertaken during the first operation examination, reviewing assessment method and analyzing and discussing moderation techniques. Indicates assessment and…

  15. Pilot scale study on retrofitting conventional activated sludge plant for biological nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Chiang, W W; Qasim, S R; Zhu, G; Crosby, E C

    1999-01-01

    Eutrophication of receiving waters due to the discharge of nitrogen and phosphorus through the wastewater effluent has received much interest in recent years. Numerous techniques have been proposed and aimed at retrofitting the existing conventional activated sludge process for nutrient removal. A pilot-scale research program was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a biological nutrient process for this purpose. The results indicated that creating an anoxic/anaerobic zone before aeration basin significantly enhances total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) removal. Without internal cycle, about 80 percent TP and TN removal were respectively achieved under their optimal conditions. However, adverse trends for phosphorus and nitrogen removal were observed when the ratio of return sludge to the influent was varied in the range between 0.5 and 3.0. The total phosphorus removal decreased as the concentration of BOD5 in the mixture of influent and return sludge decreased. Improved sludge settling properties and reduced foaming problems were also observed during the pilot plant operation. Based upon experimental results, the strategies to modify an existing conventional activated sludge plant into a biological nutrient removal (BNR) system are discussed.

  16. Information Flow Model of Human Extravehicular Activity Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Matthew J.; McGuire, Kerry M.; Feigh, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Future human spaceflight missions will face the complex challenge of performing human extravehicular activity (EVA) beyond the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Astronauts will become increasingly isolated from Earth-based mission support and thus will rely heavily on their own decision-making capabilities and onboard tools to accomplish proposed EVA mission objectives. To better address time delay communication issues, EVA characters, e.g. flight controllers, astronauts, etc., and their respective work practices and roles need to be better characterized and understood. This paper presents the results of a study examining the EVA work domain and the personnel that operate within it. The goal is to characterize current and historical roles of ground support, intravehicular (IV) crew and EV crew, their communication patterns and information needs. This work provides a description of EVA operations and identifies issues to be used as a basis for future investigation.

  17. Three Activities To Assist Biology Teachers in Presenting Conceptually Difficult Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Neil; Tulip, David

    1997-01-01

    Outlines three activities for different areas of biology that can serve as motivators for students or as demonstrations. Each activity is easy to organize and uses available materials. Topics include evolution, anaerobic respiration, and heat loss. (DDR)

  18. A glimpse on biological activities of tellurium compounds.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Rodrigo L O R; Gouvea, Iuri E; Juliano, Luiz

    2009-09-01

    Tellurium is a rare element which has been regarded as a toxic, non-essential trace element and its biological role is not clearly established to date. Besides of that, the biological effects of elemental tellurium and some of its inorganic and organic derivatives have been studied, leading to a set of interesting and promising applications. As an example, it can be highlighted the uses of alkali-metal tellurites and tellurates in microbiology, the antioxidant effects of organotellurides and diorganoditellurides and the immunomodulatory effects of the non-toxic inorganic tellurane, named AS-101, and the plethora of its uses. Inasmuch, the nascent applications of organic telluranes (organotelluranes) as protease inhibitors and its applications in disease models are the most recent contribution to the scenario of the biological effects and applications of tellurium and its compounds discussed in this manuscript.

  19. Using Active Learning to Teach Concepts and Methods in Quantitative Biology.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, Lindsay D; Adolph, Stephen C; Diniz Behn, Cecilia G; Braley, Emily; Drew, Joshua A; Full, Robert J; Gross, Louis J; Jungck, John A; Kohler, Brynja; Prairie, Jennifer C; Shtylla, Blerta; Miller, Laura A

    2015-11-01

    This article provides a summary of the ideas discussed at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology society-wide symposium on Leading Students and Faculty to Quantitative Biology through Active Learning. It also includes a brief review of the recent advancements in incorporating active learning approaches into quantitative biology classrooms. We begin with an overview of recent literature that shows that active learning can improve students' outcomes in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Education disciplines. We then discuss how this approach can be particularly useful when teaching topics in quantitative biology. Next, we describe some of the recent initiatives to develop hands-on activities in quantitative biology at both the graduate and the undergraduate levels. Throughout the article we provide resources for educators who wish to integrate active learning and technology into their classrooms.

  20. [Biological activity of electrochemically activated solutions obtained in a diaphragm electrolyser].

    PubMed

    Miroshnikov, A I; Konovalov, V F; Serikov, I S

    2006-01-01

    The biological activity of the catholyte and anolyte of bidistilled water in experiments with the germination of wheat grains in the period from March to May has been studied. The activity of solutions, which was characterized by the grain germination index, was high at the beginning of the period, then it gradually decreased and was equal to zero at the middle of the period; at the end of the period it gradually increased almost to initial values. It has been established that the effectiveness of bidistilled water anolyte was as a rule higher than that of catholyte throughout the observation period. At the beginning and end, the stimulating effect of anolyte was 5-5.5 times greater than that of catholyte. The seasonal changes in the biological activity of M 9 medium catholyte were compared with those of bidistilled water anolyte and catholyte. The stimulating effect of M 9 catholyte was estimated by changes in the growth of E. coli cells. The stimulating effect, which was estimated from an increase in the optical density of cell suspension in the initial period at a cultivation temperature of 20 degrees C was 55-60% relative to control (untreated medium). Then it decreased almost to zero in the middle of the period to increase again approximately to the initial values. The assumption has been made that the physicochemical causes of the influence of catholyte and anolyte of bidistilled water on wheat grains and of the culture medium catholyte on E. coli cells are of different nature.

  1. Biological Activities of Fusarochromanone: a Potent Anti-cancer Agent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-03

    anti-angiogenic properties of FC101, we used the MS1 mouse microvascular endo- thelial cell line, which was selected for its high VEGFR2 expression...and Physics , LSU Shreveport, One University Place, Shreveport, LA 71115, USA. 2Department of Biological Science, LSU Shreveport, Shreveport, USA

  2. Potential biological activities and bioavailability of alfrutamide and caffedymine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfrutamide and caffedymine are clovamide-type phenolic amides whose analogues are found in numerous plants including garlic and cocoa. However, potential health effects of the amides are largely unknown. For last ten years, several amides have been synthesized and their potential biological activi...

  3. Biological Assessment of the Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory on Federally Listed Threatened and Endangered Species

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Leslie A.

    2006-09-19

    This biological assessment considers the effects of continuing to operate Los Alamos National Laboratory on Federally listed threatened or endangered species, based on current and future operations identified in the 2006 Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement for the Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory (SWEIS; DOE In Prep.). We reviewed 40 projects analyzed in the SWEIS as well as two aspects on ongoing operations to determine if these actions had the potential to affect Federally listed species. Eighteen projects that had not already received U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) consultation and concurrence, as well as the two aspects of ongoing operations, ecological risk from legacy contaminants and the Outfall Reduction Project, were determined to have the potential to affect threatened or endangered species. Cumulative impacts were also analyzed.

  4. Telemanipulation - a special activity in remotely controlled operations

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.W. ); Andre, Y. )

    1992-01-01

    Work to be done in areas hostile to humans needs special and careful preparation. If short-term entry is possible, groups of men can be trained to do the necessary work. If not, special devices have to be designed, built, and tested on mockups before the real work can be executed. Based on experience gained from maintenance in car production and test programs for a reprocessing facility, it was decided to train a special group of men to do remotely controlled work in hostile areas without endangering them and to use their personal experience as the basis for future work. This is the old-fashioned way of all professions. Some needs to be able to do that remotely controlled work with normally existing operational means and combinations of them like cranes, mechanical and electromechanical master slave manipulators (MMSMs and EMSMs), saws, files, hammer, tig-welding equipment, etc., in air as well as underwater. This paper discusses use of a remote operator manipulator (ROM), remote operator welder (ROW), a test of underwater work, and the repair of two activated jets pumps of a boiling water reactor BWR with a fueling machine, reactor crane, EMSM, and conventional tools.

  5. THERMAL IMAGING OF ACTIVE MAGNETIC REGERNERATOR MCE MATERIALS DURING OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Shassere, Benjamin; West, David L; Abdelaziz, Omar; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen

    2012-01-01

    An active magnetic regenerator (AMR) prototype was constructed that incorporates a Gd sheet into the regenerator wall to enable visualization of the system s thermal transients. In this experiment, the thermal conditions inside the AMR are observed under a variety of operating conditions. An infrared (IR) camera is employed to visualize the thermal transients within the AMR. The IR camera is used to visually and quantitatively evaluate the temperature difference and thus giving means to calculate the performance of the system under the various operating conditions. Thermal imaging results are presented for two differing experimental test runs. Real time imaging of the thermal state of the AMR has been conducted while operating the system over a range of conditions. A 1 Tesla twin-coil electromagnet (situated on a C frame base) is used for this experiment such that all components are stationary during testing. A modular, linear reciprocating system has been realized in which the effects of regenerator porosity and utilization factor can be investigated. To evaluate the performance variation in porosity and utilization factor the AMR housing was constructed such that the plate spacing of the Gd sheets may be varied. Each Gd sheet has dimensions of 38 mm wide and 66 mm long with a thickness of 1 mm and the regenerator can hold a maximum of 29 plates with a spacing of 0.25 mm. Quantitative and thermal imaging results are presented for several regenerator configurations.

  6. Formal Operational Precocity and Achievement in Biology among Some Nigerian High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehindero, Olusola Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Compares the performances on a battery of six Piagetian tasks of 80 Nigerian high school students classified as high and low achievers in biology. The relationship between performance of very bright biology students (high achievers) and intellectual precocity is also investigated. (HM)

  7. Phlorotannins from Ecklonia cava (Phaeophyceae): biological activities and potential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Wijesekara, Isuru; Yoon, Na Young; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    The importance of bioactive derivatives as functional ingredients has been well recognized due to their valuable health beneficial effects. Therefore, isolation and characterization of novel functional ingredients with biological activities from seaweeds have gained much attention. Ecklonia cava Kjellman is an edible seaweed, which has been recognized as a rich source of bioactive derivatives mainly, phlorotannins. These phlorotannins exhibit various beneficial biological activities such as antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, antihypertensive, matrix metalloproteinase enzyme inhibition, hyaluronidase enzyme inhibition, radioprotective, and antiallergic activities. This review focuses on biological activities of phlorotannins with potential health beneficial applications in functional foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmeceuticals.

  8. Phthalides: Distribution in Nature, Chemical Reactivity, Synthesis, and Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    León, Alejandra; Del-Ángel, Mayela; Ávila, José Luis; Delgado, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    oxidation, reduction, addition, elimination, and cycloaddition reactions, and treatments with Lewis acids of (Z)-ligustilide have afforded linear dimers. Some intramolecular condensations and differentiated cyclizations of the dimeric phthalides have been carried out, providing evidences for the particular chemical reactivity of these compounds.Several structural modifications of phthalides have been carried out subjecting them to microbial transformations by different species of bacteria, fungi and algae, and these included resolutions of racemic mixtures and oxidations, among others.The [π4s + π2s] and [π2s + π2s] cycloadditions of (Z)-ligustilide for the synthesis of dimeric phthalides have been reported, and different approaches involving cyclizations, Alder-Rickert reactions, Sharpless asymmetric hydroxylations, or Grignard additions have been used for the synthesis of monomeric phthalides. The use of phthalides as building blocks for divergent oriented synthesis has been proven.Many of the naturally occurring phthalides display different biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, cytotoxic, and anti-inflammatory effects, among many others, with a considerable recent research on the topic. In the case of compounds isolated from the Apiaceae, the bioactivities correlate with the traditional medicinal uses of the natural sources. Some monomeric phthalides have shown their ability to attenuate certain neurological diseases, including stroke, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.The present contribution covers the distribution of phthalides in nature and the findings in the structural diversity, chemical reactivity, biotransformations, syntheses, and bioactivity of natural and semisynthetic phthalides.

  9. Physicochemical and porosity characteristics of thermally regenerated activated carbon polluted with biological activated carbon process.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lihua; Liu, Wenjun; Jiang, Renfu; Wang, Zhansheng

    2014-11-01

    The characteristics of thermally regenerated activated carbon (AC) polluted with biological activated carbon (BAC) process were investigated. The results showed that the true micropore and sub-micropore volume, pH value, bulk density, and hardness of regenerated AC decreased compared to the virgin AC, but the total pore volume increased. XPS analysis displayed that the ash contents of Al, Si, and Ca in the regenerated AC respectively increased by 3.83%, 2.62% and 1.8%. FTIR spectrum showed that the surface functional groups of virgin and regenerated AC did not change significantly. Pore size distributions indicated that the AC regeneration process resulted in the decrease of micropore and macropore (D>10 μm) volume and the increase of mesopore and macropore (0.1 μmbiological waste (spent AC) from BAC process.

  10. Performance and mechanism of low-frequency ultrasound to regenerate the biological activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng; Sun, Yakun; Wang, Dongying; Sun, Zhehao; Chen, Ming; Zhou, Zhi; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Biological activated carbon (BAC) filter has been widely used as an effective water treatment but regenerations of BAC are costly. Ultrasound has been successfully applied for regeneration of activated carbon but has been less frequently applied to the regenerate the BAC. In this study, bench-scale and pilot-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the regeneration performance and mechanism of BAC with low-frequency ultrasound. Adsorption indices, microbiological parameters, pore structure and removal efficiencies were further investigated. The results showed that low-frequency ultrasound could regenerate the BAC effectively. The regeneration effects were significantly affected by the frequency, sonication intensity, sonication time, and water temperature, but not the usage time of the BAC. The optimized conditions were identified as 40kHz of frequency, 115×10(-3)W/cm(3) of sonication intensity, 25-30°C of water temperature and 5min of sonication time. The iodine value and methylene blue value increased from 480mg/g and 100mg/g to 680mg/g and 133mg/g respectively, the biomass decreased from 310nmolP/gC to 245nmolP/gC, while the biological activity increased from 0.03mg O2/hgC to 0.0355mg O2/hgC under the optimized condition. After three months of continuous operation, removal efficiencies of regenerated BAC were still high for the removal of organic contaminants, atrazine, and 2-MIB. Analysis of pore structure, BET surface area, and scanning electron microscopy indicated that ultrasound mainly acted on surface and macro-pores of BAC through the high-speed microjets and high-pressure microstreams resulted from the collapse of cavitation bubbles.

  11. Synthetic Protocol for AFCS: A Biologically Active Fluorescent Castasterone Analog Conjugated to an Alexa Fluor 647 Dye.

    PubMed

    Winne, Johan M; Irani, Niloufer G; Van den Begin, Jos; Madder, Annemieke

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic derivatization of hormonally active brassinosteroids (BRs) can provide useful small molecule tools to probe BR signaling pathways, such as fluorescent analogs. However, most biologically active BRs are not suitable for direct chemical conjugation techniques because their derivatization typically requires extensive synthetic work and chemistry expertise. Here, we describe an operationally simple, two-step procedure to prepare and purify an Alexa Fluor 647-castasterone (AFCS) from commercially available materials. The reported strategy is also amenable to the introduction of various other amine-based labeling groups.

  12. Counter Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Operations, This document compliments JCS Pub 3-11

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-16

    of all education is the ability to make yourself do the thing you have to do, when it ought to be done, whether you like it or not. T. H . Huxley...to present.] Douglas, Joseph, and Livingstone, Neil , America the Vulnerable: The Threat of Chemical / Biological War- fare: The New Shape of...the Conflict in the Gulf (Little, Brown, and Company). 1995. Harris, Sheldon H ., Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932-45, and the

  13. Startup and long term operation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal in continuous-flow reactor with granules.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    The startup and long term operation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in a continuous-flow reactor (CFR) with granules were investigated in this study. Through reducing the settling time from 9min to 3min gradually, the startup of EBPR in a CFR with granules was successfully realized in 16days. Under continuous-flow operation, the granules with good phosphorus and COD removal performance were stably operated for more than 6months. And the granules were characterized with particle size of around 960μm, loose structure and good settling ability. During the startup phase, polysaccharides (PS) was secreted excessively by microorganisms to resist the influence from the variation of operational mode. Results of relative quantitative PCR indicated that granules dominated by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) were easier accumulated in the CFR because more excellent settling ability was needed in the system.

  14. Mission Operations Control Room Activities during STS-2 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) activities during STS-2 mission. Overall view of the MOCR in the Johnson Space Center's Mission Control Center. At far right is Eugene F. Kranz, Deputy Director of Flight Operations. At the flight director console in front of Kranz's FOD console are Flight Directors M.P. Frank, Neil B. Hutchinson and Donald R. Puddy as well as others (39506); Wide-angle view of flight controllers in the MOCR. Clifford E. Charlesworth, JSC Deputy Director, huddles with several flight directors for STS-2 at the flight director console. Kranz, is at far right of frame (39507); Dr. Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., JSC Director, center, celebrates successful flight and landing of STS-2 with a cigar in the MOCR. He is flanked by Dr. Maxime A Faget, left, Director of Engineering and Development, and Thomas L. Moser, of the Structures and Mechanics Division (39508); Flight Director Donald R. Puddy, near right, holds replica of the STS-2 insignia. Insignias on the opposite wall

  15. Biologically Active Chorionic Gonadotropin: Synthesis by the Human Fetus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, W. G.; Kuhn, R. W.; Jaffe, R. B.

    1983-04-01

    The kidney, and to a slight extent the liver, of human fetuses were found to synthesize and secrete the α subunit common to glycoprotein hormones. Fetal lung and muscle did not synthesize this protein. Since fetal kidney and liver were previously found to synthesize β chorionic gonadotropin, their ability to synthesize bioactive chorionic gonadotropin was also determined. The newly synthesized hormone bound to mouse Leydig cells and elicited a biological response: namely, the synthesis of testosterone. These results suggest that the human fetus may participate in metabolic homeostasis during its development.

  16. Low Budget Biology 3: A Collection of Low Cost Labs and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartski, Bert; Wartski, Lynn Marie

    This document contains biology labs, demonstrations, and activities that use low budget materials. The goal is to get students involved in the learning process by experiencing biology. Each lab has a teacher preparation section which outlines the purpose of the lab, some basic information, a list of materials , and how to prepare the different…

  17. Effects of Biology Teachers' Professional Knowledge and Cognitive Activation on Students' Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Förtsch, Christian; Werner, Sonja; von Kotzebue, Lena; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of teachers' biology-specific dimensions of professional knowledge--pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and content knowledge (CK)--and cognitively activating biology instruction, as a feature of instructional quality, on students' learning. The sample comprised 39 German secondary school teachers whose lessons on…

  18. Active Metamaterial Based Terahertz Polarimeter for Spectroscopic Detection of Chemical and Biological Hazards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Active Metamaterial Based Terahertz Polarimeter for Spectroscopic Detection of Chemical and Biological Hazards by Grace D. Metcalfe ...for Spectroscopic Detection of Chemical and Biological Hazards Grace D. Metcalfe and Michael Wraback Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL...GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Grace D. Metcalfe , Michael Wraback, Richard D. Averitt, and Xin Zhang 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  19. An Introduction to Biological Modeling Using Coin Flips to Predict the Outcome of a Diffusion Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Greg Q.; Rodriguez, Juan; Chirhart, Scott; Messina, Troy C.

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase students' awareness for and comfort with mathematical modeling of biological processes, and increase their understanding of diffusion, the following lab was developed for use in 100-level, majors/non-majors biology and neuroscience courses. The activity begins with generation of a data set that uses coin-flips to replicate…

  20. Two-stage coal liquefaction process materials from the Wilsonville Facility operated in the nonintegrated and integrated modes: chemical analyses and biological testing

    SciTech Connect

    Later, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    This document reports the results from chemical analyses and biological testing of process materials sampled during operation of the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility (Wilsonville, Alabama) in both the noncoupled or nonintegrated (NTSL Run 241) and coupled or integrated (ITSL Run 242) two-stage liquefaction operating modes. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity assays were conducted in conjunction with chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses to provide detailed, comparative chemical and biological assessments of several NTSL and ITSL process materials. In general, the NTSL process materials were biologically more active and chemically more refractory than analogous ITSL process materials. To provide perspective, the NTSL and ITSL results are compared with those from similar testing and analyses of other direct coal liquefaction materials from the solvent refined coal (SRC) I, SRC II and EDS processes. Comparisons are also made between two-stage coal liquefaction materials from the Wilsonville pilot plant and the C.E. Lummus PDU-ITSL Facility in an effort to assess scale-up effects in these two similar processes. 36 references, 26 figures, 37 tables.

  1. Relationship between protozoan and metazoan communities and operation and performance parameters in a textile sewage activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Araújo dos Santos, Liliana; Ferreira, Vânia; Pereira, Maria Olívia; Nicolau, Ana

    2014-08-01

    The present study aims at investigating the possibility of assessing performance and depuration conditions of an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant through an exploration of the microfauna. The plant, receiving textile industrial (70%) and domestic (30%) sewage, consists of a two-step biological depurating plant, with activated sludge followed by a percolating system. A total of 35 samples were analyzed during five months, and 30 taxa of protozoa and small metazoa were found. Epistylis rotans, Vorticella microstoma, Aspidisca cicada and Arcella sp. were the most frequent protozoa identified. Several significant correlations between biological, physical-chemical and operational parameters were determined, but no significant correlations could be established between biological parameters and removal efficiencies. The Sludge Biotic Index (SBI) reflected the overall state of the community but only presented statistically significant correlations with the influent total suspended solids (TSS), total suspended solids in mixed-liquor (MLTSS) and dissolved oxygen (DO). The determination of key groups and taxa along with general community parameters showed to have potential value as indicators of the depuration conditions. Despite the impossibility of correlating biological parameters and the removal efficiencies, the present study attests the value of the microfauna to assess the operation of the activated sludge systems even in the case of non-conventional plants and/or plants receiving industrial sewage.

  2. Comparison of Selective Culturing and Biochemical Techniques for Measuring Biological Activity in Geothermal Process Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Pryfogle, Peter Albert

    2000-09-01

    For the past three years, scientists at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have been conducting studies aimed at determining the presence and influence of bacteria found in geothermal plant cooling water systems. In particular, the efforts have been directed at understanding the conditions that lead to the growth and accumulation of biomass within these systems, reducing the operational and thermal efficiency. Initially, the methods selected were based upon the current practices used by the industry and included the collection of water quality parameters, the measurement of soluble carbon, and the use of selective medial for the determination of the number density of various types of organisms. This data has been collected on a seasonal basis at six different facilities located at the Geysers’ in Northern California. While this data is valuable in establishing biological growth trends in the facilities and providing an initial determination of upset or off-normal conditions, more detailed information about the biological activity is needed to determine what is triggering or sustaining the growth in these facilities in order to develop improved monitoring and treatment techniques. In recent years, new biochemical approaches, based upon the analyses of phospholipid fatty acids and DNA recovered from environmental samples, have been developed and commercialized. These techniques, in addition to allowing the determination of the quantity of biomass, also provide information on the community composition and the nutritional status of the organisms. During the past year, samples collected from the condenser effluents of four of the plants from The Geysers’ were analyzed using these methods and compared with the results obtained from selective culturing techniques. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the cost-benefit of implementing these techniques for tracking microbial activity in the plant study, in place of the selective culturing

  3. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Erika A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody–drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products. PMID:26833854

  4. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Crane, Erika A; Gademann, Karl

    2016-03-14

    Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody-drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products.

  5. Biological activities and potential health benefit effects of polysaccharides isolated from Lycium barbarum L.

    PubMed

    Jin, Mingliang; Huang, Qingsheng; Zhao, Ke; Shang, Peng

    2013-03-01

    Recently, isolation and investigation of novel ingredients with biological activities and health benefit effects from natural resources have attracted a great deal of attention. The fruit of Lycium barbarum L., a well-known Chinese herbal medicine as well as valuable nourishing tonic, has been used historically as antipyretic, anti-inflammation and anti-senile agent for thousands of years. Modern pharmacological experiments have proved that polysaccharide is one of the major ingredients responsible for those biological activities in L. barbarum. It has been demonstrated that L. barbarum polysaccharides had various important biological activities, such as antioxidant, immunomodulation, antitumor, neuroprotection, radioprotection, anti-diabetes, hepatoprotection, anti-osteoporosis and antifatigue. The purpose of the present review is to summarize previous and current references regarding biological activities as well as potential health benefits of L. barbarum polysaccharides.

  6. Isolation, biological activity, synthesis, and medicinal chemistry of the pederin/mycalamide family of natural products.

    PubMed

    Mosey, R Adam; Floreancig, Paul E

    2012-09-01

    This review highlights the broad range of science that has arisen from the isolation of pederin, the mycalamides, theopederins, and onnamides, and psymberin. Specific topics include structure determination, biological activity, synthesis, and analog preparation and analysis.

  7. Bioactive Components and Functional Properties of Biologically Activated Cereal Grains: A Bibliographic Review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arashdeep; Sharma, Savita

    2015-10-14

    Whole grains provide energy, nutrients, fibres and bioactive compounds that may synergistically contribute to their protective effects. A wide range of these compounds is affected by germination. While some compounds, such as β-glucans are degraded, others, like antioxidants and total phenolics are increased by means of biological activation of grains. The water and oil absorption capacity as well as emulsion and foaming capacity of biologically activated grains are also improved. Application of biological activation of grains is of emerging interest, which may significantly enhance the nutritional, functional and bioactive content of grains, as well as improve palatability of grain foods in a natural way. Therefore, biological activation of cereals can be a way to produce food grains enriched with health promoting compounds and enhanced functional attributes.

  8. IMAGING BRAIN ACTIVATION: SIMPLE PICTURES OF COMPLEX BIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Dienel, Gerald A.; Cruz, Nancy F.

    2009-01-01

    Elucidation of biochemical, physiological, and cellular contributions to metabolic images of brain is important for interpretation of images of brain activation and disease. Discordant brain images obtained with [14C]deoxyglucose (DG) and [1- or 6-14C]glucose were previously ascribed to increased glycolysis and rapid [14C]lactate release from tissue, but direct proof of [14C]lactate release from activated brain structures is lacking. Analysis of factors contributing to images of focal metabolic activity evoked by monotonic acoustic stimulation of conscious rats reveals that labeled metabolites of [1- or 6-14C]glucose are quickly released from activated cells due to decarboxylation reactions, spreading via gap junctions, and efflux via lactate transporters. Label release from activated tissue accounts for most of the additional [14C]glucose consumed during activation compared to rest. Metabolism of [3,4-14C]glucose generates about four times more [14C]lactate compared to 14CO2 in extracellular fluid suggesting that most lactate is not locally oxidized. In brain slices, direct assays of lactate uptake from extracellular fluid demonstrate that astrocytes have faster influx and higher transport capacity than neurons. Also, lactate transfer from a single astrocyte to other gap junction-coupled astrocytes exceeds astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttling. Astrocytes and neurons have excess capacities for glycolysis, and oxidative metabolism in both cell types rises during sensory stimulation. The energetics of brain activation is quite complex and the proportion of glucose consumed by astrocytes and neurons, lactate generation by either cell type, and the contributions of both cell types to brain images during brain activation are likely to vary with the stimulus paradigm and activated pathways. PMID:19076439

  9. Activated Biological Filters (ABF Towers). Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooley, John F.

    This instructor's manual contains materials needed to teach a two-lesson unit on activated bio-filters (ABF). These materials include: (1) an overview of the two lessons; (2) lesson plans; (3) lecture outlines (keyed to a set of slides designed for use with the lessons); (4) overhead transparency masters; (5) worksheets for each lesson (with…

  10. Activated Biological Filters (ABF Towers). Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooley, John F.

    This student manual contains textual material for a two-lesson unit on activated bio-filters (ABF). The first lesson (the sewage treatment plant) examines those process units that are unique to the ABF system. The lesson includes a review of the structural components of the ABF system and their functions and a discussion of several operational…

  11. Biological Activities of 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole Derivatives: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Mohammed Afzal; Suresh, Bhojraj

    2012-01-01

    2-Mercaptobenzothiazoles are an important class of bioactive and industrially important organic compounds. These compounds are reported for their antimicrobial and antifungal activities, and are subsequently highlighted as a potent mechanism-based inhibitor of several enzymes like acyl coenzyme A cholesterol acyltransferase, monoamine oxidase, heat shock protein 90, cathepsin D, and c-Jun N-terminal kinases. These derivatives are also known to possess antitubercular, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, amoebic, antiparkinsonian, anthelmintic, antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, antiulcer, chemoprotective, and selective CCR3 receptor antagonist activity. This present review article focuses on the pharmacological profile of 2-mercaptobenzothiazoles with their potential activities. PMID:23264933

  12. Biological Studies in Childhood Schizophrenia: Plasma and RBC Cholinesterase Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Alexander R.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A comparison of plasma (pseudo) cholinesterase and erythrocyte (true) cholinesterase activity in 16 male childhood schizophrenic patients and 16 male nonpsychotic hospitalized controls revealed no significant differences between the two groups. (Author)

  13. Biological activity of camel milk casein following enzymatic digestion.

    PubMed

    Salami, Maryam; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Moosavi-Movahedi, Faezeh; Ehsani, Mohammad Reza; Yousefi, Reza; Farhadi, Mohammad; Niasari-Naslaji, Amir; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Haertlé, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis with digestive enzymes of camel whole casein and beta-casein (β-CN) on their antioxidant and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory properties. Peptides in each hydrolysate were fractionated with ultra-filtration membranes. The antioxidant activity was determined using a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) scale. After enzymatic hydrolysis, both antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of camel whole casein and camel β-CN were enhanced. Camel whole casein and β-CN showed significant ACE-inhibitory activities after hydrolysis with pepsin alone and after pepsinolysis followed by trypsinolysis and chymotrypsinolysis. Camel β-CN showed high antioxidant activity after hydrolysis with chymotrypsin. The results of this study suggest that when camel milk is consumed and digested, the produced peptides start to act as natural antioxidants and ACE-inhibitors.

  14. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Camphor Hydrazone and Imine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Emerson T.; da Silva Araújo, Adriele; Moraes, Adriana M.; de Souza, Leidiane A.; Silva Lourenço, Maria Cristina; de Souza, Marcus V. N.; Wardell, James L.; Wardell, Solange M. S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Both sonochemical and classical methodologies have been employed to convert camphor, 1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one, C9H16C=O, into a number of derivatives including hydrazones, C9H16C=N-NHAr 3, imines, C9H16C=N-R 7, and the key intermediate nitroimine, C9H16C=N-NO2 6. Reactions of nitroamine 6 with nucleophiles by classical methods provided the desired compounds in a range of yields. In evaluations of activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, compound 7j exhibited the best activity (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 3.12 µg/mL), comparable to that of the antitubercular drug ethambutol. The other derivatives displayed modest antimycobacterial activities at 25–50 µg/mL. In in vitro tests against cancer cell lines, none of the synthesized camphor compounds exhibited cytotoxic activities. PMID:28117313

  15. CHARACTERIZATION ADN BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM ARMILLARIA TABESCENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethyl acetate extracts from liquid cultures of Armillaria tabescens showed good antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Chemical analyses of extract constituents led to the isolation and identification of two new co...

  16. Activity-dependent dendritic release of BDNF and biological consequences

    PubMed Central

    Kuczewski, Nicola; Porcher, Christophe; Lessmann, Volkmar; Medina, Igor; Gaiarsa, Jean-Luc

    2009-01-01

    Network construction and reorganization is modulated by the level and pattern of synaptic activity generated in the nervous system. During the past decades, neurotrophins, and in particular brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), have emerged as attractive candidates for linking synaptic activity and brain plasticity. Thus, neurotrophin expression and secretion are under the control of activity-dependent mechanisms and, besides their classical role in supporting neuronal survival neurotrophins, modulate nearly all key steps of network construction from neuronal migration to experience-dependent refinement of local connections. In this paper, we provide an overview of recent findings showing that BDNF can serve as a target-derived messenger for activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and development at the single cell level. PMID:19156544

  17. Synthesis and biological activity of nifuroxazide and analogs. II.

    PubMed

    Tavares, L C; Chisté, J J; Santos, M G; Penna, T C

    1999-09-01

    Nifuroxazyde and six analogs were synthesized by varying the substitute from the para-position of the benzenic ring and the heteroatom of the heterocyclic ring. The MIC of seven resultant compounds was determined by serial dilutions, testing the ATCC 25923 strain of Staphylococcus aureus. A significant increase in the anti-microbial activity of thyophenic analogs, as compared with furanic and pyrrholic analogs, was observed. In addition, unlike the cyano and hydroxyl groups, the acetyl group promoted anti-microbial activity.

  18. Assessing the biological activity of the glucan phosphatase laforin

    PubMed Central

    Romá-Mateo, Carlos; Raththagala, Madushi; Gentry, Mathew S.; Sanz, Pascual

    2017-01-01

    Summary Glucan phosphatases are a recently discovered family of enzymes that dephosphorylate either starch or glycogen and are essential for proper starch metabolism in plants and glycogen metabolism in humans. Mutations in the gene encoding the only human glucan phosphatase, laforin, result in the fatal, neurodegenerative, epilepsy known as Lafora disease. Here, we describe phosphatase assays to assess both generic laforin phosphatase activity and laforin’s unique glycogen phosphatase activity. PMID:27514803

  19. New analogues of acyclovir--synthesis and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Stankova, Ivanka; Schichkov, Stoyan; Kostova, Kalina; Galabov, Angel

    2010-01-01

    New acyclovir esters with peptidomimetics were synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their antiviral activity against the replication of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). The influence of peptidomimetics containing oxazole and thiazolyl-thiazole moieties on the antiviral activity is also reported. The esters were synthesized using the coupling reagents N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N,N-dimethyl-4-aminopyridine (DMAP) as a catalyst.

  20. Terpenes from the soft corals of the genus Sarcophyton: chemistry and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lin-Fu; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2013-12-01

    This review covers structural diversity and biological activities of terpenes from soft corals of the genus of Sarcophyton, reported from 1995 to July, 2011. During this period, besides undefined species, 16 species of the genus Sarcophyton, from different geographical areas, had been chemically examined. Two hundred and five terpenes had been isolated from this genus, including eleven sesquiterpenes, 165 diterpenes, 29 biscembranoids, some of which had novel skeletons. They exhibited various biological features, such as antifeedant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antifouling activities.

  1. Effect of cooking and cold storage on biologically active antibiotic residues in meat.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, J. J.; Campbell, N.; Conaghan, T.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to see if cooking or cold storage would destroy or decrease the level of biologically active antibiotic in tissues from animals given therapeutic doses of antibiotic on three occasions prior to slaughter. The effects of cooking and cold storage on the biological activity of the residues of ampicillin, chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline, streptomycin and sulphadimidine were varied; in some instances the effects were minimal, in others nil. PMID:7310129

  2. Research and Teaching: Instructor Use of Group Active Learning in an Introductory Biology Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Anna Jo; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Active learning (or learner-centered) pedagogies have been shown to enhance student learning in introductory biology courses. Student collaboration has also been shown to enhance student learning and may be a critical part of effective active learning practices. This study focused on documenting the use of individual active learning and group…

  3. Low Budget Biology. A Collection of Low Cost Labs and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartski, Bert; Wartski, Lynn Marie

    This document contains a collection of low cost labs and activities. The activities are organized into the following units: Chemistry; Microbiology; DNA to Chromosomes; Genetics; Evolution; Classification, Protist, and Fungus; Plant; Invertebrate; Human Biology; and Ecology and Miscellaneous. Some of the activities within these units include: (1)…

  4. Using Active Learning in a Studio Classroom to Teach Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogaj, Luiza A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the conversion of a lecture-based molecular biology course into an active learning environment in a studio classroom. Specific assignments and activities are provided as examples. The goal of these activities is to involve students in collaborative learning, teach them how to participate in the learning process, and give…

  5. Biological Activities of Aerial Parts Extracts of Euphorbia characias

    PubMed Central

    Pisano, Maria Barbara; Cosentino, Sofia; Viale, Silvia; Spanò, Delia; Corona, Angela; Esposito, Francesca; Tramontano, Enzo; Montoro, Paola; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Medda, Rosaria; Pintus, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-HIV, and cholinesterase inhibitory activities of aqueous and alcoholic extracts from leaves, stems, and flowers of Euphorbia characias. The extracts showed a high antioxidant activity and were a good source of total polyphenols and flavonoids. Ethanolic extracts from leaves and flowers displayed the highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, showing potential properties against Alzheimer's disease. Antimicrobial assay showed that leaves and flowers extracts were active against all Gram-positive bacteria tested. The ethanolic leaves extract appeared to have the strongest antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus with MIC value of 312.5 μg/mL followed by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus that also exhibited good sensitivity with MIC values of 1250 μg/mL. Moreover, all the extracts possessed anti-HIV activity. The ethanolic flower extract was the most potent inhibitor of HIV-1 RT DNA polymerase RNA-dependent and Ribonuclease H with IC50 values of 0.26 and 0.33 μg/mL, respectively. The LC-DAD metabolic profile showed that ethanolic leaves extract contains high levels of quercetin derivatives. This study suggests that Euphorbia characias extracts represent a good source of natural bioactive compounds which could be useful for pharmaceutical application as well as in food system for the prevention of the growth of food-borne bacteria and to extend the shelf-life of processed foods. PMID:27314007

  6. Synthesis and biological activity of alkynoic acids derivatives against mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Vilchèze, Catherine; Leung, Lawrence W.; Bittman, Robert; Jacobs, William R.

    2015-01-01

    2-alkynoic acids have bactericidal activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis but their activity fall sharply as the length of the carbon chain increased. In this study, derivatives of 2- alkynoic acids were synthesized and tested against fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria. Their activity was first evaluated in M. smegmatis against their parental 2-alkynoic acids, as well as isoniazid, a first-line antituberculosis drug. The introduction of additional unsaturation or heteroatoms into the carbon chain enhanced the antimycobacterial activity of longer chain alkynoic acids (more than 19 carbons long). In contrast, although the modification of the carboxylic group did not improve the antimycobacterial activity, it significantly reduced the toxicity of the compounds against eukaryotic cells. Importantly, 4-(alkylthio)but-2-ynoic acids, had better bactericidal activity than the parental 2-alkynoic acids and on a par with isoniazid against the slow-grower Mycobacterium bovis BCG. These compounds had also low toxicity against eukaryotic cells, suggesting that they could be potential therapeutic agents against other types of topical mycobacterial infections causing skin diseases including Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium ulcerans, and Mycobacterium leprae. Moreover, they provide a possible scaffold for future drug development. PMID:26256431

  7. Biological nutrient removal in a sequencing batch reactor operated as oxic/anoxic/extended-idle regime.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-ming; Chen, Hong-bo; Yang, Qi; Wang, Dong-bo; Luo, Kun; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2014-06-01

    Previous researches have demonstrated that biological phosphorus removal from wastewater could be induced by oxic/extended-idle (O/EI) regime. In this study, an anoxic period was introduced after the aeration to realize biological nutrient removal. High nitrite accumulation ratio and polyhydroxyalkanoates biosynthesis were obtained in the aeration and biological nutrient removal could be well achieved in oxic/anoxic/extended-idle (O/A/EI) regime for the wastewater used. In addition, nitrogen and phosphorus removal performance in O/A/EI regime was compared with that in conventional anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic (A(2)/O) and O/EI processes. The results showed that O/A/EI regime exhibited higher nitrogen and phosphorus removal than A(2)/O and O/EI processes. More ammonium oxidizing bacteria and polyphosphate accumulating organisms and less glycogen accumulating organisms containing in the biomass might be the principal reason for the better nitrogen and phosphorus removal in O/A/EI regime. Furthermore, biological nutrient removal with O/A/EI regime was demonstrated with municipal wastewater. The average TN, SOP and COD removal efficiencies were 93%, 95% and 87%, respectively.

  8. Dynamical modelling of an activated sludge system of a petrochemical plant operating at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Maqueda, M A M; Martinez, Sergio A; Narváez, D; Rodriguez, Miriam G; Aguilar, Ricardo; Herrero, Victor M

    2006-01-01

    The Mexican petrochemical industry, Morelos S.A. de C.V., is one of the biggest and more important petroleum industries in Mexico and Latin America. It has an activated sludge system to treat its wastewater flow, which is approximately 7,000 m3/d. The wastewater contains volatile organic carbon substances classified as toxics. The old surface aeration system was changed for fine bubble diffusers; however, one major drawback of the new aeration system is that the temperature in the bioreactor has increased due to the compression of the air, which at the compressor exit reaches 85 degrees C. This effect results in the temperature in the bioreactor attaining 32 degrees C during the fall, whereas in the spring and summer, the bioreactor temperature reaches higher values than 40 degrees C. The high temperatures reduce the microorganism activity and cause a higher volatilisation rate of volatile compounds, among other effects, which affect the performance of the biological treatment. This work was performed to obtain a better modelling of the wastewater treatment from the petrochemical industry. The model describes the effect of the temperature on the performance of the biological treatment. The model was obtained from tests that were carried out in laboratory reactors with 14 L capacity, which were operated at different temperatures (from 30 to 45 degrees C), with the same wastewater and conditions as the actual system.

  9. Biological activities and chemical composition of lichens from Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Kosanic, Marijana; Rankovic, Branislav; Stanojkovic, Tatjana; Vasiljevic, Perica; Manojlovic, Nedeljko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate chemical composition of acetone extracts of the lichens Parmelia arseneana and Acarospora fuscata and in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities of these extracts and gyrophoric acid isolated from A. fuscata. The HPLC-UV method was used for the identification of secondary metabolites. Stictic acid, norstictic acid, gyrophoric acid, usnic acid, atranorin and chloroatranorin were identified in the A. fuscata. In P. arseneana, we detected stictic acid, norstictic acid, usnic acid and atranorin, while gyrophoric acid was not identified. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging capacity of tested samples on DPPH and superoxide anion radicals, reducing the power of samples and determination of total phenolic compounds in extracts. As a result of the study, gyrophoric acid was found to have the largest DPPH radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 105.75 µg/ml. Moreover, the tested samples had an effective superoxide anion radical scavenging and reducing power. The total content of phenol in extracts was determined as pyrocatechol equivalent. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution method. The most active was also gyrophoric acid, with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 0.019 to 1.25 mg/ml. Anticancer activity was tested against LS174 (human colon carcinoma cell line), A549 (human lung carcinoma cell line), Fem-x (malignant melanoma cell line), and a chronic myelogeneous leukaemia K562 cell line using the MTT method. Extract of P. arseneana expressed the strongest anticancer activity against all cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 11.61 to 47.06 µg/ml. PMID:26417336

  10. Biologic therapy improves psoriasis by decreasing the activity of monocytes and neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Keiichi; Umezawa, Yoshinori; Yamagiwa, Akisa; Saeki, Hidehisa; Kondo, Makoto; Gabazza, Esteban C; Nakagawa, Hidemi; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    Therapy with monoclonal antibodies to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the interleukin (IL)-12/23 p40 subunit has significantly improved the clinical outcome of patients with psoriasis. These antibodies inhibit the effects of the target cytokines and thus the major concern during their use is the induction of excessive immunosuppression. Recent studies evaluating the long-term efficacy and safety of biologic therapy in psoriasis have shown no significant appearance of serious adverse effects including infections and malignancies. However, the immunological consequence and the mechanism by which the blockade of a single cytokine by biologics can successfully control the activity of psoriasis remain unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effect of biologic therapy on cytokine production of various lymphocytes and on the activity of monocytes and neutrophils in psoriatic patients. Neutrophils, monocytes and T cells were purified from heparinized peripheral venous blood by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, and γ-interferon, TNF-α and IL-17 production from lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometer. The activation maker of neutrophils and the activated subsets of monocytes were also analyzed. Biologic therapy induced no significant changes in the cytokine production by lymphocytes from the skin and gut-homing T cells. However, neutrophil activity and the ratio of activated monocyte population increased in severely psoriatic patients were normalized in psoriatic patients receiving biologic therapy. The present study showed that biologic therapy ameliorates clinical symptoms and controls the immune response in patients with psoriasis.

  11. Development of an Implementation Plan Related to Biological Opinion on Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System ; Step 1: Review and Critique of Implementation Plans.

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret

    2000-12-01

    The Draft Biological Opinion on Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System calls for the development of 1- and 5-year implementation plans. These plans will provide the roadmap for planning and subsequent implementation of actions intended to meet specific performance standards (i.e., biological objectives) in a timely manner. To develop implementation plans the key tasks and sequences of steps must be determined. Those responsible for specific tasks must be identified and they must understand what they need to do. There must be assurances that the resources (human, physical, and fiscal) to complete the tasks are available. Motivation and incentive systems should be set up. Systems to coordinate efforts and guide activity must be devised and installed. An information management system must be designed to manage and analyze data and ensure that appropriate data are collected. This will aid managers in assessing whether individual activities or actions are tracking with stated goals and objectives. Training programs to improve managerial and worker capability in making and implementing plans should be designed. Managerial leadership to guide the efforts of all individuals in achieving the goals of the anadromous and resident fish recovery must be developed. It is the entire process of managing fish recovery in relationship to the Biological Opinion that will guide, coordinate, motivate, and control work and determine the effectiveness and efficiency of plan implementation.

  12. Smart interactive electronic system for monitoring the electromagnetic activities of biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Sorin G.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2001-08-01

    A novel electronic device capable of sensing and monitoring the myoelectric, polarization wave and electromagnetic activities of the biological systems and in particular the human body is presented. It is known that all the physical and chemical processes within biological systems are associated with polarization, depolarization waves from the brain, neural signals and myoelectric processes that manifest themselves in ionic and dipole motion. The technology developed in our laboratory is based on certain charge motion sensitive electronics. The electronic system developed is capable of sensing the electromagnetic activities of biological systems. The information obtained is then processed by specialized software in order to interpret it from physical and chemical point of view.

  13. Spectroscopic study of molecular structure, antioxidant activity and biological effects of metal hydroxyflavonol complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonowicz, Mariola; Regulska, Ewa

    2017-02-01

    Flavonols with varied hydroxyl substitution can act as strong antioxidants. Thanks to their ability to chelate metals as well as to donate hydrogen atoms they have capacity to scavenge free radicals. Their metal complexes are often more active in comparison with free ligands. They exhibit interesting biological properties, e.g. anticancer, antiphlogistic and antibacterial. The relationship between molecular structure and their biological properties was intensively studied using spectroscopic methods (UV-Vis, IR, Raman, NMR, ESI-MS). The aim of this paper is review on spectroscopic analyses of molecular structure and biological activity of hydroxyflavonol metal complexes.

  14. The chemistry and biological activity of heterocycle-fused quinolinone derivatives: A review.

    PubMed

    Shiro, Tomoya; Fukaya, Takayuki; Tobe, Masanori

    2015-06-05

    Among all heterocycles, the heterocycle-fused quinolinone scaffold is one of the privileged structures in drug discovery as heterocycle-fused quinolinone derivatives exhibit various biological activities allowing them to act as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, and antipsychotic agents. This wide spectrum of biological activity has attracted a great deal of attention in the field of medicinal chemistry. In this review, we provide a comprehensive description of the biological and pharmacological properties of various heterocycle-fused quinolinone scaffolds and discuss the synthetic methods of some of their derivatives.

  15. Papaya seed represents a rich source of biologically active isothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Yoshimoto, Motoko; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Shimoishi, Yasuaki; Asai, Yumi; Park, Eun Young; Sato, Kenji; Nakamura, Yasushi

    2007-05-30

    In the present study, papaya (Carica papaya) seed and edible pulp were carefully separated and then the contents of benzyl isothiocyanate and the corresponding glucosinolate (benzyl glucosinolate, glucotropaeolin) quantified in each part. The papaya seed with myrosinase inactivation contained >1 mmol of benzyl glucosinolate in 100 g of fresh seed. This content is equivalent to that of Karami daikon (the hottest Japanese white radish) or that of cress. The papaya seed extract also showed a very high activity of myrosinase and, without myrosinase inactivation, produced 460 micromol of benzyl isothiocyanate in 100 g of seed. In contrast, papaya pulp contained an undetectable amount of benzyl glucosinolate and showed no significant myrosinase activity. The n-hexane extract of the papaya seed homogenate was highly effective in inhibiting superoxide generation and apoptosis induction in HL-60 cells, the activities of which are comparable to those of authentic benzyl isothiocyanate.

  16. Biological activity of alkaloids from Solanum dulcamara L.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Padma; Sharma, Bindu; Bakshi, Nidhi

    2009-01-01

    Alkaloids are well known for their antimicrobial activity. Though all natural alkaloids come from plants, not all plants produce alkaloids. Plants of the Solanaceae family are known for their high alkaloid content. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. In the present study, those plant parts of Solanum dulcamara were selected which have been reported to produce a high content of a specific alkaloid: solanine (from unripe fruits), solasodine (from flowers) and beta-solamarine (from roots). These alkaloids were extracted from various parts of S. dulcamara by well-established methods and were screened for their antibacterial activity. Human pathogenic bacteria, viz., Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, were selected for the study. All three alkaloids inhibited the growth of E. coli and S. aureus. However, no significant activity was observed against E. aerogenes. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were also evaluated.

  17. Phytochemical components and biological activities of Silene arenarioides Desf.

    PubMed

    Golea, Lynda; Benkhaled, Mohammed; Lavaud, Catherine; Long, Christophe; Haba, Hamada

    2017-02-24

    In this study, six known compounds 1-6 were isolated from the aerial parts of Silene arenarioides Desf. using different chromatographic methods. The structures of these compounds were identified as maltol glycoside (1), soyacerebroside I (2), chrysin (3), apigenin (4), quercetin (5) and stigmasterol glucoside (6). The compounds (1) and (2) are reported for the first time from this genus. The isolated compounds were determined using NMR techniques ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). The antibacterial and antioxidant activities of extracts and of compound (1) have been evaluated. The antioxidant activity was performed by DPPH radical scavenging method, which showed that methanol extract possesses a good antioxidant activity with value of IC50 = 8.064 ± 0.005 μg/mL.

  18. Investigation of some biologic activities of Swertia longifolia Boiss

    PubMed Central

    Hajimehdipoor, H.; Esmaeili, S.; Shekarchi, M.; Emrarian, T.; Naghibi, F.

    2013-01-01

    Swertia species are widespread in Eastern and Southern Asian countries and used in traditional medicine as anti-pyretic, analgesic, gastro and liver tonic. Among different species, only Swertia longifolia grows in Iran. In this investigation, antioxidant, cytotoxic and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of S. longifolia have been studied. Aerial parts and roots of the plant were collected, dried and extracted with methanol 80% (total extract). Different extracts of the plant were obtained using hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, methanol:water (1:1) and water, respectively. Cytotoxic activity was determined by MTT assay on MDBK, HepG2, MCF7, HT29 and A549 cell lines. Antioxidant activity was measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory (AChEI) effect was evaluated based on Ellman’s method in 96-well microplates.The results showed no cytotoxicity of the plant extracts on MDBK, HepG2, MCF7, HT29 and A549 cell lines up to 100 μg/ml. All samples showed radical scavenging activity but methanol extract of aerial parts and ethyl acetate extract of the roots showed the highest effects.Total extract of the roots showed higher AChEI activity than the aerial parts. Among different extracts, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of the roots and chloroform and methanol:water extracts of the aerial parts were more potent in AChEI assay. It is concluded that aerial parts and roots of the plant are rich in antioxidant agents with no cytotoxicity on selected cell lines up to 100 μg/ml. Moreover, since antioxidant and AChEI activity of compounds play an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disorder, this plant might be a potential candidate for isolation of antioxidant and AChEI compounds which could be used as supportive treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24082894

  19. Biological activity of Paecilomyces genus against Toxocara canis eggs.

    PubMed

    Basualdo, J A; Ciarmela, M L; Sarmiento, P L; Minvielle, M C

    2000-10-01

    Saprophytic soil fungi can exert ovicidal and ovistatic effects on helminths with differing degrees of efficiency. The representatives of such fungi from temperate regions, Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson and P. marquandii (Masse) Hughes, exhibit recognized ovicidal activity on some nematodes. We evaluated the action in vitro of P. lilacinus and P. marquandii on the zoonotic canine roundworm eggs of Toxocara canis. Eggs exposed and unexposed to fungal samples were observed by both light and scanning electron microscopy on days 4, 7 and 14 post-inoculation. Ovicidal activity of P. lilacinus on T. canis eggs was considered to be high and that of P. marquandii to be intermediate.

  20. Detection and Investigation of Soil Biological Activity against Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Bent, E.; Loffredo, A.; McKenry, M. V.; Becker, J. O.; Borneman, J.

    2008-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments with two susceptible hosts of Meloidogyne incognita, a dwarf tomato and wheat, led to the identification of a soil in which the root-knot nematode population was reduced 5- to 16-fold compared to identical but pasteurized soil two months after infestation with 280 M. incognita J2/100 cm3 soil. This suppressive soil was subjected to various temperature, fumigation and dilution treatments, planted with tomato, and infested with 1,000 eggs of M. incognita/100 cm3 soil. Eight weeks after nematode infestation, distinct differences in nematode population densities were observed among the soil treatments, suggesting the suppressiveness had a biological nature. A fungal rRNA gene analysis (OFRG) performed on M. incognita egg masses collected at the end of the greenhouse experiments identified 11 fungal phylotypes, several of which exhibited associations with one or more of the nematode population density measurements (egg masses, eggs or J2). The phylotype containing rRNA genes with high sequence identity to Pochonia chlamydosporia exhibited the strongest negative associations. The negative correlation between the densities of the P. chlamydosporia genes and the nematodes was corroborated by an analysis using a P. chlamydosporia-selective qPCR assay. PMID:19259527

  1. Activated Sludge. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Owen K.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials needed to teach a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. These materials include an overview of the unit, lesson plans, lecture outlines (keyed to slides designed for use with the lessons), student worksheets for each of the seven lessons (with answers), and two copies of a final quiz (with and…

  2. Biological activity of Schinus molle on Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, A A; Werdin González, J O; Sánchez Chopa, C

    2006-07-01

    Hexanic extracts from leaves and fruits of Schinus molle were tested for repellent and insecticidal properties against first instar nymphs and eggs of Triatoma infestans, the vector of Chagas' disease. Leaf and fruit extracts were highly repellent for first nymphs. Fruit extracts had also ovicidal activity.

  3. Acyclic glycosidopyrroles analogues of ganciclovir: synthesis and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Diana, P; Barraja, P; Almerico, A M; Dattolo, G; Mingoia, F; Loi, A G; Congeddu, E; Musiu, C; Putzolu, M; La Colla, P

    1997-05-01

    Acyclic glycosidopyrroles of type 3 were synthetized in good overall yields, according to the Scheme. When evaluated for antiviral activity against DNA and RNA viruses, only compound in which R1 = R2 = Ph, R3 = NH2 was found to inhibit the HIV-1 replication at concentrations that were not cytotoxic for MT-4 cells.

  4. Biological activities of extracts from cultivated Granadilla Passiflora alata.

    PubMed

    Vasic, Sava M; Stefanovic, Olgica D; Licina, Braho Z; Radojevic, Ivana D; Comic, Ljiljana R

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted in this study showed the influence of ethanol, acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the outgrowth of cultivated Passiflora alata on microorganisms, as well as the antioxidant activity and the concentrations of total phenols, flavonoids and tannins. In vitro antimicrobial activities of extracts were studied on 27 species of microorganisms, of which 17 species of bacteria and 10 species of fungi. The strongest antimicrobial activity was detected on G+ bacteria while the activities on other species were moderate. Ethyl acetate extract showed the strongest effect. The concentrations of total phenols were examined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the obtained values ranged from 14.04 to 34.22 mg GA/g. By using aluminium chloride method, the concentrations of flavonoids were obtained and the values ranged from 33.19 to 62.30 mg RU/g. In determining the amount of tannins we used the method with buthanol-HCl reagent and the obtained value was 5.1 % of dry matter. The efficiency of antioxidation, which we identified through the reduction of DPPH, was in the range from 808.69 to 1107.79 µg/ml for a particular IC50, and AAI values were between 0.07 and 0.10. The best parameters were shown by ethanol extract. All data were statistically analyzed. Overall, extracts showed potential for further investigation and use.

  5. Synthesis and biological activity of salinomycin conjugates with floxuridine.

    PubMed

    Huczyński, Adam; Antoszczak, Michał; Kleczewska, Natalia; Lewandowska, Marta; Maj, Ewa; Stefańska, Joanna; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Janczak, Jan; Celewicz, Lech

    2015-03-26

    As part of our program to develop anticancer agents, we have synthesized new compounds, which are conjugates between well-known anticancer drug, floxuridine and salinomycin which is able to selectivity kill cancer stem cells. The conjugates were obtained in two ways i.e. by copper(I) catalysed click Huisgen cycloaddition reaction performed between 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxy-5-fluorouridine and salinomycin propargyl amide, and by the ester synthesis starting from salinomycin and floxuridine under mild condition. The compounds obtained were characterized by spectroscopic methods and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against seven human cancer cell lines as well as antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE). The conjugate obtained by esterification reaction showed a significantly higher antiproliferative activity against the drug-resistant cancer cells and lower toxicity than those of salinomycin and floxuridine towards normal cells, as well as standard anticancer drugs, such as cisplatin and doxorubicin. The conjugate compound revealed also moderate activity against MRSA and MRSE bacterial strains. Very high activity of floxuridine and 5-fluorouracil against MRSA and MRSE has been also observed.

  6. Biological activities of extracts from cultivated Granadilla Passiflora alata

    PubMed Central

    Vasic, Sava M.; Stefanovic, Olgica D.; Licina, Braho Z.; Radojevic, Ivana D.; Comic, Ljiljana R.

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted in this study showed the influence of ethanol, acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the outgrowth of cultivated Passiflora alata on microorganisms, as well as the antioxidant activity and the concentrations of total phenols, flavonoids and tannins. In vitro antimicrobial activities of extracts were studied on 27 species of microorganisms, of which 17 species of bacteria and 10 species of fungi. The strongest antimicrobial activity was detected on G+ bacteria while the activities on other species were moderate. Ethyl acetate extract showed the strongest effect. The concentrations of total phenols were examined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the obtained values ranged from 14.04 to 34.22 mg GA/g. By using aluminium chloride method, the concentrations of flavonoids were obtained and the values ranged from 33.19 to 62.30 mg RU/g. In determining the amount of tannins we used the method with buthanol-HCl reagent and the obtained value was 5.1 % of dry matter. The efficiency of antioxidation, which we identified through the reduction of DPPH, was in the range from 808.69 to 1107.79 µg/ml for a particular IC50, and AAI values were between 0.07 and 0.10. The best parameters were shown by ethanol extract. All data were statistically analyzed. Overall, extracts showed potential for further investigation and use. PMID:27385958

  7. Marine Biology Field Trip Sites. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  8. Phenolic compounds and biological activity of Kitaibelia vitifolia.

    PubMed

    Mašković, Pavle; Solujić, Slavica; Mihailović, Vladimir; Mladenović, Milan; Cvijović, Milica; Mladenović, Jelena; Aćamović-Đoković, Gordana; Kurćubić, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity and efficacy of the ethanolic extract of the endemic plant species Kitaibelia vitifolia in inhibiting the growth of selected fungi and bacteria. Antimicrobial activity was tested using the broth dilution procedure for determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). MICs were determined for eight selected indicator strains. The highest susceptibility to K. vitifolia ethanolic extract among the bacteria tested was exhibited by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 (MIC=15.62 μg/mL), followed by Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Proteus mirabilis ATCC 14153 (MIC=31.25 μg/mL), and Proteus vulgaris ATCC 13315 (MIC=62.50 μg/mL). Of the fungi, Candida albicans ATCC 10231 (MIC=15.62 μg/mL) showed the highest susceptibility, and Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404 (MIC=31.25 μg/mL) had the lowest. Results showed that K. vitifolia extract possesses antioxidant activity, with total antioxidant capacity of 75.45±0.68 μg of ascorbic acid/g and 50% inhibition concentration values of 47.45±0.55 μg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, 35.35±0.68 μg/mL for inhibitory activity against lipid peroxidation, 95.25±0.52 μg/mL for hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and 31.50±0.35 μg/mL for metal chelating activity. Total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins, and gallotannins were 85.25±0.69 mg of gallic acid (GA)/g, 45.32±0.55 mg of rutin/g, 54.25±0.75 mg of GA/g, and 41.74±0.55 mg of GA/g, respectively. The phenolic composition of K. vitifolia extract was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Rosmarinic acid was found to be the dominant phenolic compound of the extract.

  9. Ergosteroids. II: Biologically active metabolites and synthetic derivatives of dehydroepiandrosterone.

    PubMed

    Lardy, H; Kneer, N; Wei, Y; Partridge, B; Marwah, P

    1998-03-01

    An improved procedure for the synthesis of 3 beta-hydroxyandrost-5-ene-7,17-dione, a natural metabolite of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is described. The synthesis and magnetic resonance spectra of several other related steroids are presented. Feeding dehydroepiandrosterone to rats induces enhanced formation of several liver enzymes among which are mitochondrial sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) and cytosolic malic enzyme. The induction of these two enzymes, that complete a thermogenic system in rat liver, was used as an assay to search for derivatives of DHEA that might be more active than the parent steroid. Activity is retained in steroids that are reduced to the corresponding 17 beta-hydroxy derivative, or hydroxylated at 7 alpha or 7 beta, and is considerably enhanced when the 17-hydroxy or 17-carbonyl steroid is converted to the 7-oxo derivative. Several derivatives of DHEA did not induce the thermogenic enzymes whereas the corresponding 7-oxo compounds did. Both short and long chain acyl esters of DHEA and of 7-oxo-DHEA are active inducers of the liver enzymes when fed to rats. 7-Oxo-DHEA-3-sulfate is as active as 7-oxo-DHEA or its 3-acetyl ester, whereas DHEA-3-sulfate is much less active than DHEA. Among many steroids tested, those possessing a carbonyl group at position 3, a methyl group at 7, a hydroxyl group at positions 1, 2, 4, 11, or 19, or a saturated B ring, with or without a 4-5 double bond, were inactive.

  10. Termination and activation of store-operated cyclic AMP production

    PubMed Central

    Maiellaro, Isabella; Lefkimmiatis, Konstantinos; Moyer, Mary Pat; Curci, Silvana; Hofer, Aldebaran M

    2012-01-01

    Diverse pathophysiological processes (e.g. obesity, lifespan determination, addiction and male fertility) have been linked to the expression of specific isoforms of the adenylyl cyclases (AC1-AC10), the enzymes that generate cyclic AMP (cAMP). Our laboratory recently discovered a new mode of cAMP production, prominent in certain cell types, that is stimulated by any manoeuvre causing reduction of free [Ca2+] within the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium store. Activation of this ‘store-operated’ pathway requires the ER Ca2+ sensor, STIM1, but the identity of the enzymes responsible for cAMP production and how this process is regulated is unknown. Here, we used sensitive FRET-based sensors for cAMP in single cells combined with silencing and overexpression approaches to show that store-operated cAMP production occurred preferentially via the isoform AC3 in NCM460 colonic epithelial cells. Ca2+ entry via the plasma membrane Ca2+ channel, Orai1, suppressed cAMP production, independent of store refilling. These findings are an important first step towards defining the functional significance and to identify the protein composition of this novel Ca2+/cAMP crosstalk system. PMID:22681560

  11. Pilot scale experiment with MBR operated in intermittent aeration condition: analysis of biological performance.

    PubMed

    Capodici, M; Di Bella, G; Di Trapani, D; Torregrossa, M

    2015-02-01

    The effect of intermittent aeration (IA) on a MBR system was investigated. The study was aimed at analyzing different working conditions and the influence of different IA cycles on the biological performance of the MBR pilot plant, in terms of organic carbon and ammonium removal as well as extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) production. The membrane modules were placed in a separate compartment, continuously aerated. This configuration allowed to disconnect from the filtration stage the biological phenomena occurring into the IA bioreactor. The observed results highlighted good efficiencies, in terms of organic carbon and ammonium removal. It was noticed a significant soluble microbial products (SMPs) release, likely related to the higher metabolic stress that anoxic conditions exerted on the biomass. However, the proposed configuration, with the membranes in a separate compartment, allowed to reduce the EPSs in the membrane tank even during the non-aerated phase, thus lowering fouling development.

  12. The Biological Stain Commission's Quality Control Laboratory operations and improved traceability of certified stains.

    PubMed

    Fagan, C L

    2012-01-01

    The Biological Stain Commission (BSC) is a quality control laboratory that certifies biological dyes for staining cells and tissues. Originally, a single lot of a certified dye was sold to histologists. Today, companies frequently change their lot numbers as part of regulatory efforts. When a certified dye undergoes a lot number change, the BSC must re-certify this dye to verify that it is identical to the one certified earlier. The BSC has improved how these lot changes are monitored using a redesigned BSC certification label. Certification labels always have been issued by the BSC and are attached to every bottle of "BSC certified dye" that is sold. The new BSC certification label has added security features and currently bears both the BSC certification number and the manufacturer batch lot number. The result is improved security and traceability of certified dyes.

  13. Sedimentation: Potential Biological Effects of Dredging Operations in Estuarine and Marine Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    34Impacts of sediment burial on mangroves." Marine Pollution Bulletin 37, 420-426. Fonseca, M. S., Kenworthy, W. J., and Thayer, G W. (1998...34 Marine Pollution Bulletin 4, 166-169. Tomasko, D.A., Dawes, C. J., and Hall, M. 0. (1996). "The effects of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment in turtle...reefs," Marine Pollution Bulletin 42, 864-872. Wilber, D. H., and Clarke, D. G. (2001). "Biological effects of suspended sediments: a review of

  14. Biologically Inspired Photocatalytically Active Membranes for Water Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsinger, Nichola M.

    There is an alarming increase of a variety of new chemicals that are now being discharged into the wastewater system causing increased concern for public health and safety because many are not removed by typical wastewater treatment practices. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) is a heterogeneous photocatalytic material that rapidly and completely mineralizing organics without harmful byproducts. TiO2 is synthesized by various methods, which lack the necessary control of crystal size, phase, and morphological features that yield optimized semiconductor materials. Mineralizing organisms demonstrate how nature can produce elegant structures at room temperature through controlled organic-mineral interactions. Here, we utilize biologically-inspired scaffolds to template the nucleation and growth of inorganic materials such as TiO2, which aid in controlling the size and phase of these particles and ultimately, their properties. Nanosized rutile and anatase particles were synthesized under solution conditions at relatively low temperatures and mild pH conditions. The effects of reaction conditions on phase and grain size were investigated and discussed from coordination chemistry and coarsening mechanisms. Photocatalytic characterization of TiO2 phase mixtures was performed to investigate their synergistic effect. The suspension conditions of these catalytic nanomaterials were modulated to optimize the degradation rate of organic analytes. Through the addition of an organic scaffold during the synthesis reaction, a mechanically robust (elastic) composite material containing TiO2 nanoparticles was produced. This composite was subsequently heat-treated to produce a porous, high surface area TiO2 nanoparticulate membrane. Processing conditions were investigated to characterize the growth and phase transformation of TiO2, which ultimately impacts photocatalytic performance. These bulk porous TiO2 structures can be fabricated and tailored to act as stand-alone photocatalytic membranes

  15. Biologic activity of cyclic and caged phosphates: a review.

    PubMed

    Lorke, Dietrich E; Stegmeier-Petroianu, Anka; Petroianu, Georg A

    2017-01-01

    The recognition in the early 1960s by Morifusa Eto that tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) is hydroxylated by the cytochrome P450 system to an intermediate that spontaneously cyclizes to a neurotoxic phosphate (saligenin phosphate ester) ignited the interest in this group of compounds. Only the ortho isomer can cyclize and clinically cause Organo Phosphate Induced Delayed Neurotoxicity (OPIDN); the meta and para isomers of tri-cresyl phosphate are not neuropathic because they are unable to form stable cyclic saligenin phosphate esters. This review identifies the diverse biological effects associated with various cyclic and caged phosphates and phosphonates and their possible use. Cyclic compounds that inhibit acetylcholine esterase (AChE), such as salithion, can be employed as pesticides. Others are neurotoxic, most probably because of inhibition of neuropathy target esterase (NTE). Cyclic phosphates that inhibit lipases, the cyclipostins, possibly represent promising therapeutic avenues for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or microbial infections; those compounds inhibiting β-lactamase may prevent bacterial resistance against β-lactam antibiotics. Naturally occurring cyclic phosphates, such as cyclic AMP, cyclic phosphatidic acid and the ryanodine receptor modulator cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose, play an important physiological role in signal transduction. Moreover, some cyclic phosphates are GABA-antagonists, while others are an essential component of Molybdenum-containing enzymes. Some cyclic phosphates (cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide) are clinically used in tumor therapy, while the coupling of therapeutic agents with other cyclic phosphates (HepDirect® Technology) allows drugs to be targeted to specific organs. Possible clinical applications of these compounds are considered. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. 1,8-Naphthyridine Derivatives: A Review of Multiple Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Madaan, Alka; Verma, Ritu; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Anu T; Jain, Swatantra K; Jaggi, Manu

    2015-12-01

    The 1,8-naphthyridine group of compounds have gained special attention of researchers on account of their demonstrating a variety of interesting biological activities. A wide range of biological properties establishes them as potent scaffolds in therapeutic and medicinal research. The broad spectrum of activities primarily includes antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities. 1,8-Naphthyridine derivatives have also exhibited potential applications in neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and depression. In addition, these synthetic derivatives have been found to possess activities such as anti-osteoporotic (α(v)β(3) antagonists), anti-allergic, antimalarial, gastric antisecretory, bronchodilator, anticonvulsant, anti-hypertensive, platelet aggregation inhibition, anti-oxidant, EGFR inhibition, protein kinase inhibition, ionotropic agent, β-3 antagonist, MDR modulator, adenosine receptor agonist, adrenoceptor antagonist, and pesticide activities. In spite of the widespread application of the 1,8-naphythyridine scaffolds, only a limited number of review articles are available till date. In this review, we attempt to compile and discuss the key data available in the literature for the multiple biological activities of 1,8-naphthyridine derivatives, in a chronological manner. This review compilation (with 199 references) may be helpful in understanding the diverse biological properties of 1,8-naphthyridines and provide insights into their mechanism of action. This may direct future research in the synthesis of new derivatives and exploring this scaffold for other possible biological activities.

  17. [Biological activity of selenorganic compounds at heavy metal salts intoxication].

    PubMed

    Rusetskaya, N Y; Borodulin, V B

    2015-01-01

    Possible mechanisms of the antitoxic action of organoselenium compounds in heavy metal poisoning have been considered. Heavy metal toxicity associated with intensification of free radical oxidation, suppression of the antioxidant system, damage to macromolecules, mitochondria and the genetic material can cause apoptotic cell death or the development of carcinogenesis. Organic selenium compounds are effective antioxidants during heavy metal poisoning; they exhibit higher bioavailability in mammals than inorganic ones and they are able to activate antioxidant defense, bind heavy metal ions and reactive oxygen species formed during metal-induced oxidative stress. One of promising organoselenium compounds is diacetophenonyl selenide (DAPS-25), which is characterized by antioxidant and antitoxic activity, under conditions including heavy metal intoxication.

  18. Chemical composition and biological activity of Salvia verbenaca essential oil.

    PubMed

    Canzoneri, Marisa; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Russo, Alessandra; Cardile, Venera; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice

    2011-07-01

    Salvia verbenaca L. (syn. S. minore) is a perennial herb known in the traditional medicine of Sicily as "spaccapetri" and is used to resolve cases of kidney stones, chewing the fresh leaves or in decoction. The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from aerial parts of S. verbenaca collected in Piano Battaglia (Sicily) on July 2009, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oil was strongly characterized by fatty acids (39.5%) and carbonylic compounds (21.2%), with hexadecanoic acid (23.1%), (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid (11.1%) and benzaldehyde (7.3%) as the main constituents. The in vitro activity of the essential oil against some microorganisms in comparison with chloramphenicol by the broth dilution method was determined. The oil exhibited a good activity as inhibitor of growth of Gram + bacteria.

  19. Chemotypic Characterization and Biological Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Satyal, Prabodh; Jones, Tyler H; Lopez, Elizabeth M; McFeeters, Robert L; Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Mansi, Iman; Al-Kaf, Ali G; Setzer, William N

    2017-03-05

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+)-α-pinene (13.5%-37.7%), 1,8-cineole (16.1%-29.3%), (+)-verbenone (0.8%-16.9%), (-)-borneol (2.1%-6.9%), (-)-camphor (0.7%-7.0%), and racemic limonene (1.6%-4.4%). Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities.

  20. Cinnamic esters of acyclovir-synthesis and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Stankova, Ivanka; Chuchkov, Kiril; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2010-10-01

    In the present study we have synthesized esters of acyclovir with cinnamic acids (p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids) and evaluated them for their antiviral and antioxidant potential. The antiviral activity of the newly synthesized compounds has been tested against human herpes virus 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. The results indicate that none of the synthesized compounds inhibits the tested virus strain. The antioxidant properties have been studied using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)* test.

  1. Biological activity of phenylpropionic acid isolated from a terrestrial Streptomycetes.

    PubMed

    Narayana, Kolla J P; Prabhakar, Peddikotla; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva; Venkateswarlu, Yenamandra; Krishna, Palakodety S J

    2007-01-01

    The strain ANU 6277 was isolated from laterite soil and identified as Streptomyces sp. closely related to Streptomyces albidoflavus cluster by 16S rRNA analysis. The cultural, morphological and physiological characters of the strain were recorded. The strain exhibited resistance to chloramphenicol, penicillin and streptomycin. It had the ability to produce enzymes such as amylase and chitinase. A bioactive compound was isolated from the strain at stationary phase of culture and identified as 3-phenylpropionic acid (3-PPA) by FT-IR, EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral studies. It exhibited antimicrobial activity against different bacteria like Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. flourescens, Staphylococcus aureus and some fungi including Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum, F. udum and Penicillium citrinum. The antifungal activity of 3-PPA of the strain was evaluated in in vivo and in vitro conditions against Fusarium udum causing wilt disease in pigeon pea. The compound 3-PPA is an effective antifungal agent when compared to tricyclozole (fungicide) to control wilt caused by F. udum, but it exhibited less antifungal activity than carbendazim.

  2. Enhancement of immunotoxin activity using chemical and biological reagents.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, M.

    1997-01-01

    One of the major discoveries of effective therapeutics is the use of targeted treatment, such as antibody-directed toxins, i.e. immunotoxins; however, this medicine delivery strategy is still at a developmental stage. A number of problems need to be resolved; one is their inefficacy when applied in vivo. Research has stimulated interest in this area through the use of chemical reagents and other moieties to increase the activity of immunotoxins. In this article, reagents that can potentiate the cytotoxicity of immunotoxins are reviewed and the mechanisms that increase activity of immunotoxins are discussed. Lysosomotropic amines, especially ammonium chloride and chloroquine, may raise the pH value of the lysosome in which the conjugates enter. Carboxylic ionophores, e.g. monensin, can influence Golgi vacuolation, which may facilitate the routing of conjugates, augmenting activity. Calcium channel antagonists may increase immunotoxin killing through morphological or other mechanisms that are not yet well understood. Viral particles and surface structure can enhance the cytotoxicity of conjugates, probably through the mechanism of disrupting endosomes. In addition, cytokines, beta-adrenergic blockers, immunosuppressive agents (cyclosporin A) and some antibiotics (daunorubicin) can be used to increase the effect of immunotoxins. PMID:9155057

  3. Core biological marker candidates of Alzheimer's disease - perspectives for diagnosis, prediction of outcome and reflection of biological activity.

    PubMed

    Hampel, H; Mitchell, A; Blennow, K; Frank, R A; Brettschneider, S; Weller, L; Möller, H-J

    2004-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative dementing illness. Over the past few years, however, remarkable advances have taken place in understanding both the genetic and molecular biology with the intracellular processing of amyloid and tau and the changes leading to the pathologic formation of extracellular amyloid plaques and the intraneuronal aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau into neurofibrillary tangles. This progress in our understanding of the molecular pathology has set the stage for clinically meaningful advances in the development of biomarkers. Emerging diagnostic methods that are based on biochemical and imaging biomarkers of disease specific pathology hold the potential to provide effective measures of natural history (marker of disease that is predictive of outcome), biological activity (such as magnitude and frequency of response correlating with drug potency) and markers of surrogate endpoints (single or composite marker that accounts for clinical benefit of the therapy). Markers of biological activity should be also evaluated regarding their value to reflect disease progression, heterogeneity of the clinical population, for early decision making and characterization of new treatments. We focussed on the current status of core analytes which provide reasonable evidence for association with key mechanisms of pathogenesis or neurodegeneration in AD. In addition, feasibility was important, such as availability of a validated assay for the biological measure in question, with properties that included high precision and reliability of measurement, reagents and standards well described. On this basis we reviewed the body of literature that has examined CSF total tau (t-tau) and beta-amyloid 1-42 (Abeta(1-42)), phosphorylated tau (p-tau) and beta-amyloid-antibodies as diagnostic tests for AD versus clinically representative comparison groups. Measurement of t-tau and Abeta(1-42) in the CSF seems useful to discriminate early and incipient

  4. Mixotrophic operation of photo-bioelectrocatalytic fuel cell under anoxygenic microenvironment enhances the light dependent bioelectrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Rashmi; Venkata Subhash, G; Venkata Mohan, S

    2012-04-01

    Electrogenic activity of photo-bioelectrocatalytic /photo-biological fuel cell (PhFC) was evaluated in a mixotrophic mode under anoxygenic microenvironment using photosynthetic consortia as biocatalyst. An acetate rich wastewater was used as anolyte for harnessing energy along with additional treatment. Mixotrophic operation facilitated good electrogenic activity and wastewater treatment associated with biomass growth. PhFC operation documented feasible microenvironment for the growth of photosynthetic bacteria compared to algae which was supported by pigment (total chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll) and diversity analysis. Pigment data also illustrated the association between bacterial and algal species. The synergistic interaction between anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis was found to be suitable for PhFC operation. Light dependent deposition of electrons at electrode was relatively higher compared to dark dependent electron deposition under anoxygenic condition. PhFC documented for good volatile fatty acids removal by utilizing them as electron donor. Bioelectrochemical behavior of PhFC was evaluated by voltammetric and chronoamperometry analysis.

  5. Sequencing biological acidification of waste-activated sludge aiming to optimize phosphorus dissolution and recovery.

    PubMed

    Guilayn, Felipe; Braak, Etienne; Piveteau, Simon; Daumer, Marie-Line

    2016-09-20

    Phosphorus (P) recovery in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) as pure crystals such as struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H2O), potassium struvite (KMgPO4.6H2O) and calcium phosphates (e.g. Ca3(PO4)2) is an already feasible technique that permits the production of green and marketable fertilizers and the reduction of operational costs. Commercial crystallizers can recovery more than 90% of soluble P. However, most of the P in WWTP sludge is unavailable for the processes (not dissolved). P solubilization and separation are thus the limiting steps in P-crystallization. With an innovative two-step sequencing acidification strategy, the current study has aimed to improve biological P solubilization on waste-activated sludge (WAS) from a full-scale plant. In the first step (P-release), low charges of organic waste were used as co-substrates of WAS pre-fermentation, seeking to produce volatile fatty acids to feed the P-release by Polyphosphate-accumulating organisms, while keeping its optimal metabolic pH (6-7). In this phase, milk serum, WWTP grease, urban organic waste and collective restaurant waste were individually applied as co-substrates. In the second step (P-dissolution), pH 4 was aimed at as it allows the dissolution of the most common precipitated species of P. Biological acidification was performed by white sugar addition, as a carbohydrate-rich organic waste model, which was compared to chemical acidification by HCl (12M) addition. With short retention times (48-96 h) and without inoculum application, all experiences succeeded on P solubilization (37-55% of soluble P), principally when carbohydrate-rich co-substrates were applied. Concentrations from 270 to 450 mg [Formula: see text] were achieved.

  6. Biological activity of photoproducts of merocyanine 540 generated by laser-light activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulliya, Kirpal S.; Chanh, Tran C.; Pervaiz, Shazib; Harriman, Anthony; Matthews, James Lester

    1992-08-01

    Controlled exposure of photoactive compounds to light prior to their use in biological targets results in the formation of heretofore unknown photoproducts. This process of photoproduct generation, termed "preactivation," renders the photactive compound capable of systemic use without further dependence on light. Preactivation of mercyanin 540 (MC540) and several other photoactive compounds is achievable by exposure to CW and pulse laser radiation. The singlet oxygen generated at excited states attacks the dye molucule itself, resulting in the formation of biologically active photoproducts. For preactivated MC540 (photoproducts of MC540) generated by exposure to argon laser light (514 nm) and light from free-electron laser, we have demonstrated its effectiveness in selective killing of certain types of cultured tumor cells as well as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with very low, if any, damage to normal cells and tisues. For example, approximately 90% of the Burkitt's lymphoma Daudi cells and HL-60 leukemic cells are killed by preactivated MC540 at a concentration of 120 μg/ml. A two-hour treatment of cultured cells with buthionine sulfoxamine followed by the treatement with preactivated MC540 reults in 99.99% inhibition of clonogenic tumor stem cell growth. We also have demonstrated that preactivated MC540 is very effective in killing cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1. It also is very effective in killing HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in virus-infected blood in vitro as determined by reverse transcriptase, P24, P17, core antigen expression and synctium formation. Treatment of HIV-1 with preactivated MC540 renders the treated HIV-1 incapable of binding to CD4 target molecules on T cells as determined by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoprecipitation assays. In vivo toxicology studies show that preactivated MC540 is very well tolerated and does not produce any signs of adverse reaction at the therapeutic doses, as determined by

  7. Syndecan-1 regulates the biological activities of interleukin-34.

    PubMed

    Segaliny, Aude I; Brion, Regis; Mortier, Erwan; Maillasson, Mike; Cherel, Michel; Jacques, Yannick; Le Goff, Benoît; Heymann, Dominique

    2015-05-01

    IL-34 is a challenging cytokine sharing functional similarities with M-CSF through M-CSFR activation. It also plays a singular role that has recently been explained in the brain, through a binding to the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase RPTPβ/ζ. The aim of this paper was to look for alternative binding of IL-34 on other cell types. Myeloid cells (HL-60, U-937, THP-1) were used as cells intrinsically expressing M-CSFR, and M-CSFR was expressed in TF-1 and HEK293 cells. IL-34 binding was studied by Scatchard and binding inhibition assays, using 125I-radiolabelled cytokines, and surface plasmon resonance. M-CSFR activation was analysed by Western blot after glycosaminoglycans abrasion, syndecan-1 overexpression or repression and addition of a blocking anti-syndecan antibody. M-CSF and IL-34 induced different patterns of M-CSFR phosphorylations, suggesting the existence of alternative binding for IL-34. Binding experiments and chondroitinase treatment confirmed low affinity binding to chondroitin sulphate chains on cells lacking both M-CSFR and RPTPβ/ζ. Amongst the proteoglycans with chondroitin sulphate chains, syndecan-1 was able to modulate the IL-34-induced M-CSFR signalling pathways. Interestingly, IL-34 induced the migration of syndecan-1 expressing cells. Indeed, IL-34 significantly increased the migration of THP-1 and M2a macrophages that was inhibited by addition of a blocking anti-syndecan-1 antibody. This paper provides evidence of alternative binding of IL-34 to chondroitin sulphates and syndecan-1 at the cell surface that modulates M-CSFR activation. In addition, IL-34-induced myeloid cell migration is a syndecan-1 dependent mechanism.

  8. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Hafizi, Mitra; Yousefbeyk, Fatemeh; Rad, Yaghoob Razzaghi; Baghenegadian, Ameneh; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum. Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively. Results: The major components of essential oil were (z)-β-ocimene (43.3%), α-pinene (18.23%) and bornyl acetate (3.98%). Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%). The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml−1) and it was effective against Anopheles stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml−1). The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml−1). Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models. PMID:26114148

  9. The quinobenzoxazines: relationship between DNA binding and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Y; Sun, D; Clement, J J; Hurley, L H

    1999-10-01

    The quinobenzoxazine compounds, derived from antibacterial quinolones, is active in vitro and in vivo against murine and human tumors. In this contribution, we show that the relative DNA binding affinity of the quinobenzoxazine compounds correlates with their cytotoxicity, their ability to inhibit gyrase-DNA complex formation, and the decatenation of kinetoplast DNA by human topoisomerase II. DNA binding studies with the descarboxy-A-62176 analogue indicate that the beta-keto acid moiety of the quinobenzoxazine compounds plays an important role in their interaction with DNA.

  10. Biological activities of lignin hydrolysate-related compounds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Siseon; Monnappa, Ajay Kalanjana; Mitchell, Robert J

    2012-05-01

    Lignin hydrolysates contain many different chemical species, including ferulic acid, coumaric acid, vanillic acid, vanillin, syringaldehyde and furfural. From the perspective of biofuels, these compounds are problematic and can cause downstream loss of product if not removed prior to beginning the fermentative process. In contrast, a search for these compounds within the literature turns up many papers where the same compounds have beneficial properties pertaining to human health, including as antioxidants and in cancer prevention, or are involved in bacterial cell-to-cell signaling. Consequently, this article reviews the dual nature of these and other compounds found in lignin hydrolysates, highlighting both their detrimental and beneficial activities.

  11. Interaction of metallic clusters with biologically active curcumin molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sanjeev K.; He, Haiying; Liu, Chunhui; Dutta, Ranu; Pandey, Ravindra

    2015-09-01

    We have investigated the interaction of subnano metallic Gd and Au clusters with curcumin, an important biomolecule having pharmacological activity. Gd clusters show different site preference to curcumin and much stronger interaction strength, in support of the successful synthesis of highly stable curcumin-coated Gd nanoparticles as reported recently. It can be attributed to significant charge transfer from the Gd cluster to curcumin together with a relatively strong hybridization of the Gd df-orbitals with curcumin p-orbitals. These results suggest that Gd nanoparticles can effectively be used as delivery carriers for curcumin at the cellular level for therapy and medical imaging applications.

  12. Biological activity of secondary metabolites from Peltostigma guatemalense.

    PubMed

    Cuca Suarez, Luis Enrique; Pattarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Lozano, Jose Manuel; Delle Monache, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Leaves and wood of Peltostigma guatemalense, a novel species of the family Rutaceae, yielded a total of 14 secondary metabolites, i.e. methyl p-hydroxy benzoate, phenylacetic acid, beta-sitosterol, lupeol, syringaresinol, scopoletin, gardenin B (1), and seven alkaloids: gamma-fagarine (2), skimmianine (3), kokusaginine (4), 7-O-isopentenyl-gamma-fagarine (5), anhydro-evoxine (6), evoxine (7) and 4-methoxy-1-methyl-quinolin-2-one (8). The compounds have been identified by spectroscopic methods. Antibacterial and antimalarial in vitro activity of the isolated compounds were also determined. Methyl p-hydroxy benzoate and quinolone (8) were the most effective on Plasmodium falciparium strains.

  13. [Biologically Active Peptides Isolated from Dill Anethum graveolens L].

    PubMed

    Kulikova, O G; Maltsev, D I; Ilyina, A P; Burdina, A V; Yamskova, V P; Yamskov, I A

    2015-01-01

    Peptide mixtures with molecular weights of 1000-2000 Da and in vivo membrano-trophic activity against mouse hepatocyte culture at very low concentrations were isolated from dill Anethum graveolens L. leaves. It has been found that plant peptides in aqueous solution formed larger nanosized particles of approximately 90 nm with a secondary structure mainly composed of β-structures and random coil structures. We demonstrated that peptides isolated from A. graveolens in vitro at an ultra-low dosage affected the size of the area of pigmented cells of amphibian liver, which are analogous to Kupffer cells of the mammalian liver, using roller organotypic newt liver culture models.

  14. Synthesis and biological activity of glutamic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Receveur, J M; Guiramand, J; Récasens, M; Roumestant, M L; Viallefont, P; Martinez, J

    1998-01-20

    In order to develop new specific glutamate analogues at metabotropic glutamate receptors, Diels-Alder, 1-4 ionic and radical reactions were performed starting from (2S)-4-methyleneglutamic acid. Preliminary pharmacological evaluation by measuring IP accumulation using rat forebrain synaptoneurosomes has shown that (2S)-4-(2-phthalimidoethyl)glutamic acid (3a), (2S)-4-(4-phthalimidobutyl)glutamic acid (3b) and 1-[(S)-2-amino-2-carboxyethyl]-3,4-dimethylcyclohex-3-ene-1-carbox ylic acid (8) presented moderate antagonist activities.

  15. Synthesis and biological activity of fluorescent neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam.

    PubMed

    Taillebois, Emiliane; Langlois, Paul; Cunha, Thomas; Seraphin, Denis; Thany, Steeve H

    2014-08-01

    Here, we describe the synthesis of two new fluorescent derivatives of thiamethoxam and compared their toxicity on aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum and their mode of action on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on the sixth abdominal ganglion. The compound 3 with two 2-chlorothiazole moieties was found to be more toxic using toxicological bioassays 24 h and 48 h after exposure while compound 4 appeared more active using cockroach ganglionic depolarization. Interestingly, thiamethoxam appeared more effective than component 3 and 4, respectively. Our results demonstrated that component 3 and 4 act as agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

  16. Synthesis and biological activity of gem-dichlorocyclopropyl ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Shostakovskii, S.M.; Mochalov, V.N.; Larionov, G.M.

    1986-09-01

    In order to examine the antimicrobial activity of oxygenated cyclopropanes, the authors have synthesized the bis-gem-dichlorocyclopropyl ether of ethylene glycol, the meso- and dl- forms of bis-gem-dichlorocyclopropyl ether, and the gem-dichlorocyclopropyl alkyl ethers. The physiocochemical properties of compounds obtained are presented. The authors conclude that in the case of gem-dichlorocyclopropane compounds, decontamination of microorganisms occurs at the pre-metabolic stage, and results in the denaturation of the protein components of the cell wall and external membranes and of the specific peptides of the peptide-glycan layer.

  17. A novel tetrahydrobenzoangelicin with dark and photo biological activity.

    PubMed

    Dalla Via, Lisa; Gia, Ornella; Caffieri, Sergio; García-Argáez, Aída N; Quezada, Elías; Uriarte, Eugenio

    2012-06-01

    The synthesis of 8,9,10,11-tetrahydro-5-(3-dimethylaminopropoxy)-4-methylbenzofuro[2,3-h]coumarin (5) is described. The new compound showed the ability to inhibit cell growth both upon UVA irradiation and in the dark. The investigation on the mechanism of action highlighted the capacity of 5 to covalently photoadd to thymine, as demonstrated by the isolation and characterization of the 4',5'-monoadduct. Furthermore, in the ground state 5 interferes with the topoisomerase II relaxation activity, suggesting that this enzyme could constitute a molecular target responsible for the dark antiproliferative effect.

  18. New approaches to estimation of peat deposits for production of biologically active compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepchenko, L. M.; Yurchenko, V. I.; Krasnik, V. G.; Syedykh, N. J.

    2009-04-01

    It is known, that biologically active preparations from peat increase animals productivity as well as resistance against stress-factors and have adaptogeneous, antioxidant, immunomodulative properties. Optymal choice of peat deposits for the production of biologically active preparations supposes the detailed comparative analysis of peat properties from different deposits. For this the cadastre of peat of Ukraine is developed in the humic substances laboratory named after prof. Khristeva L.A. (Dnipropetrovsk Agrarian University, Ukraine). It based on the research of its physical and chemical properties, toxicity and biological activity, and called Biocadastre. The Biocadastre is based on the set of parameters, including the descriptions of physical and chemical properties (active acidity, degree of decomposition, botanical composition etc.), toxicity estimation (by parabyotyc, infusorial, inhibitor and other tests), biological activity indexes (growth-promoting, antioxidative, adaptogeneous, immunomodulative antistress and other actions). The blocks of Biocadastre indexes are differentiated, taking into account their use for creation the preparations for vegetable, animals and microorganisms. The Biocadastre will allow to choose the peat deposits, most suitable for the production of different biologically active preparations, both wide directed and narrow spectrum of action, depending on application fields (medicine, agriculture, veterinary medicine, microbiological industry, balneology, cosmetology).

  19. Chemotypic Characterization and Biological Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Satyal, Prabodh; Jones, Tyler H.; Lopez, Elizabeth M.; McFeeters, Robert L.; Ali, Nasser A. Awadh; Mansi, Iman; Al-kaf, Ali G.; Setzer, William N.

    2017-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+)-α-pinene (13.5%–37.7%), 1,8-cineole (16.1%–29.3%), (+)-verbenone (0.8%–16.9%), (−)-borneol (2.1%–6.9%), (−)-camphor (0.7%–7.0%), and racemic limonene (1.6%–4.4%). Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities. PMID:28273883

  20. Biologically active constituents from the fruiting body of Taiwanofungus camphoratus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Li-Shian; Chao, Chih-Hua; Shen, De-Yang; Chan, Hsiu-Hui; Chen, Chou-Hsiung; Liao, Yu-Ren; Wu, Shwu-Jen; Leu, Yann-Lii; Shen, Yuh-Chiang; Kuo, Yao-Haur; Lee, E-Jian; Qian, Keduo; Wu, Tian-Shung; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2011-01-01

    Five new benzenoids, benzocamphorins A-E (1-5), and 10 recently isolated triterpenoids, camphoratins A-J (16-25), together with 23 known compounds including seven benzenoids (6-12), three lignans (13-15), and 13 triterpenoids (26-38) were isolated from the fruiting body of Taiwanofungus camphoratus. Their structures were established by spectroscopic analysis. Selected compounds were examined for cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities. Compounds 9 and 21 showed moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and Hep2 cell lines with ED(50) values of 3.4 and 3.0μg/mL, respectively. Compounds 21, 25, 26, 29-31, 33, and 36 demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production with IC(50) values of 2.5, 1.6, 3.6, 0.6, 4.1, 4.2, 2.5, and 1.5μM, respectively, which were better than those of the nonspecific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) (IC(50): 25.8μM). These results may substantiate the use of T. camphoratus in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of inflammation and cancer-related diseases. The newly discovered compounds deserve further development as anti-inflammatory candidates.

  1. Biologically Active Constituents from the Fruiting Body of Taiwanofungus camphoratus

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Li-Shian; Chao, Chih-Hua; Shen, De-Yang; Chan, Hsiu-Hui; Chen, Chou-Hsiung; Liao, Yu-Ren; Wu, Shwu-Jen; Leu, Yann-Lii; Shen, Yuh-Chiang; Kuo, Yao-Haur; Lee, E-Jian; Qian, Keduo; Wu, Tian-Shung; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2010-01-01

    Five new benzenoids, benzocamphorins A–E (1–5), and ten recently isolated triterpenoids, camphoratins A–J (16–25), together with 23 known compounds including seven benzenoids (6–12), three lignans (13–15), and 13 triterpenoids (26–38) were isolated from the fruiting body of Taiwanofungus camphoratus. Their structures were established by spectroscopic analysis. Selected compounds were examined for cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities. Compounds 9 and 21 showed moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and Hep2 cell lines with ED50 values of 3.4 and 3.0 µg/mL, respectively. Compounds 21, 25, 26, 29–31, 33, and 36 demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production with IC50 values of 2.5, 1.6, 3.6, 0.6, 4.1, 4.2, 2.5, and 1.5 µM, respectively, which were better than those of the nonspecific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (IC50: 25.8 µM). These results may substantiate the use of T. camphoratus in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of inflammation and cancer-related diseases. The newly discovered compounds deserve further development as anti-inflammatory candidates. PMID:21115251

  2. [ALKALOIDS OF PEGANUM HARMALA L. AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY].

    PubMed

    Vachnadze, V; Suladze, T; Vachnadze, N; Kintsurashvili, L; Novikova, J

    2015-06-01

    Peganum Harmala L., Peganасеае widely distributed in Georgia. On the basis of chemical analysis of the composition of alkaloids it was found out that the plant contains quinazoline derivatives, among which dominats alkaloid d, 1 peganine: С11Н12NО2, m.p. 198-99ºC (СН3ОН). UV, λmax 275 (lgε 3,95). In IR-spectrum (KBr) 1625 cm- (-N=C) 3200-370 (OH)cm-1 . Mass- spectrum: М+ 171(100%). It was studied the dynamics of accumulation for total alkaloids and d, l - peganine: in the budding phase the amount of alkaloids was - 3,71%, d, l - peganine 0,07÷0,09%; in the phase of mass flowering the sum of alkaloids - 4,51% ,d, l - peganine - 0,1÷0,13%; in the phase of ripeness total alkaloids - 3.92%; d,l - peganine - 0,08÷0,1. The study of specific pharmacological activity showed that the d,l - peganine similar to peganine at a dose of 30 mg/kg causes a decrease in heart rate by 30÷40 beats/min, which is characteristic for anticholinesterases, in parallel with this, a decrease in cholinesterase activity in blood serum has been observed.

  3. Effect of chemical and biological surfactants on activated sludge of MBR system: microscopic analysis and foam test.

    PubMed

    Capodici, Marco; Di Bella, Gaetano; Nicosia, Salvatore; Torregrossa, Michele

    2015-02-01

    A bench-scale MBR unit was operated, under stressing condition, with the aim of stimulating the onset of foaming in the activated sludge. Possible synergies between synthetic surfactants in the wastewater and biological surfactants (Extra-Cellular Polymeric Substances, EPSs) were investigated by changing C/N ratio. The growth of filamentous bacteria was also discussed. The MBR unit provided satisfactory overall carbon removal overall efficiencies: in particular, synthetic surfactants were removed with efficiency higher than 90% and 95% for non-ionic and ionic surfactants, respectively. Lab investigation suggested also the importance to reduce synthetic surfactants presence entering into mixed liquor: otherwise, their presence can significantly worsen the natural foaming caused by biological surfactants (EPSs) produced by bacteria. Finally, a new analytic method based on "ink test" has been proposed as a useful tool to achieve a valuation of EPSs bound fraction.

  4. Sedimentation: Potential Biological Effects of Dredging Operations in Estuarine and Marine Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    1999). “Impacts of sediment burial on mangroves.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 37, 420-426. Fonseca, M. S., Kenworthy, W. J., and Thayer, G W. (1998... Marine Pollution Bulletin 4, 166-169. Tomasko, D.A., Dawes, C. J., and Hall, M. O. (1996). “The effects of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment in...adjacent coral reefs,” Marine Pollution Bulletin 42, 864-872. Wilber, D. H., and Clarke, D. G. (2001). “Biological effects of suspended sediments: a

  5. LTI system order reduction approach based on asymptotical equivalence and the Co-operation of biology-related algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhikov, I. S.; Semenkin, E. S.; Akhmedova, Sh A.

    2017-02-01

    A novel order reduction method for linear time invariant systems is described. The method is based on reducing the initial problem to an optimization one, using the proposed model representation, and solving the problem with an efficient optimization algorithm. The proposed method of determining the model allows all the parameters of the model with lower order to be identified and by definition, provides the model with the required steady-state. As a powerful optimization tool, the meta-heuristic Co-Operation of Biology-Related Algorithms was used. Experimental results proved that the proposed approach outperforms other approaches and that the reduced order model achieves a high level of accuracy.

  6. Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Four Wild Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Shabir; AbdEl-Salam, Naser M.; Fouad, H.; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Hussain, Hidayat; Saeed, Wajid

    2014-01-01

    The fruits of four wild plants, namely, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, are separately used as traditional dietary and remedial agents in remote areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results of our study on these four plants revealed that the examined fruits were a valuable source of nutraceuticals and exhibited good level of antimicrobial activity. The fruits of these four investigated plants are promising source of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. These four plants' fruits are good sources of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium. It was also observed that these fruits are potential source of antioxidant agent and the possible reason could be that these samples had good amount of phytochemicals. Hence, the proper propagation, conservation, and chemical investigation are recommended so that these fruits should be incorporated for the eradication of food and health related problems. PMID:25374941

  7. Flavonoids from the Genus Astragalus: Phytochemistry and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bratkov, Viktor M.; Shkondrov, Aleksandar M.; Zdraveva, Petranka K.; Krasteva, Ilina N.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids, the most common plant polyphenols are widely distributed in every species and possess a broad range of pharmacological activities. The genus Astragalus is the largest in the Fabaceae family with more than 2,500 species spread. They are known to contain different metabolites such as flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides. Plants from the genus have been used in the traditional medicine of many countries for centuries. This paper is focused on the large group of flavonoid compounds. Details on structure as well as information about the pharmacological properties of flavonoids, isolated from Astragalus species have been discussed. This review is based on publications until the first half of 2014 and includes also the results from our phytochemical investigations of the genus. PMID:27041870

  8. Biological Activity of Coumarin Derivatives as Anti-Leishmanial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Mandlik, Vineetha; Patil, Sohan; Bopanna, Ramanamurthy; Basu, Sudipta; Singh, Shailza

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis affects nearly 0.7 to 1.3 million people annually. Treatment of this disease is difficult due to lack of appropriate medication and the growing problem of drug resistance. Natural compounds such as coumarins serve as complementary therapeutic agents in addition to the current treatment modalities. In this study, we have performed an in-silico screening of the coumarin derivatives and their anti-leishmanial properties has been explored both in-vitro and in-vivo. One of the compounds (compound 2) exhibited leishmanicidal activity and to further study its properties, nanoliposomal formulation of the compound was developed. Treatment of cutaneous lesions in BALB/c mice with compound 2 showed significantly reduced lesion size as compared to the untreated mice (p<0.05) suggesting that compound 2 may possess anti-leishmanial properties. PMID:27768694

  9. Amazon acai: chemistry and biological activities: a review.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Klenicy Kazumy de Lima; Pereira, Luiz Felipe Ravazi; Lamarão, Carlos Victor; Lima, Emerson Silva; da Veiga-Junior, Valdir Florêncio

    2015-07-15

    Acai (acai or assai) is one of the Amazon's most popular functional foods and widely used in the world. There are many benefits to its alleged use in the growing market for nutraceuticals. The acai extracts have a range of polyphenolic components with antioxidant properties, some of those present in greater quantity are orientin, isoorientin and vanillic acid, as well as anthocyanins cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. The presence of these substances is linked mainly to the antioxidant, anti- inflammatory, anti-proliferative and cardioprotective activities. Importantly, there are two main species of the Euterpe genus which produce acai. There are several differences between them but they are still quite unknown, from literature to producers and consumers. In this review are highlighted the chemical composition, botanical aspects, pharmacological, marketing and nutrition of these species based on studies published in the last five years in order to unify the current knowledge and dissimilarities between them.

  10. Phytochemical and biological activities of four wild medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Shad, Anwar Ali; Ahmad, Shabir; Ullah, Riaz; AbdEl-Salam, Naser M; Fouad, H; Ur Rehman, Najeeb; Hussain, Hidayat; Saeed, Wajid

    2014-01-01

    The fruits of four wild plants, namely, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, are separately used as traditional dietary and remedial agents in remote areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results of our study on these four plants revealed that the examined fruits were a valuable source of nutraceuticals and exhibited good level of antimicrobial activity. The fruits of these four investigated plants are promising source of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. These four plants' fruits are good sources of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium. It was also observed that these fruits are potential source of antioxidant agent and the possible reason could be that these samples had good amount of phytochemicals. Hence, the proper propagation, conservation, and chemical investigation are recommended so that these fruits should be incorporated for the eradication of food and health related problems.

  11. Biological activities and potential health benefits of bioactive peptides derived from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Dai-Hung; Vo, Thanh-Sang; Ngo, Dai-Nghiep; Wijesekara, Isuru; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2012-11-01

    Marine organisms have been recognized as rich sources of bioactive compounds with valuable nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potentials. Recently, marine bioactive peptides have gained much attention because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Notably, these peptides exhibit various biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-proliferative, anticoagulant, calcium-binding, anti-obesity and anti-diabetic activities. This review mainly presents biological activities of peptides from marine organisms and emphasizing their potential applications in foods as well as pharmaceutical areas.

  12. Diversity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Bacillus Species: Chemistry and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mondol, Muhammad Abdul Mojid; Shin, Hee Jae; Islam, Mohammad Tofazzal

    2013-01-01

    Marine Bacillus species produce versatile secondary metabolites including lipopeptides, polypeptides, macrolactones, fatty acids, polyketides, and isocoumarins. These structurally diverse compounds exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antialgal activities. Some marine Bacillus strains can detoxify heavy metals through reduction processes and have the ability to produce carotenoids. The present article reviews the chemistry and biological activities of secondary metabolites from marine isolates. Side by side, the potential for application of these novel natural products from marine Bacillus strains as drugs, pesticides, carotenoids, and tools for the bioremediation of heavy metal toxicity are also discussed. PMID:23941823

  13. Biological Activity of Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni and Their Relationship to Health.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda Beatriz; Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi

    2015-10-19

    The leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni has nutrients and phytochemicals, which make it an adequate source for the extraction and production of functional food ingredients. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest therapeutic and pharmacological applications for stevia and their extracts because they are not toxic and exhibit several biological activities. This review presents the biological activity of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and their relationship to antidiabetic, anticariogenic, antioxidant, hypotensive, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, anti-inflamatory and anti-tumor activities. Consumption and adverse effects were also reviewed.

  14. The cell biology of inflammasomes: Mechanisms of inflammasome activation and regulation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, numerous advances have been made in the role and regulation of inflammasomes during pathogenic and sterile insults. An inflammasome complex comprises a sensor, an adaptor, and a zymogen procaspase-1. The functional output of inflammasome activation includes secretion of cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18, and induction of an inflammatory form of cell death called pyroptosis. Recent studies have highlighted the intersection of this inflammatory response with fundamental cellular processes. Novel modulators and functions of inflammasome activation conventionally associated with the maintenance of homeostatic biological functions have been uncovered. In this review, we discuss the biological processes involved in the activation and regulation of the inflammasome. PMID:27325789

  15. Generation of structurally novel short carotenoids and study of their biological activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se H; Kim, Moon S; Lee, Bun Y; Lee, Pyung C

    2016-02-23

    Recent research interest in phytochemicals has consistently driven the efforts in the metabolic engineering field toward microbial production of various carotenoids. In spite of systematic studies, the possibility of using C30 carotenoids as biologically functional compounds has not been explored thus far. Here, we generated 13 novel structures of C30 carotenoids and one C35 carotenoid, including acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic structures, through directed evolution and combinatorial biosynthesis, in Escherichia coli. Measurement of radical scavenging activity of various C30 carotenoid structures revealed that acyclic C30 carotenoids showed higher radical scavenging activity than did DL-α-tocopherol. We could assume high potential biological activity of the novel structures of C30 carotenoids as well, based on the neuronal differentiation activity observed for the monocyclic C30 carotenoid 4,4'-diapotorulene on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Our results demonstrate that a series of structurally novel carotenoids possessing biologically beneficial properties can be synthesized in E. coli.

  16. Spectral Response and Diagnostics of Biological Activity of Hydroxyl-Containing Aromatic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Mayer, G. V.; Bel'kov, M. V.; Shadyro, O. I.

    2016-08-01

    Using IR Fourier spectra and employing quantum-chemical calculations of electronic structure, spectra, and proton-acceptor properties, synthetic derivatives of aminophenol exhibiting biological activity in the suppression of herpes, influenza, and HIV viruses have been investigated from a new perspective, with the aim of establishing the spectral response of biological activity of the molecules. It has been experimentally established that the participation of the aminophenol hydroxyl group in intramolecular hydrogen bonds is characteristic of structures with antiviral properties. A quantum-chemical calculation of the proton-acceptor ability of the investigated aminophenol derivatives has shown that biologically active structures are characterized by a high proton-acceptor ability of oxygen of the hydroxyl group. A correlation that has been obtained among the formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond, high proton-acceptor ability, and antiviral activity of substituted aminophenols enables us to predict the pharmacological properties of new medical preparations of the given class of compounds.

  17. Biologically active filters - An advanced water treatment process for contaminants of emerging concern.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuangyi; Gitungo, Stephen W; Axe, Lisa; Raczko, Robert F; Dyksen, John E

    2017-05-01

    With the increasing concern of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in source water, this study examines the hypothesis that existing filters in water treatment plants can be converted to biologically active filters (BAFs) to treat these compounds. Removals through bench-scale BAFs were evaluated as a function of media, granular activated carbon (GAC) and dual media, empty bed contact time (EBCT), and pre-ozonation. For GAC BAFs, greater oxygen consumption, increased pH drop, and greater dissolved organic carbon removal normalized to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were observed indicating increased microbial activity as compared to anthracite/sand dual media BAFs. ATP concentrations in the upper portion of the BAFs were as much as four times greater than the middle and lower portions of the dual media and 1.5 times greater in GAC. Sixteen CECs were spiked in the source water. At an EBCT of 18 min (min), GAC BAFs were highly effective with overall removals greater than 80% without pre-ozonation; exceptions included tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate and iopromide. With a 10 min EBCT, the degree of CECs removal was reduced with less than half of the compounds removed at greater than 80%. The dual media BAFs showed limited CECs removal with only four compounds removed at greater than 80%, and 10 compounds were reduced by less than 50% with either EBCT. This study demonstrated that GAC BAFs with and without pre-ozonation are an effective and advanced technology for treating emerging contaminants. On the other hand, pre-ozonation is needed for dual media BAFs to remove CECs. The most cost effective operating conditions for dual media BAFs were a 10 min EBCT with the application of pre-ozonation.

  18. A preliminary study of the microbial resources and their biological activities of the East china sea.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoling; Liu, Xiaoyu; Long, Cong; Wang, Guoxiang; Gao, Yun; Liu, Junhua; Jiao, Binghua

    2011-01-01

    East China Sea is one of the four sea areas in China, which possesses peculiar ecological environment and many kinds of living creatures, especially the microorganisms. We established the East China Sea microorganism library (during 2006-2010) for the first time, which stored about 30000 strains that covered most kinds of the species. In this paper, 395 pure strains of East China Sea microorganism library which belong to 33 different genera were mainly introduced. Sulfitobacter, Halomonas, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, and Idiomarina were the most dominant species. On the large-scale biological activity screening of the 395 strains, 100 strains possess different biological activities based on different screening models, of which 11.4% strains have antibacterial activities, 15.9% have cytotoxicity activities, and 6.1% have antioxidation activities. Besides, the secondary metabolites of 6 strains with strong biological activities were studied systematically; diketopiperazines and macrocyclic lactones are the active secondary metabolites. The species and the biological activity of microorganisms diversity, the abundant structure type of the secondary metabolites, and their bioactivities all indicate that East China Sea is a potent marine microorganisms-derived developing resource for drug discovery.

  19. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 1--Biological Health Benefits)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been promoting and incorporating physical activities into their community-based programs and improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the first of a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: 1) biological health benefits of…

  20. In Search of a Better Bean: A Simple Activity to Introduce Plant Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaccarotella, Kim; James, Roxie

    2014-01-01

    Measuring plant stem growth over time is a simple activity commonly used to introduce concepts in growth and development in plant biology (Reid & Pu, 2007). This Quick Fix updates the activity and incorporates a real-world application: students consider possible effects of soil substrate and sunlight conditions on plant growth without needing…

  1. Optically and biologically active mussel protein-coated double-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong Chae; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Kim, Jin Hee; Hayashi, Takuya; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Endo, Morinobu; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2011-12-02

    A method of dispersing strongly bundled double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) via a homogeneous coating of mussel protein in an aqueous solution is presented. Optical activity, mechanical strength, as well as electrical conductivity coming from the nanotubes and the versatile biological activity from the mussel protein make mussel-coated DWNTs promising as a multifunctional scaffold and for anti-fouling materials.

  2. Antiproliferative Pt(IV) complexes: synthesis, biological activity, and quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling.

    PubMed

    Gramatica, Paola; Papa, Ester; Luini, Mara; Monti, Elena; Gariboldi, Marzia B; Ravera, Mauro; Gabano, Elisabetta; Gaviglio, Luca; Osella, Domenico

    2010-09-01

    Several Pt(IV) complexes of the general formula [Pt(L)2(L')2(L'')2] [axial ligands L are Cl-, RCOO-, or OH-; equatorial ligands L' are two am(m)ine or one diamine; and equatorial ligands L'' are Cl- or glycolato] were rationally designed and synthesized in the attempt to develop a predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model. Numerous theoretical molecular descriptors were used alongside physicochemical data (i.e., reduction peak potential, Ep, and partition coefficient, log Po/w) to obtain a validated QSAR between in vitro cytotoxicity (half maximal inhibitory concentrations, IC50, on A2780 ovarian and HCT116 colon carcinoma cell lines) and some features of Pt(IV) complexes. In the resulting best models, a lipophilic descriptor (log Po/w or the number of secondary sp3 carbon atoms) plus an electronic descriptor (Ep, the number of oxygen atoms, or the topological polar surface area expressed as the N,O polar contribution) is necessary for modeling, supporting the general finding that the biological behavior of Pt(IV) complexes can be rationalized on the basis of their cellular uptake, the Pt(IV)-->Pt(II) reduction, and the structure of the corresponding Pt(II) metabolites. Novel compounds were synthesized on the basis of their predicted cytotoxicity in the preliminary QSAR model, and were experimentally tested. A final QSAR model, based solely on theoretical molecular descriptors to ensure its general applicability, is proposed.

  3. Bisphenol A removal by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa immobilized on granular activated carbon and operating in a fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Mita, Luigi; Grumiro, Laura; Rossi, Sergio; Bianco, Carmen; Defez, Roberto; Gallo, Pasquale; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Diano, Nadia

    2015-06-30

    Serratia rubidiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli K12 have been studied for their ability of Bisphenol A removal from aqueous systems and biofilm formation on activated granule carbon. Mathematical equations for biodegradation process have been elaborated and discussed. P. aeruginosa was found the best strain to be employed in the process of Bisphenol A removal. The yield in BPA removal of a P. aeruginosa biofilm grown on GAC and operating in a fluidized bed reactor has been evaluated. The results confirm the usefulness in using biological activated carbon (BAC process) to remove phenol compounds from aqueous systems.

  4. Biologically active carbon filtration for haloacetic acid removal from swimming pool water.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hao L; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2016-01-15

    A biologically activate carbon (BAC) filter was continuously operated on site for the treatment of haloacetic acids (HAAs) in an outdoor swimming pool at an average empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 5.8 min. Results showed that BAC filtration was a viable technology for direct removal of HAAs from the pool water with a nominal efficiency of 57.7% by the filter while the chlorine residuals were 1.71 ± 0.90 mg/L during the study. THMs and TOC were not removed and thus were not considered as indicators of the effectiveness of BAC filtration. Increased EBCT in the range of 4.5 and 6.4 min led to improved HAA removal performance, which could be best fit by a logarithmic regression model. BAC filtration also affected the HAA speciation by removing more dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) than trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), resulting in a lower ratio of DCAA/TCAA in the filtered effluent. However, the observation of an overall constant ratio could be attributable to a complex formation and degradation mechanism occurring in swimming pools.

  5. Photophysical characteristics of biologically active 4-aryloxymethyl coumarins 4PTMBC and 1IPMBC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thipperudrappa, J.; Raghavendra, U. P.; Basanagouda, Mahantesha

    2015-02-01

    The absorption and fluorescence characteristics of biologically active coumarin derivatives 4-p-tolyloxymethyl-benzo[h]coumarin (4PTMBC) and 1-(4-iodo phenoxymethyl)-benzo[f]coumarin (1IPMBC) are studied at room temperature in a series of organic solvents and 1,4-dioxane - acetonitrile solvent mixture. The effect of pure solvents on the spectral properties are analyzed using Lippert-Mataga polarity function, Reichardt's microscopic solvent polarity parameter, Kamlet's and Catalan's multiple linear regression approaches. Both general solute - solvent interactions and hydrogen bonding interactions are operative in these systems. However, the contribution of hydrogen bonding interactions is less compared to general solute-solvent interactions. The solvatochromic correlations are used to estimate excited state dipole moment using experimentally determined ground state dipole moment. The bathochromic shift of the emission spectra and the increase in excited state dipole moment indicate the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) character in the emitting singlet state. The solvation studies in 1,4-dioxane - acetonitrile solvent mixture suggest that these dyes are preferentially solvated by 1,4-dioxane.

  6. Medical operations and life sciences activities on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C. (Editor); Mason, J. A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Space station health maintenance facilities, habitability, personnel, and research in the medical sciences and in biology are discussed. It is assumed that the space station structure will consist of several modules, each being consistent with Orbiter payload bay limits in size, weight, and center of gravity.

  7. [Biologically active peptide fragments of functional proteins produced by proteolysis in vitro].

    PubMed

    Filippova, M M; Karelin, A A; Ivanov, V T

    1997-05-01

    Over 100 various peptides were identified as a result of numerous studies of in vitro proteolytic digestion of some proteins and tissue preparations. Many of them exhibit wide spectra of biological effects, which are similar to those described for some groups of endogenous peptide bioregulators. The possibility of in vitro modeling of endogenous processes of proteolytic digestion of proteins that provides biologically active peptides is discussed.

  8. Mineralogical characteristics of the silica polymorphs in relation to their biological activities

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr.; Heaney, P.J.

    1993-10-01

    Numerous aspects of minerals (including the silica polymorphs) can effect their biological activities. These include periodic structures, compositional variations, dissolution characteristics, surface properties, and particle size/shape. In order to understand mineral-induced pathogenesis in a mechanistic way, the links between these properties and biochemical processes must be elucidated. This paper presents some of the basic properties of the silica polymorphs that may relate to pathogenicity and mineralogical strategies for designing biological assays to evaluate these properties.

  9. Polysaccharides from Arctium lappa L.: Chemical structure and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Carlotto, Juliane; de Souza, Lauro M; Baggio, Cristiane H; Werner, Maria Fernanda de P; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello; Cipriani, Thales R

    2016-10-01

    The plant Arctium lappa L. is popularly used to relieve symptoms of inflammatory disorders. A crude polysaccharide fraction (SAA) resulting of aqueous extraction of A. lappa leaves showed a dose dependent anti-edematogenic activity on carrageenan-induced paw edema, which persisted for up to 48h. Sequential fractionation by ultrafiltration at 50kDa and 30kDa cut-off membranes yielded three fractions, namely RF50, RF30, and EF30. All these maintained the anti-edematogenic effect, but RF30 showed a more potent action, inhibiting 57% of the paw edema at a dose of 4.9mg/kg. The polysaccharide RF30 contained galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, glucose, and mannose in a 7:4:2:1:2:1 ratio and had a Mw of 91,000g/mol. Methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy indicated that RF30 is mainly constituted by a type I rhamnogalacturonan branched by side chains of types I and II arabinogalactans, and arabinan.

  10. Gamma irradiation enhances biological activities of mulberry leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of irradiation on the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and whitening effects of mulberry leaf extract. This was done by comparing the phenolic contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effects; 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radical scavenging effects; in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects and the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE2, and NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated HMC-1 cells, respectively. The results showed that irradiated mulberry leaf extract possesses more anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities than their non-irradiated counterpart, probably due to increase in phenolic contents induced by gamma irradiation at dose of 10kGy. This research stresses on the importance of irradiation in functional foods.

  11. The biological activities of cinnamon, geranium and lavender essential oils.

    PubMed

    Sienkiewicz, Monika; Głowacka, Anna; Kowalczyk, Edward; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Jóźwiak-Bębenista, Marta; Łysakowska, Monika

    2014-12-12

    Acinetobacter sp. represent an important cause of nosocomial infections. Their resistance to some antibiotics, their ability to survive on inanimate surfaces in the hospital environment and their ability to produce biofilms contributes to their virulence. The aim of the study was to determine the antibacterial properties of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils against bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter isolated from several clinical materials and from the hospital environment. A comprehensive evaluation of the susceptibility of Acinetobacter sp. clinical strains to recommended antibiotics was performed. The constituents of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils were identified by GC-FID-MS analysis, and their Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) against tested clinical strains were determined by the micro-dilution broth method. In addition, the effects of essential oils on the viability of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and glioblastoma cell line (T98G) were evaluated. Cinnamon bark oil was the most active against clinical and environmental strains of Acinetobacter baumannii with MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 µL/mL. The MIC values for geranium oil were between 7.5 and 9.5 µL/mL, and between 10.5 and 13.0 µL/mL for lavender oil. These essential oils can be best employed in the fight against infections caused by bacteria from Acinetobacter genus as components of formulations for hygiene and disinfection of hospital environment.

  12. Betanin--a food colorant with biological activity.

    PubMed

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Wagner, Anika E; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B; Rimbach, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Betalains are water-soluble nitrogen-containing pigments that are subdivided in red-violet betacyanins and yellow-orange betaxanthins. Due to glycosylation and acylation betalains exhibit a huge structural diversity. Betanin (betanidin-5-O-β-glucoside) is the most common betacyanin in the plant kingdom. According to the regulation on food additives betanin is permitted quantum satis as a natural red food colorant (E162). Moreover, betanin is used as colorant in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Recently, potential health benefits of betalains and betalain-rich foods (e.g. red beet, Opuntia sp.) have been discussed. Betanin is a scavenger of reactive oxygen species and exhibits gene-regulatory activity partly via nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2-(Nrf2) dependent signaling pathways. Betanin may induce phase II enzymes and antioxidant defense mechanisms. Furthermore, betanin possibly prevents LDL oxidation and DNA damage. Potential blood pressure lowering effects of red beet seem to be mainly mediated by dietary nitrate rather than by betanin per se.

  13. Salicin derivatives from Salix glandulosa and their biological activities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chung Sub; Subedi, Lalita; Park, Kyoung Jin; Kim, Sun Yeou; Choi, Sang Un; Kim, Ki Hyun; Lee, Kang Ro

    2015-10-01

    Two new salicin derivatives, saliglandin (1) and 6'-O-(Z)-p-coumaroylsalicin (2), along with fourteen known analogues (3-16) were isolated from the twigs of Salix glandulosa Seemen. The structures of 1-16 were characterized by the use of NMR methods ((1)H and (13)C NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC and HMBC), chemical hydrolysis, and GC/MS. The full NMR data assignment of the known compounds 6, 13, and 14 are reported for the first time. Isolated compounds were evaluated for their nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory efficacy in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglial cell (BV-2). Compounds 2, 5, 8-16 significantly inhibited NO production, compound 11 being the most efficacious (IC50 13.57 μM) respectively. Moreover, compound 16 dramatically increased the nerve growth factor (NGF) production (165.24 ± 11.1%) in C6 glioma cells. Taken together, these results revealed that salicin derivatives from Salix glandulosa might have potent effect as anti-neuroinflammatory agents.

  14. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on Biologically Active Lanthanide (III) Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostova, I.; Trendafilova, N.; Georgieva, I.; Rastogi, V. K.; Kiefer, W.

    2008-11-01

    The complexation ability and the binding mode of the ligand coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (HCCA) to La(III), Ce(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III) and Dy(III) lanthanide ions (Ln(III)) are elucidated at experimental and theoretical level. The complexes were characterized using elemental analysis, DTA and TGA data as well as 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra. FTIR and Raman spectroscopic techniques as well as DFT quantum chemical calculations were used for characterization of the binding mode and the structures of lanthanide(III) complexes of HCCA. The metal—ligand binding mode is predicted through molecular modeling and energy estimation of different Ln—CCA structures using B3LYP/6-31G(d) method combined with a large quasi-relativistic effective core potential for lanthanide ion. The energies obtained predict bidentate coordination of CCA- to Ln(III) ions through the carbonylic oxygen and the carboxylic oxygen. Detailed vibrational analysis of HCCA, CCA- and Ln(III) complexes based on both calculated and experimental frequencies confirms the suggested metal—ligand binding mode. The natural bonding analysis predicts strongly ionic character of the Ln(III)-CCA bonding in the- complexes studied. With the relatively resistant tumor cell line K-562 we obtained very interesting in-vitro results which are in accordance with our previously published data concerning the activity of lanthanide(III) complexes with other coumarin derivatives.

  15. Biological response of tissues with macrophagic activity to titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Daniel G; Tasat, Deborah R; Evelson, Pablo; Guglielmotti, María B; Cabrini, Rómulo L

    2008-03-15

    The titanium dioxide layer is composed mainly of anatase and rutile. This layer is prone to break, releasing particles to the milieu. Therefore, corrosion may cause implant failure and body contamination. We have previously shown that commercial anatase-titanium dioxide (TiO(2)-anatase) is deposited in organs with macrophagic activity, transported in the blood by phagocytic-mononuclear cells, and induces an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we evaluated the effects of rutile-titanium dioxide (TiO(2)-rutile). Male Wistar rats were injected i.p. with a suspension of TiO(2)-rutile powder at a dose of 1.60 g/100 g b.w. Six months postinjection, the presence of Ti was assessed in serum, blood cells, liver, spleen, and lung. Titanium was found in phagocytic mononuclear cells, serum, and in the parenchyma of all the organs tested. TiO(2)-rutile generated a rise in the percentage of reactive cells, which was smaller than that observed when TiO(2)-anatase was employed in a previous study. Although TiO(2)-rutile provoked an augmentation of ROS, it failed to induce damage to membrane lipids, possibly due to an adaptive response. The present study reveals that TiO(2)-rutile is less bioreactive than TiO(2)-anatase.

  16. Light Activated Serotonin for Exploring Its Action in Biological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Adam C.; Vandenberg, Laura N.; Ball, Rebecca E.; Snouffer, Ashley A.; Hudson, Alicia G.; Zhu, Yue; McLain, Duncan E.; Johnston, Lindsey L.; Lauderdale, James D.; Levin, Michael; Dore, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator involved in regulating mood, appetite, memory, learning, pain, and establishment of left-right (LR) asymmetry in embryonic development. To explore the role of 5-HT in a variety of physiological contexts, we have created two forms of “caged” 5-HT, BHQ-O-5HT and BHQ-N-5HT. When exposed to 365- or 740-nm light, BHQ-O-5HT releases 5-HT through 1- or 2-photon excitation, respectively. BHQ-O-5HT mediated changes in neural activity in cultured primary sensory neurons from mouse and the trigeminal ganglion and optic tectum of intact zebrafish larvae in the form of high amplitude spiking in response to light. In Xenopus laevis embryos, 5-HT released from BHQ-O-5HT upon exposure to light increased the occurrence of LR patterning defects. Maximal rates of LR defects were observed when 5-HT was released at stage 5 compared to stage 8. These experiments show the potential for BHQ-caged serotonins in studying 5-HT-regulated physiological processes. PMID:24333002

  17. Phytochemistry and biological activity of Spanish Citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    The evaluation of the potential inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase by Citrus spp. fruits of Spanish origin (lemon, orange, grapefruit, lime, and mandarin) together with the evaluation of their phytochemical content and antioxidant capacity (DPPH˙, ORACFL, ABTS(+), FRAP and O2˙(-)) aiming for new applications of the fruits in nutrition and health was carried out. As far as we are aware, the presence of 3-O-caffeoylferuoylquinic acid and two hydrated feruloylquinic acids in orange and the presence of 3,5-diferuoylquinic acid in grapefruit have been reported for the first time. Although grapefruit showed higher contents of phytochemicals such as flavanones and vitamin C, lemon and lime showed higher potential for inhibitory effects on lipase, and lime also showed the best results for in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition. On the other hand, higher antioxidant capacity was reported for grapefruit, lemon and lime, which correlated well with their phytochemical composition. Based on the results, it could be concluded that Citrus fruits are of great value for nutrition and treatment of diet-related diseases such as obesity and diabetes, and consequently, a new field of interest in the food industry regarding new bioactive ingredients would be considered.

  18. Metabolism of mometasone furoate and biological activity of the metabolites.

    PubMed

    Sahasranaman, S; Issar, M; Hochhaus, G

    2006-02-01

    To better evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the new inhaled glucocorticoid mometasone furoate (MF), the metabolism of MF was evaluated in rat and human tissues and in rat after i.v. administration. Metabolic studies with 3H-MF in human and rat plasma and S9 fractions of human and rat lung showed relatively high stability and a degradation pattern similar to that seen in buffer systems. MF was efficiently metabolized into at least five metabolites in S9 fractions of both rat and human liver. There were, however, quantitative differences in the metabolites between the two species. The apparent half-life of MF in the S9 fraction of human liver was found to be 3 times greater compared with that in rat. MET1, the most polar metabolite, was the major metabolite in rat liver fractions, whereas both MET1 and MET2 were formed to an equal extent in human liver. Metabolism and distribution studies in rats after intravenous and intratracheal administration of [1,2-(3)H]MF revealed that most of the radioactivity (approximately 90%) was present in the stomach, intestines, and intestinal contents, suggesting biliary excretion of MF and its metabolites. Radiochromatography showed that most radioactivity was associated with MET1, MET2, and MET 3. Fractionation of the high-performance liquid chromatography eluate (MET1-5) revealed that only MF [relative binding affinity (RBA) 2900] and MET2 (RBA 700) had appreciable glucocorticoid receptor binding affinity. These results suggest that MF undergoes distinct extrahepatic metabolism but generates active metabolites that might be in part responsible for the systemic side effects of MF.

  19. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program: Guidance for Contracting Biological and Chemical Evaluations of Dredged Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    to allowing disposal of dredged material in waters of the United States. Compli- ance requires the avoidance of "unacceptable adverse effects " to the...costs. This may result in increases in cost- effectiveness , although this varies greatly and cannot be assumed. The private firm, which operates at a...BAA is published annually by the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and remains in effect until superseded by the latest edition. The

  20. Associations between selected demographic, biological, school environmental and physical education based correlates, and adolescent physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hilland, Toni A; Ridgers, Nicola D; Stratton, Gareth; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2011-02-01

    The study investigated associations between selected physical activity correlates among 299 adolescents (90 boys, age 12-14 years) from 3 English schools. Physical activity was assessed by self-report and accelerometry. Correlates represented biological, predisposing, and demographic factors as described in the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model. Boys engaged in more self-reported (p < .01) and accelerometer assessed physical activity than girls (p = .02). Positive associations between sex (male), BMI, Perceived PE Ability, Perceived PE Worth, number of enrolled students, and physical activity outcomes were evident (p < .05). School-based physical activity promotion should emphasize sex-specific enhancement of students' perceived PE competence and enjoyment.

  1. Severe Impingement of Lumbar Disc Replacements Increases the Functional Biological Activity of Polyethylene Wear Debris

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Ryan M.; MacDonald, Daniel W.; Kurtz, Steven M.; Steinbeck, Marla J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Wear, oxidation, and particularly rim impingement damage of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene total disc replacement components have been observed following surgical revision. However, neither in vitro testing nor retrieval-based evidence has shown the effect(s) of impingement on the characteristics of polyethylene wear debris. Thus, we sought to determine (1) differences in polyethylene particle size, shape, number, or biological activity that correspond to mild or severe rim impingement and (2) in an analysis of all total disc replacements, regardless of impingement classification, whether there are correlations between the extent of regional damage and the characteristics of polyethylene wear debris. Methods: The extent of dome and rim damage was characterized for eleven retrieved polyethylene cores obtained at revision surgery after an average duration of implantation of 9.7 years (range, 4.6 to 16.1 years). Polyethylene wear debris was isolated from periprosthetic tissues with use of nitric acid and was imaged with use of environmental scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, particle size, shape, number, biological activity, and chronic inflammation scores were determined. Results: Grouping of particles by size ranges that represented high biological relevance (<0.1 to 1-μm particles), intermediate biological relevance (1 to 10-μm particles), and low biological relevance (>10-μm particles) revealed an increased volume fraction of particles in the <0.1 to 1-μm and 1 to 10-μm size ranges in the mild-impingement cohort as compared with the severe-impingement cohort. The increased volume fractions resulted in a higher specific biological activity per unit particle volume in the mild-impingement cohort than in the severe-impingement cohort. However, functional biological activity, which is normalized by particle volume (mm3/g of tissue), was significantly higher in the severe-impingement cohort. This increase was due to a larger volume

  2. Glycoside vs. Aglycon: The Role of Glycosidic Residue in Biological Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Křen, Vladimír

    A large number of biologically active compounds are glycosides. Sometimes the glycosidic residue is crucial for their activity, in other cases glycosylation only improves pharmacokinetic parameters. Recent developments in molecular glycobiology brought better understanding of aglycon vs. glycoside activities, and made possible the development of new, more active or more effective glycodrugs based on these findings - a very illustrative recent example is vancomycin. The new enzymatic methodology "glycorandomization" enabled preparation of glycoside libraries and opened up paths to the preparation of optimized or entirely novel glycoside antibiotics. This chapter deals with an array of glycosidic compounds currently used in medicine but also covers the biological activity of some glycosidic metabolites of known drugs. The chapter discusses glycosides of vitamins, polyphenolic glycosides (flavonoids), alkaloid glycosides, glycosides of antibiotics, glycopeptides, cardiac glycosides, steroid and terpenoid glycosides etc. The physiological role of the glycosyl moiety and structure-activity relations (SAR) in the glycosidic moiety (-ies) are also discussed.

  3. Two-stage thermophilic-mesophilic anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge from a biological nutrient removal plant.

    PubMed

    Watts, S; Hamilton, G; Keller, J

    2006-01-01

    A two-stage thermophilic-mesophilic anaerobic digestion pilot-plant was operated solely on waste activated sludge (WAS) from a biological nutrient removal (BNR) plant. The first-stage thermophilic reactor (HRT 2 days) was operated at 47, 54 and 60 degrees C. The second-stage mesophilic digester (HRT 15 days) was held at a constant temperature of 36-37 degrees C. For comparison with a single-stage mesophilic process, the mesophilic digester was also operated separately with an HRT of 17 days and temperature of 36-37 degrees C. The results showed a truly thermophilic stage (60 degrees C) was essential to achieve good WAS degradation. The lower thermophilic temperatures examined did not offer advantages over single-stage mesophilic treatment in terms of COD and VS removal. At a thermophilic temperature of 60 degrees C, the plant achieved 35% VS reduction, representing a 46% increase compared to the single-stage mesophilic digester. This is a significant level of degradation which could make such a process viable in situations where there is no primary sludge generated. The fate of the biologically stored phosphorus in this BNR sludge was also investigated. Over 80% of the incoming phosphorus remained bound up with the solids and was not released into solution during the WAS digestion. Therefore only a small fraction of phosphorus would be recycled to the main treatment plant with the dewatering stream.

  4. Biological activity of insulin in GMO gels and the effect of agitation.

    PubMed

    Sadhale, Y; Shah, J C

    1999-11-25

    Glyceryl monooleate (GMO)-water cubic phase gel was previously shown to protect insulin from agitation induced aggregation. However, it is not known if insulin is biologically active in the gel and what effect agitation has on insulin in the gel. Therefore, the objective was to determine the stability of insulin in cubic phase gel in terms of its biological activity in a suitable animal model such as Sprague-Dawley rats. Effect of agitation on biological activity of insulin in cubic phase GMO gel was determined by subcutaneous injections of the agitated and non-agitated gels to two groups of previously fasted rats and measuring the effect on their blood glucose levels. Two groups of rats administered with agitated insulin solution and normal saline were used as controls. The biological activity of insulin was evaluated by comparing AAC (area above the blood glucose level-time curve, in %-h), C(max) (maximum % decrease in blood glucose levels) and t(max) (time required to attain C(max), in h) values for the four groups of rats. Since cubic phase gel is highly viscous, therapeutic equivalency of insulin in the lamellar phase gel, which converts in situ into cubic phase gel, was compared to insulin solution with normal saline as the control, using AAC, C(max) and t(max) of the blood glucose profile. Insulin was biologically active in both agitated and non-agitated gels; however, upon agitation, insulin in solution totally lost its hypoglycemic activity. Agitation of insulin in the cubic phase gel was seen to have very little deleterious effect on its biological activity. Insulin in the lamellar phase gel was not only biologically active but also therapeutically equivalent to insulin solution based on AAC (327.9+/-100.8 and 431.7+/-113.3), C(max) (57. 1+/-7.0 and 70.2+/-6.5) and t(max) (2.8+/-0.7 and 4.0+/-1.7) for the lamellar phase gel and insulin solution, respectively (no significant difference, P0.05). In summary, GMO cubic phase gel protected insulin from

  5. 3-Hydroxy-2-phenyl-4(1H)-quinolinones as promising biologically active compounds.

    PubMed

    Hradil, P; Hlavác, J; Soural, M; Hajdúch, M; Kolár, M; Vecerová, R

    2009-06-01

    2-Phenyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolinones can be considered as aza-analogues of flavones, compounds which are known for the wide-range of their biological activity. These quinolinones were studied as inhibitors of topoisomerase, gyrase and IMPDH. They were tested for anticancer activity in-vitro and were also shown to possess immunosuppressive properties. This review is the first summarizing the synthesis and activity of the mentioned quinolinones.

  6. Biological Activity of Ionic Liquids and Their Application in Pharmaceutics and Medicine.

    PubMed

    Egorova, Ksenia S; Gordeev, Evgeniy G; Ananikov, Valentine P

    2017-01-26

    Ionic liquids are remarkable chemical compounds, which find applications in many areas of modern science. Because of their highly tunable nature and exceptional properties, ionic liquids have become essential players in the fields of synthesis and catalysis, extraction, electrochemistry, analytics, biotechnology, etc. Apart from physical and chemical features of ionic liquids, their high biological activity has been attracting significant attention from biochemists, ecologists, and medical scientists. This Review is dedicated to biological activities of ionic liquids, with a special emphasis on their potential employment in pharmaceutics and medicine. The accumulated data on the biological activity of ionic liquids, including their antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties, are discussed in view of possible applications in drug synthesis and drug delivery systems. Dedicated attention is given to a novel active pharmaceutical ingredient-ionic liquid (API-IL) concept, which suggests using traditional drugs in the form of ionic liquid species. The main aim of this Review is to attract a broad audience of chemical, biological, and medical scientists to study advantages of ionic liquid pharmaceutics. Overall, the discussed data highlight the importance of the research direction defined as "Ioliomics", studies of ions in liquids in modern chemistry, biology, and medicine.

  7. The Hidden Complexity of Biological "Dirty Bombs": Implications for Special Operations Medical Personnel.

    PubMed

    Washington, Michael A; Blythe, Jauchia

    The recent capture of a terrorist in Belgium carrying explosives, fecal matter, and animal tissue may indicate a shift from conventional weapons to crude bacteriological preparations as instruments of terror. It is important to note that although such weapons lack technological sophistication, bacteria are inherently complex, unpredictable, and undetectable in the field. Therefore, it is important that Special Operations medical personnel understand the complications that such seemingly simple devices can add to the treatment of casualties in the field and subsequent evaluation in the clinic.

  8. NetDecoder: a network biology platform that decodes context-specific biological networks and gene activities

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha, Edroaldo Lummertz; Ung, Choong Yong; McGehee, Cordelia D.; Correia, Cristina; Li, Hu

    2016-01-01

    The sequential chain of interactions altering the binary state of a biomolecule represents the ‘information flow’ within a cellular network that determines phenotypic properties. Given the lack of computational tools to dissect context-dependent networks and gene activities, we developed NetDecoder, a network biology platform that models context-dependent information flows using pairwise phenotypic comparative analyses of protein–protein interactions. Using breast cancer, dyslipidemia and Alzheimer's disease as case studies, we demonstrate NetDecoder dissects subnetworks to identify key players significantly impacting cell behaviour specific to a given disease context. We further show genes residing in disease-specific subnetworks are enriched in disease-related signalling pathways and information flow profiles, which drive the resulting disease phenotypes. We also devise a novel scoring scheme to quantify key genes—network routers, which influence many genes, key targets, which are influenced by many genes, and high impact genes, which experience a significant change in regulation. We show the robustness of our results against parameter changes. Our network biology platform includes freely available source code (http://www.NetDecoder.org) for researchers to explore genome-wide context-dependent information flow profiles and key genes, given a set of genes of particular interest and transcriptome data. More importantly, NetDecoder will enable researchers to uncover context-dependent drug targets. PMID:26975659

  9. NetDecoder: a network biology platform that decodes context-specific biological networks and gene activities.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Edroaldo Lummertz; Ung, Choong Yong; McGehee, Cordelia D; Correia, Cristina; Li, Hu

    2016-06-02

    The sequential chain of interactions altering the binary state of a biomolecule represents the 'information flow' within a cellular network that determines phenotypic properties. Given the lack of computational tools to dissect context-dependent networks and gene activities, we developed NetDecoder, a network biology platform that models context-dependent information flows using pairwise phenotypic comparative analyses of protein-protein interactions. Using breast cancer, dyslipidemia and Alzheimer's disease as case studies, we demonstrate NetDecoder dissects subnetworks to identify key players significantly impacting cell behaviour specific to a given disease context. We further show genes residing in disease-specific subnetworks are enriched in disease-related signalling pathways and information flow profiles, which drive the resulting disease phenotypes. We also devise a novel scoring scheme to quantify key genes-network routers, which influence many genes, key targets, which are influenced by many genes, and high impact genes, which experience a significant change in regulation. We show the robustness of our results against parameter changes. Our network biology platform includes freely available source code (http://www.NetDecoder.org) for researchers to explore genome-wide context-dependent information flow profiles and key genes, given a set of genes of particular interest and transcriptome data. More importantly, NetDecoder will enable researchers to uncover context-dependent drug targets.

  10. 76 FR 4993 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Report of Financial and Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Bureau of Transportation Statistics Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Report of Financial and Operating Statistics for Small Aircraft Operators AGENCY: Bureau of Transportation Statistics... 104-13, the Bureau of Transportation Statistics invites the general public, industry and...

  11. 76 FR 39152 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Report of Financial and Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Research & Innovative Technology Administration Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Report of Financial and Operating Statistics for Small Aircraft Operators AGENCY: Research & Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  12. Investigation of effects of terpene skin penetration enhancers on stability and biological activity of lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Varman, Rahul M; Singh, Somnath

    2012-12-01

    The transport of proteins through skin can be facilitated potentially by using terpenes as chemical enhancers. However, we do not know about the effects of these enhancers on the stability and biological activity of proteins which is crucial for the development of safe and efficient formulations. Therefore, this project investigated the effects of terpene-based skin penetration enhancers which are reported as nontoxic to the skin (e.g., limonene, p-cymene, geraniol, farnesol, eugenol, menthol, terpineol, carveol, carvone, fenchone, and verbenone), on the conformational stability and biological activity of a model protein lysozyme. Terpene (5% v/v) was added to lysozyme solution and kept for 24 h (the time normally a transdermal patch remains) for investigating conformational stability profiles and biological activity. Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer was used to analyze different secondary structures, e.g., α-helix, β-sheet, β-turn, and random coil. Conformational changes were also monitored by differential scanning calorimeter by determining midpoint transition temperature (Tm) and calorimetric enthalpy (ΔH). Biological activity of lysozyme was determined by measuring decrease in A (450) when it was added to a suspension of Micrococcus lysodeikticus. The results of this study indicate that terpenes 9, 10, and 11 (carvone, L-fenchone, and L-verbenone) decreased conformational stability and biological activity of lysozyme significantly (p < 0.05) less than other terpenes used in this study. It is concluded that smaller terpenes containing ketones with low lipophilicity (log K (ow) ∼2.00) would be optimal for preserving conformational stability and biological activity of lysozyme in a transdermal formulation containing terpene as permeation enhancer.

  13. Characterization of the corrosion resistance of biologically active solutions: The effects of anodizing and welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Daniel W.

    1991-01-01

    An understanding of fabrication processes, metallurgy, electrochemistry, and microbiology is crucial to the resolution of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) problems. The object of this effort was to use AC impedance spectroscopy to characterize the corrosion resistance of Type II anodized aluminum alloy 2219-T87 in sterile and biologically active media and to examine the corrosion resistance of 316L, alloy 2219-T87, and titanium alloy 6-4 in the welded and unwelded conditions. The latter materials were immersed in sterile and biologically active media and corrosion currents were measured using the polarization resistance (DC) technique.

  14. Traditional uses, chemical constituents, and biological activities of Bixa orellana L.: a review.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Daniela de Araújo; Vilar, Marina Suênia de Araujo; de Lima e Moura, Túlio Flávio Accioly; Raffin, Fernanda Nervo; de Oliveira, Márcia Rosa; Franco, Camilo Flamarion de Oliveira; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria

    2014-01-01

    Bixa orellana L., popularly known as "urucum," has been used by indigenous communities in Brazil and other tropical countries for several biological applications, which indicates its potential use as an active ingredient in pharmaceutical products. The aim of this work was to report the main evidence found in the literature, concerning the ethnopharmacology, the biological activity, and the phytochemistry studies related to Bixa orellana L. Therefore, this work comprises a systematic review about the use of Bixa orellana in the American continent and analysis of the data collected. This study shows the well-characterized pharmacological actions that may be considered relevant for the future development of an innovative therapeutic agent.

  15. USAF Operations in a Chemical and Biological (CB) Warfare Environment, Planning and Analysis, Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Continue steps 1-11 above. 9. Actively employ chemical detectionWr)ul Th iry tarqet th twll capabilities. 10. Be alert to medical reports involving...protection systems) should be turned off. Air dampers are often broken, stuck, or leaks and should not be relied upon to keep out contaminants

  16. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Activated Sludge - Aeration & Sedimentation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, George J.

    This guide for developing standard operating job procedures for wastewater treatment facilities is devoted to the activated sludge aeration and sedimentation process. This process is for conversion of nonsettleable and nonfloatable materials in wastewater to settleable, floculated biological groups and separation of the settleable solids from the…

  17. Refolding techniques for recovering biologically active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Masaya

    2014-02-20

    Biologically active proteins are useful for studying the biological functions of genes and for the development of therapeutic drugs and biomaterials in a biotechnology industry. Overexpression of recombinant proteins in bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, often results in the formation of inclusion bodies, which are protein aggregates with non-native conformations. As inclusion bodies contain relatively pure and intact proteins, protein refolding is an important process to obtain active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies. However, conventional refolding methods, such as dialysis and dilution, are time consuming and, often, recovered yields of active proteins are low, and a trial-and-error process is required to achieve success. Recently, several approaches have been reported to refold these aggregated proteins into an active form. The strategies largely aim at reducing protein aggregation during the refolding procedure. This review focuses on protein refolding techniques using chemical additives and laminar flow in microfluidic chips for the efficient recovery of active proteins from inclusion bodies.

  18. Biological Signaling: the Role of ``Electrostatic Epicenter'' in ``Protein Quake'' and Receptor Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Aihua; Kaledhonkar, Sandip; Kang, Zhouyang; Hendriks, Johnny; Hellingwerf, Klaas

    2013-03-01

    Activation of a receptor protein during biological signaling is often characterized by a two state model: a receptor state (also called ``off state'') for detection of a stimuli, and a signaling state (``on state'') for signal relay. Receptor activation is a process that a receptor protein is structurally transformed from its receptor state to its signaling state through substantial conformational changes that are recognizable by its downstream signal relay partner. What are the structural and energetic origins for receptor activation in biological signaling? We report extensive evidence that further support the role of ``electrostatic epicenter'' in driving ``protein quake'' and receptor activation. Photoactive yellow protein (PYP), a bacterial blue light photoreceptor protein for the negative phototaxis of a salt loving Halorhodospira halophia, is employed as a model system in this study. We will discuss potential applications of this receptor activation mechanism to other receptor proteins, including B-RAF receptor protein that is associated with many cancers.

  19. [Biological activity of lipids and photosynthetic pigments of Sargassum pallidum C. Agardh].

    PubMed

    Gerasimenko, N I; Martyias, E A; Logvinov, S V; Busarova, N G

    2014-01-01

    The biological activity of lipids and photosynthetic pigments of the kelp Sargassum pallidum (Turner) C. Agardh has been studied. Free fatty acids and their esters demonstrated considerable antimicrobial activity against bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus[ital] and Escherichia coli), yeast-like fungi (Candida albicans), and opportunistic pathogenic (Aspergilius niger) and phytopathogenic (Fusarium oxysporum, and Septoria glycines) fungi. Glyceroglycolipids and neutral lipids demonstrated moderate activity. Fucoxanthin and chlorophylls weakly suppressed the growth of microorganisms. None of the studied substances demonstrated activity against Ehrlich's carcinoma. It was shown that the season of weed harvesting affected both antimicrobial and hemolytic activities of different lipids due to changes in their fatty acid composition.

  20. Treatment of H2S using a horizontal biotrickling filter based on biological activated carbon: reactor setup and performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Duan, Huiqi; Koe, Lawrence Choon Chiaw; Yan, Rong

    2005-04-01

    Biological treatment is an emerging and prevalent technology for treating off-gases from wastewater treatment plants. The most commonly reported odorous compound in off-gases is hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), which has a very low odor threshold. A self-designed, bench-scale, cross-flow horizontal biotrickling filter (HBF) operated with bacteria immobilized activated carbon (termed biological activated carbon-BAC), was applied for the treatment of H(2)S. A mixed culture of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria dominated by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans acclimated from activated sludge was used as bacterial seed and the biofilm was developed by culturing the bacteria in the presence of carbon pellets in mineral medium. HBF performance was evaluated systematically over approximately 120 days, depending on a series of changing factors including inlet H(2)S concentration, gas retention time (GRT), pH of recirculation solution, upset and recovery, sulfate accumulation, pressure drop, gas-liquid ratio, and shock loading. The biotrickling filter system can operate at high efficiency from the first day of operation. At a volumetric loading of 900 m(3) m(-3) h(-1) (at 92 ppmv H(2)S inlet concentration), the BAC exhibited maximum elimination capacity (113 g H(2)S/m(-3) h(-1)) and a removal efficiency of 96% was observed. If the inlet concentration was kept at around 20 ppmv, high H(2)S removal (over 98%) was achieved at a GRT of 4 s, a value comparable with those currently reported for biotrickling filters. The bacterial population in the acidic biofilter demonstrated capacity for removal of H(2)S over a broad pH range (pH 1-7). A preliminary investigation into the different effects of bacterial biodegradation and carbon adsorption on system performance was also conducted. This study shows the HBF to be a feasible and economic alternative to physical and chemical treatments for the removal of H(2)S.

  1. Synthesis of Mono-PEGylated Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-2 and Investigation of its Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Beihua; Zhou, Ziniu

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate an efficient synthetic route to the mono-PEGylated growth hormone releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) and its biological activity in vivo. The commercially available key PEGylating reagent, mPEG-NHS ester, was successfully utilized to the synthesis of mono-PEGylated GHRP-2, during which the PEGylation profiles of GHRP-2 were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The product was purified by cation exchange chromatography, and its biological activity was conducted in rats. The desired mono-PEGylated GHRP-2 as the major product was readily obtained in anhydrous aprotic solvent, such as dimethyl formamide (DMF) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), when the molar ratio of mPEG-NHS ester to GHRP-2 was fixed to be 0.8:1. The products were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The evaluation of the biological activity for the products showed that the mono-PEGylated GHRP-2 gave a more stable activity than GHRP-2, suggesting that PEGylation led to the increase in the half-life of GHRP-2 in plasma without greatly impairing the biological activity. PEGylation of the GHRP-2 is a good choice for the development of the GHRP-2 applications.

  2. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  3. Designing and testing a classroom curriculum to teach preschoolers about the biology of physical activity: The respiration system as an underlying biological causal mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, Tracy S.

    The present study examined young children's understanding of respiration and oxygen as a source of vital energy underlying physical activity. Specifically, the purpose of the study was to explore whether a coherent biological theory, characterized by an understanding that bodily parts (heart and lungs) and processes (oxygen in respiration) as part of a biological system, can be taught as a foundational concept to reason about physical activity. The effects of a biology-based intervention curriculum designed to teach preschool children about bodily functions as a part of the respiratory system, the role of oxygen as a vital substance and how physical activity acts an energy source were examined. Participants were recruited from three private preschool classrooms (two treatment; 1 control) in Southern California and included a total of 48 four-year-old children (30 treatment; 18 control). Findings from this study suggested that young children could be taught relevant biological concepts about the role of oxygen in respiratory processes. Children who received biology-based intervention curriculum made significant gains in their understanding of the biology of respiration, identification of physical and sedentary activities. In addition these children demonstrated that coherence of conceptual knowledge was correlated with improved accuracy at activity identification and reasoning about the inner workings of the body contributing to endurance. Findings from this study provided evidence to support the benefits of providing age appropriate but complex coherent biological instruction to children in early childhood settings.

  4. Effects of airflow rates and operator activity on containment of bacterial aerosols in a class II safety cabinet.

    PubMed Central

    Macher, J M; First, M W

    1984-01-01

    Biological safety cabinets are frequently relied upon to provide sterile work environments in which hazardous microorganisms can be safely handled. Verification of correct airstream velocities does not, by itself, ensure that adequate protection will be achieved under all users. Instead, the concentration of microorganisms in a cabinet operator's breathing zone must be measured during typical cabinet use conditions to determine whether the exposure is below acceptable limits. In this study, cabinet operator exposures were measured with a personal air sampler. Bacterial spores were released inside a cabinet as a uniform challenge aerosol, and the number of escaping spores was measured for several cabinet arrangements during a number of typical operations. The following were studied to determine their effects on aerosol containment: inflow air velocity, size of access opening, type of operator movements, location of operator's hands, and pace of activity. Other experiments examined differences in aerosol containment for eight typical microbiology operations when performed by six operators who covered a range of body heights and volumes. PMID:6437327

  5. Multi-cycle operation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) with different carbon sources under high temperature.

    PubMed

    Shen, Nan; Chen, Yun; Zhou, Yan

    2017-05-01

    Many studies reported that it is challenging to apply enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process at high temperature. Glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) could easily gain their dominance over poly-phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) when the operating temperature was in the range of 25 °C-30 °C. However, a few successful EBPR processes operated at high temperature have been reported recently. This study aimed to have an in-depth understanding on the impact of feeding strategy and carbon source types on EBPR performance in tropical climate. P-removal performance of two EBPR systems was monitored through tracking effluent quality and cyclic studies. The results confirmed that EBPR was successfully obtained and maintained at high temperature with a multi-cycle strategy. More stable performance was observed with acetate as the sole carbon source compared to propionate. Stoichiometric ratios of phosphorus and carbon transformation during both anaerobic and aerobic phases were higher at high temperature than low temperature (20±1 °C) except anaerobic PHA/C ratios within most of the sub-cycles. Furthermore, the fractions of PHA and glycogen in biomass were lower compared with one-cycle pulse feed operation. The microbial community structure was more stable in acetate-fed sequencing batch reactor (C2-SBR) than that in propionate-fed reactor (C3-SBR). Accumulibacter Clade IIC was found to be highly abundant in both reactors.

  6. Recent advances in endophytic exopolysaccharides: Production, structural characterization, physiological role and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Xingchi; Pu, Huimin; Liu, Shuang; Kan, Juan; Jin, Changhai

    2017-02-10

    Endophytes are microorganisms that colonize living, internal tissues of plants without causing any immediate, overt negative effects. In recent years, both endophytic bacteria and fungi have been demonstrated to be excellent exopolysaccharides (EPS) producers. This review focuses on the recent advances in EPS produced by endophytes, including its production, isolation and purification, structural characterization, physiological role and biological activity. In general, EPS production is influenced by media components and cultivation conditions. The structures of purified EPS range from linear homopolysaccharides to highly branched heteropolysaccharides. These structurally novel EPS not only play important roles in plant-endophyte interactions; but also exhibit several biological functions, such as antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and prebiotic activities. In order to utilize endophytic EPS on an industrial scale, both yield and productivity enhancement strategies are required at several levels. Besides, the exact mechanisms on the physiological roles and biological functions of EPS should be elucidated in future.

  7. Evaluation of thermal steam-explosion key operation factors to optimize biogas production from biological sludge.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Elvira, S I; Sapkaite, I; Fdz-Polanco, F

    2015-01-01

    Thermal steam-explosion is the most extended hydrolysis pretreatment to enhance anaerobic digestion of sludge. Thermal hydrolysis key parameters are temperature (T) and time (t), and the generally accepted values reported from full-scale information are: 150-230 °C and 20-60 min. This study assesses the influence of different temperature-time-flash combinations (110-180 °C, 5-60 min, 1-3 re-flashing) on the anaerobic degradation of secondary sludge through biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. All the conditions tested presented higher methane production compared to the untreated sludge, and both solubilization (after the hydrolysis) and degradation (by anaerobic digestion) increased linearly when increasing the severity (T-t) of the pretreatment, reaching 40% solubilization and degradation of the particulate matter at 180° C-60 min. However, for the 180 °C temperature, the treatment time impacted negatively on the lag phase. No influence of re-flashing the pretreated matter was observed. In conclusion, thermal steam-explosion at short operation times (5 min) and moderate temperatures (145 °C) seems to be very attractive from a degradation point of view thus presenting a methane production enhancement similar to the one obtained at 180°C and without negative influence of the lag phase.

  8. Temporal and spatial variability of soil biological activity at European scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallast, Janine; Rühlmann, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    The CATCH-C project aims to identify and improve the farm-compatibility of Soil Management Practices including to promote productivity, climate change mitigation and soil quality. The focus of this work concentrates on turnover conditions for soil organic matter (SOM). SOM is fundamental for the maintenance of quality and functions of soils while SOM storage is attributed a great importance in terms of climate change mitigation. The turnover conditions depend on soil biological activity characterized by climate and soil properties. Soil biological activity was investigated using two model concepts: a) Re_clim parameter within the ICBM (Introductory Carbon Balance Model) (Andrén & Kätterer 1997) states a climatic factor summarizing soil water storage and soil temperature and its influence on soil biological activity. b) BAT (biological active time) approach derived from model CANDY (CArbon and Nitrogen Dynamic) (Franko & Oelschlägel 1995) expresses the variation of soil moisture, soil temperature and soil aeration as a time scale and an indicator of biological activity for soil organic matter (SOM) turnover. During an earlier stage both model concepts, Re_clim and BAT, were applied based on a monthly data to assess spatial variability of turnover conditions across Europe. This hampers the investigation of temporal variability (e.g. intra-annual). The improved stage integrates daily data of more than 350 weather stations across Europe presented by Klein Tank et al. (2002). All time series data (temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration and soil texture derived from the European Soil Database (JRC 2006)), are used to calculate soil biological activity in the arable layer. The resulting BAT and Re_clim values were spatio-temporal investigated. While "temporal" refers to a long-term trend analysis, "spatial" includes the investigation of soil biological activity variability per environmental zone (ENZ, Metzger et al. 2005 representing similar

  9. The biological activity of silicon carbide whiskers. First annual report, September 1988--December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.F.

    1989-12-31

    Size characteristics of SiC whiskers are similar to asbestos and contain potentially carcinogenic long thin fibers. Size distribution suggests that it is highly respirable, with majority of particles having diameters <3.0 {mu}m. Cytotoxic activity of SiC whiskers in cultured cells is {ge} than that of crocidolite asbestos. Inhalation exposures are needed to further delineate the biological activity; while SiC whiskers were as or more cytotoxic than crocidolite, JM Code 100 also displays such activity but results in no increased risk of lung cancer, pulmonary fibrosis or mesothelioma. PRD-166, a coarse continuous glass filament, displays little in vitro biological activity. It is recommended that SiC whiskers be treated as asbestos, and to continue investigating the potential health effects of SiC whiskers, in particular conducting animal experiments with acute and chronic inhalation exposures. 17 refs., 11 tabs., 18 figs.

  10. Bioactive cotton fabrics containing chitosan and biologically active substances extracted from plants.

    PubMed

    Mocanu, G; Nichifor, M; Mihai, D; Oproiu, L C

    2013-01-01

    The paper studies the obtaining of bioactive textiles using chitosan-coated fabrics, in which biologically active substances contained by Viola Tricolor (VT) - an extract of three Viola species (Violaceae) - were immobilized. Chitosan was applied on cotton fabric or on chemically modified cotton (having reactive -CHO or carboxymethyl groups), as tripolyphosphate (TPP) crosslinked fine particles, or by use of glutaraldehyde crosslinking agent. The amount of VT retained on the fabrics was found to depend on the procedure of chitosan application on the cotton. The obtained bioactive textiles are expected to have antioxidant activity due to the biologically active substances from VT; they can be used for obtaining clothes for people with allergies or other skin problems, assuring a controlled release of biomolecules. The study focuses on the in vitro release of VT retained on the fabrics, as well as on its antioxidant activity.

  11. Biological activities and potential health benefits of fucoxanthin derived from marine brown algae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Pangestuti, Ratih

    2011-01-01

    The importance of marine algae as sources of functional ingredients has been well recognized due to their valuable health beneficial effects. Therefore, isolation and investigation of novel bioactive ingredients with biological activities from marine algae have attracted great attention. Among functional ingredients identified from marine algae, fucoxanthin has received particular interest. Fucoxanthin has been attributed with extraordinary potential for protecting the organism against a wide range of diseases and has considerable potential and promising applications in human health. Fucoxanthin has been reported to exhibit various beneficial biological activities such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, and neuroprotective activities. In this chapter, the currently available scientific literatures regarding the most significant activities of fucoxanthin are summarized.

  12. Late-stage diversification of biologically active pyridazinones via a direct C-H functionalization strategy.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Fan, Zhoulong; Geng, Kaijun; Xu, Youjun; Zhang, Ao

    2015-01-14

    Divergent C-H functionalization reactions (arylation, carboxylation, olefination, thiolation, acetoxylation, halogenation, naphthylation) using a pyridazinone moiety as an internal directing group were successfully established. This approach offers a late-stage, ortho-selective diversification of a biologically active pyridazinone scaffold. Seven series of novel pyridazinone analogues were synthesized conveniently as the synthetic precursors of potential sortase A (SrtA) inhibitors.

  13. Case study: Comparison of biological active compounds in milk from organic and conventional dairy herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conflicting reports of the quantities of biologically active compounds present in milk from organic grass-fed and conventional herds show that more research is required, especially as these compounds are linked to human health benefits and can improve the health value consumers place on dairy produc...

  14. Astaxanthin: Sources, Extraction, Stability, Biological Activities and Its Commercial Applications—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ambati, Ranga Rao; Siew Moi, Phang; Ravi, Sarada; Aswathanarayana, Ravishankar Gokare

    2014-01-01

    There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3′-dihydroxy-β, β′-carotene-4,4′-dione) is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. The current review provides up-to-date information on astaxanthin sources, extraction, analysis, stability, biological activities, health benefits and special attention paid to its commercial applications. PMID:24402174

  15. Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil of rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) smith

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: The aim was designed to study the biological activity and chemical composition of essential oil of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith. The essential oil extracted from the rhizome of the plant was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and its major components amounting t...

  16. Trouble in the Kitchen: A Problem-Based Activity in Human Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clovis, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    In Ontario, the secondary school science curriculum advocates the use of laboratory activities to reinforce specific scientific concepts and promotes the development of skills in scientific investigation and communication. Students in biology courses are often expected to identify unknown substances using standard tests, but rarely are these tests…

  17. [The biological and pharmacological activity of essential oils in the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Król, Sylwia Katarzyna; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna; Stepulak, Andrzej

    2013-09-22

    Despite the large progress in medicine and pharmacy in the last few decades, traditional treatment of bacterial or viral diseases is frequently ineffective and is connected with some side effects. Currently, there is observed an increasing interest in natural plant-derived substances as a potential and promising group of medicines in prevention and treatment of several infectious diseases. Terpenes and their derivatives are a large class of natural organic components of essential oils and are widespread in the plant kingdom. Numerous experimental studies have shown that essential oils exhibit a large spectrum of biological and pharmacological activities in vitro. Herbal essential oils have been proved to possess antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic properties. They have also been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory activities. Based on the wide spectrum of various biological activities, essential oils and terpenes commonly found in fruit, vegetables, herbs etc. have been suggested to constitute a novel group of preventive and therapeutic agents. Further experiments are necessary to confirm their pharmacological effectiveness, to determine potential toxic effects and the mechanism of their activity in in vivo models. This article describes the biological and pharmacological properties of herbal essential oils and some of their components, and summarizes the future prospects of potential application of essential oils in the prevention and treatment of infectious human diseases. In this review also possible mechanisms of their biological action are presented.

  18. [The effectiveness of ultralow doses and concentrations of biologically active compounds].

    PubMed

    Ashmarin, I P; Lelekova, T V; Sanzhieva, L Ts

    1992-01-01

    Numerous data of literature are analysed on the biological activity of ultra-low (10(-12)-10(-19) M) concentrations and corresponding doses of same bioregulators. Our own data are presented on the modulation of lymphatic vessel contractility by peptides (thyroliberin, defensin, and tuftsin) in concentrations ranging from 10(-13) to 10(-16) M. Hypothetic mechanisms of these phenomena are discussed.

  19. Moooving forward on determining biologically active compounds in milk and their impact on health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have demonstrated that some of the lesser studied components in milk, known as biologically active compounds (BACs), may provide potential benefits to human health. The added health-value of raw milk and milk from organic and grass-fed herds is strongly debated because of limited, an...

  20. A Journal-Club-Based Class that Promotes Active and Cooperative Learning of Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitazono, Ana A.

    2010-01-01

    A journal-club-based class has been developed to promote active and cooperative learning and expose seniors in biochemistry and cellular molecular biology to recent research in the field. Besides giving oral presentations, students also write three papers: one discussing an article of their own choosing and two, discussing articles presented by…

  1. Learning Activity Package, Biology, LAPs 12, 13, 15, 17, and 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoden, Bruce

    Included is a set of five teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in topics in biology. The units cover the topics of individuals and populations, communities and ecosystems, diversity, plant functions, and animal functions. Each unit contains a rationale for the material; a list of behavioral objectives…

  2. Active Learning "Not" Associated with Student Learning in a Random Sample of College Biology Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, T. M.; Leonard, M. J.; Colgrove, C. A.; Kalinowski, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that adding active learning to traditional college science lectures substantially improves student learning. However, this research predominantly studied courses taught by science education researchers, who are likely to have exceptional teaching expertise. The present study investigated introductory biology courses…

  3. Emergy Evaluations of the Global Biogeochemical Cycles of Six Biologically Active Elements and Two Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimates of the emergy carried by the flows of biologically active elements (BAE) and compounds are needed to accurately evaluate the near and far field effects of anthropogenic wastes. The transformities and specific emergies of these elements and of their different chemical sp...

  4. Activity of Science and Operational Research of NICT Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Mamoru; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Watari, Shinichi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Tsugawa, Takuya; Kubo, Yuki

    Operational space weather forecast is for contribution to social infrastructure than for academic interests. These user need will determine the target of research, e.g., the precision level, spatial and temporal resolution and/or required lead time. We, NICT, aim two target in the present mid-term strategic plan, which are (1) forecast of ionospheric disturbance influencing to satellite positioning, and (2) forecast of disturbance in radiation belt influencing to satellite operation. We have our own observation network and develop empirical and numerical models for achieving each target. However in actual situation, it is much difficult to know the user needs quantitatively. Most of space weather phenomena makes the performance of social infrastructure poor, for example disconnect of HF communication, increase of GNSS error. Most of organizations related to these operation are negative to open these information. We have personal interviews to solve this issue. In this interview, we try to collect incident information related to space weather in each field, and to retrieve which space weather information is necessary for users. In this presentation we will introduce our research and corresponding new service, in addition to our recent scientific results.

  5. Hydraulically-activated operating system for an electric circuit breaker

    DOEpatents

    Imam, Imdad; Barkan, Philip

    1979-01-01

    This operating system comprises a fluid motor having a piston, a breaker-opening space at one side of the piston, and a breaker-closing space at its opposite side. An accumulator freely communicates with the breaker-opening space for supplying pressurized fluid thereto during a circuit-breaker opening operation. A normally-closed valve located on the breaker-closing-side of the piston is openable to release liquid from the breaker-closing space so that pressurized liquid in the breaker-opening space can drive the piston in an opening direction. Means is provided for restoring the valve to its closed position following the circuit-breaker opening operation. An impeded passage affords communication between the accumulator and the breaker-closing space to allow pressurized liquid to flow from the accumulator to the breaker-closing space and develop a pressure therein substantially equal to accumulator pressure when the valve is restored to closed position following breaker-opening. This passage is so impeded that the flow therethrough from the accumulator into the breaker-closing space is sufficiently low during initial opening motion of the piston through a substantial portion of its opening stroke as to avoid interference with said initial opening motion of the piston.

  6. Long term operation of continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules was operated at different COD concentrations (200, 300 and 400mgL(-)(1)) to investigate the effect of COD loading on this system. The results showed that when the COD concentration in influent was increased to 400mgL(-)(1), the anaerobic COD removal efficiency and total phosphorus removal efficiency reduced obviously and the settling ability of granules deteriorated due to the proliferation of filamentous bacteria. Moreover, high COD loading inhibited the EPS secretion and destroyed the stability of granules. Results of high-through pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading. The performance of system, settling ability of granules and proportion of PAOs gradually recovered to the initial level after the COD concentration was reduced to 200mgL(-)(1) on day 81.

  7. Some recent approaches of biologically active substituted pyridazine and phthalazine drugs.

    PubMed

    Asif, M

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen atom containing heterocyclic compounds, pyridazines, pyridazinones and phthalazines are important structural feature of many biologically active compounds and show diverse pharmacological properties. Pyridazines and phthalazines hold considerable interest relative to the preparation of organic intermediates and physiologically active compounds. On the basis of literature, pyridazines, pyridazinone and phthalazines further focus our attention because of their easy fictionalization at various ring positions, which makes them attractive synthetic compounds for designing and development of the novel pyridazines and phthalazines drugs in future.

  8. One-pot synthesis of protein-embedded metal-organic frameworks with enhanced biological activities.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Fengjiao; Zhang, Yifei; Zare, Richard N; Ge, Jun; Liu, Zheng

    2014-10-08

    Protein molecules were directly embedded in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) by a coprecipitation method. The protein molecules majorly embedded on the surface region of MOFs display high biological activities. As a demonstration of the power of such materials, the resulting Cyt c embedded in ZIF-8 showed a 10-fold increase in peroxidase activity compared to free Cyt c in solution and thus gave convenient, fast, and highly sensitive detection of trace amounts of explosive organic peroxides in solution.

  9. New biologically active composite materials on the basis of dialdehyde cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khashirov, Azamat A.; Zhansitov, Azamat A.; Zaikov, Genadiy E.; Khashirova, Svetlana Yu.

    2014-05-01

    In this work for the first time have been studied modification peculiarities of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and its oxidized form (dialdehyde cellulose DA!) guanidine-containing monomers and polymers of vinyl and diallyl series. Researched the structure of the composites by IR spectroscopy and SEM. The biological activity of the synthesized composite materials was investigated and shown that the composite synthesized materials are quite active and have a biocidal effect against Gram-positive (St.Aureus) and Gram (E.coli) microorganisms.

  10. Evidence for a reduced heparin cofactor II biological activity in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Quatraro, A; Dello Russo, P; Marchi, E; Milani, M R; Giugliano, D

    1990-01-01

    A reduction of heparin cofactor II (HCII) biological activity, despite its normal plasma concentration, is reported in insulin-dependent diabetic patients. A good linear correlation between HCII activity and concentration is present in normal controls but not in diabetics. In these subjects HCII activity correlates inversely with fasting blood glucose and glycated proteins but not with Hb A1. These data demonstrate the presence of a depressed HCII activity in the presence of its normal plasma concentration in insulin-dependent diabetics and suggest a role for short-term metabolic control in conditioning this phenomenon.

  11. Changes in operational procedures to improve spaceflight experiments in plant biology in the European Modular Cultivation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, John Z.; Aanes, Gjert; Schiefloe, Mona; Coelho, Liz H. F.; Millar, Katherine D. L.; Edelmann, Richard E.

    2014-03-01

    The microgravity environment aboard orbiting spacecraft has provided a unique laboratory to explore topics in basic plant biology as well as applied research on the use of plants in bioregenerative life support systems. Our group has utilized the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to study plant growth, development, tropisms, and gene expression in a series of spaceflight experiments. The most current project performed on the ISS was termed Seedling Growth-1 (SG-1) which builds on the previous TROPI (for tropisms) experiments performed in 2006 and 2010. Major technical and operational changes in SG-1 (launched in March 2013) compared to the TROPI experiments include: (1) improvements in lighting conditions within the EMCS to optimize the environment for phototropism studies, (2) the use of infrared illumination to provide high-quality images of the seedlings, (3) modifications in procedures used in flight to improve the focus and overall quality of the images, and (4) changes in the atmospheric conditions in the EMCS incubator. In SG-1, a novel red-light-based phototropism in roots and hypocotyls of seedlings that was noted in TROPI was confirmed and now can be more precisely characterized based on the improvements in procedures. The lessons learned from sequential experiments in the TROPI hardware provide insights to other researchers developing space experiments in plant biology.

  12. Activities of microorganisms and enzymes in water-restricted environments: biological activities in aqueous compartments at micron scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppert, Michael; Mlejnek, Klaus; Seiffert, Beatrix; Mayer, Frank

    1997-07-01

    In water-in-oil microemulsions, microdroplets of water, surrounded by a layer of surfactant molecules (reversed micelles), are dispersed in an organic solvent. Various microorganisms (unicellular algae and cyanobacteria) and isolated enzymes were dispersed in microemulsions without loss of biological activity. Each biological system needed a defined quantity of water in the microemulsion for maximum activity. Under optimum conditions, microbial enzymes for various sources (hydrogenases, dehydrogenases) exhibited, besides ten-fold increase in specific activity, a temperature optimum up to 16 degree(s)C higher as compared to aqueous solutions. These experimental findings, together with theoretical considerations, imply that water structure inside reversed micelles is very different from free water, but similar to water in narrow compartments with polar or ionic surfaces. These compartments may represent a model system for environments, where (liquid) water is not available in bulk amounts, but embedded in an anhydrous matrix.

  13. Design, Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Gemini 20S-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Analogs.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zongtao; Marepally, Srinivasa R; Kim, Tae-Kang; Janjetovic, Zorica; Oak, Allen Sw; Postlethwaite, Arnold E; Myers, Linda K; Tuckey, Robert C; Slominski, Andrzej T; Miller, Duane D; Li, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin D3 (D3) can be metabolized by cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) into 20S-hydroxyvitamin D3 (20D3) as a major metabolite. This bioactive metabolite has shown strong antiproliferative, antifibrotic, pro-differentiation and anti-inflammatory effects while being non-toxic (non-calcemic) at high concentrations. Since D3 analogs with two symmetric side chains (Gemini analogs) result in potent activation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), we hypothesized that the chain length and composition of these types of analogs also containing a 20-hydroxyl group would affect their biological activities. In this study, we designed and synthesized a series of Gemini 20D3 analogs. Biological tests showed that some of these analogs are partial VDR activators and can significantly stimulate the expression of mRNA for VDR and VDR-regulated genes including CYP24A1 and transient receptor potential cation channel V6 (TRPV6). These analogs inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells with potency comparable to that of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Moreover, these analogs reduced the level of interferon γ and up-regulated the expression of leukocyte associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 1 in splenocytes, indicating that they have potent anti-inflammatory activities. There are no clear correlations between the Gemini chain length and their VDR activation or biological activities, consistent with the high flexibility of the ligand-binding pocket of the VDR.

  14. Design, Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Gemini 20S-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Analogs

    PubMed Central

    LIN, ZONGTAO; MAREPALLY, SRINIVASA R.; KIM, TAE-KANG; JANJETOVIC, ZORICA; OAK, ALLEN SW.; POSTLETHWAITE, ARNOLD E.; MYERS, LINDA K.; TUCKEY, ROBERT C.; SLOMINSKI, ANDRZEJ T.; MILLER, DUANE D.; LI, WEI

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D3 (D3) can be metabolized by cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) into 20S-hydroxyvitamin D3 (20D3) as a major metabolite. This bioactive metabolite has shown strong antiproliferative, antifibrotic, pro-differentiation and anti-inflammatory effects while being non-toxic (non-calcemic) at high concentrations. Since D3 analogs with two symmetric side chains (Gemini analogs) result in potent activation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), we hypothesized that the chain length and composition of these types of analogs also containing a 20-hydroxyl group would affect their biological activities. In this study, we designed and synthesized a series of Gemini 20D3 analogs. Biological tests showed that some of these analogs are partial VDR activators and can significantly stimulate the expression of mRNA for VDR and VDR-regulated genes including CYP24A1 and transient receptor potential cation channel V6 (TRPV6). These analogs inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells with potency comparable to that of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Moreover, these analogs reduced the level of interferon γ and up-regulated the expression of leukocyte associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 1 in splenocytes, indicating that they have potent anti-inflammatory activities. There are no clear correlations between the Gemini chain length and their VDR activation or biological activities, consistent with the high flexibility of the ligand-binding pocket of the VDR. PMID:26976974

  15. Effect of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma on the biological activity of naringin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Yong, Hae In; Park, Sanghoo; Kim, Kijung; Kim, Tae Hoon; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-10-01

    The biological activity of naringin treated with atmospheric pressure plasma was evaluated to investigate whether exposure to plasma can be used as a method to improve the biological activity of natural materials. Naringin was dissolved in methanol (at 500 ppm) and transferred to a container. A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) (250 W, 15 kHz, ambient air) was then generated. Treatment with the plasma for 20 min increased the radical-scavenging activity, FRAP value, and the total phenolic compound content of naringin from 1.45% to 38.20%, from 27.78 to 207.78 μM/g, and from 172.50 to 225.83 ppm, respectively. Moreover, the tyrosinase-inhibition effect of naringin increased from 6.12% to 83.30% upon plasma treatment. Naringin treated with plasma exhibited antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens, especially Salmonella Typhimurium; an activity that was absent before plasma treatment. Structural modifications induced in the naringin molecule by plasma might be responsible for improving the biological activity of naringin.

  16. [Total synthesis of biologically active alkaloids using bio-inspired indole oxidation].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hayato

    2015-01-01

    Many tryptophan-based dimeric diketopiperazine (DKP) alkaloids including WIN 64821 and ditryptophenaline, which exhibit fascinating biological activities, have been isolated from fungi. These alkaloids possess a unique architecture; therefore several total syntheses of these compounds have been accomplished via bio-inspired reactions. Despite these elegant strategies, we were convinced that a more direct bio-inspired solution for the preparation of tryptophan-based DKP alkaloids was possible because in a true biosynthesis, direct dimerization of tryptophan occurs in aqueous media without incorporation of a protecting group on the substrates. Thus we developed direct bio-inspired dimerization reactions in aqueous, acidic media, along with a novel biomimetic pathway, to provide C2-symmetric and non-symmetric dimeric compounds from commercially available amine-free tryptophan derivatives using Mn(OAc)3, VOF3, and V2O5 as one-electron oxidants. In addition, concise two-pot or three-step syntheses of the naturally occurring dimeric DKP alkaloids (+)-WIN 64821, (-)-ditryptophenaline, and (+)-naseseazine B were accomplished with total yields of 20%, 13%, and 20%, respectively. The present synthesis has several noteworthy features: 1) the tryptophan-based C2-symmetric and non-symmetric dimeric key intermediates can be prepared on a multigram scale in one step; 2) the developed oxidation reaction was carried out in aqueous, acidic solution without deactivation of the metal oxidants; 3) protection of the primary amine can be avoided by salt formation in aqueous acid; 4) for the total two-pot operation, the reaction media are environmentally friendly water and ethanol; 5) satisfactory total yields are obtained compared with previously reported syntheses.

  17. Study of operator's information in the course of complicated and combined activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylova, N. V.; Bokovikov, A. K.

    1982-08-01

    Speech characteristics of operators performing control and observation operations, Information reception, transmission and processing, and decision making when exposed to the real stress of parachute jumps were investigated. Form and content speech characteristics whose variations reflect the level of operators adaptation to stressful activities are reported.

  18. Biologically active warm-core anticyclonic eddies in the marginal seas of the western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuh-ling Lee; Chen, Houng-Yung; Jan, Sen; Lin, Yen-Huei; Kuo, Tien-Hsia; Hung, Jia-Jang

    2015-12-01

    Our investigations in the northern South China Sea (SCS) have revealed warm-core anticyclonic eddies that had a depressed pycnocline and a high biological productivity and phytoplankton abundance. With an elliptical shape of 420-430 km in major axis and 240-260 km in minor axis, these eddies were formed in the winter as the Kuroshio Current intruded through the Luzon Strait into the SCS under the prevailing northeast monsoon. They were characterized by a deep mixed layer up to 140-180 m, in which nitrate was relatively abundant. Although chlorophyll a concentration per volume of seawater was not always higher inside than outside the eddies, water-column (0-200 m) integrated chlorophyll a concentration and abundances of Synechococcus, coccolithophores, and diatoms were higher inside than outside the eddies. Primary productivity and nitrate-uptake new production inside the eddies were higher than or equal to those outside the eddies. Unlike the mode-water anticyclonic eddy that is biologically productive with a domed shallow seasonal pycnocline, the eddies we investigated had high surface temperatures and depressed pycnoclines in the upper water column. Possible explanations for these biological aspects were that the eddies were at their decaying stage, the eddies re-incorporated intermittently with an intruding Kuroshio branch, or the passage of the prevalent high amplitude internal tides introduced nutrients to the eddies. Frequent occurrences of eddies in oceanic regimes, especially cold eddies, are associated with high biological activity. Some warm eddies, such as these investigated in the present study, also have high biological activities, indicating that more rigorous in situ studies relating to eddy biological activity are needed in ocean regimes such as the SCS, where a half of the eddies are warm eddies.

  19. Metal-organic frameworks for the storage and delivery of biologically active hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, Phoebe K; Wheatley, Paul S; Aldous, David; Mohideen, M Infas; Tang, Chiu; Hriljac, Joseph A; Megson, Ian L; Chapman, Karena W; De Weireld, Guy; Vaesen, Sebastian; Morris, Russell E

    2012-04-02

    Hydrogen sulfide is an extremely toxic gas that is also of great interest for biological applications when delivered in the correct amount and at the desired rate. Here we show that the highly porous metal-organic frameworks with the CPO-27 structure can bind the hydrogen sulfide relatively strongly, allowing the storage of the gas for at least several months. Delivered gas is biologically active in preliminary vasodilation studies of porcine arteries, and the structure of the hydrogen sulfide molecules inside the framework has been elucidated using a combination of powder X-ray diffraction and pair distribution function analysis.

  20. The biological activities and chemical composition of Pereskia species (Cactaceae)--a review.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Scio, Elita

    2014-09-01

    The exploration of nature as a source of sustainable, novel bioactive substances continues to grow as natural products play a significant role in the search for new therapeutic and agricultural agents. In this context, plants of the genus Pereskia (Cactaceae) have been studied for their biological activities, and are evolving as an interesting subject in the search for new, bioactive compounds. These species are commonly used as human foodstuffs and in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases. This review focuses on the bioactivity and chemical composition of the genus Pereskia, and aims to stimulate further studies on the chemistry and biological potential of the genus.

  1. Synthesis, structural characterization and biological activity of two diastereomeric JA-Ile macrolactones.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Aleman, Guillermo H; Machado, Ricardo A R; Görls, Helmar; Baldwin, Ian T; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-06-07

    Jasmonates are phytohormones involved in a wide range of plant processes, including growth, development, senescence, and defense. Jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile, 2), an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA, 1), has been identified as a bioactive endogenous jasmonate. However, JA-Ile (2) analogues trigger different responses in the plant. ω-Hydroxylation of the pentenyl side chain leads to the inactive 12-OH-JA-Ile (3) acting as a “stop” signal. On the other hand, a lactone derivative of 12-OH-JA (5) (jasmine ketolactone, JKL) occurs in nature, although with no known biological function. Inspired by the chemical structure of JKL (6) and in order to further explore the potential biological activities of 12-modified JA-Ile derivatives, we synthesized two macrolactones (JA-Ile-lactones (4a) and (4b)) derived from 12-OH-JA-Ile (3). The biological activity of (4a) and (4b) was tested for their ability to elicit nicotine production, a well-known jasmonate dependent secondary metabolite. Both macrolactones showed strong biological activity, inducing nicotine accumulation to a similar extent as methyl jasmonate does in Nicotiana attenuata leaves. Surprisingly, the highest nicotine contents were found in plants treated with the JA-Ile-lactone (4b), which has (3S,7S) configuration at the cyclopentanone not known from natural jasmonates. Macrolactone (4a) is a valuable standard to explore for its occurrence in nature.

  2. The impact of sea water flushing on biological nitrification-denitrification activated sludge sewage treatment process.

    PubMed

    Yu, S M; Leung, W Y; Ho, K M; Greenfield, P F; Eckenfelder, W W

    2002-01-01

    The process performance of the two largest activated sludge processes in Hong Kong, the Sha Tin and the Tai Po Sewage Treatment Works (STW), deteriorated in the initial period after the introduction of seawater flushing in 1995 and 1996, respectively. High effluent ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and total suspended solids (TSS) in excess of the discharge standards resulted from incomplete nitrification and changes in floc characteristics. A desktop study on the inhibitory effects of salinity, particularly on nitrification, was subsequently conducted using the Tai Po STW operating data. To assist the upgrade of the Sha Tin STW a five-month extensive bench-scale investigation on a simple but flexible modified Ludzack-Ettinger configuration with bio-selector was conducted to quantify the inhibitory effects due to the saline concentration. The Sha Tin STW upgrade consists of restoration of its original design capacity (conventional process) of 205,000 m3/day from its currently much reduced capacity as a Bardenpho process. Only the volume of the existing biological process and clarifier is to be utilized. The saline concentration ranges from 3,500 up to 6,500 mg Cl-/L, both daily and seasonally. High and greatly fluctuating saline concentrations have been known to inhibit nitrification. Design consideration should also be given to the peak daily and seasonal TKN loading of up to three times the average. Although the nitrifiers maximum specific growth rate was significantly reduced to a low 0.25 day(-1), the inhibition was considered to be tolerable with effluent NH4-N and NO3-N consistently at < 1 and < 6 mg/L. The bio-selector was demonstrated to be efficient in control of sludge foaming and bulking with SVI consistently < or = 125 mL/g. Results from the IAWO Model No. 1 and the hydraulic model of the secondary clarifiers allowed overall process capacity maximization. With an anoxic mass fraction of 25-30%, operating sludge age of 9-14 days and SVI < or = 125 mL/g, both the

  3. APG: an Active Protein-Gene network model to quantify regulatory signals in complex biological systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiguang; Sun, Yidan; Zheng, Si; Zhang, Xiang-Sun; Zhou, Huarong; Chen, Luonan

    2013-01-01

    Synergistic interactions among transcription factors (TFs) and their cofactors collectively determine gene expression in complex biological systems. In this work, we develop a novel graphical model, called Active Protein-Gene (APG) network model, to quantify regulatory signals of transcription in complex biomolecular networks through integrating both TF upstream-regulation and downstream-regulation high-throughput data. Firstly, we theoretically and computationally demonstrate the effectiveness of APG by comparing with the traditional strategy based only on TF downstream-regulation information. We then apply this model to study spontaneous type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) and Wistar control rats. Our biological experiments validate the theoretical results. In particular, SP1 is found to be a hidden TF with changed regulatory activity, and the loss of SP1 activity contributes to the increased glucose production during diabetes development. APG model provides theoretical basis to quantitatively elucidate transcriptional regulation by modelling TF combinatorial interactions and exploiting multilevel high-throughput information.

  4. Biological Activity of Polynesian Calophyllum inophyllum Oil Extract on Human Skin Cells.

    PubMed

    Ansel, Jean-Luc; Lupo, Elise; Mijouin, Lily; Guillot, Samuel; Butaud, Jean-François; Ho, Raimana; Lecellier, Gaël; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Pichon, Chantal

    2016-07-01

    Oil from the nuts of Calophyllum inophyllum, locally called "Tamanu oil" in French Polynesia, was traditionally used for wound healing and to cure various skin problems and ailments. The skin-active effect of "Tamanu oil emulsion" was investigated on human skin cells (keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts) and showed cell proliferation, glycosaminoglycan and collagen production, and wound healing activity. Transcriptomic analysis of the treated cells revealed gene expression modulation including genes involved in the metabolic process implied in O-glycan biosynthesis, cell adhesion, and cell proliferation. The presence of neoflavonoids as bioactive constituents in Tamanu oil emulsion may contribute to these biological activities. Altogether, consistent data related to targeted histological and cellular functions brought new highlights on the mechanisms involved in these biological processes induced by Tamanu oil effects in skin cells.

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: Protein stability and enzyme activity at extreme biological temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feller, Georges

    2010-08-01

    Psychrophilic microorganisms thrive in permanently cold environments, even at subzero temperatures. To maintain metabolic rates compatible with sustained life, they have improved the dynamics of their protein structures, thereby enabling appropriate molecular motions required for biological activity at low temperatures. As a consequence of this structural flexibility, psychrophilic proteins are unstable and heat-labile. In the upper range of biological temperatures, thermophiles and hyperthermophiles grow at temperatures > 100 °C and synthesize ultra-stable proteins. However, thermophilic enzymes are nearly inactive at room temperature as a result of their compactness and rigidity. At the molecular level, both types of extremophilic proteins have adapted the same structural factors, but in opposite directions, to address either activity at low temperatures or stability in hot environments. A model based on folding funnels is proposed accounting for the stability-activity relationships in extremophilic proteins.

  6. Golden Needle Mushroom: A Culinary Medicine with Evidenced-Based Biological Activities and Health Promoting Properties

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Calyn; Hoo, Pearl Ching-Xin; Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Pusparajah, Priyia; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-01-01

    Flammulina velutipes (enoki, velvet shank, golden needle mushroom or winter mushroom), one of the main edible mushrooms on the market, has long been recognized for its nutritional value and delicious taste. In recent decades, research has expanded beyond detailing its nutritional composition and delved into the biological activities and potential health benefits of its constituents. Many bioactive constituents from a range of families have been isolated from different parts of the mushroom, including carbohydrates, protein, lipids, glycoproteins, phenols, and sesquiterpenes. These compounds have been demonstrated to exhibit various biological activities, such as antitumour and anticancer activities, anti-atherosclerotic and thrombosis inhibition activity, antihypertensive and cholesterol lowering effects, anti-aging and antioxidant properties, ability to aid with restoring memory and overcoming learning deficits, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-bacterial, ribosome inactivation and melanosis inhibition. This review aims to consolidate the information concerning the phytochemistry and biological activities of various compounds isolated from F. velutipes to demonstrate that this mushroom is not only a great source of nutrients but also possesses tremendous potential in pharmaceutical drug development. PMID:28003804

  7. Tuning the Biological Activity Profile of Antibacterial Polymers via Subunit Substitution Pattern

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Binary nylon-3 copolymers containing cationic and hydrophobic subunits can mimic the biological properties of host-defense peptides, but relationships between composition and activity are not yet well understood for these materials. Hydrophobic subunits in previously studied examples have been limited mostly to cycloalkane-derived structures, with cyclohexyl proving to be particularly promising. The present study evaluates alternative hydrophobic subunits that are isomeric or nearly isomeric with the cyclohexyl example; each has four sp3 carbons in the side chains. The results show that varying the substitution pattern of the hydrophobic subunit leads to relatively small changes in antibacterial activity but causes significant changes in hemolytic activity. We hypothesize that these differences in biological activity profile arise, at least in part, from variations among the conformational propensities of the hydrophobic subunits. The α,α,β,β-tetramethyl unit is optimal among the subunits we have examined, providing copolymers with potent antibacterial activity and excellent prokaryote vs eukaryote selectivity. Bacteria do not readily develop resistance to the new antibacterial nylon-3 copolymers. These findings suggest that variation in subunit conformational properties could be generally valuable in the development of synthetic polymers for biological applications. PMID:24601599

  8. Tuning the biological activity profile of antibacterial polymers via subunit substitution pattern.

    PubMed

    Liu, Runhui; Chen, Xinyu; Chakraborty, Saswata; Lemke, Justin J; Hayouka, Zvi; Chow, Clara; Welch, Rodney A; Weisblum, Bernard; Masters, Kristyn S; Gellman, Samuel H

    2014-03-19

    Binary nylon-3 copolymers containing cationic and hydrophobic subunits can mimic the biological properties of host-defense peptides, but relationships between composition and activity are not yet well understood for these materials. Hydrophobic subunits in previously studied examples have been limited mostly to cycloalkane-derived structures, with cyclohexyl proving to be particularly promising. The present study evaluates alternative hydrophobic subunits that are isomeric or nearly isomeric with the cyclohexyl example; each has four sp(3) carbons in the side chains. The results show that varying the substitution pattern of the hydrophobic subunit leads to relatively small changes in antibacterial activity but causes significant changes in hemolytic activity. We hypothesize that these differences in biological activity profile arise, at least in part, from variations among the conformational propensities of the hydrophobic subunits. The α,α,β,β-tetramethyl unit is optimal among the subunits we have examined, providing copolymers with potent antibacterial activity and excellent prokaryote vs eukaryote selectivity. Bacteria do not readily develop resistance to the new antibacterial nylon-3 copolymers. These findings suggest that variation in subunit conformational properties could be generally valuable in the development of synthetic polymers for biological applications.

  9. Passive acoustic monitoring of biological activity on coral reefs and in nearby waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Marc O.; Mooney, T. Aran; Brainard, Russell E.; Au, Whitlow W. L.

    2005-09-01

    Monitoring the changing state of coral reef habitats is a challenging task that is exacerbated when the reefs in question are in remote locations. Physical sensors provide a wide range of measurements of local environmental variables, but do not give an indication of biological activity. The preliminary findings of an effort to use the ambient sound field as a means of characterizing and monitoring biological activity on coral reefs and surrounding waters are reported. Moored recording systems were developed to sample the sound field of reefs on Oahu, Hawaii for 1-min periods, at 30-min intervals, for 10 days at a time. Snapping shrimp produce the dominant acoustic energy on the reefs examined and exhibit clear diel acoustic trends. Peaks in activity consistently occur during crepuscular periods. At frequencies below 2 kHz, many fish sounds occur, which also exhibit distinct temporal variability. Cetacean sounds are also common, indicating the occurrence of an apex predator in the area. Many sounds can be detected automatically, making the examination of the sound field an efficient means of tracking acoustically active species. The results indicate that acoustic monitoring may be an effective means of tracking biological activity at locations where traditional surveys are impractical.

  10. 2-Deoxy Glucose Modulates Expression and Biological Activity of VEGF in a SIRT-1 Dependent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kunhiraman, Haritha; Edatt, Lincy; Thekkeveedu, Sruthi; Poyyakkara, Aswini; Raveendran, Viji; Kiran, Manikantan Syamala; Sudhakaran, Perumana; Kumar, Sameer V B

    2017-02-01

    Reprogramming of energy metabolism particularly switching over of cells to aerobic glycolysis leading to accumulation of lactate is a hallmark of cancer. Lactate can induce angiogenesis, an important process underlying tumor growth and metastasis. VEGF is one of the most important cytokines which regulate this process and the present study was designed to examine if blocking glycolytic pathway in tumor cells can affect its angiogenic potency with respect to VEGF. For this, the expression and biological activity of VEGF synthesized and secreted by tumor derived cell lines in the presence or absence of 2-deoxy glucose (2-DG), an inhibitor of glycolysis was determined. The results suggested that inhibition of glycolysis using sub-lethal doses of 2-DG down-regulated the expression of VEGF and also significantly reduced its biological activity. Further mechanistic studies revealed that the down regulation of VEGF gene expression by 2-DG was due to an increase in SIRT-1 activity and the reduced biological activity was found to be due to an increase in the PAR modification of VEGF. Activity of SIRT-1 and PAR modification of VEGF in turn, was found to be correlated to the cellular NAD(+) levels. The results presented here therefore suggest that treatment of cancer cells with 2-DG can significantly reduce its overall angiogenic potency through transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 252-262, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Golden Needle Mushroom: A Culinary Medicine with Evidenced-Based Biological Activities and Health Promoting Properties.

    PubMed

    Tang, Calyn; Hoo, Pearl Ching-Xin; Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Pusparajah, Priyia; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-01-01

    Flammulina velutipes (enoki, velvet shank, golden needle mushroom or winter mushroom), one of the main edible mushrooms on the market, has long been recognized for its nutritional value and delicious taste. In recent decades, research has expanded beyond detailing its nutritional composition and delved into the biological activities and potential health benefits of its constituents. Many bioactive constituents from a range of families have been isolated from different parts of the mushroom, including carbohydrates, protein, lipids, glycoproteins, phenols, and sesquiterpenes. These compounds have been demonstrated to exhibit various biological activities, such as antitumour and anticancer activities, anti-atherosclerotic and thrombosis inhibition activity, antihypertensive and cholesterol lowering effects, anti-aging and antioxidant properties, ability to aid with restoring memory and overcoming learning deficits, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-bacterial, ribosome inactivation and melanosis inhibition. This review aims to consolidate the information concerning the phytochemistry and biological activities of various compounds isolated from F. velutipes to demonstrate that this mushroom is not only a great source of nutrients but also possesses tremendous potential in pharmaceutical drug development.

  12. ISS Plasma Contactor Units Operations During Strong Geomagnetic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alred, J.; Mikatarian, R.; Barsamian, H.; Minow, J.; Koontz, S.

    2003-12-01

    The large structure and high voltage arrays of the ISS represent a complex system that interacts with the Earth's ionosphere. To mitigate spacecraft charging problems on the ISS, two Plasma Contactor Units discharge ionized xenon gas to "clamp" the potential of the ISS with respect to the low Earth orbit plasma. The Plasma Interaction Model, a model of ISS plasma interaction developed from the basic physics of the interaction phenomena, includes magnetic induction effects, plasma temperature and density effects, interaction of the high voltage solar arrays with ionospheric plasma, and accounts for other conductive areas on the ISS. To augment this model, the PCU discharge current has been monitored for the ISS in a variety of flight attitudes as well as during the annual seasons. A review of the PCU discharge currents shows a correlation to the geomagnetic activity. The variation in the PCU discharge current during strong geomagnetic activity will be presented. Also, the PCU discharge currents during periods of low geomagnetic activity will be discussed. The presentation will conclude with a comparison of satellite plasma measurements during different stages of geomagnetic activity.

  13. EU Funded Research Activities on NPPS Operational Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Manolatos, P.; Van Goethem, G.

    2002-07-01

    The 5. framework programme (FP-5), the pluri-annual research programme of the European Union (EU), covers the period 1998-2002. Research on nuclear energy, fusion and fission, is covered by the EURATOM part of the FP-5. An overview of the Euratom's research on Nuclear Reactor Safety, managed by the DG-RTD of the European Commission (EC), is presented. This concerns 70 multi-partner projects of approximately euro 82.5 million total contract value that have been selected and co-financed during the period 1999-2001. They form the three clusters of projects dealing with the 'Operational Safety of Existing Installations'. 'Plant Life Extension and Management' (PLEM), 'Severe Accident Management' (SAM) and 'Evolutionary concepts' (EVOL). Emphasis is given here to the projects of the PLEM cluster. (authors)

  14. New approach to optimize operational conditions for the biological treatment of a high-strength thiocyanate and ammonium waste: pH as key factor.

    PubMed

    Lay-Son, Meiling; Drakides, Christian

    2008-02-01

    Biological treatment of coke and steel-processing wastewaters has to satisfy both industrial economic needs and environmental protection regulations. Nevertheless, as some of the pollutants contained in these waters or produced during the treatment are highly toxic, an effective and safe treatment has proved to be difficult to obtain. This paper reports the study of a biological method for the treatment of wastewaters containing free cyanide, thiocyanate and ammonium (NH4). Laboratory-scale activated-sludge reactors were fed with a synthetic solution reproducing a steel-processing industrial wastewater and inoculated with the same industrial bacterial seeding used on-site (Ecosynergie Inc.). The results demonstrated that free cyanide and thiocyanate were efficiently degraded. Nevertheless, thiocyanate degradation and nitrification processes were actually inhibited by the free ammonia form (NH3) in place of the ionized NH4 form (NH4+) currently dosed and often unproperly named "ammonia" [IUPAC, 1997. In: McNaught, A.D., Wilkinson, A. (compilers). Compendium of Chemical Terminology. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK]. Optimum degradation rates were obtained for very narrow ranges of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentrations. This result can be explained by the role of pH, which mainly controls the NH3/NH4 equilibrium. Pollutants and NH3 concentrations influenced degradation rates of main pollutants. This influence was determined and expressed through elementary equations. Although the Michaelis-Menten equation could have been used to describe thiocyanate degradation, a Haldane-inhibition model was used to satisfactorily describe cyanide degradation. On the other hand, a slightly modified Haldane model was applied to describe both NH4 oxidation using NH3-N as substrate and thiocyanate degradation using NH3-N as inhibitor. These findings emphasize the role of pH on degradation rates and allow one to optimize operational conditions in the biological treatment of

  15. Nitrogen-Containing Constituents of Black Cohosh: Chemistry, Structure Elucidation, and Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Lankin, David C.; Cisowska, Tamara; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F.; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    The roots/rhizomes of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L. syn. Cimicifuga racemosa [L]. Nutt., Ranunculaceae) have been used traditionally by Native Americans to treat colds, rheumatism, and a variety of conditions related to women’s health. In recent years black cohosh preparations have become popular dietary supplements among women seeking alternative treatments for menopausal complaints. The popularity of the plant has led to extensive phytochemical and biological investigations, including several clinical trials. Most of the phytochemical and biological research has focused on two abundant classes of compounds: the triterpene glycosides and phenolic acids. A third group of phytoconstituents that has received far less attention consists of the alkaloids and related compounds that contain nitrogen. This chapter summarizes the current state of knowledge of the chemistry and biological activities associated with this group of constituents and provides some perspective on their significance for future research on this interesting plant. PMID:27795590

  16. Effects of dimerization on the structure and biological activity of antimicrobial peptide Ctx-Ha.

    PubMed

    Lorenzón, E N; Cespedes, G F; Vicente, E F; Nogueira, L G; Bauab, T M; Castro, M S; Cilli, E M

    2012-06-01

    It is well known that cationic antimicrobial peptides (cAMPs) are potential microbicidal agents for the increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance. However, the physicochemical properties of each peptide need to be optimized for clinical use. To evaluate the effects of dimerization on the structure and biological activity of the antimicrobial peptide Ctx-Ha, we have synthesized the monomeric and three dimeric (Lys-branched) forms of the Ctx-Ha peptide by solid-phase peptide synthesis using a combination of 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) and t-butoxycarbonyl (Boc) chemical approaches. The antimicrobial activity assay showed that dimerization decreases the ability of the peptide to inhibit growth of bacteria or fungi; however, the dimeric analogs displayed a higher level of bactericidal activity. In addition, a dramatic increase (50 times) in hemolytic activity was achieved with these analogs. Permeabilization studies showed that the rate of carboxyfluorescein release was higher for the dimeric peptides than for the monomeric peptide, especially in vesicles that contained sphingomyelin. Despite different biological activities, the secondary structure and pore diameter were not significantly altered by dimerization. In contrast to the case for other dimeric cAMPs, we have shown that dimerization selectively decreases the antimicrobial activity of this peptide and increases the hemolytic activity. The results also show that the interaction between dimeric peptides and the cell wall could be responsible for the decrease of the antimicrobial activity of these peptides.

  17. The Importance of Spatiotemporal Information in Biological Motion Perception: White Noise Presented with a Step-like Motion Activates the Biological Motion Area.

    PubMed

    Callan, Akiko; Callan, Daniel; Ando, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    Humans can easily recognize the motion of living creatures using only a handful of point-lights that describe the motion of the main joints (biological motion perception). This special ability to perceive the motion of animate objects signifies the importance of the spatiotemporal information in perceiving biological motion. The posterior STS (pSTS) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) region have been established by many functional neuroimaging studies as a locus for biological motion perception. Because listening to a walking human also activates the pSTS/pMTG region, the region has been proposed to be supramodal in nature. In this study, we investigated whether the spatiotemporal information from simple auditory stimuli is sufficient to activate this biological motion area. We compared spatially moving white noise, having a running-like tempo that was consistent with biological motion, with stationary white noise. The moving-minus-stationary contrast showed significant differences in activation of the pSTS/pMTG region. Our results suggest that the spatiotemporal information of the auditory stimuli is sufficient to activate the biological motion area.

  18. A review on biological sources, chemistry and pharmacological activities of pinostrobin.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neeraj K; Jaiswal, Gaurav; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

    2016-09-01

    Pinostrobin, a dietary bioflavonoid discovered more than 6 decades ago in the heart-wood of pine (Pinus strobus), has depicted many pharmacological activities including anti-viral, anti-oxidant, anti-leukaemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-aromatase activities. It is an inhibitor of sodium channel and Ca(2+) signalling pathways and also inhibits intestinal smooth muscle contractions. In spite of the fact that pinostrobin has an application as functional foods, till-to-date no comprehensive review on pinostrobin has been carried out. Hence, the present review deals with the biological sources, chemistry and pharmacological activities of pinostrobin.

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of arctigenin ester and ether derivatives as activators of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sida; Zhuang, Jingjing; Chen, Yijia; Lei, Min; Chen, Jing; Shen, Xu; Hu, Lihong

    2013-07-01

    A series of new arctigenin and 9-deoxy-arctigenin derivatives bearing different ester and ether side chains at the phenolic hydroxyl positions are designed, synthesized, and evaluated for activating AMPK potency in L6 myoblasts. Initial biological evaluation indicates that some alkyl ester and phenethyl ether arctigenin derivatives display potential activities in AMPK phosphorylation improvement. Further structure-activity relationship analysis shows that arctigenin ester derivatives 3a, 3h and 9-deoxy-arctigenin phenethyl ether derivatives 6a, 6c, 6d activate AMPK more potently than arctigenin. Moreover, the 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl ether moiety of 6c has been demonstrated as a potential functional group to improve the effect of AMPK phosphorylation. The structural optimization of arctigenin leads to the identification of 6c as a promising lead compound that exhibits excellent activity in AMPK activation.

  20. From Predicting Solar Activity to Forecasting Space Weather: Practical Examples of Research-to-Operations and Operations-to-Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenburgh, R. A.; Biesecker, D. A.; Millward, G. H.

    2014-02-01

    The successful transition of research to operations (R2O) and operations to research (O2R) requires, above all, interaction between the two communities. We explore the role that close interaction and ongoing communication played in the successful fielding of three separate developments: an observation platform, a numerical model, and a visualization and specification tool. Additionally, we will examine how these three pieces came together to revolutionize interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) arrival forecasts. A discussion of the importance of education and training in ensuring a positive outcome from R2O activity follows. We describe efforts by the meteorological community to make research results more accessible to forecasters and the applicability of these efforts to the transfer of space-weather research. We end with a forecaster "wish list" for R2O transitions. Ongoing, two-way communication between the research and operations communities is the thread connecting it all.