Science.gov

Sample records for activities cover topics

  1. Diversity Topics Covered in Teaching of Psychology Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boysen, Guy A.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching of psychology courses trains graduate students in pedagogy, but little is known about how diversity is addressed in these courses. A survey of instructors in teaching of psychology courses assessed their coverage of diversity and classroom bias, as well as the instructional methods used to cover them. Results indicated that 87% of…

  2. The English Record: Silver Anniversary Issue; [Topics Covered in That Period].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Richard L., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The articles reprinted in this silver anniversary issue are a representation of the type of material published during the past 25 years. Among the topics covered are secondary school curriculum, reading skills, composition in the junior high, individual differences in reading programs, vocabulary development in the college classroom, teacher…

  3. Correlating Students' Personality Types with Their Rating of Topics Covered in Business Communication Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Bill

    1999-01-01

    Examines whether the preference or abhorrence of various communication topics might be related to personality type. Finds no statistically significant correlation between business communication students' personality types and their preferred topics in business communication. (SR)

  4. Selected Antimicrobial Activity of Topical Ophthalmic Anesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Margaret M.; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Patel, Robin; Pulido, Jose S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Endophthalmitis is a rare complication of intravitreal injection (IVI). It is recommended that povidone-iodine be the last agent applied before IVI. Patients have reported povidone-iodine application to be the most bothersome part of IVIs. Topical anesthetics have been demonstrated to have antibacterial effects. This study compared the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of topical anesthetic eye drops (proparacaine 0.5%, tetracaine 0.5%, lidocaine 2.0%) and the antiseptic, 5.0% povidone-iodine, against two organisms causing endophthalmitis after IVI. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentration values of topical anesthetics, povidone-iodine, preservative benzalkonium chloride (0.01%), and saline control were determined using five isolates of each Staphylococcus epidermidis and viridans group Streptococcus species (VGS). A broth microdilution technique was used with serial dilutions. Results Lidocaine (8.53 × 10−5mol/mL) had MICs of 4.27 to 8.53 × 10−5 mol/mL, and tetracaine (1.89 × 10−5 mol/mL) had MICs of 9.45 × 10−6 mol/mL for all isolates. Proparacaine (1.7 × 10−5 mol/mL) had MICs of 1.32 to 5.3 × 10−7 and 4.25 × 10−6 mol/mL for S. epidermidis and VGS, respectively). Benzalkonium chloride (3.52 × 10−7 mol/mL) had MICs of 1.86 × 10−9 to 1.1 × 10−8 and 4.40 × 10−8 mol/mL for S. epidermidis and VGS, respectively. Povidone-iodine (1.37 × 10−4 mol/mL) had MICs of 2.14 to 4.28 × 10−6 and 8.56 × 10−6 mol/mL for S. epidermidis and VGS, respectively. Conclusion Proparacaine was the anesthetic with the lowest MICs, lower than that of povidone-iodine. Benzalkonium chloride had lower MICs than proparacaine. All tested anesthetics and povidone-iodine inhibited growth of S. epidermidis and VGS at commercially available concentrations. Translational Relevance For certain patients, it could be possible to use topical anesthetic after povidone-iodine for comfort without inhibiting and perhaps contributing additional antimicrobial

  5. Assessment of activity of topical virucidal agents.

    PubMed

    O' Connor, T

    2000-01-01

    There is currently considerable interest in the possibility of developing a potent, nontoxic anti-HIV agent that could be used intravaginally to reduce the risks of transmission of HIV. Worldwide up to 80% of HIV infections have been acquired heterosexually. Projections suggest that by the year 2000 approx 25 million individuals worldwide will have been infected by heterosexual transmission. This spread of infection is particularly rapid in parts of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In the absence of a prophylactic vaccine, there is an urgent need to develop safe, effective, female-controlled, topical virucidal preparations to prevent sexual transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Many assays directed against the virus have had problems with removal of the presumptive agents, which in many cases are toxic to the cell culture system. Methods have includes dilution, centrifugation, and erythrocyte ghost preparations, but these have problems with virus dilution and an inability to examine the kinetics of inactivation. PMID:21331911

  6. Solar Energy Project, Activities: General Solar Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of activities which introduce students to concepts and issues relating to solar energy. Lessons frequently presented in the context of solar energy as it relates to contemporary energy problems. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; necessary skills and knowledge; materials; method;…

  7. Photovoltaic concentrator assembly with optically active cover

    DOEpatents

    Plesniak, Adam P

    2014-01-21

    A photovoltaic concentrator assembly that includes a housing that defines an internal volume and includes a rim, wherein the rim defines an opening into the internal volume, a photovoltaic cell positioned in the internal volume, and an optical element that includes an optically active body and a flange extending outward from the body, wherein the flange is sealingly engaged with the rim of the housing to enclose the internal volume.

  8. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Selected Environmental Topics for Use With Elementary and Junior High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Alan D., Ed.

    This guide contains learning activities in environmental education developed by teachers and intended for use at the elementary or junior high school levels. Topics covered include: water, esthetics, air, soil and sediment, solid waste, energy, noise, population, and transportation. Generally, each activity contains an introduction, a listing of…

  9. Comparative blanching activities of proprietary diflucortolone valerate topical preparations.

    PubMed

    Coleman, G L; Kanfer, I; Haigh, J M

    1978-01-01

    The blanching activities and hence bioavailabilities of the cream, ointment and fatty ointment preparations of Nerisone and Temetex (diflucortolone valerate 0.1%) were evaluated using an occluded and unoccluded blanching assay. These products were compared to Synalar ointment and cream (fluocinolone acetonide 0.025%), established topical corticosteroid preparations. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences between similar formulations of diflucortolone valerate. Significant differences were noted between diflucortolone valerate and fluocinolone acetonide preparations. PMID:342295

  10. Antifungal activity of topical microemulsion containing a thiophene derivative

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Geovani Pereira; de Freitas Araújo Reis, Mysrayn Yargo; da Silva, Dayanne Tomaz Casimiro; Junior, Francisco Jaime Bezerra Mendonça; Converti, Attílio; Pessoa, Adalberto; de Lima Damasceno, Bolívar Ponciano Goulart; da Silva, José Alexsandro

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infections have become a major problem of worldwide concern. Yeasts belonging to the Candida genus and the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans are responsible for different clinical manifestations, especially in immunocompromised patients. Antifungal therapies are currently based on a few chemotherapeutic agents that have problems related to effectiveness and resistance profiles. Microemulsions are isotropic, thermodynamically stable transparent systems of oil, water and surfactant that can improve the solubilization of lipophilic drugs. Taking into account the need for more effective and less toxic drugs along with the potential of thiophene derivatives as inhibitors of pathogenic fungi growth, this study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of a thiophene derivative (5CN05) embedded in a microemulsion (ME). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the microdilution method using amphotericin B as a control. The formulations tested (ME- blank and ME-5CN05) showed physico-chemical properties that would allow their use by the topical route. 5CN05 as such exhibited moderate or weak antifungal activity against Candida species (MIC = 270–540 μg.mL−1) and good activity against C. neoformans (MIC = 17 μg.mL−1). Candida species were susceptible to ME-5CN05 (70–140 μg.mL−1), but C. neoformans was much more, presenting a MIC value of 2.2 μg.mL−1. The results of this work proved promising for the pharmaceutical industry, because they suggest an alternative therapy against C. neoformans. PMID:25242940

  11. The dust covering factor in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalevski, Marko; Ricci, Claudio; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Lira, Paulina; Fritz, Jacopo; Baes, Maarten

    2016-05-01

    The primary source of emission of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), the accretion disc, is surrounded by an optically and geometrically thick dusty structure (`the so-called dusty torus'). The infrared radiation emitted by the dust is nothing but a reprocessed fraction of the accretion disc emission, so the ratio of the torus to the AGN luminosity (Ltorus/LAGN) should corresponds to the fraction of the sky obscured by dust, i.e. the covering factor. We undertook a critical investigation of the Ltorus/LAGN as the dust covering factor proxy. Using state-of-the-art 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code, we calculated a grid of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) emitted by the clumpy two-phase dusty structure. With this grid of SEDs, we studied the relation between Ltorus/LAGN and the dust covering factor for different parameters of the torus. We found that in the case of type 1 AGNs the torus anisotropy makes Ltorus/LAGN underestimate low covering factors and overestimate high covering factors. In type 2 AGNs Ltorus/LAGN always underestimates covering factors. Our results provide a novel easy-to-use method to account for anisotropy and obtain correct covering factors. Using two samples from the literature, we demonstrated the importance of our result for inferring the obscured AGN fraction. We found that after the anisotropy is properly accounted for, the dust covering factors show very weak dependence on LAGN, with values in the range of ≈0.6-0.7. Our results also suggest a higher fraction of obscured AGNs at high luminosities than those found by X-ray surveys, in part owing to the presence of a Compton-thick AGN population predicted by population synthesis models.

  12. 41 CFR 60-250.20 - Covered employment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Covered employment activities. 60-250.20 Section 60-250.20 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to..., organizational structures, position descriptions, lines of progression, and seniority lists; (e) Leaves...

  13. 41 CFR 60-741.20 - Covered employment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Covered employment activities. 60-741.20 Section 60-741.20 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to..., organizational structures, position descriptions, lines of progression, and seniority lists; (e) Leaves...

  14. 41 CFR 60-300.20 - Covered employment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Covered employment activities. 60-300.20 Section 60-300.20 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to..., organizational structures, position descriptions, lines of progression, and seniority lists; (e) Leaves...

  15. 41 CFR 60-741.20 - Covered employment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Covered employment activities. 60-741.20 Section 60-741.20 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to..., organizational structures, position descriptions, lines of progression, and seniority lists; (e) Leaves...

  16. 41 CFR 60-300.20 - Covered employment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Covered employment activities. 60-300.20 Section 60-300.20 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to..., organizational structures, position descriptions, lines of progression, and seniority lists; (e) Leaves...

  17. 41 CFR 60-250.20 - Covered employment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Covered employment activities. 60-250.20 Section 60-250.20 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to..., organizational structures, position descriptions, lines of progression, and seniority lists; (e) Leaves...

  18. Antifungal activity of topical microemulsion containing a thiophene derivative.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Geovani Pereira; de Freitas Araújo Reis, Mysrayn Yargo; da Silva, Dayanne Tomaz Casimiro; Junior, Francisco Jaime Bezerra Mendonça; Converti, Attílio; Pessoa, Adalberto; de Lima Damasceno, Bolívar Ponciano Goulart; da Silva, José Alexsandro

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infections have become a major problem of worldwide concern. Yeasts belonging to the Candida genus and the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans are responsible for different clinical manifestations, especially in immunocompromised patients. Antifungal therapies are currently based on a few chemotherapeutic agents that have problems related to effectiveness and resistance profiles. Microemulsions are isotropic, thermodynamically stable transparent systems of oil, water and surfactant that can improve the solubilization of lipophilic drugs. Taking into account the need for more effective and less toxic drugs along with the potential of thiophene derivatives as inhibitors of pathogenic fungi growth, this study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of a thiophene derivative (5CN05) embedded in a microemulsion (ME). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the microdilution method using amphotericin B as a control. The formulations tested (ME- blank and ME-5CN05) showed physico-chemical properties that would allow their use by the topical route. 5CN05 as such exhibited moderate or weak antifungal activity against Candida species (MIC = 270-540 μg . mL(-1)) and good activity against C. neoformans (MIC = 17 μg . mL(-1)). Candida species were susceptible to ME-5CN05 (70-140 μg . mL(-1)), but C. neoformans was much more, presenting a MIC value of 2.2 μg . mL(-1). The results of this work proved promising for the pharmaceutical industry, because they suggest an alternative therapy against C. neoformans. PMID:25242940

  19. Antrim shale workshop. Held in Mt. Pleasant, Michigan on December 15, 1992. (Collection of speaker visuals covering presentations at the workshop). Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The collection of speaker visuals covers presentations at the Antrim Shale workshop, where the following major topics were discussed: natural controls of gas occurrence, gas content measurements, log based gas-in-place calculations, treatment and inhibition of calcium and sulfate scales, fracture identification, well testing, production optimization, and optimizing stimulation operations.

  20. Recent Progress in Some Active Topics on Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Guo, L.; Jiang, J.; Chi, L.; Li, W.; Wang, Q. A.; Cai, X.

    2015-04-01

    Complex networks have been extensively studied across many fields, especially in interdisciplinary areas. It has since long been recognized that topological structures and dynamics are important aspects for capturing the essence of complex networks. The recent years have also witnessed the emergence of several new elements which play important roles in network study. By combining the results of different research orientations in our group, we provide here a review of the recent advances in regards to spectral graph theory, opinion dynamics, interdependent networks, graph energy theory and temporal networks. We hope this will be helpful for the newcomers of those fields to discover new intriguing topics.

  1. Three Activities To Assist Biology Teachers in Presenting Conceptually Difficult Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Neil; Tulip, David

    1997-01-01

    Outlines three activities for different areas of biology that can serve as motivators for students or as demonstrations. Each activity is easy to organize and uses available materials. Topics include evolution, anaerobic respiration, and heat loss. (DDR)

  2. Topically applied oxymetazoline. Ocular vasoconstrictive activity, pharmacokinetics, and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Duzman, E; Anderson, J; Vita, J B; Lue, J C; Chen, C C; Leopold, I H

    1983-07-01

    Two double-blind, random-assignment clinical trials demonstrated the effectiveness of topical oxymetazoline hydrochloride in reducing histamine-induced hyperemia. Oxymetazoline hydrochloride at an optimum strength of 0.025% produced a marked and prolonged reduction of hyperemia, with the onset of effect occurring within one to five minutes of instillation. Safety indicators, including BP, heart rate, intraocular pressure, pupil size, and visual acuity, did not change significantly from baseline values. Oxymetazoline was absorbed slowly into the eye: only 0.006% of the original drug concentration was found in the aqueous humors of rabbits 30 minutes after instillation; the balance remained primarily in external ocular tissues. Metabolic studies in rabbits indicated that excreted amounts of unmetabolized radioactive oxymetazoline in urine following drug administration were similar (23%) for the ocular and nasal routes of application. The proportions of oxymetazoline metabolite to unchanged oxymetazoline were constant for all administration routes tested.

  3. 29 CFR 776.28 - Covered preparatory activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... company which was engaged in preliminary oil well drilling, even though the holes were drilled to a... drilling operations even though no oil was discovered. 27 Laborers employed in erecting drilling rigs would also be covered. 28 Other preparatory work before drilling begins in an oil field, such as staking...

  4. Topic detection using paragraph vectors to support active learning in systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kazuma; Kontonatsios, Georgios; Miwa, Makoto; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2016-08-01

    Systematic reviews require expert reviewers to manually screen thousands of citations in order to identify all relevant articles to the review. Active learning text classification is a supervised machine learning approach that has been shown to significantly reduce the manual annotation workload by semi-automating the citation screening process of systematic reviews. In this paper, we present a new topic detection method that induces an informative representation of studies, to improve the performance of the underlying active learner. Our proposed topic detection method uses a neural network-based vector space model to capture semantic similarities between documents. We firstly represent documents within the vector space, and cluster the documents into a predefined number of clusters. The centroids of the clusters are treated as latent topics. We then represent each document as a mixture of latent topics. For evaluation purposes, we employ the active learning strategy using both our novel topic detection method and a baseline topic model (i.e., Latent Dirichlet Allocation). Results obtained demonstrate that our method is able to achieve a high sensitivity of eligible studies and a significantly reduced manual annotation cost when compared to the baseline method. This observation is consistent across two clinical and three public health reviews. The tool introduced in this work is available from https://nactem.ac.uk/pvtopic/. PMID:27293211

  5. Development of a novel in vitro onychomycosis model for the evaluation of topical antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Sleven, Reindert; Lanckacker, Ellen; Boulet, Gaëlle; Delputte, Peter; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul

    2015-05-01

    A novel in vitro onychomycosis model was developed to easily predict the topical activity potential of novel antifungal drugs. The model encompasses drug activity and diffusion through bovine hoof slices in a single experimental set-up. Results correspond well with the antifungal susceptibility assay and Franz cell diffusion test.

  6. 41 CFR 60-300.20 - Covered employment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., whether or not administered by the contractor; (g) Selection and financial support for training, including... absence to pursue training; (h) Activities sponsored by the contractor including social and...

  7. 41 CFR 60-741.20 - Covered employment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., whether or not administered by the contractor; (g) Selection and financial support for training, including... absence to pursue training; (h) Activities sponsored by the contractor including social and...

  8. Enhanced Activity of Topical Hydrocortisone by Competitive Binding of Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin.

    PubMed

    Bodor, Erik T; Wu, Whei-Mei; Chandran, V Ravi; Bodor, Nicholas

    2016-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis of sensitive areas such as the face, particularly in children, is a difficult disease to treat as the standard therapeutic, topical steroids, is contraindicated for this application in children. Hydrocortisone (HC) can be used in these instances because it has been shown to be safe, but is often ineffective as it is a relatively weak steroid, especially at over-the-counter concentrations. To enhance the local topical activity of HC, the terminal inactive metabolite of prednisolone, Δ(1)-cortienic acid (Δ(1)-CA), is added to HC, as Δ(1)-CA preferentially binds transcortin, liberating more HC to elicit its therapeutic effect. Skin blanching studies, which are used to evaluate the potency of topical steroids, were employed to assess the ability of Δ(1)-CA to enhance the activity of HC. The results demonstrate that Δ(1)-CA, when applied in combination with HC, does indeed potentiate the vasoconstriction effect of topically applied HC, while having no effect alone. Thus, addition of the inert prednisolone metabolite Δ(1)-CA can increase the therapeutic effect of over-the-counter concentrations of HC when applied topically.

  9. Synthesis and larvicidal and adult topical activity of some hydrazide-hydrazone derivatives against Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of novel hydrazide-hydrazone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their larvicidal and adult topical activity against Aedes aegypti. The proposed structures of all the synthesized compounds were confirmed using elemental analysis, UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectroscopy. Com...

  10. The antimicrobial activity of embalming chemicals and topical disinfectants on the microbial flora of human remains.

    PubMed

    Burke, P A; Sheffner, A L

    1976-10-01

    The antimicrobial activity of embalming chemicals an topical disinfectants was evaluated to determine the degree of disinfection achieved during the embalming of human remains. The administration of arterial and cavity embalming chemicals resulted in a 99% reduction of the postmortem microbial population after 2 hours of contact. This level of disinfection was maintained for the 24 hours test period. Topical disinfection of the body orifices was also observed. Therefore, it is probable that present embalming practices reduce the hazard from transmission of potentially infectious microbial agents within the immediate environment of embalmed human remains.

  11. Selected topics on the active control of helicopter aeromechanical and vibration problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, Peretz P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes in a concise manner three selected topics on the active control of helicopter aeromechanical and vibration problems. The three topics are as follows: (1) the active control of helicopter air-resonance using an LQG/LTR approach; (2) simulation of higher harmonic control (HHC) applied to a four bladed hingeless helicopter rotor in forward flight; and (3) vibration suppression in forward flight on a hingeless helicopter rotor using an actively controlled, partial span, trailing edge flap, which is mounted on the blade. Only a few selected illustrative results are presented. The results obtained clearly indicate that the partial span, actively controlled flap has considerable potential for vibration reduction in helicopter rotors.

  12. Blanching activities of betamethasone formulations. The effect of dosage form on topical drug availability.

    PubMed

    Smith, E W; Meyer, E; Haigh, J M

    1990-05-01

    The blanching activities of Betnovate cream, lotion, ointment and scalp application (each containing 0.1% betamethasone (as the 17-valerate] were determined using healthy human subjects over a 32 h period in both the occluded and unoccluded modes. Considering that all four formulation types contained the same label concentration of corticosteroid, it may be presumed that the formulations would show similar topical drug availability: this was, however, not found to be the case. The scalp application demonstrated the highest topical availability in both the occluded and unoccluded modes. The lotion formulation showed the greatest increase in topical availability on occlusion and the ointment formulation was the least sensitive to the effects of occlusion. These differences, due solely to the effects of the vehicle, may have important clinical implications.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the topical preparation of Glaucium grandiflorum.

    PubMed

    Morteza-Semnani, K; Saeedi, M; Hamidian, M

    2004-03-01

    The species of Glaucium have been used in Iranian herbal medicine in the treatment of dermatitis. Due to anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Glaucium grandiflorum methanolic extract in i.p. administration, these effects in topical administration were studied using carrageenan-induced edema and formalin test. Several formulations were prepared and the best cream was chosen as vehicle. Piroxicam gel and methyl salicylate ointment were studied as positive control for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity, respectively. The edema inhibition of preparations containing extract at the doses of 1-5% w/w were significantly different from control group. The anti-inflammatory effect of MS4-5% was similar to the effect of piroxicam gel at 3 h after carrageenan injection. Topical preparation containing G. grandiflorum methanolic extract showed analgesic effect in concentrations more than 4% w/w in early phase in formalin test. This activity was observed in concentrations more than 3% w/w in late phase. The topical analgesic activity of extract was less than the analgesic activity of methyl salicylate ointment. PMID:15030915

  14. Effects of Individual Health Topic Familiarity on Activity Patterns During Health Information Searches

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Koichi; Fukui, Ken–ichi; Numao, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-medical professionals (consumers) are increasingly using the Internet to support their health information needs. However, the cognitive effort required to perform health information searches is affected by the consumer’s familiarity with health topics. Consumers may have different levels of familiarity with individual health topics. This variation in familiarity may cause misunderstandings because the information presented by search engines may not be understood correctly by the consumers. Objective As a first step toward the improvement of the health information search process, we aimed to examine the effects of health topic familiarity on health information search behaviors by identifying the common search activity patterns exhibited by groups of consumers with different levels of familiarity. Methods Each participant completed a health terminology familiarity questionnaire and health information search tasks. The responses to the familiarity questionnaire were used to grade the familiarity of participants with predefined health topics. The search task data were transcribed into a sequence of search activities using a coding scheme. A computational model was constructed from the sequence data using a Markov chain model to identify the common search patterns in each familiarity group. Results Forty participants were classified into L1 (not familiar), L2 (somewhat familiar), and L3 (familiar) groups based on their questionnaire responses. They had different levels of familiarity with four health topics. The video data obtained from all of the participants were transcribed into 4595 search activities (mean 28.7, SD 23.27 per session). The most frequent search activities and transitions in all the familiarity groups were related to evaluations of the relevancy of selected web pages in the retrieval results. However, the next most frequent transitions differed in each group and a chi-squared test confirmed this finding (P<.001). Next, according to the

  15. Topical Application of Ice-Nucleating-Active Bacteria Decreases Insect Cold Tolerance †

    PubMed Central

    Strong-Gunderson, Janet M.; Lee, Richard E.; Lee, Marcia R.

    1992-01-01

    The majority of overwintering insects avoid lethal freezing by lowering the temperature at which ice spontaneously nucleates within their body fluids. We examined the effect of ice-nucleating-active bacteria on the cold-hardiness of the lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens, a freeze-intolerant species that overwinters by supercooling to ca. −16°C. Topical application of the ice-nucleating-active bacteria Pseudomonas syringae increased the supercooling point to temperatures as high as −3°C. This decrease in cold tolerance was maintained for at least 3 days after treatment. Various treatment doses (108, 106, and 104 bacteria per ml) and modes of action (bacterial ingestion and topical application) were also compared. At the highest concentration of topically applied P. syringae, 50% of the beetles froze between −2 and −4°C. After topical application at the lowest concentration, 50% of the individuals froze by −11°C. In contrast, beetles fed bacteria at this concentration did not begin to freeze until −10°C, and 50% were frozen only at temperatures of −13°C or less. In addition to reducing the supercooling capacity in H. convergens, ice-nucleating-active bacteria also significantly reduced the cold-hardiness of four additional insects. These data demonstrate that ice-nucleating-active bacteria can be used to elevate the supercooling point and thereby decrease insect cold tolerance. The results of this study support the proposition that ice-nucleating-active bacteria may be used as a biological insecticide for the control of insect pests during the winter. Images PMID:16348764

  16. Riparian Land Use/Land Cover Data for Five Study Units in the Nutrient Enrichment Effects Topical Study of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Michaela R.; Buell, Gary R.; Kim, Moon H.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    This dataset was developed as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, Nutrient Enrichment Effects Topical (NEET) study for five study units distributed across the United States: Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, Central Columbia Plateau-Yakima River Basin, Central Nebraska Basins, Potomac River Basin and Delmarva Peninsula, and White, Great and Little Miami River Basins. One hundred forty-three stream reaches were examined as part of the NEET study conducted 2003-04. Stream segments, with lengths equal to the logarithm of the basin area, were delineated upstream from the downstream ends of the stream reaches with the use of digital orthophoto quarter quadrangles (DOQQ) or selected from the high-resolution National Hydrography Dataset (NHD). Use of the NHD was necessary when the stream was not distinguishable in the DOQQ because of dense tree canopy. The analysis area for each stream segment was defined by a buffer beginning at the segment extending to 250 meters lateral to the stream segment. Delineation of land use/land cover (LULC) map units within stream segment buffers was conducted using on-screen digitizing of riparian LULC classes interpreted from the DOQQ. LULC units were mapped using a classification strategy consisting of nine classes. National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) data were used to aid in wetland classification. Longitudinal transect sampling lines offset from the stream segments were generated and partitioned into the underlying LULC types. These longitudinal samples yielded the relative linear extent and sequence of each LULC type within the riparian zone at the segment scale. The resulting areal and linear LULC data filled in the spatial-scale gap between the 30-meter resolution of the National Land Cover Dataset and the reach-level habitat assessment data collected onsite routinely for NAWQA ecological sampling. The final data consisted of 12 geospatial datasets: LULC within 25 meters of the stream reach

  17. Final Technical Report summarizing Purdue research activities as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, Denes

    2015-09-01

    This report summarizes research activities at Purdue University done as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration. These mainly involve calculation of covariant radiative energy loss in the (Djordjevic-)Gyulassy-Levai-Vitev ((D)GLV) framework for relativistic A+A reactions at RHIC and LHC energies using realistic bulk medium evolution with both transverse and longitudinal expansion. The single PDF file provided also includes a report from the entire JET Collaboration.

  18. In vitro release and antiinflammatory activity of topical formulations of ketoprofen.

    PubMed

    Moretti, M D; Gavini, E; Peana, A T

    2000-01-01

    Ketoprofen (KP) is a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) widely used in clinical practice for the control of acute and chronic pain of soft tissues and skeletal muscle system. The importance of KP in the therapeutic field, has stimulated the development of topical dosage forms to improve its percutaneous absorption through the application site. Moreover they could provide relatively consistent drug levels for prolonged periods and avoid gastric irritation, typical side effect of NSAID oral administration. Since the topical formulation efficiency depends on vehicle characteristics, some different ointments, at 1% and 5% concentrations of KP, were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo studies. Among tested ointments, 1% Carbopol cream and 5% Carbopol gel showed the best fluxes of drug through regenerated cellulose membrane. The in vivo percutaneous absorption of KP, evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, showed a good correlation with the in vitro results about considered creams, but the gels in vivo activity was not in according to their in vitro behaviour. The extemporaneous Carbopol cream was able to produce a better edema inhibition than the commercial one, taken as a reference and widely utilized as a topical therapeutic item. About gels, the obtained results were nearly the maximum response considered possible for a topical antiinflammatory drug.

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of orpanoxin administered orally and topically to rodents.

    PubMed

    Brooks, R R; Bonk, K R; Decker, G E; Miller, K E

    1985-07-01

    Orpanoxin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) lacking gastric ulcerogenic effects in the therapeutic dose range in rats, was compared with six reference NSAIDs for oral activity in the rat paw carrageenin-induced edema assay. Tested NSAIDs were ranked on the basis of oral mg/kg ED50 values: piroxicam, 0.55; orpanoxin, 35.6; diflunisal, 59.6; benoxaprofen, greater than 300; tolmetin sodium, greater than 300; and sulindac, greater than 300. Zomepirac sodium was inactive. Only the three most potent compounds produced greater than 60% inhibition of edema. Inhibition was generally greater at 4 h than at 6 h post carrageenin for all compounds. Oral activity of orpanoxin was also demonstrated in the guinea-pig u.v.-induced erythema model (ED50 = 24.2 mg/kg p.o. when given 1 h before irradiation) and in the mouse ear croton oil induced edema test (ED50 value = 131 mg/kg p.o.). Topical activity of orpanoxin was assessed in both the guinea-pig and mouse models. In the guinea-pig u.v.-induced erythema model, application (1 h after u.v.) of 1, 5, and 10% (w/v) orpanoxin creams (containing 10% urea) significantly inhibited erythema at 2, 3, and 4 h post-irradiation. Orpanoxin, mefenamic acid, and indomethacin as 1% creams inhibited total erythema scores 70, 92 and 74%, respectively. Evidence for topical activity in the mouse ear assay was also obtained for orpanoxin in diethyl ether or 10% urea cream, but not in dimethylsulfoxide. It was concluded that orpanoxin has anti-inflammatory activity comparable to reference NSAIDs in the rat paw edema test, is active orally in rat, mouse, and guinea-pig models, and shows topical activity in the guinea-pig and the mouse.

  20. Vascular tumors have increased p70 S6-kinase activation and are inhibited by topical rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Du, Wa; Gerald, Damien; Perruzzi, Carole A; Rodriguez-Waitkus, Paul; Enayati, Ladan; Krishnan, Bhuvaneswari; Edmonds, Joseph; Hochman, Marcelo L; Lev, Dina C; Phung, Thuy L

    2013-10-01

    Vascular tumors are endothelial cell neoplasms whose cellular and molecular mechanisms, leading to tumor formation, are poorly understood, and current therapies have limited efficacy with significant side effects. We have investigated mechanistic (mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in benign and malignant vascular tumors, and the effects of mTOR kinase inhibitor as a potential therapy for these lesions. Human vascular tumors (infantile hemangioma and angiosarcoma) were analyzed by immunohistochemical stains and western blot for the phosphorylation of p70 S6-kinase (S6K) and S6 ribosomal protein (S6), which are activated downstream of mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1). To assess the function of S6K, tumor cells with genetic knockdown of S6K were analyzed for cell proliferation and migration. The effects of topical rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, on mTORC1 and mTOR complex-2 (mTORC2) activities, as well as on tumor growth and migration, were determined. Vascular tumors showed increased activation of S6K and S6. Genetic knockdown of S6K resulted in reduced tumor cell proliferation and migration. Rapamycin fully inhibited mTORC1 and partially inhibited mTORC2 activities, including the phosphorylation of Akt (serine 473) and PKCα, in vascular tumor cells. Rapamycin significantly reduced vascular tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. As a potential localized therapy for cutaneous vascular tumors, topically applied rapamycin effectively reduced tumor growth with limited systemic drug absorption. These findings reveal the importance of mTOR signaling pathways in benign and malignant vascular tumors. The mTOR pathway is an important therapeutic target in vascular tumors, and topical mTOR inhibitors may provide an alternative and well-tolerated therapy for the treatment of cutaneous vascular lesions. PMID:23938603

  1. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Pietrovski, Evelise Fernandes; Magina, Michele Debiasi Alberton; Gomig, Franciane; Pietrovski, Caroline Fernandes; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Barcellos, Michele; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Cabrini, Daniela Almeida; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa; Otuki, Michel Fleith

    2008-04-01

    Eugenia brasiliensis Lam., a plant from the south of Brazil, is used in the popular medicine for rheumatism treatment. This study reports that topical application of hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and isolated compounds from E. brasiliensis caused an inhibition of ear oedema in response to topical application of croton oil on the mouse ear. For oedema inhibition, the estimated ID50 values (dose reducing the inflammatory response by 50% relative to the control value) for hydroalcoholic extract and fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane) were 0.17, 0.29, 0.13 and 0.14 mg/ear, respectively, with inhibition of 79+/-7%, 87+/-6%, 88+/-5% and 96+/-2%, respectively. Isolated phenolic compounds (quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin) were also effective in inhibiting the oedema (inhibition of 61+/-5%, 66+/-2% and 37+/-9%, respectively). Moreover, both extract and isolated compounds caused inhibition of polymorphonuclear cells influx (inhibition of 85+/-6%, 81+/-5%, 73+/-6% and 76+/-6%, respectively). The histological analysis of the ear tissue clearly confirmed that the extract and compounds of E. brasiliensis inhibited the influx of polymorphonuclear cells to mouse ear skin after application of croton oil. Furthermore, hydroalcoholic extract was also effective in inhibiting the arachidonic acid-mediated mouse ear oedema (ID50 value was 1.94 mg/ear and inhibition of 60+/-7%). Therefore, these results consistently support the notion that E. brasiliensis possesses topical anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:18380921

  2. Assays of physical stability and antioxidant activity of a topical formulation added with different plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Di Mambro, Valéria M; Fonseca, Maria J V

    2005-02-23

    In the present investigation the changes on physical stability (pH, viscosity, flow index and tixotropy) of topical formulations were evaluated following inclusion of different plant extracts containing flavonoids. Also, the antioxidant effect of these plant extracts alone and after addition in the formulation was evaluated using chemiluminescence and the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(.-)) assays, as well as the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Formulation added with dl-alpha-tocopherol was used to compare the physical stability and antioxidant activity. Formulations with plant extracts showed pseudoplastic behavior with decreasing on viscosity and tixotropy. The Glycyrrhiza glabra (GG) and Ginkgo biloba (GB) extracts alone and the formulations containing these extracts showed great antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities while the other extracts studied (mixture of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Symphytum officinale L and Arctium majus root, Nelumbium speciosum and soybean) showed lower activity. The results suggest that GG and GB extracts may be used in topical formulations in order to protect skin against damage caused by free radical and reactive oxygen species. PMID:15708669

  3. Reduction of Urease Activity by Interaction with the Flap Covering the Active Site

    PubMed Central

    Macomber, Lee; Minkara, Mona S.; Hausinger, Robert P.; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing appreciation for the human microbiome coupled with the global rise of antibiotic resistant organisms, it is imperative that new methods be developed to specifically target pathogens. To that end, a novel computational approach was devised to identify compounds that reduce the activity of urease, a medically important enzyme of Helicobacter pylori, Proteus mirabilis, and many other microorganisms. Urease contains a flexible loop that covers its active site; Glide was used to identify small molecules predicted to lock this loop in an open conformation. These compounds were screened against the model urease from Klebsiella aerogenes and the natural products epigallocatechin and quercetin were shown to inhibit at low and high micromolar concentrations, respectively. These molecules exhibit a strong time-dependent inactivation of urease that was not due to their oxygen sensitivity. Rather, these compounds appear to inactivate urease by reacting with a specific Cys residue located on the flexible loop. Substitution of this cysteine by alanine in the C319A variant increased the urease resistance to both epigallocatechin and quercetin, as predicted by the computational studies. Protein dynamics are integral to the function of many enzymes; thus, identification of compounds that lock an enzyme into a single conformation presents a useful approach to define potential inhibitors. PMID:25594724

  4. Screening of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Central American plants.

    PubMed

    Sosa, S; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Pizza, C; Altinier, G; Tubaro, Aurelia

    2002-07-01

    Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of seven herbal drugs used in the folk medicine of Central America against skin disorders (Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba bark, Hamelia patens leaves, Piper amalago leaves, and Syngonium podophyllum leaves and bark) were evaluated for their topical anti-inflammatory activity against the Croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice. Most of the extracts induced a dose-dependent oedema reduction. The chloroform extract of almost all the drugs exhibited interesting activities with ID(50) values ranging between 108 and 498 micro g/cm(2), comparable to that of indomethacin (93 micro g/cm(2)). Therefore, the tested plants are promising sources of principles with high anti-inflammatory activity.

  5. 30 CFR 280.4 - What activities are not covered by this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations at 30 CFR part 282; and (d) G&G exploration or G&G scientific research activities related to oil... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities are not covered by this part? 280.4 Section 280.4 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  6. Analysis of the Potential Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Averrhoa carambola L. in Mice.

    PubMed

    Cabrini, Daniela Almeida; Moresco, Henrique Hunger; Imazu, Priscila; da Silva, Cíntia Delai; Pietrovski, Evelise Fernandes; Mendes, Daniel Augusto Gasparin Bueno; da Silveira Prudente, Arthur; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa; Otuki, Michel Fleith

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory skin disorders, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, are very common in the population; however, the treatments currently available are not well tolerated and are often ineffective. Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) is an Asian tree that has been used in traditional folk medicine in the treatment of several skin disorders. The present study evaluates the topical anti-inflammatory effects of the crude ethanolic extract of A. carambola leaves, its hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions and two isolated flavonoids on skin inflammation. Anti-inflammatory activity was measured using a croton oil-induced ear edema model of inflammation in mice. Topically applied ethanolic extract reduced edema in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in a maximum inhibition of 73 ± 3% and an ID(50) value of 0.05 (range: 0.02-0.13) mg/ear. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was also inhibited by the extract, resulting in a maximum inhibition of 60 ± 6% (0.6 mg/ear). All of the fractions tested caused inhibition of edema formation and of MPO activity. Treatment with the ethyl acetate fraction was the most effective, resulting in inhibition levels of 75 ± 5 and 54 ± 8% for edema formation and MPO activity, respectively. However, treatment of mice with isolated compounds [apigenin-6-C-β-l-fucopyranoside and apigenin-6-C-(2″-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-l-fucopyranoside] did not yield successful results. Apigenin-6-C-(2″-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-l-fucopyranoside caused only a mild reduction in edema formation (28 ± 11%). Taken together, these preliminary results support the popular use of A. carambola as an anti-inflammatory agent and open up new possibilities for its use in skin disorders.

  7. The ESA Topical Team 'Biomonitors': Monitoring for the protection of environments from human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, P.; Esa Tt Biomonitors

    The overall aim of the ESA Topical Team Biomonitors was to identify and summarize ongoing and planned ground based biotechnological research activities on environmental monitoring that will also become important in space research within the ESA Microgravity Applications Promotion Program Monitoring the environment for compounds and factors of concern plays an important role in defining and managing the risks to environments and artificial ecosystems on other planets resulting from chemical and biological contaminations but also gains increasing attention for a variety of terrestrial applications Especially the development of biosensors and the identification of biomarkers for the qualitative and or quantitative registration of deleterious effects is a promising approach for new tools complementary to currently available physical and chemical monitoring techniques Another very important field of concern was the fast identification and assessment of the microbial bioburden On one hand this is necessary for the long-term securing of human health and performance in a confined environment like the ISS or in a future extraterrestrial habitat On the other hand this is necessary for the development and application of adequate cleaning and sterilization measures of spacecraft for planetary protection reasons especially for already scheduled lander missions to Mars Acknowledgements The ESA Topical Team Biomonitors was financed by ESTEC Contract Nr 137989 99 NL JS The authors thank R Binot for fruitful discussions on the future of biotechnology in

  8. Implementation of Active Teaching Methods and Emerging Topics in Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmatin Fras, M.; Grigillo, D.

    2016-06-01

    Fast technological developments in photogrammetry and remote sensing areas demand quick and steady changes in the education programme and its realization. The university teachers and assistants are faced with ensuring the learning materials, data and software for practical lessons, as well as project proposals for student's team work and bachelor or master thesis. In this paper the emerging topics that already have a considerable impact in the practice are treated mostly from the educational aspect. These relatively new topics that are considered in this paper are unmanned aerial systems for spatial data collection, terrestrial and aerial laser scanning, mobile mapping systems, and novelties in satellite remote sensing. The focus is given to practical implementation of these topics into the teaching and learning programme of Geodesy and Geoinformation at the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, and experiences gained by the authors so far. Together with the technological advances, the teaching approaches must be modernized as well. Classical approaches of teaching, where a lecturer gives lecture ex cathedra and students are only listeners, are not effective enough. The didactics science of teaching has developed and proved in the practice many useful approaches that can better motivate students for more active learning. We can use different methods of team work like pro et contra debate, buzzing groups, press conference, moderated discussion etc. An experimental study on active teaching methods in the class of students of the Master programme of Geodesy and Geoinformation has been made and the results are presented. After using some new teaching methods in the class, the students were asked to answer two types of a questionnaire. First questionnaire was the standard form developed by Noel Entwistle, an educational psychologist who developed the Approaches to Studying Inventory (ASI) for identifying deep and surface approaches to

  9. 32 CFR 143.6 - Activity not covered by this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Activity not covered by this part. 143.6 Section 143.6 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN DOD POLICY ON ORGANIZATIONS THAT SEEK TO REPRESENT OR ORGANIZE MEMBERS OF THE...

  10. 30 CFR 580.4 - What activities are not covered by this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulations at 30 CFR parts 582 and 282; and (d) G&G exploration or G&G scientific research activities related to oil, gas, and sulphur, including gas hydrates, which are covered by regulations at 30 CFR parts...? 580.4 Section 580.4 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  11. 30 CFR 580.4 - What activities are not covered by this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulations at 30 CFR parts 582 and 282; and (d) G&G exploration or G&G scientific research activities related to oil, gas, and sulphur, including gas hydrates, which are covered by regulations at 30 CFR parts...? 580.4 Section 580.4 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  12. 30 CFR 580.4 - What activities are not covered by this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulations at 30 CFR parts 582 and 282; and (d) G&G exploration or G&G scientific research activities related to oil, gas, and sulphur, including gas hydrates, which are covered by regulations at 30 CFR parts...? 580.4 Section 580.4 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  13. 29 CFR 776.3 - Persons engaging in both covered and noncovered activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INTERPRETATIVE BULLETIN ON THE GENERAL COVERAGE OF THE WAGE AND HOURS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT... activities. The Act applies to employees “engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Persons engaging in both covered and noncovered...

  14. 29 CFR 776.3 - Persons engaging in both covered and noncovered activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INTERPRETATIVE BULLETIN ON THE GENERAL COVERAGE OF THE WAGE AND HOURS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT... activities. The Act applies to employees “engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Persons engaging in both covered and noncovered...

  15. 29 CFR 776.3 - Persons engaging in both covered and noncovered activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERPRETATIVE BULLETIN ON THE GENERAL COVERAGE OF THE WAGE AND HOURS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT... activities. The Act applies to employees “engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Persons engaging in both covered and noncovered...

  16. 29 CFR 776.3 - Persons engaging in both covered and noncovered activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERPRETATIVE BULLETIN ON THE GENERAL COVERAGE OF THE WAGE AND HOURS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT... activities. The Act applies to employees “engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Persons engaging in both covered and noncovered...

  17. 29 CFR 776.3 - Persons engaging in both covered and noncovered activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INTERPRETATIVE BULLETIN ON THE GENERAL COVERAGE OF THE WAGE AND HOURS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT... activities. The Act applies to employees “engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Persons engaging in both covered and noncovered...

  18. 50 CFR 18.121 - What specified activities does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... subpart cover? 18.121 Section 18.121 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Mammals Incidental to Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Production Activities in the Beaufort Sea... polar bears and Pacific walruses by you (U.S. citizens as defined in § 18.27(c)) while engaged in...

  19. 50 CFR 18.121 - What specified activities does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... subpart cover? 18.121 Section 18.121 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Mammals Incidental to Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Production Activities in the Beaufort Sea... polar bears and Pacific walruses by you (U.S. citizens as defined in § 18.27(c)) while engaged in...

  20. 50 CFR 18.121 - What specified activities does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subpart cover? 18.121 Section 18.121 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Mammals Incidental to Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Production Activities in the Beaufort Sea... polar bear and Pacific walrus by you (U.S. citizens as defined in § 18.27(c)) while engaged in oil...

  1. 50 CFR 18.121 - What specified activities does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... subpart cover? 18.121 Section 18.121 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Mammals Incidental to Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Production Activities in the Beaufort Sea... polar bears and Pacific walruses by you (U.S. citizens as defined in § 18.27(c)) while engaged in...

  2. 50 CFR 18.121 - What specified activities does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... subpart cover? 18.121 Section 18.121 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Mammals Incidental to Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Production Activities in the Beaufort Sea... polar bears and Pacific walruses by you (U.S. citizens as defined in § 18.27(c)) while engaged in...

  3. Topical Anti-inflammatory Activity of New Hybrid Molecules of Terpenes and Synthetic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Theoduloz, Cristina; Delporte, Carla; Valenzuela-Barra, Gabriela; Silva, Ximena; Cádiz, Solange; Bustamante, Fernanda; Pertino, Mariano Walter; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2015-06-18

    The aim of the study was to assess changes in the activity of anti-inflammatory terpenes from Chilean medicinal plants after the formation of derivatives incorporating synthetic anti-inflammatory agents. Ten new hybrid molecules were synthesized combining terpenes (ferruginol (1), imbricatolic acid (2) and oleanolic acid (3)) with ibuprofen (4) or naproxen (5). The topical anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was assessed in mice by the arachidonic acid (AA) and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) induced ear edema assays. Basal cytotoxicity was determined towards human lung fibroblasts, gastric epithelial cells and hepatocytes. At 1.4 µmol/mouse, a strong anti-inflammatory effect in the TPA assay was observed for oleanoyl ibuprofenate 12 (79.9%) and oleanoyl ibuprofenate methyl ester 15 (80.0%). In the AA assay, the best activity was observed for 12 at 3.2 µmol/mouse, with 56.8% reduction of inflammation, in the same range as nimesulide (48.9%). All the terpenyl-synthetic anti-inflammatory hybrids showed better effects in the TPA assay, with best activity for 6, 12 and 15. The cytotoxicity of the compounds 8 and 10 with a free COOH, was higher than that of 2. The derivatives from 3 were less toxic than the triterpene. Several of the new compounds presented better anti-inflammatory effect and lower cytotoxicity than the parent terpenes.

  4. Topical Anti-inflammatory Activity of New Hybrid Molecules of Terpenes and Synthetic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Theoduloz, Cristina; Delporte, Carla; Valenzuela-Barra, Gabriela; Silva, Ximena; Cádiz, Solange; Bustamante, Fernanda; Pertino, Mariano Walter; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess changes in the activity of anti-inflammatory terpenes from Chilean medicinal plants after the formation of derivatives incorporating synthetic anti-inflammatory agents. Ten new hybrid molecules were synthesized combining terpenes (ferruginol (1), imbricatolic acid (2) and oleanolic acid (3)) with ibuprofen (4) or naproxen (5). The topical anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was assessed in mice by the arachidonic acid (AA) and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) induced ear edema assays. Basal cytotoxicity was determined towards human lung fibroblasts, gastric epithelial cells and hepatocytes. At 1.4 µmol/mouse, a strong anti-inflammatory effect in the TPA assay was observed for oleanoyl ibuprofenate 12 (79.9%) and oleanoyl ibuprofenate methyl ester 15 (80.0%). In the AA assay, the best activity was observed for 12 at 3.2 µmol/mouse, with 56.8% reduction of inflammation, in the same range as nimesulide (48.9%). All the terpenyl-synthetic anti-inflammatory hybrids showed better effects in the TPA assay, with best activity for 6, 12 and 15. The cytotoxicity of the compounds 8 and 10 with a free COOH, was higher than that of 2. The derivatives from 3 were less toxic than the triterpene. Several of the new compounds presented better anti-inflammatory effect and lower cytotoxicity than the parent terpenes. PMID:26096431

  5. Essential oil of Myrica esculenta Buch. Ham.: composition, antimicrobial and topical anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Supriya; Wakode, Sharad; Ali, M

    2012-01-01

    Hydrodistilled oil obtained from the stem bark of Myrica esculenta Buch. Ham. ex D. Don (yield 0.3%) was analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The volatile oil consisted mainly of n-hexadecanol (25.2%), eudesmol acetate (21.9%), palmitic acid (11.6%), cis-β-caryophyllene (8.7%), n-pentadecanol (7.7%) and n-octadecanol (7.6%). The oil was found to be a potential antimicrobial agent against Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The essential oil exhibited significant topical anti-inflammatory activity compared to standard drug in Swiss albino mice ear. PMID:22260222

  6. AGN 190383, a novel phospholipase inhibitor with topical anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    De Vries, G W; Lee, G; Amdahl, L; Wenzel, M; Garst, M; Wheeler, L A

    1991-09-01

    AGN 190383 is a 5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone ring analog of the marine natural product manoalide. When applied topically, AGN 190383 inhibits phorbol ester induced mouse ear edema. It is a potent inhibitor of bee venom phospholipase A2 and blocks the release of arachidonic acid from calcium ionophore A23187 stimulated human neutrophils. AGN 190383 also inhibits both hormone-operated and depolarization-dependent calcium mobilization in GH3 cells, as well as fMLP stimulated increases in free cytosolic calcium in human PMNs. Furthermore, it is also able to block the release of the neutral protease elastase from stimulated neutrophils. The effects of AGN 190383 on arachidonic acid metabolism and leukocyte function may account, in part, for its anti-inflammatory activity in vivo.

  7. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Oil from Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825).

    PubMed

    Santos, Israel J M; Leite, Gerlânia O; Costa, José Galberto M; Alves, Romulo R N; Campos, Adriana R; Menezes, Irwin R A; Freita, Francisco Ronaldo V; Nunes, Maria Janeth H; Almeida, Waltécio O

    2015-01-01

    Tropidurus hispidus has been used in traditional medicine in several regions of Northeastern Region of Brazil. Its medicinal use involves the treatment of diseases such as warts, sore throat, tonsillitis, chicken pox, varicella, measles, asthma, alcoholism, and dermatomycosis. The present study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory activity of Tropidurus hispidus fat in treating ear edema in an animal model. Oil from T. hispidus (OTH) was evaluated on its effect against experimental inflammation in mice. OTH was extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of Tropidurus hispidus using hexane as a solvent. We used the model of mouse ear edema induced by phlogistic agents, croton oil (single and multiple applications), arachidonic acid, phenol, capsaicin, and histamine, applied into the right ears of animals pretreated with acetone (control), dexamethasone, or OTH. OTH inhibited the dermatitis induced by all noxious agents, except capsaicin. This effect may be related to the fatty acids present in OTH. PMID:26664448

  8. Essential oil of Myrica esculenta Buch. Ham.: composition, antimicrobial and topical anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Supriya; Wakode, Sharad; Ali, M

    2012-01-01

    Hydrodistilled oil obtained from the stem bark of Myrica esculenta Buch. Ham. ex D. Don (yield 0.3%) was analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The volatile oil consisted mainly of n-hexadecanol (25.2%), eudesmol acetate (21.9%), palmitic acid (11.6%), cis-β-caryophyllene (8.7%), n-pentadecanol (7.7%) and n-octadecanol (7.6%). The oil was found to be a potential antimicrobial agent against Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The essential oil exhibited significant topical anti-inflammatory activity compared to standard drug in Swiss albino mice ear.

  9. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Oil from Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825)

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Israel J. M.; Leite, Gerlânia O.; Costa, José Galberto M.; Alves, Romulo R. N.; Campos, Adriana R.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Freita, Francisco Ronaldo V.; Nunes, Maria Janeth H.; Almeida, Waltécio O.

    2015-01-01

    Tropidurus hispidus has been used in traditional medicine in several regions of Northeastern Region of Brazil. Its medicinal use involves the treatment of diseases such as warts, sore throat, tonsillitis, chicken pox, varicella, measles, asthma, alcoholism, and dermatomycosis. The present study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory activity of Tropidurus hispidus fat in treating ear edema in an animal model. Oil from T. hispidus (OTH) was evaluated on its effect against experimental inflammation in mice. OTH was extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of Tropidurus hispidus using hexane as a solvent. We used the model of mouse ear edema induced by phlogistic agents, croton oil (single and multiple applications), arachidonic acid, phenol, capsaicin, and histamine, applied into the right ears of animals pretreated with acetone (control), dexamethasone, or OTH. OTH inhibited the dermatitis induced by all noxious agents, except capsaicin. This effect may be related to the fatty acids present in OTH. PMID:26664448

  10. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Eupatilin, a lipophilic flavonoid from mountain wormwood ( Artemisia umbelliformis Lam.).

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, Anna; Ponti, Cristina; Pollastro, Federica; Del Favero, Giorgia; Della Loggia, Roberto; Tubaro, Aurelia; Appendino, Giovanni; Sosa, Silvio

    2009-09-01

    Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',6-trimethoxyflavone) is the major lipophilic flavonoid from Artemisia umbelliformis Lam. and Artemisia genipi Weber, two mountain wormwoods used for the production of the celebrated alpine liqueur genepy. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of eupatilin was investigated using the inhibition of the Croton-oil-induced dermatitis in the mouse ear as the end point. The oedematous response and the leukocyte infiltration were evaluated up to 48 h after the induction of phlogosis, comparing eupatilin with hydrocortisone and indomethacin as representatives of steroid and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, respectively. At maximum development, eupatilin significantly reduced edema in a dose-dependent manner (ID(50) = 0.28 micromol/cm(2)), showing an anti-inflammatory potency comparable to that of indomethacin (ID(50) = 0.26 micromol/cm(2)) and only 1 order of magnitude lower than that of hydrocortisone (ID(50) = 0.03 micromol/cm(2)). Within 48 h, eupatilin (0.30 micromol/cm(2)) caused a global inhibition of the oedematous response (42%) higher than that of an equimolar dose of indomethacin (18%) and fully comparable to that of 0.03 micromol/cm(2) of hydrocortisone (55%). Moreover, the effect of eupatilin on the granulocytes infiltrate (32% inhibition) was similar to that of indomethacin (35% inhibition) and comparable to that of hydrocortisone (42% reduction), as confirmed by histological analysis. When our results are taken together, they show that eupatilin is endowed with potent in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity, qualitatively similar to that of hydrocortisone and intermediate in terms of potency between those of steroid and non-steroid drugs.

  11. Determining the Covering Factor of Compton-thick Active Galactic Nuclei with NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brightman, M.; Baloković, M.; Stern, D.; Arévalo, P.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Fuerst, F.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Koss, M.; LaMassa, S.; Puccetti, S.; Rivers, E.; Vasudevan, R.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-05-01

    The covering factor of Compton-thick (CT) obscuring material associated with the torus in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is at present best understood through the fraction of sources exhibiting CT absorption along the line of sight (NH > 1.5 × 1024 cm-2) in the X-ray band, which reveals the average covering factor. Determining this CT fraction is difficult, however, due to the extreme obscuration. With its spectral coverage at hard X-rays (>10 keV), Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is sensitive to the AGNs covering factor since Compton scattering of X-rays off optically thick material dominates at these energies. We present a spectral analysis of 10 AGNs observed with NuSTAR where the obscuring medium is optically thick to Compton scattering, so-called CT AGNs. We use the torus models of Brightman & Nandra that predict the X-ray spectrum from reprocessing in a torus and include the torus opening angle as a free parameter and aim to determine the covering factor of the CT gas in these sources individually. Across the sample we find mild to heavy CT columns, with NH measured from 1024 to 1026 cm-2, and a wide range of covering factors, where individual measurements range from 0.2 to 0.9. We find that the covering factor, fc, is a strongly decreasing function of the intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity, LX, where fc = (-0.41 ± 0.13)log10(LX/erg s-1)+18.31 ± 5.33, across more than two orders of magnitude in LX (1041.5-1044 erg s-1). The covering factors measured here agree well with the obscured fraction as a function of LX as determined by studies of local AGNs with LX > 1042.5 erg s-1.

  12. Spreading Topsoil Encourages Ecological Restoration on Embankments: Soil Fertility, Microbial Activity and Vegetation Cover

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Desirée; Mejías, Violeta; Jáuregui, Berta M.; López-Archilla, Ana Isabel; Peco, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    The construction of linear transport infrastructure has severe effects on ecosystem functions and properties, and the restoration of the associated roadslopes contributes to reduce its impact. This restoration is usually approached from the perspective of plant cover regeneration, ignoring plant-soil interactions and the consequences for plant growth. The addition of a 30 cm layer of topsoil is a common practice in roadslope restoration projects to increase vegetation recovery. However topsoil is a scarce resource. This study assesses the effects of topsoil spreading and its depth (10 to 30 cm) on two surrogates of microbial activity (β-glucosidase and phosphatase enzymes activity and soil respiration), and on plant cover, plant species richness and floristic composition of embankment vegetation. The study also evaluates the differences in selected physic-chemical properties related to soil fertility between topsoil and the original embankment substrate. Topsoil was found to have higher values of organic matter (11%), nitrogen (44%), assimilable phosphorous (50%) and silt content (54%) than the original embankment substrate. The topsoil spreading treatment increased microbial activity, and its application increased β-glucosidase activity (45%), phosphatase activity (57%) and soil respiration (60%). Depth seemed to affect soil respiration, β-glucosidase and phosphatase activity. Topsoil application also enhanced the species richness of restored embankments in relation to controls. Nevertheless, the depth of the spread topsoil did not significantly affect the resulting plant cover, species richness or floristic composition, suggesting that both depths could have similar effects on short-term recovery of the vegetation cover. A significant implication of these results is that it permits the application of thinner topsoil layers, with major savings in this scarce resource during the subsequent slope restoration work, but the quality of topsoil relative to the

  13. Spreading topsoil encourages ecological restoration on embankments: soil fertility, microbial activity and vegetation cover.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Desirée; Mejías, Violeta; Jáuregui, Berta M; Costa-Tenorio, Marga; López-Archilla, Ana Isabel; Peco, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    The construction of linear transport infrastructure has severe effects on ecosystem functions and properties, and the restoration of the associated roadslopes contributes to reduce its impact. This restoration is usually approached from the perspective of plant cover regeneration, ignoring plant-soil interactions and the consequences for plant growth. The addition of a 30 cm layer of topsoil is a common practice in roadslope restoration projects to increase vegetation recovery. However topsoil is a scarce resource. This study assesses the effects of topsoil spreading and its depth (10 to 30 cm) on two surrogates of microbial activity (β-glucosidase and phosphatase enzymes activity and soil respiration), and on plant cover, plant species richness and floristic composition of embankment vegetation. The study also evaluates the differences in selected physic-chemical properties related to soil fertility between topsoil and the original embankment substrate. Topsoil was found to have higher values of organic matter (11%), nitrogen (44%), assimilable phosphorous (50%) and silt content (54%) than the original embankment substrate. The topsoil spreading treatment increased microbial activity, and its application increased β-glucosidase activity (45%), phosphatase activity (57%) and soil respiration (60%). Depth seemed to affect soil respiration, β-glucosidase and phosphatase activity. Topsoil application also enhanced the species richness of restored embankments in relation to controls. Nevertheless, the depth of the spread topsoil did not significantly affect the resulting plant cover, species richness or floristic composition, suggesting that both depths could have similar effects on short-term recovery of the vegetation cover. A significant implication of these results is that it permits the application of thinner topsoil layers, with major savings in this scarce resource during the subsequent slope restoration work, but the quality of topsoil relative to the

  14. Modulation of cortical activity during comprehension of familiar and unfamiliar text topics in speed reading and speed listening

    PubMed Central

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A.; Meschyan, Gayane; Keller, Timothy A.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2014-01-01

    Brain activation associated with normal and speeded comprehension of expository texts on familiar and unfamiliar topics was investigated in reading and listening. The goal was to determine how brain activation and the comprehension processes it reflects are modulated by comprehension speed and topic familiarity. Passages on more familiar topics differentially activated a set of areas in the anterior temporal lobe and medial frontal gyrus, areas often associated with text-level integration processes, which we interpret to reflect integration of previous knowledge with the passage content. Passages presented at the faster presentation resulted in more activation of a network of frontal areas associated with strategic and working-memory processes (as well as visual or auditory sensory-related regions), which we interpret to reflect maintenance of local coherence among briefly available passage segments. The implications of this research is to demonstrate how the brain system for text comprehension adapts to varying perceptual and knowledge conditions. PMID:25463816

  15. Modulation of cortical activity during comprehension of familiar and unfamiliar text topics in speed reading and speed listening.

    PubMed

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A; Meschyan, Gayane; Keller, Timothy A; Just, Marcel Adam

    2014-12-01

    Brain activation associated with normal and speeded comprehension of expository texts on familiar and unfamiliar topics was investigated in reading and listening. The goal was to determine how brain activation and the comprehension processes it reflects are modulated by comprehension speed and topic familiarity. Passages on more familiar topics differentially activated a set of areas in the anterior temporal lobe and medial frontal gyrus, areas often associated with text-level integration processes, which we interpret to reflect integration of previous knowledge with the passage content. Passages presented at the faster presentation resulted in more activation of a network of frontal areas associated with strategic and working-memory processes (as well as visual or auditory sensory-related regions), which we interpret to reflect maintenance of local coherence among briefly available passage segments. The implications of this research is that the brain system for text comprehension adapts to varying perceptual and knowledge conditions.

  16. Measurement Activities for Increasing Student Curiosity for Animal and Space Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C., Ed.

    This document presents a resource for elementary teachers in the form of a collection of facts and measurements of animals and planets to be used in generating student interest for these different topics. It is suggested that the teacher make an overhead transparency of the measurements related to the current topic, then have students guess at…

  17. The Covering Factor of Warm Dust in Weak Emission-line Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xudong; Liu, Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Weak emission-line active galactic nuclei (WLAGNs) are radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that have nearly featureless optical spectra. We investigate the ultraviolet to mid-infrared spectral energy distributions of 73 WLAGNs (0.4 < z < 3) and find that most of them are similar to normal AGNs. We also calculate the covering factor of warm dust of these 73 WLAGNs. No significant difference is indicated by a KS test between the covering factor of WLAGNs and normal AGNs in the common range of bolometric luminosity. The implication for several models of WLAGNs is discussed. The super-Eddington accretion is unlikely to be the dominant reason for the featureless spectrum of a WLAGN. The present results are still consistent with the evolution scenario, i.e., WLAGNs are in a special stage of AGNs.

  18. Labeling of active proteases in fresh-frozen tissues by topical application of quenched activity-based probes.

    PubMed

    Withana, Nimali P; Garland, Megan; Verdoes, Martijn; Ofori, Leslie O; Segal, Ehud; Bogyo, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Active enzymes, such as proteases, often serve as valuable biomarkers for various disease pathologies. Therefore, methods to detect specific enzyme activities in biological samples can provide information to guide disease detection and diagnosis and to increase our understanding of the biological roles of specific enzyme targets. In this protocol, we outline methods for the topical application of fluorescently quenched activity-based probes (qABPs) to fresh-frozen tissue samples. This technique enables rapid imaging of enzyme activity at cellular resolution, and it can be combined with antibody labeling for immunodiagnosis. In this method, fresh-frozen tissue sections are fixed, incubated with the probe and imaged using fluorescence microscopy. This provides an advance over classical immunohistochemistry (IHC) in that it is rapid (4-8 h) and inexpensive, and it provides information on enzyme activity. Furthermore, it can be used with any of the growing number of fluorescent ABPs to provide data for more effective disease monitoring and diagnosis. PMID:26716706

  19. Heritage Adoption Lessons Learned, Active Mirror Telescope Cover Deployment and Latch Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincentsen, James E.

    2006-01-01

    The Active Mirror Telescope (AMT) task adopted the Cover Deployment and Latch Mechanism (CDLM) design as used on the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) project. The three separate mechanisms that comprise the CDLM will be discussed in this paper in addition to a focus on heritage adoption lessons learned and specific examples. These lessons learned will be valuable to any project considering the use of heritage designs.

  20. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of a new germacrane derivative from Achillea pannonica.

    PubMed

    Sosa, S; Tubaro, A; Kastner, U; Glasl, S; Jurenitsch, J; Della Loggia, R

    2001-10-01

    The topical anti-inflammatory activity of a germacrane derivative [1,4-dihydroxy-germacra-5E-10(14)-diene; DHGD] isolated from Achillea pannonica Scheele (Asteraceae) was investigated employing the Croton oil-induced dermatitis in the mouse ear. Its effects on the oedematous response and on leukocytes infiltration are described. The germacrane derivative significantly inhibited ear oedema in a dose-dependent manner, with an ID(50) of 0.40 micromol/cm(2). DHGD (0.75 micromol/cm(2)) provoked a global inhibition of the oedematous response (61 %) higher than that induced by an equimolar dose of indomethacin (43 %) within 24 hours; the reduction induced by hydrocortisone (0.10 micromol/cm(2)) was 68 %. The effect of DHGD (61 % inhibition) was higher than that of the equimolar dose of indomethacin (51 % inhibition) also on granulocytes recruitment at the site of inflammation. Hydrocortisone (0.10 micromol/cm(2)) reduced the cellular infiltrate by 44 %.

  1. Development of topical hydrogels of terbinafine hydrochloride and evaluation of their antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Çelebi, Nevin; Ermiş, Seda; Özkan, Semiha

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare hydrogels and microemulsion (ME)-based gel formulations containing 1% terbinafine hydrochloride (TER-HCL) and to evaluate the use of these formulations for the antifungal treatment of fungal infections. Three different hydrogel formulations were prepared using chitosan, Carbopol® 974 and Natrosol® 250 polymers. A pseudo-ternary phase diagram was constructed, and starting from ME formulation, a ME gel form containing 1% Carbopol 974 was prepared. We also examined the characteristic properties of the prepared hyrogels. The physical stability of hydrogels and the ME -based gels were evaluated after storage at different temperatures for a period of 3 months. The release of TER-HCL from the gels and the commercial product (Lamisil®) was carried out by using a standard dialysis membrane in phosphate buffer (pH 5.2) at 32 °C. The results of the in vitro release study showed that the Natrosol gel released the highest amount of drug, followed by Carbopol gel, chitosan gel, commercial product, and the microoemulsion-based gel in that order. In vitro examination of antifungal activity revealed that all the prepared and commercial products were effective against Candida parapsilosis, Penicillium, Aspergillus niger and Microsporum. These results indicate that the Natrosol®-based hydrogel is a good candidate for the topical delivery of TER-HCL.

  2. Action-projection in Japanese conversation: topic particles wa, mo, and tte for triggering categorization activities

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Conversation analytic work has revealed how anticipatory completions and preemptive actions can offer invaluable glimpses into the cognitive, contextual, grammatical, and temporal bases of projectability in turn-taking, by virtue of their potential not only as a display of participants' online prediction of roughly what it might take to complete a turn-in-progress but also to plan the next move. While the predicate-final word order and the incremental transformability of turns in Japanese generally lead to delayed projectability of turn-endings, this may be partially offset by the capacity of certain postpositional particles to trigger and propel prospective action trajectories. This article engages in a case study of the topic particle wa (and related particles mo and tte), by demonstrating how its grammatical affordances, the categorization activities, and cognitive processing it can set in motion, coupled with the immediate contextual, and temporal-productional features may coalesce to a point of critical mass, thereby enhancing the projectability of the not-yet-produced trajectory of the current turn. The discussion attempts to contribute to recent debates on ways language-specific lexicogrammatical resources are deeply interlinked with the types of opportunities that are provided for social action. PMID:26379565

  3. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator activation by the solvent ethanol: implications for topical drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Do-Yeon; Skinner, Daniel; Zhang, Shaoyan; Fortenberry, James; Sorscher, Eric J.; Dean, Nichole R.; Woodworth, Bradford A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Decreased CFTR-mediated chloride (Cl) secretion across mucosal surfaces contributes to the development of airway disease by depleting airway surface liquid, increasing mucus viscosity and adhesion, and consequently hindering mucociliary clearance. We serendipitously discovered during testing of drugs solubilized in low concentrations ethanol (0.25%, 43mM) that the control vehicle produced robust activation of CFTR-mediated Cl− transport. The objective of the current study is to investigate low concentrations ethanol for effects on Cl− secretion and ciliary beat frequency (CBF). Methods Wild type (WT) and transgenic CFTR−/− primary murine nasoseptal epithelial (MNSE) and WT and F508del/F508del human sinonasal epithelial (HSNE) cultures were subjected to transepithelial ion transport measurements using pharmacologic manipulation in Ussing chambers. CBF activation was also monitored. Murine nasal potential difference (NPD) was measured in vivo. Results Ussing chamber tracings revealed ethanol activated CFTR-mediated Cl transport in a dose-dependent fashion in WT MNSE (n=4, p<0.05) and HSNE (n=4, p<0.05). Ethanol also significantly increased CBF (fold-change) in WT MNSE cultures in a dose dependent fashion [PBS, 1.33+/−0.04; 0.25% Ethanol, 1.37+/−0.09; 0.5% Ethanol, 1.53+/−0.06 (p<0.05), 1% Ethanol, 1.62+/−0.1 (p<0.05)]. Lack of stimulation in CFTR−/− and F508del/F508del cultures indicated activity was dependent on the presence of intact functional CFTR. Ethanol perfusion (0.5%) resulted in a significant −3.5mV mean NPD polarization when compared to control solution (p<0.05). Conclusion The observation that brief exposure of ethanol stimulated Cl− secretion via CFTR-mediated pathways indicates possible use as topical aerosol delivered alone or in combination with other CFTR activators for diseases of dysfunctional MCC in CRS. PMID:26869199

  4. Evaluation of a biologically active cover for mitigation of landfill gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Barlaz, M A; Green, R B; Chanton, J P; Goldsmith, C D; Hater, G R

    2004-09-15

    Landfills are the third largest source of anthropogenic CH4 in the United States, and there is potential for reduction in this source of greenhouse gases and other contaminants. The objective of this work was to contrast emissions of CH4 and non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) from landfill cells covered with soil or a biologically active cover consisting of yard waste compost. On the basis of four field campaigns over 14 months, CH4 emissions from the biocover (BC) varied from -1.73 to 1.33 g m(-2) d(-1), with atmospheric uptake measured in 52% of tests. BC emissions did not increase when the gas collection system was turned off. Uptake of atmospheric CH4 was measured in 54% of tests on the soil cover (SC) when the gas collection was system active and 12% when the gas collection system was off. Many (26%) relatively high fluxes (>15 g m(-2) d(-1)) were measured from the SC as were some dramatic effects due to deactivation of the gas collection system. In tests with positive emissions, stable isotope measurements showed that the BC and SC were responsible for oxidation of 55% and 21% of the CH4 reaching the bottom of the respective cover. Seven of the highest 10 NMOC emissions were measured in the SC, and 17 of 21 fluxes for speciated organic compounds were higher in the SC. The relationship between CH4, NMOC, and individual organic compound emissions suggested a correlation between CH4 and trace organic oxidation. BCs can reduce landfill gas emissions in the absence of a gas collection system and can serve as a polishing step in the presence of an active system.

  5. Parallel intraindividual evaluation of the vasoconstrictory action and the anti-allergic activity of topical corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Seidenari, S; Di Nardo, A; Mantovani, L; Giannetti, A

    1997-04-01

    using methods which allow different effects to be simultaneously monitored, without involving a high number of patients. We are proposing this double procedure for the parallel intraindividual evaluation of the vasoconstrictory action and the anti-allergic activity of topical steroids.

  6. Determining the Covering Factor of Compton-Thick Active Galactic Nuclei with NuSTAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brightman, M.; Balokovic, M.; Stern, D.; Arevalo, P.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    The covering factor of Compton-thick (CT) obscuring material associated with the torus in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is at present best understood through the fraction of sources exhibiting CT absorption along the line of sight (N(sub H) greater than 1.5 x 10(exp 24) cm(exp -2)) in the X-ray band, which reveals the average covering factor. Determining this CT fraction is difficult, however, due to the extreme obscuration. With its spectral coverage at hard X-rays (greater than 10 keV), Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is sensitive to the AGNs covering factor since Compton scattering of X-rays off optically thick material dominates at these energies. We present a spectral analysis of 10 AGNs observed with NuSTAR where the obscuring medium is optically thick to Compton scattering, so-called CT AGNs. We use the torus models of Brightman and Nandra that predict the X-ray spectrum from reprocessing in a torus and include the torus opening angle as a free parameter and aim to determine the covering factor of the CT gas in these sources individually. Across the sample we find mild to heavy CT columns, with N(sub H) measured from 10(exp 24) to 10(exp 26) cm(exp -2), and a wide range of covering factors, where individual measurements range from 0.2 to 0.9. We find that the covering factor, f(sub c), is a strongly decreasing function of the intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity, L(sub X), where f(sub c) = (-0.41 +/- 0.13)log(sub 10)(L(sub X)/erg s(exp -1))+18.31 +/- 5.33, across more than two orders of magnitude in L(sub X) (10(exp 41.5) - 10(exp 44) erg s(exp -1)). The covering factors measured here agree well with the obscured fraction as a function of LX as determined by studies of local AGNs with L(sub X) greater than 10(exp 42.5) erg s(exp -1).

  7. A Review of Land-Cover Mapping Activities in Coastal Alabama and Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathryn E.L.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Land-use and land-cover (LULC) data provide important information for environmental management. Data pertaining to land-cover and land-management activities are a common requirement for spatial analyses, such as watershed modeling, climate change, and hazard assessment. In coastal areas, land development, storms, and shoreline modification amplify the need for frequent and detailed land-cover datasets. The northern Gulf of Mexico coastal area is no exception. The impact of severe storms, increases in urban area, dramatic changes in land cover, and loss of coastal-wetland habitat all indicate a vital need for reliable and comparable land-cover data. Four main attributes define a land-cover dataset: the date/time of data collection, the spatial resolution, the type of classification, and the source data. The source data are the foundation dataset used to generate LULC classification and are typically remotely sensed data, such as aerial photography or satellite imagery. These source data have a large influence on the final LULC data product, so much so that one can classify LULC datasets into two general groups: LULC data derived from aerial photography and LULC data derived from satellite imagery. The final LULC data can be converted from one format to another (for instance, vector LULC data can be converted into raster data for analysis purposes, and vice versa), but each subsequent dataset maintains the imprint of the source medium within its spatial accuracy and data features. The source data will also influence the spatial and temporal resolution, as well as the type of classification. The intended application of the LULC data typically defines the type of source data and methodology, with satellite imagery being selected for large landscapes (state-wide, national data products) and repeatability (environmental monitoring and change analysis). The coarse spatial scale and lack of refined land-use categories are typical drawbacks to satellite

  8. 45 CFR 90.3 - What programs or activities does the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Discrimination Act of 1975 cover? 90.3 Section 90.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 90.3 What programs or activities does the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 cover? (a) The Age Discrimination Act of 1975 applies to any program or activity receiving...

  9. Nanoemulsion as a carrier to improve the topical anti-inflammatory activity of stem bark extract of Rapanea ferruginea

    PubMed Central

    Dal Mas, Juarana; Zermiani, Tailyn; Thiesen, Liliani C; Silveira, Joana LM; da Silva, Kathryn ABS; de Souza, Márcia M; Malheiros, Angela; Bresolin, Tania MB; Lucinda-Silva, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsion containing soft extract of stem bark of Rapanea ferruginea to improve the topical delivery and anti-inflammatory activity. The extract of R. ferruginea stem bark was incorporated into the oily phase of the nanoemulsion by the method of phase inversion at low energy. The developed nanoemulsion had an average droplet size of 47.88±8.20 nm and a polydispersibility index of 0.228. Uniformity of size, spherical shape of droplet, and absence of clusters were confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy. The zeta potential was −34.7±1.15 mV. The nanoemulsion showed a moderate degree of skin irritation in the agarose overlay assay in vitro. The content of the extract markers, myrsinoic acids A and B, was 54.10±0.08 and 53.03 μg/g in the formulation, respectively. The formulation demonstrated pseudoplastic and thixotropic rheological behavior. In vitro release of chemical markers was controlled by diffusion mechanism. An extract-loaded nanoemulsion showed a topical anti-inflammatory activity in a croton oil-induced edema ear model, with a decrease in tumor necrosis factor release and myeloperoxidase activity. The nanoemulsion was 160% more efficient than the conventional cream containing 0.13% of the extract. The nanoemulsion showed suitable properties as a carrier for topical use of R. ferruginea extract and the approach for improving the topical anti-inflammatory activity.

  10. Nanoemulsion as a carrier to improve the topical anti-inflammatory activity of stem bark extract of Rapanea ferruginea

    PubMed Central

    Dal Mas, Juarana; Zermiani, Tailyn; Thiesen, Liliani C; Silveira, Joana LM; da Silva, Kathryn ABS; de Souza, Márcia M; Malheiros, Angela; Bresolin, Tania MB; Lucinda-Silva, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsion containing soft extract of stem bark of Rapanea ferruginea to improve the topical delivery and anti-inflammatory activity. The extract of R. ferruginea stem bark was incorporated into the oily phase of the nanoemulsion by the method of phase inversion at low energy. The developed nanoemulsion had an average droplet size of 47.88±8.20 nm and a polydispersibility index of 0.228. Uniformity of size, spherical shape of droplet, and absence of clusters were confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy. The zeta potential was −34.7±1.15 mV. The nanoemulsion showed a moderate degree of skin irritation in the agarose overlay assay in vitro. The content of the extract markers, myrsinoic acids A and B, was 54.10±0.08 and 53.03 μg/g in the formulation, respectively. The formulation demonstrated pseudoplastic and thixotropic rheological behavior. In vitro release of chemical markers was controlled by diffusion mechanism. An extract-loaded nanoemulsion showed a topical anti-inflammatory activity in a croton oil-induced edema ear model, with a decrease in tumor necrosis factor release and myeloperoxidase activity. The nanoemulsion was 160% more efficient than the conventional cream containing 0.13% of the extract. The nanoemulsion showed suitable properties as a carrier for topical use of R. ferruginea extract and the approach for improving the topical anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27660442

  11. Above- and below-ground methane fluxes and methanotrophic activity in a landfill-cover soil

    SciTech Connect

    Schroth, M.H.; Eugster, W.; Gomez, K.E.; Gonzalez-Gil, G.; Niklaus, P.A.; Oester, P.

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We quantify above- and below-ground CH{sub 4} fluxes in a landfill-cover soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We link methanotrophic activity to estimates of CH{sub 4} loading from the waste body. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methane loading and emissions are highly variable in space and time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eddy covariance measurements yield largest estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential methanotrophic activity is high at a location with substantial CH{sub 4} loading. - Abstract: Landfills are a major anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH{sub 4}). However, much of the CH{sub 4} produced during the anaerobic degradation of organic waste is consumed by methanotrophic microorganisms during passage through the landfill-cover soil. On a section of a closed landfill near Liestal, Switzerland, we performed experiments to compare CH{sub 4} fluxes obtained by different methods at or above the cover-soil surface with below-ground fluxes, and to link methanotrophic activity to estimates of CH{sub 4} ingress (loading) from the waste body at selected locations. Fluxes of CH{sub 4} into or out of the cover soil were quantified by eddy-covariance and static flux-chamber measurements. In addition, CH{sub 4} concentrations at the soil surface were monitored using a field-portable FID detector. Near-surface CH{sub 4} fluxes and CH{sub 4} loading were estimated from soil-gas concentration profiles in conjunction with radon measurements, and gas push-pull tests (GPPTs) were performed to quantify rates of microbial CH{sub 4} oxidation. Eddy-covariance measurements yielded by far the largest and probably most representative estimates of overall CH{sub 4} emissions from the test section (daily mean up to {approx}91,500 {mu}mol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}), whereas flux-chamber measurements and CH{sub 4} concentration profiles indicated that at the majority of locations the cover soil was a

  12. History of Research on Physical Activity and Health: Selected Topics, 1867 to the 1950s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Roberta J.

    1995-01-01

    Developments in the biomedical sciences affect how people think about health and fitness, as do social and cultural factors. This paper examines two topics of interest to educators, physicians, and researchers in the physiological sciences from 1867-1950 (the phenomenon referred to as the athlete's heart and anthropometrical/growth and development…

  13. The low keratin affinity of efinaconazole contributes to its nail penetration and fungicidal activity in topical onychomycosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Keita; Sugimoto, Noriaki; Hosaka, Shinya; Katafuchi-Nagashima, Maria; Arakawa, Yoshio; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Jo Siu, William; Pillai, Radhakrishnan

    2014-07-01

    Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail disease that is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. Keratin affinity of topical drugs is an important physicochemical property impacting therapeutic efficacy. To be effective, topical drugs must penetrate the nail bed and retain their antifungal activity within the nail matrix, both of which are adversely affected by keratin binding. We investigated these properties for efinaconazole, a new topical antifungal for onychomycosis, compared with those of the existing topical drugs ciclopirox and amorolfine. The efinaconazole free-drug concentration in keratin suspensions was 14.3%, significantly higher than the concentrations of ciclopirox and amorolfine, which were 0.7% and 1.9%, respectively (P < 0.001). Efinaconazole was released from keratin at a higher proportion than in the reference drugs, with about half of the remaining keratin-bound efinaconazole removed after washing. In single-dose in vitro studies, efinaconazole penetrated full-thickness human nails into the receptor phase and also inhibited the growth of Trichophyton rubrum under the nail. In the presence of keratin, efinaconazole exhibited fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes comparable to that of amorolfine and superior to that of ciclopirox. In a guinea pig onychomycosis model with T. mentagrophytes infection, an efinaconazole solution significantly decreased nail fungal burden compared to that of ciclopirox and amorolfine lacquers (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the high nail permeability of efinaconazole and its potent fungicidal activity in the presence of keratin are related to its low keratin affinity, which may contribute to its efficacy in onychomycosis. PMID:24752277

  14. The low keratin affinity of efinaconazole contributes to its nail penetration and fungicidal activity in topical onychomycosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Keita; Sugimoto, Noriaki; Hosaka, Shinya; Katafuchi-Nagashima, Maria; Arakawa, Yoshio; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Jo Siu, William; Pillai, Radhakrishnan

    2014-07-01

    Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail disease that is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. Keratin affinity of topical drugs is an important physicochemical property impacting therapeutic efficacy. To be effective, topical drugs must penetrate the nail bed and retain their antifungal activity within the nail matrix, both of which are adversely affected by keratin binding. We investigated these properties for efinaconazole, a new topical antifungal for onychomycosis, compared with those of the existing topical drugs ciclopirox and amorolfine. The efinaconazole free-drug concentration in keratin suspensions was 14.3%, significantly higher than the concentrations of ciclopirox and amorolfine, which were 0.7% and 1.9%, respectively (P < 0.001). Efinaconazole was released from keratin at a higher proportion than in the reference drugs, with about half of the remaining keratin-bound efinaconazole removed after washing. In single-dose in vitro studies, efinaconazole penetrated full-thickness human nails into the receptor phase and also inhibited the growth of Trichophyton rubrum under the nail. In the presence of keratin, efinaconazole exhibited fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes comparable to that of amorolfine and superior to that of ciclopirox. In a guinea pig onychomycosis model with T. mentagrophytes infection, an efinaconazole solution significantly decreased nail fungal burden compared to that of ciclopirox and amorolfine lacquers (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the high nail permeability of efinaconazole and its potent fungicidal activity in the presence of keratin are related to its low keratin affinity, which may contribute to its efficacy in onychomycosis.

  15. The Potential Radiative Forcing of Global Land Use and Land Cover Change Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

    2014-12-01

    Given the expected increase in pressure on land resources over the next century, there is a need to understand the total impacts of activities associated with land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify these impacts using the radiative forcing metric, including forcings from changes in long-lived greenhouse gases, tropospheric ozone, aerosol effects, and land surface albedo. We estimate radiative forcings from the different agents for historical LULCC and for six future projections using simulations from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Land Model and Community Atmosphere Models and additional offline analyses. When all forcing agents are considered together we show that 45% (+30%, -20%) of the present-day (2010) anthropogenic radiative forcing can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC radiative forcing by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the forcing from CO2 alone. In contrast, the non-CO2 forcings from fossil fuel burning are roughly neutral, due largely to the negative (cooling) impact of aerosols from these sources. We partition the global LULCC radiative forcing into three major sources: direct modification of land cover (e.g. deforestation), agricultural activities, and fire regime changes. Contributions from deforestation and agriculture are roughly equal in the present day, while changes to wildfire activity impose a small negative forcing globally. In 2100, deforestation activities comprise the majority of the LULCC radiative forcing for all projections except one (Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5). This suggests that realistic scenarios of future forest area change are essential for projecting the contribution of LULCC to climate change. However, the commonly used RCP land cover change projections all include decreases in global deforestation rates over the next 85 years. To place an upper bound on the potential

  16. UVA-UVB photoprotective activity of topical formulations containing Morinda citrifolia extract.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Mairim Russo; Detoni, Cassia Britto; Menezes, Paula dos Passos; Pereira Filho, Rose Nely; Fortes, Vanessa Silveira; Vieira, Maria José Fonseca; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Junior, Ricardo Luiz; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to solar radiation, particularly its ultraviolet (UV) component, has a variety of harmful effects on human health. Some of these effects include sunburn cell formations, basal and squamous cell cancers, melanoma, cataracts, photoaging of the skin, and immune suppression. The beneficial photoprotective effects of topical formulations with the extract, Morinda citrifolia, have not been investigated. This present study aims to investigate the potential benefits of M. citrifolia topical application on the dorsal skin of mice, exposed to UVA-UVB light. Using 7 days of treatment, [before (baseline values) and 20 h after UV exposure], the thickness, skin barrier damage (TEWL), erythema, and histological alterations were evaluated. The results showed that the formulations containing the extract protected the skin against UV-induced damage.

  17. UVA-UVB Photoprotective Activity of Topical Formulations Containing Morinda citrifolia Extract

    PubMed Central

    Serafini, Mairim Russo; Detoni, Cassia Britto; Menezes, Paula dos Passos; Pereira Filho, Rose Nely; Fortes, Vanessa Silveira; Vieira, Maria José Fonseca; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; de Albuquerque Junior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to solar radiation, particularly its ultraviolet (UV) component, has a variety of harmful effects on human health. Some of these effects include sunburn cell formations, basal and squamous cell cancers, melanoma, cataracts, photoaging of the skin, and immune suppression. The beneficial photoprotective effects of topical formulations with the extract, Morinda citrifolia, have not been investigated. This present study aims to investigate the potential benefits of M. citrifolia topical application on the dorsal skin of mice, exposed to UVA-UVB light. Using 7 days of treatment, [before (baseline values) and 20 h after UV exposure], the thickness, skin barrier damage (TEWL), erythema, and histological alterations were evaluated. The results showed that the formulations containing the extract protected the skin against UV-induced damage. PMID:25133171

  18. Evaluation of topical Matricaria chamomilla extract activity on linear incisional wound healing in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Jarrahi, Morteza; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Taherian, Abbas Ali; Miladi, Hossein; Rashidi Pour, Ali

    2010-05-01

    In this investigation, the effect of Matricaria chamomilla extract on linear incisional wound healing was studied. Thirty male Wistar rats were subjected to a linear 3 cm incision made over the skin of the back. The animals were randomly divided into three experimental groups, as control, olive oil, and treatment. Control group did not receive any drug or cold cream. Olive oil group received topical olive oil once a day from beginning of experiments to complete wound closure. Treatment group were treated topically by M. chamomilla extract dissolved in olive oil at the same time. For computing the percentage of wound healing, the area of the wound measured at the beginning of experiments and the next 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, and 20 days. The percentage of wound healing was calculated by Walker formula after measurement of the wound area. Results showed that there were statistically significant differences between treatment and olive oil animals (p < 0.05) in most of the days. We conclude that the extract of M. chamomilla administered topically has wound healing potential in linear incisional wound model in rats.

  19. Topical Steroids.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Gretchen M; Harvey, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is an inflammatory condition with heterogeneous pathophysiology. A cornerstone of the management of this condition is the use of anti-inflammatory agents. Corticosteroids are very effective and the most commonly used, but other drugs with immunodulatory activity such as anti-IL5, doxycycline (Th2), and macrolides (anti-neutrophilic/IL8) have been shown to have efficacy. Although systemic corticosteroids have shown benefit in managing this condition, the frequency of use often required in this condition is associated with significant adverse effects. Topical corticosteroids, particularly when utilized after endoscopic sinus surgery and delivered in a high volume, high pressure manner, provide the desired anti-inflammatory effects with nearly negligible systemic absorption. Studies assessing the long-term use of second generation topical corticosteroids have demonstrated no significant effects on cortisol levels, growth rate, intraocular pressures or lens opacification, or local mucosal atrophy. Patients who often respond most favorably to corticosteroid treatment are those with a Th2-mediated, highly eosinophilic CRSwNP. However, there is a subset of patients who are steroid resistant. In the case of a predominantly neutrophilic CRSwNP, it is important to be aware that patients may respond well to the use of macrolide therapy. Additionally, the use of verapamil has shown promise in increasing steroid responsiveness in a difficult to treat group of patients with steroid resistance. Topical corticosteroids play a key role in the long term management of this complicated inflammatory condition by providing the much needed pharmacologic local control with minimal systemic adverse effects. PMID:27466854

  20. Bexarotene Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may bathe, shower, or swim during your treatment with topical bexarotene, but you should use only a mild, ... your treatment. If you become pregnant during your treatment with topical bexarotene, call your doctor immediately.tell your doctor ...

  1. The Effects of Activating Prior Topic and Metacognitive Knowledge on Text Comprehension Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostons, Danny; van der Werf, Greetje

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research on prior knowledge activation has consistently shown that activating learners' prior knowledge has beneficial effects on learning. If learners activate their prior knowledge, this activated knowledge serves as a framework for establishing relationships between the knowledge they already possess and new information provided to…

  2. pH-activated nanoparticles for controlled topical delivery of farnesol to disrupt oral biofilm virulence.

    PubMed

    Horev, Benjamin; Klein, Marlise I; Hwang, Geelsu; Li, Yong; Kim, Dongyeop; Koo, Hyun; Benoit, Danielle S W

    2015-03-24

    Development of effective therapies to control oral biofilms is challenging, as topically introduced agents must avoid rapid clearance from biofilm-tooth interfaces while targeting biofilm microenvironments. Additionally, exopolysaccharides-matrix and acidification of biofilm microenvironments are associated with cariogenic (caries-producing) biofilm virulence. Thus, nanoparticle carriers capable of binding to hydroxyapatite (HA), saliva-coated HA (sHA), and exopolysaccharides with enhanced drug release at acidic pH were developed. Nanoparticles are formed from diblock copolymers composed of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and 2-propylacrylic acid (PAA) (p(DMAEMA)-b-p(DMAEMA-co-BMA-co-PAA)) that self-assemble into ∼21 nm cationic nanoparticles. Nanoparticles exhibit outstanding adsorption affinities (∼244 L-mmol(-1)) to negatively charged HA, sHA, and exopolysaccharide-coated sHA due to strong electrostatic interactions via multivalent tertiary amines of p(DMAEMA). Owing to hydrophobic cores, nanoparticles load farnesol, a hydrophobic antibacterial drug, at ∼22 wt %. Farnesol release is pH-dependent with t1/2 = 7 and 15 h for release at pH 4.5 and 7.2, as nanoparticles undergo core destabilization at acidic pH, characteristic of cariogenic biofilm microenvironments. Importantly, topical applications of farnesol-loaded nanoparticles disrupted Streptococcus mutans biofilms 4-fold more effectively than free farnesol. Mechanical stability of biofilms treated with drug-loaded nanoparticles was compromised, resulting in >2-fold enhancement in biofilm removal under shear stress compared to free farnesol and controls. Farnesol-loaded nanoparticles effectively attenuated biofilm virulence in vivo using a clinically relevant topical treatment regimen (2×/day) in a rodent dental caries disease model. Strikingly, treatment with farnesol-loaded nanoparticles reduced both the number and severity of carious lesions, while free

  3. pH-activated nanoparticles for controlled topical delivery of farnesol to disrupt oral biofilm virulence.

    PubMed

    Horev, Benjamin; Klein, Marlise I; Hwang, Geelsu; Li, Yong; Kim, Dongyeop; Koo, Hyun; Benoit, Danielle S W

    2015-03-24

    Development of effective therapies to control oral biofilms is challenging, as topically introduced agents must avoid rapid clearance from biofilm-tooth interfaces while targeting biofilm microenvironments. Additionally, exopolysaccharides-matrix and acidification of biofilm microenvironments are associated with cariogenic (caries-producing) biofilm virulence. Thus, nanoparticle carriers capable of binding to hydroxyapatite (HA), saliva-coated HA (sHA), and exopolysaccharides with enhanced drug release at acidic pH were developed. Nanoparticles are formed from diblock copolymers composed of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and 2-propylacrylic acid (PAA) (p(DMAEMA)-b-p(DMAEMA-co-BMA-co-PAA)) that self-assemble into ∼21 nm cationic nanoparticles. Nanoparticles exhibit outstanding adsorption affinities (∼244 L-mmol(-1)) to negatively charged HA, sHA, and exopolysaccharide-coated sHA due to strong electrostatic interactions via multivalent tertiary amines of p(DMAEMA). Owing to hydrophobic cores, nanoparticles load farnesol, a hydrophobic antibacterial drug, at ∼22 wt %. Farnesol release is pH-dependent with t1/2 = 7 and 15 h for release at pH 4.5 and 7.2, as nanoparticles undergo core destabilization at acidic pH, characteristic of cariogenic biofilm microenvironments. Importantly, topical applications of farnesol-loaded nanoparticles disrupted Streptococcus mutans biofilms 4-fold more effectively than free farnesol. Mechanical stability of biofilms treated with drug-loaded nanoparticles was compromised, resulting in >2-fold enhancement in biofilm removal under shear stress compared to free farnesol and controls. Farnesol-loaded nanoparticles effectively attenuated biofilm virulence in vivo using a clinically relevant topical treatment regimen (2×/day) in a rodent dental caries disease model. Strikingly, treatment with farnesol-loaded nanoparticles reduced both the number and severity of carious lesions, while free

  4. pH-activated Nanoparticles for Controlled Topical Delivery of Farnesol to Disrupt Oral Biofilm Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Horev, Benjamin; Klein, Marlise I.; Hwang, Geelsu; Li, Yong; Kim, Dongyeop; Koo, Hyun; Benoit, Danielle S.W.

    2015-01-01

    Development of effective therapies to control oral biofilms is challenging, as topically introduced agents must avoid rapid clearance from biofilm-tooth interfaces while targeting biofilm microenvironments. Additionally, exopolysaccharide matrix and acidification of biofilm microenvironments are associated with cariogenic (caries-producing) biofilm virulence. Thus, nanoparticle carriers capable of binding to hydroxyapatite (HA), saliva-coated HA (sHA), and exopolysaccharides with enhanced drug-release at acidic pH were developed. Nanoparticles are formed from diblock copolymers composed of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and 2-propylacrylic acid (PAA) (p(DMAEMA)-b-p(DMAEMA-co-BMA-co-PAA)) that self-assemble into ~21 nm cationic nanoparticles. Nanoparticles exhibit outstanding adsorption affinities (~244 L-mmol−1) to negatively-charged HA, sHA, and exopolysaccharide-coated sHA due to strong electrostatic interactions via multivalent tertiary amines of p(DMAEMA). Owing to hydrophobic cores, Nanoparticles load farnesol, a hydrophobic antibacterial drug, at ~22 wt%. Farnesol release is pH-dependent with t1/2=7 and 15 h for release at pH 4.5 and 7.2, as Nanoparticles undergo core destabilization at acidic pH, characteristic of cariogenic biofilm microenvironments. Importantly, topical applications of farnesol-loaded nanoparticles disrupted Streptococcus mutans biofilms 4-fold more effectively than free farnesol. Mechanical stability of biofilms treated with drug-loaded nanoparticles was compromised, resulting in >2-fold enhancement in biofilm removal under shear stress compared to free farnesol and controls. Farnesol-loaded nanoparticles effectively attenuated biofilm virulence in vivo using a clinically-relevant topical treatment regimen (2×/day) in a rodent dental caries disease model. Treatment with farnesol-loaded nanoparticles reduced both the number and severity of carious lesions, while free-farnesol had no effect

  5. Field-Scale Stable-Isotope Probing of Active Methanotrophs in a Landfill-Cover Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroth, M. H.; Henneberger, R.; Chiri, E.

    2012-12-01

    The greenhouse gas methane (CH4) is an important contributor to global climate change. While its atmospheric concentration is increasing, a large portion of produced CH4 never reaches the atmosphere, but is consumed by aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB). The latter are ubiquitous in soils and utilize CH4 as sole source of energy and carbon. Among other methods, MOB may be differentiated based on characteristic phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). Stable-isotope probing (SIP) on PLFA has been widely applied to identify active members of MOB communities in laboratory incubation studies, but results are often difficult to extrapolate to the field. Thus, novel field-scale approaches are needed to link activity and identity of MOB in their natural environment. We present results of field experiments in which we combined PLFA-SIP with gas push-pull tests (GPPTs) to label active MOB at the field-scale while simultaneously quantifying CH4 oxidation activity. During a SIP-GPPT, a mixture of reactive (here 13CH4, O2) and non-reactive tracer gases (e.g., Ar, Ne, He) is injected into the soil at a location of interest. Thereafter, gas flow is reversed and the gas mixture diluted with soil air is extracted from the same location and sampled periodically. Rate constants for CH4 oxidation can be calculated by analyzing breakthrough curves of 13CH4 and a suitable non-reactive tracer gas. SIP-GPPTs were performed in a landfill-cover soil, and feasibility of this novel approach was tested at several locations along a gradient of MOB activity and soil temperature. Soil samples were collected before and after SIP-GPPTs, total PLFA were extracted, and incorporation of 13C in the polar lipid fraction was analyzed. Potential CH4 oxidation rates derived from SIP-GPPTs were similar to those derived from regular GPPTs (using unlabeled CH4) performed at the same locations prior to SIP-GPPTs, indicating that application of 13CH4 did not adversely affect bacterial CH4 oxidation rates. Rates

  6. Chinese herbal medicine (Tuhuai extract) exhibits topical anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activity in murine disease models

    PubMed Central

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Shi, Yuejun; Man, Mona; Lee, Seung Hun; Demerjian, Marianne; Chang, Sandra; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Elias, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    While psoriasis is one of the most common skin disorders in humans, effective, safe and inexpensive treatments are still largely unavailable. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for centuries for treating psoriasis and several reports claim that systemic administration of one such CHM, Tuhuai, mainly composed of flos sophorae, smilax glabra roxb and licorice, is effective in psoriasis. However, the mechanisms by which this CHM improves psoriasis are not yet clear. Two universal features of psoriasis are epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. Moreover, drugs that specifically inhibit epidermal hyperplasia and/or inflammation are widely used to treat psoriasis. Here, we investigated whether topical applications of Tuhuai extract exhibit anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities in two murine models of inflammatory dermatoses. To assess Tuhuai's potential anti-proliferative effect, we disrupted epidermal barrier function twice-daily for 4 days in normal hairless mice followed by topical applications of either 1% Tuhuai extract or Vehicle to both flanks immediately after each barrier perturbation. Changes in epidermal proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining. To assess the anti-inflammatory effects of Tuhuai, both irritant (phorbol ester) and acute allergic contact dermatitis (oxazolone) models were used. Whereas topical Tuhuai extract did not alter epidermal proliferation or induce irritation in normal skin, it both reduced epidermal hyperplasia in the epidermal hyperproliferative model, and reduced inflammation in both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis models. As topical Tuhuai extract exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of human models of inflammatory dermatoses, Tuhuai could provide an effective, relatively safe and inexpensive therapeutic alternative for the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, including psoriasis. PMID:18341576

  7. Cover crops increase foraging activity of omnivorous predators in seed patches and facilitate weed biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Omnivores are important consumers of both weed seeds and insect pests, and habitat provisions like cover crops are suggested to promote their ecosystem services in agricultural systems. However, few studies establish direct links between cover, food, and pest suppression because they are entangled a...

  8. Increased plastic litter cover affects the foraging activity of the sandy intertidal gastropod Nassarius pullus.

    PubMed

    Aloy, Alexander B; Vallejo, Benjamin M; Juinio-Meñez, Marie Antonette

    2011-08-01

    This study analyzed the foraging behavior of the gastropod Nassarius pullus on garbage-impacted sandy shores of Talim Bay, Batangas, Philippines. The effect of different levels of plastic garbage cover on foraging efficiency was investigated. Controlled in situ baiting experiments were conducted to quantify aspects of foraging behavior as affected by the levels of plastic litter cover in the foraging area. The results of the study indicated that the gastropod's efficiency in locating and in moving towards a food item generally decreased as the level of plastic cover increased. Prolonged food searching time and increased self-burial in sand were highly correlated with increased plastic cover. The accuracy of orientation towards the actual position of the bait decreased significantly when the amount of plastic cover increased to 50%. These results are consistent with the significant decreases in the abundance of the gastropod observed during periods of deposition of large amounts of plastic and other debris on the shore.

  9. Efinaconazole Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat fungal toenail infections (infections that may cause nail discoloration, splitting, or pain). Efinaconazole topical solution is ... antifungals. It works by stopping the growth of nail fungus.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of Achillea and Ruscus topical gel on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats.

    PubMed

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M; Semreen, Mohammad H; Naddaf, Ahmad R

    2006-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of Achillea and Ruscus extracts was studied in comparison with diclofenac sodium topical gel (diclosal Emulgel), using the carrageenan induced paw edema model in Albino rats. Gel formulation was prepared containing 6% of each extract in gel base, namely sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC). The kinetics of drug release from the prepared formulation was studied separately in each case. Results showed that the release follows the Higuchi square root equation. The pharmacological screening revealed that the percent reduction of edema for Achillea extract and Ruscus extract were 48.1% and 18.8%, respectively, while diclosal Emulgel produced 47% reduction of edema.

  11. College Students' Health Information Activities on Facebook: Investigating the Impacts of Health Topic Sensitivity, Information Sources, and Demographics.

    PubMed

    Syn, Sue Yeon; Kim, Sung Un

    2016-07-01

    College students tend to lack access to health information. Because social networking sites (SNSs) are popularly adopted by college students, SNSs are considered to be good media channels for college students to obtain health-related information. This study examines the factors that influence college students' health information-seeking and -sharing activities on Facebook. An online survey was distributed to college students between the ages of 18 and 29 to determine intentions pertaining to health information activities according to the factors identified for the study. The factors included both contextual factors (such as health topic sensitivity and health information sources) as well as user factors (such as demographics). Our findings showed that college students are willing to read and post health-related information on Facebook when the health topic is not sensitive. In addition, there are clear differences in preferences between professional sources and personal sources as health information sources. It was found that most user factors, except gender, have no influence on health information activities. The impacts of SNS contexts, awareness of information sources, types of interlocutors, and privacy concerns are further discussed.

  12. College Students' Health Information Activities on Facebook: Investigating the Impacts of Health Topic Sensitivity, Information Sources, and Demographics.

    PubMed

    Syn, Sue Yeon; Kim, Sung Un

    2016-07-01

    College students tend to lack access to health information. Because social networking sites (SNSs) are popularly adopted by college students, SNSs are considered to be good media channels for college students to obtain health-related information. This study examines the factors that influence college students' health information-seeking and -sharing activities on Facebook. An online survey was distributed to college students between the ages of 18 and 29 to determine intentions pertaining to health information activities according to the factors identified for the study. The factors included both contextual factors (such as health topic sensitivity and health information sources) as well as user factors (such as demographics). Our findings showed that college students are willing to read and post health-related information on Facebook when the health topic is not sensitive. In addition, there are clear differences in preferences between professional sources and personal sources as health information sources. It was found that most user factors, except gender, have no influence on health information activities. The impacts of SNS contexts, awareness of information sources, types of interlocutors, and privacy concerns are further discussed. PMID:27220029

  13. Topics for Mathematics Clubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, LeRoy C., Ed.; Snyder, Henry D., Ed.

    The ten chapters in this booklet cover topics not ordinarily discussed in the classroom: Fibonacci sequences, projective geometry, groups, infinity and transfinite numbers, Pascal's Triangle, topology, experiments with natural numbers, non-Euclidean geometries, Boolean algebras, and the imaginary and the infinite in geometry. Each chapter is…

  14. Topic-Aware Physical Activity Propagation in a Health Social Network

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Nhathai; Ebrahimi, Javid; Kil, Dave; Piniewski, Brigitte; Dou, Dejing

    2016-01-01

    Modeling physical activity propagation, such as physical exercise level and intensity, is the key to preventing the conduct that can lead to obesity; it can also help spread wellness behavior in a social network. PMID:27087794

  15. Histatin 5-spermidine conjugates have enhanced fungicidal activity and efficacy as a topical therapeutic for oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Tati, Swetha; Li, Rui; Puri, Sumant; Kumar, Rohitashw; Davidow, Peter; Edgerton, Mira

    2014-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is caused by the opportunistic fungi Candida albicans and is prevalent in immunocompromised patients, individuals with dry mouth, or patients with prolonged antibiotic therapies that reduce oral commensal bacteria. Human salivary histatins, including histatin 5 (Hst 5), are small cationic proteins that are the major source of fungicidal activity of saliva. However, Hsts are rapidly degraded in vivo, limiting their usefulness as therapeutic agents despite their lack of toxicity. We constructed a conjugate peptide using spermidine (Spd) linked to the active fragment of Hst 5 (Hst 54-15), based upon our findings that C. albicans spermidine transporters are required for Hst 5 uptake and fungicidal activity. We found that Hst 54-15-Spd was significantly more effective in killing C. albicans and Candida glabrata than Hst 5 alone in both planktonic and biofilm growth and that Hst 54-15-Spd retained high activity in both serum and saliva. Hst 54-15-Spd was not bactericidal against streptococcal oral commensal bacteria and had no hemolytic activity. We tested the effectiveness of Hst 54-15-Spd in vivo by topical application to tongue surfaces of immunocompromised mice with OPC. Mice treated with Hst 54-15-Spd had significant clearance of candidal tongue lesions macroscopically, which was confirmed by a 3- to 5-log fold reduction of C. albicans colonies recovered from tongue tissues. Hst 54-15-Spd conjugates are a new class of peptide-based drugs with high selectivity for fungi and potential as topical therapeutic agents for oral candidiasis.

  16. Hydrological response to land cover changes and human activities in arid regions using a geographic information system and remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Shereif H; Alazba, A A

    2015-01-01

    The hydrological response to land cover changes induced by human activities in arid regions has attracted increased research interest in recent decades. The study reported herein assessed the spatial and quantitative changes in surface runoff resulting from land cover change in the Al-Baha region of Saudi Arabia between 1990 and 2000 using an ArcGIS-surface runoff model and predicted land cover and surface runoff depth in 2030 using Markov chain analysis. Land cover maps for 1990 and 2000 were derived from satellite images using ArcGIS 10.1. The findings reveal a 26% decrease in forest and shrubland area, 28% increase in irrigated cropland, 1.5% increase in sparsely vegetated land and 0.5% increase in bare soil between 1990 and 2000. Overall, land cover changes resulted in a significant decrease in runoff depth values in most of the region. The decrease in surface runoff depth ranged from 25-106 mm/year in a 7020-km2 area, whereas the increase in such depth reached only 10 mm/year in a 243-km2 area. A maximum increase of 73 mm/year was seen in a limited area. The surface runoff depth decreased to the greatest extent in the central region of the study area due to the huge transition in land cover classes associated with the construction of 25 rainwater harvesting dams. The land cover prediction revealed a greater than twofold increase in irrigated cropland during the 2000-2030 period, whereas forest and shrubland are anticipated to occupy just 225 km2 of land area by 2030, a significant decrease from the 747 km2 they occupied in 2000. Overall, changes in land cover are predicted to result in an annual increase in irrigated cropland and dramatic decline in forest area in the study area over the next few decades. The increase in surface runoff depth is likely to have significant implications for irrigation activities.

  17. Hydrological Response to Land Cover Changes and Human Activities in Arid Regions Using a Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Shereif H.; Alazba, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrological response to land cover changes induced by human activities in arid regions has attracted increased research interest in recent decades. The study reported herein assessed the spatial and quantitative changes in surface runoff resulting from land cover change in the Al-Baha region of Saudi Arabia between 1990 and 2000 using an ArcGIS-surface runoff model and predicted land cover and surface runoff depth in 2030 using Markov chain analysis. Land cover maps for 1990 and 2000 were derived from satellite images using ArcGIS 10.1. The findings reveal a 26% decrease in forest and shrubland area, 28% increase in irrigated cropland, 1.5% increase in sparsely vegetated land and 0.5% increase in bare soil between 1990 and 2000. Overall, land cover changes resulted in a significant decrease in runoff depth values in most of the region. The decrease in surface runoff depth ranged from 25-106 mm/year in a 7020-km2 area, whereas the increase in such depth reached only 10 mm/year in a 243-km2 area. A maximum increase of 73 mm/year was seen in a limited area. The surface runoff depth decreased to the greatest extent in the central region of the study area due to the huge transition in land cover classes associated with the construction of 25 rainwater harvesting dams. The land cover prediction revealed a greater than twofold increase in irrigated cropland during the 2000-2030 period, whereas forest and shrubland are anticipated to occupy just 225 km2 of land area by 2030, a significant decrease from the 747 km2 they occupied in 2000. Overall, changes in land cover are predicted to result in an annual increase in irrigated cropland and dramatic decline in forest area in the study area over the next few decades. The increase in surface runoff depth is likely to have significant implications for irrigation activities. PMID:25923712

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW: Protein stability and enzyme activity at extreme biological temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feller, Georges

    2010-08-01

    Psychrophilic microorganisms thrive in permanently cold environments, even at subzero temperatures. To maintain metabolic rates compatible with sustained life, they have improved the dynamics of their protein structures, thereby enabling appropriate molecular motions required for biological activity at low temperatures. As a consequence of this structural flexibility, psychrophilic proteins are unstable and heat-labile. In the upper range of biological temperatures, thermophiles and hyperthermophiles grow at temperatures > 100 °C and synthesize ultra-stable proteins. However, thermophilic enzymes are nearly inactive at room temperature as a result of their compactness and rigidity. At the molecular level, both types of extremophilic proteins have adapted the same structural factors, but in opposite directions, to address either activity at low temperatures or stability in hot environments. A model based on folding funnels is proposed accounting for the stability-activity relationships in extremophilic proteins.

  19. Current topics in active and intelligent food packaging for preservation of fresh foods.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Yuan; Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Dong Soo; Hur, Sun Jin

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current packaging systems, e.g. active packaging and intelligent packaging, for various foods. Active packaging, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), extends the shelf life of fresh produce, provides a high-quality product, reduces economic losses, including those caused by delay of ripening, and improves appearance. However, in active packaging, several variables must be considered, such as temperature control and different gas formulations with different product types and microorganisms. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. Intelligent packaging is emerging as a potential advantage in food processing and is an especially useful tool for tracking product information and monitoring product conditions. Moreover, intelligent packaging facilitates data access and information exchange by altering conditions inside or outside the packaging and product. In spite of these advantages, few of these packaging systems are commercialized because of high cost, strict safety and hygiene regulations or limited consumer acceptance. Therefore more research is needed to develop cheaper, more easily applicable and effective packaging systems for various foods.

  20. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Electrical activity of the brain: Mechanisms and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osovets, S. M.; Ginzburg, D. A.; Gurfinkel', V. S.; Zenkov, L. P.; Latash, L. P.; Malkin, V. B.; Mel'nichuk, P. V.; Pasternak, E. B.

    1983-09-01

    Physical analogies are used to develop ideas on the origin of spontaneous oscillations in the electrical activity of the human brain and on the variation in these oscillations that accompany changes of state and of type of activity. A possible functional role of such oscillations in the overall activity of the brain and mechanisms responsible for certain pathologies of brain activity are examined. Existing phenomenology and current hypotheses are used as a basis for suggesting that: 1) spontaneous rhythms on the electroencephalogram (EEG) are due to the interaction between a finite number of autogenerators (pacemakers) formed by the neuronal populations of thalamic nuclei and functional units in the cortex that exhibit the properties of a passive oscillatory loop; 2) because of its well-defined nonlinearity, the interaction between thalamic autogenerators of different natural frequency leads to the generation of a great variety of observed EEG patterns that accompany different types of brain activity (including responses to external disturbances), all of which is a consequence of recent advances in the theory of nonlinear oscillations that have led to the discovery of "strange attractors"; 3) the subdivision in the brain of the pulsed flow of information into "specific" and "nonspecific", where the latter has a modifying influence on interactions between thalamic pacemakers and on the appearance of special multiperiodic patterns that are characteristic for different events, leads to a distributed fixation of long-term memory traces when the nonspecific and specific flows converge on a neuron memory substrate, and these traces can be read by a single characteristic multiperiodic pattern; and 4) the mechanism responsible for the appearance of paroxysmal discharges in certain specific types of epilepsy and the associated characteristic EEG phenomena (including frequency division) ensues from pathologically modified interaction between thalamic pacemakers and

  1. Soil Moisture and Snow Cover: Active or Passive Elements of Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglesby, Robert J.; Marshall, Susan; Erickson, David J., III; Robertson, Franklin R.; Roads, John O.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A key question is the extent to which surface effects such as soil moisture and snow cover are simply passive elements or whether they can affect the evolution of climate on seasonal and longer time scales. We have constructed ensembles of predictability studies using the NCAR CCM3 in which we compared the relative roles of initial surface and atmospheric conditions over the central and western U.S. in determining the subsequent evolution of soil moisture and of snow cover. Results from simulations with realistic soil moisture anomalies indicate that internal climate variability may be the strongest factor, with some indication that the initial atmospheric state is also important. Model runs with exaggerated soil moisture reductions (near-desert conditions) showed a much larger effect, with warmer surface temperatures, reduced precipitation, and lower surface pressures; the latter indicating a response of the atmospheric circulation. These results suggest the possibility of a threshold effect in soil moisture, whereby an anomaly must be of a sufficient size before it can have a significant impact on the atmospheric circulation and climate. Results from simulations with realistic snow cover anomalies indicate that the time of year can be crucial. When introduced in late winter, these anomalies strongly affected the subsequent evolution of snow cover. When introduced in early winter, however, little or no effect is seen on the subsequent snow cover. Runs with greatly exaggerated initial snow cover indicate that the high reflectivity of snow is the most important process by which snow cover can impact climate, through lower surface temperatures and increased surface pressures. The results to date were obtained for model runs with present-day conditions. We are currently analyzing runs made with projected forcings for the 21st century to see if these results are modified in any way under likely scenarios of future climate change. An intriguing new statistical technique

  2. Assessment of the antioxidant activities of Brazilian extracts of propolis alone and in topical pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Marquele, Franciane D; Di Mambro, Valéria M; Georgetti, Sandra R; Casagrande, Rúbia; Valim, Yara M L; Fonseca, Maria José V

    2005-09-15

    The antioxidant activity of extracts of propolis and of formulations added with these extracts were measured by scavenging different radicals in different systems. For the ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) and the glycolic extract of propolis (GEP) the IC50 observed were respectively of 0.024 and 0.035 microL/mL in scavenging hydroxyl radical, 0.016 and 0.012 microL/mL in inhibiting lipid peroxidation, 0.22 and 0.24 microL/mL in inhibiting chemiluminescence produced in the H2O2/luminol/horseradish peroxide (HRP) system and about 0.005 microL/mL for both extracts in inhibiting chemiluminescence produced in the xanthine/luminol/xanthine oxidase (XOD) system. The antioxidant activity of extracts of propolis in the formulations was not able to be assessed neither using the deoxyribose assay, since the formulation components interfered in the assay measurements, nor using chemiluminescence in the H2O2/luminol/HRP system, since this method did not show to be sensitive for the extract of propolis evaluation. However, the antioxidant activity of extracts of propolis could be successfully evaluated in the formulations using both lipid peroxidation and chemiluminescence generated in the xanthine/luminol/XOD system inhibitions.

  3. Clindamycin Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... topical clindamycin.you should know that abrasive or medicated soaps and skin products that contain alcohol may ... in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from ...

  4. Fluorouracil Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by years of too much exposure to sunlight). Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are also used ... plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to sunlight and UV light (such as tanning booths) and ...

  5. Mometasone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Mometasone comes as a topical cream, ointment, and lotion. It usually is applied externally once a day. ... affected skin areas once daily.To apply the lotion, place a few drops on the affected areas ...

  6. Dapsone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Dapsone topical is used to treat acne. Dapsone is in a class of medications called sulfone antibiotics. It works ... taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  7. Bimatoprost Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... much medication. Talk to your doctor about using topical bimatoprost if you are also using the eyedrops.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  8. Does grazing of cover crops impact biologically active soil C and N fractions under inversion and no tillage management?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are a key component of conservation cropping systems. They can also be a key component of integrated crop-livestock systems by offering high-quality forage during short periods between cash crops. The impact of cattle grazing on biologically active soil C and N fractions has not receiv...

  9. USDA Human Nutrition Research and Education Activities. A Report to Congress Covering the Period January-December 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupont, Jacqueline; And Others

    This document is the sixth annual, legislatively mandated report on the human nutrition research and education activities of the United States Department of Agriculture for fiscal year 1992 in which directions and highlights are emphasized. The report contains six sections. Section 1 is an introduction. Section 2 covers human nutrition research…

  10. 18 CFR 1309.4 - What programs or activities are covered by the Act and this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true What programs or activities are covered by the Act and this part? 1309.4 Section 1309.4 Conservation of Power and Water... purpose legislative body which: (i) Provides any benefits or assistance to persons based on age; or...

  11. 18 CFR 1309.4 - What programs or activities are covered by the Act and this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What programs or activities are covered by the Act and this part? 1309.4 Section 1309.4 Conservation of Power and Water... purpose legislative body which: (i) Provides any benefits or assistance to persons based on age; or...

  12. 18 CFR 1309.4 - What programs or activities are covered by the Act and this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What programs or activities are covered by the Act and this part? 1309.4 Section 1309.4 Conservation of Power and Water... purpose legislative body which: (i) Provides any benefits or assistance to persons based on age; or...

  13. 18 CFR 1309.4 - What programs or activities are covered by the Act and this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What programs or activities are covered by the Act and this part? 1309.4 Section 1309.4 Conservation of Power and Water... purpose legislative body which: (i) Provides any benefits or assistance to persons based on age; or...

  14. 18 CFR 1309.4 - What programs or activities are covered by the Act and this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What programs or activities are covered by the Act and this part? 1309.4 Section 1309.4 Conservation of Power and Water... purpose legislative body which: (i) Provides any benefits or assistance to persons based on age; or...

  15. Soil Moisture and Snow Cover: Active or Passive Elements of Climate?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglesby, Robert J.; Marshall, Susan; Erickson, David J., III; Robertson, Franklin R.; Roads, John O.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A key question in the study of the hydrologic cycle is the extent to which surface effects such as soil moisture and snow cover are simply passive elements or whether they can affect the evolution of climate on seasonal and longer time scales. We have constructed ensembles of predictability studies using the NCAR CCM3 in which we compared the relative roles of initial surface and atmospheric conditions over the central and western U.S. in determining the subsequent evolution of soil moisture and of snow cover. We have also made sensitivity studies with exaggerated soil moisture and snow cover anomalies in order to determine the physical processes that may be important. Results from simulations with realistic soil moisture anomalies indicate that internal climate variability may be the strongest factor, with some indication that the initial atmospheric state is also important. The initial state of soil moisture does not appear important, a result that held whether simulations were started in late winter or late spring. Model runs with exaggerated soil moisture reductions (near-desert conditions) showed a much larger effect, with warmer surface temperatures, reduced precipitation, and lower surface pressures; the latter indicating a response of the atmospheric circulation. These results suggest the possibility of a threshold effect in soil moisture, whereby an anomaly must be of a sufficient size before it can have a significant impact on the atmospheric circulation and hence climate. Results from simulations with realistic snow cover anomalies indicate that the time of year can be crucial. When introduced in late winter, these anomalies strongly affected the subsequent evolution of snow cover. When introduced in early winter, however, little or no effect is seen on the subsequent snow cover. Runs with greatly exaggerated initial snow cover indicate that the high reflectively of snow is the most important process by which snow cover cart impact climate, through lower

  16. Soil Moisture and Snow Cover: Active or Passive Elements of Climate?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglesby, Robert J.; Marshall, Susan; Robertson, Franklin R.; Roads, John O.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A key question in the study of the hydrologic cycle is the extent to which surface effects such as soil moisture and snow cover are simply passive elements or whether they can affect the evolution of climate on seasonal and longer time scales. We have constructed ensembles of predictability studies using the NCAR CCM3 in which we compared the relative roles of initial surface and atmospheric conditions over the central and western U.S. GAPP region in determining the subsequent evolution of soil moisture and of snow cover. We have also made sensitivity studies with exaggerated soil moisture and snow cover anomalies in order to determine the physical processes that may be important. Results from simulations with realistic soil moisture anomalies indicate that internal climate variability may be the strongest factor, with some indication that the initial atmospheric state is also important. The initial state of soil moisture does not appear important, a result that held whether simulations were started in late winter or late spring. Model runs with exaggerated soil moisture reductions (near-desert conditions) showed a much larger effect, with warmer surface temperatures, reduced precipitation, and lower surface pressures; the latter indicating a response of the atmospheric circulation. These results suggest the possibility of a threshold effect in soil moisture, whereby an anomaly must be of a sufficient size before it can have a significant impact on the atmospheric circulation and hence climate. Results from simulations with realistic snow cover anomalies indicate that the time of year can be crucial. When introduced in late winter, these anomalies strongly affected the subsequent evolution of snow cover. When introduced in early winter, however, little or no effect is seen on the subsequent snow cover. Runs with greatly exaggerated initial snow cover indicate that the high reflectivity of snow is the most important process by which snow cover can impact climate

  17. Land-cover observations as part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS): progress, activities, and prospects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herold, M.; Woodcock, C.E.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Townshend, J.; Brady, M.; Steenmans, C.; Schmullius, C. C.

    2008-01-01

    The international land-cover community has been working with GEO since 2005 to build the foundations for land-cover observations as an integral part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) has provided the platform to elevate the societal relevance of land cover monitoring and helped to link a diverse set of global, regional, and national activities. A dedicated 2007-2009 GEO work plan task has resulted in achievements on the strategic and implementation levels. Integrated Global Observations of the Land (IGOL), the land theme of the Integrated Global Observation Strategy (IGOS), has been approved and is now in the process of transition into GEO implementation. New global land-cover maps at moderate spatial resolutions (i.e., GLOBCOVER) are being produced using guidelines and standards of the international community. The Middecadal Global Landsat Survey for 2005-2006 is extending previous 1990 and 2000 efforts for global, high-quality Landsat data. Despite this progress, essential challenges for building a sustained global land-cover-observing system remain, including: international cooperation on the continuity of global observations; ensuring consistency in land monitoring approaches; community engagement and country participation in mapping activities; commitment to ongoing quality assurance and validation; and regional networking and capacity building.

  18. Newly Developed Topical Cefotaxime Sodium Hydrogels: Antibacterial Activity and In Vivo Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Azza S.; Afifi, Samar A.; Elkhodairy, Kadria A.

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to reach better treatment of skin infections, gel formulations containing Cefotaxime (CTX) were prepared. The gel was formulated using Carbopol 934 (C934), Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose 4000 (HPMC 4000), Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium (Na CMC), Pectin (PEC), Xanthan Gum (XG), or Guar Gum (GG). Thirteen different formulas were prepared and characterized physically in terms of color, syneresis, spreadability, pH, drug content, and rheological properties. Drug-excipients compatibility studies were confirmed by FTIR and then in vitro drug release study was conducted. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of CTX were studied against wound pathogens such as, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), using either pure drug or Fucidin® cream as control. F13 provides better spreadability compared to F1 (XG) or F11 (HPMC). Moreover, the release of the drug from hydrogel F13 containing C934 was slower and sustained for 8 h. Stability study revealed that, upon storage, there were no significant changes in pH, drug content, and viscosity of the gels. Also, F13 showed the larger inhibition zone and highest antibacterial activity among other formulations. Histological analysis demonstrated that after single treatment with F13 gel formulation, a noticeable reduction in microbial bioburden occurred in case of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial isolates. PMID:27314033

  19. Newly Developed Topical Cefotaxime Sodium Hydrogels: Antibacterial Activity and In Vivo Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Azza S; Afifi, Samar A; Elkhodairy, Kadria A

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to reach better treatment of skin infections, gel formulations containing Cefotaxime (CTX) were prepared. The gel was formulated using Carbopol 934 (C934), Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose 4000 (HPMC 4000), Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium (Na CMC), Pectin (PEC), Xanthan Gum (XG), or Guar Gum (GG). Thirteen different formulas were prepared and characterized physically in terms of color, syneresis, spreadability, pH, drug content, and rheological properties. Drug-excipients compatibility studies were confirmed by FTIR and then in vitro drug release study was conducted. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of CTX were studied against wound pathogens such as, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), using either pure drug or Fucidin® cream as control. F13 provides better spreadability compared to F1 (XG) or F11 (HPMC). Moreover, the release of the drug from hydrogel F13 containing C934 was slower and sustained for 8 h. Stability study revealed that, upon storage, there were no significant changes in pH, drug content, and viscosity of the gels. Also, F13 showed the larger inhibition zone and highest antibacterial activity among other formulations. Histological analysis demonstrated that after single treatment with F13 gel formulation, a noticeable reduction in microbial bioburden occurred in case of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial isolates.

  20. Newly Developed Topical Cefotaxime Sodium Hydrogels: Antibacterial Activity and In Vivo Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Azza S; Afifi, Samar A; Elkhodairy, Kadria A

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to reach better treatment of skin infections, gel formulations containing Cefotaxime (CTX) were prepared. The gel was formulated using Carbopol 934 (C934), Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose 4000 (HPMC 4000), Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium (Na CMC), Pectin (PEC), Xanthan Gum (XG), or Guar Gum (GG). Thirteen different formulas were prepared and characterized physically in terms of color, syneresis, spreadability, pH, drug content, and rheological properties. Drug-excipients compatibility studies were confirmed by FTIR and then in vitro drug release study was conducted. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of CTX were studied against wound pathogens such as, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), using either pure drug or Fucidin® cream as control. F13 provides better spreadability compared to F1 (XG) or F11 (HPMC). Moreover, the release of the drug from hydrogel F13 containing C934 was slower and sustained for 8 h. Stability study revealed that, upon storage, there were no significant changes in pH, drug content, and viscosity of the gels. Also, F13 showed the larger inhibition zone and highest antibacterial activity among other formulations. Histological analysis demonstrated that after single treatment with F13 gel formulation, a noticeable reduction in microbial bioburden occurred in case of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial isolates. PMID:27314033

  1. In-Situ Quantification of Methanotrophic Activity in a Landfill Cover Soil Using Gas Push-Pull Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, K. E.; Gonzalez-Gil, G.; Schroth, M. H.; Zeyer, J.

    2007-12-01

    Landfills are both a major anthropogenic source and a sink for the greenhouse gas CH4. Methanogenic bacteria produce CH4 during the anaerobic digestion of landfill waste, whereas, methanotrophic bacteria consume CH4 as it is transported through a landfill cover soil. Methanotrophs are thought to be ubiquitous in soils, but typically exist in large numbers at oxic/anoxic interfaces, close to anaerobic methane sources but exposed to oxygen required for metabolism. Accurate in-situ quantification of the sink strength of methanotrophs in landfill cover soils is needed for global carbon balances and for local emissions mitigation strategies. We measured in-situ CH4 concentrations at 30, 60, and 100 cm depth at 18 evenly spaced locations across a landfill cover soil. Furthermore, we performed Gas Push-Pull Tests (GPPTs) to estimate in-situ rates of methanotrophic activity in the cover soil. The GPPT is a gas-tracer test in which a gas mixture containing CH4, O2, and non-reactive tracer gases is injected (pushed) into the soil followed by extraction (pull) from the same location. Quantification of CH4 oxidation rates is based upon comparison of the breakthrough curves of CH4 and tracer gases. We present the results of a series of GPPTs conducted at two locations in the cover soil to assess the feasibility and reproducibility of this technique to quantify methanotrophic activity. Additional GPPTs were performed with a methanotrophic inhibitor in the injection gas mixture to confirm the appropriate choice of tracers to quantify CH4 oxidation. Estimated CH4 oxidation rate constants indicate that the cover soil contains a highly active methanotrophic community.

  2. 30 CFR 280.4 - What activities are not covered by this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., which are covered by regulations at 30 CFR part 282; and (d) G&G exploration or G&G scientific research...? 280.4 Section 280.4 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT... CFR part 251....

  3. Multiple microbial activity-based measures reflect effects of cover cropping and tillage on soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural producers, conservation professionals, and policy makers are eager to learn of soil analytical techniques and data that document improvement in soil health by agricultural practices such as no-till and incorporation of cover crops. However, there is considerable uncertainty within the r...

  4. Cover crop effects on soil microbial communities and enzyme activity in semiarid agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare a fallow-winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation to several cover crop-winter wheat rotations under dryland and irrigated conditions in the semiarid US High Plains. We carried out a study that included two sites (Sidney, NE, and Akron, CO), and three s...

  5. Activity and stability studies of verbascoside, a novel antioxidant, in dermo-cosmetic and pharmaceutical topical formulations.

    PubMed

    Vertuani, Silvia; Beghelli, Erika; Scalambra, Emanuela; Malisardi, Gemma; Copetti, Stefano; Dal Toso, Roberto; Baldisserotto, Anna; Manfredini, Stefano

    2011-08-18

    We here report the results of our investigations carried out on verbascoside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and photoprotective actions. Verbascoside was obtained from Buddleia davidii meristematic cells, obtained in turn using a sustainable biotechnology platform which employs an in vitro plant cell culture technology. Verbascoside was first investigated to assess the behaviour of the active ingredient in solution or in finished preparations, in view of its potential topical use, especially in skin protection. Stability studies were performed by HPLC, and a PCL assay was adopted to determine the radical scavenging activity toward superoxide anion. The high hydrophilic character of verbascoside, suggested in a somewhat limited range of possible applications, leading us to explore its derivatization to obtain the semi-synthetic derivative VPP, an acyl derivative of verbascoside, with an improved range of applications due to its lower hydrophilic profile. Alone, VPP revealed increased antioxidant activity, both as an active ingredient and in dermocosmetic preparations. Stability studies showed a greater stability of VPP in lipophilic vehicles, whereas the parent verbascoside proved more stable in an O/W emulsions. Verbascoside was also stable in suppositories, an interesting pharmaceutical form for possible applications in treatment of inflammation of the intestinal mucosa.

  6. Effect of seasonality on chemical composition and antibacterial and anticandida activities of Argentine propolis. Design of a topical formulation.

    PubMed

    Isla, María Inés; Dantur, Yanina; Salas, Ana; Danert, Carolina; Zampini, Catiana; Arias, Myriam; Ordóñez, Roxana; Maldonado, Luis; Bedascarrasbure, Enrique; Nieva Moreno, María Inés

    2012-10-01

    The effect of seasonality on Argentine propolis collected during one year on its phenolic and flavonoid content and on the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative antibiotic resistant bacteria and Candida species was evaluated. Extracts of propolis samples collected in the summer and spring showed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the samples collected in other seasons (5.86 to 6.06 mg GAE/mL and 3.77 to 4.23 mg QE/mL, respectively). The propolis collected in summer and autumn showed higher antibacterial activity (30 microg/mL) than the other samples (MIC values between 30 and 120 microg/mL). No antibacterial activity was detected against Gram-negative bacteria. Also, these extracts were able to inhibit the development of five Candida species, with MFC values of 15-120 microg/mL. Pharmaceutical formulations containing the more active propolis extract were prepared. The hydrogel of acrylic acid polymer containing summer propolis extract as an antimicrobial agent showed microbiological, physical and functional stability during storage for 180 days. The pharmaceutical preparation, as well as the propolis extracts, was active against Candida sp. and antibiotic-multi-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. These results reveal that propolis samples collected by scraping in four seasons, especially in summer in Calingasta, San Juan, Argentina, can be used to obtain tinctures and hydrogels with antibacterial and antimycotic potential for topical use.

  7. TOPICAL REVIEW: Electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS): a review of patents 1906-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Salvatore; Sakka, Yoshio; Maizza, Giovanni

    2009-10-01

    The electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS) is an ever growing class of versatile techniques for sintering particulate materials. Despite the tremendous advances over the last two decades in ECASed materials and products there is a lack of comprehensive reviews on ECAS apparatuses and methods. This paper fills the gap by tracing the progress of ECAS technology from 1906 to 2008 and surveys 642 ECAS patents published over more than a century. It is found that the ECAS technology was pioneered by Bloxam (1906 GB Patent No. 9020) who developed the first resistive sintering apparatus. The patents were searched by keywords or by cross-links and were withdrawn from the Japanese Patent Office (342 patents), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (175 patents), the Chinese State Intellectual Property Office of P.R.C. (69 patents) and the World Intellectual Property Organization (12 patents). A subset of 119 (out of 642) ECAS patents on methods and apparatuses was selected and described in detail with respect to their fundamental concepts, physical principles and importance in either present ECAS apparatuses or future ECAS technologies for enhancing efficiency, reliability, repeatability, controllability and productivity. The paper is divided into two parts, the first deals with the basic concepts, features and definitions of basic ECAS and the second analyzes the auxiliary devices/peripherals. The basic ECAS is classified with reference to discharge time (fast and ultrafast ECAS). The fundamental principles and definitions of ECAS are outlined in accordance with the scientific and patent literature.

  8. [Topical therapy of rosacea].

    PubMed

    Schöfer, H

    2013-07-01

    Metronidazole and azelaic acid are the only topical medications approved for rosacea. All other topical treatments for rosacea and its special forms are used off-label. Topical steroids are not indicated in rosacea, because of their side effects (induction of steroid rosacea, high risk of facial skin atrophy, and high risk of rebound after cessation of therapy). Topical as well as systemic steroids are allowed only as initial and short term therapy for acute forms of rosacea (e.g. rosacea fulminans). Papular and pustular rosacea is the major indication for topical therapy. Sebaceous gland and connective tissue hyperplasia in glandular-hypertrophic rosacea as well as erythema in erythematous rosacea do not respond well to topical measures. A new active substance, the alpha-2-adrenoreceptor agonist brimonidine, will be approved soon for the topical treatment of erythema in rosacea. All severe forms of rosacea should initially be treated with a combination of topical and systemic agents. After improvement of the clinical symptoms, topical treatment alone is usually adequate to maintain the control.

  9. Estimating Cloud Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this activity was to help students understand the percentage of cloud cover and make more accurate cloud cover observations. Students estimated the percentage of cloud cover represented by simulated clouds and assigned a cloud cover classification to those simulations. (Contains 2 notes and 3 tables.)

  10. Characterization of Antifungal Activity and Nail Penetration of ME1111, a New Antifungal Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Yuji; Takei-Masuda, Naomi; Kubota, Natsuki; Takahata, Sho; Ohyama, Makoto; Kaneda, Kaori; Iida, Maiko; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2016-02-01

    Fungal nail infection (onychomycosis) is a prevalent disease in many areas of the world, with a high incidence approaching 23%. Available antifungals to treat the disease suffer from a number of disadvantages, necessitating the discovery of new efficacious and safe antifungals. Here, we evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity and nail penetration ability of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, along with comparator drugs, including ciclopirox, amorolfine, terbinafine, and itraconazole. ME1111 showed potent antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (the major etiologic agents of onychomycosis) strains isolated in Japan and reference fungal strains with an MIC range of 0.12 to 0.5 mg/liter and an MIC50 and MIC90 of 0.5 mg/liter for both. Importantly, none of the tested isolates showed an elevated ME1111 MIC. Moreover, the antifungal activity of ME1111 was minimally affected by 5% wool keratin powder in comparison to the other antifungals tested. The ME1111 solution was able to penetrate human nails and inhibit fungal growth in a dose-dependent manner according to the TurChub assay. In contrast, 8% ciclopirox and 5% amorolfine nail lacquers showed no activity under the same conditions. ME1111 demonstrated approximately 60-fold-greater selectivity in inhibition of Trichophyton spp. than of human cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that ME1111 possesses potent antidermatophyte activity, maintains this activity in the presence of keratin, and possesses excellent human nail permeability. These results suggest that ME1111 is a promising topical medication for the treatment of onychomycosis and therefore warrants further clinical evaluation. PMID:26643333

  11. Characterization of Antifungal Activity and Nail Penetration of ME1111, a New Antifungal Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Takei-Masuda, Naomi; Kubota, Natsuki; Takahata, Sho; Ohyama, Makoto; Kaneda, Kaori; Iida, Maiko; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Fungal nail infection (onychomycosis) is a prevalent disease in many areas of the world, with a high incidence approaching 23%. Available antifungals to treat the disease suffer from a number of disadvantages, necessitating the discovery of new efficacious and safe antifungals. Here, we evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity and nail penetration ability of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, along with comparator drugs, including ciclopirox, amorolfine, terbinafine, and itraconazole. ME1111 showed potent antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (the major etiologic agents of onychomycosis) strains isolated in Japan and reference fungal strains with an MIC range of 0.12 to 0.5 mg/liter and an MIC50 and MIC90 of 0.5 mg/liter for both. Importantly, none of the tested isolates showed an elevated ME1111 MIC. Moreover, the antifungal activity of ME1111 was minimally affected by 5% wool keratin powder in comparison to the other antifungals tested. The ME1111 solution was able to penetrate human nails and inhibit fungal growth in a dose-dependent manner according to the TurChub assay. In contrast, 8% ciclopirox and 5% amorolfine nail lacquers showed no activity under the same conditions. ME1111 demonstrated approximately 60-fold-greater selectivity in inhibition of Trichophyton spp. than of human cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that ME1111 possesses potent antidermatophyte activity, maintains this activity in the presence of keratin, and possesses excellent human nail permeability. These results suggest that ME1111 is a promising topical medication for the treatment of onychomycosis and therefore warrants further clinical evaluation. PMID:26643333

  12. Characterization of Antifungal Activity and Nail Penetration of ME1111, a New Antifungal Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Yuji; Takei-Masuda, Naomi; Kubota, Natsuki; Takahata, Sho; Ohyama, Makoto; Kaneda, Kaori; Iida, Maiko; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2016-02-01

    Fungal nail infection (onychomycosis) is a prevalent disease in many areas of the world, with a high incidence approaching 23%. Available antifungals to treat the disease suffer from a number of disadvantages, necessitating the discovery of new efficacious and safe antifungals. Here, we evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity and nail penetration ability of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, along with comparator drugs, including ciclopirox, amorolfine, terbinafine, and itraconazole. ME1111 showed potent antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (the major etiologic agents of onychomycosis) strains isolated in Japan and reference fungal strains with an MIC range of 0.12 to 0.5 mg/liter and an MIC50 and MIC90 of 0.5 mg/liter for both. Importantly, none of the tested isolates showed an elevated ME1111 MIC. Moreover, the antifungal activity of ME1111 was minimally affected by 5% wool keratin powder in comparison to the other antifungals tested. The ME1111 solution was able to penetrate human nails and inhibit fungal growth in a dose-dependent manner according to the TurChub assay. In contrast, 8% ciclopirox and 5% amorolfine nail lacquers showed no activity under the same conditions. ME1111 demonstrated approximately 60-fold-greater selectivity in inhibition of Trichophyton spp. than of human cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that ME1111 possesses potent antidermatophyte activity, maintains this activity in the presence of keratin, and possesses excellent human nail permeability. These results suggest that ME1111 is a promising topical medication for the treatment of onychomycosis and therefore warrants further clinical evaluation.

  13. Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active principle of licorice, can reduce the thickness of subcutaneous thigh fat through topical application.

    PubMed

    Armanini, Decio; Nacamulli, Davide; Francini-Pesenti, Francesco; Battagin, Giuliana; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Fiore, Cristina

    2005-07-01

    Cortisol is involved in the distribution and deposition of fat, and its action is regulated by the activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active principle of licorice root, blocks 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, thus reducing the availability of cortisol at the level of adipocytes. We evaluated the effect of topical application of a cream containing glycyrrhetinic acid in the thickness of fat at the level of the thigh. Eighteen healthy women (age range 20-33 years) with normal BMI were randomly allocated to treatment, at the level of the dominant thigh, with a cream containing 2.5% glycyrrhetinic acid (n=9) or with a placebo cream containing the excipients alone (n=9). Before and after 1 month of treatment both the circumference and the thickness of the superficial fat layer of the thighs (by ultrasound analysis) were measured. The circumference and the thickness of the superficial fat layer were significantly reduced in comparison to the controlateral untreated thigh and to control subjects treated with the placebo cream. No changes were observed in blood pressure, plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone or cortisol. The effect of glycyrrhetinic acid on the thickness of subcutaneous fat was likely related to a block of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 at the level of fat cells; therefore, glycyrrhetinic acid could be effectively used in the reduction of unwanted local fat accumulation. PMID:15894038

  14. The same glucocorticoid in brand-name products. Does increasing the concentration result in greater topical biologic activity?

    PubMed

    Stoughton, R B; Wullich, K

    1989-11-01

    Many topical corticosteroid formulations are available as different concentrations of the steroid in a similar vehicle. We tested the existing assumption that higher concentrations give greater biologic activity. The vasoconstriction assay was used because of its known correlation with clinical activity. Statistical analyses of the different concentrations are as follows: Kenalog creams: 0.025% is equal to 0.1% is equal to 0.5%; Aristocort creams: 0.025% is equal to 0.1% is equal to 0.5%; Aristocort ointments: 0.1% is equal to 0.5%; Aristocort creams: 0.5% is equal to 0.025% but is less than 0.1%; Hytone cream: 1.0% is equal to 2.5%; Synalar creams: 0.01% is less than 0.025% which is less than 0.2%; Topicort creams: 0.25% is equal 0.05%; and Vallisone creams: 0.1% is greater than 0.01%. The assumption that increased concentration of the same steroid in the same vehicle type will give increased biologic activity is usually, but not always, incorrect for brand-name formulations now available.

  15. Spotlight Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A Spotlight Topic consists of a set of two or more review articles focused on a specific subject in surface science. The topics are recommended by the Board of Editors. A topic may be chosen because it is particularly new or fast-breaking, thus deserving introduction to the general readership. Or, it may be because a topic is especially controversial or confusing, requiring clarification by experts. Each review will give a critical assessment rather than an encyclopedic report. While our editors always will insist on fairness and accuracy, any review which forwards an opinion is bound to be somewhat subjective. Therefore, it is the editors' wish that the set of reviews written by different authors on the same subject matter will provide a broad and balanced viewpoint. It is often the case that an author who is an expert in a technique or method may be especially enthusiastic or critical about this technique or method. A companion review in the set may provide a different viewpoint. We are hopeful that the reader, after studying these reviews and checking some of the key references, will obtain an informed opinion of the subject. We think the set of reviews in a spotlight area will considerably shorten the ``learning time'' that a nonexpert would otherwise need to become knowledgeable about a subject. In this issue, we feature a spotlight topic on oxide surfaces. The set contains an overview article by Jacques Jupille, and four articles written by G. Pacchioni, F. Cosandey and T. E. Madey, B. G. Daniels, R. Lindsay and G. Thornton, and C. Noguera respectively. Of these, the article by Pacchioni has already appeared in SRL 7, 277 (2000). The other three articles appear in this issue. A reader who wishes to suggest a spotlight topic or recommend authors to write such reviews should contact the Editor-in-Chief. We would like to hear from you.

  16. Fluocinonide Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... area, do not use tight-fitting diapers or plastic pants. Such use may increase side effects.Do ... into the affected areas. Cover the area with plastic wrap (such as Saran Wrap or Handi-Wrap). ...

  17. Estradiol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... and large protective caps. Wash your hands with soap and water. To use estradiol emulsion, follow these ... cover it with clothing. Wash your hands with soap and water. Ask your pharmacist or doctor for ...

  18. Topical Application of a Platelet Activating Factor Receptor Agonist Suppresses Phorbol Ester-Induced Acute and Chronic Inflammation and Has Cancer Chemopreventive Activity in Mouse Skin

    PubMed Central

    Ocana, Jesus A.; DaSilva-Arnold, Sonia C.; Bradish, Joshua R.; Richey, Justin D.; Warren, Simon J.; Rashid, Badri; Travers, Jeffrey B.; Konger, Raymond L.

    2014-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) has long been associated with acute edema and inflammatory responses. PAF acts by binding to a specific G-protein coupled receptor (PAF-R, Ptafr). However, the role of chronic PAF-R activation on sustained inflammatory responses has been largely ignored. We recently demonstrated that mice lacking the PAF-R (Ptafr-/- mice) exhibit increased cutaneous tumorigenesis in response to a two-stage chemical carcinogenesis protocol. Ptafr-/- mice also exhibited increased chronic inflammation in response to phorbol ester application. In this present study, we demonstrate that topical application of the non-hydrolysable PAF mimetic (carbamoyl-PAF (CPAF)), exerts a potent, dose-dependent, and short-lived edema response in WT mice, but not Ptafr -/- mice or mice deficient in c-Kit (c-KitW-sh/W-sh mice). Using an ear inflammation model, co-administration of topical CPAF treatment resulted in a paradoxical decrease in both acute ear thickness changes associated with a single PMA application, as well as the sustained inflammation associated with chronic repetitive PMA applications. Moreover, mice treated topically with CPAF also exhibited a significant reduction in chemical carcinogenesis. The ability of CPAF to suppress acute and chronic inflammatory changes in response to PMA application(s) was PAF-R dependent, as CPAF had no effect on basal or PMA-induced inflammation in Ptafr-/- mice. Moreover, c-Kit appears to be necessary for the anti-inflammatory effects of CPAF, as CPAF had no observable effect in c-KitW-sh/W-sh mice. These data provide additional evidence that PAF-R activation exerts complex immunomodulatory effects in a model of chronic inflammation that is relevant to neoplastic development. PMID:25375862

  19. Clinical Effects of a Topically Applied Toll-like Receptor 9 Agonist in Active Moderate-to-Severe Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Atreya, Raja; Bloom, Stuart; Scaldaferri, Franco; Gerardi, Viviana; Admyre, Charlotte; Karlsson, Åsa; Knittel, Thomas; Kowalski, Jan; Lukas, Milan; Löfberg, Robert; Nancey, Stephane; Petryka, Robert; Rydzewska, Grazyna; Schnabel, Robert; Seidler, Ursula; Neurath, Markus F.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Toll-like receptors [TLRs] are potential drug targets for immunomodulation. We determined the safety and efficacy of the TLR-9 agonist DNA-based immunomodulatory sequence 0150 [DIMS0150] in ulcerative colitis [UC] patients refractory to standard therapy. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 131 patients with moderate-to-severe active UC were randomized to receive two single doses of the oligonucleotide DIMS0150 [30 mg] or placebo administered topically during lower GI endoscopy at baseline and Week 4. The primary endpoint was clinical remission, defined as Clinical Activity Index [CAI] ≤4, at Week 12. Secondary endpoints included mucosal healing and symptomatic remission of key patient-reported outcomes [absence of blood in stool and weekly stool frequency <35]. Results: There was no statistical significant difference between the groups in the induction of clinical remission at Week 12, with 44.4% in the DIMS0150 group vs. 46.5% in the placebo group. However, the proportion of patients who achieved symptomatic remission was 32.1% in the DIMS0150 group vs. 14.0% in the placebo group at Week 4 [p = 0.020], and 44.4% vs. 27.9% at Week 8 [p = 0.061]. More patients on DIMS0150 compared with those on placebo had mucosal healing [34.6% vs. 18.6%; p = 0.09] and histological improvement regarding the Geboes score [30.9% vs. 9.3%; p = 0.0073] at Week 4. Significantly more patients on DIMS0150 were in clinical remission with mucosal healing at Week 4: 21% vs. 4.7% in the placebo group [p = 0.02]. DIMS0150 was well tolerated, and no safety signals compared with placebo were evident. Conclusions: Therapy with the topically applied TLR-9 agonist DIMS0150 is a promising and well-tolerated novel therapeutic option for treatment-refractory, chronic active UC patients, warranting further clinical trials. PMID:27208386

  20. Friction-induced surface activity of some hydrocarbons with clean and oxide-covered iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    Sliding friction studies were conducted on a clean and oxide-covered iron surface with exposure of that surface to various hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbons included ethane, ethylene ethyl chloride, methyl chloride, and vinyl chloride. Auger cylindrical mirror analysis was used to follow interactions of the hydrocarbon with the iron surface. Results with vinyl chloride indicate friction induced surface reactivity, adsorption to surface oxides, friction sensitivity to concentration and polymerization. Variation in the loads employed influence adsorption and accordingly friction. In contrast with ethyl and vinyl chloride, friction induced surface reactivity was not observed with ethane and ethylene.

  1. Post-steroid management of chronic vulvar itching with a topical formula containing natural anti-itching and anti-inflammatory actives

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Di Maio, Eleonora; Di Paola, Gaetana; Felice, Raffaele; Murina, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Aim To determine whether use of a topical, nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory, and anti-itching formula was able to preserve the absence of symptoms, mainly itching and burning, induced by an earlier and relatively short treatment with topical steroids in women diagnosed with vulvar dermatitis or lichen simplex. Methods Ninety-six subjects (36 with contact dermatitis, 29 with allergic dermatitis, 31 with lichen simplex) were enrolled in the study. All participants were first treated with topical mometasone furoate (MF) 0.1%. When the symptoms disappeared, they were treated either with Zantogin®, a multicomponent topical formula containing anti-inflammatory and anti-itching natural actives, or a control cream for 60 days. Results The study demonstrated that, in about 85% of the participants treated with Zantogin®, symptoms disappeared completely, and only 15% had to resort to MF as needed, with an average use of about three applications per subject (in total). In the placebo group, approximately 90% of participants had to resort to MF as needed, with an average use per person of more than 16 applications in 60 days. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that, following use of a topical steroid, symptoms such as burning and itching can be validly controlled with subsequent and longer therapy with a herbal topical formula, Zantogin®, which is able to properly counteract itching and inflammation, prevent symptom relapse, and avoid the typical side effects associated with prolonged use of topical steroids. PMID:23637564

  2. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of ME1111, a New Topical Agent for Onychomycosis, against Clinical Isolates of Dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Isham, N.; Long, L.

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of onychomycosis has improved considerably over the past several decades following the introduction of the oral antifungals terbinafine and itraconazole. However, these oral agents suffer from certain disadvantages, including drug interactions and potential liver toxicity. Thus, there is a need for new topical agents that are effective against onychomycosis. ME1111 is a novel selective inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) of dermatophyte species, whose small molecular weight enhances its ability to penetrate the nail plate. In this study, we determined the antifungal activity of ME1111 against dermatophyte strains, most of which are known to cause nail infections, as measured by the MIC (n = 400) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) (n = 300). Additionally, we examined the potential for resistance development in dermatophytes (n = 4) following repeated exposure to ME1111. Our data show that the MIC90 of ME1111 against dermatophyte strains was 0.25 μg/ml, which was equivalent to that of the comparators amorolfine and ciclopirox (0.25 and 0.5 μg/ml, respectively). ME1111 was fungicidal at clinically achievable concentrations against dermatophytes, and its MFC90s against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were 8 μg/ml, comparable to those of ciclopirox. Furthermore, ME1111, as well as ciclopirox, did not induce resistance in 4 dermatophytes tested. Our studies show that ME1111 possesses potent antifungal activity and suggest that it has low potential for the development of resistance in dermatophytes. PMID:26055386

  3. Sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles predicts response to topical minoxidil in the treatment of female androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Janet; Desai, Nisha; McCoy, John; Goren, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Two percent topical minoxidil is the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of female androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Its success has been limited by the low percentage of responders. Meta-analysis of several studies reporting the number of responders to 2% minoxidil monotherapy indicates moderate hair regrowth in only 13-20% of female patients. Five percent minoxidil solution, when used off-label, may increase the percentage of responders to as much as 40%. As such, a biomarker for predicting treatment response would have significant clinical utility. In a previous study, Goren et al. reported an association between sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles and minoxidil response in a mixed cohort of male and female patients. The aim of this study was to replicate these findings in a well-defined cohort of female patients with AGA treated with 5% minoxidil daily for a period of 6 months. Consistent with the prior study, we found that sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles predicts treatment response with 93% sensitivity and 83% specificity. Our study further supports the importance of minoxidil sulfation in eliciting a therapeutic response and provides further insight into novel targets for increasing minoxidil efficacy. PMID:24773771

  4. Distribution of topical ocular nepafenac and its active metabolite amfenac to the posterior segment of the eye.

    PubMed

    Chastain, James E; Sanders, Mark E; Curtis, Michael A; Chemuturi, Nagendra V; Gadd, Martha E; Kapin, Michael A; Markwardt, Kerry L; Dahlin, David C

    2016-04-01

    Nepafenac ophthalmic suspensions, 0.1% (NEVANAC(®)) and 0.3% (ILEVRO™), are topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) products approved in the United States, Europe and various other countries to treat pain and inflammation associated with cataract surgery. NEVANAC is also approved in Europe for the reduction in the risk of postoperative macular edema (ME) associated with cataract surgery in diabetic patients. The efficacy against ME suggests that topical administration leads to distribution of nepafenac or its active metabolite amfenac to the posterior segment of the eye. This article evaluates the ocular distribution of nepafenac and amfenac and the extent of local delivery to the posterior segment of the eye, following topical ocular instillation in animal models. Nepafenac ophthalmic suspension was instilled unilaterally in New Zealand White rabbits as either a single dose (0.1%; one drop) or as multiple doses (0.3%, one drop, once-daily for 4 days, or 0.1% one drop, three-times daily for 3 days and one morning dose on day 4). Nepafenac (0.3%) was also instilled unilaterally in cynomolgus monkeys as multiple doses (one drop, three-times daily for 7 days). Nepafenac and amfenac concentrations in harvested ocular tissues were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Locally-distributed compound concentrations were determined as the difference in levels between dosed and undosed eyes. In single-dosed rabbit eyes, peak concentrations of locally-distributed nepafenac and amfenac showed a trend of sclera > choroid > retina. Nepafenac peak levels in sub-samples posterior to the eye equator and inclusive of the posterior pole (E-PP) were 55.1, 4.03 and 2.72 nM, respectively, at 0.25 or 0.50 h, with corresponding amfenac peak levels of 41.9, 3.10 and 0.705 nM at 1 or 4 h. By comparison, peak levels in sclera, choroid and retina sub-samples in a band between the ora serrata and the equator (OS-E) were 13- to 40-fold

  5. Topical anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mritunjay; Chawla, Rajiv; Goyal, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects.

  6. Topical anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mritunjay; Chawla, Rajiv; Goyal, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects. PMID:26702198

  7. Massive regime shifts and high activity of heterotrophic bacteria in an ice-covered lake.

    PubMed

    Bižić-Ionescu, Mina; Amann, Rudolf; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    In winter 2009/10, a sudden under-ice bloom of heterotrophic bacteria occurred in the seasonally ice-covered, temperate, deep, oligotrophic Lake Stechlin (Germany). Extraordinarily high bacterial abundance and biomass were fueled by the breakdown of a massive bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae after ice formation. A reduction in light resulting from snow coverage exerted a pronounced physiological stress on the cyanobacteria. Consequently, these were rapidly colonized, leading to a sudden proliferation of attached and subsequently of free-living heterotrophic bacteria. Total bacterial protein production reached 201 µg C L(-1) d(-1), ca. five times higher than spring-peak values that year. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis at high temporal resolution showed pronounced changes in bacterial community structure coinciding with changes in the physiology of the cyanobacteria. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that during breakdown of the cyanobacterial population, the diversity of attached and free-living bacterial communities were reduced to a few dominant families. Some of these were not detectable during the early stages of the cyanobacterial bloom indicating that only specific, well adapted bacterial communities can colonize senescent cyanobacteria. Our study suggests that in winter, unlike commonly postulated, carbon rather than temperature is the limiting factor for bacterial growth. Frequent phytoplankton blooms in ice-covered systems highlight the need for year-round studies of aquatic ecosystems including the winter season to correctly understand element and energy cycling through aquatic food webs, particularly the microbial loop. On a global scale, such knowledge is required to determine climate change induced alterations in carbon budgets in polar and temperate aquatic systems.

  8. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    Sascha Wallentowitz), 2004 (Trieste, Italy, by Naseem Rahman and Sascha Wallentowitz), 2005 (Bilkent, Ankara, by Alexander Shumovsky), 2006 (Vienna, by Helmut Rauch), 2007 (Palermo, Italy, by Antonino Messina) and 2008 (Belgrade, by Mirjana Bozic). The CEWQO series developed in two directions following the rapid development of quantum optics and the transitional development of the scientific collaboration of Central European researchers with researchers from old and new emerging Central European countries, and from all over the world. The topics discussed at CEWQO 08 were divided into ten groups that aimed to cover the broad scope of modern quantum optics: Fundamental aspects of quantum optics and quantum mechanics Single photons and photon pairs Cavity and circuit QED Atoms in intense fields Neutron, atom and molecular quantum optics Quantum gases and fluids Coherence, entanglement and decoherence Optical properties of condensed matter and nanostructures Open quantum systems and chaos Quantum information processing Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics realize and are consistent with a wider idea, and a social, economical, cultural and political program promoted since 1989 by the Central European Initiative (CEI), the main goal of which was to help transition countries in Central Europe to become closer to the EU. The resulting support of the CEI, first obtained thanks to the scientific reputation, organizing activities, and efforts of Helmut Rauch, has been very important for the organization of the CEWQO in recent years, particularly in 2008. The support of the Sixth and Seventh Framework Programs of the European Commission was also very important. A short review of papers in this topical issue A principal role in this topical issue is played by the photon. Vuletic et al describe the mapping of the photon-polarization state onto a single collective-spin excitation (magnon) shared between two atomic ensembles. A heralded quantum memory based on this mapping is

  9. Triamcinolone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor tells you to wrap or bandage the treated area, follow these instructions: Soak the area in water or wash it well. While the skin is moist, gently rub the medication into the affected areas. Cover the area with ... beside the treated area. (Instead of using plastic wrap, plastic gloves ...

  10. Desonide Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor tells you to wrap or bandage the treated area, follow these instructions: Soak the area in water or wash it well. While the skin is moist, gently rub the medication into the affected areas. Cover the area with ... beside the treated area. (Instead of using plastic wrap, plastic gloves ...

  11. Flurandrenolide Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor tells you to wrap or bandage the treated area, follow these instructions: Soak the area in water or wash it well. While the skin is moist, gently rub the medication into the affected areas. Cover the area with ... beside the treated area. (Instead of using plastic wrap, plastic gloves ...

  12. Diflorasone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor tells you to wrap or bandage the treated area, follow these instructions: Soak the area in water or wash it well. While the skin is moist, gently rub the medication into the affected areas. Cover the area with ... beside the treated area. (Instead of using plastic wrap, plastic gloves ...

  13. Hydrocortisone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor tells you to wrap or bandage the treated area, follow these instructions: Soak the area in water or wash it well. While the skin is moist, gently rub the medication into the affected areas. Cover the area with ... beside the treated area. (Instead of using plastic wrap, plastic gloves ...

  14. Halcinonide Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor tells you to wrap or bandage the treated area, follow these instructions: Soak the area in water or wash it well. While the skin is moist, gently rub the medication into the affected areas. Cover the area with ... beside the treated area. (Instead of using plastic wrap, plastic gloves ...

  15. Desoximetasone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor tells you to wrap or bandage the treated area, follow these instructions: Soak the area in water or wash it well. While the skin is moist, gently rub the medication into the affected areas. Cover the area with ... beside the treated area. (Instead of using plastic wrap, plastic gloves ...

  16. Betamethasone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor tells you to wrap or bandage the treated area, follow these instructions: Soak the area in water or wash it well. While the skin is moist, gently rub the medication into the affected areas. Cover the area with ... beside the treated area. (Instead of using plastic wrap, plastic gloves ...

  17. Fluocinolone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor tells you to wrap or bandage the treated area, follow these instructions: Soak the area in water or wash it well. While the skin is moist, gently rub the medication into the affected areas. Cover the area with ... beside the treated area. (Instead of using plastic wrap, plastic gloves ...

  18. 50 CFR 18.111 - What specified activities does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Walruses and Polar Bears Incidental to Oil and Gas Exploration Activities in the Chukchi Sea and Adjacent... apply to the nonlethal incidental, but not intentional, take of small numbers of Pacific walruses...

  19. 50 CFR 18.111 - What specified activities does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Walruses and Polar Bears Incidental to Oil and Gas Exploration Activities in the Chukchi Sea and Adjacent... apply to the nonlethal incidental, but not intentional, take of small numbers of Pacific walruses...

  20. 50 CFR 18.111 - What specified activities does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Walruses and Polar Bears Incidental to Oil and Gas Exploration Activities in the Chukchi Sea and Adjacent... apply to the nonlethal incidental, but not intentional, take of small numbers of Pacific walruses...

  1. 50 CFR 18.111 - What specified activities does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Walruses and Polar Bears Incidental to Oil and Gas Exploration Activities in the Chukchi Sea and Adjacent... apply to the nonlethal incidental, but not intentional, take of small numbers of Pacific walruses...

  2. 50 CFR 18.111 - What specified activities does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Walruses and Polar Bears Incidental to Oil and Gas Exploration Activities in the Chukchi Sea and Adjacent... apply to the nonlethal incidental, but not intentional, take of small numbers of Pacific walruses...

  3. Effect of topical cis-urocanic acid on local lymph node activation during contact sensitization in mouse, rat and guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Lauerma, A I; Homey, B; Vohr, H W; Lee, C H; Bloom, E; Maibach, H I

    1996-05-01

    Cis-urocanic acid (cUCA) has been suggested as a mediator of impairment of contact hypersensitivity induction by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. We ascertained whether topical cUCA influences local lymph node activation during induction of contact hypersensitivity. Topical cUCA or vehicle was applied during the local lymph node assay to oxazolone. Local lymph node weight and cell number were assessed in all animals. Additionally, cell proliferation rate was studied in Hartley guinea-pigs and CBA/Ca mice, whereas activation of antigen-presenting cells was quantified in NMRI mice and Wistar rats. Topical cUCA suppressed all parameters of local lymph node activation due to oxazolone application in guinea-pigs. No effect, with the exception of a suppression of antigen-presenting cell activity, was seen in mice. No effect was seen in rats. The study shows that topical cUCA may suppress local lymph node activation during contact sensitization and suggests that differences between the effect of cUCA in different animal species may exist. PMID:8736333

  4. Lactate Effectively Covers Energy Demands during Neuronal Network Activity in Neonatal Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Anton; Mukhtarov, Marat; Bregestovski, Piotr; Zilberter, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous experimental data indicate that lactate is efficiently used for energy by the mature brain, the direct measurements of energy metabolism parameters during neuronal network activity in early postnatal development have not been performed. Therefore, the role of lactate in the energy metabolism of neurons at this age remains unclear. In this study, we monitored field potentials and contents of oxygen and NAD(P)H in correlation with oxidative metabolism during intense network activity in the CA1 hippocampal region of neonatal brain slices. We show that in the presence of glucose, lactate is effectively utilized as an energy substrate, causing an augmentation of oxidative metabolism. Moreover, in the absence of glucose lactate is fully capable of maintaining synaptic function. Therefore, during network activity in neonatal slices, lactate can be an efficient energy substrate capable of sustaining and enhancing aerobic energy metabolism. PMID:21602909

  5. Activity concentration of natural radionuclides and radon and thoron exhalation rates in rocks used as decorative wall coverings in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, many dwellings have decorative wall coverings made from granite, andesite, tuff, gabbro, and marble. However, information regarding activity concentrations and radon (Rn) and thoron (Rn) exhalation rates for such rocks is very scarce. Therefore, samples of the granite, andesite, tuff, and marble that are used as wall coverings in Japan were collected from mining companies, and their activity concentrations and Rn and Rn exhalation rates were measured. Dose estimations for inhabitants living in houses built with these materials were also carried out. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in all the materials was lower than the critical values described by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (10,000 Bq kg for K and 1,000 Bq kg for all other radionuclides of natural origin). The maximum values of Rn and Rn mass exhalation rates for the granite samples were 0.12 and 430 mBq kg s, and those for the area exhalation rates were 1.8 and 6300 mBq m s, respectively; these values are higher than those for other samples. The maximum value of effective doses to inhabitants was 0.68 mSv y, which is lower than the intervention exemption level (1 mSv y) given in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 82.

  6. Activity concentration of natural radionuclides and radon and thoron exhalation rates in rocks used as decorative wall coverings in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, many dwellings have decorative wall coverings made from granite, andesite, tuff, gabbro, and marble. However, information regarding activity concentrations and radon (Rn) and thoron (Rn) exhalation rates for such rocks is very scarce. Therefore, samples of the granite, andesite, tuff, and marble that are used as wall coverings in Japan were collected from mining companies, and their activity concentrations and Rn and Rn exhalation rates were measured. Dose estimations for inhabitants living in houses built with these materials were also carried out. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in all the materials was lower than the critical values described by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (10,000 Bq kg for K and 1,000 Bq kg for all other radionuclides of natural origin). The maximum values of Rn and Rn mass exhalation rates for the granite samples were 0.12 and 430 mBq kg s, and those for the area exhalation rates were 1.8 and 6300 mBq m s, respectively; these values are higher than those for other samples. The maximum value of effective doses to inhabitants was 0.68 mSv y, which is lower than the intervention exemption level (1 mSv y) given in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 82. PMID:23192085

  7. [Effect of the vegetative cover on the biological activity of the soil of Chaco Arido].

    PubMed

    Abril, A; Acosta, M; Bachmeier, O; Rollan, A

    1993-01-01

    Vegetation plays a primal role in arid ecosystems, since it creates microclimate conditions that moderate the characteristics of the region whereby the rational use of vegetal resources is fundamental. Felling, clearing and overgrazing lead to decrease in organic contribution and stimulate soil compaction, causing an alteration of microbial activity, with losses in nutrient turnover. The global biological activity is a soil parameter easy to obtain and indicates the presence and diversity of soil life as well as substrate availability and is useful in order to characterize soil potential fertility. This work was carried out in Natural Forest Reserve Chancaní, Province of Córdoba (Argentina), which is representative of Argentine Dry Chaco. Dominant tree species are: Prosopis flexuosa and Aspidosperma quebracho blanco. The global biological activity (GBA) was measured along one year, under trees, under shrubs and in interspaces. Soil samples were taken monthly from plots with four management systems: 1) forest, ii) selective clearing (only dominant species remain), iii) bush (clearing invaded by Larrea sp) and iv) grazing (cleared area, neither trees nor shrubs). GBA was evaluated using the CO2 release method, after ten days of incubation. It is concluded that in the plots with grasses and under the trees GBA was higher than with other treatments. The lesser GBA was detected in bushes and interspaces. All differences were more prominent during extreme temperature months. No significant difference between both species of dominant trees was observed. PMID:8210407

  8. Topical Therapy Primer for Nondermatologists.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Jolene R; Myers, Sarah A

    2015-11-01

    A representative assortment of topical therapies is discussed here with the goal of emphasizing the most commonly encountered diagnoses and treatments for nondermatologists. When using topical therapies, carefully consider the proper active ingredient, potency, vehicle, and quantity of medication. If topical therapy is ineffective, question whether the medication is being used properly, whether the diagnosis is correct, and whether the topical may be contributing to the problem. Examples of the topical contributing to the problem include tinea incognito exacerbated by topical steroid use and allergic contact dermatitis to topical steroid excipients. For some patients, even maximum topical therapy is insufficient and systemic treatment is required. At this point, consultation with a dermatologist may be helpful.

  9. Active layer thermal regime at different vegetation covers at Lions Rump, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Ivan C. C.; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G. R.; Fernandes, Raphael B. A.; Pereira, Thiago T. C.; Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Pereira, Antônio Batista

    2014-11-01

    Climate change impacts the biotic and abiotic components of polar ecosystems, affecting the stability of permafrost, active layer thickness, vegetation, and soil. This paper describes the active layer thermal regimes of two adjacent shallow boreholes, under the same soil but with two different vegetations. The study is location in Lions Rump, at King George Island, Maritime Antarctic, one of the most sensitive regions to climate change, located near the climatic limit of Antarctic permafrost. Both sites are a Turbic Cambic Cryosol formed on andesitic basalt, one under moss vegetation (Andreaea gainii, at 85 m a.s.l.) and another under lichen (Usnea sp., at 86 m a.s.l.), located 10 m apart. Ground temperature at same depths (10, 30 and 80 cm), water content at 80 cm depth and air temperature were recorded hourly between March 2009 and February 2011. The two sites showed significant differences in mean annual ground temperature for all depths. The lichen site showed a higher soil temperature amplitude compared to the moss site, with ground surface (10 cm) showing the highest daily temperature in January 2011 (7.3 °C) and the lowest daily temperature in August (- 16.5 °C). The soil temperature at the lichen site closely followed the air temperature trend. The moss site showed a higher water content at the bottommost layer, consistent with the water-saturated, low landscape position. The observed thermal buffering effect under mosses is primarily associated with higher moisture onsite, but a longer duration of the snowpack (not monitored) may also have influenced the results. Active layer thickness was approximately 150 cm at low-lying moss site, and 120 cm at well-drained lichen site. This allows to classify these soils as Cryosols (WRB) or Gelisols (Soil Taxonomy), with evident turbic features.

  10. Teacher Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Includes articles and classroom activities about chemicals in the body entitled: "Your Body's Chemical Factory,""Testing for Catalase Activity,""How Sweet It IS...,""Milking Calcium for All It's Worth," and "Testing for Starch in Plant Products." (MKR)

  11. Brutality under cover of ambiguity: activating, perpetuating, and deactivating covert retributivism.

    PubMed

    Fincher, Katrina M; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-05-01

    Five studies tested four hypotheses on the drivers of punitive judgments. Study 1 showed that people imposed covertly retributivist physical punishments on extreme norm violators when they could plausibly deny that is what they were doing (attributional ambiguity). Studies 2 and 3 showed that covert retributivism could be suppressed by subtle accountability manipulations that cue people to the possibility that they might be under scrutiny. Studies 4 and 5 showed how covert retributivism can become self-sustaining by biasing the lessons people learn from experience. Covert retributivists did not scale back punitiveness in response to feedback that the justice system makes false-conviction errors but they did ramp up punitiveness in response to feedback that the system makes false-acquittal errors. Taken together, the results underscore the paradoxical nature of covert retributivism: It is easily activated by plausible deniability and persistent in the face of false-conviction feedback but also easily deactivated by minimalist forms of accountability.

  12. Cover Picture.

    PubMed

    Das, Sanjoy K.; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Esnault, Jacques; Driguez, Pierre-Alexandre; Duchaussoy, Philippe; Sizun, Philippe; Hérault, Jean-Pascal; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Petitou, Maurice; Sinaÿ, Pierre

    2001-05-01

    The cover picture shows how thrombosis occurs in the deep veins of the lower limbs. Stasis, which results from slow and turbulent blood flow, combined with hypercoagulation, caused, for example, by a surgical procedure, may result in thrombus formation. The synthetic sulfated pentasaccharide shown in part is a potent antithrombotic compound that exerts its effect by activation of the plasma protein antithrombin III. Conformationally locked monosaccharides have now been synthesized to demonstrate that L-iduronic acid, one part of the pentasaccharide, must adopt an unusual distorted conformation to activate antithrombin III. Such conformational effects might be relevant in explaining the unique biological properties of glycosaminoglycans that contain L-iduronic acid. In the background of the picture, a flight of vampire bats is attracted by the pentasaccharide. Vampire was the name given to South American blood-sucking bats (Latin name: desmodus rotundus) in 1761 by the French naturalist Georges Louis Leclerc Comte de Buffon (1707-1788). These bats are known to attack cattle and, very rarely, sleeping human beings. Although their saliva has been shown to contain an anticoagulant compound, they would also be happy to benefit from the pentasaccharide mentioned above, to suck the blood out of the vein more easily. More details about this compound which would be helpful to vampire bats are reported by Petitou, Sinaÿ et al. on p. 1670 ff.

  13. Formulation of cidofovir improves the anti-papillomaviral activity of topical treatments in the CRPV/rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Neil D.; Cladel, Nancy M.; Hu, Jiafen; Balogh, Karla K.

    2014-01-01

    Current topical treatments for papillomas use ablative, cytotoxic and immunomodulating strategies and reagents. However, the effectiveness of topical treatments using different formulations has not been examined in preclinical models or clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to determine whether formulation of the small molecule acyclic nucleoside, cidofovir (CDV), could lead to improved therapeutic endpoints following topical treatment of papillomas using the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV)/rabbit model. Different formulations with a set dose of 1% cidofovir were tested to establish comparative data. The results demonstrated that anti-papilloma treatments with topical CDV were greatly enhanced when formulated versus unformulated. Best results were obtained with CDV formulated in cremophor, then in carbomer 940, and then in DMSO. Further studies indicated that effective formulations led to complete cures of papillomas at dilutions less than 0.3% CDV. These studies together with previous observations demonstrated that unformulated CDV under the same treatment regime required doses of 2% to achieve cures demonstrating that much less compound can be used when properly formulated. PMID:24946003

  14. Active thermography and post-processing image enhancement for recovering of abraded and paint-covered alphanumeric identification marks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanini, R.; Quattrocchi, A.; Piccolo, S. A.

    2016-09-01

    Alphanumeric marking is a common technique employed in industrial applications for identification of products. However, the realised mark can undergo deterioration, either by extensive use or voluntary deletion (e.g. removal of identification numbers of weapons or vehicles). For recovery of the lost data many destructive or non-destructive techniques have been endeavoured so far, which however present several restrictions. In this paper, active infrared thermography has been exploited for the first time in order to assess its effectiveness in restoring paint covered and abraded labels made by means of different manufacturing processes (laser, dot peen, impact, cold press and scribe). Optical excitation of the target surface has been achieved using pulse (PT), lock-in (LT) and step heating (SHT) thermography. Raw infrared images were analysed with a dedicated image processing software originally developed in Matlab™, exploiting several methods, which include thermographic signal reconstruction (TSR), guided filtering (GF), block guided filtering (BGF) and logarithmic transformation (LN). Proper image processing of the raw infrared images resulted in superior contrast and enhanced readability. In particular, for deeply abraded marks, good outcomes have been obtained by application of logarithmic transformation to raw PT images and block guided filtering to raw phase LT images. With PT and LT it was relatively easy to recover labels covered by paint, with the latter one providing better thermal contrast for all the examined targets. Step heating thermography never led to adequate label identification instead.

  15. Comparison of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of meloxicam gel with diclofenac and piroxicam gels in animal models: pharmacokinetic parameters after topical application.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S K; Bansal, P; Bhardwaj, R K; Jaiswal, J; Velpandian, T

    2002-01-01

    Meloxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is a preferential inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 and has demonstrated potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity after oral administration. The present work was carried out to elucidate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of a newer topical gel formulation of meloxicam (1% w/w gel) and compare it with 0.5% w/w piroxicam and 1% w/w diclofenac gels in experimental animal models. The study was also extended to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of a newer formulation of meloxicam gel after topical application on depilated skin of rats. The anti-inflammatory activities of meloxicam, piroxicam and diclofenac gels were compared using carrageenan-induced acute paw oedema and complete Freund's adjuvant-induced chronic paw oedema in rats. Meloxicam gel showed increased protection against inflammation as compared to piroxicam and diclofenac gels. Acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced phase I and phase II pain models were used to compare their analgesic activity. Meloxicam gel showed significant protection in formalin-induced phase II pain whereas its analgesic activity was less as compared to diclofenac and piroxicam gels in writhing test and formalin-induced phase I pain. The pharmacokinetic studies showed peak plasma drug concentration (C(max)) of 48.48 +/- 6.57 microg/ml at 2 h (T(max)) after topical application of 500 mg of meloxicam gel formulation. The area under the curve as calculated from 0 to 6 h was found to be 114.18 +/- 4.23 and 194.13 +/- 3.78 microg x h/ml for 0 to infinity. The results indicate that topical preparation of meloxicam could be an effective alternative to diclofenac and piroxicam gels in inflammatory conditions and its associated pain with the possibility of less systemic side-effects.

  16. Covering Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Ryan; Wind, Andrew; Trevidi, Neema

    2000-01-01

    Presents four articles considering: (1) the media's role in the coverage of politics; (2) the influence of photography particularly in terms of the president; (3) an event where an Iowa student had a chance to work with professionals while covering politics; and (4) considering scholastic reporters covering national candidates as they learn and…

  17. Covering Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Ted; Krajicek, David; Hackney, Suzette; Moore, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    Presents four brief articles on covering crime. Notes that reporting on crimes requires special skills for student reporters, editors, and photographers. Explains how to gain access to scenes, to develop journalistic ethics, and how to cover crime and its victims. Discusses the relation of race and ethnic issues to crime, and how visual…

  18. Antiherpes Activity and Skin/Mucosa Distribution of Flavonoids from Achyrocline satureioides Extract Incorporated into Topical Nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Bidone, Juliana; Argenta, Débora Fretes; Kratz, Jadel; Pettenuzzo, Letícia Ferreira; Horn, Ana Paula; Koester, Letícia Scherer; Bassani, Valquíria Linck; Simões, Claudia Maria Oliveira; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effects of Achyrocline satureioides extract (ASE) incorporated into a topical nanoemulsion on Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1/KOS strain) replication, as well as the distribution of the main ASE flavonoids (quercetin, luteolin, and 3-O-methylquercetin) in porcine skin and mucosa. The ASE-loaded nanoemulsion showed more pronounced effects against HSV-1 replication when compared to the ASE or pure quercetin, as determined by the viral plaque number reduction assay. All flavonoids were detected in the skin epidermis (2.2 µg/cm(2)) and the mucosa upper layers (3.0 µg/cm(2)) from ASE-loaded nanoemulsion until 8 h after topical application. A higher amount of flavonoids was detected when these tissues were impaired, especially in deeper mucosa layers (up to 7-fold). Flavonoids were detected in the receptor fluid only when the mucosa was injured. Such results were supported by confocal microscopy images. Overall, these findings suggest that the tested ASE-loaded nanoemulsion has potential to be used topically for herpes infections.

  19. Antiherpes Activity and Skin/Mucosa Distribution of Flavonoids from Achyrocline satureioides Extract Incorporated into Topical Nanoemulsions

    PubMed Central

    Bidone, Juliana; Argenta, Débora Fretes; Kratz, Jadel; Pettenuzzo, Letícia Ferreira; Horn, Ana Paula; Koester, Letícia Scherer; Bassani, Valquíria Linck; Simões, Claudia Maria Oliveira; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effects of Achyrocline satureioides extract (ASE) incorporated into a topical nanoemulsion on Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1/KOS strain) replication, as well as the distribution of the main ASE flavonoids (quercetin, luteolin, and 3-O-methylquercetin) in porcine skin and mucosa. The ASE-loaded nanoemulsion showed more pronounced effects against HSV-1 replication when compared to the ASE or pure quercetin, as determined by the viral plaque number reduction assay. All flavonoids were detected in the skin epidermis (2.2 µg/cm2) and the mucosa upper layers (3.0 µg/cm2) from ASE-loaded nanoemulsion until 8 h after topical application. A higher amount of flavonoids was detected when these tissues were impaired, especially in deeper mucosa layers (up to 7-fold). Flavonoids were detected in the receptor fluid only when the mucosa was injured. Such results were supported by confocal microscopy images. Overall, these findings suggest that the tested ASE-loaded nanoemulsion has potential to be used topically for herpes infections. PMID:26101767

  20. Antiherpes Activity and Skin/Mucosa Distribution of Flavonoids from Achyrocline satureioides Extract Incorporated into Topical Nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Bidone, Juliana; Argenta, Débora Fretes; Kratz, Jadel; Pettenuzzo, Letícia Ferreira; Horn, Ana Paula; Koester, Letícia Scherer; Bassani, Valquíria Linck; Simões, Claudia Maria Oliveira; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effects of Achyrocline satureioides extract (ASE) incorporated into a topical nanoemulsion on Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1/KOS strain) replication, as well as the distribution of the main ASE flavonoids (quercetin, luteolin, and 3-O-methylquercetin) in porcine skin and mucosa. The ASE-loaded nanoemulsion showed more pronounced effects against HSV-1 replication when compared to the ASE or pure quercetin, as determined by the viral plaque number reduction assay. All flavonoids were detected in the skin epidermis (2.2 µg/cm(2)) and the mucosa upper layers (3.0 µg/cm(2)) from ASE-loaded nanoemulsion until 8 h after topical application. A higher amount of flavonoids was detected when these tissues were impaired, especially in deeper mucosa layers (up to 7-fold). Flavonoids were detected in the receptor fluid only when the mucosa was injured. Such results were supported by confocal microscopy images. Overall, these findings suggest that the tested ASE-loaded nanoemulsion has potential to be used topically for herpes infections. PMID:26101767

  1. Topical ketoprofen patch.

    PubMed

    Mazières, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Although oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in the treatment of a variety of acute and chronic pain conditions, their use may be associated with serious systemic adverse effects, particularly gastrointestinal disorders. In order to minimise the incidence of systemic events related to such agents, topical NSAIDs have been developed. Topical NSAIDs, applied as gels, creams or sprays, penetrate the skin, subcutaneous fatty tissue and muscle in amounts that are sufficient to exert a therapeutic effect on peripheral and central mechanisms in the absence of high plasma concentrations. Data indicate that topical NSAIDs are effective at relieving pain in a number of acute and chronic pain indications. This review article discusses the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and tolerability of a new formulation of ketoprofen available as a topical patch. The topical patch containing ketoprofen 100mg as the active principle has been developed using a novel delivery system that dispenses therapeutic doses of the drug directly to the site of injury. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that although plasma levels of ketoprofen are higher when the drug is administered as a patch versus a gel, the total systemic bioavailability of ketoprofen 100 mg administered via a patch is no more than 10% of that reported for ketoprofen 100 mg administered orally. Because the patch facilitates ketoprofen delivery over a 24-hour period, the drug remains continually present in the tissue subjacent to the site of application. High tissue but low plasma ketoprofen concentrations mean that while tissue concentrations are high enough to exert a therapeutic effect, plasma concentrations remain low enough to not result in systemic adverse events caused by elevated serum NSAID levels. Phase III clinical trials in patients with non-articular rheumatism and traumatic painful soft tissue injuries showed that the topical ketoprofen patch was significantly more effective than placebo at

  2. Topical Antimicrobials for Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Hashmi, Javad T.; Kurup, Divya B.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout most of history, serious burns occupying a large percentage of body surface area were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the burn milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the burned skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make burns particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to burns, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat burn infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating burn infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active area of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for burns that will battle against growing multi-drug resistance. PMID:20429870

  3. Retrospective Evaluation on the Analgesic Activities of 2 Compounded Topical Creams and Voltaren Gel in Chronic Noncancer Pain.

    PubMed

    Somberg, John C; Molnar, Janos

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacologic treatment of chronic pain is challenging. Oral therapy may require multiple medications; each has side effects, dose limitations, and limited efficacy. Compounded topical formulations have evolved as potential treatment options. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 2 compounded topical creams, "Cream I" and "Cream II," in patients with chronic extremity, joint, musculoskeletal, neuropathic, or other chronic topical pain conditions and compare their efficacy with Voltaren gel. The primary efficacy outcome was the change in visual numeric pain intensity score from pretreatment to posttreatment. The Cream I contained Flurbiprofen (20%), Tramadol (5%), Clonidine (0.2%), Cyclobenzaprine (4%), and Bupivacaine (3%). The Cream II contained Flurbiprofen (20%), Baclofen (2%), Clonidine (0.2%), Gabapentin (10%), and Lidocaine (5%). The Voltaren gel contained 1% diclofenac sodium. A total of 2177 patients were evaluated, 826 males and 1351 females. During their medical treatment, 1141 patients received Cream I, 527 patients received Cream II, and 509 patients received Voltaren gel. After treatment, the pain intensity score decreased by 3.11 ± 1.65 (37%) with Cream I (from 8.44 ± 1.19 to 5.33 ± 2.0, P < 0.001), by 2.93 ± 1.58 (35%) with Cream II (from 8.42 ± 1.27 to 5.50 ± 1.96, P < 0.001), and by 1.49 ± 0.73 (19%) with Voltaren gel (from 7.93 ± 0.81 to 6.44 ± 1.14, P < 0.001). Cream I and Cream II did not differ significantly in efficacy, and both were significantly more effective than Voltaren gel (P < 0.001). It is concluded that Voltaren gel had less efficacy than the compounded creams, which were effective and provided pain relief in the majority of the patients studied.

  4. Efficacy Coefficients Determined Using Nail Permeability and Antifungal Activity in Keratin-Containing Media Are Useful for Predicting Clinical Efficacies of Topical Drugs for Onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yoshiki; Sugiura, Keita; Hashimoto, Takashi; Ueda, Akane; Konno, Yoshihiro; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Onychomycosis is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. In order to obtain an in vitro index that is relevant to the clinical efficacy of topical anti-onychomycosis drugs, we profiled five topical drugs: amorolfine, ciclopirox, efinaconazole, luliconazole, and terbinafine, for their nail permeabilities, keratin affinities, and anti-dermatophytic activities in the presence of keratin. Efinaconazole and ciclopirox permeated full-thickness human nails more deeply than luliconazole. Amorolfine and terbinafine did not show any detectable permeation. The free-drug concentration of efinaconazole in a 5% human nail keratin suspension was 24.9%, which was significantly higher than those of the other drugs (1.1-3.9%). Additionally, efinaconazole was released from human nail keratin at a greater proportion than the other drugs. The MICs of the five drugs for Trichophyton rubrum were determined at various concentrations of keratin (0-20%) in RPMI 1640 medium. The MICs of ciclopirox were not affected by keratin, whereas those of efinaconazole were slightly increased and those of luliconazole and terbinafine were markedly increased in the presence of 20% keratin. Efficacy coefficients were calculated using the nail permeation flux and MIC in media without or with keratin. Efinaconazole showed the highest efficacy coefficient, which was determined using MIC in media with keratin. The order of efficacy coefficients determined using MIC in keratin-containing media rather than keratin-free media was consistent with that of complete cure rates in previously reported clinical trials. The present study revealed that efficacy coefficients determined using MIC in keratin-containing media are useful for predicting the clinical efficacies of topical drugs. In order to be more effective, topical drugs have to possess higher efficacy coefficients. PMID:27441843

  5. Efficacy Coefficients Determined Using Nail Permeability and Antifungal Activity in Keratin-Containing Media Are Useful for Predicting Clinical Efficacies of Topical Drugs for Onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Onychomycosis is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. In order to obtain an in vitro index that is relevant to the clinical efficacy of topical anti-onychomycosis drugs, we profiled five topical drugs: amorolfine, ciclopirox, efinaconazole, luliconazole, and terbinafine, for their nail permeabilities, keratin affinities, and anti-dermatophytic activities in the presence of keratin. Efinaconazole and ciclopirox permeated full-thickness human nails more deeply than luliconazole. Amorolfine and terbinafine did not show any detectable permeation. The free-drug concentration of efinaconazole in a 5% human nail keratin suspension was 24.9%, which was significantly higher than those of the other drugs (1.1–3.9%). Additionally, efinaconazole was released from human nail keratin at a greater proportion than the other drugs. The MICs of the five drugs for Trichophyton rubrum were determined at various concentrations of keratin (0–20%) in RPMI 1640 medium. The MICs of ciclopirox were not affected by keratin, whereas those of efinaconazole were slightly increased and those of luliconazole and terbinafine were markedly increased in the presence of 20% keratin. Efficacy coefficients were calculated using the nail permeation flux and MIC in media without or with keratin. Efinaconazole showed the highest efficacy coefficient, which was determined using MIC in media with keratin. The order of efficacy coefficients determined using MIC in keratin-containing media rather than keratin-free media was consistent with that of complete cure rates in previously reported clinical trials. The present study revealed that efficacy coefficients determined using MIC in keratin-containing media are useful for predicting the clinical efficacies of topical drugs. In order to be more effective, topical drugs have to possess higher efficacy coefficients. PMID:27441843

  6. Efficacy Coefficients Determined Using Nail Permeability and Antifungal Activity in Keratin-Containing Media Are Useful for Predicting Clinical Efficacies of Topical Drugs for Onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yoshiki; Sugiura, Keita; Hashimoto, Takashi; Ueda, Akane; Konno, Yoshihiro; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Onychomycosis is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. In order to obtain an in vitro index that is relevant to the clinical efficacy of topical anti-onychomycosis drugs, we profiled five topical drugs: amorolfine, ciclopirox, efinaconazole, luliconazole, and terbinafine, for their nail permeabilities, keratin affinities, and anti-dermatophytic activities in the presence of keratin. Efinaconazole and ciclopirox permeated full-thickness human nails more deeply than luliconazole. Amorolfine and terbinafine did not show any detectable permeation. The free-drug concentration of efinaconazole in a 5% human nail keratin suspension was 24.9%, which was significantly higher than those of the other drugs (1.1-3.9%). Additionally, efinaconazole was released from human nail keratin at a greater proportion than the other drugs. The MICs of the five drugs for Trichophyton rubrum were determined at various concentrations of keratin (0-20%) in RPMI 1640 medium. The MICs of ciclopirox were not affected by keratin, whereas those of efinaconazole were slightly increased and those of luliconazole and terbinafine were markedly increased in the presence of 20% keratin. Efficacy coefficients were calculated using the nail permeation flux and MIC in media without or with keratin. Efinaconazole showed the highest efficacy coefficient, which was determined using MIC in media with keratin. The order of efficacy coefficients determined using MIC in keratin-containing media rather than keratin-free media was consistent with that of complete cure rates in previously reported clinical trials. The present study revealed that efficacy coefficients determined using MIC in keratin-containing media are useful for predicting the clinical efficacies of topical drugs. In order to be more effective, topical drugs have to possess higher efficacy coefficients.

  7. Luminosity and redshift dependence of the covering factor of active galactic nuclei viewed with WISE and Sloan digital sky survey

    SciTech Connect

    Toba, Y.; Matsuhara, H.; Oyabu, S.; Malkan, M. A.; Gandhi, P.; Nakagawa, T.; Isobe, N.; Shirahata, M.; Oi, N.; Takita, S.; Yano, K.; Ohyama, Y.; Yamauchi, C.

    2014-06-10

    In this work, we investigate the dependence of the covering factor (CF) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on the mid-infrared (MIR) luminosity and the redshift. We constructed 12 and 22 μm luminosity functions (LFs) at 0.006 ≤z ≤ 0.3 using Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data. Combining the WISE catalog with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic data, we selected 223,982 galaxies at 12 μm and 25,721 galaxies at 22 μm for spectroscopic classification. We then identified 16,355 AGNs at 12 μm and 4683 AGNs at 22 μm by their optical emission lines and cataloged classifications in the SDSS. Following that, we estimated the CF as the fraction of Type 2 AGN in all AGNs whose MIR emissions are dominated by the active nucleus (not their host galaxies) based on their MIR colors. We found that the CF decreased with increasing MIR luminosity, regardless of the choice of Type 2 AGN classification criteria, and the CF did not change significantly with redshift for z ≤ 0.2. Furthermore, we carried out various tests to determine the influence of selection bias and confirmed that similar dependences exist, even when taking these uncertainties into account. The luminosity dependence of the CF can be explained by the receding torus model, but the 'modified' receding torus model gives a slightly better fit, as suggested by Simpson.

  8. Luminosity and Redshift Dependence of the Covering Factor of Active Galactic Nuclei viewed with WISE and Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toba, Y.; Oyabu, S.; Matsuhara, H.; Malkan, M. A.; Gandhi, P.; Nakagawa, T.; Isobe, N.; Shirahata, M.; Oi, N.; Ohyama, Y.; Takita, S.; Yamauchi, C.; Yano, K.

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we investigate the dependence of the covering factor (CF) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on the mid-infrared (MIR) luminosity and the redshift. We constructed 12 and 22 μm luminosity functions (LFs) at 0.006 <=z <= 0.3 using Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data. Combining the WISE catalog with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic data, we selected 223,982 galaxies at 12 μm and 25,721 galaxies at 22 μm for spectroscopic classification. We then identified 16,355 AGNs at 12 μm and 4683 AGNs at 22 μm by their optical emission lines and cataloged classifications in the SDSS. Following that, we estimated the CF as the fraction of Type 2 AGN in all AGNs whose MIR emissions are dominated by the active nucleus (not their host galaxies) based on their MIR colors. We found that the CF decreased with increasing MIR luminosity, regardless of the choice of Type 2 AGN classification criteria, and the CF did not change significantly with redshift for z <= 0.2. Furthermore, we carried out various tests to determine the influence of selection bias and confirmed that similar dependences exist, even when taking these uncertainties into account. The luminosity dependence of the CF can be explained by the receding torus model, but the "modified" receding torus model gives a slightly better fit, as suggested by Simpson.

  9. Topical vitamins.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Cheryl

    2008-07-01

    Vitamins are a natural constituent of human skin and are part of a system of antioxidants that protect the skin from oxidative stress. There has been an increased interest in the use of natural antioxidants such as vitamins to help restore dermal antioxidant activity. Vitamins A, C, E, and B3 have been shown to have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but to achieve optimal effectiveness, products must be delivered in appropriate formulations. Products containing alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), retinol (vitamin A), and niacinamide (vitamin B3), are effective for the treatment of photoaging. These compounds have also shown effectiveness in the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, acne, and pigmentation disorders and wound healing. There is emerging evidence that combinations of vitamins have additive effects that provide enhanced efficacy compared with individual compounds.

  10. Sky cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerth, Jordan J.

    Of all of the standard meteorological parameters collected and observed daily, sky cover is not only one of the most complex, but the one that is fairly ambiguously defined and difficult to quantify. Despite that, the implications of how cloud fraction and sky cover are understood not only impact daily weather forecasts, but also present challenges to assessing the state of the earth's climate system. Part of the reason for this is the lack of observational methods for verifying the skill of clouds represented and parameterized in numerical models. While human observers record sky cover as part of routine duties, the spatial coverage of such observations in the United States is relatively sparse. There is greater spatial coverage of automated observations, and essentially complete coverage from geostationary weather satellites that observe the Americas. A good analysis of sky cover reconciles differences between manual observations, automated observations, and satellite observations, through an algorithm that accounts for the strengths and weaknesses of each dataset. This work describes the decision structure for trusting and weighting these similar observations. Some of the issues addressed include: human and instrument error resulting from approximations and estimations, a deficiency in high cloud detectability using surface-based ceilometers, poorly resolved low cloud using infrared channels on space-based radiometers during overnight hours, and decreased confidence in satellite-detected cloud during stray light periods. Using the blended sky cover analysis as the best representation of cloudiness, it is possible to compare the analysis to numerical model fields in order to assess the performance of the model and the parameterizations therein, as well as confirm or uncover additional relationships between sky cover and pertinent fields using an optimization methodology. The optimizer minimizes an affine expression of adjusted fields to the "truth" sky cover

  11. Wall Covering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The attractive wall covering shown below is one of 132 styles in the Mirror Magic II line offered by The General Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio. The material is metallized plastic fabric, a spinoff from space programs. Wall coverings are one of many consumer applications of aluminized plastic film technology developed for NASA by a firm later bought by King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Massachusetts, which now produces the material. The original NASA use was in the Echo 1 passive communications satellite, a "space baloon" made of aluminized mylar; the high reflectivity of the metallized coating enabled relay of communications signals from one Earth station to another by "bouncing" them off the satellite. The reflectivity feature also made the material an extremely efficient insulator and it was subsequently widely used in the Apollo program for such purposes as temperature control of spacecraft components and insulation of tanks for fuels that must be maintained at very low temperatures. I Used as a wall covering, the aluminized material offers extra insulation, reflects light and I resists cracking. In addition to General Tire, King-Seeley also supplies wall covering material to Columbus Coated Fabrics Division of Borden, Incorporated, Columbus, Ohio, among others.

  12. Cover Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are great tools to improve soil quality and health, and great tools to increase carbon sequestration. They are nutrient management tools that can help scavenge nitrate, cycle nitrogen to the following crop, mine NO3 from groundwater, and increase nitrogen use efficiency of cropping syste...

  13. Recent drought induced increase of non-photosynthetically active vegetation cover in the aspen forests of southern Rocky Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Anderegg, W.

    2011-12-01

    Severe droughts in concert with rising temperatures have triggered widespread of forest mortality across multiple tree species worldwide. Tree die-off would produce a significant amount of additional non-photosynthetically active vegetation (NPV), which is the major source of carbon (C) emissions to ecosystems. Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) is the most widely distributed tree species in North America and arguably among the largest known organisms in the world, reaching 6000 Mg in a single clone and storing a substantial amount of C in the system. A recent widespread aspen forest mortality (known as sudden aspen decline [SAD]) occurred in the last decade and its ramifications on C cycles of aspen forests and the impact on regional C budgets are not well known. Here we carry out a landscape scale assessment of NPV dynamics across 1186 km2 of aspen forests in southwestern Colorado, USA, which suffered some of the most severe forest biomass loss of the continent. We compared time-series (2000 [the pre-drought condition], 2002 [the driest period] and 2009 [the current condition]) projected NPV derived from summer Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images using an automated, probability based spectral mixture analysis model (AutoMCU) with aid from contemporary in-situ field observations conducted in 2009 and 2010. We found that SAD produced 40.3% more of NPV cover comparing to the pre-drought condition (mean ± standard deviation = 23.0 ± 15.8% in 2000 and 32.3 ± 19.0% in 2002) due to the senescence of top canopy aspen leaves that equated to additional 110.3 km2 of NPV cover increase in the region during the driest period. This NPV "ramp-up" also resulted in 22% decrease of green vegetation (mean ± standard deviation = 65.7 ± 18.0% in 2000 and 50.1 ± 18.8% in 2002) and 9.7% increase of visible albedo (3.7 ± 2.4% in 2000 and 4.1 ± 2.3% in 2002), which were also computed from TM images using AutoMCU and a Landsat-based albedo model, respectively. These rapid

  14. Mental mechanisms for topics identification.

    PubMed

    Massey, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Topics identification (TI) is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM). We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM) to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly. PMID:24744775

  15. Mental mechanisms for topics identification.

    PubMed

    Massey, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Topics identification (TI) is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM). We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM) to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly.

  16. Haloprogin: a Topical Antifungal Agent

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, E. F.; Zwadyk, P.; Bequette, R. J.; Hamlow, E. E.; Tavormina, P. A.; Zygmunt, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Haloprogin was shown to be a highly effective agent for the treatment of experimentally induced topical mycotic infections in guinea pigs. Its in vitro spectrum of activity also includes yeasts, yeastlike fungi (Candida species), and certain gram-positive bacteria. The in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of haloprogin against dermatophytes was equal to that observed with tolnaftate. The striking differences between the two agents were the marked antimonilial and selective antibacterial activities shown by haloprogin, contrasted with the negligible activities found with tolnaftate. Addition of serum decreased the in vitro antifungal activity of haloprogin to a greater extent than that of tolnaftate; however, diminished antifungal activity was not observed when haloprogin was applied topically to experimental dermatophytic infections. Based on its broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, haloprogin may prove to be a superior topical agent in the treatment of dermatophytic and monilial infections in man. PMID:5422306

  17. The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) are presented. Topics covered include: program objectives; program features; flight experiment features; current activities; MACE development model lab testing; MACE test article deployed on STS middeck; and development model testing.

  18. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.

    PubMed

    Rock, Steve; Myers, Bill; Fiedler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    about specific projects using ET covers. There are three general approaches for non-conventional cover systems to achieve approval for installation; the first is when equivalent performance to conventional final cover systems can be demonstrated directly on site. This is the approach used by the Sandia study, by most ACAP sites, and the Rocky Mountain Arsenal. A second approach is used when there are data from a site specific study such as an ACAP installation at a site that has analogous soil and climate conditions. Several sites in Colorado and Southern California have achieved approval based on data from similar sites. The third most common approach for regulatory approval is by installation of data collection systems with the agreement that the permanence of the ET cover installation is contingent on success of the cover in meeting certain performance goals. This article is intended as an introduction to the topic and is not intended to serve as guidance for design or construction, nor indicate the appropriateness of using an ET cover systems at a particular site.

  19. Coal Activities for Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Coal Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This collection of lesson plans designed for teachers of 4th- through 12th-grade students utilizes an assortment of teaching strategies for topics related to coal and the coal industry. Activities cover the following topics: coal formation; coal identification; "the geologist's dilemma" (a supply and demand activity); geologic time and the…

  20. Hot topics from the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The Tevatron Run-II began in March 2001. To date, both the CDF and D0 experiments have collected 1 fb{sup -1} of data each. The results obtained from this data set were summarized at this conference in 39 parallel session presentations covering a wide range of topics. The author summarizes the most important of those results here and comments on some of the prospects for the future.

  1. Use of Dynamic Geometry as a Support to Paper and Pencil Activities for Comprehension of Ratio and Proportion Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Elena Fabiola; Lupianez, Jose Luis

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The present paper shows the importance of a joint use of pencil and paper activities and of technology so that students may develop a complete understanding of ratio and proportion. A previous experience with strategy use when solving ratio and proportion problems provided background. Prompted by a recognition of the cognitive…

  2. Source Book on Air Pollution Topics for Grade and High School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Eileen G., Ed.; McGovern, John J., Ed.

    This publication provides background information and activity suggestions on air pollution and related environmental topics. Student projects and experiments which can be adapted at both elementary and secondary levels are also provided. Information is organized in three parts. Part I covers basic facts about air pollutants including the types,…

  3. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    Sascha Wallentowitz), 2004 (Trieste, Italy, by Naseem Rahman and Sascha Wallentowitz), 2005 (Bilkent, Ankara, by Alexander Shumovsky), 2006 (Vienna, by Helmut Rauch), 2007 (Palermo, Italy, by Antonino Messina) and 2008 (Belgrade, by Mirjana Bozic). The CEWQO series developed in two directions following the rapid development of quantum optics and the transitional development of the scientific collaboration of Central European researchers with researchers from old and new emerging Central European countries, and from all over the world. The topics discussed at CEWQO 08 were divided into ten groups that aimed to cover the broad scope of modern quantum optics: Fundamental aspects of quantum optics and quantum mechanics Single photons and photon pairs Cavity and circuit QED Atoms in intense fields Neutron, atom and molecular quantum optics Quantum gases and fluids Coherence, entanglement and decoherence Optical properties of condensed matter and nanostructures Open quantum systems and chaos Quantum information processing Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics realize and are consistent with a wider idea, and a social, economical, cultural and political program promoted since 1989 by the Central European Initiative (CEI), the main goal of which was to help transition countries in Central Europe to become closer to the EU. The resulting support of the CEI, first obtained thanks to the scientific reputation, organizing activities, and efforts of Helmut Rauch, has been very important for the organization of the CEWQO in recent years, particularly in 2008. The support of the Sixth and Seventh Framework Programs of the European Commission was also very important. A short review of papers in this topical issue A principal role in this topical issue is played by the photon. Vuletic et al describe the mapping of the photon-polarization state onto a single collective-spin excitation (magnon) shared between two atomic ensembles. A heralded quantum memory based on this mapping is

  4. An Analysis of the Learning Activities Covered in the 5th Grade Science Textbooks Based on 2005 and 2013 Turkish Science Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydogdu, Cemil; Idin, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the learning activities covered in 5th grade elementary science textbooks which depend on 2005 and 2013 elementary science curricula. Two elementary science textbooks [which] depend on 2005 science curriculum and two elementary science textbooks [which] depend on 2013 science curriculum were researched. The…

  5. An Analysis of the Learning Activities Covered in the 5th Grade Science Textbooks Based on 2005 and 2013 Turkish Science Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydogdu, Cemil; Idin, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the learning activities covered in 5th grade elementary science textbooks which depend on 2005 and 2013 elementary science curricula. Two elementary science textbooks depends on 2005 science curriculum and two elementary science textbooks depend on 2013 science curriculum were researched. The study is a…

  6. 43 CFR 2884.25 - What activities may I conduct on BLM lands covered by my application for a grant or TUP while BLM...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What activities may I conduct on BLM lands covered by my application for a grant or TUP while BLM is processing my application? 2884.25 Section 2884.25 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND...

  7. 43 CFR 2804.29 - What activities may I conduct on the lands covered by the proposed right-of-way while BLM is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What activities may I conduct on the lands covered by the proposed right-of-way while BLM is processing my application? 2804.29 Section 2804.29 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND...

  8. Assessment of the mutagenic activity of extracts of brazilian propolis in topical pharmaceutical formulations on Mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Senedese, Juliana Marques; Rodrigues, Aline Rafaela; Furtado, Michelle Andrade; Faustino, Viviane Dias; Berretta, Andresa A; Marchetti, Juliana M; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2011-01-01

    Propolis possesses various biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anesthetic and antioxidant properties. A topically applied product based on Brazilian green propolis was developed for the treatment of burns. For such substance to be used more safely in future clinical applications, the present study evaluated the mutagenic potential of topical formulations supplemented with green propolis extract (1.2, 2.4 and 3.6%) based on the analysis of chromosomal aberrations and of micronuclei. In the in vitro studies, 3-h pulse (G(1) phase of the cell cycle) and continuous (20 h) treatments were performed. In the in vivo assessment, the animals were injured on the back and then submitted to acute (24 h), subacute (7 days) and subchronic (30 days) treatments consisting of daily dermal applications of gels containing different concentrations of propolis. Similar frequencies of chromosomal aberrations were observed for cultures submitted to 3-h pulse and continuous treatment with gels containing different propolis concentrations and cultures not submitted to any treatment. However, in the continuous treatment cultures treated with the 3.6% propolis gel presented significantly lower mitotic indices than the negative control. No statistically significant differences in the frequencies of micronuclei were observed between animals treated with gels containing different concentrations of propolis and the negative control for the three treatment times. Under the present conditions, topical formulations containing different concentrations of green propolis used for the treatment of burns showed no mutagenic effect in either test system, but 3.6% propolis gel was found to be cytotoxic in the in vitro test.

  9. Comparison of the activity of topically applied pesticides and the herbicide 2,4-D in two short-term in vivo assays of genotoxicity in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Schop, R N; Hardy, M H; Goldberg, M T

    1990-11-01

    Genotoxicity of eight topically applied compounds was determined using the bone marrow micronucleus (MN) test and hair follicle nuclear aberration (NA) assay in CD1 mice. Twenty-four hours after a single treatment, cyclophosphamide (CY), applied at doses corresponding to 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, and 1/32 of the published dermal LD50, and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), applied at 1/4, 1/8, and 1/16 of the published dermal LD50, were found to increase the incidence of NA in a dose-dependent manner. The frequency of MN was significantly increased only at the highest dose of CY. Using the same protocol, six pesticides applied in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at doses of 1/8, 1/16, and 1/32 of the dermal LD50 were investigated. Aminocarb and chlordane induced a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of NA, while there was an observed increase in NA incidence at only the highest doses of dichlorvos (DDVP), 4,4'-DDT (DDT), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). No effect was observed with fenitrothion on nuclear aberrations in hair follicles. Except for the highest dose of chlordane, none of the pesticides tested positive in the bone marrow micronucleus test. Serum cholinesterase levels were reduced to 70 +/- 4.7% of the DMSO control level with DDVP, 57 +/- 8.2% with aminocarb, and 60.3 +/- 4.8% with fenitrothion, indicating some systemic activity with these topically applied agents. The data suggest that aminocarb, chlordane, DDVP, DDT, and 2,4-D are genotoxic as determined by the NA assay and that this assay may be more useful in detecting topically applied genotoxic agents than the more often used bone marrow micronucleus test.

  10. Viral vaccines: selected topics.

    PubMed

    Kańtoch, M

    1996-01-01

    Significant role of viruses in pathology, their dominating position in etiology of infectious diseases point at the special position of active prophylactic procedures based on vaccination. The real role and value of viral vaccines of classic and modern generations, the limitation of immune potency in suppression of defence mechanisms, some problems of immunization against virus vertical transmission are presented in the paper. The reader may find tables which cumulate selected but significant patterns of viral vaccines and vaccinations, and selected papers devoted to topics discussed. PMID:9017153

  11. SLN as a topical delivery system for Artemisia arborescens essential oil: In vitro antiviral activity and skin permeation study

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Francesco; Sinico, Chiara; De Logu, Alessandro; Zaru, Marco; Müller, Rainer H; Fadda, Anna M

    2007-01-01

    The effect of SLN incorporation on transdermal delivery and in vitro antiherpetic activity of Artemisia arborescens essential oil was investigated. Two different SLN formulations were prepared using the hot – pressure homogenization technique, Compritol 888 ATO as lipid, and Poloxamer 188 and Miranol Ultra C32 as surfactants. Formulations were examined for their stability for two years by monitoring average size distribution and zeta potential values. The antiviral activity of free and SLN incorporated essential oil was tested in vitro against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) by a quantitative tetrazolium-based colorimetric method (MTT), while the effects of essential oil incorporation into SLN on both the permeation through and the accumulation into the skin strata was investigated by using in vitro diffusion experiments through newborn pig skin and an almond oil Artemisia essential oil solution as a control. Results showed that both SLN formulations were able to entrap the essential oil in high yields and that the mean particle size increased only slightly after two years of storage, indicating a high physical stability. In vitro antiviral assays showed that SLN incorporation did not affect the essential oil antiherpetic activity. The in vitro skin permeation experiments demonstrated the capability of SLN of greatly improving the oil accumulation into the skin, while oil permeation occurred only when the oil was delivered from the control solution. PMID:18019840

  12. 45 CFR 90.3 - What programs or activities does the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Discrimination Act of 1975 cover? 90.3 Section 90.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...) An age distinction contained in that part of a Federal, State or local statute or ordinance adopted by an elected, general purpose legislative body which: (i) Provides any benefits or assistance...

  13. The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey: Final Public Release of ~ 35 000 Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei Covering 13 Billion Years of Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Fèvre, O.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Le Brun, V.; Lemaux, B.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Maccagni, D.; McCracken, H. J.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mazure, A.; Mellier, Y.; Merighi, R.; Merluzzi, P.; Moreau, C.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Vettolani, G.; Zamorani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Zucca, E.

    2014-03-01

    The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) final and public data release offers an excellent opportunity to revisit galaxy evolution with a sample of 35 016 galaxies and active galactic nuclei covering the redshift range 0 < z < 6.7. The VVDS includes three tiered surveys, the wide, deep and ultra-deep surveys, covering up to 8.7 square degrees, and each magnitude-selected with limits iAB = 22.5, 24 and 24.75 respectively. The VVDS redshifts, spectra, and all associated multi-wavelength data are available at http://cesam.lam.fr/vvds. The highlights and scientific legacy of the VVDS are summarised.

  14. Evaluation of in vitro activity of two topical products against three organisms isolated from canine referral patients with otitis externa and cutaneous pyoderma.

    PubMed

    Okwumabua, O; Goodman, F; Elfassy, O

    2000-01-01

    Canine otitis externa and cutaneous pyoderma are common problems that are often associated with Staphylococcus intermedius, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Malassezia pachydermatis. In vitro activity of two topical products against these organisms isolated from canine referral patients were evaluated. Organisms were grown and diluted to a concentration equivalent to 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU) per mL and exposed to either a 0 or 1/5 dilution of Hexadene Flush with Spherulites (Virbac Animal Health Inc, Fort Worth, TX) or a 1/5 or 1/25 dilution of ResiCHLOR Lotion with Spherulites (Virbac Animal Health Inc, Fort Worth, TX) at time intervals from 1 to 30 minutes. Results showed that all three organisms were killed within 1 minute of contact time at 0 and 1/5 dilution of the flush. The lotion diluted to 1/5 also killed all three organisms. At 1/25 dilution, this lotion killed S. intermedius and P. aeruginosa within 1 minute of contact time, whereas M. pachydermatis was killed after 1 minute. The findings suggest that the two topical products exhibit efficacy against these common skin pathogens in vitro and can be useful in their clinical management.

  15. Activation of primary sensory neurons by the topical application of capsaicin on the epidermis of a re-innervated organotypic human skin model.

    PubMed

    Lebonvallet, Nicolas; Pennec, Jean-Pierre; Le Gall-Ianotto, Christelle; Chéret, Jérémy; Jeanmaire, Christine; Carré, Jean-Luc; Pauly, Gilles; Misery, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Using an ex vivo skin-nerve preparation, skin and nerve cells were reconstituted into a single unit and maintained in a nutrient medium bath until required experimentally. Our objective was to use the epidermis as a relay for the induction of an electric current to the neurons following the topical application of capsaicin on the skin epidermis of the skin explant, an agonist of the TRPV1 channel implicated in pruritus and pain. After 10-20 days of coculture to form the re-innervated skin model, we applied a solution of capsaicin directly on the epidermis of the skin explant (4 μm). The resulting current was recorded using a path-clamp technique on the neuronal fibres. Following the topical application of capsaicin, spontaneous activity was triggered, as characterised by repetitive spikes with periods of 125, 225 or 275 ms. This study demonstrates that the skin explant and nerve cells preparation may receive stimuli and be used to screen molecules or to study signal transmission.

  16. Lactobionic acid as antioxidant and moisturizing active in alkyl polyglucoside-based topical emulsions: the colloidal structure, stability and efficacy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tasic-Kostov, M; Pavlovic, D; Lukic, M; Jaksic, I; Arsic, I; Savic, S

    2012-10-01

    Cosmeceutical antioxidants may protect the skin against oxidative injury, involved in the pathogenesis of many skin disorders. However, an unsuitable topical delivery system with compromising safety profile can affect the efficacy of an antioxidant active. This study investigated the antioxidant potential of lactobionic acid (LA), a newer cosmeceutical active, per se (in solution) and incorporated into natural alkyl polyglucoside (APG) emulsifier-based system using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. The α-tocopherol was used as a reference compound. The physical stability (using rheology, polarization microscopy, pH and conductivity measurements) of an Alkyl glucoside-based emulsion was evaluated with and without the active (LA); colloidal structure was assessed using polarization and transmission electron microscopy, rheology, thermal and texture analysis. Additionally, the safety profile and moisturizing potential were investigated using the methods of skin bioengineering. Good physical stability and applicative characteristics were obtained although LA strongly influenced the colloidal structure of the vehicle. LA per se and in APG-based emulsion showed satisfying antioxidant activity that promotes it as mild multifunctional cosmeceutical efficient in the treatment and prevention of the photoaged skin. Employed assays were shown as suitable for the antioxidant activity evaluation of LA in APG-based emulsions, but not for α-tocopherol in the same vehicle. PMID:22691034

  17. The effect of different formulations of equivalent active ingredients on the performance of two topical wound treatment products.

    PubMed

    Gray, Mikel; Jones, David P

    2004-03-01

    Product selection for the management of pressure ulcers or perineal dermatitis is typically based on consideration of active ingredients, but a growing body of evidence suggests that delivery vehicles also may influence product safety and efficacy. A 10-day, randomized, controlled experimental study was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of two prescription products used for the treatment of pressure ulcers and perineal dermatitis. Both products contain equivalent active ingredients (balsam of Peru, castor oil, and trypsin), but one product delivers these ingredients in an ointment base while the other uses an aerosol spray. Sixty healthy volunteers (> 65 years of age) underwent intentional creation of two equivalent skin wounds (approximately 6 mm in diameter) using an Erbium-YAG laser. Volunteers served as their own control. Wounds were randomized to treatment with one of the balsam of Peru products or saline. Wounds were evaluated every other day. Significant differences between treatments were observed for most outcome variables (edema, scabbing, erythema, epithelialization). Wounds managed with the ointment-based product had lower edema, scabbing, and erythema scores and higher epithelialization scores than the spray or saline managed wounds. The results of this study confirm that formulation of the vehicle base can have a significant effect on product safety and effectiveness.

  18. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of a monofloral honey of Mimosa scabrella provided by Melipona marginata during winter in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Borsato, Débora M; Prudente, Arthur S; Döll-Boscardin, Patrícia M; Borsato, Aurélio V; Luz, Cynthia F P; Maia, Beatriz H L N S; Cabrini, Daniela A; Otuki, Michel F; Miguel, Marilis D; Farago, Paulo V; Miguel, Obdulio G

    2014-07-01

    Melipona marginata is an endangered species of stingless bee from Brazil that produces honey with particular physicochemical features and a remarkable exotic flavor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report devoted to exploring the medicinal potential of this honey. Thus, the aim of this paper was to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory activity of honey extract from M. marginata on skin inflammation. The honey sample was classified as a monofloral honey of Mimosa scabrella. The presence of 11 phenolic compounds as kaempferol and caffeic acid was detected using the high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-ESI-MS) method. The anti-inflammatory activity was measured using a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced ear edema model of inflammation in mice. The topical application of the M. marginata honey extract (1.0 mg/ear) was able to reduce ear edema with an inhibitory effect of 54 ± 5%. This extract decreased the myeloperoxidase activity in 75 ± 3%, which suggests a lower leucocyte infiltration that was confirmed by histological analysis. This extract also provided a reduction of 55 ± 14% in the production of reactive oxygen species. This anti-inflammatory activity could be due to a synergic effect of the phenolic compounds identified in the honey sample. Taken together, these results open up new possibilities for the use of M. marginata honey extract in skin disorders.

  19. Production of hybrid lipid-based particles loaded with inorganic nanoparticles and active compounds for prolonged topical release.

    PubMed

    García-González, C A; Sampaio da Sousa, A R; Argemí, A; López Periago, A; Saurina, J; Duarte, C M M; Domingo, C

    2009-12-01

    The production of particulate hybrid carriers containing a glyceryl monostearate (Lumulse GMS-K), a waxy triglyceride (Cutina HR), silanized TiO(2) and caffeine were investigated with the aim of producing sunscreens with UV-radiation protection properties. Particles were obtained using the supercritical PGSS (Particles from Gas Saturated Solutions) technique. This method takes advantages of the lower melting temperatures of the lipids obtained from the dissolution of CO(2) in the bulk mixture. Experiments were performed at 13 MPa and 345 K, according to previous melting point measurements. Blends containing Lumulse GMS-K and Cutina HR lipids (50 wt%) were loaded with silanized TiO(2) and caffeine in percentile proportions of 6 and 4 wt%, respectively. The particles produced were characterized using several analytical techniques as follows: system crystallinity was checked by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, thermal stability by thermogravimetric analysis, and morphology by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Further, the UV-shielding ability of TiO(2) after its dispersion in the lipidic matrix was assessed by solid UV-vis spectroscopy. Preliminary results indicated that caffeine-loaded solid lipid particles presented a two-step dissolution profile, with an initial burst of 60 wt% of the loaded active agent. Lipid blends loaded with TiO(2) and caffeine encompassed the UV-filter behavior of TiO(2) and the photoaging prevention properties of caffeine.

  20. Topical formulations containing Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus extract: In vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo efficacy against UV-B-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Campanini, Marcela Z; Custódio, Dayana L; Ivan, Ana L M; Martins, Sarah M; Paranzini, Maria J R; Martinez, Renata M; Verri, Waldiceu A; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Arakawa, Nilton S; de J Faria, Terezinha; Baracat, Marcela M; Casagrande, Rúbia; Georgetti, Sandra R

    2014-02-01

    Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus is a Brazilian native plant that presents high concentrations of flavonoids and other polyphenolic compounds. Herein, we evaluated: (1) the chemical properties of P. pseudocaryophyllus ethanolic extract (PPE), (2) the in vitro antioxidant activity (AA) of PPE and of two different topical formulations (F1 and F2) containing PPE, (3) physico-chemical and functional stability, (4) in vitro release of PPE, and (5) in vivo capacity of formulations to prevent UV-B irradiation-induced skin damage. Results show that the polyphenol and flavonoid contents in PPE were 199.33 and 28.32 mg/g, respectively, and HPLC results show the presence of eugenol, tannic acid, and rutin. Evaluation of the in vitro AA of PPE demonstrated a dose-dependent effect and an IC50 of 4.75 μg/mL in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 3.0 μg/mL in 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. The ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay) was 0.046 μmol/L trolox equivalent/μg/mL of extract. Among the AA, only the capacity to scavenge DPPH radical of PPE was maintained in F1 and F2. In addition, both formulations satisfactorily released the extract. The evaluation of the functional stability of F1 and F2 did not demonstrate loss of activity by storage at room temperature and at 4°C/6 months. In irradiated mice, treatment with F1 and F2 added with PPE significantly increased the capacity to scavenge ABTS radical and the FRAP of skin compared to vehicle-treated mice. In conclusion, the present results suggest that formulations containing PPE may be a topical source of antioxidant compounds to decrease oxidative damages of the skin.

  1. Cover Picture.

    PubMed

    Breuning; Ruben; Lehn; Renz; Garcia; Ksenofontov; Gütlich; Wegelius; Rissanen

    2000-07-17

    The cover picture shows how both, fine arts and science, avail themselves of a system of intertwined symbolic and iconic languages. They make use of a common set of abstracted signs to report on their results. Thus, already in 1925, Wassily Kandinsky painted a masterpiece (bottom), which now, 75 years later, might be regarded as a blueprint for a scientific project. In his painting, Kandinsky pictured a grid-shaped sign that resembles in effect an actual molecular switch. Apparently following an enigmatic protocol, the groups of Lehn and Gütlich (see p. 2504 ff. for more details) constructed a grid-type inorganic architecture that operates as a three-level magnetic switch (center) triggered by three external perturbations (p, T, hnu). The switching principle is based on the spin-crossover phenomenon of Fe(II) ions and can be monitored by Mössbauer spectroscopy (left) and magnetic measurements (rear). Maybe not by chance, the English translation of the title of the painting "signs" is a homonym of "science", since both presented works are a product of the insatiable curiosity of man and his untiring desire to recognize his existence.

  2. Reclassified Cropland Active Fire and Burned Area Detections by the MODIS 1 km Sensor in Canadian Provinces by land cover type, 2001 - 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, T. F.; Ernst, C. L.; McCarty, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Fire is a primary disturbance agent in Canadian ecosystems and has significant social, environmental, and economic consequences. Accurate location and identification of biomass burning is critical to understanding the transfer of gases and particles into earth's atmosphere, especially in Northern latitudes. This data is an important aid in producing accurate atmospheric models that estimate black carbon (BC) deposition on arctic snow. Previous research has indicated that cropland burning contributes to BC distribution in the arctic which alters the balance in snow-albedo reflectance and radiation transmission in the atmosphere. The locations and numbers of fires were identified using the 1km MODIS Active Fire Product and the 500m MODIS Burned Area Product. Land cover type was assigned based on the 1 km MODIS Land Cover Product, to the post-processed active fire points. They were then reclassified into seven (7) classes: Croplands, Forest, Grasslands, Urban, Water Bodies, Wetlands, and Barren. The results show that Forest, Cropland, and Grassland land cover types are the main sources of active fire detections in Canada from 2001 to 2010. The peak fire months are April, May, September, and October for Cropland active fire burns in all Canadian Provinces from 2001 to 2010. By province, Saskatchewan and Manitoba are the leading sources of Cropland detected active fires. Cropland burned area estimations were calculated using the burned area pixel count (post-processing of MODIS Burned Area Product) within cropland identified by the 1 km MODIS Land Cover data set (LC-12) for the years 2003-2010. Cropland burned area detection was most significant in 2003 during which 27.3% of all detected hectares burned from 2003 to 2010 occurred. The year with least impact was 2004 in which 3.5% of all detected hectares burned. The peak months for Cropland burned area detections were May, September, and October across all Canadian Provinces from 2003 to 2010. Saskatchewan, Manitoba

  3. Techniques Deriving Land Cover and Earth Surface Deformation Information from Polarimetric SAR Interferometry- Final Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottier, E.; Chen, E.; Li, Z.; Hong, W.; Xiang, M.; Li, Y.; Cloude, S. R.; Papathanassiou, K.; Zhang, L.; Li, X.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we provide a summary of activities carried out under the DRAGON collaborative program in a project concerned with the application of Pol-InSAR to deriving land cover and Earth Surface deformation information. This project (ID. 5344) is based around four main scientific topics: Land Cover Analysis, Earth Surface Deformation Monitoring and DEM Extraction, Forest Vertical Structure Parameters Extraction and PolSARpro Software Development.

  4. Freshman Health Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovde, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.…

  5. Current topics on sonoelectrochemistry.

    PubMed

    González-García, José; Esclapez, María Deseada; Bonete, Pedro; Hernández, Yolanda Vargas; Garretón, Luís Gaete; Sáez, Verónica

    2010-02-01

    Sonoelectrochemistry is undergoing a reemerging activity in the last years with an increasing number of papers appearing in a wide range of peer review journals. Applied studies which cover environmental treatments, synthesis or characterization of nanostructures, polymeric materials synthesis, analytical procedures, films preparations, membrane preparations among other interesting applications have been reviewed. The revised fundamental analyses trying to elucidate the mechanism of the interactions between the ultrasound and electrical fields, are focused on test electrochemical processes, on the use of unconventional solvents and combination with other techniques. After the review of the achievements and faults of sonoelectrochemistry, future research lines are suggested. PMID:19853270

  6. Fibrinogenolytic and anticoagulant activities in the tissue covering the stingers of marine stingrays Dasyatis sephen and Aetobatis narinari.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kalainesan Rajesh; Vennila, Rathinam; Kanchana, Shankar; Arumugam, Muthuvel; Balasubramaniam, Thangavel

    2011-05-01

    Stingray envenomation is one of the major problems in the marine and freshwater ecosystem. Accidents in human cause immediate, local and intense pain, erythema, edema, hemorrhage, tissue necrosis and secondary bacterial infection are also common. To determine the effect of two marine stingray species Dasyatis sephen and Aetobatis narinari venom extract on coagulation, fibrin(ogen)olytic, proteolytic activities. Plasma coagulation, Thrombin catalyzed fibrinocoagulation, Fibrin plate assay, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), substrate SDS-PAGE and thrombin like activity by using chromogenic substrate were used to determine the effect of venom on plasma coagulation, its fibrin(ogen)olytic and proteolytic activity. The results show the presence of fibrin(ogen)olytic, anticoagulant and gelatinolytic activity in both stingray venom extracts. D. sephen venom delays coagulation of citrated plasma more significantly than A. narinari upon using increasing concentration of the venom. The same results were obtained in the fibrinocoagulation assays. SDS-PAGE analysis of fibrinogen and fibrin after incubation with D. sephen and A. narinari venom show fibrin(ogen)olytic activity. Through SDS-PAGE analysis it is confirmed that the delaying in coagulation process by stingray venom is due to its fibrin(ogen)olytic activity and fibrinolytic activity also confirmed through fibrin plate assay. Zymogram analysis shows the presence of array of gelatinolytic and fibrinogenolytic enzymes above 43-276 kDa in the D. sephen and A. narinari venom respectively. Protease inhibitor studies show the serine and metallo proteases are responsible for these activities. From the results, fibrinogenolytic, proteolytic activity of the stingray venom is confirmed, but it has no thrombin like activity and these activities may aid in hemorrhages, tissue necrosis and secondary bacterial infections at the site of envenomation. PMID:21165674

  7. The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) are presented. Topics covered include: science program objectives and rationale; science requirements; capturing the essential physics; science development approach; development model hardware; development model test plan; and flight hardware and operations.

  8. COMETS Profiles. Career Oriented Modules to Explore Topics in Science. 24 Biographical Sketches of Women in Science Careers plus Accompanying Language Arts Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyce, Ruth, Ed.

    Twenty-four biographical sketches of women in scientific professions are included in this COMETS Profiles package. Each biography relates to a science topic dealt with in one of the instructional modules of COMETS Science (Career Oriented Modules to Explore Topics in Science). The purpose of these materials is to demonstrate to early adolescents…

  9. Topical antimicrobials for burn infections - an update.

    PubMed

    Sevgi, Mert; Toklu, Ani; Vecchio, Daniela; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-12-01

    The relentless rise in antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria and fungi, coupled with the high susceptibility of burn wounds to infection, and the difficulty of systemically administered antibiotics to reach damaged tissue, taken together have made the development of novel topical antimicrobials for burn infections a fertile area of innovation for researchers and companies. We previously covered the existing patent literature in this area in 2010, but the notable progress made since then, has highlighted the need for an update to bring the reader up to date on recent developments. New patents in the areas of topically applied antibiotics and agents that can potentiate the action of existing antibiotics may extend their useful lifetime. Developments have also been made in biofilm-disrupting agents. Antimicrobial peptides are nature's way for many life forms to defend themselves against attack by pathogens. Silver has long been known to be a highly active antimicrobial but new inorganic metal derivatives based on bismuth, copper and gallium have emerged. Halogens such as chlorine and iodine can be delivered by novel technologies. A variety of topically applied antimicrobials include chitosan preparations, usnic acid, ceragenins and XF porphyrins. Natural product derived antimicrobials such as tannins and essential oils have also been studied. Novel techniques to deliver reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in situ have been developed. Light-mediated techniques include photodynamic therapy, ultraviolet irradiation, blue light, low-level laser therapy and titania photocatalysis. Passive immunotherapy employs antibodies against pathogens and their virulence factors. Finally an interesting new area uses therapeutic microorganisms such as phages, probiotic bacteria and protozoa to combat infections.

  10. Simple fabrication of hydrophilic nanochannels using the chemical bonding between activated ultrathin PDMS layer and cover glass by oxygen plasma.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Hyun; Cui, Yidan; Lee, Min Jung; Nam, Seong-Won; Oh, Doori; Kang, Seong Ho; Kim, Youn Sang; Park, Sungsu

    2011-01-21

    This study describes a simple and low cost method for fabricating enclosed transparent hydrophilic nanochannels by coating low-viscosity PDMS (monoglycidyl ether-terminated polydimethylsiloxane) as an adhesion layer onto the surface of the nanotrenches that are molded with a urethane-based UV-curable polymer, Norland Optical Adhesive (NOA 63). In detail, the nanotrenches made of NOA 63 were replicated from a Si master mold and coated with 6 nm thick layer of PDMS. These nanotrenches underwent an oxygen plasma treatment and finally were bound to a cover glass by chemical bonding between silanol and hydroxyl groups. Hydrophobic recovery that is observed in the bulk PDMS was not observed in the thin film of PDMS on the mold and the PDMS-coated nanochannel maintained its surface hydrophilicity for at least one month. The potentials of the nanochannels for bioapplications were demonstrated by stretching λ-DNA (48,502 bp) in the channels. Therefore, this fabrication approach provides a practical solution for the simple fabrication of the nanochannels for bioapplications.

  11. Green Schools Activity Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacramento Tree Foundation, CA.

    This collection of interdisciplinary hands-on activities covers a variety of topics related to trees and conservation. Twenty-four activities integrate the subjects of social studies, fine arts, science, language arts, math, geography, and music. Although activity instructions are not consistent they usually contain details on objectives and…

  12. Objective assessment of topical anti-inflammatory drug activity on experimentally induced nickel contact dermatitis: comparison between visual scoring, colorimetry, laser Doppler velocimetry and transepidermal water loss.

    PubMed

    Queille-Roussel, C; Duteil, L; Padilla, J M; Poncet, M; Czernielewski, J

    1990-01-01

    Four topical anti-inflammatory drugs were investigated for their effect on allergic contact dermatitis. Nickel dermatitis was chosen for its high incidence in European healthy volunteers. Experimental lesions were treated twice daily with two steroids, two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and a blank base for 4.5 days without occlusion. The influence of treatments was assessed by daily visual grading and one site was left untreated for comparison over the same period. To quantify drug activities objectively, skin colour (colorimetry), skin blood flow (laser Doppler velocimetry) and transepidermal water loss (evaporimetry) were measured before drugs were first applied, then 6 hr after the last application. As expected, only Dermoval cream significantly improved the spontaneous clinical evolution in comparison with the other creams (Hydrocortisone Aster à 1%. Parfenac, indomethacin 2.5% and Skinbase) and the untreated site. Colorimetric parameter a* (redness) and L* (luminance) showed more differences between treatments than the other criteria and a close relationship was obtained between these two parameters and skin blood flow, all three being highly correlated to visual grading. Transepidermal water loss appeared less related to clinical improvement but this parameter could prove helpful for detecting compounds which could be irritant to diseased skin.

  13. Effects of Land-Cover Change, Floods, and Stream Position on Geomorphic Processes - Implications for Restoration Activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, F.A.; ,

    2001-01-01

    A geomorphic study for North Fish Creek, a northern Wisconsin tributary to Lake Superior was analyzed to determine the hydrologic and geomorphic changes caused by clear-cut logging and agricultural activity. Discharge magnitude estimated with HEC-2 for full-channel capacities indicate that modern full-channel discharges are about twice as large as pre-1946 full-channel discharges. Flood-plain deposition rates were high along the transitional main stem after European settlement. Restoration and protection activities would be most effective if focused on watershed practices to reduce runoff and on channel restoration that reduce buff and bank erosion in the upper and transitional main stems.

  14. My House Is Covered with Papers! Reflections on a Generation of Active Citizenship. Community Supported Living Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Connie Lyle; O'Brien, John

    This booklet highlights some of the insights that five mothers of children with developmental disabilities have gained after a generation of working together to improve the lives of people with developmental disabilities in Wisconsin. It discusses civic activism, the critical importance of organized parent support, difficulties in collaborating…

  15. Physiographic and land cover attributes of the Puget Lowland and the active streamflow gaging network, Puget Sound Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher; Sevier, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Geospatial information for the active streamflow gaging network in the Puget Sound Basin was compiled to support regional monitoring of stormwater effects to small streams. The compilation includes drainage area boundaries and physiographic and land use attributes that affect hydrologic processes. Three types of boundaries were used to tabulate attributes: Puget Sound Watershed Characterization analysis units (AU); the drainage area of active streamflow gages; and the catchments of Regional Stream Monitoring Program (RSMP) sites. The active streamflow gaging network generally includes sites that represent the ranges of attributes for lowland AUs, although there are few sites with low elevations (less than 60 meters), low precipitation (less than 1 meter year), or high stream density (greater than 5 kilometers per square kilometers). The active streamflow gaging network can serve to provide streamflow information in some AUs and RSMP sites, particularly where the streamflow gage measures streamflow generated from a part of the AU or that drains to the RSMP site, and that part of the AU or RSMP site is a significant fraction of the drainage area of the streamgage. The maximum fraction of each AU or RSMP catchment upstream of a streamflow gage and the maximum fraction of any one gaged basin in an AU or RSMP along with corresponding codes are provided in the attribute tables.

  16. Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967; A Report Covering Activities in Connection with the Act During 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wage and Labor Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This annual report on the Age Discrimination in Employment Act describes activities conducted under the Act in 1969. The Act prohibits discrimination in any of the terms of employment against individuals between 40 and 65 years of age. Coverage is extended to employers of 25 or more persons in occupations for which age is not a bona fide…

  17. Endogenous β-glucocerebrosidase activity in Abca12−/−epidermis elevates ceramide levels after topical lipid application but does not restore barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Jorge F.; Cavallaro, Paul; Hernandez, Nicholas J.; Dolat, Lee; Soscia, Stephanie J.; Welti, Ruth; Grabowski, Gregory A.; Fitzgerald, Michael L.; Freeman, Mason W.

    2014-01-01

    ABCA12 mutations disrupt the skin barrier and cause harlequin ichthyosis. We previously showed Abca12−/− skin has increased glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and correspondingly lower amounts of ceramide (Cer). To examine why loss of ABCA12 leads to accumulation of GlcCer, de novo sphingolipid synthesis was assayed using [14C]serine labeling in ex vivo skin cultures. A defect was found in β-glucocerebrosidase (GCase) processing of newly synthesized GlcCer species. This was not due to a decline in GCase function. Abca12−/− epidermis had 5-fold more GCase protein (n = 4, P < 0.01), and a 5-fold increase in GCase activity (n = 3, P < 0.05). As with Abca12+/+ epidermis, immunostaining in null skin showed a typical interstitial distribution of the GCase protein in the Abca12−/− stratum corneum. Hence, we tested whether the block in GlcCer conversion could be circumvented by topically providing GlcCer. This approach restored up to 15% of the lost Cer products of GCase activity in the Abca12−/− epidermis. However, this level of barrier ceramide replacement did not significantly reduce trans-epidermal water loss function. Our results indicate loss of ABCA12 function results in a failure of precursor GlcCer substrate to productively interact with an intact GCase enzyme, and they support a model of ABCA12 function that is critical for transporting GlcCer into lamellar bodies. PMID:24293640

  18. Ride On! Mini-Units and Learning Activities on Public Transportation for Grades 6 through 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary, and adult levels, this manual covers the public transportation topic for grades 6-9. It contains forty-two learning activities grouped…

  19. Ride On! Mini-Units and Learning Activities on Public Transportation for Grades 9 through 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary, and adult levels, this manual covers the public transportation topic for grades 9-12. It contains forty-nine learning activities grouped…

  20. Spatial Heterogeneity of Ice Cover Sediment and Thickness and Its Effects on Photosynthetically Active Radiation and Chlorophyll-a Distribution: Lake Bonney, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obryk, M.; Doran, P. T.; Priscu, J. C.; Morgan-Kiss, R. M.; Siebenaler, A. G.

    2012-12-01

    The perennially ice-covered lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica have been extensively studied under the Long Term Ecological Research project. But sampling has been spatially restricted due to the logistical difficulty of penetrating the 3-6 m of ice cover. The ice covers restrict wind-driven turbulence and its associated mixing of water, resulting in a unique thermal stratification and a strong vertical gradient of salinity. The permanent ice covers also shade the underlying water column, which, in turn, controls photosynthesis. Here, we present results of a three-dimensional record of lake processes obtained with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The AUV was deployed at West Lake Bonney, located in Taylor Valley, Dry Valleys, to further understand biogeochemical and physical properties of the Dry Valley lakes. The AUV was equipped with depth, conductivity, temperature, under water photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), turbidity, chlorophyll-and-DOM fluorescence, pH, and REDOX sensors. Measurements were taken over the course of two years in a 100 x 100 meter spaced horizontal sampling grid (and 0.2 m vertical resolution). In addition, the AUV measured ice thickness and collected 200 images looking up through the ice, which were used to quantify sediment distribution. Comparison with high-resolution satellite QuickBird imagery demonstrates a strong correlation between aerial sediment distribution and ice cover thickness. Our results are the first to show the spatial heterogeneity of lacustrine ecosystems in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, significantly improving our understanding of lake processes. Surface sediment is responsible for localized thinning of ice cover due to absorption of solar radiation, which in turn increases total available PAR in the water column. Higher PAR values are negatively correlated with chlorophyll-a, presenting a paradox; historically, long-term studies of PAR and chlorophyll-a have shown positive trends. We hypothesized

  1. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Imaging to Distinguish Active from Inactive Sinkholes in Covered Karst Terrain: Results from Field Data and 3D FDTD Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooch, B. T.; Kruse, S. E.

    2009-12-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is widely used to identify locations of sinkholes in covered karst terrain in Florida. Some sinkholes serve as hydraulic conduits between the surficial and underlying aquifers. Their role is critical in determining the surficial aquifer response to pumping in deeper aquifers. Improved methods for discriminating between hydraulically active sinkholes and plugged sinkholes could help regional water management. In the covered karst of west-central Florida a clay-rich weathering horizon forms over the limestone. The clay-rich layer is in turn overlain by surficial sands. Ground penetrating radar profiles typically show a strong reflector from the top of clay-rich horizon as well as internal layering within sands. Active sinkholes are expected to have sandy conduits that broach the clay layer, and perhaps layering in the overlying sand indicative of ongoing subsidence. Three dimensional simulations of GPR profiles over sinkhole with and without conduits were run with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) program GprMax. Results from the synthetic surveys were then processed with standard techniques, including migration. The modeling confirms that conduits appear in GPR records primarily as gaps in the return from the clay layer. The modeling also shows that non-traditional survey geometries (varying antenna spacing and orientation) are unlikely to recover more information than traditional proximal transmitter-receiver separation. We also examine GPR profiles and 3D grids over a set of active and inactive sinkholes in Tampa, Florida. Preliminary analysis suggests that active sinks may present more identifiable gaps in the overlying clay layer, but consistent differences in structure of active and inactive sinkholes are not easily discerned. Other geophysical methods may prove to be more helpful in discerning the presence or absence of active conduits in these situations.

  2. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat skin conditions that involve scaling or overgrowth of skin ... water for 15 minutes.Do not apply topical salicylic acid to skin that is broken, red, swollen, irritated, or infected. ...

  3. Itch Management: Topical Agents.

    PubMed

    Metz, Martin; Staubach, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pruritus is a common problem in patients with inflammatory skin diseases as well as in subjects with dry or sensitive skin. Regardless of the underlying cause of the pruritus, a topical therapy is not only useful but most often necessary to achieve symptom control. A good topical therapy should fulfill different functions. An optimal basic therapy based on the condition of the skin is important to repair epithelial barrier defects and to rehydrate the skin. An adequate disease-specific topical therapy is crucial for inflamed skin, e.g. anti-inflammatory topical therapy is an important part in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Finally, the use of specific antipruritic substances can help to improve pruritus in patients irrespective of the underlying disease. Here, we summarize topical agents used in the treatment of chronic pruritus. PMID:27578070

  4. Crop cover the principal influence on non-crop ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) activity and assemblages at the farm scale in a long-term assessment.

    PubMed

    Eyre, M D; Sanderson, R A; McMillan, S D; Critchley, C N R

    2016-04-01

    Ground beetle data were generated using pitfall traps in the 17-year period from 1993 to 2009 and used to investigate the effects of changes in surrounding crop cover on beetle activity and assemblages, together with the effects of weather variability. Beetles were recorded from non-crop field margins (overgrown hedges). Crop cover changes explained far more variation in the beetle assemblages recorded than did temperature and rainfall variation. A reduction in management intensity and disturbance in the crops surrounding the traps, especially the introduction and development of willow coppice, was concomitant with changes in individual species activity and assemblage composition of beetles trapped in non-crop habitat. There were no consistent patterns in either overall beetle activity or in the number of species recorded over the 17-year period, but there was a clear change from assemblages dominated by smaller species with higher dispersal capability to ones with larger beetles with less dispersal potential and a preference for less disturbed agroecosystems. The influence of surrounding crops on ground beetle activity in non-crop habitat has implications for ecosystem service provision by ground beetles as pest predators. These results are contrary to conventional assumptions and interpretations, which suggest activity of pest predators in crops is influenced primarily by adjacent non-crop habitat. The long-term nature of the assessment was important in elucidation of patterns and trends, and indicated that policies such as agri-environment schemes should take cropping patterns into account when promoting management options that are intended to enhance natural pest control.

  5. Crop cover the principal influence on non-crop ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) activity and assemblages at the farm scale in a long-term assessment.

    PubMed

    Eyre, M D; Sanderson, R A; McMillan, S D; Critchley, C N R

    2016-04-01

    Ground beetle data were generated using pitfall traps in the 17-year period from 1993 to 2009 and used to investigate the effects of changes in surrounding crop cover on beetle activity and assemblages, together with the effects of weather variability. Beetles were recorded from non-crop field margins (overgrown hedges). Crop cover changes explained far more variation in the beetle assemblages recorded than did temperature and rainfall variation. A reduction in management intensity and disturbance in the crops surrounding the traps, especially the introduction and development of willow coppice, was concomitant with changes in individual species activity and assemblage composition of beetles trapped in non-crop habitat. There were no consistent patterns in either overall beetle activity or in the number of species recorded over the 17-year period, but there was a clear change from assemblages dominated by smaller species with higher dispersal capability to ones with larger beetles with less dispersal potential and a preference for less disturbed agroecosystems. The influence of surrounding crops on ground beetle activity in non-crop habitat has implications for ecosystem service provision by ground beetles as pest predators. These results are contrary to conventional assumptions and interpretations, which suggest activity of pest predators in crops is influenced primarily by adjacent non-crop habitat. The long-term nature of the assessment was important in elucidation of patterns and trends, and indicated that policies such as agri-environment schemes should take cropping patterns into account when promoting management options that are intended to enhance natural pest control. PMID:26786247

  6. Topical pharmacology of imidazole antifungals.

    PubMed

    Holt, R J

    1976-01-01

    Four imidazole derivatives have now undergone extensive open and comparative trials as topical agents in dermatomycoses and vaginal candidosis. They are chlormidazole (Chemie Grünenthal), clotrimazole (Bayer), miconazole (Janssen) and econazole (Janssen, Cilag-Chemie); all also have some antibacterial activity. Many other imidazoles have been marketed, usually as antiprotozoal or anthelminthic agents, and some of these have some antimycotic activity as well as other miscellaneous therapeutic properties. The mode of action of imidazole antimycotic agents is discussed; after prolonged topical application to animals and human subjects, systemic absorption is negligible. All four agents which are available as cream, powder, lotion or vaginal tablets have many sucessful studies to their credit, often with clinical and mycological cure rates of over 80% in a variety of dermatomycoses and in vaginal candidosis. The relative value of these topical agents is discussed, and it is suggested that in severe and extensive dermatomycoses consideration should be given to the systemic use of miconazole in support of topical therapy.

  7. Development of a pneumatically driven active cover lid for multi-well microplates for use in perfusion three-dimensional cell culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Song-Bin; Chou, Dean; Chang, Yu-Han; Li, Ke-Cing; Chiu, Tzu-Keng; Ventikos, Yiannis; Wu, Min-Hsien

    2015-12-01

    Before microfluidic-based cell culture models can be practically utilized for bioassays, there is a need for a transitional cell culture technique that can improve conventional cell culture models. To address this, a hybrid cell culture system integrating an active cover lid and a multi-well microplate was proposed to achieve perfusion 3-D cell culture. In this system, a microfluidic-based pneumatically-driven liquid transport mechanism was integrated into the active cover lid to realize 6-unit culture medium perfusion. Experimental results revealed that the flow of culture medium could be pneumatically driven in a flow-rate uniform manner. We used the system to successfully perform a perfusion 3-D cell culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for up to 16 days. Moreover, we investigated the effects of various cell culture models on the physiology of MSCs. The physiological nature of MSCs can vary with respect to the cell culture model used. Using the perfusion 3-D cell culture format might affect the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Overall, we have developed a cell culture system that can achieve multi-well microplate-based perfusion 3-D cell culture in an efficient, cost-effective, and user-friendly manner. These features could facilitate the widespread application of perfusion cell culture models for cell-based assays.

  8. Development of a pneumatically driven active cover lid for multi-well microplates for use in perfusion three-dimensional cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Song-Bin; Chou, Dean; Chang, Yu-Han; Li, Ke-Cing; Chiu, Tzu-Keng; Ventikos, Yiannis; Wu, Min-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Before microfluidic-based cell culture models can be practically utilized for bioassays, there is a need for a transitional cell culture technique that can improve conventional cell culture models. To address this, a hybrid cell culture system integrating an active cover lid and a multi-well microplate was proposed to achieve perfusion 3-D cell culture. In this system, a microfluidic-based pneumatically-driven liquid transport mechanism was integrated into the active cover lid to realize 6-unit culture medium perfusion. Experimental results revealed that the flow of culture medium could be pneumatically driven in a flow-rate uniform manner. We used the system to successfully perform a perfusion 3-D cell culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for up to 16 days. Moreover, we investigated the effects of various cell culture models on the physiology of MSCs. The physiological nature of MSCs can vary with respect to the cell culture model used. Using the perfusion 3-D cell culture format might affect the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Overall, we have developed a cell culture system that can achieve multi-well microplate-based perfusion 3-D cell culture in an efficient, cost-effective, and user-friendly manner. These features could facilitate the widespread application of perfusion cell culture models for cell-based assays. PMID:26669749

  9. Development of a pneumatically driven active cover lid for multi-well microplates for use in perfusion three-dimensional cell culture.

    PubMed

    Huang, Song-Bin; Chou, Dean; Chang, Yu-Han; Li, Ke-Cing; Chiu, Tzu-Keng; Ventikos, Yiannis; Wu, Min-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Before microfluidic-based cell culture models can be practically utilized for bioassays, there is a need for a transitional cell culture technique that can improve conventional cell culture models. To address this, a hybrid cell culture system integrating an active cover lid and a multi-well microplate was proposed to achieve perfusion 3-D cell culture. In this system, a microfluidic-based pneumatically-driven liquid transport mechanism was integrated into the active cover lid to realize 6-unit culture medium perfusion. Experimental results revealed that the flow of culture medium could be pneumatically driven in a flow-rate uniform manner. We used the system to successfully perform a perfusion 3-D cell culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for up to 16 days. Moreover, we investigated the effects of various cell culture models on the physiology of MSCs. The physiological nature of MSCs can vary with respect to the cell culture model used. Using the perfusion 3-D cell culture format might affect the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Overall, we have developed a cell culture system that can achieve multi-well microplate-based perfusion 3-D cell culture in an efficient, cost-effective, and user-friendly manner. These features could facilitate the widespread application of perfusion cell culture models for cell-based assays. PMID:26669749

  10. Effects of winter cover crops residue returning on soil enzyme activities and soil microbial community in double-cropping rice fields.

    PubMed

    Hai-Ming, Tang; Xiao-Ping, Xiao; Wen-Guang, Tang; Ye-Chun, Lin; Ke, Wang; Guang-Li, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Residue management in cropping systems is useful to improve soil quality. However, the studies on the effects of residue management on the enzyme activities and microbial community of soils in South China are few. Therefore, the effects of incorporating winter cover crop residue with a double-cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) system on soil enzyme activities and microbial community in Southern China fields were studied. The experiment has conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Soil and Fertilizer Research, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science, China since winter 2004. Four winter cropping systems were used: rice-rice-ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (R-R-Ry), rice-rice-Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (R-R-Mv), rice-rice-rape (Brassica napus L.) (R-R-Ra) and rice-rice with winter fallow (R-R-Fa). The result indicated that the enzyme activities in the R-R-Ry, R-R-Mv and R-R-Ra systems were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the R-R-Fa system during the early and late rice season. The β-glucosidase activities reached peak values at the tillering stage after residue application, and alkaline phosphatase activities reached peak values at the booting stage after residue application, respectively, the activities of β-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase gradually decreased after this. Arylsulfatase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. Arylamidase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. The numbers of aerobic bacteria, actinomycete and fungus of residue treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that the R-R-Ra system. However, the number of anaerobic bacteria under the R-R-Ry and R-R-Mv systems was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that under the R-R-Fa system during early rice and late rice growth stage. Thus, incorporation of winter cover crops into rotations may increase enzyme activities and microbial community in soil and therefore improve soil quality.

  11. Effects of Winter Cover Crops Residue Returning on Soil Enzyme Activities and Soil Microbial Community in Double-Cropping Rice Fields

    PubMed Central

    Hai-Ming, Tang; Xiao-Ping, Xiao; Wen-Guang, Tang; Ye-Chun, Lin; Ke, Wang; Guang-Li, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Residue management in cropping systems is useful to improve soil quality. However, the studies on the effects of residue management on the enzyme activities and microbial community of soils in South China are few. Therefore, the effects of incorporating winter cover crop residue with a double-cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) system on soil enzyme activities and microbial community in Southern China fields were studied. The experiment has conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Soil and Fertilizer Research, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science, China since winter 2004. Four winter cropping systems were used: rice–rice–ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (R-R-Ry), rice–rice–Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (R-R-Mv), rice–rice–rape (Brassica napus L.) (R-R-Ra) and rice–rice with winter fallow (R-R-Fa). The result indicated that the enzyme activities in the R-R-Ry, R-R-Mv and R-R-Ra systems were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the R-R-Fa system during the early and late rice season. The β-glucosidase activities reached peak values at the tillering stage after residue application, and alkaline phosphatase activities reached peak values at the booting stage after residue application, respectively, the activities of β-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase gradually decreased after this. Arylsulfatase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. Arylamidase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. The numbers of aerobic bacteria, actinomycete and fungus of residue treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that the R-R-Ra system. However, the number of anaerobic bacteria under the R-R-Ry and R-R-Mv systems was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that under the R-R-Fa system during early rice and late rice growth stage. Thus, incorporation of winter cover crops into rotations may increase enzyme activities and microbial community in soil and therefore improve soil quality. PMID:24956152

  12. Effects of winter cover crops residue returning on soil enzyme activities and soil microbial community in double-cropping rice fields.

    PubMed

    Hai-Ming, Tang; Xiao-Ping, Xiao; Wen-Guang, Tang; Ye-Chun, Lin; Ke, Wang; Guang-Li, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Residue management in cropping systems is useful to improve soil quality. However, the studies on the effects of residue management on the enzyme activities and microbial community of soils in South China are few. Therefore, the effects of incorporating winter cover crop residue with a double-cropping rice (Oryza sativa L.) system on soil enzyme activities and microbial community in Southern China fields were studied. The experiment has conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Soil and Fertilizer Research, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science, China since winter 2004. Four winter cropping systems were used: rice-rice-ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) (R-R-Ry), rice-rice-Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) (R-R-Mv), rice-rice-rape (Brassica napus L.) (R-R-Ra) and rice-rice with winter fallow (R-R-Fa). The result indicated that the enzyme activities in the R-R-Ry, R-R-Mv and R-R-Ra systems were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the R-R-Fa system during the early and late rice season. The β-glucosidase activities reached peak values at the tillering stage after residue application, and alkaline phosphatase activities reached peak values at the booting stage after residue application, respectively, the activities of β-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase gradually decreased after this. Arylsulfatase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. Arylamidase activities reached peak values at the maturity stage. The numbers of aerobic bacteria, actinomycete and fungus of residue treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that the R-R-Ra system. However, the number of anaerobic bacteria under the R-R-Ry and R-R-Mv systems was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that under the R-R-Fa system during early rice and late rice growth stage. Thus, incorporation of winter cover crops into rotations may increase enzyme activities and microbial community in soil and therefore improve soil quality. PMID:24956152

  13. Topical mechlorethamine restores autoimmune-arrested follicular activity in mice with an alopecia areata-like disease by targeting infiltrated lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liren; Cao, Liping; Bernardo, Olga; Chen, Yongliang; Sundberg, John P; Lui, Harvey; Chung, Stephen; Shapiro, Jerry

    2003-03-01

    Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disease targeted at hair follicles with infiltrated T lymphocytes probably playing an important role in the pathogenesis. It was reported in 1985 that mechlorethamine was effective on alopecia areata patients. This has never been confirmed since. The aims of the study were to investigate the effects of mechlorethamine on balding C3H/HeJ mice affected with an alopecia-areata-like disease and to study the underlying mechanisms. Mice were treated on half of the dorsal skin with mechlorethamine and the contralateral side was treated with the vehicle ointment. After 10 wk of mechlorethamine therapy, a full pelage of hair covered the treated side in all the mice and was maintained during the study, whereas the vehicle-treated sides showed either no change or continued hair loss. Immunohistochemistry revealed that infiltrated CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes were eliminated from the treated side. In vitro cell viability assay showed that lymphocytes were much more sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of mechlorethamine than skin and hair follicular cells. RNase protection assay and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that tumor necrosis factor alpha/beta, interleukin-12, and interferon-gamma were inhibited by mechlorethamine upon successful treatment. Our findings support that mechlorethamine restores follicular activity by selectively targeting infiltrated lymphocytes in vivo in alopecia-areata-affected mice.

  14. Topical diclofenac solution.

    PubMed

    Moen, Marit D

    2009-01-01

    Topical diclofenac solution (Pennsaid) is a liquid formulation containing the NSAID diclofenac sodium (1.5% w/w). The solution base contains 45% w/w dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to enhance the absorption of diclofenac through the skin. Topical diclofenac solution is applied directly to the knee for treatment of symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. In well designed 4- to 12-week trials in patients with primary osteoarthritis of the knee, topical diclofenac solution (40 drops four times daily) was significantly more effective than placebo or vehicle control (carrier solution without diclofenac) for improving Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index pain and physical function, and improving patient global assessment (PGA) and/or patient overall health assessment scores from baseline to the final assessments. Topical diclofenac solution (50 drops three times daily) was as effective as oral diclofenac 150 mg/day for improving WOMAC pain and physical function and PGA scores in a 12-week double-blind study in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Topical diclofenac solution was generally well tolerated. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event experienced by topical diclofenac solution recipients was dry skin at the application site. Gastrointestinal adverse events and abnormal laboratory parameters were less common with topical diclofenac solution than with oral diclofenac. PMID:19943711

  15. Topical diclofenac solution.

    PubMed

    Moen, Marit D

    2009-01-01

    Topical diclofenac solution (Pennsaid) is a liquid formulation containing the NSAID diclofenac sodium (1.5% w/w). The solution base contains 45% w/w dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to enhance the absorption of diclofenac through the skin. Topical diclofenac solution is applied directly to the knee for treatment of symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. In well designed 4- to 12-week trials in patients with primary osteoarthritis of the knee, topical diclofenac solution (40 drops four times daily) was significantly more effective than placebo or vehicle control (carrier solution without diclofenac) for improving Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index pain and physical function, and improving patient global assessment (PGA) and/or patient overall health assessment scores from baseline to the final assessments. Topical diclofenac solution (50 drops three times daily) was as effective as oral diclofenac 150 mg/day for improving WOMAC pain and physical function and PGA scores in a 12-week double-blind study in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Topical diclofenac solution was generally well tolerated. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event experienced by topical diclofenac solution recipients was dry skin at the application site. Gastrointestinal adverse events and abnormal laboratory parameters were less common with topical diclofenac solution than with oral diclofenac.

  16. Women's Health Topics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Women's Health 10903 New Hampshire Avenue WO32-2333 Silver Spring, MD 20993 More in Women's Health Topics ... Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1- ...

  17. [Field Learning Activities].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolde Forest Environmental Education Center, Reading, PA.

    Seventy field activities, pertinent to outdoor, environmental studies, are described in this compilation. Designed for elementary and junior high school students, the activities cover many discipline areas--science, social studies, language arts, health, history, mathematics, and art--and many are multidisciplinary in use. Topics range from soil…

  18. Snow-cover dynamics monitored by automatic digital photography at the rooting zone of an active rock glacier in the Hinteres Lantal Cirque, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Rieckh, Matthias; Avian, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Knowledge regarding snow-cover dynamics and climatic conditions in the rooting zone of active rock glaciers is still limited. The number of meteorological stations on the surface of or close to active rock glaciers is increasing. However, areal information on snow-cover distribution and its spatial dynamics caused by different processes on rock glaciers surfaces with a high temporal resolution from such remote alpine areas are mostly difficult to obtain. To face this problem an automatic remote digital camera (RDC) system was proprietary developed. The core parts of the RDC system are a standard hand-held digital camera, a remote control, a water proof casing with a transparent opening, a 12V/25Ah battery and solar panels with a charge controller. Three such devices were constructed and installed at different sites in the Central Alps of Austria. One RDC system is used to monitor the rooting zone of the highly active rock glacier in the Hinteres Langtal Cirque (46°59'N, 12°47'E), Central Schober Mountains, Austria. The 0.15 km² large NW-facing rock glaciers is tongue-shaped with a fast moving lower part (>1m/a) and a substantially slower upper part, ranging in elevation between 2455-2700 m a.s.l. The RDC system was set up in September 2006 and is located since than at 2770 m a.s.l. on a pronounced ridge crest that confines the Hinteres Langtal Cirque to the SW. The water proof casing was attached to a 1.5 m high metal pole which itself was fixed to the bedrock by screws and concrete glue. The viewing direction of the camera is NE. Hence, the image section of the RDC focuses on the rooting zone of the rock glacier and its headwalls up to c. 3000 m a.s.l. Photographs were taken daily at 3 pm providing the optimal lighting conditions in the relevant part of the cirque. 720 photographs were taken continuously in the period 12.09.2006 to 31.08.2008. These optical data were analysed by applying GIS and remote sensing techniques regarding snow-cover distribution

  19. Proceedings of a Topical Meeting On Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects

    SciTech Connect

    1986-02-12

    These proceedings describe the workshop of the Topical Meeting on Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects. The projects covered include binary power plants, rotary separator, screw expander power plants, modular wellhead power plants, inflow turbines, and the EPRI hybrid power system. Active projects versus geothermal power projects were described. In addition, a simple approach to estimating effects of fluid deliverability on geothermal power cost is described starting on page 119. (DJE-2005)

  20. Dialogue-Based Activities and Manipulatives to Engage Liberal Arts Majors in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James C.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents four inquiry-based learning activities developed for a liberal arts math course. The activities cover four topics: the Pythagorean theorem, interest theory, optimization, and the Monty Hall problem. Each activity consists of a dialogue, with a theme and characters related to the topic, and a manipulative, that allow students…

  1. Effect of parental selection of healthy behavior topic during well child visit on plan to change childs eating or physical activity behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current recommendations direct pediatricians to address obesity and obesity prevention routinely during well child visits and to tailor their counseling, but clinicians may feel ineffective because of time constraints and lack of parent interest. To prompt parents to select a healthy lifestyle topic...

  2. Multimedia Activities in L2 Course Websites--A Case Study of a Site Dedicated to Cultural Topics of Portuguese-Speaking Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasconcelos, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    This study examines student preferences and behavior when navigating online multimedia modules dedicated to teaching cultural aspects associated with an L2, and the contribution of the online multimedia format of the modules to raising interest in these cultural topics. It focuses on student options regarding reading texts on the modules' main…

  3. Topical fat reduction.

    PubMed

    Greenway, F L; Bray, G A; Heber, D

    1995-11-01

    The fat on women's thighs is more difficult to mobilize due to increased alpha-2 adrenergic receptor activity induced by estrogen. Lipolysis can be initiated through adipocyte receptor stimulation (beta adrenergic) or inhibition (adenosine or alpha-2 adrenergic) or by inhibition of phosphodiesterase. Since many women desire regional thigh fat loss, a series of clinical trials were initiated using one thigh as a double-blinded control. Trial #1: Five overweight women had injections of isoproterenol at intervals around the thigh three times a week for 4 weeks with diet and walking. Trial #2: Five overweight woman had ointment containing forskolin, yohimbine and aminophylline applied to the thigh five times a week for 4 weeks after hypertonic warm soaks with a diet and walking. Trial #3: Eighteen overweight women were divided into three groups of six and trial #2 was repeated with each agent alone vs. placebo using forskolin, yohimbine or aminophylline in separate ointments. Trial #4: Thirty overweight women had 10% aminophylline ointment applied to the thigh five times a week for 6 weeks with diet and walking. Chemistry panel, theophylline level and patch testing were performed. Trial #5: Twelve women had trial #4 repeated with 2% aminophylline cream without a diet or walking. Trial #6: Trial #5 was repeated with 0.5% aminophylline cream. All trials except yohimbine ointment gave significantly more girth loss from the treated thigh (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Chemistry panel showed no toxicity. Theophylline was undetectable and patch testing was negative. We conclude that topical fat reduction for women's thighs can be achieved without diet or exercise. PMID:8697059

  4. IP Internal Movement and Topicalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Pei-Jung

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate the phenomenon of internal topicalization cross-linguistically, using Chinese as a starting point. Internal topicalization refers to constructions in which a topic phrase is placed between the subject and the verb (in contrast to external topicalization, which involves a topic in the CP domain). I argue that…

  5. The pharmacology of topical analgesics.

    PubMed

    Barkin, Robert L

    2013-07-01

    Pain management of patients continues to pose challenges to clinicians. Given the multiple dimensions of pain--whether acute or chronic, mild, moderate, or severe, nociceptive or neuropathic--a multimodal approach may be needed. Fortunately, clinicians have an array of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment choices; however, each modality must be chosen carefully, because some often used oral agents are associated with safety and tolerability issues that restrict their use in certain patients. In particular, orally administered nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, opioids, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants are known to cause systemic adverse effects in some patients. To address this problem, a number of topical therapies in various therapeutic classes have been developed to reduce systemic exposure and minimize the risks of patients developing adverse events. For example, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug formulations produce a site-specific effect (ie, cyclo-oxygenase inhibition) while decreasing the systemic exposure that may lead to undesired effects in patients. Similarly, derivatives of acetylsalicylic acid (ie, salicylates) are used in topical analgesic formulations that do not significantly enter the patient's systemic circulation. Salicylates, along with capsaicin, menthol, and camphor, compose the counterirritant class of topical analgesics, which produce analgesia by activating and then desensitizing epidermal nociceptors. Additionally, patches and creams that contain the local anesthetic lidocaine, alone or co-formulated with other local anesthetics, are also used to manage patients with select acute and chronic pain states. Perhaps the most common topical analgesic modality is the cautious application of cutaneous cold and heat. Such treatments may decrease pain not by reaching the target tissue through systemic distribution, but by acting more directly on the affected tissue. Despite the tolerability benefits associated with avoiding

  6. ISEE 3 observations during the CDAW 8 intervals - Case studies of the distant geomagnetic tail covering a wide range of geomagnetic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Slavin, J. A.; Owen, C. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Galvin, A. B.; Sanderson, T. R.; Scholer, M.

    1989-01-01

    Observations made by the ISEE 3 spacecraft in the distant geomagnetic tail during the eight CDAW 8 intervals are discussed, along with their relation to concurrent geomagnetic activity. This extensive multiinstrument case study of distant tail data covers a wide range of geomagnetic conditions from extended intervals of magnetic quiet with isolated substorms to prolonged periods of intense disturbance. Plasmoids are observed in the distant tail following disturbance enhancements, the time of their appearance being generally consistent with disconnection from the near-earth region at the time of the enhancement. Their structure is entirely consistent with the neutral line model. However, not all enhancements in geomagnetic activity result in the observation of plasmoids. In particular, the CDAW 8 data suggest that, during extended intervals of strong activity, a continuous neutral line may reside in the near-earth tail and some disturbance enhancements may then relate to an increase in the reconnection rate at a preexisting neutral line, rather than to new neutral line and plasmoid formation.

  7. Torpedo: topic periodicity discovery from text data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingjing; Deng, Hongbo; Han, Jiawei

    2015-05-01

    Although history may not repeat itself, many human activities are inherently periodic, recurring daily, weekly, monthly, yearly or following some other periods. Such recurring activities may not repeat the same set of keywords, but they do share similar topics. Thus it is interesting to mine topic periodicity from text data instead of just looking at the temporal behavior of a single keyword/phrase. Some previous preliminary studies in this direction prespecify a periodic temporal template for each topic. In this paper, we remove this restriction and propose a simple yet effective framework Torpedo to mine periodic/recurrent patterns from text, such as news articles, search query logs, research papers, and web blogs. We first transform text data into topic-specific time series by a time dependent topic modeling module, where each of the time series characterizes the temporal behavior of a topic. Then we use time series techniques to detect periodicity. Hence we both obtain a clear view of how topics distribute over time and enable the automatic discovery of periods that are inherent in each topic. Theoretical and experimental analyses demonstrate the advantage of Torpedo over existing work.

  8. Topical Therapies for Pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Elmariah, Sarina B.; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2011-01-01

    Itch, or pruritus, is the predominant symptom associated with acute and chronic cutaneous disease and in some cases, may be debilitating. To date, there is no single universally effective anti-itch treatment. As the pathophysiology of itch in most cutaneous or systemic disorders remains unclear, anti-pruritic therapy is often directed against a variety of targets, including the epidermal barrier, immune system, or the nervous system. Topical therapy is the mainstay of dermatologic management of acute or localized itch or in patients with contraindications to systemic therapies. This review will summarize current topical therapies to treat pruritus and discuss potential future therapies. PMID:21767774

  9. Agricultural Education Science Activity--Nos. SS 2-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Curriculum Materials Service.

    This packet contains three science learning activities that can be used in agricultural education courses. The activities cover these topics: (1) determining the effects of soil particle size on capillary action; (2) measuring levels of eroded soil particles in streams; and (3) determining the effects of soil cover and texture on surface erosion.…

  10. Housing: Topic Paper F.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    This paper, one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, addresses the issue of housing. Major federal responsibilities are to develop additional housing opportunities for persons with disabilities and to assure that currently available housing is equally open to individuals with…

  11. Transportation: Topic Paper E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    As one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, this paper reviews the issue of transportation services. In the area of urban mass transit, four relevant pieces of legislation and public transportation accessibility regulations are cited, and cost issues are explored. Paratransit systems,…

  12. Topical Research: Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  13. Differential Topic Models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changyou; Buntine, Wray; Ding, Nan; Xie, Lexing; Du, Lan

    2015-02-01

    In applications we may want to compare different document collections: they could have shared content but also different and unique aspects in particular collections. This task has been called comparative text mining or cross-collection modeling. We present a differential topic model for this application that models both topic differences and similarities. For this we use hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric models. Moreover, we found it was important to properly model power-law phenomena in topic-word distributions and thus we used the full Pitman-Yor process rather than just a Dirichlet process. Furthermore, we propose the transformed Pitman-Yor process (TPYP) to incorporate prior knowledge such as vocabulary variations in different collections into the model. To deal with the non-conjugate issue between model prior and likelihood in the TPYP, we thus propose an efficient sampling algorithm using a data augmentation technique based on the multinomial theorem. Experimental results show the model discovers interesting aspects of different collections. We also show the proposed MCMC based algorithm achieves a dramatically reduced test perplexity compared to some existing topic models. Finally, we show our model outperforms the state-of-the-art for document classification/ideology prediction on a number of text collections. PMID:26353238

  14. Multiple layer insulation cover

    DOEpatents

    Farrell, James J.; Donohoe, Anthony J.

    1981-11-03

    A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

  15. Recycle Alaska: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. Activities Handbook, Teacher's Guide, and Student Worksheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Recycling is a very important aspect of conserving the environment for future generations. This guide addresses the topic of litter prevention for the Alaskan environment and contains 42 activities. Activity topics covered include Natural Cycles, Human Interruption of Natural Cycles, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Recycled Classroom. Grade level,…

  16. The impact of human activities on land use and land cover changes and environmental processes in the Gorce Mountains (Western Polish Carpathians) in the past 50 years.

    PubMed

    Bucała, Anna

    2014-06-01

    The role of human impact on the natural environment was studied in the Jaszcze and Jamne catchments in the Gorce Mountains (Western Polish Carpathians). Analysis of land use and land cover changes using GIS techniques and cartographic materials between 1954 and 2004 indicates an increase in forest area by 11.5% and 18.5%, respectively, at the expense of arable land and grassland areas. Agricultural abandonment often occurred on steep slopes (above 10°) with skeletal (shallow) soils at higher elevations (above 800 m a.s.l.). In addition, the density of dirt roads decreased from 6.97 km/km(2) in 1981 to 4.3 km/km(2) in 2008. In former agricultural areas, long expanses of terraces have either disappeared or experienced shallow mass movements. The statistical reports and questionnaire survey indicate reduced income from farm activities in this region. As a result of LULC changes and stream transformation, the Jaszcze and Jamne stream channels were shortened, straightened, and narrowed, with tendency to incision estimated at 1 cm per year over the past 40 years. The changes observed in the environment under human impact, accelerated following 1989, are representative of the Western Polish Carpathians. PMID:24565936

  17. Topical diphenhydramine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, D T

    1991-08-01

    This paper will review an acute onset of mental confusion associated with hallucinations secondary to vigorous administration of topical Caladryl lotion and Benadryl spray in an 8-year-old boy with chickenpox. The article discusses the toxicity of both oral and topical diphenhydramine use, along with the differentiation of varicella encephalitis from diphenhydramine toxicity. Delirium can be described as an acute clouding of consciousness associated with visual and tactile hallucinations, disorientation, and misperceptions. In a child who is already suffering from an infectious illness, encephalitis must be high on the list of the physician's differential diagnosis. The physician, however, must never overlook ingestions, even from topical, over-the-counter medications. The case described illustrates this point. Although this appears to be the fourth case report on this subject, the diagnosis was partially obscured by the fact that the local pharmacist could not find any documented cases despite a computer search of diphenhydramine toxicity at the time of admission and the report of only one or two cases by the Parke-Davis pharmacist.

  18. Chronic postsurgical pain: still a neglected topic?

    PubMed Central

    Kissin, Igor; Gelman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background Surgical injury can frequently lead to chronic pain. Despite the obvious importance of this problem, the first publications on chronic pain after surgery as a general topic appeared only a decade ago. This study tests the hypothesis that chronic postsurgical pain was, and still is, represented insufficiently. Methods We analyzed the presentation of this topic in journal articles covered by PubMed and in surgical textbooks. The following signs of insufficient representation in journal articles were used: (1) the lack of journal editorials on chronic pain after surgery, (2) the lack of journal articles with titles clearly indicating that they are devoted to chronic postsurgical pain, and (3) the insufficient representation of chronic postsurgical pain in the top surgical journals. Results It was demonstrated that insufficient representation of this topic existed in 1981–2000, especially in surgical journals and textbooks. Interest in this topic began to increase, however, mostly regarding one specific surgery: herniorrhaphy. It is important that the change in the attitude toward chronic postsurgical pain spreads to other groups of surgeries. Conclusion Chronic postsurgical pain is still a neglected topic, except for pain after herniorrhaphy. The change in the attitude toward chronic postsurgical pain is the important first step in the approach to this problem. PMID:23152698

  19. Topics in landing gear dynamics research at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomb, H. G., Jr.; Tanner, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Four topics in landing gear dynamics are discussed. Three of these topics are subjects of recent research: tilt steering phenomenon, water spray ingestion on flooded runways, and actively controlled landing gear. The fourth topic is a description of a major facility recently enhanced in capability.

  20. The Living Ocean. SeaWiFS: Studying Ocean Color from Space. Teacher's Guide with Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This educational document, designed for grades 9 to 10, discusses the observation of oceans from space. Topics covered include ocean color, the role of phytoplankton, the carbon cycle, and the greenhouse effect. Activities and discussion questions are presented.

  1. Cover Your Cough

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Cover Your Cough Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Posters only available as PDF files. Cover Your Cough, Flyer for Health Care Settings English [324 KB] ...

  2. Topical nifedipine with lidocaine ointment versus active control for pain after hemorrhoidectomy: results of a multicentre, prospective, randomized, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Perrotti, Pasquale; Dominici, Patrizia; Grossi, Enzo; Cerutti, Renata; Antropoli, Carmine

    2010-01-01

    Background Spasm through the internal anal sphincter is one of the supposed causes for pain after hemorrhoidectomy, a common and distressing experience. We hypothesized that the addition of topical nifedipine to lidocaine would improve pain control by causing a relaxation of the smooth muscle of the internal anal sphincter. Methods We conducted a multicentre randomized, double-blind trial to compare the efficacy of 0.3% nifedipine and 1.5% lidocaine ointment versus 1.5% lidocaine ointment alone in reducing pain after hemorrhoidectomy. A physician unaware of the treatment arm measured pain by use of the Analogue Chromatic Continuous Scale (ACCS) at baseline; soon after surgery; at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 hours after surgery; on day 7 after surgery; and at a final visit 14 days after surgery. The physician also noted the time to first analgesic administration within 24 hours after surgery. Results In all, 135 patients per group participated (270 total). Evaluation of the delta ACCS score versus basal value, a covariate for rescue analgesic administration time, revealed better pain control in the group that received nifedipine with lidocaine at 6 hours after surgery and on day 7 (p < 0.011 and p < 0.054, respectively). We noticed no difference between groups for time of administration of rescue analgesic, blood pressure, heart rate or frequency of headache. Conclusion Although there was no difference between groups for time of administration of rescue analgesic after open hemorrhoidectomy, the patients’ assessment of pain using ACCS showed that the use of topical nifedipine with lidocaine may provide a slight significant difference in favour of the study group at 6 hours and at day 7 after surgery. Narcotic analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration should continue to be recommended. Further research focusing on these outcomes is warranted. PMID:20100408

  3. Calcium effects and systemic exposure of vitamin D3 analogues after topical treatment of active vitamin D3-containing ointments in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Atsushi; Hirabe, Maho; Tokuda, Takuya; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Amano, Toru; Okamoto, Tadao

    2016-10-01

    Topical agents containing vitamin D3 (VD3) analogues such as calcipotriol, maxacalcitol and tacalcitol and the combination of calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate (betamethasone) are prescribed for patients with psoriasis. However, they are known to occasionally cause hypercalcemia, and the frequency of hypercalcemia is suggested to vary according to the VD3 analogue used. In this study, to address the reason for these differences, the calcemic effects of maxacalcitol-, calcipotriol- and calcipotriol/betamethasone-containing ointments in rats were evaluated. The serum calcium levels in rats treated with ointments containing maxacalcitol, but not calcipotriol or calcipotriol/betamethasone, were significantly elevated, which is consistent with clinical observations. The serum concentration of VD3 analogue in rats treated with ointments containing calcipotriol and calcipotriol/betamethasone was lower than that in rats treated with maxacalcitol-containing ointment. Thus, the calcemic effects appear to be associated with the systemic exposure of VD3 analogues in rats. To understand the mechanism underlying the different systemic exposures of VD3 analogues, skin permeation and metabolic stability of VD3 analogues were evaluated. The cumulative amount of calcipotriol permeated through rat skin was significantly lower than that of maxacalcitol. On the other hand, the metabolic clearance of calcipotriol in rat hepatocytes was higher than that of maxacalcitol. Similar results were obtained using human skin and human hepatocytes. The current study demonstrates that the lower calcemic effects of calcipotriol- and calcipotriol/betamethasone-containing ointments are caused by the low systemic exposure of calcipotriol according to low skin permeability and rapid hepatic elimination after topical application.

  4. Cover crops for Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are grown to benefit the following crop as well as to improve the soil, but they are normally not intended for harvest. Selecting the right cover crops for farming operations can improve yields, soil and water conservation and quality, and economic productivity. Properly managed cover ...

  5. Comparison of a coupled snow thermodynamic and radiative transfer model with in situ active microwave signatures of snow-covered smooth first-year sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, M. C.; Geldsetzer, T.; Yackel, J.; Gill, J. P. S.

    2015-11-01

    Within the context of developing data inversion and assimilation techniques for C-band backscatter over sea ice, snow physical models may be used to drive backscatter models for comparison and optimization with satellite observations. Such modeling has the potential to enhance understanding of snow on sea-ice properties required for unambiguous interpretation of active microwave imagery. An end-to-end modeling suite is introduced, incorporating regional reanalysis data (NARR), a snow model (SNTHERM89.rev4), and a multilayer snow and ice active microwave backscatter model (MSIB). This modeling suite is assessed against measured snow on sea-ice geophysical properties and against measured active microwave backscatter. NARR data were input to the SNTHERM snow thermodynamic model in order to drive the MSIB model for comparison to detailed geophysical measurements and surface-based observations of C-band backscatter of snow on first-year sea ice. The NARR variables were correlated to available in situ measurements with the exception of long-wave incoming radiation and relative humidity, which impacted SNTHERM simulations of snow temperature. SNTHERM snow grain size and density were comparable to observations. The first assessment of the forward assimilation technique developed in this work required the application of in situ salinity profiles to one SNTHERM snow profile, which resulted in simulated backscatter close to that driven by in situ snow properties. In other test cases, the simulated backscatter remained 4-6 dB below observed for higher incidence angles and when compared to an average simulated backscatter of in situ end-member snow covers. Development of C-band inversion and assimilation schemes employing SNTHERM89.rev4 should consider sensitivity of the model to bias in incoming long-wave radiation, the effects of brine, and the inability of SNTHERM89.Rev4 to simulate water accumulation and refreezing at the bottom and mid-layers of the snowpack. These impact

  6. Topical urea in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, P K; Choudhury, A K; Panja, S K

    1990-03-01

    For years research has been conducted to find a cutaneous moisturizer that is effective, easily available and relatively inexpensive urea, as a atopical agent, is all of this and is also a mild keratolytic. A trial was conducted over 200 patients suffering from a variety of disorders that were selected and using urea topically as urea 10 (10%), urea-20 lotion (20%), Urea-HC (with hydrocartisanl). The agent was applied twice daily for a maximum period of 8 weeks. Results indicate that urea is an effective moisturizer and in promotes the penetration of hydrocelisone into the skin.

  7. Topically induced diphenhydramine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Reilly, J F; Weisse, M E

    1990-01-01

    We report the case of a 2 1/2-year-old child who manifested acute anticholinergic toxicity after the applications of a topical calamine-antihistamine lotion. This mechanism of diphenhydramine toxicity is uncommon, with only a few other case reports noted in the literature. This case is also intriguing in that this child had an underlying varicella illness with fever that tended to obscure the picture. This report describes the characteristic history and physical examination pertinent to anticholinergic toxicity, varicella complication considerations, and case management.

  8. Novel topical therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Bleier, Benjamin S

    2010-06-01

    Intranasal drug delivery is a rapidly growing field that offers the potential for enhanced treatment of local and systemic disease. Novel preclinical screening tools such as in vitro assays and 3-dimensional imaging are currently being used to improve drug design and delivery. In addition, new evidence has emerged underlining the importance of surgical marsupialization of the sinuses to allow for improved topical delivery. Although multiple barriers to administration and absorption exist, implantable therapeutics using new classes of drug-eluting polymers allow for prolonged, site-specific drug delivery and hold great promise in overcoming these obstacles.

  9. Recent topics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Y

    1996-08-01

    In Japan, the concern about ethical issues in preventive medicine, especially in epidemiological investigation, has been gradually increasing in recent years. In this paper I introduce the following four topics: 1. privacy protection and the computer, 2. informed consent and publication, 3. the attitudes toward ethics among epidemiologists, 4. the attitudes toward epidemiological investigation among examinees. In my opinion, Japanese epidemiologists should give more attention to general ethical principles (Respect for persons, Beneficence) and to the practical methods to apply them in their research works.

  10. 43 CFR 5.1 - What does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROJECTS AND STILL PHOTOGRAPHY ON CERTAIN AREAS UNDER DEPARTMENT JURISDICTION Areas Administered by the... does this subpart cover? This subpart covers commercial filming and still photography activities...

  11. 43 CFR 5.1 - What does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROJECTS AND STILL PHOTOGRAPHY ON CERTAIN AREAS UNDER DEPARTMENT JURISDICTION Areas Administered by the... does this subpart cover? This subpart covers commercial filming and still photography activities...

  12. Topics in theoretical surface science

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, R.

    1991-10-25

    The energetics and structures of clean and adsorbate covered surfaces are investigated in this dissertation. First, the formalism, within the Corrected Effective Medium (CEM) method, for calculating the surface energy of a clean surface is derived. The surface energies for many different metals and their low index surfaces are presented. The minimization of the surface energy is then used to predict the multilayer relaxation of the Al(111), (100), Ni(100), (110) and Fe(100) surfaces. Extensions of the surface CEM formalism to calculate the binding energies of ordered adsorbates on metals surfaces are also derived. The minimization of the binding energy allowed determination of the binding heights, sites and the extent of induced multilayer relaxation for H and N atoms on the Fe(110), (100) and W(110) surfaces. The last topic deals with the dynamics of the epitaxial growth of metals on metal surfaces. The CEM method was first modified by making approximations to enable faster evaluations of the potential and its corresponding forces for molecular dynamics simulations. The goal of these simulations was to identify the important steps in the formation of equilibrium epitaxial structures. 180 refs., 31 figs., 18 tabs.

  13. Incorporating Women and Crime Topics into Criminology Classes: Assignments, Exercises, and Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    Recommends a variety of books, assignments, exercises, and projects which can be incorporated into introductory criminology classes to compensate for the omission of topics on women and crime in textbooks and curricula. Includes a list of potential topics for writing assignments and a selection of films covering such topics as sexual harassment,…

  14. Active experiments in space; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission D (Meeting D3) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbert, R.

    1992-12-01

    The present volume on active experiments in space discusses dynamic trapping of electrons in the Porcupine ionospheric ion beam experiment, plasma wave observations during electron gun experiments on ISEE-1, spatial coherence and electromagnetic wave generation during electron beam experiments in space, and recent experimental measurements of space platform charging at LEO altitudes. Attention is given to high voltage spheres in an unmagnetized plasma, energetic ion emission for active spacecraft control, the collective gyration of a heavy ion cloud in a magnetized plasma, and remote sensing of artificial luminous clouds by lidars. Topics addressed include modulation of the background flux of energetic particles by artificial injection, wave measurements in active experiments on plasma beam injection, field formation around negatively biased solar arrays in the LEO-plasma, and the registration of ELF waves in rocket-satellite experiments with plasma injection.

  15. Labour Market Policy in Germany: Job Placement, Unemployment Insurance and Active Labour Market Policy in Germany. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blien, Uwe; Walwei, Ulrich; Werner, Heinz

    Job placement, unemployment insurance, and active labor market policy in Germany were reviewed. The following were among the review's main conclusions: (1) measures of active and passive labor market policy are still regarded as important to combating unemployment and improving the matching function of the German labor market; (2) the many…

  16. Melanoma Prevention Using Topical PBISe

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chin-Ying; Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V.; Desai, Dhimant; Amin, Shantu; Robertson, Gavin P.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer, known for its drug resistance and high metastatic potential. Deregulated PI3 and MAP kinase pathways promote early melanocytic lesion development and confer drug resistance. No agent exists to target these deregulated pathways to prevent cutaneous non-invasive melanocytic cells or invasive melanomas from developing into more aggressive widely disseminated metastatic disease. In this study, a selenium containing isosteric analogue of PBIT [S,S′-1,4-phenylenebis(1,2-ethanediyl)bis-isothiourea] called PBISe [Se,Se′-1,4-phenylenebis(1,2-ethanediyl)bis-isoselenourea] is shown to moderate these two major signaling pathways to prevent cutaneous melanocytic lesion or melanoma development. Topical application of PBISe retarded melanocytic lesion development in laboratory-generated skin by 70-80% and in animal skin by ∼50%. Mechanistically, prevention of lesion development occurred due to decreased Akt3 signaling, which increased MAP kinase pathway activity to inhibitory levels. The combined effect of targeting these pathways led to decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptotic cell death thereby preventing melanoma development. Thus, topically applied PBISe treatment has potential to prevent non-invasive melanocytic lesion and invasive metastatic melanoma development in skin. PMID:21367959

  17. Auto Mechanics I. Learning Activity Packets (LAPs). Section C--Engine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains five learning activity packets (LAPs) that outline the study activities for the "engine" instructional area for an Auto Mechanics I course. The five LAPs cover the following topics: basic engine principles, cooling system, engine lubrication system, exhaust system, and fuel system. Each LAP contains a cover sheet that…

  18. Topic-Prominence in Interlanguage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Judith W.; Gundel, Jeannette K.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the role of topic-comment structure and the frequency of topic-prominence in the oral interlanguage of Chinese- Japanese-, Korean-, Arabic-, Farsi-, and Spanish-speaking adult students of English as a second language. Results indicate that second language learning is generally characterized by an early topic-comment stage, independent…

  19. Identification of topical photosensitizing agents in humans.

    PubMed

    Kaidbey, K H; Kligman, A M

    1978-03-01

    A method is described for the detection of topical photosensitizers in humans. Test agents were applied to the untanned midback under an occlusive dressing for 6 hr and then exposed to broad-spectrum radiation containing UV-A and visible wavelengths from a Xenon arc source. Well-known topical photosensitizers were readily identified. It was found that with certain poorly-penetrating substances, such as water-soluble dyes, applications to scarified skin were necessary to reveal phototoxic activity. In addition, these dyes were activated by wavelengths in the visible region of the spectrum.

  20. Activation and micropore structure determination of carbon-fiber composite molecular sieves. Topical report, 30 March 1994--14 April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Jagtoyen, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kimber, G.; Fei, You Qing

    1995-05-19

    Progress in developing novel, rigid, monolithic adsorbent carbon fiber composites is described. Carbon fiber composites are activated using steam or CO{sub 2}, in order to produce uniform activation through the material and to control the pore structure and adsorptive properties. There is an overall shrinkage during activation, which is directly correlated with burnoff; burnoff above 40% results in fracture. Burnoffs higher than 10% does not produce any benefit for separation of CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixtures. Five samples of CFCMS have been prepared for testing as molecular sieves; all have relatively narrow pore size distributions with average pore diameters around 6A.

  1. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Foye, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers. PMID:21776229

  2. Dining Room Service/Setting Table Covers. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 8.1a. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 8: Related Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with table appointments and to illustrate table covers for breakfast, luncheon, and dinner; for counter and cafeteria service; and for banquets and buffets.…

  3. Human Driving Forces and Their Impacts on Land Use/Land Cover. Hands-On! Developing Active Learning Modules on the Human Dimensions of Global Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Susanne

    This learning module aims to engage students in problem solving, critical thinking, scientific inquiry, and cooperative learning. The module is appropriate for use in any introductory or intermediate undergraduate course that focuses on human-environment relationships. The module explains that land use/cover change has occurred at all times in all…

  4. On the Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Kate F.

    2006-01-01

    This is a discussion with Judith Warren regarding her painting on the cover of the present issue of American Psychologist. To Warren, the painting on the cover of this issue, Pentimento, speaks to the interplay of spontaneity and intentionality in psychotherapy.

  5. Silostop Bunker Covers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality of the seal provided by the plastic cover is a key issue for minimizing losses in bunker and pile silos. Most bunker covers are 6 to 8 mil polyethylene sheets held in place by tires or tire sidewalls. Frequently there are problems with spoilage at the shoulders (i.e., against the walls),...

  6. Land Cover Trends Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  7. Current Topics In STEM Education Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glembo, Tyler

    2015-04-01

    The role of the federal government in education is a hotly debated topic in Congress, causing education to become deeply embedded in politics. Federal funding of education, although covering only about ten percent of total cost, has large impact in the classroom, from testing standards to low interest student loans. This talk will examine the current landscape in physics education including issues facing the community at a national/federal level and also legislation such as the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. We will also examine how stakeholders can develop effective messages and participate in discussions with policy makers.

  8. Preface to Special Topic: Marine Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, F. T.; Iglesias, G.; Santos, P. R.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2015-12-30

    Marine renewable energy (MRE) is generates from waves, currents, tides, and thermal resources in the ocean. MRE has been identified as a potential commercial-scale source of renewable energy. This special topic presents a compilation of works selected from the 3rd IAHR Europe Congress, held in Porto, Portugal, in 2014. It covers different subjects relevant to MRE, including resource assessment, marine energy sector policies, energy source comparisons based on levelized cost, proof-of-concept and new-technology development for wave and tidal energy exploitation, and assessment of possible inference between wave energy converters (WEC).

  9. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vinvent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. These products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to the currently available operation products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set is generated for long-term climates studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the product. The snow product suite starts with a 500-m resolution swath snow-cover map which is gridded to the Integerized Sinusoidal Grid to produce daily and eight-day composite tile products. The sequence then proceeds to a climate-modeling grid product at 5-km spatial resolution, with both daily and eight-day composite products. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover.

  10. Topics in statistical mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Elser, V.

    1984-05-01

    This thesis deals with four independent topics in statistical mechanics: (1) the dimer problem is solved exactly for a hexagonal lattice with general boundary using a known generating function from the theory of partitions. It is shown that the leading term in the entropy depends on the shape of the boundary; (2) continuum models of percolation and self-avoiding walks are introduced with the property that their series expansions are sums over linear graphs with intrinsic combinatorial weights and explicit dimension dependence; (3) a constrained SOS model is used to describe the edge of a simple cubic crystal. Low and high temperature results are derived as well as the detailed behavior near the crystal facet; (4) the microscopic model of the lambda-transition involving atomic permutation cycles is reexamined. In particular, a new derivation of the two-component field theory model of the critical behavior is presented. Results for a lattice model originally proposed by Kikuchi are extended with a high temperature series expansion and Monte Carlo simulation. 30 references.

  11. Application of the biological granular activated carbon fluidized bed reactor process for gas industry waste treatment. Topical report, January 1991-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, D.; Sunday, A.; Hickey, R.F.

    1993-06-01

    The research and development work is focused on evaluating the applicability of using the biological granular activated carbon-fluidized bed reactor (GAC-FBR) for helping to solve gas industry waste treatment needs. The specific goals are to use and modify the GAC-FBR process, as needed, for (1) remediation of groundwater contaminated by gas industry operations, and (2) treatment of gas production and exploration waters.

  12. Discovering Health Topics in Social Media Using Topic Models

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Michael J.; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r = .534) and obesity (r = −.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media. PMID:25084530

  13. Topical Antimicrobials for Burn Infections – An Update

    PubMed Central

    Sevgi, Mert; Toklu, Ani; Vecchio, Daniela; Hamblin, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    The relentless rise in antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria and fungi, coupled with the high susceptibility of burn wounds to infection, and the difficulty of systemically administered antibiotics to reach damaged tissue, taken together have made the development of novel topical antimicrobials for burn infections a fertile area of innovation for researchers and companies. We previously covered the existing patent literature in this area in 2010, but the notable progress made since then, has highlighted the need for an update to bring the reader up to date on recent developments. New patents in the areas of topically applied antibiotics and agents that can potentiate the action of existing antibiotics may extend their useful lifetime. Developments have also been made in biofilm-disrupting agents. Antimicrobial peptides are nature’s way for many life forms to defend themselves against attack by pathogens. Silver has long been known to be a highly active antimicrobial but new inorganic metal derivatives based on bismuth, copper and gallium have emerged. Halogens such as chlorine and iodine can be delivered by novel technologies. A variety of topically applied antimicrobials include chitosan preparations, usnic acid, ceragenins and XF porphyrins. Natural product derived antimicrobials such as tannins and essential oils have also been studied. Novel techniques to deliver reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in situ have been developed. Light-mediated techniques include photodynamic therapy, ultraviolet irradiation, blue light, low-level laser therapy and titania photocatalysis. Passive immunotherapy employs antibodies against pathogens and their virulence factors. Finally an interesting new area uses therapeutic microorganisms such as phages, probiotic bacteria and protozoa to combat infections. PMID:24215506

  14. Sea Changes. Topics in Marine Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations designed to impart ocean science understanding to high school students. The principal theme of Changes in the Sea is presented in this particular…

  15. Learning Activity Package, Biology, LAPs 20, 30, 31, 32, and 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoden, Bruce

    Included is a set of five teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in topics in biology. The units cover the topics of genetic continuity, methods of investigation, cell biology, genetics, and animal physiology. Each unit contains a rationale for the material; a list of behavioral objectives for the unit; a…

  16. The Thumbs Up Ecology Curriculum: A Fun Group of School Site Activities for Sixth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John; And Others

    This guide is a collection of "fun" school site activities for sixth graders. Some of the topics covered are: animals, trees, energy and lifestyle, land use and you, energy conservation, and car-pooling. Each section offers both introductory information about the topic as well as questions to ponder such as what, so what, now what, and another way…

  17. Making Algebra Come Alive: Student Activities & Teacher Notes. Math Assessment Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posamentier, Alfred S.

    This book contains a set of versatile enrichment exercises that cover a very broad range of mathematical topics and applications in algebra from the Moebius strip to the googol. Several criteria have been used in developing the activities and selecting the topics that are included. All of them bear heavily and equally on concerns for curriculum…

  18. GS-9191 Is a Novel Topical Prodrug of the Nucleotide Analog 9-(2-Phosphonylmethoxyethyl)Guanine with Antiproliferative Activity and Possible Utility in the Treatment of Human Papillomavirus Lesions▿

    PubMed Central

    Wolfgang, Grushenka H. I.; Shibata, Riri; Wang, Jianying; Ray, Adrian S.; Wu, Sylvia; Doerrfler, Edward; Reiser, Hans; Lee, William A.; Birkus, Gabriel; Christensen, Neil D.; Andrei, Graciela; Snoeck, Robert

    2009-01-01

    GS-9191 is a novel double prodrug of the nucleotide analog 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)guanine (PMEG) designed as a topical agent to permeate skin and be metabolized to the active nucleoside triphosphate analog in the epithelial layer. The prodrug was shown to be metabolized intracellularly to 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)-N6-cyclopropyl-2,6,diaminopurine (cPrPMEDAP) and subsequently deaminated to PMEG. The active form, PMEG diphosphate, was shown to be a potent inhibitor of DNA polymerase α and ß while showing weaker activity against mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (50% enzyme inhibition observed at 2.5, 1.6, and 59.4 μM, respectively). GS-9191 was markedly more potent than PMEG or cPrPMEDAP in a series of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive cell lines, with effective concentrations to inhibit 50% cell growth (EC50) as low as 0.03, 207, and 284 nM, respectively. In contrast, GS-9191 was generally less potent in non-HPV-infected cells and primary cells (EC50s between 1 and 15 nM). DNA synthesis was inhibited by GS-9191 within 24 h of treatment; cells were observed to be arrested in S phase by 48 h and to subsequently undergo apoptosis (between 3 and 7 days). In an animal model (cottontail rabbit papillomavirus), topical GS-9191 was shown to decrease the size of papillomas in a dose-related manner. At the highest dose (0.1%), cures were evident at the end of 5 weeks, and lesions did not recur in a 30-day follow-up period. These data suggest that GS-9191 may have utility in the treatment of HPV-induced lesions. PMID:19398642

  19. Status report of RMS active damping augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Mike; Demeo, Martha E.

    1993-01-01

    A status report of Remote Manipulator System (RMS) active damping augmentation is presented. Topics covered include: active damping augmentation; benefits of RMS ADA; simulated payload definition; sensor and actuator definition; ADA control law design; Shuttle Engineering Simulator (SES) real-time simulation; and astronaut evaluation.

  20. Active impedance matching of complex structural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmartin, Douglas G.; Miller, David W.; Hall, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on active impedance matching of complex structural systems are presented. Topics covered include: traveling wave model; dereverberated mobility model; computation of dereverberated mobility; control problem: optimal impedance matching; H2 optimal solution; statistical energy analysis (SEA) solution; experimental transfer functions; interferometer actuator and sensor locations; active strut configurations; power dual variables; dereverberation of complex structure; dereverberated transfer function; compensators; and relative power flow.

  1. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  2. Covering the State Legislature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Stephen C.

    1975-01-01

    Describes how journalism majors at Ball State University are required to cover the annual sessions of the Indiana legislature, and discusses some of the experiences and problems that were encountered. (RB)

  3. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicole E.; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. MODIS snow and ice products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to or enhancement of the currently-available operational products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set may be generated for long-term climate studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the products. The MODIS snow product suite begins with a 500-m resolution, 2330-km swath snow-cover map which is then gridded to an integerized sinusoidal grid to produce daily and 8-day composite tile products. The sequence proceeds to a climate-modeling grid (CMG) product at about 5.6-km spatial resolution, with both daily and 8-day composite products. Each pixel of the CMG contains fraction of snow cover from 40 - 100%. Measured errors of commission in the CMG are low, for example, on the continent of Australia in the spring, they vary from 0.02 - 0.10%. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented to show some early validation work.

  4. Land Cover Characterization Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    (2) identify sources, develop procedures, and organize partners to deliver data and information to meet user requirements. The LCCP builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS land use and land cover programs and projects. It will be compatible with current concepts of government operations, the changing needs of the land use and land cover data users, and the technological tools with which the data are applied.

  5. WATER COOLED RETORT COVER

    DOEpatents

    Ash, W.J.; Pozzi, J.F.

    1962-05-01

    A retort cover is designed for use in the production of magnesium metal by the condensation of vaporized metal on a collecting surface. The cover includes a condensing surface, insulating means adjacent to the condensing surface, ind a water-cooled means for the insulating means. The irrangement of insulation and the cooling means permits the magnesium to be condensed at a high temperature and in massive nonpyrophoric form. (AEC)

  6. Topical calcineurin inhibitors in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Lampropoulos, Christos E; D’Cruz, David P

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) encompasses a variety of lesions that may be refractory to systemic or topical agents. Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) are the most common lesions in clinical practice. The topical calcineurin inhibitors, tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, have been used to treat resistant cutaneous lupus since 2002 and inhibit the proliferation and activation of T-cells and suppress immune-mediated cutaneous inflammation. This article reviews the mechanism of action, efficacy, adverse effects, and the recent concern about their possible carcinogenic effect. Although the total number of patients is small and there is only one relevant randomized controlled study, the data are encouraging. Many patients, previously resistant to systemic agents or topical steroids, improved after four weeks of treatment. DLE and SCLE lesions were less responsive, reflecting the chronicity of the lesions, although more than 50% of patients still showed improvement. Topical calcineurin inhibitors may be a safe and effective alternative to topical steroids for CLE although the only approved indication is for atopic dermatitis. PMID:20421909

  7. Using NASA Space Imaging Technology to Teach Earth and Sun Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verner, E.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Long, T.

    2011-12-01

    We teach an experimental college-level course, directed toward elementary education majors, emphasizing "hands-on" activities that can be easily applied to the elementary classroom. This course, Physics 240: "The Sun-Earth Connection" includes various ways to study selected topics in physics, earth science, and basic astronomy. Our lesson plans and EPO materials make extensive use of NASA imagery and cover topics about magnetism, the solar photospheric, chromospheric, coronal spectra, as well as earth science and climate. In addition we are developing and will cover topics on ecosystem structure, biomass and water on Earth. We strive to free the non-science undergraduate from the "fear of science" and replace it with the excitement of science such that these future teachers will carry this excitement to their future students. Hands-on experiments, computer simulations, analysis of real NASA data, and vigorous seminar discussions are blended in an inquiry-driven curriculum to instill confident understanding of basic physical science and modern, effective methods for teaching it. The course also demonstrates ways how scientific thinking and hands-on activities could be implemented in the classroom. We have designed this course to provide the non-science student a confident basic understanding of physical science and modern, effective methods for teaching it. Most of topics were selected using National Science Standards and National Mathematics Standards that are addressed in grades K-8. The course focuses on helping education majors: 1) Build knowledge of scientific concepts and processes; 2) Understand the measurable attributes of objects and the units and methods of measurements; 3) Conduct data analysis (collecting, organizing, presenting scientific data, and to predict the result); 4) Use hands-on approaches to teach science; 5) Be familiar with Internet science teaching resources. Here we share our experiences and challenges we face while teaching this course.

  8. Accelerators, Beams And Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators And Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

    2011-10-24

    Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

  9. CounselorQuest: Concise Analyses of Critical Counseling Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R., Comp.

    This document contains 167 Educational Resources and Information Center (ERIC) digests from eight ERIC Clearinghouses covering topics of interest to counselors who work with clients from preschool age through adults. Digests are organized alphabetically by title; three indices help users locate digests alphabetically, by educational level, and by…

  10. Topic- and Time-Oriented Visual Text Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dou, Wenwen; Liu, Shixia

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate the process of converting textual data into actionable knowledge, visual text analysis has become a popular topic with active research efforts contributed by researchers worldwide. Here the authors present the benefits of combing text analysis (topic models in particular) with interactive visualization. They then highlight examples from prior work on topic- and time-oriented visual text analysis and discuss challenges that warrant additional future research. PMID:27514029

  11. Public understanding of geoscientific topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, Ute; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2014-05-01

    Geoscientific topics and their consequences for the society are becoming more and more important for our daily life. Natural hazards such as flood and storm or the consequences of the climate change are urgent tasks and great challenges we have to tackle. Cascading natural hazards or environmental risks, can't be evaluated as single events by one scientific discipline, they rather need the expertise of different experts. The same applies for slowly progressive processes such as the climate change and its different aftereffects. More than ever politicians, decision makers, but also the public are asking for comprehensive background information and data to discuss activity options and to develop sustainable solutions. The improvement of public knowledge about science, their assets and drawbacks, chances and risks is getting crucial. To paint a comprehensive picture of different factors, correlations and dependencies the pooling of expertise is required. Thus eight research centres of the research field "Earth and Environment" of the Helmholtz-Association, Germany's largest scientific research organisation are currently building up a knowledge platform. Scientists of different disciplines will provide background information and explain their latest findings in an understandable way. Infographics, maps and animations will be applied to simplify and interpret complicated facts and findings. In addition to the web presence target group-specific products and activities will be organized. To meet the expectations of the different stakeholders an intensive dialog is aspired: round table discussions, exhibitions in museums and public places, tweeds are envisaged. In the beginning the partners will concentrate on the topics "consequences of the climate change", "pollutant dispersion" and "natural hazards/meteorological extreme events". The project is called Earth System Knowledge Platform (ESKP) coordinated by the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) and the Helmholtz

  12. Hot topics for leadership development.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-02-01

    Three areas stand out from a health systems perspective that should be on the development agenda for all leaders. These topics include population health, predictive analytics, and supply chain management. Together, these topics address access, quality, and cost management. PMID:25633301

  13. Resources for Topics in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This guide for conducting library research on topics in art or the work of a particular artist presents suggestions for utilizing four categories of resources: books, dictionaries and encyclopedias, indexes, and a periodicals and serials list (PASL). Three topics are researched as examples: the contemporary artist and author Frank Stella, the…

  14. Working Topics for Students' Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marting, Janet

    Students enrolled in composition classes may provide the answer to the dilemma of coming up with a writing topic: work--the "four letter word." Most, if not all, students have already become part of the labor force. The theme of "work" is naturally successful because it centers around a topic students know well, something that is within their…

  15. Discourse Structure, Topicality, and Questioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Kuppevelt, Jan

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative approach to discourse structure according to which topicality is the general organizing principle in discourse. This approach accounts for the fact that the segmentation structure of discourse is in correspondence with the hierarchy of topics defined for the discourse units. (52 references) (JL)

  16. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Topic models like latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) provide a framework for analyzing large datasets where observations are collected into groups. Although topic modeling has been fruitfully applied to problems social science, biology, and computer vision, it has been most widely used to model datasets where documents are modeled as exchangeable…

  17. Seven topics in functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Bandettini, Peter A

    2009-09-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is a non-invasive brain imaging methodology that started in 1991 and allows human brain activation to be imaged at high resolution within only a few minutes. Because it has extremely high sensitivity, is relatively easy to implement, and can be performed on most standard clinical MRI scanners. It continues to grow at an explosive rate throughout the world. Over the years, at any given time, fMRI has been defined by only a handful of major topics that have been the focus of researchers using and developing the methodology. In this review, I attempt to take a snapshot of the field of fMRI as it is in mid-2009 by discussing the seven topics that I feel are most on the minds of fMRI researchers. The topics are, in no particular order or grouping: (1) Clinical impact, (2) Utilization of individual functional maps, (3) fMRI signal interpretation, (4) Pattern effect mapping and decoding, (5) Endogenous oscillations, (6) MRI technology, and (7) Alternative functional contrast mechanisms. Most of these topics are highly interdependent, each advancing as the others advance. While most fMRI involves applications towards clinical or neuroscience questions, all applications are fundamentally dependent on advances in basic methodology as well as advances in our understanding of the relationship between neuronal activity and fMRI signal changes. This review neglects almost completely an in-depth discussion of applications. Rather the discussions are on the methods and interpretation.

  18. SEVEN TOPICS IN FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    BANDETTINI, PETER A.

    2010-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is a non-invasive brain imaging methodology that started in 1991 and allows human brain activation to be imaged at high resolution within only a few minutes. Because it has extremely high sensitivity, is relatively easy to implement, and can be performed on most standard clinical MRI scanners. It continues to grow at an explosive rate throughout the world. Over the years, at any given time, fMRI has been defined by only a handful of major topics that have been the focus of researchers using and developing the methodology. In this review, I attempt to take a snapshot of the field of fMRI as it is in mid-2009 by discussing the seven topics that I feel are most on the minds of fMRI researchers. The topics are, in no particular order or grouping: (1) Clinical impact, (2) Utilization of individual functional maps, (3) fMRI signal interpretation, (4) Pattern effect mapping and decoding, (5) Endogenous oscillations, (6) MRI technology, and (7) Alternative functional contrast mechanisms. Most of these topics are highly interdependent, each advancing as the others advance. While most fMRI involves applications towards clinical or neuroscience questions, all applications are fundamentally dependent on advances in basic methodology as well as advances in our understanding of the relationship between neuronal activity and fMRI signal changes. This review neglects almost completely an in-depth discussion of applications. Rather the discussions are on the methods and interpretation. PMID:19938211

  19. Reusable pipe flange covers

    DOEpatents

    Holden, James Elliott; Perez, Julieta

    2001-01-01

    A molded, flexible pipe flange cover for temporarily covering a pipe flange and a pipe opening includes a substantially round center portion having a peripheral skirt portion depending from the center portion, the center portion adapted to engage a front side of the pipe flange and to seal the pipe opening. The peripheral skirt portion is formed to include a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs, wherein free ends of the flexible tabs are formed with respective through passages adapted to receive a drawstring for pulling the tabs together on a back side of the pipe flange.

  20. How a Standardized Achievement Test Adapts to the Times: A Topical Comparison of Mathematics and Reading Tests on the 1973 and 1981 Forms of the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Ann; And Others

    This document contains a detailed listing of topics covered in the mathematics and reading portions of the 1973 Form S and the 1981 Form U of the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS). Chages in the overall structure of the CTBS, new topics included in Form U and old topics not covered, and changes in the arrangement of topics across the…

  1. Topic Model for Graph Mining.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Junyu; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan; Luo, Xiangfeng

    2015-12-01

    Graph mining has been a popular research area because of its numerous application scenarios. Many unstructured and structured data can be represented as graphs, such as, documents, chemical molecular structures, and images. However, an issue in relation to current research on graphs is that they cannot adequately discover the topics hidden in graph-structured data which can be beneficial for both the unsupervised learning and supervised learning of the graphs. Although topic models have proved to be very successful in discovering latent topics, the standard topic models cannot be directly applied to graph-structured data due to the "bag-of-word" assumption. In this paper, an innovative graph topic model (GTM) is proposed to address this issue, which uses Bernoulli distributions to model the edges between nodes in a graph. It can, therefore, make the edges in a graph contribute to latent topic discovery and further improve the accuracy of the supervised and unsupervised learning of graphs. The experimental results on two different types of graph datasets show that the proposed GTM outperforms the latent Dirichlet allocation on classification by using the unveiled topics of these two models to represent graphs.

  2. The future of topical analgesics.

    PubMed

    Arnstein, Paul M

    2013-07-01

    Topically applied analgesic therapies have been used throughout history to treat a variety of patient conditions that present with pain. Before modem pharmaceuticals became readily available, mud-based emollients, salves, cold therapies, and other natural remedies were often used. Now we have effective therapies and are developing advanced topical analgesics as we learn more about the physiology and pathophysiology of pain. The use of topical analgesics may be associated with fewer patient systemic side effects than are seen with oral, parenteral, or transdermally administered agents, making the topical route of administration attractive to prescribers and patients. With further refinement of existing drugs and the development of novel agents, topical analgesics may offer relief for treating patient pain conditions that are currently challenging to treat, such as pain resulting from burns, wound debridement, and pressure ulcers. Recognizing the value of a multimodal approach, topical analgesics may offer a therapeutic option that can become part of a comprehensive treatment plan for the patient. With continued advancements in targeted drug-delivery systems, topical analgesics may be able to provide a method to prevent or reverse the phenomena of peripheral and central sensitization, or the neuroplastic changes believed to be responsible for the transition from acute to chronic pain states in patients. For those patients at risk for developing chronic pain states, such as complex regional pain syndrome, the combination of cutaneous stimulation (achieved through rubbing during application) and analgesic effects produced by the drug itself may prevent the disabling pain that often emerges during the subacute phase of disease. In summary, better utilization of currently available topical analgesics and continued research promise to ensure that topical analgesics are, and will continue to be, important tools in the treatment of patients with resistant pain. PMID

  3. Topical Steroid-Damaged Skin

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Anil; Roga, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder. PMID:25284849

  4. Covering All Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The day a school opens its doors for the first time, the flooring will be new and untarnished. When the flooring is in such pristine condition, many flooring materials--carpeting, vinyl, terrazzo, wood or some other surface--will look good. But school and university planners who decide what kind of material covers the floors of their facilities…

  5. Issue Cover (June 2016).

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Cover legend: Yeast cells were labeled with the fluorescent viability dyes propidium iodide (Red) and DiBAC4(3) (green) and the nucleus was stained with DAPI (blue). Cells were visualized using wide-field fluorescent microscopy. See Chadwick et al. Traffic 2016; 17(6):689-703. Read the full article on doi:10.1111/tra.12391. PMID:27174376

  6. Issue Cover (September 2016).

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Cover legend: Macrophages phagocytosing RFP-labeled E.coli. GFP-APPL2 labels the phagosomal membrane. Image produced by N. Condon. See Yeo et al. Traffic 2016; 17(9):1014-1026. Read the full article on doi:10.1111/tra.12415. PMID:27510703

  7. Conversational topics in transsexual persons.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Cayzeele, Miet; Heirman, Eva; T'sjoen, Guy

    2014-06-01

    Abstract In general, speech language therapy for transsexual persons focuses on pitch and pitch variation and more recently also on resonance. Other communicative aspects are dealt with far less often, especially language. This study investigated to what extent conversational topics might need attention in therapy for transsexual persons. A total of 111 males, 116 females, 28 male-to-female and 18 female-to-male transsexuals were asked to indicate on a list with 34 topics how often they speak about each topic (never, sometimes, often) in conversations with males, with females and in a gender mixed group. Results showed that transsexual persons behave in accordance with the desired gender. However, they also tend to adopt a position depending on the gender of their conversational partner. It can be concluded that in general it is not necessary to pay attention to conversational topics in therapy for transsexual persons.

  8. Erythromycin and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking. Be sure to mention other topical medications for acne. Your doctor may need to ...

  9. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Thomas; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of topical NSAIDs to treat acute musculoskeletal conditions is widely accepted in some parts of the world, but not in others. Their main attraction is their potential to provide pain relief without associated systemic adverse events. Objectives To review the evidence from randomised, double-blind, controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of topically applied NSAIDs in acute pain. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and our own in-house database to December 2009. We sought unpublished studies by asking personal contacts and searching on-line clinical trial registers and manufacturers web sites. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, active or placebo (inert carrier)-controlled trials in which treatments were administered to adult patients with acute pain resulting from strains, sprains or sports or overuse-type injuries (twisted ankle, for instance). There had to be at least 10 participants in each treatment arm, with application of treatment at least once daily. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and validity, and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk and numbers needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Forty-seven studies were included; most compared topical NSAIDs in the form of a gel, spray, or cream with a similar placebo, with 3455 participants in the overall analysis of efficacy. For all topical NSAIDs combined, compared with placebo, the number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) for clinical success, equivalent to 50% pain relief, was 4.5 (3.9 to 5.3) for treatment periods of 6 to 14 days. Topical diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and piroxicam were of similar efficacy, but indomethacin and benzydamine were not significantly better than placebo. Local skin reactions were generally mild and transient, and did not differ from

  10. Covering Climate Change in Wikipedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arritt, R. W.; Connolley, W.; Ramjohn, I.; Schulz, S.; Wickert, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    The first hit in an internet search for "global warming" using any of the three leading search engines (Google, Bing, or Yahoo) is the article "Global warming" in the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. The article garners about half a million page views per month. In addition to the site's visibility with the public, Wikipedia's articles on climate-related topics are widely referenced by policymakers, media outlets, and academia. Despite the site's strong influence on public understanding of science, few geoscientists actively participate in Wikipedia, with the result that the community that edits these articles is mostly composed of individuals with little or no expertise in the topic at hand. In this presentation we discuss how geoscientists can help shape public understanding of science by contributing to Wikipedia. Although Wikipedia prides itself on being "the encyclopedia that anyone can edit," the site has policies regarding contributions and behavior that can be pitfalls for newcomers. This presentation is intended as a guide for the geoscience community in contributing to information about climate change in this widely-used reference.

  11. Issue Cover (July 2016).

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Cover legend: N-cadherin clusters colocalize with Rab5 at the macropinosomes. Confocal microscopy image of an Ncad-GFP (green) transfected COS7 cell fed with fluorescent-dextran to label macropinosomes (blue) followed by immunofluorescence staining of Rab5 (red) and the nucleus (cyan). See Wen et al. Traffic 2016; 17(7):769-785. Read the full article on doi: 10.1111/tra.12402. PMID:27297702

  12. Surface plasmon resonance enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity in Cu nanoparticles covered Cu2O microspheres for degrading organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yahui; Lin, Yuanjing; Xu, Jianping; He, Jie; Wang, Tianzhao; Yu, Guojun; Shao, Dawei; Wang, Wei-Hua; Lu, Feng; Li, Lan; Du, Xiwen; Wang, Weichao; Liu, Hui; Zheng, Rongkun

    2016-03-01

    Micron-sized Cu2O with different coverage of Cu nanoparticles (NPs) on the sphere has been synthesized by a redox procedure. The absorption spectra show that Cu NPs induce the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at the wavelength of ∼565 nm. Methylene blue (MB) photodegrading experiments under visible-light display that the Cu2O-Cu-H2O2 system exhibits a superior photocatalytic activity to Cu2O-H2O2 or pure H2O2 with an evident dependency on Cu coverage. The maximum photodegradation rate is 88% after visible-light irradiating for 60 min. The role of the Cu NPs is clarified through photodegradation experiments under 420 nm light irradiation, which is different from the SPR wavelength of Cu NPs (∼565 nm). By excluding the SPR effect, it proves that Cu SPR plays a key role in the photodegradation. Besides, a dark catalytic activity is observed stemming from the Fenton-like reaction with the aid of H2O2. The radical quenching experiments indicate that both •O2- and •OH radicals contribute to the photocatalysis, while the dark catalysis is only governed by the •OH radicals, leading to a lower activity comparing with the photocatalysis. Therefore, with introducing Cu NPs and H2O2, the Cu2O-based photocatalytic activity could be significantly improved due to the SPR effect and dark catalysis.

  13. Microcirculatory effect of topical vapocoolants

    PubMed Central

    Galdyn, Izabela; Swanson, Edward; Gordon, Chad; Kwiecien, Grzegorz; Bena, James; Siemionow, Maria; Zins, James

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vapocoolant sprays are commonly used to minimize pain following minor interventions such as venipuncture, shave biopsy or needle insertion. Although these sprays have been widely used in clinical practice, little is known about their effect on microcirculation or cutaneous blood flow. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the real-time effect of a topical vapocoolant using a well-established, rat cremaster muscle microcirculatory model, allowing direct measurement of changes in vessel diameter, capillary density and leukocyte behaviour. METHODS: Fifty rats were divided into a control and four experimental groups: group 1: 4 s spray with vapocoolant at 18 cm distance; group 2: 10 s spray at 18 cm distance; group 3: 4 s spray at 8 cm distance; and group 4: 10 s spray at 8 cm distance. Vessel diameters, capillary density and leukocyte behaviour were monitored for 1 h thereafter. Muscle was harvested for immunohistochemistry analysis of proangiogenic markers (vascular endothelial growth factor and von Willebrand factor), leukocyte behaviour markers (E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule, intercellular adhesion molecule), pimonidazole-hypoxia staining and ApopTag (Millipore, USA) staining for apoptosis. Gene expression for inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma) was evaluated using polymerase chain reaction and myeloperoxidase assay for inflammation was performed. RESULTS: The use of refrigerant spray decreased vessel diameter and capillary density initially, although none of these decreases were statistically significant. Polymerase chain reaction showed no significant changes. The myeloperoxidase assay showed statistically significant increase in myeloperoxidase activity in groups 2, 3 and 4. Immunohistochemistry was negative for angiogenic and proinflammatory markers. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of statistically significant changes in vessel diameter and inflammatory markers corroborated the

  14. Organic Optoelectronic Materials: A Topical Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The topics covered include the following: Introduction to Nonlinear Optics of Organics and the Use of Second Harmonic Generation as a Polymer Probe; Experimental Characterization of Second Order Nonlinear Optical Chromophores; Chi(2) Structure-Property Relationship on the Colligative Scale; The Stability of the Poled Order in Crosslinked Systems; Corona Electric Filed Poling of Nonlinear Polymers and Femtosecond Optical Applications; Synthesis and Characterization of Photosensitive Polymers for Optical Waveguide Definition; Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Conjugated Polymers; The Relationship Between Chemical Structure and Second-Order Optical Nonlinearities or Organic Molecules; Theory and Structure/Property of chi(3) Materials; Synthesis of Well-Defined Thiophene Oligomers and Planar Conjugated Polymers for chi(3) Studies; and Spectroscopy as a Probe of chi(3) in Conjugated Materials.

  15. At-Risk and Bilingual Fifth-Grade Students' On-Task Behavior and Conceptual Understanding in Earth Science-Related Topics during Inquiry-, Technology-, and Game-Based Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeal, K.; Vasquez, Y.; Avandano, C.; Moreno, K.; Besinaiz, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Graduate K-12 (GK12) program has been developed by NSF to support the national effort to advance scientific knowledge through educational partnerships. This paper highlights research conducted during the 2006-2007 school year with the Texas A&M University GK12 project. Two elementary schools with very high numbers of at risk students - those who are poor, speak English as their second language, and have a history of failing state-mandated tests were identified to be the field site for the GK12 project. In these two, high-minority (97% and 40% African American and Hispanic) schools, 80% and 56% of the children have been identified by the state as at risk; 94% and 52% are classified as economically disadvantaged; and 46% and 2% are limited English proficient, respectively. In the past year, 30% and 73% of fifth grade students in these schools passed the science portion of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test. Data collected during a three- week period where GK12 fellows taught the fifth graders Earth science-related topics is presented. During the implementation, students were engaged in technology-, inquiry-, and game-based activities. Students were divided into low-, medium-, and high-abilities in one school, and regular and bilingual groups in the other. Pre- post open-ended multiple choice tests indicated that all but the low performing students' conceptual understanding (CU) significantly (p < 0.05) improved during the IT activity. The low and high student groups' CU significantly improved during the inquiry activity, and the high and bilingual students' CU significantly improved for the game activities. Classroom observation assessments showed that there was a significant (p < 0.10) positive (0.347) correlation between on-task behavior and CU. Significant differences between student groups' CU and on-task behavior indicated that technology-based activities showed greatest differences between the low- ability learners and the other

  16. "The Strawberry Caper": Using Scenario-Based Problem Solving to Integrate Middle School Science Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonda, Rebecca L.; DeHart, Kyle; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Legg, Alison Slinskey

    2015-01-01

    Achieving a deep understanding of the many topics covered in middle school biology classes is difficult for many students. One way to help students learn these topics is through scenario-based learning, which enhances students' performance. The scenario-based problem-solving module presented here, "The Strawberry Caper," not only…

  17. Agricultural Education Science Activity--Nos. PS 1-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Curriculum Materials Service.

    This packet contains six science learning activities that can be used in agricultural education courses. The activities cover these topics: (1) determining the effects of soil drainage on plant growth and development; (2) determining the effect of soil compaction on plant growth and development; (3) inoculating legume seeds to promote nodule…

  18. Agricultural Education Science Activity--Nos. AS 1-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Curriculum Materials Service.

    This packet contains four science learning activities on the subject of animal science that can be used in agricultural education courses. The activities cover these topics: (1) identifying internal parasites in domestic livestock; (2) the effect of feed preparation on feed palatability and consumption; (3) determining the absorption abilities of…

  19. Numeracy on the Line. Language Based Numeracy Activities for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marr, Beth; And Others

    This document, which was developed to meet the needs of trainers and workers in Australia's automotive industry for learning activities designed to boost auto workers' numeracy skills, contains a total of 33 learning activities organized into 8 sections. The topics covered in the individual sections are as follows: calculators (key words and…

  20. Agricultural Education Science Activity--Nos. AEM 1-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Curriculum Materials Service.

    This packet contains four science learning activities that can be used in agricultural education courses. The activities cover these topics: (1) determining the effect of air pressure on fluid flow; (2) how lubrication and oil viscosity affect friction; (3) determining relative strengths of wood fasteners; and (4) determining the effects of…

  1. Peregrinations through topics in light scattering and radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattawar, George W.

    2016-07-01

    In this van de Hulst essay, I have taken the liberty to present a journey through some topics in light scattering and radiative transfer which I feel were major contributions to the field but the number of topics I would like to cover is far more numerous than I have the time or the space to present. I also wanted to share with the reader some heartwarming memories I have of my wonderful friend and truly distinguished colleague Hendrik Christoffel van de Hulst (affectionately known to his colleagues as "Henk") whom I consider to be one of the preeminent scientists of his era.

  2. From the Cover: Tetrachlorobenzoquinone Exerts Neurological Proinflammatory Activity by Promoting HMGB1 Release, Which Induces TLR4 Clustering within the Lipid Raft.

    PubMed

    Fu, Juanli; Shi, Qiong; Song, Xiufang; Liu, Zixuan; Wang, Yawen; Wang, Yuxin; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Tetrachlorobenzoquinone (TCBQ) is a confirmed active metabolite of a well-known environmental pollutant pentachlorophenol (PCP). Unfortunately, there is insufficient knowledge present available on TCBQ's toxicity. Our previous studies indicated that TCBQ induces inflammatory response in vivo and in vitro; however, its exact mechanism needs further investigation. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in conveying of inflammatory signaling, whilst high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) functions as a transcription-enhancing nuclear protein that regulates inflammation. Indeed, this study demonstrated that TCBQ induces the secretion/translocation of HMGB1, which in turn activates its receptors, TLR family gene (especially TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) expressions. Consistently, the binding affinity of HMGB1 with its receptors also increased. In the case of HMGB1 or TLR4 deficiency, there were decreases in TCBQ-induced neuroinflammatory cytokine production and neuropathological changes, eg, neuronal loss, astrocyte and macrophage cells activation. Moreover, we found the mobilization of TLR4 into lipid rafts occurs in response to TCBQ exposure, lipid rafts disruptors weakened this effect, suggested lipid rafts play an essential role for TLR4-mediated signal transduction and target inflammatory cytokines expressions. In summary, our current findings revealed a previously unknown mechanism of TCBQ-induced neurological inflammation related to HMGB1-TLR4 signaling.

  3. Extracting Hot spots of Topics from Time Stamped Documents

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Chundi, Parvathi

    2011-01-01

    Identifying time periods with a burst of activities related to a topic has been an important problem in analyzing time-stamped documents. In this paper, we propose an approach to extract a hot spot of a given topic in a time-stamped document set. Topics can be basic, containing a simple list of keywords, or complex. Logical relationships such as and, or, and not are used to build complex topics from basic topics. A concept of presence measure of a topic based on fuzzy set theory is introduced to compute the amount of information related to the topic in the document set. Each interval in the time period of the document set is associated with a numeric value which we call the discrepancy score. A high discrepancy score indicates that the documents in the time interval are more focused on the topic than those outside of the time interval. A hot spot of a given topic is defined as a time interval with the highest discrepancy score. We first describe a naive implementation for extracting hot spots. We then construct an algorithm called EHE (Efficient Hot Spot Extraction) using several efficient strategies to improve performance. We also introduce the notion of a topic DAG to facilitate an efficient computation of presence measures of complex topics. The proposed approach is illustrated by several experiments on a subset of the TDT-Pilot Corpus and DBLP conference data set. The experiments show that the proposed EHE algorithm significantly outperforms the naive one, and the extracted hot spots of given topics are meaningful. PMID:21765568

  4. Schoolyard Science: 101 Easy and Inexpensive Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Thomas R.; Travis, Holly J.

    2011-01-01

    With 101 easy and inexpensive activities to do on school grounds, "Schoolyard Science" can help students develop their observation and inquiry skills as well as an appreciation of their outdoor environment. Covering topics such as lower plants, gardens, insects and other invertebrates, energy, and Earth science, Thomas Lord and Holly Travis…

  5. [How I treat... onychomycosis by topical therapy].

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C

    2015-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a frequent and challenging disease to treat. Well conducted oral therapies are commonly quite effective for a short term period. However, recurrences are frequent. Topical therapies appear globally less active. Studies in this field are rare, although the promotional advertisements to the general public abound nowadays. Various microscopic fungi (dermatophytes, yeasts, molds) should be targeted by the treatment, In addition, the distinct activity conditions of both growth and quiescence of the pathogen fungi should be influenced by the treatments. This is not frequently considered by drug companies and encountered in practice. The antifungal drug penetration inside all the nail layers is important to be performed. PMID:25902599

  6. [How I treat... onychomycosis by topical therapy].

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C

    2015-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a frequent and challenging disease to treat. Well conducted oral therapies are commonly quite effective for a short term period. However, recurrences are frequent. Topical therapies appear globally less active. Studies in this field are rare, although the promotional advertisements to the general public abound nowadays. Various microscopic fungi (dermatophytes, yeasts, molds) should be targeted by the treatment, In addition, the distinct activity conditions of both growth and quiescence of the pathogen fungi should be influenced by the treatments. This is not frequently considered by drug companies and encountered in practice. The antifungal drug penetration inside all the nail layers is important to be performed.

  7. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Problems involving divisibility, the ten coin triangle, five times a week with 4 D, a nomogram for the lens formula, the box and ladder problem, chains of circles, tessellating hexagons, topological woggles, and numbers of triangles are discussed. (CT)

  8. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Notes on De Morgan's rules; a perpetual calendar; the use of coloured rods; a balance problem; a graphical approach to natural logarithms; a problem in geometric probability; and the parallelogram law of forces. (MM)

  9. Issue Cover (August 2016).

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Cover legend: Absence of the novel endolysosomal trafficking regulator WDR81 (green) induces the accumulation of tetherin (red) in enlarged early endosomes. WDR81 knock-out HeLa cells were genetically complemented with an HA-tagged WDR81 construct and imaged by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. The original image was processed with photo editing software and overlaid with artistic effects. See Rapiteanu et al. Traffic 2016; 17(8):940-958. Read the full article on doi: 10.1111/tra.12409. PMID:27412792

  10. Topical therapies in hyperhidrosis care.

    PubMed

    Pariser, David M; Ballard, Angela

    2014-10-01

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis affects 3% of the US population; about the same number as psoriasis. More than half of these patients have primary focal axillary hyperhidrosis: sweating that is beyond what is anticipated or necessary for thermoregulation. Most topical therapies are based on aluminum salts, which work by a chemical reaction that forms plugs in the eccrine sweat ducts. Topical anticholinergics may also be used. Instruction on proper methods and timing of antiperspirants enhances effect and may be effective alone or in combination with other treatments in patients with hyperhidrosis.

  11. Topical therapies in hyperhidrosis care.

    PubMed

    Pariser, David M; Ballard, Angela

    2014-10-01

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis affects 3% of the US population; about the same number as psoriasis. More than half of these patients have primary focal axillary hyperhidrosis: sweating that is beyond what is anticipated or necessary for thermoregulation. Most topical therapies are based on aluminum salts, which work by a chemical reaction that forms plugs in the eccrine sweat ducts. Topical anticholinergics may also be used. Instruction on proper methods and timing of antiperspirants enhances effect and may be effective alone or in combination with other treatments in patients with hyperhidrosis. PMID:25152341

  12. Topical treatments for hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Zurada, Joanna M; Kriegel, David; Davis, Ira C

    2006-12-01

    Hypertrophic scars represent an abnormal, exaggerated healing response after skin injury. In addition to cosmetic concern, scars may cause pain, pruritus, contractures, and other functional impairments. Therapeutic modalities include topical medications, intralesional corticosteroids, laser therapy, and cryosurgery. Topical therapies, in particular, have become increasingly popular because of their ease of use, comfort, noninvasiveness, and relatively low cost. This review will discuss the properties and effectiveness of these agents, including pressure therapy, silicone gel sheeting and ointment, polyurethane dressing, onion extract, imiquimod 5% cream, and vitamins A and E in the prevention and treatment of hypertrophic scars. PMID:17097399

  13. Hatch Cover Slides Through Hatch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alton, Charles; Okane, James H.

    1989-01-01

    Hatch cover for pressurized vessel provides tight seal but opened quickly from either side. In opening or closing, cover sweeps out relatively little volume within vessel, so it does not hinder movement of people or objects from vessel to outside or placement of people or objects near hatch. Cover uses internal pressure to create seal when closed. Design of cover eliminates leakage paths, and cover immune to hazards of sudden decompression or jamming when bolts and latches fail.

  14. Topical methadone and meperidine analgesic synergy in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kolesnikov, Yuri A.; Oksman, Galina; Pasternak, Gavril W.

    2010-01-01

    Topical analgesics have many potential advantages over systemic administration. Prior work has shown potent analgesic activity of a number of topical opioids in the radiant heat tailflick assay. The current study confirms the analgesic activity of morphine and extends it to two other mu opioids, methadone and meperidine. Combinations of topical morphine and lidocaine are synergistic. Similarly, the combination of methadone and lidocaine is synergistic. While there appeared to be some potentiation with the combination of meperidine and lidocaine, it did not achieve significance. Systemically, prior studies have shown that co-administration of morphine and methadone was synergistic. The combination of morphine and methadone was also synergistic when given topically. In contrast, the combination of morphine and meperidine was not synergistic systemically and it was not synergistic topically. Thus, the pharmacology of topical opioids mimics that seen with systemic administration. Their activity in the topical model supports their potential utility while the local limitation of their actions offers the possibility of a reduced side-effect profile. PMID:20433826

  15. Responsiveness of Experimental Surgical-Wound Infections to Topical Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    McRipley, R. J.; Whitney, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    Topical agents freshly formulated in a cream base vehicle as well as commercial topical preparations were used to evaluate in mice the responsiveness of experimental surgical wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa to chemotherapy. The responsiveness of the infections to therapy or the efficacy of a topical agent was assessed primarily by means of wound counts of the infecting organism before and after the employment of an immediate (prophylactic) or delayed (therapeutic) treatment regimen. From tests of several concentrations of an agent formulated in the vehicle, a median effective dose could be determined. In the case of the lethal P. aeruginosa infection, a median protective dose could be determined. Both infections were found to be quite susceptible to treatment with those topical agents that demonstrated good activity in vitro against the test organisms. The results of the investigation indicated that the model infections were suitable for the screening of potential topical agents in vivo. PMID:984757

  16. Topical Knowledge and ESL Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Ling; Shi, Ling

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of topical knowledge on ESL (English as a Second Language) writing performance in the English Language Proficiency Index (LPI), a standardized English proficiency test used by many post-secondary institutions in western Canada. The participants were 50 students with different levels of English proficiency…

  17. Conducting Surveys on Sensitive Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Many institutions are surveying students about sensitive topics such as alcohol and drug use, sexual behavior, and academic dishonesty. Yet these can be some of the most difficult surveys to administer successfully, given reluctance on the part of respondents both to participate and to provide truthful answers. (Contains 1 table.)

  18. Topic Development in USENET Newsgroups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Larry N.

    1998-01-01

    USENET newsgroup topics are created, and they evolve, mutate, and become extinct in ways fundamentally different from spoken dialog. These differences can be explained partially by the asynchronous nature of electronic communication, as well as by other factors unique to such wide-scale multi-user media. (Author)

  19. Topics in Biomedical Optics: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebden, Jeremy C.; Boas, David A.; George, John S.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2003-06-01

    The field of biomedical optics is experiencing tremendous growth. Biomedical technologies contribute in the creation of devices used in healthcare of various specialties (ophthalmology, cardiology, anesthesiology, and immunology, etc.). Recent research in biomedical optics is discussed. Overviews of meetings held at the 2002 Optical Society of America Biomedical Topical Meetings are presented.

  20. Vocational Education Today: Topical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane, Ed.; Tregenza, Karen, Ed.; Watkins, Peter, Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers examining topical issues in vocational education and training (VET) in Victoria, Australia. The following papers are included: "Vocational Education and Schooling: The Changing Scene" (Jane Kenway, Sue Willis, Peter Watkins, Karen Tregenza); "The Enterprise Approach" (James Mulraney); "VET Programs at James Harrison…

  1. Seven topics in perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Buras, A.J.

    1980-09-01

    The following topics of perturbative QCD are discussed: (1) deep inelastic scattering; (2) higher order corrections to e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, to photon structure functions and to quarkonia decays; (3) higher order corrections to fragmentation functions and to various semi-inclusive processes; (4) higher twist contributions; (5) exclusive processes; (6) transverse momentum effects; (7) jet and photon physics.

  2. The Health Curriculum: 500 Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Oliver E.

    2001-01-01

    This 1958 paper divides 500 health topics into 20 categories: health as a social accomplishment/social problem; nutrition; physical fitness; mental health and disease; heredity/eugenics; infection/immunity; chronic and degenerative disease; substance abuse; skin care; vision, hearing, and speech; dental health; safety; physical environment; health…

  3. Topics in optics and music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Andrew W.

    2012-10-01

    While the use of optics in the playback of music has been a tremendously successful technology and laser light shows are a common occurrence, other intersections of optics and music tend to be less well known. Topics such as optics-based instruments, performance tools and effects, instrument characterization and manufacturing, recording, playback, and signal processing are explored.

  4. ISEE 3 observations during the CDAW 8 intervals: Case studies of the distant geomagnetic tail covering a wide range of geomagnetic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, I.G.; Owen, C.J.; Cowley, S.W.H. ); Galvin, A.B. ); Sanderson, T.R. ); Scholer, M. ); Slavin, J.A. ); Zwickl, R.D. )

    1989-11-01

    The data obtained by the ISEE 3 spacecraft during the eight Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop 8 (CDAW 8) intervals provide an excellent opportunity to study the structure and dynamics of the distant geomagnetic tail under a wide range of geomagnetic activity ranging from intervals of magnetic quiet punctuated by isolated substorms to extended intervals of strong disturbance. By examining the properties of the plasma sheet, evidence has been found for the persistence of reconnection in the tail during long intervals of magnetic quiet, with the neutral line lying {approx}100 to 200 R{sub E} or more downtail. The suggestion that the distant tail plasma sheet is populated exclusively by tailward moving closed flux tubes under quiet geomagnetic conditions is therefore not supported. However, a slow plasma sheet regime is also found during such conditions, in which closed flux tubes move slowly tailward in a thick region adjacent to the magnetopause, presumably due to some form of viscous momentum transfer from the magnetosheath. This process does not appear to simultaneously transfer mass into the tail, and there is some indication that the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is involved. The observations strongly suggest that the closed flux tubes originate from the closed field line plasma sheet region earthward of the neutral line rather than, for example, from the near-Earth low-latitude boundary layer. Plasmoids are observed in the distant tail following disturbance enhancements, the time of their appearance being generally consistent with disconnection from the near-Earth region at the time of the enhancement. Their structure is entirely consistent with the neutral line model.

  5. Topics in bioethics: a development of student perspectives.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Keith A

    2014-12-01

    Exposing students to current biotechnological and medical issues is eye-opening for many students in a way that is not always achieved through lecture-based learning. Lecture or investigative teaching styles provide a tremendous knowledge base for the students, but sometimes these teaching styles do not allow the student to fully develop, especially personal attitudes to issues in bioethics. Through online videos, Hollywood movies, guided readings and classroom discussions, students in this course are informed of some bioethical topics, encouraged to learn about other topics, and use this gained knowledge to develop personal positions regarding the value and/or risk of the issues. This course has been well-received by previous students as a favorite in terms of both topics covered and style.

  6. THE TOPIC OF RESEARCH INTEGRITY IN LATINAMERICA1

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Eduardo; Lolas, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Present article narrates the experience of trainees of the ethics of biomedical and psychosocial research program of the Interdisciplinary Center for studies on bioethics (CIEB) of the University of Chile on the topic of research integrity in Latin America. The following problems are covered: integrity of publications, reporting of scientific research misconduct, definitions of research integrity, scientific ethical review committees functioning, international multi-centric clinical trials monitoring and norms for scientific integrity and ethical oversight. PMID:22679532

  7. Topical corticosteroids: clinical pharmacology and therapeutic use.

    PubMed

    Miller, J A; Munro, D D

    1980-02-01

    The development of topical corticosteroids has enabled many dermatoses to be more effectively treated than previously, but there is also no doubt that misuse of these preparations can lead to troublesome local effects and potentially serious systemic problems. The most effective assay for comparing different compounds has been their vasoconstrictive activity, and this on the whole correlates well with clinical effect. To be effective, corticosteroid must be absorbed and the importance of concentration, occlusion, the type of vehicle, added penetrants such as urea and the anatomical site, on the amount of absorption and therefore on clinical activity has been demonstrated. Ointments have been shown to be more effective than creams but because of the considerable choice of potencies now available most dermatologists tend to prescribe the different formulations according to the wishes of the patient. For the same reason, dilution of the commercially marketed preparations is now not generally recommended. The main therapeutic activity of topical corticosteroids is their nonspecific anti-inflammatory effect, thought to be primarily a result of their action on the chemical mediators of inflammation. They have also been shown to be antimitotic which may well be relevant not only to the treatment of scaling dermatoses but also to their dermal thinning effect resulting from inhibition of fibroblasts. Combinations of corticosteroids with antibacterial and antifungal agents have been shown to be very effective in flexural eruptions and secondarily infected dermatoses. As a general rule, the use of topical corticosteroids in outpatients, unless badly misused, is not associated with any significant risk of adrenal axis suppression, but care must be exercised as to the amount prescribed, especially if large areas of the body are to be treated with highly potent preparations. Certain groups such as young children and patients with liver failure, and certain anatomical sites such

  8. Recent Topics in Instrumentation and Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Kazuo; Hirose, Masanobu; Otani, Akihito; Mochizuki, Ken; Uchida, Masafumi

    Instrumentation and measurement play a vital role in research and development in the science and engineering fields. Recently, the goals of instrumentation and measurement have expanded to meet not only the industrial and science requirements but also the needs in all fields of social life, such as medicine and welfare, the environment, and disaster and security. In this article, the state of TC-IM (Technical Committee of Instrumentation and Measurement of IEEJ) activities and technical topics in the instrumentation and measurement field are reported, mainly referring to over seventy papers presented at the IM Technical Meeting.

  9. Topic Analysis Using a Finite Mixture Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hang; Yamanishi, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    Presents a single framework for conducting topic analysis that performs both topic identification and text segmentation. Key characteristics of the framework are: representing a topic by means of a cluster of words closely related to the topic; and employing a stochastic model, called a finite mixture model, to represent a word distribution within…

  10. Convergence of Influential Bloggers for Topic Discovery in the Blogosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Shamanth; Zafarani, Reza; Abbasi, Mohammad Ali; Barbier, Geoffrey; Liu, Huan

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach to automatically detect "hot" or important topics of discussion in the blogosphere. The proposed approach is based on analyzing the activity of influential bloggers to determine specific points in time when there is a convergence amongst the influential bloggers in terms of their topic of discussion. The tool BlogTrackers, is used to identify influential bloggers and the Normalized Google Distance is used to define the similarity amongst the topics of discussion of influential bloggers. The key advantage of the proposed approach is its ability to automatically detect events which are important in the blogger community.

  11. Helicopter aeroelastic stability and response - Current topics and future trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, Peretz P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents several current topics in rotary wing aeroelasticity and concludes by attempting to anticipate future trends and developments. These topics are: (1) the role of geometric nonlinearities; (2) structural modeling, and aeroelastic analysis of composite rotor blades; (3) aeroelastic stability and response in forward flight; (4) modeling of coupled rotor/fuselage aeromechanical problems and their active control; and (5) the coupled rotor-fuselage vibration problem and its alleviation by higher harmonic control. Selected results illustrating the fundamental aspects of these topics are presented. Future developments are briefly discussed.

  12. VEGETATIVE COVERS FOR WASTE CONTAINMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disposal of municipal ahd hazardous waste in the United States is primarily accomplished by containment in lined and capped landfills. Evapotranspiration cover systems offer an alternative to conventional landfill cap systems. These covers work on completely different principles ...

  13. Retapamulin: a newer topical antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, D; Parakh, A; Ramachandran, S

    2013-01-01

    Impetigo is a common childhood skin infection. There are reports of increasing drug resistance to the currently used topical antibiotics including fusidic acid and mupirocin. Retapamulin is a newer topical agent of pleuromutilin class approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of impetigo in children and has been recently made available in the Indian market. It has been demonstrated to have low potential for the development of antibacterial resistance and a high degree of potency against poly drug resistant Gram-positive bacteria found in skin infections including Staphylococcus aureus strains. The drug is safe owing to low systemic absorption and has only minimal side-effect of local irritation at the site of application. PMID:23793314

  14. Major research topics in combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hussaini, M.Y.; Kumar, A.; Voigt, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) and NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) hosted a workshop on October 2--4, 1989 to discuss some combustion problems of technological interest to LaRC and to foster interaction with the academic community in these research areas. The topics chosen for this purpose were flame structure, flame holding/extinction, chemical kinetics, turbulence-kinetics interaction, transition to detonation, and reacting free shear layers. This document contains the papers and edited versions of general discussions on these topics. The lead paper set the stage for the meeting by discussing the status and issues of supersonic combustion relevant to the scramjet engine. Experts were then called upon to review the current knowledge in the aforementioned areas, to focus on how this knowledge can be extended and applied to high-speed combustion, and to suggest future directions of research in these areas.

  15. [Topical cimetidine treatment of acne].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J B; Spona, J

    1986-08-01

    We present first results of topically applied cimetidine in acne. Ten patients suffering from papulopustular and comedone acne administered 2% cimetidine in indifferent lotion on their face twice a day. Clinical controls were performed every two weeks; sebum was monthly determined. After treatment of 13 weeks on the average, the clinical success was generally good. Comedones responded best, followed by papules. Pustules were hardly reduced. There was no significant reduction of SER and the lipid fractions at the end of treatment. Low concentration or insufficient penetration might be possible explanations. The efficient reduction of comedones might be an antiandrogenic effect due to modulation of the keratinization in the follicle excretory duct. Immune-modulatory effects of cimetidine and effects on the skin vessels are other possible explanations for the clinical efficacy of topical application of cimetidine in acne.

  16. TOPTRAC: Topical Trajectory Pattern Mining

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Younghoon; Han, Jiawei; Yuan, Cangzhou

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing use of GPS-enabled mobile phones, geo-tagging, which refers to adding GPS information to media such as micro-blogging messages or photos, has seen a surge in popularity recently. This enables us to not only browse information based on locations, but also discover patterns in the location-based behaviors of users. Many techniques have been developed to find the patterns of people's movements using GPS data, but latent topics in text messages posted with local contexts have not been utilized effectively. In this paper, we present a latent topic-based clustering algorithm to discover patterns in the trajectories of geo-tagged text messages. We propose a novel probabilistic model to capture the semantic regions where people post messages with a coherent topic as well as the patterns of movement between the semantic regions. Based on the model, we develop an efficient inference algorithm to calculate model parameters. By exploiting the estimated model, we next devise a clustering algorithm to find the significant movement patterns that appear frequently in data. Our experiments on real-life data sets show that the proposed algorithm finds diverse and interesting trajectory patterns and identifies the semantic regions in a finer granularity than the traditional geographical clustering methods. PMID:26709365

  17. Using NASA Space Imaging to Teach Earth and Sun Topics in Professional Development Courses for In-Service Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verner, E.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Long, T.; Edwards, S.; Ofman, L.; Brosius, J. W.; Holman, G.; St Cyr, O. C.; Krotkov, N. A.; Fatoyinbo Agueh, T.

    2012-12-01

    several PD courses using NASA imaging technology. It includes various ways to study selected topics in physics and astronomy. We use NASA Images to develop lesson plans and EPO materials for PreK-8 grades. Topics are Space based and they vary from measurements, magnetism on Earth to that for our Sun. In addition we cover topics on ecosystem structure, biomass and water on Earth. Hands-on experiments, computer simulations, analysis of real-time NASA data, and vigorous seminar discussions are blended in an inquiry-driven curriculum to instill confident understanding of basic physical science and modern, effective methods for teaching it. Course also demonstrates ways how scientific thinking and hands-on activities could be implemented in the classroom. This course is designed to provide the non-science student a confident understanding of basic physical science and modern, effective methods for teaching it. Most of topics were selected using National Science Standards and National Mathematics Standards to be addressed in grades PreK-8. The course focuses on helping in several areas of teaching: 1) Build knowledge of scientific concepts and processes; 2) Understand the measurable attributes of objects and the units and methods of measurements; 3) Conducting data analysis (collecting, organizing, presenting scientific data, and to predict the result); 4) Use hands-on approaches to teach science; 5) Be familiar with Internet science teaching resources. Here we share our experiences and challenges we faced teaching this course.

  18. Cover crops and N credits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops often provide many short- and long-term benefits to cropping systems. Legume cover crops can significantly reduce the N fertilizer requirement of non-legume cash crops that follow. The objectives of this presentation were to: I) educate stakeholders about the potential benefits of cover ...

  19. Topical Application of Fingolimod Perturbs Cutaneous Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wai Y; Dimasi, David P; Pitman, Melissa R; Zhuang, YiZhong; Heddle, Robert; Pitson, Stuart M; Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Bonder, Claudine S

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of allergies, including rhinitis, eczema, and anaphylaxis, is rising dramatically worldwide. This increase is especially problematic in children who bear the greatest burden of this rising trend. Increasing evidence identifies neutrophils as primary perpetrators of the more severe and difficult to manage forms of inflammation. A newly recognized mechanism by which neutrophils are recruited during the early phase of histamine-induced inflammation involves the sphingosine kinase (SK)/sphingosine-1-phosphate axis. This study examines whether topical application of fingolimod, an established SK/sphingosine-1-phosphate antagonist already in clinical use to treat multiple sclerosis, may be repurposed to treat cutaneous inflammation. Using two mouse models of ear skin inflammation (histamine- and IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis) we topically applied fingolimod prophylactically, as well as after establishment of the inflammatory response, and examined ear swelling, SK activity, vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment, and production of proinflammatory mediators. The present study reveals that when applied topically, fingolimod attenuates both immediate and late-phase responses to histamine with reduced extravasation of fluid, SK-1 activity, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, and neutrophil influx and prevents ear swelling. Intravital microscopy demonstrates that histamine-induced neutrophil rolling and adhesion to the postcapillary venules in the mouse ears is significantly attenuated even after 24 h. More importantly, these effects are achievable even once inflammation is established. Translation into humans was also accomplished with epicutaneous application of fingolimod resolving histamine-induced and allergen-induced inflammatory reactions in forearm skin. Overall, this study demonstrates, to our knowledge for the first time, that fingolimod may be repurposed to treat cutaneous inflammation. PMID:27001955

  20. Auditory and Visual Cues for Topic Maintenance with Persons Who Exhibit Dementia of Alzheimer's Type

    PubMed Central

    Teten, Amy F.; Dagenais, Paul A.; Friehe, Mary J.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of auditory and visual redirections in facilitating topic coherence for persons with Dementia of Alzheimer's Type (DAT). Five persons with moderate stage DAT engaged in conversation with the first author. Three topics related to activities of daily living, recreational activities, food, and grooming, were broached. Each topic was presented three times to each participant: once as a baseline condition, once with auditory redirection to topic, and once with visual redirection to topic. Transcripts of the interactions were scored for overall coherence. Condition was a significant factor in that the DAT participants exhibited better topic maintenance under visual and auditory conditions as opposed to baseline. In general, the performance of the participants was not affected by the topic, except for significantly higher overall coherence ratings for the visually redirected interactions dealing with the topic of food. PMID:26171273

  1. Auditory and Visual Cues for Topic Maintenance with Persons Who Exhibit Dementia of Alzheimer's Type.

    PubMed

    Teten, Amy F; Dagenais, Paul A; Friehe, Mary J

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of auditory and visual redirections in facilitating topic coherence for persons with Dementia of Alzheimer's Type (DAT). Five persons with moderate stage DAT engaged in conversation with the first author. Three topics related to activities of daily living, recreational activities, food, and grooming, were broached. Each topic was presented three times to each participant: once as a baseline condition, once with auditory redirection to topic, and once with visual redirection to topic. Transcripts of the interactions were scored for overall coherence. Condition was a significant factor in that the DAT participants exhibited better topic maintenance under visual and auditory conditions as opposed to baseline. In general, the performance of the participants was not affected by the topic, except for significantly higher overall coherence ratings for the visually redirected interactions dealing with the topic of food. PMID:26171273

  2. New patents on topical anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Carmen; Macaluso, Laura; Frascani, Federica; Paolino, Giovanni; D'Andrea, Vito; Richetta, Antonio G; Calvieri, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia is defined as a total or partial loss of sensation and it may be general, local or topical, depending on the method of drug administration and area of the body affected. General anesthesia is a reversible state of unconsciousness produced by anesthetic agents, characterized by amnesia, muscle relaxation and loss of sensitivity to pain of the whole body. General anesthetic drugs can be classified into two main groups according to their predominant molecular pharmacological effects: volatile and intravenous agents. Local anesthesia produce a reversible loss of sensation in a portion of the body and it reversibly block impulse conduction along nerve axons and other excitable membrane. All local anesthetics (LA) are membrane stabilizing drugs; they reversibly decrease the rate of depolarization and repolarization of excitable membranes. They act mainly by inhibiting sodium influx through sodium-specific ion channels in the neuronal cell membrane, in particular the voltage-gated sodium channels. When the influx of sodium is interrupted, an action potential cannot arise and signal conduction is inhibited. The main local anesthetic (LA) agents for skin anesthesia are benzocaine (aminoester), prilocaine and lidocaine (aminoamides) which are commercially available as gels, ointments and creams (benzocaine and eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine) or as a bioadhesive (lidocaine) with different compositions (vehicles and excipients) for adults or pediatric use. Topical anesthetics decrease anxiety, pain and discomfort during cutaneous procedures and provide effective analgesia with rapid onset, prolonged duration and minimal side effects. This article outlines the different classes of topical anesthetics available and gives an overview of the mechanism of action, metabolism of each different class, of the possible complications that can occur because of their use and their possible treatment options and new patents.

  3. Timely topics in pediatric psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Dineen Wagner, Karen

    2014-11-01

    This section of Focus on Childhood and Adolescent Mental Health presents findings on an array of topics including inflammation and child and adolescent depression, glutamatergic dysregulation and pediatric psychiatric disorders, predictors of bipolar disorder in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the continuum between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). There is increased interest in the role of inflammation in psychiatric disorders. Kim and colleagues conducted a systematic literature review to examine the relationships between inflammatory processes, inflammation, medical conditions, and depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. PMID:25470084

  4. Evaluation of advanced R and D topics in photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surek, T.

    1982-01-01

    An evaluation of advanced research and development topics in photovoltaic that is summarized. The intent was to develop priorities in a list of advanced research and development activities. Thirty-five activities in 10 major categories were evaluated by their contributions to basic scientific advances, potential impact on further technology development by private industry, and priorities for federal advanced research and development funding.

  5. Current topics in clinical FES in Japan.

    PubMed

    Handa, Y

    1997-12-01

    This paper reviews recent topics of clinical application of functional electrical stimulation (FES) for the paralyzed extremities in Japan. Transcutaneous and percutaneous FES systems have been clinically used in Japan. Candidates of extremity FES arer mostly stroke and spinal cord injury patients. By using percutaneous FES system, all of the joints of the upper extremity including the shoulder have been controlled for activities of daily living in the hemiplegic patient. Simultaneous FES control of the hand and wrist and the bilateral hands have also been achieved in C5 and C6 quadriplegics, respectively. Hybrid FES systems using percutaneous and surface electrodes, where FES is used in combination with orthoses, have been applied to the paraplegics because they are highly practical for assisting their locomotive activities. Percutaneous FES have been also provided the amyotropic lateral sclerosis patients with standing up motion. A total implant FES system with 16 output channels is currently developing as a next generation FES system.

  6. Topical NSAIDs for chronic musculoskeletal pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; Rabbie, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly taken orally, but they are also available in topical preparations to be applied to or rubbed onto the skin of a painful joint, typically one affected by arthritis, with the aim of relieving pain locally. Topical NSAIDs are widely used in some parts of the world for acute and chronic painful conditions, but have not been universally accepted until recently. One of the problems has been that older clinical studies were generally short, lasting four weeks or less, and short duration studies are not regarded as adequate in ongoing painful conditions. Objectives To examine the use of topical NSAIDs in chronic musculoskeletal pain, focusing on studies of high methodological quality, and examining the measured effect of the preparations according to study duration. The principal aim was to estimate treatment efficacy in longer duration studies of at least 8 weeks. Search methods A series of electronic searches, together with bibliographic searches, and searches of in-house databases were combined with electronic searches of clinical trial registers and manufacturers of topical NSAIDs, or companies known to be actively researching topical NSAIDs. There had to be at least 10 participants in each treatment arm, with application of treatment at least once daily. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind studies with placebo or active comparators, where at least one treatment was a topical NSAID product, in any topical formulation (cream, gel, patch, solution), in studies lasting at least two weeks. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed study quality and validity, and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk (RR) and numbers needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Information was available from 7688 participants in 34 studies from 32 publications; 23 studies

  7. Earth Child: Games, Stories, Activities, Experiments & Ideas about Living Lightly on Planet Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Kathryn; Waidner, Mary

    This book is a collection of activities, stories, ideas, and games designed to help adults and young children develop a shared awareness of their environment. The material is presented in eight chapters. Activities and stories are interwoven throughout each chapter to provide a holistic view of the topic covered. The end of each chapter contains…

  8. An Active Learning Exercise for Product Design from an Operations Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Stephen; Baker, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Product design is a topic that is regularly covered in introductory operations management courses. However, a pedagogical challenge exists related to the presentation of introductory-level product design in a way that promotes active learning. The hands-on exercise presented in this article provides instructors with an activity that gives students…

  9. Auto Mechanics I. Learning Activity Packets (LAPs). Section A--Orientation and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains seven learning activity packets (LAPs) that outline the study activities for the orientation and safety instructional area for an Auto Mechanics I course. The seven LAPs cover the following topics: orientation, safety, hand tools, arc welding, oxyacetylene cutting, oxyacetylene fusion welding, and oxyacetylene braze welding.…

  10. Topical menthol increases cutaneous blood flow.

    PubMed

    Craighead, Daniel H; Alexander, Lacy M

    2016-09-01

    Menthol, the active ingredient in several topically applied analgesics, activates transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) receptors on sensory nerves and on the vasculature inducing a cooling sensation on the skin. Ilex paraguariensis is also a common ingredient in topical analgesics that has potential vasoactive properties and may alter the mechanisms of action of menthol. We sought to characterize the microvascular effects of topical menthol and ilex application and to determine the mechanism(s) through which these compounds may independently and combined alter cutaneous blood flow. We hypothesized that menthol would induce vasoconstriction and that ilex would not alter skin blood flow (SkBF). Three separate protocols were conducted to examine menthol and ilex-mediated changes in SkBF. In protocol 1, placebo, 4% menthol, 0.7% ilex, and combination menthol+ilex gels were applied separately to the skin and red cell flux was continuously measured utilizing laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI). In protocol 2, seven concentrations of menthol gel (0.04%, 0.4%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 7%, 8%) were applied to the skin to model the dose-response curve. In protocol 3, placebo, menthol, ilex, and menthol+ilex gels were applied to skin under local thermal control (34°C) both with and without sensory nerve blockage (topical lidocaine 4%). Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) and local heating (42°C) protocols were conducted to determine the relative contribution of endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs)/sensory nerves and nitric oxide (NO), respectively. Red cell flux was normalized to mean arterial pressure expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC: flux·mmHg(-1)) in all protocols. Topical menthol application increased SkBF compared to placebo (3.41±0.33 vs 1.1±0.19CVC: p<0.001). During the dose-response, SkBF increased with increasing doses of menthol (main effect, p<0.05) with an ED50 of 1.0%. Similarly, SkBF was increased after menthol

  11. Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

  12. Microgravity: Teacher's Guide with Activities for Physical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Wargo, Michael J.

    This teacher's guide to microgravity contains 16 student science activities with full background information to facilitate an understanding of the concepts of microgravity for teachers and students. Topics covered in the background sections include the definitions of gravity and microgravity, creating microgravity, the fluid state, combustion…

  13. The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE): Identification for robust control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlov, Valery I.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on identification for robust control for the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) are presented. Topics covered include: identification for robust control; three levels of identification; basic elements of the approach; advantages of 'post-ID' model of uncertainty; advantages of optimization; and practical realization.

  14. Six degree of freedom active vibration damping for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Leonard S.

    1993-01-01

    Work performed during the period 1 Jan. - 31 Mar. 1993 on six degree of freedom active vibration damping for space application is presented. A performance and cost report is included. Topics covered include: actuator testing; mechanical amplifier design; and neural network control system development and experimental evaluation.

  15. Learning Activity Package, Physical Science 92, LAPs 1-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, G. J.

    This set of nine teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in physical science covers the topics of scientific equipment and procedures; measure of time, length, area, and volume; water; oxygen and oxidation; atmospheric pressure; motion; machines; carbon; and light and sound. Each unit contains a rationale…

  16. Wild Horses: Stories and Activities. The Wonder Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorehead, Carol Ann

    This curriculum guide is all about wild horses and provides information through the telling of stories about these animals and their history and folklore. The activities contained in this guide employ an interdisciplinary approach and use mazes, puzzles, model-building, and board games to interest and inform students. Topics covered include the…

  17. Student Activity Guide for "Business in an Information Economy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, David; And Others

    The 20 chapters of this student activity guide provide study guides (key terms and concepts reviews), projects, cases for analyses, and self-assessment exercises for business and career education classes. Topics covered include the following: business winners (entrepreneurship); growth of the U.S. economy, the basics of economics, comparing…

  18. The role of topical vitamin D modulators in psoriasis therapy.

    PubMed

    Tanghetti, Emil A

    2009-08-01

    Psoriasis affects more than 5 million adults in the United States (U.S.), causing significant impairments in quality of life and incurring substantial costs in treatment. The disease is characterized by hyperproliferation and abnormal differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes resulting from a disordered immune response. Topical therapies, such as corticosteroids, are the most common treatment for psoriasis. However, long-term use of more potent topical corticosteroids is associated with potential risk for side effects. Topical vitamin D agents have been developed as a newer therapeutic option for use in place of, or in addition to, topical corticosteroids. These agents act to inhibit keratinocyte proliferation, normalize differentiation and modulate the activity of immune cells with minimal effect on serum calcium hemostasis. Calcipotriene is the most widely used member of this class, and is one of the most frequently prescribed topical agents for psoriasis. Although evidence suggests that it is approximately as effective as low-to-medium potency corticosteroids, it is associated with cutaneous irritation, especially when used in sensitive areas. Calcitriol ointment is a new option for topical therapy and is the only vitamin D3 ointment available for use in the U.S. and contains the naturally occurring active form of vitamin D3 that is associated with a relatively low rate of side effects.

  19. Response of micropenis to topical testosterone and gonadotropin.

    PubMed

    Klugo, R C; Cerny, J C

    1978-05-01

    Five patients were treated with gonadotropin and topical testosterone for micropenis associated with hypothalamic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. All patients received 1,000 units of gonadotropin weekly for 3 weeks, with a 6-week interval followed by 10% topical testosterone cream twice daily for 3 weeks. Serum testosterone levels were measured and remained equivalent for both modes of therapy. Average penile growth response with gonadotropin was 14.3% increase in length and 5.0% increase of girth. Topical testosterone produced an average increase of 60% in penile length and 52.9% in girth. The greatest growth response occurred in prepubertal male subjects with a minimal response in postpubertal male subjects. This study suggests that 10% topical testosterone cream twice daily will produce effective penile growth. The response appears to be greater in younger children, which is consistent with previously published studies of age-related 5 reductase activity.

  20. CoverCAM - a land cover composition change assessment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Bie, C. D.; Skidmore, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    The cover-composition on a specific piece of land can change over time due to natural and anthropogenic factors. Accurate detection of where and when changes occur requires a method that uses remotely sensed imagery that represents a continuous and consistent record on the state of the green land-cover. Such data are offered through hyper-temporal NDVI-imagery. Until recently, NDVI-images were mainly used for anomaly mapping to monitor the influence of weather on vegetation; the monitoring basically assume that, over time, the land cover composition of a studied area remains static. This study presents a novel cover change assessment method, labelled ';CoverCAM' that extracts from hyper-temporal NDVI-imagery the probabilities that the original land cover composition did change. CoverCAM, unlike all existing change-detection methods, makes adjustments based on seasonal NDVI-anomalies experienced at landscape level. We tested the method by processing SPOT-VGT NDVI-imagery (10-day Maximum Value Composites; 1km pixels) for Andalucía, Spain. CoverCAM requires specification that two time periods are specified: a reference period (we used 2000-04), and a change detection period (we used 2005-10). All images of the reference period were classified using the ISODATA algorithm and by evaluating divergence statistics. The generated map depicts strata (group of polygons), characterized by temporal NDVI and standard deviation (SD) profiles. For the change assessment period, first, mean NDVI-values were calculated by decade and polygon (NDVId,p), and then for each pixel of the polygon its pixel change values specified through the remaining difference between the pixel NDVI and [NDVId,p × the SD value of the stratum for that decade]. The above process was repeated to produce decadal land cover change probability maps, each with its own undefined scale. The decadal change maps were then aggregated to annual change probability maps. This validation was only carried out for

  1. Assessment of land cover changes in Lampedusa Island (Italy) using Landsat TM and OLI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Alessandro; Manzo, Ciro; Fontinovo, Giuliano; Bassani, Cristiana; Allegrini, Alessia; Petracchini, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    The Lampedusa Island displays important socio-economic criticalities related to an intensive touristic activity, which implies an increase in electricity consumption and waste production. An adequate island conversion to a more environmental, sustainable community needs to be faced by the local Management Plans establishment. For this purpose, several thematic datasets have to be produced and evaluated. Socio-economic and bio-ecological components as well as land cover/use assessment are some of the main topics to be managed within the Decision Support Systems. Considering the lack of Land Cover (LC) and vegetation change detection maps in Lampedusa Island (Italy), this paper focuses on the retrieval of these topics by remote sensing techniques. The analysis was carried out by Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 8 OLI multispectral images from 1984 to 2014 in order to obtain spatial and temporal information of changes occurred in the island. Firstly, imagery was co-registered and atmospherically corrected; secondly, it was then classified for land cover and vegetation distribution analysis with the use of QGIS and Saga GIS open source softwares. The Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) was used for LC maps production, while the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used for vegetation examination and distribution. Topographic maps, historical aerial photos, ortophotos and field data are merged in the GIS for accuracy assessment. Finally, change detection of MLC and NDVI are provided respectively by Post-Classification Comparison (PCC) and Image Differencing (ID). The provided information, combined with local socio-economic parameters, is essential for the improvement of environmental sustainability of anthropogenic activities in Lampedusa.

  2. FLOOR COVERING--PART 1, RESILIENT COVERINGS. WORKBOOK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUTTER, RALPH; AND OTHERS

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS STUDY GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED FOR USE IN RELATED TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION IN APPRENTICE TRAINING FOR THE FLOOR COVERING TRADE. THE MATERIAL WAS WRITTEN BY TRADE INSTRUCTORS AND JOURNEYMEN UNDER THE DIRECTION AND COORDINATION OF THE STATE EDUCATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR THE FLOOR COVERING TRADE AND OTHERS. THE UNITS ARE (1)…

  3. Topical rubefacients for acute and chronic pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Paul; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Rubefacients (containing salicylates or nicotinamides) cause irritation of the skin, and are believed to relieve various musculoskeletal pains. They are available on prescription, and are common components in over-the-counter remedies. A non-Cochrane review in 2004 found limited evidence for efficacy. Objectives To review current evidence for efficacy and safety of topically applied rubefacients in acute and chronic painful musculoskeletal conditions in adults. Search methods Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Oxford Pain Relief Database, and reference lists of articles were searched; last search December 2008. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind, placebo or active controlled clinical trials of topical rubefacient for musculoskeletal pain in adults, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm, and reporting outcomes at close to 7 (minimum 3, maximum 10) days for acute conditions and 14 (minimum 7) days or longer for chronic conditions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and quality, and extracted data. Relative benefit or risk and number needed to treat to benefit or harm (NNT or NNH) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Acute and chronic conditions were analysed separately. Main results Six placebo and one active controlled studies (560 and 137 participants) in acute pain, and seven placebo and two active controlled studies (489 and 90 participants) in chronic pain were included. All used topical salicylates. The evidence in acute conditions was not robust; using only better quality, valid studies, there was no difference between topical rubefacient and topical control, though overall, including lower quality studies, the NNT for clinical success compared with placebo was 3.2 (95% CI: 2.4 to 4.9). In chronic conditions the NNT was 6.2 (95% CI: 4.0 to 13) compared with topical placebo. Adverse events and withdrawals occurred more often with rubefacients than placebo

  4. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Workplace Safety and Health Topics Industries & Occupations Hazards & Exposures Diseases & ... Pinterest Twitter YouTube NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A-Z Workplace Safety & Health Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH ...

  5. Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... ts If you've ever rubbed a topical pain reliever—a cream, gel or other product applied to ...

  6. Topics in complex nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Linghang

    In the dissertation, I include two topics of my research in nonlinear dynamic systems. In the first topic, we use numerical optimization techniques to investigate the behavior of the success rates for two- and three-qubit entangling gates, first for perfect fidelity, and then extended to imperfect gates. We find that as the perfect fidelity condition is relaxed, the maximum attainable success rates increase in a predictable fashion depending on the size of the system, and we compare that rate of increase for several gates. Finally, we propose an experiment to test our imperfect LOQC gates using number-resolving photon detectors. We suggest a relatively simple physical apparatus capable of producing CZ gates with controllable fidelity less than 1 and success rates higher than the current theoretical maximum (S=2/27) for perfect fidelity. These experimental setups are within the reach of many experimental groups and would provide an interesting experiment in photonic quantum computing. In the second topic, we quantitatively study nonlinear effects on the evolution of surface gravity waves on the ocean, to explore systematically the effects of various input parameters on the probability of rogue wave formation. The fourth-order current-modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation (CNLS4) is employed to describe the wave evolution. First, we show that when the average wave steepness is small and nonlinear wave effects are subleading, the wave height distribution is well explained by a single "freak index" parameter, which describes the strength of (linear) wave scattering by random currents relative to the angular spread of the incoming random sea. When the average steepness is large, the wave height distribution takes a very similar functional form, but the key variables determining the probability distribution are the steepness, and the angular and frequency spread of the incoming waves. Then, we obtain quantitative predictions for the wave height distribution as a

  7. Topical therapy for fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Amber A; Dahl, Mark V

    2004-01-01

    Fungi often infect the skin surface and subsequently invade the stratum corneum to avoid being shed from the skin surface by desquamation. Pharmacologic agents applied to the surface of the skin in the form of creams, lotions, or sprays, readily penetrate into the stratum corneum to kill the fungi (fungicidal agents), or at least render them unable to grow or divide (fungistatic agents). Thus, topical therapies work well to rid the skin of topical fungi and yeasts. Azole drugs such as miconazole, clotrimazole, and ketoconazole are fungistatic, limiting fungal growth but depending on epidermal turnover to shed the still-living fungus from the skin surface. Allylamines and benzylamines such as terbinafine, naftifine, and butenafine are fungicidal, actually killing the fungal organisms. Fungicidal drugs are often preferred over fungistatic drugs for treatment of dermatophytic fungal infections, since treatment times as short as one application daily for 1 week are associated with high cure rates. Furthermore, patients often stop treatments when the skin appears healed, usually after about a week of treatment. If this short-term treatment is stopped, fungi recur more often when fungistatic, rather than fungicidal, drugs have been used. Yeast infections such as those caused by Candida albicans respond less well to allylamine drugs. The azole drugs are often preferred for these types of infections. Nail infections are difficult to cure with topical therapies because the infections usually occur under the nail instead of on top of it and products penetrate poorly, if at all, through the nail plate. Infections of hair follicles, nails, and widespread infections often require systemic treatments. Antifungal agents are compounded into many different types of vehicles. Patients often prefer to treat weeping infections with spray formulations. Most physicians prescribe branded products in cream or lotion bases. Cost is a factor dictating prescription choice, especially since

  8. Formulation, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of topical microbicides.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jessica L; Kashuba, Angela D M

    2012-08-01

    The development of safe topical microbicides that effectively prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major goal in curbing the human immunodeficiency virus pandemic. A number of past failures resulting from mucosal toxicity or lack of efficacy have informed the field. Products that caused toxicity to the female genital tract mucosa, and thereby increased the likelihood of HIV acquisition, included nonoxynol 9, cellulose sulfate, and C31 G vaginal gel Savvy. Topical products that were ineffective in preventing HIV infection include BufferGel, Carraguard, and PRO 2000. Antiretroviral drugs such as tenofovir and dapivirine formulated into microbicide products have shown promise, but there is much to learn about ideal product formulation and acceptability, and drug distribution and disposition (pharmacokinetics). Current formulations for water-soluble molecules include vaginally or rectally applied gels, vaginal rings, films and tablets. Dosing strategies (e.g. coitally dependent or independent) will be based on the pharmacokinetics of the active ingredient and the tolerance for less than perfect adherence. PMID:22306523

  9. Northern Hemisphere snow cover and atmospheric blocking variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GarcíA-Herrera, Ricardo; Barriopedro, David

    2006-11-01

    The interseasonal relationship between Northern Hemisphere (NH) snow cover and regional blocking patterns is explored for a 31-year data set. It is found that snow cover exerts an important influence on regional atmospheric blocking, which, in turn, modulates snow cover extent at subcontinental scales. Observational results provide strong evidence of two primary linkages in the seasonal snow cover-blocking relationship that support an interannual persistence cycle: The first one links winter blocking over the Atlantic and the subsequent spring (summer) Eurasian (North American) snow cover anomalies; the second one implies that spring (summer) Eurasian (North American) snow cover precedes an anomalous winter Atlantic blocking activity. We describe the temporal stages of the snow cover-blocking relationship in the framework of a six-step conceptual model. According to that, an enhanced Atlantic blocking activity in winter favors a later spring snow disappearance through an enhanced cold advection toward western Eurasia. The resulting snow cover anomalies partially force an opposite-sign blocking response over west and central Pacific which is sustained through spring and early summer, presumably because of the persistence of snow cover anomalies. This anomalous pattern seems to play a role in the propagation of snow cover anomalies from Eurasia in spring to the Hudson's Bay region of North America in summer. The excessive snow cover over this region induces an asymmetrical temperature distribution, which, in turn, favors blocking activity over Europe and the West Pacific. The connection between autumn and winter climates is not clear but it could be related with the ability of autumn high ATL blocking activity to determine an early snow cover appearance in October over western Eurasia. This linkage completes a snow cover-blocking cycle of interactions which identifies snow cover as a candidate for the recently observed blocking trends and a contributor to the

  10. Topics and Terms in Environmental Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holum, John R.

    This reference is an expanded glossary of topics and terms currently related to environmental problems. These topics and terms are associated with energy, air pollution, water pollution, wastes, and pesticides. Included are 239 main entries ranging from acaricide to weathering. Each entry briefly describes the topic or term and often presents a…

  11. Good and Bad Topics for Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidman, Patricia; And Others

    This paper reports the opinions about moral topics expressed by 140 elementary and secondary student teachers, 49 in Indiana and 91 in California. Teachers' judgments of the suitability of topics were collected via a questionnaire containing 20 topics in two versions. The presentation consists of: (1) a description of the opinionnaire teachers…

  12. Statistical analysis of multivariate atmospheric variables. [cloud cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tubbs, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Topics covered include: (1) estimation in discrete multivariate distributions; (2) a procedure to predict cloud cover frequencies in the bivariate case; (3) a program to compute conditional bivariate normal parameters; (4) the transformation of nonnormal multivariate to near-normal; (5) test of fit for the extreme value distribution based upon the generalized minimum chi-square; (6) test of fit for continuous distributions based upon the generalized minimum chi-square; (7) effect of correlated observations on confidence sets based upon chi-square statistics; and (8) generation of random variates from specified distributions.

  13. Cellular uptake, antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of entrapped α-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol in poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and chitosan covered PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA-Chi).

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Saeed; Simon, Lacey; Astete, Carlos E; Alayoubi, Alaadin; Sylvester, Paul W; Nazzal, Sami; Shen, Yixiao; Xu, Zhimin; Kaddoumi, Amal; Sabliov, Cristina M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize α-tocopherol (α-T) and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) entrapped in poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and chitosan covered PLGA (PLGA-Chi) based nanoparticles. The resultant nanoparticles were characterized and the effect of nanoparticles entrapment on the cellular uptake, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activity of α-T and TRF were tested. In vitro uptake studies in Caco2 cells showed that PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles displayed a greater enhancement in the cellular uptake of α-T and TRF when compared with the control without causing toxicity to the cells (p<0.0001). Furthermore, the cellular internalization of both PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles labeled with FITC was investigated by fluorescence microscopy; both types of nanoparticles were able to get internalized into the cells with reasonable amounts. However, PLGA-Chi nanoparticles showed significantly higher (3.5-fold) cellular uptake compared to PLGA nanoparticles. The antioxidant activity studies demonstrated that entrapment of α-T and TRF in PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles exhibited greater ability in inhibiting cholesterol oxidation at 48 h compared to the control. In vitro antiproliferative studies confirmed marked cytotoxicity of TRF on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines when delivered by PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles after 48 h incubation compared to control. In summary, PLGA and PLGA-Chi nanoparticles may be considered as an attractive and promising approach to enhance the bioavailability and activity of poorly water soluble compounds such as α-tocopherol and tocotrienols.

  14. Impact Factors and Prediction of Popular Topics in a Journal.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M B; Seitz, K

    2016-08-01

    -text recent articles on our journal's website shows that multicenter studies as well as recommendations backed by a national society or by the EFSUMB (European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology) are still important 27 28 29 30 31 32 33. Upcoming important topics appear to be pediatric use of CEUS, simulation training and the introduction of ultrasound to medical students 34 35 36 37. Some of these are also backed by EFSUMB.A recent paper on the IF of radiology journals found that subspecialty radiology journals had a higher IF than general radiology journals 38. This could prove a challenge to interdisciplinary journals like ours but we take pride in continuing to cover all aspects of ultrasound in more than 15 fields.The distribution between reviews, original articles and case reports in a journal is worth addressing. An important aspect of a journal is the publication of original scientific research articles. CME articles, pictorials and letters are important for other reasons but are cited at a lower rate. The value of case reports with regard to the IF is low since they are rarely cited 39 and we have observed that some journals have abandoned the publication of case reports, thus leaving them to spin-off journals. The rationale is that keeping case reports in a journal will only increase the denominator, thereby decreasing the IF 39. At our journal we have seen a decline in case report submissions but still want to publish them and even put one case on the front cover of every issue. Case reports still hold an educational value 40 and are important to our readers.In conclusion, a healthy mix of original articles, CME articles, reviews and case reports combined with a few international guidelines and recommendations is important to UIM/EJU. Although we see popular topics like CEUS and elastography, it is not possible to predict which articles will be read or even cited based on the topic, with multicenter studies being the exception.

  15. Impact Factors and Prediction of Popular Topics in a Journal.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M B; Seitz, K

    2016-08-01

    -text recent articles on our journal's website shows that multicenter studies as well as recommendations backed by a national society or by the EFSUMB (European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology) are still important 27 28 29 30 31 32 33. Upcoming important topics appear to be pediatric use of CEUS, simulation training and the introduction of ultrasound to medical students 34 35 36 37. Some of these are also backed by EFSUMB.A recent paper on the IF of radiology journals found that subspecialty radiology journals had a higher IF than general radiology journals 38. This could prove a challenge to interdisciplinary journals like ours but we take pride in continuing to cover all aspects of ultrasound in more than 15 fields.The distribution between reviews, original articles and case reports in a journal is worth addressing. An important aspect of a journal is the publication of original scientific research articles. CME articles, pictorials and letters are important for other reasons but are cited at a lower rate. The value of case reports with regard to the IF is low since they are rarely cited 39 and we have observed that some journals have abandoned the publication of case reports, thus leaving them to spin-off journals. The rationale is that keeping case reports in a journal will only increase the denominator, thereby decreasing the IF 39. At our journal we have seen a decline in case report submissions but still want to publish them and even put one case on the front cover of every issue. Case reports still hold an educational value 40 and are important to our readers.In conclusion, a healthy mix of original articles, CME articles, reviews and case reports combined with a few international guidelines and recommendations is important to UIM/EJU. Although we see popular topics like CEUS and elastography, it is not possible to predict which articles will be read or even cited based on the topic, with multicenter studies being the exception. PMID

  16. Topics in b-physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1988-09-01

    We discuss a few issues in the burgeoning field of physics of hadrons containing the b-quark. These include: A simple parameterization of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix featuring a triangle in the complex plane, a review of B/sub s/ and B/sub d/ mixing with special attention given to width-mixing and the CP-violating same-sign dilepton asymmetry, a discussion of the CP-violating decay B/sub d/ ..-->.. /psi/..pi../sup +/..pi../sup /minus//, and a discussion of Cp-violating rate asymmetries in the two-body decays ..lambda../sub b/ ..-->.. p..pi../sup /minus// and ..lambda../sub b/ ..-->.. pK/sup /minus//. The concluding discussion concerns generalizations beyond these specific topics. 22 refs., 6 figs.

  17. [Topical therapy in erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Floth, A

    2000-01-01

    All forms of pharmacological therapy result in a relaxation of the corporeal smooth muscle. Intracorporeal injection of vasoactive drugs was introduced around 15 years ago and still is the most effective therapy in erectile dysfunction. Resulting in a consistent success rate of 70-80% this form of therapy will find numerous applications, even after the introduction of effective oral agents such as sildenafil. Prostaglandin E1 and--less frequently used--the combination of papaverine and phentolamine are the mainstay of intracorporeal injection therapy. Intraurethral prostaglandin (MUSE) has recently become available and is somewhat less effective than injection therapy. Externally applied drugs (nitroglycerin paste on the penile shaft and minoxidil solution on the glans penis) have not succeeded in the long run. Vacuum erection devices represent a form of physical topical therapy that is very versatile and also effective but rather infrequently applied. PMID:10746290

  18. Topical Immunotherapy in Alopecia Areata

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurcharan; Lavanya, MS

    2010-01-01

    Alopecia Areata (AA) is a common non-scarring alopecia directed against the anagenic hair follicle. Various treatment modalities have been used for the treatment of severe AA. Topical immunotherapy is the best documented treatment so far for severe and refractory AA. Dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE), and diphencyprone (DPCP) are the contact allergens used for this purpose. DNCB has been found to be mutagenic by the Ames test and is largely replaced by DPCP and SADBE. DPCP and SADBE are both known to be non-mutagenic compounds and have comparable efficacy results and relapse rates. SADBE requires special solvents and additives to maintain its potency and is more expensive than the rest. DPCP has a response rate varying from 60% in severe Alopecia Areata to 17% in patients with alopecia totalis or universalis, and shows about 88 to 100% high response rate in patients with patchy Alopecia Areata. PMID:21188022

  19. Current Topics in Epilepsy Surgery

    PubMed Central

    USUI, Naotaka

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the current topics in the field of epilepsy surgery. Each type of epilepsy is associated with a different set of questions and goals. In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with hippocampal sclerosis (HS), postoperative seizure outcome is satisfactory. A recent meta-analysis revealed superior seizure outcome after anterior temporal lobectomy compared with selective amygdalohippocampectomy; in terms of cognitive outcome; however, amygdalohippocampectomy may be beneficial. In temporal lobe epilepsy with normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), postoperative seizure outcome is not as favorable as it is in MTLE with HS; further improvement of seizure outcome in these cases is necessary. Focal cortical dysplasia is the most common substrate in intractable neocortical epilepsy, especially in children, as well as in MRI-invisible neocortical epilepsy. Postoperative seizure-free outcome is approximately 60–70%; further diagnostic and therapeutic improvement is required. Regarding diagnostic methodology, an important topic currently under discussion is wideband electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis. Although high-frequency oscillations and ictal direct current shifts are considered important markers of epileptogenic zones, the clinical significance of these findings should be clarified further. Regarding alternatives to surgery, neuromodulation therapy can be an option for patients who are not amenable to resective surgery. In addition to vagus nerve stimulation, intracranial stimulation such as responsive neurostimulation or anterior thalamic stimulation is reported to have a modest seizure suppression effect. Postoperative management such as rehabilitation and antiepileptic drug (AED) management is important. It has been reported that postoperative rehabilitation improves postoperative employment status. Pre- and post-operative comprehensive care is mandatory for postoperative improvement of quality of life. PMID:26984452

  20. Pentyl Gallate Nanoemulsions as Potential Topical Treatment of Herpes Labialis.

    PubMed

    Kelmann, Regina G; Colombo, Mariana; De Araújo Lopes, Sávia Caldeira; Nunes, Ricardo J; Pistore, Morgana; Dall Agnol, Daniele; Rigotto, Caroline; Silva, Izabella Thais; Roman, Silvane S; Teixeira, Helder F; Oliveira Simões, Cláudia M; Koester, Letícia S

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the antiherpes activity of pentyl gallate (PG), suggesting that it could be a promising candidate for the topical treatment of human herpes labialis. PG low aqueous solubility represents a major drawback to its incorporation in topical dosage forms. Hence, the feasibility of incorporating PG into nanoemulsions, the ability to penetrate the skin, to inhibit herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 replication, and to cause dermal sensitization or toxicity were evaluated. Oil/water nanoemulsions containing 0.5% PG were prepared by spontaneous emulsification. The in vitro PG distribution into porcine ear skin after topical application of nanoemulsions was assessed, and the in vitro antiviral activity against HSV-1 replication was evaluated. Acute dermal toxicity and risk of dermal sensitization were evaluated in rat model. Nanoemulsions presented nanometric particle size (from 124.8 to 143.7 nm), high zeta potential (from -50.1 to -66.1 mV), loading efficiency above 99%, and adequate stability during 12 months. All formulations presented anti-HSV-1 activity. PG was able to reach deeper into the dermis more efficiently from the nanoemulsion F4. This formulation as well as PG were considered safe for topical use. Nanoemulsions seem to be a safe and effective approach for topically delivering PG in the treatment of human herpes labialis infection.

  1. Advances in drilling covered at conference in Southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Recent advances in drilling technology include new applications for various polymer-based drilling fluids, an analytical evaluation of certain gas control additives for light cement slurries, the use of a new wellhead connector, and the development of a unique completion tool for slim hole wells. This paper reports on these topics which were covered in several papers prepared for the Offshore South East Asia 9th Conference and Exhibition held Dec. 1-4, 1992, in Singapore. Drilling fluids formulated with partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide were used successfully and economically to control well bore problems in a development drilling program in southeast Asia. Another paper presented results on the use of various cationic and anionic materials to control shale stability problems common to areas offshore western Australia. Another paper presented results of an evaluation of five common additives used to control gas migration problems in light-weight cements. In addition to these fluid topics, recent mechanical developments were covered.

  2. Midwest Cover Crops Field Guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers who want to prevent soil erosion, improve nutrient cycling, sustain their soils, and protect/maintain the environment have been returning to a very old practice: planting cover crops. Cover crops are effective tools for reducing soil erosion and increasing nutrient recycling on farmlands, ...

  3. The dust covering factor in AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalevski, Marko

    2016-08-01

    We undertook a critical investigation of a common estimator of the dust covering factor in active galactic nuclei (AGN). The infrared radiation emitted by the obscuring dusty structure ("the dusty torus") is nothing but a reprocessed fraction of the accretion disk emission, so the ratio of their luminosities (L_torus /L_AGN) should correspond to the fraction of the AGN sky obscured by dust. Using state-of-the-art Monte Carlo radiative transfer code, we calculated a grid of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) emitted by the clumpy two-phase dusty structure. Using this grid of SEDs, we studied the relation between L_torus /L_AGN and the dust covering factor for different parameters of the torus. We found that in case of type 1 AGNs, due to the torus anisotropy, L_torus/L AGN underestimate low covering factors and overestimate high covering factors. In type 2 AGNs covering factors are always underestimated. Our results provide a novel easy-to-use method to account for anisotropy and obtain correct covering factors. Using two samples from the literature, we demonstrated the importance of these effects for inferring the obscured AGN fraction. We found that after the anisotropy is properly accounted for, the dust covering factors show very weak dependence on L_AGN, with values in the range of approx. 0.6 ‑ 0.7. Our results suggest a higher fraction of obscured AGNs at high luminosities than those found by X-ray surveys. We discuss the possible causes of this discrepancy and demonstrate that it is partially due to the presence of a Compton-thick AGN population, which is missed by X-ray surveys, but not by infrared.

  4. Design, Development, and Psychometric Analysis of a General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Topic Inventory Based on the Identified Main Chemistry Topics Relevant to Nursing Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.

    2013-01-01

    This two-stage study focused on the undergraduate nursing course that covers topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry. In the first stage, the central objective was to identify the main concepts of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was based on open-ended interviews of both nursing…

  5. Calabi-Yau orbifolds and torus coverings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanany, Amihay; Jejjala, Vishnu; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye; Seong, Rak-Kyeong

    2011-09-01

    The theory of coverings of the two-dimensional torus is a standard part of algebraic topology and has applications in several topics in string theory, for example, in topological strings. This paper initiates applications of this theory to the counting of orbifolds of toric Calabi-Yau singularities, with particular attention to Abelian orbifolds of {mathbb{C}^D} . By doing so, the work introduces a novel analytical method for counting Abelian orbifolds, verifying previous algorithm results. One identifies a p-fold cover of the torus {mathbb{T}^{D - 1}} with an Abelian orbifold of the form {{{{mathbb{C}^D}}} left/ {{{mathbb{Z}_p}}} right.} , for any dimension D and a prime number p. The counting problem leads to polynomial equations modulo p for a given Abelian subgroup of S D , the group of discrete symmetries of the toric diagram for {mathbb{C}^D} . The roots of the polynomial equations correspond to orbifolds of the form {{{{mathbb{C}^D}}} left/ {{{mathbb{Z}_p}}} right.} , which are invariant under the corresponding subgroup of S D . In turn, invariance under this subgroup implies a discrete symmetry for the corresponding quiver gauge theory, as is clearly seen by its brane tiling formulation.

  6. Conference report: hot topics in antibody-drug conjugate development.

    PubMed

    Thudium, Karen; Bilic, Sanela

    2013-12-01

    American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists National Biotechnology Conference Sheraton San Diego Hotel and Marina, San Diego, CA, USA, 19-23 May 2013 The National Biotechnology Conference, is a premier meeting for biotechnology professionals covering a broad range of hot topics in the biotechnology industry. Attracting participants from academia, industry and regulatory, this meeting features sessions that aim to address emerging subjects of interest and allows for open exchange between scientists. The 2013 conference featured leading researchers in the fields of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) and immunogenicity. Herein, we present a summary of the ADC hot topics, including bioanalytical and PK considerations, quantitative evaluation of the impact of immunogenicity and ADME to understand ADC drug-drug interactions, and clinical considerations for ADC development. This article aims to summarize the recommendations that were made by the speakers during various sessions throughout the conference. PMID:24320125

  7. The value of snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    only and not even the main outcome from snow cover use. The value of snow cover for agriculture, water resources, industry and transportation is so naturally inside the activities that is not often quantified. However, any considerations of adaptation strategies for climate change with changing snow conditions need such quantification.

  8. Excipients in topical corticosteroid preparations in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Searles, G E; DesGroseilliers, J P

    1989-01-01

    Topical corticosteroids are widely used for the treatment of dermatoses in Canada. The effects of the various nontherapeutic components of these formulations are less well known than those of the active ingredients and may cause adverse reactions. Information on the components is fragmentary and is scattered throughout the literature. We have attempted to consolidate this information into one source. Recent provincial legislation requiring the generic substitution of interchangeable products and the nondisclosure of all ingredients in product labelling hinder the search for an excipient that has caused an adverse reaction. Practitioner participation in the Cutaneous Adverse Reaction Registry of the Canadian Dermatology Association will identify sensitizing excipients and will support efforts by the profession to obtain more effective and safer products. PMID:2766179

  9. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Lorna; Moore, R Andrew; Edwards, Jayne E; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J

    2004-01-01

    Background A previous systematic review reported that topical NSAIDs were effective in relieving pain in acute conditions like sprains and strains, with differences between individual drugs for efficacy. More trials, a better understanding of trial quality and bias, and a reclassification of certain drugs necessitate a new review. Methods Studies were identified by searching electronic databases and writing to manufacturers. We selected randomised double blind trials comparing topical NSAID with either placebo or another active treatment in adults with acute pain, and extracted dichotomous information approximating to a 50% reduction in pain at one week, together with details of adverse events and withdrawals. Relative benefit and number-needed-to-treat (NNT), and relative risk and number-needed-to-harm (NNH) were calculated, with sensitivity analyses where appropriate to investigate differences between individual drugs and aspects of trial design. Results Twenty-six double blind placebo controlled trials had information from 2,853 patients for evaluation of efficacy. Topical NSAID was significantly better than placebo in 19 of the 26 trials, with a pooled relative benefit of 1.6 (95% confidence interval 1.4 to 1.7), and NNT of 3.8 (95% confidence interval 3.4 to 4.4) compared with placebo for the outcome of half pain relief at seven days. Results were not affected by outcome reported, or condition treated, but smaller trials yielded a larger estimate of efficacy. Indirect comparisons of individual topical NSAIDs showed that ketoprofen was significantly better than all other topical NSAIDs, while indomethacin was barely distinguished from placebo. Three trials, with 433 patients, compared topical with oral NSAID (two trials compared the same drug, one compared different drugs) and found no difference in efficacy. Local adverse events, systemic adverse events, or withdrawals due to an adverse event were rare, and no different between topical NSAID and placebo

  10. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph report presents an overview of activities and accomplishments of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group. Expertise in this group focuses on high-fidelity fluids design and analysis with application to space shuttle propulsion and next generation launch technologies. Topics covered include: computational fluid dynamics research and goals, turbomachinery research and activities, nozzle research and activities, combustion devices, engine systems, MDA development and CFD process improvements.

  11. Repurposing celecoxib as a topical antimicrobial agent

    PubMed Central

    Thangamani, Shankar; Younis, Waleed; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new antibiotics and alternative strategies to combat multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens, which are a growing clinical issue. Repurposing existing approved drugs with known pharmacology and toxicology is an alternative strategy to accelerate antimicrobial research and development. In this study, we show that celecoxib, a marketed inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive pathogens from a variety of genera, including Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Listeria, Bacillus, and Mycobacterium, but not against Gram-negative pathogens. However, celecoxib is active against all of the Gram-negative bacteria tested, including strains of, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas, when their intrinsic resistance is artificially compromised by outer membrane permeabilizing agents such as colistin. The effect of celecoxib on incorporation of radioactive precursors into macromolecules in Staphylococcus aureus was examined. The primary antimicrobial mechanism of action of celecoxib was the dose-dependent inhibition of RNA, DNA, and protein synthesis. Further, we demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of celecoxib in a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infected Caenorhabditis elegans whole animal model. Topical application of celecoxib (1 and 2%) significantly reduced the mean bacterial count in a mouse model of MRSA skin infection. Further, celecoxib decreased the levels of all inflammatory cytokines tested, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-1 beta, and monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 in wounds caused by MRSA infection. Celecoxib also exhibited synergy with many conventional antimicrobials when tested against four clinical isolates of S. aureus. Collectively, these results demonstrate that celecoxib alone, or in combination with traditional antimicrobials, has a potential to use as a topical drug for the treatment of bacterial skin infections. PMID:26284040

  12. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail. PMID:26991442

  13. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail. PMID:26991442

  14. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail.

  15. Editors' preface for the topical issue on Seven papers on Noncommutative Geometry and Operator Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Daniele; Landi, Giovanni; Vassout, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    This topical issue grew out of the International Conference "Noncommutative Geometry and Applications" held 16-21 June 2014 at Villa Mondragone, Frascati (Roma). The main purpose of the conference was to have a unified view of different incarnations of noncommutative geometry and its applications. The seven papers collected in the present topical issue represent a good sample of the topics covered at the workshop. The conference itself was one of the climaxes of the Franco-Italian project GREFI-GENCO, which was initiated in 2007 by CNRS and INDAM to promote and enhance collaboration and exchanges between French and Italian researchers in the area of noncommutative geometry.

  16. Selected topics of hypoglycemia care

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review 4 topics in hypoglycemia (HoG) care: diagnosis, circumstances predisposing to HoG, risk of adverse effects, and prevention. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE was searched using the words hypoglycemia and diabetes mellitus. Other relevant sources were hand searched. Evidence was mostly level III and IV from consensus, from observation, and from the author’s clinical experience. MAIN MESSAGES Hypoglycemia can be diagnosed using clinical criteria or using a glucometer; it cannot be diagnosed after death. Capillary blood glucose testing for HoG is required only for patients taking insulin and insulin secretagogues. With intensified treatment of diabetes, a greater incidence of HoG is inevitable. Chronic morbidity and mortality resulting from HoG are believed to be rare. There are no reliable data on HoG-related mortality for idiopathic or accidental sudden death. Interventions by friends, family, colleagues, and teachers can prevent HoG. CONCLUSION Clinical diagnosis of HoG deserves greater emphasis; when patients are unaware of having HoG, physicians must rely on blood glucose testing. Patients not taking insulin or insulin secretagogues need neither fear nor test for HoG. The risk of HoG should not preclude efforts to achieve best possible control of blood sugar. Patients with unstable cardiac arrhythmias, drivers of motor vehicles, and those in high-risk industrial occupations require special vigilance for HoG. PMID:16639972

  17. Decision Point 1 Topical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Yablonsky, Al; Barsoumian, Shant; Legere, David

    2013-05-01

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2a of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to elaborate proven SkyMine® process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of the current Phase (2a) is to complete the detailed design of the pilot plant to be built in Phase 2b.

  18. Topics in cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Olin, S S; Neumann, D A; Foran, J A; Scarano, G J

    1997-01-01

    The estimation of carcinogenic risks from exposure to chemicals has become an integral part of the regulatory process in the United States within the past decade. With it have come considerable controversy and debate over the scientific merits and shortcomings of the methods and their impact on risk management decisions. In this paper we highlight selected topics of current interest in the debate. As an indication of the level of public concern, we note the major recent reports on risk assessment from the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S Environmental Protection Agency's proposed substantial revisions to its Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. We identify and briefly frame several key scientific issues in cancer risk assessment, including the growing recognition of the importance of understanding the mode of action of carcinogenesis in experimental animals and in humans, the methodologies and challenges in quantitative extrapolation of cancer risks, and the question of how to assess and account for human variability in susceptibility to carcinogens. In addition, we discuss initiatives in progress that may fundamentally alter the carcinogenesis testing paradigm. PMID:9114281

  19. HierarchicalTopics: visually exploring large text collections using topic hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Dou, Wenwen; Yu, Li; Wang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Zhiqiang; Ribarsky, William

    2013-12-01

    Analyzing large textual collections has become increasingly challenging given the size of the data available and the rate that more data is being generated. Topic-based text summarization methods coupled with interactive visualizations have presented promising approaches to address the challenge of analyzing large text corpora. As the text corpora and vocabulary grow larger, more topics need to be generated in order to capture the meaningful latent themes and nuances in the corpora. However, it is difficult for most of current topic-based visualizations to represent large number of topics without being cluttered or illegible. To facilitate the representation and navigation of a large number of topics, we propose a visual analytics system--HierarchicalTopic (HT). HT integrates a computational algorithm, Topic Rose Tree, with an interactive visual interface. The Topic Rose Tree constructs a topic hierarchy based on a list of topics. The interactive visual interface is designed to present the topic content as well as temporal evolution of topics in a hierarchical fashion. User interactions are provided for users to make changes to the topic hierarchy based on their mental model of the topic space. To qualitatively evaluate HT, we present a case study that showcases how HierarchicalTopics aid expert users in making sense of a large number of topics and discovering interesting patterns of topic groups. We have also conducted a user study to quantitatively evaluate the effect of hierarchical topic structure. The study results reveal that the HT leads to faster identification of large number of relevant topics. We have also solicited user feedback during the experiments and incorporated some suggestions into the current version of HierarchicalTopics.

  20. Dielectric covered microstrip patch antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Lisa M.

    1988-11-01

    Microstrip antennas have many properties that make them suitable for airborne and satellite communications systems. These antennas are low in cost and lightweight. For these reasons, Rome Air Development Center is interested in verifying and augmenting existing design models for these antennas. The theory and results are presented for modeling microstrip antennas that are covered with a sheet of dielectric material. There are several reasons for designing a microstrip antenna covered with a dielectric material. This configuration would allow the modeling of antennas with an integrated radome. A cover layer could possibly be used to support a polarizer; to mount additional antenna elements on top of the cover layer to provide bandwidth enhancements; or to be used as a dual frequency antenna.

  1. Topics in Finance: Part VIII--Mergers & Acquisitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2012-01-01

    In this series, three key axioms--stockholder wealth maximization, the risk-return tradeoff, and agency conflicts--are applied to the major topics in financial management. The current article looks at mergers and acquisitions, reviewing the presumed motivations, the ethical challenges, and the literature dedicated to this financial activity.

  2. Topics in Finance Part IX--Working Capital Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2012-01-01

    The final topic in a series looking at financial management from a theoretical perspective, working capital management provides the focus of the current article. We investigate how three key axioms--the risk-return tradeoff, agency conflicts, and stockholder wealth maximization--relate to this activity that occupies much of the financial manager's…

  3. Chaos: A Topic for Interdisciplinary Education in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Saebyok

    2009-01-01

    Since society and science need interdisciplinary works, the interesting topic of chaos is chosen for interdisciplinary education in physics. The educational programme contains various university-level activities such as computer simulations, chaos experiment and team projects besides ordinary teaching. According to the participants, the programme…

  4. Psychology and Nuclear Weapon Issues: Topics, Concepts, and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Linden, Comp.

    The document outlines 15 topics, each with concepts and selected references, to illustrate the relevance of psychology for understanding and coping with the threat of nuclear war. Awareness of the literature is intended to encourage psychologists to become more active in applying psychological concepts to nuclear weapons issues. The articles and…

  5. Reconstruction of Intensity From Covered Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, Rozaliya; Watkins, Thomas R; Meisner, Roberta Ann; Burchell, Timothy D; Rosseel, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    The safe handling of activated samples requires containment and covering the sample to eliminate any potential for contamination. Subsequent characterization of the surface with x-rays ideally necessitates a thin film. While many films appear visually transparent, they are not necessarily x-ray transparent. Each film material has a unique beam attenuation and sometimes have amorphous peaks that can superimpose with those of the sample. To reconstruct the intensity of the underlying activated sample, the x-ray attenuation and signal due to the film needs to be removed from that of the sample. This requires the calculation of unique deconvolution parameters for the film. The development of a reconstruction procedure for a contained/covered sample is described.

  6. Land-cover change detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Xuexia; Giri, Chandra; Vogelmann, James

    2012-01-01

    Land cover is the biophysical material on the surface of the earth. Land-cover types include grass, shrubs, trees, barren, water, and man-made features. Land cover changes continuously.  The rate of change can be either dramatic and abrupt, such as the changes caused by logging, hurricanes and fire, or subtle and gradual, such as regeneration of forests and damage caused by insects (Verbesselt et al., 2001).  Previous studies have shown that land cover has changed dramatically during the past sevearal centuries and that these changes have severely affected our ecosystems (Foody, 2010; Lambin et al., 2001). Lambin and Strahlers (1994b) summarized five types of cause for land-cover changes: (1) long-term natural changes in climate conditions, (2) geomorphological and ecological processes, (3) human-induced alterations of vegetation cover and landscapes, (4) interannual climate variability, and (5) human-induced greenhouse effect.  Tools and techniques are needed to detect, describe, and predict these changes to facilitate sustainable management of natural resources.

  7. Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of the Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities is to provide managers and senior staff at the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and its contractors with timely and concise information on Hanford Site environmental and waste management activities. Each edition updates the information on the topics in the previous edition, deletes those determined not to be of current interest, and adds new topics to keep up to date with changing environmental and waste management requirements and issues. Section A covers current waste management and environmental restoration issues. In Section B are writeups on national or site-wide environmental and waste management topics. Section C has writeups on program- and waste-specific environmental and waste management topics. Section D provides information on waste sites and inventories on the site. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Selected topics of fluid mechanics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindsvater, Carl E.

    1958-01-01

    the Euler, Froude, Reynolds, Weber, and Cauchy numbers are defined as essential tools for interpreting and using experimental data. The derivations of the energy and momentum equations are treated in detail. One-dimensional equations for steady nonuniform flow are developed, and the restrictions applicable to the equations are emphasized. Conditions of uniform and gradually varied flow are discussed, and the origin of the Chezy equation is examined in relation to both the energy and the momentum equations. The inadequacy of all uniform-flow equations as a means of describing gradually varied flow is explained. Thus, one of the definitive problems of river hydraulics is analyzed in the light of present knowledge. This report is the outgrowth of a series of short schools conducted during the spring and summer of 1953 for engineers of the Surface Water Branch, Water Resources Division, U. S. Geological Survey. The topics considered are essentially the same as the topics selected for inclusion in the schools. However, in order that they might serve better as a guide and outline for informal study, the arrangement of the writer's original lecture notes has been considerably altered. The purpose of the report, like the purpose of the schools which inspired it, is to build a simple but strong framework of the fundamentals of fluid mechanics. It is believed that this framework is capable of supporting a detailed analysis of most of the practical problems met by the engineers of the Geological Survey. It is hoped that the least accomplishment of this work will be to inspire the reader with the confidence and desire to read more of the recent and current technical literature of modern fluid mechanics.

  9. Topics in strongly correlated electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdnikov, Ilya

    The thesis is a collection of three topics connected together by the common themes of strong interactions, magnetism and quantum phases, such as the Aharonov-Bohm or Berry phase. The first part of the present dissertation discusses the possibility of examining microscopic origins of magnetism in strongly interacting systems by exploiting the setting of ultra-cold atomic gases in optical lattices. We discuss signatures of correlation in the trap, and propose an experiment to measure the phase diagram of itinerant magnetism directly. The second part focuses on the exotic phase of matter exhibiting the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect, which emerges when interacting particles are placed in a very strong magnetic field. We propose a trial ground state wave-function and prove that it is the unique highest density ground state of a well-motivated pseudo-potential Hamiltonian. The exchange statistics of quasiparticles are shown to be exotic, and overlaps with results of exact diagonalization are also discussed. The final part of the thesis studies frustrated magnetic systems, in which competing forces cannot not be satisfied simultaneously, doped with electrons. The interplay of frustration and itinerant behavior generates Berry phases associated with charge transport. We study the effects of these phases on electronic behavior, as well as the effect electrons have on the underlying magnetic textures. In the quasi-classical limit, we conjecture a field-driven metal-insulator transition, and discuss persistent currents arising in ground states selected by the presence of charge. In the quantum regime we derive the full Hamiltonian and discuss small fluctuations about the classical results.

  10. Topics in topological band systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhoushen

    The discovery of integer quantum Hall effect and its subsequent theoretical formulation heralded a new paradigm of thinking in condensed matter physics, which has by now blossomed into the rapidly growing field of topological phases. In this work we investigate several mutually related topics in the framework of topological band theory. In Chapter 2, we study solutions to boundary states on a lattice and see how they are related to the bulk topology. To elicit a real space manifestation of the non-trivial topology, the presence of a physical edge is not strictly necessary. We study two other possibilities, namely the entanglement spectrum associated with an imaginary spatial boundary, and the localization centers of Wannier functions, in Chapters 3,4, and 5. Topological classification through discrete indices is so far possible only for systems described by pure quantum states---in the existing scheme, quantization is lost for systems in mixed states. In Chapter 6, we present a program through which discrete topological indices can be defined for topological band systems at finite temperature, based on Uhlmann's parallel transport of density matrices. The potential of topologocal insulators in realistic applications lies in the existence of Dirac nodes on its surface spectrum. Dirac physics, however, is not exclusive to TI surfaces. In a recently discovered class of materials known as Weyl semimetals, energy nodes which emit linear dispersions also occur in the bulk material. In Chapter 7, we study the possibility of resonance states induced by localized impurities near the nodal energy in Weyl semimetals, which will help us in understanding the stability of density-of-state suppression at the energy nodes. Finally, in Chapter 8, we apply the topological characterization developed for noninteracting particles to a class of interacting spin models in 3D, which are generalizations of Kitaev's honeycomb model, and identify several exotic quantum phases such as spin

  11. Usage-Oriented Topic Maps Building Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellouze, Nebrasse; Lammari, Nadira; Métais, Elisabeth; Ben Ahmed, Mohamed

    In this paper, we present a collaborative and incremental construction approach of multilingual Topic Maps based on enrichment and merging techniques. In recent years, several Topic Map building approaches have been proposed endowed with different characteristics. Generally, they are dedicated to particular data types like text, semi-structured data, relational data, etc. We note also that most of these approaches take as input monolingual documents to build the Topic Map. The problem is that the large majority of resources available today are written in various languages, and these resources could be relevant even to non-native speakers. Thus, our work is driven towards a collaborative and incremental method for Topic Map construction from textual documents available in different languages. To enrich the Topic Map, we take as input a domain thesaurus and we propose also to explore the Topic Map usage which means available potential questions related to the source documents.

  12. Tracking topic birth and death in LDA.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Andrew T.; Robinson, David Gerald

    2011-09-01

    Most topic modeling algorithms that address the evolution of documents over time use the same number of topics at all times. This obscures the common occurrence in the data where new subjects arise and old ones diminish or disappear entirely. We propose an algorithm to model the birth and death of topics within an LDA-like framework. The user selects an initial number of topics, after which new topics are created and retired without further supervision. Our approach also accommodates many of the acceleration and parallelization schemes developed in recent years for standard LDA. In recent years, topic modeling algorithms such as latent semantic analysis (LSA)[17], latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)[10] and their descendants have offered a powerful way to explore and interrogate corpora far too large for any human to grasp without assistance. Using such algorithms we are able to search for similar documents, model and track the volume of topics over time, search for correlated topics or model them with a hierarchy. Most of these algorithms are intended for use with static corpora where the number of documents and the size of the vocabulary are known in advance. Moreover, almost all current topic modeling algorithms fix the number of topics as one of the input parameters and keep it fixed across the entire corpus. While this is appropriate for static corpora, it becomes a serious handicap when analyzing time-varying data sets where topics come and go as a matter of course. This is doubly true for online algorithms that may not have the option of revising earlier results in light of new data. To be sure, these algorithms will account for changing data one way or another, but without the ability to adapt to structural changes such as entirely new topics they may do so in counterintuitive ways.

  13. Flammable gas project topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1997-01-29

    The flammable gas safety issue was recognized in 1990 with the declaration of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) by the U. S. Department of Energy as a result of the behavior of the Hanford Site high-level waste tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years there has been a considerable amount of knowledge gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-1 01 and other tanks associated with the flammable gas safety issue. This report was prepared to provide an overview of that knowledge and to provide a description of the key information still needed to resolve the issue. Items covered by this report include summaries of the understanding of gas generation, retention and release mechanisms, the composition and flammability behavior of the gas mixture, the amounts of stored gas, and estimated gas release fractions for spontaneous releases. `Me report also discusses methods being developed for evaluating the 177 tanks at the Hanford Site and the problems associated with these methods. Means for measuring the gases emitted from the waste are described along with laboratory experiments designed to gain more information regarding rates of generation, species of gases emitted and modes of gas storage and release. Finally, the process for closing the USQ is outlined as are the information requirements to understand and resolve the flammable gas issue.

  14. The treatment of rosacea with topical ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Ali, S T; Alinia, H; Feldman, S R

    2015-04-01

    The treatment of rosacea is challenging because several pathophysiologic processes may be involved, including neurovascular dysregulation and alterations in innate immune status. Demodex mites may play a role in the latter mechanism. Topical ivermectin is a new therapeutic modality which demonstrates antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory properties. This article reviews published evidence related to the efficacy and safety of topical ivermectin. PubMed was utilized to search for key words "topical ivermectin", "ivermectin cream" and "rosacea". Three clinical trials were found that studied topical ivermectin as a treatment option for rosacea. Ivermectin was effective, safe and well tolerated. PMID:26020066

  15. The treatment of rosacea with topical ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Ali, S T; Alinia, H; Feldman, S R

    2015-04-01

    The treatment of rosacea is challenging because several pathophysiologic processes may be involved, including neurovascular dysregulation and alterations in innate immune status. Demodex mites may play a role in the latter mechanism. Topical ivermectin is a new therapeutic modality which demonstrates antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory properties. This article reviews published evidence related to the efficacy and safety of topical ivermectin. PubMed was utilized to search for key words "topical ivermectin", "ivermectin cream" and "rosacea". Three clinical trials were found that studied topical ivermectin as a treatment option for rosacea. Ivermectin was effective, safe and well tolerated.

  16. Topical Products for the Aging Face.

    PubMed

    McCook, John P

    2016-07-01

    This article focuses on nonprescription home-use topical treatment technologies for the aging face and is intended to serve as a guide for the core cosmeceutical technologies currently used and to help educate and assist the selection of topical antiaging products by the professional staff and their patients. Antiaging topical treatments for patient home use should be nonirritating, compatible with the patient skin type, effective, and complementary to surgical and minimally invasive office procedures, and aesthetically elegant. New topical antiaging technologies, formulated as monotherapy or as combinations with well-known cosmeceuticals, should present adequate clinical studies to support their selection for use. PMID:27363774

  17. Thermal properties for vegetation cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksyutina, D.; Motenko, R.

    2011-12-01

    Different samples of undisturbed vegetation cover were studied under laboratory conditions. Samples were collected from New Chara city, north of the Chita region. Vegetation cover in this area is represented by moss, lichen and tussock growth. Thermal properties were investigated by the I-st type regular mode method (a-calorimeter), the freezing temperature was studied by cryoscopic methods. The dry density of sampled specimens varies from 0.04 to 0.24 g/cm3, and humidity varies from 250 to 375 percent. The freezing temperature depends on moisture content and varies from -0.2 to 0 degrees centigrade. The vegetation cover had low thermal conductivities which varies from 0.05 to 0.46 W/(m*K) in unfrozen conditions, and from 0.07 to 1.14 W/(m*K) in frozen conditions, according to density and moisture content. Diffusivity of samples varies from 0.073*10-6 to 0.114*10-6 m2/s in thawed conditions, and from 0.174*10-6 to 0.584*10-6 m2/s in frozen conditions. The sod (bottom of vegetation cover) had relatively high thermal properties. Thermal properties of vegetation cover and peat (turf) were compared. The thermal conductivity of peat was much higher than thermal conductivity of vegetation cover. This data may be used for modeling of the thickness of the seasonally thawed layer and ground temperature variation. The knowledge of thermal properties of these samples allows us to view vegetation cover as a separate layer of geological section.

  18. [Topical cyclosporine in ophthalmology: Pharmacology and clinical indications].

    PubMed

    Levy, O; Labbé, A; Borderie, V; Laroche, L; Bouheraoua, N

    2016-03-01

    Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a cyclic undecapeptide, which is an immunosuppressive drug in the calcineurin inhibitor class. CsA was initially used as a systemic immunosuppressant to minimize rejection of solid organ transplants. In ophthalmology, topically applied CsA was first used to inhibit corneal allograft rejection in the 1980s and later in various inflammatory ocular surface disorders (OSD). Currently, topical ophthalmic CsA is available as a licensed commercial emulsion or is prepared by hospital pharmacies with concentration ranging from 0.05 to 2%. Many of its pharmacological effects on the ocular surface are direct consequences of its ability to inhibit T ciclosporine activation and apoptosis. Topical CsA differs from topical steroids in its favourable local and systemic tolerability at the concentrations used. Most clinical studies have evaluated topical CsA in moderate to severe dry eye disease (DED) and demonstrated its efficacy for improvement of signs and symptoms, thus providing the sole indication for market approval and treatment protocols. For the other indications - corneal graft rejection, blepharitis, allergic or viral keratitis, and ocular surface disease due to graft versus host disease or post-operative DED - evidence-based medicine remains unclear due to the lack of major randomized controlled trials. Despite the lack of standardized protocols or market approval for these conditions, numerous studies suggest clinical efficacy.

  19. Topical Microbicides and HIV Prevention in the Female Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Mackenzie L; Kashuba, Angela D. M.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, HIV disproportionately affects women who are often unable to negotiate traditional HIV preventive strategies such as condoms. In the absence of an effective vaccine or cure, chemoprophylaxis may be a valuable self-initiated alternative. Topical microbicides have been investigated as one such option. The first generation topical microbicides were non-specific, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, including surfactants, polyanions, and acid buffering gels, that generally exhibited contraceptive properties. After extensive clinical study, none prevented HIV infection, and their development was abandoned. Second generation topical microbicides include agents with selective mechanisms of antiviral activity. Most are currently being used for, or have previously been explored as, drugs for treatment of HIV. The most advanced of these is tenofovir 1% gel: the first topical agent shown to significantly reduce HIV infection by 39% compared to placebo. This review summarizes the evolution of topical microbicides for HIV chemoprophylaxis, highlights important concepts learned, and offers current and future considerations for this area of research. PMID:24664786

  20. [Topical cyclosporine in ophthalmology: Pharmacology and clinical indications].

    PubMed

    Levy, O; Labbé, A; Borderie, V; Laroche, L; Bouheraoua, N

    2016-03-01

    Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a cyclic undecapeptide, which is an immunosuppressive drug in the calcineurin inhibitor class. CsA was initially used as a systemic immunosuppressant to minimize rejection of solid organ transplants. In ophthalmology, topically applied CsA was first used to inhibit corneal allograft rejection in the 1980s and later in various inflammatory ocular surface disorders (OSD). Currently, topical ophthalmic CsA is available as a licensed commercial emulsion or is prepared by hospital pharmacies with concentration ranging from 0.05 to 2%. Many of its pharmacological effects on the ocular surface are direct consequences of its ability to inhibit T ciclosporine activation and apoptosis. Topical CsA differs from topical steroids in its favourable local and systemic tolerability at the concentrations used. Most clinical studies have evaluated topical CsA in moderate to severe dry eye disease (DED) and demonstrated its efficacy for improvement of signs and symptoms, thus providing the sole indication for market approval and treatment protocols. For the other indications - corneal graft rejection, blepharitis, allergic or viral keratitis, and ocular surface disease due to graft versus host disease or post-operative DED - evidence-based medicine remains unclear due to the lack of major randomized controlled trials. Despite the lack of standardized protocols or market approval for these conditions, numerous studies suggest clinical efficacy. PMID:26997607