Science.gov

Sample records for activities enhancing quality

  1. Efficacy of paced breathing for insomnia: enhances vagal activity and improves sleep quality.

    PubMed

    Tsai, H J; Kuo, Terry B J; Lee, Guo-She; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2015-03-01

    Fourteen self-reported insomniacs (SRI) and 14 good sleepers (GS) had their cardiac neuronal activity assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) under controlled respiration at a slow frequency rate of 0.1 Hz, and a forced rate of 0.2 Hz during daytime rest. Nighttime sleep was measured by polysomnography. The SRI showed depressed high frequency power of HRV compared to the GS. An increased total power of HRV was observed among the SRI during slow, paced breathing compared with spontaneous breathing and 0.2 Hz. Sleep onset latency, number of awakenings, and awakening time during sleep were decreased and sleep efficiency was increased if SRI practiced slow, paced breathing exercises for 20 min before going to sleep. Our results indicate that there is autonomic dysfunction among insomniacs, especially in relation to vagal activity; however, this decreased vagal activity can be facilitated by practicing slow, paced breathing, thereby improving sleep quality. PMID:25234581

  2. The Concepts of Quality, Quality Assurance and Quality Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elassy, Noha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to critically review and discuss different definitions of the concepts of quality, quality assurance (QA) and quality enhancement (QE) in higher education (HE) with presenting critical perspectives of the literature. Design/methodology/approach: The paper looks at literature concerns with the meaning of quality, QA and QE,…

  3. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph

    2015-09-01

    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  4. Enhancing Quality Improvements in Cancer Care Through CME Activities at a Nationally Recognized Cancer Center

    PubMed Central

    Uemura, Marc; Morgan, Robert; Mendelsohn, Mary; Kagan, Jean; Saavedra, Crystal; Leong, Lucille

    2013-01-01

    Changing healthcare policy will undoubtedly affect the healthcare environment in which providers function. The current Fee for Service reimbursement model will be replaced by Value-Based Purchasing, where higher quality and more efficient care will be emphasized. Because of this, large healthcare organizations and individual providers must adapt to incorporate performance outcomes into patient care. Here, we present a Continuing Medical Education (CME)-based initiative at the City of Hope National Cancer Center that we believe can serve as a model for using CME as a value added component to achieving such a goal. PMID:23608956

  5. Multiview video quality enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanov, Ljubomir; Luong, Hiêp; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Realistic visualization is crucial for a more intuitive representation of complex data, medical imaging, simulation, and entertainment systems. In this respect, multiview autostereoscopic displays are a great step toward achieving the complete immersive user experience, although providing high-quality content for these types of displays is still a great challenge. Due to the different characteristics/settings of the cameras in the multiview setup and varying photometric characteristics of the objects in the scene, the same object may have a different appearance in the sequences acquired by the different cameras. Images representing views recorded using different cameras, in practice, have different local noise, color, and sharpness characteristics. View synthesis algorithms introduce artifacts due to errors in disparity estimation/bad occlusion handling or due to an erroneous warping function estimation. If the input multiview images are not of sufficient quality and have mismatching color and sharpness characteristics, these artifacts may become even more disturbing. Accordingly, the main goal of our method is to simultaneously perform multiview image sequence denoising, color correction, and the improvement of sharpness in slightly defocused regions. Results show that the proposed method significantly reduces the amount of the artifacts in multiview video sequences, resulting in a better visual experience.

  6. Enhancing Recognition of High Quality, Functional IEP Goals: A Training Activity for Early Childhood Special Education Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Anne; Gillaspy, Kathi; Peters, Mary Louise; Hurth, Joicey

    2014-01-01

    This training activity was created to support participants' understanding of the criteria needed to develop and write high quality, participation-based Individualized Education Program (IEP) goals. The term "functional" is often used to describe what goals ought to be, yet many Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) staff (e.g.,…

  7. Helium-neon laser irradiation of cryopreserved ram sperm enhances cytochrome c oxidase activity and ATP levels improving semen quality.

    PubMed

    Iaffaldano, N; Paventi, G; Pizzuto, R; Di Iorio, M; Bailey, J L; Manchisi, A; Passarella, S

    2016-08-01

    This study examines whether and how helium-neon laser irradiation (at fluences of 3.96-9 J/cm(2)) of cryopreserved ram sperm helps improve semen quality. Pools (n = 7) of cryopreserved ram sperm were divided into four aliquots and subjected to the treatments: no irradiation (control) or irradiation with three different energy doses. After treatment, the thawed sperm samples were compared in terms of viability, mass and progressive sperm motility, osmotic resistance, as well as DNA and acrosome integrity. In response to irradiation at 6.12 J/cm(2), mass sperm motility, progressive motility and viability increased (P < 0.05), with no significant changes observed in the other investigated properties. In parallel, an increase (P < 0.05) in ATP content was detected in the 6.12 J/cm(2)-irradiated semen samples. Because mitochondria are the main cell photoreceptors with a major role played by cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the COX reaction was monitored using cytochrome c as a substrate in both control and irradiated samples. Laser treatment resulted in a general increase in COX affinity for its substrate as well as an increase in COX activity (Vmax values), the highest activity obtained for sperm samples irradiated at 6.12 J/cm(2) (P < 0.05). Interestingly, in these irradiated sperm samples, COX activity and ATP contents were positively correlated, and, more importantly, they also showed positive correlation with motility, suggesting that the improved sperm quality observed was related to mitochondria-laser light interactions. PMID:27036659

  8. Online Faculty Satisfaction and Quality Enhancement Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlee, Anita G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine possible effects of an institution's quality enhancement initiatives on the job satisfaction of online faculty. Quality enhancement initiatives are a normal part of the accreditation process and faculty shoulder some of the responsibility for success of those initiatives. Therefore, it is imperative that…

  9. Quality Assurance and Quality Enhancement in Higher Education: Contested Territories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippakou, Ourania; Tapper, Ted

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the unfolding of the quality agenda in England from 1992 to the present. By using two disciplinary approaches, "political science" and "social philosophy", the article traces the recent transition from quality assurance to quality enhancement. How is this development to be explained and how significant is it? Are the concepts…

  10. Enhancing quality improvement team effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Mosel, D; Shamp, M J

    1993-01-01

    Quality improvement teams are different from other work groups in their purpose, leadership, membership, training, procedures, and dynamics. To have effective quality improvement teams, health care organizations must focus on six key process variables, with particular attention to group dynamics. Quality improvement teams progress through the "traditional" stages of team development--forming, storming, norming, and performing--with a "special stage" of closing. Within each stage, there are two core dimensions--team process ("relationship" issues) and the project itself ("task" issues)--and critical tasks that need to be performed by the Quality Council, team members, team leader, and the facilitator. PMID:10130709

  11. Quality Enhancement: An Overview. Program Services Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Partnership for Children, Raleigh.

    Leading a series of in-depth technical assistance papers on improving the quality in early care and education programs, this brochure is designed to help local communities consider the most effective strategies in designing and implementing programs that improve child care quality. A quality enhancement approach is taken whereby communities begin…

  12. Factors affecting enhanced video quality preferences

    PubMed Central

    Satgunam, PremNandhini; Woods, Russell L; Bronstad, P Matthew; Peli, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The development of video quality metrics requires methods for measuring perceived video quality. Most such metrics are designed and tested using databases of images degraded by compression and scored using opinion ratings. We studied video quality preferences for enhanced images of normally-sighted participants using the method of paired comparisons with a thorough statistical analysis. Participants (n=40) made pair-wise comparisons of high definition (HD) video clips enhanced at four different levels using a commercially available enhancement device. Perceptual scales were computed with binary logistic regression to estimate preferences for each level and to provide statistical inference of the differences among levels and the impact of other variables. While moderate preference for enhanced videos was found, two unexpected effects were also uncovered: (1) Participants could be broadly classified into two groups: those who preferred enhancement ("Sharp") and those who disliked enhancement ("Smooth"). (2) Enhancement preferences depended on video content, particularly for human faces to be enhanced less. The results suggest that algorithms to evaluate image quality (at least for enhancement) may need to be adjusted or applied differentially based on video content and viewer preferences. The possible impact of similar effects on image quality of compressed video needs to be evaluated. PMID:24107400

  13. Using CCSSE in Planning for Quality Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balog, Scott E.; Search, Sally P.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes how Tallahassee Community College used CCSSE data as part of its overall student-retention program, consisting of faculty workshops, analysis of state accountability data, and conscious incorporation of best practices. The resulting Quality Enhancement Plan (QEP) meets accreditation requirements and strengthens the college's…

  14. Image Enhancement, Image Quality, and Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Zia-ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.; Hines, Glenn D.

    2005-01-01

    The Multiscale Retinex With Color Restoration (MSRCR) is a non-linear image enhancement algorithm that provides simultaneous dynamic range compression, color constancy and rendition. The overall impact is to brighten up areas of poor contrast/lightness but not at the expense of saturating areas of good contrast/brightness. The downside is that with the poor signal-to-noise ratio that most image acquisition devices have in dark regions, noise can also be greatly enhanced thus affecting overall image quality. In this paper, we will discuss the impact of the MSRCR on the overall quality of an enhanced image as a function of the strength of shadows in an image, and as a function of the root-mean-square (RMS) signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio of the image.

  15. Productivity improvement and quality enhancement at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braunstein, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    NASA's Productivity Improvement and Quality Enhancement (PIQE) effort has as its objectives the encouragement of greater employee participation in management decision-making and the identification of impediments as well as opportunities for high productivity. Attempts are also made to try out novel management practices, and to evolve productivity trend analysis techniques. Every effort is made to note, reward, and diffuse successfully instituted PIQE approaches throughout the NASA-contractor organization.

  16. Enhancing Program Quality and Care through Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Heather; Kowalski, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    In this age of accountability, afterschool programs are increasingly held responsible for providing youth with quality care and education. Afterschool programs play a critical role in helping youth develop their intrapersonal and interpersonal skills, often by engaging them in activities in which they interact with their peers. Such activities…

  17. Practical quality metrics for resolution enhancement software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, Robert E.; Lucas, Kevin; Wynd, Raphael; Boatright, Mike; Thompson, Matthew A.; Reich, Alfred J.

    2003-06-01

    The past few years have seen an explosion in the application of software techniques to improve lithographic printing. Techniques such as optical proximity correction (OPC) and phase shift masks (PSM) increase resolution and CD control by distorting the mask pattern data from the original designed pattern. These software techniques are becoming increasingly complicated and non-intuitive; and the rate of complexity increase appears to be accelerating [1]. The benefits of these techniques to improve CD control and lower cost of ownership (COO) is balanced against the effort required to implement them and the additional problems they create. One severe problem for users of immature and complex software tools and methodologies is quality control, [2] as it ultimately becomes a COO problem. Software quality can be defined very simply as the ability of an application to meet detailed customer requirements. Software quality practice can be defined as the adherence to proven methods for planning, developing, testing and maintaining software. Although software quality for lithographic resolution enhancement is extremely important, the understanding and recognition of good software development practices among lithographers is generally poor. We therefore start by reviewing the essential terms and concepts of software quality that impact lithography and COO. We then propose methods by which semiconductor process and design engineers can estimate and compare the quality of the software tools and vendors they are evaluating or using. We include examples from advanced process technology resolution enhancement work that highlight the need for high-quality software practices, and show how to avoid many problems. Note that, although several authors have worked in software application development, our analysis here is somewhat of a black box analysis. The black box is the software development organization of an RET software supplier. Our access to actual developers within these

  18. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Yeamans, C. B.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bernstein, L. A.

    2012-10-15

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the {sup 89}Zr/{sup 89m}Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  19. An Alternative View of Quality Assurance and Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Viola Yuk-Yue

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to deal with the elusive nature of quality in quality management, using a case study to examine quality control measures implemented in an academic context and to show an emergent framework for quality enhancement. This paper introduces the concept of the ecology of quality assurance and examines efforts to maintain and advance…

  20. Image registration for DSA quality enhancement.

    PubMed

    Buzug, T M; Weese, J

    1998-01-01

    A generalized framework for histogram-based similarity measures is presented and applied to the image-enhancement task in digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The class of differentiable, strictly convex weighting functions is identified as suitable weightings of histograms for measuring the degree of clustering that goes along with registration. With respect to computation time, the energy similarity measure is the function of choice for the registration of mask and contrast image prior to subtraction. The robustness of the energy measure is studied for geometrical image distortions like rotation and scaling. Additionally, it is investigated how the histogram binning and inhomogeneous motion inside the templates influence the quality of the similarity measure. Finally, the registration success for the automated procedure is compared with the manually shift-corrected image pair of the head. PMID:9719851

  1. Combined terahertz imaging system for enhanced imaging quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolganova, Irina N.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Metelkina, Anna A.; Yakovlev, Egor V.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

    2016-06-01

    An improved terahertz (THz) imaging system is proposed for enhancing image quality. Imaging scheme includes THz source and detection system operated in active mode as well as in passive one. In order to homogeneously illuminate the object plane the THz reshaper is proposed. The form and internal structure of the reshaper were studied by the numerical simulation. Using different test-objects we compare imaging quality in active and passive THz imaging modes. Imaging contrast and modulation transfer functions in active and passive imaging modes show drawbacks of them in high and low spatial frequencies, respectively. The experimental results confirm the benefit of combining both imaging modes into hybrid one. The proposed algorithm of making hybrid THz image is an effective approach of retrieving maximum information about the remote object.

  2. From Quality Assurance to Quality Enhancement in the European Higher Education Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gvaramadze, Irakli

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on recent trends in quality assurance initiatives, analyses how the European Higher Education Area promotes quality enhancement mechanisms and their implications for quality cultures in universities. It presents and discusses two approaches towards quality enhancement both at the institutional and programme level: 1. Quality…

  3. Enhancing the quantity and quality of short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge using CaO2 as an additive.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongmei; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Ai; Wang, Lin

    2015-10-15

    The effect of calcium peroxide (CaO2) addition on anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated. The lab-scale experiments were conducted at 35 °C with CaO2 doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.3 g/g VSS. The performances of hydrolysis and acidification of WAS were significantly enhanced by CaO2 addition, whereas the production of methane was inhibited. Maximum total short-chain fatty acids (TSCFA) production (284 mg COD/g VSS) occurred at a CaO2 dose of 0.2 g/g VSS and fermentation time of 7 d, which was 3.9 times higher than the control tests. Further, CaO2 addition led to the conversion of other SCFAs to acetic acid. Acetic acid comprised 60.2% of TSCFA with the addition of 0.2 g CaO2/g VSS compared with 45.1% in the control tests. The mechanism of improved SCFAs generation was analyzed from the view of both chemical and biological effects. Chemical effect facilitated the disintegration of WAS, and improved the activities of both hydrolytic enzymes and acid-forming enzymes. Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis revealed that bacteria within phylum Firmicutes increased significantly due to CaO2 addition, which played an important role in the hydrolysis and acidification of WAS. In addition, CaO2 oxidized most refractory organic contaminants, which were difficult to biodegrade under the ordinary anaerobic condition. Hydroxyl radicals were the most abundant reactive oxygen species released by CaO2, which played a key role in the removal of refractory organic compounds. We developed a promising technology to produce a valuable carbon source from WAS. PMID:26141424

  4. Quality Enhancement on E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ossiannilsson, E. S. I.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Benchmarking, a method for quality assurance has not been very commonly used in higher education with regard to e-learning. Today, e-learning is an integral part of higher education, and so should also be an integral part of quality assurance systems. However, quality indicators, benchmarks and critical success factors on e-learning have…

  5. High-quality elliptical iron glycolate nanosheets: selective synthesis and chemical conversion into FexOy nanorings, porous nanosheets, and nanochains with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Guoxiu; Liu, Yun; Wu, Tong; Ye, Yucheng; Tong, Chaoli

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes an original and facile polyol-mediated solvothermal synthesis of elliptical iron glycolate nanosheets (IGNSs) combined with precursor thermal conversion into γ-Fe2O3 and α-Fe2O3/γ-Fe2O3 porous nanosheets (PNSs), α-Fe2O3 nanochains (NCs), and elliptical Fe3O4 nanorings (NRs). The IGNSs were produced via the oxidation-reduction and co-precipitation reactions in the presence of iron(iii) salts, ethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, and ethylenediamine. Control over Fe3+ concentration, temperature, and time can considerably modulate the size and phase of the products. The IGNSs can be transformed to γ-Fe2O3 and α-Fe2O3/γ-Fe2O3 PNSs, α-Fe2O3 NCs, and elliptical Fe3O4 NRs by heat treatment under various annealing temperatures and ambiences. The PNSs and NCs exhibited high soft magnetic properties and coercivity, respectively. Visible-light photocatalytic activity toward RhB in the presence of H2O2 by PNSs and NCs was phase-, SBET, size-, porosity-, and local structure-dependent, following the order: α-Fe2O3 NCs > α-Fe2O3/γ-Fe2O3 PNSs > γ-Fe2O3 PNSs > IGNSs. In particular, α-Fe2O3/γ-Fe2O3 PNSs possessed significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity with good recyclability and could be conveniently separated by an applied magnetic field because of high magnetization. We believe that the as-prepared α-Fe2O3/γ-Fe2O3 PNSs have potential practical use in waste water treatment and microwave absorption.This paper describes an original and facile polyol-mediated solvothermal synthesis of elliptical iron glycolate nanosheets (IGNSs) combined with precursor thermal conversion into γ-Fe2O3 and α-Fe2O3/γ-Fe2O3 porous nanosheets (PNSs), α-Fe2O3 nanochains (NCs), and elliptical Fe3O4 nanorings (NRs). The IGNSs were produced via the oxidation-reduction and co-precipitation reactions in the presence of iron(iii) salts, ethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, and ethylenediamine. Control over Fe3+ concentration, temperature, and time can

  6. ENHANCING SCIENTIFIC COLLABORATION THROUGH QUALITY ASSURANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The basic features of the Quality Assurance Program have been in existence since the early 1980's, but this poster will highlight some topics that have emerged more recently, in particular the Agency's laboratory competency policy, the information quality guidelines, and scientif...

  7. Internal Quality Assurance--Enhancing Quality Culture. ENQA Workshop Report 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ENQA), in cooperation with the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA, UK), organised a seminar on theme "Internal Quality Assurance--Enhancing quality culture" which was held on 8-9 June, 2010 in London, United Kingdom. The seminar marked the fourth annual meeting of the ENQA IQA Group…

  8. Quality Assurance: Enhancing or Threatening Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taousanidis, Nikolaos I.; Antoniadou, Myrofora A.

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing marketization of commodity services and, the authors argue, higher education is suffering heavily from this trend. Higher education institutions (HEIs) are currently subject to quality assurance and other externally imposed procedures that have been successfully applied in the private sector. This article analyses the…

  9. Enhanced power quality based single phase photovoltaic distributed generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Aurobinda; Pathak, M. K.; Srivastava, S. P.

    2016-08-01

    This article presents a novel control strategy for a 1-ϕ 2-level grid-tie photovoltaic (PV) inverter to enhance the power quality (PQ) of a PV distributed generation (PVDG) system. The objective is to obtain the maximum benefits from the grid-tie PV inverter by introducing current harmonics as well as reactive power compensation schemes in its control strategy, thereby controlling the PV inverter to achieve multiple functions in the PVDG system such as: (1) active power flow control between the PV inverter and the grid, (2) reactive power compensation, and (3) grid current harmonics compensation. A PQ enhancement controller (PQEC) has been designed to achieve the aforementioned objectives. The issue of underutilisation of the PV inverter in nighttime has also been addressed in this article and for the optimal use of the system; the PV inverter is used as a shunt active power filter in nighttime. A prototype model of the proposed system is developed in the laboratory, to validate the effectiveness of the control scheme, and is tested with the help of the dSPACE DS1104 platform.

  10. Enhancing Teaching Quality through Peer Review of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomas, Laurie; Nicholls, Gill

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the introduction of peer review of teaching in a pre-1992 university in England. The paper first considers the theoretical dimensions. Peer review of teaching is generally seen as a quality enhancement rather than a quality assurance instrument and a powerful means of encouraging the continuing professional development of…

  11. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical... nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  12. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical... nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  13. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical... nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  14. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical... nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  15. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical... nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  16. ENHANCED STREAM WATER QUALITY MODEL (QUAL2EU)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The enhanced stream water quality model QUAL2E and QUAL2E-UNCAS (37) permits simulation of several water quality constituents in a branching stream system using a finite difference solution to the one-dimensional advective-dispersive mass transport and reaction equation. The con...

  17. Prospective relationships of physical activity with quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity can enhance quality of life for cancer survivors. However, few longitudinal studies have examined whether physical activity has a sustained effect on improvements in quality of life. The present study aims to examine the relationships between physical activity and quality of life o...

  18. Use of a Classwide Peer Recording Program To Enhance the Quality and Accuracy of Responses of Physical Education Majors in a Physical Activity Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocansey, Reginald T-A.

    This study employed a classwide peer recording (CWPR) program to demonstrate the efficacy of peers as behavior change agents in a physical activity setting. The study sought to determine whether or not the frequency of stimuli conditions presented by a game changes when a CWPR procedure is in effect, and whether or not the frequency of actual…

  19. Fold-Back: Using Emerging Technologies to Move from Quality Assurance to Quality Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Simon N.; Fitzgerald, Robert N.; Bacon, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Emerging technologies offer an opportunity for the development, at the institutional level, of quality processes with greater capacity to enhance learning in higher education than available through current quality processes. These systems offer the potential to extend use of learning analytics in institutional-level quality processes in addition…

  20. Designing to cost effectiveness - Enhancing quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, James R.; Stracener, Jerrell T.

    The authors present a practical application of cost-effectiveness analysis techniques through the definition and solution of a representative design tradeoff study using cost-effectiveness as a figure of merit for quality. They also describe a decision process based on the results of tradeoff studies to provide a method of integrating the 'ilities' with design and manufacturing engineering to help accomplish integrated product development (IPD). While the approach is demonstrated in an aircraft application, the method is equally applicable in almost any product and any operational scenario, military or commercial.

  1. NASA's Productivity Improvement and Quality Enhancement Initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration celebrated its 25th Anniversary in 1983 at the Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC, with President Reagan in attendance. We look back on the accomplishments of these twenty-five years with pride in our missions and our people. NASA captured the world's imagination during the days of the Apollo mission. So much so, that we now talk about the Apollo era. In the l970s, we moved into the Space Transportation business and in the 199Os, we look forward to having a manned Space Station. Each succeeding mission has presented its own challenge in terms of technology and resources. This is especially true today, when we are being asked to do more with less. To ensure that NASA continues to be a productive and quality conscious agency, one of our highest Agency goals is leadership in the development and application of practices which contribute to high productivity and quality. greatest competitive strength, and this country has a solid scientific and engineering foundation. Traditionally we have spent more money on research and development than Japan and Europe combined, and we are the source of most of this century significant innovations. We should build on this solid base and use it more effectively.

  2. Hospice: enhancing the quality of life.

    PubMed

    Lamers, W M

    1990-05-01

    Hospice care is directed at the relief of the physical, social and psychologic symptoms that often accompany advanced, incurable illness. In recent years, an increasing number of physicians has come to recognize the necessity for hospice care in the treatment of some patients with cancer, HIV infection, and a number of other (as yet) incurable illnesses. Hospice care is designed to improve the quality of life through the use of medications and treatments directed at the relief of symptoms secondary to the underlying disease and its treatment. Hospice makes use of a wide range of physical, social and psychological therapies to relieve symptoms and to provide support and information for the patient's family and caregivers. PMID:2143397

  3. Quality of nurses' work life: strategies for enhancement.

    PubMed

    Davis, B; Thorburn, B

    1999-01-01

    The radical transformation resulting from health care reform, with its emphasis on restructuring, reorganizing and downsizing, has impacted on the nursing profession and has profoundly effected the quality of nurses' work life. The Health Care Corporation of St. John's experienced the stress associated with change when it simultaneously merged eight health care sites and introduced a programmed-based management structure. This article reviews the strategies developed in response to this transition by the Nurses' Quality of Worklife Team, to help reduce stress and enhance the quality of nurses' work life. In particular, it highlights the development and implementation of a professional support network called the Nursing Peer Support Program. PMID:11094938

  4. No-reference quality metric for degraded and enhanced video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caviedes, Jorge E.; Oberti, Franco

    2003-06-01

    In this paper we present a no-reference objective quality metric (NROQM) that has resulted from extensive research on impairment metrics, image feature metrics, and subjective image quality in several projects in Philips Research, and participation in the ITU Video Quality Experts Group. The NROQM is aimed at requirements including video algorithm development, embedded monitoring and control of image quality, and evaluation of different types of display systems. NROQM is built from metrics for desirable and non-desirable image features (sharpness, contrast, noise, clipping, ringing, and blocking artifacts), and accounts for their individual and combined contributions to perceived image quality. We describe our heuristic, incremental approach to modeling quality and training the NROQM, and its advantages to deal with imperfect data and imperfect metrics. The results of training the NROQM using a large set of video sequences, which include degraded and enhanced video, show high correlation between objective and subjective scores, and the results of the first performance test show good objective-subjective correlations as well. We also discuss issues that require further research such as fully content-independent metrics, measuring over-enhanced video quality, and the role of temporal impairment metrics.

  5. Factors Affecting Quality Enhancement Procedures for E-Learning Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jara, Magdalena; Mellar, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports on an empirical study exploring the way in which campus-based higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK apply their internal quality assurance and enhancement (QA/QE) procedures to their e-learning courses. The purpose of this paper is to identify those characteristics of e-learning courses which affected the…

  6. External tank program productivity and quality enhancements - A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    The optimization of the Manned Space Systems productivity and quality enhancement program is described. The guidelines and standards of the program and the roles played in it by various employee groups are addressed. Aspects of the program involving job/organization redefinition, production and planning in automation, and artificial intelligence and robotics are examined.

  7. Polyvalent effect enhances diglycosidic antiplasmodial activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Qiang; He, Yun; Yu, Qun; Liu, Hai-Peng; Wang, De-Min; Li, Xiao-Bin; Luo, Jian; Meng, Xin; Qin, Hai-Juan; Lucchi, Naomi W; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Iyer, Suri S; Yang, Yang; Yu, Peng

    2016-10-01

    An efficient and facile total synthesis of diglycoside Matayoside D isolated from the root bark of Matayba guianensis with antiplasmodial activity have been accomplished in 11 steps with 5% overall yields starting from commercially available glucose and rhamnose. Furthermore, a class of the diglycosidic derivatives with different lengths of the linker and valences were also prepared and evaluated for their antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-susceptible (3D7) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Low valent and short linker attached diglycoside show no enhancement of the antiplasmodial activity while polyvalent conjugates showed enhanced antiplasmodial activity with IC50 value at least 20 fold better than that of the corresponding diglycosidic monomer. The polyvalent diglycoside were non-cytotoxic against normal mammalian cells under 50,000 μg/L. PMID:27318984

  8. Measuring Active Learning to Predict Course Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, John E.; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether active learning within computer-based training courses can be measured and whether it serves as a predictor of learner-perceived course quality. A major corporation participated in this research, providing access to internal employee training courses, training representatives, and historical course evaluation data.…

  9. Chromatin remodeling effects on enhancer activity.

    PubMed

    García-González, Estela; Escamilla-Del-Arenal, Martín; Arzate-Mejía, Rodrigo; Recillas-Targa, Félix

    2016-08-01

    During organism development, a diversity of cell types emerges with disparate, yet stable profiles of gene expression with distinctive cellular functions. In addition to gene promoters, the genome contains enhancer regulatory sequences, which are implicated in cellular specialization by facilitating cell-type and tissue-specific gene expression. Enhancers are DNA binding elements characterized by highly sophisticated and various mechanisms of action allowing for the specific interaction of general and tissue-specific transcription factors (TFs). However, eukaryotic organisms package their genetic material into chromatin, generating a physical barrier for TFs to interact with their cognate sequences. The ability of TFs to bind DNA regulatory elements is also modulated by changes in the chromatin structure, including histone modifications, histone variants, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling, and the methylation status of DNA. Furthermore, it has recently been revealed that enhancer sequences are also transcribed into a set of enhancer RNAs with regulatory potential. These interdependent processes act in the context of a complex network of chromatin interactions, which together contributes to a renewed vision of how gene activation is coordinated in a cell-type-dependent manner. In this review, we describe the interplay between genetic and epigenetic aspects associated with enhancers and discuss their possible roles on enhancer function. PMID:27026300

  10. 78 FR 45173 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Enhancing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Enhancing Completion Rates for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Quality Control Reviews AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with...

  11. How Organizations Can Enhance the Quality of Life of Their Clients and Assess Their Results: The Concept of QOL Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinders, Hans S.; Schalock, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the framework of a dynamic approach to quality of life (QOL) enhancement based on the conceptualization and measurement of individual-referenced quality of life. Sections of the article summarize the premises of QOL enhancement, provide the rationale for a dynamic approach to QOL enhancement, discuss six components of QOL…

  12. Patient involvement in education for enhanced quality of care.

    PubMed

    Le Var, R M H

    2002-12-01

    Government policies in the UK are promoting health care practitioners working in partnership with patients and clients as an important constituent of quality in health care delivery. However, for practitioners to work in this way requires experience of such partnerships in the educational preparation. The involvement of patients and clients (i.e. service users) and their carers in the curriculum has been encouraged and supported in England since the early 1990s. From 1998, the comprehensive involvement in all phases of programme provision has been a requirement, ensuring that service users have a real 'voice' in influencing the direction of programmes. Examples of good practice are provided, demonstrating a range of approaches in the different stages of the educational process. Issues to be considered for successful implementation are included. Benefits to education and patient/client care are identified on the basis of literature and recent experience. They are strongly associated with enhanced quality of care. The article argues for a need to continue to broaden implementation for the major benefits of influencing the attitudes and approaches of students, and empowering users, with the end result of enhancing the quality of care. A strategic approach is needed to make user involvement an effective and workable reality. The need for systematic evaluation of the outcomes and for publications is highlighted. The principle of service user involvement in educational preparation is deemed to be equally relevant in other countries. PMID:12492943

  13. Enhanced kappa-Cygnid activity 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendtel, Jürgen; Molau, Sirko

    2015-04-01

    The κ-Cygnid (012 KCG) meteor shower produced about 3-4 times the average visual rate and video flux in August 2014 for about four days. We are able to trace the increased activity to one component of the Cygnid complex proposed by Koseki recently. Video data indicate that the population index of all shower components is lower than that of the sporadic meteors, probably r≈ 2.6. Our analysis supports the suggested 7-year periodicity in activity enhancement of the κ-Cygnids

  14. Enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Patton, M Q

    1999-01-01

    Varying philosophical and theoretical orientations to qualitative inquiry remind us that issues of quality and credibility intersect with audience and intended research purposes. This overview examines ways of enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis by dealing with three distinct but related inquiry concerns: rigorous techniques and methods for gathering and analyzing qualitative data, including attention to validity, reliability, and triangulation; the credibility, competence, and perceived trustworthiness of the qualitative researcher; and the philosophical beliefs of evaluation users about such paradigm-based preferences as objectivity versus subjectivity, truth versus perspective, and generalizations versus extrapolations. Although this overview examines some general approaches to issues of credibility and data quality in qualitative analysis, it is important to acknowledge that particular philosophical underpinnings, specific paradigms, and special purposes for qualitative inquiry will typically include additional or substitute criteria for assuring and judging quality, validity, and credibility. Moreover, the context for these considerations has evolved. In early literature on evaluation methods the debate between qualitative and quantitative methodologists was often strident. In recent years the debate has softened. A consensus has gradually emerged that the important challenge is to match appropriately the methods to empirical questions and issues, and not to universally advocate any single methodological approach for all problems. PMID:10591279

  15. Enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Patton, M Q

    1999-12-01

    Varying philosophical and theoretical orientations to qualitative inquiry remind us that issues of quality and credibility intersect with audience and intended research purposes. This overview examines ways of enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis by dealing with three distinct but related inquiry concerns: rigorous techniques and methods for gathering and analyzing qualitative data, including attention to validity, reliability, and triangulation; the credibility, competence, and perceived trustworthiness of the qualitative researcher; and the philosophical beliefs of evaluation users about such paradigm-based preferences as objectivity versus subjectivity, truth versus perspective, and generalizations versus extrapolations. Although this overview examines some general approaches to issues of credibility and data quality in qualitative analysis, it is important to acknowledge that particular philosophical underpinnings, specific paradigms, and special purposes for qualitative inquiry will typically include additional or substitute criteria for assuring and judging quality, validity, and credibility. Moreover, the context for these considerations has evolved. In early literature on evaluation methods the debate between qualitative and quantitative methodologists was often strident. In recent years the debate has softened. A consensus has gradually emerged that the important challenge is to match appropriately the methods to empirical questions and issues, and not to universally advocate any single methodological approach for all problems. PMID:10591279

  16. A Technology Enhanced Learning Model for Quality Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherly, Elizabeth; Uddin, Md. Meraj

    Technology Enhanced Learning and Teaching (TELT) Model provides learning through collaborations and interactions with a framework for content development and collaborative knowledge sharing system as a supplementary for learning to improve the quality of education system. TELT deals with a unique pedagogy model for Technology Enhanced Learning System which includes course management system, digital library, multimedia enriched contents and video lectures, open content management system and collaboration and knowledge sharing systems. Open sources like Moodle and Wiki for content development, video on demand solution with a low cost mid range system, an exhaustive digital library are provided in a portal system. The paper depicts a case study of e-learning initiatives with TELT model at IIITM-K and how effectively implemented.

  17. Enhancement of polyether biodegradation in activated sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies in this laboratory showed that pretreatment with Petroleum Chemical Extinguisher[reg sign] (PCE), a C[sub 18] unsaturated fatty acid diester of polyethylene glycol (PEG), enhanced the biodegradation of PEG 1,000 and PEG 1,450 in soil. In this study the ability of PCE and other PEG-fatty acid diesters to enhance biodegradation of PEGs in activated sludge was investigated. Additionally, polyether-fatty acid esters similar to PCE were synthesized and tested to determine how they affected biodegradation of PEGs and other polyethers. Attempts were made to understand the mechanism for enhancement of biodegradation. Carbon-dioxide evolution and thin-layer chromatographic analysis indicated degradation of PEG 1,000, PEG 1,450, and PEG 3,350 in sludge samples which were previously exposed to PCE. Those samples which were not pre-treated with PCE showed no detectable PEG degradation during the two-week study. Preexposure to PCE did not enhance subsequent degradation of PEG 8,000, nor polypropylene glycol (PPG) 1,025. However, pretreatment of sludge with a PPG 1,025-di oleic acid ester promoted PPG 1,205 degradation. Interestingly, microbial populations do not seem to be gaining much biomass or energy from the degradation of PEG-di fatty acid esters or PEGs. When PCE-pretreated sludge samples were given [sup 14]C-PEG 3,350 as substrate, evolution of [sup 14]CO[sub 2] occurred and little (<5%) of the [sup 14]C was assimilated by the microorganisms in the sludge. Futhermore, determinations of ATP content and esterase activity of sludge samples suggested that there was not a substantial increase in biomass as a result of degradation of either PCE or PEGs. PCE preexposure effected an increase in PEG dehydrogenase activity. This increase may be due to induction of enzymes responsible for PEG biodegradation or selection for organisms in the microbial population which are PEG degraders.

  18. Enhancing clinical evidence by proactively building quality into clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Meeker-O’Connell, Ann; Glessner, Coleen; Behm, Mark; Mulinde, Jean; Roach, Nancy; Sweeney, Fergus; Tenaerts, Pamela; Landray, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    active discussions incorporating the different perspectives within and external to an organization (e.g. clinical investigators, research site staff, and trial participants) in improving trial design. Workshop participants also recognized the value of focusing oversight on those aspects of the trial where errors would have a major impact on participant safety and reliability of results. Applying the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative quality-by-design recommendations and principles should enable organizations to prioritize the most critical determinants of a trial’s quality, identify non-essential activities that can be eliminated to streamline trial conduct and oversight, and formulate appropriate plans to define, avoid, mitigate, monitor, and address important errors. PMID:27098014

  19. Enhancing family physician capacity to deliver quality palliative home care

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Denise; Howell, Doris; Brazil, Kevin; Howard, Michelle; Taniguchi, Alan

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED Family physicians face innumerable challenges to delivering quality palliative home care to meet the complex needs of end-of-life patients and their families. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM To implement a model of shared care to enhance family physicians’ ability to deliver quality palliative home care, particularly in a community-based setting. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Family physicians in 3 group practices (N = 21) in Ontario’s Niagara West region collaborated with an interprofessional palliative care team (including a palliative care advanced practice nurse, a palliative medicine physician, a bereavement counselor, a psychosocial-spiritual advisor, and a case manager) in a shared-care partnership to provide comprehensive palliative home care. Key features of the program included systematic and timely identification of end-of-life patients, needs assessments, symptom and psychosocial support interventions, regular communication between team members, and coordinated care guided by outcome-based assessment in the home. In addition, educational initiatives were provided to enhance family physicians’ knowledge and skills. CONCLUSION Because of the program, participants reported improved communication, effective interprofessional collaboration, and the capacity to deliver palliative home care, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, to end-of-life patients in the community. PMID:19074714

  20. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional quality assessment activities. 460.140... FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional quality assessment activities. A PACE organization must meet external quality assessment and reporting...

  1. Serine deprivation enhances antineoplastic activity of biguanides.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Simon-Pierre; Hulea, Laura; Toban, Nader; Birman, Elena; Blouin, Marie-José; Zakikhani, Mahvash; Zhao, Yunhua; Topisirovic, Ivan; St-Pierre, Julie; Pollak, Michael

    2014-12-15

    Metformin, a biguanide widely used in the treatment of type II diabetes, clearly exhibits antineoplastic activity in experimental models and has been reported to reduce cancer incidence in diabetics. There are ongoing clinical trials to evaluate its antitumor properties, which may relate to its fundamental activity as an inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation. Here, we show that serine withdrawal increases the antineoplastic effects of phenformin (a potent biguanide structurally related to metformin). Serine synthesis was not inhibited by biguanides. Instead, metabolic studies indicated a requirement for serine to allow cells to compensate for biguanide-induced decrease in oxidative phosphorylation by upregulating glycolysis. Furthermore, serine deprivation modified the impact of metformin on the relative abundance of metabolites within the citric acid cycle. In mice, a serine-deficient diet reduced serine levels in tumors and significantly enhanced the tumor growth-inhibitory actions of biguanide treatment. Our results define a dietary manipulation that can enhance the efficacy of biguanides as antineoplastic agents that target cancer cell energy metabolism. PMID:25377470

  2. : Synthesis, Characterization, and Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaoming; Fu, Feng; Li, Wenhong

    2014-12-01

    3D hierarchical microspheres of Cu-loaded Bi2WO6 are successfully prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis method on a large scale. The as-prepared samples are characterized by UV-Vis DRS, BET, XRD, XPS, and SEM. The results reveal that the light absorption of Cu-loaded Bi2WO6 has higher intensity in the visible range and a bathochromic shift of the absorption edge compared to that of pure Bi2WO6. The photocatalytic activity is evaluated by phenol removal from aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation. The results demonstrate that loaded Cu significantly enhances the photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6, for the loaded Cu acts as the electron receptor on the surface of Bi2WO6, and inhibits the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole. The content of loaded Cu has an impact on the catalytic activity, and the 1.0 wt.% Cu-loaded Bi2WO6 exhibits the best photocatalytic activity in the degradation of phenol. Furthermore, the reaction kinetics of phenol removal from aqueous solution over the Cu-loaded Bi2WO6 is established by the way of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The results indicate that the process of photodegradation of phenol on Cu-loaded Bi2WO6 match the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model.

  3. Enhanced interleukin activity following asbestos inhalation.

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, D P; Georgian, M M; Oghiso, Y; Kagan, E

    1984-01-01

    Asbestos inhalation can cause pulmonary fibrosis and is associated with a variety of immunological abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of asbestos inhalation on interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production in a rodent model. Two groups of rats were exposed, by intermittent inhalation, to either amphibole (crocidolite) or serpentine (chrysotile) asbestos. A third (control) group of rats was sham exposed to clean air. Animals from the three exposure groups were thereafter immunized (or not immunized) with fetal calf serum antigens. In order to assay interleukin activity, supernatants were generated from cultures containing alveolar macrophages and autologous splenic lymphocytes, and from cultures containing alveolar macrophages alone. Using assay systems designed to detect IL-1 and IL-2 functional activity, the supernatants were evaluated for their capacity to stimulate lymphoproliferation and fibroblast DNA synthesis. Macrophage-lymphocyte co-culture supernatants, when obtained from immunized, asbestos exposed rats, contained greater IL-1 and IL-2 activity than identical supernatants from immunized, sham exposed animals. These between group differences were not, however, observed in supernatants from unimmunized rats, or when supernatants were generated in the absence of immune lymphocytes. These observations suggest that asbestos exposure is associated with enhanced activation of lymphocytes by antigens. The possible relevance of these findings to asbestos related fibrogenesis and immunological stimulation is discussed. PMID:6608427

  4. SPARROW MODELING - Enhancing Understanding of the Nation's Water Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Preston, Stephen D.; Alexander, Richard B.; Woodside, Michael D.; Hamilton, Pixie A.

    2009-01-01

    The information provided here is intended to assist water-resources managers with interpretation of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) SPARROW model and its products. SPARROW models can be used to explain spatial patterns in monitored stream-water quality in relation to human activities and natural processes as defined by detailed geospatial information. Previous SPARROW applications have identified the sources and transport of nutrients in the Mississippi River basin, Chesapeake Bay watershed, and other major drainages of the United States. New SPARROW models with improved accuracy and interpretability are now being developed by the USGS National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program for six major regions of the conterminous United States. These new SPARROW models are based on updated geospatial data and stream-monitoring records from local, State, and other federal agencies.

  5. Enhancing the quality of thermographic diagnosis in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuklitskaya, A. G.; Olefir, G. I.

    2005-12-01

    This paper discusses the possibilities of enhancing the quality of thermographic diagnosis in medicine by increasing the objectivity of the processes of recording, visualization, and interpretation of IR images (thermograms) of patients. A test program is proposed for the diagnosis of oncopathology of the mammary glands, involving standard conditions for recording thermograms, visualization of the IR image in several versions of the color palette and shades of grey, its interpretation in accordance with a rigorously specified algorithm that takes into account the temperature regime in the Zakharin-Head zone of the heart, and the drawing of a conclusion based on a statistical analysis of literature data and the results of a survey of more than 3000 patients of the Minsk City Clinical Oncological Dispensary.

  6. Online naphazoline quality control by micellar-enhanced spectrofluorimetry.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Cecilia Mariana; Silva, Raúl Alejandro; Fernández, Liliana Patricia; Masi, Adriana Noemí

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for online spectrofluorimetric quality control of naphazoline (NPZ) in pharmaceuticals and raw drugs. A combination of a flow-injection analysis (FIA) system with micellar-enhanced fluorescence detection is presented as a powerful alternative for the rapid and sensitive analysis of naphazoline. Since NPZ shows low native fluorescence, the use of an anionic surfactant, such as sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), provides a considerable enhancement of fluorescence intensity and the nature of the technique allows a possible and easy adaptation to a FIA system. Using λ(exc) = 280 nm and λ(em) = 326 nm, a good linear relationship (LOL) was obtained in the range 0.003-10 µg mL(-1) with a detection limit (LOD) of 3 × 10(-4) µg mL(-1) (s/n = 3). Parameters related to the nature of the analytical signal and to the FIA manifold were optimized. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained in the analysis of commercial pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method is simple, accurate and allows for high-speed sampling and considerably shorter analysis times. In addition, it requires inexpensive equipment and reagents and has easy operational conditions and no side effects, thus avoiding environmental pollution through toxic waste. PMID:21538792

  7. How can quality improvement enhance the lives of children with disabilities?

    PubMed

    Perrin, James M

    2012-01-01

    Much attention has aided measurement and improvement in the quality of health care during the past two decades, with new ways to define and measure quality, recognition that doing so can identify strategies to enhance care, and systematic efforts by both government and private insurers to apply these principles. In this article, James Perrin reviews these gains. Although children have benefited, these quality measurement efforts have focused mainly on adult health care. Now, two recent federal programs promise to expand quality measurement of child health care. Enacted in 2009, the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act provides systematic support for efforts to develop and implement a set of child health quality measures. This federal support represents the first major public investment in improving child health care quality. The Affordable Care Act, which became law in 2010, extends those activities by focusing attention on improving care for people with chronic conditions, including new ways to organize care using teams of doctors, nurses, and others focused on improving chronic care outcomes. For children especially, this team care should also focus on prevention of chronic conditions and their consequences. Despite these significant efforts to expand quality measurement among children and youth, Perrin finds that most measures and improvement activities focus on children without chronic conditions, and few measures of chronic conditions go beyond examining what kinds of monitoring children with specific conditions receive. Only limited attention is paid to how well the children are functioning. A number of networks working with children with specific chronic health conditions (such as cancer, cystic fibrosis, and sickle cell disease) have developed effective measures of functioning for children with those conditions and active programs to improve such outcomes. These networks offer the best examples of how to improve care and outcomes for

  8. Titanium surface hydrophilicity enhances platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Alfarsi, Mohammed A; Hamlet, Stephen M; Ivanovski, Saso

    2014-01-01

    Titanium implant surface modification is a key strategy used to enhance osseointegration. Platelets are the first cells that interact with the implant surface whereupon they release a wide array of proteins that influence the subsequent healing process. This study therefore investigated the effect of titanium surface modification on the attachment and activation of human platelets. The surface characteristics of three titanium surfaces: smooth (SMO), micro-rough (SLA) and hydrophilic micro-rough (SLActive) and the subsequent attachment and activation of platelets following exposure to these surfaces were determined. The SLActive surface showed the presence of significant nanoscale topographical features. While attached platelets appeared to be morphologically similar, significantly fewer platelets attached to the SLActive surface compared to both the SMO and SLA surfaces. The SLActive surface however induced the release of the higher levels of chemokines β-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4 from platelets. This study shows that titanium surface topography and chemistry have a significant effect on platelet activation and chemokine release. PMID:25311339

  9. Phanerochaete mutants with enhanced ligninolytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kakar, S.N.; Perez, A.; Gonzales, J.

    1993-06-01

    In addition to lignin, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organopollutants in soils and aqueous media. Although some of the organic compounds are degraded under nonligninolytic conditions, most are degraded under ligninolytic conditions with the involvement of the extracellular enzymes, lignin peroxidases, and manganese-dependent peroxidases, which are produced as secondary metabolites triggered by conditions of nutrient starvation (e.g., nitrogen limitation). The fungus and its enzymes can thus provide alternative technologies for bioremediation, biopulping, biobleaching, and other industrial applications. The efficiency and effectiveness of the fungus can be enhanced by increasing production and secretion of the important enzymes in large quantities and as primary metabolites under enriched conditions. One way this can be achieved is through isolation of mutants that are deregulated or are hyperproducers or supersecretors of key enzymes under enriched conditions. Through ultraviolet-light and gamma-rays mutagenesis we have isolated a variety of mutants, some of which produce key enzymes of the ligninolytic system under high-nitrogen growth conditions. One of the mutants produced 272 units (U) of lignin peroxidases enzyme activity per liter after nine days under high nitrogen. The mutant and the parent strains produced up to 54 U/L and 62 U/L, respectively, of the enzyme activity under low-nitrogen growth conditions during this period. In some experiments the mutant showed 281 U/L of enzyme activity under high nitrogen after 17 days.

  10. How Soluble GARP Enhances TGFβ Activation

    PubMed Central

    Fridrich, Sven; Hahn, Susanne A.; Linzmaier, Marion; Felten, Matthias; Zwarg, Jenny; Lennerz, Volker; Tuettenberg, Andrea; Stöcker, Walter

    2016-01-01

    GARP (glycoprotein A repetitions predominant) is a cell surface receptor on regulatory T-lymphocytes, platelets, hepatic stellate cells and certain cancer cells. Its described function is the binding and accommodation of latent TGFβ (transforming growth factor), before the activation and release of the mature cytokine. For regulatory T cells it was shown that a knockdown of GARP or a treatment with blocking antibodies dramatically decreases their immune suppressive capacity. This confirms a fundamental role of GARP in the basic function of regulatory T cells. Prerequisites postulated for physiological GARP function include membrane anchorage of GARP, disulfide bridges between the propeptide of TGFβ and GARP and connection of this propeptide to αvβ6 or αvβ8 integrins of target cells during mechanical TGFβ release. Other studies indicate the existence of soluble GARP complexes and a functionality of soluble GARP alone. In order to clarify the underlying molecular mechanism, we expressed and purified recombinant TGFβ and a soluble variant of GARP. Surprisingly, soluble GARP and TGFβ formed stable non-covalent complexes in addition to disulfide-coupled complexes, depending on the redox conditions of the microenvironment. We also show that soluble GARP alone and the two variants of complexes mediate different levels of TGFβ activity. TGFβ activation is enhanced by the non-covalent GARP-TGFβ complex already at low (nanomolar) concentrations, at which GARP alone does not show any effect. This supports the idea of soluble GARP acting as immune modulator in vivo. PMID:27054568

  11. Women's health-enhancing physical activity and eudaimonic well being.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Leah J; Kowalski, Kent C; Mack, Diane E; Wilson, Philip M; Crocker, Peter R E

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we explored the role of health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA; Miilunpalo, 2001) in women's eudaimonic well being (i.e., psychological flourishing at one's maximal potential; Ryff 1989). We used a quantitative approach (N= 349) to explore the relationship between HEPA and eudaimonic well being. While HEPA was not related to eudaimonic well being, experiencing eudaimonia through HEPA contributed unique variance in eudaimonic well being beyond HEPA and experiencing hedonia through HEPA. As quality of activity was more important than quantity, a qualitative component (N = 10) provided further insight on if and how HEPA contributes to women's eudaimonic well being. Participants supported HEPA in fulfilling their potential through goal setting/striving providing bonding experiences, allowing for self-reflection, and developing a physical/able body. PMID:22978195

  12. LRRK2 autophosphorylation enhances its GTPase activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiyong; Mobley, James A; DeLucas, Lawrence J; Kahn, Richard A; West, Andrew B

    2016-01-01

    The leucine-rich repeat kinase (LRRK)-2 protein contains nonoverlapping GTPase and kinase domains, and mutation in either domain can cause Parkinson disease. GTPase proteins are critical upstream modulators of many effector protein kinases. In LRRK2, this paradigm may be reversed, as the kinase domain phosphorylates its own GTPase domain. In this study, we found that the ameba LRRK2 ortholog ROCO4 phosphorylates the GTPase domain [termed Ras-of-complex (ROC) domain in this family] of human LRRK2 on the same residues as the human LRRK2 kinase. Phosphorylation of ROC enhances its rate of GTP hydrolysis [from kcat (catalytic constant) 0.007 to 0.016 min(-1)], without affecting GTP or GDP dissociation kinetics [koff = 0.093 and 0.148 min(-1) for GTP and GDP, respectively). Phosphorylation also promotes the formation of ROC dimers, although GTPase activity appears to be equivalent between purified dimers and monomers. Modeling experiments show that phosphorylation induces conformational changes at the critical p-loop structure. Finally, ROC appears to be one of many GTPases phosphorylated in p-loop residues, as revealed by alignment of LRRK2 autophosphorylation sites with GTPases annotated in the phosphoproteome database. These results provide an example of a novel mechanism for kinase-mediated control of GTPase activity. PMID:26396237

  13. Enhancing selectivity of infrared emitters through quality-factor matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakr, Enas; Zhou, Zhiguang; Bermel, Peter

    2015-09-01

    It has recently been proposed that designing selective emitters with photonic crystals (PhCs) or plasmonic metamaterials can suppress low-energy photon emission, while enhancing higher-energy photon emission. Here, we will consider multiple approaches to designing and fabricating nanophotonic structures concentrating infrared thermal radiation at energies above a critical threshold. These are based on quality factor matching, in which one creates resonant cavities that couple light out at the same rate that the underlying materials emit it. When this quality-factor matching is done properly, emissivities can approach those of a blackbody, but only within a selected range of thermal photon energies. One potential application is for improving the conversion of heat to electricity via a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system, by using thermal radiation to illuminate a photovoltaic (PV) diode. In this study, realistic simulations of system efficiencies are performed using finite-difference time domain (FDTD) and rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) to capture both thermal radiation and PV diode absorption. We first consider a previously studied 2D molybdenum photonic crystal with a commercially-available silicon PV diode, which can yield TPV efficiencies up to 26.2%. Second, a 1D-periodic samarium-doped glass emitter with a gallium antimonide (GaSb) PV diode is presented, which can yield efficiencies up to 38.5%. Finally, a 2D tungsten photonic crystal with a 1D integrated, chirped filter and the GaSb PV diode can yield efficiencies up to 38.2%; however, the fabrication procedure is expected to be more challenging. The advantages and disadvantages of each strategy will be discussed.

  14. A workbook for preparing a district quality- assurance plan for water-quality activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schertz, Terry L.; Childress, Carolyn J.O.; Kelly, Valerie J.; Boucher, Michelle S.; Pederson, Gary L.

    1998-01-01

    APPEARS TO BE A REPORT ON HOW TO WRITE REPORTS --THE 'ABSTRACT' THAT FOLLOWS IS JUST THE GENERIC ABSTRACT TO BE USED FOR WATER USE REPORTS: In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the [State name] District in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the [State name] District for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures that are documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the District quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities and to supplement the [State name] District quality-assurance plan.

  15. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities in the USGS Ohio Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Shaffer, Kimberly H.

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been written for use by the Ohio Water Science Center in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Ohio Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the Ohio Water Science Center quality-assurance plans for water-quality monitors, the microbiology laboratory, and surface-water and ground-water activities.

  16. Thermosonication as a potential quality enhancement technique of apple juice.

    PubMed

    Abid, Muhammad; Jabbar, Saqib; Hu, Bing; Hashim, Malik Muhammad; Wu, Tao; Lei, Shicheng; Khan, Muhammad Ammar; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2014-05-01

    Enzymatic browning and microbial growth lead to quality losses in apple products. In the present study, fresh apple juice was thermosonicated using ultrasound in-bath (25 kHz, 30 min, 0.06 W cm(-3)) and ultrasound with-probe sonicator (20 kHz, 5 and 10 min, 0.30 W cm(-3)) at 20, 40 and 60°C for inactivation of enzymes (polyphenolase, peroxidase and pectinmethylesterase) and microflora (total plate count, yeast and mold). Additionally, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols, pH, titratable acidity, (°)Brix and color values influenced by thermosonication were investigated. The highest inactivation of enzymes was obtained in ultrasound with-probe at 60°C for 10 min, and the microbial population was completely inactivated at 60°C. The retention of ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols were significantly higher in ultrasound with-probe than ultrasound in-bath at 60°C. These results indicated the usefulness of thermosonication for apple juice processing at low temperature, for enhanced inactivation of enzymes and microorganisms. PMID:24373787

  17. Enhancement of the physicochemical qualities of gastric mucus by sofalcone.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, J; Yamaki, K; Tamura, S; Slomiany, A; Slomiany, B L

    1991-09-01

    The effect of prolonged administration of an antiulcer drug, sofalcone, on the physicochemical properties of gastric mucus was investigated. The experiments were conducted with groups of rats receiving twice daily for three consecutive days a dose of 100 mg/kg sofalcone, while the control group received daily doses of vehicle. The rats were sacrificed 16 h after the last dose and gastric mucosa subjected to physicochemical measurements. The results revealed that sofalcone evoked a 23% increase in mucus gel dimension, while sulfo- and sialomucins content of the gel increased by 54 and 25%, respectively. These changes were accompanied by a 16% increase in mucus H+ retardation capacity, 2-fold increase in viscosity, and a 39% increase in the gel hydrophobicity. The mucus elaborated in the presence of sofalcone contained 67% more covalently bound fatty acids, exhibited 10% lower content of protein, 30% higher content of carbohydrate, and 18% higher content of lipids. The mucus of the sofalcone group also showed an increase in the proportion of the high molecular weight mucus glycoprotein form, which in the control group accounted for about 30% of gel mucin, while its content in mucus gel of animals receiving sofalcone reached the value of 50%. The results indicate that sofalcone enhances the protective qualities of mucus component of gastric mucosal barrier. PMID:1793890

  18. High-throughput functional comparison of promoter and enhancer activities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thomas A; Jones, Richard D; Snavely, Andrew R; Pfenning, Andreas R; Kirchner, Rory; Hemberg, Martin; Gray, Jesse M

    2016-08-01

    Promoters initiate RNA synthesis, and enhancers stimulate promoter activity. Whether promoter and enhancer activities are encoded distinctly in DNA sequences is unknown. We measured the enhancer and promoter activities of thousands of DNA fragments transduced into mouse neurons. We focused on genomic loci bound by the neuronal activity-regulated coactivator CREBBP, and we measured enhancer and promoter activities both before and after neuronal activation. We find that the same sequences typically encode both enhancer and promoter activities. However, gene promoters generate more promoter activity than distal enhancers, despite generating similar enhancer activity. Surprisingly, the greater promoter activity of gene promoters is not due to conventional core promoter elements or splicing signals. Instead, we find that particular transcription factor binding motifs are intrinsically biased toward the generation of promoter activity, whereas others are not. Although the specific biases we observe may be dependent on experimental or cellular context, our results suggest that gene promoters are distinguished from distal enhancers by specific complements of transcriptional activators. PMID:27311442

  19. DRINKING WATER MICROBIOLOGY - NEW DIRECTIONS TOWARD WATER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many concerns result from information on new waterborne agents, treatment problems of raw water qualities, biofilm development in some distribution systems, and special quality needs unique to hospitals and industries. Protozoan cyst penetration after some disinfection practices ...

  20. Service Quality in Higher Education Using an Enhanced SERVQUAL Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kay C.; Kek, Sei W.

    2004-01-01

    Customer service and quality are driving forces in the business community. As higher educational institutions tussle for competitive advantage and high service quality, the evaluation of educational service quality is essential to provide motivation for and to give feedback on the effectiveness of educational plans and implementation. This…

  1. Quality Matters Rubric Potential for Enhancing Online Foreign Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Zumor, Abdul Wahed Q.

    2015-01-01

    Quality Matters Program is designed to certify the quality of online courses in colleges and universities across and beyond the U.S. The Quality Matters Rubric (QMR) consists of eight general standards and 41 specific standards which are used to evaluate and design online and blended courses. The purpose of this study is to highlight the QMR…

  2. Enhanced UK teletext: Experimental equipment for high-quality picture coding and other enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. L.

    1983-07-01

    The construction of a pair of microcomputer-based units which will serve as a research tool in engineering teletext enhancements, one unit a transmitter and the other a receiver in a closed-circuit teletext transmission is described. The microcomputer system and frame store design is basically similar to that currently used by Logica in the Flair electronic graphics equipment. Considerable effort was devoted to the development of software handling. The units are equipped with a CP/M operating system, which is already widely known. This greatly simplifies the management of files and includes compiling routines and a software debugging tool. Software is being prepared in PASCAL. Routines were developed to receive, generate, edit and transmit teletext in its present form. Early attention was given to demonstrating that picture teletext is feasible through a crudely-coded slow-scan television system. An acceptable sampling structure for these pictures and optimizing the coding of data to fit in with a hierarchy of coding embracing other aspects of enhanced teletext, for example, geometric drawing, electronic painting and telesoftware are addressed. A high quality character font was incorporated to improve the display of text.

  3. Palmitoleate enhances quality of rooster semen during chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Rad, Hamed Mirzaei; Eslami, Mohsen; Ghanie, Abolfazl

    2016-02-01

    The practice of artificial insemination is widely utilized in poultry; and this requires a broad use of semen storage techniques to prevent the reduction of fertilizing ability of stored semen. The antioxidant activity of palmitoleic acid with in vitro experiments has been shown. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of palmitoleic acid on the quality of rooster semen stored at 4C. Semen was collected from ten roosters twice a week. Ejaculates with greater than 80% forward spermatozoa motility were pooled and after dilution semen was enriched with 0 (control), 0.125 (P 0.125), 0.25 (P 0.25), 0.5 (P 0.5) and 1 (P 1) millimolar palmitoleate. Forward spermatozoa progressive motility and viability, as well as amounts of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant activity (AOA) were evaluated in seminal plasma and spermatozoa at 0, 24 and 48h of storage. Motility was 78.5±2.21, 77.5±1.04, and 69.5±2.32% at 24h and 58.66±1.35, 49.33±1.36 and 43.00±2.08% at 48h in P 0.125, P 0.25 and control, respectively (P<0.02). There were no significant differences in amount of MDA in the seminal plasma among groups, while the amounts of MDA in spermatozoa were less in the P 0.125, P 0.25 and P 0.5 groups compared to the control group at 24 and 48h of storage (P<0.002). Total amounts of AOA in seminal plasma were greater in palmitoleate treatment groups than the control at 24 and 48h (P<0.01). Moreover, palmitoleate treatment groups had greater values of total AOA in spermatozoa compared to the control group at 24 and 48h of storage (P<0.05). In conclusion, enrichment of rooster semen with small doses of palmitoleate has beneficial effects on the semen quality during cold storage. PMID:26723480

  4. Summary of strategies for planning Productivity Improvement and Quality Enhancement (PIQE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Summary of NASA Strategies for Productivity Improvement and Quality Enhancement respond to NASA's eighth top goal: Establish NASA as a leader in the development and application of advanced technology and management practices which contribute to significant increases in both Agency and national productivity. The Strategies provide the framework for development of the agency-wide Productivity Improvement and Quality Enhancement (PIQE) Plans.

  5. Spanish language generation engine to enhance the syntactic quality of AAC systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narváez A., Cristian; Sastoque H., Sebastián.; Iregui G., Marcela

    2015-12-01

    People with Complex Communication Needs (CCN) face difficulties to communicate their ideas, feelings and needs. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) approaches aim to provide support to enhance socialization of these individuals. However, there are many limitations in current applications related with systems operation, target scenarios and language consistency. This work presents an AAC approach to enhance produced messages by applying elements of Natural Language Generation. Specifically, a Spanish language engine, composed of a grammar ontology and a set of linguistic rules, is proposed to improve the naturalness in the communication process, when persons with CCN tell stories about their daily activities to non-disabled receivers. The assessment of the proposed method confirms the validity of the model to improve messages quality.

  6. The Academic Quality Handbook: Enhancing Higher Education in Universities and Further Education Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Patrick

    This book is intended as an introduction to the management of quality assurance and enhancement in higher education, particularly in England. The text focuses on the relationship between institutional quality assurance and the auditing authority of the British Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education. The chapters of part 1, "The Quality…

  7. Integrated Quality Enhancement and Review of Higher Education in Further Education Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Philip; Simmons, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Integrated Quality Enhancement and Review (IQER) was introduced as quality assurance designed specifically for Higher Education (HE) in Further Education Colleges (FEC) in 2008. Following a historical account of the quality assurance systems applied to HE in FECs prior to this date, we analyse the first 64 IQER Summative Review reports produced…

  8. Quality Management and Enhancement Processes in UK Business Schools: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Myra; Kelly, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to provide insights into the processes that can be and have been adopted by UK business schools as they attempt to meet the Quality Assurance Agency's concern with the standard of quality management and enhancement. Design/methodology/approach: A review of the literature provides interpretations of quality,…

  9. 75 FR 22120 - Notice of Roundtables and Request for Comments on Enhancement in the Quality of Patents and on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... enhanced quality. See Request for Comments on Enhancement in the Quality of Patents, 74 FR 65093 (Dec. 9..., 2010. See Extension of Period for Comments on Enhancement in the Quality of Patents, 75 FR 5040 (Feb. 1... Patent and Trademark Office Notice of Roundtables and Request for Comments on Enhancement in the...

  10. The Empty Nest Syndrome: Ways to Enhance Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Dianbing; Yang, Xinxiao; Aagard, Steve Dale

    2012-01-01

    Empty nest syndrome occurs as a result of urbanization and loosened relationships among family members. It may threaten the life quality of older adults and stability of society as a whole. This survey was designed to investigate the situation and factors that influence the life quality of a sample of older adults in a western state. Thirty-five…

  11. Placements: An Underused Vehicle for Quality Enhancement in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettis, Asa; Ring, Lena; Gustavsson, Maria; Wallman, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Placements have the potential to contribute more effectively to the quality of higher education. The aim of this article is to discuss how placements can be made more worthwhile for individual students, while also contributing to the overall quality of teaching and learning at HEIs as well as to the development of workplace cultures that are…

  12. Nanoparticle Delivery Enhancement With Acoustically Activated Microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    Mullin, Lee B; Phillips, Linsey C; Dayton, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    The application of microbubbles and ultrasound to deliver nanoparticle carriers for drug and gene delivery is an area that has expanded greatly in recent years. Under ultrasound exposure, microbubbles can enhance nanoparticle delivery by increasing cellular and vascular permeability. In this review, the underlying mechanisms of enhanced nanoparticle delivery with ultrasound and microbubbles and various proposed delivery techniques are discussed. Additionally, types of nanoparticles currently being investigated in preclinical studies, as well as the general limitations and benefits of a microbubble-based approach to nanoparticle delivery are reviewed. PMID:23287914

  13. Enhancing the quality of case studies in health services research.

    PubMed Central

    Yin, R K

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide guidance on improving the quality of case studies in health services research. DATA SOURCES: Secondary data, drawing from previous case study research. RESEARCH DESIGN: Guidance is provided to two audiences: potential case study investigators (eight items) and reviewers of case study proposals (four additional items). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The guidance demonstrates that many operational steps can be undertaken to improve the quality of case studies. These steps have been a hallmark of high-quality case studies in related fields but have not necessarily been practiced in health services research. CONCLUSIONS: Given higher-quality case studies, the case study method can become a valuable tool for health services research. Images Figure 3 PMID:10591280

  14. Context and quality estimation in video for enhanced event detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, John M.; Wood, Richard J.

    2015-05-01

    Numerous practical applications for automated event recognition in video rely on analysis of the objects and their associated motion, i.e., the kinematics of the scene. The ability to recognize events in practice depends on accurate tracking objects of interest in the video data and accurate recognition of changes relative to the background. Numerous factors can degrade the performance of automated algorithms. Our object detection and tracking algorithms estimate the object position and attributes within the context of a dynamic assessment of video quality, to provide more reliable event recognition under challenging conditions. We present an approach to robustly modeling the image quality which informs tuning parameters to use for a given video stream. The video quality model rests on a suite of image metrics computed in real-time from the video. We will describe the formulation of the image quality model. Results from a recent experiment will quantify the empirical performance for recognition of events of interest.

  15. CITIZENS WATER QUALITY MONITORING & MARINE HABITAT ENHANCEMENT PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plant 9,000 marsh grass plants along Bayou Lafourches banks, the regions hurricane protection levees, and the marshlands surrounding Bayou Lafourche, thereby enhancing coastal areas and marine habitat. These plantings will be designed to simultaneously raise community awareness ...

  16. The Effect of Line Maintenance Activity on Airline Safety Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoades, Dawna L.; Reynolds, Rosemarie; Waguespack, Blaise, Jr.; Williams, Michael

    2005-01-01

    One of the arguments against deregulation of the airline industry has been the possibility that financially troubled carriers would be tempted to lower line maintenance spending, thus lowering maintenance quality and decreasing the overall safety of the carrier. Given the financial crisis triggered by the events of 9/11: it appears to be a good time to revisit this issue. This paper examines the quality of airline line maintenance activity and examines the impact of maintenance spending on maintenance quality and overall safety. Findings indicate that increased maintenance spending is associated with increased line maintenance activity and increased overall safety quality for the major U.S. carriers.

  17. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, T.P.

    1994-10-20

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, which are part of the overall Hanford Site Environmental Protection Plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of the individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans.

  18. Highlights of contractor initiatives in quality enhancement and productivity improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The NASA/Contractor Team efforts are presented as part of NASA's continuing effort to facilitate the sharing of quality and productivity improvement ideas among its contractors. This complilation is not meant to be a comprehensive review of contractor initiative nor does it necessarily express NASA's views. The submissions represent samples from a general survey, and were not edited by NASA. The efforts are examples of quality and productivity programs in private industry, and as such, highlight company efforts in individual areas. Topics range from modernization of equipment, hardware, and technology to management of human resources. Of particular interest are contractor initiatives which deal with measurement and evaluation data pertaining to quality and productivity performance.

  19. Adaptive EAGLE dynamic solution adaptation and grid quality enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luong, Phu Vinh; Thompson, J. F.; Gatlin, B.; Mastin, C. W.; Kim, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    In the effort described here, the elliptic grid generation procedure in the EAGLE grid code was separated from the main code into a subroutine, and a new subroutine which evaluates several grid quality measures at each grid point was added. The elliptic grid routine can now be called, either by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to generate a new adaptive grid based on flow variables and quality measures through multiple adaptation, or by the EAGLE main code to generate a grid based on quality measure variables through static adaptation. Arrays of flow variables can be read into the EAGLE grid code for use in static adaptation as well. These major changes in the EAGLE adaptive grid system make it easier to convert any CFD code that operates on a block-structured grid (or single-block grid) into a multiple adaptive code.

  20. Enhancer RNAs participate in androgen receptor-driven looping that selectively enhances gene activation.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chen-Lin; Fei, Teng; Chen, Yiwen; Li, Tiantian; Gao, Yanfei; Wang, Xiaodong; Sun, Tong; Sweeney, Christopher J; Lee, Gwo-Shu Mary; Chen, Shaoyong; Balk, Steven P; Liu, Xiaole Shirley; Brown, Myles; Kantoff, Philip W

    2014-05-20

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a key factor that regulates the behavior and fate of prostate cancer cells. The AR-regulated network is activated when AR binds enhancer elements and modulates specific enhancer-promoter looping. Kallikrein-related peptidase 3 (KLK3), which codes for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), is a well-known AR-regulated gene and its upstream enhancers produce bidirectional enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), termed KLK3e. Here, we demonstrate that KLK3e facilitates the spatial interaction of the KLK3 enhancer and the KLK2 promoter and enhances long-distance KLK2 transcriptional activation. KLK3e carries the core enhancer element derived from the androgen response element III (ARE III), which is required for the interaction of AR and Mediator 1 (Med1). Furthermore, we show that KLK3e processes RNA-dependent enhancer activity depending on the integrity of core enhancer elements. The transcription of KLK3e was detectable and its expression is significantly correlated with KLK3 (R(2) = 0.6213, P < 5 × 10(-11)) and KLK2 (R(2) = 0.5893, P < 5 × 10(-10)) in human prostate tissues. Interestingly, RNAi silencing of KLK3e resulted in a modest negative effect on prostate cancer cell proliferation. Accordingly, we report that an androgen-induced eRNA scaffolds the AR-associated protein complex that modulates chromosomal architecture and selectively enhances AR-dependent gene expression. PMID:24778216

  1. Computational Identification of Active Enhancers in Model Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengqi; Zhang, Michael Q.; Zhang, Zhihua

    2013-01-01

    As a class of cis-regulatory elements, enhancers were first identified as the genomic regions that are able to markedly increase the transcription of genes nearly 30 years ago. Enhancers can regulate gene expression in a cell-type specific and developmental stage specific manner. Although experimental technologies have been developed to identify enhancers genome-wide, the design principle of the regulatory elements and the way they rewire the transcriptional regulatory network tempo-spatially are far from clear. At present, developing predictive methods for enhancers, particularly for the cell-type specific activity of enhancers, is central to computational biology. In this review, we survey the current computational approaches for active enhancer prediction and discuss future directions. PMID:23685394

  2. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Our research indicated that 10–12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity. PMID:24416640

  3. 75 FR 5040 - Extension of Period for Comments on Enhancement in the Quality of Patents

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... of Patents, 74 FR 65093 (Dec. 9, 2009), 1350 Off. Gaz. Pat. Office 46 (Jan. 5, 2010). The USPTO..., 2010. See Request for Comments on Enhancement in the Quality of Patents, 74 FR at 65094, 1350 Off....

  4. Nursery Production Technologies for Enhancing Water Quality Protection and Water Conservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The broad objectives of the Floral and Nursery Research Initiative, Nursery Production Technologies for Enhancing Water Quality Protection and Water Conservation project are to develop economically feasible production systems and management practices that promote water conservation and protect water...

  5. Extended Music Education Enhances the Quality of School Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eerola, Päivi-Sisko; Eerola, Tuomas

    2014-01-01

    The claim of whether music education can create social benefits in the school environment was tested in 10 Finnish schools with an extended music curricular class and control classes. The quality of school life (QSL) was assessed by a representative sample ("N" = 735) of pupils at years 3 and 6 (9- and 12-years-olds). The results showed…

  6. Enhancing the Impact of Quality Points in Interteaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosales, Rocío; Soldner, James L.; Crimando, William

    2014-01-01

    Interteaching is a classroom instruction approach based on behavioral principles that offers increased flexibility to instructors. There are several components of interteaching that may contribute to its demonstrated efficacy. In a prior analysis of one of these components, the quality points contingency, no significant difference was reported in…

  7. Enhancing Child Care Quality by Director Training and Collegial Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Gillian; Ferguson, Tammy McCormick; Ressler, Glory; Lomotey, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Although considerable evidence confirms that a director with good leadership and administrative skills is vital for developing and sustaining a high quality child care program, many directors assume the role with little management experience or training. This paper reports on a training program in Canada that combined a formal curriculum to…

  8. Using UAVs to enhance the quality of precision agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies by USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) have indicated potential for significant improvement in the quality and application of Precision Agriculture products through the use of very high resolution imagery. An assessment of potential platforms to collect such imagery at an afford...

  9. Foreshock activity related to enhanced aftershock production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsan, D.; Helmstetter, A.; Bouchon, M.; Dublanchet, P.

    2014-10-01

    Foreshock activity sometimes precedes the occurrence of large earthquakes, but the nature of this seismicity is still debated, and whether it marks transient deformation and/or slip nucleation is still unclear. We here study at the worldwide scale how foreshock occurrence affects the postseismic phase and find a significant positive correlation between foreshock and aftershock activities: earthquakes preceded by accelerating seismicity rates produce 40% more aftershocks on average, and the length of the aftershock zone after 20 days is 20% larger. These observations cannot be reproduced by standard earthquake clustering models that predict the accelerating pattern of foreshock occurrence but not its impact on aftershock activity. This strongly suggests that slow deformation transients, possibly related to episodic creep, could initiate prior to the main shock and extend past the coseismic phase, resulting in compound ruptures that include a very long period (up to tens of days) component.

  10. Enhancing the health-beneficial qualities of whole grain rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various pre- and post-harvest approaches (i.e. pre-germination of whole grains and reduced milling degree) to enhancing the health beneficial compounds of whole grain and milled rice have been reported. A discussion of the results from our pre-harvest efforts is as follows. The majority of rice cons...

  11. BIOLOGICALLY ENHANCED OXYGEN TRANSFER IN THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS (JOURNAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biologically enhanced oxgyen transfer has been a hypothesis to explain observed oxygen transfer rates in activated sludge systems that were well above that predicted from aerator clean-water testing. The enhanced oxygen transfer rates were based on tests using BOD bottle oxygen ...

  12. 42 CFR 423.162 - Quality improvement organization activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quality improvement organization activities. 423.162 Section 423.162 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality Improvement Requirements §...

  13. 42 CFR 423.162 - Quality improvement organization activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quality improvement organization activities. 423.162 Section 423.162 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality Improvement Requirements §...

  14. Embedding Research Activities to Enhance Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Cynthia M.; Kenney, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper's novel, research-oriented approach is to embed research-based activities in a core second-year course of a university business degree program to support and develop student research capabilities. Design/methodology/approach: The design draws on Boud and Prosser's work to foster participation in a…

  15. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Yu; Tang, Lan; Henriksen, Svend Hostgaard Bang

    2016-05-17

    The present invention provides isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also provides nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  16. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling. PMID:27458354

  17. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Yu; Duan, Junxin; Tang, Lan; Wu, Wenping

    2015-06-09

    Provided are isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. Also provided are nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  18. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Flôres, Danilo E. F. L.; Bettilyon, Crystal N.; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling. PMID:27458354

  19. Adolescent Sleep Quality Measured During Leisure Activities.

    PubMed

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy

    2013-04-18

    A one-week sleep monitoring by logs and actigraphs in preteens during summer camp was conducted. Campers aged 11-16 attended a two-week day camp that focused on the learning about science. Nine campers agreed to monitor their sleep and have their patterns explained (anonymously) to other campers during the expert lecture by the author. The aim of the study was to identify the sleep quality in an adolescent group. All nine of the sleep logs and actigraphs denoted severe sleep deprivation. The findings from the logs and actigraphs denoted sever sleep deprivation. The expert lecturer provided basic information about sleep per the science designation of the day camp. A follow up session provided strategies to address sleep deprivation. PMID:26973908

  20. Adolescent Sleep Quality Measured During Leisure Activities

    PubMed Central

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    A one-week sleep monitoring by logs and actigraphs in preteens during summer camp was conducted. Campers aged 11-16 attended a two-week day camp that focused on the learning about science. Nine campers agreed to monitor their sleep and have their patterns explained (anonymously) to other campers during the expert lecture by the author. The aim of the study was to identify the sleep quality in an adolescent group. All nine of the sleep logs and actigraphs denoted severe sleep deprivation. The findings from the logs and actigraphs denoted sever sleep deprivation. The expert lecturer provided basic information about sleep per the science designation of the day camp. A follow up session provided strategies to address sleep deprivation. PMID:26973908

  1. Enhancement of interleukin-2 activity by liposomes.

    PubMed

    Joffret, M L; Morgeaux, S; Laclerc, C; Oth, D; Zanetti, C; Sureau, P; Perrin, P

    1990-08-01

    The present report demonstrates that liposomes increase the interleukin-2 (IL-2) dependent proliferation of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte line (CTLL) cells used for the measurement of IL-2 activity. This effect was better observed with suboptimal doses of IL-2 and low concentrations of lipids. The increased IL-2 dependent proliferation is not due to a direct effect of liposomes on CTLL cells but rather to an interaction between IL-2 and liposomes. An interaction between IL-2 and components of fetal calf serum is also demonstrated. The results indicate that liposomes may interfere with IL-2 bioassay but also show the possibility of potentiating IL-2 activity for therapeutic purposes. PMID:2396476

  2. Quality-Enhanced Legacy Products in the Herschel Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyssier, D.

    2016-05-01

    There is on-going effort within the Herschel Ground Segment to improve the data quality and science readiness of the Herschel standard Products. These Highly-Processed Data Products will focus both on dedicated data post-processing, and source and line catalogue generation. Eventually they shall be stored and served by the Herschel Science Archive. We present here an overview of the work packages contemplated in this effort.

  3. Active tails enhance arboreal acrobatics in geckos

    PubMed Central

    Jusufi, Ardian; Goldman, Daniel I.; Revzen, Shai; Full, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Geckos are nature's elite climbers. Their remarkable climbing feats have been attributed to specialized feet with hairy toes that uncurl and peel in milliseconds. Here, we report that the secret to the gecko's arboreal acrobatics includes an active tail. We examine the tail's role during rapid climbing, aerial descent, and gliding. We show that a gecko's tail functions as an emergency fifth leg to prevent falling during rapid climbing. A response initiated by slipping causes the tail tip to push against the vertical surface, thereby preventing pitch-back of the head and upper body. When pitch-back cannot be prevented, geckos avoid falling by placing their tail in a posture similar to a bicycle's kickstand. Should a gecko fall with its back to the ground, a swing of its tail induces the most rapid, zero-angular momentum air-righting response yet measured. Once righted to a sprawled gliding posture, circular tail movements control yaw and pitch as the gecko descends. Our results suggest that large, active tails can function as effective control appendages. These results have provided biological inspiration for the design of an active tail on a climbing robot, and we anticipate their use in small, unmanned gliding vehicles and multisegment spacecraft. PMID:18347344

  4. Exploiting the multiplicative nature of fluoroscopic image stochastic noise to enhance calcium imaging recording quality.

    PubMed

    Esposti, Federico; Ripamonti, Maddalena; Signorini, Maria G

    2009-01-01

    One of the main problems that affect fluoroscopic imaging is the difficulty in coupling the recorded activity with the morphological information. The comprehension of fluorescence events in relationship with the internal structure of the cell can be very difficult. At this purpose, we developed a new method able to maximize the fluoroscopic movie quality. The method (Maximum Intensity Enhancement, MIE) works as follow: considering all the frames that compose the fluoroscopic movie, the algorithm extracts, for each pixel of the matrix, the maximal brightness value assumed along all the frames. Such values are collected in a maximum intensity matrix. Then, the method provides the projection of the target molecule oscillations which are present in the DeltaF/F(0) movie onto the maximum intensity matrix. This is done by creating a RGB movie and by assigning to the normalized (DeltaF/F(0)) activity a single channel and by reproducing the maximum intensity matrix on all the frames by using the remaining color channels. The application of such a method to fluoroscopic calcium imaging of astrocyte cultures demonstrated a meaningful enhancement in the possibility to discern the internal and external structure of cells. PMID:19964305

  5. Is enhanced physical activity possible using active videogames?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our research indicated that 10– to 12-year-old children receiving two active Wii (TM)(Nintendo (R); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase phys...

  6. How Can Quality Improvement Enhance the Lives of Children with Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Much attention has aided measurement and improvement in the quality of health care during the past two decades, with new ways to define and measure quality, recognition that doing so can identify strategies to enhance care, and systematic efforts by both government and private insurers to apply these principles. In this article, James Perrin…

  7. Enhancement of Quality in Chemical Inquiry by Pre-University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rens, Lisette; Pilot, Albert; Van Dijk, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Our pre-university chemistry students face problems achieving sufficient quality in chemical inquiry. To try to enhance the quality of student performance in chemical inquiry, Dutch pre-university chemistry students (age 17) carried out an authentic research project on "Diffusion of ions in distilled water." The learning materials for this student…

  8. Activity and Imagined Activity Can Enhance Young Children's Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenberg, Arthur M.; Gutierrez, Tiana; Levin, Joel R.; Japuntich, Sandra; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    The Indexical Hypothesis suggests a new method for enhancing children's reading comprehension. Young readers may not consistently "index," or map, words to the objects the words represent. Consequently, these readers fail to derive much meaning from the text. The instructional method involves manipulating toy objects referred to in the text (e.g.,…

  9. Benefits of using enhanced air quality information in human health studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of four (4) enhancements of gridded PM2.5 concentrations derived from observations and air quality models to detect the relative risk of long-term exposure to PM2.5 are evaluated with a simulation study. The four enhancements include nearest-nei...

  10. Multiple Perspectives: Whither Scholarship in the Work of Enhancing the Quality of Teaching and Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dangel, Julie Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Whither Scholarship in the Work of Enhancing the Quality of Teaching and Learning? This is an important query because it acknowledges, embraces, questions, and challenges the role of scholarship in enhancing teaching and learning. Interestingly, these four verbs help the author categorize her perspectives on the use of scholarship. Drawing from…

  11. Measuring perceived video quality of MPEG enhancement by people with impaired vision

    PubMed Central

    Fullerton, Matthew; Woods, Russell L.; Vera-Diaz, Fuensanta A.; Peli, Eli

    2007-01-01

    We used a new method to measure the perceived quality of contrast-enhanced motion video. Patients with impaired vision (n = 24) and normally-sighted subjects (n = 6) adjusted the level of MPEG-based enhancement of 8 videos (4 minutes each) drawn from 4 categories. They selected the level of enhancement that provided the preferred view of the videos, using a reducing-step-size staircase procedure. Most patients made consistent selections of the preferred level of enhancement, indicating an appreciation of and a perceived benefit from the MPEG-based enhancement. The selections varied between patients and were correlated with letter contrast sensitivity, but the selections were not affected by training, experience or video category. We measured just noticeable differences (JNDs) directly for videos, and mapped the image manipulation (enhancement in our case) onto an approximately linear perceptual space. These tools and approaches will be of value in other evaluations of the image quality of motion video manipulations. PMID:18059909

  12. Dual V-type resonators to enhance beam quality of Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Shahram; Mahdieh, Mohammad Hossein; Aghaie, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the operating characteristics of a Yb:YAG thin-disk laser using double V-type resonators are reported. The laser maintained stable performance by independently activating either the main or the auxiliary V-type resonator depending on the pumping laser power. Experimental investigations revealed that by reducing the dynamic range in which the main resonator was used for stability and instead employing the auxiliary resonator, the laser beam quality factor M2 could be reduced from 40.2 to 32.3, representing a beam quality enhancement of approximately 20%. PMID:27139657

  13. Efficient thermal image segmentation through integration of nonlinear enhancement with unsupervised active contour model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albalooshi, Fatema A.; Krieger, Evan; Sidike, Paheding; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2015-03-01

    Thermal images are exploited in many areas of pattern recognition applications. Infrared thermal image segmentation can be used for object detection by extracting regions of abnormal temperatures. However, the lack of texture and color information, low signal-to-noise ratio, and blurring effect of thermal images make segmenting infrared heat patterns a challenging task. Furthermore, many segmentation methods that are used in visible imagery may not be suitable for segmenting thermal imagery mainly due to their dissimilar intensity distributions. Thus, a new method is proposed to improve the performance of image segmentation in thermal imagery. The proposed scheme efficiently utilizes nonlinear intensity enhancement technique and Unsupervised Active Contour Models (UACM). The nonlinear intensity enhancement improves visual quality by combining dynamic range compression and contrast enhancement, while the UACM incorporates active contour evolutional function and neural networks. The algorithm is tested on segmenting different objects in thermal images and it is observed that the nonlinear enhancement has significantly improved the segmentation performance.

  14. Enhancing indoor air quality -The air filter advantage.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality. PMID:26628762

  15. Using hospital surveys to enhance the quality of care.

    PubMed

    Carey, R G

    1989-11-01

    Hospitals need the data that valid surveys can provide. However, no data are better than inaccurate or poorly interpreted data. Survey research appears to be deceptively simple. Many hospital managers are not sensitive to the pitfalls in writing a quality questionnaire and some who have their own personal computers believe that they can enter and tabulate the data. However, just as medical technology has advanced and become more complicated in recent years, survey research has also become more sophisticated during the past decade. The use of computers has assisted in the display of vast amounts of survey data, but interpretation is still the key to effective survey research. Many people can read the same table of data but come to different conclusions, depending on their point of view and their level of involvement with the issues being discussed. It is only human nature to interpret data to support what we believe to be the truth. Hospital managers should understand that interpretation of survey data is best done by neutral and skilled professionals who have worked closely with those who have authority to make costly decisions based on the results. A radiologist will tell you that reading a CT scan is an art as well as a science. So is quality survey research. PMID:10295772

  16. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality. PMID:26628762

  17. Elevational spatial compounding for enhancing image quality in echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    McDicken, Norman; MacGillivray, Tom; Anderson, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Echocardiography is commonly used in clinical practice for the real-time assessment of cardiac morphology and function. Nevertheless, due to the nature of the data acquisition, cardiac ultrasound images are often corrupted by a range of acoustic artefacts, including acoustic noise, speckle and shadowing. Spatial compounding techniques have long been recognised for their ability to suppress common ultrasound artefacts, enhancing the imaged cardiac structures. However, they require extended acquisition times as well as accurate spatio-temporal alignment of the compounded data. Elevational spatial compounding acquires and compounds adjacent partially decorrelated planes of the same cardiac structure. Methods This paper employs an anthropomorphic left ventricle phantom to examine the effect of acquisition parameters, such as inter-slice angular displacement and 3D sector angular range, on the elevational spatial compounding of cardiac ultrasound data. Results and conclusion Elevational spatial compounding can produce substantial noise and speckle suppression as well as visual enhancement of tissue structures even for small acquisition sector widths (2.5° to 6.5°). In addition, elevational spatial compounding eliminates the need for extended acquisition times as well as the need for temporal alignment of the compounded datasets. However, moderate spatial registration may still be required to reduce any tissue/chamber blurring side effects that may be introduced. PMID:27274757

  18. Beyond accreditation: a multi-track quality-enhancing strategy for primary health care in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Shadi S; Alameddine, Mohamad S; Natafgi, Nabil M

    2014-01-01

    Many define an equitable health care system as one that provides logistical and financial access to "quality" care to the population. Realizing that fact, many low- and middle-income countries started investing in enhancing the quality of care in their health care systems, recently in primary health care. Unfortunately, in many instance, these investments have been exclusively focused on accreditation due to available guidelines and existing accrediting structures. A multi-track quality-enhancing strategy (MTQES) is proposed that includes, in addition to promoting resource-sensitive accreditation, other quality initiatives such as clinical guidelines, performance indicators, benchmarking activities, annual quality-enhancing projects, and annual quality summit/meeting. These complementary approaches are presented to synergistically enhance a continuous quality improvement culture in the primary health care sector, taking into consideration limited resources available, especially in low- and middle-income countries. In addition, an implementation framework depicting MTQES in three-phase interlinked packages is presented; each matches existing resources and quality infrastructure. Health care policymakers and managers need to think about accreditation as a beginning rather than an end to their quest for quality. Improvements in the structure of a health delivery organization or in the processes of care have little value if they do not translate to reduced disparities in access to "quality" care, and not merely access to care. PMID:24919309

  19. Environmental Education Activities to Enhance Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yambert, Paul A.; And Others

    This document contains a set of 10 activities that teachers may use with students (ages 10 to adult) to enhance environmental knowledge and environmentally responsible behavior. Sample worksheets are included when applicable. The activities focus on: renewable and nonrenewable resources; recycling; population growth; wildlife; recycling in a…

  20. The Development of a Benchmarking Methodology to Assist in Managing the Enhancement of University Research Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Miles G.

    2007-01-01

    The paper proposes a metric, the research quality index (RQI), for assessing and tracking university research quality. The RQI is a composite index that encompasses the three main areas of research activity: publications, research grants and higher degree by research activity. The public availability of such an index will also facilitate…

  1. Quality Time after School: What Instructors Can Do To Enhance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jean; Campbell, Margo; Raley, Becca

    2007-01-01

    Improving the quality of out-of-school time activities and creating effective learning environments is of keen interest to practitioners, funders and policymakers. Funded by The William Penn Foundation, "Quality Time After School" identifies characteristics of after-school activities that are linked to youth engagement and learning across a rich…

  2. Surface decontamination and quality enhancement in meat steaks using plant extracts as natural biopreservatives.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; El-Tras, Wael F; Moussa, Shaaban H; El-Sabbagh, Sabha M

    2012-08-01

    Nine plant extracts were evaluated as biopreservatives to decontaminate and maintain the quality of meat steaks. Most of the extracts exhibited a remarkable antibacterial activity against antibiotic resistant strains from Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. The pomegranate peel extract (PPE), cinnamon bark extract (CBE), and lemon grass leaves extract (LGE) were the most effective as bactericides, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 250, 350, and 550 μg/mL, respectively. The most effective treatments, for decontaminating meat steak surfaces, were the application of combined PPE, CBE, and LGE at their MIC values and the treatment with double MIC from PPE; these treatments resulted in complete bacterial inhibitions during the first 2 days of storage period for 7 days. The sensory evaluation of treated steaks revealed that these two treatments had the highest panelist overall scores. The highest scores, for individual attributes, were observed in the treated steaks with double MIC from PPE. Application of plant extracts could be impressively recommended for comprehensive meat decontamination and quality attributes enhancement. PMID:22827400

  3. Adaptive tool servo diamond turning for enhancing machining efficiency and surface quality of freeform optics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiwei; To, Suet

    2015-08-10

    Fast tool servo/ slow tool servo (FTS/STS) diamond turning is a very promising technique for the generation of freeform optics. However, the currently adopted constant scheme for azimuth sampling and side-feeding motion possesses no adaptation to surface shape variation, leading to the non-uniform surface quality and low machining efficiency. To overcome this defect, this paper reports on a novel adaptive tool servo (ATS) diamond turning technique which is essentially based on the novel two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) FTS/STS. In the ATS, the sampling interval and the side-feeding motion are actively controlled at any cutting point to adapt the machining process to shape variation of the desired surface, making both the sampling induced interpolation error and the side-feeding induced residual tool mark be within the desired tolerances. Characteristic of the required cutting motion suggests that besides the conventional z-axis servo motion, another servo motion along the x-axis synthesizing by the c-axis is mandatory for implementing the ATS. Comparative studies of surface generation of typical micro-structured surfaces in FTS/STS and ATS are thoroughly conducted both theoretically and experimentally. The result demonstrates that the ATS outperforms the FTS/STS with improved surface quality while simultaneously enhanced machining efficiency. PMID:26367879

  4. Enhancing the functional properties and nutritional quality of ice cream with processed amla (Indian gooseberry).

    PubMed

    Goraya, Rajpreet Kaur; Bajwa, Usha

    2015-12-01

    Amla (Indian gooseberry) and its processed products are rich source of vitamin C, phenols, dietary fibre and antioxidants. In contrast, ice cream is a poor source of these phytochemicals and antioxidants; therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to enhance the functional properties and nutritional quality of ice cream with the incorporation of processed amla. Ice cream was prepared using amla shreds, pulp, preserve and candy at 5 to 20 % and powder at 0.5 to 2.0 % levels in ice cream mix prior to freezing. Inclusion of amla products at augmented levels resulted in significant changes in physico-chemical properties and phytochemical content of ice cream. The total solids decreased on addition of shreds and pulp and increased with preserve, candy and powder in ice cream at increasing levels. The functional constituents i.e. fibre, total phenols, tannins, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity increased with greater level of inclusion. Incorporation of processed amla raised the melting resistance of ice cream and decreased the overrun. The samples with 5 % shreds and pulp, 10 % preserve and candy and 0.5 % powder were found to have highest overall acceptability scores. Inclusion of amla in all the forms i.e. shreds, pulp, preserve, candy and powder enhanced the functional properties and nutritional value of ice cream. PMID:26604358

  5. Intraoperative Ultrasound-Fluoroscopy Fusion can Enhance Prostate Brachytherapy Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Orio, Peter F.; Tutar, Ismail B.; Narayanan, Sreeram; Arthurs, Sandra; Cho, Paul S.; Kim, Yongmin; Merrick, Gregory; Wallner, Kent E.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-fluoroscopy fusion-based intraoperative dosimetry system. Method and Materials: Twenty-five patients were treated for prostate cancer with Pd-103 implantation. After the execution of the treatment plan, two sets of TRUS images were collected using the longitudinal and axial transducers of a biplanar probe. Then, three fluoroscopic images were acquired at 0, -15 and +15{sup o}. The three-dimensional locations of all implanted seeds were reconstructed from fluoroscopic images. A subset of the implanted seeds was manually identified in TRUS images and used as fiducial markers to perform TRUS-fluoroscopy fusion. To improve the implant quality, additional seeds were placed if adverse isodose patterns were identified during visual inspection. If additional seeds were placed, intraoperative dosimetry was repeated. Day 0 computed tomography-based dosimetry was compared with final intraoperative dosimetry to validate dosimetry achieved in the implant suite. Results: An average of additional 4.0 seeds was implanted in 16 patients after initial intraoperative dose evaluation. Based on TRUS-fluoroscopy fusion-based dosimetry, the V100 improved from 86% to 93% (p = 0.005), whereas D90 increased from 94% to 109% (p = 0.011) with the guided additional seed implantation. No statistical difference was observed in V200 and V300 values. V100 and D90 values were 95 {+-} 4% and 120 {+-} 24%, respectively, based on the final intraoperative dosimetry evaluation, compared with 95 {+-} 4% and 122 {+-} 24%, respectively, based on Day 0 computed tomography-based dosimetry. Conclusions: Implantation of extra seeds based on TRUS-fluoroscopy fusion-based intraoperative dosimetry can improve the final V100 and D90 values with minimal increase in V200 and V300 values.

  6. Ranking online quality and reputation via the user activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Lu; Guo, Qiang; Hou, Lei; Cheng, Can; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2015-10-01

    How to design an accurate algorithm for ranking the object quality and user reputation is of importance for online rating systems. In this paper we present an improved iterative algorithm for online ranking object quality and user reputation in terms of the user degree (IRUA), where the user's reputation is measured by his/her rating vector, the corresponding objects' quality vector and the user degree. The experimental results for the empirical networks show that the AUC values of the IRUA algorithm can reach 0.9065 and 0.8705 in Movielens and Netflix data sets, respectively, which is better than the results generated by the traditional iterative ranking methods. Meanwhile, the results for the synthetic networks indicate that user degree should be considered in real rating systems due to users' rating behaviors. Moreover, we find that enhancing or reducing the influences of the large-degree users could produce more accurate reputation ranking lists.

  7. Rational protection of subjects in research and quality improvement activities.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Beth; Dixon, Lisa B; Adler, David A; Berlant, Jeffrey; Dulit, Rebecca A; Hackman, Ann; Oslin, David W; Siris, Samuel G; Valenstein, Marcia

    2010-02-01

    This Open Forum illuminates shortcomings with the basis for determining degree of oversight of health services research and quality improvement activities. Using a federally regulated definition of research rather than a direct appraisal of risk to patients can misallocate effort from activities with higher risk for patients to those with lower risk. The case of the Johns Hopkins multicenter study of central line safety checklists in intensive care units is cited. Definitions of research promulgated by the Office of Human Research Protection are reviewed, and an alternative model based on patient risk is proposed. Suggestions for how quality improvement work fits into the larger paradigm of research are made. PMID:20123824

  8. Evaluation-of soil enzyme activities as soil quality indicators in sludge-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Dindar, Efsun; Şağban, Fatma Olcay Topaç; Başkaya, Hüseyin Savaş

    2015-07-01

    Soil enzymatic activities are commonly used as biomarkers of soil quality. Several organic and inorganic compounds found in municipal wastewater sludges can possibly be used as fertilizers. Monitoring and evaluating the quality of sludge amended soils with enzyme activities accepted as a beneficial practice with respect to sustainable soil management. In the present study, variation of some enzyme activities (Alkaline phosphatase, dehydrogenase, urease and beta-glucosidase activities) in soils amended with municipal wastewater sludge at different application rates (50, 100 and 200 t ha(-1) dry sludge) was evaluated. Air dried sludge samples were applied to soil pots and sludge-soil mixtures were incubated during a period of three months at 28 degrees C. The results of the study showed that municipal wastewater sludge amendment apparently increased urease, dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and P-glucosidase activities in soil by 48-70%, 14-47%, 33-66% and 9-14%, respectively. The maximum activity was generally observed in sludge amended soil with dose of 200 t ha(-1). Urease activity appeared to be a better indicator of soil enhancement with wastewater sludge, as its activity was more strongly increased by sludge amendment. Accordingly, urease activity is suggested to be soil quality indicator best suited for measuring existing conditions and potential changes in sludge-amended soil. PMID:26364470

  9. Identification of Oct4-activating compounds that enhance reprogramming efficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Wendong; Tian, E; Chen, Zhao-Xia; Sun, Guoqiang; Ye, Peng; Yang, Su; Lu, Dave; Xie, Jun; Ho, Thach-Vu; Tsark, Walter M; Wang, Charles; Horne, David A; Riggs, Arthur D; Yip, M L Richard; Shi, Yanhong

    2012-12-18

    One of the hurdles for practical application of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) is the low efficiency and slow process of reprogramming. Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) has been shown to be an essential regulator of embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency and key to the reprogramming process. To identify small molecules that enhance reprogramming efficiency, we performed a cell-based high-throughput screening of chemical libraries. One of the compounds, termed Oct4-activating compound 1 (OAC1), was found to activate both Oct4 and Nanog promoter-driven luciferase reporter genes. Furthermore, when added to the reprogramming mixture along with the quartet reprogramming factors (Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4), OAC1 enhanced the iPSC reprogramming efficiency and accelerated the reprogramming process. Two structural analogs of OAC1 also activated Oct4 and Nanog promoters and enhanced iPSC formation. The iPSC colonies derived using the Oct4-activating compounds along with the quartet factors exhibited typical ESC morphology, gene-expression pattern, and developmental potential. OAC1 seems to enhance reprogramming efficiency in a unique manner, independent of either inhibition of the p53-p21 pathway or activation of the Wnt-β-catenin signaling. OAC1 increases transcription of the Oct4-Nanog-Sox2 triad and Tet1, a gene known to be involved in DNA demethylation. PMID:23213213

  10. Coaching to Enhance Quality of Implementation in Prevention.

    PubMed

    Dusenbury, Linda; Hansen, William B; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Pittman, Donna; Wilson, Cicely; Simley, Kathleen; Ringwalt, Christopher; Pankratz, Melinda; Giles, Steven

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study describes topics covered by coaches assisting teachers implementing a research-based drug prevention program and explores how coaching affected student outcomes. DESIGN: The All Stars drug prevention curriculum was implemented by 16 urban teachers who received four coaching sessions. Two coaches participated. Coaches were interviewed by investigators to assess topics covered. Students completed pretest-posttest measures of mediators and substance use behaviors. FINDINGS: The average teacher was coached on 11.7 different topics, out of a total of 23 topics. Coaching topics most heavily emphasized included: introduction and wrap up; time management; general classroom management; teacher's movement around the class; asking open-ended questions; using students' questions, comments and examples to make desired points; general preparation; engaging high-risk youth; reading from the curriculum; implementing activities correctly; focusing on objectives and goals; maintaining a focus on the task; and improving depth of understanding. Seven coaching topics were found to relate to changes in student mediators and behavior. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: The current study was exploratory. Future research should explore how teachers develop the particular skills required by prevention programs and how coaches can assist them. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: We postulate five levels of skill development which coaches may address: (1) fundamental teaching skills, (2) mechanics of program delivery, (3) development of an interactive teaching style, (4) effective response to student input, and (5) effective tailoring and adaptation. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This represents one of a very few studies that explores how coaching impacts outcomes in substance abuse prevention. PMID:22022672

  11. Bioengineered nisin derivatives with enhanced activity in complex matrices.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Susan; Field, Des; Daly, Karen M; O'Connor, Paula M; Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul

    2012-07-01

    Nisin A is the best known and most extensively characterized lantibiotic. As it is ribosomally synthesized, bioengineering-based strategies can be used to generate variants. We have previously demonstrated that bioengineering of the hinge region of nisin A can result in the generation of variants with enhanced anti-microbial activity against Gram-positive pathogens. Here we created a larger bank of hinge variant producers and screened for producers that exhibit enhanced bioactivity as assessed by agar-based assays against a selection of target strains. Further analysis of 12 'lead' variants reveals that in many cases enhanced bioactivity is not attributable to enhanced specific activity but is instead as a consequence of an enhanced ability to diffuse through complex polymers. In the case of two variants, which contain the residues SVA and NAK, respectively, within the hinge region, we demonstrate that this enhanced trait enables the peptides to dramatically outperform nisin A with respect to controlling Listeria monocytogenes in commercially produced chocolate milk that contains carrageenan as a stabilizer. PMID:22260415

  12. Chemical modification of capuramycins to enhance antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Bogatcheva, Elena; Dubuisson, Tia; Protopopova, Marina; Einck, Leo; Nacy, Carol A.; Reddy, Venkata M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To extend capuramycin spectrum of activity beyond mycobacteria and improve intracellular drug activity. Methods Three capuramycin analogues (SQ997, SQ922 and SQ641) were conjugated with different natural and unnatural amino acids or decanoic acid (DEC) through an ester bond at one or more available hydroxyl groups. In vitro activity of the modified compounds was determined against Mycobacterium spp. and representative Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Intracellular activity was evaluated in J774A.1 mouse macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv). Results Acylation of SQ997 and SQ641 with amino undecanoic acid (AUA) improved in vitro activity against most of the bacteria tested. Conjugation of SQ922 with DEC, but not AUA, improved its activity against Gram-positive bacteria. In the presence of efflux pump inhibitor phenylalanine arginine β-naphthyl amide, MICs of SQ997-AUA, SQ641-AUA and SQ922-DEC compounds improved even further against drug-susceptible and drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In Gram-negative bacteria, EDTA-mediated permeabilization caused 4- to 16-fold enhancement of the activity of AUA-conjugated SQ997, SQ922 and SQ641. Conjugation of all three capuramycin analogues with AUA improved intracellular killing of H37Rv in murine macrophages. Conclusions Conjugation of capuramycin analogues with AUA or DEC enhanced in vitro activity, extended the spectrum of activity in Gram-positive bacteria and increased intracellular activity against H37Rv. PMID:21186194

  13. Temporal Signatures of Taste Quality Driven by Active Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chengsan; Hill, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Animals actively acquire sensory information from the outside world, with rodents sniffing to smell and whisking to feel. Licking, a rapid motor sequence used for gustation, serves as the primary means of controlling stimulus access to taste receptors in the mouth. Using a novel taste-quality discrimination task in head-restrained mice, we measured and compared reaction times to four basic taste qualities (salt, sour, sweet, and bitter) and found that certain taste qualities are perceived inherently faster than others, driven by the precise biomechanics of licking and functional organization of the peripheral gustatory system. The minimum time required for accurate perception was strongly dependent on taste quality, ranging from the sensory-motor limits of a single lick (salt, ∼100 ms) to several sampling cycles (bitter, >500 ms). Further, disruption of sensory input from the anterior tongue significantly impaired the speed of perception of some taste qualities, with little effect on others. Overall, our results show that active sensing may play an important role in shaping the timing of taste-quality representations and perception in the gustatory system. PMID:24872546

  14. Active DNA demethylation at enhancers during the vertebrate phylotypic period.

    PubMed

    Bogdanović, Ozren; Smits, Arne H; de la Calle Mustienes, Elisa; Tena, Juan J; Ford, Ethan; Williams, Ruth; Senanayake, Upeka; Schultz, Matthew D; Hontelez, Saartje; van Kruijsbergen, Ila; Rayon, Teresa; Gnerlich, Felix; Carell, Thomas; Veenstra, Gert Jan C; Manzanares, Miguel; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Ecker, Joseph R; Vermeulen, Michiel; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Lister, Ryan

    2016-04-01

    The vertebrate body plan and organs are shaped during a conserved embryonic phase called the phylotypic stage. However, the mechanisms that guide the epigenome through this transition and their evolutionary conservation remain elusive. Here we report widespread DNA demethylation of enhancers during the phylotypic period in zebrafish, Xenopus tropicalis and mouse. These enhancers are linked to developmental genes that display coordinated transcriptional and epigenomic changes in the diverse vertebrates during embryogenesis. Binding of Tet proteins to (hydroxy)methylated DNA and enrichment of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in these regions implicated active DNA demethylation in this process. Furthermore, loss of function of Tet1, Tet2 and Tet3 in zebrafish reduced chromatin accessibility and increased methylation levels specifically at these enhancers, indicative of DNA methylation being an upstream regulator of phylotypic enhancer function. Overall, our study highlights a regulatory module associated with the most conserved phase of vertebrate embryogenesis and suggests an ancient developmental role for Tet dioxygenases. PMID:26928226

  15. Induced Dwarf Mutant in Catharanthus roseus with Enhanced Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Verma, A. K.; Singh, R. R.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of an ethyl methane sulphonate-induced dwarf mutant of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don revealed that the mutant exhibited marked variation in morphometric parameters. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the aqueous and alcoholic leaf extracts of the mutant and control plants was investigated against medically important bacteria. The mutant leaf extracts showed enhanced antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria except Bacillus subtilis. PMID:21695004

  16. CAM Curriculum Activities to Enhance Professionalism Training in Medical Schools

    PubMed Central

    Elder, W. G.; Hustedde, Carol; Rakel, Dave; Joyce, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Enhancing the professionalism of graduates is a major objective of most health care education institutions today. Educating conventional health care providers about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) may directly and indirectly improve trainee professionalism by expanding trainees’ knowledge and appreciation of diverse health care beliefs and practices, improving physician-patient communication, enhancing self-care, and increasing sense of competence and job satisfaction. A survey based on professional competencies proposed by the Consortium of Academic Health Centers for Integrative Medicine was administered to the grantees of the National Institutes of Health, National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine R-25 CAM education project initiative. The survey’s aim was to identify project activities that taught professionalism skills. All projects reported curricular features that enhanced trainee professionalism, with substantial percentages of project effort directed toward professionalism-related activities. PMID:19412352

  17. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Yu; Duan, Junxin; Tang, Lan; Wu, Wenping

    2016-06-14

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  18. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Schnorr, Kirk; Kramer, Randall

    2016-04-05

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  19. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2016-08-09

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  20. Women's Health-Enhancing Physical Activity and Eudaimonic Well Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Leah J.; Kowalski, Kent C.; Mack, Diane E.; Wilson, Philip M.; Crocker, Peter R. E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explored the role of health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA; Miilunpalo, 2001) in women's eudaimonic well being (i.e., psychological flourishing at one's maximal potential; Ryff, 1989). We used a quantitative approach (N = 349) to explore the relationship between HEPA and eudaimonic well being. While HEPA was not related to…

  1. Enhanced gamma-ray activity from the Crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, R.; Ciprini, S.

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary LAT analysis indicates enhanced gamma-ray activity from the Crab nebula. The daily-averaged gamma-ray emission (E > 100 MeV) from the direction of the Crab Nebula has surpassed 4.0 x 10^-6 ph cm^-2 s^-1 five times in the last 12 days.

  2. Brg1 modulates enhancer activation in mesoderm lineage commitment

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Jeffrey M.; Hota, Swetansu K.; He, Daniel; Thomas, Sean; Ho, Lena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Bruneau, B. G.

    2015-03-26

    The interplay between different levels of gene regulation in modulating developmental transcriptional programs, such as histone modifications and chromatin remodeling, is not well understood. Here, we show that the chromatin remodeling factor Brg1 is required for enhancer activation in mesoderm induction. In an embryonic stem cell-based directed differentiation assay, the absence of Brg1 results in a failure of cardiomyocyte differentiation and broad deregulation of lineage-specific gene expression during mesoderm induction. We find that Brg1 co-localizes with H3K27ac at distal enhancers and is required for robust H3K27 acetylation at distal enhancers that are activated during mesoderm induction. Brg1 is also required to maintain Polycomb-mediated repression of non-mesodermal developmental regulators, suggesting cooperativity between Brg1 and Polycomb complexes. Thus, Brg1 is essential for modulating active and repressive chromatin states during mesoderm lineage commitment, in particular the activation of developmentally important enhancers. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate interplay between chromatin remodeling complexes and histone modifications that, together, ensure robust and broad gene regulation during crucial lineage commitment decisions.

  3. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Ding, Hanshu; Brown, Kimberly

    2011-10-25

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  4. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2014-09-30

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  5. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2012-10-16

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  6. Overview of breeding and enhancement activities at East Lansing, Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ARS breeding and germplasm enhancement program at East Lansing, Michigan has been active for over 50 years, and was instrumental in breeding for resistance to Aphanomyces seedling disease, germplasm conversion for hybrid seed production, and developing smooth-root germplasm to reduce soil tare. ...

  7. Brg1 modulates enhancer activation in mesoderm lineage commitment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Alexander, Jeffrey M.; Hota, Swetansu K.; He, Daniel; Thomas, Sean; Ho, Lena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Bruneau, B. G.

    2015-03-26

    The interplay between different levels of gene regulation in modulating developmental transcriptional programs, such as histone modifications and chromatin remodeling, is not well understood. Here, we show that the chromatin remodeling factor Brg1 is required for enhancer activation in mesoderm induction. In an embryonic stem cell-based directed differentiation assay, the absence of Brg1 results in a failure of cardiomyocyte differentiation and broad deregulation of lineage-specific gene expression during mesoderm induction. We find that Brg1 co-localizes with H3K27ac at distal enhancers and is required for robust H3K27 acetylation at distal enhancers that are activated during mesoderm induction. Brg1 is also requiredmore » to maintain Polycomb-mediated repression of non-mesodermal developmental regulators, suggesting cooperativity between Brg1 and Polycomb complexes. Thus, Brg1 is essential for modulating active and repressive chromatin states during mesoderm lineage commitment, in particular the activation of developmentally important enhancers. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate interplay between chromatin remodeling complexes and histone modifications that, together, ensure robust and broad gene regulation during crucial lineage commitment decisions.« less

  8. Polypeptide from a cellulolytic fungus having cellulolytic enhancing activity

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2008-04-22

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  9. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Duan, Junxin; Schnorr, Kirk Matthew; Wu, Wenping

    2013-11-19

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  10. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Dotson, William D.; Greenier, Jennifer; Ding, Hanshu

    2009-05-19

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated nucleic acids encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleic acids as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  11. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Maiyuran, Suchindra; Kramer, Randall; Harris, Paul

    2013-10-29

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  12. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Dotson, William D.; Greenier, Jennifer; Ding, Hanshu

    2007-09-18

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated nucleic acids encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleic acids as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  13. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Tang, Lan; Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Zhang, Yu; Joergensen, Christian; Kramer, Randall

    2014-09-16

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  14. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Tang, Lan; Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Zhang, Yu; Jorgensen, Christian Isak; Kramer, Randall

    2013-12-24

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  15. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Tang, Lan; Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Zhang, Yu; Jorgensen, Christian Isak; Kramer, Randall

    2013-04-16

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  16. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Tang, Lan; Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Zhang, Yu; Jorgensen, Christian Isak; Kramer, Randall

    2012-04-03

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  17. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Duan, Junxin; Tang, Lan; Liu, Ye; Wu, Wenping; Quinlan, Jason; Kramer, Randall

    2013-06-18

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  18. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Maiyuran, Suchindra; Kramer, Randall; Harris, Paul

    2014-10-21

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  19. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Duan, Junxin; Liu, Ye; Tang, Lan; Wu, Wenping; Quinlan, Jason; Kramer, Randall

    2012-03-27

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  20. Pathways from Physical Activity to Quality of Life in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, Edward; Doerksen, Shawna E.; Morris, Katherine S.; Motl, Robert W.; Hu, Liang; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; White, Siobhan M.; Rosengren, Karl R.

    2010-01-01

    Background In spite of consistent evidence to suggest that being more physically active is associated with enhanced quality of life (QOL), there have been remarkably few attempts to determine the possible underlying mechanisms in this relationship. Purpose To prospectively examine the roles played by self-efficacy and physical and mental health status in the physical activity and quality of life relationship in older women. Method Older women (M age = 68.12 years) completed measures of physical activity, self-efficacy relative to balance, mental and physical health status, and global QOL at baseline (N = 249) and 24-month follow-up (N = 217). Demographics and general health information were assessed at baseline. A panel analysis within a covariance modeling framework was used to analyze the data. Results Analyses indicated that changes in physical activity over time were associated with residual changes in self-efficacy. Changes in self-efficacy were significantly associated with residual changes in physical and mental health status. Only changes in mental health status were significantly related to residual changes in global QOL. Conclusion Results from this study support the role of self-efficacy in the relationship between physical activity and QOL. Future physical activity promotion programs should include strategies to enhance self-efficacy for physical activity to be most effective for this population. PMID:18677453

  1. Enhancing Early Child Care Quality and Learning for Toddlers at Risk: The Responsive Early Childhood Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Susan H.; Zucker, Tricia A.; Taylor, Heather B.; Swank, Paul R.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Assel, Michael; Crawford, April; Huang, Weihua; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; de Viliers, Jill; de Viliers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia; Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, social-emotional classroom activities (RECC).…

  2. Enhancing the Quality of Tutorials through Peer-Connected Tutor Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calma, Angelito; Eggins, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates how a peer-connected tutor training program can lead to quality enhancement by helping tutors to develop more effective teaching strategies and promoting better learning approaches among business students. It uses 2007-2010 evaluation data from 343 program participants from accounting, economics, finance and management and…

  3. Strategies for Enhancing Quality Assurance in Business Teacher Education Programme in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoro, James

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the strategies for enhancing quality assurance in business teacher education programme in Nigerian universities. Two research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. This study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population of the study comprised 129 Business Education lecturers in state and federal…

  4. Pilot of a Learning Management System to Enhance Counselors' Relational Qualities through Mindfulness-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballinger, Julie Ann

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness-based practices are associated with increased attentional qualities, improved self-focus styles, enhanced empathic understanding, and strengthened self-compassion, making these practices a viable addition to counselor training programs. However, current mindfulness training models are primarily designed for relief of psychological…

  5. Curricular Innovations: Findings from a Title II Teacher Quality Enhancement Grant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suters, Leslie A.; Kershaw, Cheryl; Kronick, Bob; Melear, Claudia T.

    Urban Impact is a Title II Teacher Quality Enhancement Act partnership grant supporting the development of new strategies and structures to strengthen the preparation and development of beginning teachers in urban settings in Tennessee. This study evaluated the success of Urban Impact in restructuring university coursework and university/school…

  6. Assuring and Enhancing Educational Quality in Universities: A Perspective from Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Futao

    2006-01-01

    As an analysis of context and rationale, and of the changing strategies and practice since the early 1990s, this article identifies the major arrangements for assuring and enhancing educational quality and touches on their characteristics, with a focus on the Japanese national universities. The effects of, and issues raised by, current strategies…

  7. A Multilevel System of Quality Technology-Enhanced Learning and Teaching Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Nancy; Niederhauser, Dale S.; Christensen, Rhonda; Shear, Linda

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we elaborate and extend the work of the EDUsummIT 2015 Thematic Working Group 7 (TWG7) by proposing a set of indicators on quality Technology-Enhanced Learning and Teaching (TEL&T). These indicators are intended as one component of a set of global indicators that could be used to monitor implementation of the Education 2030…

  8. Performance Funding and Quality Enhancement at Three Research Universities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Catherine; Lancaster, Carol; Gilbert, James; Higerd, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect performance funding has had on funding and quality enhancement at three research universities as implemented over the past six years. The presentation details the accountability requirements and the relationship they have had on funding levels. It describes the cost-benefit ratio of maintaining and responding to the…

  9. Small Steps Lead to Quality Assurance and Enhancement in Qatar University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Attiyah, Asma; Khalifa, Batoul

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of Qatar University's history since it was started in 1973. Its primary focus is on the various small, but important, steps taken by the University to address the needs of quality assurance and enhancement. The Qatar University Reform Plan is described in detail. Its aims are to continually improve the quality…

  10. New approaches to enhance active steering system functionalities: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serarslan, Benan

    2014-09-01

    An important development of the steering systems in general is active steering systems like active front steering and steer-by-wire systems. In this paper the current functional possibilities in application of active steering systems are explored. A new approach and additional functionalities are presented that can be implemented to the active steering systems without additional hardware such as new sensors and electronic control units. Commercial active steering systems are controlling the steering angle depending on the driving situation only. This paper introduce methods for enhancing active steering system functionalities depending not only on the driving situation but also vehicle parameters like vehicle mass, tyre and road condition. In this regard, adaptation of the steering ratio as a function of above mentioned vehicle parameters is presented with examples. With some selected vehicle parameter changes, the reduction of the undesired influences on vehicle dynamics of these parameter changes has been demonstrated theoretically with simulations and with real-time driving measurements.

  11. Quality-assurance and data-management plan for water-quality activities in the Kansas Water Science Center, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Foster, Guy M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Putnam, James E.

    2014-01-01

    As the Nation’s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey is relied on to collect high-quality data, and produce factual and impartial interpretive reports. This quality-assurance and data-management plan provides guidance for water-quality activities conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center. Policies and procedures are documented for activities related to planning, collecting, storing, documenting, tracking, verifying, approving, archiving, and disseminating water-quality data. The policies and procedures described in this plan complement quality-assurance plans for continuous water-quality monitoring, surface-water, and groundwater activities in Kansas.

  12. Optoacoustic imaging quality enhancement based on geometrical super-resolution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hailong; Mandal, Subhamoy; Buehler, Andreas; Deán-Ben, X. Luís.; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-03-01

    In optoacoustic imaging, the resolution and image quality in a certain imaging position usually cannot be enhanced without changing the imaging configuration. Post-reconstruction image processing methods offer a new possibility to improve image quality and resolution. We have developed a geometrical super-resolution (GSR) method which uses information from spatially separated frames to enhance resolution and contrast in optoacoustic images. The proposed method acquires several low resolution images from the same object located at different positions inside the imaging plane. Thereafter, it applies an iterative registration algorithm to integrate the information in the acquired set of images to generate a single high resolution image. Herein, we present the method and evaluate its performance in simulation and phantom experiments, and results show that geometrical super-resolution techniques can be a promising alternative to enhance resolution in optoacoustic imaging.

  13. Simple techniques to increase the production yield and enhance the quality of organic rice bran oils.

    PubMed

    Srikaeo, Khongsak; Pradit, Maythawinee

    2011-01-01

    This study develops simple techniques for increasing production yield and refining of crude RBO (CRBO). It was found that pre-heating of rice bran by hot air oven to reach 60°C before being extracted by screw press machine increased the yield from 4.8 to 8.3%w/w. This paper suggested three simple steps for refining of organic CRBO: (1) filtering using filter papers (2) sedimentation by adding 4%w/v fuller's earth and (3) bleaching by running through a packed column of activated carbon. These steps significantly enhanced the qualities of RBO when compared to CRBO before treatment. It was found that the lightness of oil as indicated by color value (L*) increased from 22.8 to 28.7, gum and wax decreased from 3.6 to 1.3%w/w. However, the simple refining method had no effect on peroxide value and free fatty acid content. Moreover, it slightly induced the loss of oryzanol content from 2.8 to 2.2%w/w. PMID:21178310

  14. Enhancer hijacking activates GFI1 family oncogenes in medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Northcott, Paul A; Lee, Catherine; Zichner, Thomas; Stütz, Adrian M; Erkek, Serap; Kawauchi, Daisuke; Shih, David JH; Hovestadt, Volker; Zapatka, Marc; Sturm, Dominik; Jones, David TW; Kool, Marcel; Remke, Marc; Cavalli, Florence; Zuyderduyn, Scott; Bader, Gary; VandenBerg, Scott; Esparza, Lourdes Adriana; Ryzhova, Marina; Wang, Wei; Wittmann, Andrea; Stark, Sebastian; Sieber, Laura; Seker-Cin, Huriye; Linke, Linda; Kratochwil, Fabian; Jäger, Natalie; Buchhalter, Ivo; Imbusch, Charles D; Zipprich, Gideon; Raeder, Benjamin; Schmidt, Sabine; Diessl, Nicolle; Wolf, Stephan; Wiemann, Stefan; Brors, Benedikt; Lawerenz, Chris; Eils, Jürgen; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Risch, Thomas; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Weber, Ursula D; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; von Kalle, Christof; Turányi, Eszter; Hauser, Peter; Sanden, Emma; Darabi, Anna; Siesjö, Peter; Sterba, Jaroslav; Zitterbart, Karel; Sumerauer, David; van Sluis, Peter; Versteeg, Rogier; Volckmann, Richard; Koster, Jan; Schuhmann, Martin U; Ebinger, Martin; Grimes, H. Leighton; Robinson, Giles W; Gajjar, Amar; Mynarek, Martin; von Hoff, Katja; Rutkowski, Stefan; Pietsch, Torsten; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Felsberg, Jörg; Reifenberger, Guido; Kulozik, Andreas E; von Deimlmg, Andreas; Witt, Olaf; Eils, Roland; Gilbertson, Richard J; Korshunov, Andrey; Taylor, Michael D; Lichter, Peter; Korbel, Jan O; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J; Pfister, Stefan M

    2014-01-01

    Summary Paragraph Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant paediatric brain tumour currently treated with a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, posing a considerable burden of toxicity to the developing child. Genomics has illuminated the extensive intertumoural heterogeneity of medulloblastoma, identifying four distinct molecular subgroups. Group 3 and Group 4 subgroup medulloblastomas account for the majority of paediatric cases; yet, oncogenic drivers for these subtypes remain largely unidentified. Here we describe a series of prevalent, highly disparate genomic structural variants, restricted to Groups 3 and 4, resulting in specific and mutually exclusive activation of the growth factor independent 1 family protooncogenes, GFI1 and GFI1B. Somatic structural variants juxtapose GFI1/GFI1B coding sequences proximal to active enhancer elements, including super-enhancers, instigating oncogenic activity. Our results, supported by evidence from mouse models, identify GFI1 and GFI1B as prominent medulloblastoma oncogenes and implicate ‘enhancer hijacking’ as an efficient mechanism driving oncogene activation in a childhood cancer. PMID:25043047

  15. Acute moderate exercise enhances compensatory brain activation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Kazuki; Dan, Ippeita; Suwabe, Kazuya; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Yamada, Yuhki; Akahori, Mitsuya; Byun, Kyeongho; Kato, Morimasa; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-11-01

    A growing number of reports state that regular exercise enhances brain function in older adults. Recently a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study revealed that an acute bout of moderate exercise enhanced activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) associated with Stroop interference in young adults. Whether this acute effect is also applicable to older adults was examined. Sixteen older adults performed a color-word matching Stroop task before and after 10 minutes of exercise on a cycle ergometer at a moderate intensity. Cortical hemodynamics of the prefrontal area was monitored with a fNIRS during the Stroop task. We analyzed Stroop interference (incongruent-neutral) as Stroop performance. Though activation for Stroop interference was found in the bilateral prefrontal area before the acute bout of exercise, activation of the right frontopolar area (R-FPA) was enhanced after exercise. In the majority of participants, this coincided with improved performance reflected in Stroop interference results. Thus, an acute bout of moderate exercise improved Stroop performance in older adults, and this was associated with contralateral compensatory activation. PMID:22300952

  16. Efficacy of Flaxseed Flour as Bind Enhancing Agent on the Quality of Extended Restructured Mutton Chops

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Heena; Sharma, Brahma Deo; Mendiratta, S. K.; Talukder, Suman; Ramasamy, Giriprasad

    2014-01-01

    Consumers have become very conscious about their nutrition and well being due to changes in their socio-economic lifestyle and rapid urbanization. Therefore, development of technology for production of low cost and functional meat products is urgently required. One such approach is innovative restructuring technology in which binding of meat pieces still remains the main challenge and extension of product is generally associated with poor binding and texture. Thus, the present study was envisaged as an attempt to solve this problem by the incorporation of flaxseed flour (FF) as bind enhancing agent. The FF was used at three different levels viz., 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% to replace lean meat in pre-standardized restructured mutton chops formulation. The products were subjected to analysis for physico-chemical, sensory and textural properties. Cooking yield, moisture percentage and fat percentage increased with increase in the level of incorporation of FF, however, protein percent and pH decreased with increase in the level of incorporation. Shear force value of product incorporated with 1.5% FF was significantly higher (p<0.01) than control and product containing 0.5% FF level. Among the sensory attributes, product with 1% flaxseed flour showed significantly higher values (p<0.05) for general appearance, binding, texture and overall acceptability. Hardness showed significant increasing (p<0.01) values with increasing levels of incorporation of flaxseed flour, however all other parameters of texture profile analysis showed a decreasing trend. On the basis of sensory scores and physico-chemical properties, the optimum incorporation level of FF was adjudged as 1%. Products incorporated with optimum level of flaxseed flour (1%) were also assessed for water activity and microbiological quality during the storage period of 15 days. It was found that the extended restructured product could be safely stored under refrigeration (4°C±1°C) in low density polyethylene (LDPE

  17. Enhancing learning in geosciences and water engineering via lab activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Cheng, Ming

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the utilisation of lab based activities to enhance the learning experience of engineering students studying Water Engineering and Geosciences. In particular, the use of modern highly visual and tangible presentation techniques within an appropriate laboratory based space are used to introduce undergraduate students to advanced engineering concepts. A specific lab activity, namely "Flood-City", is presented as a case study to enhance the active engagement rate, improve the learning experience of the students and better achieve the intended learning objectives of the course within a broad context of the engineering and geosciences curriculum. Such activities, have been used over the last few years from the Water Engineering group @ Glasgow, with success for outreach purposes (e.g. Glasgow Science Festival and demos at the Glasgow Science Centre and Kelvingrove museum). The activity involves a specific setup of the demonstration flume in a sand-box configuration, with elements and activities designed so as to gamely the overall learning activity. Social media platforms can also be used effectively to the same goals, particularly in cases were the students already engage in these online media. To assess the effectiveness of this activity a purpose designed questionnaire is offered to the students. Specifically, the questionnaire covers several aspects that may affect student learning, performance and satisfaction, such as students' motivation, factors to effective learning (also assessed by follow-up quizzes), and methods of communication and assessment. The results, analysed to assess the effectiveness of the learning activity as the students perceive it, offer a promising potential for the use of such activities in outreach and learning.

  18. Augmented reality to enhance an active telepresence system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Alison; Pretlove, John R. G.; Parker, Graham A.

    1996-12-01

    Tasks carried out remotely via a telerobotic system are typically complex, occur in hazardous environments and require fine control of the robot's movements. Telepresence systems provide the teleoperator with a feeling of being physically present at the remote site. Stereoscopic video has been successfully applied to telepresence vision systems to increase the operator's perception of depth in the remote scene and this sense of presence can be further enhanced using computer generated stereo graphics to augment the visual information presented to the operator. The Mechatronic Systems and Robotics Research Group have over seven years developed a number of high performance active stereo vision systems culminating in the latest, a four degree-of-freedom stereohead. This carries two miniature color cameras and is controlled in real time by the motion of the operator's head, who views the stereoscopic video images on an immersive head mounted display or stereo monitor. The stereohead is mounted on a mobile robot, the movement of which is controlled by a joystick interface. This paper describes the active telepresence system and the development of a prototype augmented reality (AR) application to enhance the operator's sense of presence at the remote site. The initial enhancements are a virtual map and compass to aid navigation in degraded visual conditions and a virtual cursor that provides a means for the operator to interact with the remote environment. The results of preliminary experiments using the initial enhancements are presented.

  19. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Miami, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lietz, A. C., (compiler)

    2003-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Miami to conduct water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Miami USGS for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures that are documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the Miami USGS quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities.

  20. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities of the U.S. Geological Survey Montana Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambing, John H., (compiler)

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the USGS Montana Water Science Center in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the USGS Montana Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures presented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities complement the quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities and suspended-sediment analysis.

  1. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities in the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Richard J.; Kimbrough, Robert A.; Turney, Gary L.

    2007-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), this quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the USGS Washington Water Science Center (WAWSC) in conducting water-quality activities. The plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the personnel of the WAWSC for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures that are documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the WAWSC's quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities and to supplement the WAWSC quality-assurance plan.

  2. Large-scale high quality glass microlens arrays fabricated by laser enhanced wet etching.

    PubMed

    Tong, Siyu; Bian, Hao; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Deng, Zefang; Si, Jinhai; Hou, Xun

    2014-11-17

    Large-scale high quality microlens arrays (MLAs) play an important role in enhancing the imaging quality of CCD and CMOS as well as the light extraction efficiency of LEDs and OLEDs. To meet the requirement in MLAs' wide application areas, a rapid fabrication method to fabricate large-scale MLAs with high quality, high fill factor and high uniformity is needed, especially on the glass substrate. In this paper, we present a simple and cost-efficient approach to the development of both concave and convex large-scale microlens arrays (MLAs) by using femtosecond laser wet etching method and replication technique. A large-scale high quality square-shaped microlens array with 512 × 512 units was fabricated.The unit size is 20 × 20 μm² on the whole scale of 1 × 1 cm². Its perfect uniformity and optical performance are demonstrated. PMID:25402166

  3. An improved Gabor enhancement method for low-quality fingerprint images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Hao; Li, Jicheng; Zhou, Jinwei; Chen, Dong

    2015-10-01

    The criminal's fingerprints often refer to those fingerprints that are extracted from crime scene and have played an important role in police' investigation and cracking the cases, but these fingerprints have features such as blur, incompleteness and low-contrast of ridges. Traditional fingerprint enhancement and identification methods have some limitations and the current automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS) hasn't not been applied extensively in police' investigation. Since the Gabor filter has drawbacks such as poor efficiency, low preciseness of the extracted ridge's orientation parameters, the enhancements of low-contrast fingerprint images can't achieve the desired effects. Therefore, an improved Gabor enhancement for low-quality fingerprint is proposed in this paper. Firstly, orientation image templates with different scales were used to distinguish the orientation images in the fingerprint area, and then orientation parameters of ridge were calculated. Secondly, mean frequencies of ridge were extracted based on local window of ridge's orientation and mean frequency parameters of ridges were calculated. Thirdly, the size and orientation of Gabor filter were self-adjusted according to local ridge's orientation and mean frequency. Finally, the poor-quality fingerprint images were enhanced. In the experiment, the improved Gabor filter has better performance for low-quality fingerprint images when compared with the traditional filtering methods.

  4. Solar Activity-driven Variability of Instrumental Data Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martayan, C.; Smette, A.; Hanuschik, R.; van Der Heyden, P.; Mieske, S.

    2016-06-01

    The unexplained variability of the data quality from Very Large Telescope instruments and the frequency of power cuts have been investigated. Origins for the variability in ambient temperature variations, software, data reduction pipelines and internal to hardware could be discarded. The most probable cause appears to be correlated with the evolution of the cosmic ray rate, and also with solar and terrestrial geomagnetic activity. We report on the consequences of such variability and describe how the observatory infrastructure, instruments and data are affected.

  5. Inhibition of telomerase activity enhances hyperthermia-mediated radiosensitization.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manjula; Pandita, Shruti; Hunt, Clayton R; Gupta, Arun; Yue, Xuan; Khan, Saira; Pandita, Raj K; Pratt, David; Shay, Jerry W; Taylor, John-Stephen A; Pandita, Tej K

    2008-05-01

    Hyperthermia is a potent sensitizer of cell killing by ionizing radiation (IR); however, hyperthermia also induces heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) synthesis and HSP70 expression is associated with radioresistance. Because HSP70 interacts with the telomerase complex and expression of the telomerase catalytic unit (hTERT) extends the life span of the human cells, we determined if heat shock influences telomerase activity and whether telomerase inhibition enhances heat-mediated IR-induced cell killing. In the present study, we show that moderate hyperthermia (43 degrees C) enhances telomerase activity. Inhibition of telomerase activity with human telomerase RNA-targeted antisense agents, and in particular GRN163L, results in enhanced hyperthermia-mediated IR-induced cell killing, and ectopic expression of catalytic unit of telomerase (TERT) decreased hyperthermia-mediated IR-induced cell killing. The increased cell killing by heat and IR exposure in telomerase-inhibited cells correlates with delayed appearance and disappearance of gamma-H2AX foci as well as decreased chromosome repair. These results suggest that inactivation of telomerase before combined hyperthermia and radiotherapy could improve tumor killing. PMID:18451164

  6. Inhibition of autophagy enhances the anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jun; Huang, Zhihai; Wu, Hao; Zhou, Wei; Jin, Peipei; Wei, Pengfei; Zhang, Yunjiao; Zheng, Fang; Zhang, Jiqian; Xu, Jing; Hu, Yi; Wang, Yanhong; Li, Yajuan; Gu, Ning; Wen, Longping

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are cytotoxic to cancer cells and possess excellent potential as an antitumor agent. A variety of nanoparticles have been shown to induce autophagy, a critical cellular degradation process, and the elevated autophagy in most of these situations promotes cell death. Whether Ag NPs can induce autophagy and how it might affect the anticancer activity of Ag NPs has not been reported. Here we show that Ag NPs induced autophagy in cancer cells by activating the PtdIns3K signaling pathway. The autophagy induced by Ag NPs was characterized by enhanced autophagosome formation, normal cargo degradation, and no disruption of lysosomal function. Consistent with these properties, the autophagy induced by Ag NPs promoted cell survival, as inhibition of autophagy by either chemical inhibitors or ATG5 siRNA enhanced Ag NPs-elicited cancer cell killing. We further demonstrated that wortmannin, a widely used inhibitor of autophagy, significantly enhanced the antitumor effect of Ag NPs in the B16 mouse melanoma cell model. Our results revealed a novel biological activity of Ag NPs in inducing cytoprotective autophagy, and inhibition of autophagy may be a useful strategy for improving the efficacy of Ag NPs in anticancer therapy. PMID:25484080

  7. Inhibition of autophagy enhances the anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Huang, Zhihai; Wu, Hao; Zhou, Wei; Jin, Peipei; Wei, Pengfei; Zhang, Yunjiao; Zheng, Fang; Zhang, Jiqian; Xu, Jing; Hu, Yi; Wang, Yanhong; Li, Yajuan; Gu, Ning; Wen, Longping

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are cytotoxic to cancer cells and possess excellent potential as an antitumor agent. A variety of nanoparticles have been shown to induce autophagy, a critical cellular degradation process, and the elevated autophagy in most of these situations promotes cell death. Whether Ag NPs can induce autophagy and how it might affect the anticancer activity of Ag NPs has not been reported. Here we show that Ag NPs induced autophagy in cancer cells by activating the PtdIns3K signaling pathway. The autophagy induced by Ag NPs was characterized by enhanced autophagosome formation, normal cargo degradation, and no disruption of lysosomal function. Consistent with these properties, the autophagy induced by Ag NPs promoted cell survival, as inhibition of autophagy by either chemical inhibitors or ATG5 siRNA enhanced Ag NPs-elicited cancer cell killing. We further demonstrated that wortmannin, a widely used inhibitor of autophagy, significantly enhanced the antitumor effect of Ag NPs in the B16 mouse melanoma cell model. Our results revealed a novel biological activity of Ag NPs in inducing cytoprotective autophagy, and inhibition of autophagy may be a useful strategy for improving the efficacy of Ag NPs in anticancer therapy. PMID:25484080

  8. Surfaces of Fluorinated Pyridinium Block Copolymers with Enhanced Antibacterial Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan,S.; Ward, R.; Hexemer, A.; Sohn, K.; Lee, K.; Angert, E.; Fischer, D.; Kramer, E.; Ober, C.

    2006-01-01

    Polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) copolymers were quaternized with 1-bromohexane and 6-perfluorooctyl-1-bromohexane. Surfaces prepared from these polymers were characterized by contact angle measurements, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The fluorinated pyridinium surfaces showed enhanced antibacterial activity compared to their nonfluorinated counterparts. Even a polymer with a relatively low molecular weight pyridinium block showed high antimicrobial activity. The bactericidal effect was found to be related to the molecular composition and organization in the top 2-3 nm of the surface and increased with increasing hydrophilicity and pyridinium concentration of the surface.

  9. Short communication: Effect of active food packaging materials on fluid milk quality and shelf life.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dana E; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Active packaging, in which active agents are embedded into or on the surface of food packaging materials, can enhance the nutritive value, economics, and stability of food, as well as enable in-package processing. In one embodiment of active food packaging, lactase was covalently immobilized onto packaging films for in-package lactose hydrolysis. In prior work, lactase was covalently bound to low-density polyethylene using polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers to form the packaging film. Because of the potential contaminants of proteases, lipases, and spoilage organisms in typical enzyme preparations, the goal of the current work was to determine the effect of immobilized-lactase active packaging technology on unanticipated side effects, such as shortened shelf-life and reduced product quality. Results suggested no evidence of lipase or protease activity on the active packaging films, indicating that such active packaging films could enable in-package lactose hydrolysis without adversely affecting product quality in terms of dairy protein or lipid stability. Storage stability studies indicated that lactase did not migrate from the film over a 49-d period, and that dry storage resulted in 13.41% retained activity, whereas wet storage conditions enabled retention of 62.52% activity. Results of a standard plate count indicated that the film modification reagents introduced minor microbial contamination; however, the microbial population remained under the 20,000 cfu/mL limit through the manufacturer's suggested 14-d storage period for all film samples. This suggests that commercially produced immobilized lactase active packaging should use purified cross-linkers and enzymes. Characterization of unanticipated effects of active packaging on food quality reported here is important in demonstrating the commercial potential of such technologies. PMID:24239074

  10. 78 FR 292 - Request for Comments and Notice of Roundtable Events for Partnership for Enhancement of Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... Partnership for Enhancement of Quality of Software-Related Patents AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark... Trademark Office (USPTO) seeks to form a partnership with the software community to enhance the quality of ] software-related patents (Software Partnership). Members of the public are invited to participate....

  11. Ligand-dependent Enhancer Activation Regulated by Topoisomerase-I Activity

    PubMed Central

    Puc, Janusz; Kozbial, Piotr; Li, Wenbo; Tan, Yuliang; Liu, Zhijie; Suter, Tom; Ohgi, Kenneth A.; Zhang, Jie; Aggarwal, Aneel K.; Rosenfeld, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The discovery that enhancers are regulated transcription units, encoding eRNAs, has raised new questions about the mechanisms of their activation. Here, we report an unexpected molecular mechanism that underlies ligand-dependent enhancer activation, based on DNA nicking to relieve torsional stress from eRNA synthesis. Using dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced binding of androgen receptor (AR) to prostate cancer cell enhancers as a model, we show rapid recruitment, within minutes, of DNA topoisomerase I (TOP1) to a large cohort of AR-regulated enhancers. Furthermore, we show that the DNA nicking activity of TOP1 is a prerequisite for robust eRNA synthesis and enhancer activation, and is kinetically accompanied by the recruitment of ATR and the MRN complex, followed by additional components of DNA damage repair machinery to the AR-regulated enhancers. Together, our studies reveal a linkage between eRNA synthesis and ligand-dependent TOP1-mediated nicking a strategy exerting quantitative effects on eRNA expression in regulating AR-bound enhancer-dependent transcriptional programs. PMID:25619691

  12. Quality-Factor Enhancement of Nanoelectromechanical Systems by Capacitive Driving Beyond Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barois, T.; Perisanu, S.; Poncharal, P.; Vincent, P.; Purcell, S. T.; Ayari, A.

    2016-07-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems are considered as ultrasensitive devices for mass and force detection. Capacitive actuation is widely used in these devices but is known to degrade the quality factor of the resonator due to dc electrostatic damping. We report the enhancement of the quality factor of SiC vibrating nanowires detected nano-optomechanically and electrically by applying an ac capacitive driving at a frequency above both the resonance frequency and the electrical cutoff frequency. Self-oscillations are demonstrated for optimal conditions. We develop an analytical model of the phenomenon and show that it can lead to an improvement of the force sensitivity.

  13. Effects of hot boning and moisture enhancement on the eating quality of cull cow beef.

    PubMed

    Pivotto, L M; Campbell, C P; Swanson, K; Mandell, I B

    2014-01-01

    The effects of chilling method and moisture enhancement were examined for improving eating quality of semimembranosus (SM) and longissimus lumborum (LL) from 62 cull beef cows. Chilling method included hot boning muscles after 45 to 60 min postmortem or conventional chilling for 24 h. Moisture enhancement included 1) a non-injected control (CONT) or injection processing (10% of product weight) using 2) Sodium Tripolyphosphate/salt (Na/STP), 3) Sodium Citrate (NaCIT), 4) Calcium Ascorbate (CaASC), or 5) Citrus Juices (CITRUS). Chilling method by moisture enhancement treatment interactions (P<0.09) were due to decreased hue, chroma and sarcomere length values in hot boned vs. conventionally chilled product (SM and LL) for CaASC vs. other moisture enhancement treatments. Chilling method by moisture enhancement treatment interactions (P<0.05) were due to decreased shear force and increased tenderness in conventionally chilled vs. hot boned LL using CaASC vs. Na/STP. Moisture enhancement can improve tenderness of cull cow beef depending on combinations of chilling method and moisture enhancement treatments used. PMID:23916959

  14. "Cap-and-Catch" Purification for Enhancing the Quality of Libraries of DNA Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Franzini, Raphael M; Biendl, Stefan; Mikutis, Gediminas; Samain, Florent; Scheuermann, Jörg; Neri, Dario

    2015-07-13

    The potential of DNA-encoded combinatorial libraries (DECLs) as tools for hit discovery crucially relies on the availability of methods for their synthesis at acceptable purity and quality. Incomplete reactions in the presence of DNA can noticeably affect the purity of DECLs and methods to selectively remove unreacted oligonucleotide-based starting products would likely enhance the quality of DECL screening results. We describe an approach to selectively remove unreacted oligonucleotide starting products from reaction mixtures and demonstrate its applicability in the context of acylation of amino-modified DNA. Following an amide bond forming reaction, we treat unreacted amino-modified DNAs with biotinylating reagents and isolate the corresponding biotinylated oligonucleotides from the reaction mixture by affinity capture on streptavidin-coated sepharose. This approach, which yields the desired DNA-conjugate at enhanced purity, can be applied both to reactions performed in solution and to procedures in which DNA is immobilized on an anion exchange solid support. PMID:26083096

  15. Inkjet printable nanosilver suspensions for enhanced sintering quality in rapid manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, John G.; Creehan, Kevin D.; Kuhn, Howard A.

    2007-05-01

    Inkjet printable nanosilver suspensions were prepared by dispersing 30 nm silver particles into a water-based binder system to enhance the sintering quality in rapid manufacturing. During three-dimensional printing (3DP), the nanosilver suspensions were inkjet printed onto repetitively spread microsilver powder for selective joining. Since the nanosilver particles in the suspensions can be sintered at relatively low temperatures to bond the neighbouring microsilver powder, they were used to provide the continuous bonding strength of the manufacturing parts during the heat-up procedure of the sintering operation. Comparative study shows that the silver parts printed using the nanosilver suspension were significantly enhanced in sintering quality than those printed using the binder system, especially when the silver parts had thin or small features with high aspect ratios.

  16. Vitronectin-binding staphylococci enhance surface-associated complement activation.

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, F; Lea, T; Ljungh, A

    1997-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci are well recognized in medical device-associated infections. Complement activation is known to occur at the biomaterial surface, resulting in unspecific inflammation around the biomaterial. The human serum protein vitronectin (Vn), a potent inhibitor of complement activation by formation of an inactive terminal complement complex, adsorbs to biomaterial surfaces in contact with blood. In this report, we discuss the possibility that surface-immobilized Vn inhibits complement activation and the effect of Vn-binding staphylococci on complement activation on surfaces precoated with Vn. The extent of complement activation was measured with a rabbit anti-human C3c antibody and a mouse anti-human C9 antibody, raised against the neoepitope of C9. Our data show that Vn immobilized on a biomaterial surface retains its ability to inhibit complement activation. The additive complement activation-inhibitory effect of Vn on a heparinized surface is very small. In the presence of Vn-binding strain, Staphylococcus hemolyticus SM131, complement activation on a surface precoated with Vn occurred as it did in the absence of Vn precoating. For S. epidermidis 3380, which does not express binding of Vn, complement activation on a Vn-precoated surface was significantly decreased. The results could be repeated on heparinized surfaces. These data suggest that Vn adsorbed to a biomaterial surface may serve to protect against surface-associated complement activation. Furthermore, Vn-binding staphylococcal cells may enhance surface-associated complement activation by blocking the inhibitory effect of preadsorbed Vn. PMID:9038294

  17. Vortical ciliary flows actively enhance mass transport in reef corals

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Orr H.; Fernandez, Vicente I.; Garren, Melissa; Guasto, Jeffrey S.; Debaillon-Vesque, François P.; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Vardi, Assaf; Stocker, Roman

    2014-01-01

    The exchange of nutrients and dissolved gasses between corals and their environment is a critical determinant of the growth of coral colonies and the productivity of coral reefs. To date, this exchange has been assumed to be limited by molecular diffusion through an unstirred boundary layer extending 1–2 mm from the coral surface, with corals relying solely on external flow to overcome this limitation. Here, we present direct microscopic evidence that, instead, corals can actively enhance mass transport through strong vortical flows driven by motile epidermal cilia covering their entire surface. Ciliary beating produces quasi-steady arrays of counterrotating vortices that vigorously stir a layer of water extending up to 2 mm from the coral surface. We show that, under low ambient flow velocities, these vortices, rather than molecular diffusion, control the exchange of nutrients and oxygen between the coral and its environment, enhancing mass transfer rates by up to 400%. This ability of corals to stir their boundary layer changes the way that we perceive the microenvironment of coral surfaces, revealing an active mechanism complementing the passive enhancement of transport by ambient flow. These findings extend our understanding of mass transport processes in reef corals and may shed new light on the evolutionary success of corals and coral reefs. PMID:25192936

  18. Subcortical evoked activity and motor enhancement in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Anzak, Anam; Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Khan, Sadaquate; Javed, Shazia; Gill, Steven S.; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Akram, Harith; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Green, Alexander L.; Aziz, Tipu; Brown, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Enhancements in motor performance have been demonstrated in response to intense stimuli both in healthy subjects and in the form of ‘paradoxical kinesis’ in patients with Parkinson's disease. Here we identify a mid-latency evoked potential in local field potential recordings from the region of the subthalamic nucleus, which scales in amplitude with both the intensity of the stimulus delivered and corresponding enhancements in biomechanical measures of maximal handgrips, independent of the dopaminergic state of our subjects with Parkinson's disease. Recordings of a similar evoked potential in the related pedunculopontine nucleus – a key component of the reticular activating system – provide support for this neural signature in the subthalmic nucleus being a novel correlate of ascending arousal, propagated from the reticular activating system to exert an ‘energizing’ influence on motor circuitry. Future manipulation of this system linking arousal and motor performance may provide a novel approach for the non-dopaminergic enhancement of motor performance in patients with hypokinetic disorders such as Parkinson's disease. PMID:26687971

  19. Subcortical evoked activity and motor enhancement in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Anzak, Anam; Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Khan, Sadaquate; Javed, Shazia; Gill, Steven S; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Akram, Harith; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu; Brown, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Enhancements in motor performance have been demonstrated in response to intense stimuli both in healthy subjects and in the form of 'paradoxical kinesis' in patients with Parkinson's disease. Here we identify a mid-latency evoked potential in local field potential recordings from the region of the subthalamic nucleus, which scales in amplitude with both the intensity of the stimulus delivered and corresponding enhancements in biomechanical measures of maximal handgrips, independent of the dopaminergic state of our subjects with Parkinson's disease. Recordings of a similar evoked potential in the related pedunculopontine nucleus - a key component of the reticular activating system - provide support for this neural signature in the subthalmic nucleus being a novel correlate of ascending arousal, propagated from the reticular activating system to exert an 'energizing' influence on motor circuitry. Future manipulation of this system linking arousal and motor performance may provide a novel approach for the non-dopaminergic enhancement of motor performance in patients with hypokinetic disorders such as Parkinson's disease. PMID:26687971

  20. Quality of Life and Leisure Activities: How Do Leisure Activities Contribute to Subjective Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brajsa-Zganec, Andreja; Merkas, Marina; Sverko, Iva

    2011-01-01

    The quality of life is determined with objective factors and also with subjective perception of factors which influence human life. Leisure activities play a very important role in subjective well-being because they provide opportunities to meet life values and needs. Through participation in leisure activities people build social relationships,…

  1. ATP-enhanced peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shah, Juhi; Purohit, Rahul; Singh, Ragini; Karakoti, Ajay Singh; Singh, Sanjay

    2015-10-15

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are known to possess intrinsic biological peroxidase-like activity that has applications in development of numerous biosensors. The reactivity of the Au atoms at the surface of AuNPs is critical to the performance of such biosensors, yet little is known about the effect of biomolecules and ions on the peroxidase-like activity. In this work, the effect of ATP and other biologically relevant molecules and ions over peroxidase-like activity of AuNPs are described. Contrary to the expectation that nanoparticles exposed to biomolecules may lose the catalytic property, ATP and ADP addition enhanced the peroxidase-like activity of AuNPs. The catalytic activity was unaltered by the addition of free phosphate, sulphate and carbonate anions however, addition of ascorbic acid to the reaction mixture diminished the intrinsic peroxidase-like activity of AuNPs, even in the presence of ATP and ADP. In contrast to AuNPs, ATP did not synergize and improve the peroxidase activity of the natural peroxidase enzyme, horseradish peroxidase. PMID:26111515

  2. Mushroom bodies enhance initial motor activity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Serway, Christine N; Kaufman, Rebecca R; Strauss, Roland; de Belle, J Steven

    2009-01-01

    The central body (or central complex, CCX) and the mushroom bodies (MBs) are brain structures in most insect phyla that have been shown to influence aspects of locomotion. The CCX regulates motor coordination and enhances activity while MBs have, thus far, been shown to suppress motor activity levels measured over time intervals ranging from hours to weeks. In this report, we investigate MB involvement in motor behavior during the initial stages (15 minutes) of walking in Buridan's paradigm. We measured aspects of walking in flies that had MB lesions induced by mutations in six different genes and by chemical ablation. All tested flies were later examined histologically to assess MB neuroanatomy. Mutant strains with MB structural defects were generally less active in walking than wild-type flies. Most mutants in which MBs were also ablated with hydroxyurea (HU) showed additional activity decrements. Variation in measures of velocity and orientation to landmarks among wild-type and mutant flies was attributed to pleiotropy, rather than to MB lesions. We conclude that MBs upregulate activity during the initial stages of walking, but suppress activity thereafter. An MB influence on decision making has been shown in a wide range of complex behaviors. We suggest that MBs provide appropriate contextual information to motor output systems in the brain, indirectly fine tuning walking by modifying the quantity (i.e., activity) of behavior. PMID:19145515

  3. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    SciTech Connect

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the Facility Monitoring Plans of the overall site-wide environmental monitoring plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. This document is intended to be a basic road map to the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan documents (i.e., the guidance document for preparing Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations, management plan, and Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans). The implementing procedures, plans, and instructions are appropriate for the control of effluent monitoring plans requiring compliance with US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, state, and local requirements. This Quality Assurance Project Plan contains a matrix of organizational responsibilities, procedural resources from facility or site manuals used in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and a list of the analytes of interest and analytical methods for each facility preparing a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 44 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Compressor Performance Enhanced by Active Flow Control Over Stator Vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis E.

    2003-01-01

    The application of active flow control technology to enhance turbomachinery system performance is being investigated at the NASA Glenn Research Center through experimental studies. Active flow control involves the use of sensors and actuators embedded within engine components to dynamically alter the internal flow path during off nominal operation in order to optimize engine performance and maintain stable operation. Modern compressors are already highly optimized components that must be designed to accommodate a broad range of operating conditions in a safe and efficient manner. Since overall engine performance is driven by compressor performance, advances in compressor technology that reduce weight and parts count, reduce fuel consumption, and lower maintenance costs will have a significant impact on the cost of aircraft ownership. Active flow control holds the promise of delivering such technology advances.

  5. Impact of image acquisition timing on image quality for dual energy contrast-enhanced breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Melissa L.; Mainprize, James G.; Puong, Sylvie; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Iordache, Razvan; Muller, Serge; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2012-03-01

    Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital breast tomosynthesis (DE CE-DBT) image quality is affected by a large parameter space including the tomosynthesis acquisition geometry, imaging technique factors, the choice of reconstruction algorithm, and the subject breast characteristics. The influence of most of these factors on reconstructed image quality is well understood for DBT. However, due to the contrast agent uptake kinetics in CE imaging, the subject breast characteristics change over time, presenting a challenge for optimization . In this work we experimentally evaluate the sensitivity of the reconstructed image quality to timing of the low-energy and high-energy images and changes in iodine concentration during image acquisition. For four contrast uptake patterns, a variety of acquisition protocols were tested with different timing and geometry. The influence of the choice of reconstruction algorithm (SART or FBP) was also assessed. Image quality was evaluated in terms of the lesion signal-difference-to-noise ratio (LSDNR) in the central slice of DE CE-DBT reconstructions. Results suggest that for maximum image quality, the low- and high-energy image acquisitions should be made within one x-ray tube sweep, as separate low- and high-energy tube sweeps can degrade LSDNR. In terms of LSDNR per square-root dose, the image quality is nearly equal between SART reconstructions with 9 and 15 angular views, but using fewer angular views can result in a significant improvement in the quantitative accuracy of the reconstructions due to the shorter imaging time interval.

  6. Enhancement of Buckling Load with the Use of Active Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, F. G.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, active buckling control of a beam using piezoelectric materials is investigated. Under small deformation, mathematical models are developed to describe the behavior of the beams subjected to an axial compressive load with geometric imperfections and load eccentricities under piezoelectric force. Two types of supports, simply supported and clamped, of the beam with a partially bonded piezoelectric actuator are used to illustrate the concept. For the beam with load eccentricities and initial geometric imperfections, the load- carrying capacity can be significantly enhanced by counteracting moments from the piezoelectric actuator. For the single piezoelectric actuator, using static feedback closed-loop control, the first buckling load can be eliminated. In the case of initially straight beams, analytical solutions of the enhanced first critical buckling load due to the increase of bending stiffness by piezoelectric actuators are derived based on linearized buckling analysis.

  7. Enhancing lifestyle for individuals with haemophilia through physical activity and exercise: the role of physiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wittmeier, K; Mulder, K

    2007-09-01

    For individuals with haemophilia, the benefits of many forms of physical activity outweigh their risks. Although activities with significant trauma risk should be avoided, persons who have haemophilia can participate in, enjoy and even excel in a variety of physical activities and sports. Both the National Hemophilia Foundation and the World Foundation of Hemophilia have produced documents to guide individuals with haemophilia and their healthcare professionals, coaches and parents in developing physical activity programmes and participation in sports. Physical activity guidelines for promoting health benefits exist worldwide and can be incorporated into individualized exercise programmes to ensure that a person with haemophilia is not only choosing appropriate activities, but also improving overall health and preparing the body to manage haemophilia better. Physiotherapy treatment is paramount in helping individuals prevent, manage and optimally recover from bleeds. Furthermore, the physical therapist, along with the haemophilia care team, can assist in preparing an individual to begin or progress to a physical activity programme that enhances fitness level, body composition and overall well-being. This article presents the unique role of the physiotherapist in facilitating safe participation in quality physical activity in the context of risks, benefits and activity recommendations. Participation in physical activity from an early age is ideal to facilitate the development of body awareness and capability and to foster the adoption of a physically active lifestyle; however, it is never too late to start. Consistent participation in quality physical activity beginning at any age is central to managing haemophilia and, equally important, to achieving overall health and well-being. PMID:17685922

  8. Enzyme activities by indicator of quality in organic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raigon Jiménez, Mo; Fita, Ana Delores; Rodriguez Burruezo, Adrián

    2016-04-01

    The analytical determination of biochemical parameters, as soil enzyme activities and those related to the microbial biomass is growing importance by biological indicator in soil science studies. The metabolic activity in soil is responsible of important processes such as mineralization and humification of organic matter. These biological reactions will affect other key processes involved with elements like carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus , and all transformations related in soil microbial biomass. The determination of biochemical parameters is useful in studies carried out on organic soil where microbial processes that are key to their conservation can be analyzed through parameters of the metabolic activity of these soils. The main objective of this work is to apply analytical methodologies of enzyme activities in soil collections of different physicochemical characteristics. There have been selective sampling of natural soils, organic farming soils, conventional farming soils and urban soils. The soils have been properly identified conserved at 4 ° C until analysis. The enzyme activities determinations have been: catalase, urease, cellulase, dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase, which bring together a representative group of biological transformations that occur in the soil environment. The results indicate that for natural and agronomic soil collections, the values of the enzymatic activities are within the ranges established for forestry and agricultural soils. Organic soils are generally higher level of enzymatic, regardless activity of the enzyme involved. Soil near an urban area, levels of activities have been significantly reduced. The vegetation cover applied to organic soils, results in greater enzymatic activity. So the quality of these soils, defined as the ability to maintain their biological productivity is increased with the use of cover crops, whether or spontaneous species. The practice of cover based on legumes could be used as an ideal choice

  9. Growth rate enhancement by microcrystals and the quality of resulting potash alum crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takiyama, H.; Tezuka, N.; Matsuoka, M.; Ristic, R. I.; Sherwood, J. N.

    1998-09-01

    Growth rate enhancement resulting from the addition of ground powder crystals to a growing larger crystal has been examined for the potash alum-water system. The crystal quality of the large crystal after the addition and subsequent growth rate enhancement was evaluated in terms of the formation of inclusions and dislocations. Inclusions were observed with an optical microscope and the dislocations were analysed using X-ray transmission topography. It was found that the development of inclusions occurs at the time of the addition to the solution of the ground powder crystals and their attachment to the growing crystal surface. Simultaneously, dislocation bundles were generated. It is proposed that the inclusions form as the growing crystal surface envelopes the adhering particles and that the dislocations form both as a consequence of the strain that develops and the lattice mismatch required to refacet the surface. Both result in the development of additional growth centres which cause the growth rate enhancement.

  10. [Enhancement of quality by employing qualification-oriented staff and team-oriented cooperation].

    PubMed

    Meyenburg-Altwarg, Iris; Tecklenburg, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Taking three practical examples from a university hospital the present article describes how quality can be improved by linking deployment of qualification-oriented staff with team-oriented cooperation, especially with regard to the professional groups of physicians and nurses. In the first example, a cross-professional work group defined tasks which--in a legally acceptable manner--allow selected activities to be transferred from physicians to nurses, improving the work processes of all persons concerned. Work and duty profiles, training and modified work processes were created and implemented according to the PDCA circle-based process. The first evaluation took place after nine months using interviews, questionnaires (patients, physicians, and nurses) as well as CIRS. In the second example, emphasis was placed on offers of supplementary services for private patients resulting in a lightening of the workload on the nursing staff. These supplementary services are intended to enhance the wellbeing of the patients. Special external-service staff provide high standard hotel services. These services consistently receive high ratings from the patients. The methods used for introduction and evaluation are analogous to those used in the first example. The third example is concerned with the extension of nursing care and patient empowerment beyond the boundaries of ward and hospital. The guidelines were the implementation of the national expert standard for discharge management according to the DNQP. The methods of introduction were analogous to those used in example 1. For the evaluation interviews were conducted with all participating groups. In all examples actual quantitative measures (key ratios) are not yet available; however, the data collected from the interviews and questionnaires of all the participants are promising. PMID:20369442

  11. Phosphorous transient enhanced diffusion suppression and activation enhancement with cluster carbon co-implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Yoshiki; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Nagayama, Tsutomu; Koga, Yuji; Umisedo, Sei; Kawamura, Yasunori; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Onoda, Hiroshi

    2012-11-06

    Carbon co-implantation is well known as an effective method for suppressing boron/phosphorous transient enhanced diffusion (TED). Germanium pre-amorphization implantation (PAI) is usually applied prior to carbon co-implantation for suppressing channeling tail of dopants. In this study, cluster carbon was applied instead of the combination of germanium PAI and monomer carbon co-implantation prior to phosphorous implantation. Dependence of phosphorous activation and TED on amorphous layer thickness, carbon dose, carbon distribution and substrate temperature have been investigated. Cluster carbon implantation enables thick amorphous layer formation and TED suppression at the same time and low temperature implantation enhances the ability of amorphous layer formation so that shallow junction and low Rs can be achieved without Ge implantation.

  12. Schistosomes Enhance Plasminogen Activation: The Role of Tegumental Enolase

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Barbara C.; Da'dara, Akram A.; Oliveira, Sergio C.; Skelly, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is a blood fluke parasite that causes schistosomiasis, a debilitating disease of global public health importance. These relatively large parasites are able to survive prolonged periods in the human vasculature without inducing stable blood clots around them. We show here that the intravascular life stages (schistosomula and adult males and females) can all promote significant plasminogen (PLMG) activation in the presence of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). This results in the generation of the potent fibrinolytic agent plasmin which could degrade blood clots forming around the worms in vivo. We demonstrate that S. mansoni enolase (SmEno) is a host-interactive tegumental enzyme that, in recombinant form, can bind PLMG and promote its activation. Like classical members of the enolase protein family, SmEno can catalyze the interconversion of 2-phospho-D-glycerate (2-PGA) and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). The enzyme has maximal activity at pH 7.5, requires Mg2+ for optimal activity and can be inhibited by NaF but not mefloquin. Suppressing expression of the SmEno gene significantly diminishes enolase mRNA levels, protein levels and surface enzyme activity but, surprisingly, does not affect the ability of the worms to promote PLMG activation. Thus, while SmEno can enhance PLMG activation, our analysis suggests that it is not the only contributor to the parasite’s ability to perform this function. We show that the worms possess several other PLMG-binding proteins in addition to SmEno and these may have a greater importance in schistosome-driven PLMG activation. PMID:26658895

  13. Interactive effects of temperature, ultraviolet radiation and food quality on zooplankton alkaline phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Wolinski, Laura; Modenutti, Beatriz; Souza, Maria Sol; Balseiro, Esteban

    2016-06-01

    Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) is a stressor for aquatic organisms affecting enzyme activities in planktonic populations because of the increase in reactive oxygen species. In addition, UVR exposure combined with other environmental factors (i.e. temperature and food quality) could have even higher detrimental effects. In this work, we aimed to determine the effect of UVR on somatic Alkaline Phosphatase Activity (APA) and Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity on the cladoceran Daphnia commutata under two different temperatures (10 °C and 20 °C) and under three food qualities (carbon:phosphorus ratios: 1150, 850 and 550). APA is a biomarker that is considered as a P deficiency indicator in zooplankton. Since recovery from UVR damage under dark conditions is an ATP depending reaction we also measured APA during recovery phases. We carried out a laboratory experiment combining different temperatures and food qualities with exposition to UVR followed by luminic and dark phases for recovery. In addition, we exposed organisms to H2O2, to establish if the response on APA to UVR was a consequence of the reactive oxygen species produced these short wavelengths. Our results showed that somatic APA was negatively affected by UVR exposure and this effect was enhanced under high temperature and low food quality. Consistently, GST activity was higher when exposed to UVR under both temperatures. The H2O2 experiments showed the same trend as UVR exposure, indicating that APA is affected mainly by oxidative stress than by direct effect of UVR on the enzyme. Finally, APA was affected in the dark phase of recovery confirming the P demands. These results enlighten the importance of food quality in the interacting effect of UVR and temperature, showing that C:P food ratio could determine the success or failure of zooplanktonic populations in a context of global change. PMID:26895537

  14. Villin Severing Activity Enhances Actin-based Motility In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Revenu, Céline; Courtois, Matthieu; Michelot, Alphée; Sykes, Cécile; Louvard, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Villin, an actin-binding protein associated with the actin bundles that support microvilli, bundles, caps, nucleates, and severs actin in a calcium-dependant manner in vitro. We hypothesized that the severing activity of villin is responsible for its reported role in enhancing cell plasticity and motility. To test this hypothesis, we chose a loss of function strategy and introduced mutations in villin based on sequence comparison with CapG. By pyrene-actin assays, we demonstrate that this mutant has a strongly reduced severing activity, whereas nucleation and capping remain unaffected. The bundling activity and the morphogenic effects of villin in cells are also preserved in this mutant. We thus succeeded in dissociating the severing from the three other activities of villin. The contribution of villin severing to actin dynamics is analyzed in vivo through the actin-based movement of the intracellular bacteria Shigella flexneri in cells expressing villin and its severing variant. The severing mutations abolish the gain of velocity induced by villin. To further analyze this effect, we reconstituted an in vitro actin-based bead movement in which the usual capping protein is replaced by either the wild type or the severing mutant of villin. Confirming the in vivo results, villin-severing activity enhances the velocity of beads by more than two-fold and reduces the density of actin in the comets. We propose a model in which, by severing actin filaments and capping their barbed ends, villin increases the concentration of actin monomers available for polymerization, a mechanism that might be paralleled in vivo when an enterocyte undergoes an epithelio-mesenchymal transition. PMID:17182858

  15. Enhanced diffusion in shock activated Be-Al interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Staudhammer, K.P.

    1997-05-01

    Enhanced diffusion of aluminum in shock activated beryllium has been observed. Cylindrical samples of aluminum coated beryllium rods were axisymetrically loaded up to 40 GPa and a total residual strain of up to 6.7%. The defect microstructure produced by both the shock wave and strain enabled the transport of aluminum in beryllium to exceed its equilibrium solid state saturation. This {open_quotes}super saturated{close_quotes} aluminum, upon heating exsolves out at relatively low temperatures and forms very strong interfaces with pressure mated components.

  16. A novel virus-inducible enhancer of the interferon-β gene with tightly linked promoter and enhancer activities

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, A. Raja; Kim, Yoon Jung; Kim, Tae Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Long-range enhancers of transcription are a key component of the genomic regulatory architecture. Recent studies have identified bi-directionally transcribed RNAs emanating from these enhancers known as eRNAs. However, it remains unclear how tightly coupled eRNA production is with enhancer activity. Through our systematic search for long-range elements that interact with the interferon-β gene, a model system for studying inducible transcription, we have identified a novel enhancer, which we have named L2 that regulates the expression of interferon-β. We have demonstrated its virus-inducible enhancer activity by analyzing epigenomic profiles, transcription factor association, nascent RNA production and activity in reporter assays. This enhancer exhibits intimately linked virus-inducible enhancer and bidirectional promoter activity that is largely dependent on a conserved Interferon Stimulated Response Element and robustly generates virus inducible eRNAs. Notably, its enhancer and promoter activities are fully retained in reporter assays even upon a complete elimination of its associated eRNA sequences. Finally, we show that L2 regulates IFNB1 expression by siRNA knockdown of eRNAs, and the deletion of L2 in a BAC transfection assay. Thus, L2 is a novel enhancer that regulates IFNB1 and whose eRNAs exert significant activity in vivo that is distinct from those activities recapitulated in the luciferase reporter assays. PMID:25348400

  17. Human Erythropoietin Dimers with Markedly Enhanced in vivo Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sytkowski, Arthur J.; Dotimas Lunn, Elizabeth; Davis, Kerry Lynn; Feldman, Laurie; Siekman, Suvia

    1998-02-01

    Human erythropoietin, a widely used and important therapeutic glycoprotein, has a relatively short plasma half-life due to clearance by glomerular filtration as well as by other mechanisms. We hypothesized that an erythropoietin species with a larger molecular size would exhibit an increased plasma half-life and, potentially, an enhanced biological activity. We now report the production of biologically active erythropoietin dimers and trimers by chemical crosslinking of the conventional monomeric form. We imparted free sulfhydryl residues to a pool of erythropoietin monomer by chemical modification. A second pool was reacted with another modifying reagent to yield monomer with male-imido groups. Upon mixing these two pools, covalently linked dimers and trimers were formed that were biologically active in vitro. The plasma half-life of erythropoietin dimers in rabbits was >24 h compared with 4 h for the monomers. Importantly, erythropoietin dimers were biologically active in vivo as shown by their ability to increase the hematocrits of mice when injected subcutaneously. In addition, the dimers exhibited >26-fold higher activity in vivo than did the monomers and were very effective after only one dose. Dimeric and other oligomeric forms of Epo may have an important role in therapy.

  18. Enhancing e-waste estimates: Improving data quality by multivariate Input–Output Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Feng; Huisman, Jaco; Stevels, Ab; Baldé, Cornelis Peter

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • A multivariate Input–Output Analysis method for e-waste estimates is proposed. • Applying multivariate analysis to consolidate data can enhance e-waste estimates. • We examine the influence of model selection and data quality on e-waste estimates. • Datasets of all e-waste related variables in a Dutch case study have been provided. • Accurate modeling of time-variant lifespan distributions is critical for estimate. - Abstract: Waste electrical and electronic equipment (or e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste streams, which encompasses a wide and increasing spectrum of products. Accurate estimation of e-waste generation is difficult, mainly due to lack of high quality data referred to market and socio-economic dynamics. This paper addresses how to enhance e-waste estimates by providing techniques to increase data quality. An advanced, flexible and multivariate Input–Output Analysis (IOA) method is proposed. It links all three pillars in IOA (product sales, stock and lifespan profiles) to construct mathematical relationships between various data points. By applying this method, the data consolidation steps can generate more accurate time-series datasets from available data pool. This can consequently increase the reliability of e-waste estimates compared to the approach without data processing. A case study in the Netherlands is used to apply the advanced IOA model. As a result, for the first time ever, complete datasets of all three variables for estimating all types of e-waste have been obtained. The result of this study also demonstrates significant disparity between various estimation models, arising from the use of data under different conditions. It shows the importance of applying multivariate approach and multiple sources to improve data quality for modelling, specifically using appropriate time-varying lifespan parameters. Following the case study, a roadmap with a procedural guideline is provided to enhance e

  19. Psychopaths Show Enhanced Amygdala Activation during Fear Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Douglas H.; Balderston, Nicholas L.; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.; Larson, Christine L.; Helmstetter, Fred J.

    2016-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into “primary” and “secondary” psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional “fearlessness,” while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental deficit in amygdala function, and previous studies have provided support for a low-fear model of psychopathy. However, many of these studies fail to use appropriate screening procedures, use liberal inclusion criteria, or have used unconventional approaches to assay amygdala function. We measured brain activity with BOLD imaging in primary and secondary psychopaths and non-psychopathic control subjects during Pavlovian fear conditioning. In contrast to the low-fear model, we observed normal fear expression in primary psychopaths. Psychopaths also displayed greater differential BOLD activity in the amygdala relative to matched controls. Inverse patterns of activity were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for primary versus secondary psychopaths. Primary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in the dorsal and ventral ACC consistent with enhanced fear expression, while secondary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in these regions consistent with fear inhibition. These results contradict the low-fear model of psychopathy and suggest that the low fear observed for psychopaths in previous studies may be specific to secondary psychopaths. PMID:27014154

  20. Clinical Decision Support System to Enhance Quality Control of Spirometry Using Information and Communication Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We recently demonstrated that quality of spirometry in primary care could markedly improve with remote offline support from specialized professionals. It is hypothesized that implementation of automatic online assessment of quality of spirometry using information and communication technologies may significantly enhance the potential for extensive deployment of a high quality spirometry program in integrated care settings. Objective The objective of the study was to elaborate and validate a Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) for automatic online quality assessment of spirometry. Methods The CDSS was done through a three step process including: (1) identification of optimal sampling frequency; (2) iterations to build-up an initial version using the 24 standard spirometry curves recommended by the American Thoracic Society; and (3) iterations to refine the CDSS using 270 curves from 90 patients. In each of these steps the results were checked against one expert. Finally, 778 spirometry curves from 291 patients were analyzed for validation purposes. Results The CDSS generated appropriate online classification and certification in 685/778 (88.1%) of spirometry testing, with 96% sensitivity and 95% specificity. Conclusions Consequently, only 93/778 (11.9%) of spirometry testing required offline remote classification by an expert, indicating a potential positive role of the CDSS in the deployment of a high quality spirometry program in an integrated care setting. PMID:25600957

  1. Transgenic songbirds with suppressed or enhanced activity of CREB transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Abe, Kentaro; Matsui, Sumiko; Watanabe, Dai

    2015-06-16

    Songbirds postnatally develop their skill to utter and to perceive a vocal signal for communication. How genetic and environmental influences act in concert to regulate the development of such skill is not fully understood. Here, we report the phenotype of transgenic songbirds with altered intrinsic activity of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) transcription factor. By viral vector-mediated modification of genomic DNA, we established germ line-transmitted lines of zebra finches, which exhibited enhanced or suppressed activity of CREB. Although intrinsically acquired vocalizations or their hearing ability were not affected, the transgenic birds showed reduced vocal learning quality of their own songs and impaired audio-memory formation against conspecific songs. These results thus demonstrate that appropriate activity of CREB is necessary for the postnatal acquisition of learned behavior in songbirds, and the CREB transgenic birds offer a unique opportunity to separately manipulate both genetic and environmental factors that impinge on the postnatal song learning. PMID:26048905

  2. MWCNT/CdS hybrid nanocomposite for enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Deepti; Khare, Neeraj; Vankar, V. D.

    2016-05-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/CdS hybrid nanocomposite were synthesized by one step hydrothermal method. MWCNTs were used as a substrate for the growth of CdS nanoparticles. MWCNT/CdS nanocomposite and pure CdS were characterized by XRD, TEM, UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. HRTEM study confirms the intimate contact of CdS with MWCNT. The photocatalytic activity of nanocomposite was studied for the degradation of methylene blue dye under UV irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of MWCNT/CdS nanocomposite as compared to pure CdS has been attributed to reduced recombination of photogenerated charge carriers due to interfacial electron transfer from CdS to MWCNT.

  3. Can aquatic worms enhance methane production from waste activated sludge?

    PubMed

    Serrano, Antonio; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Elissen, Hellen H J; Laarhoven, Bob; Buisman, Cees J N; Temmink, Hardy

    2016-07-01

    Although literature suggests that aquatic worms can help to enhance the methane production from excess activated sludge, clear evidence for this is missing. Therefore, anaerobic digestion tests were performed at 20 and at 30°C with sludge from a high-loaded membrane bioreactor, the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus, feces from these worms and with mixtures of these substrates. A significant synergistic effect of the worms or their feces on methane production from the high-loaded sludge or on its digestion rate was not observed. However, a positive effect on low-loaded activated sludge, which generally has a lower anaerobic biodegradability, cannot be excluded. The results furthermore showed that the high-loaded sludge provides an excellent feed for L. variegatus, which is promising for concepts where worm biomass is considered a resource for technical grade products such as coatings and glues. PMID:26998797

  4. Neuronal activity enhances tau propagation and tau pathology in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jessica W; Hussaini, S Abid; Bastille, Isle M; Rodriguez, Gustavo A; Mrejeru, Ana; Rilett, Kelly; Sanders, David W; Cook, Casey; Fu, Hongjun; Boonen, Rick A C M; Herman, Mathieu; Nahmani, Eden; Emrani, Sheina; Figueroa, Y Helen; Diamond, Marc I; Clelland, Catherine L; Wray, Selina; Duff, Karen E

    2016-08-01

    Tau protein can transfer between neurons transneuronally and trans-synaptically, which is thought to explain the progressive spread of tauopathy observed in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Here we show that physiological tau released from donor cells can transfer to recipient cells via the medium, suggesting that at least one mechanism by which tau can transfer is via the extracellular space. Neuronal activity has been shown to regulate tau secretion, but its effect on tau pathology is unknown. Using optogenetic and chemogenetic approaches, we found that increased neuronal activity stimulates the release of tau in vitro and enhances tau pathology in vivo. These data have implications for disease pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies for Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies. PMID:27322420

  5. Carbon Nanotube Materials for Substrate Enhanced Control of Catalytic Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Heben, M.; Dillon, A. C.; Engtrakul, C.; Lee, S.-H.; Kelley, R. D.; Kini, A. M.

    2007-05-01

    Carbon SWNTs are attractive materials for supporting electrocatalysts. The properties of SWNTs are highly tunable and controlled by the nanotube's circumferential periodicity and their surface chemistry. These unique characteristics suggest that architectures constructed from these types of carbon support materials would exhibit interesting and useful properties. Here, we expect that the structure of the carbon nanotube support will play a major role in stabilizing metal electrocatalysts under extreme operating conditions and suppress both catalyst and support degradation. Furthermore, the chemical modification of the carbon nanotube surfaces can be expected to alter the interface between the catalyst and support, thus, enhancing the activity and utilization of the electrocatalysts. We plan to incorporate discrete reaction sites into the carbon nanotube lattice to create intimate electrical contacts with the catalyst particles to increase the metal catalyst activity and utilization. The work involves materials synthesis, design of electrode architectures on the nanoscale, control of the electronic, ionic, and mass fluxes, and use of advanced optical spectroscopy techniques.

  6. Enhancement of activated sludge disintegration and dewaterability by Fenton process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, G. C.; Isa, M. H.

    2016-06-01

    Municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of sludge. This excess sludge is an inevitable drawback inherent to the activated sludge process. In this study, the waste activated sludge was obtained from the campus wastewater treatment plant at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Malaysia. Fenton pretreatment was optimized by using the response surface methodology (RSM) to study the effects of three operating conditions including the dosage of H2O2 (g H2O2/kg TS), the molar ratio of H2O2/Fe2+ and reaction time. The optimum operating variables to achieve MLVSS removal 65%, CST reduction 28%, sCOD 11000 mg/L and EPS 500 mg/L were: 1000 g H2O2/kg TS, H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio 70 and reaction time 45 min. Fenton process was proved to be able to enhance the sludge disintegration and dewaterability.

  7. Enhanced separation of water quality parameters in the DAF (Dissolved Air Flotation) system using ozone.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byoung-Ho; Song, Won-Chul; Kim, Hye-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hyeon

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) has been used in water and wastewater treatment because it has an excellent separation capability. It was found that the separation capability of the DAF system could be even more enhanced by ozone. Ozone was applied as a substitute for air in the DAF system, so that the system was named as the DOF (Dissolved Ozone Flotation) system. Ozone not only enhances coagulation as is well known, but also provides larger micro-bubble volume because the solubility of ozone in water is much higher than that of air. Ozone enhanced the separation rate of SS by 13.6%, and turbidity by 21% in the DOF system compared to the DAF system. T-P was also removed 7.7% more in the DOF system. 41.5% of color and 7.4% of COD(Cr) were enhanced in their removal rate. Coliform and heterotrophic bacteria were removed 54% and 57.3% more in the DOF system. Separation capability of the DOF system was greatly enhanced for most of the water quality parameters because ozone provides strong oxidation power with large volume of micro-bubbles. PMID:18048988

  8. Consistency of denominator data in electronic health records in Australian primary healthcare services: enhancing data quality.

    PubMed

    Bailie, Ross; Bailie, Jodie; Chakraborty, Amal; Swift, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    propose a quality improvement approach for enhancing data quality. PMID:25347050

  9. Allele-specific DNA methylation reinforces PEAR1 enhancer activity.

    PubMed

    Izzi, Benedetta; Pistoni, Mariaelena; Cludts, Katrien; Akkor, Pinar; Lambrechts, Diether; Verfaillie, Catherine; Verhamme, Peter; Freson, Kathleen; Hoylaerts, Marc F

    2016-08-18

    Genetic variation in the PEAR1 locus is linked to platelet reactivity and cardiovascular disease. The major G allele of rs12041331, an intronic cytosine guanine dinucleotide-single-nucleotide polymorphism (CpG-SNP), is associated with higher PEAR1 expression in platelets and endothelial cells than the minor A allele. The molecular mechanism underlying this difference remains elusive. We have characterized the histone modification profiles of the intronic region surrounding rs12041331 and identified H3K4Me1 enhancer-specific enrichment for the region that covers the CpG-SNP. Interestingly, methylation studies revealed that the CpG site is fully methylated in leukocytes of GG carriers. Nuclear protein extracts from megakaryocytes, endothelial cells, vs control HEK-293 cells show a 3-fold higher affinity for the methylated G allele compared with nonmethylated G or A alleles in a gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay. To understand the positive relationship between methylation and gene expression, we studied DNA methylation at 4 different loci of PEAR1 during in vitro megakaryopoiesis. During differentiation, the CpG-SNP remained fully methylated, while we observed rapid methylation increases at the CpG-island overlapping the first 5'-untranslated region exon, paralleling the increased PEAR1 expression. In the same region, A-allele carriers of rs12041331 showed significantly lower DNA methylation at CGI1 compared with GG homozygote. This CpG-island contains binding sites for the methylation-sensitive transcription factor CTCF, whose binding is known to play a role in enhancer activation and/or repression. In conclusion, we report the molecular characterization of the first platelet function-related CpG-SNP, a genetic predisposition that reinforces PEAR1 enhancer activity through allele-specific DNA methylation. PMID:27313330

  10. 'Active Surveillance' of Prostate Cancer Doesn't Dampen Quality of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Active Surveillance' of Prostate Cancer Doesn't Dampen Quality of Life Choosing no treatment and regular check- ... with low-risk prostate cancer report a good quality of life after choosing active surveillance as a ...

  11. Treatment of activated carbon to enhance catalytic activity for reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, B.J.; Rhee, H.K. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Lee, J.K.; Park, D. )

    1994-11-01

    Catalytic activity of activated carbon treated with various techniques was examined in a fixed bed reactor for the reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia at 150 C. Activated carbon derived from coconut shell impregnated with an aqueous solution of ammonium sulfate, further treated with sulfuric acid, dried at 120 C, and then heated in an inert gas stream at 400 C, showed the highest catalytic activity within the range of experimental conditions. The enhancement of catalytic activity of modified activated carbon could be attributed to the increase in the amount of oxygen function groups which increased the adsorption site for ammonia. Catalytic activity of activated carbons depended on the surface area and the oxygen content as well.

  12. Active sound quality control of engine induced cavity noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Leopoldo P. R.; Janssens, Karl; Gajdatsy, Peter; Van der Auweraer, Herman; Varoto, Paulo S.; Sas, Paul; Desmet, Wim

    2009-02-01

    Active control solutions appear to be a feasible approach to cope with the steadily increasing requirements for noise reduction in the transportation industry. Active controllers tend to be designed with a target on the sound pressure level reduction. However, the perceived control efficiency for the occupants can be more accurately assessed if psychoacoustic metrics can be taken into account. Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate, numerically and experimentally, the effect of a feedback controller on the sound quality of a vehicle mockup excited with engine noise. The proposed simulation scheme is described and experimentally validated. The engine excitation is provided by a sound quality equivalent engine simulator, running on a real-time platform that delivers harmonic excitation in function of the driving condition. The controller performance is evaluated in terms of specific loudness and roughness. It is shown that the use of a quite simple control strategy, such as a velocity feedback, can result in satisfactory loudness reduction with slightly spread roughness, improving the overall perception of the engine sound.

  13. Immune Activation Reduces Sperm Quality in the Great Tit

    PubMed Central

    Losdat, Sylvain; Richner, Heinz; Blount, Jonathan D.; Helfenstein, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    Mounting an immune response against pathogens incurs costs to organisms by its effects on important life-history traits, such as reproductive investment and survival. As shown recently, immune activation produces large amounts of reactive species and is suggested to induce oxidative stress. Sperm are highly susceptible to oxidative stress, which can negatively impact sperm function and ultimately male fertilizing efficiency. Here we address the question as to whether mounting an immune response affects sperm quality through the damaging effects of oxidative stress. It has been demonstrated recently in birds that carotenoid-based ornaments can be reliable signals of a male's ability to protect sperm from oxidative damage. In a full-factorial design, we immune-challenged great tit males while simultaneously increasing their vitamin E availability, and assessed the effect on sperm quality and oxidative damage. We conducted this experiment in a natural population and tested the males' response to the experimental treatment in relation to their carotenoid-based breast coloration, a condition-dependent trait. Immune activation induced a steeper decline in sperm swimming velocity, thus highlighting the potential costs of an induced immune response on sperm competitive ability and fertilizing efficiency. We found sperm oxidative damage to be negatively correlated with sperm swimming velocity. However, blood resistance to a free-radical attack (a measure of somatic antioxidant capacity) as well as plasma and sperm levels of oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation) remained unaffected, thus suggesting that the observed effect did not arise through oxidative stress. Towards the end of their breeding cycle, swimming velocity of sperm of more intensely colored males was higher, which has important implications for the evolution of mate choice and multiple mating in females because females may accrue both direct and indirect benefits by mating with males having better quality sperm

  14. Enhancing e-waste estimates: improving data quality by multivariate Input-Output Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Huisman, Jaco; Stevels, Ab; Baldé, Cornelis Peter

    2013-11-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (or e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste streams, which encompasses a wide and increasing spectrum of products. Accurate estimation of e-waste generation is difficult, mainly due to lack of high quality data referred to market and socio-economic dynamics. This paper addresses how to enhance e-waste estimates by providing techniques to increase data quality. An advanced, flexible and multivariate Input-Output Analysis (IOA) method is proposed. It links all three pillars in IOA (product sales, stock and lifespan profiles) to construct mathematical relationships between various data points. By applying this method, the data consolidation steps can generate more accurate time-series datasets from available data pool. This can consequently increase the reliability of e-waste estimates compared to the approach without data processing. A case study in the Netherlands is used to apply the advanced IOA model. As a result, for the first time ever, complete datasets of all three variables for estimating all types of e-waste have been obtained. The result of this study also demonstrates significant disparity between various estimation models, arising from the use of data under different conditions. It shows the importance of applying multivariate approach and multiple sources to improve data quality for modelling, specifically using appropriate time-varying lifespan parameters. Following the case study, a roadmap with a procedural guideline is provided to enhance e-waste estimation studies. PMID:23899476

  15. Colloidal mesoporous silica nanoparticles enhance the biological activity of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Summerlin, Natalie; Qu, Zhi; Pujara, Naisarg; Sheng, Yong; Jambhrunkar, Siddharth; McGuckin, Michael; Popat, Amirali

    2016-08-01

    The naturally occurring polyphenol resveratrol (RES) has attracted increasing attention in recent years due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activity. However, resveratrol's promising potential as a nutraceutical is hindered by its poor aqueous solubility, which limits its biological activity. Here we show that encapsulating resveratrol in colloidal mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MCM-48-RES) enhances its saturated solubility by ∼95% and increases its in vitro release kinetics compared to pure resveratrol. MCM-48-RES showed high loading capacity (20% w/w) and excellent encapsulation efficiency (100%). When tested against HT-29 and LS147T colon cancer cell lines, MCM-48-RES-mediated in vitro cell death was higher than that of pure resveratrol, mediated via the PARP and cIAP1 pathways. Finally, MCM-48-RES treatment also inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB activation in RAW264.7 cells, demonstrating improved anti-inflammatory activity. More broadly, our observations demonstrate the potential of colloidal mesoporous silica nanoparticles as next generation delivery carriers for hydrophobic nutraceuticals. PMID:27060664

  16. Herceptin-geldanamycin immunoconjugates: pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and enhanced antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Mandler, Raya; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Hinson, Ella R; Brechbiel, Martin W; Waldmann, Thomas A

    2004-02-15

    The efficacy of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as single agents in targeted cancer therapy has proven to be limited. Arming mAbs with a potent toxic drug could enhance their activity. Here we report that conjugating geldanamycin (GA) to the anti-HER2 mAb Herceptin improved the activity of Herceptin. The IC(50)s of the immunoconjugate H-GA were 10-200-fold lower than that of Herceptin in antiproliferative assays, depending on the cell line. The H-GA mode of action involved HER2 degradation, which was partially lactacystin sensitive and thus proteasome dependent. The linkage between GA and Herceptin remained stable in the circulation, as suggested by the pharmacokinetics of Herceptin and conjugated GA, which were almost identical and significantly different from that of free GA. Tumor uptake of Herceptin and H-GA were similar (52 +/- 7 and 43 +/- 7% of the initial injected dose per gram tissue, respectively; P = 0.077), indicating no apparent damage attributable to conjugation. Therapy experiments in xenograft-bearing mice consisted of weekly i.p. doses, 4 mg/kg for 4 months. H-GA showed a greater antitumor effect than Herceptin because it induced tumor regression in 69% of the recipients compared with 7% by Herceptin alone. Median survival time was 145 days as opposed to 78 days, and 31% of the recipients remained tumor free 2 months after therapy was terminated versus 0% in the Herceptin group. Enhancement of Herceptin activity could be of significant clinical value. In addition, the chemical linkage and the considerations in therapeutic regimen described here could be applied to other immunoconjugates for targeted therapy of a broad spectrum of cancers. PMID:14973048

  17. Enhancer-specific modulation of E protein activity.

    PubMed

    Markus, Maurice; Du, Zhimei; Benezra, Robert

    2002-02-22

    Homodimeric complexes of members of the E protein family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are important for tissue-specific activation of genes in B lymphocytes (Bain, G., Gruenwald, S., and Murre, C. (1993) Mol. Cell Biol. 13, 3522-3529; Shen, C. P., and Kadesch, T. (1995) Mol. Cell Biol. 15, 4518-4524; Jacobs, Y., et al. (1994) Mol. Cell Biol. 14, 4087-4096; Wilson, R. B., et al. (1991) Mol. Cell Biol. 11, 6185-6191). These homodimers, however, have little activity on myogenic enhancers (Weintraub, H., Genetta, T., and Kadesch, T. (1994) Genes Dev. 8, 2203-2211). We report here the identification of a novel cis-acting transcriptional repression domain in the E protein family of bHLH transcription factors. This domain, the Rep domain, is present in each of the known vertebrate E proteins. Extensive mapping analysis demonstrates that this domain is an acidic region of 30 amino acids with a predicted loop structure. Fusion studies indicate that the Rep domain can repress both of the E protein transactivation domains (AD1 and AD2). Physiologically, the Rep domain plays a key role in maintaining E protein homodimers in an inactive state on myogenic enhancers. In addition, we demonstrate that Rep domain mediated repression of AD1 is a necessary for the function of MyoD-E protein heterodimeric complexes. These studies demonstrate that the Rep domain is important for modulating the transcriptional activity of E proteins and provide key insights into both the selectivity and mechanism of action of E protein containing bHLH protein complexes. PMID:11724804

  18. Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon; Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faucera, Jason

    2003-06-23

    This project was designed to provide project coordination and technical assistance to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality enhancement and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Enhancement Reserve Program (CREP) and other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Three of those four streams and one other major Sherman County stream are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Temperature in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, assist landowners in developing Resource Management Systems (RMS) that address resource concerns

  19. Constitutive adipocyte mTORC1 activation enhances mitochondrial activity and reduces visceral adiposity in mice.

    PubMed

    Magdalon, Juliana; Chimin, Patricia; Belchior, Thiago; Neves, Rodrigo X; Vieira-Lara, Marcel A; Andrade, Maynara L; Farias, Talita S; Bolsoni-Lopes, Andressa; Paschoal, Vivian A; Yamashita, Alex S; Kowaltowski, Alicia J; Festuccia, William T

    2016-05-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) loss of function reduces adiposity whereas partial mTORC1 inhibition enhances fat deposition. Herein we evaluated how constitutive mTORC1 activation in adipocytes modulates adiposity in vivo. Mice with constitutive mTORC1 activation in adipocytes induced by tuberous sclerosis complex (Tsc)1 deletion and littermate controls were evaluated for body mass, energy expenditure, glucose and fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial function, mRNA and protein contents. Adipocyte-specific Tsc1 deletion reduced visceral, but not subcutaneous, fat mass, as well as adipocyte number and diameter, phenotypes that were associated with increased lipolysis, UCP-1 content (browning) and mRNA levels of pro-browning transcriptional factors C/EBPβ and ERRα. Adipocyte Tsc1 deletion enhanced mitochondrial oxidative activity, fatty acid oxidation and the expression of PGC-1α and PPARα in both visceral and subcutaneous fat. In brown adipocytes, however, Tsc1 deletion did not affect UCP-1 content and basal respiration. Adipocyte Tsc1 deletion also reduced visceral adiposity and enhanced glucose tolerance, liver and muscle insulin signaling and adiponectin secretion in mice fed with purified low- or high-fat diet. In conclusion, adipocyte-specific Tsc1 deletion enhances mitochondrial activity, induces browning and reduces visceral adiposity in mice. PMID:26923434

  20. Physical Activity and Quality of Life Experienced by Highly Active Individuals with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Stancil, Michael; Hardin, Brent; Bryant, Lance

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined links between physical activity and quality of life experienced by individuals with physical disabilities recruited from a wheelchair user's basketball tournament. The participants included 12 male and 14 female adults between the ages of 18-54 (M = 31.12, SD = 10.75) who all reported one or more condition(s) that…

  1. Enhancing Quality Interventions Promoting Healthy Sexuality (EQUIPS): A novel application of translational research methods

    PubMed Central

    Chinman, Matthew; Acosta, Joie; Ebener, Patricia; Driver, Jennifer; Keith, Jamie; Peebles, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Translational research is expanding, in part, because Evidence-Based Programs or Practices (EBPs) are not adopted in many medical domains. However, little translational research exists on EBPs that are prevention programs delivered in non-clinical, community-based settings. These organizations often have low capacity, which undermines implementation quality and outcomes. Rigorous translational research is needed in these settings so within a single study, capacity, implementation quality, and outcomes are measured and links between them tested. This paper overviews the study Enhancing Quality Interventions Promoting Healthy Sexuality (EQUIPS), which tests how well a community-based setting (Boys & Girls Clubs) conducts an EBP called Making Proud Choices that aims to prevent teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, with and without an implementation support intervention called Getting To Outcomes®. The study design is novel as it assesses: Getting To Outcomes’ impact on capacity, implementation quality, and outcomes simultaneously and in both study conditions; will assess sustainability by measuring capacity and fidelity a year after the Getting To Outcomes support ends; and will operate on a large scale similar to many national initiatives. Many studies have not incorporated all these elements and thus EQUIPS could serve as a model for translational research in many domains. PMID:23751031

  2. A Novel Multiobjective Control of DVR to Enhance Power Quality of Sensitive Load

    PubMed Central

    Pandu, Sathish Babu; Nagappan, Kamaraj

    2015-01-01

    The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is one of the fast, flexible, and cost effective solutions available in compensating the voltage-related power quality problems in power distribution systems. In this paper is discussed how power quality enhancement of sensitive load is achieved by applying three versions of Autonomous Group Particle Swarm Optimization like AGPSO1, AGPSO2, and AGPSO3 for tuning the Proportional-Integral DVR controller under balanced and nonlinear load conditions. A novel multiobjective function is formulated to express the control performance of the system, which is quantified using three power quality indices such as Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), voltage sag index, and RMS voltage variation. The obtained results are compared with the Proportional-Integral (PI) controller tuned by Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) method and also by Simple Particle Swarm Optimization based PI controlled DVR. The proposed methodology has improved the performance in terms of the considered power quality indices and the simulation has been carried out in MATLAB/Simulink environment. PMID:26613100

  3. Enhancing arabic bread quality and shelf life stability using bread improvers.

    PubMed

    Aleid, S M; Al-Hulaibi, A A; Ghoush, M Abu; Al-Shathri, A A

    2015-08-01

    Arabic breads is produced mainly from hard red winter wheat (HRWW) and have relatively little crumb, dense texture, form pocket and are often round with golden brown crust color. The objectives of this research were to investigate the effect of different bread improvers combinations addition in enhancing the quality parameters of Arabic bread. Therefore, the ability of Arabic bread for rolling, folding and overall quality were evaluated during the Arabic bread storage period for 2 days. It was found that there was significant effect of bread improvers combinations (Arabic gum "AG" * Mongglycerides "MG" *alpha-amylase) addition on the ability of Arabic bread for rolling and folding on the second day (P ≤ 0.1). The highest white Arabic bread quality was obtained significantly from addition of low AG, high of MG and high alpha-amylase combination and high AG, low of MG and high alpha-amylase combination. While, low of AG, high of MG and low alpha-amylase combination and high of AG, high of MG and low alpha-amylase combination significantly exhibited the highest overall quality for the Arabic bread made from whole flour. PMID:26243897

  4. A Novel Multiobjective Control of DVR to Enhance Power Quality of Sensitive Load.

    PubMed

    Pandu, Sathish Babu; Nagappan, Kamaraj

    2015-01-01

    The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is one of the fast, flexible, and cost effective solutions available in compensating the voltage-related power quality problems in power distribution systems. In this paper is discussed how power quality enhancement of sensitive load is achieved by applying three versions of Autonomous Group Particle Swarm Optimization like AGPSO1, AGPSO2, and AGPSO3 for tuning the Proportional-Integral DVR controller under balanced and nonlinear load conditions. A novel multiobjective function is formulated to express the control performance of the system, which is quantified using three power quality indices such as Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), voltage sag index, and RMS voltage variation. The obtained results are compared with the Proportional-Integral (PI) controller tuned by Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) method and also by Simple Particle Swarm Optimization based PI controlled DVR. The proposed methodology has improved the performance in terms of the considered power quality indices and the simulation has been carried out in MATLAB/Simulink environment. PMID:26613100

  5. Dual-energy contrast-enhanced breast tomosynthesis: optimization of beam quality for dose and image quality.

    PubMed

    Samei, Ehsan; Saunders, Robert S

    2011-10-01

    Dual-energy contrast-enhanced breast tomosynthesis is a promising technique to obtain three-dimensional functional information from the breast with high resolution and speed. To optimize this new method, this study searched for the beam quality that maximized image quality in terms of mass detection performance. A digital tomosynthesis system was modeled using a fast ray-tracing algorithm, which created simulated projection images by tracking photons through a voxelized anatomical breast phantom containing iodinated lesions. The single-energy images were combined into dual-energy images through a weighted log subtraction process. The weighting factor was optimized to minimize anatomical noise, while the dose distribution was chosen to minimize quantum noise. The dual-energy images were analyzed for the signal difference to noise ratio (SdNR) of iodinated masses. The fast ray-tracing explored 523 776 dual-energy combinations to identify which yields optimum mass SdNR. The ray-tracing results were verified using a Monte Carlo model for a breast tomosynthesis system with a selenium-based flat-panel detector. The projection images from our voxelized breast phantom were obtained at a constant total glandular dose. The projections were combined using weighted log subtraction and reconstructed using commercial reconstruction software. The lesion SdNR was measured in the central reconstructed slice. The SdNR performance varied markedly across the kVp and filtration space. Ray-tracing results indicated that the mass SdNR was maximized with a high-energy tungsten beam at 49 kVp with 92.5 µm of copper filtration and a low-energy tungsten beam at 49 kVp with 95 µm of tin filtration. This result was consistent with Monte Carlo findings. This mammographic technique led to a mass SdNR of 0.92 ± 0.03 in the projections and 3.68 ± 0.19 in the reconstructed slices. These values were markedly higher than those for non-optimized techniques. Our findings indicate that dual

  6. Increasing tomato fruit quality by enhancing fruit chloroplast function. A double-edged sword?

    PubMed

    Cocaliadis, Maria Florencia; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Pons, Clara; Orzaez, Diego; Granell, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    Fruits are generally regarded as photosynthate sinks as they rely on energy provided by sugars transported from leaves to carry out the highly demanding processes of development and ripening; eventually these imported photosynthates also contribute to the fruit organoleptic properties. Three recent reports have revealed, however, that transcriptional factors enhancing chloroplast development in fruit may result in higher contents not only of tomato fruit-specialized metabolites but also of sugars. In addition to suggesting new ways to improve fruit quality by fortifying fruit chloroplasts and plastids, these results prompted us to re-evaluate the importance of the contribution of chloroplasts/photosynthesis to fruit development and ripening. PMID:24723405

  7. Insect pollination enhances seed yield, quality, and market value in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Bommarco, Riccardo; Marini, Lorenzo; Vaissière, Bernard E

    2012-08-01

    The relationships between landscape intensification, the abundance and diversity of pollinating insects, and their contributions to crop yield, quality, and market value are poorly studied, despite observed declines in wild and domesticated pollinators. Abundance and species richness of pollinating insects were estimated in ten fields of spring oilseed rape, Brassica napus var. SW Stratos™, located along a gradient of landscape compositions ranging from simple landscapes dominated by arable land to heterogeneous landscapes with extensive cover of semi-natural habitats. In each field, we assessed the contribution of wind and insect pollination to seed yield, seed quality (individual seed weight and oil and chlorophyll contents), and market value in a block experiment with four replicates and two treatments: (1) all flowers were accessible to insects, self and wind pollination, and (2) flowers enclosed in tulle net bags (mesh: 1 × 1 mm) were accessible only to wind and self pollination. Complex landscapes enhanced the overall abundance of wild insects as well as the abundance and species richness of hoverflies. This did not translate to a higher yield, probably due to consistent pollination by honey bees across all fields. However, the pollination experiment showed that insects increased seed weight per plant by 18% and market value by 20%. Seed quality was enhanced by insect pollination, rendering heavier seeds as well as higher oil and lower chlorophyll contents, clearly showing that insect pollination is required to reach high seed yield and quality in oilseed rape. Our study demonstrates considerable and previously underestimated contributions from pollinating insects to both the yield and the market value of oilseed rape. PMID:22311256

  8. Impact of beam quality on megavoltage radiotherapy treatment techniques utilizing gold nanoparticles for dose enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiamas, Panagiotis; Liu, Bo; Cifter, Fulya; Ngwa, Wilfred F.; Berbeco, Ross I.; Kappas, Constantin; Theodorou, Kiriaki; Marcus, Karen; Makrigiorgos, Mike G.; Sajo, Erno; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2013-02-01

    This study determines the optimal clinical scenarios for gold nanoparticle dose enhancement as a function of irradiation conditions and potential biological targets using megavoltage x-ray beams. Four hundred and eighty clinical beams were studied for different potential cellular or sub-cellular targets. Beam quality was determined based on a 6 MV linac with and without a flattening filter for various delivery conditions. Dose enhancement ratios DER = DGNP/Dwater were calculated for all cases using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo code and the CEPXS/ONEDANT radiation transport deterministic code. Dose enhancement using GEANT4 agreed with CEPXS/ONEDANT. DER for unflattened beams is ∼2 times larger than for flattened beams. The maximum DER values were calculated for split-IMRT fields (∼6) and for out-of-field areas of an unflattened linac (∼17). In-field DER values, at the surface of gold nanoparticles, ranged from 2.2 to 4.2 (flattened beam) and from 3 to 4.7 (unflattened beams). For a GNP cluster with thicknesses of 10 and 100 nm, the DER ranges from 14% to 287%. DER is the greatest for split-IMRT, larger depths, out-of-field areas and/or unflattened linac. Mapping of a GNP location in tumor and normal tissue is essential for efficient and safe delivery of nanoparticle-enhanced radiotherapy.

  9. Enhancement of antiproliferative activity by phototautomerization of anthrylphenols.

    PubMed

    Kralj, Marijeta; Uzelac, Lidija; Wang, Yu-Hsuan; Wan, Peter; Tireli, Martina; Mlinarić-Majerski, Kata; Piantanida, Ivo; Basarić, Nikola

    2015-06-01

    An antiproliferative investigation was conducted on 3 human cancer cell lines, HCT 116 (colon), MCF-7 (breast), and H 460 (lung), on a series of 4 anthrylphenols in the dark and upon exposure to light (350 nm). 9-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)anthracene (1) moderately inhibited proliferation, but irradiation considerably enhanced the effect. The other anthracenes 4–6 exhibited antiproliferative activity in the dark, which was not enhanced upon irradiation. The enhancement of the antiproliferative effect on the irradiation of 1 was rationalized as being due to the formation of quinone methide (QM 2) by excited state proton transfer. QM 2 acts as an electrophilic species capable of reacting with biological molecules. Although QM 2 reacts with nucleotides, the adducts could not be isolated. On the contrary, cysteine adduct 8 was isolated and characterized, whereas the adducts with glycine, serine and tripeptide glutathione were characterized by MS. Non-covalent binding of 1 to DNA and bovine serum albumin was demonstrated by UV-vis, fluorescence and CD spectroscopy. However, a straightforward conclusion regarding the DNA or protein alkylating (damaging) ability of 2 could not be drawn. The results obtained by the irradiation of 1 in the presence of DNA, amino acids and peptides, cell cycle perturbation analysis, and in vitro translation of GFP suggest that the effect is not only due to the damage of DNA but also due to the impact on the cellular proteins. Considering that to date all QM agents were assumed to target DNA dominantly, this is an important finding with an impact on the further development of anticancer agents based on QMs. PMID:25850014

  10. Quality assessment and antiplasmodial activity of West African Cochlospermum species.

    PubMed

    Lamien-Meda, Aline; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Compaoré, Moussa; Meda, Roland N T; Bacher, Markus; Koenig, Karin; Pacher, Thomas; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Noedl, Harald; Willcox, Merlin; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    The present study focuses on development of phytochemical methods for quality assessment of two West-African Cochlospermum species (Cochlospermum planchonii and Cochlospermum tinctorium) traditionally used for malaria treatment in Burkina Faso. Antimalarial activity of preparations from dried rhizomes (decoction) was tested against the chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium strain 3D7 using the histidine-rich protein II (HRP2) drug susceptibility assay and compared with extract preparations using organic solvents of different polarity. Two main apocarotenoids were isolated from rhizomes of C. planchonii and unambiguously identified as dihydrocochloxanthine and cochloxanthine by spectroscopic methods. Comparative HPLC analyses of thirty-nine (39) samples from markets and from collections in natural habitats of both species showed a high variability in the accumulation of cochloxanthines and related carotenoids which were proven to be characteristic for rhizomes of both species and generally absent in leaves. Furthermore, content of total phenolics and antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP) as well as haemolytic activity of various extracts was tested. The HPLC method presented here was validated and provides a good separation of both compounds including 10 minor carotenoids. Extracts from both species and pure cochloxanthine offered pronounced antioxidant activities and weak haemolytic activity while, in contrast, dihydrocochloxanthine had a strong haemolytic effect at the highest concentration analysed. However, cochloxanthine as well as dihydrocochloxanthine showed erythroprotective effects against the haemolytic activity of the reference saponin. Moderate antiplasmodial activity between 16 and 63 μg/ml were observed with all tested extracts, and lower IC50 values were obtained with pure dihydrocochloxanthine (IC50=6.9 μg/ml), cochloxanthine (IC50=6.8 μg/ml), the DCM fraction (IC50=2.4 μg/ml) and the ethyl acetate fraction (IC50=11.5μg/ml) derived from a methanolic

  11. Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.-R.; Lei, H.-Y.; Liu, M.-T.; Wang, J.-R.; Chen, S.-H.; Jiang-Shieh, Y.-F.; Lin, Y.-S.; Yeh, T.-M.; Liu, C.-C.; Liu, H.-S.

    2008-05-10

    Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication.

  12. Active Tailoring of Lift Distribution to Enhance Cruise Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D. (Technical Monitor); Pfeiffer, Neal J.; Christians, Joel G.

    2005-01-01

    During Phase I of this project, Raytheon Aircraft Company (RAC) has analytically and experimentally evaluated key components of a system that could be implemented for active tailoring of wing lift distribution using low-drag, trailing-edge modifications. Simple systems such as those studied by RAC could be used to enhance the cruise performance of a business jet configuration over a range of typical flight conditions. The trailing-edge modifications focus on simple, deployable mechanisms comprised of extendable small flap panels over portions of the span that could be used to subtly but positively optimize the lift and drag characteristics. The report includes results from low speed wind tunnel testing of the trailing-edge devices, descriptions of potential mechanisms for automation, and an assessment of the technology.

  13. Enhanced Efflux Activity Facilitates Drug Tolerance in Dormant Bacterial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Yingying; Zhao, Zhilun; Li, Yingxing; Zou, Jin; Ma, Qi; Zhao, Yanna; Ke, Yuehua; Zhu, Yun; Chen, Huiyi; Baker, Matthew A.B.; Ge, Hao; Sun, Yujie; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney; Bai, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Natural variations in gene expression provide a mechanism for multiple phenotypes to arise in an isogenic bacterial population. In particular, a sub-group termed persisters show high tolerance to antibiotics. Previously, their formation has been attributed to cell dormancy. Here we demonstrate that bacterial persisters, under β-lactam antibiotic treatment, show less cytoplasmic drug accumulation as a result of enhanced efflux activity. Consistently, a number of multi-drug efflux genes, particularly the central component TolC, show higher expression in persisters. Time-lapse imaging and mutagenesis studies further establish a positive correlation between tolC expression and bacterial persistence. The key role of efflux systems, among multiple biological pathways involved in persister formation, indicates that persisters implement a positive defense against antibiotics prior to a passive defense via dormancy. Finally, efflux inhibitors and antibiotics together effectively attenuate persister formation, suggesting a combination strategy to target drug tolerance. PMID:27105118

  14. Activated carbon adsorbents from waste tires for air quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, C.M.B.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Hsi, H.C.

    1999-07-01

    This study evaluates methodologies for utilizing waste tire rubber to produce carbonaceous adsorbents for use in air quality control operations. Such an approach provides a two-fold environmental and economic benefit. A recycling path is developed for waste tire rubber and new adsorbents are produced from a low cost feedstock for use in environmentally-related operations. Bench-scale and pilot-scale quantities of tire-derived activated carbon (TDAC) were produced from waste tire rubber. Raw tire rubber samples and devolatilized tire char were obtained from several US vendors. The raw samples were analyzed using proximate, ultimate, and elemental analyses. Batches of activated carbon samples were prepared using a bench-scale fixed-tubular reactor to prepare {approximately}10 g samples and a fluidized-bed reactor to prepare {approximately}100 g quantities. About 25 kg of activated carbon was also produced at a pilot-scale commercial facility. The resulting TDACs were then characterized by nitrogen adsorption at 77K. The sample surface areas were determined by the BET method, and the pore size distribution (PSD) was evaluated using the BJH model, and a 3-D PSD model. Performance of the TDACs was evaluated in their ability to remove gaseous mercury species from simulated power-plant flue-gas streams, and for the removal of organic compounds (e.g., acetone and 1,1,1-trichloroethane) from flowing gas streams.

  15. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on antimicrobial activity and quality of Manuka honey.

    PubMed

    Al-Habsi, Nasser A; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2012-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of Manuka honey is of major interest to beekeepers and the honey industry. In this study, the effect of high hydrostatic pressure and thermal treatments on antimicrobial activity and quality parameters (principally, diastase number and hydroxymethylfurfural levels (HMF)) of Manuka honey were investigated. The honey was subjected to different pressures (100-800MPa) at 25°C for a range of holding times (15-120min). The antimicrobial activity was found to increase with applied pressure for a given holding time, while the diastase number and HMF levels remained, more or less, unaffected. The percentage inhibition in microbial growth correlated linearly (R(2)=0.94) with methyglyoxal concentration in the honey after treatment over the entire range of pressure, temperature and holding times studied. Maximum percentage inhibition (78.83%) was achieved when honey was subjected to 800MPa compared to the control (57.93%). Thermal treatments at higher temperatures were found to have a detrimental effect on antimicrobial activity based on percentage inhibition as well as methylglyoxal content. Thus, it can be concluded that the levels of methylglyoxal, and therefore the antimicrobial effect of Manuka honey, can be enhanced by using high pressure processing without adversely affecting honey quality. PMID:22953879

  16. Quality investigation of hydroxyprogesterone caproate active pharmaceutical ingredient and injection

    PubMed Central

    Chollet, John L.; Jozwiakowski, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of hydroxyprogesterone caproate (HPC) active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) sources that may be used by compounding pharmacies, compared to the FDA-approved source of the API; and to investigate the quality of HPC injection samples obtained from compounding pharmacies in the US, compared to the FDA-approved product (Makena®). Samples of API were obtained from every source confirmed to be an original manufacturer of the drug for human use, which were all companies in China that were not registered with FDA. Eight of the ten API samples (80%) did not meet the impurity specifications required by FDA for the API used in the approved product. One API sample was found to not be HPC at all; additional laboratory testing showed that it was glucose. Thirty samples of HPC injection obtained from com pounding pharmacies throughout the US were also tested, and eight of these samples (27%) failed to meet the potency requirement listed in the USP monograph for HPC injection and/or the HPLC assay. Sixteen of the thirty injection samples (53%) exceeded the impurity limit setforthe FDA-approved drug product. These results confirm the inconsistency of compounded HPC Injections and suggest that the risk-benefit ratio of using an unapproved compounded preparation, when an FDA-approved drug product is available, is not favorable. PMID:22329865

  17. Low-Activity Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives

    SciTech Connect

    MJ Truex; KD Wiemers

    1998-12-11

    This document describes characterization requirements for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Waste Disposal Program's privatization efforts in support of low-activity waste (LAW) treatment and immobilization, This revised Data Quality Objective (DQO) replaces earlier documents (PNNL 1997; DOE-W 1998zq Wiemers 1996). Revision O of this DQO was completed to meet Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) target milestone M-60-14-TO1. Revision 1 updates the data requirements based on the contract issued `August 1998 (DOE-RL 1998b). In addition, sections of Revision O pertaining to "environmental planning" were not acceptable to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and have been removed. Regulatory compliance for TWRS Privatization is being addressed in a separate DQO (Wiemers et al. 1998). The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Contractors and the private contractor may elect to complete issue-specific DQOS to accommodate their individual work scope.

  18. Pt3Co concave nanocubes: synthesis, formation understanding, and enhanced catalytic activity toward hydrogenation of styrene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenyu; Lin, Cuikun; Zhang, Lihua; Quan, Zewei; Sun, Kai; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Feng; Porter, Nathan; Wang, Yuxuan; Fang, Jiye

    2014-02-01

    We report a facile synthesis route to prepare high-quality Pt3Co nanocubes with a concave structure, and further demonstrate that these concave Pt3Co nanocubes are terminated with high-index crystal facets. The success of this preparation is highly dependent on an appropriate nucleation process with a successively anisotropic overgrowth and a preservation of the resultant high-index planes by control binding of oleyl-amine/oleic acid with a fine-tuned composition. Using a hydrogenation of styrene as a model reaction, these Pt3Co concave nanocubes as a new class of nanocatalysts with more open structure and active atomic sites located on their high-index crystallographic planes exhibit an enhanced catalytic activity in comparison with low-indexed surface terminated Pt3Co nanocubes in similar size. PMID:24382713

  19. Enhanced capacitive properties of commercial activated carbon by re-activation in molten carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Beihu; Xiao, Zuoan; Zhu, Hua; Xiao, Wei; Wu, Wenlong; Wang, Dihua

    2015-12-01

    Simple, affordable and green methods to improve capacitive properties of commercial activated carbon (AC) are intriguing since ACs possess a predominant role in the commercial supercapacitor market. Herein, we report a green reactivation of commercial ACs by soaking ACs in molten Na2CO3-K2CO3 (equal in mass ratios) at 850 °C combining the merits of both physical and chemical activation strategies. The mechanism of molten carbonate treatment and structure-capacitive activity correlations of the ACs are rationalized. Characterizations show that the molten carbonate treatment increases the electrical conductivity of AC without compromising its porosity and wettability of electrolytes. Electrochemical tests show the treated AC exhibited higher specific capacitance, enhanced high-rate capability and excellent cycle performance, promising its practical application in supercapacitors. The present study confirms that the molten carbonate reactivation is a green and effective method to enhance capacitive properties of ACs.

  20. Enhanced lysosomal activity by overexpressed aminopeptidase Y in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jihee; Sekhon, Simranjeet Singh; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Min, Jiho

    2016-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains vacuoles corresponding to lysosomes in higher eukaryotes. Lysosomes are dynamic (not silent) organelles in which enzymes can be easily integrated or released when exposed to stressful conditions. Changes in lysosomal enzymes have been observed due to oxidative stress, resulting in an increased function of lysosomes. The protein profiles from H2O2- and NH4Cl-treated lysosomes showed different expression patterns, observed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The aminopeptidase Y protein (APE3) that conspicuously enhanced antimicrobial activity than other proteins was selected for further studies. The S. cerevisiae APE3 gene was isolated and inserted into pYES2.0 expression vector. The GFP gene was inserted downstream to the APE3 gene for confirmation of APE3 targeting to lysosomes, and S. cerevisiae was transformed to pYES2::APE3::GFP. The APE3 did not enter in lysosomes and formed an inclusion body at 30 °C, but it inserted to lysosomes as shown by the merger of GFP with lysosomes at 28 °C. Antimicrobial activity of the cloned S. cerevisiae increased about 5 to 10 % against eight strains, compared to normal cells, and galactose induction is increased more two folds than that of normal cells. Therefore, S. cerevisiae was transformed to pYES2::APE3::GFP, accumulating a large amount of APE3, resulting in increased lysosomal activity. Increase in endogenous levels of lysosomes and their activity following genetic modification can lead to its use in applications such as antimicrobial agents and apoptosis-inducing materials for cancer cells, and consequently, it may also be possible to use the organelles for improving in vitro functions. PMID:27221740

  1. 75 FR 2552 - NIH State-of-the-Science Conference: Enhancing Use and Quality of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ..., particularly breast and cervical cancer. Reasons for this disparity are complex. Unlike most other preventive... Quality of Colorectal Cancer Screening Notice is hereby given by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of the ``NIH State-of-the-Science Conference: Enhancing Use and Quality of Colorectal...

  2. Application research on enhancing near-infrared micro-imaging quality by 2nd derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Ma, Zhi-hong; Zhao, Liu; Wang, Bei-hong; Han, Ping; Pan, Li-gang; Wang, Ji-hua

    2013-08-01

    Near-infrared micro-imaging will not only provide the sample's spatial distribution information, but also the spectroscopic information of each pixel. In this thesis, it took the artificial sample of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate distribution given for example to research the data processing method for enhancing the quality of near-infrared micro-imaging. Near-infrared spectroscopic feature of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate being studied on, compare correlation imaging and 2nd derivative imaging were applied in the imaging processing of the near-infrared micro-image of the artificial sample. Furthermore, the two methods were combined, i.e. 2nd derivative compare correlation imaging was acquired. The result indicated that the difference of the correlation coefficients between the two substances, i.e. wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate, and the reference spectrum has been increased from 0.001 in compare correlation image to 0.796 in 2nd derivative compare correlation image respectively, which enhances the imaging quality efficiently. This study will, to some extent, be of important reference significance to near-infrared micro-imaging method research of agricultural products and foods.

  3. Enhanced adsorption of quaternary amine using modified activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Prahas, Devarly; Wang, M J; Ismadji, Suryadi; Liu, J C

    2014-01-01

    This study examined different methodologies to modify activated carbon (AC) for the removal of quaternary amine, tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), from water. Commercial carbon (WAC) was treated by nitric acid oxidation (NA-WAC), silica impregnation (SM-WAC0.5), and oxygen plasma (P10-WAC), and their characteristics and adsorption capacity were compared. The Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium adsorption data well under different pH. The maximum adsorption capacity of WAC was 27.77 mg/g, while those of NA-WAC, SM-WAC 0.5, and P10-WAC were 37.46, 32.83 and 29.03 mg/g, respectively. Nitric acid oxidation was the most effective method for enhancing the adsorption capacity of TMAH. Higher pH was favorable for TMAH adsorption. Desorption study revealed that NA-WAC had no considerable reduction in performance even after five cycles of regeneration by 0.1 N hydrochloric acid. It was proposed that electrostatic interaction was the main mechanism of TMAH adsorption on activated carbon. PMID:24845325

  4. Active Transport Can Greatly Enhance Cdc20:Mad2 Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Bashar; Henze, Richard

    2014-01-01

    To guarantee genomic integrity and viability, the cell must ensure proper distribution of the replicated chromosomes among the two daughter cells in mitosis. The mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a central regulatory mechanism to achieve this goal. A dysfunction of this checkpoint may lead to aneuploidy and likely contributes to the development of cancer. Kinetochores of unattached or misaligned chromosomes are thought to generate a diffusible “wait-anaphase” signal, which is the basis for downstream events to inhibit the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). The rate of Cdc20:C-Mad2 complex formation at the kinetochore is a key regulatory factor in the context of APC/C inhibition. Computer simulations of a quantitative SAC model show that the formation of Cdc20:C-Mad2 is too slow for checkpoint maintenance when cytosolic O-Mad2 has to encounter kinetochores by diffusion alone. Here, we show that an active transport of O-Mad2 towards the spindle mid-zone increases the efficiency of Mad2-activation. Our in-silico data indicate that this mechanism can greatly enhance the formation of Cdc20:Mad2 and furthermore gives an explanation on how the “wait-anaphase” signal can dissolve abruptly within a short time. Our results help to understand parts of the SAC mechanism that remain unclear. PMID:25338047

  5. Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon; Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faucera, Jason

    2006-06-01

    This project was designed to provide technical assistance and project coordination to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) in addition to other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Of those four streams that comprise Sherman County's boundaries, three are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Only one stream in the interior of Sherman County is 303(d) listed for temperatures, but is the largest watershed in the County. Temperatures in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA

  6. Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon; Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faucera, Jason

    2004-05-01

    This project was designed to provide technical assistance and project coordination to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) in addition to other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Of those four streams that comprise Sherman County's boundaries, three are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Only one stream in the interior of Sherman County is 303(d) listed for temperatures, but is the largest watershed in the County. Temperatures in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA

  7. Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon : Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faucera, Jason

    2005-06-01

    This project was designed to provide technical assistance and project coordination to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) in addition to other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Of those four streams that comprise Sherman County's boundaries, three are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Only one stream in the interior of Sherman County is 303(d) listed for temperatures, but is the largest watershed in the County. Temperatures in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA

  8. Quality of Life Assessment for Physical Activity and Health Promotion: Further Psychometrics and Comparison of Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Diane L.; Reifsteck, Erin J.; Adams, Melanie M.; Shang, Ya-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Despite the clear relationship between physical activity and quality of life, few sound, relevant quality of life measures exist. Gill and colleagues developed a 32-item quality of life survey, and provided initial psychometric evidence. This study further examined that quality of life survey in comparison with the widely used short form (SF-36)…

  9. Activities Underway To Improve Teacher Training, but Reporting on These Activities Could Be Enhanced. Report to Congressional Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Cornelia M.

    This report examines two components of federal legislation to enhance teaching quality by improving the training of prospective teachers and the qualifications of current teachers. One component provides grants, and the other (the accountability provisions) requires collecting and reporting information the quality of teacher training programs and…

  10. Wheat grain quality under enhanced tropospheric CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Rudorff, B.F.T.; Mulchi, C.L.; Fenny, P.

    1996-11-01

    It is expected that the progressive increase of tropospheric trace gases such as CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} will have a significant impact on agricultural production. The single and combined effects of CO{sub 2} enrichment and tropospheric O{sub 3} on grain quality characteristics in soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were examined in field studies using 3 m in diam. open-top chambers. Wheat cultivars {open_quotes}Massey{close_quotes} (1991) and {open_quotes}Saluda{close_quotes} (1992) were exposed to two CO{sub 2} concentrations (350 vs. 500 {mu}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup {minus}1}; 12 h d{sup {minus}1}) in combination with two O{sub 3} regimes (charcoal-filtered air vs. ambient air + 40 {plus_minus} 20 nmol O{sub 3} mol{sup {minus}1}, 7 h d{sup {minus}1}; Monday to Friday) from late March until maturity in June. Grain quality characteristics investigated included: test weight, milling and baking quality, flour yield, protein content, softness equivalent, alkaline water retention capacity, and cookie diameter. In general, exposure of plants to either elevated CO{sub 2} or weekly chronic O{sub 3} episodes caused only small changes in grain quality. Milling and baking quality score were not significantly changed in response to treatments in both years. Flour yield was increased by elevated CO{sub 2} but this increase was counteracted when elevated CO{sub 2} was combined with chronic O{sub 3} exposure. Flour protein contents were increased by enhanced O{sub 3} under elevated CO{sub 2}. Although the single effect of either CO{sub 2} enrichment or chronic O{sub 3} exposure had some impact o grain quality characteristics, it was noted that the combined effect of these gases was minor. It is likely that the concomitant increase of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} in the troposphere will have no significant impact on wheat grain quality. 25 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Retrieval practice enhances the accessibility but not the quality of memory.

    PubMed

    Sutterer, David W; Awh, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that retrieval from long-term memory (LTM) can enhance subsequent memory performance, a phenomenon labeled the retrieval practice effect. However, the almost exclusive reliance on categorical stimuli in this literature leaves open a basic question about the nature of this improvement in memory performance. It has not yet been determined whether retrieval practice improves the probability of successful memory retrieval or the quality of the retrieved representation. To answer this question, we conducted three experiments using a mixture modeling approach (Zhang & Luck, 2008) that provides a measure of both the probability of recall and the quality of the recalled memories. Subjects attempted to memorize the color of 400 unique shapes. After every 10 images were presented, subjects either recalled the last 10 colors (the retrieval practice condition) by clicking on a color wheel with each shape as a retrieval cue or they participated in a control condition that involved no further presentations (Experiment 1) or restudy of the 10 shape/color associations (Experiments 2 and 3). Performance in a subsequent delayed recall test revealed a robust retrieval practice effect. Subjects recalled a significantly higher proportion of items that they had previously retrieved relative to items that were untested or that they had restudied. Interestingly, retrieval practice did not elicit any improvement in the precision of the retrieved memories. The same empirical pattern also was observed following delays of greater than 24 hours. Thus, retrieval practice increases the probability of successful memory retrieval but does not improve memory quality. PMID:26404635

  12. Interprofessional Collaboration between Residents and Nurses in General Internal Medicine: A Qualitative Study on Behaviours Enhancing Teamwork Quality

    PubMed Central

    Muller-Juge, Virginie; Cullati, Stéphane; Blondon, Katherine S.; Hudelson, Patricia; Maître, Fabienne; Vu, Nu V.; Savoldelli, Georges L.; Nendaz, Mathieu R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective teamwork is necessary for optimal patient care. There is insufficient understanding of interactions between physicians and nurses on internal medicine wards. Objective To describe resident physicians’ and nurses’ actual behaviours contributing to teamwork quality in the setting of a simulated internal medicine ward. Methods A volunteer sample of 14 pairs of residents and nurses in internal medicine was asked to manage one non-urgent and one urgent clinical case in a simulated ward, using a high-fidelity manikin. After the simulation, participants attended a stimulated-recall session during which they viewed the videotape of the simulation and explained their actions and perceptions. All simulations were transcribed, coded, and analyzed, using a qualitative method (template analysis). Quality of teamwork was assessed, based on patient management efficiency and presence of shared management goals and of team spirit. Results Most resident-nurse pairs tended to interact in a traditional way, with residents taking the leadership and nurses executing medical prescriptions and assuming their own specific role. They also demonstrated different types of interactions involving shared responsibilities and decision making, constructive suggestions, active communication and listening, and manifestations of positive team building. The presence of a leader in the pair or a truly shared leadership between resident and nurse contributed to teamwork quality only if both members of the pair demonstrated sufficient autonomy. In case of a lack of autonomy of one member, the other member could compensate for it, if his/her own autonomy was sufficiently strong and if there were demonstrations of mutual listening, information sharing, and positive team building. Conclusions Although they often relied on traditional types of interaction, residents and nurses also demonstrated readiness for increased sharing of responsibilities. Interprofessional education should

  13. High-throughput and quantitative assessment of enhancer activity in mammals by CapStarr-seq.

    PubMed

    Vanhille, Laurent; Griffon, Aurélien; Maqbool, Muhammad Ahmad; Zacarias-Cabeza, Joaquin; Dao, Lan T M; Fernandez, Nicolas; Ballester, Benoit; Andrau, Jean Christophe; Spicuglia, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Cell-type specific regulation of gene expression requires the activation of promoters by distal genomic elements defined as enhancers. The identification and the characterization of enhancers are challenging in mammals due to their genome complexity. Here we develop CapStarr-Seq, a novel high-throughput strategy to quantitatively assess enhancer activity in mammals. This approach couples capture of regions of interest to previously developed Starr-seq technique. Extensive assessment of CapStarr-seq demonstrates accurate quantification of enhancer activity. Furthermore, we find that enhancer strength is associated with binding complexity of tissue-specific transcription factors and super-enhancers, while additive enhancer activity isolates key genes involved in cell identity and function. The CapStarr-Seq thus provides a fast and cost-effective approach to assess the activity of potential enhancers for a given cell type and will be helpful in decrypting transcription regulation mechanisms. PMID:25872643

  14. Enhancing Human Spermine Synthase Activity by Engineered Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe; Zheng, Yueli; Petukh, Margo; Pegg, Anthony; Ikeguchi, Yoshihiko; Alexov, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Spermine synthase (SMS) is an enzyme which function is to convert spermidine into spermine. It was shown that gene defects resulting in amino acid changes of the wild type SMS cause Snyder-Robinson syndrome, which is a mild-to-moderate mental disability associated with osteoporosis, facial asymmetry, thin habitus, hypotonia, and a nonspecific movement disorder. These disease-causing missense mutations were demonstrated, both in silico and in vitro, to affect the wild type function of SMS by either destabilizing the SMS dimer/monomer or directly affecting the hydrogen bond network of the active site of SMS. In contrast to these studies, here we report an artificial engineering of a more efficient SMS variant by transferring sequence information from another organism. It is confirmed experimentally that the variant, bearing four amino acid substitutions, is catalytically more active than the wild type. The increased functionality is attributed to enhanced monomer stability, lowering the pKa of proton donor catalytic residue, optimized spatial distribution of the electrostatic potential around the SMS with respect to substrates, and increase of the frequency of mechanical vibration of the clefts presumed to be the gates toward the active sites. The study demonstrates that wild type SMS is not particularly evolutionarily optimized with respect to the reaction spermidine → spermine. Having in mind that currently there are no variations (non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism, nsSNP) detected in healthy individuals, it can be speculated that the human SMS function is precisely tuned toward its wild type and any deviation is unwanted and disease-causing. PMID:23468611

  15. Limited filamentous bulking in order to enhance integrated nutrient removal and effluent quality.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wen-De; Li, Wei-Guang; Zhang, Hui; Kang, Xiao-Rong; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2011-10-15

    Limited filamentous bulking has been proposed as a means to enhance floc size and make conditions more favorable for simultaneous nitrification/Denitrification (SND). Moreover a slightly heightened SVI is supposed to increase the removal of small particulates in the clarifier. Integrated nitrogen, phosphorus and COD removal performance under limited filamentous bulking was investigated using a bench-scale plug-flow enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) reactor fed with raw domestic wastewater. Limited filamentous bulking in this study was mainly induced by low DO levels, while other influencing factors associated with filamentous bulking (F/M, nutrients, and wastewater characteristics) were not selective for filamentous bacteria. The optimum scenario for integrated nitrogen, phosphorus and COD removal was achieved under limited filamentous bulking with an SVI level of 170-200 (associated with a DO of 1.0-1.5 mg/L). The removal efficiencies of COD, TP and NH4+-N were 90%, 97% and 92%, respectively. Under these conditions, the solid-liquid separation was practically not affected and sludge loss was never observed. A well-clarified effluent with marginal suspended solids was obtained. The results of this study indicated the feasibility of limited filamentous bulking under low DO as a stimulation of simultaneous nitrification/denitrification for enhancing nutrient removal and effluent quality in an EBPR process. PMID:21802110

  16. Selenylation modification can enhance immune-enhancing activity of Chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Haibo, Feng; Fan, Jing; Bo, Hongquan; Tian, Xi; Bao, He; Wang, Xiaohua

    2016-11-20

    Chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharides (CVPS) were extracted, purified and selenizingly modified. The modification has been achieved by using the HNO3- Na2SeO3 method, and selenizing Chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharides (sCVPS) were evaluated for their physicochemical properties and their potential as adjuvant to modulate cellular and humoral immune responses to hepatitis B subunit vaccine in a mouse model. Our results demonstrated that sCVPS significantly promoted splenocytes proliferation and the production of IL-4 and IFN-γ in vitro. In vivo experiments showed that sCVPS significantly increased the rHBsAg-specific IgG level, IgG subclass (IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b) antibody titers, T cells proliferation, levels of IL-4, IL-2, and IFN-γ in CD4 (+)T cells and the level of IFN-γ in CD8(+)T cells. Furthermore, sCVPS increased the activity of natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, thus increasing both cellular and humoral immune responses in vivo. The present data suggest that selenylation of CVPS can significantly improve their immune-enhancing activity both in vitro and in vivo, thus representing a powerful adjuvant for vaccine design. PMID:27561500

  17. Porous platinum mesoflowers with enhanced activity for methanol oxidation reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang Lina; Wang Wenjin; Hong Feng; Yang Shengchun; You Hongjun; Fang Jixiang; Ding Bingjun

    2012-07-15

    Porous Pt and Pt-Ag alloy mesoflowers (MFs) with about 2 {mu}m in diameter and high porosity were synthesized using Ag mesoflowers as sacrificial template by galvanic reaction. The silver content in Pt-Ag alloys can be facilely controlled by nitric acid treatment. And the pure Pt MFs can be obtained by selective removal of silver element from Pt{sub 72}Ag{sub 28} MFs electrochemically. Both Pt{sub 45}Ag{sub 55}, Pt{sub 72}Ag{sub 28} and pure Pt show a high catalytic performance in methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). Especially, pure Pt MFs exhibited a 2 to 3 times current density enhancement in MOR compared with the commercial used Pt black, which can be attributed to their porous nanostructure with 3-dimentional nature and small crystal sizes. - Graphical Abstract: The CVs of MOR on Pt (red) and Pt black (green) catalysts in 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} and 0.5 M CH{sub 3}OH for specific mass current. The insert shows the SEM images of two porous Pt MFs. Platinum mesoflowers (MFs) with about 2 {mu}m in diameter and high porosity were synthesised with Ag mesoflowers as sacrificial template by galvanic replacement. The porous Pt MFs exhibited a more than 3 times enhancement in electrocatalytic performance for methanol oxidation reaction compared the commercial used Pt black. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Porous Pt and Pt-Ag mesoflowers (MFs) were synthesized using Ag MFs sacrifical template. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pt MFs presents an improved catalytic activity in MOR compared with Pt black. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We provided a facile approach for the development of high performance Pt electrocatalysts for fuel cells.

  18. Ideas Exchange: How Do You Use NASPE's Teacher Toolbox to Enhance Professional Activities with Students, Sport or Physical Education Lessons, Faculty Wellness Classes or Community Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpkins, Mary Ann; McNeill, Shane; Dieckman, Dale; Sissom, Mark; LoBianco, Judy; Lund, Jackie; Barney, David C.; Manson, Mara; Silva, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    NASPE's Teacher Toolbox is an instructional resource site which provides educators with a wide variety of teaching tools that focus on physical activity. This service is provided by NASPE to support instructional activities as well as promote quality programs. New monthly issues support NASPE's mission to enhance knowledge, improve professional…

  19. LANDSAT ESTUARINE WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF SILVICULTURE AND DREDGING ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the application of Landsat multispectral scanning to estuarine water quality, with specific reference to dredging and silviculture practices. Water quality data collected biweekly since 1972 in the Apalachicola, Bay, Florida, by Florida State University, and...

  20. Rehabilitation Program for the Quality of Life for Individuals on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: A Short Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maharaj, Sonill S.; Chetty, Verusia

    2011-01-01

    Patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) spend less time on vigorous activities due to lower aerobic capacity with functional limitations that can be attributed to a detraining effect, resulting in a poor quality of life (QoL). The overall aims of rehabilitation are to restore, to maintain, and to enhance the QoL and this…

  1. Usability and quality of the Cluster Active Archive (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, H. E.

    2009-12-01

    There is a large number of data archives for magnetospheric physics that, however, usually provide access only to spin-averaged datasets. In addition only limited resources have been used to calibrate the measurements to a level that the users could easily analyze them with no need to worry about the quality of the data. These are the starting points to the ESA Cluster Active Archive (CAA, see URL: http://caa.estec.esa.int) that provides access to the calibrated full-resolution datasets of the four-satellite Cluster mission. The data archive is publicly accessible and suitable for science use and publication by the world-wide scientific community. This presentation will focus on the usability aspects of the overall system and its services and the quality of its datasets. The Cluster mission has collected observations for nine years since 2001 and has now submitted a proposal for further observations during years 2010-12. The CAA will contain the entire set of Cluster high-resolution data and other allied products in a standard format and with a complete set of metadata in machine readable format. The data can be accessed either via web GUI or via command line wget tool. Currently there are more than 200 datasets from each spacecraft, including high-resolution magnetic and electric DC and AC fields; full 3-dimensional electron and ion distribution functions and moments from a few eV to hundreds of keV; and various ancillary and browse products to help with spacecraft and event location. To ensure the high quality of its datasets, the CAA runs a series of cross-calibration workshops that focus on detailed comparisons of the measurements. Currently the observations from years 2001-7 are available for most instruments. The total amount of data files in compressed format is expected to exceed 50 TB. The CAA became operational in February 2006 and now has more than 900 registered users who download about 100-1000 GB of data every month. The CAA provides user

  2. 76 FR 61707 - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the intention of the Agency for Healthcare Research and...

  3. The relationship between communication activities of daily living and quality of life among the elderly suffering from stroke

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Haewon; Koh, Hyeung Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Disabilities after stroke are known to have adverse effects on the quality of life. This study investigated the relationship between Communication Activities of Daily Living (C-ADL) and quality life of elderly stroke patients to provide basic data for use in enhancing the quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred sixty five elderly over the age of 60, who were diagnosed as having stroke and receiving treatment in rehabilitation departments of general hospitals were surveyed. Stroke patients’ basic communication ability to survive in daily living was measured using the C-ADL Second Edition, and stroke patients’ quality of life was measured with the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (SSQOL). The relationship between C-ADL and SSQOL was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. [Results] C-ADL had a significant positive relationship with SSQOL. [Conclusion] This result implies that it is necessary to enhance stroke patients’ communication ability in daily living in order to raise their quality of life. PMID:27313349

  4. 78 FR 47676 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Credit Enhancement for Charter School...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Credit Enhancement for Charter School... for Charter School Facilities Program Performance Report. OMB Control Number: 1855-0010. ] Type of... Burden Hours: 850. Abstract: The Credit Enhancement for Charter School Facilities Program and...

  5. Eugenol nanocapsule for enhanced therapeutic activity against periodontal infections.

    PubMed

    Pramod, Kannissery; Aji Alex, M R; Singh, Manisha; Dang, Shweta; Ansari, Shahid H; Ali, Javed

    2016-01-01

    Eugenol is a godsend to dental care due to its analgesic, local anesthetic, and anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. The aim of the present research work was to prepare, characterize and evaluate eugenol-loaded nanocapsules (NCs) against periodontal infections. Eugenol-loaded polycaprolactone (PCL) NCs were prepared by solvent displacement method. The nanometric size of the prepared NCs was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The in vitro drug release was found to follow a biphasic pattern and followed Michaelis-Menten like model. The percentage cell viability values near to 100 in the cell viability assay indicated that the NCs are not cytotoxic. In the in vivo studies, the eugenol NC group displayed significant difference in the continuity of epithelium of the interdental papilla in comparison to the untreated, pure eugenol and placebo groups. The in vivo performance of the eugenol-loaded NCs using ligature-induced periodontitis model in rats indicated that eugenol-loaded NCs could prevent septal bone resorption in periodontitis. On the basis of our research findings it could be concluded that eugenol-loaded PCL NCs could serve as a novel colloidal drug delivery system for enhanced therapeutic activity of eugenol in the treatment of periodontal infections. PMID:26079717

  6. Penetrating cations enhance uncoupling activity of anionic protonophores in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Antonenko, Yuri N; Khailova, Ljudmila S; Knorre, Dmitry A; Markova, Olga V; Rokitskaya, Tatyana I; Ilyasova, Tatyana M; Severina, Inna I; Kotova, Elena A; Karavaeva, Yulia E; Prikhodko, Anastasia S; Severin, Fedor F; Skulachev, Vladimir P

    2013-01-01

    Protonophorous uncouplers causing a partial decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential are promising candidates for therapeutic applications. Here we showed that hydrophobic penetrating cations specifically targeted to mitochondria in a membrane potential-driven fashion increased proton-translocating activity of the anionic uncouplers 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and carbonylcyanide-p-trifluorophenylhydrazone (FCCP). In planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM) separating two compartments with different pH values, DNP-mediated diffusion potential of H(+) ions was enhanced in the presence of dodecyltriphenylphosphonium cation (C12TPP). The mitochondria-targeted penetrating cations strongly increased DNP- and carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP)-mediated steady-state current through BLM when a transmembrane electrical potential difference was applied. Carboxyfluorescein efflux from liposomes initiated by the plastoquinone-containing penetrating cation SkQ1 was inhibited by both DNP and FCCP. Formation of complexes between the cation and CCCP was observed spectophotometrically. In contrast to the less hydrophobic tetraphenylphosphonium cation (TPP), SkQ1 and C12TPP promoted the uncoupling action of DNP and FCCP on isolated mitochondria. C12TPP and FCCP exhibited a synergistic effect decreasing the membrane potential of mitochondria in yeast cells. The stimulating action of penetrating cations on the protonophore-mediated uncoupling is assumed to be useful for medical applications of low (non-toxic) concentrations of protonophores. PMID:23626747

  7. Penetrating Cations Enhance Uncoupling Activity of Anionic Protonophores in Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Antonenko, Yuri N.; Khailova, Ljudmila S.; Knorre, Dmitry A.; Markova, Olga V.; Rokitskaya, Tatyana I.; Ilyasova, Tatyana M.; Severina, Inna I.; Kotova, Elena A.; Karavaeva, Yulia E.; Prikhodko, Anastasia S.; Severin, Fedor F.; Skulachev, Vladimir P.

    2013-01-01

    Protonophorous uncouplers causing a partial decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential are promising candidates for therapeutic applications. Here we showed that hydrophobic penetrating cations specifically targeted to mitochondria in a membrane potential-driven fashion increased proton-translocating activity of the anionic uncouplers 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and carbonylcyanide-p-trifluorophenylhydrazone (FCCP). In planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM) separating two compartments with different pH values, DNP-mediated diffusion potential of H+ ions was enhanced in the presence of dodecyltriphenylphosphonium cation (C12TPP). The mitochondria-targeted penetrating cations strongly increased DNP- and carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP)-mediated steady-state current through BLM when a transmembrane electrical potential difference was applied. Carboxyfluorescein efflux from liposomes initiated by the plastoquinone-containing penetrating cation SkQ1 was inhibited by both DNP and FCCP. Formation of complexes between the cation and CCCP was observed spectophotometrically. In contrast to the less hydrophobic tetraphenylphosphonium cation (TPP), SkQ1 and C12TPP promoted the uncoupling action of DNP and FCCP on isolated mitochondria. C12TPP and FCCP exhibited a synergistic effect decreasing the membrane potential of mitochondria in yeast cells. The stimulating action of penetrating cations on the protonophore-mediated uncoupling is assumed to be useful for medical applications of low (non-toxic) concentrations of protonophores. PMID:23626747

  8. Enhancing Cancer Immunotherapy Via Activation of Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Jacob L.; Sondel, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Given recent technological advances and advances in our understanding of cancer, immunotherapy of cancer is being used with clear clinical benefit. The immunosuppression accompanying cancer itself, as well as with current cancer treatment with radiation or chemotherapy, impairs adaptive immune effectors to a greater extent than innate effector cells. In addition to being less suppressed, innate immune cells are capable of being enhanced via immune-stimulatory regimens. Most strategies being investigated to promote innate immune responses against cancer do not require complex, patient-specific, ex-vivo cellular or molecular creation of therapeutic agents; thus they can, generally, be used as “off the shelf” therapeutics that could be administered by most cancer clinics. Successful applications of innate immunotherapy in the clinic have effectively targeted components of the innate immune response. Preclinical data demonstrate how initiation of innate immune responses can lead to subsequent adaptive long-term cancer immunity. We hypothesize that integration of innate immune activation strategies into combination therapies for cancer treatment will lead to more effective and long term clinical benefit. PMID:26320061

  9. False alarm reduction in BSN-based cardiac monitoring using signal quality and activity type information.

    PubMed

    Tanantong, Tanatorn; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit; Thiemjarus, Surapa

    2015-01-01

    False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs) can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring. PMID:25671512

  10. False Alarm Reduction in BSN-Based Cardiac Monitoring Using Signal Quality and Activity Type Information

    PubMed Central

    Tanantong, Tanatorn; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit; Thiemjarus, Surapa

    2015-01-01

    False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs) can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring. PMID:25671512

  11. Physical Activity, Menopause, and Quality of Life: The Role of Affect and Self-Worth across Time

    PubMed Central

    Elavsky, Steriani

    2009-01-01

    Objective Physical activity has been shown to enhance quality of life, however, few investigations of these effects exist in women undergoing the menopausal transition. The present study examined the long-term effects of physical activity on menopause-related quality of life (QOL) and tested the mediating effects of physical self-worth and positive affect in this relationship. Design Middle-aged women previously enrolled in a 4-month randomized controlled trial involving walking, yoga, and a control group completed a follow-up mail-in survey two years following the end of the trial. The survey included a battery of psychological and physical activity measures, including measures of menopausal symptoms and menopause-related quality of life. Longitudinal linear panel analysis was conducted within a covariance modeling framework to test whether physical self-worth and positive affect mediated the physical activity - quality of life relationship over time. Results At the end of the trial, physical activity and menopausal symptoms were related to physical self-worth and positive affect, and in turn, greater levels of physical self-worth and positive affect were associated with higher levels of menopause-related QOL. Analyses indicated that increases in physical activity and decreases in menopausal symptoms over the 2-year period were related to increases in physical self-worth (βs = .23 and −.52) and for symptoms also to decreased positive affect (β = −.47), and both physical self-worth (β = .34) and affect (β = .43) directly influenced enhancements in QOL (R2 = .775). Conclusions The findings support the position that physical activity effects on QOL are in part mediated by intermediate psychological outcomes and that physical activity can have long-term benefits for women undergoing the menopausal transition. PMID:19169167

  12. Enhanced optoelectronic quality of perovskite thin films with hypophosphorous acid for planar heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Pathak, Sandeep; Sakai, Nobuya; Stergiopoulos, Thomas; Nayak, Pabitra K; Noel, Nakita K; Haghighirad, Amir A; Burlakov, Victor M; deQuilettes, Dane W; Sadhanala, Aditya; Li, Wenzhe; Wang, Liduo; Ginger, David S; Friend, Richard H; Snaith, Henry J

    2015-01-01

    Solution-processed metal halide perovskite semiconductors, such as CH3NH3PbI3, have exhibited remarkable performance in solar cells, despite having non-negligible density of defect states. A likely candidate is halide vacancies within the perovskite crystals, or the presence of metallic lead, both generated due to the imbalanced I/Pb stoichiometry which could evolve during crystallization. Herein, we show that the addition of hypophosphorous acid (HPA) in the precursor solution can significantly improve the film quality, both electronically and topologically, and enhance the photoluminescence intensity, which leads to more efficient and reproducible photovoltaic devices. We demonstrate that the HPA can reduce the oxidized I2 back into I(-), and our results indicate that this facilitates an improved stoichiometry in the perovskite crystal and a reduced density of metallic lead. PMID:26615763

  13. Enhanced optoelectronic quality of perovskite thin films with hypophosphorous acid for planar heterojunction solar cells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Wei; Pathak, Sandeep; Sakai, Nobuya; Stergiopoulos, Thomas; Nayak, Pabitra K.; Noel, Nakita K.; Haghighirad, Amir A.; Burlakov, Victor M.; deQuilettes, Dane W.; Sadhanala, Aditya; et al

    2015-11-30

    Solution-processed metal halide perovskite semiconductors, such as CH3NH3PbI3, have exhibited remarkable performance in solar cells, despite having non-negligible density of defect states. A likely candidate is halide vacancies within the perovskite crystals, or the presence of metallic lead, both generated due to the imbalanced I/Pb stoichiometry which could evolve during crystallization. Herein, we show that the addition of hypophosphorous acid (HPA) in the precursor solution can significantly improve the film quality, both electronically and topologically, and enhance the photoluminescence intensity, which leads to more efficient and reproducible photovoltaic devices. We demonstrate that the HPA can reduce the oxidized I2 backmore » into I-, and our results indicate that this facilitates an improved stoichiometry in the perovskite crystal and a reduced density of metallic lead.« less

  14. Enhanced optoelectronic quality of perovskite thin films with hypophosphorous acid for planar heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Pathak, Sandeep; Sakai, Nobuya; Stergiopoulos, Thomas; Nayak, Pabitra K.; Noel, Nakita K.; Haghighirad, Amir A.; Burlakov, Victor M.; deQuilettes, Dane W.; Sadhanala, Aditya; Li, Wenzhe; Wang, Liduo; Ginger, David S.; Friend, Richard H.; Snaith, Henry J.

    2015-11-30

    Solution-processed metal halide perovskite semiconductors, such as CH3NH3PbI3, have exhibited remarkable performance in solar cells, despite having non-negligible density of defect states. A likely candidate is halide vacancies within the perovskite crystals, or the presence of metallic lead, both generated due to the imbalanced I/Pb stoichiometry which could evolve during crystallization. Herein, we show that the addition of hypophosphorous acid (HPA) in the precursor solution can significantly improve the film quality, both electronically and topologically, and enhance the photoluminescence intensity, which leads to more efficient and reproducible photovoltaic devices. We demonstrate that the HPA can reduce the oxidized I2 back into I-, and our results indicate that this facilitates an improved stoichiometry in the perovskite crystal and a reduced density of metallic lead.

  15. Enhanced optoelectronic quality of perovskite thin films with hypophosphorous acid for planar heterojunction solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Pathak, Sandeep; Sakai, Nobuya; Stergiopoulos, Thomas; Nayak, Pabitra K.; Noel, Nakita K.; Haghighirad, Amir A.; Burlakov, Victor M.; deQuilettes, Dane W.; Sadhanala, Aditya; Li, Wenzhe; Wang, Liduo; Ginger, David S.; Friend, Richard H.; Snaith, Henry J.

    2015-01-01

    Solution-processed metal halide perovskite semiconductors, such as CH3NH3PbI3, have exhibited remarkable performance in solar cells, despite having non-negligible density of defect states. A likely candidate is halide vacancies within the perovskite crystals, or the presence of metallic lead, both generated due to the imbalanced I/Pb stoichiometry which could evolve during crystallization. Herein, we show that the addition of hypophosphorous acid (HPA) in the precursor solution can significantly improve the film quality, both electronically and topologically, and enhance the photoluminescence intensity, which leads to more efficient and reproducible photovoltaic devices. We demonstrate that the HPA can reduce the oxidized I2 back into I−, and our results indicate that this facilitates an improved stoichiometry in the perovskite crystal and a reduced density of metallic lead. PMID:26615763

  16. trans Activation of the simian virus 40 enhancer.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, P D; Rio, D C; Botchan, M R

    1986-01-01

    We describe experiments which demonstrated that the simian virus 40 (SV40) enhancer affects certain transcriptional units differently. We also found that a specific enhancer-transcriptional unit interaction can be regulated by trans-acting factors. Using transient assays, we examined the effects of the SV40 enhancer on herpesvirus thymidine kinase (tk) RNA levels when transcription was initiated either by the herpesvirus tk promoter or by an SV40 early promoter-tk fusion. We were unable to detect any effect of the enhancer on transcription from the tk promoter in CV-1 or HeLa cells. However, we found that the addition of T-antigen in trans allowed the enhancer to stimulate expression from the tk promoter. This induction by T-antigen did not require T-antigen-binding sites in cis and appeared to be an indirect effect. In contrast, tk expression from the SV40 early promoter fusion was greatly stimulated by the enhancer in CV-1 cells. Furthermore, in 293 cells the SV40 enhancer had only a marginal effect on the SV40 promoter-tk fusion, whereas it strongly stimulated tk expression from the tk promoter. Our results raise the possibility that the enhancer function may not show cell specificity per se; rather, the interaction between the enhancer and a specific gene may be responsible for cell specificity. We discuss these observations in terms of the SV40 early gene-to-late gene switch that occurs during SV40 lytic growth. Images PMID:3023880

  17. A facile method of activating graphitic carbon nitride for enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yongliang; Zhu, Shenmin; Chen, Zhixin; Lou, Xianghong; Zhang, Di

    2015-11-01

    Activated graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with enhanced photocatalytic capability under visible light irradiation was fabricated by using a facile chemical activation treatment method. In the chemical activation, a mixed solution of hydrogen peroxide and ammonia was employed. The yield can reach as high as 90% after the activation process. The activation process did not change the crystal structure, functional group, morphology and specific surface area of pristine g-C3N4, but it introduced H and O elements into the CN framework of g-C3N4, resulting in a broader optical absorption range, higher light absorption capability and more efficient separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. The photoactivity was investigated by the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. As compared to the pristine g-C3N4, the activated g-C3N4 exhibited a distinct and efficient two-step degradation process. It was found that the RhB dye in the activated g-C3N4 was mainly oxidized by the photogenerated holes. It is believed that sufficient holes account for the two-step degradation process because they would significantly improve the efficiency of the N-de-ethylation reaction of RhB. PMID:26437896

  18. Male enhancement Nutraceuticals in the Middle East market: Claim, pharmaceutical quality and safety assessments.

    PubMed

    ElAgouri, Ghada; ElAmrawy, Fatema; ElYazbi, Ahmed; Eshra, Ahmed; Nounou, Mohamed I

    2015-08-15

    The global market is invaded by male enhancement nutraceuticals claimed to be of natural origin sold with a major therapeutic claim. Most of these products have been reported by international systems like the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We hypothesize that these products could represent a major threat to the health of the consumers. In this paper, pharmaceutical evaluation of some of these nutraceutical products sold in Egypt under the therapeutic claim of treating erectile dysfunction, are discussed along with pharmacological evaluation to investigate their safety and efficacy parameters. Samples were analyzed utterly using conventional methods, i.e.: HPLC, HPTLC, NIR, content uniformity and weight variation and friability. The SeDeM system was used for quality assessment. On the basis of the results of this research, the sampled products are adulterated and totally heterogeneous in their adulterant drug content and pharmaceutical quality. These products represent a major safety threat for the consumers in Egypt and the Middle East, especially; the target audience is mostly affected with heart and blood pressure problems seeking natural and safe alternatives to the well-established Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors (PDE-5Is). PMID:26165612

  19. [Personal and collective mechanisms for protecting and enhancing the quality of life during childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Costa, Maria Conceição O; Bigras, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Based on recent literature, this paper presents individual and collective strategies for protecting and promoting the quality of life during childhood and adolescence. Addressing the core principles of an all-round protection policy aligned with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Children's and Adolescents' Statute, it also encompasses practical aspects of professional approaches to children and adolescents in terms of ethics and confidentiality. Additionally, it discusses the determining factors that shape the development of individual and collective resilience, on scientific and theoretical bases, in addition to risk factors, health protection and the cognitive and psychosocial development of this segment of the population.The roles played by adults are stressed as protection factors in the macro and micro environments, especially the roles assigned to family members and other adults in the social surroundings such as healthcare practitioners those engaged with education, social welfare and mental health. The important role played by Social Networks is stressed, as a key strategy for implementing inter-disciplinary and trans-sector practices designed to enhance well-being and quality of life throughout the entire community. PMID:18813439

  20. Striving to prevent falls in an acute care setting--action to enhance quality.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, A; Jones, N

    1996-07-01

    Although most falls do not result in serious physical injury, they can contribute to a loss of confidence and mobility which can culminate in a significant reduction in quality of life. Furthermore, the potential to fall is often increased when an individual is institutionalized because of frailty or confusion. The purpose of the study was, therefore, to establish whether a structured intervention would assist in preventing falls in an acute setting. This pre-test/post-test study was carried out over a 12-month period. Interventions included risk assessment, an alert system, reinforcing preventive actions, staff education and ongoing audits and feedback. Initial analysis of the data and comparison of fall rates indicated a significant reduction in the rate of falls between the pre- and post-intervention phases, although subsequent statistical analysis did not identify any significant relationships. It must be noted that no controls existed for extraneous variables, although patient profiles varied minimally during the period of the study. Outcomes include: a reduction in fall numbers and rates, enhanced staff morale with ownership of the programme, provision of a learning experience for staff (on which to build), and the fostering of a professional approach to improving the quality of patient care. PMID:8718053

  1. Boosting of activity enhancement of K(+)-responsive quadruplex hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Yamaoki, Yudai; Mashima, Tsukasa; Nagata, Takashi; Katahira, Masato

    2015-04-01

    Two second-generation quadruplex hammerhead ribozymes, whose activity enhances in response to K(+)via quadruplex formation of embedded r(GGA)3GG, were developed. Different strategies were applied to suppress basal activity when K(+) is absent. As a result, the activity enhancement upon the addition of K(+) has reached as high as 21-fold. PMID:25727931

  2. Chicken manure enhanced yield and quality of field-grown kale and collard greens.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Turley, Eric T; Hill, Regina R; Snyder, John C

    2014-01-01

    Organic matter and nutrients in municipal sewage sludge (SS) and chicken manure (CM) could be recycled and used for land farming to enhance fertility and physical properties of soils. Three soil management practices were used at Kentucky State University Research Farm, Franklin County, to study the impact of soil amendments on kale (Brassica oleracea cv. Winterbar) and collard (Brassica oleracea cv. Top Bunch) yields and quality. The three soil management practices were: (i) SS mixed with native soil at 15 t acre(-1), (ii) CM mixed with native soil at 15 t acre(-1), and (iii) no-mulch (NM) native soil for comparison purposes. At harvest, collard and kale green plants were graded according to USDA standards. Plants grown in CM and SS amended soil produced the greatest number of U.S. No. 1 grade of collard and kale greens compared to NM native soil. Across all treatments, concentrations of ascorbic acid and phenols were generally greater in kale than in collards. Overall, CM and SS enhanced total phenols and ascorbic acid contents of kale and collard compared to NM native soil. We investigated the chemical and physical properties of each of the three soil treatments that might explain variability among treatments and the impact of soil amendments on yield, phenols, and ascorbic acid contents of kale and collard green grown under this practice. PMID:24502217

  3. Does small-bodied salmon spawning activity enhance streambed mobility?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Marwan A.; Tonina, Daniele; Buxton, Todd H.

    2015-09-01

    Female salmonids bury and lay their eggs in streambeds by digging a pit, which is then covered with sediment from a second pit that is dug immediately upstream. The spawning process alters streambed topography, winnows fine sediment, and mixes sediment in the active layer. The resulting egg nests (redds) contain coarser and looser sediments than those of unspawned streambed areas, and display a dune-like shape with an amplitude and length that vary with fish size, substrate conditions, and flow conditions. Redds increase local bed surface roughness (<10-1 channel width, W), but may reduce the size of macro bedforms by eroding reach-scale topography (100-101W). Research has suggested that spawning may increase flow resistance due to redd form drag, resulting in lower grain shear stress and less particle mobility. Spawning, also prevents streambed armoring by mixing surface and subsurface material, potentially increasing particle mobility. Here we use two-dimensional hydraulic modeling with detailed prespawning and postspawning bathymetries and field observations to test the effect of spawning by small-bodied salmonids on sediment transport. Our results show that topographical roughness from small salmon redds has negligible effects on shear stress at the reach-unit scale, and limited effects at the local scale. Conversely, results indicate sediment mixing reduces armoring and enhances sediment mobility, which increases potential bed load transport by subsequent floods. River restoration in fish-bearing streams should take into consideration the effects of redd excavation on channel stability. This is particularly important for streams that historically supported salmonids and are the focus of habitat restoration actions.

  4. The Tempo of Sexual Activity and Later Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassler, Sharon; Addo, Fenaba R.; Lichter, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid sexual involvement may have adverse long-term implications for relationship quality. This study examined the tempo of sexual intimacy and subsequent relationship quality in a sample of married and cohabiting men and women. Data come from the Marital and Relationship Survey, which provides information on nearly 600 low- to moderate-income…

  5. Enhancing commerical aircraft explosion survivability via active venting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldman, Roger Lee

    2001-10-01

    A new technique for enhancing aircraft safety in the event of an on-board explosion was studied. The method under study employs deployable vent panels located on the fuselage which are activated by an array of pressure sensors in the aircraft interior. In the event that an explosion is detected, appropriate vent panels are rapidly released from the aircraft. This approach seeks to provide timely relief of explosive pressures within an aircraft to prevent catastrophic structural failure. In this study, the approximate time scale of an explosive detonation and the subsequent sensing and electronic processing was determined. Then, the actuation response times of several vent panel systems were determined through analytical modeling and scale-model experimental testing with good correlation achieved. A scale-model experimental analysis was also conducted to determine the decompression venting time of an aircraft fuselage under a variety of conditions. Two different sized pressure vessels were used in the experimental work and the results correlated quite favorably with an analytical model for decompression times. Finally, a dynamic finite element analysis was conducted to determine the response of a portion of a typical commercial aircraft fuselage subjected to explosive pressure loading. It was determined from this analysis that the pre-stressing of the fuselage from cabin pressurization increases the damage vulnerability of a commercial aircraft fuselage to internal explosions. It was also learned from the structural analysis that the peak fuselage strains due to blast loading occur quickly (within approximately 2 milliseconds) while it was conservatively estimated that approximately 5 to 7 milliseconds would be required to sense the explosion, to actuate selected vent panels, and to initiate the release of cabin pressure from the aircraft. Additionally, since it was determined that predicted fuselage strains for both pressurized and unpressurized load cases remained

  6. Music therapy in pediatric palliative care: family-centered care to enhance quality of life.

    PubMed

    Lindenfelser, Kathryn J; Hense, Cherry; McFerran, Katrina

    2012-05-01

    Research into the value of music therapy in pediatric palliative care (PPC) has identified quality of life as one area of improvement for families caring for a child in the terminal stages of a life-threatening illness. This small-scale investigation collected data in a multisite, international study including Minnesota, USA, and Melbourne, Australia. An exploratory mixed method design used the qualitative data collected through interviews with parents to interpret results from the PedsQL Family Impact Module of overall parental quality of life. Parents described music therapy as resulting in physical improvements of their child by providing comfort and stimulation. They also valued the positive experiences shared by the family in music therapy sessions that were strength oriented and family centered. This highlighted the physical and communication scales within the PedsQL Family Impact Module, where minimal improvements were achieved in contrast to some strong results suggesting diminished quality of life in cognitive and daily activity domains. Despite the significant challenges faced by parents during this difficult time, parents described many positive experiences in music therapy, and the overall score for half of the parents in the study did not diminish. The value of music therapy as a service that addresses the family-centered agenda of PPC is endorsed by this study. PMID:22144660

  7. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a quinone compound and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a quinone compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  8. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a heterocyclic compound and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2016-08-02

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a heterocyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  9. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicycle compound and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2015-06-16

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  10. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a dioxy compound and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Sweeney, Matthew; Xu, Feng; Quinlan, Jason

    2016-07-19

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a dioxy compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  11. Quality-control method for the determination of biological activity of engineered calcineurin subunit B.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xinchang; Yang, Huan; Xu, Li; Li, Xiang; Huang, Zongwen; Han, Yudong; Wei, Qun; Rao, Chunming

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a quality-control method for calcineurin subunit B (CNB) biological activity determinations. CNB enhances the p-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP) dephosphorylating activity of calcineurin subunit A Δ316 mutant (CNAΔ316). A series of CNB concentrations were fitted to a four-parameter equation to calculate the corresponding pNPP maximum dephosphorylation rates. Values were calculated based on biological activity references using a parallel line method. The method was then validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, linear range, sensitivity, specificity, and robustness. The recovery results were greater than 98%. Intra-plate precision was 6.7%, with inter-plate precision of 10.8%. The coefficient of determination was greater than 0.98. The linear range was 0.05-50 μg mL(-1), with sensitivity of 50 μg mL(-1). Tested cytokines did not induce CNAΔ316 dephosphorylation of pNPP. The chosen CNAΔ316 concentration range did not affect activity determinations. PMID:27053126

  12. Carbon Monoxide Fumigation Improved the Quality, Nutrients, and Antioxidant Activities of Postharvest Peach

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Pei, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Peaches (Prunus persica cv. Yanhong) were fumigated with carbon monoxide (CO) at 0, 0.5, 5, 10, and 20 μmol/L for 2 hours. The result showed that low concentration CO (0.5–10 μmol/L) might delay the decrease of firmness and titrable acid content, restrain the increase of decay incidence, and postpone the variation of soluble solids content, but treating peaches with high concentration CO (20 μmol/L) demonstrated adverse effects. Further research exhibited that exogenous CO could induce the phenylalnine ammonialyase activity, maintain nutrient contents such as Vitamin C, total flavonoid, and polyphenol, and enhance antioxidant activity according to reducing power and 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Treating peaches with appropriate concentration CO was beneficial to the quality, nutrients, and antioxidant activity of postharvest peaches during storage time. Therefore, CO fumigation might probably become a novel method to preserve postharvest peach and other fruits in the future. PMID:26904651

  13. Development and quality characteristics of nutritionally enhanced potato legume based wari- an Indian traditional savoury.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sukhpreet; Aggarwal, Poonam

    2016-04-01

    The present study was carried out to develop waris from potato and legume blends and to analyze them for organoleptic, physicochemical, phytochemical and shelf life quality. Wari is a partially fermented legume based savoury, used as adjunct in vegetable curries. In this study, potato (boiled and dehydrated) was used to supplement black gram or urad dhal waris. Two processing cultivars (Kufri Chipsona-1, Kufri Chandramukhi) and one commonly grown cultivar (Kufri Pukhraj) were evaluated for processing into waris. Based on preliminary sensory trails, waris with potato (70 %) and urad dhal (30 %) level of supplementation were found to be most acceptable and these waris were subjected to nutritional evaluation. Storage stability of the waris was assessed by storing the product at room temperature for a period of 12 months. Results were compared with dhal waris (control). Protein content was significantly higher in control waris compared to potato supplemented waris. Bioactive compounds including ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity measured as DPPH radical scavenging activity increased significantly on incorporation of potato. Between the cultivars, waris enriched with Kufri Pukhraj, a table variety which is considered unfit for processing, displayed the highest phytochemical content and total antioxidant activity. Sensory evaluation indicated higher overall acceptability scores of potato enriched waris compared to control waris. Between the treatments i.e. boiled mash and dehydrated flour, waris supplemented with boiled potato mash showed a significantly higher content of phytochemicals and total antioxidant activity compared to potato flour waris. However no significant difference was observed in sensory quality of the product prepared either with fresh potato mash or potato flour. Storage studies showed that the potato waris can be stored safely for 12 months with its nutrient constituents intact. PMID:27413216

  14. Pedometers to enhance physical activity in COPD: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Paula; Espinoza, José; Aguilera, Miguel; Balmaceda, Nicolás; Castro, Ariel; Ruiz, Mauricio; Díaz, Orlando; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a cardinal feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Pedometers, which have been used in healthy populations, might also increase physical activity in patients with COPD. COPD patients taking part in a 3-month individualised programme to promote an increase in their daily physical activity were randomised to either a standard programme of physical activity encouragement alone, or a pedometer-based programme. Assessments were performed by investigators blinded to treatment allocation. Change in average 1-week daily step count, 6-min walking distance (6MWD), modified Medical Research Council scale, St George’s respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ) and COPD assessment test (CAT) were compared between groups. 102 patients were recruited, of whom 97 completed the programme (pedometer group: n=50; control group: n=47); 60.8% were male with a mean±sd age of 68.7±8.5 years, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) 66.1±19.4% and FEV1/forced vital capacity 55.2±9.5%. Both groups had comparable characteristics at baseline. The pedometer group had significantly greater improvements in: physical activity 3080±3254 steps·day−1 versus 138.3±1950 steps·day−1 (p<0.001); SGRQ −8.8±12.2 versus −3.8±10.9 (p=0.01); CAT score −3.5±5.5 versus −0.6±6.6 (p=0.001); and 6MWD 12.4±34.6 versus −0.7±24.4 m (p=0.02) than patients receiving activity encouragement only. A simple physical activity enhancement programme using pedometers can effectively improve physical activity level and quality of life in COPD patients. PMID:25261324

  15. 45 CFR 2531.10 - What are the purposes of the Investment for Quality and Innovation activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Quality and Innovation activities? 2531.10 Section 2531.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... INVESTMENT FOR QUALITY AND INNOVATION ACTIVITIES § 2531.10 What are the purposes of the Investment for Quality and Innovation activities? Investment for Quality and Innovation activities are designed...

  16. 45 CFR 2531.10 - What are the purposes of the Investment for Quality and Innovation activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Quality and Innovation activities? 2531.10 Section 2531.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... INVESTMENT FOR QUALITY AND INNOVATION ACTIVITIES § 2531.10 What are the purposes of the Investment for Quality and Innovation activities? Investment for Quality and Innovation activities are designed...

  17. 45 CFR 2531.10 - What are the purposes of the Investment for Quality and Innovation activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Quality and Innovation activities? 2531.10 Section 2531.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... INVESTMENT FOR QUALITY AND INNOVATION ACTIVITIES § 2531.10 What are the purposes of the Investment for Quality and Innovation activities? Investment for Quality and Innovation activities are designed...

  18. 45 CFR 2531.10 - What are the purposes of the Investment for Quality and Innovation activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Quality and Innovation activities? 2531.10 Section 2531.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... INVESTMENT FOR QUALITY AND INNOVATION ACTIVITIES § 2531.10 What are the purposes of the Investment for Quality and Innovation activities? Investment for Quality and Innovation activities are designed...

  19. 45 CFR 2531.10 - What are the purposes of the Investment for Quality and Innovation activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Quality and Innovation activities? 2531.10 Section 2531.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... INVESTMENT FOR QUALITY AND INNOVATION ACTIVITIES § 2531.10 What are the purposes of the Investment for Quality and Innovation activities? Investment for Quality and Innovation activities are designed...

  20. PU.1 can participate in an active enhancer complex without its transcriptional activation domain

    PubMed Central

    Pongubala, Jagan M. R.; Atchison, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The transcription factor PU.1 is necessary for the development of multiple hematopoietic lineages and contributes to the activity of the immunoglobulin κ 3′ enhancer. A variety of proteins bind to the 3′ enhancer (PU.1, PIP, ATF1, CREM, c-Fos, c-Jun, and E2A), but the mechanism of 3′-enhancer activity and the proteins necessary for its activity are presently unclear. We show here that PU.1 participates with other transcription factors in forming a higher-order complex with 3′-enhancer DNA sequences. Each protein is necessary for formation of this complex. Individually, transcription factors that bind to the 3′ enhancer do not appreciably stimulate transcription in a cell type in which the 3′ enhancer is normally silent (NIH 3T3). However, mixture of multiple transcription factors (PU.1, PIP, c-Fos, and c-Jun) can greatly activate the enhancer. PU.1 is necessary for maximal enhancer activity, but mutants of PU.1 that lack the transcriptional activation domain are nearly as efficient at stimulating enhancer activity as the wild-type PU.1 protein. PU.1 apparently can activate transcription by playing an architectural role in interactions with other transcription factors. PMID:8990172

  1. Initiation of quality improvement activities in mental health services.

    PubMed

    Tobin, M; Chen, L

    1999-06-01

    In the public sector mental health service setting, accountability for quality has often been considered the responsibility of the individual clinician. This presents a particular challenge for introducing an organization-wide quality improvement culture in this setting. The introduction of a systemic view of quality may encounter resistance from individual clinicians reluctant to accept that some clinical autonomy must be subsumed within more standardized patterns of intervention and evaluation. Services must firstly tackle the issue of clinicians' readiness to embrace such a culture, which requires strong direction from the executive level. The area of recently diagnosed psychosis was selected in one public sector mental health service as a starting point for initiating the quality improvement culture. The eventual outcome for the organization has been a positive commitment to improvement, but the journey was long and hard. This paper describes the beginning of this ultimately rewarding journey. PMID:10408753

  2. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  3. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  4. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  5. New opportunities for quality enhancing of images captured by passive THz camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2014-10-01

    As it is well-known, the passive THz camera allows seeing concealed object without contact with a person and this camera is non-dangerous for a person. Obviously, efficiency of using the passive THz camera depends on its temperature resolution. This characteristic specifies possibilities of the detection for concealed object: minimal size of the object; maximal distance of the detection; image quality. Computer processing of the THz image may lead to many times improving of the image quality without any additional engineering efforts. Therefore, developing of modern computer code for its application to THz images is urgent problem. Using appropriate new methods one may expect such temperature resolution which will allow to see banknote in pocket of a person without any real contact. Modern algorithms for computer processing of THz images allow also to see object inside the human body using a temperature trace on the human skin. This circumstance enhances essentially opportunity of passive THz camera applications for counterterrorism problems. We demonstrate opportunities, achieved at present time, for the detection both of concealed objects and of clothes components due to using of computer processing of images captured by passive THz cameras, manufactured by various companies. Another important result discussed in the paper consists in observation of both THz radiation emitted by incandescent lamp and image reflected from ceramic floorplate. We consider images produced by THz passive cameras manufactured by Microsemi Corp., and ThruVision Corp., and Capital Normal University (Beijing, China). All algorithms for computer processing of the THz images under consideration in this paper were developed by Russian part of author list. Keywords: THz wave, passive imaging camera, computer processing, security screening, concealed and forbidden objects, reflected image, hand seeing, banknote seeing, ceramic floorplate, incandescent lamp.

  6. Enhanced Radio Frequency Biosensor for Food Quality Detection Using Functionalized Carbon Nanofillers.

    PubMed

    Tanguy, Nicolas R; Fiddes, Lindsey K; Yan, Ning

    2015-06-10

    This paper outlines an improved design of inexpensive, wireless and battery free biosensors for in situ monitoring of food quality. This type of device has an additional advantage of being operated remotely. To make the device, a portion of an antenna of a passive 13.56 MHz radio frequency identification (RFID) tag was altered with a sensing element composed of conductive nanofillers/particles, a binding agent, and a polymer matrix. These novel RFID tags were exposed to biogenic amine putrescine, commonly used as a marker for food spoilage, and their response was monitored over time using a general-purpose network analyzer. The effect of conductive filler properties, including conductivity and morphology, and filler functionalization was investigated by preparing sensing composites containing carbon particles (CPs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and binding agent grafted-multiwall carbon nanotubes (g-MWCNTs), respectively. During exposure to putrescine, the amount of reflected waves, frequency at resonance, and quality factor of the novel RFID tags decreased in response. The use of MWCNTs reduced tag cutoff time (i.e., faster response time) as compared with the use of CPs, which highlighted the effectiveness of the conductive nanofiller morphology, while the addition of g-MWCNTs further accelerated the sensor response time as a result of localized binding on the conductive nanofiller surface. Microstructural investigation of the film morphology indicated a better dispersion of g-MWCNTs in the sensing composite as compared to MWCNTs and CPs, as well as a smoother texture of the surface of the resulting coating. These results demonstrated that grafting of the binding agent onto the conductive particles in the sensing composite is an effective way to further enhance the detection sensitivity of the RFID tag based sensor. PMID:25993041

  7. Growth enhancement and gene expression of Arabidopsis thaliana irradiated with active oxygen species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Ono, Reoto; Hayashi, Nobuya; Shiratani, Masaharu; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kuhara, Satoru; Inoue, Asami; Yasuda, Kaori; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of plant growth enhancement effect and the mechanism of the enhancement induced by plasma irradiation are investigated using various active species in plasma. Active oxygen species in oxygen plasma are effective for growth enhancement of plants. DNA microarray analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana indicates that the genes coding proteins that counter oxidative stresses by eliminating active oxygen species are expressed at significantly high levels. The size of plant cells increases owing to oxygen plasma irradiation. The increases in gene expression levels and cell size suggest that the increase in the expression level of the expansin protein is essential for plant growth enhancement phenomena.

  8. The impact of agricultural activities on water quality in oxbow lakes in the Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Mississippi Delta, agricultural activity is a major source of nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants. Sediment, nutrients and pesticides have been considered as priority NPS pollutants and greatly affect the water quality in this area. The impacts of agricultural activities on water quality in oxbo...

  9. 45 CFR 98.51 - Activities to improve the quality of child care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51 Activities to improve the quality of child care. (a) No less than four percent of the aggregate funds expended by the Lead... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Activities to improve the quality of child...

  10. 45 CFR 98.51 - Activities to improve the quality of child care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51 Activities to improve the quality of child care. (a) No less than four percent of the aggregate funds expended by the Lead... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Activities to improve the quality of child...

  11. 45 CFR 98.51 - Activities to improve the quality of child care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51 Activities to improve the quality of child care. (a) No less than four percent of the aggregate funds expended by the Lead... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Activities to improve the quality of child...

  12. 45 CFR 98.51 - Activities to improve the quality of child care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51 Activities to improve the quality of child care. (a) No less than four percent of the aggregate funds expended by the Lead... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Activities to improve the quality of child...

  13. 45 CFR 98.51 - Activities to improve the quality of child care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51 Activities to improve the quality of child care. (a) No less than four percent of the aggregate funds expended by the Lead... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Activities to improve the quality of child...

  14. Environmental Resource Guide: Air Quality. A Series of Classroom Activities for Grades 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Elizabeth W., Ed.

    Many different types of air quality can be studied in middle school science classes using available supplies. This grade 6-8 activity guide was developed to provide opportunities for children to learn about the issue of air quality. Sixteen hands-on activities integrate the issue into middle school science classes. A chart categorizes the…

  15. Accreditation of public health education in India: Enhancing quality, competence and trust.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zahiruddin, Quazi Syed

    2013-01-01

    With an increase in the number of institutes offering public health education, there is a need for discussion on future directions and challenges. The World Health Report 2006 identified the need to improve the quality of public health education. There are various mechanisms and bodies that look after accreditation issues in several countries. The Council on Education for Public Health in the USA assists in the accreditation of schools of public health, as well as public health programmes. The Australian Network of Academic Public Health Institutions is actively engaged in discussions to improve the quality of its programme and institutions. In Europe, the European Agency for Accreditation in Public Health Education is responsible for accreditation. The South-East Asia Public Health Education Institutes Network facilitates accreditation of public health education in the region. In India, public health education varies across institutes. India needs an accreditation system to ensure that public health education is of the desired quality. Certain initiatives, such as conferences, consultation and the Calcutta Declaration, have been taken in the past two decades. However, the ideas mooted have yet to be translated into reality. The broad framework for accreditation may entail an institutional self-assessment against set standards, preparation of a database, cataloguing, and site visits by a peer team. There is a need for an apical body with all stakeholders participating in the process. Accreditation has specific benefits, but there are critical challenges as well. For example, the autonomy of the institutions needs to be protected, the accreditation bodies should exhibit professionalism and substantial financial resources are required. Before tackling specific criteria for accreditation, it is necessary to define a collective vision for schools of public health in India. PMID:25073994

  16. 34 CFR 611.2 - What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the proposed multiyear project, timeline, and budget information required by 34 CFR 75.112 and 75.117... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What management plan must be included in a Teacher... TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM General Provisions § 611.2 What management plan must...

  17. 34 CFR 611.2 - What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the proposed multiyear project, timeline, and budget information required by 34 CFR 75.112 and 75.117... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What management plan must be included in a Teacher... TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM General Provisions § 611.2 What management plan must...

  18. Peer Portal: Quality Enhancement in Thesis Writing Using Self-Managed Peer Review on a Mass Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghaee, Naghmeh; Hansson, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a specially developed online peer-review system, the Peer Portal, and the first results of its use for quality enhancement of bachelor's and master's thesis manuscripts. The peer-review system is completely student driven and therefore saves time for supervisors and creates a direct interaction between students without…

  19. Middle Managers' Experience of Policy Implementation and Mediation in the Context of the Scottish Quality Enhancement Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Murray; Sin, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses how middle managers perform and experience their role in enacting policy in Scottish higher education institutions. The policy focus is the quality enhancement framework (QEF) for learning and teaching in higher education, which was launched in 2003. The data-set was collected between 2008 and 2010, during the evaluation of the…

  20. Effect of hydrodynamic pressure processing on the processing and quality characteristics of moisture-enhanced pork loins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP) and aging on the processing characteristics and final meat quality of moisture enhanced pork loins. Boneless pork loins (n=24) were split into three portions and assigned treatments: control, HDP b...

  1. Enhancing Quality of Higher Education for World-Class Status: Approaches, Strategies, and Challenges for Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2014-01-01

    Aspiring to become an international city in Asia, the government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) has been investing more in higher education. In order to enhance its global competitiveness, all public universities in Hong Kong have gone through different forms of quality assurance exercises, including teaching and learning…

  2. 34 CFR 611.2 - What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the proposed multiyear project, timeline, and budget information required by 34 CFR 75.112 and 75.117... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What management plan must be included in a Teacher... TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM General Provisions § 611.2 What management plan must...

  3. 34 CFR 611.2 - What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the proposed multiyear project, timeline, and budget information required by 34 CFR 75.112 and 75.117... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What management plan must be included in a Teacher... TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM General Provisions § 611.2 What management plan must...

  4. 34 CFR 611.2 - What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the proposed multiyear project, timeline, and budget information required by 34 CFR 75.112 and 75.117... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What management plan must be included in a Teacher... TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM General Provisions § 611.2 What management plan must...

  5. Osthole enhances glucose uptake through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Hwa; Lin, Ren-Jye; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Chen, Yu-Chien; Lin, Hsiu-Ming; Liang, Yu-Chih

    2011-12-28

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor that regulates cellular metabolism. Activation of AMPK in skeletal muscles, the liver, and adipose tissues results in a favorable metabolic milieu for preventing and treating type 2 diabetes, i.e., decreased levels of circulating glucose, plasma lipids, and ectopic fat accumulation and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Osthole was extracted from a Chinese herbal medicine, and we found that it had glucose lowering activity in our previous study. However, the detailed glucose lowering mechanisms of osthole are still unclear. In this study, we used skeletal muscle cells to examine the underlying molecular mechanisms of osthole's glucose lowering activity. A Western blot analysis revealed that osthole significantly induced phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Next, we found that osthole significantly increased the level of translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to plasma membranes and glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner. Osthole-induced glucose uptake was reversed by treatment with Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, suggesting that osthole-induced glucose uptake was mediated in an AMPK-dependent manner. The increase in the AMP:ATP ratio was involved in osthole's activation of AMPK. Finally, we found that osthole counteracted hyperglycemia in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. These results suggest that the increase in the AMP:ATP ratio by osthole triggered activation of the AMPK signaling pathway and led to increases in plasma membrane GLUT4 content and glucose uptake level. Therefore, osthole might have potential as an antidiabetic agent for treating diabetes. PMID:22098542

  6. Using GIS to profile health-care costs of VA Quality-Enhancement Research Initiative diseases.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei; Cowper, Diane; Berger, Magdalena; Kuebeler, Mark; Kubal, Joe; Manheim, Larry

    2004-06-01

    The Health Services Research and Development (HSR&D) Service at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System launched a Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) in 1998. This study estimated health-care costs of nine diseases under the QUERI project and analyzed geographic differences in health-care costs and utilization across 22 VA Integrated Service Networks (VISNs), using a geographic information system (GIS). Patients with these diseases were identified from diagnoses recorded between October 1999 and September 2000. Annual health-care costs for each disease were estimated in four categories: inpatient medical or surgical, other inpatient, outpatient, and outpatient pharmacy. Geographic differences of costs and health-care utilization across the 22 VISNs for chronic heart failure, diabetes, and spinal-cord injury were mapped using a GIS package. Average costs and patterns of health-care utilization varied substantially across the 22 VISNs. The observed differences in health-care utilization across geographic regions raised questions for further investigation. PMID:15446617

  7. Growth of multicrystalline silicon ingot with both enhanced quality and yield through quartz seeded method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huali; You, Da; Huang, Chunlai; Wu, Yihua; Xu, Yan; Wu, Peng

    2016-02-01

    An effective method for ingot quality control in directional solidification by using artificially designed quartz coating as seed is demonstrated in this paper. Quartz powders sprayed at the bottom of the crucible provided numerous nucleation points for the silicon grain growth. The quartz seeded growth ingot showed a large number of small and uniform silicon grains at the bottom, although the grain size increased with crystal growth. Comparatively less dislocation agglomerates and multiplication rate through bottom to top were observed through photoluminescence (PL) analysis. Crystals produced by quartz seeded method showed a higher and more uniform minority carrier lifetime distribution compared to that produced from normal method without seed, and shorter low lifetime area length at the bottom compared to that produced from mc-Si seed-assisted growth method, indicating larger production yield under the same feedstock charging weight. An enhanced average solar cell conversion efficiency of as high as 0.52% in absolute value was obtained compared to that made from seedless method under the same cell manufacture process line, very close to that made from mc-Si seed-assisted growth method.

  8. Focus on Freshman: Basic Instruction Programs Enhancing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Jarred; Jenkins, Jayne M.; Weatherford, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity sharply decreases after different life stages, particularly high school graduation to beginning university education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a specifically designed university physical activity class, Exercise Planning for Freshman (EPF), on students' physical activity and group cohesion…

  9. ENHANCING FUNGICIDAL ACTIVITY OF FLUDIOXONIL BY DISRUPTING CELLULAR GLUTATHIONE HOMEOSTASIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungicidal activity of fludioxonil, a phenylpyrrole fungicide, is elevated by co-application with the aspirin/salicylic acid metabolite, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA). Fludioxonil fungicidal activity is potentiated through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway regulating osmotic...

  10. Enhancing early child care quality and learning for toddlers at risk: the responsive early childhood program.

    PubMed

    Landry, Susan H; Zucker, Tricia A; Taylor, Heather B; Swank, Paul R; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Crawford, April; Huang, Weihua; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; de Villiers, Jill; de Villiers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia; Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice

    2014-02-01

    Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, emotional, behavioral, early literacy, language, and math outcomes as well as the teacher-child relationship. The intervention targeted the use of a set of responsive teacher practices, derived from attachment and sociocultural theories, and a comprehensive curriculum. Sixty-five childcare classrooms serving low-income 2- and 3-year-old children were randomized into 3 conditions: business-as-usual control, Responsive Early Childhood Curriculum (RECC), and RECC plus explicit social-emotional classroom activities (RECC+). Classroom observations showed greater gains for RECC and RECC+ teachers' responsive practices including helping children manage their behavior, establishing a predictable schedule, and use of cognitively stimulating activities (e.g., shared book reading) compared with controls; however, teacher behaviors did not differ for focal areas such as sensitivity and positive discipline supports. Child assessments demonstrated that children in the interventions outperformed controls in areas of social and emotional development, although children's performance in control and intervention groups was similar for cognitive skills (language, literacy, and math). Results support the positive impact of responsive teachers and environments providing appropriate support for toddlers' social and emotional development. Possible explanations for the absence of systematic differences in children's cognitive skills are considered, including implications for practice and future research targeting low-income toddlers. PMID:23772822

  11. Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; Schaeffer, Sheldon

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the Coordinator's Notebook focuses on the quality of Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) programs. The bulk of the issue is devoted to an article "Quality in ECCD: Everyone's Concern" (Judith Evans), which reviews the need for a definition of high quality in ECCD programs and discusses how diverse stakeholders define quality.…

  12. Design and analysis of algorithms for enhancing the quality and the resolution of Dubai Sat-1 images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mansoori, Saeed

    2011-11-01

    DubaiSat-1 (DS1) captures multispectral images with 5-meter resolution using three visible bands red (420 to 510 nm), green (510 to 580 nm), blue (600 to 720 nm) and one near-IR band (760 to 890 nm). It also has a panchromatic channel with 2.5-meter resolution (420 to 720 nm). [1] Under certain conditions, degradation in quality might occur over DS1 captured images. The aim of this project is to enhance the quality of the image in terms of resolution, sharpness and color quality. It is well known that the enhancement procedure is a very difficult task due to the significant noise increase resulted from any sharpening action. Moreover, sometimes the color of the captured images might become saturated, thus some areas will be given false coloring (i.e., some colors will be presented as gray instead of their original colors).

  13. Enhanced quality factors and force sensitivity by attaching magnetic beads to cantilevers for atomic force microscopy in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoof, Sebastian; Nand Gosvami, Nitya; Hoogenboom, Bart W.

    2012-12-01

    Dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid remains complicated due to the strong viscous damping of the cantilever resonance. Here, we show that a high-quality resonance (Q >20) can be achieved in aqueous solution by attaching a microgram-bead at the end of the nanogram-cantilever. The resulting increase in cantilever mass causes the resonance frequency to drop significantly. However, the force sensitivity—as expressed via the minimum detectable force gradient—is hardly affected, because of the enhanced quality factor. Through the enhancement of the quality factor, the attached bead also reduces the relative importance of noise in the deflection detector. It can thus yield an improved signal-to-noise ratio when this detector noise is significant. We describe and analyze these effects for a set-up that includes magnetic actuation of the cantilevers and that can be easily implemented in any AFM system that is compatible with an inverted optical microscope.

  14. Long-term health-enhancing physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis - the PARA 2010 study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suffer increased risk of disability andpremature mortality. Health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) could be one importantfactor to reduce this risk. Rising health care costs call for the development and evaluation ofnew modes of rehabilitation, including physical activity in settings outside the health caresystem. Methods/Design This cohort study targets 450 patients with RA that do not currently meet HEPA recommendations, recruited from six hospitals reporting to the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Registers (SRQ). We have developed a two-year real-life intervention program including a minimum of twice-weekly circuit training, moderately intense physical activity the remaining days of the week and group meetings to support behavior change every other week. Our hypothesis is that increased physical activity and exercise will improve perceived health, reduce pain and fatigue, increase muscle function and aerobic capacity, impact psychosocial factors and prevent future cardiovascular events. Research questions regard outcomes, retention rates, dose–response matters and the exploration of responder characteristics. This protocol outlines recruitment procedure, design, assessment methods and the intervention program of the study. Discussion The PARA 2010 project is designed to expand the knowledge on HEPA in RA by a progressive approach regarding population, setting, intervention, time frames and outcome measures. To our knowledge this is the first long-term HEPA program based on Social Cognitive Theory, and performed in a real life environment to demonstrate if this new setting can promote increased and maintained physical activity in people with RA. Trial registration number ISRCTN25539102 PMID:22656861

  15. Assay of insulator enhancer-blocking activity with the use of transient transfection.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, N A; Didych, D A; Akopov, S B; Nikolaev, L G; Sverdlov, E D

    2013-08-01

    We used a transient transfection of cultured cells with linearized plasmids to analyze the enhancer-blocking activity of potential insulators including the standard cHS4 chicken beta-globin insulator and several DNA fragments selected from the human genome sequence. About 60-80% of the potential insulators do reveal the enhancer-blocking activity when probed by the transient transfection assay. The activity of different sequences is characterized by certain tissue specificity and by dependence on the orientation of the fragments relative to the promoter. Thus, the transfection model may be used for quantitative analysis of the enhancer-blocking activity of the potential insulators. PMID:24228877

  16. Promoting Lifelong Physical Activity through Quality Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Amelia M.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the recognized health risks associated with physical inactivity, most Americans are not active enough to achieve health benefits, and many report no planned physical activity at all. The Surgeon General's report on physical activity and health and several research studies have provided evidence that most Americans do not exercise and are…

  17. Enhancing the Quality of E-Learning in Virtual Learning Communities by Finding Quality Learning Content and Trustworthy Collaborators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Stephen J. H.; Chen, Irene Y. L.; Kinshuk; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2007-01-01

    Virtual learning communities encourage members to learn and contribute knowledge. However, knowledge sharing requires mutual-trust collaboration between learners and the contribution of quality knowledge. This task cannot be accomplished by simply storing learning content in repositories. It requires a mechanism to help learners find relevant…

  18. Using Quality Circles to Enhance Student Involvement and Course Quality in a Large Undergraduate Food Science and Human Nutrition Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, S. J.; Parmer, M. S.; Bohn, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    Large undergraduate classes are a challenge to manage, to engage, and to assess, yet such formidable classes can flourish when student participation is facilitated. One method of generating authentic student involvement is implementation of quality circles by means of a Student Feedback Committee (SFC), which is a volunteer problem-solving and…

  19. Enhancement of neutralizing activity of influenza virus-specific antibodies by serum components.

    PubMed

    Mozdzanowska, Krystyna; Feng, Jingqi; Eid, Mark; Zharikova, Darya; Gerhard, Walter

    2006-09-01

    The role of serum components in enhancing virus neutralizing (VN) activity of influenza virus A/PR/8/34 hemagglutinin (HA)-specific MAbs in vitro was investigated. The degree of enhancement depended on the MAb's fine specificity and heavy chain isotype and on type of serum. Greatest enhancement (>100-fold) was seen with sera from immunodeficient mice that lacked serum immunoglobulin. At least two serum components were involved: C1q and a heat-resistant factor. C1q was mandatory for enhancement, and other components of the complement system were not required. C1q appeared to operate by improving MAb-mediated inhibition of virus attachment to host cells and was most effective with MAbs that inhibited virus attachment poorly on their own. The heat-resistant factor enhanced VN activity only in the presence of C1q and appeared to operate by enhancing VN activity at a post-attachment stage. PMID:16777168

  20. Novel mTOR inhibitory activity of ciclopirox enhances parthenolide antileukemia activity

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Siddhartha; Hassane, Duane C.; Corbett, Cheryl; Becker, Michael W.; Jordan, Craig T.; Guzman, Monica L.

    2013-01-01

    Ciclopirox, an antifungal agent commonly used for the dermatologic treatment of mycoses, has been shown recently to have antitumor properties. Although the exact mechanism of ciclopirox is unclear, its antitumor activity has been attributed to iron chelation and inhibition of the translation initiation factor eIF5A. In this study, we identify a novel function of ciclopirox in the inhibition of mTOR. As with other mTOR inhibitors, we show that ciclopirox significantly enhances the ability of the established preclinical antileukemia compound, parthenolide, to target acute myeloid leukemia. The combination of parthenolide and ciclopirox demonstrates greater toxicity against acute myeloid leukemia than treatment with either compound alone. We also demonstrate that the ability of ciclopirox to inhibit mTOR is specific to ciclopirox because neither iron chelators nor other eIF5A inhibitors affect mTOR activity, even at high doses. We have thus identified a novel function of ciclopirox that might be important for its antileukemic activity. PMID:23660068

  1. Enhancement of CA3 hippocampal network activity by activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ster, Jeanne; Mateos, José María; Grewe, Benjamin Friedrich; Coiret, Guyllaume; Corti, Corrado; Corsi, Mauro; Helmchen, Fritjof; Gerber, Urs

    2011-01-01

    Impaired function or expression of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRIIs) is observed in brain disorders such as schizophrenia. This class of receptor is thought to modulate activity of neuronal circuits primarily by inhibiting neurotransmitter release. Here, we characterize a postsynaptic excitatory response mediated by somato-dendritic mGluRIIs in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells and in stratum oriens interneurons. The specific mGluRII agonists DCG-IV or LCCG-1 induced an inward current blocked by the mGluRII antagonist LY341495. Experiments with transgenic mice revealed a significant reduction of the inward current in mGluR3−/− but not in mGluR2−/− mice. The excitatory response was associated with periods of synchronized activity at theta frequency. Furthermore, cholinergically induced network oscillations exhibited decreased frequency when mGluRIIs were blocked. Thus, our data indicate that hippocampal responses are modulated not only by presynaptic mGluRIIs that reduce glutamate release but also by postsynaptic mGluRIIs that depolarize neurons and enhance CA3 network activity. PMID:21628565

  2. Enhanced quality thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2] for semiconductor device applications by vapor-phase recrystallization

    DOEpatents

    Tuttle, J.R.; Contreras, M.A.; Noufi, R.; Albin, D.S.

    1994-10-18

    Enhanced quality thin films of Cu[sub w](In,Ga[sub y])Se[sub z] for semiconductor device applications are fabricated by initially forming a Cu-rich, phase-separated compound mixture comprising Cu(In,Ga):Cu[sub x]Se on a substrate to form a large-grain precursor and then converting the excess Cu[sub x]Se to Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2] by exposing it to an activity of In and/or Ga, either in vapor In and/or Ga form or in solid (In,Ga)[sub y]Se[sub z]. Alternatively, the conversion can be made by sequential deposition of In and/or Ga and Se onto the phase-separated precursor. The conversion process is preferably performed in the temperature range of about 300--600 C, where the Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2] remains solid, while the excess Cu[sub x]Se is in a liquid flux. The characteristic of the resulting Cu[sub w](In,Ga)[sub y]Se[sub z] can be controlled by the temperature. Higher temperatures, such as 500--600 C, result in a nearly stoichiometric Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2], whereas lower temperatures, such as 300--400 C, result in a more Cu-poor compound, such as the Cu[sub z](In,Ga)[sub 4]Se[sub 7] phase. 7 figs.

  3. Enhanced quality thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 for semiconductor device applications by vapor-phase recrystallization

    DOEpatents

    Tuttle, John R.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Noufi, Rommel; Albin, David S.

    1994-01-01

    Enhanced quality thin films of Cu.sub.w (In,Ga.sub.y)Se.sub.z for semiconductor device applications are fabricated by initially forming a Cu-rich, phase-separated compound mixture comprising Cu(In,Ga):Cu.sub.x Se on a substrate to form a large-grain precursor and then converting the excess Cu.sub.x Se to Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 by exposing it to an activity of In and/or Ga, either in vapor In and/or Ga form or in solid (In,Ga).sub.y Se.sub.z. Alternatively, the conversion can be made by sequential deposition of In and/or Ga and Se onto the phase-separated precursor. The conversion process is preferably performed in the temperature range of about 300.degree.-600.degree. C., where the Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 remains solid, while the excess Cu.sub.x Se is in a liquid flux. The characteristic of the resulting Cu.sub.w (In,Ga).sub.y Se.sub.z can be controlled by the temperature. Higher temperatures, such as 500.degree.-600.degree. C., result in a nearly stoichiometric Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2, whereas lower temperatures, such as 300.degree.-400.degree. C., result in a more Cu-poor compound, such as the Cu.sub.z (In,Ga).sub.4 Se.sub.7 phase.

  4. Behavioral activation: a strategy to enhance treatment response.

    PubMed

    Sudak, Donna M; Majeed, Muhammad H; Youngman, Branden

    2014-07-01

    Behavioral activation is an empirically validated treatment for depression pioneered in 1973 by Ferster, based on B.F. Skinner's behavioral principles. After publication of Beck's work on cognitive therapy, the boundaries of behavioral and cognitive therapies were blurred and the two now overlap substantially. Behavioral activation is also used as a stand-alone treatment and can also be effective in conjunction with antidepressant medication. Case conceptualization in behavioral activation entails an assessment of the behaviors that the patient has stopped that produce pleasure or are of importance, as well as behaviors essential to self-care. Activity monitoring, which provides treatment targets and leads to the case conceptualization in behavioral activation, consists of using charts, forms, or other prompts to track the relationship between activities and other variables (e.g., mood, enjoyment). That technique is also used to target rumination, procrastination, and avoidance and may also be helpful for patients with psychosis. PMID:25036582

  5. Determination of photocatalytic activity in amorphous and crystalline titanium oxide films prepared using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng-Yang; Chiang, Bo-Sheng; Chang, Springfield; Liu, Day-Shan

    2011-01-01

    Hydro-oxygenated amorphous titanium oxide (a-TiO x:OH) films were prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using precursors of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and oxygen. The influences of chemical states and crystal quality on the photocatalytic activity were systematically investigated in the as-deposited and post-annealed films. The degree of the photocatalytic activity was deeply correlated with the porosity related to the hydroxyl (OH) groups in the as-deposited amorphous film. The crystallized anatase structures was observed from the 200 °C-deposited a-TiO x:OH film after a post-annealing treatment at 400 °C. The photocatalytic activity related to the film with anatase structure was markedly superior to that of an amorphous film with porous structures. The larger the crystal size of the anatase structure, the higher the photocatalytic activity obtained. At elevated annealed temperatures, the inferior anatase structure due to the crystalline transformation led to a low photocatalytic activity. It was concluded that the photocatalytic activity of an amorphous TiO x film prepared using PECVD was determined by the porosity originating from the functional OH groups in the film, whereas the crystalline quality of anatase phase in the annealed poly-TiO x film was crucial to the photocatalytic activity.

  6. Femtoliter silver cups as surface enhanced Raman scattering active containers.

    PubMed

    Bhuvana, T; Kulkarni, G U

    2009-01-28

    Femtoliter capacity Ag cups formed by the pulsed laser ablation of an Ag foil have been tried out as substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements. The cups are formed as the impinging droplets from the laser plume undergo a flow pattern before freezing into cup-like structures, resulting in a surface roughness (approximately 35 nm) that makes them ideal for SERS studies. The internal volume of the cups is in the femtoliter (10(-15) l) range, well suited for small-scale reactions, particularly in biological studies. The cups exhibit enhancement factors of the order of 10(6) with the analyte molecule thiophenol. Individual cups have been dosed attoliter quantities (10(-18) l) of the analyte and detected. PMID:19417320

  7. Enhancing the Quality of Prescribing Practices for Older Veterans Discharged from the Emergency Department (EQUiPPED): Preliminary Results from Enhancing Quality of Prescribing Practices for Older Veterans Discharged from the Emergency Department, a Novel Multicomponent Interdisciplinary Quality Improvement Initiative.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Melissa B; Hastings, Susan Nicole; Powers, James; Vandenberg, Ann E; Echt, Katharina V; Bryan, William E; Peggs, Kiffany; Markland, Alayne D; Hwang, Ula; Hung, William W; Schmidt, Anita J; McGwin, Gerald; Ikpe-Ekpo, Edidiong; Clevenger, Carolyn; Johnson, Theodore M; Vaughan, Camille P

    2015-05-01

    Suboptimal medication prescribing for older adults has been described in a number of emergency department (ED) studies. Despite this, few studies have examined ED-targeted interventions aimed at reducing the use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). Enhancing Quality of Prescribing Practices for Older Veterans Discharged from the ED (EQUiPPED) is an ongoing multicomponent, interdisciplinary quality improvement initiative in eight Department of Veterans Affairs EDs. The project aims to decrease the use of PIMs, as identified by the Beers criteria, prescribed to veterans aged 65 and older at the time of ED discharge. Interventions include provider education; informatics-based clinical decision support with electronic medical record-embedded geriatric pharmacy order sets and links to online geriatric content; and individual provider education including academic detailing, audit and feedback, and peer benchmarking. Poisson regression was used to compare the number of PIMs that staff providers prescribed to veterans aged 65 and older discharged from the ED before and after the initiation of the EQUiPPED intervention. Initial data from the first implementation site show that the average monthly proportion of PIMs that staff providers prescribed was 9.4±1.5% before the intervention and 4.6±1.0% after the initiation of EQUiPPED (relative risk=0.48, 95% confidence interval=0.40-0.59, P<.001). Preliminary evaluation demonstrated a significant and sustained reduction of ED-prescribed PIMs in older veterans after implementation of EQUiPPED. Longer follow-up and replication at collaborating sites would allow for an assessment of the effect on health outcomes and costs. PMID:25945692

  8. Surfactant-activated lipase hybrid nanoflowers with enhanced enzymatic performance.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jiandong; Zhao, Yamin; Liu, Ronglin; Zhong, Cheng; Jia, Shiru

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of materials have been extensively used as platforms for enzyme immobilization to improve catalytic performance. However, activity of the most of the enzymes was declined after immobilization. Here, we develop a surfactant-activated lipase-inorganic flowerlike hybrid nanomaterials with rational design based on interfacial activation and self-assembly. The resulting surfactant-activated lipase-inorganic hybird nanoflower (activated hNF-lipase) exhibited 460% and 200% higher activity than native lipase and conventional lipase-inorganic hybird nanoflower (hNF-lipase). Furthermore, the activated hNF-lipase displayed good reusability due to its monodispersity and mechanical properties, and had excellent long-time stability. The superior catalytic performances were attributed to both the conformational modulation of surfactants and hierarchical structure of nanoflowers, which not only anchored lipases in an active form, but also decreased the enzyme-support negative interaction and mass-transfer limitations. This new biocatalytic system is promising to find widespread use in applications related to biomedicine, biosensor, and biodiesel. PMID:27297609

  9. Enhancing Learning Outcomes through Application Driven Activities in Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegemann, Nicole; Sutton-Brady, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an activity used in class to allow students to apply previously acquired information to a hands-on task. As the authors have previously shown active learning is a way to effectively facilitate and improve students' learning outcomes. As a result to improve learning outcomes we have overtime developed a series of learning…

  10. Surfactant-activated lipase hybrid nanoflowers with enhanced enzymatic performance

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jiandong; Zhao, Yamin; Liu, Ronglin; Zhong, Cheng; Jia, Shiru

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of materials have been extensively used as platforms for enzyme immobilization to improve catalytic performance. However, activity of the most of the enzymes was declined after immobilization. Here, we develop a surfactant-activated lipase-inorganic flowerlike hybrid nanomaterials with rational design based on interfacial activation and self-assembly. The resulting surfactant-activated lipase-inorganic hybird nanoflower (activated hNF-lipase) exhibited 460% and 200% higher activity than native lipase and conventional lipase-inorganic hybird nanoflower (hNF-lipase). Furthermore, the activated hNF-lipase displayed good reusability due to its monodispersity and mechanical properties, and had excellent long-time stability. The superior catalytic performances were attributed to both the conformational modulation of surfactants and hierarchical structure of nanoflowers, which not only anchored lipases in an active form, but also decreased the enzyme-support negative interaction and mass-transfer limitations. This new biocatalytic system is promising to find widespread use in applications related to biomedicine, biosensor, and biodiesel. PMID:27297609

  11. The Learning Activities Questionnaire: A Tool to Enhance Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the Learning Activities Questionnaire (LAQ) and how it can be employed to evaluate learning tasks not typically examined in course evaluation instruments such as readings and assignments. Drawing from behavioral theory in its focus on specific activities, this instrument is simple to interpret and provides clear direction…

  12. Quality, Reliability, and Productivity Education: America's Hope for Enhanced Competitive Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgeman, Rick L.

    1988-01-01

    Recent establishment of degree programs in quality and reliability at several leading American academic institutions provides evidence that quality is making ivory tower in-roads. One critical difference in the orientations of U.S. and Japanese firms is in the shouldering of responsibility for product/service quality and reliability. (MLW)

  13. Enhancing the quality of antibiotic prescribing in Primary Care: Qualitative evaluation of a blended learning intervention

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Stemming the Tide of Antibiotic Resistance (STAR) Educational Program aims to enhance the quality of antibiotic prescribing and raise awareness about antibiotic resistance among general medical practitioners. It consists of a seven part, theory-based blended learning program that includes online reflection on clinicians' own practice, presentation of research evidence and guidelines, a practice-based seminar focusing on participants' own antibiotic prescribing and resistance rates in urine samples sent from their practice, communication skills training using videos of simulated patients in routine surgeries, and participation in a web forum. Effectiveness was evaluated in a randomised controlled trial in which 244 GPs and Nurse Practitioners and 68 general practices participated. This paper reports part of the process evaluation of that trial. Methods Semi-structured, digitally recorded, and transcribed telephone interviews with 31 purposively sampled trial participants analysed using thematic content analysis. Results The majority of participants reported increased awareness of antibiotic resistance, greater self-confidence in reducing antibiotic prescribing and at least some change in consultation style and antibiotic prescribing behaviour. Reported practical changes included adopting a practice-wide policy of antibiotic prescription reduction. Many GPs also reported increased insight into patients' expectations, ultimately contributing to improved doctor-patient rapport. The components of the intervention put forward as having the greatest influence on changing clinician behaviour were the up-to-date research evidence resources, simple and effective communication skills presented in on-line videos, and presentation of the practice's own antibiotic prescribing levels combined with an overview of local resistance data. Conclusion Participants regarded this complex blended learning intervention acceptable and feasible, and reported wide

  14. Enhanced Stormwater Contaminant Removal and Improved Runoff Quality Using Modified Sorbents in Tree Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schifman, L. A.; Kasaraneni, V.; Boving, T. B.; Oyanedel-Craver, V.

    2013-12-01

    Stormwater runoff, particularly in urban areas, contains high concentrations of pathogens that are often cited as one of the main reasons for beach closings and other water quality issues in coastal areas. Commonly found contaminants in runoff are often addressed by structural best management practices (BMP) that capture and treat the runoff before discharging it. Many BMP, such as tree filters, act as primary filtration devices that attenuate total suspended solids, nutrients, and heavy metals from runoff, but typically these BMPs are not designed to treat bacteria and have only minor petroleum hydrocarbon (PH) treatment capabilities. To address this shortcoming, the contaminant retention of an alternative sorption material was compared to expanded shale that is usually used in tree filters. Red cedar wood chips were modified with either Quaternary Ammonium Silane (QAS) or Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) to provide antimicrobial properties to the matrix and/or exploit their affinity to sorb PH, particularly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Results show that the wood chips exhibit the highest sorption capacity for QAS, making this material favorable for treating bacteria, while at the same time attenuating PAH by sorption processes. In the case of AgNP amendment to wood, less AgNP uptake and more desorption from the wood matrix was observed, making this amendment less favorable for bacteria deactivation. Batch experiments show that wood chips modified with QAS can remove up to 3 orders of magnitude of bacteria and retain up to 0.1 mg/g of PAH compared to shale, which has very limited bacteria deactivation (less than one order of magnitude) a PAH retention capacity of 0.04 mg/g. In this talk, the contaminant removal efficiency of the modified and unmodified materials will be discussed on the background of how these materials may find use in enhanced treatment of stormwater in tree filter BMPs.

  15. Interfacial activity in alkaline flooding enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    The ionization of long-chained organic acids in the crude oil to form soaps was shown to be primarily responsible for the lowering of oil-water interfacial tension at alkaline pH. These active acids can be concentrated by silica gel chromatography into a minor polar fraction. An equilibrium chemical model was proposed based on 2 competing reactions: the ionization of acids to form active anions, and the formation of undissociated soap between acid anions and sodium ions. It correlates the interfacial activity with the interfacial concentration of active acid anions which is expressed in terms of the concentrations of the chemical species in the system. The model successfully predicts the observed oil-alkaline solution interfacial phenomenon, including its dependence on pH, alkali and salt concentrations, type of acid present and type of soap formed. Flooding at different alkali concentrations to activate different acid species present in the crude was shown to give better recovery than flooding at a single high alkali concentration. Treating the crude oil with a dilute solution of mineral acids liberates additional free active acids and yields better interfacial activity during subsequent alkali contact.

  16. Final Report Project Activity Task ORD-FY04-002 Nevada System of Higher Education Quality Assurance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Smiecinski, Amy; Keeler, Raymond; Bertoia, Julie; Mueller, Terry; Roosa, Morris; Roosa, Barbara

    2008-03-07

    implemented the QA program and completed individual research project activities. PIs were also responsible for developing implementing procedures, conducting technical training, assuring that the QA program training was acquired by all task personnel, and participating in monitoring the QA program control for each individual research project activity. This project activity, which was an essential part of the program to enhance the collaborative ongoing research between the NSHE and ORD, was intended to support all quality-affecting activities funded during the five-year period of the cooperative agreement. However, the cooperative agreement was down-graded to non quality-affecting after 4 years.

  17. Health-Related Quality of Life, Self-Efficacy and Enjoyment Keep the Socially Vulnerable Physically Active in Community-Based Physical Activity Programs: A Sequential Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Herens, Marion; Bakker, Evert Jan; van Ophem, Johan; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Koelen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is most commonly found in socially vulnerable groups. Dutch policies target these groups through community-based health-enhancing physical activity (CBHEPA) programs. As robust evidence on the effectiveness of this approach is limited, this study investigated whether CBHEPA programs contribute to an increase in and the maintenance of physical activity in socially vulnerable groups. In four successive cohorts, starting at a six-month interval, 268 participants from 19 groups were monitored for twelve months in seven CBHEPA programs. Data collection was based on repeated questionnaires. Socio-economic indicators, program participation and coping ability were measured at baseline. Physical activity, health-related quality of life and on-going program participation were measured three times. Self-efficacy and enjoyment were measured at baseline and at twelve months. Statistical analyses were based on a quasi-RCT design (independent t-tests), a comparison of participants and dropouts (Mann-Whitney test), and multilevel modelling to assess change in individual physical activity, including group level characteristics. Participants of CBHEPA programs are socially vulnerable in terms of low education (48.6%), low income (52.4%), non-Dutch origin (64.6%) and health-related quality of life outcomes. Physical activity levels were not below the Dutch average. No increase in physical activity levels over time was observed. The multilevel models showed significant positive associations between health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and enjoyment, and leisure-time physical activity over time. Short CBHEPA programs (10–13 weeks) with multiple trainers and gender-homogeneous groups were associated with lower physical activity levels over time. At twelve months, dropouts' leisure-time physical activity levels were significantly lower compared to continuing participants, as were health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and enjoyment outcomes. BMI and

  18. High quality, small molecule-activity datasets for kinase research.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajan; Schürer, Stephan C; Muskal, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Kinases regulate cell growth, movement, and death. Deregulated kinase activity is a frequent cause of disease. The therapeutic potential of kinase inhibitors has led to large amounts of published structure activity relationship (SAR) data. Bioactivity databases such as the Kinase Knowledgebase (KKB), WOMBAT, GOSTAR, and ChEMBL provide researchers with quantitative data characterizing the activity of compounds across many biological assays. The KKB, for example, contains over 1.8M kinase structure-activity data points reported in peer-reviewed journals and patents. In the spirit of fostering methods development and validation worldwide, we have extracted and have made available from the KKB 258K structure activity data points and 76K associated unique chemical structures across eight kinase targets. These data are freely available for download within this data note. PMID:27429748

  19. High quality, small molecule-activity datasets for kinase research

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajan; Schürer, Stephan C.; Muskal, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Kinases regulate cell growth, movement, and death. Deregulated kinase activity is a frequent cause of disease. The therapeutic potential of kinase inhibitors has led to large amounts of published structure activity relationship (SAR) data. Bioactivity databases such as the Kinase Knowledgebase (KKB), WOMBAT, GOSTAR, and ChEMBL provide researchers with quantitative data characterizing the activity of compounds across many biological assays. The KKB, for example, contains over 1.8M kinase structure-activity data points reported in peer-reviewed journals and patents. In the spirit of fostering methods development and validation worldwide, we have extracted and have made available from the KKB 258K structure activity data points and 76K associated unique chemical structures across eight kinase targets. These data are freely available for download within this data note. PMID:27429748

  20. Enhanced parasympathetic activity of sportive women is paradoxically associated to enhanced resting energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Messina, G; Vicidomini, C; Viggiano, An; Tafuri, D; Cozza, V; Cibelli, G; Devastato, A; De Luca, B; Monda, M

    2012-08-16

    The resting energy expenditure and the adaptation of the autonomic nervous system induced by sport activities in sedentary women and in female professional basketball players have been studied. Resting energy expenditure, body composition and the level of activity of the autonomic nervous system were measured before and after a period of six months. The physical activity induced an increase in resting energy expenditure and free fat mass without variations in body weight. Basketball players showed a significant increase in the parasympathetic activity, measured by the power spectral analysis of the heart rate variability. These findings demonstrate that resting energy expenditure is higher in the athletes than in sedentary women, despite the augmented parasympathetic activity that is usually related to lower energy expenditure. PMID:22682704

  1. Association of HvLDI with limit dextrinase activity and malt quality in barley.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaoli; Cai, Shengguan; Ye, Lingzhen; Chen, Zhonghua; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2013-04-01

    Limit dextrinase (LD) is a unique de-branching enzyme involved in starch mobilization of barley grains during malting, and closely related to malt quality. Genotypic variation of LD activity is controlled by genetic factors and also affected by environmental conditions. Correlation analysis between LD activity and four malt quality parameters showed that LD activity was positively correlated with diastatic power, Kolbach index and the quality of malt extract, while negatively correlated with viscosity. The structure-based association analysis demonstrated that HvLDI, a gene encoding limit dextrinase inhibitor, was a major determinant of LD activity and malt quality. The single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with LD activity could be used in early generation selection for barley breeding. PMID:23264263

  2. Does modafinil enhance activity of patients with myotonic dystrophy?

    PubMed Central

    Lammers, G.J.; van Dijk, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    We performed a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study in 13 patients with myotonic dystrophy to address the question whether modafinil, known to improve hypersomnolence in myotonic dystrophy, may improve levels of activity as well. We used the Epworth Sleepiness Scale as a measure of hypersomnolence and a structured interview of the patient and the partner or housemate as a measure of activity. We additionally used a restricted form of the RAND-36 to relate a possible improvement of activity to perceived general health. We confirmed earlier positive findings of modafinil regarding reduced somnolence (p = 0.015), but no significant effects were seen regarding activity levels (p = 0.2 for patients’ self-reports and 0.5 for partners’ reports). PMID:17285226

  3. Sustainable Regeneration of Nanoparticle Enhanced Activated Carbon in Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The regeneration and reuse of exhausted granular activated carbon (GAC) is an appropriate method for lowering operational and environmental costs. Advanced oxidation is a promising environmental friendly technique for GAC regeneration. The main objective of this research was to ...

  4. Enhancing Sensorimotor Activity by Controlling Virtual Objects with Gaze

    PubMed Central

    Modroño, Cristián; Plata-Bello, Julio; Zelaya, Fernando; García, Sofía; Galván, Iván; Marcano, Francisco; Navarrete, Gorka; Casanova, Óscar; Mas, Manuel; González-Mora, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    This fMRI work studies brain activity of healthy volunteers who manipulated a virtual object in the context of a digital game by applying two different control methods: using their right hand or using their gaze. The results show extended activations in sensorimotor areas, not only when participants played in the traditional way (using their hand) but also when they used their gaze to control the virtual object. Furthermore, with the exception of the primary motor cortex, regional motor activity was similar regardless of what the effector was: the arm or the eye. These results have a potential application in the field of the neurorehabilitation as a new approach to generate activation of the sensorimotor system to support the recovery of the motor functions. PMID:25799431

  5. ENHANCED BIODEGRADATION OF IOPROMIDE AND TRIMETHOPRIM IN NITRIFYING ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iopromide and trimethoprim are frequently detected pharmaceuticals in effluents of wastewater treatment plants and in surface waters due to their persistence and high usage. Laboratory scale experiments showed that a significantly higher removal rate in nutrifying activated sludg...

  6. Enhanced dewaterability of waste activated sludge by Fe(II)-activated peroxymonosulfate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Yang, Qi; Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Zhong, Yu; Li, Xin; Deng, Yongchao; Wang, Liqun; Yi, Kaixin; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-04-01

    The effect of Fe(II)-activated peroxymonosulfate (Fe(II)-PMS) oxidation on the waste activated sludge (WAS) dewatering and its mechanisms were investigated in this study. The capillary suction time (CST), specific resistance to filterability (SRF) of sludge and water content (WC) of dewatered sludge cake were chosen as the main parameters to evaluate the sludge dewaterability. Experimental results showed that Fe(II)-PMS effectively disintegrated sludge and improved sludge dewaterability. High CST and SRF reduction (90% and 97%) was achieved at the optimal conditions of PMS (HSO5(-)) 0.9mmol/gVSS, Fe(II) 0.81mmol/gVSS, and pH 6.8. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy before and after Fe(II)-PMS oxidation were determined to explain the enhanced dewatering mechanism. The release of EPS-bound water induced by the destruction of EPS was the primary reason for the improvement of sludge dewaterability during Fe(II)-PMS oxidation. PMID:26851897

  7. Quality of GOCE accelerometer data and analysis with ionospheric dynamics during geomagnetically active days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinem Ince, Elmas; Fomichev, Victor; Floberghagen, Rune; Schlicht, Anja; Martynenko, Oleg; Pagiatakis, Spiros

    2016-07-01

    The Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) was launched in March, 2009 and completed its mission with great success in November, 2011. GOCE data processing is challenging and not all the disturbances are removed from the gravitational field observations. The disturbances observed in GOCE Vyy gradients around magnetic poles are investigated by using external datasets. It is found that the amplitude of these disturbances increase during geomagnetically active days and can reach up to 5 times the expected noise level of the gradiometer. ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) and Wind satellites measured electric field and interplanetary magnetic field components have shown that the disturbances observed in the polar regions agree with the increased solar activity. Moreover, equivalent ionospheric currents computed along ascending satellite tracks over North America and Greenland have shown a noticeable correlation with the cross-track and vertical currents and the pointing flux (ExB) components in the satellite cross track direction. Lastly, Canadian Ionosphere and Atmosphere Model (C-IAM) electric field and neutral wind simulations have shown a strong correlation of the enhancement in the ionospheric dynamics during geomagnetically active days and disturbances measured by the GOCE accelerometers over high latitudes. This may be a result of imperfect instrumentation and in-flight calibration of the GOCE accelerometers for an increased geomagnetic activity or a real disturbance on the accelerometers. We use above listed external datasets to understand the causes of the disturbances observed in gravity gradients and reduce/ eliminate them by using response analyses in frequency domain. Based on our test transfer functions, improvement is possible in the quality of the gradients. Moreover, this research also confirms that the accelerometer measurements can be useful to understand the ionospheric dynamics and space weather forecasting.

  8. Physical activities to enhance an understanding of acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. A.

    2006-03-01

    On the basis of their everyday experiences, students have developed an understanding of many of the concepts of mechanics by the time they take their first physics course. However, an accurate understanding of acceleration remains elusive. Many students have difficulties distinguishing between velocity and acceleration. In this report, a set of physical activities to highlight the differences between acceleration and velocity are described. These activities involve running and walking on sand (such as an outdoor volleyball court).

  9. Enhancement of biological activities of nanostructured hydrophobic drug species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qiusen; Yang, Rong; Li, Jingying; Liang, Wei; Zhang, Ying; Dong, Mingdong; Besenbacher, Flemming; Wang, Chen

    2012-03-01

    We report a study of nanoribbons of quercetin, a phase I clinical trial anticancer drug, and their inhibitory effects on cancer cell proliferation. Novel quercetin nanoribbons have been prepared by atmospheric pressure physical vapor deposition (PVD). The nanostructures have been characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, etc. Significantly enhanced solubility in PBS solution and increased drug release rate have been observed for quercetin nanoribbons in comparison to those of quercetin powder. The observed increase of inhibitory effects of quercetin nanoribbons on 4T1 cancel cell growth is correlated with an improvement in their solubility and drug release behavior.We report a study of nanoribbons of quercetin, a phase I clinical trial anticancer drug, and their inhibitory effects on cancer cell proliferation. Novel quercetin nanoribbons have been prepared by atmospheric pressure physical vapor deposition (PVD). The nanostructures have been characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, etc. Significantly enhanced solubility in PBS solution and increased drug release rate have been observed for quercetin nanoribbons in comparison to those of quercetin powder. The observed increase of inhibitory effects of quercetin nanoribbons on 4T1 cancel cell growth is correlated with an improvement in their solubility and drug release behavior. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr12013e

  10. [Dextromethorphan enhances analgesic activity of propacetamol--experimental study].

    PubMed

    Dobrogowski, Jan; Wordliczek, Jerzy; Przewłocka, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    While many pre-clinical and clinical studies have suggested that the addition of N-methyl-d--aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, such as dextromethorphan, to opioid analgesics, such as morphine may enhance the analgesic effects. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of non-competitive NMDA antagonists and paracetamol (propacetamol) on pain threshold and analgesic potency of this drugs and their combinations in formalin model for pain in rats. Intraperitoneal administration of paracetamol only in doses of 100 g/kg or higher resulted in increase of pain threshold in tail flick and paw pressure tests. The results of our study suggest that there was no significant difference in pain threshold between separate administration of dextromethorphan and in combination with paracetamol. In a formalin model for pain we have shown that paracetamol in non-analgesic doses (10 mg/kg) administered in combination with dextrometorphan, ketamine and mamantine was more effective than those drugs given separately but the best analgesic effect was obtained when combination of paracetamol and dextromethorphan was applied. The addition of higher doses of these combined drugs, that is paracetamol and all three NMDA antagonists did not result in enhancement of dose-dependant analgesia. In conclusion it should be stated that NMDA antagonists improve analgesic effect of paracetamol in the formalin model for pain. although only to a limited extend. PMID:17037292

  11. Harnessing the power of enhanced data for healthcare quality improvement: lessons from a Minnesota Hospital Association Pilot Project.

    PubMed

    Pine, Michael; Sonneborn, Mark; Schindler, Joe; Stanek, Michael; Maeda, Jared Lane; Hanlon, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    The imperative to achieve quality improvement and cost-containment goals is driving healthcare organizations to make better use of existing health information. One strategy, the construction of hybrid data sets combining clinical and administrative data, has strong potential to improve the cost-effectiveness of hospital quality reporting processes, improve the accuracy of quality measures and rankings, and strengthen data systems. Through a two-year contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Minnesota Hospital Association launched a pilot project in 2007 to link hospital clinical information to administrative data. Despite some initial challenges, this project was successful. Results showed that the use of hybrid data allowed for more accurate comparisons of risk-adjusted mortality and risk-adjusted complications across Minnesota hospitals. These increases in accuracy represent an important step toward targeting quality improvement efforts in Minnesota and provide important lessons that are being leveraged through ongoing projects to construct additional enhanced data sets. We explore the implementation challenges experienced during the Minnesota Pilot Project and their implications for hospitals pursuing similar data-enhancement projects. We also highlight the key lessons learned from the pilot project's success. PMID:23297607

  12. Review and analysis of quality healthcare system enhancement in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kurji, Zohra; Premani, Zahra Shaheen; Mithani, Yasmin

    2015-07-01

    Quality has multidimensional perspectives. It is a continuous and dynamic process. A systematic search of national and international literature was conducted from peer-reviewed databases MEDLINE, CINAHL and PubMed during January to July 2012. There are many frameworks to assess and measure quality. All frameworks give some levels in which quality could be assessed. Therefore, multiple frameworks should be used for measuring quality based on the situation and environment. Measuring quality is very important for primary healthcare programme, especially for developing countries because if we will not do quality assessment, our resources will not be utilised effectively and people may divert to curative services. Thus, in developing countries where healthcare system needs to optimise resources for increased population coverage and scale up the care, quality approaches can suggest workable solutions to using resources appropriately. PMID:26160090

  13. Activation of enhancer elements by the homeobox gene Cdx2 is cell line specific.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J K; Levy, T; Suh, E R; Traber, P G

    1997-01-01

    Cdx2 is a caudal-related homeodomain transcription factor that is expressed in complex patterns during mouse development and at high levels in the intestinal epithelium of adult mice. Cdx2 activates transcription of intestinal gene promoters containing specific binding sites. Moreover, Cdx2 has been shown to induce intestinal differentiation in cell lines. In this study, we show that Cdx2 is able to bind to two well defined enhancer elements in the HoxC8 gene. We then demonstrate that Cdx2 is able to activate transcription of heterologous promoters when its DNA binding element is placed in an enhancer context. Furthermore, the ability to activate enhancer elements is cell-line dependent. When the Cdx2 activation domain was linked to the Gal4 DNA binding domain, the chimeric protein was able to activate Gal4 enhancer constructs in an intestinal cell line, but was unable to activate transcription in NIH3T3 cells. These data suggest that there are cell-specific factors that allow the Cdx2 activation domain to function in the activation of enhancer elements. We hypothesize that either a co-activator protein or differential phosphorylation of the activation domain may be the mechanism for intestinal cell line-specific function of Cdx2 and possibly in other tissues in early development. PMID:9171078

  14. Enhancing the quality of transferred single-layer graphene with poly(4-vinylphenol) interlayer on flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yeonhoi; Chun, Sungwoo; Hong, Ahyoung; Ha, Chunho; Park, Wanjun

    2016-06-01

    We report the use of poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) as a promising contact surface of transferred graphene, capable of sustaining the original performance found in as-grown graphene. Enhancement of surface tension obtained by O2 plasma treatment of the PVP surface also increases transferred graphene quality. With an easy coating method, PVP can be applied to any flexible substrate as the interlayer to increase transferred graphene quality. Owing to the mechanical flexibility and chemical inertness of PVP, the introduction of a PVP interlayer provides a general method for graphene soft electronics to be integrated into any flexible substrate.

  15. The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist enhances intrinsic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activity in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Onuma, Hirohisa; Inukai, Kouichi Kitahara, Atsuko; Moriya, Rie; Nishida, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Katsuta, Hidenori; Takahashi, Kazuto; Sumitani, Yoshikazu; Hosaka, Toshio; Ishida, Hitoshi

    2014-08-22

    Highlights: • PPARγ activation was involved in the GLP-1-mediated anti-inflammatory action. • Exendin-4 enhanced endogenous PPARγ transcriptional activity in HUVECs. • H89, a PKA inhibitor, abolished GLP-1-induced PPARγ enhancement. • The anti-inflammatory effects of GLP-1 may be explained by PPARγ activation. - Abstract: Recent studies have suggested glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) signaling to exert anti-inflammatory effects on endothelial cells, although the precise underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether PPARγ activation is involved in the GLP-1-mediated anti-inflammatory action on endothelial cells. When we treated HUVEC cells with 0.2 ng/ml exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, endogenous PPARγ transcriptional activity was significantly elevated, by approximately 20%, as compared with control cells. The maximum PPARγ activity enhancing effect of exendin-4 was observed 12 h after the initiation of incubation with exendin-4. As H89, a PKA inhibitor, abolished GLP-1-induced PPARγ enhancement, the signaling downstream from GLP-1 cross-talk must have been involved in PPARγ activation. In conclusion, our results suggest that GLP-1 has the potential to induce PPARγ activity, partially explaining the anti-inflammatory effects of GLP-1 on endothelial cells. Cross-talk between GLP-1 signaling and PPARγ activation would have major impacts on treatments for patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease.

  16. Protein kinase A activation enhances β-catenin transcriptional activity through nuclear localization to PML bodies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Mahoney, Emilia; Zuo, Tao; Manchanda, Parmeet K; Davuluri, Ramana V; Kirschner, Lawrence S

    2014-01-01

    The Protein Kinase A (PKA) and Wnt signaling cascades are fundamental pathways involved in cellular development and maintenance. In the osteoblast lineage, these pathways have been demonstrated functionally to be essential for the production of mineralized bone. Evidence for PKA-Wnt crosstalk has been reported both during tumorigenesis and during organogenesis, and the nature of the interaction is thought to rely on tissue and cell context. In this manuscript, we analyzed bone tumors arising from mice with activated PKA caused by mutation of the PKA regulatory subunit Prkar1a. In primary cells from these tumors, we observed relocalization of β-catenin to intranuclear punctuate structures, which were identified as PML bodies. Cellular redistribution of β-catenin could be recapitulated by pharmacologic activation of PKA. Using 3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts as a model system, we found that PKA phosphorylation sites on β-catenin were required for nuclear re-localization. Further, β-catenin's transport to the nucleus was accompanied by an increase in canonical Wnt-dependent transcription, which also required the PKA sites. PKA-Wnt crosstalk in the cells was bi-directional, including enhanced interactions between β-catenin and the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and transcriptional crosstalk between the Wnt and PKA signaling pathways. Increases in canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling were associated with a decrease in the activity of the non-canonical Wnt/Ror2 pathway, which has been shown to antagonize canonical Wnt signaling. Taken together, this study provides a new understanding of the complex regulation of the subcellular distribution of β-catenin and its differential protein-protein interaction that can be modulated by PKA signaling. PMID:25299576

  17. Methyl jasmonate effectively enhanced some defense enzymes activity and Total Antioxidant content in harvested "Sabrosa" strawberry fruit.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Mohammadreza; Hasanlooe, Ali Rashid

    2016-05-01

    The use of chemicals in postharvest technology of horticultural crops is highly restricted and it is necessary to introduce safe food preserving methods. Strawberry is very susceptible to postharvest losses and more than 50% of harvested fruit is lost in Iran. Effect of postharvest treatment with methyl jasmonate (at 0, 8, and 16 μmol L(-1)) on some quality attributes of Sabrosa strawberry fruit during storage at 1 ± 0.5°C with 90-95% RH for 14 days followed by 24 h at 20°C was studied. Methyl jasmonate, at both concentrations, decreased weight loss and retained marketability of fruits. Catalase activity of treated fruits was decreased during the first days, but showed a substantial increase during the second week. Methyl jasmonate, in a concentration-dependent manner, enhanced peroxidase activity. Fruit total antioxidant capacity was enhanced by methyl jasmonate treatment. The results indicated that methyl jasmonate plays a key role in establishing resistance against stresses, enhancing fruit defense systems, antioxidant capacity, and storage life leading to decreased postharvest losses. This phytochemical has a good potential to be used in postharvest technology of Sabrosa strawberry fruit and enhance the fruit postharvest life. PMID:27247768

  18. New synthetic AICAR derivatives with enhanced AMPK and ACC activation.

    PubMed

    Scudiero, Olga; Nigro, Ersilia; Monaco, Maria Ludovica; Oliviero, Giorgia; Polito, Rita; Borbone, Nicola; D'Errico, Stefano; Mayol, Luciano; Daniele, Aurora; Piccialli, Gennaro

    2016-10-01

    5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) has an important role in the regulation of the cellular metabolism showing a broad spectrum of therapeutic activities against different metabolic processes. Due to these proven AICAR properties, we have designed, synthesized and tested the biological activity of two ribose-modified AICAR derivatives, named A3 and A4, in comparison to native AICAR and its 5'-phosphorylated counterpart ZMP. Our findings have shown that A3 and A4 derivatives induce the phosphorylation of 5'-AMP activated protein kinase α (AMPKα), which leads to the inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and down-regulate the activity of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2). Cytotoxicity tests demonstrated that A3 and A4 do not significantly reduce cell viability up to 24 h. Taken together our results indicate that A3 and A4 have a comparable activity to AICAR and ZMP at 0.5 and 1 mM suggesting their potential use in future pharmacological strategies relating to metabolic diseases. PMID:26446934

  19. The role of MyoD1 and histone modifications in the activation of muscle enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Roy; Dynlacht, Brian D

    2013-01-01

    MyoD1 is a key regulator that orchestrates skeletal muscle differentiation through the regulation of gene expression. Although many studies have focused on its role in transcriptional control at gene promoters, less is known regarding the role of MyoD1 in the assembly of active enhancers. Here, we discuss novel data that point to the ability of MyoD1 to mediate the assembly of active enhancers that augment the transcription of genes essential for muscle development and lineage specification. Based on genome-wide studies of epigenetic marks that typify active enhancers, we recently identified the compendium of distal regulatory elements that dictate transcriptional programs during myogenesis. Superimposition of MyoD1 binding sites upon the locations of muscle enhancers revealed its unequivocal binding to a core region of nearly a third of condition-specific muscle enhancers. Further studies exploring deposition of enhancer-related epigenetic marks in myoblasts lacking MyoD1 demonstrate the dependence of muscle enhancer assembly on the presence of MyoD1. We propose a model wherein MyoD1 mediates recruitment of Set7, H3K4me1, H3K27ac, p300, and RNAP II to MyoD1-bound enhancers to establish condition-specific activation of muscle genes. Moreover, muscle enhancers are modulated through coordinated binding of transcription factors, including c-Jun, Jdp2, Meis, and Runx1, which are recruited to muscle enhancers in a MyoD1-dependent manner. Thus, MyoD1 and enhancer-associated transcription factors function coordinately to assemble and regulate enhancers, thereby augmenting expression of muscle-related genes. PMID:23880568

  20. Antifreeze proteins of the beetle Dendroides canadensis enhance one another's activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Duman, John G

    2005-08-01

    Larvae of the beetle Dendroides canadensis produce a family of 13 antifreeze proteins (DAFPs), four of which are in the hemolymph. Antifreeze proteins lower the noncolligative freezing point of water (in the presence of ice) below the melting point, producing a difference between the freezing and melting points termed thermal hysteresis. This activity (THA) is dependent upon DAFP specific activity, concentration, and the presence of enhancers. Enhancers may be low molecular mass enhancers, such as glycerol, or other proteins. The protein enhancers complex with the DAFPs, thereby blocking a larger surface area of the potential seed ice crystal and consequently lowering the freezing point. A yeast two-hybrid screen was performed using certain hemolymph DAFPs as "bait" in an effort to identify endogenous protein enhancers. Among the positive proteins identified as interacting with the bait DAFPs, and confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation, were other DAFPs. When pure DAFPs were added to one another, those identified by the yeast two-hybrid screen as interacting with one another exhibited a synergistic enhancement of thermal hysteresis activity. In contrast, those DAFPs which the screen indicated did not interact failed to enhance one anothers' activities. DAFPs-1 and -2 interact and enhance one another. Point mutations of one of the interacting DAFPs (DAFP-2) indicated that both of the two amino acid residues that differ between DAFPs-1 and -2 were required for interaction. Glycerol enhanced the THA of the DAFPs only when DAFPs known to interact were present in the test solution. Addition of glycerol to a test solution containing only one DAFP did not produce enhancement. Therefore, glycerol enhances activity by stimulating interactions between DAFPs. PMID:16042407

  1. Memory activation enhances EEG abnormality in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    van der Hiele, K; Vein, A A; Kramer, C G S; Reijntjes, R H A M; van Buchem, M A; Westendorp, R G J; Bollen, E L E M; van Dijk, J G; Middelkoop, H A M

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated EEG power changes during memory activation in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Twelve MCI patients and 16 age-matched controls underwent EEG registration during two conventional EEG conditions ('eyes closed' and 'eyes open') and three memory conditions ('word memory', 'picture memory' and 'animal fluency'). For all conditions, EEG power in the theta (4-8 Hz), lower alpha (8-10.5 Hz) and upper alpha (10.5-13 Hz) bands were expressed as percentile changes compared to 'eyes closed'. MCI patients showed significantly less decrease in the lower alpha band than controls (p=0.04) during picture memory activation. The word memory task showed a trend towards a similar effect (p=0.09). This study suggests that memory activation reveals EEG differences between MCI patients and controls while conventional EEG conditions do not. PMID:16406153

  2. Surface plasmon enhanced cell microscopy with blocked random spatial activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Taehwang; Oh, Youngjin; Lee, Wonju; Yang, Heejin; Kim, Donghyun

    2016-03-01

    We present surface plasmon enhanced fluorescence microscopy with random spatial sampling using patterned block of silver nanoislands. Rigorous coupled wave analysis was performed to confirm near-field localization on nanoislands. Random nanoislands were fabricated in silver by temperature annealing. By analyzing random near-field distribution, average size of localized fields was found to be on the order of 135 nm. Randomly localized near-fields were used to spatially sample F-actin of J774 cells (mouse macrophage cell-line). Image deconvolution algorithm based on linear imaging theory was established for stochastic estimation of fluorescent molecular distribution. The alignment between near-field distribution and raw image was performed by the patterned block. The achieved resolution is dependent upon factors including the size of localized fields and estimated to be 100-150 nm.

  3. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide by nut shell carbon.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoliang; Wang, Sheng; Dong, Xuebin; Zhang, Qiaoxin

    2009-08-15

    Nut shell carbon (NSC)-nanotitanium dioxide (TiO(2)) composites were prepared by sol-gel method. Photocatalytic activity on degradation of dye Rhodamine B was studied. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, pore size distribution, ultraviolet-vis light absorption spectrum, and photoluminescence spectrum were carried out to characterize the composite catalyst. The results indicated that the photocatalytic activity of NSC-nano-TiO(2) composites was much higher than P25 (Degussa). NSC could greatly absorb the organic substance and oxygen of solution because of its large surface area. PMID:19200653

  4. Functional Assessment in End-Stage Renal Disease: Enhancing Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Saby, Adam; Miller, Lawrence S

    2016-01-01

    Why do functional assessments in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) matter? Multiple studies show that new dialysis patients undergo a substantial decline among activities of daily living. Moreover, poor functional status in ESRD patients is associated with early morality. That is why CMS has developed new criteria to assess ESRD patients in regards to their functional, psychologic, and cognitive capabilities. Functional assessments by health providers have been used in field of Rehabilitation Medicine for over 50 years; rehabilitation physicians have found them effective in establishing goals and monitoring improvement. Assessments can provide guidance by identifying the needs and types of intervention most suited for patients. Impairments can be addressed with referrals to physical therapy for gross motor issues, occupational therapy for self-care problems, psychiatry for mental disorders, and neurology for cognitive deficits. The more accurate the assessments over time, the more targeted and effective the therapies become. We believe that the new CMS goals to assess functionality will improve ESRD patient's quality of life, longevity, and long-term healthcare costs. PMID:26756940

  5. Physical Activity and Aging: Implications for Health and Quality of Life in Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J.

    1998-01-01

    This publication summarizes what is known about the influence of regular physical activity on the health and quality of life of older individuals, addressing both the acute effects of a single bout of physical activity and the more persistent, long-term effects of sustained participation in exercise and physical activity. Section 1 discusses the…

  6. An atlas of active enhancers across human cell types and tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Robin; Gebhard, Claudia; Miguel-Escalada, Irene; Hoof, Ilka; Bornholdt, Jette; Boyd, Mette; Chen, Yun; Zhao, Xiaobei; Schmidl, Christian; Suzuki, Takahiro; Ntini, Evgenia; Arner, Erik; Valen, Eivind; Li, Kang; Schwarzfischer, Lucia; Glatz, Dagmar; Raithel, Johanna; Lilje, Berit; Rapin, Nicolas; Bagger, Frederik Otzen; Jørgensen, Mette; Andersen, Peter Refsing; Bertin, Nicolas; Rackham, Owen; Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Baillie, J. Kenneth; Ishizu, Yuri; Shimizu, Yuri; Furuhata, Erina; Maeda, Shiori; Negishi, Yutaka; Mungall, Christopher J.; Meehan, Terrence F.; Lassmann, Timo; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kawaji, Hideya; Kondo, Naoto; Kawai, Jun; Lennartsson, Andreas; Daub, Carsten O.; Heutink, Peter; Hume, David A.; Jensen, Torben Heick; Suzuki, Harukazu; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Müller, Ferenc; Consortium, The Fantom; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Carninci, Piero; Rehli, Michael; Sandelin, Albin

    2014-03-01

    Enhancers control the correct temporal and cell-type-specific activation of gene expression in multicellular eukaryotes. Knowing their properties, regulatory activity and targets is crucial to understand the regulation of differentiation and homeostasis. Here we use the FANTOM5 panel of samples, covering the majority of human tissues and cell types, to produce an atlas of active, in vivo-transcribed enhancers. We show that enhancers share properties with CpG-poor messenger RNA promoters but produce bidirectional, exosome-sensitive, relatively short unspliced RNAs, the generation of which is strongly related to enhancer activity. The atlas is used to compare regulatory programs between different cells at unprecedented depth, to identify disease-associated regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms, and to classify cell-type-specific and ubiquitous enhancers. We further explore the utility of enhancer redundancy, which explains gene expression strength rather than expression patterns. The online FANTOM5 enhancer atlas represents a unique resource for studies on cell-type-specific enhancers and gene regulation.

  7. Enhanced muscle activity during lumbar extension exercise with pelvic stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Seong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pelvic stabilization affects multifidus (MF) and iliocostalis lumborum (IL) muscle activities during dynamic extension exercise. Nine males (age, 25.1±6.3 yr; height, 176.6±2.4 cm; body mass, 74.9±6.7 kg) performed an isometric lumbar extension strength test and dynamic exercise in an upright seated position with or without pelvic stabilization. The electromyography and muscle strength of the MF and IL muscles were measured when the subjects performed the isometric lumbar extension strength test at the trunk angle 110°, 146°, and 182°. In addition, the trunk extensor muscle activities were measured using 50% muscle strength of maximum isometric strength during a dynamic trunk extension exercise. The MF and IL muscle activities were significantly higher at 110°, 146°, and 182° with pelvic stabilization than that without pelvic stabilization during the isometric lumbar extension strength test (P<0.05) and the dynamic exercise (P<0.05). These results suggest that the lumbar extension exercise with pelvic stabilization may be more effective for MF and IL muscle activity compared to that without pelvic stabilization. PMID:26730390

  8. Prior-to-Exam: What Activities Enhance Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, C. J.; Healy, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Can instructors impact their student performance by recommending an activity just prior to taking an exam? In this study, college students were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups (study, exercise, or meditation) or a control group. Each group was given two different types of tests; a traditional concept exam, and a non-traditional…

  9. Using an Extracurricular Physical Activity Program to Enhance Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluechardt, Mary H.; Shephard, Roy J.

    1995-01-01

    An individualized physical activity program with a strong social skills component was implemented with 45 students (ages 8 to 10) with learning disabilities. Participants' gains in self-ratings of competence and teacher ratings of social behavior were no larger than gains of control students receiving comparable attention through individualized…

  10. Teaching Science Methods Courses with Web-Enhanced Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec M.

    Learning science in today's classroom does not have to be restricted to text-based curricular resources. Web sites present learners with a wide range of science activities in various formats ranging from text-only information to providing authentic real-time data sets and interactive simulations. This paper discusses reasons for using the Internet…

  11. Brains and Brawn: Complex Motor Activities to Maximize Cognitive Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, David

    2015-01-01

    The target articles in this special issue address the timely question of embodied cognition in the classroom, and in particular the potential of this approach to facilitate learning in children. The interest for motor activities within settings that typically give little space to nontraditional content is proof of a shift from a Cartesian…

  12. Cholinergic Enhancement of Frontal Lobe Activity in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saykin, Andrew J.; Wishart, Heather A.; Rabin, Laura A.; Flashman, Laura A.; McHugh, Tara L.; Mamourian, Alexander C.; Santulli, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    Cholinesterase inhibitors positively affect cognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other conditions, but no controlled functional MRI studies have examined where their effects occur in the brain. We examined the effects of donepezil hydrochloride (Aricept[Registered sign]) on cognition and brain activity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive…

  13. Enhanced Passive and Active Processing of Syllables in Musician Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chobert, Julie; Marie, Celine; Francois, Clement; Schon, Daniele; Besson, Mireille

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of musical expertise in 9-year-old children on passive (as reflected by MMN) and active (as reflected by discrimination accuracy) processing of speech sounds. Musician and nonmusician children were presented with a sequence of syllables that included standards and deviants in vowel frequency,…

  14. A feasibility study on HTS SMES applications for power quality enhancement through both software simulations and hardware-based experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, A. R.; Kim, J. G.; Kim, S.; Park, M.; Yu, I. K.; Seong, K. C.; Watanabe, K.

    2011-11-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) which promises the efficiency of more than 95% and fast response becomes a competitive energy storage device. Because of its advantages, SMES can provide benefit as a power quality enhancement device to an utility especially in connection with renewable energy sources. In this paper, a software simulation and an experiment aiming for power quality enhancement are reported. The utility was referred to Ulleung Island in Korea which had one wind power generation system. The simulation was performed using power system computer aided design/electromagnetic transient including DC (PSCAD/EMTDC) and power-hardware-in-the-loop simulation (PHILS) was implemented to monitor the operational characteristics of SMES when it was connected to utility. This study provides a highly reliable simulation results, and the feasibility of a SMES application is discussed.

  15. Flavopiridol: pleiotropic biological effects enhance its anti-cancer activity.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, Elizabeth W

    2004-06-01

    Flavopiridol has potent anti-proliferative properties due to its direct action of binding to the ATP-binding pocket of cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks), and due to its indirect action reducing levels of other cyclins and cdk inhibitors, contributing to its pleiotropic effects. Flavopiridol is a potent apoptotic agent due to its ability to cause cell death in cycling as well as non-cycling tumor cells; to down-regulate important cell survival proteins, such as survivin, through inhibition of the phosphorylation of Thr34; to increase sensitivity for S phase cells to drug treatment by modulating E2F-1 transcription factor activity in tumor cells; to induce both caspase-dependent and -independent mitochondrial cell death pathways; and to inhibit the activation of p-Akt which in turn inhibits activation of NF-kappaB. Flavopiridol possesses several important anti-angiogenic activities including induction of apoptosis of endothelial cells; inhibition of the hypoxic induction of vascular endothelial growth factor and/or its production under hypoxic conditions through inhibition of HIF-1alpha transcription; and decreased secretion of matrix metalloproteinases that is linked with significant inhibition of invasive potential in Matrigel assays. Taken together, the anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic properties of flavopiridol may contribute to its anti-tumor activities observed in several preclinical animal models of human cancers including prostate, lymphoid, head and neck, colon, and glioma. These promising preclinical observations opened the way for phase I and II clinical trials. Given the low toxicity profile of flavopiridol used as a single agent in patients, combination therapy now offers numerous opportunities in the near future to improve the efficacy of flavopiridol in the treatment of refractory cancers. PMID:15166614

  16. Suppression of albumin enhancer activity by H-ras and AP-1 in hepatocyte cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, J; Isom, H C

    1994-01-01

    We demonstrated, using a transient transfection assay, that the albumin enhancer increased the expression of the albumin promoter in a highly differentiated, simian virus 40 (SV40)-immortalized hepatocyte cell line, CWSV1, but was not functional in two ras-transformed cell lines (NR3 and NR4) derived from CWSV1 by stable transfection with the T24ras oncogene. A transient cotransfection assay showed that T24ras and normal c-Ha-ras were each able to inhibit the activity of the albumin enhancer in an immortal hepatocyte cell line. DNase I footprinting and gel mobility shift assays demonstrated that the DNA binding activities specific to the albumin enhancer were not decreased in the ras-transformed cells. ras also did not diminish the expression of HNF1 alpha, C/EBP alpha, HNF3 alpha, HNF3 beta, or HNF3 gamma but did significantly increase AP-1 binding activity. Three AP-1 binding sites were identified within the albumin enhancer, and DNA binding activities specific to these AP-1 sites were induced in the ras-transformed hepatocytes. Subsequent functional assays showed that overexpression of c-jun and c-fos inhibited the activity of the albumin enhancer. Site-directed mutagenesis of the AP-1 binding sites in the albumin enhancer partially abrogated the suppressing effect of ras and c-jun/c-fos on the enhancer. These functional studies therefore supported the results of the structural studies with AP-1. We conclude that the activity of the albumin enhancer is subject to regulation by ras signaling pathways and that the effect of ras on the albumin enhancer activity may be mediated by AP-1. Images PMID:8114691

  17. Students' Daily Physical Activity Behaviors: The Role of Quality Physical Education in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wiyun; Hypnar, Andrew J.; Mason, Steve A.; Zalmout, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of quality physical education (QPET) in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) which is intended to promote physical activity (PA) behaviors in and outside of schools. Participants were nine elementary physical education teachers and their fourth- and fifth-grade students…

  18. Synergistic transcriptional enhancement does not depend on the number of acidic activation domains bound to the promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Oliviero, S; Struhl, K

    1991-01-01

    Many eukaryotic transcriptional activator proteins contain a DNA-binding domain that interacts with specific promoter sequences and an acidic activation region that is required to stimulate transcription. Transcriptional enhancement by such activator proteins is often synergistic and promiscuous; promoters containing multiple binding sites for an individual protein or even for unrelated proteins can be 10-100 times more active than promoters with single sites. It has been suggested that such synergy reflects a nonlinear response of the basic transcription machinery to the number and/or quality of acidic activation regions. Here, we determine the transcriptional activity of Jun-Fos heterodimers containing one or two GCN4 acidic activation regions on promoters containing one or two Ap-1 target sites. Surprisingly, heterodimers with one or two acidic regions activate transcription with similar efficiency and are equally synergistic (10- to 15-fold) on promoters containing two target sites. Thus, transcriptional synergy does not depend on the number of acidic activation regions but rather on the number of proteins bound to the promoter. This suggests that synergy is mediated either by cooperative DNA binding or by alternative mechanisms in which the DNA-binding domain plays a more direct role in transcription (e.g., changes in DNA structure, nucleosome displacement, or direct interactions with the transcriptional machinery). Images PMID:1898773

  19. Estimation of contribution ratios of pollutant sources to a specific section based on an enhanced water quality model.

    PubMed

    Cao, Bibo; Li, Chuan; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Yue; Sha, Jian; Wang, Yuqiu

    2015-05-01

    Because water quality monitoring sections or sites could reflect the water quality status of rivers, surface water quality management based on water quality monitoring sections or sites would be effective. For the purpose of improving water quality of rivers, quantifying the contribution ratios of pollutant resources to a specific section is necessary. Because physical and chemical processes of nutrient pollutants are complex in water bodies, it is difficult to quantitatively compute the contribution ratios. However, water quality models have proved to be effective tools to estimate surface water quality. In this project, an enhanced QUAL2Kw model with an added module was applied to the Xin'anjiang Watershed, to obtain water quality information along the river and to assess the contribution ratios of each pollutant source to a certain section (the Jiekou state-controlled section). Model validation indicated that the results were reliable. Then, contribution ratios were analyzed through the added module. Results show that among the pollutant sources, the Lianjiang tributary contributes the largest part of total nitrogen (50.43%), total phosphorus (45.60%), ammonia nitrogen (32.90%), nitrate (nitrite + nitrate) nitrogen (47.73%), and organic nitrogen (37.87%). Furthermore, contribution ratios in different reaches varied along the river. Compared with pollutant loads ratios of different sources in the watershed, an analysis of contribution ratios of pollutant sources for each specific section, which takes the localized chemical and physical processes into consideration, was more suitable for local-regional water quality management. In summary, this method of analyzing the contribution ratios of pollutant sources to a specific section based on the QUAL2Kw model was found to support the improvement of the local environment. PMID:25779107

  20. 75 FR 41920 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... on the following collection of information was published on April 16, 2010 (75 FR 21716). DATES... Research & Innovative Technology Administration Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance--Part 234 AGENCY: Research & Innovative Technology...

  1. Nanocaged enzymes with enhanced catalytic activity and increased stability against protease digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhao; Fu, Jinglin; Dhakal, Soma; Johnson-Buck, Alexander; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Ting; Woodbury, Neal W.; Liu, Yan; Walter, Nils G.; Yan, Hao

    2016-02-01

    Cells routinely compartmentalize enzymes for enhanced efficiency of their metabolic pathways. Here we report a general approach to construct DNA nanocaged enzymes for enhancing catalytic activity and stability. Nanocaged enzymes are realized by self-assembly into DNA nanocages with well-controlled stoichiometry and architecture that enabled a systematic study of the impact of both encapsulation and proximal polyanionic surfaces on a set of common metabolic enzymes. Activity assays at both bulk and single-molecule levels demonstrate increased substrate turnover numbers for DNA nanocage-encapsulated enzymes. Unexpectedly, we observe a significant inverse correlation between the size of a protein and its activity enhancement. This effect is consistent with a model wherein distal polyanionic surfaces of the nanocage enhance the stability of active enzyme conformations through the action of a strongly bound hydration layer. We further show that DNA nanocages protect encapsulated enzymes against proteases, demonstrating their practical utility in functional biomaterials and biotechnology.

  2. Nanocaged enzymes with enhanced catalytic activity and increased stability against protease digestion

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhao; Fu, Jinglin; Dhakal, Soma; Johnson-Buck, Alexander; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Ting; Woodbury, Neal W.; Liu, Yan; Walter, Nils G.; Yan, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Cells routinely compartmentalize enzymes for enhanced efficiency of their metabolic pathways. Here we report a general approach to construct DNA nanocaged enzymes for enhancing catalytic activity and stability. Nanocaged enzymes are realized by self-assembly into DNA nanocages with well-controlled stoichiometry and architecture that enabled a systematic study of the impact of both encapsulation and proximal polyanionic surfaces on a set of common metabolic enzymes. Activity assays at both bulk and single-molecule levels demonstrate increased substrate turnover numbers for DNA nanocage-encapsulated enzymes. Unexpectedly, we observe a significant inverse correlation between the size of a protein and its activity enhancement. This effect is consistent with a model wherein distal polyanionic surfaces of the nanocage enhance the stability of active enzyme conformations through the action of a strongly bound hydration layer. We further show that DNA nanocages protect encapsulated enzymes against proteases, demonstrating their practical utility in functional biomaterials and biotechnology. PMID:26861509

  3. Active Correction of Aberrations of Low-Quality Telescope Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Chen, Yijian

    2007-01-01

    A system of active optics that includes a wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror has been demonstrated to be an effective means of partly correcting wavefront aberrations introduced by fixed optics (lenses and mirrors) in telescopes. It is envisioned that after further development, active optics would be used to reduce wavefront aberrations of about one wave or less in telescopes having aperture diameters of the order of meters or tens of meters. Although this remaining amount of aberration would be considered excessive in scientific applications in which diffraction-limited performance is required, it would be acceptable for free-space optical- communication applications at wavelengths of the order of 1 m. To prevent misunderstanding, it is important to state the following: The technological discipline of active optics, in which the primary or secondary mirror of a telescope is directly and dynamically tilted, distorted, and/or otherwise varied to reduce wavefront aberrations, has existed for decades. The term active optics does not necessarily mean the same thing as does adaptive optics, even though active optics and adaptive optics are related. The term "adaptive optics" is often used to refer to wavefront correction at speeds characterized by frequencies ranging up to between hundreds of hertz and several kilohertz high enough to enable mitigation of adverse effects of fluctuations in atmospheric refraction upon propagation of light beams. The term active optics usually appears in reference to wavefront correction at significantly lower speeds, characterized by times ranging from about 1 second to as long as minutes. Hence, the novelty of the present development lies, not in the basic concept of active or adaptive optics, but in the envisioned application of active optics in conjunction with a deformable mirror to achieve acceptably small wavefront errors in free-space optical communication systems that include multi-meter-diameter telescope mirrors that are

  4. Nucleus accumbens core lesions enhance two-way active avoidance.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, N T; Kashtelyan, V; Burton, A C; Bissonette, G B; Roesch, M R

    2014-01-31

    The majority of work examining the nucleus accumbens core (NAc) has focused on functions pertaining to behaviors guided by appetitive outcomes. These studies have pointed to the NAc as being critical for motivating behavior toward desirable outcomes. For example, we have recently shown that lesions of the NAc impaired performance on a reward-guided decision-making task that required rats to choose between differently valued rewards. Unfortunately, much less is known about the role that the NAc plays in motivating behavior when aversive outcomes are predicted. To address this issue we asked if NAc lesions impact performance on a two-way active avoidance task in which rats must learn to shuttle back and forth in a behavioral training box in order to avoid a footshock predicted by an auditory tone. Although bilateral NAc lesions initially impaired reward-guided decision-making, we found that the same lesions improved acquisition and retention of two-way active avoidance. PMID:24275320

  5. Polyhexamethylene biguanide functionalized cationic silver nanoparticles for enhanced antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Sumaira; Akhtar, Nasrin; Ghauri, Muhammad Afzal; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim; Khalid, Zafar M.; Hussain, Irshad

    2012-05-01

    Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), a broad spectrum disinfectant against many pathogens, was used as a stabilizing ligand for the synthesis of fairly uniform silver nanoparticles. The particles formed were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic mobility, and TEM to measure their morphology and surface chemistry. PHMB-functionalized silver nanoparticles were then evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against a gram-negative bacterial strain, Escherichia coli. These silver nanoparticles were found to have about 100 times higher bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities, compared to the previous reports, due to the combined antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles and PHMB. In addition to other applications, PHMB-functionalized silver nanoparticles would be extremely useful in textile industry due to the strong interaction of PHMB with cellulose fabrics.

  6. Observational evidence for enhanced magnetic activity of superflare stars

    PubMed Central

    Karoff, Christoffer; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; De Cat, Peter; Bonanno, Alfio; Fogtmann-Schulz, Alexandra; Fu, Jianning; Frasca, Antonio; Inceoglu, Fadil; Olsen, Jesper; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Shi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Superflares are large explosive events on stellar surfaces one to six orders-of-magnitude larger than the largest flares observed on the Sun throughout the space age. Due to the huge amount of energy released in these superflares, it has been speculated if the underlying mechanism is the same as for solar flares, which are caused by magnetic reconnection in the solar corona. Here, we analyse observations made with the LAMOST telescope of 5,648 solar-like stars, including 48 superflare stars. These observations show that superflare stars are generally characterized by larger chromospheric emissions than other stars, including the Sun. However, superflare stars with activity levels lower than, or comparable to, the Sun do exist, suggesting that solar flares and superflares most likely share the same origin. The very large ensemble of solar-like stars included in this study enables detailed and robust estimates of the relation between chromospheric activity and the occurrence of superflares. PMID:27009381

  7. Crystallinity Modulation of Layered Carbon Nitride for Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhai; Shen, Yanfei; Li, Ying; Liu, Songqin; Zhang, Yuanjian

    2016-08-22

    As an emerging metal-free semiconductor, covalently bonded carbon nitride (CN) has attracted much attention in photocatalysis. However, drawbacks such as a high recombination rate of excited electrons and holes hinder its potential applications. Tailoring the crystallinity of semiconductors is an important way to suppress unwanted charge recombination, but has rarely been applied to CN so far. Herein, a simple method to synthesize CN of high crystallinity by protonation of specific intermediate species during conventional polymerization is reported. Interestingly, the as-obtained CN exhibited improved photocatalytic activities of up to seven times those of the conventional bulk CN. This approach, with only a slight change to the conventional method, provides a facile way to effectively regulate the crystallinity of bulk CN to improve its photocatalytic activities and sheds light on large-scale industrial applications of CN with high efficiency for sustainable energy. PMID:27436164

  8. Observational evidence for enhanced magnetic activity of superflare stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karoff, Christoffer; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; De Cat, Peter; Bonanno, Alfio; Fogtmann-Schulz, Alexandra; Fu, Jianning; Frasca, Antonio; Inceoglu, Fadil; Olsen, Jesper; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Shi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Superflares are large explosive events on stellar surfaces one to six orders-of-magnitude larger than the largest flares observed on the Sun throughout the space age. Due to the huge amount of energy released in these superflares, it has been speculated if the underlying mechanism is the same as for solar flares, which are caused by magnetic reconnection in the solar corona. Here, we analyse observations made with the LAMOST telescope of 5,648 solar-like stars, including 48 superflare stars. These observations show that superflare stars are generally characterized by larger chromospheric emissions than other stars, including the Sun. However, superflare stars with activity levels lower than, or comparable to, the Sun do exist, suggesting that solar flares and superflares most likely share the same origin. The very large ensemble of solar-like stars included in this study enables detailed and robust estimates of the relation between chromospheric activity and the occurrence of superflares.

  9. Observational evidence for enhanced magnetic activity of superflare stars.

    PubMed

    Karoff, Christoffer; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; De Cat, Peter; Bonanno, Alfio; Fogtmann-Schulz, Alexandra; Fu, Jianning; Frasca, Antonio; Inceoglu, Fadil; Olsen, Jesper; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Shi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Superflares are large explosive events on stellar surfaces one to six orders-of-magnitude larger than the largest flares observed on the Sun throughout the space age. Due to the huge amount of energy released in these superflares, it has been speculated if the underlying mechanism is the same as for solar flares, which are caused by magnetic reconnection in the solar corona. Here, we analyse observations made with the LAMOST telescope of 5,648 solar-like stars, including 48 superflare stars. These observations show that superflare stars are generally characterized by larger chromospheric emissions than other stars, including the Sun. However, superflare stars with activity levels lower than, or comparable to, the Sun do exist, suggesting that solar flares and superflares most likely share the same origin. The very large ensemble of solar-like stars included in this study enables detailed and robust estimates of the relation between chromospheric activity and the occurrence of superflares. PMID:27009381

  10. Real-Time Patient Survey Data During Routine Clinical Activities for Rapid-Cycle Quality Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Background Surveying patients is increasingly important for evaluating and improving health care delivery, but practical survey strategies during routine care activities have not been available. Objective We examined the feasibility of conducting routine patient surveys in a primary care clinic using commercially available technology (Web-based survey creation, deployment on tablet computers, cloud-based management of survey data) to expedite and enhance several steps in data collection and management for rapid quality improvement cycles. Methods We used a Web-based data management tool (survey creation, deployment on tablet computers, real-time data accumulation and display of survey results) to conduct four patient surveys during routine clinic sessions over a one-month period. Each survey consisted of three questions and focused on a specific patient care domain (dental care, waiting room experience, care access/continuity, Internet connectivity). Results Of the 727 available patients during clinic survey days, 316 patients (43.4%) attempted the survey, and 293 (40.3%) completed the survey. For the four 3-question surveys, the average time per survey was overall 40.4 seconds, with a range of 5.4 to 20.3 seconds for individual questions. Yes/No questions took less time than multiple choice questions (average 9.6 seconds versus 14.0). Average response time showed no clear pattern by order of questions or by proctor strategy, but monotonically increased with number of words in the question (<20 words, 21-30 words, >30 words)—8.0, 11.8, 16.8, seconds, respectively. Conclusions This technology-enabled data management system helped capture patient opinions, accelerate turnaround of survey data, with minimal impact on a busy primary care clinic. This new model of patient survey data management is feasible and sustainable in a busy office setting, supports and engages clinicians in the quality improvement process, and harmonizes with the vision of a learning health

  11. A novel curcuminoid exhibits enhanced antitumor activity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yunbao; Liu, Guohong; Xiao, Jian; Su, Bojin; Zhou, Fuling; Wei, Yongchang

    2016-05-01

    Curcumin shows growth-inhibition against tumor cells through multi-target mechanisms. Nevertheless, the poor stability and pharmacokinetics considerably limit its clinical functions. Increased effort has been put into the chemical alteration of curcumin to find potential analogues with improved bioavailability and antitumor activities. In this study, the antitumor activity of a novel curcuminoid (B63) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) was examined. The MTT and colony formation assays were used to detect NPC cell viability and proliferation. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell cycle distribution. The Annexin V/PI staining assay and cleavage PARP and cleavage caspase-3 expression were used to examine apoptosis. Western blotting was used to examine the protein expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway markers, XBP-1, ATF-4 and CHOP. The suppressive effect of B63 on tumor growth was examined in vivo by subcutaneously inoculated NPC in a tumor model using nude mice. Treatment with B63 potentially caused growth inhibition and apoptosis in NPC cells in a dose- and time-responsive manner. Its antitumor effect was associated with the ER stress activation. Nevertheless, the same dose of curcumin did not activate ER stress. In addition, knockdown of Chop attenuated B63-induced cell viability inhibition, suggesting that the apoptotic pathway is ER stress-dependent. The tumor volume and weight were significantly reduced by pretreating the NPC cells with B63 before implantation in the in vivo mouse model. B63 exhibited a more potent antitumor action than curcumin in NPC. These observations on the novel compound B63 indicate a novel candidate for NPC therapy. PMID:26983360

  12. [The provision of quality and security of medical care on the basis of standardization of medical nurse activities in counseling diagnostic center].

    PubMed

    Chikineva, A V

    2010-01-01

    The enhancement of curative diagnostic process and the increase of its quality depend not only on the management, but on the reasonable implementation of high-tech new technologies. Nowadays, the evidence-based medical nursing practice represents an actively developing direction of medical nurse business. The State Novosibirsk oblast diagnostic center has developed the standards of nurse activities targeted to decrease the duplication in work, the provision of personnel and patient security. The audit of implementation of standards and the monitoring of nursing process permit to timely input the adjustments to the provision of quality of medical nurse care. PMID:20967968

  13. Results of ENHANCED Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Programming to Reduce Therapies and Improve Quality of Life (from the ENHANCED-ICD Study).

    PubMed

    Mastenbroek, Mirjam H; Pedersen, Susanne S; van der Tweel, Ingeborg; Doevendans, Pieter A; Meine, Mathias

    2016-02-15

    Novel implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) discrimination algorithms and programming strategies have significantly reduced the incidence of inappropriate shocks, but there are still gains to be made with respect to reducing appropriate but unnecessary antitachycardia pacing (ATP) and shocks. We examined whether programming a number of intervals to detect (NID) of 60/80 for ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VT)/ventricular fibrillation (VF) detection was safe and the impact of this strategy on (1) adverse events related to ICD shocks and syncopal events; (2) ATPs/shocks; and (3) patient-reported outcomes. The "ENHANCED Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator programming to reduce therapies and improve quality of life" study (ENHANCED-ICD study) was a prospective, safety-monitoring study enrolling 60 primary and secondary prevention patients at the University Medical Center Utrecht. Patients implanted with any type of ICD with SmartShock technology and aged 18 to 80 years were eligible to participate. In all patients, a prolonged NID 60/80 was programmed. The cycle length for VT/fast VT/VF was 360/330/240 ms, respectively. Programming a NID 60/80 proved safe for ICD patients. Because of the new programming strategy, unnecessary ICD therapy was prevented in 10% of ENHANCED-ICD patients during a median follow-up period of 1.3 years. With respect to patient-reported outcomes, levels of distress were highest and perceived health status lowest at the time of implantation, which both gradually improved during follow-up. In conclusion, the ENHANCED-ICD study demonstrates that programming a NID 60/80 for VT/VF detection is safe for ICD patients and does not negatively impact their quality of life. PMID:26732419

  14. Enhancing activated-peroxide formulations for porous materials :

    SciTech Connect

    Krauter, Paula; Tucker, Mark D.; Tezak, Matthew S.; Boucher, Raymond

    2012-12-01

    During an urban wide-area incident involving the release of a biological warfare agent, the recovery/restoration effort will require extensive resources and will tax the current capabilities of the government and private contractors. In fact, resources may be so limited that decontamination by facility owners/occupants may become necessary and a simple decontamination process and material should be available for this use. One potential process for use by facility owners/occupants would be a liquid sporicidal decontaminant, such as pHamended bleach or activated-peroxide, and simple application devices. While pH-amended bleach is currently the recommended low-tech decontamination solution, a less corrosive and toxic decontaminant is desirable. The objective of this project is to provide an operational assessment of an alternative to chlorine bleach for low-tech decontamination applications activated hydrogen peroxide. This report provides the methods and results for activatedperoxide evaluation experiments. The results suggest that the efficacy of an activated-peroxide decontaminant is similar to pH-amended bleach on many common materials.

  15. Nonionic surfactants enhancing bactericidal activity at their critical micelle concentrations.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Seiichi; Majima, Toshiaki; Tadenuma, Hirohiko; Suekuni, Tomonari; Sakai, Kenichi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Bactericidal activities of benzalkonium chloride [also known as alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC)] containing nonionic surfactants such as methyl ester ethoxylates (MEE) with the alkyl group C8-C14 and oxyethylene (EO) group of average adduct number 3-15 were measured against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Sample solutions containing MEE in the vicinity of the critical micelle concentration exhibited a dramatic decrease in viable bacterial counts. MEE with an alkyl group of C12 and an oxyethylene group of lower adduct number exhibited little viable bacterial counts than those having higher EO adduct numbers. MEE with reduced EO adduct numbers increased fluorescence intensity in E. coli using the viability stain SYTO 9. Our results show that MEE molecules with low EO adduct numbers exhibited bactericidal activity by increasing the permeability of the E. coli cell membrane. Sample solution containing ADBAC and MEE molecules with lower EO adduct numbers also displayed higher zeta potentials. Moreover, ADBAC molecules incorporated into micelles of MEE with lower EO adduct numbers were adsorbed onto the surface of E. coli, which augmented bactericidal activity. PMID:25492231

  16. Making music after stroke: using musical activities to enhance arm function.

    PubMed

    van Wijck, Frederike; Knox, Don; Dodds, Colin; Cassidy, Gianna; Alexander, Gillian; MacDonald, Raymond

    2012-04-01

    A common long-term consequence of stroke is impaired arm function, which affects independence and quality of life in a considerable proportion of stroke survivors. There is a growing need for self-management strategies that enable stroke survivors to continue their recovery after rehabilitation has ceased. Interventions with high-intensity, repetitive task training and feedback are most likely to improve function. Achieving the required amount of self-practice is challenging, however. Innovative approaches are required to translate therapies into rewarding activities that can be undertaken independently. This paper describes the key principles and development of a novel intervention that integrates individuals' preferred music with game technology in upper limb rehabilitation. The "tap tempo" paradigm, which uses rhythmic auditory cueing, provides repetitive upper limb task training, which can be tailored to individual goals and progress (e.g., in terms of movement range and complexity), while providing sensitive quantitative feedback to promote skill acquisition and enhance self-management. PMID:22524372

  17. LY2109761 enhances cisplatin antitumor activity in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuxiu; Shan, Ning; Zhao, Cheng; Wang, Yunhai; Xu, Fuliang; Li, Jiacun; Yu, Xiaoqian; Gao, Lifeng; Yi, Zhengjun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Ovarian cancer is among the most lethal of all malignancies in women. While chemotherapy is the preferred treatment modality, chemoresistance severely limits treatment success. Because transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) could increase survival of ovarian cancer cells in the presence of cisplatin, we conducted a preclinical study of the antitumor effects of the TGF-β type I (TβRI) and type II (TβRII) kinase inhibitor LY2109761 in combination with cisplatin. Methods: SKOV3, OV-90 and SKOV3DDP cells were treated with LY2109761, and/or cisplatin, and cell viability, apoptosis mRNA and protein expression levels were then evaluated. Furthermore, the efficacy of LY2109761 combined with cisplatin was further examined in established xenograft models. Results: LY2109761 was sufficient to induce spontaneous apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. Combination with LY2109761 significantly augmented the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in both parental and cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. LY2109761 significantly increased apoptotic cell death in cisplatin-resistant cells. Combination treatment of LY2109761 and cisplatin showed antiproliferative effects and induced a greater rate of apoptosis than the sum of the single-treatment rates and promoted tumor regression in established parental and cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer xenograft models. Conclusions: Chemotherapeutic approaches using LY2109761 might enhance the treatment benefit of the cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer patients. PMID:26191185

  18. Zelda overcomes the high intrinsic nucleosome barrier at enhancers during Drosophila zygotic genome activation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yujia; Nien, Chung-Yi; Chen, Kai; Liu, Hsiao-Yun; Johnston, Jeff; Zeitlinger, Julia; Rushlow, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila genome activator Vielfaltig (Vfl), also known as Zelda (Zld), is thought to prime enhancers for activation by patterning transcription factors (TFs). Such priming is accompanied by increased chromatin accessibility, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are poorly understood. Here, we analyze the effect of Zld on genome-wide nucleosome occupancy and binding of the patterning TF Dorsal (Dl). Our results show that early enhancers are characterized by an intrinsically high nucleosome barrier. Zld tackles this nucleosome barrier through local depletion of nucleosomes with the effect being dependent on the number and position of Zld motifs. Without Zld, Dl binding decreases at enhancers and redistributes to open regions devoid of enhancer activity. We propose that Zld primes enhancers by lowering the high nucleosome barrier just enough to assist TFs in accessing their binding motifs and promoting spatially controlled enhancer activation if the right patterning TFs are present. We envision that genome activators in general will utilize this mechanism to activate the zygotic genome in a robust and precise manner. PMID:26335633

  19. A Project to Enhance Superintendents' Knowledge and Application of Characteristics of High Quality Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pummill, Bret L.; Edson, Jerry C.; Loftin, Michelle M.; Robinson, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a problem based learning project focusing on superintendents' knowledge of the characteristics of high quality teachers. Current research findings offer evidence teacher quality is an important school variable related to student achievement. School district leaders are faced with the problem of identifying the characteristics…

  20. Using SWAT to enhance watershed-based plans to meet numeric water quality standards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of states that have adopted numeric nutrient water-quality standards has increased to 23, up from ten in 1998. One state with both stream and reservoir phosphorus (P) numeric water-quality standards is Oklahoma. There were two primary objectives of this research: (1) determine if Oklaho...

  1. Framing and Enhancing Distributed Leadership in the Quality Management of Online Learning Environments in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Dale; Palmer, Stuart; Gosper, Maree; Sankey, Michael; Allan, Garry

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of senior leadership interviews in a nationally funded project on distributed leadership in the quality management of online learning environments (OLEs) in higher education. Questions were framed around the development of an OLE quality management framework and the situation of the characteristics of…

  2. Teachers’ Conceptions of Quality and Organisational Values in Higher Education: Compliance or Enhancement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleijnen, Jan; Dolmans, Diana; Willems, Jos; Van Hout, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are often assumed to have a negative attitude towards quality endeavours of their institutions and to hold defensive organisational values. However, there is little empirical research on this issue. This study focuses on teachers' conceptions of quality, on their preferred organisational values and on the relationships between the two. A…

  3. High quality actively cooled plasma facing components for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nygren, R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper interweaves some suggestions for developing actively-cooled PFCs (plasma facing components) for future fusion devices with supporting examples taken from the design, fabrication and operation of Tore Supra`s Phase III Outboard Pump Limiter (OPL). This actively-cooled midplane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long pulse operation, has been operated in essentially thermally steady state conditions. From experience with testing to identify braze flaws in the OPL, recommendations are made to analyze the impact of joining flaws on thermal-hydraulic performance of PFCs and to validate a method of inspection for such flaws early in the design development. Capability for extensive in-service monitoring of future PFCs is also recommended and the extensive calorimetry and IR thermography used to confirm and update safe operating limits for power handling of the OPL are reviewed.

  4. Video-Quality Estimation Based on Reduced-Reference Model Employing Activity-Difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Toru; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Senda, Yuzo; Serizawa, Masahiro

    This paper presents a Reduced-reference based video-quality estimation method suitable for individual end-user quality monitoring of IPTV services. With the proposed method, the activity values for individual given-size pixel blocks of an original video are transmitted to end-user terminals. At the end-user terminals, the video quality of a received video is estimated on the basis of the activity-difference between the original video and the received video. Psychovisual weightings and video-quality score adjustments for fatal degradations are applied to improve estimation accuracy. In addition, low-bit-rate transmission is achieved by using temporal sub-sampling and by transmitting only the lower six bits of each activity value. The proposed method achieves accurate video quality estimation using only low-bit-rate original video information (15kbps for SDTV). The correlation coefficient between actual subjective video quality and estimated quality is 0.901 with 15kbps side information. The proposed method does not need computationally demanding spatial and gain-and-offset registrations. Therefore, it is suitable for real-time video-quality monitoring in IPTV services.

  5. Activity enhances dopaminergic long-duration response in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Auinger, Peggy; Fahn, Stanley; Oakes, David; Shoulson, Ira; Kieburtz, Karl; Rudolph, Alice; Marek, Kenneth; Seibyl, John; Lang, Anthony; Olanow, C. Warren; Tanner, Caroline; Schifitto, Giovanni; Zhao, Hongwei; Reyes, Lydia; Shinaman, Aileen; Comella, Cynthia L.; Goetz, Christopher; Blasucci, Lucia M.; Samanta, Johan; Stacy, Mark; Williamson, Kelli; Harrigan, Mary; Greene, Paul; Ford, Blair; Moskowitz, Carol; Truong, Daniel D.; Pathak, Mayank; Jankovic, Joseph; Ondo, William; Atassi, Farah; Hunter, Christine; Jacques, Carol; Friedman, Joseph H.; Lannon, Margaret; Russell, David S.; Jennings, Danna; Fussell, Barbara; Standaert, David; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Growdon, John H.; Tennis, Marsha; Gauthier, Serge; Panisset, Michel; Hall, Jean; Gancher, Stephen; Hammerstad, John P.; Stone, Claudia; Alexander-Brown, Barbara; Factor, Stewart A.; Molho, Eric; Brown, Diane; Evans, Sharon; Clark, Jeffrey; Manyam, Bala; Simpson, Patricia; Wulbrecht, Brian; Whetteckey, Jacqueline; Martin, Wayne; Roberts, Ted; King, Pamela; Hauser, Robert; Zesiewicz, Theresa; Gauger, Lisa; Trugman, Joel; Wooten, G. Frederick; Rost-Ruffner, Elke; Perlmutter, Joel; Racette, Brad A.; Suchowersky, Oksana; Ranawaya, Ranjit; Wood, Susan; Pantella, Carol; Kurlan, Roger; Richard, Irene; Pearson, Nancy; Caviness, John N.; Adler, Charles; Lind, Marlene; Simuni, Tanya; Siderowf, Andrew; Colcher, Amy; Lloyd, Mary; Weiner, William; Shulman, Lisa; Koller, William; Lyons, Kelly; Feldman, Robert G.; Saint-Hilaire, Marie H.; Ellias, Samuel; Thomas, Cathi-Ann; Juncos, Jorge; Watts, Ray; Partlow, Anna; Tetrud, James; Togasaki, Daniel M.; Stewart, Tracy; Mark, Margery H.; Sage, Jacob I.; Caputo, Debbie; Gould, Harry; Rao, Jayaraman; McKendrick, Ann; Brin, Mitchell; Danisi, Fabio; Benabou, Reina; Hubble, Jean; Paulson, George W.; Reider, Carson; Birnbaum, Alex; Miyasaki, Janis; Johnston, Lisa; So, Julie; Pahwa, Rajesh; Dubinsky, Richard M.; Wszolek, Zbigniew; Uitti, Ryan; Turk, Margaret; Tuite, Paul; Rottenberg, David; Hansen, Joy; Ramos, Serrano; Waters, Cheryl; Lew, Mark; Welsh, Mickie; Kawai, Connie; O'Brien, Christopher; Kumar, Rajeev; Seeberger, Lauren; Judd, Deborah; Barclay, C. Lynn; Grimes, David A.; Sutherland, Laura; Dawson, Ted; Reich, Stephen; Dunlop, Rebecca; Albin, Roger; Frey, Kirk; Wernette, Kristine; Fahn, Stanley; Oakes, David; Shoulson, Ira; Kieburtz, Karl; Rudolph, Alice; Marek, Kenneth; Seibyl, John; Lang, Anthony; Olanow, C. Warren; Tanner, Caroline; Schifitto, Giovanni; Zhao, Hongwei; Reyes, Lydia; Shinaman, Aileen; Comella, Cynthia L.; Goetz, Christopher; Blasucci, Lucia M.; Samanta, Johan; Stacy, Mark; Williamson, Kelli; Harrigan, Mary; Greene, Paul; Ford, Blair; Moskowitz, Carol; Truong, Daniel D.; Pathak, Mayank; Jankovic, Joseph; Ondo, William; Atassi, Farah; Hunter, Christine; Jacques, Carol; Friedman, Joseph H.; Lannon, Margaret; Russell, David S.; Jennings, Danna; Fussell, Barbara; Standaert, David; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Growdon, John H.; Tennis, Marsha; Gauthier, Serge; Panisset, Michel; Hall, Jean; Gancher, Stephen; Hammerstad, John P.; Stone, Claudia; Alexander-Brown, Barbara; Factor, Stewart A.; Molho, Eric; Brown, Diane; Evans, Sharon; Clark, Jeffrey; Manyam, Bala; Simpson, Patricia; Wulbrecht, Brian; Whetteckey, Jacqueline; Martin, Wayne; Roberts, Ted; King, Pamela; Hauser, Robert; Zesiewicz, Theresa; Gauger, Lisa; Trugman, Joel; Wooten, G. Frederick; Rost-Ruffner, Elke; Perlmutter, Joel; Racette, Brad A.; Suchowersky, Oksana; Ranawaya, Ranjit; Wood, Susan; Pantella, Carol; Kurlan, Roger; Richard, Irene; Pearson, Nancy; Caviness, John N.; Adler, Charles; Lind, Marlene; Simuni, Tanya; Siderowf, Andrew; Colcher, Amy; Lloyd, Mary; Weiner, William; Shulman, Lisa; Koller, William; Lyons, Kelly; Feldman, Robert G.; Saint-Hilaire, Marie H.; Ellias, Samuel; Thomas, Cathi-Ann; Juncos, Jorge; Watts, Ray; Partlow, Anna; Tetrud, James; Togasaki, Daniel M.; Stewart, Tracy; Mark, Margery H.; Sage, Jacob I.; Caputo, Debbie; Gould, Harry; Rao, Jayaraman; McKendrick, Ann; Brin, Mitchell; Danisi, Fabio; Benabou, Reina; Hubble, Jean; Paulson, George W.; Reider, Carson; Birnbaum, Alex; Miyasaki, Janis; Johnston, Lisa; So, Julie; Pahwa, Rajesh; Dubinsky, Richard M.; Wszolek, Zbigniew; Uitti, Ryan; Turk, Margaret; Tuite, Paul; Rottenberg, David; Hansen, Joy; Ramos, Serrano; Waters, Cheryl; Lew, Mark; Welsh, Mickie; Kawai, Connie; O'Brien, Christopher; Kumar, Rajeev; Seeberger, Lauren; Judd, Deborah; Barclay, C. Lynn; Grimes, David A.; Sutherland, Laura; Dawson, Ted; Reich, Stephen; Dunlop, Rebecca; Albin, Roger; Frey, Kirk; Wernette, Kristine; Mendis, Tilak

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We tested the hypothesis that dopamine-dependent motor learning mechanism underlies the long-duration response to levodopa in Parkinson disease (PD) based on our studies in a mouse model. By data-mining the motor task performance in dominant and nondominant hands of the subjects in a double-blind randomized trial of levodopa therapy, the effects of activity and dopamine therapy were examined. Methods: We data-mined the Earlier versus Later Levodopa Therapy in Parkinson's Disease (ELLDOPA) study published in 2005 and performed statistical analysis comparing the effects of levodopa and dominance of handedness over 42 weeks. Results: The mean change in finger-tapping counts from baseline before the initiation of therapy to predose at 9 weeks and 40 weeks increased more in the dominant compared to nondominant hand in levodopa-treated subjects in a dose-dependent fashion. There was no significant difference in dominant vs nondominant hands in the placebo group. The short-duration response assessed by the difference of postdose performance compared to predose performance at the same visit did not show any significant difference between dominant vs nondominant hands. Conclusions: Active use of the dominant hand and dopamine replacement therapy produces synergistic effect on long-lasting motor task performance during “off” medication state. Such effect was confined to dopamine-responsive symptoms and not seen in dopamine-resistant symptoms such as gait and balance. We propose that long-lasting motor learning facilitated by activity and dopamine is a form of disease modification that is often seen in trials of medications that have symptomatic effects. PMID:22459675

  6. The Chromatin Remodeler CHD8 Is Required for Activation of Progesterone Receptor-Dependent Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Giannopoulou, Eugenia G.; Soronellas, Daniel; Vázquez-Chávez, Elena; Vicent, Guillermo P.; Elemento, Olivier; Beato, Miguel; Reyes, José C.

    2015-01-01

    While the importance of gene enhancers in transcriptional regulation is well established, the mechanisms and the protein factors that determine enhancers activity have only recently begun to be unravelled. Recent studies have shown that progesterone receptor (PR) binds regions that display typical features of gene enhancers. Here, we show by ChIP-seq experiments that the chromatin remodeler CHD8 mostly binds promoters under proliferation conditions. However, upon progestin stimulation, CHD8 re-localizes to PR enhancers also enriched in p300 and H3K4me1. Consistently, CHD8 depletion severely impairs progestin-dependent gene regulation. CHD8 binding is PR-dependent but independent of the pioneering factor FOXA1. The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodelling complex is required for PR-dependent gene activation. Interestingly, we show that CHD8 interacts with the SWI/SNF complex and that depletion of BRG1 and BRM, the ATPases of SWI/SNF complex, impairs CHD8 recruitment. We also show that CHD8 is not required for H3K27 acetylation, but contributes to increase accessibility of the enhancer to DNaseI. Furthermore, CHD8 was required for RNAPII recruiting to the enhancers and for transcription of enhancer-derived RNAs (eRNAs). Taken together our data demonstrate that CHD8 is involved in late stages of PR enhancers activation. PMID:25894978

  7. The Second Extracellular Loop of the Adenosine A1 Receptor Mediates Activity of Allosteric Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Dylan P.; McRobb, Fiona M.; Leonhardt, Susan A.; Purdy, Michael; Figler, Heidi; Marshall, Melissa A.; Chordia, Mahendra; Figler, Robert; Linden, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Allosteric enhancers of the adenosine A1 receptor amplify signaling by orthosteric agonists. Allosteric enhancers are appealing drug candidates because their activity requires that the orthosteric site be occupied by an agonist, thereby conferring specificity to stressed or injured tissues that produce adenosine. To explore the mechanism of allosteric enhancer activity, we examined their action on several A1 receptor constructs, including (1) species variants, (2) species chimeras, (3) alanine scanning mutants, and (4) site-specific mutants. These findings were combined with homology modeling of the A1 receptor and in silico screening of an allosteric enhancer library. The binding modes of known docked allosteric enhancers correlated with the known structure-activity relationship, suggesting that these allosteric enhancers bind to a pocket formed by the second extracellular loop, flanked by residues S150 and M162. We propose a model in which this vestibule controls the entry and efflux of agonists from the orthosteric site and agonist binding elicits a conformational change that enables allosteric enhancer binding. This model provides a mechanism for the observations that allosteric enhancers slow the dissociation of orthosteric agonists but not antagonists. PMID:24217444

  8. Aggregation-Induced Resonance Raman Optical Activity (AIRROA): A New Mechanism for Chirality Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Grzegorz; Kaczor, Agnieszka; Pallares Zazo, Ana; Mlynarski, Jacek; Dudek, Monika; Baranska, Malgorzata

    2016-05-01

    Raman optical activity (ROA) spectroscopy is hampered by low sensitivity, with limited possibilities for enhancing the signal. In the present study, we report a new mechanism whereby chirality is enhanced using the resonance resulting from supramolecular aggregation. We have named this mechanism aggregation-induced resonance Raman optical activity (AIRROA). As an example, we study J-aggregates of astaxanthin (AXT), which show strong absorption of circularly polarized light in the range of ROA excitation. The implications of aggregation-induced signal enhancement for chiroptical spectroscopy are discussed. PMID:27057926

  9. Enhancement in the structure quality of ZnO nanorods by diluted Co dopants: Analyses via optical second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chung-Wei; Chang, Shoou-Jinn; Brahma, Sanjaya; Hsiao, Chih-Hung; Chang, Feng Ming; Wang, Peng Han; Lo, Kuang-Yao

    2015-02-01

    We report a systematic study about the effect of cobalt concentration in the growth solution over the crystallization, growth, and optical properties of hydrothermally synthesized Zn1-xCoxO [0 ≤ x ≤ 0.40, x is the weight (wt.) % of Co in the growth solution] nanorods. Dilute Co concentration of 1 wt. % in the growth solution enhances the bulk crystal quality of ZnO nanorods, and high wt. % leads to distortion in the ZnO lattice that depresses the crystallization, growth as well as the surface structure quality of ZnO. Although, Co concentration in the growth solution varies from 1 to 40 wt. %, the real doping concentration is limited to 0.28 at. % that is due to the low growth temperature of 80 °C. The enhancement in the crystal quality of ZnO nanorods at dilute Co concentration in the solution is due to the strain relaxation that is significantly higher for ZnO nanorods prepared without, and with high wt. % of Co in the growth solution. Second harmonic generation is used to investigate the net dipole distribution from these coatings, which provides detailed information about bulk and surface structure quality of ZnO nanorods at the same time. High quality ZnO nanorods are fabricated by a low-temperature (80 °C) hydrothermal synthesis method, and no post synthesis treatment is needed for further crystallization. Therefore, this method is advantageous for the growth of high quality ZnO coatings on plastic substrates that may lead toward its application in flexible electronics.

  10. Enhancement in the structure quality of ZnO nanorods by diluted Co dopants: Analyses via optical second harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chung-Wei; Hsiao, Chih-Hung; Brahma, Sanjaya; Chang, Feng Ming; Wang, Peng Han; Lo, Kuang-Yao

    2015-02-28

    We report a systematic study about the effect of cobalt concentration in the growth solution over the crystallization, growth, and optical properties of hydrothermally synthesized Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O [0 ≤ x ≤ 0.40, x is the weight (wt.) % of Co in the growth solution] nanorods. Dilute Co concentration of 1 wt. % in the growth solution enhances the bulk crystal quality of ZnO nanorods, and high wt. % leads to distortion in the ZnO lattice that depresses the crystallization, growth as well as the surface structure quality of ZnO. Although, Co concentration in the growth solution varies from 1 to 40 wt. %, the real doping concentration is limited to 0.28 at. % that is due to the low growth temperature of 80 °C. The enhancement in the crystal quality of ZnO nanorods at dilute Co concentration in the solution is due to the strain relaxation that is significantly higher for ZnO nanorods prepared without, and with high wt. % of Co in the growth solution. Second harmonic generation is used to investigate the net dipole distribution from these coatings, which provides detailed information about bulk and surface structure quality of ZnO nanorods at the same time. High quality ZnO nanorods are fabricated by a low-temperature (80 °C) hydrothermal synthesis method, and no post synthesis treatment is needed for further crystallization. Therefore, this method is advantageous for the growth of high quality ZnO coatings on plastic substrates that may lead toward its application in flexible electronics.

  11. Willingness to Pay for Quality of Life Technologies to Enhance Independent Functioning Among Baby Boomers and the Elderly Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Richard; Beach, Scott R.; Matthews, Judith T.; Courtney, Karen; Devito Dabbs, Annette; Person Mecca, Laurel; Sankey, Steadman Scott

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We report the results of a study designed to assess whether and how much potential individual end users are willing to pay for Quality of Life Technologies (QoLTs) designed to enhance functioning and independence. Design and Methods: We carried out a web survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. baby boomers (aged 45–64; N = 416) and older adults (aged 65 and greater, N = 114). Respondents were first instructed to assume that they needed help with kitchen activities/personal care and that technology was available to help with things like meal preparation/dressing, and then they were asked the most they would be willing to pay each month out of pocket for these technologies. Results: We modeled willingness to pay some (72% of respondents) versus none (28%), and the most people were willing to pay. Those willing to pay something were on average willing to pay a maximum of $40.30 and $45.00 per month for kitchen and personal care technology assistance, respectively. Respondents concerned about privacy or who were currently using assistive technology were less willing to pay. Respondents with higher incomes, who were Hispanic, or who perceived a higher likelihood of needing help in the future were more willing to pay. Implications: Consumers’ willingness to pay out of pocket for technologies to improve their well-being and independence is limited. In order to be widely adopted, QoLTs will have to be highly cost effective so that third party payers such as Medicare and private insurance companies are willing to pay for them. PMID:23528289

  12. Do quality of life, participation and environment of older adults differ according to level of activity?

    PubMed Central

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Desrosiers, Johanne; St-Cyr Tribble, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Background Activity limitation is one of the most frequent geriatric clinical syndromes that have significant individual and societal impacts. People living with activity limitations might have fewer opportunities to be satisfied with life or experience happiness, which can have a negative effect on their quality of life. Participation and environment are also important modifiable variables that influence community living and are targeted by health interventions. However, little is known about how quality of life, participation and environment differ according to activity level. This study examines if quality of life, participation (level and satisfaction) and perceived quality of the environment (facilitators or obstacles in the physical or social environment) of community-dwelling older adults differ according to level of activity. Methods A cross-sectional design was used with a convenience sample of 156 older adults (mean age = 73.7; 76.9% women), living at home and having good cognitive functions, recruited according to three levels of activity limitations (none, slight to moderate and moderate to severe). Quality of life was estimated with the Quality of Life Index, participation with the Assessment of Life Habits and environment with the Measure of the Quality of the Environment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) or Welch F-ratio indicated if the main variables differed according to activity level. Results Quality of life and satisfaction with participation were greater with a higher activity level (p < 0.001). However, these differences were clinically significant only between participants without activity limitations and those with moderate to severe activity limitations. When activity level was more limited, participation level was further restricted (p < 0.001) and the physical environment was perceived as having more obstacles (p < 0.001). No differences were observed for facilitators in the physical and social environment or for obstacles in the social

  13. Mechanism of Growth Enhancement of Plants Induced by Active Species in Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Ono, Reoto; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2015-09-01

    Plant growth enhances when seeds are irradiated by plasma. However the mechanism of the growth enhancement by plasma has not been clarified. In this study, growth enhancement of plants using various active species and variation of plant cells are investigated. RF plasma is generated under conditions where pressure is 60 Pa and input electrical power is 60 W. Irradiation period varies from 0 (control) to 75 min. Air plasma shows maximum growth of plants with irradiation period of 60 min on the other hand, oxygen plasma shows the maximum growth with irradiation period of 15 min. From change of gaseous species and pressure dependence, growth enhancing factor is expected to be active oxygen species produced in plasma. According to gene expression analysis of Arabidopsis, there are two speculated mechanism of plant growth enhancement. The first is acceleration of cell cycle by gene expressions of photosynthesis and glycolytic pathway, and the second is increase of cell size via plant hormone production.

  14. Use of LAN Technology To Enhance the Quality of Field Based Teacher Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Dennis W.; And Others

    The adaptation and use of local area network (LAN) computer technology as an educational enhancement and as a social process in a university teacher education program were studied. The LAN technology, electronic bulletin board, and facsimile machines were used to enhance university supervised clinical settings for novice teachers in the public…

  15. Enhancing Hebbian Learning to Control Brain Oscillatory Activity.

    PubMed

    Soekadar, Surjo R; Witkowski, Matthias; Birbaumer, Niels; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2015-09-01

    Sensorimotor rhythms (SMR, 8-15 Hz) are brain oscillations associated with successful motor performance, imagery, and imitation. Voluntary modulation of SMR can be used to control brain-machine interfaces (BMI) in the absence of any physical movements. The mechanisms underlying acquisition of such skill are unknown. Here, we provide evidence for a causal link between function of the primary motor cortex (M1), active during motor skill learning and retention, and successful acquisition of abstract skills such as control over SMR. Thirty healthy participants were trained on 5 consecutive days to control SMR oscillations. Each participant was randomly assigned to one of 3 groups that received either 20 min of anodal, cathodal, or sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over M1. Learning SMR control across training days was superior in the anodal tDCS group relative to the other 2. Cathodal tDCS blocked the beneficial effects of training, as evidenced with sham tDCS. One month later, the newly acquired skill remained superior in the anodal tDCS group. Thus, application of weak electric currents of opposite polarities over M1 differentially modulates learning SMR control, pointing to this primary cortical region as a common substrate for acquisition of physical motor skills and learning to control brain oscillatory activity. PMID:24626608

  16. Vitality enhancement of the rehydrated active dry wine yeast.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Porrata, B; Novo, M; Guillamón, J; Rozès, N; Mas, A; Otero, R Cordero

    2008-08-15

    In winemaking, spontaneous grape must fermentations have been replaced by inoculation of commercial active dry wine yeast (ADWY). Yeast rehydration is the key to avoiding stuck and sluggish fermentations. Despite the importance of this step, not enough is known about what this process implies for winemaking as a whole or about what kind of practices could help to improve it. The main aim of this study is to determine the best yeast rehydration conditions for ensuring good cell viability and vitality before inoculation into the must. The experimental rehydration media in this study can be divided into four groups: carbon and nitrogen compounds, metallic ions, oxidant and antioxidant agents, and membrane fluidity agents. We studied the biochemical and biophysical behaviour of ADWY after rehydration in the various media under oenological conditions, i.e. incubation at 37 degrees C for 30 min. The viability of rehydrated yeast cells was evaluated by plating, and assessed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The vitality of rehydrated cells was estimated by indirect impedance. The rehydrating solution complemented with magnesium provided the best vitality rate because the time taken to reach the activity threshold was cut by two thirds. This improvement was also illustrated by the less time needed to stop the leakage of intracellular compounds during the rehydration process. PMID:18619697

  17. Enhancing physical activity and brain reorganization after stroke.

    PubMed

    Carr, Janet H; Shepherd, Roberta B

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that, if reorganization of brain function is to be optimal after stroke, there needs to be a reorganisation of the methods used in physical rehabilitation and the time spent in specific task practice, strength and endurance training, and aerobic exercise. Frequency and intensity of rehabilitation need to be increased so that patients can gain the energy levels and vigour necessary for participation in physical activity both during rehabilitation and after discharge. It is evident that many patients are discharged from inpatient rehabilitation severely deconditioned, meaning that their energy levels are too low for active participation in daily life. Physicians, therapists, and nursing staff responsible for rehabilitation practice should address this issue not only during inpatient rehabilitation but also after discharge by promoting and supporting community-based exercise opportunities. During inpatient rehabilitation, group sessions should be frequent and need to include specific aerobic training. Physiotherapy must take advantage of the training aids available, including exercise equipment such as treadmills, and of new developments in computerised feedback systems, robotics, and electromechanical trainers. For illustrative purposes, this paper focuses on the role of physiotherapists, but the necessary changes in practice and in attitude will require cooperation from many others. PMID:21766024

  18. [Flipped classroom as a strategy to enhance active learning].

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2015-03-01

    This paper reviews the introduction of a flipped class for fourth grade dentistry students, and analyzes the characteristics of the learning method. In fiscal 2013 and 2014, a series of ten three-hour units for removable partial prosthodontics were completed with the flipped class method; a lecture video of approximately 60 minutes was made by the teacher (author) and uploaded to the university's e-learning website one week before each class. Students were instructed to prepare for the class by watching the streaming video on their PC, tablet, or smartphone. In the flipped class, students were not given a lecture, but were asked to solve short questions displayed on screen, to make a short presentation about a part of the video lecture, and to discuss a critical question related to the main subject of the day. An additional team-based learning (TBL) session with individual and group answers was implemented. The average individual scores were considerably higher in the last two years, when the flipped method was implemented, than in the three previous years when conventional lectures were used. The following learning concepts were discussed: the role of the flipped method as an active learning strategy, the efficacy of lecture videos and short questions, students' participation in the class discussion, present-day value of the method, cooperation with TBL, the significance of active learning in relation with the students' learning ability, and the potential increase in the preparation time and workload for students. PMID:26043555

  19. CCL5 activation of CCR5 regulates cell metabolism to enhance proliferation of breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Darrin; Rahbar, Ramtin; Fish, Eleanor N.

    2016-01-01

    In earlier studies, we showed that CCL5 enhances proliferation and survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells in an mTOR-dependent manner and we provided evidence that, for T cells, CCL5 activation of CCR5 results in increased glycolysis and enhanced ATP production. Increases in metabolic activity of cancer cells, specifically increased glycolytic activity and increased expression of glucose transporters, are associated with tumour progression. In this report, we provide evidence that CCL5 enhances the proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7) and mouse mammary tumour cells (MMTV-PyMT), mediated by CCR5 activation. Concomitant with enhanced proliferation we show that CCL5 increases cell surface expression of the glucose transporter GLUT1, and increases glucose uptake and ATP production by these cells. Blocking CCL5-inducible glucose uptake abrogates the enhanced proliferation induced by CCL5. We provide evidence that increased glucose uptake is associated with enhanced glycolysis, as measured by extracellular acidification. Moreover, CCL5 enhances the invasive capacity of these breast cancer cells. Using metabolomics, we demonstrate that the metabolic signature of CCL5-treated primary mouse mammary tumour cells reflects increased anabolic metabolism. The implications are that CCL5–CCR5 interactions in the tumour microenvironment regulate metabolic events, specifically glycolysis, to promote tumour proliferation and invasion. PMID:27335323

  20. CCL5 activation of CCR5 regulates cell metabolism to enhance proliferation of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Darrin; Rahbar, Ramtin; Fish, Eleanor N

    2016-06-01

    In earlier studies, we showed that CCL5 enhances proliferation and survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells in an mTOR-dependent manner and we provided evidence that, for T cells, CCL5 activation of CCR5 results in increased glycolysis and enhanced ATP production. Increases in metabolic activity of cancer cells, specifically increased glycolytic activity and increased expression of glucose transporters, are associated with tumour progression. In this report, we provide evidence that CCL5 enhances the proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7) and mouse mammary tumour cells (MMTV-PyMT), mediated by CCR5 activation. Concomitant with enhanced proliferation we show that CCL5 increases cell surface expression of the glucose transporter GLUT1, and increases glucose uptake and ATP production by these cells. Blocking CCL5-inducible glucose uptake abrogates the enhanced proliferation induced by CCL5. We provide evidence that increased glucose uptake is associated with enhanced glycolysis, as measured by extracellular acidification. Moreover, CCL5 enhances the invasive capacity of these breast cancer cells. Using metabolomics, we demonstrate that the metabolic signature of CCL5-treated primary mouse mammary tumour cells reflects increased anabolic metabolism. The implications are that CCL5-CCR5 interactions in the tumour microenvironment regulate metabolic events, specifically glycolysis, to promote tumour proliferation and invasion. PMID:27335323

  1. Suboptimal Activation of Protease-activated Receptors Enhances α2β1 Integrin-mediated Platelet Adhesion to Collagen*

    PubMed Central

    Marjoram, Robin J.; Voss, Bryan; Pan, Yumei; Dickeson, S. Kent; Zutter, Mary M.; Hamm, Heidi E.; Santoro, Samuel A.

    2009-01-01

    Thrombin and fibrillar collagen are potent activators of platelets at sites of vascular injury. Both agonists cause platelet shape change, granule secretion, and aggregation to form the primary hemostatic plug. Human platelets express two thrombin receptors, protease-activated receptors 1 and 4 (PAR1 and PAR4) and two collagen receptors, the α2β1 integrin (α2β1) and the glycoprotein VI (GPVI)/FcRγ chain complex. Although these receptors and their signaling mechanisms have been intensely studied, it is not known whether and how these receptors cooperate in the hemostatic function of platelets. This study examined cooperation between the thrombin and collagen receptors in platelet adhesion by utilizing a collagen-related peptide (α2-CRP) containing the α2β1-specific binding motif, GFOGER, in conjunction with PAR-activating peptides. We demonstrate that platelet adhesion to α2-CRP is substantially enhanced by suboptimal PAR activation (agonist concentrations that do not stimulate platelet aggregation) using the PAR4 agonist peptide and thrombin. The enhanced adhesion induced by suboptimal PAR4 activation was α2β1-dependent and GPVI/FcRγ-independent as revealed in experiments with α2β1- or FcRγ-deficient mouse platelets. We further show that suboptimal activation of other platelet Gq-linked G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) produces enhanced platelet adhesion to α2-CRP. The enhanced α2β1-mediated platelet adhesion is controlled by phospholipase C (PLC), but is not dependent on granule secretion, activation of αIIbβ3 integrin, or on phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) activity. In conclusion, we demonstrate a platelet priming mechanism initiated by suboptimal activation of PAR4 or other platelet Gq-linked GPCRs through a PLC-dependent signaling cascade that promotes enhanced α2β1 binding to collagens containing GFOGER sites. PMID:19815553

  2. The influence of the level of physical activity and human development in the quality of life in survivors of stroke

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The association between physical activity and quality of life in stroke survivors has not been analyzed within a framework related to the human development index. This study aimed to identify differences in physical activity level and in the quality of life of stroke survivors in two cities differing in economic aspects of the human development index. Methods Two groups of subjects who had suffered a stroke at least a year prior to testing and showed hemiplegia or hemiparesis were studied: a group from Belo Horizonte (BH) with 48 people (51.5 ± 8.7 years) and one from Montes Claros (MC) with 29 subjects (55.4 ± 8.1 years). Subsequently, regardless of location, the groups were divided into Active and Insufficiently Active so their difference in terms of quality of life could be analyzed. Results There were no significant differences between BH and MCG when it came to four dimensions of physical health that were evaluated (physical functioning, physical aspect, pain and health status) or in the following four dimensions of mental health status (vitality, social aspect, emotional aspect and mental health). However, significantly higher mean values were found in Active when compared with Insufficiently Active individuals in various measures of physical health (physical functioning 56.2 ± 4.4 vs. 47.4 ± 6.9; physical aspect 66.5 ± 6.5 vs. 59.1 ± 6.7; pain 55.9 ± 6.2 vs. 47.7 ± 6.0; health status 67.2 ± 4.2 vs. 56.6 ± 7.8) (arbitrary units), and mental health (vitality 60.9 ± 6.8 vs. 54.1 ± 7.2; social aspect 60.4 ± 7.1 vs. 54.2 ± 7.4; emotional aspect 64.0 ± 5.5 vs. 58.1 ± 6.9; mental health status 66.2 ± 5.5 vs. 58.4 ± 7.5) (arbitrary units). Conclusions Despite the difference between the cities concerning HDI values, no significant differences in quality of life were found between BH and MCG. However, the Active group showed significantly better results, confirming the importance of active lifestyle to enhance quality of life in stroke

  3. Physical Activity and Quality of Life of Mothers of Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Babić, Ana; Humer, Jasmina Tomašić; Sincek, Daniela

    2015-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to explore physical activity regarding mothers of preschool children and connections concerning different aspects of their physical activity (at work, during transport, in free time, while doing housework) with subjective quality of life. Another aim was to investigate factors that are obstacles of living a physically active life in this population. The participants of the study were 252 Croatian women, who have at least one preschool child older than three years. The World Health Organization Quality Of Life - BREF questionnaire and International Physical Activity Questionnaire were used. Participants also gave some personal demographic data, and answered to questions about obstacles for participation in organized physical activity. Results of this research showed that mothers of preschool children were more physically active than the population of adults in general, but their physical activity was mostly housework activity. Physical activity in their free time was the only aspect of physical activity that was significantly correlated with different aspects of mother's subjective quality of life. Employed mothers and those who live in the towns had more physical activities in their free time. Organizational factors and feeling that family suffers for their absence were the most frequently perceived barriers for organized physical activity participation. Results revealed that only the physical activity in their free time contributes to mother's quality of life. Mothers of preschool children mostly do housework physical activity, so support of the social community for physical activity in their free time in this population is recommended. Such activities should be especially directed to unemployed mothers and those who live in the villages. PMID:26753459

  4. Enhanced Correlation of SMART Active Flap Rotor Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottapalli, Sesi

    2011-01-01

    This is a follow-on study to a 2010 correlation effort. Measured data from the SMART rotor test in the NASA Ames 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel are compared with CAMRAD II calculations. As background, during the wind tunnel test, unexpectedly high inboard loads were encountered, and it was hypothesized at that time that due to changes in the flexbeams over the years, the flexbeam properties used in the analysis needed updating. Boeing Mesa, recently updated these properties. This correlation study uses the updated flexbeam properties. Compared to earlier studies, the following two enhancements are implemented: i) the inboard loads (pitchcase and flexbeam loads) correlation is included for the first time (reliable prediction of the inboard loads is a prerequisite for any future anticipated flight-testing); ii) the number of blade modes is increased to better capture the flap dynamics and the pitchcase-flexbeam dynamics. Also, aerodynamically, both the rolled-up wake model and the more complex, multiple trailer wake model are used, with the latter slightly improving the blade chordwise moment correlation. This sensitivity to the wake model indicates that CFD is needed. Three high-speed experimental cases, one uncontrolled free flap case and two commanded flap cases, are considered. The two commanded flap cases include a 2o flap deflection at 5P case and a 0o flap deflection case. For the free flap case, selected modifications to the HH-06 section flap airfoil pitching moment table are implemented. For the commanded 2o flap case, the experimental flap variation is approximately matched by increasing the analytical flap hinge stiffness. This increased flap hinge stiffness is retained for the commanded 0o flap case also, which is treated as a free flap case, but with larger flap hinge stiffness. The change in the mid-span and outboard loads correlation due to the updating of the flexbeam properties is not significant. Increasing the number of blade modes results in an

  5. Meal-based enhancement of protein quality and quantity during weight loss in obese older adults with mobility limitations: rationale and design for the MEASUR-UP trial.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Shelley R; Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Mauceri, Luisa; Orenduff, Melissa; Granville, Esther; Ocampo, Christine; Payne, Martha E; Pieper, Carl F; Bales, Connie W

    2015-01-01

    Obese older adults with even modest functional limitations are at a disadvantage for maintaining their independence into late life. However, there is no established intervention for obesity in older individuals. The Measuring Eating, Activity, and Strength: Understanding the Response - Using Protein (MEASUR-UP) trial is a randomized controlled pilot study of obese women and men aged ≥60 years with mild to moderate functional impairments. Changes in body composition (lean and fat mass) and function (Short Physical Performance Battery) in an enhanced protein weight reduction (Protein) arm will be compared to those in a traditional weight loss (Control) arm. The Protein intervention is based on evidence that older adults achieve optimal rates of muscle protein synthesis when consuming about 25-30 g of high quality protein per meal; these participants will consume ~30 g of animal protein at each meal via a combination of provided protein (beef) servings and diet counseling. This trial will provide information on the feasibility and efficacy of enhancing protein quantity and quality in the context of a weight reduction regimen and determine the impact of this intervention on body weight, functional status, and lean muscle mass. We hypothesize that the enhancement of protein quantity and quality in the Protein arm will result in better outcomes for function and/or lean muscle mass than in the Control arm. Ultimately, we hope our findings will help identify a safe weight loss approach that can delay or prevent late life disability by changing the trajectory of age-associated functional impairment associated with obesity. PMID:25461495

  6. MEAL-BASED ENHANCEMENT OF PROTEIN QUALITY AND QUANTITY DURING WEIGHT LOSS IN OBESE OLDER ADULTS WITH MOBILITY LIMITATIONS: RATIONALE AND DESIGN FOR THE MEASUR-UP TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Shelley R.; Starr, Kathryn N. Porter; Mauceri, Luisa; Orenduff, Melissa; Granville, Esther; Ocampo, Christine; Payne, Martha E.; Pieper, Carl F.; Bales, Connie W.

    2015-01-01

    Obese older adults with even modest functional limitations are at a disadvantage for maintaining their independence into late life. However, there is no established intervention for obesity in older individuals. The Measuring Eating, Activity and Strength: Understanding the Response --Using Protein (MEASUR-UP) trial is a randomized controlled pilot study of obese women and men aged ≥60 years with mild to moderate functional impairments. Changes in body composition (lean and fat mass) and function (Short Physical Performance Battery) in an enhanced protein weight reduction (Protein) arm will be compared to those in a traditional weight loss (Control) arm. The Protein intervention is based on evidence that older adults achieve optimal rates of muscle protein synthesis when consuming about 25-30 grams of high quality protein per meal; these participants will consume −30 g of animal protein at each meal via a combination of provided protein (beef) servings and diet counseling. This trial will provide information on the feasibility and efficacy of enhancing protein quantity and quality in the context of a weight reduction regimen and determine the impact of this intervention on body weight, functional status, and lean muscle mass. We hypothesize that the enhancement of protein quantity and quality in the Protein arm will result in better outcomes for function and/or lean muscle mass than in the Control arm. Ultimately, we hope our findings will help identify a safe weight loss approach that can delay or prevent late life disability by changing the trajectory of age-associated functional impairment associated with obesity. PMID:25461495

  7. Active sampling technique to enhance chemical signature of buried explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovell, John S.; French, Patrick D.

    2004-09-01

    Deminers and dismounted countermine engineers commonly use metal detectors, ground penetrating radar and probes to locate mines. Many modern landmines have a very low metal content, which severely limits the effectiveness of metal detectors. Canines have also been used for landmine detection for decades. Experiments have shown that canines smell the explosives which are known to leak from most types of landmines. The fact that dogs can detect landmines indicates that vapor sensing is a viable approach to landmine detection. Several groups are currently developing systems to detect landmines by "sniffing" for the ultra-trace explosive vapors above the soil. The amount of material that is available to passive vapor sensing systems is limited to no more than the vapor in equilibrium with the explosive related chemicals (ERCs) distributed in the surface soils over and near the landmine. The low equilibrium vapor pressure of TNT in the soil/atmosphere boundary layer and the limited volume of the boundary layer air imply that passive chemical vapor sensing systems require sensitivities in the picogram range, or lower. ADA is working to overcome many of the limitations of passive sampling methods, by the use of an active sampling method that employs a high-powered (1,200+ joules) strobe lamp to create a highly amplified plume of vapor and/or ERC-bearing fine particulates. Initial investigations have demonstrated that this approach can amplify the detectability of TNT by two or three orders of magnitude. This new active sampling technique could be used with any suitable explosive sensor.

  8. Allergy Enhances Neurogenesis and Modulates Microglial Activation in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Barbara; Mrowetz, Heike; Thalhamer, Josef; Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Weiss, Richard; Aigner, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Allergies and their characteristic TH2-polarized inflammatory reactions affect a substantial part of the population. Since there is increasing evidence that the immune system modulates plasticity and function of the central nervous system (CNS), we investigated the effects of allergic lung inflammation on the hippocampus—a region of cellular plasticity in the adult brain. The focus of the present study was on microglia, the resident immune cells of the CNS, and on hippocampal neurogenesis, i.e., the generation of new neurons. C57BL/6 mice were sensitized with a clinically relevant allergen derived from timothy grass pollen (Phl p 5). As expected, allergic sensitization induced high serum levels of allergen-specific immunoglobulins (IgG1 and IgE) and of TH2 cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13). Surprisingly, fewer Iba1+ microglia were found in the granular layer (GL) and subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and also the number of Iba1+MHCII+ cells was lower, indicating a reduced microglial surveillance and activation in the hippocampus of allergic mice. Neurogenesis was analyzed by labeling of proliferating cells with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and determining their fate 4 weeks later, and by quantitative analysis of young immature neurons, i.e., cells expressing doublecortin (DCX). The number of DCX+ cells was clearly increased in the allergy animals. Moreover, there were more BrdU+ cells present in the hippocampus of allergic mice, and these newly born cells had differentiated into neurons as indicated by a higher number of BrdU+NeuN+ cells. In summary, allergy led to a reduced microglia presence and activity and to an elevated level of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. This effect was apparently specific to the hippocampus, as we did not observe these alterations in the subventricular zone (SVZ)/olfactory bulb (OB) system, also a region of high cellular plasticity and adult neurogenesis. PMID:27445696

  9. Palladium–platinum core-shell icosahedra with substantially enhanced activity and durability towards oxygen reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xue; Choi, Sang-Il; Roling, Luke T.; Luo, Ming; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Lei; Chi, Miaofang; Liu, Jingyue; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Herron, Jeffrey A.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Xia, Younan

    2015-07-02

    Conformal deposition of platinum as ultrathin shells on facet-controlled palladium nanocrystals offers a great opportunity to enhance the catalytic performance while reducing its loading. Here we report such a system based on palladium icosahedra. Owing to lateral confinement imposed by twin boundaries and thus vertical relaxation only, the platinum overlayers evolve into a corrugated structure under compressive strain. For the core-shell nanocrystals with an average of 2.7 platinum overlayers, their specific and platinum mass activities towards oxygen reduction are enhanced by eight- and sevenfold, respectively, relative to a commercial catalyst. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the enhancement can be attributed to the weakened binding of hydroxyl to the compressed platinum surface supported on palladium. After 10,000 testing cycles, the mass activity of the core-shell nanocrystals is still four times higher than the commercial catalyst. Ultimately, these results demonstrate an effective approach to the development of electrocatalysts with greatly enhanced activity and durability.

  10. Palladium-platinum core-shell icosahedra with substantially enhanced activity and durability towards oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue; Choi, Sang-Il; Roling, Luke T.; Luo, Ming; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Lei; Chi, Miaofang; Liu, Jingyue; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Herron, Jeffrey A.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Xia, Younan

    2015-07-01

    Conformal deposition of platinum as ultrathin shells on facet-controlled palladium nanocrystals offers a great opportunity to enhance the catalytic performance while reducing its loading. Here we report such a system based on palladium icosahedra. Owing to lateral confinement imposed by twin boundaries and thus vertical relaxation only, the platinum overlayers evolve into a corrugated structure under compressive strain. For the core-shell nanocrystals with an average of 2.7 platinum overlayers, their specific and platinum mass activities towards oxygen reduction are enhanced by eight- and sevenfold, respectively, relative to a commercial catalyst. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the enhancement can be attributed to the weakened binding of hydroxyl to the compressed platinum surface supported on palladium. After 10,000 testing cycles, the mass activity of the core-shell nanocrystals is still four times higher than the commercial catalyst. These results demonstrate an effective approach to the development of electrocatalysts with greatly enhanced activity and durability.

  11. Docetaxel in cationic lipid nanocapsules for enhanced in vivo activity.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ankitkumar S; Makhija, Dinesh T; Goel, Peeyush N; Shah, Sanket M; Nikam, Yuvraj; Gude, Rajiv P; Jagtap, Aarti G; Nagarsenker, Mangal S

    2016-01-01

    The usefulness of Docetaxel (DT) as an anti-cancer agent is limited to parenteral route owing to its very poor oral bioavailability. Thus, to improve its oral efficacy, DT was loaded in novel cationic lipid nanocapsules (DT CLNC). The DT CLNC possessed size of 130-150 nm, zeta potential of +72mV, adequate DT loading and over 95% encapsulation efficiency. TEM revealed capsular structure of DT CLNC. Lipolysis study indicated improved solubilization of DT by nanocapsules in comparison to DT solution. DT CLNC exhibited significantly higher release of DT in comparison to DT solution during in vitro permeation studies employing non-reverted rat-intestinal sac. Superior uptake of DT in zebra fishes exposed to DT CLNC resulted in greater apoptosis-based cell death as compared to those exposed to DT solution. This correlated well with the significantly superior (p < 0.05) anti-angiogenic activity of DT CLNC system over DT solution, in zebra fish model. DT CLNC also inhibited tumor growth in melanoma cell line induced tumors in C57BL/6 mice significantly, as compared to DT solution (p < 0.05). The DT CLNC system demonstrated adequate stability, with tremendous potential to improve oral efficacy of DT and can serve as an alternative to existing DT formulations available commercially for parenteral use. PMID:25329444

  12. Hollow mesoporous titania microspheres: New technology and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhenliang; Wei, Wenrui; Wang, Litong; Hong, Ruoyu

    2015-12-01

    Hollow titania microspheres (HTS) were fabricated via a sol-gel process by coating the hydrolysis product of titanium tetrabutoxide (TBOT) onto the amino (-NH2) modified porous polystyrene cross-linked divinyl benzene (PS-DVB) microspheres under changing atmospheric pressure, followed by calcination in nitrogen and air atmosphere. Particularly, the atmospheric pressure was continuously and regularly changed during the formation process of PS-DVB@TiO2 microspheres. Then the TiO2 particles were absorbed into the pores and onto the surface of PS-DVB as well. The resultant HTS (around 2 μm in diameter) featured a high specific surface area (84.37 m2/g), anatase crystal and stable hollow microsphere structure, which led to high photocatalysis activity. The photocatalytic degradation of malachite green (MG) organic dye solution was conducted under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation, which showed a high photocatalytic ability (81% of MG was degraded after UV irradiation for 88 min). Therefore, it could be potentially applied for the treatment of wastewater contaminated by organic pollutants.

  13. LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE SUPPLIES OF BIOENERGY FEEDSTOCK AND ENHANCED SOIL QUALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas L. Karlen; David J. Muth, Jr.

    2012-09-01

    Agriculture can simultaneously address global food, feed, fiber, and energy challenges provided our soil, water, and air resources are not compromised in doing so. As we embark on the 19th Triennial Conference of the International Soil and Tillage Research Organization (ISTRO), I am pleased to proclaim that our members are well poised to lead these endeavors because of our comprehensive understanding of soil, water, agricultural and bio-systems engineering processes. The concept of landscape management, as an approach for integrating multiple bioenergy feedstock sources, including biomass residuals, into current crop production systems, is used as the focal point to show how these ever-increasing global challenges can be met in a sustainable manner. Starting with the 2005 Billion Ton Study (BTS) goals, research and technology transfer activities leading to the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Revised Billion Ton Study (BT2) and development of a residue management tool to guide sustainable crop residue harvest will be reviewed. Multi-location USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Renewable Energy Assessment Project (REAP) team research and on-going partnerships between public and private sector groups will be shared to show the development of landscape management strategies that can simultaneously address the multiple factors that must be balanced to meet the global challenges. Effective landscape management strategies recognize the importance of nature’s diversity and strive to emulate those conditions to sustain multiple critical ecosystem services. To illustrate those services, the soil quality impact of harvesting crop residues are presented to show how careful, comprehensive monitoring of soil, water and air resources must be an integral part of sustainable bioenergy feedstock production systems. Preliminary analyses suggest that to sustain soil resources within the U.S. Corn Belt, corn (Zea mays L.) stover should not be harvested if average grain

  14. Leveraging Quality and Safety Education for Nurses to Enhance Graduate-Level Nursing Education and Practice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jean; Drenkard, Karen; Emard, Esther; McGuinn, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about the efforts to educate faculty teaching in graduate programs about the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies, provide examples of teaching strategies for each graduate competency, and finally provide information about the outcomes of the graduate-faculty QSEN project. Examples are given of the critical QSEN work that remains to be done to ensure that care for patients and communities is high quality, safe, and reliable. PMID:25997153

  15. Enhanced sympathetic activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in rats with heart failure induced by adriamycin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujuan; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Haijian; Zhou, Yebo; Han, Ying

    2012-11-01

    Our previous studies have shown that the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex is enhanced in rats with chronic heart failure (CHF) induced by coronary artery ligation and contributes to the over-excitation of sympathetic activity. We sought to determine whether sympathetic activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex were enhanced in adriamycin-induced CHF and whether angiotensin II (Ang II) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was involved in enhancing sympathetic activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex. Heart failure was induced by intraperitoneal injection of adriamycin for six times during 2 weeks (15 mg/kg). Six weeks after the first injection, the rats underwent anesthesia with urethane and α-chloralose. After vagotomy and baroreceptor denervation, cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex was evaluated by renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure (MAP) response to epicardial application of capsaicin (1.0 nmol). The response of MAP to ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium in conscious rats was performed to evaluate sympathetic activity. The renal sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex were enhanced in adriamycin rats and the maximum depressor response of MAP induced by hexamethonium was significantly greater in adriamycin rats than that in control rats. Bilateral PVN microinjection of angiotensin II (Ang II) caused larger responses of the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex, baseline renal sympathetic nerve activity and MAP in adriamycin rats than control rats. These results indicated that both sympathetic activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex were enhanced and Ang II in the PVN was involved in the enhanced sympathetic activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in rats with adriamycin-induced heart failure. PMID:23554781

  16. Enhanced sympathetic activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in rats with heart failure induced by adriamycin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujuan; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Haijian; Zhou, Yebo; Han, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex is enhanced in rats with chronic heart failure (CHF) induced by coronary artery ligation and contributes to the over-excitation of sympathetic activity. We sought to determine whether sympathetic activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex were enhanced in adriamycin-induced CHF and whether angiotensin II (Ang II) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was involved in enhancing sympathetic activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex. Heart failure was induced by intraperitoneal injection of adriamycin for six times during 2 weeks (15 mg/kg). Six weeks after the first injection, the rats underwent anesthesia with urethane and α-chloralose. After vagotomy and baroreceptor denervation, cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex was evaluated by renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure (MAP) response to epicardial application of capsaicin (1.0 nmol). The response of MAP to ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium in conscious rats was performed to evaluate sympathetic activity. The renal sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex were enhanced in adriamycin rats and the maximum depressor response of MAP induced by hexamethonium was significantly greater in adriamycin rats than that in control rats. Bilateral PVN microinjection of angiotensin II (Ang II) caused larger responses of the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex, baseline renal sympathetic nerve activity and MAP in adriamycin rats than control rats. These results indicated that both sympathetic activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex were enhanced and Ang II in the PVN was involved in the enhanced sympathetic activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in rats with adriamycin-induced heart failure. PMID:23554781

  17. The impact of onsite workplace health-enhancing physical activity interventions on worker productivity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Michelle Jessica; Coombes, Brooke Kaye; Comans, Tracy Anne; Johnston, Venerina

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of onsite workplace health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) programmes on worker productivity. The PROSPERO registration number is CRD42014008750. A search for controlled trials or randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of onsite workplace HEPA programmes on productivity levels of working adults was performed. Risk of bias of included studies was assessed, and the inter-rater reliability of the quality assessment was analysed. Qualitative synthesis of available evidence is presented. Eight studies were included in the review. There is consistent evidence that onsite workplace HEPA programmes do not reduce levels of sick leave. There appears to be inconsistent evidence of the impact of onsite workplace HEPA programmes on worker productivity. A high-quality study of an onsite combination (aerobic, strengthening and flexibility) HEPA regime and a moderate-quality study of a Tai Chi programme improved worker productivity measured with questionnaires in female laundry workers and older female nurses, respectively. Two high-quality studies and four moderate-quality studies did not show benefit. Studies that showed benefit were mainly those designed with productivity measures as primary outcomes, delivered to occupations involved with higher physical loads, and had higher compliance and programme intensity. The small number of studies and the lack of consistency among studies limited further analyses. There is inconsistent evidence that onsite workplace HEPA programmes improve self-reported worker productivity. Future high-quality RCTs of onsite workplace HEPA programmes should be designed around productivity outcomes, target at-risk groups and investigate interventions of sufficient intensity. High attendance with improved recording is needed to achieve significant results in augmenting worker productivity. PMID:25780031

  18. Nanodelivery of Parthenolide Using Functionalized Nanographene Enhances its Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Karmakar, A.; Mustafa, T.; Kannarpady, G.; Bratton, S.M.; Radominska-Pandya, A.; Crooks, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in anticancer chemotherapy have been hindered by the lack of biocompatibility of new prospective drugs. One significant challenge concerns water insolubility, which compromises the bioavailability of the drugs leading to increased dosage and higher systemic toxicity. To overcome these problems, nanodelivery has been established as a promising approach for increasing the efficacy and lowering the required dosage of chemotherapeutics. The naturally derived compound, parthenolide (PTL), is known for its anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity, but its poor water solubility limits its clinical value. In the present study, we have used carboxyl-functionalized nanographene (fGn) delivery to overcome the extreme hydrophobicity of this drug. A water-soluble PTL analog, dimethylamino parthenolide (DMAPT), was also examined for comparison with the anticancer efficacy of our PTL-fGn complex. Delivery by fGn was found to increase the anticancer/apoptotic effects of PTL (but not DMAPT) when delivered to the human pancreatic cancer cell line, Panc-1. The IC50 value for PTL decreased from 39 µM to 9.5 µM when delivered as a mixture with fGn. The IC50 of DMAPT did not decrease when delivered as DMAPT-fGn and was significantly higher than that for PTL-fGn. There were significant increases in ROS formation and in mitochondrial membrane disruption in Panc-1 cells after PTL-fGn treatment as compared to PTL treatment, alone. Increases in toxicity were also seen with apoptosis detection assays using flow cytometry, ethidium bromide/acridine orange/DAPI staining, and TUNEL. Thus, fGn delivery was successfully used to overcome the poor water solubility of PTL, providing a strategy for improving the effectiveness of this anticancer agent. PMID:25574376

  19. Families Finding the Balance: A Parent Handbook. We Can! Ways to Enhance Children's Activity & Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    We Can! (Ways to Enhance Children's Activity & Nutrition) is a new public education outreach program designed to help children 8-13 years old stay at a healthy weight through improving food choices, increasing physical activity, and reducing screen time. The program is a collaboration of four Institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH):…

  20. Using an Internet Activity to Enhance Students' Awareness of Age Bias in Social Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VonDras, Dean D.; Lor-Vang, Mai Nou

    2004-01-01

    Seeking to extend curricula in a Psychology of Aging course, an online Internet test that assesses user's implicit attitudes was used as part of a learning activity to enhance students' awareness of age-bias in social perceptions. A pretest-posttest methodology examined the efficacy of this learning activity in three separate investigations.…